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Sample records for functional vision score

  1. Functional programming for computer vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breuel, Thomas M.

    1992-04-01

    Functional programming is a style of programming that avoids the use of side effects (like assignment) and uses functions as first class data objects. Compared with imperative programs, functional programs can be parallelized better, and provide better encapsulation, type checking, and abstractions. This is important for building and integrating large vision software systems. In the past, efficiency has been an obstacle to the application of functional programming techniques in computationally intensive areas such as computer vision. We discuss and evaluate several 'functional' data structures for representing efficiently data structures and objects common in computer vision. In particular, we will address: automatic storage allocation and reclamation issues; abstraction of control structures; efficient sequential update of large data structures; representing images as functions; and object-oriented programming. Our experience suggests that functional techniques are feasible for high- performance vision systems, and that a functional approach simplifies the implementation and integration of vision systems greatly. Examples in C++ and SML are given.

  2. Assessment of functional vision and its rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colenbrander, August

    2010-03-01

    This article, based on a report prepared for the International Council of Ophthalmology (ICO) and the International Society for Low Vision Research and Rehabilitation (ISLRR), explores the assessment of various aspects of visual functioning as needed to document the outcomes of vision rehabilitation. Documenting patient abilities and functional vision (how the person functions) is distinct from the measurement of visual functions (how the eye functions) and also from the assessment of quality of life. All three areas are important, but their assessment should not be mixed. Observation of task performance offers the most objective measure of functional vision, but it is time-consuming and not feasible for many tasks. Where possible, timing and error rates provide an easy score. Patient response questionnaires provide an alternative. They may save time and can cover a wider area, but the responses are subjective and proper scoring presents problems. Simple Likert scoring still predominates but Rasch analysis, needed to provide better result scales, is gaining ground. Selection of questions is another problem. If the range of difficulties does not match the range of patient abilities, and if the difficulties are not distributed evenly, the results are not optimal. This may be an argument to use different outcome questions for different conditions. Generic questionnaires are appropriate for the assessment of generic quality of life, but not for specific rehabilitation outcomes. Different questionnaires are also needed for screening, intake and outcomes. Intake questions must be relevant to actual needs to allow prioritization of rehabilitation goals; the activity inventory presents a prototype. Outcome questions should be targeted at predefined rehabilitation goals. The Appendix cites some promising examples. The Low Vision Intervention Trial (LOVIT) is an example of a properly designed randomized control study, and has demonstrated the remarkable effectiveness of

  3. Assessing Functional Vision Using Microcomputers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Simon; Ross, Malcolm

    1989-01-01

    The paper describes a software system which uses microcomputers to aid in the assessment of functional vision in visually impaired students. The software also aims to be visually stimulating and to develop hand-eye coordination, visual memory, and cognitive abilities. (DB)

  4. Comparison of scoring approaches for the NEI VFQ-25 in low vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougherty, Bradley E; Bullimore, Mark A

    2010-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate different approaches to scoring the National Eye Institute Visual Functioning Questionnaire-25 (NEI VFQ-25) in patients with low vision including scoring by the standard method, by Rasch analysis, and by use of an algorithm created by Massof to approximate Rasch person measure. Subscale validity and use of a 7-item short form instrument proposed by Ryan et al. were also investigated. NEI VFQ-25 data from 50 patients with low vision were analyzed using the standard method of summing Likert-type scores and calculating an overall average, Rasch analysis using Winsteps software, and the Massof algorithm in Excel. Correlations between scores were calculated. Rasch person separation reliability and other indicators were calculated to determine the validity of the subscales and of the 7-item instrument. Scores calculated using all three methods were highly correlated, but evidence of floor and ceiling effects was found with the standard scoring method. None of the subscales investigated proved valid. The 7-item instrument showed acceptable person separation reliability and good targeting and item performance. Although standard scores and Rasch scores are highly correlated, Rasch analysis has the advantages of eliminating floor and ceiling effects and producing interval-scaled data. The Massof algorithm for approximation of the Rasch person measure performed well in this group of low-vision patients. The validity of the subscales VFQ-25 should be reconsidered.

  5. Functional Vision Observation. Technical Assistance Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florida State Dept. of Education, Tallahassee. Bureau of Education for Exceptional Students.

    Technical assistance is provided concerning documentation of functional vision loss for Florida students with visual impairments. The functional vision observation should obtain enough information for determination of special service eligibility. The observation is designed to supplement information on the medical eye examination, and is conducted…

  6. Functional vision loss: a diagnosis of exclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villegas, Rex B; Ilsen, Pauline F

    2007-10-01

    Most cases of visual acuity or visual field loss can be attributed to ocular pathology or ocular manifestations of systemic pathology. They can also occasionally be attributed to nonpathologic processes or malingering. Functional vision loss is any decrease in vision the origin of which cannot be attributed to a pathologic or structural abnormality. Two cases of functional vision loss are described. In the first, a 58-year-old man presented for a baseline eye examination for enrollment in a vision rehabilitation program. He reported bilateral blindness since a motor vehicle accident with head trauma 4 years prior. Entering visual acuity was "no light perception" in each eye. Ocular health examination was normal and the patient made frequent eye contact with the examiners. He was referred for neuroimaging and electrophysiologic testing. The second case was a 49-year-old man who presented with a long history of intermittent monocular diplopia. His medical history was significant for psycho-medical evaluations and a diagnosis of factitious disorder. Entering uncorrected visual acuities were 20/20 in each eye, but visual field testing found constriction. No abnormalities were found that could account for the monocular diplopia or visual field deficit. A diagnosis of functional vision loss secondary to factitious disorder was made. Functional vision loss is a diagnosis of exclusion. In the event of reduced vision in the context of a normal ocular health examination, all other pathology must be ruled out before making the diagnosis of functional vision loss. Evaluation must include auxiliary ophthalmologic testing, neuroimaging of the visual pathway, review of the medical history and lifestyle, and psychiatric evaluation. Comanagement with a psychiatrist is essential for patients with functional vision loss.

  7. Family Functioning and Low Vision: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bambara, Jennifer K.; Wadley, Virginia; Owsley, Cynthia; Martin, Roy C.; Porter, Chebon; Dreer, Laura E.

    2009-01-01

    This review highlights the literature on the function and adjustment process of family members of persons with adult-onset vision loss. The majority of the literature has focused on the unique role that the family plays in providing both instrumental and emotional support to adults with low vision. In contrast, the impact of low vision on the…

  8. Predictors of functional vision changes after cataract surgery: the PROVISION study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhary, Varun; Popovic, Marko; Holmes, Julie; Robinson, Tammy; Mak, Michael; Mohaghegh P, S Mohammad; Eino, Dalia; Mann, Keith; Kobetz, Lawrence; Gusenbauer, Kaela; Barbosa, Joshua

    2016-08-01

    To ascertain whether time-to-treatment, sex, age, preoperative functional vision scores, education, and ocular comorbidities predict change in functional vision pre- to postoperatively in patients receiving cataract surgery. Prospective cohort study. Three hundred and forty-three cataract patients at the Hamilton Regional Eye Institute. Participants 18 years or older scheduled to undergo cataract surgery completed the Catquest-9SF functional vision questionnaire on the day of their surgery and were mailed a survey 2-3 months postoperatively. Multivariate linear regression was used to determine the ability of predictors to explain variability in functional vision change between questionnaire administrations. One hundred and sixty-six patients completed both baseline and follow-up questionnaires. Mean age of the cohort was 73.8 ± 8.1 years. Most patients were female (59.6%), had cataract surgery performed for the first time (66.9%), and had spent a mean time of 20.3 ± 20.7 weeks waiting for surgery. Functional vision improved in 83.7% of patients. The mean baseline Catquest-9SF score was the only significant predictor of functional vision improvement (adjusted R(2) = 0.47; F1,159 = 144.6; p functional vision improved by 0.74 logits when mean baseline survey score increased by 1 logit. In most patients, functional vision improved after cataract surgery. Mean baseline Catquest-9SF score was a moderate predictor of the observed improvement. Copyright © 2016 Canadian Ophthalmological Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Vision research with functional magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakadomari, Satoshi

    1999-01-01

    Present state of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), which is based on changes of MR signals produced by blood circulation changes due to the nerve activity, in vision research was reviewed. In this field, there are international associations of Human Brain Mapping and for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology (ARVO) and reports presented in ARVO in 1998 and 1999 were firstly described. Next, the comparison between two conditions was defined as the experimental paradigm of fMRI and analyses with the event related fMRI and with classification into visual central regions were explained. Major findings obtained by stimulation of visual central regions were discussed on the lateral corpus geniculatum, areas of V1, V2, V3 (VP), V3A, V4A (V8), V5 and LO (lateral occipital complex), and others. In practice of actual fMRI, the noise is often attributable to the examinee factor and notification for speculating the result is important. The value of fMRI in the clinical ophthalmological diagnosis was discussed and thought to be further investigated. (K.H.)

  10. Evaluation of functional color vision requirements and current color vision screening tests for air traffic control specialists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-08-01

    An experiment was conducted to evaluate the relation of type and degree of color vision deficiency and aeromedical color vision screening test scores to performance of color-dependent tasks of Air Traffic Control Specialists. The subjects included 37...

  11. Resource Manual for Functional Vision Evaluation. Technical Assistance Bulletin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Texas Education Agency, Austin. Div. of Special Education.

    The manual was intended to help school personnel (either an educator of the visually handicapped and/or a certified orientation and mobility instructor) evaluate the functional use of residual vision. The manual is organized in three major sections, which cover the following: (1) the general areas addressed in functional vision evaluation (such as…

  12. The Functional Classification of Brain Damage-Related Vision Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colenbrander, August

    2009-01-01

    This article provides a terminological framework to show the relationships among different types of visual deficits. It distinguishes between visual functions, which describe how the eye and the lower visual system function, and functional vision, which describes how a person functions. When visual functions are disturbed, the term "visual…

  13. Scoring function to predict solubility mutagenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deutsch Christopher

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mutagenesis is commonly used to engineer proteins with desirable properties not present in the wild type (WT protein, such as increased or decreased stability, reactivity, or solubility. Experimentalists often have to choose a small subset of mutations from a large number of candidates to obtain the desired change, and computational techniques are invaluable to make the choices. While several such methods have been proposed to predict stability and reactivity mutagenesis, solubility has not received much attention. Results We use concepts from computational geometry to define a three body scoring function that predicts the change in protein solubility due to mutations. The scoring function captures both sequence and structure information. By exploring the literature, we have assembled a substantial database of 137 single- and multiple-point solubility mutations. Our database is the largest such collection with structural information known so far. We optimize the scoring function using linear programming (LP methods to derive its weights based on training. Starting with default values of 1, we find weights in the range [0,2] so that predictions of increase or decrease in solubility are optimized. We compare the LP method to the standard machine learning techniques of support vector machines (SVM and the Lasso. Using statistics for leave-one-out (LOO, 10-fold, and 3-fold cross validations (CV for training and prediction, we demonstrate that the LP method performs the best overall. For the LOOCV, the LP method has an overall accuracy of 81%. Availability Executables of programs, tables of weights, and datasets of mutants are available from the following web page: http://www.wsu.edu/~kbala/OptSolMut.html.

  14. FLORA™: Phase I development of a functional vision assessment for prosthetic vision users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geruschat, Duane R; Flax, Marshall; Tanna, Nilima; Bianchi, Michelle; Fisher, Andy; Goldschmidt, Mira; Fisher, Lynne; Dagnelie, Gislin; Deremeik, Jim; Smith, Audrey; Anaflous, Fatima; Dorn, Jessy

    2015-07-01

    Research groups and funding agencies need a functional assessment suitable for an ultra-low vision population to evaluate the impact of new vision-restoration treatments. The purpose of this study was to develop a pilot assessment to capture the functional visual ability and well-being of subjects whose vision has been partially restored with the Argus II Retinal Prosthesis System. The Functional Low-Vision Observer Rated Assessment (FLORA) pilot assessment involved a self-report section, a list of functional visual tasks for observation of performance and a case narrative summary. Results were analysed to determine whether the interview questions and functional visual tasks were appropriate for this ultra-low vision population and whether the ratings suffered from floor or ceiling effects. Thirty subjects with severe to profound retinitis pigmentosa (bare light perception or worse in both eyes) were enrolled in a clinical trial and implanted with the Argus II System. From this population, 26 subjects were assessed with the FLORA. Seven different evaluators administered the assessment. All 14 interview questions were asked. All 35 tasks for functional vision were selected for evaluation at least once, with an average of 20 subjects being evaluated for each test item. All four rating options—impossible (33 per cent), difficult (23 per cent), moderate (24 per cent) and easy (19 per cent)—were used by the evaluators. Evaluators also judged the amount of vision they observed the subjects using to complete the various tasks, with 'vision only' occurring 75 per cent on average with the System ON, and 29 per cent with the System OFF. The first version of the FLORA was found to contain useful elements for evaluation and to avoid floor and ceiling effects. The next phase of development will be to refine the assessment and to establish reliability and validity to increase its value as an assessment tool for functional vision and well-being. © 2015 The Authors. Clinical

  15. Development of a battery of functional tests for low vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougherty, Bradley E; Martin, Scott R; Kelly, Corey B; Jones, Lisa A; Raasch, Thomas W; Bullimore, Mark A

    2009-08-01

    We describe the development and evaluation of a battery of tests of functional visual performance of everyday tasks intended to be suitable for assessment of low vision patients. The functional test battery comprises-Reading rate: reading aloud 20 unrelated words for each of four print sizes (8, 4, 2, & 1 M); Telephone book: finding a name and reading the telephone number; Medicine bottle label: reading the name and dosing; Utility bill: reading the due date and amount due; Cooking instructions: reading cooking time on a food package; Coin sorting: making a specified amount from coins placed on a table; Playing card recognition: identifying denomination and suit; and Face recognition: identifying expressions of printed, life-size faces at 1 and 3 m. All tests were timed except face and playing card recognition. Fourteen normally sighted and 24 low vision subjects were assessed with the functional test battery. Visual acuity, contrast sensitivity, and quality of life (National Eye Institute Visual Function Questionnaire 25 [NEI-VFQ 25]) were measured and the functional tests repeated. Subsequently, 23 low vision patients participated in a pilot randomized clinical trial with half receiving low vision rehabilitation and half a delayed intervention. The functional tests were administered at enrollment and 3 months later. Normally sighted subjects could perform all tasks but the proportion of trials performed correctly by the low vision subjects ranged from 35% for face recognition at 3 m, to 95% for the playing card identification. On average, low vision subjects performed three times slower than the normally sighted subjects. Timed tasks with a visual search component showed poorer repeatability. In the pilot clinical trial, low vision rehabilitation produced the greatest improvement for the medicine bottle and cooking instruction tasks. Performance of patients on these functional tests has been assessed. Some appear responsive to low vision rehabilitation.

  16. Impact of low vision rehabilitation on functional vision performance of children with visual impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganesh, Suma; Sethi, Sumita; Srivastav, Sonia; Chaudhary, Amrita; Arora, Priyanka

    2013-09-01

    To evaluate the impact of low vision rehabilitation on functional vision of children with visual impairment. The LV Prasad-Functional Vision Questionnaire, designed specifically to measure functional performance of visually impaired children of developing countries, was used to assess the level of difficulty in performing various tasks pre and post visual rehabilitation in children with documented visual impairment. Chi-square test was used to assess the impact of rehabilitation intervention on functional vision performance; a P visual acuity prior to the introduction of low vision devices (LVDs) was 0.90 ± 0.05 for distance and for near it was 0.61 ± 0.05. After the intervention, the acuities improved significantly for distance (0.2 ± 0.27; P visual rehabilitation was especially found in those activities related to their studying lifestyle like copying from the blackboard (P visual rehabilitation, especially with those activities which are related to their academic output. It is important for these children to have an early visual rehabilitation to decrease the impairment associated with these decreased visual output and to enhance their learning abilities.

  17. Stimulation of functional vision in children with perinatal brain damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alimović, Sonja; Mejaski-Bosnjak, Vlatka

    2011-01-01

    Cerebral visual impairment (CVI) is one of the most common causes of bilateral visual loss, which frequently occurs due to perinatal brain injury. Vision in early life has great impact on acquisition of basic comprehensions which are fundamental for further development. Therefore, early detection of visual problems and early intervention is necessary. The aim of the present study is to determine specific visual functioning of children with perinatal brain damage and the influence of visual stimulation on development of functional vision at early age of life. We initially assessed 30 children with perinatal brain damage up to 3 years of age, who were reffered to our pediatric low vision cabinet in "Little house" from child neurologists, ophthalmologists Type and degree of visual impairment was determined according to functional vision assessment of each child. On the bases of those assessments different kind of visual stimulations were carried out with children who have been identified to have a certain visual impairment. Through visual stimulation program some of the children were stimulated with light stimulus, some with different materials under the ultraviolet (UV) light, and some with bright color and high contrast materials. Children were also involved in program of early stimulation of overall sensory motor development. Goals and methods of therapy were determined individually, based on observation of child's possibilities and need. After one year of program, reassessment was done. Results for visual functions and functional vision were compared to evaluate the improvement of the vision development. These results have shown that there was significant improvement in functional vision, especially in visual attention and visual communication.

  18. Impact of low vision rehabilitation on functional vision performance of children with visual impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suma Ganesh

    2013-01-01

    Conclusions: In our study group, there was a significant improvement in functional vision post visual rehabilitation, especially with those activities which are related to their academic output. It is important for these children to have an early visual rehabilitation to decrease the impairment associated with these decreased visual output and to enhance their learning abilities.

  19. Oestrogen, ocular function and low-level vision: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchinson, Claire V; Walker, James A; Davidson, Colin

    2014-11-01

    Over the past 10 years, a literature has emerged concerning the sex steroid hormone oestrogen and its role in human vision. Herein, we review evidence that oestrogen (oestradiol) levels may significantly affect ocular function and low-level vision, particularly in older females. In doing so, we have examined a number of vision-related disorders including dry eye, cataract, increased intraocular pressure, glaucoma, age-related macular degeneration and Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy. In each case, we have found oestrogen, or lack thereof, to have a role. We have also included discussion of how oestrogen-related pharmacological treatments for menopause and breast cancer can impact the pathology of the eye and a number of psychophysical aspects of vision. Finally, we have reviewed oestrogen's pharmacology and suggest potential mechanisms underlying its beneficial effects, with particular emphasis on anti-apoptotic and vascular effects. © 2014 Society for Endocrinology.

  20. Do visually impaired children and their parents agree on the child's vision-related quality of life and functional vision?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadić, Valerija; Cumberland, Phillippa M; Lewando-Hundt, Gillian; Rahi, Jugnoo S

    2017-03-01

    To investigate agreement between children with visual impairment (VI) and their parents on their ratings of the child's vision-related quality of life (VQoL) and functional vision (FV) using two novel self-report patient-reported outcome measures developed for this population. 99 children aged 10-15 years (mean age=12.2, SD=1.9) with VI (best corrected acuity (logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution) 0.50 or worse in better eye) and their parents participated in a national postal survey, completing the child and proxy versions of our novel instruments assessing VQoL and FV of children with VI-the vision-related quality of life instrument for children and young people (VQoL_CYP) and the functional vision questionnaire for children and young people (FVQ_CYP), respectively. Parent-child agreement was investigated using the Bland-Altman (BA) method. Variation across key sociodemographic and clinical characteristics was examined using the Intraclass Correlation Coefficient. Average parental ratings of their child's VQoL and FV were significantly lower than the children's own ratings, but the range of disagreement was wide, with parents both overestimating and underestimating their child's VQoL (mean score difference=5.7, BA limits of agreement (LOA): lower -22.10 (CI 95% -24.61 to 19.59) and upper 33.50 (CI 95% 30.99 to 36.01)), but more consistently underestimating the child's FV (mean score difference=-11.8, BA LOA: lower -39.60 (CI 95% -42.12 to 37.08) and upper 16 (CI 95% 13.48 to 18.52)). There was variation in agreement by some child characteristics, including vision level, time of onset and course of VI progression. Visually impaired children and their parents perceive the broader impact of living with VI very differently. There is value in routine capture of information independently from children and their parents for comprehensively gauging the impact of childhood VI and tailoring appropriate interventions. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited

  1. Do visually impaired children and their parents agree on the child's vision-related quality of life and functional vision?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadić, Valerija; Cumberland, Phillippa M; Lewando-Hundt, Gillian; Rahi, Jugnoo S

    2017-01-01

    Aims To investigate agreement between children with visual impairment (VI) and their parents on their ratings of the child's vision-related quality of life (VQoL) and functional vision (FV) using two novel self-report patient-reported outcome measures developed for this population. Methods 99 children aged 10–15 years (mean age=12.2, SD=1.9) with VI (best corrected acuity (logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution) 0.50 or worse in better eye) and their parents participated in a national postal survey, completing the child and proxy versions of our novel instruments assessing VQoL and FV of children with VI—the vision-related quality of life instrument for children and young people (VQoL_CYP) and the functional vision questionnaire for children and young people (FVQ_CYP), respectively. Parent-child agreement was investigated using the Bland-Altman (BA) method. Variation across key sociodemographic and clinical characteristics was examined using the Intraclass Correlation Coefficient. Results Average parental ratings of their child's VQoL and FV were significantly lower than the children's own ratings, but the range of disagreement was wide, with parents both overestimating and underestimating their child's VQoL (mean score difference=5.7, BA limits of agreement (LOA): lower −22.10 (CI 95% −24.61 to 19.59) and upper 33.50 (CI 95% 30.99 to 36.01)), but more consistently underestimating the child's FV (mean score difference=−11.8, BA LOA: lower −39.60 (CI 95% −42.12 to 37.08) and upper 16 (CI 95% 13.48 to 18.52)). There was variation in agreement by some child characteristics, including vision level, time of onset and course of VI progression. Conclusions Visually impaired children and their parents perceive the broader impact of living with VI very differently. There is value in routine capture of information independently from children and their parents for comprehensively gauging the impact of childhood VI and tailoring appropriate interventions

  2. Elements of neurogeometry functional architectures of vision

    CERN Document Server

    Petitot, Jean

    2017-01-01

    This book describes several mathematical models of the primary visual cortex, referring them to a vast ensemble of experimental data and putting forward an original geometrical model for its functional architecture, that is, the highly specific organization of its neural connections. The book spells out the geometrical algorithms implemented by this functional architecture, or put another way, the “neurogeometry” immanent in visual perception. Focusing on the neural origins of our spatial representations, it demonstrates three things: firstly, the way the visual neurons filter the optical signal is closely related to a wavelet analysis; secondly, the contact structure of the 1-jets of the curves in the plane (the retinal plane here) is implemented by the cortical functional architecture; and lastly, the visual algorithms for integrating contours from what may be rather incomplete sensory data can be modelled by the sub-Riemannian geometry associated with this contact structure. As such, it provides rea...

  3. Making Choices in Functional Vision Evaluations: "Noodles, Needles, and Haystacks."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, V. E.

    1988-01-01

    An approach to functional vision evaluations clarifies the types of data collection and suggests protocols for three broad categories of visually handicapped children: "normal" school-age students, "normal" preschoolers, and multiply handicapped pupils. Visually impaired infants are classified with multiply handicapped pupils…

  4. GalaxyDock BP2 score: a hybrid scoring function for accurate protein-ligand docking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Minkyung; Shin, Woong-Hee; Chung, Hwan Won; Seok, Chaok

    2017-07-01

    Protein-ligand docking is a useful tool for providing atomic-level understanding of protein functions in nature and design principles for artificial ligands or proteins with desired properties. The ability to identify the true binding pose of a ligand to a target protein among numerous possible candidate poses is an essential requirement for successful protein-ligand docking. Many previously developed docking scoring functions were trained to reproduce experimental binding affinities and were also used for scoring binding poses. However, in this study, we developed a new docking scoring function, called GalaxyDock BP2 Score, by directly training the scoring power of binding poses. This function is a hybrid of physics-based, empirical, and knowledge-based score terms that are balanced to strengthen the advantages of each component. The performance of the new scoring function exhibits significant improvement over existing scoring functions in decoy pose discrimination tests. In addition, when the score is used with the GalaxyDock2 protein-ligand docking program, it outperformed other state-of-the-art docking programs in docking tests on the Astex diverse set, the Cross2009 benchmark set, and the Astex non-native set. GalaxyDock BP2 Score and GalaxyDock2 with this score are freely available at http://galaxy.seoklab.org/softwares/galaxydock.html.

  5. A locally adapted functional outcome measurement score for total ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... in Europe or North America and seem not optimally suited for a general West ... We introduce a cross-cultural adaptation of the Lequesne index as a new score. ... Keywords: THR, Hip, Africa, Functional score, Hip replacement, Arthroscopy ...

  6. Case Report: Use of Sports and Performance Vision Training to Benefit a Low-vision Patient's Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laby, Daniel M

    2018-05-17

    Despite our inability to attenuate the course of many ocular diseases that can ultimately lead to loss or significantly decreased visual function, this report describes a potential technique to aid such patients in maximizing the use of the vision that remains. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the applicability of utilizing sports vision training to improve objective and subjective visuomotor function in a low-vision patient. A 37-year-old woman with Usher syndrome presented with reduced central visual acuity and visual field. Although we were unable to reverse the damage resulting from her diagnosis, we were able to improve the use of the remaining vision. A 27 to 31% improvement in hand-eye coordination was achieved along with a 41% improvement in object tracking and visual concentration. Most importantly, following the 14-week training period, there was also a subjective improvement in the patient's appreciation of her visual ability. The sports vision literature cites many examples in which sports vision training is useful in improving visuomotor and on-field performance. We hypothesized that these techniques may be used to aid not only athletes but also patients with low vision. Despite suffering from reduced acuity and a limited visual field, these patients often still have a significant amount of vision ability that can be used to guide motor actions. Using techniques to increase the efficient use of this remaining vision may reduce the impact of the reduced visual function and aid in activities of daily living.

  7. NCACO-score: An effective main-chain dependent scoring function for structure modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Xiaoxi

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Development of effective scoring functions is a critical component to the success of protein structure modeling. Previously, many efforts have been dedicated to the development of scoring functions. Despite these efforts, development of an effective scoring function that can achieve both good accuracy and fast speed still presents a grand challenge. Results Based on a coarse-grained representation of a protein structure by using only four main-chain atoms: N, Cα, C and O, we develop a knowledge-based scoring function, called NCACO-score, that integrates different structural information to rapidly model protein structure from sequence. In testing on the Decoys'R'Us sets, we found that NCACO-score can effectively recognize native conformers from their decoys. Furthermore, we demonstrate that NCACO-score can effectively guide fragment assembly for protein structure prediction, which has achieved a good performance in building the structure models for hard targets from CASP8 in terms of both accuracy and speed. Conclusions Although NCACO-score is developed based on a coarse-grained model, it is able to discriminate native conformers from decoy conformers with high accuracy. NCACO is a very effective scoring function for structure modeling.

  8. Stimulation of Functional Vision in Children with Perinatal Brain Damage

    OpenAIRE

    Alimović, Sonja; Mejaški-Bošnjak, Vlatka

    2011-01-01

    Cerebral visual impairment (CVI) is one of the most common causes of bilateral visual loss, which frequently occurs due to perinatal brain injury. Vision in early life has great impact on acquisition of basic comprehensions which are fundamental for further development. Therefore, early detection of visual problems and early intervention is necessary. The aim of the present study is to determine specific visual functioning of children with perinatal brain damage and the influence of visual st...

  9. a locally adapted functional outcome measurement score for total

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results and success of total hip arthroplasty are often measured using a functional outcome scoring system. Most current scores were developed in Europe and. North America (1-3). During the evaluation of a Total. Hip Replacement (THR) project in Ouagadougou,. Burkina Faso (4) it was felt that these scores were not.

  10. A New Statistical Tool: Scalar Score Function

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fabián, Zdeněk

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 2, - (2011), s. 109-116 ISSN 1934-7332 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/09/1079 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : statistics * inference function * data characteristics * point estimates * heavy tails Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research

  11. Relationship between functional vision and balance and mobility performance in community-dwelling older adults

    OpenAIRE

    Aartolahti, Eeva; Häkkinen, Arja; Lönnroos, Eija; Kautiainen, Hannu; Sulkava, Raimo; Hartikainen, Sirpa

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims: Vision is an important prerequisite for balance control and mobility. The role of objectively measured visual functions has been previously studied but less is known about associations of functional vision. That refers to selfperceived vision-based ability to perform daily activities. The aim was to investigate the relationship between functional vision and balance and mobility performance in a community-based sample of older adults. Methods: This study ...

  12. Scoring functions for protein-protein interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moal, Iain H; Moretti, Rocco; Baker, David; Fernández-Recio, Juan

    2013-12-01

    The computational evaluation of protein-protein interactions will play an important role in organising the wealth of data being generated by high-throughput initiatives. Here we discuss future applications, report recent developments and identify areas requiring further investigation. Many functions have been developed to quantify the structural and energetic properties of interacting proteins, finding use in interrelated challenges revolving around the relationship between sequence, structure and binding free energy. These include loop modelling, side-chain refinement, docking, multimer assembly, affinity prediction, affinity change upon mutation, hotspots location and interface design. Information derived from models optimised for one of these challenges can be used to benefit the others, and can be unified within the theoretical frameworks of multi-task learning and Pareto-optimal multi-objective learning. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The Need for a Uniform Method of Recording and Reporting Functional Vision Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Rona; Russotti, Joanne; Strauss-Schwartz, Judy; Vail, Helen; Kahn, Ronda

    2009-01-01

    The use of functional vision by school-age students who have visual impairments, including those with additional disabilities, is typically reported by teachers of students with visual impairments. Functional vision assessments determine how well a student uses his or her vision to perform tasks throughout the school day. The information that is…

  14. A Novel Scoring System Approach to Assess Patients with Lyme Disease (Nutech Functional Score)

    OpenAIRE

    Geeta Shroff; Petra Hopf-Seidel

    2018-01-01

    Introduction: A bacterial infection by Borrelia burgdorferi referred to as Lyme disease (LD) or borreliosis is transmitted mostly by a bite of the tick Ixodes scapularis in the USA and Ixodes ricinus in Europe. Various tests are used for the diagnosis of LD, but their results are often unreliable. We compiled a list of clinically visible and patient-reported symptoms that are associated with LD. Based on this list, we developed a novel scoring system. Methodology: Nutech functional Score (NF...

  15. Relationship between functional vision and balance and mobility performance in community-dwelling older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aartolahti, Eeva; Häkkinen, Arja; Lönnroos, Eija; Kautiainen, Hannu; Sulkava, Raimo; Hartikainen, Sirpa

    2013-10-01

    Vision is an important prerequisite for balance control and mobility. The role of objectively measured visual functions has been previously studied but less is known about associations of functional vision, that refers to self-perceived vision-based ability to perform daily activities. The aim of the study was to investigate the relationship between functional vision and balance and mobility performance in a community-based sample of older adults. This study is part of a Geriatric Multidisciplinary Strategy for the Good Care of the Elderly project (GeMS). Participants (576) aged 76-100 years (mean age 81 years, 70 % women) were interviewed using a seven-item functional vision questionnaire (VF-7). Balance and mobility were measured by the Berg balance scale (BBS), timed up and go (TUG), chair stand test, and maximal walking speed. In addition, self-reported fear of falling, depressive symptoms (15-item Geriatric Depression Scale), cognition (Mini-Mental State Examination) and physical activity (Grimby) were assessed. In the analysis, participants were classified into poor, moderate, or good functional vision groups. The poor functional vision group (n = 95) had more comorbidities, depressed mood, cognition decline, fear of falling, and reduced physical activity compared to participants with moderate (n = 222) or good functional vision (n = 259). Participants with poor functional vision performed worse on all balance and mobility tests. After adjusting for gender, age, chronic conditions, and cognition, the linearity remained statistically significant between functional vision and BBS (p = 0.013), TUG (p = 0.010), and maximal walking speed (p = 0.008), but not between functional vision and chair stand (p = 0.069). Poor functional vision is related to weaker balance and mobility performance in community-dwelling older adults. This highlights the importance of widespread assessment of health, including functional vision, to prevent balance impairment and maintain

  16. Validity Assessment of Low-risk SCORE Function and SCORE Function Calibrated to the Spanish Population in the FRESCO Cohorts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baena-Díez, José Miguel; Subirana, Isaac; Ramos, Rafael; Gómez de la Cámara, Agustín; Elosua, Roberto; Vila, Joan; Marín-Ibáñez, Alejandro; Guembe, María Jesús; Rigo, Fernando; Tormo-Díaz, María José; Moreno-Iribas, Conchi; Cabré, Joan Josep; Segura, Antonio; Lapetra, José; Quesada, Miquel; Medrano, María José; González-Diego, Paulino; Frontera, Guillem; Gavrila, Diana; Ardanaz, Eva; Basora, Josep; García, José María; García-Lareo, Manel; Gutiérrez-Fuentes, José Antonio; Mayoral, Eduardo; Sala, Joan; Dégano, Irene R; Francès, Albert; Castell, Conxa; Grau, María; Marrugat, Jaume

    2018-04-01

    To assess the validity of the original low-risk SCORE function without and with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and SCORE calibrated to the Spanish population. Pooled analysis with individual data from 12 Spanish population-based cohort studies. We included 30 919 individuals aged 40 to 64 years with no history of cardiovascular disease at baseline, who were followed up for 10 years for the causes of death included in the SCORE project. The validity of the risk functions was analyzed with the area under the ROC curve (discrimination) and the Hosmer-Lemeshow test (calibration), respectively. Follow-up comprised 286 105 persons/y. Ten-year cardiovascular mortality was 0.6%. The ratio between estimated/observed cases ranged from 9.1, 6.5, and 9.1 in men and 3.3, 1.3, and 1.9 in women with original low-risk SCORE risk function without and with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and calibrated SCORE, respectively; differences were statistically significant with the Hosmer-Lemeshow test between predicted and observed mortality with SCORE (P cardiovascular mortality observed in the Spanish population. Despite the acceptable discrimination capacity, prediction of the number of fatal cardiovascular events (calibration) was significantly inaccurate. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  17. A computer vision based candidate for functional balance test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nalci, Alican; Khodamoradi, Alireza; Balkan, Ozgur; Nahab, Fatta; Garudadri, Harinath

    2015-08-01

    Balance in humans is a motor skill based on complex multimodal sensing, processing and control. Ability to maintain balance in activities of daily living (ADL) is compromised due to aging, diseases, injuries and environmental factors. Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) estimate of the costs of falls among older adults was $34 billion in 2013 and is expected to reach $54.9 billion in 2020. In this paper, we present a brief review of balance impairments followed by subjective and objective tools currently used in clinical settings for human balance assessment. We propose a novel computer vision (CV) based approach as a candidate for functional balance test. The test will take less than a minute to administer and expected to be objective, repeatable and highly discriminative in quantifying ability to maintain posture and balance. We present an informal study with preliminary data from 10 healthy volunteers, and compare performance with a balance assessment system called BTrackS Balance Assessment Board. Our results show high degree of correlation with BTrackS. The proposed system promises to be a good candidate for objective functional balance tests and warrants further investigations to assess validity in clinical settings, including acute care, long term care and assisted living care facilities. Our long term goals include non-intrusive approaches to assess balance competence during ADL in independent living environments.

  18. Psychological distress and visual functioning in relation to vision-related disability in older individuals with cataracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, J G; Anstey, K J; Lord, S R

    2006-05-01

    To determine whether demographic, health status and psychological functioning measures, in addition to impaired visual acuity, are related to vision-related disability. Participants were 105 individuals (mean age=73.7 years) with cataracts requiring surgery and corrected visual acuity in the better eye of 6/24 to 6/36 were recruited from waiting lists at three public out-patient ophthalmology clinics. Visual disability was measured with the Visual Functioning-14 survey. Visual acuity was assessed using better and worse eye logMAR scores and the Melbourne Edge Test (MET) for edge contrast sensitivity. Data relating to demographic information, depression, anxiety and stress, health care and medication use and numbers of co-morbid conditions were obtained. Principal component analysis revealed four meaningful factors that accounted for 75% of the variance in visual disability: recreational activities, reading and fine work, activities of daily living and driving behaviour. Multiple regression analyses determined that visual acuity variables were the only significant predictors of overall vision-related functioning and difficulties with reading and fine work. For the remaining visual disability domains, non-visual factors were also significant predictors. Difficulties with recreational activities were predicted by stress, as well as worse eye visual acuity, and difficulties with activities of daily living were associated with self-reported health status, age and depression as well as MET contrast scores. Driving behaviour was associated with sex (with fewer women driving), depression, anxiety and stress scores, and MET contrast scores. Vision-related disability is common in older individuals with cataracts. In addition to visual acuity, demographic, psychological and health status factors influence the severity of vision-related disability, affecting recreational activities, activities of daily living and driving.

  19. A Study To Evaluate the Effectiveness of the Montana Functional Vision Assessment for Multihandicapped Persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, Ron

    The study evaluated the validity, reliability, and effectiveness in providing needed information of the Montana Functional Vision Assessment (MFVA) Instrument by comparing it with the Texas Education Agency Functional Vision Assessment and field testing the instrument in evaluations of nine multihandicapped students (ages 3-11). Evaluation led to…

  20. The Reliability of the CVI Range: A Functional Vision Assessment for Children with Cortical Visual Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newcomb, Sandra

    2010-01-01

    Children who are identified as visually impaired frequently have a functional vision assessment as one way to determine how their visual impairment affects their educational performance. The CVI Range is a functional vision assessment for children with cortical visual impairment. The purpose of the study presented here was to examine the…

  1. Score Function of Distribution and Revival of the Moment Method

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fabián, Zdeněk

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 45, č. 4 (2016), s. 1118-1136 ISSN 0361-0926 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LG12020 Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : characteristics of distributions * data characteristics * general moment method * Huber moment estimator * parametric methods * score function Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics , Operational Research Impact factor: 0.311, year: 2016

  2. A Novel Scoring System Approach to Assess Patients with Lyme Disease (Nutech Functional Score).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shroff, Geeta; Hopf-Seidel, Petra

    2018-01-01

    A bacterial infection by Borrelia burgdorferi referred to as Lyme disease (LD) or borreliosis is transmitted mostly by a bite of the tick Ixodes scapularis in the USA and Ixodes ricinus in Europe. Various tests are used for the diagnosis of LD, but their results are often unreliable. We compiled a list of clinically visible and patient-reported symptoms that are associated with LD. Based on this list, we developed a novel scoring system. Nutech functional Score (NFS), which is a 43 point positional (every symptom is subgraded and each alternative gets some points according to its position) and directional (moves in direction bad to good) scoring system that assesses the patient's condition. The grades of the scoring system have been converted into numeric values for conducting probability based studies. Each symptom is graded from 1 to 5 that runs in direction BAD → GOOD. NFS is a unique tool that can be used universally to assess the condition of patients with LD.

  3. A Novel Scoring System Approach to Assess Patients with Lyme Disease (Nutech Functional Score

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geeta Shroff

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: A bacterial infection by Borrelia burgdorferi referred to as Lyme disease (LD or borreliosis is transmitted mostly by a bite of the tick Ixodes scapularis in the USA and Ixodes ricinus in Europe. Various tests are used for the diagnosis of LD, but their results are often unreliable. We compiled a list of clinically visible and patient-reported symptoms that are associated with LD. Based on this list, we developed a novel scoring system. Methodology: Nutech functional Score (NFS, which is a 43 point positional (every symptom is subgraded and each alternative gets some points according to its position and directional (moves in direction bad to good scoring system that assesses the patient's condition. Results: The grades of the scoring system have been converted into numeric values for conducting probability based studies. Each symptom is graded from 1 to 5 that runs in direction BAD → GOOD. Conclusion: NFS is a unique tool that can be used universally to assess the condition of patients with LD.

  4. Does functional vision behave differently in low-vision patients with diabetic retinopathy?--A case-matched study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadian, Lohrasb; Massof, Robert

    2008-09-01

    A retrospective case-matched study designed to compare patients with diabetic retinopathy (DR) and other ocular diseases, managed in a low-vision clinic, in four different types of functional vision. Reading, mobility, visual motor, and visual information processing were measured in the patients (n = 114) and compared with those in patients with other ocular diseases (n = 114) matched in sex, visual acuity (VA), general health status, and age, using the Activity Inventory as a Rasch-scaled measurement tool. Binocular distance visual acuity was categorized as normal (20/12.5-20/25), near normal (20/32-20/63), moderate (20/80-20/160), severe (20/200-20/400), profound (20/500-20/1000), and total blindness (20/1250 to no light perception). Both Wilcoxon matched pairs signed rank test and the sign test of matched pairs were used to compare estimated functional vision measures between DR cases and controls. Cases ranged in age from 19 to 90 years (mean age, 67.5), and 59% were women. The mean visual acuity (logMar scale) was 0.7. Based on the Wilcoxon signed rank test analyses and after adjusting the probability for multiple comparisons, there was no statistically significant difference (P > 0.05) between patients with DR and control subjects in any of four functional visions. Furthermore, diabetic retinopathy patients did not differ (P > 0.05) from their matched counterparts in goal-level vision-related functional ability and total visual ability. Visual impairment in patients with DR appears to be a generic and non-disease-specific outcome that can be explained mainly by the end impact of the disease in the patients' daily lives and not by the unique disease process that results in the visual impairment.

  5. Decreased Visual Function Scores on a Low Luminance Questionnaire Is Associated with Impaired Dark Adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazdanie, Mohammad; Alvarez, Jason; Agrón, Elvira; Wong, Wai T; Wiley, Henry E; Ferris, Frederick L; Chew, Emily Y; Cukras, Catherine

    2017-09-01

    We investigate whether responses on a Low Luminance Questionnaire (LLQ) in patients with a range of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) severity are associated with their performance on focal dark adaptation (DA) testing and with choroidal thickness. Cross-sectional, single-center, observational study. A total of 113 participants older than 50 years of age with a range of AMD severity. Participants answered the LLQ on the same day they underwent DA testing using a focal dark adaptometer measuring rod intercept time (RIT). We performed univariable and multivariable analyses of the LLQ scores and age, RIT, AMD severity, subfoveal choroidal thickness [SFCT], phakic status, and best-corrected visual acuity. The primary outcome of this study was the score on the 32-question LLQ. Each item in the LLQ is designated to 1 of 6 subscales describing functional problems in low luminance: driving, emotional distress, mobility, extreme lighting, peripheral vision, and general dim lighting. Scores were computed for each subscale, in addition to a weighted total mean score. Responses from 113 participants (mean age, 76.2±9.3 years; 58.4% were female) and 113 study eyes were analyzed. Univariable analysis demonstrated that lower scores on all LLQ subscales were correlated with prolonged DA testing (longer RIT) and decreased choroidal thickness. All associations were statistically significant except for the association of choroidal thickness and "peripheral vision." The strongest association was the LLQ subscale of driving with RIT (r =-0.97, P < 0.001). Multivariable analysis for each of the LLQ subscale outcomes, adjusted for age, included RIT, with total LLQ score, "driving," "extreme lighting," and "mobility" also including choroidal thickness. In all multivariable analyses, RIT had a stronger association than choroidal thickness. This cross-sectional analysis demonstrates associations of patient-reported functional deficits, as assessed on the LLQ, with both reduced DA and

  6. The impact of cataract surgery on visual functioning, vision-related disability and psychological distress: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Janine G; Anstey, Kaarin J; Hennessy, Michael P; Lord, Stephen R; von Sanden, Chwee

    2006-11-01

    Determine whether there are changes in visual functioning, vision-related disability, health status and mood after cataract surgery. 45 adults (mean age = 73.7 years) with bilateral cataract needing surgery for the first eye were recruited from public ophthalmology clinics. The Visual Functioning-14 survey assessed visual disability. Minimal angle of resolution tested visual acuity, and the Melbourne Edge Test examined contrast sensitivity. Demographic, psychological, health and medication use variables were examined. Participants were randomized to either an intervention or control arm. Controls were assessed on two occasions at a 3-month interval before having surgery. The intervention group was assessed 1-2 weeks before surgery and then reassessed 3 months after surgery. Visual functioning improved for those who had cataract surgery with better visual acuity in the better (P = 0.010) and worse (P = 0.028) eye compared with controls. The intervention group reported fewer difficulties with overall vision-related disability (P = 0.0001), reading (P = 0.004) and instrumental activities of daily living (P = 0.010) post-surgery compared with controls. People with improved depression scores (P = 0.048) after surgery had less difficulty with reading compared with those with unchanged or worsened depression scores. Cataract surgery did not improve health status. First eye cataract surgery is effective in improving outcomes in visual functioning and disability. Improved mood after surgery was related to less vision-related disability compared with unchanged or worse depression.

  7. [Functional state of vision system under chronic mercury intoxication].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iablonskaia, D A; Mishchenko, T S; Lakhman, O L; Rukavishnikov, V S; Malyshev, V V

    2010-01-01

    Examination of chronic mercury intoxication patients in distant (post-contact) period revealed marked vision disorders and inhibited neuro-conductivity--inhibited neuronal structures of retina and optic nerve.

  8. Correlates of cognitive function scores in elderly outpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangione, C M; Seddon, J M; Cook, E F; Krug, J H; Sahagian, C R; Campion, E W; Glynn, R J

    1993-05-01

    To determine medical, ophthalmologic, and demographic predictors of cognitive function scores as measured by the Telephone Interview for Cognitive Status (TICS), an adaptation of the Folstein Mini-Mental Status Exam. A secondary objective was to perform an item-by-item analysis of the TICS scores to determine which items correlated most highly with the overall scores. Cross-sectional cohort study. The Glaucoma Consultation Service of the Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary. 472 of 565 consecutive patients age 65 and older who were seen at the Glaucoma Consultation Service between November 1, 1987 and October 31, 1988. Each subject had a standard visual examination and review of medical history at entry, followed by a telephone interview that collected information on demographic characteristics, cognitive status, health status, accidents, falls, symptoms of depression, and alcohol intake. A multivariate linear regression model of correlates of TICS score found the strongest correlates to be education, age, occupation, and the presence of depressive symptoms. The only significant ocular condition that correlated with lower TICS score was the presence of surgical aphakia (model R2 = .46). Forty-six percent (216/472) of patients fell below the established definition of normal on the mental status scale. In a logistic regression analysis, the strongest correlates of an abnormal cognitive function score were age, diabetes, educational status, and occupational status. An item analysis using step-wise linear regression showed that 85 percent of the variance in the TICS score was explained by the ability to perform serial sevens and to repeat 10 items immediately after hearing them. Educational status correlated most highly with both of these items (Kendall Tau R = .43 and Kendall Tau R = .30, respectively). Education, occupation, depression, and age were the strongest correlates of the score on this new screening test for assessing cognitive status. These factors were

  9. Quality of life and near vision impairment due to functional presbyopia among rural Chinese adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Qing; Congdon, Nathan; He, Xiangdong; Murthy, Gudlavalleti V S; Yang, Amy; He, Wei

    2011-06-13

    To evaluate the impact of near-vision impairment on visual functioning and quality of life in a rural adult population in Shenyang, northern China. A population-based, cross-sectional study was conducted among persons aged 40+ years, during which functional presbyopia (correctable presenting near vision vision-related quality of life and spectacle usage questionnaires were administered by trained interviewers to determine the degree of self-rated difficulty with near tasks. A total of 1008 respondents (91.5% of 1102 eligible persons) were examined, and 776 (78%) of completed the questionnaires (mean age, 57.0 ± 10.2 years; 63.3% women). Near-vision spectacle wearers obtained their spectacles primarily from markets (74.5%) and optical shops (21.7%), and only 1.14% from eye clinics. Among 538 (69.3%) persons with functional presbyopia, self-rated overall (distance and near) vision was worse (P vision. Compared to persons without presbyopia, presbyopic persons were more likely to report diminished accomplishment due to vision (P = 0.01, adjusted for age, sex, education, and distance vision.) Difficulties with activities of daily living and resulting social impediments are common due to presbyopia in this setting. Most spectacle wearers with presbyopia in rural China obtain near correction from sources that do not provide comprehensive vision care.

  10. Functional Movement Screen: Pain versus composite score and injury risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alemany, Joseph A; Bushman, Timothy T; Grier, Tyson; Anderson, Morgan K; Canham-Chervak, Michelle; North, William J; Jones, Bruce H

    2017-11-01

    The Functional Movement Screen (FMS™) has been used as a screening tool to determine musculoskeletal injury risk using composite scores based on movement quality and/or pain. However, no direct comparisons between movement quality and pain have been quantified. Retrospective injury data analysis. Male Soldiers (n=2154, 25.0±1.3years; 26.2±.7kg/m 2 ) completed the FMS (scored from 0 points (pain) to 3 points (no pain and perfect movement quality)) with injury data over the following six months. The FMS is seven movements. Injury data were collected six months after FMS completion. Sensitivity, specificity, receiver operator characteristics and positive and negative predictive values were calculated for pain occurrence and low (≤14 points) composite score. Risk, risk ratios (RR) and 95% confidence intervals were calculated for injury risk. Pain was associated with slightly higher injury risk (RR=1.62) than a composite score of ≤14 points (RR=1.58). When comparing injury risk between those who scored a 1, 2 or 3 on each individual movement, no differences were found (except deep squat). However, Soldiers who experienced pain on any movement had a greater injury risk than those who scored 3 points for that movement (pmovements in which pain occurrence increased, so did injury risk (p<0.01). Pain occurrence may be a stronger indicator of injury risk than a low composite score and provides a simpler method of evaluating injury risk compared to the full FMS. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Optimising technology to measure functional vision, mobility and service outcomes for people with low vision or blindness: protocol for a prospective cohort study in Australia and Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deverell, Lil; Meyer, Denny; Lau, Bee Theng; Al Mahmud, Abdullah; Sukunesan, Suku; Bhowmik, Jahar; Chai, Almon; McCarthy, Chris; Zheng, Pan; Pipingas, Andrew; Islam, Fakir M Amirul

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Orientation and mobility (O&M) specialists assess the functional vision and O&M skills of people with mobility problems, usually relating to low vision or blindness. There are numerous O&M assessment checklists but no measures that reduce qualitative assessment data to a single comparable score suitable for assessing any O&M client, of any age or ability, in any location. Functional measures are needed internationally to align O&M assessment practices, guide referrals, profile O&M clients, plan appropriate services and evaluate outcomes from O&M programmes (eg, long cane training), assistive technology (eg, hazard sensors) and medical interventions (eg, retinal implants). This study aims to validate two new measures of functional performance vision-related outcomes in orientation and mobility (VROOM) and orientation and mobility outcomes (OMO) in the context of ordinary O&M assessments in Australia, with cultural comparisons in Malaysia, also developing phone apps and online training to streamline professional assessment practices. Methods and analysis This multiphase observational study will employ embedded mixed methods with a qualitative/quantitative priority: corating functional vision and O&M during social inquiry. Australian O&M agencies (n=15) provide the sampling frame. O&M specialists will use quota sampling to generate cross-sectional assessment data (n=400) before investigating selected cohorts in outcome studies. Cultural relevance of the VROOM and OMO tools will be investigated in Malaysia, where the tools will inform the design of assistive devices and evaluate prototypes. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis, Rasch modelling, cluster analysis and analysis of variance will be undertaken along with descriptive analysis of measurement data. Qualitative findings will be used to interpret VROOM and OMO scores, filter statistically significant results, warrant their generalisability and identify additional relevant constructs that

  12. Optimising technology to measure functional vision, mobility and service outcomes for people with low vision or blindness: protocol for a prospective cohort study in Australia and Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deverell, Lil; Meyer, Denny; Lau, Bee Theng; Al Mahmud, Abdullah; Sukunesan, Suku; Bhowmik, Jahar; Chai, Almon; McCarthy, Chris; Zheng, Pan; Pipingas, Andrew; Islam, Fakir M Amirul

    2017-12-21

    Orientation and mobility (O&M) specialists assess the functional vision and O&M skills of people with mobility problems, usually relating to low vision or blindness. There are numerous O&M assessment checklists but no measures that reduce qualitative assessment data to a single comparable score suitable for assessing any O&M client, of any age or ability, in any location. Functional measures are needed internationally to align O&M assessment practices, guide referrals, profile O&M clients, plan appropriate services and evaluate outcomes from O&M programmes (eg, long cane training), assistive technology (eg, hazard sensors) and medical interventions (eg, retinal implants). This study aims to validate two new measures of functional performance vision-related outcomes in orientation and mobility (VROOM) and orientation and mobility outcomes (OMO) in the context of ordinary O&M assessments in Australia, with cultural comparisons in Malaysia, also developing phone apps and online training to streamline professional assessment practices. This multiphase observational study will employ embedded mixed methods with a qualitative/quantitative priority: corating functional vision and O&M during social inquiry. Australian O&M agencies (n=15) provide the sampling frame. O&M specialists will use quota sampling to generate cross-sectional assessment data (n=400) before investigating selected cohorts in outcome studies. Cultural relevance of the VROOM and OMO tools will be investigated in Malaysia, where the tools will inform the design of assistive devices and evaluate prototypes. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis, Rasch modelling, cluster analysis and analysis of variance will be undertaken along with descriptive analysis of measurement data. Qualitative findings will be used to interpret VROOM and OMO scores, filter statistically significant results, warrant their generalisability and identify additional relevant constructs that could also be measured. Ethical

  13. Nutech functional score: A novel scoring system to assess spinal cord injury patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shroff, Geeta; Barthakur, Jitendra Kumar

    2017-06-26

    To develop a new scoring system, nutech functional scores (NFS) for assessing the patients with spinal cord injury (SCI). The conventional scale, American Spinal Injury Association's (ASIA) impairment scale is a measure which precisely describes the severity of the SCI. However, it has various limitations which lead to incomplete assessment of SCI patients. We have developed a 63 point scoring system, i . e ., NFS for patients suffering with SCI. A list of symptoms either common or rare that were found to be associated with SCI was recorded for each patient. On the basis of these lists, we have developed NFS. These lists served as a base to prepare NFS, a 63 point positional (each symptom is sub-graded and get points based on position) and directional (moves in direction BAD → GOOD) scoring system. For non-progressive diseases, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 denote worst, bad, moderate, good and best (normal), respectively. NFS for SCI has been divided into different groups based on the affected part of the body being assessed, i . e ., motor assessment (shoulders, elbow, wrist, fingers-grasp, fingers-release, hip, knee, ankle and toe), sensory assessment, autonomic assessment, bed sore assessment and general assessment. As probability based studies required a range of (-1, 1) or at least the range of (0, 1) to be useful for real world analysis, the grades were converted to respective numeric values. NFS can be considered as a unique tool to assess the improvement in patients with SCI as it overcomes the limitations of ASIA impairment scale.

  14. Role of vision loss, functional limitations and the supporting network in depression in a general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Nispen, Ruth M A; Vreeken, Hilde L; Comijs, Hannie C; Deeg, Dorly J H; van Rens, Ger H M B

    2016-02-01

    Although the prevalence of depression in visually impaired older persons is high, the association between vision loss and depression seems to be influenced by factors other than visual impairment. In this study, the role of vision loss, functional limitations and social network characteristics in relation to depressive symptoms was investigated. Cross-sectional data (N = 1237) from the Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam were used to investigate the prevalence of depression (Center of Epidemiological Studies-Depression scale) within subgroups with increasing vision loss. In linear regression models, functional limitations and social network characteristics were examined as possible mediators in the association between vision loss and depression. Having a partner was considered to be a potential moderator. Although a significant linear trend was found in the presence of depressive symptoms with 14% in normally sighted, 23% in mild and 37% in severe vision loss (χ(2)(1) = 14.9; p depression. Mediators were functional limitations (p depression, a trend was found with increasing severity of vision loss, indicating the need for more attention in (mental) health care and low-vision rehabilitation. In the general older population, vision loss was not an independent determinant of depression but was mediated by functional limitations and social network size. Rather than receiving actual social support, the idea of having a social network to rely on when needed seemed to be associated with lower levels of depression. © 2015 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. How to improve the efficient use of functional vision of people with visual impairment

    OpenAIRE

    Mohorko, Ana

    2013-01-01

    Barraga was the first researcher to study the effects of a special program for developing visual efficiency which showed improvements in visual acuity and visual functioning in blind children with remaining vision. Her breakthrough findings helped develop new theories of visual functioning. These theories represent a foundation from which a professional can understand the visual functioning of an individual with low vision. Providing opportunities for individuals to learn how to use their vis...

  16. Performance of human observers and an automatic 3-dimensional computer-vision-based locomotion scoring method to detect lameness and hoof lesions in dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schlageter-Tello, Andrés; Hertem, Van Tom; Bokkers, Eddie A.M.; Viazzi, Stefano; Bahr, Claudia; Lokhorst, Kees

    2018-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if a 3-dimensional computer vision automatic locomotion scoring (3D-ALS) method was able to outperform human observers for classifying cows as lame or nonlame and for detecting cows affected and nonaffected by specific type(s) of hoof lesion. Data

  17. Targeted Vision Function Goals and Use of Vision Resources in Ophthalmology Patients with Age-Related Macular Degeneration and Comorbid Depressive Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casten, Robin; Rovner, Barry W.; Fontenot, Joseph L.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: This study characterizes self-reported functional vision goals and the use of low vision resources (for example, services and devices) in ophthalmology clinic patients with age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and comorbid depressive symptoms. Methods: From July 2009 to February 2013, we assessed 188 consecutive patients (age 65+;…

  18. Improvements in clinical and functional vision and perceived visual disability after first and second eye cataract surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Elliott, D.; Patla, A.; Bullimore, M.

    1997-01-01

    AIMS—To determine the improvements in clinical and functional vision and perceived visual disability after first and second eye cataract surgery.
METHODS—Clinical vision (monocular and binocular high and low contrast visual acuity, contrast sensitivity, and disability glare), functional vision (face identity and expression recognition, reading speed, word acuity, and mobility orientation), and perceived visual disability (Activities of Daily Vision Scale) were measured in 25 subjects before a...

  19. Positive selection rather than relaxation of functional constraint drives the evolution of vision during chicken domestication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ming-Shan; Zhang, Rong-Wei; Su, Ling-Yan; Li, Yan; Peng, Min-Sheng; Liu, He-Qun; Zeng, Lin; Irwin, David M; Du, Jiu-Lin; Yao, Yong-Gang; Wu, Dong-Dong; Zhang, Ya-Ping

    2016-05-01

    As noted by Darwin, chickens have the greatest phenotypic diversity of all birds, but an interesting evolutionary difference between domestic chickens and their wild ancestor, the Red Junglefowl, is their comparatively weaker vision. Existing theories suggest that diminished visual prowess among domestic chickens reflect changes driven by the relaxation of functional constraints on vision, but the evidence identifying the underlying genetic mechanisms responsible for this change has not been definitively characterized. Here, a genome-wide analysis of the domestic chicken and Red Junglefowl genomes showed significant enrichment for positively selected genes involved in the development of vision. There were significant differences between domestic chickens and their wild ancestors regarding the level of mRNA expression for these genes in the retina. Numerous additional genes involved in the development of vision also showed significant differences in mRNA expression between domestic chickens and their wild ancestors, particularly for genes associated with phototransduction and photoreceptor development, such as RHO (rhodopsin), GUCA1A, PDE6B and NR2E3. Finally, we characterized the potential role of the VIT gene in vision, which experienced positive selection and downregulated expression in the retina of the village chicken. Overall, our results suggest that positive selection, rather than relaxation of purifying selection, contributed to the evolution of vision in domestic chickens. The progenitors of domestic chickens harboring weaker vision may have showed a reduced fear response and vigilance, making them easier to be unconsciously selected and/or domesticated.

  20. Family Functioning and Child Psychopathology: Individual Versus Composite Family Scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathijssen, Jolanda J. J. P.; Koot, Hans M.; Verhulst, Frank C.; De Bruyn, Eric E. J.; Oud, Johan H. L.

    1997-01-01

    Examines the relationship of individual family members' perceptions and family mean and discrepancy scores of cohesion and adaptability with child psychopathology in a sample of 138 families. Results indicate that family mean scores, contrary to family discrepancy scores, explain more of the variance in parent-reported child psychopathology than…

  1. Risk factors for low vision related functioning in the Mycotic Ulcer Treatment Trial: a randomised trial comparing natamycin with voriconazole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose-Nussbaumer, Jennifer; Prajna, N Venkatesh; Krishnan, Tiruvengada; Mascarenhas, Jeena; Rajaraman, Revathi; Srinivasan, Muthiah; Raghavan, Anita; Oldenburg, Catherine E; O'Brien, Kieran S; Ray, Kathryn J; Porco, Travis C; McLeod, Stephen D; Acharya, Nisha R; Keenan, Jeremy D; Lietman, Thomas M

    2016-07-01

    The Mycotic Ulcer Treatment Trial I (MUTT I) was a double-masked, multicentre, randomised controlled trial, which found that topical natamycin is superior to voriconazole for the treatment of filamentous fungal corneal ulcers. In this study, we determine risk factors for low vision-related quality of life in patients with fungal keratitis. The Indian visual function questionnaire (IND-VFQ) was administered to MUTT I study participants at 3 months. Associations between patient and ulcer characteristics and IND-VFQ subscale score were assessed using generalised estimating equations. 323 patients were enrolled in the trial, and 292 (90.4%) completed the IND-VFQ at 3 months. Out of a total possible score of 100, the average VFQ score for all participants was 81.3 (range 0-100, SD 23.6). After correcting for treatment arm, each logMAR line of worse baseline visual acuity in the affected eye resulted in an average 1.2 points decrease on VFQ at 3 months (95% CI -1.8 to 0.6, p<0.001). Those who required therapeutic penetrating keratoplasty had an average of 25.2 points decrease on VFQ after correcting for treatment arm (95% CI -31.8 to -18.5, p<0.001). Study participants who were unemployed had on average 28.5 points decrease on VFQ (95% CI -46.9 to -10.2, p=0.002) after correcting for treatment arm. Monocular vision loss from corneal opacity due to fungal keratitis reduced vision-related quality of life. Given the relatively high worldwide burden of corneal opacity, improving treatment outcomes of corneal infections should be a public health priority. Clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00996736. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  2. Property-driven functional verification technique for high-speed vision system-on-chip processor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nshunguyimfura, Victor; Yang, Jie; Liu, Liyuan; Wu, Nanjian

    2017-04-01

    The implementation of functional verification in a fast, reliable, and effective manner is a challenging task in a vision chip verification process. The main reason for this challenge is the stepwise nature of existing functional verification techniques. This vision chip verification complexity is also related to the fact that in most vision chip design cycles, extensive efforts are focused on how to optimize chip metrics such as performance, power, and area. Design functional verification is not explicitly considered at an earlier stage at which the most sound decisions are made. In this paper, we propose a semi-automatic property-driven verification technique. The implementation of all verification components is based on design properties. We introduce a low-dimension property space between the specification space and the implementation space. The aim of this technique is to speed up the verification process for high-performance parallel processing vision chips. Our experimentation results show that the proposed technique can effectively improve the verification effort up to 20% for the complex vision chip design while reducing the simulation and debugging overheads.

  3. Optimising Job-Shop Functions Utilising the Score-Function Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Erland Hejn

    2000-01-01

    During the last 1-2 decades, simulation optimisation of discrete event dynamic systems (DEDS) has made considerable theoretical progress with respect to computational efficiency. The score-function (SF) method and the infinitesimal perturbation analysis (IPA) are two candidates belonging to this ......During the last 1-2 decades, simulation optimisation of discrete event dynamic systems (DEDS) has made considerable theoretical progress with respect to computational efficiency. The score-function (SF) method and the infinitesimal perturbation analysis (IPA) are two candidates belonging...... of a Job-Shop can be handled by the SF method....

  4. Exploring Functional Disability in Older Adults with Low Vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travis, Linda A.; Boerner, Kathrin; Reinhardt, Joann P.; Horowitz, Amy

    2004-01-01

    This article reports on a study that explored the prevalence and predictors of functional disability that are due to visual problems as opposed to functional disability that is due to other health problems. It also discusses the implications for psychosocial and rehabilitative interventions that target different types of disability. (Contains 5…

  5. Functional Reflective Polarizer for Augmented Reality and Color Vision Deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-03

    augment reality system is relatively high as compared to a polarizing beam splitter or a conventional reflective polarizer. Such a functional reflective...brightness of the display [7]. A key component for polarization management is polarizing beam splitter (PBS). Even though the PBS has exceptional...polarizer that can be incorporated into a compact augmented reality system. The design principle of the functional reflective polarizer is explained and

  6. Vision therapy in adults with convergence insufficiency: clinical and functional magnetic resonance imaging measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Tara L; Vicci, Vincent R; Alkan, Yelda; Kim, Eun H; Gohel, Suril; Barrett, Anna M; Chiaravalloti, Nancy; Biswal, Bharat B

    2010-12-01

    This research quantified clinical measurements and functional neural changes associated with vision therapy in subjects with convergence insufficiency (CI). Convergence and divergence 4° step responses were compared between 13 control adult subjects with normal binocular vision and four CI adult subjects. All CI subjects participated in 18 h of vision therapy. Clinical parameters quantified throughout the therapy included: nearpoint of convergence, recovery point of convergence, positive fusional vergence at near, near dissociated phoria, and eye movements that were quantified using peak velocity. Neural correlates of the CI subjects were quantified with functional magnetic resonance imaging scans comparing random vs. predictable vergence movements using a block design before and after vision therapy. Images were quantified by measuring the spatial extent of activation and the average correlation within five regions of interests (ROI). The ROIs were the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, a portion of the frontal lobe, part of the parietal lobe, the cerebellum, and the brain stem. All measurements were repeated 4 months to 1 year post-therapy in three of the CI subjects. Convergence average peak velocities to step stimuli were significantly slower (p = 0.016) in CI subjects compared with controls; however, significant differences in average peak velocities were not observed for divergence step responses (p = 0.30). The investigation of CI subjects participating in vision therapy showed that the nearpoint of convergence, recovery point of convergence, and near dissociated phoria significantly decreased. Furthermore, the positive fusional vergence, average peak velocity from 4° convergence steps, and the amount of functional activity within the frontal areas, cerebellum, and brain stem significantly increased. Several clinical and cortical parameters were significantly correlated. Convergence peak velocity was significantly slower in CI subjects compared with controls

  7. Functional Outcomes of the Low Vision Depression Prevention Trial in Age-Related Macular Degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deemer, Ashley D; Massof, Robert W; Rovner, Barry W; Casten, Robin J; Piersol, Catherine V

    2017-03-01

    To compare the efficacy of behavioral activation (BA) plus low vision rehabilitation with an occupational therapist (OT-LVR) with supportive therapy (ST) on visual function in patients with age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Single-masked, attention-controlled, randomized clinical trial with AMD patients with subsyndromal depressive symptoms (n = 188). All subjects had two outpatient low vision rehabilitation optometry visits, then were randomized to in-home BA + OT-LVR or ST. Behavioral activation is a structured behavioral treatment aiming to increase adaptive behaviors and achieve valued goals. Supportive therapy is a nondirective, psychological treatment that provides emotional support and controls for attention. Functional vision was assessed with the activity inventory (AI) in which participants rate the difficulty level of goals and corresponding tasks. Participants were assessed at baseline and 4 months. Improvements in functional vision measures were seen in both the BA + OT-LVR and ST groups at the goal level (d = 0.71; d = 0.56 respectively). At the task level, BA + OT-LVR patients showed more improvement in reading, inside-the-home tasks and outside-the-home tasks, when compared to ST patients. The greatest effects were seen in the BA + OT-LVR group in subjects with a visual acuity ≥20/70 (d = 0.360 reading; d = 0.500 inside the home; d = 0.468 outside the home). Based on the trends of the AI data, we suggest that BA + OT-LVR services, provided by an OT in the patient's home following conventional low vision optometry services, are more effective than conventional optometric low vision services alone for those with mild visual impairment. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00769015.).

  8. Selecting the Most Appropriate Primary Learning Medium for Students with Functional Vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangold, S.; Mangold, P.

    1989-01-01

    Five considerations for determining the most appropriate learning medium for students with functional vision are: (1) working distance from the page; (2) portability of reading skills; (3) reading rates and accuracy; (4) visual fatigue; and (5) interpretation of assessment results. (Author/DB)

  9. Color Functionality Used in Visual Display for Occupational and Environmental Safety and Managing Color Vision Deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochiai, Nobuhisa; Kondo, Hiroyuki

    2017-01-01

    The effects of color perception are utilized in visual displays for the purpose of safety in the workplace and in daily life. These effects, generally known as color functionality, are divided into four classifications: visibility, legibility, conspicuity and discriminability. This article focuses on the relationship between the color functionality of color schemes used in visual displays for occupational and environmental safety and color vision deficiency (particularly congenital red-green color deficiency), a critical issue in ophthalmology, and examines the effects of color functionality on the perception of the color red in individuals with protan defects. Due to abrupt system reforms, current Japanese clinical ophthalmology finds itself in a situation where it is insufficiently prepared to handle congenital red-green color deficiencies. Indeed, occupational problems caused by color vision deficiencies have been almost completely neglected, and are an occupational safety and health concern that will need to be solved in the future. This report will present the guidelines for the color vision testing established by the British Health and Safety Executive (HSE), a pioneering example of a model meant to solve these problems. Issues relating to the creation of guidelines adapted to Japanese clinical ophthalmology will also be examined, and we will discuss ways to utilize color functionality used in visual displays for occupational and environmental safety to help manage color vision deficiency.

  10. Procedures and Tools Used by Teachers When Completing Functional Vision Assessments with Children with Visual Impairments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Justin T.; Herzberg, Tina S.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: This study analyzed survey responses from 314 teachers of students with visual impairments regarding the tools and procedures used in completing functional vision assessments (FVAs). Methods: Teachers of students with visual impairments in the United States and Canada completed an online survey during spring 2016. Results: The…

  11. Whole-word response scoring underestimates functional spelling ability for some individuals with global agraphia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Tesla Demarco

    2015-05-01

    These data suggest that conventional whole-word scoring may significantly underestimate functional spelling performance. Because by-letter scoring boosted pre-treatment scores to the same extent as post-treatment scores, the magnitude of treatment gains was no greater than estimates from conventional whole-word scoring. Nonetheless, the surprisingly large disparity between conventional whole-word scoring and by-letter scoring suggests that by-letter scoring methods may warrant further investigation. Because by-letter analyses may hold interest to others, we plan to make the software tool used in this study available on-line for use to researchers and clinicians at large.

  12. Peritumoral Artery Scoring System: a Novel Scoring System to Predict Renal Function Outcome after Laparoscopic Partial Nephrectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ruiyun; Wu, Guangyu; Huang, Jiwei; Shi, Oumin; Kong, Wen; Chen, Yonghui; Xu, Jianrong; Xue, Wei; Zhang, Jin; Huang, Yiran

    2017-06-06

    The present study aimed to assess the impact of peritumoral artery characteristics on renal function outcome prediction using a novel Peritumoral Artery Scoring System based on computed tomography arteriography. Peritumoral artery characteristics and renal function were evaluated in 220 patients who underwent laparoscopic partial nephrectomy and then validate in 51 patients with split and total glomerular filtration rate (GFR). In particular, peritumoral artery classification and diameter were measured to assign arteries into low, moderate, and high Peritumoral Artery Scoring System risk categories. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression analyses were then used to determine risk factors for major renal functional decline. The Peritumoral Artery Scoring System and four other nephrometry systems were compared using receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. The Peritumoral Artery Scoring System was significantly superior to the other systems for predicting postoperative renal function decline (p system was a superior independent predictor of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) decline (area-under-the-curve = 0.865, p renal function outcome after laparoscopic partial nephrectomy.

  13. Age-Related Differences and Heterogeneity in Executive Functions: Analysis of NAB Executive Functions Module Scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buczylowska, Dorota; Petermann, Franz

    2016-05-01

    Normative data from the German adaptation of the Neuropsychological Assessment Battery were used to examine age-related differences in 6 executive function tasks. A multivariate analysis of variance was employed to investigate the differences in performance in 484 participants aged 18-99 years. The coefficient of variation was calculated to compare the heterogeneity of scores between 10 age groups. Analyses showed an increase in the dispersion of scores with age, varying from 7% to 289%, in all subtests. Furthermore, age-dependent heterogeneity appeared to be associated with age-dependent decline because the subtests with the greatest increase in dispersion (i.e., Mazes, Planning, and Categories) also exhibited the greatest decrease in mean scores. In contrast, scores for the subtests Letter Fluency, Word Generation, and Judgment had the lowest increase in dispersion with the lowest decrease in mean scores. Consequently, the results presented here show a pattern of age-related differences in executive functioning that is consistent with the concept of crystallized and fluid intelligence. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Functional MRI studies of human vision on a clinical imager

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    George, J.S.; Lewine, J.D.; Aine, C.J.; van Hulsteyn, D.; Wood, C.C.; Sanders, J.; Maclin, E.; Belliveau, J.W.; Caprihan, A.

    1992-01-01

    During the past decade, Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) has become the method of choice for imaging the anatomy of the human brain. Recently, Belliveau and colleagues have reported the use of echo planar magnetic resonance imaging (EPI) to image patterns of neural activity. Here, we report functional MR imaging in response to visual stimulation without the use of contrast agents, and without the extensive hardware modifications required for EPI. Regions of activity were observed near the expected locations of V1, V2 and possibly V3 and another active region was observed near the parietal-occipital sulcus on the superior surface of the cerebrum. These locations are consistent with sources observed in neuromagnetic studies of the human visual response

  15. Characterizing functional complaints in patients seeking outpatient low-vision services in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Jamie C; Goldstein, Judith E; Chan, Tiffany L; Massof, Robert; Ramulu, Pradeep

    2014-08-01

    To characterize functional complaints of new low-vision rehabilitation patients. Prospective observational study. The Low Vision Rehabilitation Outcomes Study recruited 819 patients between 2008 and 2011 from 28 clinical centers in the United States. New patients referred for low-vision rehabilitation were asked, "What are your chief complaints about your vision?" before their appointment. Full patient statements were transcribed as free text. Two methods assessed whether statements indicated difficulty in each of 13 functional categories: (1) assessment by 2 masked clinicians reading the statement, and (2) a computerized search of the text for specific words or word fragments. Logistic regression models were used to predict the influence of age, gender, and visual acuity on the likelihood of reporting a complaint in each functional category. Prevalence and risk factors for patient concerns within various functional categories. Reading was the most common functional complaint (66.4% of patients). Other functional difficulties expressed by at least 10% of patients included driving (27.8%), using visual assistive equipment (17.5%), mobility (16.3%), performing in-home activities (15.1%), lighting and glare (11.7%), and facial recognition and social interactions (10.3%). Good agreement was noted between the masked clinician graders and the computerized algorithm for categorization of functional complaints (median κ of 0.84 across the 13 categories). Multivariate logistic regression models demonstrated that the likelihood of reading difficulties increased mildly with age (odds ratio, 1.4 per 10-year increment in age; 95% confidence interval, 1.3-1.6), but did not differ with visual acuity (P = 0.09). Additionally, men were more likely to report driving difficulties and difficulties related to lighting, whereas women were more likely to report difficulty with either in-home activities or facial recognition or social interaction (Pvision therapy. Copyright © 2014

  16. The effect of vision on knee biomechanics during functional activities - A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louw, Quinette; Gillion, Nadia; van Niekerk, Sjan-Mari; Morris, Linzette; Baumeister, Jochen

    2015-07-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the effect of occluded vision on lower limb kinematics and kinetics of the knee joint during functional tasks including drop landing (single or double leg), squatting (single or double leg), stepping down, cutting movement and hopping in healthy individuals, or individuals who had an ACL reconstruction or deficiency with no vision impairments. A systematic review was conducted. A systematic review was conducted and electronic databases were searched between March 2012 and April 2013 for eligible papers. Methodological quality of each study was assessed using the Downs and Black revised checklist. Six studies met the eligibility criteria and a wide variation in methodological approaches was reported. This small evidence base indicated equivocal evidence about the effect of vision on knee biomechanics in individuals with healthy and compromised somatosensory function post an ACL reconstruction or injury. Clinicians should consider innovative, individualised ACL rehabilitation strategies when prescribing exercises which involve visual occlusion. Further research to increase the relatively small evidence base for the effect of vision on knee biomechanics is warranted. Copyright © 2014 Sports Medicine Australia. All rights reserved.

  17. Vision-Related Functional Burden of Diabetic Retinopathy Across Severity Levels in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Jeffrey R; Doan, Quan V; Gleeson, Michelle; Haskova, Zdenka; Ramulu, Pradeep; Morse, Lawrence; Cantrell, Ronald A

    2017-09-01

    Among adults with diabetes in the United States, severe forms of diabetic retinopathy (DR) are significantly associated with a greater vision-related functional burden. To assess the functional burden of DR across severity levels in the United States. This cross-sectional study was based on 1004 participants 40 years or older with diabetes and valid ocular and sociodemographic outcomes in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES) (2005-2006 and 2007-2008). Diabetic retinopathy was based on fundus photograph grading, using the Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study severity scale. The analysis was performed from October 15, 2016, to June 15, 2017. Functional difficulties secondary to vision were assessed during a household questionnaire in which participants self-reported difficulty with reading, visuospatial tasks (ie, close-up work or finding things on a crowded shelf), mobility (ie, walking down steps, stairs, or curbs), and driving. The main outcome measure was vision-related functional burden, which was defined as present for individuals reporting moderate or greater difficulty in any of the aforementioned tasks. Of the 1004 persons with diabetes analyzed for this study (mean age, 65.7 years [95% CI, 64.0-67.3 years]; 51.1% male [95% CI, 47.1-55.2] and 48.9% female [95% CI, 44.8-52.9]), the prevalence was 72.3% for no retinopathy, 25.4% for mild and moderate nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy (NPDR), and 2.3% for severe NPDR or proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR). The prevalence of vision-related functional burden was 20.2% (95% CI, 16.3%-24.1%) for those with no retinopathy, 20.4% (95% CI, 15.3%-27.8%) for those with mild and moderate NPDR, and 48.5% (95% CI, 25.6%-71.5%) for those with severe NPDR or PDR (P = .02). In multivariable analysis, the odds of vision-related functional burden were significantly greater among those with severe NPDR or PDR relative to those with no retinopathy (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 3.59; 95

  18. On the functional relevance of frontal cortex for passive and voluntarily controlled bistable vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Graaf, Tom A; de Jong, Maartje C; Goebel, Rainer; van Ee, Raymond; Sack, Alexander T

    2011-10-01

    In bistable vision, one constant ambiguous stimulus leads to 2 alternating conscious percepts. This perceptual switching occurs spontaneously but can also be influenced through voluntary control. Neuroimaging studies have reported that frontal regions are activated during spontaneous perceptual switches, leading some researchers to suggest that frontal regions causally induce perceptual switches. But the opposite also seems possible: frontal activations may themselves be caused by spontaneous switches. Classically implicated in attentional processes, these same regions are also candidates for the origins of voluntary control over bistable vision. Here too, it remains unknown whether frontal cortex is actually functionally relevant. It is even possible that spontaneous perceptual switches and voluntarily induced switches are mediated by the same top-down mechanisms. To directly address these issues, we here induced "virtual lesions," with transcranial magnetic stimulation, in frontal, parietal, and 2 lower level visual cortices using an established ambiguous structure-from-motion stimulus. We found that dorsolateral prefrontal cortex was causally relevant for voluntary control over perceptual switches. In contrast, we failed to find any evidence for an active role of frontal cortex in passive bistable vision. Thus, it seems the same pathway used for willed top-down modulation of bistable vision is not used during passive bistable viewing.

  19. Supraclavicular scalenectomy for thoracic outlet syndrome--functional outcomes assessed using the DASH scoring system.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Glynn, Ronan W

    2012-02-01

    To evaluate supraclavicular scalenectomy ± cervical rib excision for thoracic outlet syndrome (TOS), employing Disability of Arm, Shoulder, and Hand (DASH) scoring for functional assessment post-decompression.

  20. Orientation-dependent backbone-only residue pair scoring functions for fixed backbone protein design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bordner Andrew J

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Empirical scoring functions have proven useful in protein structure modeling. Most such scoring functions depend on protein side chain conformations. However, backbone-only scoring functions do not require computationally intensive structure optimization and so are well suited to protein design, which requires fast score evaluation. Furthermore, scoring functions that account for the distinctive relative position and orientation preferences of residue pairs are expected to be more accurate than those that depend only on the separation distance. Results Residue pair scoring functions for fixed backbone protein design were derived using only backbone geometry. Unlike previous studies that used spherical harmonics to fit 2D angular distributions, Gaussian Mixture Models were used to fit the full 3D (position only and 6D (position and orientation distributions of residue pairs. The performance of the 1D (residue separation only, 3D, and 6D scoring functions were compared by their ability to identify correct threading solutions for a non-redundant benchmark set of protein backbone structures. The threading accuracy was found to steadily increase with increasing dimension, with the 6D scoring function achieving the highest accuracy. Furthermore, the 3D and 6D scoring functions were shown to outperform side chain-dependent empirical potentials from three other studies. Next, two computational methods that take advantage of the speed and pairwise form of these new backbone-only scoring functions were investigated. The first is a procedure that exploits available sequence data by averaging scores over threading solutions for homologs. This was evaluated by applying it to the challenging problem of identifying interacting transmembrane alpha-helices and found to further improve prediction accuracy. The second is a protein design method for determining the optimal sequence for a backbone structure by applying Belief Propagation

  1. Ocular toxicity and functional vision recovery in a patient treated with hydroxychloroquine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Hurtado, Francisco Jorge; Sáez-Moreno, José Antonio; Rodríguez-Ferrer, José Manuel

    2015-01-01

    We report the case of a 64-year-old woman with rheumatoid arthritis and Sjögren's syndrome, treated during 48 months with hydroxychloroquine that was removed after an ophthalmological evaluation showed bilateral vision loss associated with paracentral scotoma in the visual field, fundoscopic macular pigmentary changes, and severely impaired central multifocal electrorretinogram (mfERG). Twelve months after treatment withdrawal, visual acuity and central mfERG had surprisingly improved. This is an unusual case of functional recovery after treatment withdrawal. We consider that central mfERG is a more sensitive test than pattern electrorretinogram in the detection of retinal toxicity and functional vision recovery after hydroxychloroquine treatment cessation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  2. The Holey Grail : a special score function for non-binary traitor tracing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Skoric, B.; Oosterwijk, J.; Doumen, J.M.

    2013-01-01

    We study collusion-resistant traitor tracing in the simple decoder approach, i.e. assignment of scores for each user separately. We introduce a new score function for non-binary bias-based traitor tracing. It has three special properties that have long been sought after: (i) The expected score of an

  3. Combining Spot Sign and Intracerebral Hemorrhage Score to Estimate Functional Outcome: Analysis From the PREDICT Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Hauke; Huynh, Thien J; Demchuk, Andrew M; Dowlatshahi, Dar; Rodriguez-Luna, David; Silva, Yolanda; Aviv, Richard; Dzialowski, Imanuel

    2018-06-01

    The intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) score is the most commonly used grading scale for stratifying functional outcome in patients with acute ICH. We sought to determine whether a combination of the ICH score and the computed tomographic angiography spot sign may improve outcome prediction in the cohort of a prospective multicenter hemorrhage trial. Prospectively collected data from 241 patients from the observational PREDICT study (Prediction of Hematoma Growth and Outcome in Patients With Intracerebral Hemorrhage Using the CT-Angiography Spot Sign) were analyzed. Functional outcome at 3 months was dichotomized using the modified Rankin Scale (0-3 versus 4-6). Performance of (1) the ICH score and (2) the spot sign ICH score-a scoring scale combining ICH score and spot sign number-was tested. Multivariable analysis demonstrated that ICH score (odds ratio, 3.2; 95% confidence interval, 2.2-4.8) and spot sign number (n=1: odds ratio, 2.7; 95% confidence interval, 1.1-7.4; n>1: odds ratio, 3.8; 95% confidence interval, 1.2-17.1) were independently predictive of functional outcome at 3 months with similar odds ratios. Prediction of functional outcome was not significantly different using the spot sign ICH score compared with the ICH score alone (spot sign ICH score area under curve versus ICH score area under curve: P =0.14). In the PREDICT cohort, a prognostic score adding the computed tomographic angiography-based spot sign to the established ICH score did not improve functional outcome prediction compared with the ICH score. © 2018 American Heart Association, Inc.

  4. Visual function and color vision in adults with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Soyeon; Chen, Samantha; Tannock, Rosemary

    2014-01-01

    Color vision and self-reported visual function in everyday life in young adults with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) were investigated. Participants were 30 young adults with ADHD and 30 controls matched for age and gender. They were tested individually and completed the Visual Activities Questionnaire (VAQ), Farnsworth-Munsell 100 Hue Test (FMT) and A Quick Test of Cognitive Speed (AQT). The ADHD group reported significantly more problems in 4 of 8 areas on the VAQ: depth perception, peripheral vision, visual search and visual processing speed. Further analyses of VAQ items revealed that the ADHD group endorsed more visual problems associated with driving than controls. Color perception difficulties on the FMT were restricted to the blue spectrum in the ADHD group. FMT and AQT results revealed slower processing of visual stimuli in the ADHD group. A comprehensive investigation of mechanisms underlying visual function and color vision in adults with ADHD is warranted, along with the potential impact of these visual problems on driving performance. Copyright © 2013 Spanish General Council of Optometry. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  5. Development of the functional vision questionnaire for children and young people with visual impairment: the FVQ_CYP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadić, Valerija; Cooper, Andrew; Cumberland, Phillippa; Lewando-Hundt, Gillian; Rahi, Jugnoo S

    2013-12-01

    To develop a novel age-appropriate measure of functional vision (FV) for self-reporting by visually impaired (VI) children and young people. Questionnaire development. A representative patient sample of VI children and young people aged 10 to 15 years, visual acuity of the logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution (logMAR) worse than 0.48, and a school-based (nonrandom) expert group sample of VI students aged 12 to 17 years. A total of 32 qualitative semistructured interviews supplemented by narrative feedback from 15 eligible VI children and young people were used to generate draft instrument items. Seventeen VI students were consulted individually on item relevance and comprehensibility, instrument instructions, format, and administration methods. The resulting draft instrument was piloted with 101 VI children and young people comprising a nationally representative sample, drawn from 21 hospitals in the United Kingdom. Initial item reduction was informed by presence of missing data and individual item response pattern. Exploratory factor analysis (FA) and parallel analysis (PA), and Rasch analysis (RA) were applied to test the instrument's psychometric properties. Psychometric indices and validity assessment of the Functional Vision Questionnaire for Children and Young People (FVQ_CYP). A total of 712 qualitative statements became a 56-item draft scale, capturing the level of difficulty in performing vision-dependent activities. After piloting, items were removed iteratively as follows: 11 for high percentage of missing data, 4 for skewness, and 1 for inadequate item infit and outfit values in RA, 3 having shown differential item functioning across age groups and 1 across gender in RA. The remaining 36 items showed item fit values within acceptable limits, good measurement precision and targeting, and ordered response categories. The reduced scale has a clear unidimensional structure, with all items having a high factor loading on the single factor in FA and

  6. Forging the Basis for Developing Protein-Ligand Interaction Scoring Functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhihai; Su, Minyi; Han, Li; Liu, Jie; Yang, Qifan; Li, Yan; Wang, Renxiao

    2017-02-21

    In structure-based drug design, scoring functions are widely used for fast evaluation of protein-ligand interactions. They are often applied in combination with molecular docking and de novo design methods. Since the early 1990s, a whole spectrum of protein-ligand interaction scoring functions have been developed. Regardless of their technical difference, scoring functions all need data sets combining protein-ligand complex structures and binding affinity data for parametrization and validation. However, data sets of this kind used to be rather limited in terms of size and quality. On the other hand, standard metrics for evaluating scoring function used to be ambiguous. Scoring functions are often tested in molecular docking or even virtual screening trials, which do not directly reflect the genuine quality of scoring functions. Collectively, these underlying obstacles have impeded the invention of more advanced scoring functions. In this Account, we describe our long-lasting efforts to overcome these obstacles, which involve two related projects. On the first project, we have created the PDBbind database. It is the first database that systematically annotates the protein-ligand complexes in the Protein Data Bank (PDB) with experimental binding data. This database has been updated annually since its first public release in 2004. The latest release (version 2016) provides binding data for 16 179 biomolecular complexes in PDB. Data sets provided by PDBbind have been applied to many computational and statistical studies on protein-ligand interaction and various subjects. In particular, it has become a major data resource for scoring function development. On the second project, we have established the Comparative Assessment of Scoring Functions (CASF) benchmark for scoring function evaluation. Our key idea is to decouple the "scoring" process from the "sampling" process, so scoring functions can be tested in a relatively pure context to reflect their quality. In our

  7. Morphologic and functional scoring of cystic fibrosis lung disease using MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eichinger, Monika; Optazaite, Daiva-Elzbieta; Kopp-Schneider, Annette; Hintze, Christian; Biederer, Jürgen; Niemann, Anne; Mall, Marcus A.; Wielpütz, Mark O.; Kauczor, Hans-Ulrich; Puderbach, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) gains increasing importance in the assessment of cystic fibrosis (CF) lung disease. The aim of this study was to develop a morpho-functional MR-scoring-system and to evaluate its intra- and inter-observer reproducibility and clinical practicability to monitor CF lung disease over a broad severity range from infancy to adulthood. 35 CF patients with broad age range (mean 15.3 years; range 0.5–42) were examined by morphological and functional MRI. Lobe based analysis was performed for parameters bronchiectasis/bronchial-wall-thickening, mucus plugging, abscesses/sacculations, consolidations, special findings and perfusion defects. The maximum global score was 72. Two experienced radiologists scored the images at two time points (interval 10 weeks). Upper and lower limits of agreement, concordance correlation coefficients (CCC), total deviation index and coverage probability were calculated for global, morphology, function, component and lobar scores. Global scores ranged from 6 to 47. Intra- and inter-reader agreement for global scores were good (CCC: 0.98 (R1), 0.94 (R2), 0.97 (R1/R2)) and were comparable between high and low scores. Our results indicate that the proposed morpho-functional MR-scoring-system is reproducible and applicable for semi-quantitative evaluation of a large spectrum of CF lung disease severity. This scoring-system can be applied for the routine assessment of CF lung disease and maybe as endpoint for clinical trials.

  8. Artificial vision: needs, functioning, and testing of a retinal electronic prosthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chader, Gerald J; Weiland, James; Humayun, Mark S

    2009-01-01

    Hundreds of thousands around the world have poor vision or no vision at all due to inherited retinal degenerations (RDs) like retinitis pigmentosa (RP). Similarly, millions suffer from vision loss due to age-related macular degeneration (AMD). In both of these allied diseases, the primary target for pathology is the retinal photoreceptor cells that dysfunction and die. Secondary neurons though are relatively spared. To replace photoreceptor cell function, an electronic prosthetic device can be used such that retinal secondary neurons receive a signal that simulates an external visual image. The composite device has a miniature video camera mounted on the patient's eyeglasses, which captures images and passes them to a microprocessor that converts the data to an electronic signal. This signal, in turn, is transmitted to an array of electrodes placed on the retinal surface, which transmits the patterned signal to the remaining viable secondary neurons. These neurons (ganglion, bipolar cells, etc.) begin processing the signal and pass it down the optic nerve to the brain for final integration into a visual image. Many groups in different countries have different versions of the device, including brain implants and retinal implants, the latter having epiretinal or subretinal placement. The device furthest along in development is an epiretinal implant sponsored by Second Sight Medical Products (SSMP). Their first-generation device had 16 electrodes with human testing in a Phase 1 clinical trial beginning in 2002. The second-generation device has 60+ electrodes and is currently in Phase 2/3 clinical trial. Increased numbers of electrodes are planned for future versions of the device. Testing of the device's efficacy is a challenge since patients admitted into the trial have little or no vision. Thus, methods must be developed that accurately and reproducibly record small improvements in visual function after implantation. Standard tests such as visual acuity, visual

  9. High Mallampati score, obesity and obstructive sleep apnea: triple insult to lung function?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazia Uzma

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper assesses the combined effect of high Mallampati score, obesity and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA on lung function as measured by spirometry. Our results showed that the combination of sleep apnea, obesity and high Mallampati score resulted in a degree of restriction that was significantly greater than that produced by each factor alone. These observations underscore the importance of factoring in the Mallampati score in the assessment of respiratory disease.

  10. Impact of low vision services on the quality of life of low vision patients in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Godwin O. Ovenseri-Ogbomo

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Patients’ perspectives on the impact of clinical interventions have been recognised as critical elements in patient care. Quality-of-life instruments are designed to measure these perspectives. We used the National Eye Institute’s 25-item Visual Function Questionnaire (NEI VFQ to measure the impact of optical low vision devices on the quality of life of 22 low vision patients who obtained and were using low vision devices from a secondary low vision clinic in the Eastern Region, Ghana. The study employed a pre- and post-intervention technique. We found statistically significant improvements in measured visual acuity and NEI VFQ scores in 8 of the 10 domains evaluated. We conclude that optical low vision devices have a positive impact on the quality of life of low vision patients in Ghana. Keywords: low vision; quality of life; visual acuity; visual impairment; Ghana

  11. The Tipping Point: F-Score as a Function of the Number of Retrieved Items

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guns, Raf; Lioma, Christina; Larsen, Birger

    2012-01-01

    One of the best known measures of information retrieval (IR) performance is the F-score, the harmonic mean of precision and recall. In this article we show that the curve of the F-score as a function of the number of retrieved items is always of the same shape: a fast concave increase to a maximu...

  12. Slow angled-descent forepaw grasping (SLAG): an innate behavioral task for identification of individual experimental mice possessing functional vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil-Pagés, Macarena; Stiles, Robert J; Parks, Christopher A; Neier, Steven C; Radulovic, Maja; Oliveros, Alfredo; Ferrer, Alejandro; Reed, Brendan K; Wilton, Katelynn M; Schrum, Adam G

    2013-08-23

    There is significant interest in the generation of improved assays to clearly identify experimental mice possessing functional vision, a property that could qualify mice for inclusion in behavioral and neuroscience studies. Widely employed current methods rely on mouse responses to visual cues in assays of reflexes, depth perception, or cognitive memory. However, commonly assessed mouse reflexes can sometimes be ambiguous in their expression, while depth perception assays are sometimes confounded by variation in anxiety responses and exploratory conduct. Furthermore, in situations where experimental groups vary in their cognitive memory capacity, memory assays may not be ideal for assessing differences in vision. We have optimized a non-invasive behavioral assay that relies on an untrained, innate response to identify individual experimental mice possessing functional vision: slow angled-descent forepaw grasping (SLAG). First, we verified that SLAG performance depends on vision and not olfaction. Next, all members of an age-ranged cohort of 158 C57BL/6 mice (57 wild-type, 101 knockout, age range 44-241 days) were assessed for functional vision using the SLAG test without training or conditioning. Subjecting the population to a second innate behavioral test, Dark Chamber preference, corroborated that the functional vision assessment of SLAG was valid. We propose that the SLAG assay is immediately useful to quickly and clearly identify experimental mice possessing functional vision. SLAG is based on a behavioral readout with a significant innate component with no requirement for training. This will facilitate the selection of mice of known sighted status in vision-dependent experiments that focus on other types of behavior, neuroscience, and/or cognitive memory.

  13. Novel, customizable scoring functions, parameterized using N-PLS, for structure-based drug discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catana, Cornel; Stouten, Pieter F W

    2007-01-01

    The ability to accurately predict biological affinity on the basis of in silico docking to a protein target remains a challenging goal in the CADD arena. Typically, "standard" scoring functions have been employed that use the calculated docking result and a set of empirical parameters to calculate a predicted binding affinity. To improve on this, we are exploring novel strategies for rapidly developing and tuning "customized" scoring functions tailored to a specific need. In the present work, three such customized scoring functions were developed using a set of 129 high-resolution protein-ligand crystal structures with measured Ki values. The functions were parametrized using N-PLS (N-way partial least squares), a multivariate technique well-known in the 3D quantitative structure-activity relationship field. A modest correlation between observed and calculated pKi values using a standard scoring function (r2 = 0.5) could be improved to 0.8 when a customized scoring function was applied. To mimic a more realistic scenario, a second scoring function was developed, not based on crystal structures but exclusively on several binding poses generated with the Flo+ docking program. Finally, a validation study was conducted by generating a third scoring function with 99 randomly selected complexes from the 129 as a training set and predicting pKi values for a test set that comprised the remaining 30 complexes. Training and test set r2 values were 0.77 and 0.78, respectively. These results indicate that, even without direct structural information, predictive customized scoring functions can be developed using N-PLS, and this approach holds significant potential as a general procedure for predicting binding affinity on the basis of in silico docking.

  14. Performance of machine-learning scoring functions in structure-based virtual screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wójcikowski, Maciej; Ballester, Pedro J; Siedlecki, Pawel

    2017-04-25

    Classical scoring functions have reached a plateau in their performance in virtual screening and binding affinity prediction. Recently, machine-learning scoring functions trained on protein-ligand complexes have shown great promise in small tailored studies. They have also raised controversy, specifically concerning model overfitting and applicability to novel targets. Here we provide a new ready-to-use scoring function (RF-Score-VS) trained on 15 426 active and 893 897 inactive molecules docked to a set of 102 targets. We use the full DUD-E data sets along with three docking tools, five classical and three machine-learning scoring functions for model building and performance assessment. Our results show RF-Score-VS can substantially improve virtual screening performance: RF-Score-VS top 1% provides 55.6% hit rate, whereas that of Vina only 16.2% (for smaller percent the difference is even more encouraging: RF-Score-VS top 0.1% achieves 88.6% hit rate for 27.5% using Vina). In addition, RF-Score-VS provides much better prediction of measured binding affinity than Vina (Pearson correlation of 0.56 and -0.18, respectively). Lastly, we test RF-Score-VS on an independent test set from the DEKOIS benchmark and observed comparable results. We provide full data sets to facilitate further research in this area (http://github.com/oddt/rfscorevs) as well as ready-to-use RF-Score-VS (http://github.com/oddt/rfscorevs_binary).

  15. Functional limitations as potential mediators of the effects of self-reported vision status on fall risk of older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinman, Bernard A; Allen, Susan M; Chen, Jie; Pynoos, Jon

    2015-02-01

    To test whether limitations in mobility and large-muscle functioning mediate self-reported vision status to increase fall risk among respondents age 65 and above. This study used two waves from the Health and Retirement Study. We conducted binary logistic and negative binomial regression analyses to test indirect paths leading from self-reported vision status to falls, via indices of mobility and large-muscle functioning. Limited evidence was found for a mediating effect among women; however, large-muscle groups were implicated as partially mediating risk factors for falls among men with fair self-reported vision status. Implications of these findings are discussed including the need for prioritizing improved muscle strength of older men and women with poor vision as a preventive measure against falls. © The Author(s) 2014.

  16. The status of childhood blindness and functional low vision in the Eastern Mediterranean region in 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khandekar, Rajiv; Kishore, H; Mansu, Rabiu M; Awan, Haroon

    2014-01-01

    Childhood blindness and visual impairment (CBVI) are major disabilities that compromise the normal development of children. Health resources and practices to prevent CBVI are suboptimal in most countries in the Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR). We reviewed the magnitude and the etiologies of childhood visual disabilities based on the estimates using socioeconomic proxy indicators such as gross domestic product (GDP) per capita and blindness (defined as  Best corrected visual acuity(BCVA)) less than 3/60 in the better eye or a visual field of 10° surrounding central fixation) and functional low vision (FLV) (visual impairment for which no treatment or refractive correction can improve the vision up to >6/18 in a better eye) in children blindness and FLV rates to high, middle- and low-income countries from the global literature to the population of children blindness (rate 1.2/1,000) in the region. In addition, there could be approximately 417,725 children with FLV (rate of 2.1/1,000) in the region. The causes of visual disability in the three groups are also discussed based on the available data. As our estimates are based on hospital and blind school studies in the past, they could have serious limitations for projecting the present magnitude and causes of visual disabilities in children of EMR. An effective approach to eye health care and screening for children within primary health care and with the available resources are discussed. The objectives, strategies, and operating procedures for child eye-care are presented. Variables impacting proper screening are discussed. To reach the targets, we recommend urgent implementation of new approaches to low vision and rehabilitation of children.

  17. An analysis of observer-rated functional vision in patients implanted with the Argus II Retinal Prosthesis System at three years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geruschat, Duane R; Richards, Thomas P; Arditi, Aries; da Cruz, Lyndon; Dagnelie, Gislin; Dorn, Jessy D; Duncan, Jacque L; Ho, Allen C; Olmos de Koo, Lisa C; Sahel, José-Alain; Stanga, Paulo E; Thumann, Gabriele; Wang, Vizhong; Greenberg, Robert J

    2016-05-01

    The purpose of this analysis was to compare observer-rated tasks in patients implanted with the Argus II Retinal Prosthesis System, when the device is ON versus OFF. The Functional Low-Vision Observer Rated Assessment (FLORA) instrument was administered to 26 blind patients implanted with the Argus II Retinal Prosthesis System at a mean follow-up of 36 months. FLORA is a multi-component instrument that consists in part of observer-rated assessment of 35 tasks completed with the device ON versus OFF. The ease with which a patient completes a task is scored using a four-point scale, ranging from easy (score of 1) to impossible (score of 4). The tasks are evaluated individually and organised into four discrete domains, including 'Visual orientation', 'Visual mobility', 'Daily life and 'Interaction with others'. Twenty-six patients completed each of the 35 tasks. Overall, 24 out of 35 tasks (69 per cent) were statistically significantly easier to achieve with the device ON versus OFF. In each of the four domains, patients' performances were significantly better (p vision-related tasks with the device ON versus OFF. © 2016 The Authors Clinical and Experimental Optometry published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Optometry Australia.

  18. Scoring protein relationships in functional interaction networks predicted from sequence data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaston K Mazandu

    Full Text Available UNLABELLED: The abundance of diverse biological data from various sources constitutes a rich source of knowledge, which has the power to advance our understanding of organisms. This requires computational methods in order to integrate and exploit these data effectively and elucidate local and genome wide functional connections between protein pairs, thus enabling functional inferences for uncharacterized proteins. These biological data are primarily in the form of sequences, which determine functions, although functional properties of a protein can often be predicted from just the domains it contains. Thus, protein sequences and domains can be used to predict protein pair-wise functional relationships, and thus contribute to the function prediction process of uncharacterized proteins in order to ensure that knowledge is gained from sequencing efforts. In this work, we introduce information-theoretic based approaches to score protein-protein functional interaction pairs predicted from protein sequence similarity and conserved protein signature matches. The proposed schemes are effective for data-driven scoring of connections between protein pairs. We applied these schemes to the Mycobacterium tuberculosis proteome to produce a homology-based functional network of the organism with a high confidence and coverage. We use the network for predicting functions of uncharacterised proteins. AVAILABILITY: Protein pair-wise functional relationship scores for Mycobacterium tuberculosis strain CDC1551 sequence data and python scripts to compute these scores are available at http://web.cbio.uct.ac.za/~gmazandu/scoringschemes.

  19. High resolution CT in children with cystic fibrosis: correlation with pulmonary functions and radiographic scores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demirkazik, Figen Basaran E-mail: demirkaz@dialup.ankara.edu.tr; Ariyuerek, O. Macit; Oezcelik, Ugur; Goecmen, Ayhan; Hassanabad, Hossein K.; Kiper, Nural

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To compare the high resolution CT (HRCT) scores of the Bhalla system with pulmonary function tests and radiographic and clinical points of the Shwachman-Kulczycki clinical scoring system. Methods: HRCT of the chest was obtained in 40 children to assess the role of HRCT in evaluating bronchopulmonary pathology in children with cystic fibrosis (CF). The HRCT severity scores of the Bhalla system were compared with chest radiographic and clinical points of the Shwachman-Kulczycki scoring system and pulmonary function tests. Only 14 of the patients older than 6 years cooperated with spirometry. Results: HRCT scores correlated well with radiographic points (r=0.80, P<0.0001) and clinical points (r=0.67, P<0.0001) of the Shwachman-Kulczycki system, FVC (r=0.71 P=0.004) and FEV{sub 1} (r=0.66, P=0.01). Although radiographic points correlated significantly with FVC (r=0.61, P=0.02) and FEV{sub 1} (r=0.56, P=0.04), HRCT provides a more precise scoring than the chest X-ray. Conclusion: The HRCT scoring system may provide a sensitive method of monitoring pulmonary disease status and may replace the radiographic scoring in the Shwachman-Kulczycki system. It may be helpful especially in follow-up of small children too young to cooperate with spirometry.

  20. High resolution CT in children with cystic fibrosis: correlation with pulmonary functions and radiographic scores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demirkazik, Figen Basaran; Ariyuerek, O. Macit; Oezcelik, Ugur; Goecmen, Ayhan; Hassanabad, Hossein K.; Kiper, Nural

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To compare the high resolution CT (HRCT) scores of the Bhalla system with pulmonary function tests and radiographic and clinical points of the Shwachman-Kulczycki clinical scoring system. Methods: HRCT of the chest was obtained in 40 children to assess the role of HRCT in evaluating bronchopulmonary pathology in children with cystic fibrosis (CF). The HRCT severity scores of the Bhalla system were compared with chest radiographic and clinical points of the Shwachman-Kulczycki scoring system and pulmonary function tests. Only 14 of the patients older than 6 years cooperated with spirometry. Results: HRCT scores correlated well with radiographic points (r=0.80, P 1 (r=0.66, P=0.01). Although radiographic points correlated significantly with FVC (r=0.61, P=0.02) and FEV 1 (r=0.56, P=0.04), HRCT provides a more precise scoring than the chest X-ray. Conclusion: The HRCT scoring system may provide a sensitive method of monitoring pulmonary disease status and may replace the radiographic scoring in the Shwachman-Kulczycki system. It may be helpful especially in follow-up of small children too young to cooperate with spirometry

  1. Keeping Older Adults with Vision Loss Safe: Chronic Conditions and Comorbidities that Influence Functional Mobility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riddering, Anne T.

    2008-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a leading cause of vision loss in Americans aged 60 and older. The loss of central vision from AMD can decrease visual acuity, contrast sensitivity, glare sensitivity, color discrimination, and the ability to adapt to changes in lighting conditions. Older adults with vision loss often have other chronic,…

  2. Improvement of a new rotation function for molecular replacement by designing new scoring functions and dynamic correlation coefficient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Fan; Ding, Wei

    2010-10-01

    A previously published new rotation function has been improved by using a dynamic correlation coefficient as well as two new scoring functions of relative entropy and mean-square-residues to make the rotation function more robust and independent of a specific set of weights for scoring and ranking. The previously described new rotation function calculates the rotation function of molecular replacement by matching the search model directly with the Patterson vector map. The signal-to-noise ratio for the correct match was increased by averaging all the matching peaks. Several matching scores were employed to evaluate the goodness of matching. These matching scores were then combined into a single total score by optimizing a set of weights using the linear regression method. It was found that there exists an optimal set of weights that can be applied to the global rotation search and the correct solution can be ranked in the top 100 or less. However, this set of optimal weights in general is dependent on the search models and the crystal structures with different space groups and cell parameters. In this work, we try to solve this problem by designing a dynamic correlation coefficient. It is shown that the dynamic correlation coefficient works for a variety of space groups and cell parameters in the global search of rotation function. We also introduce two new matching scores: relative entropy and mean-square-residues. Last but not least, we discussed a valid method for the optimization of the adjustable parameters for matching vectors.

  3. Total hip arthroplasty outcomes assessment using functional and radiographic scores to compare canine systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwata, D; Broun, H C; Black, A P; Preston, C A; Anderson, G I

    2008-01-01

    A retrospective multi-centre study was carried out in order to compare outcomes between cemented and uncemented total hip arthoplasties (THA). A quantitative orthopaedic outcome assessment scoring system was devised in order to relate functional outcome to a numerical score, to allow comparison between treatments and amongst centres. The system combined a radiographic score and a clinical score. Lower scores reflect better outcomes than higher scores. Consecutive cases of THA were included from two specialist practices between July 2002 and December 2005. The study included 46 THA patients (22 uncemented THA followed for 8.3 +/- 4.7M and 24 cemented THA for 26.0 +/- 15.7M) with a mean age of 4.4 +/- 3.3 years at surgery. Multi-variable linear and logistical regression analyses were performed with adjustments for age at surgery, surgeon, follow-up time, uni- versus bilateral disease, gender and body weight. The differences between treatment groups in terms of functional scores or total scores were not significant (p > 0.05). Radiographic scores were different between treatment groups. However, these scores were usually assessed within two months of surgery and proved unreliable predictors of functional outcome (p > 0.05). The findings reflect relatively short-term follow-up, especially for the uncemented group, and do not include clinician-derived measures, such as goniometry and thigh circumference. Longer-term follow-up for the radiographic assessments is essential. A prospective study including the clinician-derived outcomes needs to be performed in order to validate the outcome instrument in its modified form.

  4. A comparison of the sensitivity of EQ-5D, SF-6D and TTO utility values to changes in vision and perceived visual function in patients with primary open-angle glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bozzani Fiammetta Maria

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Economic viability of treatments for primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG should be assessed objectively to prioritise health care interventions. This study aims to identify the methods for eliciting utility values (UVs most sensitive to differences in visual field and visual functioning in patients with POAG. As a secondary objective, the dimensions of generic health-related and vision-related quality of life most affected by progressive vision loss will be identified. Methods A total of 132 POAG patients were recruited. Three sets of utility values (EuroQoL EQ-5D, Short Form SF-6D, Time Trade Off and a measure of perceived visual functioning from the National Eye Institute Visual Function Questionnaire (VFQ-25 were elicited during face-to-face interviews. The sensitivity of UVs to differences in the binocular visual field, visual acuity and visual functioning measures was analysed using non-parametric statistical methods. Results Median utilities were similar across Integrated Visual Field score quartiles for EQ-5D (P = 0.08 whereas SF-6D and Time-Trade-Off UVs significantly decreased (p = 0.01 and p = 0.001, respectively. The VFQ-25 score varied across Integrated Visual Field and binocular visual acuity groups and was associated with all three UVs (P ≤ 0.001; most of its vision-specific sub-scales were associated with the vision markers. The most affected dimension was driving. A relationship with vision markers was found for the physical component of SF-36 and not for any dimension of EQ-5D. Conclusions The Time-Trade-Off was more sensitive than EQ-5D and SF-6D to changes in vision and visual functioning associated with glaucoma progression but could not measure quality of life changes in the mildest disease stages.

  5. Functional improvements following the use of the NVT Vision Rehabilitation program for patients with hemianopia following stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Allison; Chen, Celia S; Clarke, Gayle; Thompson, Annette

    2012-01-01

    The incidence of visual deficits following stroke ranges from 20%-68% and has significant impact on activities of daily living. The NVT system is a compensatory visual scanning training program that consists of combined static and mobility training and transfer to activities of daily living. The study aims to evaluate functional changes following the NVT program for people who have homonymous hemianopia (HH) following stroke. Interventional case series of 13 consecutive participants with HH undergoing NVT vision rehabilitation. The primary outcome measure was the number of targets missed on a standardized Mobility Assessment Course (MAC). Other outcome measures included assessment of visual scanning, vision specific Quality of Life questionnaires and reading performance. The average number of targets (sd) missed on the MAC course was 39.6 ± 20.9% before intervention, 27.5 ± 16.3% immediately post intervention and 20.8 ± 15.5% at 3 months post rehabilitation. The study showed a statistically significant trend in improvement in mobility related subscales of National Eye Institute Visual Function Questionnaire-NEI VFQ-25 (p=0.003) and the Veteran Affairs Low Vision Visual Function Questionnaire-VA LVFQ-48 (p=0.036) at 3 months post rehabilitation. The NVT intervention resulted in functional improvements in mobility post rehabilitation. The NVT training showed improvement in vision specific quality of life. There is a need for standardised vision therapy intervention, in conjunction with existing rehabilitation services, for patients with stroke and traumatic brain injury.

  6. Quality of life and functional vision concerns of children with cataracts and their parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castañeda, Y S; Cheng-Patel, C S; Leske, D A; Wernimont, S M; Hatt, S R; Liebermann, L; Birch, E E; Holmes, J M

    2016-09-01

    PurposeTo identify specific health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and functional vision concerns affecting children with cataracts and common associated conditions as expressed by children or one of their parents (proxy), and HRQOL concerns affecting the parents themselves.MethodsIndividual semi-structured interviews were conducted with parents of children with cataracts (N=31) and with the children themselves (ages 5-17 years; N=16). Transcripts of recorded interviews were evaluated using NVivo software. Specific concerns were identified and coded, and broad themes were identified. The frequency of each theme was calculated, with the frequency of specific concerns within each theme.ResultsRegarding the child's experience, 6 themes were identified: Visual Function (mentioned by 16 of 16 children (100%) and by 26 of 31 parents (84%), Social (94 and 65%), Treatment (81 and 90%), Worry (75 and 10%), Emotions (63 and 68%), and Physical Discomfort (63 and 26%). Worry showed the largest discrepancy between child and their parent; although 75% children reported Worry, only 6% of parents reported that their child experienced Worry (P=0.0009). Regarding the parents' own experience, 5 themes were identified: Worry (100%), Compensation for Condition (100%), Treatment (94%), Emotions (90%), and Affects Family (52%).ConclusionsA wide range of concerns were identified from interviews of children with cataracts and their parents. Concerns reflect the impact of cataracts in physical, emotional, and social domains, and specific concerns will be used for the development of questionnaires to quantify the quality of life and functional vision effects of cataracts.

  7. A collaborative filtering approach for protein-protein docking scoring functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourquard, Thomas; Bernauer, Julie; Azé, Jérôme; Poupon, Anne

    2011-04-22

    A protein-protein docking procedure traditionally consists in two successive tasks: a search algorithm generates a large number of candidate conformations mimicking the complex existing in vivo between two proteins, and a scoring function is used to rank them in order to extract a native-like one. We have already shown that using Voronoi constructions and a well chosen set of parameters, an accurate scoring function could be designed and optimized. However to be able to perform large-scale in silico exploration of the interactome, a near-native solution has to be found in the ten best-ranked solutions. This cannot yet be guaranteed by any of the existing scoring functions. In this work, we introduce a new procedure for conformation ranking. We previously developed a set of scoring functions where learning was performed using a genetic algorithm. These functions were used to assign a rank to each possible conformation. We now have a refined rank using different classifiers (decision trees, rules and support vector machines) in a collaborative filtering scheme. The scoring function newly obtained is evaluated using 10 fold cross-validation, and compared to the functions obtained using either genetic algorithms or collaborative filtering taken separately. This new approach was successfully applied to the CAPRI scoring ensembles. We show that for 10 targets out of 12, we are able to find a near-native conformation in the 10 best ranked solutions. Moreover, for 6 of them, the near-native conformation selected is of high accuracy. Finally, we show that this function dramatically enriches the 100 best-ranking conformations in near-native structures.

  8. Accounting for Intraligand Interactions in Flexible Ligand Docking with a PMF-Based Scoring Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lizunov, A Y; Gonchar, A L; Zaitseva, N I; Zosimov, V V

    2015-10-26

    We analyzed the frequency with which intraligand contacts occurred in a set of 1300 protein-ligand complexes [ Plewczynski et al. J. Comput. Chem. 2011 , 32 , 742 - 755 .]. Our analysis showed that flexible ligands often form intraligand hydrophobic contacts, while intraligand hydrogen bonds are rare. The test set was also thoroughly investigated and classified. We suggest a universal method for enhancement of a scoring function based on a potential of mean force (PMF-based score) by adding a term accounting for intraligand interactions. The method was implemented via in-house developed program, utilizing an Algo_score scoring function [ Ramensky et al. Proteins: Struct., Funct., Genet. 2007 , 69 , 349 - 357 .] based on the Tarasov-Muryshev PMF [ Muryshev et al. J. Comput.-Aided Mol. Des. 2003 , 17 , 597 - 605 .]. The enhancement of the scoring function was shown to significantly improve the docking and scoring quality for flexible ligands in the test set of 1300 protein-ligand complexes [ Plewczynski et al. J. Comput. Chem. 2011 , 32 , 742 - 755 .]. We then investigated the correlation of the docking results with two parameters of intraligand interactions estimation. These parameters are the weight of intraligand interactions and the minimum number of bonds between the ligand atoms required to take their interaction into account.

  9. Assessment of Musculoskeletal Function and its Correlation with Radiological Joint Score in Children with Hemophilia A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Samriti; Garg, Kapil; Singh, Jagdish

    2015-12-01

    To evaluate the functional independence of children with hemophilia A and its correlation to radiological joint score. The present cross sectional study was conducted at SPMCHI, SMS Medical College, Jaipur, India. Children in the age group of 4-18 y affected with severe, moderate and mild hemophilia A and with a history of hemarthrosis who attended the OPD, emergency or got admitted in wards of SPMCHI, SMS Medical College were examined. Musculoskeletal function was measured in 98 patients using Functional Independence Score in Hemophilia (FISH) and index joints (joints most commonly affected with repeated bleeding) were assessed radiologically with plain X rays using Pettersson score. The mean FISH score was 28.07 ± 3.90 (range 17-32) with squatting, running and step climbing as most affected tasks. The mean Pettersson score was 3.8 ± 3.2. A significant correlation was found between mean Pettersson score and FISH (r = -0.875, P hemophilia A.

  10. Functional outcomes following lesions in visual cortex: Implications for plasticity of high-level vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tina T; Behrmann, Marlene

    2017-10-01

    Understanding the nature and extent of neural plasticity in humans remains a key challenge for neuroscience. Importantly, however, a precise characterization of plasticity and its underlying mechanism has the potential to enable new approaches for enhancing reorganization of cortical function. Investigations of the impairment and subsequent recovery of cognitive and perceptual functions following early-onset cortical lesions in humans provide a unique opportunity to elucidate how the brain changes, adapts, and reorganizes. Specifically, here, we focus on restitution of visual function, and we review the findings on plasticity and re-organization of the ventral occipital temporal cortex (VOTC) in published reports of 46 patients with a lesion to or resection of the visual cortex early in life. Findings reveal that a lesion to the VOTC results in a deficit that affects the visual recognition of more than one category of stimuli (faces, objects and words). In addition, the majority of pediatric patients show limited recovery over time, especially those in whom deficits in low-level vision also persist. Last, given that neither the equipotentiality nor the modularity view on plasticity was clearly supported, we suggest some intermediate possibilities in which some plasticity may be evident but that this might depend on the area that was affected, its maturational trajectory as well as its structural and functional connectivity constraints. Finally, we offer suggestions for future research that can elucidate plasticity further. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Design of interpolation functions for subpixel-accuracy stereo-vision systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haller, Istvan; Nedevschi, Sergiu

    2012-02-01

    Traditionally, subpixel interpolation in stereo-vision systems was designed for the block-matching algorithm. During the evaluation of different interpolation strategies, a strong correlation was observed between the type of the stereo algorithm and the subpixel accuracy of the different solutions. Subpixel interpolation should be adapted to each stereo algorithm to achieve maximum accuracy. In consequence, it is more important to propose methodologies for interpolation function generation than specific function shapes. We propose two such methodologies based on data generated by the stereo algorithms. The first proposal uses a histogram to model the environment and applies histogram equalization to an existing solution adapting it to the data. The second proposal employs synthetic images of a known environment and applies function fitting to the resulted data. The resulting function matches the algorithm and the data as best as possible. An extensive evaluation set is used to validate the findings. Both real and synthetic test cases were employed in different scenarios. The test results are consistent and show significant improvements compared with traditional solutions. © 2011 IEEE

  12. Functional Movement Screen Scores and Physical Performance among Youth Elite Soccer Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Silva

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This study had two main objectives: (1 to determine if differences in Functional Movement Screen (FMS scores exist between two levels of competition; and (2 to analyze the association between FMS individual and overall scores and physical performance variables of lower-limb power (jumps, repeated sprint ability and shot speed. Twenty-two Under 16 (U16 and twenty-six Under 19 (U19 national competitive soccer players participated in this study. All participants were evaluated according to anthropometrics, FMS, jump performance, instep kick speed and anaerobic performance. There were no significant differences in the individual FMS scores between competitive levels. There were significant negative correlations between hurdle step (right and Running-based Anaerobic Sprint Test (RAST power average ( ρ = −0.293; p = 0.043 and RAST fatigue index (RAST FatIndex ( ρ = −0.340; p = 0.018. The hurdle step (left had a significant negative correlation to squat jump (SJ ( ρ = −0.369; p = 0.012. Rotary stability had a significant negative correlation to RAST fatigue index (Right: ρ = −0.311; p = 0.032. Left: ρ = −0.400; p = 0.005. The results suggest that individual FMS scores may be better discriminants of performance than FMS total score and established minimal association between FMS scores and physical variables. Based on that, FMS may be suitable for the purposes of determining physical function but not for discriminating physical performance.

  13. Optimal protein library design using recombination or point mutations based on sequence-based scoring functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantazes, Robert J; Saraf, Manish C; Maranas, Costas D

    2007-08-01

    In this paper, we introduce and test two new sequence-based protein scoring systems (i.e. S1, S2) for assessing the likelihood that a given protein hybrid will be functional. By binning together amino acids with similar properties (i.e. volume, hydrophobicity and charge) the scoring systems S1 and S2 allow for the quantification of the severity of mismatched interactions in the hybrids. The S2 scoring system is found to be able to significantly functionally enrich a cytochrome P450 library over other scoring methods. Given this scoring base, we subsequently constructed two separate optimization formulations (i.e. OPTCOMB and OPTOLIGO) for optimally designing protein combinatorial libraries involving recombination or mutations, respectively. Notably, two separate versions of OPTCOMB are generated (i.e. model M1, M2) with the latter allowing for position-dependent parental fragment skipping. Computational benchmarking results demonstrate the efficacy of models OPTCOMB and OPTOLIGO to generate high scoring libraries of a prespecified size.

  14. Same But Different: FIM Summary Scores May Mask Variability in Physical Functioning Profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Steve R; Middleton, Addie; Graham, James E; Ottenbacher, Kenneth J

    2018-02-08

    To examine how similar summary scores of physical functioning using the FIM can represent different patient clinical profiles. Retrospective cohort study. Inpatient rehabilitation facilities. Medicare fee-for-service beneficiaries (N=765,441) discharged from inpatient rehabilitation. Not applicable. We used patients' scores on items of the FIM to quantify their level of independence on both self-care and mobility domains. We then identified patients as requiring "no physical assistance" at discharge from inpatient rehabilitation by using a rule and score-based approach. In those patients with FIM self-care and mobility summary scores suggesting no physical assistance needed, we found that physical assistance was in fact needed frequently in bathroom-related activities (eg, continence, toilet and tub transfers, hygiene, clothes management) and with stairs. It was not uncommon for actual performance to be lower than what may be suggested by a summary score of those domains. Further research is needed to create clinically meaningful descriptions of summary scores from combined performances on individual items of physical functioning. Copyright © 2018 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Phylogenetic versus functional signals in the evolution of form-function relationships in terrestrial vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motani, Ryosuke; Schmitz, Lars

    2011-08-01

    Phylogeny is deeply pertinent to evolutionary studies. Traits that perform a body function are expected to be strongly influenced by physical "requirements" of the function. We investigated if such traits exhibit phylogenetic signals, and, if so, how phylogenetic noises bias quantification of form-function relationships. A form-function system that is strongly influenced by physics, namely the relationship between eye morphology and visual optics in amniotes, was used. We quantified the correlation between form (i.e., eye morphology) and function (i.e., ocular optics) while varying the level of phylogenetic bias removal through adjusting Pagel's λ. Ocular soft-tissue dimensions exhibited the highest correlation with ocular optics when 1% of phylogenetic bias expected from Brownian motion was removed (i.e., λ= 0.01); the value for hard-tissue data were 8%. A small degree of phylogenetic bias therefore exists in morphology despite of the stringent functional constraints. We also devised a phylogenetically informed discriminant analysis and recorded the effects of phylogenetic bias on this method using the same data. Use of proper λ values during phylogenetic bias removal improved misidentification rates in resulting classifications when prior probabilities were assumed to be equal. Even a small degree of phylogenetic bias affected the classification resulting from phylogenetically informed discriminant analysis. © 2011 The Author(s). Evolution© 2011 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  16. Improvement of a new rotation function for molecular replacement by designing new scoring functions and dynamic correlation coefficient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan, Jiang; Wei, Ding

    2010-01-01

    A previously published new rotation function has been improved by using a dynamic correlation coefficient as well as two new scoring functions of relative entropy and mean-square-residues to make the rotation function more robust and independent of a specific set of weights for scoring and ranking. The previously described new rotation function calculates the rotation function of molecular replacement by matching the search model directly with the Patterson vector map. The signal-to-noise ratio for the correct match was increased by averaging all the matching peaks. Several matching scores were employed to evaluate the goodness of matching. These matching scores were then combined into a single total score by optimizing a set of weights using the linear regression method. It was found that there exists an optimal set of weights that can be applied to the global rotation search and the correct solution can be ranked in the top 100 or less. However, this set of optimal weights in general is dependent on the search models and the crystal structures with different space groups and cell parameters. In this work, we try to solve this problem by designing a dynamic correlation coefficient. It is shown that the dynamic correlation coefficient works for a variety of space groups and cell parameters in the global search of rotation function. We also introduce two new matching scores: relative entropy and mean-square-residues. Last but not least, we discussed a valid method for the optimization of the adjustable parameters for matching vectors. (condensed matter: structure, thermal and mechanical properties)

  17. Making it possible to measure knowledge, experience and intuition in diagnosing lung injury severity: a fuzzy logic vision based on the Murray score

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Murray score is the result of an equation that gives all its variables the same linear contribution and weight and makes use of consented cut-offs. Everyday physicians' vocabulary is full of terms (adjectives) like: little, small, low, high, etc. that they handle in an intuitive and not always linear way to make therapeutic decisions. The purpose of this paper is to develop a fuzzy logic (FL) vision of Murray's score variables to enable the measurement of physicians' knowledge, experience and intuition in diagnosing lung injury and test if they followed Murray's equation predictions. Methods For a prospective survey carried out among a team of professionals (aged 29 to 53) in a University Hospital Intensive Care Unit, twelve physicians filled in two questionnaires. In the first one they had to define the ranks which should be categorized as normal, moderate and severe for three of four Murray variables. In another questionnaire, which represented all probable combinations of those categories, they had to tick the pulmonary condition as: no injury, mild, moderate, and ARDS. This procedure gave rise to a Fuzzy Inference System designed to provide the degree of severity as sensed by the group. Results The survey showed fuzzy frontiers for the categories and fuzzy diagnosis. In all, 45% of the hypothetical patients (n 18,013) were equally diagnosed by the survey and Murray's equation, whereas another 51% was overestimated in one level by the survey. Physicians agreed with 96.5% of ARDS cases according to Murray's test but only 11.6% of its mild cases were equally diagnosed by the survey. Nonlinearity of the survey reasoning (high relevance to gas exchange and chest film) was apparent. Conclusions The contiguous categories of the variables confirm the existence of fuzzy frontiers. An overestimation was found in the surveyed group's interpretation of severity. This overestimation was mainly due to the different weight assigned to PO2/FiO2 and chest film

  18. Effect of rehabilitation worker input on visual function outcomes in individuals with low vision: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acton, Jennifer H; Molik, Bablin; Binns, Alison; Court, Helen; Margrain, Tom H

    2016-02-24

    Visual Rehabilitation Officers help people with a visual impairment maintain their independence. This intervention adopts a flexible, goal-centred approach, which may include training in mobility, use of optical and non-optical aids, and performance of activities of daily living. Although Visual Rehabilitation Officers are an integral part of the low vision service in the United Kingdom, evidence that they are effective is lacking. The purpose of this exploratory trial is to estimate the impact of a Visual Rehabilitation Officer on self-reported visual function, psychosocial and quality-of-life outcomes in individuals with low vision. In this exploratory, assessor-masked, parallel group, randomised controlled trial, participants will be allocated either to receive home visits from a Visual Rehabilitation Officer (n = 30) or to a waiting list control group (n = 30) in a 1:1 ratio. Adult volunteers with a visual impairment, who have been identified as needing rehabilitation officer input by a social worker, will take part. Those with an urgent need for a Visual Rehabilitation Officer or who have a cognitive impairment will be excluded. The primary outcome measure will be self-reported visual function (48-item Veterans Affairs Low Vision Visual Functioning Questionnaire). Secondary outcome measures will include psychological and quality-of-life metrics: the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9), the Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Well-being Scale (WEMWBS), the Adjustment to Age-related Visual Loss Scale (AVL-12), the Standardised Health-related Quality of Life Questionnaire (EQ-5D) and the UCLA Loneliness Scale. The interviewer collecting the outcomes will be masked to the group allocations. The analysis will be undertaken on a complete case and intention-to-treat basis. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) will be applied to follow-up questionnaire scores, with the baseline score as a covariate. This trial is expected to provide robust effect size estimates of the intervention

  19. Validity and Reliability of Scores Obtained on Multiple-Choice Questions: Why Functioning Distractors Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Syed Haris; Carr, Patrick A.; Ruit, Kenneth G.

    2016-01-01

    Plausible distractors are important for accurate measurement of knowledge via multiple-choice questions (MCQs). This study demonstrates the impact of higher distractor functioning on validity and reliability of scores obtained on MCQs. Freeresponse (FR) and MCQ versions of a neurohistology practice exam were given to four cohorts of Year 1 medical…

  20. A Score Function for Optimizing the Cycle-Life of Battery-Powered Embedded Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wognsen, Erik Ramsgaard; Haverkort, Boudewijn R.H.M.; Jongerden, M.R.; Hansen, René Rydhof; Larsen, K.G.; Sankaranarayanan, Sriram; Vicario, Enrico

    An ever increasing share of embedded systems is powered by rechargeable batteries. These batteries deteriorate with the number of charge/discharge cycles they are subjected to, the so-called cycle life. In this paper, we propose the wear score function to compare and evaluate the relative impact of

  1. Estimated conditional score function for missing mechanism model with nonignorable nonresponse

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CUI Xia; ZHOU Yong

    2017-01-01

    Missing data mechanism often depends on the values of the responses,which leads to nonignorable nonresponses.In such a situation,inference based on approaches that ignore the missing data mechanism could not be valid.A crucial step is to model the nature of missingness.We specify a parametric model for missingness mechanism,and then propose a conditional score function approach for estimation.This approach imputes the score function by taking the conditional expectation of the score function for the missing data given the available information.Inference procedure is then followed by replacing unknown terms with the related nonparametric estimators based on the observed data.The proposed score function does not suffer from the non-identifiability problem,and the proposed estimator is shown to be consistent and asymptotically normal.We also construct a confidence region for the parameter of interest using empirical likelihood method.Simulation studies demonstrate that the proposed inference procedure performs well in many settings.We apply the proposed method to a data set from research in a growth hormone and exercise intervention study.

  2. The Performance of the Upper Limb scores correlate with pulmonary function test measures and Egen Klassifikation scores in Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ha Neul; Sawnani, Hemant; Horn, Paul S; Rybalsky, Irina; Relucio, Lani; Wong, Brenda L

    2016-01-01

    The Performance of the Upper Limb scale was developed as an outcome measure specifically for ambulant and non-ambulant patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy and is implemented in clinical trials needing longitudinal data. The aim of this study is to determine whether this novel tool correlates with functional ability using pulmonary function test, cardiac function test and Egen Klassifikation scale scores as clinical measures. In this cross-sectional study, 43 non-ambulatory Duchenne males from ages 10 to 30 years and on long-term glucocorticoid treatment were enrolled. Cardiac and pulmonary function test results were analyzed to assess cardiopulmonary function, and Egen Klassifikation scores were analyzed to assess functional ability. The Performance of the Upper Limb scores correlated with pulmonary function measures and had inverse correlation with Egen Klassifikation scores. There was no correlation with left ventricular ejection fraction and left ventricular dysfunction. Body mass index and decreased joint range of motion affected total Performance of the Upper Limb scores and should be considered in clinical trial designs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Late-Onset Alzheimer's Disease Polygenic Risk Profile Score Predicts Hippocampal Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Ena; Chen, Qiang; Goldman, Aaron L; Tan, Hao Yang; Healy, Kaitlin; Zoltick, Brad; Das, Saumitra; Kolachana, Bhaskar; Callicott, Joseph H; Dickinson, Dwight; Berman, Karen F; Weinberger, Daniel R; Mattay, Venkata S

    2017-11-01

    We explored the cumulative effect of several late-onset Alzheimer's disease (LOAD) risk loci using a polygenic risk profile score (RPS) approach on measures of hippocampal function, cognition, and brain morphometry. In a sample of 231 healthy control subjects (19-55 years of age), we used an RPS to study the effect of several LOAD risk loci reported in a recent meta-analysis on hippocampal function (determined by its engagement with blood oxygen level-dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging during episodic memory) and several cognitive metrics. We also studied effects on brain morphometry in an overlapping sample of 280 subjects. There was almost no significant association of LOAD-RPS with cognitive or morphometric measures. However, there was a significant negative relationship between LOAD-RPS and hippocampal function (familywise error [small volume correction-hippocampal region of interest] p risk score based on APOE haplotype, and for a combined LOAD-RPS + APOE haplotype risk profile score (p risk genes on hippocampal function even in healthy volunteers. The effect of LOAD-RPS on hippocampal function in the relative absence of any effect on cognitive and morphometric measures is consistent with the reported temporal characteristics of LOAD biomarkers with the earlier manifestation of synaptic dysfunction before morphometric and cognitive changes. Copyright © 2017 Society of Biological Psychiatry. All rights reserved.

  4. Standardised test protocol (Constant Score) for evaluation of functionality in patients with shoulder disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ban, Ilija; Troelsen, Anders; Christiansen, David Høyrup

    2013-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The Constant Score (CS), developed as a scoring system to evaluate overall functionality of patients with shoulder disorders, is widely used but has been criticised for relying on an imprecise terminology and for lack of a standardised methodology. A modified guideline was therefore...... differences. One of the authors of the modified CS approved both the English and the Danish test protocol. CONCLUSION: A simple test protocol of the modified CS was developed in both English and Danish. With precise terminology and definitions, the test protocol is the first of its kind. We suggest its use...

  5. How different from random are docking predictions when ranked by scoring functions?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feliu, Elisenda; Oliva, Baldomero

    2010-01-01

    on the number of near-native structures in the sampling. We studied the effect of filtering out redundant structures and tested the use of pair-potentials derived using ZDock and ZRank. Our results show that for many targets, it is not possible to determine when a successful reranking performed by scoring...... functions results merely from random choice. This analysis reveals that changes should be made in the design of the CAPRI scoring experiment. We propose including the statistical assessment in this experiment either at the preprocessing or the evaluation step....

  6. NIH Toolbox Cognitive Function Battery (CFB): Composite Scores of Crystallized, Fluid, and Overall Cognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akshoomoff, Natacha; Beaumont, Jennifer L.; Bauer, Patricia J.; Dikmen, Sureyya; Gershon, Richard; Mungas, Dan; Slotkin, Jerry; Tulsky, David; Weintraub, Sandra; Zelazzo, Philip; Heaton, Robert K.

    2014-01-01

    The NIH Toolbox Cognitive Function Battery (CFB) includes 7 tests covering 8 cognitive abilities considered to be important in adaptive functioning across the lifespan (from early childhood to late adulthood). Here we present data on psychometric characteristics in children (N = 208; ages 3–15 years) of a total summary score and composite scores reflecting two major types of cognitive abilities: “crystallized” (more dependent upon past learning experiences) and “fluid” (capacity for new learning and information processing in novel situations). Both types of cognition are considered important in everyday functioning, but are thought to be differently affected by brain health status throughout life, from early childhood through older adulthood. All three Toolbox composite scores showed excellent test-retest reliability, robust developmental effects across the childhood age range considered here, and strong correlations with established, “gold standard” measures of similar abilities. Additional preliminary evidence of validity includes significant associations between all three Toolbox composite scores and maternal reports of children’s health status and school performance. PMID:23952206

  7. Is there a relation between priapism occurring after penile doppler ultrasonography and international erectile function index score and erection hardness score levels?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sönmez, Mehmet Giray; Öztürk, Ahmet

    2017-12-01

    The relation between Erection Hardness Score (EHS) and The International Erectile Function Index (IIEF) Questionnaire- Erectile Function Domain Score (IIEF-EF score) used in erectile dysfunction (ED) evaluation and the prevalence of priapism after penile Doppler ultrasonography (PDU) was examined in this study. A total of 62 patients who had PDU were included in the study. Patients were divided into two groups; there were 33 patients in IIEF-EF score ≤10, EHS 10, EHS ≥2 group (Group 2). The two groups separated according to their scores were compared for age, body mass index (BMI), prevalence of priapism, vascular comorbidities and duration of erection. When compared to Group 2, median age, rate of vascular comorbidities rate and BMI were detected to be higher in Group 1 with IIEF-EF score ≤10 and EHS 10 and EHS ≥2 (p<0.001, p=0.027, p=0.049 respectively). High IIEF-EF and EHS scores, younger ages and lower rates of vascular comorbidities in patients from whom PDU was demanded increase the prevalence of priapism.

  8. A combined pulmonary function and emphysema score prognostic index for staging in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afroditi K Boutou

    Full Text Available Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD is characterized by high morbidity and mortality. Lung computed tomography parameters, individually or as part of a composite index, may provide more prognostic information than pulmonary function tests alone.To investigate the prognostic value of emphysema score and pulmonary artery measurements compared with lung function parameters in COPD and construct a prognostic index using a contingent staging approach.Predictors of mortality were assessed in COPD outpatients whose lung computed tomography, spirometry, lung volumes and gas transfer data were collected prospectively in a clinical database. Univariate and multivariate Cox proportional hazard analysis models with bootstrap techniques were used.169 patients were included (59.8% male, 61.1 years old; Forced Expiratory Volume in 1 second % predicted: 40.5±19.2. 20.1% died; mean survival was 115.4 months. Age (HR = 1.098, 95% Cl = 1.04-1.252 and emphysema score (HR = 1.034, 95% CI = 1.007-1.07 were the only independent predictors of mortality. Pulmonary artery dimensions were not associated with survival. An emphysema score of 55% was chosen as the optimal threshold and 30% and 65% as suboptimals. Where emphysema score was between 30% and 65% (intermediate risk the optimal lung volume threshold, a functional residual capacity of 210% predicted, was applied. This contingent staging approach separated patients with an intermediate risk based on emphysema score alone into high risk (Functional Residual Capacity ≥210% predicted or low risk (Functional Residual Capacity <210% predicted. This approach was more discriminatory for survival (HR = 3.123; 95% CI = 1.094-10.412 than either individual component alone.Although to an extent limited by the small sample size, this preliminary study indicates that the composite Emphysema score-Functional Residual Capacity index might provide a better separation of high and low risk patients

  9. Effect of Mindfulness Meditation on Perceived Stress Scores and Autonomic Function Tests of Pregnant Indian Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthukrishnan, Shobitha; Jain, Reena; Kohli, Sangeeta; Batra, Swaraj

    2016-04-01

    Various pregnancy complications like hypertension, preeclampsia have been strongly correlated with maternal stress. One of the connecting links between pregnancy complications and maternal stress is mind-body intervention which can be part of Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM). Biologic measures of stress during pregnancy may get reduced by such interventions. To evaluate the effect of Mindfulness meditation on perceived stress scores and autonomic function tests of pregnant Indian women. Pregnant Indian women of 12 weeks gestation were randomised to two treatment groups: Test group with Mindfulness meditation and control group with their usual obstetric care. The effect of Mindfulness meditation on perceived stress scores and cardiac sympathetic functions and parasympathetic functions (Heart rate variation with respiration, lying to standing ratio, standing to lying ratio and respiratory rate) were evaluated on pregnant Indian women. There was a significant decrease in perceived stress scores, a significant decrease of blood pressure response to cold pressor test and a significant increase in heart rate variability in the test group (pwomen. The results of this study suggest that mindfulness meditation improves parasympathetic functions in pregnant women and is a powerful modulator of the sympathetic nervous system during pregnancy.

  10. Association between Global Assessment of Functioning scores and indicators of functioning, severity, and prognosis in first-time schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Köhler-Forsberg, Ole; Horsdal, Henriette Thisted; Baandrup, Lone

    2016-01-01

    are associated with other indicators of functioning, severity, and hospitalization. METHODS: A Danish population-based cohort study of adults (≥18 years) with a recorded GAF-F score at first-time schizophrenia diagnosis during 2004-2011 was performed. The internal validity of GAF-F was evaluated by assessing its...... of schizophrenia with a GAF-F score at first-time diagnosis (73.0% inpatients; 62.6% males). GAF-F was associated with several baseline measures of functioning and illness severity, such as female sex, being in work, and a longer baseline hospitalization. Lower GAF-F scores were associated with higher.......36-3.90), fitting a dose-response relationship (P=0.031). This association was not found in females. CONCLUSION: GAF-F at first-time schizophrenia diagnosis showed good internal validity against other measures of functionality in a Danish hospital setting. Severe impairment (as measured by the GAF-F score) at first...

  11. Signatures of functional constraint at aye-aye opsin genes: the potential of adaptive color vision in a nocturnal primate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, George H; Martin, Robert D; Verrelli, Brian C

    2007-09-01

    While color vision perception is thought to be adaptively correlated with foraging efficiency for diurnal mammals, those that forage exclusively at night may not need color vision nor have the capacity for it. Indeed, although the basic condition for mammals is dichromacy, diverse nocturnal mammals have only monochromatic vision, resulting from functional loss of the short-wavelength sensitive opsin gene. However, many nocturnal primates maintain intact two opsin genes and thus have dichromatic capacity. The evolutionary significance of this surprising observation has not yet been elucidated. We used a molecular population genetics approach to test evolutionary hypotheses for the two intact opsin genes of the fully nocturnal aye-aye (Daubentonia madagascariensis), a highly unusual and endangered Madagascar primate. No evidence of gene degradation in either opsin gene was observed for any of 8 aye-aye individuals examined. Furthermore, levels of nucleotide diversity for opsin gene functional sites were lower than those for 15 neutrally evolving intergenic regions (>25 kb in total), which is consistent with a history of purifying selection on aye-aye opsin genes. The most likely explanation for these findings is that dichromacy is advantageous for aye-ayes despite their nocturnal activity pattern. We speculate that dichromatic nocturnal primates may be able to perceive color while foraging under moonlight conditions, and suggest that behavioral and ecological comparisons among dichromatic and monochromatic nocturnal primates will help to elucidate the specific activities for which color vision perception is advantageous.

  12. Substantial improvements in large-scale redocking and screening using the novel HYDE scoring function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Nadine; Hindle, Sally; Lange, Gudrun; Klein, Robert; Albrecht, Jürgen; Briem, Hans; Beyer, Kristin; Claußen, Holger; Gastreich, Marcus; Lemmen, Christian; Rarey, Matthias

    2012-06-01

    The HYDE scoring function consistently describes hydrogen bonding, the hydrophobic effect and desolvation. It relies on HYdration and DEsolvation terms which are calibrated using octanol/water partition coefficients of small molecules. We do not use affinity data for calibration, therefore HYDE is generally applicable to all protein targets. HYDE reflects the Gibbs free energy of binding while only considering the essential interactions of protein-ligand complexes. The greatest benefit of HYDE is that it yields a very intuitive atom-based score, which can be mapped onto the ligand and protein atoms. This allows the direct visualization of the score and consequently facilitates analysis of protein-ligand complexes during the lead optimization process. In this study, we validated our new scoring function by applying it in large-scale docking experiments. We could successfully predict the correct binding mode in 93% of complexes in redocking calculations on the Astex diverse set, while our performance in virtual screening experiments using the DUD dataset showed significant enrichment values with a mean AUC of 0.77 across all protein targets with little or no structural defects. As part of these studies, we also carried out a very detailed analysis of the data that revealed interesting pitfalls, which we highlight here and which should be addressed in future benchmark datasets.

  13. Mediterranean diet score and left ventricular structure and function: the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levitan, Emily B; Ahmed, Ali; Arnett, Donna K; Polak, Joseph F; Hundley, W Gregory; Bluemke, David A; Heckbert, Susan R; Jacobs, David R; Nettleton, Jennifer A

    2016-09-01

    Data are limited on the relation between dietary patterns and left ventricular (LV) structure and function. We examined cross-sectional associations of a diet-score assessment of a Mediterranean dietary pattern with LV mass, volume, mass-to-volume ratio, stroke volume, and ejection fraction. We measured LV variables with the use of cardiac MRI in 4497 participants in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis study who were aged 45-84 y and without clinical cardiovascular disease. We calculated a Mediterranean diet score from intakes of fruit, vegetables, nuts, legumes, whole grains, fish, red meat, the monounsaturated fat:saturated fat ratio, and alcohol that were self-reported with the use of a food-frequency questionnaire. We used linear regression with adjustment for body size, physical activity, and cardiovascular disease risk factors to model associations and assess the shape of these associations (linear or quadratic). The Mediterranean diet score had a slight U-shaped association with LV mass (adjusted means: 146, 145, 146, and 147 g across quartiles of diet score, respectively; P-quadratic trend = 0.04). The score was linearly associated with LV volume, stroke volume, and ejection fraction: for each +1-U difference in score, LV volume was 0.4 mL higher (95% CI: 0.0, 0.8 mL higher), the stroke volume was 0.5 mL higher (95% CI: 0.2, 0.8 mL higher), and the ejection fraction was 0.2 percentage points higher (95% CI: 0.1, 0.3 percentage points higher). The score was not associated with the mass-to-volume ratio. A higher Mediterranean diet score is cross-sectionally associated with a higher LV mass, which is balanced by a higher LV volume as well as a higher ejection fraction and stroke volume. Participants in this healthy, multiethnic sample whose dietary patterns most closely conformed to a Mediterranean-type pattern had a modestly better LV structure and function than did participants with less-Mediterranean-like dietary patterns. This trial was registered at

  14. Vision training methods for sports concussion mitigation and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Joseph F; Colosimo, Angelo; Ellis, James K; Mangine, Robert; Bixenmann, Benjamin; Hasselfeld, Kimberly; Graman, Patricia; Elgendy, Hagar; Myer, Gregory; Divine, Jon

    2015-05-05

    There is emerging evidence supporting the use vision training, including light board training tools, as a concussion baseline and neuro-diagnostic tool and potentially as a supportive component to concussion prevention strategies. This paper is focused on providing detailed methods for select vision training tools and reporting normative data for comparison when vision training is a part of a sports management program. The overall program includes standard vision training methods including tachistoscope, Brock's string, and strobe glasses, as well as specialized light board training algorithms. Stereopsis is measured as a means to monitor vision training affects. In addition, quantitative results for vision training methods as well as baseline and post-testing *A and Reaction Test measures with progressive scores are reported. Collegiate athletes consistently improve after six weeks of training in their stereopsis, *A and Reaction Test scores. When vision training is initiated as a team wide exercise, the incidence of concussion decreases in players who participate in training compared to players who do not receive the vision training. Vision training produces functional and performance changes that, when monitored, can be used to assess the success of the vision training and can be initiated as part of a sports medical intervention for concussion prevention.

  15. [Surgical treatment of advanced retinopathy of prematurity--last chance for vision. Report 2. Analysis of functional results].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranov, A V; Troianovskiĭ, R L

    2012-01-01

    Functional results of staged surgical treatment of advanced retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) are analyzed between 2005 and 2010 in ophthalmologic department of city children's hospital ( St. Petersburg). A total of 154 children (303 eyes) were operated. The assessment of visual functions was performed using proposed original method. Subject vision was achieved in 65% of 20 eyes (6,6%) with 4B stage ROP. Fair anatomic results were achieved in 131 eyes of children with 5 stage ROP (283 eyes), light perception was preserved in 52 eyes (39,7%), capability to distinguish large objects appeared in 40 eyes (30,5%) and subject vision developed in 39 eyes (29,8%). Correlation between visual functions and environmental conditions was found, in particular presence or absence of long-term period of training in color and individual objects distinguishing. In a group of children training resulted in achievement of fair functions (subject vision, capability to distinguish large objects) in 81,2% of patients, where as in a group without training the same capabilities developed in 31,8% of cases only. Functional outcomes were also found to depend on CNS condition and time of surgery.

  16. Memory deficit associated with worse functional trajectories in older adults in low-vision rehabilitation for macular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitson, Heather E; Whitaker, Diane; Sanders, Linda L; Potter, Guy G; Cousins, Scott W; Ansah, Deidra; McConnell, Eleanor; Pieper, Carl F; Landerman, Lawrence; Steffens, David C; Cohen, Harvey J

    2012-11-01

    To examine whether performance on a brief memory test is related to functional outcomes in older individuals undergoing low-vision rehabilitation (LVR) for macular disease. Observational cohort study of individuals receiving outpatient LVR. Academic center. Ninety-one individuals (average age 80.1) with macular disease. Memory was assessed at baseline using a 10-word list; memory deficit was defined as immediate recall of two or fewer words. Vision-related function was measured using the 25-item Visual Function Questionnaire (VFQ-25) administered at baseline and during subsequent interviews (mean follow-up, 115 days). Linear mixed models were constructed to compare average trajectories of four VFQ-25 subscales: near activities, distance activities, dependency, and role difficulty. The 29.7% of participants with memory deficits tended to decline in ability to accomplish activities that involved near vision. Controlling for age, sex, and education, the functional trajectory of participants with memory deficit differed significantly from that of those with better memory (P = .002), who tended to report improvements in ability to accomplish near activities. Of older adults receiving LVR for macular disease, those with memory deficits experienced worse functional trajectories in their ability to perform specific visually mediated tasks. A brief memory screen may help explain variability in rehabilitation outcomes and identify individuals who might require special accommodations. © 2012, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2012, The American Geriatrics Society.

  17. A Score Function for Optimizing the Cycle-Life of Battery-Powered Embedded Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wognsen, Erik Ramsgaard; Haverkort, Boudewijn; Jongerden, Marijn

    2015-01-01

    An ever increasing share of embedded systems is powered by rechargeable batteries. These batteries deteriorate with the number of charge/discharge cycles they are subjected to, the so-called cycle life. In this paper, we propose the wear score function to compare and evaluate the relative impact...... of usage (charge and discharge) profiles on cycle life. The wear score function can not only be used to rank different usage profiles, these rankings can also be used as a criterion for optimizing the overall lifetime of a battery-powered system. We perform such an optimization on a nano-satellite case...... checking and reinforcement learning to synthesize near-optimal scheduling strategies subject to possible hard timing-constaints. We use this to study the trade-off between optimal short-term dynamic payload selection and the operational life of the satellite....

  18. Application of independent component analysis for speech-music separation using an efficient score function estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pishravian, Arash; Aghabozorgi Sahaf, Masoud Reza

    2012-12-01

    In this paper speech-music separation using Blind Source Separation is discussed. The separating algorithm is based on the mutual information minimization where the natural gradient algorithm is used for minimization. In order to do that, score function estimation from observation signals (combination of speech and music) samples is needed. The accuracy and the speed of the mentioned estimation will affect on the quality of the separated signals and the processing time of the algorithm. The score function estimation in the presented algorithm is based on Gaussian mixture based kernel density estimation method. The experimental results of the presented algorithm on the speech-music separation and comparing to the separating algorithm which is based on the Minimum Mean Square Error estimator, indicate that it can cause better performance and less processing time

  19. Scoring protein interaction decoys using exposed residues (SPIDER): a novel multibody interaction scoring function based on frequent geometric patterns of interfacial residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khashan, Raed; Zheng, Weifan; Tropsha, Alexander

    2012-08-01

    Accurate prediction of the structure of protein-protein complexes in computational docking experiments remains a formidable challenge. It has been recognized that identifying native or native-like poses among multiple decoys is the major bottleneck of the current scoring functions used in docking. We have developed a novel multibody pose-scoring function that has no theoretical limit on the number of residues contributing to the individual interaction terms. We use a coarse-grain representation of a protein-protein complex where each residue is represented by its side chain centroid. We apply a computational geometry approach called Almost-Delaunay tessellation that transforms protein-protein complexes into a residue contact network, or an undirectional graph where vertex-residues are nodes connected by edges. This treatment forms a family of interfacial graphs representing a dataset of protein-protein complexes. We then employ frequent subgraph mining approach to identify common interfacial residue patterns that appear in at least a subset of native protein-protein interfaces. The geometrical parameters and frequency of occurrence of each "native" pattern in the training set are used to develop the new SPIDER scoring function. SPIDER was validated using standard "ZDOCK" benchmark dataset that was not used in the development of SPIDER. We demonstrate that SPIDER scoring function ranks native and native-like poses above geometrical decoys and that it exceeds in performance a popular ZRANK scoring function. SPIDER was ranked among the top scoring functions in a recent round of CAPRI (Critical Assessment of PRedicted Interactions) blind test of protein-protein docking methods. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. An Interval-Valued Intuitionistic Fuzzy TOPSIS Method Based on an Improved Score Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-yong Bai

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes an improved score function for the effective ranking order of interval-valued intuitionistic fuzzy sets (IVIFSs and an interval-valued intuitionistic fuzzy TOPSIS method based on the score function to solve multicriteria decision-making problems in which all the preference information provided by decision-makers is expressed as interval-valued intuitionistic fuzzy decision matrices where each of the elements is characterized by IVIFS value and the information about criterion weights is known. We apply the proposed score function to calculate the separation measures of each alternative from the positive and negative ideal solutions to determine the relative closeness coefficients. According to the values of the closeness coefficients, the alternatives can be ranked and the most desirable one(s can be selected in the decision-making process. Finally, two illustrative examples for multicriteria fuzzy decision-making problems of alternatives are used as a demonstration of the applications and the effectiveness of the proposed decision-making method.

  1. Higher Mobility Scores in Patients with Cystic Fibrosis Are Associated with Better Lung Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aneesha Thobani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The purpose of this study was to determine whether mobility and physical activity were associated with lung function in adults with cystic fibrosis (CF. Design. This was a prospective cohort observational study in an urban, academic, specialized care center. Participants were ambulatory, nonhospitalized adults with CF. Main Outcome Measures. Mobility was assessed monthly by the Life-Space Assessment (LSA questionnaire and quarterly by pedometer. Lung function was assessed by spirometry. Results. Twenty-seven subjects participated. Subjects recorded mean pedometer steps of 20,213 ± 11,331 over three days and FEV1% predicted of 77.48% ± 22.60% over one year. The LSA score at enrollment was correlated with initial pedometer steps (r=0.42 and P=0.03, and mean LSA score over one year was correlated with mean number of steps (r=0.51 and P=0.007. LSA mobility and pedometer scores were correlated with FEV1% predicted at enrollment and throughout the study. Conclusions. Mobility and physical activity measured by LSA questionnaire and pedometer are positively associated with lung function in adults with CF. This study confirms the importance of mobility and physical activity and supports the utility of a simple office-based questionnaire as a measure of mobility in adults with CF.

  2. Higher mobility scores in patients with cystic fibrosis are associated with better lung function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thobani, Aneesha; Alvarez, Jessica A; Blair, Shaina; Jackson, Kaila; Gottlieb, Eric R; Walker, Seth; Tangpricha, Vin

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether mobility and physical activity were associated with lung function in adults with cystic fibrosis (CF). This was a prospective cohort observational study in an urban, academic, specialized care center. Participants were ambulatory, nonhospitalized adults with CF. Mobility was assessed monthly by the Life-Space Assessment (LSA) questionnaire and quarterly by pedometer. Lung function was assessed by spirometry. Twenty-seven subjects participated. Subjects recorded mean pedometer steps of 20,213 ± 11,331 over three days and FEV1% predicted of 77.48% ± 22.60% over one year. The LSA score at enrollment was correlated with initial pedometer steps (r = 0.42 and P = 0.03), and mean LSA score over one year was correlated with mean number of steps (r = 0.51 and P = 0.007). LSA mobility and pedometer scores were correlated with FEV1% predicted at enrollment and throughout the study. Mobility and physical activity measured by LSA questionnaire and pedometer are positively associated with lung function in adults with CF. This study confirms the importance of mobility and physical activity and supports the utility of a simple office-based questionnaire as a measure of mobility in adults with CF.

  3. Gait and Glasgow Coma Scale scores can predict functional recovery in patients with traumatic brain injury☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilgin, Sevil; Guclu-Gunduz, Arzu; Oruckaptan, Hakan; Kose, Nezire; Celik, Bülent

    2012-01-01

    Fifty-one patients with mild (n = 14), moderate (n = 10) and severe traumatic brain injury (n = 27) received early rehabilitation. Level of consciousness was evaluated using the Glasgow Coma Score. Functional level was determined using the Glasgow Outcome Score, whilst mobility was evaluated using the Mobility Scale for Acute Stroke. Activities of daily living were assessed using the Barthel Index. Following Bobath neurodevelopmental therapy, the level of consciousness was significantly improved in patients with moderate and severe traumatic brain injury, but was not greatly influenced in patients with mild traumatic brain injury. Mobility and functional level were significantly improved in patients with mild, moderate and severe traumatic brain injury. Gait recovery was more obvious in patients with mild traumatic brain injury than in patients with moderate and severe traumatic brain injury. Activities of daily living showed an improvement but this was insignificant except for patients with severe traumatic brain injury. Nevertheless, complete recovery was not acquired at discharge. Multiple regression analysis showed that gait and Glasgow Coma Scale scores can be considered predictors of functional outcomes following traumatic brain injury. PMID:25624828

  4. Can computer assistance improve the clinical and functional scores in total knee arthroplasty?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Vaquero, Daniel; Suarez-Vazquez, Abelardo; Iglesias-Fernandez, Susana

    2011-12-01

    Surgical navigation in TKA facilitates better alignment; however, it is unclear whether improved alignment alters clinical evolution and midterm and long-term complication rates. We determined the alignment differences between patients with standard, manual, jig-based TKAs and patients with navigation-based TKAs, and whether any differences would modify function, implant survival, and/or complications. We retrospectively reviewed 97 patients (100 TKAs) undergoing TKAs for minimal preoperative deformities. Fifty TKAs were performed with an image-free surgical navigation system and the other 50 with a standard technique. We compared femoral angle (FA), tibial angle (TA), and femorotibial angle (FTA) and determined whether any differences altered clinical or functional scores, as measured by the Knee Society Score (KSS), or complications. Seventy-three patients (75 TKAs) had a minimum followup of 8 years (mean, 8.3 years; range, 8-9.1 years). All patients included in the surgical navigation group had a FTA between 177° and 182º. We found no differences in the KSS or implant survival between the two groups and no differences in complication rates, although more complications occurred in the standard technique group (seven compared with two in the surgical navigation group). In the midterm, we found no difference in functional and clinical scores or implant survival between TKAs performed with and without the assistance of a navigation system. Level II, therapeutic study. See the Guidelines online for a complete description of levels of evidence.

  5. Memory Deficit is Associated with Worse Functional Trajectories Among Older Adults in Low Vision Rehabilitation for Macular Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitson, Heather E.; Whitaker, Diane; Sanders, Linda L.; Potter, Guy G.; Cousins, Scott W.; Ansah, Deidra; McConnell, Eleanor; Pieper, Carl F.; Landerman, Lawrence; Steffens, David C.; Cohen, Harvey J.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Older adults with macular disease are at increased risk of memory decline and incident dementia. Low vision rehabilitation (LVR) aims to preserve independence in people with irreversible vision loss, but comorbid memory problems could limit the success of rehabilitation. This study examined whether performance on a brief memory test is related to functional outcomes among older patients undergoing LVR for macular disease. Design Observational cohort study of patients receiving outpatient LVR Setting Academic center Participants 91 seniors (average age 80.1 years) with macular disease Measurements Memory was assessed at baseline with a 10-word list; memory deficit was defined as immediate recall of ≤ two words. Vision-related function was measured with the 25-item Visual Function Questionnaire (VFQ-25)administered at baseline and during subsequent interviews (mean length of follow up = 115 days). Linear mixed models (LMMs) were constructed to compare average trajectories of four VFQ-25 subscales: near activities, distance activities, dependency, and role difficulty. Results The 29.7% of patients with memory deficit tended to decline in ability to accomplish activities that involve near vision. Controlling for age, sex, and education, the functional trajectory of participants with memory deficit differed significantly from that of participants with better memory (p=0.002), who tended to report improvements in ability to accomplish near activities. Conclusion Among older adults receiving LVR for macular disease, those with memory deficit experienced worse functional trajectories in their ability to perform specific visually mediated tasks. A brief memory screen may help explain variability in rehabilitation outcomes and identify patients who might require special accommodations. PMID:23126548

  6. Prognostic Implication of Functional Incomplete Revascularization and Residual Functional SYNTAX Score in Patients With Coronary Artery Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Ki Hong; Lee, Joo Myung; Koo, Bon-Kwon; Nam, Chang-Wook; Shin, Eun-Seok; Doh, Joon-Hyung; Rhee, Tae-Min; Hwang, Doyeon; Park, Jonghanne; Zhang, Jinlong; Kim, Kyung-Jin; Hu, Xinyang; Wang, Jianan; Ye, Fei; Chen, Shaoliang; Yang, Junqing; Chen, Jiyan; Tanaka, Nobuhiro; Yokoi, Hiroyoshi; Matsuo, Hitoshi; Takashima, Hiroaki; Shiono, Yasutsugu; Akasaka, Takashi

    2018-02-12

    The aim of this study was to investigate the prognostic implication of functional incomplete revascularization (IR) and residual functional SYNTAX (Synergy Between Percutaneous Coronary Intervention With Taxus and Cardiac Surgery) score (rFSS) in comparison with 3-vessel fractional flow reserve (FFR) and residual SYNTAX score. IR is associated with poor clinical outcomes in patients who underwent percutaneous coronary intervention. A total of 385 patients who underwent 3-vessel FFR measurement after stent implantation were included in this study. The rFSS was defined as residual SYNTAX score measured only in vessels with FFR ≤0.8. The study population was divided into the functional IR group (rFSS ≥1) and the functional complete revascularization (CR) group (rFSS = 0). The primary outcome was major adverse cardiac events (MACEs; a composite of cardiac death, myocardial infarction, and ischemia-driven revascularization) at 2 years. Functional CR was achieved in 283 patients (73.5%). At 2-year follow-up, the functional IR group showed a significantly higher risk for MACEs (functional IR vs. CR, 14.6% vs. 4.2%; hazard ratio: 4.09; 95% confidence interval: 1.82 to 9.21; p system (rFSS) after stent implantation better discriminated the risk for adverse events than anatomic or physiological assessment alone. (Clinical Implication of 3-Vessel Fractional Flow Reserve [FFR]; NCT01621438). Copyright © 2018 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Credit Scoring by Fuzzy Support Vector Machines with a Novel Membership Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Shi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Due to the recent financial crisis and European debt crisis, credit risk evaluation has become an increasingly important issue for financial institutions. Reliable credit scoring models are crucial for commercial banks to evaluate the financial performance of clients and have been widely studied in the fields of statistics and machine learning. In this paper a novel fuzzy support vector machine (SVM credit scoring model is proposed for credit risk analysis, in which fuzzy membership is adopted to indicate different contribution of each input point to the learning of SVM classification hyperplane. Considering the methodological consistency, support vector data description (SVDD is introduced to construct the fuzzy membership function and to reduce the effect of outliers and noises. The SVDD-based fuzzy SVM model is tested against the traditional fuzzy SVM on two real-world datasets and the research results confirm the effectiveness of the presented method.

  8. PFP: Automated prediction of gene ontology functional annotations with confidence scores using protein sequence data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Troy; Chitale, Meghana; Luban, Stanislav; Kihara, Daisuke

    2009-02-15

    Protein function prediction is a central problem in bioinformatics, increasing in importance recently due to the rapid accumulation of biological data awaiting interpretation. Sequence data represents the bulk of this new stock and is the obvious target for consideration as input, as newly sequenced organisms often lack any other type of biological characterization. We have previously introduced PFP (Protein Function Prediction) as our sequence-based predictor of Gene Ontology (GO) functional terms. PFP interprets the results of a PSI-BLAST search by extracting and scoring individual functional attributes, searching a wide range of E-value sequence matches, and utilizing conventional data mining techniques to fill in missing information. We have shown it to be effective in predicting both specific and low-resolution functional attributes when sufficient data is unavailable. Here we describe (1) significant improvements to the PFP infrastructure, including the addition of prediction significance and confidence scores, (2) a thorough benchmark of performance and comparisons to other related prediction methods, and (3) applications of PFP predictions to genome-scale data. We applied PFP predictions to uncharacterized protein sequences from 15 organisms. Among these sequences, 60-90% could be annotated with a GO molecular function term at high confidence (>or=80%). We also applied our predictions to the protein-protein interaction network of the Malaria plasmodium (Plasmodium falciparum). High confidence GO biological process predictions (>or=90%) from PFP increased the number of fully enriched interactions in this dataset from 23% of interactions to 94%. Our benchmark comparison shows significant performance improvement of PFP relative to GOtcha, InterProScan, and PSI-BLAST predictions. This is consistent with the performance of PFP as the overall best predictor in both the AFP-SIG '05 and CASP7 function (FN) assessments. PFP is available as a web service at http

  9. Optimizing scoring function of protein-nucleic acid interactions with both affinity and specificity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiqiang Yan

    Full Text Available Protein-nucleic acid (protein-DNA and protein-RNA recognition is fundamental to the regulation of gene expression. Determination of the structures of the protein-nucleic acid recognition and insight into their interactions at molecular level are vital to understanding the regulation function. Recently, quantitative computational approach has been becoming an alternative of experimental technique for predicting the structures and interactions of biomolecular recognition. However, the progress of protein-nucleic acid structure prediction, especially protein-RNA, is far behind that of the protein-ligand and protein-protein structure predictions due to the lack of reliable and accurate scoring function for quantifying the protein-nucleic acid interactions. In this work, we developed an accurate scoring function (named as SPA-PN, SPecificity and Affinity of the Protein-Nucleic acid interactions for protein-nucleic acid interactions by incorporating both the specificity and affinity into the optimization strategy. Specificity and affinity are two requirements of highly efficient and specific biomolecular recognition. Previous quantitative descriptions of the biomolecular interactions considered the affinity, but often ignored the specificity owing to the challenge of specificity quantification. We applied our concept of intrinsic specificity to connect the conventional specificity, which circumvents the challenge of specificity quantification. In addition to the affinity optimization, we incorporated the quantified intrinsic specificity into the optimization strategy of SPA-PN. The testing results and comparisons with other scoring functions validated that SPA-PN performs well on both the prediction of binding affinity and identification of native conformation. In terms of its performance, SPA-PN can be widely used to predict the protein-nucleic acid structures and quantify their interactions.

  10. RAId_aPS: MS/MS analysis with multiple scoring functions and spectrum-specific statistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Gelio; Ogurtsov, Aleksey Y; Yu, Yi-Kuo

    2010-11-16

    Statistically meaningful comparison/combination of peptide identification results from various search methods is impeded by the lack of a universal statistical standard. Providing an E-value calibration protocol, we demonstrated earlier the feasibility of translating either the score or heuristic E-value reported by any method into the textbook-defined E-value, which may serve as the universal statistical standard. This protocol, although robust, may lose spectrum-specific statistics and might require a new calibration when changes in experimental setup occur. To mitigate these issues, we developed a new MS/MS search tool, RAId_aPS, that is able to provide spectrum-specific-values for additive scoring functions. Given a selection of scoring functions out of RAId score, K-score, Hyperscore and XCorr, RAId_aPS generates the corresponding score histograms of all possible peptides using dynamic programming. Using these score histograms to assign E-values enables a calibration-free protocol for accurate significance assignment for each scoring function. RAId_aPS features four different modes: (i) compute the total number of possible peptides for a given molecular mass range, (ii) generate the score histogram given a MS/MS spectrum and a scoring function, (iii) reassign E-values for a list of candidate peptides given a MS/MS spectrum and the scoring functions chosen, and (iv) perform database searches using selected scoring functions. In modes (iii) and (iv), RAId_aPS is also capable of combining results from different scoring functions using spectrum-specific statistics. The web link is http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/CBBresearch/Yu/raid_aps/index.html. Relevant binaries for Linux, Windows, and Mac OS X are available from the same page.

  11. Predicting Visual Disability in Glaucoma With Combinations of Vision Measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Stephanie; Mihailovic, Aleksandra; West, Sheila K; Johnson, Chris A; Friedman, David S; Kong, Xiangrong; Ramulu, Pradeep Y

    2018-04-01

    We characterized vision in glaucoma using seven visual measures, with the goals of determining the dimensionality of vision, and how many and which visual measures best model activity limitation. We analyzed cross-sectional data from 150 older adults with glaucoma, collecting seven visual measures: integrated visual field (VF) sensitivity, visual acuity, contrast sensitivity (CS), area under the log CS function, color vision, stereoacuity, and visual acuity with noise. Principal component analysis was used to examine the dimensionality of vision. Multivariable regression models using one, two, or three vision tests (and nonvisual predictors) were compared to determine which was best associated with Rasch-analyzed Glaucoma Quality of Life-15 (GQL-15) person measure scores. The participants had a mean age of 70.2 and IVF sensitivity of 26.6 dB, suggesting mild-to-moderate glaucoma. All seven vision measures loaded similarly onto the first principal component (eigenvectors, 0.220-0.442), which explained 56.9% of the variance in vision scores. In models for GQL scores, the maximum adjusted- R 2 values obtained were 0.263, 0.296, and 0.301 when using one, two, and three vision tests in the models, respectively, though several models in each category had similar adjusted- R 2 values. All three of the best-performing models contained CS. Vision in glaucoma is a multidimensional construct that can be described by several variably-correlated vision measures. Measuring more than two vision tests does not substantially improve models for activity limitation. A sufficient description of disability in glaucoma can be obtained using one to two vision tests, especially VF and CS.

  12. Kyphoplasty increases vertebral height, decreases both pain score and opiate requirements while improving functional status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolba, Reda; Bolash, Robert B; Shroll, Joshua; Costandi, Shrif; Dalton, Jarrod E; Sanghvi, Chirag; Mekhail, Nagy

    2014-03-01

    Vertebral compression fractures can result from advanced osteoporosis, or less commonly from metastatic or traumatic insults to the vertebral column, and result in disabling pain and decreased functional capacity. Various vertebral augmentation options including kyphoplasty aim at preventing the sequelae of pain and immobility that can develop as the result of the vertebral fractures. The mechanism for pain relief following kyphoplasty is not entirely understood, and the restoration of a portion of the lost vertebral height is a subject of debate. We retrospectively reviewed radiographic imaging, pain relief, analgesic intake and functional outcomes in 67 consecutive patients who underwent single- or multilevel kyphoplasty with the primary goal of quantifying the restoration of lost vertebral height. We observed a mean of 45% of the lost vertebral height restored postprocedurally. Secondarily, kyphoplasty was associated with significant decreases in pain scores, daily morphine consumption and improvement in patient-reported functional measures. © 2013 World Institute of Pain.

  13. Re-evaluating a vision-related quality of life questionnaire with item response theory (IRT and differential item functioning (DIF analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knol Dirk L

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background For the Low Vision Quality Of Life questionnaire (LVQOL it is unknown whether the psychometric properties are satisfactory when an item response theory (IRT perspective is considered. This study evaluates some essential psychometric properties of the LVQOL questionnaire in an IRT model, and investigates differential item functioning (DIF. Methods Cross-sectional data were used from an observational study among visually-impaired patients (n = 296. Calibration was performed for every dimension of the LVQOL in the graded response model. Item goodness-of-fit was assessed with the S-X2-test. DIF was assessed on relevant background variables (i.e. age, gender, visual acuity, eye condition, rehabilitation type and administration type with likelihood-ratio tests for DIF. The magnitude of DIF was interpreted by assessing the largest difference in expected scores between subgroups. Measurement precision was assessed by presenting test information curves; reliability with the index of subject separation. Results All items of the LVQOL dimensions fitted the model. There was significant DIF on several items. For two items the maximum difference between expected scores exceeded one point, and DIF was found on multiple relevant background variables. Item 1 'Vision in general' from the "Adjustment" dimension and item 24 'Using tools' from the "Reading and fine work" dimension were removed. Test information was highest for the "Reading and fine work" dimension. Indices for subject separation ranged from 0.83 to 0.94. Conclusions The items of the LVQOL showed satisfactory item fit to the graded response model; however, two items were removed because of DIF. The adapted LVQOL with 21 items is DIF-free and therefore seems highly appropriate for use in heterogeneous populations of visually impaired patients.

  14. Empirical scoring functions for advanced protein-ligand docking with PLANTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korb, Oliver; Stützle, Thomas; Exner, Thomas E

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we present two empirical scoring functions, PLANTS(CHEMPLP) and PLANTS(PLP), designed for our docking algorithm PLANTS (Protein-Ligand ANT System), which is based on ant colony optimization (ACO). They are related, regarding their functional form, to parts of already published scoring functions and force fields. The parametrization procedure described here was able to identify several parameter settings showing an excellent performance for the task of pose prediction on two test sets comprising 298 complexes in total. Up to 87% of the complexes of the Astex diverse set and 77% of the CCDC/Astex clean listnc (noncovalently bound complexes of the clean list) could be reproduced with root-mean-square deviations of less than 2 A with respect to the experimentally determined structures. A comparison with the state-of-the-art docking tool GOLD clearly shows that this is, especially for the druglike Astex diverse set, an improvement in pose prediction performance. Additionally, optimized parameter settings for the search algorithm were identified, which can be used to balance pose prediction reliability and search speed.

  15. Efficacy of perceptual vision therapy in enhancing visual acuity and contrast sensitivity function in adult hypermetropic anisometropic amblyopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yalcin E

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Elvan Yalcin, Ozlem BalciWorld Eye Hospital, Department of Pediatric Ophthalmology, Istanbul, TurkeyBackground: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of neural vision therapy, also termed perceptual vision therapy, in enhancing best corrected visual acuity (BCVA and contrast sensitivity function in amblyopic patients.Methods: This prospective study enrolled 99 subjects previously diagnosed with unilateral hypermetropic amblyopia aged 9–50 years. The subjects were divided into two groups, with 53 subjects (53 eyes in the perceptual vision therapy group and 46 subjects (46 eyes in the control group. Because the nature of the treatment demands hard work and strict compliance, we enrolled the minimal number of subjects required to achieve statistically significant results. Informed consent was obtained from all subjects. Study phases included a baseline screening, a series of 45 training sessions with perceptual vision therapy, and an end-of-treatment examination. BCVA and contrast sensitivity function at 1.5, 3, 6, 12, and 18 cycles per degree spatial frequencies were obtained for statistical analysis in both groups. All subjects had follow-up examinations within 4–8 months. With the exception of one subject from the study group and two subjects from the control group, all subjects had occlusion during childhood. The study was not masked.Results: The results for the study group demonstrated a mean improvement of 2.6 logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution (logMAR lines in visual acuity (from 0.42 to 0.16 logMAR. Contrast sensitivity function improved at 1.5, 3, 6, 12, and 18 cycles per degree spatial frequencies. The control group did not show any significant change in visual acuity or contrast sensitivity function. None of the treated eyes showed a drop in visual acuity. Manifest refractions remained unchanged during the study.Conclusion: The results of our study demonstrate the efficacy of perceptual vision therapy in

  16. Do SF-36 summary scores work as outcome measures in chronic functional disorders?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schröder, Andreas; Ørnbøl, Eva; Fink, Per

    controlled trial on cognitive behavioural therapy in patients with severe and chronic functional disorders. Based on a pilot study and baseline data, we have assessed the performance of the summary scores. Aim To demonstrate problems in the orthogonal factor solution for PCS and MCS and to assess other...... based on an oblique factor solution and the summary components from the RAND-36 HSI. Results Pilot study: Improvement on subscales of physical health was not reflected by the original PCS. The three methods showed different results with regard to individual changes over time. Baseline data: Surprisingly...

  17. Students with Low Vision Describe Their Visual Impairments and Visual Functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerette, Amy R.; Lewis, Sandra; Mattingly, Cameron

    2011-01-01

    In the study reported here, the responses to a survey that was designed to determine the knowledge of their visual impairment of 51 students with low vision were analyzed. Although the students described their visual weaknesses and strengths, they had limited knowledge of, and difficulty communicating about, the medical aspects of their…

  18. Original article Stability of WISC-R scores in students with borderline intellectual functioning

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    Anna Maria Jankowska

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Previous studies on the measurement of intelligence in students with learning difficulties indicate low stability of results observed over time. Therefore, careful analysis of changes in intelligence quotient, as well as in results within Verbal and Performance scale subtests, is necessary. PARTICIPANTS AND PROCEDURE The aim of the research was to analyze changes in WISC-R scores over time in students with borderline intellectual functioning. Test-retest stability of WISC-R was evaluated for Full, Verbal (VIQ, and Performance (PIQ scales. The study involved 30 students, who were tested three times, when their mean age was 8, 10.8, and 13.6 years old. RESULTS The results showed that Full Scale IQ was fairly stable over time and remained below the average level, between –1.01 and –2.00 standard deviations. Significant changes were observed in the Verbal and Performance scale; VIQ decreased and PIQ increased over time. An initially insignificant statistical difference between the scales grew as time progressed. Furthermore, considerable subtest score fluctuation was observed; over time scores in the Vocabulary subtest significantly decreased whereas in Block Design and Picture Arrangement they increased. CONCLUSIONS The authors argue that delayed acquisition of verbal skills may result from chronic school failure and deficiency of educational support experienced by this group of students. Meanwhile, non-verbal skills, that are less dependent on educational influences and academic knowledge, improve with students’ development through their engagement in everyday life activities.

  19. Macleaya cordata Extract Decreased Diarrhea Score and Enhanced Intestinal Barrier Function in Growing Piglets

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    Gang Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Macleaya cordata extract is of great scientific and practical interest to researchers, due to its antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory responses within experimental animals. This study was designed to determine the diarrhea score and innate immunity of growing piglets after they had received Macleaya cordata extract supplements. A total of 240 growing pigs were randomly assigned to one of three dietary treatments, with 8 replicates per treatment and 10 piglets per replicate. All pigs received a basal diet containing similar amounts of nutrients. The three treatments were a control (no additive, an antibiotic (200 mg/kg colistin, and the Macleaya cordata extract supplement group (40 mg/kg Macleaya cordata extract. The diarrhea score was calculated after D 28. The jejunal samples were obtained from five piglets selected randomly from each treatment on D 28. In comparison with the control group, the dietary Macleaya cordata extract and colistin group demonstrated a substantially decreased diarrhea score. The introduction of Macleaya cordata extract supplements to the diet significantly increased volumes of ZO-1 and claudin-1, particularly in comparison with the pigs in the control group (P<0.05. The findings indicate that Macleaya cordata extract does enhance intestinal barrier function in growing piglets and that it could be used as a viable substitute for antibiotics.

  20. Low Vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... USAJobs Home » Statistics and Data » Low Vision Listen Low Vision Low Vision Defined: Low Vision is defined as the best- ... Ethnicity 2010 U.S. Age-Specific Prevalence Rates for Low Vision by Age, and Race/Ethnicity Table for 2010 ...

  1. Negative emotions affect postoperative scores for evaluating functional knee recovery and quality of life after total knee replacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Qi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine whether psychological factors affect health-related quality of life (HRQL and recovery of knee function in total knee replacement (TKR patients. A total of 119 TKR patients (male: 38; female: 81 completed the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI, Beck Depression Inventory (BDI, State Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI, Eysenck Personality Questionnaire-revised (EPQR-S, Knee Society Score (KSS, and HRQL (SF-36. At 1 and 6 months after surgery, anxiety, depression, and KSS scores in TKR patients were significantly better compared with those preoperatively (P<0.05. SF-36 scores at the sixth month after surgery were significantly improved compared with preoperative scores (P<0.001. Preoperative Physical Component Summary Scale (PCS and Mental Component Summary Scale (MCS scores were negatively associated with extraversion (E score (B=-0.986 and -0.967, respectively, both P<0.05. Postoperative PCS and State Anxiety Inventory (SAI scores were negatively associated with neuroticism (N score; B=-0.137 and -0.991, respectively, both P<0.05. Postoperative MCS, SAI, Trait Anxiety Inventory (TAI, and BAI scores were also negatively associated with the N score (B=-0.367, -0.107, -0.281, and -0.851, respectively, all P<0.05. The KSS function score at the sixth month after surgery was negatively associated with TAI and N scores (B=-0.315 and -0.532, respectively, both P<0.05, but positively associated with the E score (B=0.215, P<0.05. The postoperative KSS joint score was positively associated with postoperative PCS (B=0.356, P<0.05. In conclusion, for TKR patients, the scores used for evaluating recovery of knee function and HRQL after 6 months are inversely associated with the presence of negative emotions.

  2. How reliable are Functional Movement Screening scores? A systematic review of rater reliability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Robert W; Schneiders, Anthony G; Major, Katherine M; Sullivan, S John

    2016-05-01

    Several physical assessment protocols to identify intrinsic risk factors for injury aetiology related to movement quality have been described. The Functional Movement Screen (FMS) is a standardised, field-expedient test battery intended to assess movement quality and has been used clinically in preparticipation screening and in sports injury research. To critically appraise and summarise research investigating the reliability of scores obtained using the FMS battery. Systematic literature review. Systematic search of Google Scholar, Scopus (including ScienceDirect and PubMed), EBSCO (including Academic Search Complete, AMED, CINAHL, Health Source: Nursing/Academic Edition), MEDLINE and SPORTDiscus. Studies meeting eligibility criteria were assessed by 2 reviewers for risk of bias using the Quality Appraisal of Reliability Studies checklist. Overall quality of evidence was determined using van Tulder's levels of evidence approach. 12 studies were appraised. Overall, there was a 'moderate' level of evidence in favour of 'acceptable' (intraclass correlation coefficient ≥0.6) inter-rater and intra-rater reliability for composite scores derived from live scoring. For inter-rater reliability of composite scores derived from video recordings there was 'conflicting' evidence, and 'limited' evidence for intra-rater reliability. For inter-rater reliability based on live scoring of individual subtests there was 'moderate' evidence of 'acceptable' reliability (κ≥0.4) for 4 subtests (Deep Squat, Shoulder Mobility, Active Straight-leg Raise, Trunk Stability Push-up) and 'conflicting' evidence for the remaining 3 (Hurdle Step, In-line Lunge, Rotary Stability). This review found 'moderate' evidence that raters can achieve acceptable levels of inter-rater and intra-rater reliability of composite FMS scores when using live ratings. Overall, there were few high-quality studies, and the quality of several studies was impacted by poor study reporting particularly in relation to

  3. How Am I Driving? Using Genetic Programming to Generate Scoring Functions for Urban Driving Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto López

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Road traffic injuries are a serious concern in emerging economies. Their death toll and economic impact are shocking, with 9 out of 10 deaths occurring in low or middle-income countries; and road traffic crashes representing 3% of their gross domestic product. One way to mitigate these issues is to develop technology to effectively assist the driver, perhaps making him more aware about how her (his decisions influence safety. Following this idea, in this paper we evaluate computational models that can score the behavior of a driver based on a risky-safety scale. Potential applications of these models include car rental agencies, insurance companies or transportation service providers. In a previous work, we showed that Genetic Programming (GP was a successful methodology to evolve mathematical functions with the ability to learn how people subjectively score a road trip. The input to this model was a vector of frequencies of risky maneuvers, which were supposed to be detected in a sensor layer. Moreover, GP was shown, even with statistical significance, to be better than six other Machine Learning strategies, including Neural Networks, Support Vector Regression and a Fuzzy Inference system, among others. A pending task, since then, was to evaluate if a more detailed comparison of different strategies based on GP could improve upon the best GP model. In this work, we evaluate, side by side, scoring functions evolved by three different variants of GP. In the end, the results suggest that two of these strategies are very competitive in terms of accuracy and simplicity, both generating models that could be implemented in current technology that seeks to assist the driver in real-world scenarios.

  4. DRAGON score predicts functional outcomes in acute ischemic stroke patients receiving both intravenous tissue plasminogen activator and endovascular therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Arthur; Pednekar, Noorie; Lehrer, Rachel; Todo, Akira; Sahni, Ramandeep; Marks, Stephen; Stiefel, Michael F

    2017-01-01

    The DRAGON score, which includes clinical and computed tomographic (CT) scan parameters, predicts functional outcomes in ischemic stroke patients treated with intravenous tissue plasminogen activator (IV tPA). We assessed the utility of the DRAGON score in predicting functional outcome in stroke patients receiving both IV tPA and endovascular therapy. A retrospective chart review of patients treated at our institution from February 2009 to October 2015 was conducted. All patients with computed tomography angiography (CTA) proven large vessel occlusions (LVO) who underwent intravenous thrombolysis and endovascular therapy were included. Baseline DRAGON scores and modified Rankin Score (mRS) at the time of hospital discharge was calculated. Good outcome was defined as mRS ≤3. Fifty-eight patients with LVO of the anterior circulation were studied. The mean DRAGON score of patients on admission was 5.3 (range, 3-8). All patients received IV tPA and endovascular therapy. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that DRAGON scores ≥7 was associated with higher mRS ( P DRAGON scores ≤6. Patients with DRAGON scores of 7 and 8 on admission had a mortality rate of 3.8% and 40%, respectively. The DRAGON score can help predict better functional outcomes in ischemic stroke patients receiving both IV tPA and endovascular therapy. This data supports the use of the DRAGON score in selecting patients who could potentially benefit from more invasive therapies such as endovascular treatment. Larger prospective studies are warranted to further validate these results.

  5. Losses of functional opsin genes, short-wavelength cone photopigments, and color vision--a significant trend in the evolution of mammalian vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Gerald H

    2013-03-01

    All mammalian cone photopigments are derived from the operation of representatives from two opsin gene families (SWS1 and LWS in marsupial and eutherian mammals; SWS2 and LWS in monotremes), a process that produces cone pigments with respective peak sensitivities in the short and middle-to-long wavelengths. With the exception of a number of primate taxa, the modal pattern for mammals is to have two types of cone photopigment, one drawn from each of the gene families. In recent years, it has been discovered that the SWS1 opsin genes of a widely divergent collection of eutherian mammals have accumulated mutational changes that render them nonfunctional. This alteration reduces the retinal complements of these species to a single cone type, thus rendering ordinary color vision impossible. At present, several dozen species from five mammalian orders have been identified as falling into this category, but the total number of mammalian species that have lost short-wavelength cones in this way is certain to be much larger, perhaps reaching as high as 10% of all species. A number of circumstances that might be used to explain this widespread cone loss can be identified. Among these, the single consistent fact is that the species so affected are nocturnal or, if they are not technically nocturnal, they at least feature retinal organizations that are typically associated with that lifestyle. At the same time, however, there are many nocturnal mammals that retain functional short-wavelength cones. Nocturnality thus appears to set the stage for loss of functional SWS1 opsin genes in mammals, but it cannot be the sole circumstance.

  6. A Unified Discussion on the Concept of Score Functions Used in the Context of Nonparametric Linkage Analysis

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    Lars Ängquist

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article we try to discuss nonparametric linkage (NPL score functions within a broad and quite general framework. The main focus of the paper is the structure, derivation principles and interpretations of the score function entity itself. We define and discuss several families of one-locus score function definitions, i.e. the implicit, explicit and optimal ones. Some generalizations and comments to the two-locus, unconditional and conditional, cases are included as well. Although this article mainly aims at serving as an overview, where the concept of score functions are put into a covering context, we generalize the noncentrality parameter (NCP optimal score functions in Ängquist et al. (2007 to facilitate—through weighting—for incorporation of several plausible distinct genetic models. Since the genetic model itself most oftenly is to some extent unknown this facilitates weaker prior assumptions with respect to plausible true disease models without loosing the property of NCP-optimality. Moreover, we discuss general assumptions and properties of score functions in the above sense. For instance, the concept of identical by descent (IBD sharing structures and score function equivalence are discussed in some detail.

  7. Vision Lab

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Vision Lab personnel perform research, development, testing and evaluation of eye protection and vision performance. The lab maintains and continues to develop...

  8. Optoelectronic vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Chunye; Parel, Jean-Marie A.

    1993-06-01

    Scientists have searched every discipline to find effective methods of treating blindness, such as using aids based on conversion of the optical image, to auditory or tactile stimuli. However, the limited performance of such equipment and difficulties in training patients have seriously hampered practical applications. A great edification has been given by the discovery of Foerster (1929) and Krause & Schum (1931), who found that the electrical stimulation of the visual cortex evokes the perception of a small spot of light called `phosphene' in both blind and sighted subjects. According to this principle, it is possible to invite artificial vision by using stimulation with electrodes placed on the vision neural system, thereby developing a prosthesis for the blind that might be of value in reading and mobility. In fact, a number of investigators have already exploited this phenomena to produce a functional visual prosthesis, bringing about great advances in this area.

  9. Patterns of functional vision loss in glaucoma determined with archetypal analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elze, Tobias; Pasquale, Louis R.; Shen, Lucy Q.; Chen, Teresa C.; Wiggs, Janey L.; Bex, Peter J.

    2015-01-01

    Glaucoma is an optic neuropathy accompanied by vision loss which can be mapped by visual field (VF) testing revealing characteristic patterns related to the retinal nerve fibre layer anatomy. While detailed knowledge about these patterns is important to understand the anatomic and genetic aspects of glaucoma, current classification schemes are typically predominantly derived qualitatively. Here, we classify glaucomatous vision loss quantitatively by statistically learning prototypical patterns on the convex hull of the data space. In contrast to component-based approaches, this method emphasizes distinct aspects of the data and provides patterns that are easier to interpret for clinicians. Based on 13 231 reliable Humphrey VFs from a large clinical glaucoma practice, we identify an optimal solution with 17 glaucomatous vision loss prototypes which fit well with previously described qualitative patterns from a large clinical study. We illustrate relations of our patterns to retinal structure by a previously developed mathematical model. In contrast to the qualitative clinical approaches, our results can serve as a framework to quantify the various subtypes of glaucomatous visual field loss. PMID:25505132

  10. The Kernel Levine Equipercentile Observed-Score Equating Function. Research Report. ETS RR-13-38

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Davier, Alina A.; Chen, Haiwen

    2013-01-01

    In the framework of the observed-score equating methods for the nonequivalent groups with anchor test design, there are 3 fundamentally different ways of using the information provided by the anchor scores to equate the scores of a new form to those of an old form. One method uses the anchor scores as a conditioning variable, such as the Tucker…

  11. Substituting random forest for multiple linear regression improves binding affinity prediction of scoring functions: Cyscore as a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongjian; Leung, Kwong-Sak; Wong, Man-Hon; Ballester, Pedro J

    2014-08-27

    State-of-the-art protein-ligand docking methods are generally limited by the traditionally low accuracy of their scoring functions, which are used to predict binding affinity and thus vital for discriminating between active and inactive compounds. Despite intensive research over the years, classical scoring functions have reached a plateau in their predictive performance. These assume a predetermined additive functional form for some sophisticated numerical features, and use standard multivariate linear regression (MLR) on experimental data to derive the coefficients. In this study we show that such a simple functional form is detrimental for the prediction performance of a scoring function, and replacing linear regression by machine learning techniques like random forest (RF) can improve prediction performance. We investigate the conditions of applying RF under various contexts and find that given sufficient training samples RF manages to comprehensively capture the non-linearity between structural features and measured binding affinities. Incorporating more structural features and training with more samples can both boost RF performance. In addition, we analyze the importance of structural features to binding affinity prediction using the RF variable importance tool. Lastly, we use Cyscore, a top performing empirical scoring function, as a baseline for comparison study. Machine-learning scoring functions are fundamentally different from classical scoring functions because the former circumvents the fixed functional form relating structural features with binding affinities. RF, but not MLR, can effectively exploit more structural features and more training samples, leading to higher prediction performance. The future availability of more X-ray crystal structures will further widen the performance gap between RF-based and MLR-based scoring functions. This further stresses the importance of substituting RF for MLR in scoring function development.

  12. Vision Related Quality of Life in Patients with Keratoconus

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    Sevda Aydin Kurna

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the vision related quality of life in patients with keratoconus by using the National Eye Institute Visual Function Questionnaire-25 (NEI-VFQ-25. Methods. Thirty patients presented with keratoconus (keratoconus group and 30 healthy patients (control group were included in this study. Twenty patients were using rigid gas permeable and 10 patients were not using contact lenses in keratoconus group. High and low contrast visual acuity and mean K values of the patients were recorded. Each subject completed the 25-item NEI-VFQ-25. Results. All subscales of NEI-VFQ-25 were lower in the keratoconus patients. The difference was more evident in the subscales of general vision, ocular pain, near vision, vision-specific mental health, vision-specific role difficulties, and peripheral vision P 0.4 in the better eye had lower distance vision, social functioning, mental health, and role difficulties. Meanwhile, patients with low visual acuity (logMAR > 0.4 in the worse eye had lower general health scores P<0.05. Conclusions. Vision related quality of life was worse in keratoconus patients. Success in the contact lens usage and maintaining higher visual acuity may improve vision related quality of life.

  13. Enhance the performance of current scoring functions with the aid of 3D protein-ligand interaction fingerprints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jie; Su, Minyi; Liu, Zhihai; Li, Jie; Li, Yan; Wang, Renxiao

    2017-07-18

    In structure-based drug design, binding affinity prediction remains as a challenging goal for current scoring functions. Development of target-biased scoring functions provides a new possibility for tackling this problem, but this approach is also associated with certain technical difficulties. We previously reported the Knowledge-Guided Scoring (KGS) method as an alternative approach (BMC Bioinformatics, 2010, 11, 193-208). The key idea is to compute the binding affinity of a given protein-ligand complex based on the known binding data of an appropriate reference complex, so the error in binding affinity prediction can be reduced effectively. In this study, we have developed an upgraded version, i.e. KGS2, by employing 3D protein-ligand interaction fingerprints in reference selection. KGS2 was evaluated in combination with four scoring functions (X-Score, ChemPLP, ASP, and GoldScore) on five drug targets (HIV-1 protease, carbonic anhydrase 2, beta-secretase 1, beta-trypsin, and checkpoint kinase 1). In the in situ scoring test, considerable improvements were observed in most cases after application of KGS2. Besides, the performance of KGS2 was always better than KGS in all cases. In the more challenging molecular docking test, application of KGS2 also led to improved structure-activity relationship in some cases. KGS2 can be applied as a convenient "add-on" to current scoring functions without the need to re-engineer them, and its application is not limited to certain target proteins as customized scoring functions. As an interpolation method, its accuracy in principle can be improved further with the increasing knowledge of protein-ligand complex structures and binding affinity data. We expect that KGS2 will become a practical tool for enhancing the performance of current scoring functions in binding affinity prediction. The KGS2 software is available upon contacting the authors.

  14. Age-independent anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) standard deviation scores to estimate ovarian function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helden, Josef van; Weiskirchen, Ralf

    2017-06-01

    To determine single year age-specific anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) standard deviation scores (SDS) for women associated to normal ovarian function and different ovarian disorders resulting in sub- or infertility. Determination of particular year median and mean AMH values with standard deviations (SD), calculation of age-independent cut off SDS for the discrimination between normal ovarian function and ovarian disorders. Single-year-specific median, mean, and SD values have been evaluated for the Beckman Access AMH immunoassay. While the decrease of both median and mean AMH values is strongly correlated with increasing age, calculated SDS values have been shown to be age independent with the differentiation between normal ovarian function measured as occurred ovulation with sufficient luteal activity compared with hyperandrogenemic cycle disorders or anovulation associated with high AMH values and reduced ovarian activity or insufficiency associated with low AMH, respectively. These results will be helpful for the treatment of patients and the ventilation of the different reproductive options. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Clinical Correlates of Hachinski Ischemic Score and Vascular Factors in Cognitive Function of Elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youn Ho Kim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between Hachinski ischemic score (HIS and vascular factors as well as between HIS and the cognitive function in elderly community. Demographic characteristics, such as sex, age, education, history of drinking and smoking, family history of dementia and stroke, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, cardiovascular disease, stroke, and dementia, were surveyed. Neurological examination was administered to every subject and HIS was checked by a neurologist. From a total of 392 participants aged 65 and over in a rural community, 348 completed the survey and were finally enrolled. Among the vascular factors, history of hypertension (P=0.008, history of stroke (P<0.001, family history of dementia (P=0.01, and history of cardiac diseases (P=0.012 showed a significant relationship with HIS. In the cognitive function tests, both Korean version of the Mini-Mental State Examination and the Clinical Dementia Rating (Global and Sum of Boxes had a significant relationship with HIS. Our study suggested HIS may have an association with some vascular factors and cognitive scales in community dwelling elderly. In this study, the HIS seemed to contribute to the evaluation of the quantity of vascular factors and to the prediction of status of cognitive function.

  16. Upper Extremity Functional Evaluation by Fugl-Meyer Assessment Scoring Using Depth-Sensing Camera in Hemiplegic Stroke Patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Won-Seok Kim

    Full Text Available Virtual home-based rehabilitation is an emerging area in stroke rehabilitation. Functional assessment tools are essential to monitor recovery and provide current function-based rehabilitation. We developed the Fugl-Meyer Assessment (FMA tool using Kinect (Microsoft, USA and validated it for hemiplegic stroke patients. Forty-one patients with hemiplegic stroke were enrolled. Thirteen of 33 items were selected for upper extremity motor FMA. One occupational therapist assessed the motor FMA while recording upper extremity motion with Kinect. FMA score was calculated using principal component analysis and artificial neural network learning from the saved motion data. The degree of jerky motion was also transformed to jerky scores. Prediction accuracy for each of the 13 items and correlations between real FMA scores and scores using Kinect were analyzed. Prediction accuracies ranged from 65% to 87% in each item and exceeded 70% for 9 items. Correlations were high for the summed score for the 13 items between real FMA scores and scores obtained using Kinect (Pearson's correlation coefficient = 0.873, P<0.0001 and those between total upper extremity scores (66 in full score and scores using Kinect (26 in full score (Pearson's correlation coefficient = 0.799, P<0.0001. Log transformed jerky scores were significantly higher in the hemiplegic side (1.81 ± 0.76 compared to non-hemiplegic side (1.21 ± 0.43 and showed significant negative correlations with Brunnstrom stage (3 to 6; Spearman correlation coefficient = -0.387, P = 0.046. FMA using Kinect is a valid way to assess upper extremity function and can provide additional results for movement quality in stroke patients. This may be useful in the setting of unsupervised home-based rehabilitation.

  17. The role of vision processing in prosthetic vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Nick; He, Xuming; McCarthy, Chris; Horne, Lachlan; Kim, Junae; Scott, Adele; Lieby, Paulette

    2012-01-01

    Prosthetic vision provides vision which is reduced in resolution and dynamic range compared to normal human vision. This comes about both due to residual damage to the visual system from the condition that caused vision loss, and due to limitations of current technology. However, even with limitations, prosthetic vision may still be able to support functional performance which is sufficient for tasks which are key to restoring independent living and quality of life. Here vision processing can play a key role, ensuring that information which is critical to the performance of key tasks is available within the capability of the available prosthetic vision. In this paper, we frame vision processing for prosthetic vision, highlight some key areas which present problems in terms of quality of life, and present examples where vision processing can help achieve better outcomes.

  18. A new evaluation score that uses salpingoscopy to reflect fallopian tube function in infertile women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, Koji; Inoue, Masato; Nishi, Yayoi; Sugiyama, Rie; Motoyama, Koji; Kuribayashi, Yasushi; Akira, Shigeo; Sugiyama, Rikikazu

    2010-12-01

    To build an evaluation scoring system using the results of salpingoscopy, and to evaluate the relationship between this scoring system and the outcome of pregnancy. Retrospective study. Sugiyama Clinic. Using salpingoscopy, we observed the tubal lumen, paying attention to the following six results: adhesions, loss of mucosal folds, rounded edges of mucosal folds, debris, foreign bodies, and abnormal vessels. From April 2008 through June 2009, 104 women in whom unexplained infertility had been diagnosed underwent salpingoscopy. The F scores were evaluated related with various clinical results or pregnancy rates. The F score expressed the sum of the abnormal results, and one abnormal result was given a 1-point F score. Approximately 60% of the patients showed an F score of 0, and the percentages of patients who showed 1, 2, 3, and ≥4 points were 19.2%, 11.5%, 4.5%, and 4.5%, respectively. After evaluation, 23 patients achieved pregnancy within a year. The pregnancy rates for patients with F scores of 0 and 1 point were 30.6% and 20.0%, respectively, and the rate of patients with an F score of 0 was significantly higher than the rate of patients with high F scores (F score ≥2; 9.1%). The patients showing a lower F score (0 or 1) showed higher fecundity than those showing an F score of ≥2. Copyright © 2010 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. [Objective assessment of the functional impact of dry eye severity on the quality of vision by double-pass aberrometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habay, T; Majzoub, S; Perrault, O; Rousseau, C; Pisella, P J

    2014-03-01

    To assess the functional impact of the severity of dry eye on the quality of vision by measuring an Objective Scatter Index (OSI) using double pass aberrometry. Twenty-eight patients (56 eyes) with dry eye syndromes of varying severity participated in this study. A double-pass aberrometer was used to measure the dynamic changes in the OSI for 20 seconds. The mean and standard deviations of the OSI and the number of blinks occurring during the examination were compared as a function of the clinical severity of dry eye disease. The mean OSI increased with the severity of dry eye syndrome with a significant difference for stages 3 (P0.8) or visual acuity (P>0.2). Standard deviation of the OSI also increased with the severity of dry eye disease, with a significant difference for stages 3 (P0.2). The values of the OSI standard deviation represented the dynamic nature of aberrometric changes related to the instability of the tear film. Quality of vision of patients deteriorated in relation to the severity of their dry eye. The analysis of OSI standard deviation appears to be an objective way to assess the intensity of subjective visual disturbances reported by patients with dry eye syndrome. It also provides a new tool to assess the severity of damage to the ocular surface. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Multisystemic Therapy and Functional Family Therapy Compared on their Effectiveness Using the Propensity Score Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eeren, Hester V; Goossens, Lucas M A; Scholte, Ron H J; Busschbach, Jan J V; van der Rijken, Rachel E A

    2018-01-09

    Multisystemic Therapy (MST) and Functional Family Therapy (FFT) have overlapping target populations and treatment goals. In this study, these interventions were compared on their effectiveness using a quasi-experimental design. Between October, 2009 and June, 2014, outcome data were collected from 697 adolescents (mean age 15.3 (SD 1.48), 61.9% male) assigned to either MST or FFT (422 MST; 275 FFT). Data were gathered during Routine Outcome Monitoring. The primary outcome was externalizing problem behavior (Child Behavior Checklist and Youth Self Report). Secondary outcomes were the proportion of adolescents living at home, engaged in school or work, and who lacked police contact during treatment. Because of the non-random assignment, a propensity score method was used to control for observed pre-treatment differences. Because the risk-need-responsivity (RNR) model guided treatment assignment, effectiveness was also estimated in youth with and without a court order as an indicator of their risk level. Looking at the whole sample, no difference in effect was found with regard to externalizing problems. For adolescents without a court order, effects on externalizing problems were larger after MST. Because many more adolescents with a court order were assigned to MST compared to FFT, the propensity score method could not balance the treatment groups in this subsample. In conclusion, few differences between MST and FFT were found. In line with the RNR model, higher risk adolescents were assigned to the more intensive treatment, namely MST. In the group with lower risk adolescents, this more intensive treatment was more effective in reducing externalizing problems.

  1. Severe structural and functional visual system damage leads to profound loss of vision-related quality of life in patients with neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Felix; Zimmermann, Hanna; Mikolajczak, Janine; Oertel, Frederike C; Pache, Florence; Weinhold, Maria; Schinzel, Johann; Bellmann-Strobl, Judith; Ruprecht, Klemens; Paul, Friedemann; Brandt, Alexander U

    2017-01-01

    Neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMOSD) are characterized by devastating optic neuritis attacks causing more structural damage and visual impairment than in multiple sclerosis (MS). The objective of this study was to compare vision-related quality of life in NMOSD and MS patients and correlate it to structural retinal damage and visual function. Thirty-one NMOSD and 31 matched MS patients were included. Vision-related quality of life was assessed with the 39-item National Eye Institute Visual Function Questionnaire (NEI-VFQ). All patients underwent retinal optical coherence tomography and visual acuity and contrast sensitivity measurements. Vision-related quality of life was reduced in NMOSD compared to MS patients. This difference was driven by a higher incidence of bilateral and more severe optic neuritis in the NMOSD group. Retinal thinning and visual impairment were significantly greater in the NMOSD cohort. Lower vision-related quality of life was associated with more retinal damage and reduced visual function as assessed by visual acuity and contrast sensitivity. NMOSD-related bilateral ON-attacks cause severe structural damage and visual impairment that lead to severe loss of vision-related quality of life. The NEI-VFQ is a helpful tool to monitor vision-related quality of life in NMOSD patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. MM-ISMSA: An Ultrafast and Accurate Scoring Function for Protein-Protein Docking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klett, Javier; Núñez-Salgado, Alfonso; Dos Santos, Helena G; Cortés-Cabrera, Álvaro; Perona, Almudena; Gil-Redondo, Rubén; Abia, David; Gago, Federico; Morreale, Antonio

    2012-09-11

    An ultrafast and accurate scoring function for protein-protein docking is presented. It includes (1) a molecular mechanics (MM) part based on a 12-6 Lennard-Jones potential; (2) an electrostatic component based on an implicit solvent model (ISM) with individual desolvation penalties for each partner in the protein-protein complex plus a hydrogen bonding term; and (3) a surface area (SA) contribution to account for the loss of water contacts upon protein-protein complex formation. The accuracy and performance of the scoring function, termed MM-ISMSA, have been assessed by (1) comparing the total binding energies, the electrostatic term, and its components (charge-charge and individual desolvation energies), as well as the per residue contributions, to results obtained with well-established methods such as APBSA or MM-PB(GB)SA for a set of 1242 decoy protein-protein complexes and (2) testing its ability to recognize the docking solution closest to the experimental structure as that providing the most favorable total binding energy. For this purpose, a test set consisting of 15 protein-protein complexes with known 3D structure mixed with 10 decoys for each complex was used. The correlation between the values afforded by MM-ISMSA and those from the other methods is quite remarkable (r(2) ∼ 0.9), and only 0.2-5.0 s (depending on the number of residues) are spent on a single calculation including an all vs all pairwise energy decomposition. On the other hand, MM-ISMSA correctly identifies the best docking solution as that closest to the experimental structure in 80% of the cases. Finally, MM-ISMSA can process molecular dynamics trajectories and reports the results as averaged values with their standard deviations. MM-ISMSA has been implemented as a plugin to the widely used molecular graphics program PyMOL, although it can also be executed in command-line mode. MM-ISMSA is distributed free of charge to nonprofit organizations.

  3. Associations of anatomical measures from MRI with radiographically defined knee osteoarthritis score, pain, and physical functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowers, Maryfran; Karvonen-Gutierrez, Carrie A; Jacobson, Jon A; Jiang, Yebin; Yosef, Matheos

    2011-02-02

    The prevalence of knee osteoarthritis is traditionally based on radiographic findings, but magnetic resonance imaging is now being used to provide better visualization of bone, cartilage, and soft tissues as well as the patellar compartment. The goal of this study was to estimate the prevalences of knee features defined on magnetic resonance imaging in a population and to relate these abnormalities to knee osteoarthritis severity scores based on radiographic findings, physical functioning, and reported knee pain in middle-aged women. Magnetic resonance images of the knee were evaluated for the location and severity of cartilage defects, bone marrow lesions, osteophytes, subchondral cysts, meniscal and/or ligamentous tears, effusion, and synovitis among 363 middle-aged women (724 knees) from the Michigan Study of Women's Health Across the Nation. These findings were related to Kellgren-Lawrence osteoarthritis severity scores from radiographs, self-reported knee pain, self-reported knee injury, perception of physical functioning, and physical performance measures to assess mobility. Radiographs, physical performance assessment, and interviews were undertaken at the 1996 study baseline and again (with the addition of magnetic resonance imaging assessment) at the follow-up visit during 2007 to 2008. The prevalence of moderate-to-severe knee osteoarthritis changed from 3.7% at the baseline assessment to 26.7% at the follow-up visit eleven years later. Full-thickness cartilage defects of the medial, lateral, and patellofemoral compartments were present in 14.5% (105 knees), 4.6% (thirty-three knees), and 26.2% (190 knees), respectively. Synovitis was identified in 24.7% (179) of the knees, and joint effusions were observed in 70% (507 knees); 21.7% (157) of the knees had complex or macerated meniscal tears. Large osteophytes, marked synovitis, macerated meniscal tears, and full-thickness tibial cartilage defects were associated with increased odds of knee pain and with

  4. Machine-learning scoring functions to improve structure-based binding affinity prediction and virtual screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ain, Qurrat Ul; Aleksandrova, Antoniya; Roessler, Florian D; Ballester, Pedro J

    2015-01-01

    Docking tools to predict whether and how a small molecule binds to a target can be applied if a structural model of such target is available. The reliability of docking depends, however, on the accuracy of the adopted scoring function (SF). Despite intense research over the years, improving the accuracy of SFs for structure-based binding affinity prediction or virtual screening has proven to be a challenging task for any class of method. New SFs based on modern machine-learning regression models, which do not impose a predetermined functional form and thus are able to exploit effectively much larger amounts of experimental data, have recently been introduced. These machine-learning SFs have been shown to outperform a wide range of classical SFs at both binding affinity prediction and virtual screening. The emerging picture from these studies is that the classical approach of using linear regression with a small number of expert-selected structural features can be strongly improved by a machine-learning approach based on nonlinear regression allied with comprehensive data-driven feature selection. Furthermore, the performance of classical SFs does not grow with larger training datasets and hence this performance gap is expected to widen as more training data becomes available in the future. Other topics covered in this review include predicting the reliability of a SF on a particular target class, generating synthetic data to improve predictive performance and modeling guidelines for SF development. WIREs Comput Mol Sci 2015, 5:405-424. doi: 10.1002/wcms.1225 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website.

  5. Virtual screening approach to identifying influenza virus neuraminidase inhibitors using molecular docking combined with machine-learning-based scoring function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li; Ai, Hai-Xin; Li, Shi-Meng; Qi, Meng-Yuan; Zhao, Jian; Zhao, Qi; Liu, Hong-Sheng

    2017-10-10

    In recent years, an epidemic of the highly pathogenic avian influenza H7N9 virus has persisted in China, with a high mortality rate. To develop novel anti-influenza therapies, we have constructed a machine-learning-based scoring function (RF-NA-Score) for the effective virtual screening of lead compounds targeting the viral neuraminidase (NA) protein. RF-NA-Score is more accurate than RF-Score, with a root-mean-square error of 1.46, Pearson's correlation coefficient of 0.707, and Spearman's rank correlation coefficient of 0.707 in a 5-fold cross-validation study. The performance of RF-NA-Score in a docking-based virtual screening of NA inhibitors was evaluated with a dataset containing 281 NA inhibitors and 322 noninhibitors. Compared with other docking-rescoring virtual screening strategies, rescoring with RF-NA-Score significantly improved the efficiency of virtual screening, and a strategy that averaged the scores given by RF-NA-Score, based on the binding conformations predicted with AutoDock, AutoDock Vina, and LeDock, was shown to be the best strategy. This strategy was then applied to the virtual screening of NA inhibitors in the SPECS database. The 100 selected compounds were tested in an in vitro H7N9 NA inhibition assay, and two compounds with novel scaffolds showed moderate inhibitory activities. These results indicate that RF-NA-Score improves the efficiency of virtual screening for NA inhibitors, and can be used successfully to identify new NA inhibitor scaffolds. Scoring functions specific for other drug targets could also be established with the same method.

  6. Modified Chrispin-Norman chest radiography score for cystic fibrosis: observer agreement and correlation with lung function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jong, P.A. de; Achterberg, J.A.; Kessels, O.A.M.; Beek, F.J.; Ginneken, B. van; Hogeweg, L.; Terheggen-Lagro, S.W.J.

    2011-01-01

    To test observer agreement and two strategies for possible improvement (consensus meeting and reference images) for the modified Chrispin-Norman score for children with cystic fibrosis (CF). Before and after a consensus meeting and after developing reference images three observers scored sets of 25 chest radiographs from children with CF. Observer agreement was tested for line, ring, mottled and large soft shadows, for overinflation and for the composite modified Chrispin-Norman score. Correlation with lung function was assessed. Before the consensus meeting agreement between observers 1 and 2 was moderate-good, but with observer 3 agreement was poor-fair. Scores correlated significantly with spirometry for observers 1 and 2 (-0.72< R<-0.42, P < 0.05), but not for observer 3. Agreement with observer 3 improved after the consensus meeting. Reference images improved agreement for overinflation and mottled and large shadows and correlation with lung function, but agreement for the modified Chrispin-Norman score did not improve further. Consensus meetings and reference images improve among-observer agreement for the modified Chrispin-Norman score, but good agreement was not achieved among all observers for the modified Chrispin-Norman score and for bronchial line and ring shadows. (orig.)

  7. Modified Chrispin-Norman chest radiography score for cystic fibrosis: observer agreement and correlation with lung function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jong, P.A. de; Achterberg, J.A.; Kessels, O.A.M.; Beek, F.J. [Department of Radiology, University Medical Center Utrecht, Wilhelmina Children' s Hospital, Utrecht (Netherlands); Ginneken, B. van; Hogeweg, L. [Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Department of Radiology, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Image Sciences Institute, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht (Netherlands); Terheggen-Lagro, S.W.J. [University Medical Center Utrecht, Wilhelmina Children' s Hospital, Department of Pediatric Pulmonology, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2011-04-15

    To test observer agreement and two strategies for possible improvement (consensus meeting and reference images) for the modified Chrispin-Norman score for children with cystic fibrosis (CF). Before and after a consensus meeting and after developing reference images three observers scored sets of 25 chest radiographs from children with CF. Observer agreement was tested for line, ring, mottled and large soft shadows, for overinflation and for the composite modified Chrispin-Norman score. Correlation with lung function was assessed. Before the consensus meeting agreement between observers 1 and 2 was moderate-good, but with observer 3 agreement was poor-fair. Scores correlated significantly with spirometry for observers 1 and 2 (-0.72function, but agreement for the modified Chrispin-Norman score did not improve further. Consensus meetings and reference images improve among-observer agreement for the modified Chrispin-Norman score, but good agreement was not achieved among all observers for the modified Chrispin-Norman score and for bronchial line and ring shadows. (orig.)

  8. Therapist-Assisted Rehabilitation of Visual Function and Hemianopia after Brain Injury: Intervention Study on the Effect of the Neuro Vision Technology Rehabilitation Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Rune Skovgaard; Schaarup, Anne Marie Heltoft; Overgaard, Karsten

    2018-02-27

    Serious and often lasting vision impairments affect 30% to 35% of people following stroke. Vision may be considered the most important sense in humans, and even smaller permanent injuries can drastically reduce quality of life. Restoration of visual field impairments occur only to a small extent during the first month after brain damage, and therefore the time window for spontaneous improvements is limited. One month after brain injury causing visual impairment, patients usually will experience chronically impaired vision and the need for compensatory vision rehabilitation is substantial. The purpose of this study is to investigate whether rehabilitation with Neuro Vision Technology will result in a significant and lasting improvement in functional capacity in persons with chronic visual impairments after brain injury. Improving eyesight is expected to increase both physical and mental functioning, thus improving the quality of life. This is a prospective open label trial in which participants with chronic visual field impairments are examined before and after the intervention. Participants typically suffer from stroke or traumatic brain injury and will be recruited from hospitals and The Institute for the Blind and Partially Sighted. Treatment is based on Neuro Vision Technology, which is a supervised training course, where participants are trained in compensatory techniques using specially designed equipment. Through the Neuro Vision Technology procedure, the vision problems of each individual are carefully investigated, and personal data is used to organize individual training sessions. Cognitive face-to-face assessments and self-assessed questionnaires about both life and vision quality are also applied before and after the training. Funding was provided in June 2017. Results are expected to be available in 2020. Sample size is calculated to 23 participants. Due to age, difficulty in transport, and the time-consuming intervention, up to 25% dropouts are

  9. Relationship between upper extremity kinesthetic sense and writing performance by students with low vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aki, Esra; Atasavun, Songül; Kayihan, Holya

    2008-06-01

    Kinesthetic sense plays an important role in writing. Children with low vision lack sensory input from the environment given their loss of vision. This study assessed the effect of upper extremity kinesthetic sense on writing function in two groups, one of students with low vision (9 girls and 11 boys, 9.4 +/- 1.9 yr. of age) and one of sighted students (10 girls and 10 boys, 10.1 +/- 1.3 yr. of age). All participants were given the Kinesthesia Test and Jebsen Hand Function Test-Writing subtest. Students with low vision scored lower on kinesthetic perception and writing performance than sighted peers. The correlation between scores for writing performance and upper extremity kinesthetic sense in the two groups was significant (r = -.34). The probability of deficiencies in kinesthetic information in students with low vision must be remembered.

  10. VISION development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez, J.E.; Sherwood, R.J.; Whitman, S.R.

    1994-01-01

    VISION is a flexible and extensible object-oriented programming environment for prototyping computer-vision and pattern-recognition algorithms. This year's effort focused on three major areas: documentation, graphics, and support for new applications

  11. Computational vision

    CERN Document Server

    Wechsler, Harry

    1990-01-01

    The book is suitable for advanced courses in computer vision and image processing. In addition to providing an overall view of computational vision, it contains extensive material on topics that are not usually covered in computer vision texts (including parallel distributed processing and neural networks) and considers many real applications.

  12. Relationships between spatial activities and scores on the mental rotation test as a function of sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginn, Sheryl R; Pickens, Stefanie J

    2005-06-01

    Previous results suggested that female college students' scores on the Mental Rotations Test might be related to their prior experience with spatial tasks. For example, women who played video games scored better on the test than their non-game-playing peers, whereas playing video games was not related to men's scores. The present study examined whether participation in different types of spatial activities would be related to women's performance on the Mental Rotations Test. 31 men and 59 women enrolled at a small, private church-affiliated university and majoring in art or music as well as students who participated in intercollegiate athletics completed the Mental Rotations Test. Women's scores on the Mental Rotations Test benefitted from experience with spatial activities; the more types of experience the women had, the better their scores. Thus women who were athletes, musicians, or artists scored better than those women who had no experience with these activities. The opposite results were found for the men. Efforts are currently underway to assess how length of experience and which types of experience are related to scores.

  13. Total Cerebral Small Vessel Disease MRI Score Is Associated With Cognitive Decline In Executive Function In Patients With Hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renske Uiterwijk

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Hypertension is a major risk factor for white matter hyperintensities, lacunes, cerebral microbleeds and perivascular spaces, which are MRI markers of cerebral small vessel disease (SVD. Studies have shown associations between these individual MRI markers and cognitive functioning and decline. Recently, a total SVD score was proposed in which the different MRI markers were combined into one measure of SVD, to capture total SVD-related brain damage. We investigated if this SVD score was associated with cognitive decline over 4 years in patients with hypertension. Methods: In this longitudinal cohort study, 130 hypertensive patients (91 patients with uncomplicated hypertension and 39 hypertensive patients with a lacunar stroke were included. They underwent a neuropsychological assessment at baseline and after 4 years. The presence of white matter hyperintensities, lacunes, cerebral microbleeds, and perivascular spaces were rated on baseline MRI. Presence of each individual marker was added to calculate the total SVD score (range 0-4 in each patient. Results: Uncorrected linear regression analyses showed associations between SVD score and decline in overall cognition (p=0.017, executive functioning (p<0.001 and information processing speed (p=0.037, but not with memory (p=0.911. The association between SVD score and decline in overall cognition and executive function remained significant after adjustment for age, sex, education, anxiety and depression score, potential vascular risk factors, patient group and baseline cognitive performance.Conclusions: Our study shows that a total SVD score can predict cognitive decline, specifically in executive function, over 4 years in hypertensive patients. This emphasizes the importance of considering total brain damage due to SVD.

  14. Functional changes at the preferred retinal locus in subjects with bilateral central vision loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Arun Kumar; Bedell, Harold E

    2018-01-01

    Subjects with bilateral central vision loss (CVL) use a retinal region called the preferred retinal locus (PRL) for performing various visual tasks. We probed the fixation PRL in individuals with bilateral macular disease, including age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and Stargardt disease (STGD), for localized sensitivity deficits. Three letter words at the critical print size were presented in the NIDEK MP-1 microperimeter to determine the fixation PRL and its radial retinal eccentricity from the residual fovea in 29 subjects with bilateral CVL. Fixation stability was defined as the median bivariate contour ellipse area (BCEA) from 3 fixation assessments. A standard 10-2 grid (68 locations, 2° apart) was used to determine central retinal sensitivity for Goldmann size II test spots. Baseline and follow-up supra-threshold screening of the fixation PRL for localized sensitivity deficits was performed using high density (0.2° or 0.3° apart) 0 dB Goldmann size II test spots. Custom MATLAB code and a dual bootstrapping algorithm were used to register test-spot locations from the baseline and follow-up tests. Locations where the 0 dB test spots were not seen on either test were labeled as micro-scotomas (MSs). Median BCEA correlated poorly with the radial eccentricity of the fixation PRL. Mean (±SD) sensitivity around the PRL from 10-2 testing was 4.93 ± 4.73 dB. The average percentage of MSs was similar for patients with AMD (25.4%), STGD (20.3%), and other etiologies of CVL (27.1%). The fixation PRL in subjects with bilateral CVL frequently includes local regions of sensitivity loss.

  15. A new entropy function for feature extraction with the refined scores as a classifier for the unconstrained ear verification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamta Bansal

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available For high end security like surveillance there is a need for a robust system capable of verifying a person under the unconstrained conditions. This paper presents the ear based verification system using a new entropy function that changes not only the information gain function but also the information source values. This entropy function displays peculiar characteristics such as splitting into two modes. Two types of entropy features: Effective Gaussian Information source value and Effective Exponential Information source value functions are derived using the entropy function. To classify the entropy features we have devised refined scores (RS method that refines the scores generated using the Euclidean distance. The experimental results vindicate the superiority of proposed method over literature.

  16. An appraisal of the Functional Movement Screen™ grading criteria--Is the composite score sensitive to risky movement behavior?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, David M; Beach, Tyson A C; Campbell, Troy L; Callaghan, Jack P; McGill, Stuart M

    2015-11-01

    To examine the relationship between the composite Functional Movement Screen (FMS) score and performers' spine and frontal plane knee motion. Examined the spine and frontal plane knee motion exhibited by performers who received high (>14) and low (0.8) were noted between the high- and low-scoring groups when performing the FMS tasks; high-scorers employed less spine and frontal plane knee motion. Substantial variation was also observed amongst participants. Participants with high composite FMS scores exhibited less spine and frontal plane knee motion while performing the FMS in comparison to their low-scoring counterparts. However, because substantial variation was observed amongst performers, the FMS may not provide the specificity needed for individualized injury risk assessment and exercise prescription. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Conservative treatment of soft tissue sarcomas of the extremities. Functional evaluation with LENT-SOMA scales and the Enneking score

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tawfiq, N.; Lagarde, P.; Thomas, L.; Kantor, G.; Stockle, E.; Bui, B.N.

    2000-01-01

    Objective. - The aim of this prospective study is the feasibility of late effects assessment by LENT-SOMA scales after conservative treatment of soft tissue sarcomas of the extremities and a comparison with the functional evaluation by the Enneking score. Patients and methods. - During the systematic follow-up consultations, a series of 32 consecutive patients was evaluated in terms of late effects by LENT SOMA scales and functional results by the Enneking score. The median time after treatment was 65 months. The treatment consisted of conservative surgery (all cases) followed by radiation therapy (29 cases), often combined with adjuvant therapy (12 concomitant radio-chemotherapy association cases out of 14). The assessment of the toxicity was retrospective for acute effects and prospective for the following late tissue damage: skin/subcutaneous tissues, muscles/soft tissues and peripheral nerves. Results. -According to the Enneking score, the global score for the overall series was high (24/30) despite four the scores zero for the psychological acceptance. According to LENT SOMA scales, a low rate of severe sequelae (grade 3-4) was observed. The occurrence of high-grade sequelae and their functional consequences were not correlated with quality of exeresis, dose of radiotherapy or use of concomitant chemotherapy. A complementarity was observed between certain factors of the Enneking score and some criteria of the LENTSOMA scales, especially of muscles/soft tissues. Conclusion. -The good quality of functional results was confirmed by the two mean scoring systems for late normal tissue damage. The routine use of LENT-SOMA seems to be more time consuming than the Enneking score (mean time of scoring: 1 3 versus five minutes). The LENT-SOMA scales are aimed at a detailed description of late toxicity and sequelae while the Enneking score provides a more global evaluation, including the psychological acceptance of treatment. The late effects assessment by the LENT

  18. Determination of an effective scoring function for RNA-RNA interactions with a physics-based double-iterative method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Yumeng; Wen, Zeyu; Zhang, Di; Huang, Sheng-You

    2018-05-18

    RNA-RNA interactions play fundamental roles in gene and cell regulation. Therefore, accurate prediction of RNA-RNA interactions is critical to determine their complex structures and understand the molecular mechanism of the interactions. Here, we have developed a physics-based double-iterative strategy to determine the effective potentials for RNA-RNA interactions based on a training set of 97 diverse RNA-RNA complexes. The double-iterative strategy circumvented the reference state problem in knowledge-based scoring functions by updating the potentials through iteration and also overcame the decoy-dependent limitation in previous iterative methods by constructing the decoys iteratively. The derived scoring function, which is referred to as DITScoreRR, was evaluated on an RNA-RNA docking benchmark of 60 test cases and compared with three other scoring functions. It was shown that for bound docking, our scoring function DITScoreRR obtained the excellent success rates of 90% and 98.3% in binding mode predictions when the top 1 and 10 predictions were considered, compared to 63.3% and 71.7% for van der Waals interactions, 45.0% and 65.0% for ITScorePP, and 11.7% and 26.7% for ZDOCK 2.1, respectively. For unbound docking, DITScoreRR achieved the good success rates of 53.3% and 71.7% in binding mode predictions when the top 1 and 10 predictions were considered, compared to 13.3% and 28.3% for van der Waals interactions, 11.7% and 26.7% for our ITScorePP, and 3.3% and 6.7% for ZDOCK 2.1, respectively. DITScoreRR also performed significantly better in ranking decoys and obtained significantly higher score-RMSD correlations than the other three scoring functions. DITScoreRR will be of great value for the prediction and design of RNA structures and RNA-RNA complexes.

  19. Functional low vision in adults from Latin America: findings from population-based surveys in 15 countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Limburg

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To review data on functional low vision (FLV (low vision-visual acuity (VA perception of light (PL+ in the better eye-that is untreatable and uncorrectable in adults aged 50 years or older from published population-based surveys from 15 countries in Latin America and the Caribbean. METHODS: Data from 15 cross-sectional, population-based surveys on blindness and visual impairment (10 national and five subnational covering 55 643 people > 50 years old in 15 countries from 2003 to 2013 were reanalyzed to extract statistics on FLV. Eleven of the studies used the rapid assessment of avoidable blindness (RAAB method and four used the rapid assessment of cataract surgical services (RACSS method. For the 10 national surveys, age-and sex-specific prevalence of FLV was extrapolated against the corresponding population to estimate the total number of people > 50 years old with FLV. RESULTS: Age- and sex-adjusted prevalence of FLV in people > 50 years old ranged from 0.9% (Guatemala, Mexico, and Uruguay to 2.2% (Brazil and Cuba and increased by age. The weighted average prevalence for the 10 national surveys was 1.6%: 1.4% in men and 1.8% in women. For all 10 national studies, a total of 509 164 people > 50 years old were estimated to have FLV. Based on the 910 individuals affected, the main causes of FLV were age-related macular degeneration (weighted average prevalence of 26%, glaucoma (23%, diabetic retinopathy (19%, other posterior segment disease (15%, non-trachomatous corneal opacities (7%, and complications after cataract surgery (4%. CONCLUSIONS: FLV is expected to rise because of 1 the exponential increase of this condition by age, 2 increased life expectancy, and 3 the increase in people > 50 years old. These data can be helpful in planning and developing low vision services for the region; large countries such as Brazil and Mexico would need more studies. Prevention is a major strategy to reduce FLV, as more than 50% of it is

  20. Functional low vision in adults from Latin America: findings from population-based surveys in 15 countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limburg, Hans; Espinoza, Rosario; Lansingh, Van C; Silva, Juan Carlos

    2015-06-01

    To review data on functional low vision (FLV) (low vision-visual acuity (VA) perception of light (PL+) in the better eye-that is untreatable and uncorrectable) in adults aged 50 years or older from published population-based surveys from 15 countries in Latin America and the Caribbean. Data from 15 cross-sectional, population-based surveys on blindness and visual impairment (10 national and five subnational) covering 55 643 people > 50 years old in 15 countries from 2003 to 2013 were reanalyzed to extract statistics on FLV. Eleven of the studies used the rapid assessment of avoidable blindness (RAAB) method and four used the rapid assessment of cataract surgical services (RACSS) method. For the 10 national surveys, age-and sex-specific prevalence of FLV was extrapolated against the corresponding population to estimate the total number of people > 50 years old with FLV. Age- and sex-adjusted prevalence of FLV in people > 50 years old ranged from 0.9% (Guatemala, Mexico, and Uruguay) to 2.2% (Brazil and Cuba) and increased by age. The weighted average prevalence for the 10 national surveys was 1.6%: 1.4% in men and 1.8% in women. For all 10 national studies, a total of 509 164 people > 50 years old were estimated to have FLV. Based on the 910 individuals affected, the main causes of FLV were age-related macular degeneration (weighted average prevalence of 26%), glaucoma (23%), diabetic retinopathy (19%), other posterior segment disease (15%), non-trachomatous corneal opacities (7%), and complications after cataract surgery (4%). FLV is expected to rise because of 1) the exponential increase of this condition by age, 2) increased life expectancy, and 3) the increase in people > 50 years old. These data can be helpful in planning and developing low vision services for the region; large countries such as Brazil and Mexico would need more studies. Prevention is a major strategy to reduce FLV, as more than 50% of it is preventable.

  1. Automated Quantitative Computed Tomography Versus Visual Computed Tomography Scoring in Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis: Validation Against Pulmonary Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Joseph; Bartholmai, Brian J; Rajagopalan, Srinivasan; Kokosi, Maria; Nair, Arjun; Karwoski, Ronald; Raghunath, Sushravya M; Walsh, Simon L F; Wells, Athol U; Hansell, David M

    2016-09-01

    The aim of the study was to determine whether a novel computed tomography (CT) postprocessing software technique (CALIPER) is superior to visual CT scoring as judged by functional correlations in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). A total of 283 consecutive patients with IPF had CT parenchymal patterns evaluated quantitatively with CALIPER and by visual scoring. These 2 techniques were evaluated against: forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), forced vital capacity (FVC), diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide (DLco), carbon monoxide transfer coefficient (Kco), and a composite physiological index (CPI), with regard to extent of interstitial lung disease (ILD), extent of emphysema, and pulmonary vascular abnormalities. CALIPER-derived estimates of ILD extent demonstrated stronger univariate correlations than visual scores for most pulmonary function tests (PFTs): (FEV1: CALIPER R=0.29, visual R=0.18; FVC: CALIPER R=0.41, visual R=0.27; DLco: CALIPER R=0.31, visual R=0.35; CPI: CALIPER R=0.48, visual R=0.44). Correlations between CT measures of emphysema extent and PFTs were weak and did not differ significantly between CALIPER and visual scoring. Intriguingly, the pulmonary vessel volume provided similar correlations to total ILD extent scored by CALIPER for FVC, DLco, and CPI (FVC: R=0.45; DLco: R=0.34; CPI: R=0.53). CALIPER was superior to visual scoring as validated by functional correlations with PFTs. The pulmonary vessel volume, a novel CALIPER CT parameter with no visual scoring equivalent, has the potential to be a CT feature in the assessment of patients with IPF and requires further exploration.

  2. Evaluation of a new fiber-grating vision sensor for assessing pulmonary functions in healthy and COPD subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsujimura, S; Tsuduki, K; Shirahata, T; Yoshida, S; Chubachi, S; Miyazaki, M; Nakamura, M; Takahashi, S; Nakajima, T; Minematsu, N; Tateno, H; Asano, K; Nakamura, H; Sato, I; Aoki, H

    2011-01-01

    Spirometry is practically the only tool to evaluate pulmonary functions. Other automatic systems comparable to spirometry are expected. A fiber-grating (FG) vision sensor is a non-contact respiratory monitoring system to detect changes in volumes by measuring the movement of laser spots on the body surface. We examined the contributions of the FG sensor to evaluating pulmonary functions. The FG sensor showed a linear correlation with spirometry in tidal volumes (TV) obtained from five controls (R = 0.98, P < 0.0001). We also showed agreement of TV between the two devices using Bland–Altman analysis. TV measured by the FG sensor were reproducible and applicable to distinct subjects. To detect airway obstruction, we performed forced expiration in controls (n = 16) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients (n = 18) with the FG sensor and spirometry. Forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV 1 ) and FEV 1 /forced vital capacity in COPD patients were lower than those in controls by the FG sensor. In addition, prolonged expiration in natural breathing by the FG sensor was related to airflow limitation by spirometry. The FG sensor was helpful to measure volume changes and to evaluate pulmonary functions in controls and patients with COPD. Its upcoming clinical applications are promising for simplicity and feasibility

  3. Functional vision is improved in the majority of patients treated with external beam radiotherapy for choroid metastases: a multivariate analysis of 188 patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudoler, Shari B.; Shields, Carol L.; Corn, Benjamin W.; De Potter, Patrick; Hyslop, Terry; Curran, Walter J.; Shields, Jerry A.

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: Metastatic deposits are the most common intraocular malignancies, and their incidence may be as high as 4-12% in patients with solid tumors. We evaluated the efficacy of external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) in the palliation of posterior uveal metastases in terms of functional vision, tumor response, and globe preservation. Pre-radiotherapy tumor and patient characteristics which correlate best with vision restoration and preservation were identified. Patients and Methods: 483 consecutive patients (pts) (578 eyes) were diagnosed with intraocular metastatic disease between 1972-1995. Of these, 233 eyes (188 pts) had lesions of the posterior uveal tract and received EBRT. Pts with metastatic deposits from solid tumors were selected for analysis. Best corrected visual acuity (VA) was documented pre- and post-EBRT in 155 eyes. Visual function was 'excellent' if VA≤ (20(50)); 'navigational' if (20(60))-(20(200)); and 'legally blind' if ≥ (20(400)). Most patients received 30.0-40.0 Gy in 2.0-3.0 Gy fractions to the posterior or entire globe. Median follow up time was 5.8 mo (0.7-170.0) from the start of EBRT. Results: 57% ((89(155))) of all evaluable eyes had improved visual function or maintained at least navigational vision following EBRT. Specifically, 43% maintained ((46(69))) or achieved ((21(86))) excellent vision, and 26% maintained ((15(39))) or achieved ((7(47))) navigational vision. 36% of blind eyes regained useful vision. 93% ((217(233))) experienced no clinical evidence of tumor progression and globe preservation rate was 98%. The following characteristics were predictive of improvement to or maintenance of excellent vision on univariate analysis: excellent vision (vs navigational or legally blind) prior to EBRT (p 0.001), age < 55 yrs (p = 0.004), Caucasian race (vs African-American/Hispanic) (p 0.003), duration of symptoms < 3.25 mo. (p 0.03), bilateral metastases (vs unilateral) (p = 0.02), tumor base diameter < 15 mm (p < 0.001), and tumor

  4. Machine Vision Handbook

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    The automation of visual inspection is becoming more and more important in modern industry as a consistent, reliable means of judging the quality of raw materials and manufactured goods . The Machine Vision Handbook  equips the reader with the practical details required to engineer integrated mechanical-optical-electronic-software systems. Machine vision is first set in the context of basic information on light, natural vision, colour sensing and optics. The physical apparatus required for mechanized image capture – lenses, cameras, scanners and light sources – are discussed followed by detailed treatment of various image-processing methods including an introduction to the QT image processing system. QT is unique to this book, and provides an example of a practical machine vision system along with extensive libraries of useful commands, functions and images which can be implemented by the reader. The main text of the book is completed by studies of a wide variety of applications of machine vision in insp...

  5. Identification of the optimal donor quality scoring system and measure of early renal function in kidney transplantation.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Moore, Jason

    2009-02-27

    The early identification of kidney allografts at risk of later dysfunction has implications for clinical practice. Donor quality scoring systems (preoperative) and measures of early allograft function (first week postoperative) have previously shown practical utility. This study aimed to determine the optimal parameter(s) (preoperative and postoperative) with greatest predictive power for the development of subsequent allograft dysfunction.

  6. Validation of the DRAGON Score in a Chinese Population to Predict Functional Outcome of Intravenous Thrombolysis-Treated Stroke Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xinmiao; Liao, Xiaoling; Wang, Chunjuan; Liu, Liping; Wang, Chunxue; Zhao, Xingquan; Pan, Yuesong; Wang, Yilong; Wang, Yongjun

    2015-08-01

    The DRAGON score predicts functional outcome of ischemic stroke patients treated with intravenous thrombolysis. Our aim was to evaluate its utility in a Chinese stroke population. Patients with acute ischemic stroke treated with intravenous thrombolysis were prospectively registered in the Thrombolysis Implementation and Monitor of acute ischemic Stroke in China. We excluded patients with basilar artery occlusion and missing data, leaving 970 eligible patients. We calculated the DRAGON score, and the clinical outcome was measured by the modified Rankin Scale at 3 months. Model discrimination was quantified by calculating the C statistic. Calibration was assessed using Pearson correlation coefficient. The C statistic was .73 (.70-.76) for good outcome and .75 (.70-.79) for miserable outcome. Proportions of patients with good outcome were 94%, 83%, 70%, and 0% for 0 to 1, 2, 3, and 8 to 10 score points, respectively. Proportions of patients with miserable outcome were 0%, 3%, 9%, and 50% for 0 to 1, 2, 3, and 8 to 10 points, respectively. There was high correlation between predicted and observed probability of 3-month favorable and miserable outcome in the external validation cohort (Pearson correlation coefficient, .98 and .98, respectively, both P DRAGON score showed good performance to predict functional outcome after tissue-type plasminogen activator treatment in the Chinese population. This study demonstrated the accuracy and usability of the DRAGON score in the Chinese population in daily practice. Copyright © 2015 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. A new scoring function for protein-protein docking that identifies native structures with unprecedented accuracy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moreira, Irina S.; da Silva Martins, João Miguel; Coimbra, João T.S.

    2015-01-01

    . It incorporates alanine scanning mutagenesis experimental data that need to be obtained a priori. The scoring scheme works by matching the computational and the experimental alanine scanning mutagenesis results. The size of the trial P-P interface area is also taken into account. We show that the method ranks...

  8. A factor analysis of Functional Independence and Functional Assessment Measure scores among focal and diffuse brain injury patients: The importance of bi-factor models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunn, Sarah; Burgess, Gerald H; Maltby, John

    2018-04-28

    To explore the factor structure of the UK Functional Independence Measure and Functional Assessment Measure (FIM+FAM) among focal and diffuse acquired brain injury patients. Criterion standard. An NHS acute acquired brain injury inpatient rehabilitation hospital. Referred sample of 447 adults (835 cases after exclusions) admitted for inpatient treatment following an acquired brain injury significant enough to justify intensive inpatient neurorehabilitation. Not applicable. Functional Independence Measure and Functional Assessment Measure. Exploratory Factor Analysis suggested a two-factor structure to FIM+FAM scores, among both focal-proximate and diffuse-proximate acquired brain injury aetiologies. Confirmatory Factor Analysis suggested a three-factor bi-factor structure presented the best fit of the FIM+FAM score data across both aetiologies. However, across both analyses, a convergence was found towards a general factor, demonstrated by high correlations between factors in the Exploratory Factor Analysis, and by a general factor explaining the majority of the variance in scores on Confirmatory Factor Analysis. Our findings suggested that although factors describing specific functional domains can be derived from FIM+FAM item scores, there is a convergence towards a single factor describing overall functioning. This single factor informs the specific group factors (e.g. motor, psychosocial and communication function) following brain injury. Further research into the comparative value of the general and group factors as evaluative/prognostic measures is indicated. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. Usefulness of scoring right ventricular function for assessment of prognostic factors in patients with chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamimura, Yoshihiro; Okumura, Naoki; Adachi, Shiro; Shimokata, Shigetake; Tajima, Fumitaka; Nakano, Yoshihisa; Hirashiki, Akihiro; Murohara, Toyoaki; Kondo, Takahisa

    2018-04-27

    Right ventricular (RV) function is associated with prognosis in chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH). This study aimed to establish an RV dysfunction score using RV echocardiographic parameters to clarify the clinical characteristics in patients with CTEPH and to compare RV dysfunction score with parameters such as World Health Organization (WHO) functional class, hemodynamics, exercise capacity, and plasma BNP level. We enrolled 35 inpatients with CTEPH (mean age, 62 ± 15 years, 15 males). We constructed 'an RV dysfunction score' calculated as the summation of each point awarded for the presence of four parameters: tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (TAPSE)  0.4, 1 point. TAPSE, S', RVFAC, and RV-MPI was 18.7 ± 4.8 mm, 11.9 ± 3.1 cm/s, 33.5 ± 13.9%, and 0.39 ± 0.2, respectively. The RV dysfunction score was associated with symptom [WHO functional class (p = 0.026)], hemodynamics [mean PAP (p = 0.01), cardiac index (p = 0.009), pulmonary vascular resistance (p = 0.001), and SvO 2 (p = 0.039)], exercise capacity [6-min walk distance (p = 0.046), peakVO 2 (p = 0.016), and VE/VCO 2 slope (p = 0.031)], and plasma BNP level (p = 0.005). This RV dysfunction score using the four RV echocardiographic parameters could be a simple and useful scoring system to evaluate prognostic factors in patients with CTEPH.

  10. Ocular Motor Score (OMS): a clinical tool to evaluating ocular motor functions in children. Intrarater and inter-rater agreement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsson, Monica; Teär Fahnehjelm, Kristina; Rydberg, Agneta; Ygge, Jan

    2015-08-01

    Ocular motor score (OMS) is a new clinical test protocol for evaluating ocular motor functions in children and young adults. OMS is a set of 15 important and relevant non-invasive ocular motor function parameters derived from clinical practice. The aim of the study was to evaluate OMS according to intrarater and inter-rater agreement. Forty children aged 4-10 years, 23 girls median age 6.5 (range 4.3-9.3) and 17 boys median age 5.8 (range 4.1-9.8) were included. The ocular motor functions were assessed and scored according to the OMS protocol. The examinations were videotaped. To obtain the intrarater agreement, the first author examined and scored the children twice, first in the clinic and 2 weeks later by watching the videotape. To obtain the inter-rater agreement, three other raters independently scored the ocular motor function of the children by watching the videotapes. The overall observed intrarater agreement was 88%, and the observed inter-rater agreement between the three raters was 80%. For none of the subtests was there an observed intrarater agreement lower than 65%. Three of the subtests had an observed inter-rater agreement of 65% or below. Overall there was high observed intra- and inter-rater agreement for the OMS test protocol. Subtests such as saccades and smooth pursuit were more difficult for raters to score similarly according the clinical OMS test protocol. © 2015 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. A physical function test for use in the intensive care unit: validity, responsiveness, and predictive utility of the physical function ICU test (scored).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denehy, Linda; de Morton, Natalie A; Skinner, Elizabeth H; Edbrooke, Lara; Haines, Kimberley; Warrillow, Stephen; Berney, Sue

    2013-12-01

    Several tests have recently been developed to measure changes in patient strength and functional outcomes in the intensive care unit (ICU). The original Physical Function ICU Test (PFIT) demonstrates reliability and sensitivity. The aims of this study were to further develop the original PFIT, to derive an interval score (the PFIT-s), and to test the clinimetric properties of the PFIT-s. A nested cohort study was conducted. One hundred forty-four and 116 participants performed the PFIT at ICU admission and discharge, respectively. Original test components were modified using principal component analysis. Rasch analysis examined the unidimensionality of the PFIT, and an interval score was derived. Correlations tested validity, and multiple regression analyses investigated predictive ability. Responsiveness was assessed using the effect size index (ESI), and the minimal clinically important difference (MCID) was calculated. The shoulder lift component was removed. Unidimensionality of combined admission and discharge PFIT-s scores was confirmed. The PFIT-s displayed moderate convergent validity with the Timed "Up & Go" Test (r=-.60), the Six-Minute Walk Test (r=.41), and the Medical Research Council (MRC) sum score (rho=.49). The ESI of the PFIT-s was 0.82, and the MCID was 1.5 points (interval scale range=0-10). A higher admission PFIT-s score was predictive of: an MRC score of ≥48, increased likelihood of discharge home, reduced likelihood of discharge to inpatient rehabilitation, and reduced acute care hospital length of stay. Scoring of sit-to-stand assistance required is subjective, and cadence cutpoints used may not be generalizable. The PFIT-s is a safe and inexpensive test of physical function with high clinical utility. It is valid, responsive to change, and predictive of key outcomes. It is recommended that the PFIT-s be adopted to test physical function in the ICU.

  12. Living with vision loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diabetes - vision loss; Retinopathy - vision loss; Low vision; Blindness - vision loss ... of visual aids. Some options include: Magnifiers High power reading glasses Devices that make it easier to ...

  13. Clinical Evaluation of Functional Vision of +1.5 Diopters near Addition, Aspheric, Rotational Asymmetric Multifocal Intraocular Lens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kretz, Florian Tobias Alwin; Khoramnia, Rahmin; Attia, Mary Safwat; Koss, Michael Janusz; Linz, Katharina; Auffarth, Gerd Uwe

    2016-10-01

    To evaluate postoperative outcomes and visual performance in intermediate distance after implantation of a +1.5 diopters (D) addition, aspheric, rotational asymmetric multifocal intraocular lens (MIOL). Patients underwent bilateral cataract surgery with implantation of an aspheric, asymmetric MIOL with +1.5 D near addition. A complete ophthalmological examination was performed preoperatively and 3 months postoperatively. The main outcome measures were monocular and binocular uncorrected distance visual acuity (UDVA), corrected distance visual acuity (CDVA), uncorrected intermediate visual acuity (UIVA), distance corrected intermediate visual acuity (DCIVA), uncorrected near visual acuity (UNVA) and distance corrected keratometry, and manifest refraction. The Salzburg Reading Desk was used to analyze unilateral and bilateral functional vision with uncorrected and corrected reading acuity, reading distance, reading speed, and the smallest log-scaled print size that could be read effectively at near and intermediate distances. The study comprised 60 eyes of 30 patients (mean age, 68.30 ± 9.26 years; range, 34 to 80 years). There was significant improvement in UDVA and CDVA. Mean UIVA was 0.01 ± 0.09 logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution (logMAR) and mean DCIVA was -0.02 ± 0.11 logMAR. In Salzburg Reading Desk analysis for UIVA, the mean subjective intermediate distance was 67.58 ± 8.59 cm with mean UIVA of -0.02 ± 0.09 logMAR and mean word count of 96.38 ± 28.32 words/min. The new aspheric, asymmetric, +1.5 D near addition MIOL offers good results for distance visual function in combination with good performance for intermediate distances and functional results for near distance.

  14. Micro Vision

    OpenAIRE

    Ohba, Kohtaro; Ohara, Kenichi

    2007-01-01

    In the field of the micro vision, there are few researches compared with macro environment. However, applying to the study result for macro computer vision technique, you can measure and observe the micro environment. Moreover, based on the effects of micro environment, it is possible to discovery the new theories and new techniques.

  15. Profile of Low Vision Population Attending Low Vision Clinic in a Peripheral Eye Hospital in Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Safal Khanal, BOptom; Pekila Lama, MD

    2013-01-01

    Background: Blindness and low vision are major causes of morbidity and constitute a significant public health problem, both detrimental to the quality of life for the individual and an economic burden on the individual, family, and society in general. People with low vision have the potential for enhancement of functional vision if they receive the appropriate low vision services. The present study aims to determine the profile of the low vision population attending a low vision clinic at a p...

  16. Vision related quality of life in patients with type 2 diabetes in the EUROCONDOR trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trento, Marina; Durando, Olga; Lavecchia, Sonia; Charrier, Lorena; Cavallo, Franco; Costa, Miguel Angelo; Hernández, Cristina; Simó, Rafael; Porta, Massimo

    2017-07-01

    To evaluate vision related quality of life in the patients enrolled in The European Consortium for the Early Treatment of Diabetic Retinopathy, a clinical trial on prevention of diabetic retinopathy. Four-hundred-forty-nine patients, 153 women, with type 2 Diabetes and no or mild diabetic retinopathy were enrolled in a 2-year multicenter randomized controlled trial. The 25-item National Eye Institute Visual Functioning Questionnaire was used to explore 12 subscales of vision related quality of life. The patients were 62.8 ± 6.7 years old and had 11.1 ± 5.6 years known disease duration. Diabetic retinopathy was absent in 193 (43.0 %) and mild in 256 (57.0 %). Patients without diabetic retinopathy were older, had shorter diabetes duration and used less insulin and glucose-lowering agents but did not differ by gender, best corrected visual acuity or any subscale, except vision specific mental health and vision specific role difficulties. Patients with reduced retinal thickness at the ganglion cell layer (n = 36) did not differ for diabetic retinopathy but were older, had lower best corrected visual acuity and worse scores for ocular pain, color vision and peripheral vision. On multivariable analysis, worse scores for general vision remained associated with reduced retinal thickness, diabetes duration and best corrected visual acuity, and scores for visual specific mental health with diabetic retinopathy and lower best corrected visual acuity. Visual specific role difficulties were only associated with reduced best corrected visual acuity. Scores for driving decreased among females, with worsening of Hemoglobin A1c and best corrected visual acuity. Color vision depended only on reduced retinal thickness, and peripheral vision on both reduced thickness and best corrected visual acuity. The National Eye Institute Visual Functioning Questionnaire could detect subtle changes in patients' perception of visual function, despite absent/minimal diabetic

  17. Mediterranean diet score and left ventricular structure and function: the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levitan, Emily B; Ahmed, Ali; Arnett, Donna K; Polak, Joseph F; Hundley, W Gregory; Bluemke, David A; Heckbert, Susan R; Jacobs, David R; Nettleton, Jennifer A

    2016-01-01

    Background: Data are limited on the relation between dietary patterns and left ventricular (LV) structure and function. Objective: We examined cross-sectional associations of a diet-score assessment of a Mediterranean dietary pattern with LV mass, volume, mass-to-volume ratio, stroke volume, and ejection fraction. Design: We measured LV variables with the use of cardiac MRI in 4497 participants in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis study who were aged 45–84 y and without clinical cardiovascular disease. We calculated a Mediterranean diet score from intakes of fruit, vegetables, nuts, legumes, whole grains, fish, red meat, the monounsaturated fat:saturated fat ratio, and alcohol that were self-reported with the use of a food-frequency questionnaire. We used linear regression with adjustment for body size, physical activity, and cardiovascular disease risk factors to model associations and assess the shape of these associations (linear or quadratic). Results: The Mediterranean diet score had a slight U-shaped association with LV mass (adjusted means: 146, 145, 146, and 147 g across quartiles of diet score, respectively; P-quadratic trend = 0.04). The score was linearly associated with LV volume, stroke volume, and ejection fraction: for each +1-U difference in score, LV volume was 0.4 mL higher (95% CI: 0.0, 0.8 mL higher), the stroke volume was 0.5 mL higher (95% CI: 0.2, 0.8 mL higher), and the ejection fraction was 0.2 percentage points higher (95% CI: 0.1, 0.3 percentage points higher). The score was not associated with the mass-to-volume ratio. Conclusions: A higher Mediterranean diet score is cross-sectionally associated with a higher LV mass, which is balanced by a higher LV volume as well as a higher ejection fraction and stroke volume. Participants in this healthy, multiethnic sample whose dietary patterns most closely conformed to a Mediterranean-type pattern had a modestly better LV structure and function than did participants with less

  18. Training compliance control yields improvements in drawing as a function of Beery scores.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winona Snapp-Childs

    Full Text Available Many children have difficulty producing movements well enough to improve in sensori-motor learning. Previously, we developed a training method that supports active movement generation to allow improvement at a 3D tracing task requiring good compliance control. Here, we tested 7-8 year old children from several 2nd grade classrooms to determine whether 3D tracing performance could be predicted using the Beery VMI. We also examined whether 3D tracing training lead to improvements in drawing. Baseline testing included Beery, a drawing task on a tablet computer, and 3D tracing. We found that baseline performance in 3D tracing and drawing co-varied with the visual perception (VP component of the Beery. Differences in 3D tracing between children scoring low versus high on the Beery VP replicated differences previously found between children with and without motor impairments, as did post-training performance that eliminated these differences. Drawing improved as a result of training in the 3D tracing task. The training method improved drawing and reduced differences predicted by Beery scores.

  19. Training Compliance Control Yields Improvements in Drawing as a Function of Beery Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snapp-Childs, Winona; Flatters, Ian; Fath, Aaron; Mon-Williams, Mark; Bingham, Geoffrey P.

    2014-01-01

    Many children have difficulty producing movements well enough to improve in sensori-motor learning. Previously, we developed a training method that supports active movement generation to allow improvement at a 3D tracing task requiring good compliance control. Here, we tested 7–8 year old children from several 2nd grade classrooms to determine whether 3D tracing performance could be predicted using the Beery VMI. We also examined whether 3D tracing training lead to improvements in drawing. Baseline testing included Beery, a drawing task on a tablet computer, and 3D tracing. We found that baseline performance in 3D tracing and drawing co-varied with the visual perception (VP) component of the Beery. Differences in 3D tracing between children scoring low versus high on the Beery VP replicated differences previously found between children with and without motor impairments, as did post-training performance that eliminated these differences. Drawing improved as a result of training in the 3D tracing task. The training method improved drawing and reduced differences predicted by Beery scores. PMID:24651280

  20. A semiquantitative MRI-Score can predict loss of lung function in patients with cystic fibrosis: Preliminary results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaefer, Juergen F.; Schmidt, Katharina; Teufel, Matthias; Fleischer, Sabrina; Gatidis, Sergios; Schaefer, Susanne; Nikolaou, Konstantin; Tsiflikas, Ilias [University Hospital of Tuebingen, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Tuebingen (Germany); Hector, Andreas; Graepler-Mainka, Ute; Riethmueller, Joachim; Hartl, Dominik [University Children' s Hospital of Tuebingen, Department of Paediatrics I, Tuebingen (Germany)

    2018-01-15

    To evaluate the applicability of a semiquantitative MRI scoring system (MR-CF-S) as a prognostic marker for clinical course of cystic fibrosis (CF) lung disease. This observational study of a single-centre CF cohort included a group of 61 patients (mean age 12.9 ± 4.7 years) receiving morphological and functional pulmonary MRI, pulmonary function testing (PFT) and follow-up of 2 years. MRI was analysed by three raters using MR-CF-S. The inter-rater agreement, correlation of score categories with forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV{sub 1}) at baseline, and the predictive value of clinical parameters, and score categories was assessed for the whole cohort and a subgroup of 40 patients with moderately impaired lung function. The inter-rater agreement of MR-CF-S was sufficient (mean intraclass correlation coefficient 0.92). MR-CF-S (-0.62; p < 0.05) and most of the categories significantly correlated with FEV{sub 1}. Differences between patients with relevant loss of FEV{sub 1} (>3%/year) and normal course were only significant for MR-CF-S (p < 0.05) but not for clinical parameters. Centrilobular opacity (CO) was the most promising score category for prediction of a decline of FEV{sub 1} (area under curve: whole cohort 0.69; subgroup 0.86). MR-CF-S is promising to predict a loss of lung function. CO seems to be a particular finding in CF patients with an abnormal course. (orig.)

  1. Human and server docking prediction for CAPRI round 30-35 using LZerD with combined scoring functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Lenna X; Kim, Hyungrae; Esquivel-Rodriguez, Juan; Roy, Amitava; Han, Xusi; Shin, Woong-Hee; Zhang, Jian; Terashi, Genki; Lee, Matt; Kihara, Daisuke

    2017-03-01

    We report the performance of protein-protein docking predictions by our group for recent rounds of the Critical Assessment of Prediction of Interactions (CAPRI), a community-wide assessment of state-of-the-art docking methods. Our prediction procedure uses a protein-protein docking program named LZerD developed in our group. LZerD represents a protein surface with 3D Zernike descriptors (3DZD), which are based on a mathematical series expansion of a 3D function. The appropriate soft representation of protein surface with 3DZD makes the method more tolerant to conformational change of proteins upon docking, which adds an advantage for unbound docking. Docking was guided by interface residue prediction performed with BindML and cons-PPISP as well as literature information when available. The generated docking models were ranked by a combination of scoring functions, including PRESCO, which evaluates the native-likeness of residues' spatial environments in structure models. First, we discuss the overall performance of our group in the CAPRI prediction rounds and investigate the reasons for unsuccessful cases. Then, we examine the performance of several knowledge-based scoring functions and their combinations for ranking docking models. It was found that the quality of a pool of docking models generated by LZerD, that is whether or not the pool includes near-native models, can be predicted by the correlation of multiple scores. Although the current analysis used docking models generated by LZerD, findings on scoring functions are expected to be universally applicable to other docking methods. Proteins 2017; 85:513-527. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Applying Computational Scoring Functions to Assess Biomolecular Interactions in Food Science: Applications to the Estrogen Receptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Spyrakis

    2016-10-01

    Thus, key computational medicinal chemistry methods like molecular dynamics can be used to decipher protein flexibility and to obtain stable models for docking and scoring in food-related studies, and virtual screening is increasingly being applied to identify molecules with potential to act as endocrine disruptors, food mycotoxins, and new nutraceuticals [3,4,5]. All of these methods and simulations are based on protein-ligand interaction phenomena, and represent the basis for any subsequent modification of the targeted receptor's or enzyme's physiological activity. We describe here the energetics of binding of biological complexes, providing a survey of the most common and successful algorithms used in evaluating these energetics, and we report case studies in which computational techniques have been applied to food science issues. In particular, we explore a handful of studies involving the estrogen receptors for which we have a long-term interest.

  3. Functional cerebral distance and the effect of emotional music on spatial rotation scores in undergraduate women and men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertsch, Sharon; Knee, H Donald; Webb, Jeffrey L

    2011-02-01

    The influence of listening to music on subsequent spatial rotation scores has a controversial history. The effect is unreliable, seeming to depend on several as yet unexplored factors. Using a large sample (167 women, 160 men; M age = 18.9 yr.), two related variables were investigated: participants' sex and the emotion conveyed by the music. Participants listened to 90 sec. of music that portrayed emotions of approach (happiness), or withdrawal (anger), or heard no music at all. They then performed a two-dimensional spatial rotation task. No significant difference was found in spatial rotation scores between groups exposed to music and those who were not. However, a significant interaction was found based on the sex of the participants and the emotion portrayed in the music they heard. Women's scores increased (relative to a no-music condition) only after hearing withdrawal-based music, while men's scores increased only after listening to the approach-based music. These changes were explained using the theory of functional cerebral distance.

  4. A self administered executive functions ecological questionnaire (the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function - Adult Version shows impaired scores in a sample of patients with schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei Szöke

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Subjective measurements of cognition have seldom been used in schizophrenia. This is mainly due to the assumption that such measurements lack sensitivity in a disorder characterized by poor insight. We investigated the capacity of BRIEF-A (Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function - Adult Version: a self-administered, ecological questionnaire to identify executive deficits in adults with schizophrenia. The global score and each domain-specific score was significantly lower in patients than in healthy controls. BRIEF-A could be a useful complement to objective measurements, providing a subjective assessment of everyday consequences of executive dysfunction in patients with schizophrenia.

  5. Improved performance in CAPRI round 37 using LZerD docking and template-based modeling with combined scoring functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Lenna X; Shin, Woong-Hee; Kim, Hyungrae; Kihara, Daisuke

    2018-03-01

    We report our group's performance for protein-protein complex structure prediction and scoring in Round 37 of the Critical Assessment of PRediction of Interactions (CAPRI), an objective assessment of protein-protein complex modeling. We demonstrated noticeable improvement in both prediction and scoring compared to previous rounds of CAPRI, with our human predictor group near the top of the rankings and our server scorer group at the top. This is the first time in CAPRI that a server has been the top scorer group. To predict protein-protein complex structures, we used both multi-chain template-based modeling (TBM) and our protein-protein docking program, LZerD. LZerD represents protein surfaces using 3D Zernike descriptors (3DZD), which are based on a mathematical series expansion of a 3D function. Because 3DZD are a soft representation of the protein surface, LZerD is tolerant to small conformational changes, making it well suited to docking unbound and TBM structures. The key to our improved performance in CAPRI Round 37 was to combine multi-chain TBM and docking. As opposed to our previous strategy of performing docking for all target complexes, we used TBM when multi-chain templates were available and docking otherwise. We also describe the combination of multiple scoring functions used by our server scorer group, which achieved the top rank for the scorer phase. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. A Rapid Method to Score Stream Reaches Based on the Overall Performance of Their Main Ecological Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, David K.; Parkyn, Stephanie; Quinn, John; Collier, Kevin; Hatton, Chris; Joy, Michael K.; Maxted, John; Moore, Stephen

    2009-06-01

    A method was developed to score the ecological condition of first- to third-order stream reaches in the Auckland region of New Zealand based on the performance of their key ecological functions. Such a method is required by consultants and resource managers to quantify the reduction in ecological condition of a modified stream reach relative to its unmodified state. This is a fundamental precursor for the determination of fair environmental compensation for achieving no-net-loss in overall stream ecological value. Field testing and subsequent use of the method indicated that it provides a useful measure of ecological condition related to the performance of stream ecological functions. It is relatively simple to apply compared to a full ecological study, is quick to use, and allows identification of the degree of impairment of each of the key ecological functions. The scoring system was designed so that future improvements in the measurement of stream functions can be incorporated into it. Although the methodology was specifically designed for Auckland streams, the principles can be readily adapted to other regions and stream types.

  7. Light transmission through intraocular lenses with or without yellow chromophore (blue light filter) and its potential influence on functional vision in everyday environmental conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owczarek, Grzegorz; Gralewicz, Grzegorz; Skuza, Natalia; Jurowski, Piotr

    2016-01-01

    In this research the factors used to evaluate the light transmission through two types of acrylic hydrophobic intraocular lenses, one that contained yellow chromophore that blocks blue light transmission and the other which did not contain that filter, were defined according to various light condition, e.g., daylight and at night. The potential influence of light transmission trough intraocular lenses with or without yellow chromophore on functional vision in everyday environmental conditions was analysed.

  8. Biofeedback for Better Vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    Biofeedtrac, Inc.'s Accommotrac Vision Trainer, invented by Dr. Joseph Trachtman, is based on vision research performed by Ames Research Center and a special optometer developed for the Ames program by Stanford Research Institute. In the United States, about 150 million people are myopes (nearsighted), who tend to overfocus when they look at distant objects causing blurry distant vision, or hyperopes (farsighted), whose vision blurs when they look at close objects because they tend to underfocus. The Accommotrac system is an optical/electronic system used by a doctor as an aid in teaching a patient how to contract and relax the ciliary body, the focusing muscle. The key is biofeedback, wherein the patient learns to control a bodily process or function he is not normally aware of. Trachtman claims a 90 percent success rate for correcting, improving or stopping focusing problems. The Vision Trainer has also proved effective in treating other eye problems such as eye oscillation, cross eyes, and lazy eye and in professional sports to improve athletes' peripheral vision and reaction time.

  9. Effects of special exercise programs on functional movement screen scores and injury prevention in preprofessional young football players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinc, Engin; Kilinc, Bekir Eray; Bulat, Muge; Erten, Yunus Turgay; Bayraktar, Bülent

    2017-10-01

    To increase movement capacity and to reduce injury risk in young soccer players by implementing a special functional exercise program based on functional movement screen (FMS) and correctives. 67 young male athletes 14-19 years of age from a Super League Football Club Academy participated in the study. Functional movement patterns were evaluated with FMS assessment protocol. Deep squat, hurdle step, inline lunge, shoulder mobility, active straight leg raise, trunk stability push-up, and rotatory stability were examined in FMS. Considering the FMS scores the number of intervention and control groups were defined as 24 and 43, respectively. Intervention program was composed of 1 hr twice a week sessions in total of 12 weeks with 4 weeks of mobility, 4 weeks of stability, and 4 weeks of integration exercises. At the end of 12-week intervention and control groups were re-evaluated with FMS protocol. Contact and noncontact sports injuries recorded during one season. In intervention group there was statistically significant difference in increase in total FMS scores ( P effective injury prevention.

  10. Dynamic interaction between fetal adversity and a genetic score reflecting dopamine function on developmental outcomes at 36 months.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrianne R Bischoff

    Full Text Available Fetal adversity, evidenced by poor fetal growth for instance, is associated with increased risk for several diseases later in life. Classical cut-offs to characterize small (SGA and large for gestational age (LGA newborns are used to define long term vulnerability. We aimed at exploring the possible dynamism of different birth weight cut-offs in defining vulnerability in developmental outcomes (through the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development, using the example of a gene vs. fetal adversity interaction considering gene choices based on functional relevance to the studied outcome.36-month-old children from an established prospective birth cohort (Maternal Adversity, Vulnerability, and Neurodevelopment were classified according to birth weight ratio (BWR (SGA ≤0.85, LGA >1.15, exploring a wide range of other cut-offs and genotyped for polymorphisms associated with dopamine signaling (TaqIA-A1 allele, DRD2-141C Ins/Ins, DRD4 7-repeat, DAT1-10- repeat, Met/Met-COMT, composing a score based on the described function, in which hypofunctional variants received lower scores.There were 251 children (123 girls and 128 boys. Using the classic cut-offs (0.85 and 1.15, there were no statistically significant interactions between the neonatal groups and the dopamine genetic score. However, when changing the cut-offs, it is possible to see ranges of BWR that could be associated with vulnerability to poorer development according to the variation in the dopamine function.The classic birth weight cut-offs to define SGA and LGA newborns should be seen with caution, as depending on the outcome in question, the protocols for long-term follow up could be either too inclusive-therefore most costly, or unable to screen true vulnerabilities-and therefore ineffective to establish early interventions and primary prevention.

  11. Predisposing factors of pneumothorax in percutaneous transthoracic fine needle aspiration biopsy: comparison between CT emphysema score and pulmonary function test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Chang Ho; Park, Kyung Joo; Park, Dong Won; Jung, Kyung Il; Suh, Jung Ho

    1997-01-01

    To compare the CT emphysema score with various factors of pulmonary function test by simple spirometry and to use the result as a predictor of pneumothorax in percutaneous transthoracic fine needle aspiration biopsy. The CT scans of 106 patients who had undergone percutaneous transthoracic fine needle aspiration biopsy of lung lesions within the previous 18 months were retrospectively reviewed. In 75 of these 106 cases, the results of the pulmonary function test were also reviewed. On plain chest radiography, pneumothorax was noted in 20 cases (19%). Emphysema was blindly evaluated. We divided each lung into four segments and determined the severity and involved volume of emphysema, as seen on CT. Severity was classified as one of four grades, as follow : absence of emphysema=0 ; low attenuation area of less than 5mm=1 ; low attenuation area of more than 5mm, and vascular pruning with normal lung intervening=2 ; and diffuse low attenuation without intervening normal lung, and larger confluent low attenuation with vascular pruning and distortion of branching pattern occupying all or almost all the involved parenchyma=3. The involved area was also classified as one of four grades : less than 25%=1 ; 25 - 49%=2 ; 51 - 74%=3 ; and more than 75%=4. The CT emphysema score was defined as the average of the grade of severity multiplied by the grade of involved area. Pulmonary function tests, consisting of simple spirometry and a pulmonologist's interpretation, were evaluated. We also evaluated depth and size of lesion as known predisposing factors in postbioptic pneumothorax. Statistical analysis was performed using the chi-square test, Wilcoxon ranks sum W test and the student t test. A comparison between the two groups of occurrence(with or without pneumothorax) showed the emphysema scores to be 1.69±2.0 and 1.11±2.9, respectively ; there was thus no significant difference between the two groups (z= - 0.048, p>0.10). Nor were differences revealed by the pulmonary

  12. Predisposing factors of pneumothorax in percutaneous transthoracic fine needle aspiration biopsy: comparison between CT emphysema score and pulmonary function test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Chang Ho; Park, Kyung Joo; Park, Dong Won; Jung, Kyung Il; Suh, Jung Ho [Ajou Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-11-01

    To compare the CT emphysema score with various factors of pulmonary function test by simple spirometry and to use the result as a predictor of pneumothorax in percutaneous transthoracic fine needle aspiration biopsy. The CT scans of 106 patients who had undergone percutaneous transthoracic fine needle aspiration biopsy of lung lesions within the previous 18 months were retrospectively reviewed. In 75 of these 106 cases, the results of the pulmonary function test were also reviewed. On plain chest radiography, pneumothorax was noted in 20 cases (19%). Emphysema was blindly evaluated. We divided each lung into four segments and determined the severity and involved volume of emphysema, as seen on CT. Severity was classified as one of four grades, as follow : absence of emphysema=0 ; low attenuation area of less than 5mm=1 ; low attenuation area of more than 5mm, and vascular pruning with normal lung intervening=2 ; and diffuse low attenuation without intervening normal lung, and larger confluent low attenuation with vascular pruning and distortion of branching pattern occupying all or almost all the involved parenchyma=3. The involved area was also classified as one of four grades : less than 25%=1 ; 25 - 49%=2 ; 51 - 74%=3 ; and more than 75%=4. The CT emphysema score was defined as the average of the grade of severity multiplied by the grade of involved area. Pulmonary function tests, consisting of simple spirometry and a pulmonologist's interpretation, were evaluated. We also evaluated depth and size of lesion as known predisposing factors in postbioptic pneumothorax. Statistical analysis was performed using the chi-square test, Wilcoxon ranks sum W test and the student t test. A comparison between the two groups of occurrence(with or without pneumothorax) showed the emphysema scores to be 1.69{+-}2.0 and 1.11{+-}2.9, respectively ; there was thus no significant difference between the two groups (z= - 0.048, p>0.10). Nor were differences revealed by the

  13. Low Vision Care: The Need to Maximise Visual Potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramachandra Pararajasegaram

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available People with low vision have residual vision with some light perception, but their vision loss does not lend itself to improvement by standard spectacles or medical or surgical treatment. Such persons have the potential for enhanced functional vision if they receive appropriate low vision care services.

  14. Topology of Functional Connectivity and Hub Dynamics in the Beta Band As Temporal Prior for Natural Vision in the Human Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betti, Viviana; Corbetta, Maurizio; de Pasquale, Francesco; Wens, Vincent; Della Penna, Stefania

    2018-04-11

    Networks hubs represent points of convergence for the integration of information across many different nodes and systems. Although a great deal is known on the topology of hub regions in the human brain, little is known about their temporal dynamics. Here, we examine the static and dynamic centrality of hub regions when measured in the absence of a task (rest) or during the observation of natural or synthetic visual stimuli. We used Magnetoencephalography (MEG) in humans (both sexes) to measure static and transient regional and network-level interaction in α- and β-band limited power (BLP) in three conditions: visual fixation (rest), viewing of movie clips (natural vision), and time-scrambled versions of the same clips (scrambled vision). Compared with rest, we observed in both movie conditions a robust decrement of α-BLP connectivity. Moreover, both movie conditions caused a significant reorganization of connections in the α band, especially between networks. In contrast, β-BLP connectivity was remarkably similar between rest and natural vision. Not only the topology did not change, but the joint dynamics of hubs in a core network during natural vision was predicted by similar fluctuations in the resting state. We interpret these findings by suggesting that slow-varying fluctuations of integration occurring in higher-order regions in the β band may be a mechanism to anticipate and predict slow-varying temporal patterns of the visual environment. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT A fundamental question in neuroscience concerns the function of spontaneous brain connectivity. Here, we tested the hypothesis that topology of intrinsic brain connectivity and its dynamics might predict those observed during natural vision. Using MEG, we tracked the static and time-varying brain functional connectivity when observers were either fixating or watching different movie clips. The spatial distribution of connections and the dynamics of centrality of a set of regions were similar

  15. The effect of an intervention program on functional movement screen test scores in mixed martial arts athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodden, Jamie G; Needham, Robert A; Chockalingam, Nachiappan

    2015-01-01

    This study assessed the basic fundamental movements of mixed martial arts (MMA) athletes using the functional movement screen (FMS) assessment and determined if an intervention program was successful at improving results. Participants were placed into 1 of the 2 groups: intervention and control groups. The intervention group was required to complete a corrective exercise program 4 times per week, and all participants were asked to continue their usual MMA training routine. A mid-intervention FMS test was included to examine if successful results were noticed sooner than the 8-week period. Results highlighted differences in FMS test scores between the control group and intervention group (p = 0.006). Post hoc testing revealed a significant increase in the FMS score of the intervention group between weeks 0 and 8 (p = 0.00) and weeks 0 and 4 (p = 0.00) and no significant increase between weeks 4 and 8 (p = 1.00). A χ analysis revealed that the intervention group participants were more likely to have an FMS score >14 than participants in the control group at week 4 (χ = 7.29, p < 0.01) and week 8 (χ = 5.2, p ≤ 0.05). Finally, a greater number of participants in the intervention group were free from asymmetry at week 4 and week 8 compared with the initial test period. The results of the study suggested that a 4-week intervention program was sufficient at improving FMS scores. Most if not all, the movements covered on the FMS relate to many aspects of MMA training. The knowledge that the FMS can identify movement dysfunctions and, furthermore, the fact that the issues can be improved through a standardized intervention program could be advantageous to MMA coaches, thus, providing the opportunity to adapt and implement new additions to training programs.

  16. Effects of Vision Restoration Training on Early Visual Cortex in Patients With Cerebral Blindness Investigated With Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raemaekers, M.; Bergsma, D.P.; van Wezel, Richard Jack Anton; van der Wildt, G.J.; van den Berg, A.V.

    Cerebral blindness is a loss of vision as a result of postchiasmatic damage to the visual pathways. Parts of the lost visual field can be restored through training. However, the neuronal mechanisms through which training effects occur are still unclear. We therefore assessed training-induced changes

  17. Industrial vision

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Ole

    1998-01-01

    This dissertation is concerned with the introduction of vision-based application s in the ship building industry. The industrial research project is divided into a natural seq uence of developments, from basic theoretical projective image generation via CAD and subpixel analysis to a description...... is present ed, and the variability of the parameters is examined and described. The concept of using CAD together with vision information is based on the fact that all items processed at OSS have an associated complete 3D CAD model that is accessible at all production states. This concept gives numerous...... possibilities for using vision in applications which otherwise would be very difficult to automate. The requirement for low tolerances in production is, despite the huge dimensions of the items involved, extreme. This fact makes great demands on the ability to do robust sub pixel estimation. A new method based...

  18. Validation of functional fetal autonomic brain age score fABAS in 5 min short recordings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoyer, Dirk; Kowalski, Eva-Maria; Schmidt, Alexander; Witte, Otto W; Schneider, Uwe; Schleußner, Ekkehard; Hatzmann, Wolfgang; Grönemeyer, Dietrich HW; Van Leeuwen, Peter

    2015-01-01

    With the objective of evaluating the functional maturation age and developmental disturbances we have previously introduced the fetal autonomic brain age score (fABAS) using 30 min fetal magnetocardiographic recordings (fMCG, Jena). The score is based on heart rate pattern indices that are related to universal principles of developmental biology. The present work aims at the validation of the fABAS methodology on 5 min recordings from an independent database (fMCG, Bochum).We found high agreement of fABAS obtained from Jena normal fetuses (5 min subsets, n  =  364) and Bochum recordings (n  =  322, normal fetuses). fABAS of 48 recordings from fetuses with intra-uterine growth restriction (IUGR, Bochum) was reduced in most of the cases, a result consistent with IUGR fetuses from Jena previously reported. fABAS calculated from 5 min snapshots only partly covers the accuracy when compared to fABAS from 30 min recordings. More precise diagnosis requires longer recordings.fABAS obtained from fMCG recordings is a strong candidate for standardized assessment of functional maturation age and developmental disturbances. Even 5 min recordings seem to be valuable for screening for maturation problems. (paper)

  19. Oncological and functional outcomes of elderly men treated with HIFU vs. minimally invasive radical prostatectomy: A propensity score analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capogrosso, Paolo; Barret, Eric; Sanchez-Salas, Rafael; Nunes-Silva, Igor; Rozet, François; Galiano, Marc; Ventimiglia, Eugenio; Briganti, Alberto; Salonia, Andrea; Montorsi, Francesco; Cathelineau, Xavier

    2018-01-01

    To assess outcomes of whole gland high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) as compared with minimally-invasive radical prostatectomy (MIRP) in elderly patients. Patients aged ≥70 years with, cT1-cT2 disease, biopsy Gleason score (GS) 3 + 3 or 3 + 4 and preoperative PSA ≤10 ng/mL were submitted to either whole-gland HIFU or MIRP. Propensity-score matching analysis was performed to ensure the baseline equivalence of groups. Follow-up visits were routinely performed assessing PSA and urinary function according to the International Continence Score (ICS) and the International Prostatic Symptoms Score (IPSS) questionnaires. Estimated rates of salvage-treatment free survival (SFS) overall-survival (OS), cancer-specific survival (CSS) and metastasis-free survival (MTS) were assessed and compared. Overall, 84 (33.3%) and 168 (66.7%) patients were treated with HIFU and MIRP, respectively. MIRP was associated with a 5-yrs SFS of 93.4% compared to 74.8% for HIFU (p < 0.01). The two groups did not differ in terms of OS and MTS. No cancer-related deaths were registered. Patients treated with HIFU showed better short-term (6-mos) continence outcomes [mean-ICS: 1.7 vs. 4.8; p = 0.005] but higher IPSS mean scores at 12-mos assessment. A comparable rate of patients experiencing post-treatment Clavien-Dindo grade ≥III complications was observed within the two groups. Whole-gland HIFU is a feasible treatment in elderly men with low-to intermediate-risk PCa and could be considered for patients either unfit for surgery, or willing a non-invasive treatment with a low morbidity burden, although a non-negligible risk of requiring subsequent treatment for recurrence should be expected. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd, BASO ~ The Association for Cancer Surgery, and the European Society of Surgical Oncology. All rights reserved.

  20. Examining the association of injury with the Functional Movement Screen and Landing Error Scoring System in military recruits undergoing 16 weeks of introductory fitness training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everard, Eoin; Lyons, Mark; Harrison, Andrew J

    2018-06-01

    To examine the association of injury with the Functional Movement Screen (FMS) and Landing Error Scoring System (LESS) in military recruits undergoing an intensive 16-week training block. Prospective cohort study. One hundred and thirty-two entry-level male soldiers (18-25years) were tested using the FMS and LESS. The participants underwent an intensive 16-week training program with injury data recorded daily. Chi-squared statistics were used to examine associations between injury risk and (1) poor LESS scores, (2) any score of 1 on the FMS and (3) composite FMS score of ≤14. A composite FMS score of ≤14 was not a significant predictor of injury. LESS scores of >5 and having a score of 1 on any FMS test were significantly associated with injury. LESS scores had greater relative risk, sensitivity and specificity (2.2 (95% CI=1.48-3.34); 71% and 87% respectively) than scores of 1 on the FMS (relative risk=1.32 (95% CI=1.0-1.7); sensitivity=50% and specificity=76%). There was no association between composite FMS score and injury but LESS scores and scores of 1 in the FMS test were significantly associated with injury in varying degrees. LESS scores had a much better association with injury than both any scores of 1 on the FMS and a combination of LESS scores and scores of 1 on the FMS. Furthermore, the LESS provides comparable information related to injury risk as other well-established markers associated with injury such as age, muscular strength and previous injury. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Representing vision and blindness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Patrick L; Cox, Alexander P; Jensen, Mark; Allen, Travis; Duncan, William; Diehl, Alexander D

    2016-01-01

    There have been relatively few attempts to represent vision or blindness ontologically. This is unsurprising as the related phenomena of sight and blindness are difficult to represent ontologically for a variety of reasons. Blindness has escaped ontological capture at least in part because: blindness or the employment of the term 'blindness' seems to vary from context to context, blindness can present in a myriad of types and degrees, and there is no precedent for representing complex phenomena such as blindness. We explore current attempts to represent vision or blindness, and show how these attempts fail at representing subtypes of blindness (viz., color blindness, flash blindness, and inattentional blindness). We examine the results found through a review of current attempts and identify where they have failed. By analyzing our test cases of different types of blindness along with the strengths and weaknesses of previous attempts, we have identified the general features of blindness and vision. We propose an ontological solution to represent vision and blindness, which capitalizes on resources afforded to one who utilizes the Basic Formal Ontology as an upper-level ontology. The solution we propose here involves specifying the trigger conditions of a disposition as well as the processes that realize that disposition. Once these are specified we can characterize vision as a function that is realized by certain (in this case) biological processes under a range of triggering conditions. When the range of conditions under which the processes can be realized are reduced beyond a certain threshold, we are able to say that blindness is present. We characterize vision as a function that is realized as a seeing process and blindness as a reduction in the conditions under which the sight function is realized. This solution is desirable because it leverages current features of a major upper-level ontology, accurately captures the phenomenon of blindness, and can be

  2. Bio-inspired vision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Posch, C

    2012-01-01

    Nature still outperforms the most powerful computers in routine functions involving perception, sensing and actuation like vision, audition, and motion control, and is, most strikingly, orders of magnitude more energy-efficient than its artificial competitors. The reasons for the superior performance of biological systems are subject to diverse investigations, but it is clear that the form of hardware and the style of computation in nervous systems are fundamentally different from what is used in artificial synchronous information processing systems. Very generally speaking, biological neural systems rely on a large number of relatively simple, slow and unreliable processing elements and obtain performance and robustness from a massively parallel principle of operation and a high level of redundancy where the failure of single elements usually does not induce any observable system performance degradation. In the late 1980's, Carver Mead demonstrated that silicon VLSI technology can be employed in implementing ''neuromorphic'' circuits that mimic neural functions and fabricating building blocks that work like their biological role models. Neuromorphic systems, as the biological systems they model, are adaptive, fault-tolerant and scalable, and process information using energy-efficient, asynchronous, event-driven methods. In this paper, some basics of neuromorphic electronic engineering and its impact on recent developments in optical sensing and artificial vision are presented. It is demonstrated that bio-inspired vision systems have the potential to outperform conventional, frame-based vision acquisition and processing systems in many application fields and to establish new benchmarks in terms of redundancy suppression/data compression, dynamic range, temporal resolution and power efficiency to realize advanced functionality like 3D vision, object tracking, motor control, visual feedback loops, etc. in real-time. It is argued that future artificial vision systems

  3. VISION AND READING ABILITY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MANGRUM, CHARLES T.

    SIGNIFICANT RESEARCH ON THE PHYSIOLOGICAL AND FUNCTIONAL ASPECTS OF VISION AND READING DISABILITY IS SURVEYED. CONCLUSIONS BASED ON THE LITERATURE IN THE FIELD ARE DISCUSSED. A BIBLIOGRAPHY OF 70 REFERENCES AND A GLOSSARY OF TERMS ARE APPENDED. A TABLE SUMMARIZING REFRACTIVE ERRORS AND EYE DEFECTS CONTRIBUTING TO READING DISABILITY IS INCLUDED.…

  4. Agrarian Visions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theobald, Paul

    A new feature in "Country Teacher,""Agrarian Visions" reminds rural teachers that they can do something about rural decline. Like to populism of the 1890s, the "new populism" advocates rural living. Current attempts to address rural decline are contrary to agrarianism because: (1) telecommunications experts seek to…

  5. Fractured Visions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonde, Inger Ellekilde

    2016-01-01

    In the post-war period a heterogeneous group of photographers articulate a new photographic approach to the city as motive in a photographic language that combines intense formalism with subjective vision. This paper analyses the photobook Fragments of a City published in 1960 by Danish photograp...

  6. Embodied Visions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grodal, Torben Kragh

    Embodied Visions presents a groundbreaking analysis of film through the lens of bioculturalism, revealing how human biology as well as human culture determine how films are made and experienced. Throughout the book the author uses the breakthroughs of modern brain science to explain general featu...

  7. Vision Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... an efficient and cost-effective method to identify children with visual impairment or eye conditions that are likely to lead ... main goal of vision screening is to identify children who have or are at ... visual impairment unless treated in early childhood. Other problems that ...

  8. Older Adults With a Combination of Vision and Hearing Impairment Experience Higher Rates of Cognitive Impairment, Functional Dependence, and Worse Outcomes Across a Set of Quality Indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Jacob G S; Guthrie, Dawn M

    2017-08-01

    Hearing and vision impairment were examined across several health-related outcomes and across a set of quality indicators (QIs) in home care clients with both vision and hearing loss (or dual sensory impairment [DSI]). Data collected using the Resident Assessment Instrument for Home Care (RAI-HC) were analyzed in a sample of older home care clients. The QIs represent the proportion of clients experiencing negative outcomes (e.g., falls, social isolation). The average age of clients was 82.8 years ( SD = 7.9), 20.5% had DSI and 8.5% had a diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Clients with DSI were more likely to have a diagnosis of dementia (not AD), have functional impairments, report loneliness, and have higher rates across 20 of the 22 QIs, including communication difficulty and cognitive decline. Clients with highly impaired hearing, and any visual impairment, had the highest QI rates. Individuals with DSI experience higher rates of adverse events across many health-related outcomes and QIs. Understanding the unique contribution of hearing and vision in this group can promote optimal quality of care.

  9. Patients With Knee Osteoarthritis Who Score Highly on the PainDETECT Questionnaire Present With Multimodality Hyperalgesia, Increased Pain, and Impaired Physical Function

    OpenAIRE

    Moss, Penny; Benson, Heather A.E.; Will, Rob; Wright, Anthony

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: PainDETECT is a self-report questionnaire that can be used to identify features of neuropathic pain. A proportion of patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA) score highly on the PainDETECT questionnaire. This study aimed to determine whether those with a higher “positive neuropathic” score on the PainDETECT questionnaire also had greater pain, hypersensitivity, and reduced function compared with individuals with knee OA with lower PainDETECT scores. Materials and Methods: In total, ...

  10. A preliminary investigation into the relationship between functional movement screen scores and athletic physical performance in female team sport athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, AB; Callaghan, SJ; Jordan, CA; Luczo, TM; Jeffriess, MD

    2014-01-01

    There is little research investigating relationships between the Functional Movement Screen (FMS) and athletic performance in female athletes. This study analyzed the relationships between FMS (deep squat; hurdle step [HS]; in-line lunge [ILL]; shoulder mobility; active straight-leg raise [ASLR]; trunk stability push-up; rotary stability) scores, and performance tests (bilateral and unilateral sit-and-reach [flexibility]; 20-m sprint [linear speed]; 505 with turns from each leg; modified T-test with movement to left and right [change-of-direction speed]; bilateral and unilateral vertical and standing broad jumps; lateral jumps [leg power]). Nine healthy female recreational team sport athletes (age = 22.67 ± 5.12 years; height = 1.66 ± 0.05 m; body mass = 64.22 ± 4.44 kilograms) were screened in the FMS and completed the afore-mentioned tests. Percentage between-leg differences in unilateral sit-and-reach, 505 turns and the jumps, and difference between the T-test conditions, were also calculated. Spearman's correlations (p ≤ 0.05) examined relationships between the FMS and performance tests. Stepwise multiple regressions (p ≤ 0.05) were conducted for the performance tests to determine FMS predictors. Unilateral sit-and-reach positive correlated with the left-leg ASLR (r = 0.704-0.725). However, higher-scoring HS, ILL, and ASLR related to poorer 505 and T-test performance (r = 0.722-0.829). A higher-scored left-leg ASLR related to a poorer unilateral vertical and standing broad jump, which were the only significant relationships for jump performance. Predictive data tended to confirm the correlations. The results suggest limitations in using the FMS to identify movement deficiencies that could negatively impact athletic performance in female team sport athletes. PMID:25729149

  11. A preliminary investigation into the relationship between functional movement screen scores and athletic physical performance in female team sport athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert G Lockie

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available There is little research investigating relationships between the Functional Movement Screen (FMS and athletic performance in female athletes. This study analyzed the relationships between FMS (deep squat; hurdle step [HS]; in-line lunge [ILL]; shoulder mobility; active straight-leg raise [ASLR]; trunk stability push-up; rotary stability scores, and performance tests (bilateral and unilateral sit-and-reach [flexibility]; 20-m sprint [linear speed]; 505 with turns from each leg; modified T-test with movement to left and right [change-of-direction speed]; bilateral and unilateral vertical and standing broad jumps; lateral jumps [leg power]. Nine healthy female recreational team sport athletes (age = 22.67 ± 5.12 years; height = 1.66 ± 0.05 m; body mass = 64.22 ± 4.44 kilograms were screened in the FMS and completed the afore-mentioned tests. Percentage between-leg differences in unilateral sit-and-reach, 505 turns and the jumps, and difference between the T-test conditions, were also calculated. Spearman’s correlations (p ≤ 0.05 examined relationships between the FMS and performance tests. Stepwise multiple regressions (p ≤ 0.05 were conducted for the performance tests to determine FMS predictors. Unilateral sit-and-reach positive correlated with the left-leg ASLR (r = 0.704-0.725. However, higher-scoring HS, ILL, and ASLR related to poorer 505 and T-test performance (r = 0.722-0.829. A higher-scored left-leg ASLR related to a poorer unilateral vertical and standing broad jump, which were the only significant relationships for jump performance. Predictive data tended to confirm the correlations. The results suggest limitations in using the FMS to identify movement deficiencies that could negatively impact athletic performance in female team sport athletes.

  12. Colour, vision and ergonomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro, Cristina; da Silva, Fernando Moreira

    2012-01-01

    This paper is based on a research project - Visual Communication and Inclusive Design-Colour, Legibility and Aged Vision, developed at the Faculty of Architecture of Lisbon. The research has the aim of determining specific design principles to be applied to visual communication design (printed) objects, in order to be easily read and perceived by all. This study target group was composed by a selection of socially active individuals, between 55 and 80 years, and we used cultural events posters as objects of study and observation. The main objective is to overlap the study of areas such as colour, vision, older people's colour vision, ergonomics, chromatic contrasts, typography and legibility. In the end we will produce a manual with guidelines and information to apply scientific knowledge into the communication design projectual practice. Within the normal aging process, visual functions gradually decline; the quality of vision worsens, colour vision and contrast sensitivity are also affected. As people's needs change along with age, design should help people and communities, and improve life quality in the present. Applying principles of visually accessible design and ergonomics, the printed design objects, (or interior spaces, urban environments, products, signage and all kinds of visually information) will be effective, easier on everyone's eyes not only for visually impaired people but also for all of us as we age.

  13. Vision-related quality of life in children with retinopathy of prematurity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alcione Aparecida Messa

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTPurpose:To evaluate the effect of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP on vision-related quality of life in children.Methods:The Children's Visual Function Questionnaire (CVFQ, an instrument that evaluates vision-related quality of life in children, was used. It is divided into 6 subscales: General Health, Vision Health, Competence, Personality, Family Impact, and Treatment. The sample consisted of parents of premature children up to 3 years of age who had ROP and no neurological damage (ROP group and parents of premature children up to 3 years of age who had normal vision and absence of other diseases (control group.Results:There were 88 subjects in total, 43 in the ROP group and 45 in the control group. The ROP group had lower scores on the CVFQ than the control group. The Total Index and all CVFQ subscale scores and for were significant lower in the ROP group than in the control group. The ROP group was divided according to the severity of the disease. The Total Index, Vision Health, and Competence scores in children with more severe ROP were significantly lower than those in children with less severe ROP.Conclusion:ROP was shown to have a negative effect on vision-related quality of life in children.

  14. Visions and visioning in foresight activities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Michael Søgaard; Grosu, Dan

    2007-01-01

    The paper discusses the roles of visioning processes and visions in foresight activities and in societal discourses and changes parallel to or following foresight activities. The overall topic can be characterised as the dynamics and mechanisms that make visions and visioning processes work...... or not work. The theoretical part of the paper presents an actor-network theory approach to the analyses of visions and visioning processes, where the shaping of the visions and the visioning and what has made them work or not work is analysed. The empirical part is based on analyses of the roles of visions...... and visioning processes in a number of foresight processes from different societal contexts. The analyses have been carried out as part of the work in the COST A22 network on foresight. A vision is here understood as a description of a desirable or preferable future, compared to a scenario which is understood...

  15. Pleiades Visions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehouse, M.

    2016-01-01

    Pleiades Visions (2012) is my new musical composition for organ that takes inspiration from traditional lore and music associated with the Pleiades (Seven Sisters) star cluster from Australian Aboriginal, Native American, and Native Hawaiian cultures. It is based on my doctoral dissertation research incorporating techniques from the fields of ethnomusicology and cultural astronomy; this research likely represents a new area of inquiry for both fields. This large-scale work employs the organ's vast sonic resources to evoke the majesty of the night sky and the expansive landscapes of the homelands of the above-mentioned peoples. Other important themes in Pleiades Visions are those of place, origins, cosmology, and the creation of the world.

  16. Lambda Vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czajkowski, Michael

    2014-06-01

    There is an explosion in the quantity and quality of IMINT data being captured in Intelligence Surveillance and Reconnaissance (ISR) today. While automated exploitation techniques involving computer vision are arriving, only a few architectures can manage both the storage and bandwidth of large volumes of IMINT data and also present results to analysts quickly. Lockheed Martin Advanced Technology Laboratories (ATL) has been actively researching in the area of applying Big Data cloud computing techniques to computer vision applications. This paper presents the results of this work in adopting a Lambda Architecture to process and disseminate IMINT data using computer vision algorithms. The approach embodies an end-to-end solution by processing IMINT data from sensors to serving information products quickly to analysts, independent of the size of the data. The solution lies in dividing up the architecture into a speed layer for low-latent processing and a batch layer for higher quality answers at the expense of time, but in a robust and fault-tolerant way. This approach was evaluated using a large corpus of IMINT data collected by a C-130 Shadow Harvest sensor over Afghanistan from 2010 through 2012. The evaluation data corpus included full motion video from both narrow and wide area field-of-views. The evaluation was done on a scaled-out cloud infrastructure that is similar in composition to those found in the Intelligence Community. The paper shows experimental results to prove the scalability of the architecture and precision of its results using a computer vision algorithm designed to identify man-made objects in sparse data terrain.

  17. Virtual Vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terzopoulos, Demetri; Qureshi, Faisal Z.

    Computer vision and sensor networks researchers are increasingly motivated to investigate complex multi-camera sensing and control issues that arise in the automatic visual surveillance of extensive, highly populated public spaces such as airports and train stations. However, they often encounter serious impediments to deploying and experimenting with large-scale physical camera networks in such real-world environments. We propose an alternative approach called "Virtual Vision", which facilitates this type of research through the virtual reality simulation of populated urban spaces, camera sensor networks, and computer vision on commodity computers. We demonstrate the usefulness of our approach by developing two highly automated surveillance systems comprising passive and active pan/tilt/zoom cameras that are deployed in a virtual train station environment populated by autonomous, lifelike virtual pedestrians. The easily reconfigurable virtual cameras distributed in this environment generate synthetic video feeds that emulate those acquired by real surveillance cameras monitoring public spaces. The novel multi-camera control strategies that we describe enable the cameras to collaborate in persistently observing pedestrians of interest and in acquiring close-up videos of pedestrians in designated areas.

  18. Vision in high-level football officials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    António Manuel Gonçalves Baptista

    Full Text Available Officiating in football depends, at least to some extent, upon adequate visual function. However, there is no vision standard for football officiating and the nature of the relationship between officiating performance and level of vision is unknown. As a first step in characterising this relationship, we report on the clinically-measured vision and on the perceived level of vision in elite-level, Portuguese football officials. Seventy-one referees (R and assistant referees (AR participated in the study, representing 92% of the total population of elite level football officials in Portugal in the 2013/2014 season. Nine of the 22 Rs (40.9% and ten of the 49 ARs (20.4% were international-level. Information about visual history was also gathered. Perceived vision was assessed using the preference-values-assigned-to-global-visual-status (PVVS and the Quality-of-Vision (QoV questionnaire. Standard clinical vision measures (including visual acuity, contrast sensitivity and stereopsis were gathered in a subset (n = 44, 62% of the participants. Data were analysed according to the type (R/AR and level (international/national of official, and Bonferroni corrections were applied to reduce the risk of type I errors. Adopting criterion for statistical significance of p<0.01, PVVS scores did not differ between R and AR (p = 0.88, or between national- and international-level officials (p = 0.66. Similarly, QoV scores did not differ between R and AR in frequency (p = 0.50, severity (p = 0.71 or bothersomeness (p = 0.81 of symptoms, or between international-level vs national-level officials for frequency (p = 0.03 or bothersomeness (p = 0.07 of symptoms. However, international-level officials reported less severe symptoms than their national-level counterparts (p<0.01. Overall, 18.3% of officials had either never had an eye examination or if they had, it was more than 3 years previously. Regarding refractive correction, 4.2% had undergone refractive surgery and

  19. NPPD: A Protein-Protein Docking Scoring Function Based on Dyadic Differences in Networks of Hydrophobic and Hydrophilic Amino Acid Residues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward S. C. Shih

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Protein-protein docking (PPD predictions usually rely on the use of a scoring function to rank docking models generated by exhaustive sampling. To rank good models higher than bad ones, a large number of scoring functions have been developed and evaluated, but the methods used for the computation of PPD predictions remain largely unsatisfactory. Here, we report a network-based PPD scoring function, the NPPD, in which the network consists of two types of network nodes, one for hydrophobic and the other for hydrophilic amino acid residues, and the nodes are connected when the residues they represent are within a certain contact distance. We showed that network parameters that compute dyadic interactions and those that compute heterophilic interactions of the amino acid networks thus constructed allowed NPPD to perform well in a benchmark evaluation of 115 PPD scoring functions, most of which, unlike NPPD, are based on some sort of protein-protein interaction energy. We also showed that NPPD was highly complementary to these energy-based scoring functions, suggesting that the combined use of conventional scoring functions and NPPD might significantly improve the accuracy of current PPD predictions.

  20. Quality of life in Nepalese patients with low vision and the impact of low vision services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajendra Gyawali

    2012-10-01

    Conclusions: Low vision patients have poor quality of life as measured with the NEI VFQ-25. Low vision service is associated with improved visual function, better quality of life and high rate of patient satisfaction.

  1. Quadratic function between arterial partial oxygen pressure and mortality risk in sepsis patients: an interaction with simplified acute physiology score.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhongheng; Ji, Xuqing

    2016-10-13

    Oxygen therapy is widely used in emergency and critical care settings, while there is little evidence on its real therapeutic effect. The study aimed to explore the impact of arterial oxygen partial pressure (PaO 2 ) on clinical outcomes in patients with sepsis. A large clinical database was employed for the study. Subjects meeting the diagnostic criteria of sepsis were eligible for the study. All measurements of PaO 2 were extracted. The primary endpoint was death from any causes during hospital stay. Survey data analysis was performed by using individual ICU admission as the primary sampling unit. Quadratic function was assumed for PaO 2 and its interaction with other covariates were explored. A total of 199,125 PaO 2 samples were identified for 11,002 ICU admissions. Each ICU stay comprised 18 PaO 2 samples in average. The fitted multivariable model supported our hypothesis that the effect of PaO 2 on mortality risk was in quadratic form. There was significant interaction between PaO 2 and SAPS-I (p = 0.007). Furthermore, the main effect of PaO 2 on SOFA score was nonlinear. The study shows that the effect of PaO 2 on mortality risk is in quadratic function form, and there is significant interaction between PaO 2 and severity of illness.

  2. Effects of breed and feeding system on milk production, body weight, body condition score, reproductive performance, and postpartum ovarian function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, S; Buckley, F; Pierce, K; Byrne, N; Patton, J; Dillon, P

    2008-11-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the potential differences among Holstein-Friesian (HF), Montbéliarde (MB), Normande (NM), Norwegian Red (NRF), Montbéliarde x Holstein-Friesian (MBX), and Normande x Holstein-Friesian (NMX) across 2 seasonal grass-based systems of milk production. The effects of breed and feeding system on milk production, body weight, body condition score, fertility performance, hormone parameters, ovarian function, and survival were determined by using mixed model methodology, generalized linear models, and survival analysis. The 5-yr study comprised up to 749 lactations on 309 cows in one research herd. The HF produced the greatest yield of solids-corrected milk, the MB and NM produced the least yields, and NRF, MBX, and NMX were intermediate. The NRF had the lowest body weight throughout lactation, the NM had the highest, and the other breeds were intermediate. Body condition score was greatest for MB and NM, least for HF, and intermediate for NRF, MBX, and NMX. The HF had a lower submission rate and overall pregnancy rate compared with the NRF. The NRF survived the longest in the herd, the HF survived the shortest, and the NM, MB, MBX, and NMX were intermediate. Breed of dairy cow had no effect on selected milk progesterone parameters from 5 d postpartum until 26 d after first artificial insemination. Breed of dairy cow did not influence insulin and insulin-like growth factor-1 around parturition or at the start of the breeding season. Animals offered a high-concentrate diet had greater milk yield, but they did not have improved reproductive performance. Differences observed between the different breeds in this study are a likely consequence of the past selection criteria for the respective breeds.

  3. Patient-Reported Functional Status in Outpatients With Advanced Cancer: Correlation With Physician-Reported Scores and Survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popovic, Gordana; Harhara, Thana; Pope, Ashley; Al-Awamer, Ahmed; Banerjee, Subrata; Bryson, John; Mak, Ernie; Lau, Jenny; Hannon, Breffni; Swami, Nadia; Le, Lisa W; Zimmermann, Camilla

    2018-06-01

    Performance status measures are increasingly completed by patients in outpatient cancer settings, but are not well validated for this use. We assessed performance of a patient-reported functional status measure (PRFS, based on the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group [ECOG]), compared with the physician-completed ECOG, in terms of agreement in ratings and prediction of survival. Patients and physicians independently completed five-point PRFS (lay version of ECOG) and ECOG measures on first consultation at an oncology palliative care clinic. We assessed agreement between PRFS and ECOG using weighted Kappa statistics, and used linear regression to determine factors associated with the difference between PRFS and ECOG ratings. We used the Kaplan-Meier method to estimate the patients' median survival, categorized by PRFS and ECOG, and assessed predictive accuracy of these measures using the C-statistic. For the 949 patients, there was moderate agreement between PRFS and ECOG (weighted Kappa 0.32; 95% CI: 0.28-0.36). On average, patients' ratings of performance status were worse by 0.31 points (95% CI: 0.25-0.37, P statistic was higher for the average of PRFS and ECOG scores (0.619) than when reported individually (0.596 and 0.604, respectively). Patients tend to rate their performance status worse than physicians, particularly if they are younger or have greater symptom burden. Prognostic ability of performance status could be improved by using the average of patients and physician scores. Copyright © 2018 American Academy of Hospice and Palliative Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. The association between the metabolic syndrome and metabolic syndrome score and pulmonary function in non-smoking adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Hyun; Gi, Mi Young; Cha, Ju Ae; Yoo, Chan Uk; Park, Sang Muk

    2018-03-01

    This study assessed the association of metabolic syndrome and metabolic syndrome score with the predicted forced vital capacity and predicted forced expiratory volume in 1 s (predicted forced expiratory volume in 1 s) values in Korean non-smoking adults. We analysed data obtained from 6684 adults during the 2013-2015 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. After adjustment for related variables, metabolic syndrome ( p metabolic syndrome score ( p metabolic syndrome score with metabolic syndrome score 0 as a reference group showed no significance for metabolic syndrome score 1 [1.061 (95% confidence interval, 0.755-1.490)] and metabolic syndrome score 2 [1.247 (95% confidence interval, 0.890-1.747)], but showed significant for metabolic syndrome score 3 [1.433 (95% confidence interval, 1.010-2.033)] and metabolic syndrome score ⩾ 4 [1.760 (95% confidence interval, 1.216-2.550)]. In addition, the odds ratio of restrictive pulmonary disease of the metabolic syndrome [1.360 (95% confidence interval, 1.118-1.655)] was significantly higher than those of non-metabolic syndrome. Metabolic syndrome and metabolic syndrome score were inversely associated with the predicted forced vital capacity and forced expiratory volume in 1 s values in Korean non-smoking adults. In addition, metabolic syndrome and metabolic syndrome score were positively associated with the restrictive pulmonary disease.

  5. Quantification of Emphysema with a Three-Dimensional Chest CT Scan: Correlation with the Visual Emphysema Scoring on Chest CT, Pulmonary Function Tests and Dyspnea Severity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Hyun Jeong; Hwang, Jung Hwa [Dept. of Radiology, Soonchunhyang University Seoul Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-09-15

    We wanted to prospectively evaluate the correlation between the quantification of emphysema using 3D CT densitometry with the visual emphysema score, pulmonary function tests (PFT) and the dyspnea score in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Non-enhanced chest CT with 3D reconstruction was performed in 28 men with COPD (age 54-88 years). With histogram analysis, the total lung volume, mean lung density and proportion of low attenuation lung volume below predetermined thresholds were measured. The CT parameters were compared with the visual emphysema score, the PFT and the dyspnea score. A low attenuation lung volume below -950 HU was well correlated with the DLco and FEV{sub 1}/FVC. A Low attenuation lung volume below -950 HU and -930 HU was correlated with visual the emphysema score. A low attenuation lung volume below -950 HU was correlated with the dyspnea score, although the correlations between the other CT parameters and the dyspnea score were not significant. Objective quantification of emphysema using 3D CT densitometry was correlated with the visual emphysema score. A low attenuation lung volume below -950 HU was correlated with the DLco, the FEV{sub 1}/FVC and the dyspnea score.

  6. Quantification of Emphysema with a Three-Dimensional Chest CT Scan: Correlation with the Visual Emphysema Scoring on Chest CT, Pulmonary Function Tests and Dyspnea Severity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Hyun Jeong; Hwang, Jung Hwa

    2011-01-01

    We wanted to prospectively evaluate the correlation between the quantification of emphysema using 3D CT densitometry with the visual emphysema score, pulmonary function tests (PFT) and the dyspnea score in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Non-enhanced chest CT with 3D reconstruction was performed in 28 men with COPD (age 54-88 years). With histogram analysis, the total lung volume, mean lung density and proportion of low attenuation lung volume below predetermined thresholds were measured. The CT parameters were compared with the visual emphysema score, the PFT and the dyspnea score. A low attenuation lung volume below -950 HU was well correlated with the DLco and FEV 1 /FVC. A Low attenuation lung volume below -950 HU and -930 HU was correlated with visual the emphysema score. A low attenuation lung volume below -950 HU was correlated with the dyspnea score, although the correlations between the other CT parameters and the dyspnea score were not significant. Objective quantification of emphysema using 3D CT densitometry was correlated with the visual emphysema score. A low attenuation lung volume below -950 HU was correlated with the DLco, the FEV 1 /FVC and the dyspnea score.

  7. Predictors of vision impairment in Multiple Sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Dalmau, Bernardo; Martinez-Lapiscina, Elena H; Pulido-Valdeolivas, Irene; Zubizarreta, Irati; Llufriu, Sara; Blanco, Yolanda; Sola-Valls, Nuria; Sepulveda, Maria; Guerrero, Ana; Alba, Salut; Andorra, Magi; Camos, Anna; Sanchez-Vela, Laura; Alfonso, Veronica; Saiz, Albert; Villoslada, Pablo

    2018-01-01

    Visual impairment significantly alters the quality of life of people with Multiple Sclerosis (MS). The objective of this study was to identify predictors (independent variables) of visual outcomes, and to define their relationship with neurological disability and retinal atrophy when assessed by optical coherence tomography (OCT). We performed a cross-sectional analysis of 119 consecutive patients with MS, assessing vision using high contrast visual acuity (LogMar), 2.5% and 1.25% low contrast visual acuity (Sloan charts), and color vision (Hardy-Rand-Rittler plates). Quality of vision is a patient reported outcome based on an individual's unique perception of his or her vision and was assessed with the Visual Functioning Questionnaire-25 (VFQ-25) with the 10 neuro-ophthalmologic items. MS disability was assessed using the expanded disability status scale (EDSS), the MS functional composite (MSFC) and the brief repetitive battery-neuropsychology (BRB-N). Retinal atrophy was assessed using spectral domain OCT, measuring the thickness of the peripapillar retinal nerve fiber layer (pRNFL) and the volume of the ganglion cell plus inner plexiform layer (GCIPL). The vision of patients with MS was impaired, particularly in eyes with prior optic neuritis. Retinal atrophy (pRNFL and GCIPL) was closely associated with impaired low contrast vision and color vision, whereas the volume of the GCIPL showed a trend (p = 0.092) to be associated with quality of vision. Multiple regression analysis revealed that EDSS was an explanatory variable for high contrast vision after stepwise analysis, GCIPL volume for low contrast vision, and GCIPL volume and EDSS for color vision. The explanatory variables for quality of vision were high contrast vision and color vision. In summary, quality of vision in MS depends on the impairment of high contrast visual acuity and color vision due to the disease.

  8. Mediterranean Diet Score: Associations with Metabolic Products of the Intestinal Microbiome, Carotid Plaque Burden, and Renal Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Pignanelli

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic products of the intestinal microbiome such as trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO that accumulate in renal failure (gut-derived uremic toxins, GDUTs affect atherosclerosis and increase cardiovascular risk. We hypothesized that patients on a Mediterranean diet and those consuming lower amounts of dietary precursors would have lower levels of GDUTs. Patients attending vascular prevention clinics completed a Harvard Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ and had plasma levels of TMAO, p-cresylsulfate, hippuric acid, indoxyl sulfate, p-cresyl glucuronide, phenyl acetyl glutamine, and phenyl sulfate measured by ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Carotid plaque burden was measured by ultrasound; CKD-Epi equations were used to estimate the glomerular filtration rate. In total, 276 patients completed the study. Even moderate renal function significantly increased plasma GDUTs, which were significantly associated with higher carotid plaque burden. There was no significant difference in plasma levels of any GDUT associated with a Mediterranean diet score or with intake of dietary precursors. In omnivorous patients with vascular disease, the intake of dietary precursors of intestinal metabolites or adherence to a Mediterranean diet did not change plasma GDUT. Approaches other than diet, such as probiotics and repopulation of the intestinal microbiome, may be required to mitigate the adverse effects of GDUTs.

  9. ABCs of foveal vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matchko, Roy M.; Gerhart, Grant R.

    2001-12-01

    This paper presents a simple mathematical performance model of the human foveal vision system based on an extensive analysis of the Blackwell-McCready (BM) data set. It includes a closed-form equation, the (ABC)t law, that allows the analyst to predict the entire range of BM threshold data. Relationships are derived among the four fundamental parameters of foveal vision: target area A, background luminance B, threshold contrast C, and stimulus presentation time t. Hyperbolic-curve fits on log-log plots of the data lead to the well-known laws of Ricco, Blackwell, Weber and Fechner, and Bloch. This paper unifies important relationships associated with target and background scene parameters as they relate to the human foveal vision process. The process of detecting a BM target, using foveal vision, is reduced to the total temporal summation of light energy modified by a multiplicative energy ratio. A stochastic model of human observer performance is presented in terms of a cumulative Gaussian distribution, which is a function of the apparent and BM contrast threshold values.

  10. Are vision-specific quality of life questionnaires important in assessing rehabilitation for patients with hemianopia post stroke?

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Stacey; Hayes, Allison; Chen, Celia; Crotty, Maria

    2011-01-01

    To explore the relationship between disability and functional measures with vision-specific quality of life (QoL) measures for people with hemianopia and stroke. The Behavioral Inattention Test (BIT) and the Mayo-Portland Adaptability Inventory (MPAI) were compared with scores on 2 vision-specific QoL measures, the National Eye Institute Visual Function Questionnaire (NEI VFQ-25) and Veteran Low Vision Visual Function Questionnaire (VA LV VFQ-48). Rehabilitation hospitals in Adelaide, South Australia. Stroke patients (n = 24) with homonymous hemianopia. Most of the BIT and MPAI scores were significantly associated with the NEI VFQ-25 and VA LV VFQ-48 scores. Behavioral test scores of the BIT and the MPAI total score correlated with more aspects of the QoL measures than the other components of the BIT and the MPAI. BIT and MPAI measure constructs associated with QoL for people with hemianopia following stroke. Vision-specific QoL questionnaires can complement the functional instruments by identifying the domains of difficulty, based on the instrument's subscale, that can guide rehabilitation therapists to address the person's deficit.

  11. Graduate Student WAIS-III Scoring Accuracy Is a Function of Full Scale IQ and Complexity of Examiner Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopwood, Christopher J.; Richard, David C. S.

    2005-01-01

    Research on the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised and Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Third Edition (WAIS-III) suggests that practicing clinical psychologists and graduate students make item-level scoring errors that affect IQ, index, and subtest scores. Studies have been limited in that Full-Scale IQ (FSIQ) and examiner administration,…

  12. Thoughts turned into high-level commands: Proof-of-concept study of a vision-guided robot arm driven by functional MRI (fMRI) signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minati, Ludovico; Nigri, Anna; Rosazza, Cristina; Bruzzone, Maria Grazia

    2012-06-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated the possibility of using functional MRI to control a robot arm through a brain-machine interface by directly coupling haemodynamic activity in the sensory-motor cortex to the position of two axes. Here, we extend this work by implementing interaction at a more abstract level, whereby imagined actions deliver structured commands to a robot arm guided by a machine vision system. Rather than extracting signals from a small number of pre-selected regions, the proposed system adaptively determines at individual level how to map representative brain areas to the input nodes of a classifier network. In this initial study, a median action recognition accuracy of 90% was attained on five volunteers performing a game consisting of collecting randomly positioned coloured pawns and placing them into cups. The "pawn" and "cup" instructions were imparted through four mental imaginery tasks, linked to robot arm actions by a state machine. With the current implementation in MatLab language the median action recognition time was 24.3s and the robot execution time was 17.7s. We demonstrate the notion of combining haemodynamic brain-machine interfacing with computer vision to implement interaction at the level of high-level commands rather than individual movements, which may find application in future fMRI approaches relevant to brain-lesioned patients, and provide source code supporting further work on larger command sets and real-time processing. Copyright © 2012 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The software for automatic creation of the formal grammars used by speech recognition, computer vision, editable text conversion systems, and some new functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kardava, Irakli; Tadyszak, Krzysztof; Gulua, Nana; Jurga, Stefan

    2017-02-01

    For more flexibility of environmental perception by artificial intelligence it is needed to exist the supporting software modules, which will be able to automate the creation of specific language syntax and to make a further analysis for relevant decisions based on semantic functions. According of our proposed approach, of which implementation it is possible to create the couples of formal rules of given sentences (in case of natural languages) or statements (in case of special languages) by helping of computer vision, speech recognition or editable text conversion system for further automatic improvement. In other words, we have developed an approach, by which it can be achieved to significantly improve the training process automation of artificial intelligence, which as a result will give us a higher level of self-developing skills independently from us (from users). At the base of our approach we have developed a software demo version, which includes the algorithm and software code for the entire above mentioned component's implementation (computer vision, speech recognition and editable text conversion system). The program has the ability to work in a multi - stream mode and simultaneously create a syntax based on receiving information from several sources.

  14. Low Vision FAQs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... de los Ojos Cómo hablarle a su oculista Low Vision FAQs What is low vision? Low vision is a visual impairment, not correctable ... person’s ability to perform everyday activities. What causes low vision? Low vision can result from a variety of ...

  15. Pediatric Low Vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Asked Questions Español Condiciones Chinese Conditions Pediatric Low Vision What is Low Vision? Partial vision loss that cannot be corrected causes ... and play. What are the signs of Low Vision? Some signs of low vision include difficulty recognizing ...

  16. Return to sport and knee functional scores after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: 2 to 10 years' follow-up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukrom Cheecharern

    2018-04-01

    , and worry about the possibility of re-injury. Overall, total IKDC scores of patients who returned to sport were significantly higher than those of subjects who did not. However, some points such as ability to kneel, ride and bend the knee were not different in the two groups. Bachelor degree education, monthly income lower than 10,000 Thai baht and IKDC score were the factors associated with returning to sport. Conclusions: The rates of return to sport after ACL reconstruction were low compared to those of other reports in the literature. Education, low income and IKDC score were predictive factors of sport re-participation. Further studies should be carried out to assess the impact on treatment indications and rehabilitation. Keywords: Anterior cruciate ligament, Return to sport, ACL outcomes, Knee function

  17. The CCH Vision Stimulation Program for Infants with Low Vision: Preliminary Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leguire, L. E.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    This study evaluated the Columbus (Ohio) Children's Hospital vision stimulation program, involving in-home intervention with 15 visually impaired infants. Comparison with controls indicated benefits of appropriate vision stimulation in increasing the neural foundation for vision and visual-motor function in visually impaired infants. (Author/DB)

  18. Vision Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    The Visi Screen OSS-C, marketed by Vision Research Corporation, incorporates image processing technology originally developed by Marshall Space Flight Center. Its advantage in eye screening is speed. Because it requires no response from a subject, it can be used to detect eye problems in very young children. An electronic flash from a 35 millimeter camera sends light into a child's eyes, which is reflected back to the camera lens. The photorefractor then analyzes the retinal reflexes generated and produces an image of the child's eyes, which enables a trained observer to identify any defects. The device is used by pediatricians, day care centers and civic organizations that concentrate on children with special needs.

  19. Robot vision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, E.L.

    1984-01-01

    Almost all industrial robots use internal sensors such as shaft encoders which measure rotary position, or tachometers which measure velocity, to control their motions. Most controllers also provide interface capabilities so that signals from conveyors, machine tools, and the robot itself may be used to accomplish a task. However, advanced external sensors, such as visual sensors, can provide a much greater degree of adaptability for robot control as well as add automatic inspection capabilities to the industrial robot. Visual and other sensors are now being used in fundamental operations such as material processing with immediate inspection, material handling with adaption, arc welding, and complex assembly tasks. A new industry of robot vision has emerged. The application of these systems is an area of great potential

  20. Vision and the hypothalamus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trachtman, Joseph N

    2010-02-01

    For nearly 2 millennia, signs of hypothalamic-related vision disorders have been noticed as illustrated by paintings and drawings of that time of undiagnosed Horner's syndrome. It was not until the 1800s, however, that specific connections between the hypothalamus and the vision system were discovered. With a fuller elaboration of the autonomic nervous system in the early to mid 1900s, many more pathways were discovered. The more recently discovered retinohypothalamic tracts show the extent and influence of light stimulation on hypothalamic function and bodily processes. The hypothalamus maintains its myriad connections via neural pathways, such as with the pituitary and pineal glands; the chemical messengers of the peptides, cytokines, and neurotransmitters; and the nitric oxide mechanism. As a result of these connections, the hypothalamus has involvement in many degenerative diseases. A complete feedback mechanism between the eye and hypothalamus is established by the retinohypothalamic tracts and the ciliary nerves innervating the anterior pole of the eye and the retina. A discussion of hypothalamic-related vision disorders includes neurologic syndromes, the lacrimal system, the retina, and ocular inflammation. Tables and figures have been used to aid in the explanation of the many connections and chemicals controlled by the hypothalamus. The understanding of the functions of the hypothalamus will allow the clinician to gain better insight into the many pathologies associated between the vision system and the hypothalamus. In the future, it may be possible that some ocular disease treatments will be via direct action on hypothalamic function. Copyright 2010 American Optometric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Color vision test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... present from birth) color vision problems: Achromatopsia -- complete color blindness , seeing only shades of gray Deuteranopia -- difficulty telling ... Vision test - color; Ishihara color vision test Images Color blindness tests References Bowling B. Hereditary fundus dystrophies. In: ...

  2. Impairments to Vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... an external Non-Government web site. Impairments to Vision Normal Vision Diabetic Retinopathy Age-related Macular Degeneration In this ... pictures, fixate on the nose to simulate the vision loss. In diabetic retinopathy, the blood vessels in ...

  3. Regional Emphysema Score Predicting Overall Survival, Quality of Life, and Pulmonary Function Recovery in Early-Stage Lung Cancer Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Jie; Liu, Ming; Swensen, Stephen J; Stoddard, Shawn M; Wampfler, Jason A; Limper, Andrew H; Jiang, Gening; Yang, Ping

    2017-05-01

    Pulmonary emphysema is a frequent comorbidity in lung cancer, but its role in tumor prognosis remains obscure. Our aim was to evaluate the impact of the regional emphysema score (RES) on a patient's overall survival, quality of life (QOL), and recovery of pulmonary function in stage I to II lung cancer. Between 1997 and 2009, a total of 1073 patients were identified and divided into two surgical groups-cancer in the emphysematous (group 1 [n = 565]) and nonemphysematous (group 2 [n = 435]) regions-and one nonsurgical group (group 3 [n = 73]). RES was derived from the emphysematous region and categorized as mild (≤5%), moderate (6%-24%), or severe (25%-60%). In group 1, patients with a moderate or severe RES experienced slight decreases in postoperative forced expiratory volume in 1 second, but increases in the ratio of forced expiratory volume in 1 second to forced vital capacity compared with those with a mild RES (p < 0.01); however, this correlation was not observed in group 2. Posttreatment QOL was lower in patients with higher RESs in all groups, mainly owing to dyspnea (p < 0.05). Cox regression analysis revealed that patients with a higher RES had significantly poorer survival in both surgical groups, with adjusted hazard ratios of 1.41 and 1.43 for a moderate RES and 1.63 and 2.04 for a severe RES, respectively; however, this association was insignificant in the nonsurgical group (adjusted hazard ratio of 0.99 for a moderate or severe RES). In surgically treated patients with cancer in the emphysematous region, RES is associated with postoperative changes in lung function. RES is also predictive of posttreatment QOL related to dyspnea in early-stage lung cancer. In both surgical groups, RES is an independent predictor of survival. Copyright © 2017 International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Premorbid functioning of patients with first-episode nonaffective psychosis: a comparison of deterioration in academic and social performance, and clinical correlates of Premorbid Adjustment Scale scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monte, Ralph C; Goulding, Sandra M; Compton, Michael T

    2008-09-01

    Motivated by a previous study among male veterans [Allen, D.N., Frantom, L.V., Strauss, G.P., van Kammen, D.P., 2005. Differential patterns of premorbid academic and social deterioration in patients with schizophrenia. Schizophr. Res. 75, 389-397], the present analysis examined: (1) patterns of premorbid academic and social functioning during childhood, early adolescence, and late adolescence, and (2) associations between these premorbid functioning dimensions and a number of clinical variables. Data on premorbid functioning were collected using the Premorbid Adjustment Scale (PAS) in 95 hospitalized first-episode patients. Analyses were similar to those conducted by Allen and colleagues (2005). Deterioration was evident in both academic and social functioning from childhood to early adolescence, along with a pronounced/accelerated deterioration in academic functioning from early adolescence to late adolescence, occurring in both male and female patients. Age at onset of prodromal symptoms was predicted by childhood/early adolescent/late adolescent academic functioning scores, and age at onset of psychotic symptoms was significantly associated only with childhood academic functioning. Severity of negative symptoms was predicted by childhood and late adolescent social functioning scores, and severity of general psychopathology symptoms was predicted by late adolescent academic functioning, as well as childhood and late adolescent social functioning scores. Consistent with prior findings, deterioration in premorbid functioning appears to be more pronounced in the academic than social dimension of the PAS. Some PAS scores are predictive of ages at onset of prodrome/psychosis and severity of psychotic symptoms. Ongoing research on premorbid adjustment in schizophrenia may have implications for future prevention goals.

  5. Comparative evaluation of chest radiography, low-field MRI, the Shwachman-Kulczycki score and pulmonary function tests in patients with cystic fibrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anjorin, Angela; Vogl, Thomas J.; Schmidt, Helga; Posselt, Hans-Georg; Smaczny, Christina; Ackermann, Hanns; Deimling, Michael; Abolmaali, Nasreddin

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether the parenchymal lung damage in patients suffering from cystic fibrosis (CF) can be equivalently quantified by the Chrispin-Norman (CN) scores determined with low-field magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and conventional chest radiography (CXR). Both scores were correlated with pulmonary function tests (PFT) and the Shwachman-Kulczycki method (SKM). To evaluate the comparability of MRI and CXR for different states of the disease, all scores were applied to patients divided into three age groups. Seventy-three CF patients (mean SKM score: 62 ± 8) with a median age (range) of 14 years (7-32) were included. The mean CN scores determined with both imaging methods were comparable (CXR: 12.1 ± 4.7; MRI: 12.0 ± 4.5) and showed high correlation (P < 0.05, R = 0.97). Only weak correlations were found between imaging, PFT, and SKM. Both imaging modalities revealed significantly more severe disease expression with age, while PFT and SKM failed to detect early signs of disease. We conclude that imaging of the lung in CF patients is capable of detecting subtle and early parenchymal destruction before lung function or clinical scoring is affected. Furthermore, low-field MRI revealed high consistency with chest radiography and may be used for a thorough follow-up while avoiding radiation exposure. (orig.)

  6. The Impact of Protein Structure and Sequence Similarity on the Accuracy of Machine-Learning Scoring Functions for Binding Affinity Prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongjian; Peng, Jiangjun; Leung, Yee; Leung, Kwong-Sak; Wong, Man-Hon; Lu, Gang; Ballester, Pedro J

    2018-03-14

    It has recently been claimed that the outstanding performance of machine-learning scoring functions (SFs) is exclusively due to the presence of training complexes with highly similar proteins to those in the test set. Here, we revisit this question using 24 similarity-based training sets, a widely used test set, and four SFs. Three of these SFs employ machine learning instead of the classical linear regression approach of the fourth SF (X-Score which has the best test set performance out of 16 classical SFs). We have found that random forest (RF)-based RF-Score-v3 outperforms X-Score even when 68% of the most similar proteins are removed from the training set. In addition, unlike X-Score, RF-Score-v3 is able to keep learning with an increasing training set size, becoming substantially more predictive than X-Score when the full 1105 complexes are used for training. These results show that machine-learning SFs owe a substantial part of their performance to training on complexes with dissimilar proteins to those in the test set, against what has been previously concluded using the same data. Given that a growing amount of structural and interaction data will be available from academic and industrial sources, this performance gap between machine-learning SFs and classical SFs is expected to enlarge in the future.

  7. Functional genomics to assess biological responses to marine pollution at physiological and evolutionary timescales: toward a vision of predictive ecotoxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Noah M; Whitehead, Andrew

    2016-09-01

    Marine pollution is ubiquitous, and is one of the key factors influencing contemporary marine biodiversity worldwide. To protect marine biodiversity, how do we surveil, document and predict the short- and long-term impacts of pollutants on at-risk species? Modern genomics tools offer high-throughput, information-rich and increasingly cost-effective approaches for characterizing biological responses to environmental stress, and are important tools within an increasing sophisticated kit for surveiling and assessing impacts of pollutants on marine species. Through the lens of recent research in marine killifish, we illustrate how genomics tools may be useful for screening chemicals and pollutants for biological activity and to reveal specific mechanisms of action. The high dimensionality of transcriptomic responses enables their usage as highly specific fingerprints of exposure, and these fingerprints can be used to diagnose environmental problems. We also emphasize that molecular pathways recruited to respond at physiological timescales are the same pathways that may be targets for natural selection during chronic exposure to pollutants. Gene complement and sequence variation in those pathways can be related to variation in sensitivity to environmental pollutants within and among species. Furthermore, allelic variation associated with evolved tolerance in those pathways could be tracked to estimate the pace of environmental health decline and recovery. We finish by integrating these paradigms into a vision of how genomics approaches could anchor a modernized framework for advancing the predictive capacity of environmental and ecotoxicological science. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. [Carotid intima-media thickness distribution according to the stratification of cardiovascular risk by means of Framingham-REGICOR and score function charts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermida-Ameijeiras, Á; López-Paz, J E; Riveiro-Cruz, M A; Calvo-Gómez, C

    2016-01-01

    Carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) has been suggested as a further tool for risk function charts. The aim of this study was to describethe relationship between cIMT and cardiovascular risk (CVR) estimation according to Framingham-REGICOR and SCORE equations. Observational, cross-sectional cohort study from 362 hypertensive subjects. Demographic and clinical information were collected as well as laboratory, ultrasonographic and CVR estimation by the Framingham-REGICOR and SCORE functions. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS software (version 20,0). To analyze the data, statistical tests such as Chi-square, T-test, ANOVA, and Pearson correlation coefficient were used. According to both functions, differences on mean cIMT were found between low CVR group and intermediate to high groups. No differences were found between intermediate and high risk groups (cIMT: 0,73mm low risk patients vs. 0,89 or 0,88mm respectively according to SCORE function and cIMT: 0,73 vs. 0,85 or 0,87mm respectively according to Framingham-REGICOR function). cIMT correlated positively with CVR estimation according to both SCORE (r=0,421; P<.01), and Framingham-REGICOR functions (r=0,363; P<.01). cIMT correlates positively with CVR estimated by SCORE and Framingham-REGICOR functions. cIMT in those subjects at intermediate risk is similar to those at high risk. Our findings highlight the importance of carotid ultrasound in identifying silent target-organ damage in those patients at intermediate CVR. Copyright © 2015 SEHLELHA. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  9. The Relationship Between Early-Stage Knee Osteoarthritis and Lower-Extremity Alignment, Joint Laxity, and Subjective Scores of Pain, Stiffness, and Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks-Little, Charlie A; Peindl, Richard D; Hubbard-Turner, Tricia J; Cordova, Mitchell L

    2016-08-01

    Knee osteoarthritis (OA) is a debilitating disease that affects an estimated 27 million Americans. Changes in lower-extremity alignment and joint laxity have been found to redistribute the medial and/or lateral loads at the joint. However, the effect that changes in anteroposterior knee-joint laxity have on lower-extremity alignment and function in individuals with knee OA remains unclear. To examine anteroposterior knee-joint laxity, lower-extremity alignment, and subjective pain, stiffness, and function scores in individuals with early-stage knee OA and matched controls and to determine if a relationship exists among these measures. Case control. Sports-medicine research laboratory. 18 participants with knee OA and 18 healthy matched controls. Participants completed the Western Ontario McMaster (WOMAC) osteoarthritis questionnaire and were tested for total anteroposterior knee-joint laxity (A-P) and knee-joint alignment (ALIGN). WOMAC scores, A-P (mm), and ALIGN (°). A significant multivariate main effect for group (Wilks' Λ = 0.30, F7,26 = 8.58, P Knee-OA participants differed in WOMAC scores (P knee OA had worse pain, stiffness, and functional outcome scores than the matched controls; however, ALIGN and A-P were no different. There was no association identified among participants' subjective scores, ALIGN, or A-P measures in this study.

  10. The Finnish Diabetes Risk Score is associated with insulin resistance but not reduced beta-cell function, by classical and model-based estimates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brodovicz, K.G.; Dekker, J.M.; Rijkelijkhuizen, J.M.; Rhodes, T.; Mari, A.; Alssema, M.J.; Nijpels, G.; Williams-Herman, D.E.; Girman, C.J.

    2011-01-01

    Aims The Finnish Diabetes Risk Score (FINDRISC) is widely used for risk stratification in Type2 diabetes prevention programmes. Estimates of β-cell function vary widely in people without diabetes and reduced insulin secretion has been described in people at risk for diabetes. The aim of this

  11. Some benefit from physiotherapy intervention in the subgroup of patients with severe ankle sprain as determined by the ankle function score: a randomised trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Rijn, Rogier M; van Heest, Jos A C; van der Wees, Philip; Koes, Bart W; Bierma-Zeinstra, Sita M A

    2009-01-01

    Do patients with a severe ankle injury (baseline ankle function score 40)? Does physiotherapy intervention have more effect on patients with a severe injury compared with a mild injury in the short- or long-term? Is self-reported recovery related to ankle function score over time? Subgroup analysis of a randomised trial. 102 adults with an acute lateral ankle sprain. The experimental group received physiotherapist-supervised exercises in addition to conventional intervention. Outcomes were self-reported recovery, pain, and instability all measured on a 10-point visual analogue scale, and incidence of re-sprain. Measurements were collected at baseline, 4 and 8 weeks, 3 and 12 months. Participants with a severe injury did worse in 3 out of 7 outcomes than those with a mild injury at 4 weeks but not at 8 weeks. There was no difference in effect of physiotherapy intervention in those with a severe injury compared with a mild injury, at 8 weeks or 12 months. However, there was an effect of physiotherapy intervention in those with a severe injury in 3 out of 7 outcomes at 8 weeks. Self-reported recovery was related to ankle function score at all points in time (r = 0.48 to 0.79). The results of this study only partially support the recommendations regarding the use of the ankle function score in the 'Acute Ankle Injury' guideline of the Royal Dutch Society of Physiotherapists.

  12. Genetic covariance functioners for live weight, condition score, and dry-matter intake measured at different lactations stages of Holstein-Friesian heifers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koenen, E.P.C.; Veerkamp, R.F.

    1998-01-01

    Genetic parameters for live weight, body condition score and dry-matter intake of dairy heifers were estimated using covariance function methodology. Data were from 469 heifers of the Langhill Dairy Cattle Research Centre and included observations during the first 25 weeks in lactation. Genetic

  13. PROMIS Pain Interference and Physical Function Scores Correlate With the Foot and Ankle Ability Measure (FAAM) in Patients With Hallux Valgus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nixon, Devon C; McCormick, Jeremy J; Johnson, Jeffrey E; Klein, Sandra E

    2017-11-01

    Traditional patient-reported outcome instruments like the Foot and Ankle Ability Measure (FAAM) quantify patient disability but often are limited by responder burden and incomplete questionnaires. The Patient-Reported Outcome Measurement Information System (PROMIS) overcomes such obstacles through computer-adaptive technology and can capture outcome data from various domains including physical and psychosocial function. Prior work has compared the FAAM with PROMIS physical function; however, there is little evidence comparing the association between foot and ankle-specific tools like the FAAM with more general outcomes measures of PROMIS pain interference and depression in foot and ankle conditions. (1) We asked whether there was a relationship between FAAM Activities of Daily Living (ADL) scores with PROMIS physical function, pain interference, and depression in patients with hallux valgus. (2) Additionally, we asked if we could identify specific factors that are associated with variance in FAAM and PROMIS physical function scores in patients with hallux valgus. Eighty-five new patients with either a primary or secondary diagnosis of hallux valgus based on clinic billing codes from July 2015 to February 2016 were retrospectively identified. Patients completed FAAM ADL paper-based surveys and electronic PROMIS questionnaires for physical function, pain interference, and depression from new patient visits at a single time. Spearman rho correlations were performed between FAAM ADL and PROMIS scores. Analyses then were used to identify differences in FAAM ADL and PROMIS physical function measures based on demographic variables. Stepwise linear regressions then determined which demographic and/or outcome variable(s) accounted for the variance in FAAM ADL and PROMIS physical function scores. FAAM scores correlated strongly with PROMIS physical function (r = 0.70, p hallux valgus. PROMIS tools allow for more-efficient data collection across multiple domains and, moving

  14. Relation between clinical and roentgenological scores and measures of lung function in cystic fibrosis, with special reference to pulmonary Xenon133 elimination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ericsson, A.; Strandvik, B.; Troell, S.; Freyschuss, U.

    1987-01-01

    Regional lung function (RLF) with Xenon 133 was investigated in 40 patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) aged 5-28 years (mean 13) at 1-5 occasions during a 3-year period. The RLF was determined with a 4-collimator system and evaluated with a score based on the following parameters: (1) time of elimination of injected isotope and (2) of inhaled isotope, (3) regional ventilation, (4) regional perfusion and (5) ventilation-perfusion ratios. The results were related to spirometry, X-ray score (according to a modification of Chrispin and Norman) and clinical score (according to Shwachman and excluding X-ray), which were all assessed in the same day. RLF correlated to clinical (P<0.01) and radiological score (P<0.01) and to residual volume (P<0.001) and the ratio between one second forced expiratory volume to vital capacity (FEV%) (P<0.01), but much higher correlations were found between X-ray score, clinical score and different spirometric variables. We therefore conclude that RLF can be used in patients too young to cooperate in spirometry but that it is of less clinical value in older patients with CF. (author)

  15. RBANS memory percentage retention: No evidence of incremental validity beyond RBANS scores for diagnostic classification of mild cognitive impairment and dementia and for prediction of daily function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jodouin, Kara A; O'Connell, Megan E; Morgan, Debra G

    2017-01-01

    RBANS percentage retention scores may be useful for diagnosis, but their incremental validity is unclear. Percentage retention versus RBANS immediate and delayed memory subtests and delayed index scores were compared for diagnostic classification and for prediction of function. Data from 173 memory clinic patients with an interdisciplinary diagnosis (no cognitive impairment, amnestic mild cognitive impairment [aMCI], and dementia due to Alzheimer's disease [AD]) and complete RBANS data were analyzed. Across diagnostic contrasts, list percentage retention classification accuracy was similar to List Learning delayed recall, but below the Delayed Memory Index (DMI). Similarly, for classifying no cognitive impairment versus aMCI or dementia due to AD, story percentage retention was similar to Story Memory subtests and below the DMI. For classifying aMCI versus AD; however, Story Memory exceeded the DMI, but was similar to Story Memory subtest scores. Similarly, for prediction of function percentage retention measures did not predict variance beyond that predicted by the RBANS subtest or index scores. In sum, there is no evidence that calculation of percentage retention for RBANS adds clinical utility beyond those provided by the standard RBANS scores.

  16. Comparison of the responsiveness of the Harris Hip Score with generic measures for hip function in osteoarthritis of the hip.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoeksma, H.L.; Ende, C.H.M. van den; Ronday, H.K.; Heering, A.; Breedveld, F.C.; Dekker, J.

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare responsiveness of the Harris Hip Score with generic measures (that is, the Short Form-36 (SF-36), and a test of walking speed and pain during walking) in patients with osteoarthritis (OA) of the hip. METHOD: The first 75 cases within the population of a randomised clinical

  17. Influence of visual impairment and hearing impairment on functional dependence status among people in Taiwan—An evaluation using the WHODAS 2.0 score

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ko-Fang Chang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Visual impairment (VI and hearing impairment (HI are the two most common types of sensory disability encountered clinically. However, VI and HI result in different limitations in daily life. We assessed the level of functioning in patients with VI or HI based on the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health. Methods: This nationwide, cross-sectional study included 312 people with VI and 540 people with HI. Each participant's degree of functioning and disability was evaluated using the World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule 2.0 (WHODAS 2.0. The standardized WHODAS 2.0 scores ranged from 0 (least difficulty to 100 (most difficulty. Results: Patients with VI and those with HI had a mean (±standard error 32-item WHODAS 2.0 score of 42.4 ± 2.9 and 27.1 ± 1.6, respectively. The degree of restriction was positively related to the level of VI. Specifically, the patients with VI and a WHODAS 2.0 score of 33.7–35.3 or higher were likely to experience barriers to accessing mobility products, communication products, and education products. Furthermore, patients with a score of 42.9 or higher might experience barriers to accessing ingestion products and living products. Conclusion: WHODAS 2.0 scores are strongly correlated with the severity of VI. Mild VI should be targeted for treatment and referral as early as possible. Compared with the patients with HI, the patients with VI more frequently experience barriers to accessing environmental factors. Keywords: Disability, Functioning, Hearing impairment, International Classification of Functioning (ICF, Visual impairment, WHODAS 2.0

  18. Patients With Knee Osteoarthritis Who Score Highly on the PainDETECT Questionnaire Present With Multimodality Hyperalgesia, Increased Pain, and Impaired Physical Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, Penny; Benson, Heather A E; Will, Rob; Wright, Anthony

    2018-01-01

    PainDETECT is a self-report questionnaire that can be used to identify features of neuropathic pain. A proportion of patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA) score highly on the PainDETECT questionnaire. This study aimed to determine whether those with a higher "positive neuropathic" score on the PainDETECT questionnaire also had greater pain, hypersensitivity, and reduced function compared with individuals with knee OA with lower PainDETECT scores. In total, 130 participants with knee OA completed the PainDETECT, Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Arthritis Index (WOMAC), and Pain Quality Assessment Scale questionnaires. Quantitative sensory testing was carried out at 3 sites (both knees and elbow) using standard methods. Cold and heat pain thresholds were tested using a Peltier thermode and pressure pain thresholds using a digital algometer. Physical function was assessed using 3 timed locomotor function tests. In total, 22.3% of participants scored in the "positive neuropathic" category with a further 35.4% in the unclear category. Participants in the "positive neuropathic" category reported higher levels of pain and more impaired function based on the WOMAC questionnaire (Ppain thresholds at the OA knee. They were also slower to complete 2 of the locomotion tasks. This study identified a specific subgroup of people with knee OA who exhibited PainDETECT scores in the "positive neuropathic" category. These individuals experienced increased levels of pain, widespread, multimodality hyperalgesia, and greater functional impairment than the remaining cohort. Identification of OA patients with this pain phenotype may permit more targeted and effective pain management.

  19. What Is Low Vision?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Your Rights Training Resources Workplace Technology CareerConnect Stories Working as a Senior with Vision Loss For Seniors Age-Related Vision ... Changes Health and Aging Retirement Living Continuing to Work as a Senior with Vision Loss Get Connected About VisionAware Join ...

  20. Do Functional Movement Screen (FMS) composite scores predict subsequent injury? A systematic review with meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Robert W; Schneiders, Anthony G; Mason, Jesse; Sullivan, S John

    2017-12-01

    This paper aims to systematically review studies investigating the strength of association between FMS composite scores and subsequent risk of injury, taking into account both methodological quality and clinical and methodological diversity. Systematic review with meta-analysis. A systematic search of electronic databases was conducted for the period between their inception and 3 March 2016 using PubMed, Medline, Google Scholar, Scopus, Academic Search Complete, AMED (Allied and Complementary Medicine Database), CINAHL (Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature), Health Source and SPORTDiscus. Inclusion criteria: (1) English language, (2) observational prospective cohort design, (3) original and peer-reviewed data, (4) composite FMS score, used to define exposure and non-exposure groups and (5) musculoskeletal injury, reported as the outcome. (1) data reported in conference abstracts or non-peer-reviewed literature, including theses, and (2) studies employing cross-sectional or retrospective study designs. 24 studies were appraised using the Quality of Cohort Studies assessment tool. In male military personnel, there was 'strong' evidence that the strength of association between FMS composite score (cut-point ≤14/21) and subsequent injury was 'small' (pooled risk ratio=1.47, 95% CI 1.22 to 1.77, p<0.0001, I 2 =57%). There was 'moderate' evidence to recommend against the use of FMS composite score as an injury prediction test in football (soccer). For other populations (including American football, college athletes, basketball, ice hockey, running, police and firefighters), the evidence was 'limited' or 'conflicting'. The strength of association between FMS composite scores and subsequent injury does not support its use as an injury prediction tool. PROSPERO registration number CRD42015025575. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted

  1. Decreased Renal Function Is Associated with Elevated CHA2DS2VASC and R2CHADS2 Scores in Non-Valvular Atrial Fibrillation Patients Presenting with Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vindhyal, Mohinder; Vindhyal, Shravani R; Haneke, Travis; Ndunda, Paul M; Eid, Freidy; Kallail, K James

    2017-12-11

    Introduction Atrial fibrillation (AF), the most common cardiac arrhythmia, affects approximately 2.3 million patients in the United States, costing around $26 billion. Atrial fibrillation is associated with a two- to seven-fold increased risk of stroke, one of the most serious complications. Chronic kidney disease affects approximately 13% of the US population and has been associated with higher rates of AF than the general population. In patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD), the risk of stroke increases as the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) decreases, especially in CKD stages three and four. Several risks stratification scores such as CHADS2 (congestive heart failure, hypertension, age, diabetes mellitus, stroke), CHA2DS2VASc (congestive heart failure, hypertension, age, diabetes mellitus, stroke, vascular disease, age, sex), and R2CHADS2 (renal failure, congestive heart failure, age, diabetes, stroke) scores are used for stroke risk assessment in patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF). This study investigates the association between renal functions and risk stratification scoring systems in patients with non-valvular AF presenting with stroke. Methods Using the convenience sampling method, 171 subjects were selected from the eligible population (n = 386). A Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient was calculated to determine the association between the GFR and each of the CHA2DS2VASc and R2CHADS2 scores. In addition, a Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient was calculated to determine the association between the CHA2DS2VASc and R2CHADS2 scores. Results The selected population represented 44.3% of the eligible subjects. Of these, 88% were Caucasian, 60% were female, and the mean age was 78 years. The mean CHA2DS2VASc score was six (range 2-9). The mean eGFR was 69.77 (range 6-108). Both the mode and the median CHA2DS2VASc score was four (range 2-8). A weak, but significant, negative correlation was found between renal

  2. Papua New Guinea vision-specific quality of life questionnaire: a new patient-reported outcome instrument to assess the impact of impaired vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paudel, Prakash; Khadka, Jyoti; Burnett, Anthea; Hani, Yvonne; Naduvilath, Thomas; Fricke, Tim R

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to develop and validate a new vision-specific quality of life (VS QoL) instrument and to assess the impact of vision impairment and eye disease on the quality of life of adults in Papua New Guinea (PNG). This study was designed as community based cross-sectional. Six hundred fourteen adults aged 18 and above were included in this study. Focus groups and interviews guided development of a 41-item instrument. Two valid subscales of the instrument were obtained using pilot data after an iterative item reduction process guided by Rasch-based parameters. The person measures (in logits) of 614 participants were used to assess quality of life using univariate and multivariate regression analysis. Rasch logits. Rasch analysis confirmed a 17-item instrument containing an 8-item activity limitation subscale and a 9-item well-being subscale. Both subscales were unidimensional and demonstrated good fit statistics, measurement precisions and absence of significant differential item functioning. A consistent deterioration in vision-specific quality of life was independently and significantly associated with levels of vision. Severity of vision impairment and ocular morbidity were independently associated with activity limitation and emotional well-being. Participants with refractive error had lower quality of life score than those with no ocular abnormality but higher score than those with cataract and other eye diseases. The 17-item PNG-VS QoL instrument is a valid and reliable instrument for the assessment of impact of impaired vision on quality of life in PNG. Vision-specific quality of life was significantly worse among participants who were older and less-educated, had lower income and have had ocular morbidities. © 2014 Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Ophthalmologists.

  3. Vision-Related Quality of Life in Patients with Ocular Graft-versus-Host Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saboo, Ujwala S; Amparo, Francisco; Abud, Tulio B; Schaumberg, Debra A; Dana, Reza

    2015-08-01

    To assess the vision-related quality of life (QOL) in a cohort of patients with ocular graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). Prospective study. Eighty-four patients diagnosed with chronic ocular GVHD. We assessed the vision-related QOL with the 25-item National Eye Institute Visual Function Questionnaire (NEI-VFQ-25). The symptoms of ocular GVHD were assessed using the Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI) and Symptom Assessment in Dry Eye (SANDE) questionnaires. We assessed vision-related QOL with the NEI-VFQ-25 and compared the scores obtained from patients with ocular GVHD with those from a healthy population. In the ocular GVHD population, we also evaluated the associations between the NEI-VFQ-25 and the dry eye symptoms measured by the OSDI and SANDE questionnaires, age, duration of disease, best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), corneal fluorescein staining (CFS), tear break-up time, and Schirmer test. The mean composite NEI-VFQ-25 score in patients with ocular GVHD was 76.5±17. Compared with healthy subjects, patients with ocular GVHD reported reduced scores on all NEI-VFQ-25 subscales (each P vision (P = 0.11). The NEI-VFQ-25 composite scores significantly correlated with OSDI (R = -0.81, P vision-related QOL. This study highlights the impact of ocular GVHD on the vision-related QOL, and thus the importance of comprehensive diagnosis and treatment of this condition. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Ophthalmology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. The blind brain: how (lack of) vision shapes the morphological and functional architecture of the human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricciardi, Emiliano; Handjaras, Giacomo; Pietrini, Pietro

    2014-11-01

    Since the early days, how we represent the world around us has been a matter of philosophical speculation. Over the last few decades, modern neuroscience, and specifically the development of methodologies for the structural and the functional exploration of the brain have made it possible to investigate old questions with an innovative approach. In this brief review, we discuss the main findings from a series of brain anatomical and functional studies conducted in sighted and congenitally blind individuals by our's and others' laboratories. Historically, research on the 'blind brain' has focused mainly on the cross-modal plastic changes that follow sensory deprivation. More recently, a novel line of research has been developed to determine to what extent visual experience is truly required to achieve a representation of the surrounding environment. Overall, the results of these studies indicate that most of the brain fine morphological and functional architecture is programmed to develop and function independently from any visual experience. Distinct cortical areas are able to process information in a supramodal fashion, that is, independently from the sensory modality that carries that information to the brain. These observations strongly support the hypothesis of a modality-independent, i.e. more abstract, cortical organization, and may contribute to explain how congenitally blind individuals may interact efficiently with an external world that they have never seen. © 2014 by the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine.

  5. Functional Equivalence of Spatial Images from Touch and Vision: Evidence from Spatial Updating in Blind and Sighted Individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giudice, Nicholas A.; Betty, Maryann R.; Loomis, Jack M.

    2011-01-01

    This research examined whether visual and haptic map learning yield functionally equivalent spatial images in working memory, as evidenced by similar encoding bias and updating performance. In 3 experiments, participants learned 4-point routes either by seeing or feeling the maps. At test, blindfolded participants made spatial judgments about the…

  6. Epiretinal transplantation of human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells rescues retinal and vision function in a rat model of retinal degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzameret, Adi; Sher, Ifat; Belkin, Michael; Treves, Avraham J; Meir, Amilia; Nagler, Arnon; Levkovitch-Verbin, Hani; Rotenstreich, Ygal; Solomon, Arieh S

    2015-09-01

    Vision incapacitation and blindness associated with incurable retinal degeneration affect millions of people worldwide. In this study, 0.25×10(6) human bone marrow stem cells (hBM-MSCs) were transplanted epiretinally in the right eye of Royal College Surgeons (RCS) rats at the age of 28 days. Epiretinally transplanted cells were identified as a thin layer of cells along vitreous cavity, in close proximity to the retina or attached to the lens capsule, up to 6 weeks following transplantation. Epiretinal transplantation delayed photoreceptor degeneration and rescued retinal function up to 20 weeks following cell transplantation. Visual functions remained close to normal levels in epiretinal transplantation rats. No inflammation or any other adverse effects were observed in transplanted eyes. Our findings suggest that transplantation of hBM-MSCs as a thin epiretinal layer is effective for treatment of retinal degeneration in RCS rats, and that transplanting the cells in close proximity to the retina enhances hBM-MSC therapeutic effect compared with intravitreal injection. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Aerobic Fitness and Neurocognitive Function Scores in Young Faroese Adults and Potential Modification by Prenatal Methylmercury Exposure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oulhote, Youssef; Debes, Frodi; Vestergaard, Sonja

    2017-01-01

    deviation (SD) increase in VO2Max was associated with better scores on short-term memory and cognitive processing speed by 0.21 SD (95% CI: -0.04, 0.46) and 0.28 SD (95% CI: 0.02, 0.54), respectively. In the group with lower prenatal methylmercury exposure, a 1 SD increase in VO2Max was associated...... with increased scores on cognitive processing speed by 0.45 SD (95% CI: 0.08, 0.81) and with a slightly lesser benefit in short-term memory. No such association was observed in the group with high prenatal methylmercury exposure. CONCLUSIONS: Higher aerobic capacity was associated with better performance...... in short-term memory and processing speed. However, prenatal methylmercury exposure seemed to attenuate these positive associations....

  8. Functional equivalence of spatial images from touch and vision: evidence from spatial updating in blind and sighted individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giudice, Nicholas A; Betty, Maryann R; Loomis, Jack M

    2011-05-01

    This research examined whether visual and haptic map learning yield functionally equivalent spatial images in working memory, as evidenced by similar encoding bias and updating performance. In 3 experiments, participants learned 4-point routes either by seeing or feeling the maps. At test, blindfolded participants made spatial judgments about the maps from imagined perspectives that were either aligned or misaligned with the maps as represented in working memory. Results from Experiments 1 and 2 revealed a highly similar pattern of latencies and errors between visual and haptic conditions. These findings extend the well-known alignment biases for visual map learning to haptic map learning, provide further evidence of haptic updating, and most important, show that learning from the 2 modalities yields very similar performance across all conditions. Experiment 3 found the same encoding biases and updating performance with blind individuals, demonstrating that functional equivalence cannot be due to visual recoding and is consistent with an amodal hypothesis of spatial images.

  9. Peripheral vision of youths with low vision: motion perception, crowding, and visual search.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadin, Duje; Nyquist, Jeffrey B; Lusk, Kelly E; Corn, Anne L; Lappin, Joseph S

    2012-08-24

    Effects of low vision on peripheral visual function are poorly understood, especially in children whose visual skills are still developing. The aim of this study was to measure both central and peripheral visual functions in youths with typical and low vision. Of specific interest was the extent to which measures of foveal function predict performance of peripheral tasks. We assessed central and peripheral visual functions in youths with typical vision (n = 7, ages 10-17) and low vision (n = 24, ages 9-18). Experimental measures used both static and moving stimuli and included visual crowding, visual search, motion acuity, motion direction discrimination, and multitarget motion comparison. In most tasks, visual function was impaired in youths with low vision. Substantial differences, however, were found both between participant groups and, importantly, across different tasks within participant groups. Foveal visual acuity was a modest predictor of peripheral form vision and motion sensitivity in either the central or peripheral field. Despite exhibiting normal motion discriminations in fovea, motion sensitivity of youths with low vision deteriorated in the periphery. This contrasted with typically sighted participants, who showed improved motion sensitivity with increasing eccentricity. Visual search was greatly impaired in youths with low vision. Our results reveal a complex pattern of visual deficits in peripheral vision and indicate a significant role of attentional mechanisms in observed impairments. These deficits were not adequately captured by measures of foveal function, arguing for the importance of independently assessing peripheral visual function.

  10. Peripheral Vision of Youths with Low Vision: Motion Perception, Crowding, and Visual Search

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadin, Duje; Nyquist, Jeffrey B.; Lusk, Kelly E.; Corn, Anne L.; Lappin, Joseph S.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose. Effects of low vision on peripheral visual function are poorly understood, especially in children whose visual skills are still developing. The aim of this study was to measure both central and peripheral visual functions in youths with typical and low vision. Of specific interest was the extent to which measures of foveal function predict performance of peripheral tasks. Methods. We assessed central and peripheral visual functions in youths with typical vision (n = 7, ages 10–17) and low vision (n = 24, ages 9–18). Experimental measures used both static and moving stimuli and included visual crowding, visual search, motion acuity, motion direction discrimination, and multitarget motion comparison. Results. In most tasks, visual function was impaired in youths with low vision. Substantial differences, however, were found both between participant groups and, importantly, across different tasks within participant groups. Foveal visual acuity was a modest predictor of peripheral form vision and motion sensitivity in either the central or peripheral field. Despite exhibiting normal motion discriminations in fovea, motion sensitivity of youths with low vision deteriorated in the periphery. This contrasted with typically sighted participants, who showed improved motion sensitivity with increasing eccentricity. Visual search was greatly impaired in youths with low vision. Conclusions. Our results reveal a complex pattern of visual deficits in peripheral vision and indicate a significant role of attentional mechanisms in observed impairments. These deficits were not adequately captured by measures of foveal function, arguing for the importance of independently assessing peripheral visual function. PMID:22836766

  11. Conversion of the Mini-Mental State Examination to the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health terminology and scoring system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vriendt, P; Gorus, E; Bautmans, I; Mets, T

    2012-01-01

    In older patients, evaluation of the cognitive status is crucial. The Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) is widely used for screening of cognition, providing fairly high sensitivity, specificity and reproducibility. Recently, a consensus emerged on the necessity of an international and transparent language, as provided by the WHO's International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF). Most assessment tools however are not in accordance with the ICF. To reformulate the MMSE according to the ICF, both for the individual items and for the scoring system. MMSE data (scores varying from 3 to 30/30) of (1) 217 cognitively healthy elderly, (2) 60 persons with mild cognitive impairment, (3) 60 patients with mild Alzheimer's disease (AD), and (4) 60 patients with moderate/severe AD were obtained from studies at a university hospital setting. Subjects were aged 65 years or more and recruited either through advertisement (group 1), from the geriatric day hospital (groups 2 and 3), or the geriatric ward (group 4). The allocation to the groups was done after multidisciplinary evaluation. The conversion of the MMSE to ICF-MMSE was done by content comparison and by subsequent translation of the scoring system using automatic algorithms. All MMSE items were converted to the corresponding ICF categories. Three ICF domains were addressed: global and specific mental functions, general tasks and demands, divided over 6 ICF categories (orientation time/place, sustaining attention, memory functions, mental functions of language, undertaking a simple task). Scores on individual items were transformed according to their relative weight on the original MMSE scale, and a total ICF-MMSE score from 0 (no problem) to 100 (complete problem) was generated. Translation was satisfying, as illustrated by a good correlation between MMSE and ICF-MMSE. The diagnostic groups were distributed over the ICF-MMSE scores as expected. For each ICF domain, ICF-MMSE subscores were higher

  12. Beauty and cuteness in peripheral vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuraguchi, Kana; Ashida, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Guo et al. (2011) showed that attractiveness was detectable in peripheral vision. Since there are different types of attractiveness (Rhodes, 2006), we investigated how beauty and cuteness are detected in peripheral vision with a brief presentation. Participants (n = 45) observed two Japanese female faces for 100 ms, then were asked to respond which face was more beautiful (or cuter). The results indicated that both beauty and cuteness were detectable in peripheral vision, but not in the same manner. Discrimination rates for judging beauty were invariant in peripheral and central vision, while discrimination rates for judging cuteness declined in peripheral vision as compared with central vision. This was not explained by lower resolution in peripheral vision. In addition, for male participants, it was more difficult to judge cuteness than beauty in peripheral vision, thus suggesting that gender differences can have a certain effect when judging cuteness. Therefore, central vision might be suitable for judging cuteness while judging beauty might not be affected by either central or peripheral vision. This might be related with the functional difference between beauty and cuteness. PMID:25999883

  13. Influence of visual impairment and hearing impairment on functional dependence status among people in Taiwan-An evaluation using the WHODAS 2.0 score.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ko-Fang; Chang, Kwang-Hwa; Chi, Wen-Chou; Huang, Shih-Wei; Yen, Chia-Feng; Liao, Hua-Fang; Liou, Tsan-Hon; Chao, Pin-Zhir; Lin, I-Chan

    2018-04-01

    Visual impairment (VI) and hearing impairment (HI) are the two most common types of sensory disability encountered clinically. However, VI and HI result in different limitations in daily life. We assessed the level of functioning in patients with VI or HI based on the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health. This nationwide, cross-sectional study included 312 people with VI and 540 people with HI. Each participant's degree of functioning and disability was evaluated using the World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule 2.0 (WHODAS 2.0). The standardized WHODAS 2.0 scores ranged from 0 (least difficulty) to 100 (most difficulty). Patients with VI and those with HI had a mean (±standard error) 32-item WHODAS 2.0 score of 42.4 ± 2.9 and 27.1 ± 1.6, respectively. The degree of restriction was positively related to the level of VI. Specifically, the patients with VI and a WHODAS 2.0 score of 33.7-35.3 or higher were likely to experience barriers to accessing mobility products, communication products, and education products. Furthermore, patients with a score of 42.9 or higher might experience barriers to accessing ingestion products and living products. WHODAS 2.0 scores are strongly correlated with the severity of VI. Mild VI should be targeted for treatment and referral as early as possible. Compared with the patients with HI, the patients with VI more frequently experience barriers to accessing environmental factors. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Taiwan LLC.

  14. Relationship of socioeconomic factors with vision-related quality of life on severe low vision and blind population in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habsyiyah Habsyiyah

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Socioeconomic factors are known to be associated with visual impairment. Being someone who is visually impaired could affect his quality of life. The aim of this study is to evaluate the quality of life (QOL in severe low vision and blind population in Indonesia in relation to their socioeconomic status. Methods: A cross sectional population-based study was performed in 5 provinces, in Indonesia. Respondents of validation study on blindness data of national basic health survey 2013 (RISKESDAS 2013, who were above 18 years old with severe low vision (BCVA≥3/60 to 6/60 and blind (BCVA<3/60, were included in this study. Questionnaires for socioeconomic status and a questionnaire from the national eye institute visual function questionnaire 25 (NEI VFQ 25 for visual function were administered. Total  scores of NEI-VFQ25 were compared based on severity of visual impairment, educational level, occupation, literacy adequacy, income level, and residency. Data analysis was using independent T-test or Mann-Whitney test, and Chi square test.Results: A total of 134 subjects were enrolled in this study, most of them are  women (68.2%, aged >64 years old (64.9% with low education (65.7%, illiterate (52.2%, low income (71.6%, non working (63.4% and living in urban areas (58.2%. The blind population has lower VFQ scores than severe low vision (p=0.001. Different status of educational level, literacy adequacy, income level and residency did not show significant difference in VFQ scores, but those who have an occupation had better VFQ scores than those who do not (p=0.041.Conclusion: Visual related quality of life (VRQOL of severe low vision and blind population was associated significantly with occupational status. Because of culture and characteristics of Indonesian people, VRQOL of severe low vision and blind population in Indonesia was not affected by educational level, literacy, income level, and residency.

  15. Postural stability in patients with knee osteoarthritis: comparison with controls and evaluation of relationships between postural stability scores and International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Ru-Lan; Lee, Wen-Chung; Lo, Min-Tzu; Liao, Wei-Cheng

    2013-02-01

    To assess the differences in postural stability between patients with knee osteoarthritis and controls without knee osteoarthritis, and to evaluate possible relations between postural stability scores and International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) components. An age-matched, case-controlled trial with a cross-sectional design. A teaching hospital. Patients with knee osteoarthritis (n=73) and age-matched controls (n=60). Data on patients' postural stability and additional health-related variables were collected using various instruments. These included the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, the Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory, the World Health Organization Quality of Life Brief Version, the physical function test (chair-rising time), the Chinese version of the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index, the Chinese version of the Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score, and the Biodex Stability System. A comparison of postural stability in patients with knee osteoarthritis versus that of controls was performed. The relation between postural stability scores for patients with knee osteoarthritis and ICF components was evaluated. Pearson correlation tests were used to determine the variables that correlated with postural stability among these patients. Patients with knee osteoarthritis displayed lower overall postural stability than controls (scores of 0.7 vs. 0.5, P=.006) and scored lower on the environmental domain of the World Health Organization Quality of Life Brief Version (62.2 vs 66.8, P=.014). For patients with knee osteoarthritis, postural stability was weakly associated with the ICF components of body functions and structures, including pain (r=.33-.34, P=.004), physical fatigue (r=.28, P=.016), and reduced motivation (r=.30, P=.011). Weak to moderate associations between postural stability and the ICF components of activities and participation were found; the relevant ICF variables included

  16. Classification and Prioritization of Strategic Plans in Balanced Score Card (BSC Model by Fuzzy Quality Function Deployment and Zero-One Goal Programming (ZOGP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    mehdi pourmostafa

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Due to continuous changes in organizational environment, there is no warranty for long term survival in the market. Currently, those organizations can succeed that are agile and able to rapidly respond to environmental requirements. In this research a model has been proposed for applying proper strategies for achieving long term organizational success. The proposed model is an integration of Balanced Score Card (BSC approach, Fuzzy Quality Function Development (FQFD and Zero-One Goal Programming (ZOGP. In fact by BSC, appropriate strategic plans can be designed and prioritized by FQFD. Then, based on multiple objectives and existing problem constraints, feasible strategic plans are identified by ZOGP. Findings imply that decision making techniques can be well utilized in designing BSC through a structured methodology make improvement in all aspects and have a positive influence on organization's performance in long term .   Keywords : B alanced Score Card , Fuzzy Quality Function Development, Zero-One Goal Programming, Strategic plans

  17. Serial automated quantitative CT analysis in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Functional correlations and comparison with changes in visual CT scores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacob, Joseph; Bartholmai, Brian J.; Rajagopalan, Srinivasan; Kokosi, Maria; Wells, Athol U.; Egashira, Ryoko; Brun, Anne Laure; Nair, Arjun; Walsh, Simon L.F.; Karwoski, Ronald

    2018-01-01

    To determine whether computer-based CT quantitation of change can improve on visual change quantification of parenchymal features in IPF. Sixty-six IPF patients with serial CT imaging (6-24 months apart) had CT features scored visually and with a computer software tool: ground glass opacity, reticulation and honeycombing (all three variables summed as interstitial lung disease extent [ILD]) and emphysema. Pulmonary vessel volume (PVV) was estimated by computer only. Relationships between changes in CT features and forced vital capacity (FVC) were examined using univariate and multivariate linear regression analyses. On univariate analysis, changes in computer variables demonstrated stronger linkages to FVC change than changes in visual scores (CALIPER ILD:R 2 =0.53, p<0.0001; Visual ILD:R 2 =0.16, p=0.001). PVV increase correlated most strongly with relative FVC change (R 2 =0.57). When PVV constituents (vessel size and location) were examined, an increase in middle zone vessels linked most strongly to FVC decline (R 2 =0.57) and was independent of baseline disease severity (characterised by CT fibrosis extent, FVC, or DLco). An increase in PVV, specifically an increase in middle zone lung vessels, was the strongest CT determinant of FVC decline in IPF and was independent of baseline disease severity. (orig.)

  18. Serial automated quantitative CT analysis in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Functional correlations and comparison with changes in visual CT scores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacob, Joseph; Bartholmai, Brian J.; Rajagopalan, Srinivasan [Mayo Clinic Rochester, Division of Radiology, Rochester, MN (United States); Kokosi, Maria; Wells, Athol U. [Royal Brompton and Harefield NHS Foundation Trust, Interstitial Lung Disease Unit, Royal Brompton Hospital, London (United Kingdom); Egashira, Ryoko [Saga Daigaku, Department of Radiology, Saga (Japan); Brun, Anne Laure [Whittington Hospital, Department of Radiology, London (United Kingdom); Nair, Arjun [Guys and St Thomas' NHS Foundation Trust, Department of Radiology, London (United Kingdom); Walsh, Simon L.F. [Kings College Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Department of Radiology, London (United Kingdom); Karwoski, Ronald [Mayo Clinic Rochester, Department of Physiology and Biomedical Engineering, Rochester, MN (United States)

    2018-03-15

    To determine whether computer-based CT quantitation of change can improve on visual change quantification of parenchymal features in IPF. Sixty-six IPF patients with serial CT imaging (6-24 months apart) had CT features scored visually and with a computer software tool: ground glass opacity, reticulation and honeycombing (all three variables summed as interstitial lung disease extent [ILD]) and emphysema. Pulmonary vessel volume (PVV) was estimated by computer only. Relationships between changes in CT features and forced vital capacity (FVC) were examined using univariate and multivariate linear regression analyses. On univariate analysis, changes in computer variables demonstrated stronger linkages to FVC change than changes in visual scores (CALIPER ILD:R{sup 2}=0.53, p<0.0001; Visual ILD:R{sup 2}=0.16, p=0.001). PVV increase correlated most strongly with relative FVC change (R{sup 2}=0.57). When PVV constituents (vessel size and location) were examined, an increase in middle zone vessels linked most strongly to FVC decline (R{sup 2}=0.57) and was independent of baseline disease severity (characterised by CT fibrosis extent, FVC, or DLco). An increase in PVV, specifically an increase in middle zone lung vessels, was the strongest CT determinant of FVC decline in IPF and was independent of baseline disease severity. (orig.)

  19. Differences between Mothers' and Fathers' Ratings of Family Functioning with the Family Assessment Device: The Validity of Combined Parent Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, Dawson; Marais, Ida; Cavanagh, Robert; Kendall, Garth; Priddis, Lynn

    2015-01-01

    The psychometric properties of the General Functioning subscale of the McMaster Family Assessment Device were examined using the Rasch Model (N = 237 couples). Mothers' and fathers' ratings of the General Functioning subscale of the McMaster Family Assessment Device are recommended, provided these are analyzed separately. More than a quarter of…

  20. A new matrix for scoring the functionality of national laboratory networks in Africa: introducing the LABNET scorecard

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ondoa, Pascale; Datema, Tjeerd; Keita-Sow, Mah-Sere; Ndihokubwayo, Jean-Bosco; Isadore, Jocelyn; Oskam, Linda; Nkengasong, John; Lewis, Kim

    2016-01-01

    Functional national laboratory networks and systems are indispensable to the achievement of global health security targets according to the International Health Regulations. The lack of indicators to measure the functionality of national laboratory network has limited the efficiency of past and

  1. Capturing age-related changes in functional contrast sensitivity with decreasing light levels in monocular and binocular vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillespie-Gallery, Hanna; Konstantakopoulou, Evgenia; Harlow, Jonathan A; Barbur, John L

    2013-09-09

    It is challenging to separate the effects of normal aging of the retina and visual pathways independently from optical factors, decreased retinal illuminance, and early stage disease. This study determined limits to describe the effect of light level on normal, age-related changes in monocular and binocular functional contrast sensitivity. We recruited 95 participants aged 20 to 85 years. Contrast thresholds for correct orientation discrimination of the gap in a Landolt C optotype were measured using a 4-alternative, forced-choice (4AFC) procedure at screen luminances from 34 to 0.12 cd/m(2) at the fovea and parafovea (0° and ±4°). Pupil size was measured continuously. The Health of the Retina index (HRindex) was computed to capture the loss of contrast sensitivity with decreasing light level. Participants were excluded if they exhibited performance outside the normal limits of interocular differences or HRindex values, or signs of ocular disease. Parafoveal contrast thresholds showed a steeper decline and higher correlation with age at the parafovea than the fovea. Of participants with clinical signs of ocular disease, 83% had HRindex values outside the normal limits. Binocular summation of contrast signals declined with age, independent of interocular differences. The HRindex worsens more rapidly with age at the parafovea, consistent with histologic findings of rod loss and its link to age-related degenerative disease of the retina. The HRindex and interocular differences could be used to screen for and separate the earliest stages of subclinical disease from changes caused by normal aging.

  2. Low Vision Tips

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: https://medlineplus.gov/lowvision.html MedlinePlus: Low Vision Tips We are sorry. MedlinePlus no longer maintains the For Low Vision Users page. You will still find health resources ...

  3. Chemicals Industry Vision

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    1996-12-01

    Chemical industry leaders articulated a long-term vision for the industry, its markets, and its technology in the groundbreaking 1996 document Technology Vision 2020 - The U.S. Chemical Industry. (PDF 310 KB).

  4. Pulmonary emphysema quantitation with Computed Tomography. Comparison between the visual score with high resolution CT, expiratory density mask with spiral CT and lung function studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zompatori, Maurizio; Battaglia, Milva; Rimondi, Maria Rita; Vivacqua, Donatella; Biscarini, Manuela; Fasano, Luca; Pacilli, Angela Maria Grazia; Guerrieri, Aldo; Fabbri, Mario; Cavina, Mauro

    1997-01-01

    CT is the most accurate method to detect pulmonary emphysema in vivo. They compared prospectively two different methods for emphysema quantitation in 5 normal volunteers and 20 consecutive patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). All subjects were submitted to function tests and HRCT; three scans were acquired at preselected levels during inspiration. The type and extent of pulmonary emphysema were defined by two independent observers under blind conditions. Disagreements were subsequently settled by consent. All subjects were also examined with expiratory spiral CT using a density mask program, at two different cut-off levels (-850,-900 HU). Visual score and expiratory spiral density mask values (-850 HU) were significantly correlated (r = 0.86), but the visual extent of emphysema was always higher than shown by expiratory spiral CT. The emphysema extent assessed with both CT methods correlated with the function result of expiratory airflow obstruction and gas diffusion impairment (visual score versus forced expiratory volume in one second: r = -0.81, versus single breath carbon monoxide diffusion: r = -0.78. Spiral expiratory density mask -850 HU versus forced expiratory volume in one second: r = -0.85 versus single breath carbon monoxide diffusion: r = -0.77). When -900 HU was used as the cut-off value for the expiratory density mask, the correlation with single breath carbon monoxide diffusion worsened (r = -0.56). Visual score and expiratory density mask -850 HU gave similar results and permitted COPD patients to be clearly distinguished from normal controls (p < 0.01). They believe the true residual volume should lie somewhere in between the CT value and the function results with the helium dilution technique and conclude that the extent of pulmonary emphysema can be confidently assessed with CT methods. Finally, the simple visual score may be as reliable as such highly sophisticated new methods as the spiral expiratory density mask

  5. Gender may have an influence on the relationship between Functional Movement Screen scores and gait parameters in elite junior athletes - A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magyari, N; Szakács, V; Bartha, C; Szilágyi, B; Galamb, K; Magyar, M O; Hortobágyi, T; Kiss, R M; Tihanyi, J; Négyesi, J

    2017-09-01

    Aims The aim of this study was to examine the effects of gender on the relationship between Functional Movement Screen (FMS) and treadmill-based gait parameters. Methods Twenty elite junior athletes (10 women and 10 men) performed the FMS tests and gait analysis at a fixed speed. Between-gender differences were calculated for the relationship between FMS test scores and gait parameters, such as foot rotation, step length, and length of gait line. Results Gender did not affect the relationship between FMS and treadmill-based gait parameters. The nature of correlations between FMS test scores and gait parameters was different in women and men. Furthermore, different FMS test scores predicted different gait parameters in female and male athletes. FMS asymmetry and movement asymmetries measured by treadmill-based gait parameters did not correlate in either gender. Conclusion There were no interactions between FMS, gait parameters, and gender; however, correlation analyses support the idea that strength and conditioning coaches need to pay attention not only to how to score but also how to correctly use FMS.

  6. Can pain and function be distinguished in the Oxford Hip Score in a meaningful way? : an exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, K K; Price, A J; Beard, D J; Fitzpatrick, R; Jenkinson, C; Dawson, J

    2014-11-01

    The objective of this study was to explore dimensionality of the Oxford Hip Score (OHS) and examine whether self-reported pain and functioning can be distinguished in the form of subscales. This was a secondary data analysis of the UK NHS hospital episode statistics/patient-reported outcome measures dataset containing pre-operative OHS scores on 97 487 patients who were undergoing hip replacement surgery. The proposed number of factors to extract depended on the method of extraction employed. Velicer's Minimum Average Partial test and the Parallel Analysis suggested one factor, the Cattell's scree test and Kaiser-over-1 rule suggested two factors. Exploratory factor analysis demonstrated that the two-factor OHS had most of the items saliently loading either of the two factors. These factors were named 'Pain' and 'Function' and their respective subscales were created. There was some cross-loading of items: 8 (pain on standing up from a chair) and 11 (pain during work). These items were assigned to the 'Pain' subscale. The final 'Pain' subscale consisted of items 1, 8, 9, 10, 11 and 12. The 'Function' subscale consisted of items 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 and 7, with the recommended scoring of the subscales being from 0 (worst) to 100 (best). Cronbach's alpha was 0.855 for the 'Pain' subscale and 0.861 for the 'Function' subscale. A confirmatory factor analysis demonstrated that the two-factor model of the OHS had a better fit. However, none of the one-factor or two-factor models was rejected. Factor analyses demonstrated that, in addition to current usage as a single summary scale, separate information on pain and self-reported function can be extracted from the OHS in a meaningful way in the form of subscales. Cite this article: Bone Joint Res 2014;3:305-9. ©2014 The British Editorial Society of Bone & Joint Surgery.

  7. Validation of a questionnaire assessing patient's aesthetic and functional outcome after nasal reconstruction: the patient NAFEQ-score.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moolenburgh, S E; Mureau, M A M; Duivenvoorden, H J; Hofer, S O P

    2009-05-01

    In determining patient satisfaction with functional and aesthetic outcome after reconstructive surgery, including nasal reconstruction, standardised assessment instruments are very important. These standardised tools are needed to adequately evaluate and compare outcome results. Since no such instrument existed for nasal reconstruction, a standardised evaluation questionnaire was developed to assess aesthetic and functional outcome after nasal reconstruction. Items of the Nasal Appearance and Function Evaluation Questionnaire (NAFEQ) were derived from both the literature and experiences with patients. The NAFEQ was validated on 30 nasal reconstruction patients and a reference group of 175 people. A factor analysis confirmed the arrangement of the questionnaire in two subscales: functional and aesthetic outcome. High Cronbach's alpha values (>0.70) for both subscales showed that the NAFEQ was an internally consistent instrument. This study demonstrated that the NAFEQ can be used as a standardised questionnaire for detailed evaluation of aesthetic and functional outcome after nasal reconstruction. Its widespread use would enable comparison of results achieved by different techniques, surgeons and centres in a standardised fashion.

  8. En la población Canaria, la función de Framingham estima mejor el riesgo de mortalidad cardiovascular que la función SCORE Framingham function estimates the risk of cardio vascular mortality more effectively than SCORE function in the population of the Canary Islands (Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Cabrera de León

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: Comparar la estimación de eventos cardiovasculares fatales con las funciones de Framingham y SCORE, además de explorar su capacidad para detectar el riesgo aportado por factores no incluidos en sus ecuaciones: sedentarismo, obesidad, perímetro abdominal, razón abdomen/estatura, razón abdomen/pelvis y consumo excesivo de alcohol. Métodos: Estudio transversal de 5.289 personas, de 30 a 69 años de edad, obtenidas por muestreo aleatorio en la población general de Canarias. Se calibraron las funciones de Framingham y SCORE, y se estimó su concordancia. Se obtuvo, para estas edades, la tasa poblacional de mortalidad cardiovascular y se confrontó con el riesgo predicho por las funciones. Resultados: En los hombres, la tasa de mortalidad por 100.000 habitantes fue de 67,4, en tanto que la estimación de Framingham, SCORE-Low y SCORE-High fue de 80, 140 y 270, respectivamente. En las mujeres, frente a una tasa de 19,3, la estimación fue de 30, 50 y 70, respectivamente. Ambas funciones detectaron el incremento del riesgo aportado por los factores estudiados, con la excepción, en las mujeres, del sedentarismo con SCORE y del consumo excesivo de alcohol con ambas funciones. En los hombres, tomando para Framingham los puntos de corte de >12%, >15% y >20%, la concordancia con SCORE-Low produjo una Kappa de 0,6, 0,7 y 0,5, respectivamente. Conclusiones: La función de Framingham estimó mejor las tasas de mortalidad que la función SCORE. Únicamente la función de Framingham detectó en ambos sexos el riesgo cardiovascular aportado por el sedentarismo. En Canarias recomendamos la aplicación de la función de Framingham calibrada.Introduction: To compare the performance of the Framingham and SCORE functions to estimate fatal cardiovascular events. In addition, we explored the ability of both functions to detect the risk contributed by factors not included in their equations: sedentariness, obesity, abdominal circumference, abdomen

  9. Robot Vision Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Andrew B.; Ansar, Adnan I.; Litwin, Todd E.; Goldberg, Steven B.

    2009-01-01

    The JPL Robot Vision Library (JPLV) provides real-time robot vision algorithms for developers who are not vision specialists. The package includes algorithms for stereo ranging, visual odometry and unsurveyed camera calibration, and has unique support for very wideangle lenses

  10. Altered vision destabilizes gait in older persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helbostad, Jorunn L; Vereijken, Beatrix; Hesseberg, Karin; Sletvold, Olav

    2009-08-01

    This study assessed the effects of dim light and four experimentally induced changes in vision on gait speed and footfall and trunk parameters in older persons walking on level ground. Using a quasi-experimental design, gait characteristics were assessed in full light, dim light, and in dim light combined with manipulations resulting in reduced depth vision, double vision, blurred vision, and tunnel vision, respectively. A convenience sample of 24 home-dwelling older women and men (mean age 78.5 years, SD 3.4) with normal vision for their age and able to walk at least 10 m without assistance participated. Outcome measures were gait speed and spatial and temporal parameters of footfall and trunk acceleration, derived from an electronic gait mat and accelerometers. Dim light alone had no effect. Vision manipulations combined with dim light had effect on most footfall parameters but few trunk parameters. The largest effects were found regarding double and tunnel vision. Men increased and women decreased gait speed following manipulations (p=0.017), with gender differences also in stride velocity variability (p=0.017) and inter-stride medio-lateral trunk acceleration variability (p=0.014). Gender effects were related to differences in body height and physical functioning. Results indicate that visual problems lead to a more cautious and unstable gait pattern even under relatively simple conditions. This points to the importance of assessing vision in older persons and correcting visual impairments where possible.

  11. Pre-season adductor squeeze test and HAGOS function sport and recreation subscale scores predict groin injury in Gaelic football players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delahunt, Eamonn; Fitzpatrick, Helen; Blake, Catherine

    2017-01-01

    To determine if pre-season adductor squeeze test and HAGOS function, sport and recreation subscale scores can identify Gaelic football players at risk of developing groin injury. Prospective study. Senior inter-county Gaelic football team. Fifty-five male elite Gaelic football players (age = 24.0 ± 2.8 years, body mass = 84.48 ± 7.67 kg, height = 1.85 ± 0.06 m, BMI = 24.70 ± 1.77 kg/m 2 ) from a single senior inter-county Gaelic football team. Occurrence of groin injury during the season. Ten time-loss groin injuries were registered representing 13% of all injuries. The odds ratio for sustaining a groin injury if pre-season adductor squeeze test score was below 225 mmHg, was 7.78. The odds ratio for sustaining a groin injury if pre-season HAGOS function, sport and recreation subscale score was football players at risk of developing groin injury. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Pre-hospital electrocardiographic severity and acuteness scores predict left ventricular function in patients with ST elevation myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fakhri, Yama; Ersbøll, Mads; Køber, Lars

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: System delay (time from first medical contact to primary percutaneous coronary intervention) is associated with heart failure and mortality in patients with ST segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). We evaluated the impact of system delay on left ventricular function (LVF...

  13. Effects of a Story Map on Accelerated Reader Postreading Test Scores in Students with High-Functioning Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stringfield, Suzanne Griggs; Luscre, Deanna; Gast, David L.

    2011-01-01

    In this study, three elementary-aged boys with high-functioning autism (HFA) were taught to use a graphic organizer called a Story Map as a postreading tool during language arts instruction. Students learned to accurately complete the Story Map. The effect of the intervention on story recall was assessed within the context of a multiple-baseline…

  14. An analysis of diversity in the cognitive performance of elderly community dwellers: individual differences in change scores as a function of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, H; Mackinnon, A J; Korten, A E; Jorm, A F; Henderson, A S; Jacomb, P; Rodgers, B

    1999-09-01

    This longitudinal study investigated whether age is associated with increases in interindividual variability across 4 ability domains using a sample of 426 elderly community dwellers followed over 3.5 years. Interindividual variability in change scores increased with age for memory, spatial functioning, and speed but not for crystallized intelligence for the full sample and in a subsample that excluded dementia or probable dementia cases. Hierarchical regression analyses indicated that being female, having weaker muscle strength, and having greater symptoms of illness and greater depression were associated with overall greater variability in cognitive scores. Having a higher level of education was associated with reduced variability. These findings are consistent with the view that there is a greater range of responses at older ages, that certain domains of intelligence are less susceptible to variation than others and that variables other than age affect cognitive performance in later life.

  15. 78 FR 62935 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-22

    ..., his optometrist noted, ``Mr. Smith, despite having a prosthetic left eye, has fully functional vision...-0166] Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Vision AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety... announces receipt of applications from 26 individuals for exemption from the vision requirement in the...

  16. A new matrix for scoring the functionality of national laboratory networks in Africa: introducing the LABNET scorecard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ondoa, Pascale; Datema, Tjeerd; Keita-Sow, Mah-Sere; Ndihokubwayo, Jean-Bosco; Isadore, Jocelyn; Oskam, Linda; Nkengasong, John; Lewis, Kim

    2016-01-01

    Functional national laboratory networks and systems are indispensable to the achievement of global health security targets according to the International Health Regulations. The lack of indicators to measure the functionality of national laboratory network has limited the efficiency of past and current interventions to enhance laboratory capacity in resource-limited-settings. We have developed a matrix for the assessment of national laboratory network functionality and progress thereof, with support from the African Society of Laboratory Medicine and the Association of Public Health Laboratories. The laboratory network (LABNET) scorecard was designed to: (1) Measure the status of nine overarching core capabilities of laboratory network required to achieve global health security targets, as recommended by the main normative standards; (2) Complement the World Health Organization joint external evaluation tool for the assessment of health system preparedness to International Health Regulations (2005) by providing detailed information on laboratory systems; and (3) Serve as a clear roadmap to guide the stepwise implementation of laboratory capability to prevent, detect and act upon infectious threats. The application of the LABNET scorecard under the coordination of the African Society of Laboratory Medicine and the Association of Public Health Laboratories could contribute to the design, monitoring and evaluation of upcoming Global Health Security Agenda-supported laboratory capacity building programmes in sub Saharan-Africa and other resource-limited settings, and inform the development of national laboratory policies and strategic plans. Endorsement by the World Health Organization Regional Office for Africa is foreseen.

  17. A new matrix for scoring the functionality of national laboratory networks in Africa: introducing the LABNET scorecard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascale Ondoa

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Functional national laboratory networks and systems are indispensable to the achievement of global health security targets according to the International Health Regulations. The lack of indicators to measure the functionality of national laboratory network has limited the efficiency of past and current interventions to enhance laboratory capacity in resourcelimited-settings. Scorecard for laboratory networks: We have developed a matrix for the assessment of national laboratory network functionality and progress thereof, with support from the African Society of Laboratory Medicine and the Association of Public Health Laboratories. The laboratory network (LABNET scorecard was designed to: (1 Measure the status of nine overarching core capabilities of laboratory network required to achieve global health security targets, as recommended by the main normative standards; (2 Complement the World Health Organization joint external evaluation tool for the assessment of health system preparedness to International Health Regulations (2005 by providing detailed information on laboratory systems; and (3 Serve as a clear roadmap to guide the stepwise implementation of laboratory capability to prevent, detect and act upon infectious threats. Conclusions: The application of the LABNET scorecard under the coordination of the African Society of Laboratory Medicine and the Association of Public Health Laboratories could contribute to the design, monitoring and evaluation of upcoming Global Health Security Agenda-supported laboratory capacity building programmes in sub Saharan-Africa and other resource-limited settings, and inform the development of national laboratory policies and strategic plans. Endorsement by the World Health Organization Regional Office for Africa is foreseen.

  18. A child's vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nye, Christina

    2014-06-01

    Implementing standard vision screening techniques in the primary care practice is the most effective means to detect children with potential vision problems at an age when the vision loss may be treatable. A critical period of vision development occurs in the first few weeks of life; thus, it is imperative that serious problems are detected at this time. Although it is not possible to quantitate an infant's vision, evaluating ocular health appropriately can mean the difference between sight and blindness and, in the case of retinoblastoma, life or death. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. [Meibomian gland disfunction in computer vision syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pimenidi, M K; Polunin, G S; Safonova, T N

    2010-01-01

    This article reviews ethiology and pathogenesis of dry eye syndrome due to meibomian gland disfunction (MDG). It is showed that blink rate influences meibomian gland functioning and computer vision syndrome development. Current diagnosis and treatment options of MDG are presented.

  20. Neuropharmacology of vision in goldfish: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora-Ferrer, Carlos; Neumeyer, Christa

    2009-05-01

    The goldfish is one of the few animals exceptionally well analyzed in behavioral experiments and also in electrophysiological and neuroanatomical investigations of the retina. To get insight into the functional organization of the retina we studied color vision, motion detection and temporal resolution before and after intra-ocular injection of neuropharmaca with known effects on retinal neurons. Bicuculline, strychnine, curare, atropine, and dopamine D1- and D2-receptor antagonists were used. The results reviewed here indicate separate and parallel processing of L-cone contribution to different visual functions, and the influence of several neurotransmitters (dopamine, acetylcholine, glycine, and GABA) on motion vision, color vision, and temporal resolution.

  1. Diffusion Tensor Fractional Anisotropy in the Superior Longitudinal Fasciculus Correlates with Functional Independence Measure Cognition Scores in Patients with Cerebral Infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyama, Tetsuo; Domen, Kazuhisa

    2017-08-01

    This study aimed to determine the relationship between fiber tract degeneration measured by diffusion-tensor imaging (DTI) and outcome of patients after cerebral infarction. Fractional anisotropy (FA) maps were generated by DTI in patients 14-21 days after the first infarction and were analyzed by tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS). Mean FA values within the corticospinal tract (CST) and the superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF) were extracted from individual TBSS data. Relationships between FA ratios (rFAs, lesioned to non-lesioned hemisphere) and outcomes assessed by Brunnstrom stage (BRS) and Functional Independence Measure (FIM) motor and cognition scores were examined using Spearman's rank correlation test. Forty patients (21 left and 19 right hemisphere lesions) were entered into an analytical database. BRS ranged from 1 to 6 (median, 5) for shoulder, elbow, or forearm; from 2 to 6 (median, 4.5) for hand or finger; and from 3 to 6 (median, 5) for lower extremity. FIM motor ranged from 51 to 91 (median, 79.5), and FIM cognition ranged from 16 to 35 (median, 29). rFA values in the CST ranged from .692 to 1.053 (median, .933), and those in the SLF ranged from .778 to 1.076 (median, .965). Mann-Whitney U test (P cognition scores (r = .409, P cognitive function and extremity function, respectively. Copyright © 2017 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Reading performance with low-vision aids and vision-related quality of life after macular translocation surgery in patients with age-related macular degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Nhung X; Besch, Dorothea; Bartz-Schmidt, Karl; Gelisken, Faik; Trauzettel-Klosinski, Susanne

    2007-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the power of magnification required, reading performance with low-vision aids and vision-related quality of life with reference to reading ability and ability to carry out day-to-day activities in patients after macular translocation. This study included 15 patients who had undergone macular translocation with 360-degree peripheral retinectomy. The mean length of follow-up was 19.2 +/- 10.8 months (median 11 months). At the final examination, the impact of visual impairment on reading ability and quality of life was assessed according to a modified 9-item questionnaire in conjunction with a comprehensive clinical examination, which included assessment of best corrected visual acuity (BCVA), the magnification power required for reading, use of low-vision aids and reading speed. Patients rated the extent to which low vision restricted their ability to read and participate in other activities that affect quality of life. Responses were scored on a scale of 1.0 (optimum self-evaluation) to 5.0 (very poor). In the operated eye, overall mean postoperative BCVA (distance) was not significantly better than mean preoperative BCVA (0.11 +/- 0.06 and 0.15 +/- 0.08, respectively; p = 0.53). However, 53% of patients reported a subjective increase in visual function after treatment. At the final visit, the mean magnification required was x 7.7 +/- 6.7. A total of 60% of patients needed optical magnifiers for reading and in 40% of patients closed-circuit TV systems were necessary. All patients were able to read newspaper print using adapted low-vision aids at a mean reading speed of 71 +/- 40 words per minute. Mean self-reported scores were 3.2 +/- 1.1 for reading, 2.5 +/- 0.7 for day-to-day activities and 2.7 +/- 3.0 for outdoor walking and using steps or stairs. Patients' levels of dependency were significantly correlated with scores for reading (p = 0.01), day-to-day activities (p vision-related quality of life in patients after

  3. The Level of Vision Necessary for Competitive Performance in Rifle Shooting: Setting the Standards for Paralympic Shooting With Vision Impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter M Allen

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the level of vision impairment that would reduce performance in shooting; to guide development of entry criteria to visually impaired (VI shooting. Nineteen international-level shooters without vision impairment took part in the study. Participants shot an air rifle, while standing, towards a regulation target placed at the end of a 10m shooting range. Cambridge simulation glasses were used to simulate six different levels of vision impairment. Visual acuity (VA and contrast sensitivity (CS were assessed along with shooting performance in each of seven conditions of simulated impairment and compared to that with habitual vision. Shooting performance was evaluated by calculating each individual’s average score in every level of simulated vision impairment and normalising this score by expressing it as a percentage of the baseline performance achieved with habitual vision. Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC curves were constructed to evaluate the ability of different VA and CS cut-off criteria to appropriately classify these athletes as achieving ‘expected’ or ‘below expected’ shooting results based on their performance with different levels of VA and CS. Shooting performance remained relatively unaffected by mild decreases in VA and CS, but quickly deteriorated with more moderate losses. The ability of visual function measurements to classify shooting performance was good, with 78% of performances appropriately classified using a cut-off of 0.53 logMAR and 74% appropriately classified using a cut-off of 0.83 logCS. The current inclusion criteria for VI shooting (1.0 logMAR is conservative, maximising the chance of including only those with an impairment that does impact performance, but potentially excluding some who do have a genuine impairment in the sport. A lower level of impairment would include more athletes who do have a genuine impairment but would potentially include those who do not

  4. Vision Assessment and Prescription of Low Vision Devices

    OpenAIRE

    Keeffe, Jill

    2004-01-01

    Assessment of vision and prescription of low vision devices are part of a comprehensive low vision service. Other components of the service include training the person affected by low vision in use of vision and other senses, mobility, activities of daily living, and support for education, employment or leisure activities. Specialist vision rehabilitation agencies have services to provide access to information (libraries) and activity centres for groups of people with impaired vision.

  5. Pre-treatment ASPECTS-DWI score has a relation with functional outcome at 3 months following intravenous rt-PA therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nezu, Tomohisa; Koga, Masatoshi; Naganuma, Masaki

    2009-01-01

    The clinical importance of early ischemic changes (EIC) on diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) before recombinant tissue-plasminogen activator (rt-PA) thrombolysis has not been elucidated well. The present study aimed evaluating whether Alberta Stroke Programme Early CT Score (ASPECTS)-DWI before rt-PA therapy could predict chronic independent outcome. Consecutive stroke patients treated with rt-PA from October 2005 through July 2008 were registered from 10 major stroke centers located without regional imbalance in Japan. Before rt-PA IV infusion, we assessed EIC on DWI by using ASPECTS-DWI (11 points). Independent outcome was defined by modified Rankin Scale score (mRS) 0-2 at 3 months after stroke onset. A total of 420 patients (280 men, 71±11 years in age) were studied, and 221 (52.6%) of them were independent (mRS 0-2) at 3 months. The independent patients were younger, had less hypertension and atrial fibrillation, lower baseline National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score, higher ASPECTS-DWI, less internal carotid artery occlusion than dependent patients (mRS 3-6, P<0.05 for all). The optimal cutoff score of ASPECTS-DWI to predict independent outcome was ≥7 with a sensitivity of 92% and specificity of 31%, and the area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve was 0.622. After multivariate logistic regression analysis, ASPECTS-DWI ≥7 was independently predictive of an independent outcome at 3 months (odds ratio (OR) 2.78, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.45-5.49). ASPECTS-DWI before rt-PA therapy is useful to predict patients' chronic functional outcome. (author)

  6. Reproducibility of the index of orthognathic functional treatment need scores derived from plaster study casts and their three-dimensional digital equivalents: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCrory, Emma; McGuinness, Niall Jp; Ulhaq, Aman

    2018-06-01

    To determine the reproducibility of Index of Orthognathic Functional Treatment Need (IOFTN) scores derived from plaster casts and their three-dimensional (3D) digital equivalents. Pilot study, prospective analytical. UK hospital orthodontic department. Thirty casts and their digital equivalents, representing the pre-treatment malocclusions of patients requiring orthodontic-orthognathic surgical treatment, were scored by four clinicians using IOFTN. Casts were scanned using a 3Shape digital scanner and 3D models produced using OrthoAnalyzer TM (3Shape Ltd, Copenhagen, Denmark). Examiners independently determined the IOFTN scores for the casts and digital models, to test their inter- and intra-operator reliability using weighted Kappa scores. Intra-operator agreement with IOFTN major categories (1-5: treatment need) was very good for plaster casts (0.83-0.98) and good-very good for digital models (0.78-0.83). Inter-operator agreement was moderate-very good for casts (0.58-0.82) and good-very good for digital models (0.65-0.92). Intra-operator agreement with IOFTN sub-categories (1-14: feature of malocclusion) was good-very good for casts (0.70-0.97) and digital models (0.80-0.94). Inter-operator agreement was moderate-good for casts (0.53-0.77); and moderate-very good for the digital models (0.58-0.90). Digital models are an acceptable alternative to plaster casts for examining the malocclusion of patients requiring combined orthodontic-orthognathic surgical treatment and determining treatment need.

  7. DUF1220 copy number is linearly associated with increased cognitive function as measured by total IQ and mathematical aptitude scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Jonathon M.; Searles, Veronica B.; Anderson, Nathan; Keeney, Jonathon; Raznahan, Armin; Horwood, L. John; Fergusson, David M.; Kennedy, Martin A.; Giedd, Jay

    2014-01-01

    DUF1220 protein domains exhibit the greatest human lineage-specific copy number expansion of any protein-coding sequence in the genome, and variation in DUF1220 copy number has been linked to both brain size in humans and brain evolution among primates. Given these findings, we examined associations between DUF1220 subtypes CON1 and CON2 and cognitive aptitude. We identified a linear association between CON2 copy number and cognitive function in two independent populations of European descent. In North American males, an increase in CON2 copy number corresponded with an increase in WISC IQ (R2 = 0.13, p = 0.02), which may be driven by males aged 6–11 (R2 = 0.42, p = 0.003). We utilized ddPCR in a subset as a confirmatory measurement. This group had 26–33 copies of CON2 with a mean of 29, and each copy increase of CON2 was associated with a 3.3-point increase in WISC IQ (R2 = 0.22, p = 0.045). In individuals from New Zealand, an increase in CON2 copy number was associated with an increase in math aptitude ability (R2 = 0.10 p = 0.018). These were not confounded by brain size. To our knowledge, this is the first study to report a replicated association between copy number of a gene coding sequence and cognitive aptitude. Remarkably, dosage variations involving DUF1220 sequences have now been linked to human brain expansion, autism severity and cognitive aptitude, suggesting that such processes may be genetically and mechanistically inter-related. The findings presented here warrant expanded investigations in larger, well-characterized cohorts. PMID:25287832

  8. Limitations of the HOMA-B score for assessment of beta-cell functionality in interventional trials-results from the PIOglim study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfützner, Andreas; Derwahl, Michael; Jacob, Stephan; Hohberg, Cloth; Blümner, Ernst; Lehmann, Ute; Fuchs, Winfried; Forst, Thomas

    2010-08-01

    Drugs with unspecific stimulating effects on beta-cell secretion increase the homeostasis model assessment (HOMA)-B score, indicating improved beta-cell "function." We investigated whether the beta-cell protection provided by adding pioglitazone (PIO) to glimepiride (GLIM) in comparison to up-titrating the GLIM dose alone is reflected by appropriate changes in several measures of beta-cell function, including HOMA-B score. This double-blind, parallel prospective 6-month study was performed with 82 patients (47 men, 35 women; age, 61 +/- 9 years; duration of disease, 5.3 +/- 4.4 years; body mass index, 32.6 +/- 6.0 kg/m(2); hemoglobin A1c [HbA1c], 7.3 +/- 0.7%) with GLIM monotherapy (1-3 mg). They were randomized to receive a GLIM + PIO combination with up-titration (2 mg + 30 mg/4 mg + 30 mg/4 mg + 4 mg) or to remain on GLIM (up-titration 4/5/6 mg). Observation parameters determined at baseline and end point included HOMA-B, HOMA-IR, HbA1c, glucose, insulin, and intact proinsulin. There was a slight increase in the HOMA-B score in the GLIM group but not in the GLIM + PIO arm (baseline/end point: for GLIM, 71 +/- 48/88 +/- 64; for PIO + GLIM, 74 +/- 56/69 +/- 52). Improvements in the other observation parameters were predominantly detected in the PIO + GLIM group (HbA1c, 7.20 +/- 0.61%/6.36 +/- 0.90%; HOMA-IR, 7.0 +/- 4.5/4.1 +/- 2.1; intact proinsulin, 12.4 +/- 10.3/7.6 +/- 4.8 pmol/L [all P HOMA-IR, 7.4 +/- 4.5/7.5 +/- 4.3 [not significant]; intact proinsulin, 17.3 +/- 21.6/16.3 +/- 15.5 pmol/L [not significant]). The PIO + GLIM combination led to overall improvement of laboratory biomarkers for beta-cell function, except for HOMA-B. Glimepiride up-titration had no such effects but increased the HOMA-B score. HOMA-B seems to provide misleading results when used as a diagnostic tool in patients treated with sulfonylurea drugs. A corrective term for consideration of proinsulin in the HOMA-B equation may address this limitation.

  9. The Effect of the Usage of Computer-Based Assistive Devices on the Functioning and Quality of Life of Individuals Who Are Blind or Have Low Vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosner, Yotam; Perlman, Amotz

    2018-01-01

    Introduction: The Israel Ministry of Social Affairs and Social Services subsidizes computer-based assistive devices for individuals with visual impairments (that is, those who are blind or have low vision) to assist these individuals in their interactions with computers and thus to enhance their independence and quality of life. The aim of this…

  10. Vision and vision-related outcome measures in multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balcer, Laura J; Miller, David H; Reingold, Stephen C

    2015-01-01

    Visual impairment is a key manifestation of multiple sclerosis. Acute optic neuritis is a common, often presenting manifestation, but visual deficits and structural loss of retinal axonal and neuronal integrity can occur even without a history of optic neuritis. Interest in vision in multiple...... sclerosis is growing, partially in response to the development of sensitive visual function tests, structural markers such as optical coherence tomography and magnetic resonance imaging, and quality of life measures that give clinical meaning to the structure-function correlations that are unique...... of investigators involved in the development and study of visual outcomes in multiple sclerosis, which had, as its overriding goals, to review the state of the field and identify areas for future research. We review data and principles to help us understand the importance of vision as a model for outcomes...

  11. Function Preservation After Conservative Resection and Radiotherapy for Soft-tissue Sarcoma of the Distal Extremity: Utility and Application of the Toronto Extremity Salvage Score (TESS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassidy, Richard J; Indelicato, Daniel J; Gibbs, Charles P; Scarborough, Mark T; Morris, Christopher G; Zlotecki, Robert A

    2016-12-01

    To evaluate outcomes after conservative resection and radiotherapy (RT) for soft-tissue sarcoma (STS) of the distal extremity, with assessment of functional quality of life using the validated Toronto Extremity Salvage Score (TESS) questionnaire and Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE), v4.0. Thirty-three patients with STS involving the hand/wrist (N=18) or foot/ankle (N=15) complex received adjuvant RT with conservative resection and were evaluated for local tumor control, survival, toxicities, and preservation of objective functional ability. Eight patients were treated with preoperative RT (median dose, 50.4 Gy) and 25 with postoperative RT (median dose, 61.8 Gy). Median follow-up was 11.5 years. Functional outcomes were measured using TESS; patients with amputations were excluded from the TESS analysis. Adverse events related to gait, limb edema, skin infection, wound complication, and wound dehiscence were assessed using the CTCAE. The 5- and 10-year local control rates were both 90%. The 10-year cause-specific, absolute, and distant metastasis-free survival rates were 97%, 87%, and 84%, respectively. Three patients had an amputation for reasons other than local recurrence or treatment complications and underwent amputation for patient preference. One third of the subjects (11/33 patients) were able to complete the TESS questionnaire; scores ranged from 88 to 100 (mean, 98.2). CTCAEv4 acute adverse events occurred in 2 cases: 1 patient had a grade 3 skin infection and 1 had a grade 2 wound complication of dehiscence. For management of distal extremity STS, the combination of adjuvant RT and conservative surgery achieves excellent local control and overall survival with few adverse events. In addition, through application of the TESS survey instrument, we have demonstrated that this treatment plan achieves robust functional preservation objectively and quantifiably.

  12. FPGA Vision Data Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morfopoulos, Arin C.; Pham, Thang D.

    2013-01-01

    JPL has produced a series of FPGA (field programmable gate array) vision algorithms that were written with custom interfaces to get data in and out of each vision module. Each module has unique requirements on the data interface, and further vision modules are continually being developed, each with their own custom interfaces. Each memory module had also been designed for direct access to memory or to another memory module.

  13. Height for age z score and cognitive function are associated with Academic performance among school children aged 8-11 years old.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haile, Demewoz; Nigatu, Dabere; Gashaw, Ketema; Demelash, Habtamu

    2016-01-01

    Academic achievement of school age children can be affected by several factors such as nutritional status, demographics, and socioeconomic factors. Though evidence about the magnitude of malnutrition is well established in Ethiopia, there is a paucity of evidence about the association of nutritional status with academic performance among the nation's school age children. Hence, this study aimed to determine how nutritional status and cognitive function are associated with academic performance of school children in Goba town, South East Ethiopia. An institution based cross-sectional study was conducted among 131 school age students from primary schools in Goba town enrolled during the 2013/2014 academic year. The nutritional status of students was assessed by anthropometric measurement, while the cognitive assessment was measured by the Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children (KABC-II) and Ravens colored progressive matrices (Raven's CPM) tests. The academic performance of the school children was measured by collecting the preceding semester academic result from the school record. Descriptive statistics, bivariate and multivariable linear regression were used in the statistical analysis. This study found a statistically significant positive association between all cognitive test scores and average academic performance except for number recall (p = 0.12) and hand movements (p = 0.08). The correlation between all cognitive test scores and mathematics score was found positive and statistically significant (p academic subjects among school age children (ß = 0.53; 95 % CI: 0.11-0.95). A single unit change of age resulted 3.23 unit change in average score of all academic subjects among school age children (ß = 3.23; 95 % CI: 1.20-5.27). Nutritional status (height for age Z score) and wealth could be modifiable factors to improve academic performance of school age children. Moreover, interventions to improve nutrition for mothers and children may be

  14. Vision-based interaction

    CERN Document Server

    Turk, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    In its early years, the field of computer vision was largely motivated by researchers seeking computational models of biological vision and solutions to practical problems in manufacturing, defense, and medicine. For the past two decades or so, there has been an increasing interest in computer vision as an input modality in the context of human-computer interaction. Such vision-based interaction can endow interactive systems with visual capabilities similar to those important to human-human interaction, in order to perceive non-verbal cues and incorporate this information in applications such

  15. Age-related commonalities and differences in the relationship between executive functions and intelligence: Analysis of the NAB executive functions module and WAIS-IV scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buczylowska, Dorota; Petermann, Franz

    2017-01-01

    Data from five subtests of the Executive Functions Module of the German Neuropsychological Assessment Battery (NAB) and all ten core subtests of the German Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale - Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV) were used to examine the relationship between executive functions and intelligence in a comparison of two age groups: individuals aged 18-59 years and individuals aged 60-88 years. The NAB subtests Categories and Word Generation demonstrated a consistent correlation pattern for both age groups. However, the NAB Judgment subtest correlated more strongly with three WAIS-IV indices, the Full Scale IQ (FSIQ), and the General Ability Index (GAI) in the older adult group than in the younger group. Additionally, in the 60-88 age group, the Executive Functions Index (EFI) was more strongly correlated with the Verbal Comprehension Index (VCI) than with the Perceptual Reasoning Index (PRI). Both age groups demonstrated a strong association of the EFI with the FSIQ and the Working Memory Index (WMI). The results imply the potential diagnostic utility of the Judgment subtest and a significant relationship between executive functioning and crystallized intelligence at older ages. Furthermore, it may be concluded that there is a considerable age-independent overlap between the EFI and general intelligence, as well as between the EFI and working memory.

  16. Relationships Between Measures of the Ability to Perform Vision-Related Activities, Vision-Related Quality of Life, and Clinical Findings in Patients With Glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekici, Feyzahan; Loh, Rebecca; Waisbourd, Michael; Sun, Yi; Martinez, Patricia; Nayak, Natasha; Wizov, Sheryl S; Hegarty, Sarah; Hark, Lisa A; Spaeth, George L

    2015-12-01

    To our knowledge, few studies have combined an objective measure of vision-related performance (VRP) and subjective measures of vision-related quality of life (VRQoL) with clinically related visual parameters, particularly in a large, prospective, cohort study setting. To examine the relationships between clinical visual assessments and both a VRP and 2 self-reported VRQoL measurements. Patients (N = 161) with moderate-stage glaucoma recruited from the Glaucoma Service at Wills Eye Hospital, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, were enrolled from May 2012 to May 2014 in an ongoing prospective, 4-year longitudinal observational study. This report includes cross-sectional results from the baseline visit. Patients received a complete ocular examination, automated visual field (VF) test and Cirrus optical coherence tomographic scan. Contrast sensitivity was measured with the Pelli-Robson and the Spaeth-Richman Contrast Sensitivity (SPARCS) tests. Vision-related performance was assessed by the Compressed Assessment of Ability Related to Vision (CAARV) test. Vision-related QoL was assessed by the National Eye Institute Visual Function Questionnaire 25 (NEI-VFQ-25) and a modified Glaucoma Symptom Scale (MGSS). Correlations between clinical measures and CAARV, NEI-VFQ-25, and MGSS scores. A total of 161 patients were enrolled in the study. The strongest correlation was found between SPARCS score in the better eye and total CAARV score (r = 0.398; 95% CI, 0.235-0.537; P better eye. There were more statistically significant correlations between contrast sensitivity tests and VF mean deviation with VRQoL measurements than with other clinical measures (visual acuity, intraocular pressure, Disc Damage Likelihood Scale, and mean retinal nerve fiber layer thickness). The MGSS scores were lower (worse) in women compared with men (P = .03 for binocular, P = .01 for better eye, and P = .05 for the worse eye). Structural measures (eg, Disc Damage Likelihood Scale, and

  17. South African Scoring System

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-11-18

    Nov 18, 2014 ... for 80% (SASS score) and 75% (NOT) of the variation in the regression model. Consequently, SASS ... further investigation: spatial analyses of macroinvertebrate assemblages; and the use of structural and functional metrics. Keywords: .... conductivity levels was assessed using multiple linear regres- sion.

  18. The Italian validation of the minimal assessment of cognitive function in multiple sclerosis (MACFIMS) and the application of the Cognitive Impairment Index scoring procedure in MS patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argento, Ornella; Incerti, Chiara C; Quartuccio, Maria E; Magistrale, Giuseppe; Francia, Ada; Caltagirone, Carlo; Pisani, Valerio; Nocentini, Ugo

    2018-04-27

    Cognitive dysfunction occurs in almost 50-60% of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) even in early stages of the disease and affects different aspects of patient's life. Aims of the present study were (1) to introduce and validate an Italian version of the minimal assessment of cognitive functions in MS (MACFIMS) battery and (2) to propose the use of the Cognitive Impairment Index (CII) as a scoring procedure to define the degree of impairment in relapsing-remitting (RRMS) and secondary-progressive (SPMS) patients. A total of 240 HC and 123 MS patients performed the Italian version of the MACFIMS composed by the same tests as the original except for the Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test. The CII was derived for each score of the 11 scales for participants of both groups. The results of the study show that cognitive impairment affects around 50% of our sample of MS patients. In RRMS group, only the 15.7% of patients reported a severe impairment, while in the group of SPMS, the 51.4% of patients felt in the "severely impaired" group. Results are in line with previously reported percentages of impairment in MS patients, showing that the calculation of the CII applied to the Italian version of the MACFIMS is sensitive and reliable in detecting different degrees of impairment in MS patients.

  19. Operational Based Vision Assessment Automated Vision Test Collection User Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-15

    AFRL-SA-WP-SR-2017-0012 Operational Based Vision Assessment Automated Vision Test Collection User Guide Elizabeth Shoda, Alex...June 2015 – May 2017 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Operational Based Vision Assessment Automated Vision Test Collection User Guide 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER... automated vision tests , or AVT. Development of the AVT was required to support threshold-level vision testing capability needed to investigate the

  20. Quality of vision, patient satisfaction and long-term visual function after bilateral implantation of a low addition multifocal intraocular lens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedrotti, Emilio; Mastropasqua, Rodolfo; Bonetto, Jacopo; Demasi, Christian; Aiello, Francesco; Nucci, Carlo; Mariotti, Cesare; Marchini, Giorgio

    2017-07-17

    The aim of the current study was to compare the quality of vision, contrast sensitivity and patient satisfaction with a biaspheric, segmented, rotationally asymmetric IOL (Lentis Comfort LS-313 MF 15-Oculentis GmbH, Berlin, Germany) as opposed to those of a monofocal IOL. This prospective single-blind comparative study included two groups of patients affected by bilateral senile cataract who underwent lens extraction and IOL implantation. The first group received a bilateral implantation of a monofocal IOL, and the second group received a bilateral implantation of the Comfort IOL. Twelve months after surgery uncorrected and corrected visual acuity at different distances (30, 50, 70 cm and 4 m), defocus curve and contrast sensitivity were assessed. Patient's satisfaction and spectacle independence were evaluated by mean of the NEI RQL-42 questionnaire. No significant differences were found between the groups in terms of near vision. The group of patients implanted with a Comfort IOL obtained the best results at intermediate distances (50 and 70 cm P < .001). Both groups showed an excellent uncorrected distance visual acuity (4 m). No statistically significant differences were found in terms of corrected near, intermediate and distance visual acuity. Concerning contrast sensitivity, no statistically significant differences between the groups were observed at any cycles per degree. The NEI RQL-42 questionnaire showed statistically significant differences between the group for "near vision" (P = .015), "dependence on correction" (P = .048) and "suboptimal correction" (P < .001) subscales. Our findings indicated that the Comfort IOL +1.5 D provides a good intermediate spectacle independence together with a high quality of vision, with a low amount of subjective symptoms and a contrast sensitivity similar to those obtained with a monofocal IOL.

  1. Progress in computer vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, A. K.; Dorai, C.

    Computer vision has emerged as a challenging and important area of research, both as an engineering and a scientific discipline. The growing importance of computer vision is evident from the fact that it was identified as one of the "Grand Challenges" and also from its prominent role in the National Information Infrastructure. While the design of a general-purpose vision system continues to be elusive machine vision systems are being used successfully in specific application elusive, machine vision systems are being used successfully in specific application domains. Building a practical vision system requires a careful selection of appropriate sensors, extraction and integration of information from available cues in the sensed data, and evaluation of system robustness and performance. The authors discuss and demonstrate advantages of (1) multi-sensor fusion, (2) combination of features and classifiers, (3) integration of visual modules, and (IV) admissibility and goal-directed evaluation of vision algorithms. The requirements of several prominent real world applications such as biometry, document image analysis, image and video database retrieval, and automatic object model construction offer exciting problems and new opportunities to design and evaluate vision algorithms.

  2. Jane Addams’ Social Vision

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villadsen, Kaspar

    2018-01-01

    resonated with key tenets of social gospel theology, which imbued her texts with an overarching vision of humanity’s progressive history. It is suggested that Addams’ vision of a major transition in industrial society, one involving a BChristian renaissance^ and individuals’ transformation into Bsocialized...

  3. Computer vision for sports

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomas, Graham; Gade, Rikke; Moeslund, Thomas B.

    2017-01-01

    fixed to players or equipment is generally not possible. This provides a rich set of opportunities for the application of computer vision techniques to help the competitors, coaches and audience. This paper discusses a selection of current commercial applications that use computer vision for sports...

  4. Copenhagen Energy Vision

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Lund, Rasmus Søgaard; Connolly, David

    The short-term goal for The City of Copenhagen is a CO2 neutral energy supply by the year 2025, and the long-term vision for Denmark is a 100% renewable energy (RE) supply by the year 2050. In this project, it is concluded that Copenhagen plays a key role in this transition. The long-term vision...

  5. Modeling foveal vision

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Florack, L.M.J.; Sgallari, F.; Murli, A.; Paragios, N.

    2007-01-01

    geometric model is proposed for an artificial foveal vision system, and its plausibility in the context of biological vision is explored. The model is based on an isotropic, scale invariant two-form that describes the spatial layout of receptive fields in the the visual sensorium (in the biological

  6. Normed kernel function-based fuzzy possibilistic C-means (NKFPCM) algorithm for high-dimensional breast cancer database classification with feature selection is based on Laplacian Score

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lestari, A. W.; Rustam, Z.

    2017-07-01

    In the last decade, breast cancer has become the focus of world attention as this disease is one of the primary leading cause of death for women. Therefore, it is necessary to have the correct precautions and treatment. In previous studies, Fuzzy Kennel K-Medoid algorithm has been used for multi-class data. This paper proposes an algorithm to classify the high dimensional data of breast cancer using Fuzzy Possibilistic C-means (FPCM) and a new method based on clustering analysis using Normed Kernel Function-Based Fuzzy Possibilistic C-Means (NKFPCM). The objective of this paper is to obtain the best accuracy in classification of breast cancer data. In order to improve the accuracy of the two methods, the features candidates are evaluated using feature selection, where Laplacian Score is used. The results show the comparison accuracy and running time of FPCM and NKFPCM with and without feature selection.

  7. Prediction of clinical depression scores and detection of changes in whole-brain using resting-state functional MRI data with partial least squares regression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kosuke Yoshida

    Full Text Available In diagnostic applications of statistical machine learning methods to brain imaging data, common problems include data high-dimensionality and co-linearity, which often cause over-fitting and instability. To overcome these problems, we applied partial least squares (PLS regression to resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI data, creating a low-dimensional representation that relates symptoms to brain activity and that predicts clinical measures. Our experimental results, based upon data from clinically depressed patients and healthy controls, demonstrated that PLS and its kernel variants provided significantly better prediction of clinical measures than ordinary linear regression. Subsequent classification using predicted clinical scores distinguished depressed patients from healthy controls with 80% accuracy. Moreover, loading vectors for latent variables enabled us to identify brain regions relevant to depression, including the default mode network, the right superior frontal gyrus, and the superior motor area.

  8. Light Vision Color

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valberg, Arne

    2005-04-01

    Light Vision Color takes a well-balanced, interdisciplinary approach to our most important sensory system. The book successfully combines basics in vision sciences with recent developments from different areas such as neuroscience, biophysics, sensory psychology and philosophy. Originally published in 1998 this edition has been extensively revised and updated to include new chapters on clinical problems and eye diseases, low vision rehabilitation and the basic molecular biology and genetics of colour vision. Takes a broad interdisciplinary approach combining basics in vision sciences with the most recent developments in the area Includes an extensive list of technical terms and explanations to encourage student understanding Successfully brings together the most important areas of the subject in to one volume

  9. Panoramic stereo sphere vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Weijia; Zhang, Baofeng; Röning, Juha; Zong, Xiaoning; Yi, Tian

    2013-01-01

    Conventional stereo vision systems have a small field of view (FOV) which limits their usefulness for certain applications. While panorama vision is able to "see" in all directions of the observation space, scene depth information is missed because of the mapping from 3D reference coordinates to 2D panoramic image. In this paper, we present an innovative vision system which builds by a special combined fish-eye lenses module, and is capable of producing 3D coordinate information from the whole global observation space and acquiring no blind area 360°×360° panoramic image simultaneously just using single vision equipment with one time static shooting. It is called Panoramic Stereo Sphere Vision (PSSV). We proposed the geometric model, mathematic model and parameters calibration method in this paper. Specifically, video surveillance, robotic autonomous navigation, virtual reality, driving assistance, multiple maneuvering target tracking, automatic mapping of environments and attitude estimation are some of the applications which will benefit from PSSV.

  10. Vision-Related Quality-of-Life Outcomes in the Mycotic Ulcer Treatment Trial I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose-Nussbaumer, Jennifer; Prajna, N. Venkatesh; Krishnan, K. Tiruvengada; Mascarenhas, Jeena; Rajaraman, Revathi; Srinivasan, Muthiah; Raghavan, Anita; Oldenburg, Catherine E.; O’Brien, Kieran S.; Ray, Kathryn J.; McLeod, Stephen D.; Porco, Travis C.; Lietman, Thomas M.; Acharya, Nisha R.; Keenan, Jeremy D.

    2016-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Given the limitations in health care resources, quality-of-life measures for interventions have gained importance. OBJECTIVE To determine whether vision-related quality-of-life outcomes were different between the natamycin and voriconazole treatment arms in the Mycotic Ulcer Treatment Trial I, as measured by an Indian Vision Function Questionnaire. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Secondary analysis (performed October 11–25, 2014) of a double-masked, multicenter, randomized, active comparator–controlled, clinical trial at multiple locations of the Aravind Eye Care System in South India that enrolled patients with culture- or smear-positive filamentous fungal corneal ulcers who had a baseline visual acuity of 20/40 to 20/400 (logMAR of 0.3–1.3). INTERVENTIONS Study participants were randomly assigned to topical voriconazole, 1%, or topical natamycin, 5%. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Subscale score on the Indian Vision Function Questionnaire from each of the 4 subscales (mobility, activity limitation, psychosocial impact, and visual function) at 3 months. RESULTS A total of 323 patients were enrolled in the trial, and 292 (90.4%) completed the Indian Vision Function Questionnaire at 3 months. The majority of study participants had subscale scores consistent with excellent function. After adjusting for baseline visual acuity and organism, we found that study participants in the natamycin-treated group scored, on average, 4.3 points (95% CI, 0.1–8.5) higher than study participants in the voriconazole-treated group (P = .046). In subgroup analyses looking at ulcers caused by Fusarium species and adjusting for baseline best spectacle–corrected visual acuity, the natamycin-treated group scored 8.4 points (95% CI, 1.9–14.9) higher than the voriconazole-treated group (P = .01). Differences in quality of life were not detected for patients with Aspergillus or other non-Fusarium species as the causative organism (1.5 points [95% CI, −3.9 to 6.9]; P

  11. Relaciones estructurales y funcionales del sistema de tareas comunicativas para Vision One en Estomatología 1er año Structural and functional relations of a system of communicative tasks for Vision One in 1st academic year of Dentistry studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Trujillo Chong

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Con el objetivo de elaborar las relaciones estructurales y funcionales del sistema de tareas comunicativas en lengua inglesa previamente elaborado para el curso Vision One de 1er. año de Estomatología de la Universidad de Ciencias Médicas de Pinar del Río, se realizó el análisis documental del libro de texto de los estudiantes, los informes departamentales y resultados de los exámenes, las actas de las reuniones de colectivos, los informes de los controles a clase, la experiencia del colectivo y la propia experiencia del autor, que permitieron que se constataran la existencia de los problemas y deficiencias en los materiales de enseñanza y aprendizaje utilizados en la dirección del proceso de enseñanza-aprendizaje y en los niveles de preparación alcanzados por los estudiantes, especialmente en el desarrollo de la habilidad de expresión oral; resultados que distan de las expectativas y necesidades sociales, lo cual motivó la realización de esta investigación de tipo descriptivo-explicativa. A través de la unidad 2 del curso Vision One, se refirieron y ejemplificaron las relaciones estructurales y funcionales que debe poseer dicho sistema de tareas comunicativas en Lengua Inglesa.This research paper was aimed at preparing the structural and functional relations of a system of communicative tasks in English Language (Vision One to the 1st academic year of Dentistry at Medical University in Pinar del Rio. A documentary analysis of the student's text book, reports of the English department, minutes from the meetings of the teaching staff, results of tests, controls to lessons; experience of the group of professors and of the author's own experience were as well examined, where the existence of problems arose, and observing deficiencies in the teaching and learning materials used in the direction of the teaching-learning process along with the levels of knowledge reached by the students, particularly in the development of oral skills

  12. Left ventricular diastolic function in type 2 diabetes mellitus and the association with coronary artery calcium score: a cardiac MRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graça, Bruno; Donato, Paulo; Ferreira, Maria João; Castelo-Branco, Miguel; Caseiro-Alves, Filipe

    2014-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare cardiac MRI-derived parameters of left ventricular (LV) diastolic function between uncomplicated type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2) and normoglycemic control subjects and to evaluate whether these parameters of LV diastolic function are related to coronary atherosclerosis. We prospectively studied 41 subjects with DM2 and 21 normoglycemic control subjects (30 women and 32 men; mean age, 57.2 ± 7.1 [SD] years) with no evidence of overt cardiovascular disease. We used cardiac MRI to measure LV volumes, LV peak filling rate (PFR), and transmitral flow and CT to determine coronary artery calcium scores. Absolute values of the peak filling rate (PFR) were significantly lower in DM2 patients than in control subjects (mean ± SD, 293.2 ± 51.7 vs 375.7 ± 102.8 mL/s, respectively; p DM2 patients compared with control subjects. DM2 patients with coronary artery calcification showed a lower PFR normalized to stroke volume (SV) (mean ± SD, 4.4 ± 1.0 vs 5.3 ± 1.4, respectively; p = 0.038) and lower mitral peak E velocities (40.1 ± 11.3 vs 48.0 ± 7.3 cm/s; p = 0.024) than DM2 patients without coronary calcification. PFR normalized to SV was independently associated with the presence of coronary artery calcification (β = -1.5, p = 0.005). DM2 decreases cardiovascular MRI-derived parameters of LV diastolic function. Patients with DM2 and coronary atherosclerosis show a more impaired LV diastolic function than patients without coronary atherosclerosis.

  13. Evaluation of vision-specific quality-of-life in albinism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutzbach, Beth R; Merrill, Kimberly S; Hogue, Kathy M; Downes, Sara J; Holleschau, Ann M; MacDonald, John T; Summers, C Gail

    2009-04-01

    Human albinism is a genetic condition associated with visual impairment that affects many aspects of daily life. Office measurements of visual acuity do not necessarily reflect daily visual function and health status. This study used the National Eye Institute Visual Function Questionnaire (NEI-VFQ) to determine the effect of albinism-associated ophthalmopathy on quality of life (QOL). We administered the NEI-VFQ, which consists of 25 questions about QOL (VFQ-25) and 14 questions about well-being (VFQ-39), to 44 consenting participants with albinism older than the age of 18 years. Nineteen male and 25 female subjects completed the study. Median age was 30.5 years (range, 18-79 years). Mean best-corrected visual acuity was 20/83 (range, 20/20 to 20/320). Forty-eight percent reported that they were currently able to drive with their condition. Participants perceived midscale problems with their general vision (median subscale score 60.0). Visual acuity correlated moderately with overall NEI-VFQ composite scores (r(s) = 0.40, p = 0.01 for VFQ-25 and r(s) = 0.36, p = 0.02 for VFQ-39). Most notable impairment was recorded for distance acuity, vision-specific mental health, and vision-specific role difficulties (VFQ-39 median subscale scores 66.7, 70.0, and 75.0, respectively). Differences by sex were insignificant. Greater ceiling effects were noted for the VFQ-25 than for the VFQ-39. The NEI-VFQ-39 is a method to evaluate self-reported effects of vision-related QOL in albinism and may be used as a baseline for evaluating outcomes in interventional studies in these patients.

  14. Vision in high-level football officials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baptista, António Manuel Gonçalves; Serra, Pedro M; McAlinden, Colm; Barrett, Brendan T

    2017-01-01

    Officiating in football depends, at least to some extent, upon adequate visual function. However, there is no vision standard for football officiating and the nature of the relationship between officiating performance and level of vision is unknown. As a first step in characterising this relationship, we report on the clinically-measured vision and on the perceived level of vision in elite-level, Portuguese football officials. Seventy-one referees (R) and assistant referees (AR) participated in the study, representing 92% of the total population of elite level football officials in Portugal in the 2013/2014 season. Nine of the 22 Rs (40.9%) and ten of the 49 ARs (20.4%) were international-level. Information about visual history was also gathered. Perceived vision was assessed using the preference-values-assigned-to-global-visual-status (PVVS) and the Quality-of-Vision (QoV) questionnaire. Standard clinical vision measures (including visual acuity, contrast sensitivity and stereopsis) were gathered in a subset (n = 44, 62%) of the participants. Data were analysed according to the type (R/AR) and level (international/national) of official, and Bonferroni corrections were applied to reduce the risk of type I errors. Adopting criterion for statistical significance of pfootball officials were similar to published normative values for young, adult populations and similar between R and AR. Clinically-measured vision did not differ according to officiating level. Visual acuity measured with and without a pinhole disc indicated that around one quarter of participants may be capable of better vision when officiating, as evidenced by better acuity (≥1 line of letters) using the pinhole. Amongst the clinical visual tests we used, we did not find evidence for above-average performance in elite-level football officials. Although the impact of uncorrected mild to moderate refractive error upon officiating performance is unknown, with a greater uptake of eye examinations, visual

  15. The comparability of English, French and Dutch scores on the Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy-Fatigue (FACIT-F: an assessment of differential item functioning in patients with systemic sclerosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Kwakkenbos

    Full Text Available The Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy-Fatigue (FACIT-F is commonly used to assess fatigue in rheumatic diseases, and has shown to discriminate better across levels of the fatigue spectrum than other commonly used measures. The aim of this study was to assess the cross-language measurement equivalence of the English, French, and Dutch versions of the FACIT-F in systemic sclerosis (SSc patients.The FACIT-F was completed by 871 English-speaking Canadian, 238 French-speaking Canadian and 230 Dutch SSc patients. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to assess the factor structure in the three samples. The Multiple-Indicator Multiple-Cause (MIMIC model was utilized to assess differential item functioning (DIF, comparing English versus French and versus Dutch patient responses separately.A unidimensional factor model showed good fit in all samples. Comparing French versus English patients, statistically significant, but small-magnitude DIF was found for 3 of 13 items. French patients had 0.04 of a standard deviation (SD lower latent fatigue scores than English patients and there was an increase of only 0.03 SD after accounting for DIF. For the Dutch versus English comparison, 4 items showed small, but statistically significant, DIF. Dutch patients had 0.20 SD lower latent fatigue scores than English patients. After correcting for DIF, there was a reduction of 0.16 SD in this difference.There was statistically significant DIF in several items, but the overall effect on fatigue scores was minimal. English, French and Dutch versions of the FACIT-F can be reasonably treated as having equivalent scoring metrics.

  16. The Comparability of English, French and Dutch Scores on the Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy-Fatigue (FACIT-F): An Assessment of Differential Item Functioning in Patients with Systemic Sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwakkenbos, Linda; Willems, Linda M.; Baron, Murray; Hudson, Marie; Cella, David; van den Ende, Cornelia H. M.; Thombs, Brett D.

    2014-01-01

    Objective The Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy- Fatigue (FACIT-F) is commonly used to assess fatigue in rheumatic diseases, and has shown to discriminate better across levels of the fatigue spectrum than other commonly used measures. The aim of this study was to assess the cross-language measurement equivalence of the English, French, and Dutch versions of the FACIT-F in systemic sclerosis (SSc) patients. Methods The FACIT-F was completed by 871 English-speaking Canadian, 238 French-speaking Canadian and 230 Dutch SSc patients. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to assess the factor structure in the three samples. The Multiple-Indicator Multiple-Cause (MIMIC) model was utilized to assess differential item functioning (DIF), comparing English versus French and versus Dutch patient responses separately. Results A unidimensional factor model showed good fit in all samples. Comparing French versus English patients, statistically significant, but small-magnitude DIF was found for 3 of 13 items. French patients had 0.04 of a standard deviation (SD) lower latent fatigue scores than English patients and there was an increase of only 0.03 SD after accounting for DIF. For the Dutch versus English comparison, 4 items showed small, but statistically significant, DIF. Dutch patients had 0.20 SD lower latent fatigue scores than English patients. After correcting for DIF, there was a reduction of 0.16 SD in this difference. Conclusions There was statistically significant DIF in several items, but the overall effect on fatigue scores was minimal. English, French and Dutch versions of the FACIT-F can be reasonably treated as having equivalent scoring metrics. PMID:24638101

  17. Stereo Vision Inside Tire

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-21

    1 Stereo Vision Inside Tire P.S. Els C.M. Becker University of Pretoria W911NF-14-1-0590 Final...Stereo Vision Inside Tire 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER W911NF-14-1-0590 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Prof PS Els CM...on the development of a stereo vision system that can be mounted inside a rolling tire , known as T2-CAM for Tire -Terrain CAMera. The T2-CAM system

  18. Ultraviolet vision may be widespread in bats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorresen, P. Marcos; Cryan, Paul; Dalton, David C.; Wolf, Sandy; Bonaccorso, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Insectivorous bats are well known for their abilities to find and pursue flying insect prey at close range using echolocation, but they also rely heavily on vision. For example, at night bats use vision to orient across landscapes, avoid large obstacles, and locate roosts. Although lacking sharp visual acuity, the eyes of bats evolved to function at very low levels of illumination. Recent evidence based on genetics, immunohistochemistry, and laboratory behavioral trials indicated that many bats can see ultraviolet light (UV), at least at illumination levels similar to or brighter than those before twilight. Despite this growing evidence for potentially widespread UV vision in bats, the prevalence of UV vision among bats remains unknown and has not been studied outside of the laboratory. We used a Y-maze to test whether wild-caught bats could see reflected UV light and whether such UV vision functions at the dim lighting conditions typically experienced by night-flying bats. Seven insectivorous species of bats, representing five genera and three families, showed a statistically significant ‘escape-toward-the-light’ behavior when placed in the Y-maze. Our results provide compelling evidence of widespread dim-light UV vision in bats.

  19. Postoperative Functional Outcome After Off-Pump Versus On-Pump Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting Using Gated Myocardial SPECT: A Comparison by Propensity Score Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jong Jin; Paeng, Jin Chul; Lee, Dong Soo; Kim, Ki Bong; Chung, June Key; Lee, Myung Chul; Kang, Won Jun

    2010-01-01

    We evaluated the short-term and mid-term differences in perfusion and function after off-pump and on-pump coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) using gated myocardial single photon emission computed tomography. A total of 70 patients with coronary artery disease who underwent CABG were included based on the propensity score matching results from 165 patients. Thirty-five patients underwent off-pump and 35 patients on-pump CABG. Rest 201 TI/dipyridamole stress 99m Tc-methoxyisobutylisonitrile gated single photon emission computed thermographs were performed preoperatively and postoperatively at short-term (103±23 days after surgery) and mid-term follow-up (502±111 days after surgery). Changes in left ventricular ejection fraction, end systolic volume, stress and rest segmental perfusion, and segmental wall thickening were compared between the two groups. The segments with preoperative rest 201 T1 uptake under 60% of maximum uptake were included in the segmental analysis. Left ventricular ejection fraction (P=0.001) and end systolic volume (P=0.008) showed significant improvement in both groups. There were no significant short-term and mid-term differences between the two groups in terms of left ventricular ejection fraction (P=0.309) and end systolic volume (P=0.938). Likewise, segmental rest (P=0.178) and stress perfusion (P=0.071), and systolic wall thickening (P=0.241) showed significant improvement in both groups with similar time courses. Off-pump CABG resulted in significant improvements in left ventricular ejection fraction, end systolic volume, and regional myocardial perfusion and function that are comparable to on-pump CABG at short-term and mid-term. Gated myocardial SPECT successfully revealed that off-pump CABG is as good as on-pump CABG from the viewpoint of myocardial perfusion and function.

  20. VISION User Guide - VISION (Verifiable Fuel Cycle Simulation) Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobson, Jacob J.; Jeffers, Robert F.; Matthern, Gretchen E.; Piet, Steven J.; Baker, Benjamin A.; Grimm, Joseph

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide a guide for using the current version of the Verifiable Fuel Cycle Simulation (VISION) model. This is a complex model with many parameters; the user is strongly encouraged to read this user guide before attempting to run the model. This model is an R and D work in progress and may contain errors and omissions. It is based upon numerous assumptions. This model is intended to assist in evaluating 'what if' scenarios and in comparing fuel, reactor, and fuel processing alternatives at a systems level for U.S. nuclear power. The model is not intended as a tool for process flow and design modeling of specific facilities nor for tracking individual units of fuel or other material through the system. The model is intended to examine the interactions among the components of a fuel system as a function of time varying system parameters; this model represents a dynamic rather than steady-state approximation of the nuclear fuel system. VISION models the nuclear cycle at the system level, not individual facilities, e.g., 'reactor types' not individual reactors and 'separation types' not individual separation plants. Natural uranium can be enriched, which produces enriched uranium, which goes into fuel fabrication, and depleted uranium (DU), which goes into storage. Fuel is transformed (transmuted) in reactors and then goes into a storage buffer. Used fuel can be pulled from storage into either separation of disposal. If sent to separations, fuel is transformed (partitioned) into fuel products, recovered uranium, and various categories of waste. Recycled material is stored until used by its assigned reactor type. Note that recovered uranium is itself often partitioned: some RU flows with recycled transuranic elements, some flows with wastes, and the rest is designated RU. RU comes out of storage if needed to correct the U/TRU ratio in new recycled fuel. Neither RU nor DU are designated as wastes. VISION is comprised of several Microsoft

  1. delta-vision

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — Delta Vision is intended to identify a strategy for managing the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta as a sustainable ecosystem that would continue to support environmental...

  2. Computer Vision Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randolph, Susan A

    2017-07-01

    With the increased use of electronic devices with visual displays, computer vision syndrome is becoming a major public health issue. Improving the visual status of workers using computers results in greater productivity in the workplace and improved visual comfort.

  3. INSA: Vision and Activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choe, Kwan-Kyoo

    2013-01-01

    INSA vision: Contribution to the world peace via advanced and excellent nuclear nonproliferation and security education and training; Objectives: Provide practical education and training programs; Raise internationally-recognized experts; Improve awareness about nuclear nonproliferation and security

  4. A general approach for developing system-specific functions to score protein-ligand docked complexes using support vector inductive logic programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amini, Ata; Shrimpton, Paul J; Muggleton, Stephen H; Sternberg, Michael J E

    2007-12-01

    Despite the increased recent use of protein-ligand and protein-protein docking in the drug discovery process due to the increases in computational power, the difficulty of accurately ranking the binding affinities of a series of ligands or a series of proteins docked to a protein receptor remains largely unsolved. This problem is of major concern in lead optimization procedures and has lead to the development of scoring functions tailored to rank the binding affinities of a series of ligands to a specific system. However, such methods can take a long time to develop and their transferability to other systems remains open to question. Here we demonstrate that given a suitable amount of background information a new approach using support vector inductive logic programming (SVILP) can be used to produce system-specific scoring functions. Inductive logic programming (ILP) learns logic-based rules for a given dataset that can be used to describe properties of each member of the set in a qualitative manner. By combining ILP with support vector machine regression, a quantitative set of rules can be obtained. SVILP has previously been used in a biological context to examine datasets containing a series of singular molecular structures and properties. Here we describe the use of SVILP to produce binding affinity predictions of a series of ligands to a particular protein. We also for the first time examine the applicability of SVILP techniques to datasets consisting of protein-ligand complexes. Our results show that SVILP performs comparably with other state-of-the-art methods on five protein-ligand systems as judged by similar cross-validated squares of their correlation coefficients. A McNemar test comparing SVILP to CoMFA and CoMSIA across the five systems indicates our method to be significantly better on one occasion. The ability to graphically display and understand the SVILP-produced rules is demonstrated and this feature of ILP can be used to derive hypothesis for

  5. Riemannian computing in computer vision

    CERN Document Server

    Srivastava, Anuj

    2016-01-01

    This book presents a comprehensive treatise on Riemannian geometric computations and related statistical inferences in several computer vision problems. This edited volume includes chapter contributions from leading figures in the field of computer vision who are applying Riemannian geometric approaches in problems such as face recognition, activity recognition, object detection, biomedical image analysis, and structure-from-motion. Some of the mathematical entities that necessitate a geometric analysis include rotation matrices (e.g. in modeling camera motion), stick figures (e.g. for activity recognition), subspace comparisons (e.g. in face recognition), symmetric positive-definite matrices (e.g. in diffusion tensor imaging), and function-spaces (e.g. in studying shapes of closed contours).   ·         Illustrates Riemannian computing theory on applications in computer vision, machine learning, and robotics ·         Emphasis on algorithmic advances that will allow re-application in other...

  6. Low vision and mobility scooters: the experiences of individuals with low vision who use mobility scooters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMullan, Keri S; Butler, Mary

    2018-05-09

    Older adults with low vision are a growing population with rehabilitation needs including support with community mobility to enable community participation. Some older adults with low vision choose to use mobility scooters to mobilize within their community, but there is limited research about the use by people with low vision. This paper describes a pilot study and asks the question: what are the experiences of persons with low vision who use mobility scooters? This study gathered the experiences of four participants with low vision, aged 51 and over, who regularly use mobility scooters. Diverse methods were used including a go-along, a semi-structured interview and a new measure of functional vision for mobility called the vision-related outcomes in orientation and mobility (VROOM). Four themes were found to describe experiences: autonomy and well-being, accessibility, community interactions and self-regulation. Discussion and implications: This study was a pilot for a larger study examining self-regulation in scooter users. However, as roles emerge for health professionals and scooters, the findings also provide evidence to inform practice, because it demonstrates the complex meaning and influences on performance involved in low vision mobility scooter use. Implications for rehabilitation Scooter use supports autonomy and well-being and community connections for individuals with both mobility and visual impairments. Low vision scooter users demonstrate self-regulation of their scooter use to manage both their visual and environmental limitations. Issues of accessibility experienced by this sample affect a wider community of footpath users, emphasizing the need for councils to address inadequate infrastructure. Rehabilitators can support their low vision clients' scooter use by acknowledging issues of accessibility and promoting self-regulation strategies to manage risks and barriers.

  7. Machine Vision Tests for Spent Fuel Scrap Characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BERGER, W.W.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to perform a feasibility test of a Machine Vision system for potential use at the Hanford K basins during spent nuclear fuel (SNF) operations. This report documents the testing performed to establish functionality of the system including quantitative assessment of results. Fauske and Associates, Inc., which has been intimately involved in development of the SNF safety basis, has teamed with Agris-Schoen Vision Systems, experts in robotics, tele-robotics, and Machine Vision, for this work

  8. Effects of propylene glycol supplementation on blood indicators of hepatic function, body condition score, milk fat-protein concentration and reproductive performance of dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silviu Ionuţ Borş

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of propylene glycol on metabolic variables of hepatic function, body condition score, milk fat-protein concentration and reproductive performance of dairy cows after ending administration. Postparturient dairy cows (n = 200 of Holstein Friesian breed were divided into two groups of 100 individuals. The experimental group received during days 0-7 post partum an oral daily dose of 600 ml of propylene glycol; the control group was without any supplement. The hepatic enzymes, glucose, cholesterol and serum albumin were measured on days 10-15, 45-50 and 70 post partum. Reproduction indicators of dairy cows were calculated from the farm recording data and the milk data record from a regular dairy control (days 10, 20, 30, and 50 post partum. Animals that received propylene glycol in the first 7 days post partum had reduced activities of aspartate transaminase and gamma-glutamyl transferase, elevated cholesterol concentration (P 0.05 and low milk fat percentage (P P 0.05. Our results suggest that some blood indicators of hepatic function, milk fat concentration and calving to first oestrus interval can be improved for 70 days post partum by the use of propylene glycol drenching in the first 7 days post partum. The beneficial effect of this treatment could be evaluated by easily available data, which can be used by practitioners in the field to analyze fertility problems in dairy herds and more exactly to examine whether metabolic stress, among other factors, is involved in the fertility problem.

  9. Effects of V4c-ICL Implantation on Myopic Patients’ Vision-Related Daily Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taixiang Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The new type implantable Collamer lens with a central hole (V4c-ICL is widely used to treat myopia. However, halos occur in some patients after surgery. The aim is to evaluate the effect of V4c-ICL implantation on vision-related daily activities. This retrospective study included 42 patients. Uncorrected visual acuity (UCVA, best corrected visual acuity (BCVA, intraocular pressure (IOP, endothelial cell density (ECD, and vault were recorded and vision-related daily activities were evaluated at 3 months after operation. The average spherical equivalent was -0.12±0.33 D at 3 months after operation. UCVA equal to or better than preoperative BCVA occurred in 98% of eyes. The average BCVA at 3 months after operation was -0.03±0.07 LogMAR, which was significantly better than preoperative BCVA (0.08±0.10 LogMAR (P=0.029. Apart from one patient (2.4% who had difficulty reading computer screens, all patients had satisfactory or very satisfactory results. During the early postoperation, halos occurred in 23 patients (54.8%. However there were no significant differences in the scores of visual functions between patients with and without halos (P>0.05. Patients were very satisfied with their vision-related daily activities at 3 months after operation. The central hole of V4c-ICL does not affect patients’ vision-related daily activities.

  10. Quadratic prediction of factor scores

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wansbeek, T

    1999-01-01

    Factor scores are naturally predicted by means of their conditional expectation given the indicators y. Under normality this expectation is linear in y but in general it is an unknown function of y. II is discussed that under nonnormality factor scores can be more precisely predicted by a quadratic

  11. Matching score based face recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boom, B.J.; Beumer, G.M.; Spreeuwers, Lieuwe Jan; Veldhuis, Raymond N.J.

    2006-01-01

    Accurate face registration is of vital importance to the performance of a face recognition algorithm. We propose a new method: matching score based face registration, which searches for optimal alignment by maximizing the matching score output of a classifier as a function of the different

  12. Conservative treatment of soft tissue sarcomas of the extremities. Functional evaluation with LENT-SOMA scales and the Enneking score; Traitement conservateur des sarcomes des tissus mous des membres. Evaluation du resultat fonctionnel selon l'echelle LENT-SOMA et le score de Enneking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tawfiq, N.; Lagarde, P.; Thomas, L.; Kantor, G. [Institut Bergonie, Centre Regional de Lutte Contre le Cancer, Service de Radiotherapie, 33 - Bordeaux (France); Stockle, E. [Institut Bergonie, Centre Regional de Lutte Contre le Cancer, Service de Chirurgie, 33 - Bordeaux (France); Bui, B.N. [Institut Bergonie, Centre Regional de Lutte Contre le Cancer, Service d' Oncologie Medicale, 33 - Bordeaux (France)

    2000-12-01

    Objective. - The aim of this prospective study is the feasibility of late effects assessment by LENT-SOMA scales after conservative treatment of soft tissue sarcomas of the extremities and a comparison with the functional evaluation by the Enneking score. Patients and methods. - During the systematic follow-up consultations, a series of 32 consecutive patients was evaluated in terms of late effects by LENT SOMA scales and functional results by the Enneking score. The median time after treatment was 65 months. The treatment consisted of conservative surgery (all cases) followed by radiation therapy (29 cases), often combined with adjuvant therapy (12 concomitant radio-chemotherapy association cases out of 14). The assessment of the toxicity was retrospective for acute effects and prospective for the following late tissue damage: skin/subcutaneous tissues, muscles/soft tissues and peripheral nerves. Results. -According to the Enneking score, the global score for the overall series was high (24/30) despite four the scores zero for the psychological acceptance. According to LENT SOMA scales, a low rate of severe sequelae (grade 3-4) was observed. The occurrence of high-grade sequelae and their functional consequences were not correlated with quality of exeresis, dose of radiotherapy or use of concomitant chemotherapy. A complementarity was observed between certain factors of the Enneking score and some criteria of the LENTSOMA scales, especially of muscles/soft tissues. Conclusion. -The good quality of functional results was confirmed by the two mean scoring systems for late normal tissue damage. The routine use of LENT-SOMA seems to be more time consuming than the Enneking score (mean time of scoring: 1 3 versus five minutes). The LENT-SOMA scales are aimed at a detailed description of late toxicity and sequelae while the Enneking score provides a more global evaluation, including the psychological acceptance of treatment. The late effects assessment by the LENT

  13. ASCI's Vision for supercomputing future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nowak, N.D.

    2003-01-01

    The full text of publication follows. Advanced Simulation and Computing (ASC, formerly Accelerated Strategic Computing Initiative [ASCI]) was established in 1995 to help Defense Programs shift from test-based confidence to simulation-based confidence. Specifically, ASC is a focused and balanced program that is accelerating the development of simulation capabilities needed to analyze and predict the performance, safety, and reliability of nuclear weapons and certify their functionality - far exceeding what might have been achieved in the absence of a focused initiative. To realize its vision, ASC is creating simulation and proto-typing capabilities, based on advanced weapon codes and high-performance computing

  14. [Quality system Vision 2000].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasini, Evasio; Pitocchi, Oreste; de Luca, Italo; Ferrari, Roberto

    2002-12-01

    A recent document of the Italian Ministry of Health points out that all structures which provide services to the National Health System should implement a Quality System according to the ISO 9000 standards. Vision 2000 is the new version of the ISO standard. Vision 2000 is less bureaucratic than the old version. The specific requests of the Vision 2000 are: a) to identify, to monitor and to analyze the processes of the structure, b) to measure the results of the processes so as to ensure that they are effective, d) to implement actions necessary to achieve the planned results and the continual improvement of these processes, e) to identify customer requests and to measure customer satisfaction. Specific attention should be also dedicated to the competence and training of the personnel involved in the processes. The principles of the Vision 2000 agree with the principles of total quality management. The present article illustrates the Vision 2000 standard and provides practical examples of the implementation of this standard in cardiological departments.

  15. IDA's Energy Vision 2050

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Lund, Henrik; Hansen, Kenneth

    IDA’s Energy Vision 2050 provides a Smart Energy System strategy for a 100% renewable Denmark in 2050. The vision presented should not be regarded as the only option in 2050 but as one scenario out of several possibilities. With this vision the Danish Society of Engineers, IDA, presents its third...... contribution for an energy strategy for Denmark. The IDA’s Energy Plan 2030 was prepared in 2006 and IDA’s Climate Plan was prepared in 2009. IDA’s Energy Vision 2050 is developed for IDA by representatives from The Society of Engineers and by a group of researchers at Aalborg University. It is based on state......-of-the-art knowledge about how low cost energy systems can be designed while also focusing on long-term resource efficiency. The Energy Vision 2050 has the ambition to focus on all parts of the energy system rather than single technologies, but to have an approach in which all sectors are integrated. While Denmark...

  16. Filtering and polychromatic vision in mantis shrimps: themes in visible and ultraviolet vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronin, Thomas W; Bok, Michael J; Marshall, N Justin; Caldwell, Roy L

    2014-01-01

    Stomatopod crustaceans have the most complex and diverse assortment of retinal photoreceptors of any animals, with 16 functional classes. The receptor classes are subdivided into sets responsible for ultraviolet vision, spatial vision, colour vision and polarization vision. Many of these receptor classes are spectrally tuned by filtering pigments located in photoreceptors or overlying optical elements. At visible wavelengths, carotenoproteins or similar substances are packed into vesicles used either as serial, intrarhabdomal filters or lateral filters. A single retina may contain a diversity of these filtering pigments paired with specific photoreceptors, and the pigments used vary between and within species both taxonomically and ecologically. Ultraviolet-filtering pigments in the crystalline cones serve to tune ultraviolet vision in these animals as well, and some ultraviolet receptors themselves act as birefringent filters to enable circular polarization vision. Stomatopods have reached an evolutionary extreme in their use of filter mechanisms to tune photoreception to habitat and behaviour, allowing them to extend the spectral range of their vision both deeper into the ultraviolet and further into the red.

  17. The effect of Medicaid adult vision coverage on the likelihood of appropriate correction of distance vision: Evidence from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipton, Brandy J; Decker, Sandra L

    2016-02-01

    Medicaid is the main public health insurance program for individuals with low income in the United States. Some state Medicaid programs cover preventive eye care services and vision correction, while others cover emergency eye care only. Similar to other optional benefits, states may add and drop adult vision benefits over time. This article examines whether providing adult vision benefits is associated with an increase in the percentage of low-income individuals with appropriately corrected distance vision as measured during an eye exam. We estimate the effect of Medicaid vision coverage on the likelihood of having appropriately corrected distance vision using examination data from the 2001-2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. We compare vision outcomes for Medicaid beneficiaries (n = 712) and other low income adults not enrolled in Medicaid (n = 4786) before and after changes to state vision coverage policies. Between 29 and 33 states provided Medicaid adult vision benefits during 2001-2008, depending on the year. Our findings imply that Medicaid adult vision coverage is associated with a significant increase in the percentage of Medicaid beneficiaries with appropriately corrected distance vision of up to 10 percentage points. Providing vision coverage to adults on Medicaid significantly increases the likelihood of appropriate correction of distance vision. Further research on the impact of vision coverage on related functional outcomes and the effects of Medicaid coverage of other services may be appropriate. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Relationship between the climbing up and climbing down stairs domain scores on the FES-DMD, the score on the Vignos Scale, age and timed performance of functional activities in boys with Duchenne muscular dystrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilian A. Y. Fernandes

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Knowing the potential for and limitations of information generated using different evaluation instruments favors the development of more accurate functional diagnoses and therapeutic decision-making. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relationship between the number of compensatory movements when climbing up and going down stairs, age, functional classification and time taken to perform a tested activity (TA of going up and down stairs in boys with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD. METHOD: A bank of movies featuring 30 boys with DMD performing functional activities was evaluated. Compensatory movements were assessed using the climbing up and going down stairs domain of the Functional Evaluation Scale for Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (FES-DMD; age in years; functional classification using the Vignos Scale (VS, and TA using a timer. Statistical analyses were performed using the Spearman correlation test. RESULTS: There is a moderate relationship between the climbing up stairs domain of the FES-DMD and age (r=0.53, p=0.004 and strong relationships with VS (r=0.72, p=0.001 and TA for this task (r=0.83, p<0.001. There were weak relationships between the going down stairs domain of the FES-DMD-going down stairs with age (r=0.40, p=0.032, VS (r=0.65, p=0.002 and TA for this task (r=0.40, p=0.034. CONCLUSION: These findings indicate that the evaluation of compensatory movements used when climbing up stairs can provide more relevant information about the evolution of the disease, although the activity of going down stairs should be investigated, with the aim of enriching guidance and strengthening accident prevention. Data from the FES-DMD, age, VS and TA can be used in a complementary way to formulate functional diagnoses. Longitudinal studies and with broader age groups may supplement this information.

  19. Vision and vision-related outcome measures in multiple sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balcer, Laura J.; Miller, David H.; Reingold, Stephen C.

    2015-01-01

    Visual impairment is a key manifestation of multiple sclerosis. Acute optic neuritis is a common, often presenting manifestation, but visual deficits and structural loss of retinal axonal and neuronal integrity can occur even without a history of optic neuritis. Interest in vision in multiple sclerosis is growing, partially in response to the development of sensitive visual function tests, structural markers such as optical coherence tomography and magnetic resonance imaging, and quality of life measures that give clinical meaning to the structure-function correlations that are unique to the afferent visual pathway. Abnormal eye movements also are common in multiple sclerosis, but quantitative assessment methods that can be applied in practice and clinical trials are not readily available. We summarize here a comprehensive literature search and the discussion at a recent international meeting of investigators involved in the development and study of visual outcomes in multiple sclerosis, which had, as its overriding goals, to review the state of the field and identify areas for future research. We review data and principles to help us understand the importance of vision as a model for outcomes assessment in clinical practice and therapeutic trials in multiple sclerosis. PMID:25433914

  20. A Comparison between Two Instruments for Assessing Dependency in Daily Activities: Agreement of the Northwick Park Dependency Score with the Functional Independence Measure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siv Svensson

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. There is a need for tools to assess dependency among persons with severe impairments. Objectives. The aim was to compare the Functional Independence Measure (FIM and the Northwick Park Dependency Score (NPDS, in a sample from in-patient rehabilitation. Material and Methods. Data from 115 persons (20 to 65 years of age with neurological impairments was gathered. Analyses were made of sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value. Agreement of the scales was assessed with kappa and concordance with Goodman-Kruskal’s gamma. Scale structures were explored using the Rank-Transformable Pattern of Agreement (RTPA. Content validation was performed. Results. The sensitivity of the NPDS as compared to FIM varied between 0.53 (feeding and 1.0 (mobility and specificity between 0.64 (mobility and 1.0 (bladder. The positive predictive value varied from 0.62 (mobility to 1.0 (bladder, and the negative predictive value varied from 0.48 (bowel to 1.0 (mobility. Agreement between the scales was moderate to good (four items and excellent (three items. Concordance was good, with a gamma of −.856, an asymptotic error (ase of .025, and P<.000. The parallel reliability between the FIM and the NPDS showed a tendency for NPDS to be more sensitive (having more categories when dependency is high. Conclusion. FIM and NPDS complement each other. NPDS can be used as a measure for severely injured patients who are sensitive when there is a high need of nursing time.

  1. Integrating National Space Visions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherwood, Brent

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines value proposition assumptions for various models nations may use to justify, shape, and guide their space programs. Nations organize major societal investments like space programs to actualize national visions represented by leaders as investments in the public good. The paper defines nine 'vision drivers' that circumscribe the motivations evidently underpinning national space programs. It then describes 19 fundamental space activity objectives (eight extant and eleven prospective) that nations already do or could in the future use to actualize the visions they select. Finally the paper presents four contrasting models of engagement among nations, and compares these models to assess realistic pounds on the pace of human progress in space over the coming decades. The conclusion is that orthogonal engagement, albeit unlikely because it is unprecedented, would yield the most robust and rapid global progress.

  2. Interoperability Strategic Vision

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Widergren, Steven E.; Knight, Mark R.; Melton, Ronald B.; Narang, David; Martin, Maurice; Nordman, Bruce; Khandekar, Aditya; Hardy, Keith S.

    2018-02-28

    The Interoperability Strategic Vision whitepaper aims to promote a common understanding of the meaning and characteristics of interoperability and to provide a strategy to advance the state of interoperability as applied to integration challenges facing grid modernization. This includes addressing the quality of integrating devices and systems and the discipline to improve the process of successfully integrating these components as business models and information technology improve over time. The strategic vision for interoperability described in this document applies throughout the electric energy generation, delivery, and end-use supply chain. Its scope includes interactive technologies and business processes from bulk energy levels to lower voltage level equipment and the millions of appliances that are becoming equipped with processing power and communication interfaces. A transformational aspect of a vision for interoperability in the future electric system is the coordinated operation of intelligent devices and systems at the edges of grid infrastructure. This challenge offers an example for addressing interoperability concerns throughout the electric system.

  3. Evaluation of several two-step scoring functions based on linear interaction energy, effective ligand size, and empirical pair potentials for prediction of protein-ligand binding geometry and free energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahaman, Obaidur; Estrada, Trilce P; Doren, Douglas J; Taufer, Michela; Brooks, Charles L; Armen, Roger S

    2011-09-26

    The performances of several two-step scoring approaches for molecular docking were assessed for their ability to predict binding geometries and free energies. Two new scoring functions designed for "step 2 discrimination" were proposed and compared to our CHARMM implementation of the linear interaction energy (LIE) approach using the Generalized-Born with Molecular Volume (GBMV) implicit solvation model. A scoring function S1 was proposed by considering only "interacting" ligand atoms as the "effective size" of the ligand and extended to an empirical regression-based pair potential S2. The S1 and S2 scoring schemes were trained and 5-fold cross-validated on a diverse set of 259 protein-ligand complexes from the Ligand Protein Database (LPDB). The regression-based parameters for S1 and S2 also demonstrated reasonable transferability in the CSARdock 2010 benchmark using a new data set (NRC HiQ) of diverse protein-ligand complexes. The ability of the scoring functions to accurately predict ligand geometry was evaluated by calculating the discriminative power (DP) of the scoring functions to identify native poses. The parameters for the LIE scoring function with the optimal discriminative power (DP) for geometry (step 1 discrimination) were found to be very similar to the best-fit parameters for binding free energy over a large number of protein-ligand complexes (step 2 discrimination). Reasonable performance of the scoring functions in enrichment of active compounds in four different protein target classes established that the parameters for S1 and S2 provided reasonable accuracy and transferability. Additional analysis was performed to definitively separate scoring function performance from molecular weight effects. This analysis included the prediction of ligand binding efficiencies for a subset of the CSARdock NRC HiQ data set where the number of ligand heavy atoms ranged from 17 to 35. This range of ligand heavy atoms is where improved accuracy of predicted ligand

  4. Color Vision in Aniridia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Hilde R; Hagen, Lene A; Landsend, Erlend C S; Gilson, Stuart J; Utheim, Øygunn A; Utheim, Tor P; Neitz, Maureen; Baraas, Rigmor C

    2018-04-01

    To assess color vision and its association with retinal structure in persons with congenital aniridia. We included 36 persons with congenital aniridia (10-66 years), and 52 healthy, normal trichromatic controls (10-74 years) in the study. Color vision was assessed with Hardy-Rand-Rittler (HRR) pseudo-isochromatic plates (4th ed., 2002); Cambridge Color Test and a low-vision version of the Color Assessment and Diagnosis test (CAD-LV). Cone-opsin genes were analyzed to confirm normal versus congenital color vision deficiencies. Visual acuity and ocular media opacities were assessed. The central 30° of both eyes were imaged with the Heidelberg Spectralis OCT2 to grade the severity of foveal hypoplasia (FH, normal to complete: 0-4). Five participants with aniridia had cone opsin genes conferring deutan color vision deficiency and were excluded from further analysis. Of the 31 with aniridia and normal opsin genes, 11 made two or more red-green (RG) errors on HRR, four of whom also made yellow-blue (YB) errors; one made YB errors only. A total of 19 participants had higher CAD-LV RG thresholds, of which eight also had higher CAD-LV YB thresholds, than normal controls. In aniridia, the thresholds were higher along the RG than the YB axis, and those with a complete FH had significantly higher RG thresholds than those with mild FH (P = 0.038). Additional increase in YB threshold was associated with secondary ocular pathology. Arrested foveal formation and associated alterations in retinal processing are likely to be the primary reason for impaired red-green color vision in aniridia.

  5. Low Vision Enhancement System

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-01

    NASA's Technology Transfer Office at Stennis Space Center worked with the Johns Hopkins Wilmer Eye Institute in Baltimore, Md., to incorporate NASA software originally developed by NASA to process satellite images into the Low Vision Enhancement System (LVES). The LVES, referred to as 'ELVIS' by its users, is a portable image processing system that could make it possible to improve a person's vision by enhancing and altering images to compensate for impaired eyesight. The system consists of two orientation cameras, a zoom camera, and a video projection system. The headset and hand-held control weigh about two pounds each. Pictured is Jacob Webb, the first Mississippian to use the LVES.

  6. En vision for CBS?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyssen, Ole

    2015-01-01

    Kommentar. CBS’ ry for at være et moderne Business University med forskere fra hele verden og forskningsmæssig dynamik faldt på gulvet. Udfordringen er nu at få samlet CBS forskere om en fælles vision.......Kommentar. CBS’ ry for at være et moderne Business University med forskere fra hele verden og forskningsmæssig dynamik faldt på gulvet. Udfordringen er nu at få samlet CBS forskere om en fælles vision....

  7. Testing the Untestable: A Vision Screening Program for Exceptional Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Virginia E.; Godolphin, Vivienne

    Based on a longitudinal study of vision screening techniques for handicapped children at the Chester County (Pennsylvania) Child Development Center, the paper reports on the development of a battery of effective vision screening methods for children with low functioning handicapped children. Specific tests are described, including the Sheridan…

  8. Spatial vision in Bombus terrestris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aravin eChakravarthi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Bombus terrestris is one of the most commonly used insect models to investigate visually guided behavior and spatial vision in particular. Two fundamental measures of spatial vision are spatial resolution and contrast sensitivity. In this study, we report the threshold of spatial resolution in B. terrestris and characterize the contrast sensitivity function of the bumblebee visual system for a dual choice discrimination task. We trained bumblebees in a Y-maze experimental set-up to associate a vertical sinusoidal grating with a sucrose reward, and a horizontal grating with absence of a reward. Using a logistic psychometric function, we estimated a resolution threshold of 0.21 cycles deg-1 of visual angle. This resolution is in the same range but slightly lower than that found in honeybees (Apis mellifera and A. cerana and another bumblebee species (B. impatiens. We also found that the contrast sensitivity of B. terrestris was 1.57 for the spatial frequency 0.09 cycles deg-1 and 1.26. for 0.18 cycles deg-1.

  9. Association between changes in visual acuity and vision-related quality of life in Japanese patients with low vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanagisawa, Mieko; Kato, Satoshi; Kunimatsu, Shiho; Kobayashi, Megumi; Ochiai, Makiko

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the association between vision-related quality of life (VRQOL) and changes in visual acuity (VA). We examined the VA in 100 patients for > 1 year and evaluated the degree of its impact on VRQOL using the National Eye Institute Visual Function (VF) Questionnaire (VFQ-25; Japanese version). Before determining VFQ-25, we monitored the changes in VA in these patients for 1 year and classified them into the following two groups depending on VA changes. Patients exhibiting a decline of > 3 steps in VA, as assessed by the logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution scale, were placed in the 'decline' group (47.0%) and patients exhibiting no change in VA were placed in the 'no change' group (53.0%). We compared the VFQ-25 scores between both groups in all patients with glaucoma (GLA) and macular degeneration (MD). The total score of the decline was 34.9 ± 13.6 and that of the no change group was 44.6 ± 13.9: the difference in the scores between both groups was statistically significant (p = 0.006). Similar results were obtained for patients with GLA and MD (p = 0.007 and 0.003, respectively). VRQOL differed between patients with constant VA and those with reduced VA, even though VA values were equal at a certain time point. Copyright © 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. Near vision spectacle coverage and barriers to near vision ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    easily help to address this visual disability.7 An average cost of near vision spectacle in Ghana is approximately. $ 5.8 Near-vision spectacle could be dispensed as single vision, bifocal or progressive eye glasses to meet near vi- sion needs.2. Recent evidence suggests that the ageing population in. Ghana is increasing ...

  11. Grounding Our Vision: Brain Research and Strategic Vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Mike

    2011-01-01

    While recognizing the value of "vision," it could be argued that vision alone--at least in schools--is not enough to rally the financial and emotional support required to translate an idea into reality. A compelling vision needs to reflect substantive, research-based knowledge if it is to spark the kind of strategic thinking and insight…

  12. Effects of visual skills training, vision coaching and sports vision ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of three different approaches to improving sports performance through improvements in “sports vision:” (1) a visual skills training programme, (2) traditional vision coaching sessions, and (3) a multi-disciplinary approach identified as sports vision dynamics.

  13. Eccentric vision : adverse interactions between line segments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andriessen, J.J.; Bouma, H.

    1976-01-01

    The paper deals with adverse interactions between line stimuli ineccentric vision. Bothcontrast thresholdandjust noticeable difference of slanthave been measured for a test line as a function of the distance from a number of surrounding lines. Test lines were either parallel or perpendicular to the

  14. Home vision tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... missing areas. If any lines appear distorted or broken, note their location on the grid using a pen or pencil. DISTANCE VISION This is the standard eye chart doctors use, which has been adapted for home use. The chart is attached to a wall ...

  15. Dance: Verities, Values, Visions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boorman, Joyce, Ed.; Harris, Dorothy, Ed.

    The Binational Dance Conference was organized into three focal themes--verities, values, and visions in dance--to emphasize the known and accepted worth and value of dance, and to stimulate through knowledge and idea exchange, imaginative directions for dance in the future of both the United States and Canada. This thematic structure is also the…

  16. KiWi Vision

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaffert, Sebastian; Bry, Francois; Dolog, Peter

    This deliverable describes the common vision of the KiWi project, ranging from motivation over use cases and usage scenarios to user interaction, system architecture and technologies, and the research that is performed as part of the project. The deliverable is intended for a wide audience to give...

  17. Direct vision internal urethrotomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, H; Willumsen, H; Søndergaard Jensen, L

    1984-01-01

    During a five-year period, direct vision internal urethrotomy was used for the treatment of urethral strictures in 34 men. After the primary operation the patients were followed for an average period of 29 months (range 3-73 months). During this period 53% of the patients were found to have one...

  18. Vision eller verklighet?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Jonas E

    2012-01-01

    and drawing analysis. This study suggests that there is a gap between reality and visions. Despite research-based guidelines, the architecture of contemporary residential care homes relies on universal qualities that are associated with the home environment rather than with the particular conditions...

  19. Tectonic vision in architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beim, Anne

    1999-01-01

    By introducing the concept; Tectonic Visions, The Dissertation discusses the interrelationship between the basic idea, the form principles, the choice of building technology and constructive structures within a given building. Includes Mies van der Rohe, Le Corbusier, Eames, Jorn Utzon, Louis Kahn...

  20. Vision: Essential Scaffolding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Joseph; Torre, Daniela

    2015-01-01

    Few concepts are more noted in the leadership effects research than vision. It is a cardinal element in the school improvement equation as well. Yet, it remains one of the least well-specified components of that algorithm. Based on a comprehensive review of the research on effective leadership and school improvement from 1995 to 2012, we bring…

  1. Motion Control with Vision

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ir. Dick van Schenk Brill; Ir Peter Boots

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes the work that is done by a group of I3 students at Philips CFT in Eindhoven, Netherlands. I3 is an initiative of Fontys University of Professional Education also located in Eindhoven. The work focuses on the use of computer vision in motion control. Experiments are done with

  2. Effect of tiotropium on lung function decline in early-stage of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients: propensity score-matched analysis of real-world data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee HY

    2015-10-01

    using the drug.Results: Of the 587 patients enrolled in the study, 257 took tiotropium. Following propensity score matching, 404 patients were included in the analysis. The mean annual rate of post-BD FEV1 decline was 23.9 (tiotropium and 22.5 (control mL/yr (P=0.86; corresponding pre-BD values were 30.4 and 21.9 mL/yr (P=0.31, respectively. Mean annual rate of post-BD FVC decline was 55.1 (tiotropium and 43.5 (control mL/yr (P=0.33; corresponding pre-BD values were 37.1 and 33.3 mL/yr (P=0.13.Conclusion: Therefore, tiotropium does not reduce the rate of lung function decline in COPD patients with FEV1≥70%. Keywords: tiotropium, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, lung function decline

  3. Vision-Related Quality-of-Life Outcomes in the Mycotic Ulcer Treatment Trial I: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose-Nussbaumer, Jennifer; Prajna, N Venkatesh; Krishnan, K Tiruvengada; Mascarenhas, Jeena; Rajaraman, Revathi; Srinivasan, Muthiah; Raghavan, Anita; Oldenburg, Catherine E; O'Brien, Kieran S; Ray, Kathryn J; McLeod, Stephen D; Porco, Travis C; Lietman, Thomas M; Acharya, Nisha R; Keenan, Jeremy D

    2015-06-01

    Given the limitations in health care resources, quality-of-life measures for interventions have gained importance. To determine whether vision-related quality-of-life outcomes were different between the natamycin and voriconazole treatment arms in the Mycotic Ulcer Treatment Trial I, as measured by an Indian Vision Function Questionnaire. Secondary analysis (performed October 11-25, 2014) of a double-masked, multicenter, randomized, active comparator-controlled, clinical trial at multiple locations of the Aravind Eye Care System in South India that enrolled patients with culture- or smear-positive filamentous fungal corneal ulcers who had a baseline visual acuity of 20/40 to 20/400 (logMAR of 0.3-1.3). Study participants were randomly assigned to topical voriconazole, 1%, or topical natamycin, 5%. Subscale score on the Indian Vision Function Questionnaire from each of the 4 subscales (mobility, activity limitation, psychosocial impact, and visual function) at 3 months. A total of 323 patients were enrolled in the trial, and 292 (90.4%) completed the Indian Vision Function Questionnaire at 3 months. The majority of study participants had subscale scores consistent with excellent function. After adjusting for baseline visual acuity and organism, we found that study participants in the natamycin-treated group scored, on average, 4.3 points (95% CI, 0.1-8.5) higher than study participants in the voriconazole-treated group (P = .046). In subgroup analyses looking at ulcers caused by Fusarium species and adjusting for baseline best spectacle-corrected visual acuity, the natamycin-treated group scored 8.4 points (95% CI, 1.9-14.9) higher than the voriconazole-treated group (P = .01). Differences in quality of life were not detected for patients with Aspergillus or other non-Fusarium species as the causative organism (1.5 points [95% CI, -3.9 to 6.9]; P = .52). We found evidence of improvement in vision-related quality of life among patients with fungal ulcers

  4. INL Vision and Strategy 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pillai, Rekha Sukamar

    2015-01-01

    This Laboratory vision and strategy presents INL's vision and strategy for the Laboratory and is our introduction to a special place dedicated to improving our nation's energy security future.

  5. What is vision Hampton Roads?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    What is Vision Hampton Roads? : Vision Hampton Roads is... : A regionwide economic development strategy based on the collective strengths of all : localities of Hampton Roads, created with the input of business, academia, nonprofits, : government,...

  6. Vision sensing techniques in aeronautics and astronautics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, E. L.

    1988-01-01

    The close relationship between sensing and other tasks in orbital space, and the integral role of vision sensing in practical aerospace applications, are illustrated. Typical space mission-vision tasks encompass the docking of space vehicles, the detection of unexpected objects, the diagnosis of spacecraft damage, and the inspection of critical spacecraft components. Attention is presently given to image functions, the 'windowing' of a view, the number of cameras required for inspection tasks, the choice of incoherent or coherent (laser) illumination, three-dimensional-to-two-dimensional model-matching, edge- and region-segmentation techniques, and motion analysis for tracking.

  7. Vision in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atchison, David A; Valentine, Emma L; Gibson, Georgina; Thomas, Hannah R; Oh, Sera; Pyo, Young Ah; Lacherez, Philippe; Mathur, Ankit

    2013-09-06

    The purpose of this study is to determine visual performance in water, including the influence of pupil size. The water environment was simulated by placing goggles filled with saline in front of the eyes with apertures placed at the front of the goggles. Correction factors were determined for the different magnification under this condition in order to estimate vision in water. Experiments were conducted on letter visual acuity (seven participants), grating resolution (eight participants), and grating contrast sensitivity (one participant). For letter acuity, mean loss of vision in water, compared to corrected vision in air, varied between 1.1 log min of arc resolution (logMAR) for a 1 mm aperture to 2.2 logMAR for a 7 mm aperture. The vision in min of arc was described well by a linear relationship with pupil size. For grating acuity, mean loss varied between 1.1 logMAR for a 2 mm aperture to 1.2 logMAR for a 6 mm aperture. Contrast sensitivity for a 2 mm aperture deteriorated as spatial frequency increased with a 2 log unit loss by 3 c/°. Superimposed on this deterioration were depressions (notches) in sensitivity with the first three notches occurring at 0.45, 0.8, and 1.3 c/° with estimates for water of 0.39, 0.70, and 1.13 c/°. In conclusion, vision in water is poor. It becomes worse as pupil size increases, but the effects are much more marked for letter targets than for grating targets.

  8. Functional outcome after endoprosthetic limb-salvage therapy of primary bone tumours—a comparative analysis using the MSTS score, the TESS and the RNL index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomraenke, D.; Goerling, U.; Hohenberger, P.

    2007-01-01

    Limb-saving therapy for primary bone tumours is the treatment of choice. We aimed at analysing the quality of life of this group of patients by combining three different tools. Eighty-seven patients (46 females, 41 males) with a primary bone tumour of the extremity who had undergone endoprosthetic reconstruction between 1982 and 2000 were included in this retrospective study. The median age at the time of evaluation was 30 (12–73) years. The Toronto Extremity Salvage Score (TESS) and the Reintegration to Normal Living index (RNL) were recorded an average of 5.8 years after reconstruction and the Musculoskeletal Tumour Society Score (MSTS) after an average of 6.5 years. The mean MSTS score was 77% (13–93%). The mean TESS was 82% (22–99%), and the mean RNL index was 87% (32–98%). The subjective satisfaction and acceptance of physical impairment were significantly higher than the objective score (p TESS was 88% in patients aged 12–25 years, 81% in those aged 26–40 years and 57% in those aged 41–73 years. Parallel recording of the MSTS score, TESS and RNL index provides a better measure reflecting the complex situation of the patients by combining objective and subjective parameters. PMID:17701173

  9. Functional outcome after endoprosthetic limb-salvage therapy of primary bone tumours--a comparative analysis using the MSTS score, the TESS and the RNL index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunn, P U; Pomraenke, D; Goerling, U; Hohenberger, P

    2008-10-01

    Limb-saving therapy for primary bone tumours is the treatment of choice. We aimed at analysing the quality of life of this group of patients by combining three different tools. Eighty-seven patients (46 females, 41 males) with a primary bone tumour of the extremity who had undergone endoprosthetic reconstruction between 1982 and 2000 were included in this retrospective study. The median age at the time of evaluation was 30 (12-73) years. The Toronto Extremity Salvage Score (TESS) and the Reintegration to Normal Living index (RNL) were recorded an average of 5.8 years after reconstruction and the Musculoskeletal Tumour Society Score (MSTS) after an average of 6.5 years. The mean MSTS score was 77% (13-93%). The mean TESS was 82% (22-99%), and the mean RNL index was 87% (32-98%). The subjective satisfaction and acceptance of physical impairment were significantly higher than the objective score (p TESS was 88% in patients aged 12-25 years, 81% in those aged 26-40 years and 57% in those aged 41-73 years. Parallel recording of the MSTS score, TESS and RNL index provides a better measure reflecting the complex situation of the patients by combining objective and subjective parameters.

  10. Extension of the lod score: the mod score.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clerget-Darpoux, F

    2001-01-01

    In 1955 Morton proposed the lod score method both for testing linkage between loci and for estimating the recombination fraction between them. If a disease is controlled by a gene at one of these loci, the lod score computation requires the prior specification of an underlying model that assigns the probabilities of genotypes from the observed phenotypes. To address the case of linkage studies for diseases with unknown mode of inheritance, we suggested (Clerget-Darpoux et al., 1986) extending the lod score function to a so-called mod score function. In this function, the variables are both the recombination fraction and the disease model parameters. Maximizing the mod score function over all these parameters amounts to maximizing the probability of marker data conditional on the disease status. Under the absence of linkage, the mod score conforms to a chi-square distribution, with extra degrees of freedom in comparison to the lod score function (MacLean et al., 1993). The mod score is asymptotically maximum for the true disease model (Clerget-Darpoux and Bonaïti-Pellié, 1992; Hodge and Elston, 1994). Consequently, the power to detect linkage through mod score will be highest when the space of models where the maximization is performed includes the true model. On the other hand, one must avoid overparametrization of the model space. For example, when the approach is applied to affected sibpairs, only two constrained disease model parameters should be used (Knapp et al., 1994) for the mod score maximization. It is also important to emphasize the existence of a strong correlation between the disease gene location and the disease model. Consequently, there is poor resolution of the location of the susceptibility locus when the disease model at this locus is unknown. Of course, this is true regardless of the statistics used. The mod score may also be applied in a candidate gene strategy to model the potential effect of this gene in the disease. Since, however, it

  11. Allegheny County Walk Scores

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Walk Score measures the walkability of any address using a patented system developed by the Walk Score company. For each 2010 Census Tract centroid, Walk Score...

  12. Coevolution of coloration and colour vision?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lind, Olle; Henze, Miriam J; Kelber, Almut; Osorio, Daniel

    2017-07-05

    The evolutionary relationship between signals and animal senses has broad significance, with potential consequences for speciation, and for the efficacy and honesty of biological communication. Here we outline current understanding of the diversity of colour vision in two contrasting groups: the phylogenetically conservative birds, and the more variable butterflies. Evidence for coevolution of colour signals and vision exists in both groups, but is limited to observations of phenotypic differences between visual systems, which might be correlated with coloration. Here, to illustrate how one might interpret the evolutionary significance of such differences, we used colour vision modelling based on an avian eye to evaluate the effects of variation in three key characters: photoreceptor spectral sensitivity, oil droplet pigmentation and the proportions of different photoreceptor types. The models predict that physiologically realistic changes in any one character will have little effect, but complementary shifts in all three can substantially affect discriminability of three types of natural spectra. These observations about the adaptive landscape of colour vision may help to explain the general conservatism of photoreceptor spectral sensitivities in birds. This approach can be extended to other types of eye and spectra to inform future work on coevolution of coloration and colour vision.This article is part of the themed issue 'Animal coloration: production, perception, function and application'. © 2017 The Author(s).

  13. Features of the Manufacturing Vision Development Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dukovska-Popovska, Iskra; Riis, Jens Ove; Boer, Harry

    2005-01-01

    of action research. The methodology recommends wide participation of people from different hierarchical and functional positions, who engage in a relatively short, playful and creative process and come up with a vision (concept) for the future manufacturing system in the company. Based on three case studies......This paper discusses the key features of the process of Manufacturing Vision Development, a process that enables companies to develop their future manufacturing concept. The basis for the process is a generic five-phase methodology (Riis and Johansen, 2003) developed as a result of ten years...... of companies going through the initial phases of the methodology, this research identified the key features of the Manufacturing Vision Development process. The paper elaborates the key features by defining them, discussing how and when they can appear, and how they influence the process....

  14. How to apply the Score-Function method to standard discrete event simulation tools in order to optimise a set of system parameters simultaneously: A Job-Shop example will be discussed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Erland Hejn

    2000-01-01

    During the last 1-2 decades, simulation optimisation of discrete event dynamic systems (DEDS) has made considerable theoretical progress with respect to computational efficiency. The score-function (SF) method and the infinitesimal perturbation analysis (IPA) are two candidates belonging to this ...

  15. What You Should Know (Low Vision)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cataract Diabetic retinopathy Glaucoma Macular degeneration What is low vision? When you have low vision, eyeglasses, contact lenses, ... eyesight. How do I know if I have low vision? Below are some signs of low vision. Even ...

  16. Orientation and mobility training for adults with low vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virgili, Gianni; Rubin, Gary

    2010-05-12

    Orientation and mobility (O&M) training is provided to people who are visually impaired to help them maintain travel independence. It teaches them new orientation and mobility skills to compensate for reduced visual information. The objective of this review was to assess the effects of O&M training, with or without associated devices, for adults with low vision. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (which contains the Cochrane Eyes and Vision Group Trials Register) (The Cochrane Library, 2010, Issue 3), MEDLINE (January 1950 to March 2010), EMBASE (January 1980 to March 2010), Latin American and Caribbean Literature on Health Sciences (LILACS) (January 1982 to March 2010), System for Information on Grey Literature in Europe (OpenSIGLE) (March 2010), the metaRegister of Controlled Trials (mRCT) (www.controlled-trials.com) (March 2010), ClinicalTrials.gov (http://clinicaltrials.gov) (March 2010), ZETOC (March 2010) and the reference lists of retrieved articles. There were no language or date restrictions in the search for trials. The electronic databases were last searched on 31 March 2010. We planned to include randomised or quasi-randomised trials comparing O&M training with no training in adults with low vision. Two authors independently assessed the search results for eligibility, evaluated study quality and extracted the data. Two small studies satisfied the inclusion criteria. They were consecutive phases of development of the same training curriculum and assessment tool. The intervention was administered by a volunteer on the basis of written and oral instruction. In both studies the randomisation technique was inadequate, being based on alternation, and masking was not achieved. Training had no effect in the first study but tended to be beneficial in the second but not to a statistically significant extent. Reasons for differences between studies may have been: the high scores obtained in the first study, suggestive of

  17. Vision restoration after brain and retina damage: the "residual vision activation theory".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabel, Bernhard A; Henrich-Noack, Petra; Fedorov, Anton; Gall, Carolin

    2011-01-01

    Vision loss after retinal or cerebral visual injury (CVI) was long considered to be irreversible. However, there is considerable potential for vision restoration and recovery even in adulthood. Here, we propose the "residual vision activation theory" of how visual functions can be reactivated and restored. CVI is usually not complete, but some structures are typically spared by the damage. They include (i) areas of partial damage at the visual field border, (ii) "islands" of surviving tissue inside the blind field, (iii) extrastriate pathways unaffected by the damage, and (iv) downstream, higher-level neuronal networks. However, residual structures have a triple handicap to be fully functional: (i) fewer neurons, (ii) lack of sufficient attentional resources because of the dominant intact hemisphere caused by excitation/inhibition dysbalance, and (iii) disturbance in their temporal processing. Because of this resulting activation loss, residual structures are unable to contribute much to everyday vision, and their "non-use" further impairs synaptic strength. However, residual structures can be reactivated by engaging them in repetitive stimulation by different means: (i) visual experience, (ii) visual training, or (iii) noninvasive electrical brain current stimulation. These methods lead to strengthening of synaptic transmission and synchronization of partially damaged structures (within-systems plasticity) and downstream neuronal networks (network plasticity). Just as in normal perceptual learning, synaptic plasticity can improve vision and lead to vision restoration. This can be induced at any time after the lesion, at all ages and in all types of visual field impairments after retinal or brain damage (stroke, neurotrauma, glaucoma, amblyopia, age-related macular degeneration). If and to what extent vision restoration can be achieved is a function of the amount of residual tissue and its activation state. However, sustained improvements require repetitive

  18. Validity of Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory – 2 – Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF) scores as a function of gender, ethnicity, and age of bariatric surgery candidates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marek, Ryan J; Ben-Porath, Yossef S; Sellbom, Martin; McNulty, John L; Heinberg, Leslie J

    2015-01-01

    Presurgical psychological screening is used to identify factors that may impact postoperative adherence and surgical outcomes in bariatric surgery candidates. Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory - 2 Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF) findings have demonstrated utility for this task. To explore whether there are clinically meaningful gender, ethnicity, or age differences in presurgical MMPI-2-RF scores and the validity of these scores in bariatric surgery candidates. The sample was composed of 872 men and 2337 women. Ethnicity/race groups included 2,204 Caucasian, 744 African American, and 96 Hispanic individuals. A sample of 165 were not included in the ethnicity/race analyses because they were of another descent. Ages groups included 18-35 year olds (n = 454), 36-49 year olds (n = 1154), 50-64 year olds, (n = 1246), and 65 years old or older (n = 355). Validity data, obtained via a retrospective chart review, were available for a subset patients (n = 1,268) who were similarly distributed. Step-down hierarchical regression analyses were conducted to assess for differential validity. Bariatric surgery candidates produced comparable MMPI-2-RF scores in all subsamples, indicating that the test norms generalize across demographic groups. Validity findings were also generally comparable, indicating that MMPI-2-RF scores have the same interpretive implications in demographically diverse subgroups of bariatric surgery candidates. The MMPI-2-RF can assist in presurgical psychological screening of demographically diverse bariatric surgery candidates. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Bariatric Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Posterior Urethroplasty Complexity and Prognosis Can be Described by a Novel Method: Posterior Urethral Stenosis Score.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lin; Lv, Xiangguo; Jin, Chongrui; Guo, Hailin; Shu, Huiquan; Fu, Qiang; Sa, Yinglong

    2018-02-01

    To develop a standardized PU-score (posterior urethral stenosis score), with the goal of using this scoring system as a preliminary predictor of surgical complexity and prognosis of posterior urethral stenosis. We retrospectively reviewed records of all patients who underwent posterior urethral surgery at our institution from 2013 to 2015. The PU-score is based on 5 components, namely etiology (1 or 2 points), location (1-3 points), length (1-3 points), urethral fistula (1 or 2 points), and posterior urethral false passage (1 point). We calculated the score of all patients and analyzed its association with surgical complexity, stenosis recurrence, intraoperative blood loss, erectile dysfunction, and urinary incontinence. There were 144 patients who underwent low complexity urethral surgery (direct vision internal urethrotomy, anastomosis with or without crural separation) with a mean score of 5.1 points, whereas 143 underwent high complexity urethroplasty (anastomosis with inferior pubectomy or urethrorectal fistula repair, perineal or scrotum skin flap urethroplasty, bladder flap urethroplasty) with a mean score of 6.9 points. The increase of PU-score was predictive of higher surgical complexity (P = .000), higher recurrence (P = .002), more intraoperative blood loss (P = .000), and decrease of preoperative (P = .037) or postoperative erectile function (P = .047). However, no association was observed between PU-score and urinary incontinence (P = .213). The PU-score is a novel and meaningful scoring system that describes the essential factors in determining the complexity and prognosis for posterior urethral stenosis. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Telerehabilitation for people with low vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittner, Ava K; Wykstra, Stephanie L; Yoshinaga, Patrick D; Li, Tianjing

    2015-08-31

    Low vision affects over 300 million people worldwide and can compromise both activities of daily living and quality of life. Rehabilitative training and vision assistive equipment (VAE) may help, but some visually impaired people have limited resources to attend in-person visits at rehabilitation clinics. These people may be able to overcome barriers to care through remote, Internet-based consultation (i.e., telerehabilitation). To compare the effects of telerehabilitation with face-to-face (e.g., in-office or inpatient) vision rehabilitation services for improving vision-related quality of life and reading speed in people with visual function loss due to any ocular condition. Secondary objectives are to evaluate compliance with scheduled rehabilitation sessions, abandonment rates for visual assistive equipment devices, and patient satisfaction ratings. We searched CENTRAL (which contains the Cochrane Eyes and Vision Group Trials Register) (2015 Issue 5), Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid MEDLINE In-Process and Other Non-Indexed Citations, Ovid MEDLINE Daily, Ovid OLDMEDLINE (January 1980 to June 2015), EMBASE (January 1980 to June 2015), PubMed (1980 to June 2015), ClinicalTrials.gov (www.clinicaltrials.gov) and the World Health Organization (WHO) International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (www.who.int/ictrp/search/en). We did not use any language restriction or study design filter in the electronic searches; however, we restricted the searches from 1980 onwards because the Internet was not introduced to the public until 1982. We last searched the electronic databases on 15 June 2015. We planned to include randomized controlled trials (RCTs) or controlled clinical trials (CCTs) in which participants were diagnosed with low vision and were undergoing low vision rehabilitation using an Internet, web-based technology compared with an approach based on in-person consultations. Two authors independently screened titles and abstracts, and then full-text articles against

  1. Realisering af Vision 2020

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertelsen, Niels Haldor; Hansen, Ernst Jan de Place

    Repræsentanter for byggesektoren har på 11 dialogmøder drøftet Erhvervs- og Byggestyrelsens "Vision 2020 - Byggeri med mening". Drøftelserne førte til formulering af en lang række initiativforslag til realisering af visionen. Den mest centrale udfordring bliver at reducere fejl og mangler i...... byggeriet. Branchen lægger også vægt på, at styringen af Vision 2020s reaisering sker i byggesektoren. Initiativforslagene er i rapporten samlet under 3 hovedområder. Det første hovedområde lægger vægt på bygningerne, brugerbehov og det globale samfund. Det andet omhandler processen og leverancesystemet...

  2. The Siemens vision

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Dijk, B

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available engagement Siemens Centre of Knowledge Interchange (CKI) • Partnership and collaboration with Universities • Industry specific • Multi-million investment, annually Siemens mentors • All Siemens employees actively encouraged to engage with schools.... Siemens is an engineering company. Vision 2020 “we make what matters” including the next generation of engineers make a difference, change the world. > €20M annual donations to education. Siemens ownership culture 348,000 employees...

  3. Research for VISION 2020

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Ackland

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available We need good quality information to be able to carry out our eye care programmes in support of VISION 2020, to measure (and improve our performance, and to advocate for the resources and support we need to succeed. Much of this information can be collected, analysed, and used as part of our daily work, as many of the articles in this issue show.

  4. 2015 Enterprise Strategic Vision

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-08-01

    This document aligns with the Department of Energy Strategic Plan for 2014-2018 and provides a framework for integrating our missions and direction for pursuing DOE’s strategic goals. The vision is a guide to advancing world-class science and engineering, supporting our people, modernizing our infrastructure, and developing a management culture that operates a safe and secure enterprise in an efficient manner.

  5. Low Vision Devices and Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imran Azam Butt

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Vision is the ability to see with a clear perception of detail, colour and contrast, and to distinguish objects visually. Like any other sense, vision tends to deteriorate or diminish naturally with age. In most cases, reduction in visual capability can be corrected with glasses, medicine or surgery. However, if the visual changes occur because of an incurable eye disease, condition or injury, vision loss can be permanent. Many people around the world with permanent visual impairment have some residual vision which can be used with the help of low vision services, materials and devices. This paper describes different options for the enhancement of residual vision including optical and non-optical devices and providing training for the low vision client.

  6. Ecstasy and vision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anders Hultgård

    1981-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we shall present some observations on the role played by ecstasy in the activity of the seer, as he emerges in ancient Jewish and Iranian texts. In the Jewish religious literature of the Hellenistic-Roman period, visions are described on almost every page, and visions were the most important means of divine revelation. Specific techniques for inducing the ecstatic state are not recorded in the Jewish sources. Some elements in the pattern leading up to the vision may be interpreted as parts of a method for inducing the final ecstasy; i.e. fasting and prayer. The Iranian material shows clearly the importance of ecstasy in the activity of the seer. The ecstatic seeing also means that the visionary shares with Ahura Mazda a divine quality, the "wisdom of omniscience". The granting of the "wisdom of omniscience" appears as a temporary and it conveys to the visionary a supernatural seeing. There is evidence to suggest that chanting was an important method of inducing ecstasy within the early Zoroastrian community. We do not find in the Jewish material a clear correspondence to the Iranian notion of "omniscient wisdom".

  7. Evaluation of Next-Generation Vision Testers for Aeromedical Certification of Aviation Personnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-07-01

    measure distant, intermediate, and near acuity. The slides are essentially abbreviated versions of the Early Treatment for Diabetic Retinopathy Study...over, requiring intermediate vision testing and 12 were color deficient. Analysis was designed to detect statistically significant differences between...Vertical Phoria (Right & Left Hyperphoria) Test scores from each of the vision testers were collated and analyzed. Analysis was designed to detect

  8. A Practical Solution Using A New Approach To Robot Vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, David L.

    1984-01-01

    Up to now, robot vision systems have been designed to serve both application development and operational needs in inspection, assembly and material handling. This universal approach to robot vision is too costly for many practical applications. A new industrial vision system separates the function of application program development from on-line operation. A Vision Development System (VDS) is equipped with facilities designed to simplify and accelerate the application program development process. A complimentary but lower cost Target Application System (TASK) runs the application program developed with the VDS. This concept is presented in the context of an actual robot vision application that improves inspection and assembly for a manufacturer of electronic terminal keyboards. Applications developed with a VDS experience lower development cost when compared with conventional vision systems. Since the TASK processor is not burdened with development tools, it can be installed at a lower cost than comparable "universal" vision systems that are intended to be used for both development and on-line operation. The VDS/TASK approach opens more industrial applications to robot vision that previously were not practical because of the high cost of vision systems. Although robot vision is a new technology, it has been applied successfully to a variety of industrial needs in inspection, manufacturing, and material handling. New developments in robot vision technology are creating practical, cost effective solutions for a variety of industrial needs. A year or two ago, researchers and robot manufacturers interested in implementing a robot vision application could take one of two approaches. The first approach was to purchase all the necessary vision components from various sources. That meant buying an image processor from one company, a camera from another and lens and light sources from yet others. The user then had to assemble the pieces, and in most instances he had to write

  9. Composition of a Vision Screen for Servicemembers With Traumatic Brain Injury: Consensus Using a Modified Nominal Group Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkelstein, Marsha; Llanos, Imelda; Scheiman, Mitchell; Wagener, Sharon Gowdy

    2014-01-01

    Vision impairment is common in the first year after traumatic brain injury (TBI), including among service members whose brain injuries occurred during deployment in Iraq and Afghanistan. Occupational therapy practitioners provide routine vision screening to inform treatment planning and referral to vision specialists, but existing methods are lacking because many tests were developed for children and do not screen for vision dysfunction typical of TBI. An expert panel was charged with specifying the composition of a vision screening protocol for servicemembers with TBI. A modified nominal group technique fostered discussion and objective determinations of consensus. After considering 29 vision tests, the panel recommended a nine-test vision screening that examines functional performance, self-reported problems, far–near acuity, reading, accommodation, convergence, eye alignment and binocular vision, saccades, pursuits, and visual fields. Research is needed to develop reliable, valid, and clinically feasible vision screening protocols to identify TBI-related vision disorders in adults. PMID:25005505

  10. Change in vision, visual disability, and health after cataract surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helbostad, Jorunn L; Oedegaard, Maria; Lamb, Sarah E; Delbaere, Kim; Lord, Stephen R; Sletvold, Olav

    2013-04-01

    Cataract surgery improves vision and visual functioning; the effect on general health is not established. We investigated if vision, visual functioning, and general health follow the same trajectory of change the year after cataract surgery and if changes in vision explain changes in visual disability and general health. One-hundred forty-eight persons, with a mean (SD) age of 78.9 (5.0) years (70% bilateral surgery), were assessed before and 6 weeks and 12 months after surgery. Visual disability and general health were assessed by the CatQuest-9SF and the Short Formular-36. Corrected binocular visual acuity, visual field, stereo acuity, and contrast vision improved (P visual acuity evident up to 12 months (P = 0.034). Cataract surgery had an effect on visual disability 1 year later (P visual disability and general health 6 weeks after surgery. Vision improved and visual disability decreased in the year after surgery, whereas changes in general health and visual functioning were short-term effects. Lack of associations between changes in vision and self-reported disability and general health suggests that the degree of vision changes and self-reported health do not have a linear relationship.

  11. Configuration color vision tests: the interaction between aging and the complexity of figure-ground segregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanford, T; Pollack, R H

    1984-09-01

    A cross-sectional study comparing response time and the percentage of items correctly identified in three color vision tests (Pflügertrident, HRR-AO pseudoisochromatic plates, and AO pseudoisochromatic plates) was carried out on 72 women (12 in each decade) ranging from ages 20 to 79 years. Overall, time scores increased across the age groups. Analysis of the correctness scores indicated that the AO pseudoisochromatic plates requiring the identification of numbers was more difficult than the other tests which consisted of geometric forms or the letter E. This differential difficulty increased as a function of age. There was no indication of color defect per se which led to the conclusion that figure complexity may be the key variable determining performance. The results were similar to those obtained by Lee and Pollack (1978) in their study of the Embedded Figures Test.

  12. The Level of Vision Necessary for Competitive Performance in Rifle Shooting: Setting the Standards for Paralympic Shooting with Vision Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Peter M; Latham, Keziah; Mann, David L; Ravensbergen, Rianne H J C; Myint, Joy

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the level of vision impairment (VI) that would reduce performance in shooting; to guide development of entry criteria to visually impaired (VI) shooting. Nineteen international-level shooters without VI took part in the study. Participants shot an air rifle, while standing, toward a regulation target placed at the end of a 10 m shooting range. Cambridge simulation glasses were used to simulate six different levels of VI. Visual acuity (VA) and contrast sensitivity (CS) were assessed along with shooting performance in each of seven conditions of simulated impairment and compared to that with habitual vision. Shooting performance was evaluated by calculating each individual's average score in every level of simulated VI and normalizing this score by expressing it as a percentage of the baseline performance achieved with habitual vision. Receiver Operating Characteristic curves were constructed to evaluate the ability of different VA and CS cut-off criteria to appropriately classify these athletes as achieving 'expected' or 'below expected' shooting results based on their performance with different levels of VA and CS. Shooting performance remained relatively unaffected by mild decreases in VA and CS, but quickly deteriorated with more moderate losses. The ability of visual function measurements to classify shooting performance was good, with 78% of performances appropriately classified using a cut-off of 0.53 logMAR and 74% appropriately classified using a cut-off of 0.83 logCS. The current inclusion criteria for VI shooting (1.0 logMAR) is conservative, maximizing the chance of including only those with an impairment that does impact performance, but potentially excluding some who do have a genuine impairment in the sport. A lower level of impairment would include more athletes who do have a genuine impairment but would potentially include those who do not actually have an impairment that impacts performance in the sport. An

  13. Vision Problems in Homeless Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Natalie L; Smith, Thomas J; DeSantis, Diana; Suhocki, Marissa; Fenske, Danielle

    2015-08-01

    Vision problems in homeless children can decrease educational achievement and quality of life. To estimate the prevalence and specific diagnoses of vision problems in children in an urban homeless shelter. A prospective series of 107 homeless children and teenagers who underwent screening with a vision questionnaire, eye chart screening (if mature enough) and if vision problem suspected, evaluation by a pediatric ophthalmologist. Glasses and other therapeutic interventions were provided if necessary. The prevalence of vision problems in this population was 25%. Common diagnoses included astigmatism, amblyopia, anisometropia, myopia, and hyperopia. Glasses were required and provided for 24 children (22%). Vision problems in homeless children are common and frequently correctable with ophthalmic intervention. Evaluation by pediatric ophthalmologist is crucial for accurate diagnoses and treatment. Our system of screening and evaluation is feasible, efficacious, and reproducible in other homeless care situations.

  14. Company Vision and Organizational Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vojko Toman

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The effectiveness of a company is largely dependent on the company itself; it depends above all on its corporate governance, management, and implementation, as well as on decision-making processes and coordination. Many authors believe that organizational learning and knowledge are the most relevant aspects of company effectiveness. If a company wants to be effective it needs to create and realize its vision; to do this, it needs creativity, imagination, and knowledge, which can be obtained or enhanced through learning. This paper defines vision, learning, creativity and management and, above all, their relationships. The author argues that company vision influences the learning and knowledge of employees in the company through the vision’s content, through the vision-creating process, and through the vision enforcement process. Conversely, the influence of learning on company vision is explained. The paper is aimed at the use in the practice of companies and helps them to increase their effectiveness.

  15. Vision as subjective perception

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reppas, J.B.; Dale, A.; Sereno, M.; Tootell, R.

    1996-01-01

    The human brain is not very different of the monkey's one: at least, its visual cortex is organized as a similar scheme. Specialized areas in the movement analysis are found and others in the forms perception. In this work, the author tries to answer to the following questions: 1)why so many visual areas? What are exactly their role in vision? Thirteen years of experimentation have not allowed to answer to these questions. The cerebral NMR imaging gives the opportunity of understanding the subjective perception of the visual world. One step which is particularly described in this work is to know how the visual cortex reacts to the optical illusions. (O.M.)

  16. Evolution of Vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrovsky, Mikhail

    The evolution of photoreception, giving rise to eye, offers a kaleidoscopic view on selection acting at both the organ and molecular levels. The molecular level is mainly considered in the lecture. The greatest progress to date has been made in relation to the opsin visual pigments. Opsins appeared before eyes did. Two- and three-dimensional organization for rhodopsin in the rod outer segment disk membrane, as well as molecular mechanisms of visual pigments spectral tuning, photoisomerization and also opsin as a G-protein coupled receptor are considered. Molecular mechanisms of visual pigments spectral tuning, namely switching of chromophore (physiological time scale) and amino acid changes in the chromophore site of opsin (evolutionary time scale) is considered in the lecture. Photoisomerization of rhodopsin chromophore, 11-cis retinal is the only photochemical reaction in vision. The reaction is extemely fast (less that 200 fs) and high efficient (. is 0.65). The rhodopsin photolysis and kinetics of the earlier products appearance, photo- and bathorhodopsin, is considered. It is known that light is not only a carrier of information, but also a risk factor of damage to the eye. This photobiological paradox of vision is mainly due to the nature of rhodopsin chromophore. Photooxidation is the base of the paradox. All factors present in the phototrceptor cells to initiate free-radical photooxidation: photosensitizers, oxygen and substrates of oxidation: lipids and proteins (opsin). That is why photoprotective system of the eye structures appeared in the course of evolution. Three lines of protective system to prevent light damage to the retina and retina pigment epithelium is known: permanent renewal of rod and cone outer segment, powerful antioxidant system and optical media as cut-off filters where the lens is a key component. The molecular mechanisms of light damage to the eye and photoprotective system of the eye is considered in the lecture. The molecular

  17. Relationship between Barthel Index (BI and the Modified Rankin Scale (mRS Score in Assessing Functional Outcome in Acute Ischemic Stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C S Mohanty

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: Our study has demonstrated that stroke functional outcome can be predicted from the baseline BI and mRS scales. It is concluded thatBI and mRS Stroke scale can be used to prognosticate functional outcome at admission and at follow up.

  18. The Rate of Low Vision Aids Usage after Prescription at the Saba and Khazaneh Clinics in Low Vision Clients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasser Sadegh-Pour

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This research was aimed to determine the rate of low vision aids uses by low vision clients in their daily living. Materials & Methods: In this descriptive study that was done at the Saba and Khazaneh clinics, 50 people from low vision clients were selected by convenient sampling during 2005 & 2006. One questionnaire was completed by therapist at the first time of optometric examination and useful low vision aid (LVA has been prescript and given to clients. After three months (at least they should came back to center and fill the second form. The first form was about functional vision without LVA and second too, but by using of LVA. They have been compared to fulfill the result of research. Data were analyzed by Spearman correlation coefficient, Chi – square and Wilcoxon tests. Results: Spearman correlation coefficient between use of LVAs for near with duration and frequency of study were 0/491 and 0/520 with probability values such as P=0/003 and P=0/002 that shown significant relation. There was significant difference in traffic measure and environment knowing between before and after of far LVAs using (P=0/002 and their SCC was 0/499. There was significant relation between use of low vision aid and education after prescription (P=0/011. Conclusion: However the LVAs improve vision of low vision person, but many of them don’t use by different reasons.

  19. Active Vision for Sociable Robots

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Breazeal, Cynthia; Edsinger, Aaron; Fitzpatrick, Paul; Scassellati, Brian

    2001-01-01

    .... In humanoid robotic systems, or in any animate vision system that interacts with people, social dynamics provide additional levels of constraint and provide additional opportunities for processing economy...

  20. Social Constraints on Animate Vision

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Breazeal, Cynthia; Edsinger, Aaron; Fitzpatrick, Paul; Scassellati, Brian

    2000-01-01

    .... In humanoid robotic systems, or in any animate vision system that interacts with people, social dynamics provide additional levels of constraint and provide additional opportunities for processing economy...

  1. The Zhongshan Score

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Lin; Guo, Jianming; Wang, Hang; Wang, Guomin

    2015-01-01

    Abstract In the zero ischemia era of nephron-sparing surgery (NSS), a new anatomic classification system (ACS) is needed to adjust to these new surgical techniques. We devised a novel and simple ACS, and compared it with the RENAL and PADUA scores to predict the risk of NSS outcomes. We retrospectively evaluated 789 patients who underwent NSS with available imaging between January 2007 and July 2014. Demographic and clinical data were assessed. The Zhongshan (ZS) score consisted of three parameters. RENAL, PADUA, and ZS scores are divided into three groups, that is, high, moderate, and low scores. For operative time (OT), significant differences were seen between any two groups of ZS score and PADUA score (all P RENAL showed no significant difference between moderate and high complexity in OT, WIT, estimated blood loss, and increase in SCr. Compared with patients with a low score of ZS, those with a high or moderate score had 8.1-fold or 3.3-fold higher risk of surgical complications, respectively (all P RENAL score, patients with a high or moderate score had 5.7-fold or 1.9-fold higher risk of surgical complications, respectively (all P RENAL and PADUA scores. ZS score could be used to reflect the surgical complexity and predict the risk of surgical complications in patients undergoing NSS. PMID:25654399

  2. The Effects of Low-Vision Rehabilitation on Reading Speed and Depression in Age Related Macular Degeneration: A Meta-Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noura Hamade

    Full Text Available Age related macular degeneration (AMD is a progressive eye disease that, as of 2015, has affected 11 million people in the U.S. and 1.5 million in Canada causing central vision blindness. By 2050, this number is expected to double to 22 million. Eccentric vision is the target of low-vision rehabilitation aids and programs for patients with AMD, which are thought to improve functional performance by improving reading speed and depression.This study evaluates the effect of various low-vision rehabilitation strategies on reading speed and depression in patients 55 and older with AMD.Computer databases including MEDLINE (OVID, EMBASE (OVID, BIOSIS Previews (Thomson-Reuters, CINAHL (EBSCO, Health Economic Evaluations Database (HEED, ISI Web of Science (Thomson-Reuters and the Cochrane Library (Wiley were searched from the year 2000 to January 2015.Included papers were research studies with a sample size of 20 eyes or greater focused on AMD in adults aged 55 or older with low vision (20/60 or lower.Two independent reviewers screened and extracted relevant data from the included articles. Standardized mean difference (SMD was chosen as an effect size to perform meta-analysis using STATA. Fixed- and random-effect models were developed based on heterogeneity.Reading Speed and Depression Scores.A total of 9 studies (885 subjects were included. Overall, a significant improvement in reading speed was found with a SMD of 1.01 [95% CI: 0.05 to 1.97]. Low-vision rehabilitation strategies including micro-perimetric biofeedback, microscopes teaching program significantly improved reading speed. Eccentric viewing training showed the maximum improvement in reading speed. In addition, a non-significant improvement in depression scores was found with a SMD of -0.44 [95% CI: -0.96 to 0.09].A considerable amount of research is required in the area of low-vision rehabilitation strategies for patients with AMD. Based on current research, low-vision rehabilitation aids

  3. Coherent laser vision system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sebastion, R.L.

    1995-01-01

    The Coherent Laser Vision System (CLVS) is being developed to provide precision real-time 3D world views to support site characterization and robotic operations and during facilities Decontamination and Decommissioning. Autonomous or semiautonomous robotic operations requires an accurate, up-to-date 3D world view. Existing technologies for real-time 3D imaging, such as AM laser radar, have limited accuracy at significant ranges and have variability in range estimates caused by lighting or surface shading. Recent advances in fiber optic component technology and digital processing components have enabled the development of a new 3D vision system based upon a fiber optic FMCW coherent laser radar. The approach includes a compact scanner with no-moving parts capable of randomly addressing all pixels. The system maintains the immunity to lighting and surface shading conditions which is characteristic to coherent laser radar. The random pixel addressability allows concentration of scanning and processing on the active areas of a scene, as is done by the human eye-brain system

  4. Energy visions 2050

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2009-07-01

    Energy Visions 2050 considers measures for addressing the enormous future challenges facing the energy sector, focusing on technological and techno-economic perspectives. The analysis of the development of technologies covers the whole energy chain, highlighting the necessity of efficient energy use in all activities of societies. The contents include a discussion on potential future low-emission and renewable energy conversion technologies, as well as new technology solutions in the industrial, building and transport sectors and in energy supply systems. The move towards zero-emission energy systems has consequenses for energy supply, and makes the analysis of energy resources presented in the book all the more valuable. Scenarios of alternative development paths to 2050 at the global, European and Finnish levels are presented, assuming different technological development options, economic growth rates, degrees of globalisation and information flows. The results show interesting differences between the scenarios with regard to energy production and use, mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions, and global warming. Energy Visions 2050 in mainly intended for those who have a fairly good knowledge of the energy sector and energy technologies, e.g. energy policymakers, experts responsible for energy-related issues in industry, and investors in energy technologies. The topics are approached from a global perspective. In some technological details, however, Finnish technology and Finland's technological achievements are highlighted. The topics and viewpoints of the book will certainly be of interest to international readers as well

  5. Coherent laser vision system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sebastion, R.L. [Coleman Research Corp., Springfield, VA (United States)

    1995-10-01

    The Coherent Laser Vision System (CLVS) is being developed to provide precision real-time 3D world views to support site characterization and robotic operations and during facilities Decontamination and Decommissioning. Autonomous or semiautonomous robotic operations requires an accurate, up-to-date 3D world view. Existing technologies for real-time 3D imaging, such as AM laser radar, have limited accuracy at significant ranges and have variability in range estimates caused by lighting or surface shading. Recent advances in fiber optic component technology and digital processing components have enabled the development of a new 3D vision system based upon a fiber optic FMCW coherent laser radar. The approach includes a compact scanner with no-moving parts capable of randomly addressing all pixels. The system maintains the immunity to lighting and surface shading conditions which is characteristic to coherent laser radar. The random pixel addressability allows concentration of scanning and processing on the active areas of a scene, as is done by the human eye-brain system.

  6. Python and computer vision

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doak, J. E. (Justin E.); Prasad, Lakshman

    2002-01-01

    This paper discusses the use of Python in a computer vision (CV) project. We begin by providing background information on the specific approach to CV employed by the project. This includes a brief discussion of Constrained Delaunay Triangulation (CDT), the Chordal Axis Transform (CAT), shape feature extraction and syntactic characterization, and normalization of strings representing objects. (The terms 'object' and 'blob' are used interchangeably, both referring to an entity extracted from an image.) The rest of the paper focuses on the use of Python in three critical areas: (1) interactions with a MySQL database, (2) rapid prototyping of algorithms, and (3) gluing together all components of the project including existing C and C++ modules. For (l), we provide a schema definition and discuss how the various tables interact to represent objects in the database as tree structures. (2) focuses on an algorithm to create a hierarchical representation of an object, given its string representation, and an algorithm to match unknown objects against objects in a database. And finally, (3) discusses the use of Boost Python to interact with the pre-existing C and C++ code that creates the CDTs and CATS, performs shape feature extraction and syntactic characterization, and normalizes object strings. The paper concludes with a vision of the future use of Python for the CV project.

  7. Bold-functional MRI study of the abnormal cortex and the relationship between the inpairment of vision and the decreased activation of the visual cortex in anisometropic amblyopia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jian; Li Chuanming; Zhou Yang; Xie Bing; Yu Qiongwu; Wang Hui; Qiu Mingguo; Weng Xuchu

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To assess the activation changes on Brodmann areas 17, 18 and 19 in anisometropic amblyopia and compare the features of the cortex activations before and after refractive correction on amblyopic eyes. Methods: Bold-fMRI technique on 1.5 T Simens Sonata MRI and the blocks designation mode was used. The visual stimulation task was a black and white checkerboard with frequencies of 1 cycle/degree and 8 Hz. The baseline stimulus is a white cross-line at the center of the screen with black background. No other light or influence was allowed in the scanning room. The distance between the eyes and screen was 0.6 m. The experimental group included 10 anisometropic amblyopes. TSE and EPI sequence were used for the anatomical and functional data acquisitions. For experimental group, the activation areas of the visual cortex on both eyes were consequently measured before and after refractive correction. All data were analyzed online with t-test and offline with AFNI software. The threshold value was set to 0.001. During data processing, motion correction and three-dimensional smooth were used in all data. The time-signal intensity curves and the functional images were obtained. After Talairach coordinated the function images of every one, the activation areas were measured in Brodmann areas 17, 18 and 19. The SPSS 12.0 software was used for statistic analysis. The difference of the cortical activations of amblyopic eyes before and after refractive correction was analyzed. The cortical activations of amblyopic eyes and the fellow eyes after refractive correction were compared. The visual acuity of the amblyopia eyes was measured. And the correlation between the lesion of cortical activation and visual acuity was analyzed. Results: It was found that the cortex was activated obviously in the calcarine cortex around, occipital lobe, LGN and temporal lobe. The activation areas of amblyopic eyes was (3.7±0.4) x 10 4 voxels, and (4.1±0.5 ) x 10 4 voxets after corrected

  8. Left Ventricular Diastolic Function in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and the Association With Coronary Artery Calcium Score: A Cardiac MRI Study

    OpenAIRE

    Graça, B; Donato, P; Ferreira, MJ; Castelo-Branco, M; Caseiro-Alves, F

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to compare cardiac MRI-derived parameters of left ventricular (LV) diastolic function between uncomplicated type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2) and normoglycemic control subjects and to evaluate whether these parameters of LV diastolic function are related to coronary atherosclerosis. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: We prospectively studied 41 subjects with DM2 and 21 normoglycemic control subjects (30 women and 32 men; mean age, 57.2 ± 7.1 [SD] years) with ...

  9. Colour Vision Impairment in Young Alcohol Consumers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alódia Brasil

    Full Text Available Alcohol consumption among young adults is widely accepted in modern society and may be the starting point for abusive use of alcohol at later stages of life. Chronic alcohol exposure can lead to visual function impairment. In the present study, we investigated the spatial luminance contrast sensitivity, colour arrangement ability, and colour discrimination thresholds on young adults that weekly consume alcoholic beverages without clinical concerns. Twenty-four young adults were evaluated by an ophthalmologist and performed three psychophysical tests to evaluate their vision functions. We estimated the spatial luminance contrast sensitivity function at 11 spatial frequencies ranging from 0.1 to 30 cycles/degree. No difference in contrast sensitivity was observed comparing alcohol consumers and control subjects. For the evaluation of colour vision, we used the Farnsworth-Munsell 100 hue test (FM 100 test to test subject's ability to perform a colour arrangement task and the Mollon-Reffin test (MR test to measure subject's colour discrimination thresholds. Alcohol consumers made more mistakes than controls in the FM100 test, and their mistakes were diffusely distributed in the FM colour space without any colour axis preference. Alcohol consumers also performed worse than controls in the MR test and had higher colour discrimination thresholds compared to controls around three different reference points of a perceptually homogeneous colour space, the CIE 1976 chromaticity diagram. There was no colour axis preference in the threshold elevation observed among alcoholic subjects. Young adult weekly alcohol consumers showed subclinical colour vision losses with preservation of spatial luminance contrast sensitivity. Adolescence and young adult age are periods of important neurological development and alcohol exposure during this period of life might be responsible for deficits in visual functions, especially colour vision that is very sensitive to

  10. Some examples of image warping for low vision prosthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juday, Richard D.; Loshin, David S.

    1988-01-01

    NASA has developed an image processor, the Programmable Remapper, for certain functions in machine vision. The Remapper performs a highly arbitrary geometric warping of an image at video rate. It might ultimately be shrunk to a size and cost that could allow its use in a low-vision prosthesis. Coordinate warpings have been developed for retinitis pigmentosa (tunnel vision) and for maculapathy (loss of central field) that are intended to make best use of the patient's remaining viable retina. The rationales and mathematics are presented for some warpings that we will try in clinical studies using the Remapper's prototype.

  11. Relationship between Vision and Visual Perception in Hong Kong Preschoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Wing-Cheung; Tang, Minny Mei-Miu; Fu, Ching-Wah; Leung, Ka-Yan; Pang, Peter Chi-Kong; Cheong, Allen Ming-Yan

    2015-05-01

    Although superior performance in visual motor and visual perceptual skills of preschool children has been documented in the Chinese population, a normative database is only available for the US population. This study aimed to determine the normative values for these visuomotor and visual perceptual tests for preschool children in the Hong Kong Chinese population and to investigate the effect of fundamental visual functions on visuomotor and visual perceptual skills. One hundred seventy-four children from six different kindergartens in Hong Kong were recruited. Distance visual acuity, near visual acuity, and stereopsis were tested, along with two measures of visual perception (VP): Visual-Motor Integration (VMI) and Test of Visual-Perceptual Skills (TVPS). Raw VMI and TVPS scores were converted into standard/scaled scores. The impact of basic visual functions on VP (VMI and TVPS) was examined using multiple regression. Visual functions were generally good: only 9.2 and 4.6% of subjects had unilateral and bilateral reduced habitual vision, respectively (distance visual acuity in the better eye >0.3 logMAR [logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution]). Performance in the VMI and in the visual memory and spatial relationships subtests of the TVPS exceeded that reported for age-matched children from the United States. Multiple regression analysis provided evidence that age had the strongest predictive value for the VMI and VP skills. In addition, near visual acuity was weakly associated with performance in the VMI and the visual discrimination and spatial relationships subtests of the TVPS, accounting for a limited proportion of the intersubject variability (R memory/spatial relationships of TVPS subtests, perhaps attributed to greater exposure to such material during their preschool home education. This study provided normality data for VMI and four subtests of the TVPS for Hong Kong Chinese preschool children as a reference for future studies.

  12. Practical guide to machine vision software an introduction with LabVIEW

    CERN Document Server

    Kwon, Kye-Si

    2014-01-01

    For both students and engineers in R&D, this book explains machine vision in a concise, hands-on way, using the Vision Development Module of the LabView software by National Instruments. Following a short introduction to the basics of machine vision and the technical procedures of image acquisition, the book goes on to guide readers in the use of the various software functions of LabView's machine vision module. It covers typical machine vision tasks, including particle analysis, edge detection, pattern and shape matching, dimension measurements as well as optical character recognition, enabli

  13. Agnosic vision is like peripheral vision, which is limited by crowding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strappini, Francesca; Pelli, Denis G; Di Pace, Enrico; Martelli, Marialuisa

    2017-04-01

    Visual agnosia is a neuropsychological impairment of visual object recognition despite near-normal acuity and visual fields. A century of research has provided only a rudimentary account of the functional damage underlying this deficit. We find that the object-recognition ability of agnosic patients viewing an object directly is like that of normally-sighted observers viewing it indirectly, with peripheral vision. Thus, agnosic vision is like peripheral vision. We obtained 14 visual-object-recognition tests that are commonly used for diagnosis of visual agnosia. Our "standard" normal observer took these tests at various eccentricities in his periphery. Analyzing the published data of 32 apperceptive agnosia patients and a group of 14 posterior cortical atrophy (PCA) patients on these tests, we find that each patient's pattern of object recognition deficits is well characterized by one number, the equivalent eccentricity at which our standard observer's peripheral vision is like the central vision of the agnosic patient. In other words, each agnosic patient's equivalent eccentricity is conserved across tests. Across patients, equivalent eccentricity ranges from 4 to 40 deg, which rates severity of the visual deficit. In normal peripheral vision, the required size to perceive a simple image (e.g., an isolated letter) is limited by acuity, and that for a complex image (e.g., a face or a word) is limited by crowding. In crowding, adjacent simple objects appear unrecognizably jumbled unless their spacing exceeds the crowding distance, which grows linearly with eccentricity. Besides conservation of equivalent eccentricity across object-recognition tests, we also find conservation, from eccentricity to agnosia, of the relative susceptibility of recognition of ten visual tests. These findings show that agnosic vision is like eccentric vision. Whence crowding? Peripheral vision, strabismic amblyopia, and possibly apperceptive agnosia are all limited by crowding, making it

  14. Understanding and applying machine vision

    CERN Document Server

    Zeuch, Nello

    2000-01-01

    A discussion of applications of machine vision technology in the semiconductor, electronic, automotive, wood, food, pharmaceutical, printing, and container industries. It describes systems that enable projects to move forward swiftly and efficiently, and focuses on the nuances of the engineering and system integration of machine vision technology.

  15. Management Matters. Nurture Your Vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappas, Marjorie L.

    2005-01-01

    In many professional roles, long-term vision may help guide short-term decisions. This is especially true for school library professionals as library media programs are constantly evolving. This author suggests strategies to assist library media specialists to nurture their vision and provides reviews of several sources and experts in the field…

  16. Eldercare at Home: Vision Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... seeing close objects or reading small print. Many things can be done to help with these vision problems. Using reading ... t Working If vision problems seem to be getting worse and are of major concern to the ... what the results have been. Related Resources ...

  17. IPPF's strategic vision 2000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahler, H

    1994-09-01

    The International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF) supports the objectives of the International Conference on Population and Development. The draft conference document displays the linkages between women's rights, poverty, population, and sustainable development. In the next two to three decades the global population will grow by a staggering 50% and that reality requires sustained socioeconomic growth. The 6 components of IPPF's Strategic Vision 2000 and the action agenda for meeting these challenges are as follows: 1) The small family is rapidly becoming the cultural norm everywhere, as more than 60% of all fertile women and men are using safe and effective contraceptive methods. 2) Sexual and reproductive health is becoming an integral part of the physical, mental, and social health culture and not just the absence of pregnancy, disease or injury. The members of IPPF have been developing programs concentrating on adolescent sexuality. IPPF is also concerned about HIV, AIDS and sexually transmitted diseases as they relate to the work undertaken by family planning associations. 3) The quality of care has been heightened by the right of informed choice, service sustainability, and the maintenance of the highest standards. 4) Vigorous programs are in place to eliminate unsafe abortion and to increase access to safe abortion. 5) Young people are systematically supported to give voice to the need for understanding their sexuality and services. There are currently more than 500 million young women and men between the ages of 15 and 19, and their numbers increase for a long time to come. 6) Women are fast moving towards full participation in all aspects of local and global development demanding reproductive rights. IPPF and its associations, through Vision 2000, are committed to the objective of sexual and reproductive health at the national and international levels.

  18. 2020 Vision Project Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gordon, K.W.; Scott, K.P.

    2000-11-01

    Since the 2020 Vision project began in 1996, students from participating schools have completed and submitted a variety of scenarios describing potential world and regional conditions in the year 2020 and their possible effect on US national security. This report summarizes the students' views and describes trends observed over the course of the 2020 Vision project's five years. It also highlights the main organizational features of the project. An analysis of thematic trends among the scenarios showed interesting shifts in students' thinking, particularly in their views of computer technology, US relations with China, and globalization. In 1996, most students perceived computer technology as highly beneficial to society, but as the year 2000 approached, this technology was viewed with fear and suspicion, even personified as a malicious, uncontrollable being. Yet, after New Year's passed with little disruption, students generally again perceived computer technology as beneficial. Also in 1996, students tended to see US relations with China as potentially positive, with economic interaction proving favorable to both countries. By 2000, this view had transformed into a perception of China emerging as the US' main rival and ''enemy'' in the global geopolitical realm. Regarding globalization, students in the first two years of the project tended to perceive world events as dependent on US action. However, by the end of the project, they saw the US as having little control over world events and therefore, we Americans would need to cooperate and compromise with other nations in order to maintain our own well-being.

  19. Prepartum concentrate supplementation of a diet based on medium-quality grass silage: Effects on performance, health, fertility, metabolic function, and immune function of low body condition score cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, M W; O'Connell, N E; Welsh, M D; Barley, J; Meade, K G; Ferris, C P

    2016-09-01

    When cows with a "higher" body condition score (BCS) are oversupplied with energy during the dry period, postpartum energy balance is normally reduced, which can have a detrimental effect on immune competence and increase the infectious disease risk. However, within grassland-based systems higher yielding cows frequently have a low BCS at drying off. The effects on performance, health, and metabolic and immune functions of providing additional energy to cows with low BCS during the dry period is less certain. To address this uncertainty, 53 multiparous Holstein-Friesian cows (mean BCS of 2.5; 1-5 scale) were allocated to 1 of 2 treatments at dry-off: silage only or silage plus concentrates. Cows on the silage-only treatment were offered ad libitum access to medium-quality grass silage. Cows on the silage-plus-concentrate treatment were offered ad libitum access to a mixed ration comprising the same grass silage plus concentrates [in a 75:25 dry matter (DM) ratio], which provided a mean concentrate DM intake of 3.0kg/cow per day. Postpartum, cows were offered a common mixed ration comprising grass silage and concentrates (in a 40:60 DM ratio) for a 70-d period. Offering concentrates during the dry period increased DM intake, tended to increase energy balance, and increased body weight (BW) and BCS gain prepartum. Offering concentrates during the dry period increased BW and BCS loss postpartum and tended to increase milk fat percentage and serum nonesterified fatty acid concentration, but it did not affect postpartum DM intake, energy balance, and milk yield. Although the percentage of phagocytosis-positive neutrophils did not differ, neutrophils from cows on the silage-plus-concentrate treatment had higher phagocytic fluorescence intensity at 1 and 2 wk postpartum and higher phagocytic index at 1 wk postpartum. Serum haptoglobin concentrations and IFN-γ production by pokeweed mitogen stimulated whole blood culture were unaffected by treatment, although haptoglobin

  20. Computer vision for an autonomous mobile robot

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Withey, Daniel J

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Computer vision systems are essential for practical, autonomous, mobile robots – machines that employ artificial intelligence and control their own motion within an environment. As with biological systems, computer vision systems include the vision...

  1. The development of an instrument to measure quality of vision: the Quality of Vision (QoV) questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAlinden, Colm; Pesudovs, Konrad; Moore, Jonathan E

    2010-11-01

    To develop an instrument to measure subjective quality of vision: the Quality of Vision (QoV) questionnaire. A 30-item instrument was designed with 10 symptoms rated in each of three scales (frequency, severity, and bothersome). The QoV was completed by 900 subjects in groups of spectacle wearers, contact lens wearers, and those having had laser refractive surgery, intraocular refractive surgery, or eye disease and investigated with Rasch analysis and traditional statistics. Validity and reliability were assessed by Rasch fit statistics, principal components analysis (PCA), person separation, differential item functioning (DIF), item targeting, construct validity (correlation with visual acuity, contrast sensitivity, total root mean square [RMS] higher order aberrations [HOA]), and test-retest reliability (two-way random intraclass correlation coefficients [ICC] and 95% repeatability coefficients [R(c)]). Rasch analysis demonstrated good precision, reliability, and internal consistency for all three scales (mean square infit and outfit within 0.81-1.27; PCA >60% variance explained by the principal component; person separation 2.08, 2.10, and 2.01 respectively; and minimal DIF). Construct validity was indicated by strong correlations with visual acuity, contrast sensitivity and RMS HOA. Test-retest reliability was evidenced by a minimum ICC of 0.867 and a minimum 95% R(c) of 1.55 units. The QoV Questionnaire consists of a Rasch-tested, linear-scaled, 30-item instrument on three scales providing a QoV score in terms of symptom frequency, severity, and bothersome. It is suitable for measuring QoV in patients with all types of refractive correction, eye surgery, and eye disease that cause QoV problems.

  2. Fecoflowmetric Analysis of Anorectal Motor Function in Postoperative Anal-Preserving Surgery Patients With Low Rectal Cancer Comparison With the Wexner Score and Anorectal Manometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Yasuhiko; Akagi, Yoshito; Yagi, Minoru; Sasatomi, Teruo; Kinugasa, Tetsushi; Yamaguchi, Keizo; Oka, Yousuke; Fukahori, Suguru; Shiratsuchi, Ichitaro; Yoshida, Takefumi; Gotanda, Yukito; Tanaka, Natsuki; Ohchi, Takafumi; Romeo, Kansakar; Shirouzu, Kazuo

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to elucidate whether fecoflowmetry (FFM) could evaluate more detailed evacuative function than anorectal manometry by comparing between FFM or anorectal manometric findings and the clinical questionnaires and the types of surgical procedure in the patients who received anal-preserving surgery. Fifty-three patients who underwent anal-preserving surgery for low rectal cancer were enrolled. The relationships between FFM or the manometric findings and the clinical questionnaires and the types of procedure of anal-preserving surgery were evaluated. There were significant differences between FFM markers and the clinical questionnaire and the types of the surgical procedure, whereas no significant relationship was observed between the manometric findings and the clinical questionnaire and the types of the surgical procedure. FFM might be feasible and useful for the objective assessment of evacuative function and may be superior to manometry for patients undergoing anal-preserving surgery. PMID:25594637

  3. Poorer right ventricular systolic function and exercise capacity in women after repair of tetralogy of fallot: a sex comparison of standard deviation scores based on sex-specific reference values in healthy control subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarikouch, Samir; Boethig, Dietmar; Peters, Brigitte; Kropf, Siegfried; Dubowy, Karl-Otto; Lange, Peter; Kuehne, Titus; Haverich, Axel; Beerbaum, Philipp

    2013-11-01

    In repaired congenital heart disease, there is increasing evidence of sex differences in cardiac remodeling, but there is a lack of comparable data for specific congenital heart defects such as in repaired tetralogy of Fallot. In a prospective multicenter study, a cohort of 272 contemporary patients (158 men; mean age, 14.3±3.3 years [range, 8-20 years]) with repaired tetralogy of Fallot underwent cardiac magnetic resonance for ventricular function and metabolic exercise testing. All data were transformed to standard deviation scores according to the Lambda-Mu-Sigma method by relating individual values to their respective 50th percentile (standard deviation score, 0) in sex-specific healthy control subjects. No sex differences were observed in age at repair, type of repair conducted, or overall hemodynamic results. Relative to sex-specific controls, repaired tetralogy of Fallot in women had larger right ventricular end-systolic volumes (standard deviation scores: women, 4.35; men, 3.25; P=0.001), lower right ventricular ejection fraction (women, -2.83; men, -2.12; P=0.011), lower right ventricular muscle mass (women, 1.58; men 2.45; P=0.001), poorer peak oxygen uptake (women, -1.65; men, -1.14; Pstandard deviation scores in repaired tetralogy of Fallot suggest that women perform poorer than men in terms of right ventricular systolic function as tested by cardiac magnetic resonance and exercise capacity. This effect cannot be explained by selection bias. Further outcome data are required from longitudinal cohort studies.

  4. Mouse Model Resources for Vision Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jungyeon Won

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The need for mouse models, with their well-developed genetics and similarity to human physiology and anatomy, is clear and their central role in furthering our understanding of human disease is readily apparent in the literature. Mice carrying mutations that alter developmental pathways or cellular function provide model systems for analyzing defects in comparable human disorders and for testing therapeutic strategies. Mutant mice also provide reproducible, experimental systems for elucidating pathways of normal development and function. Two programs, the Eye Mutant Resource and the Translational Vision Research Models, focused on providing such models to the vision research community are described herein. Over 100 mutant lines from the Eye Mutant Resource and 60 mutant lines from the Translational Vision Research Models have been developed. The ocular diseases of the mutant lines include a wide range of phenotypes, including cataracts, retinal dysplasia and degeneration, and abnormal blood vessel formation. The mutations in disease genes have been mapped and in some cases identified by direct sequencing. Here, we report 3 novel alleles of Crxtvrm65, Rp1tvrm64, and Rpe65tvrm148 as successful examples of the TVRM program, that closely resemble previously reported knockout models.

  5. Restoration of vision after transplantation of photoreceptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, R A; Barber, A C; Rizzi, M; Hippert, C; Xue, T; West, E L; Duran, Y; Smith, A J; Chuang, J Z; Azam, S A; Luhmann, U F O; Benucci, A; Sung, C H; Bainbridge, J W; Carandini, M; Yau, K-W; Sowden, J C; Ali, R R

    2012-05-03

    Cell transplantation is a potential strategy for treating blindness caused by the loss of photoreceptors. Although transplanted rod-precursor cells are able to migrate into the adult retina and differentiate to acquire the specialized morphological features of mature photoreceptor cells, the fundamental question remains whether transplantation of photoreceptor cells can actually improve vision. Here we provide evidence of functional rod-mediated vision after photoreceptor transplantation in adult Gnat1−/− mice, which lack rod function and are a model of congenital stationary night blindness. We show that transplanted rod precursors form classic triad synaptic connections with second-order bipolar and horizontal cells in the recipient retina. The newly integrated photoreceptor cells are light-responsive with dim-flash kinetics similar to adult wild-type photoreceptors. By using intrinsic imaging under scotopic conditions we demonstrate that visual signals generated by transplanted rods are projected to higher visual areas, including V1. Moreover, these cells are capable of driving optokinetic head tracking and visually guided behaviour in the Gnat1−/− mouse under scotopic conditions. Together, these results demonstrate the feasibility of photoreceptor transplantation as a therapeutic strategy for restoring vision after retinal degeneration.

  6. Acute Vision Loss Following Endoscopic Sinus Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serena Byrd

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A 41-year-old female with a history of uterine cancer and Celiac and Raynaud’s Disease presented to our institution with frequent migraines and nasal congestion. She underwent functional endoscopic sinus surgery (FESS and experienced acute unilateral vision loss postoperatively. Rapid recognition of the etiology and effective treatment are paramount given the permanent and irreversible vision loss that can result. Arterial vasospasm following FESS is rare. Patients with autoimmune diseases have perhaps an increased risk for vasospasm secondary to an increased vasoreactive profile. We present the first documented case of nitroglycerin sublingual therapy to successfully treat ophthalmic artery vasospasm following FESS. Nitroglycerin sublingual therapy is a promising treatment for ophthalmic vasospasm secondary to its ability to cross the blood-ocular barrier, its rapid onset of action, and its ability to promote relaxation of vascular smooth muscle.

  7. Autophagy and phagocytosis converge for better vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Thomas A; Green, Douglas R

    2014-01-01

    The retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) is a single layer of nonregenerating cells essential to homeostasis in the retina and the preservation of vision. While the RPE perform a number of important functions, 2 essential processes are phagocytosis, which removes the most distal tips of the photoreceptors to support disk renewal, and the visual cycle, which maintains the supply of chromophore for regeneration of photo-bleached visual pigments. We recently reported that these processes are linked by a noncanonical form of autophagy termed LC3-associated phagocytosis (LAP) in which components of the autophagy pathway are co-opted by phagocytosis to recover vitamin A in support of optimal vision. Here we summarize these findings.

  8. Quality of vision in refractive and cataract surgery, indirect measurers: review article.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parede, Taís Renata Ribeira; Torricelli, André Augusto Miranda; Mukai, Adriana; Vieira Netto, Marcelo; Bechara, Samir Jacob

    2013-01-01

    Visual acuity is the measurement of an individual's ability to recognize details of an object in a space. Visual function measurements in clinical ophthalmology are limited by factors such as maximum contrast and so it might not adequately reflect the real vision conditions at that moment as well as the subjective aspects of the world perception by the patient. The objective of a successful vision-restoring surgery lies not only in gaining visual acuity lines, but also in vision quality. Therefore, refractive and cataract surgeries have the responsibility of achieving quality results. It is difficult to define quality of vision by a single parameter, and the main functional-vision tests are: contrast sensitivity, disability glare, intraocular stray light and aberrometry. In the current review the different components of the visual function are explained and the several available methods to assess the vision quality are described.

  9. Near vision correction and work productivity among textile workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovin S. Naidoo

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Uncorrected presbyopia (near vision impairment is prevalent in approximately 517 million people worldwide; this prevalence ranges from 30% to 80% in Africa. Good near vision is needed for a range of tasks; therefore, uncorrected presbyopia can negatively affect the quality of life of individuals, impact families and society, and potentially have negative implications on employment and labour work productivity. This study aimed to determine the impact of near vision correction on the work productivity of clothing factory workers. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study and sampled all workers who were aged 40 years and older and who performed near vision tasks (e.g. machinist, cutter, zip sewer, clothing pressers and quality controllers in seven clothing factories. We included workers who were employed for at least 3 months and whose uncorrected near visual acuity could be improved and corrected to better than 6/9 with spect