WorldWideScience

Sample records for functional units governing

  1. 45 CFR 2101.2 - Relationships of Commission's functions to responsibilities of other government units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... buildings, demolition, or new construction at individually designated landmarks or within historic districts are further subject to the permit requirements of the Historic Landmark and Historic District... government. The District of Columbia seeks Commission advice on exterior alteration or new construction...

  2. What University Governance Can Taiwan Learn from the United States?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Lung-Sheng; Land, Ming H.

    2010-01-01

    Due to changes from centralization to marketization, Taiwan's university governance must increase its effectiveness. The purpose of this paper was to introduce trends in and issues of Taiwan's university governance, describe university governance in the United States, and draw implications that Taiwan's university governance needs to learn from…

  3. 28 CFR 33.11 - Units of local government.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Units of local government. 33.11 Section 33.11 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE BUREAU OF JUSTICE ASSISTANCE GRANT PROGRAMS Criminal Justice Block Grants Eligible Applicants § 33.11 Units of local government. (a) Units of...

  4. Poverty, Government Transfers, and the Business Cycle: Evidence for the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Herzer, Dierk; Klump, Rainer

    2006-01-01

    We examine the impact of government transfers and the business cycle on poverty in the United States in the context of a poverty function that includes the official poverty rate, three types of government transfers, real wages, the number of female-headed families, and a business cycle variable. Using cointegration techniques, we find – contrary to most previous studies – that government transfer programs play an important poverty-reducing role. In addition, the findings suggest that the busi...

  5. 45 CFR 1607.4 - Functions of a governing body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Functions of a governing body. 1607.4 Section 1607... GOVERNING BODIES § 1607.4 Functions of a governing body. (a) A governing body shall have at least four... accordance with written policies adopted by the recipient's governing body. (b) In addition to other...

  6. Groundwater Governance in the United States: Common Priorities and Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megdal, Sharon B; Gerlak, Andrea K; Varady, Robert G; Huang, Ling-Yee

    2015-01-01

    Groundwater is a critical component of the water supply for agriculture, urban areas, industry, and ecosystems, but managing it is a challenge because groundwater is difficult to map, quantify, and evaluate. Until recently, study and assessment of governance of this water resource has been largely neglected. A survey was developed to query state agency officials about the extent and scope of groundwater use, groundwater laws and regulations, and groundwater tools and strategies. Survey responses revealed key findings: states' legal frameworks for groundwater differ widely in recognizing the hydrologic connection between surface water and groundwater, the needs of groundwater-dependent ecosystems, and the protection of groundwater quality; states reported a range in capacity to enforce groundwater responsibilities; and states have also experienced substantial changes in groundwater governance in the past few decades. Overall, groundwater governance across the United States is fragmented. States nevertheless identified three common priorities for groundwater governance: water quality and contamination, conflicts between users, and declining groundwater levels. This survey represents an initial step in a broader, continuing effort to characterize groundwater governance practices in the United States.

  7. 41 CFR 105-50.001-4 - Special-purpose unit of local government.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... local government. 105-50.001-4 Section 105-50.001-4 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal... OR TECHNICAL SERVICES TO STATE AND LOCAL UNITS OF GOVERNMENT § 105-50.001-4 Special-purpose unit of local government. Special-purpose unit of local government means any special district,...

  8. 41 CFR 105-50.001-3 - Unit of general local government.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... TECHNICAL SERVICES TO STATE AND LOCAL UNITS OF GOVERNMENT § 105-50.001-3 Unit of general local government. Unit of general local government means any city, county, town, parish, village, or other general... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Unit of general...

  9. 38 CFR 6.3 - Incontestability of United States Government life insurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... United States Government life insurance. 6.3 Section 6.3 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT LIFE INSURANCE Policies § 6.3 Incontestability of United States Government life insurance. Discharge or release of an insured from military or...

  10. The organizational function of governance: Development, problems, and possible changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudi Rozman

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between the organizational functions of governance and management is one of the most crucial for the effectiveness of the corporation. Different countries have developed different ways of sorganizing the governing function in order to protect the interests of the owners, while leaving managers enough freedom to take managerial decisions and actions. Many symptoms show a decrease in the role of governance and of owners. Authors discuss reasons for that decline and suggest solutions to bring back the power of owners. In this article the author defines governance and management and their relationship, compares problems of the two basic models of governance and summarizes the solutions. He discusses the improvements of the present models of governance, and then speculates on possible future developments in two directions: stakeholders governance and self-governance.

  11. ALGEBROIDAL FUNCTION AND ITS DERIVED FUNCTION IN UNIT CIRCULAR DISC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huo Yingying; Sun Daochun

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the authors define the derived function of an algeboidal function in the unit disc, prove it is an algabriodal function, and study the order of algebroidal function and that of its derived function in unit circular disc.

  12. An Analysis of the Treatment of Corporate Influence on Government by United States History and American Government High School Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Richard

    2014-01-01

    This article reports on an investigation to explore the possibility that ideology might be expressed in the treatment of corporate influence on federal government by social studies textbooks. Two textbooks were examined in the study--United States history and American government. Corporate influence involves activities that affect election and…

  13. 24 CFR 291.505 - Definition of “unit of general local government.”

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Definition of âunit of general local government.â 291.505 Section 291.505 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing... local government.” For purposes of this subpart, the term unit of general local government means...

  14. 43 CFR 44.56 - How does a unit of general local government file a protest?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE, LOCAL GOVERNMENTS State and Local Governments' Responsibilities After the Department Distributes Payments § 44.56 How does a unit of general local government file a protest? The protesting local... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false How does a unit of general...

  15. International Terrorism: A Guide to United States Government Documents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Clifford M.

    This guide is intended as an introduction to published government information on the issue of terrorism. The selections are meant to indicate the range of the abundance of materials available and the variety of government agencies concerned with the topic. Devoted to the general topic of government information, the initial sections of the guide…

  16. THE GENESIS OF THE FUNCTIONS OF GOVERNMENT DEBT SECURITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Osetskyi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Government borrowings appear at a certain stage of development the economic system. Governments used loans many centuries ago because there are often occurred situations when borrowings were the only way to attract additional financial resources. The preconditions for government loans from the position of creditors are also important. These, in particular, include: the availability of subjects that have the temporarily available funds; investor confidence in the state, that stimulating their interest in buying government debt securities; state’s ability to repay its obligations and so on. Thus, the article deals with the basic prerequisites of the government securities market and its function at different stages of develop-ment of economic relations. So, it was found, that the main functions of local borrowing in XIV-XX centuries include the following: fiscal, public debt management, improved economic situation in some areas and repayment of previously issued loans. In modern conditions the functions of government securities have expanded and include: regulation of the money market and stock market, smoothing unevenness of funds flow to the budget, funding various pro-grams, support the liquidity of financial institutions. The author also highlights that objective necessity of using government borrowing associated with the presence of contradictions between the existing needs of society and the state’s capacity to satisfy them within existing financial re-sources. And in such situations government securities are a means of mobilizing additional financial resources to the state budget.

  17. 21 CFR 1010.5 - Exemptions for products intended for United States Government use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Exemptions for products intended for United States Government use. 1010.5 Section 1010.5 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... General Provisions § 1010.5 Exemptions for products intended for United States Government use....

  18. 8 CFR 312.2 - Knowledge of history and government of the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... of an applicant's knowledge of the history and form of government of the United States shall be given... residence in the United States, opportunities available and efforts made to acquire the requisite knowledge... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Knowledge of history and government of...

  19. 31 CFR 538.531 - Official activities of the United States Government and international organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Official activities of the United States Government and international organizations. 538.531 Section 538.531 Money and Finance: Treasury....531 Official activities of the United States Government and international organizations. (a)...

  20. Local Government Units in Indonesia: Demographic Attributes and Differences in Financial Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rusmin Rusmin

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the outcome of decentralisation reforms in Indonesia, focusing on the association between demographic characteristics and differences in the financial condition of local governments units. It investigates cross-sectional data pertaining to demographic characteristics and financial statements audited by the Supreme Audit Body of 419 Indonesian local government units for the fiscal year 2007. It utilises demographic attributes including scope of entity, location, tenure (date of entry, gender, human development index (HDI and size of local governments to explain differences in the financial condition of Indonesia’s local government. Local government financial condition is proxied by quick ratio, debt ratio, services ratio, and ratio of local to total revenues. The results suggest that scope and location of local government units help explain all of the financial condition variables. The findings further infer that local government units domiciled in Java tend to report better financial conditions relative to those domiciled in other islands. Our results also show that local government units with greater female populations and higher HDI are more likely to have a local authority that (1 has better ability to finance their general services from their unrestricted net assets, and (2 has greater ability to earn more revenues from local sources. Finally, this study documents that the larger the population of a local government unit, the higher its liquidity position, the stronger its ability to funding general services, and the greater its possibility earning revenues from its local sources.

  1. RULES OF CONTRACTING DEBT BY TERRITORIAL SELF-GOVERNMENT UNITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dariusz Reśko

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Self-governments are given new tasks without guaranteeing resources for their completion, an example of which is lowering the school obligation age. There are also some savings of the state budget at the expense of territorial selfgovernment. All these and other changes, including those planned in the near future, take place without compensating for the incomes lost by self-governments or additional costs. All this leads to serious tensions in self-government budgets, limiting their ability to finance investment. The Regulation of the Minister of Finance from 23rd December 2010 on detailed ways of classifying debt titles included in state public debt, also treasury debt (Journal of Law from 2010, No 252, position 1692 was issued on the basis of specially changed article 72, section 2 of the Act of 27th August 2009 on Public Finance (Journal of Law No 157, position 1240 with subsequent amendments.

  2. Agricultural Development Mode Transformation and Government Functions in Guizhou Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Based on the brief account of the connotation of transforming economic development pattern and government functions,the thesis will introduce the development status of agricultural economy in Guizhou Province:firstly,single agricultural industrial structure;secondly,large gap between urban and rural development;thirdly,low-level utilization of agricultural science and technology;fourthly,fierce contradiction between agricultural mode of production and ecological environment.Then it analyzes the basic requirements for government functions in transforming the development pattern of agricultural economy in Guizhou Province:the first one is the function to guide sustainable development and the structural adjustment of agricultural production;the second is the function to coordinate urban-rural development and equally supply basic public goods;the third is the function to input science and technology to serve agriculture;the fourth one is the dominant function to promote the harmonious development of man and nature as well as to reduce the number of peasants.In order to promote the transformation of agricultural development mode and maintain the sound and rapid economic development,some corresponding measures and suggestions are proposed from the perspective of government functions:firstly,promoting the optimization and upgrading of industrial structure;secondly,the government should take the lead in providing rural public goods;thirdly,strengthening the skills training and technological education of rural labor force;fourthly,reducing the number of farmers and retaining the farmers.

  3. Environmental Functions Provided by Malaysian Local Government: User's Perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaherawati Zakaria

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: This research is about users’ perception of environmental functions provided by local government focused on Kedah Local authorities. Recently, the local authorities in Malaysia have been soundly criticized for poor management and they are subjected to daily barrage of questions and complaints directly in the press and tougher higher ups at the state and federal levels. Approach: Due to the problems arise, this research tried to identify the factors affecting the user’s perception of environmental functions provided by local government in Kedah and to examine the environmental functions provided by local government with level of users’ perception in Kedah. Hypotheses testing showed the research design and quantitative method through questionnaires provided to the respondents. Results: The samplings of this research are 300 respondents in Kulim Municipal Council, Sungai Petani Municipal Council and Alor Star City Council. In this study, simple random sampling was used where only 100 respondents in each local authority. This research used Descriptive Statistic and Pearson Correlation for data analysis purposes. Data were collected from 228 users in October 2007 until January 2008. In this research three hypotheses were testing. The hypotheses which include cleanliness, collection and disposal wastes, drainage and sewage were not rejects. As a result, a finding indicated that all independent variables have significance with user’s perception of environmental functions provided by local government in Alor Star City Council, Sungai Petani Municipal Council and Kulim Municipal Council. Overall of the research, all of the two objectives answer in this research which are to determine whether environmental functions provided by local government satisfies the users and to identify which extent users satisfies of environmental functions provided by local government. Conclusion/Recommendations: The recommendation was made to the local

  4. Public Expectations in Local Governance: Unit Committees under ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-05-01

    May 1, 2017 ... Regarding water supply, many respondents complained about poor water ... waste (interview with community members, Gomoa East, 25 and 27 .... energy and money (interviews with local government official, Agona ..... Monitor the implementation of any enactment regulating the use of chain saws in the.

  5. Voice of the People: Representative Government in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bliss, Pam, Ed.; Heinz, Ann, Ed.; Kaplan, Howard, Ed.; Landman, James, Ed.

    2001-01-01

    This magazine aims to help high school teachers of civics, government, history, law, and law-related education program developers educate students about legal issues. This issue focuses on voting. It contains 11 articles: (1) "The Project of Democracy" (A. Keyssar) demonstrates how the story of the right to vote represents a slow and fitful…

  6. Elementary Functions, Student's Text, Unit 21.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Frank B.; And Others

    Unit 21 in the SMSG secondary school mathematics series is a student text covering the following topics in elementary functions: functions, polynomial functions, tangents to graphs of polynomial functions, exponential and logarithmic functions, and circular functions. Appendices discuss set notation, mathematical induction, significance of…

  7. 29 CFR 510.25 - Traditional functions of government.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... IMPLEMENTATION OF THE MINIMUM WAGE PROVISIONS OF THE 1989 AMENDMENTS TO THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT IN PUERTO... “pursuant to an amendment made by the Fair Labor Standards Amendments of 1985.” The Department has... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Traditional functions of government. 510.25 Section 510.25...

  8. Governing Boards in Public Higher Education Institutions: A Perspective from the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, James S.; Machado, Maria de Lourdes

    2008-01-01

    Governing boards have a long tradition and prominent role in U.S. higher education. The diversity of institutional types, and thus governing boards, represents a multifaceted tapestry of functions, roles, and responsibilities. This paper will attempt to define the parameters of public higher education governing boards in the USA and offer critical…

  9. Identifying influential directors in the United States corporate governance network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xuqing; Vodenska, Irena; Wang, Fengzhong; Havlin, Shlomo; Stanley, H. Eugene

    2011-10-01

    The influence of directors has been one of the most engaging topics recently, but surprisingly little research has been done to quantitatively evaluate the influence and power of directors. We analyze the structure of the US corporate governance network for the 11-year period 1996-2006 based on director data from the Investor Responsibility Research Center director database, and we develop a centrality measure named the influence factor to estimate the influence of directors quantitatively. The US corporate governance network is a network of directors with nodes representing directors and links between two directors representing their service on common company boards. We assume that information flows in the network through information-sharing processes among linked directors. The influence factor assigned to a director is based on the level of information that a director obtains from the entire network. We find that, contrary to commonly accepted belief that directors of large companies, measured by market capitalization, are the most powerful, in some instances, the directors who are influential do not necessarily serve on boards of large companies. By applying our influence factor method to identify the influential people contained in the lists created by popular magazines such as Fortune, Networking World, and Treasury and Risk Management, we find that the influence factor method is consistently either the best or one of the two best methods in identifying powerful people compared to other general centrality measures that are used to denote the significance of a node in complex network theory.

  10. Financial independence of local government units in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogusław Kotarba

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the proposed paper the financial autonomy of a local government is understood as an independence of local authorities in shaping the ir budgets: deciding about the revenues and expenses. Discrepancies between the level of decentralization in public services and decentralization in public finances is the constant issue of public debates as well as a frequent subject of academic discussions. The aim of the paper is to assess the actual potentials of local authorities in the formation of their budgets. The key hypothesis is that local authorities, having limited control over their finances, cannot be entirely accountable for the quality of delivered services. The authors analyze the current legal regulations and institutional solutions as well as the structure of local income and expenses. They also discuss the activities of local governments to shape their budgets and in that way upgrade the quality of public services delivered locally, especially focused on the education as one of the most difficult and cost consuming public tasks.

  11. Identifying influential directors in the United States corporate governance network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xuqing; Vodenska, Irena; Wang, Fengzhong; Havlin, Shlomo; Stanley, H Eugene

    2011-10-01

    The influence of directors has been one of the most engaging topics recently, but surprisingly little research has been done to quantitatively evaluate the influence and power of directors. We analyze the structure of the US corporate governance network for the 11-year period 1996-2006 based on director data from the Investor Responsibility Research Center director database, and we develop a centrality measure named the influence factor to estimate the influence of directors quantitatively. The US corporate governance network is a network of directors with nodes representing directors and links between two directors representing their service on common company boards. We assume that information flows in the network through information-sharing processes among linked directors. The influence factor assigned to a director is based on the level of information that a director obtains from the entire network. We find that, contrary to commonly accepted belief that directors of large companies, measured by market capitalization, are the most powerful, in some instances, the directors who are influential do not necessarily serve on boards of large companies. By applying our influence factor method to identify the influential people contained in the lists created by popular magazines such as Fortune, Networking World, and Treasury and Risk Management, we find that the influence factor method is consistently either the best or one of the two best methods in identifying powerful people compared to other general centrality measures that are used to denote the significance of a node in complex network theory.

  12. Governing new technology: A comparative analysis of government support for nanotechnology in the Netherlands and the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eijmberts, Johannes

    This study examines this variance in national government support for nanotechnology---its shape, size, and policy priorities---by comparing the United States and the Netherlands. Our operating hypothesis is that national government support for nanotechnology development is driven not by the intrinsic nature of the technology but by longstanding structural and institutional arrangements. That is, in the U.S., pluralist political traditions and reliance on classical liberal market economics would suggest a detached national government approach, leaving any initiative to market actors. At the same time, legacies of corporatism in the Dutch political system and a tradition of greater direct government involvement in the national economy would suggest a government-led policy on nanotechnology development. The findings show otherwise. Early on, the U.S. government established the National Nanotechnology Initiative, an overarching federal mechanism to promote and coordinate nanotechnology development. Yet, despite its appearance of central direction and coordination, the NNI reflected pluralist arrangements by leaving ample autonomy for participating federal departments and agencies. The creation of the NNI was driven particularly by concerns of about foreign challenges to American global leadership in science and technology. In the Netherlands, by contrast, the path taken shows the legacy of Dutch corporatist practice---slow, incremental, and embedded in pre-existing institutional arrangements. The Dutch government initially took no directive role, relying instead on established links among universities, public research funding organizations, and industries to advance nanotechnology development in the Netherlands. However, over time, Dutch government involvement in nanotechnology grew to be more supportive, sizeable, comprehensive, and directive---particulary by requiring substantial investments in risk-related research as a condition for public funding and, notably, by

  13. 19 CFR 10.104 - Temporary importation entries for United States Government agencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Government agencies. 10.104 Section 10.104 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. General Provisions United States Government Importations § 10.104 Temporary importation entries for...

  14. Modelling local government unit credit risk in the Republic of Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Posedel

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to determine possible indicators that affect local unit credit risk and investigate their effect on default (credit risk of local government units in Croatia. No system for the estimation of local unit credit risk has been established in Croatia so far causing many practical problems in local unit borrowing. Because of the specific nature of the operations of local government units and legislation that does not allow local government units to go into bankruptcy, conventional methods for estimating credit risk are not applicable, and the set of standard potential determinants of credit risk has to be expanded with new indicators. Thus in the paper, in addition to the usual determinants of credit risk, the hypothesis of the influence of political factors on local unit credit risk in Croatia is also tested out, with the use of a Tobit model. Results of econometric analysis show that credit risk of local government units in Croatia is affected by the political structure of local government, the proportion of income tax and surtax in operating revenue, the ratio of net operating balance, net financial liabilities and direct debt to operating revenue, as well as the ratio of debt repayment and cash, and direct debt and operating revenue.

  15. 43 CFR 44.57 - Can a unit of general local government appeal a rejection of a protest?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Can a unit of general local government... the Interior FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE, LOCAL GOVERNMENTS State and Local Governments' Responsibilities After the Department Distributes Payments § 44.57 Can a unit of general local government appeal...

  16. 43 CFR 44.55 - Can a unit of general local government protest the results of payment computations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Can a unit of general local government... Secretary of the Interior FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE, LOCAL GOVERNMENTS State and Local Governments' Responsibilities After the Department Distributes Payments § 44.55 Can a unit of general local government...

  17. 10 CFR 455.141 - Grant awards for units of local government, public care institutions, and coordinating agencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Grant awards for units of local government, public care... CONSERVATION GRANT PROGRAMS FOR SCHOOLS AND HOSPITALS AND BUILDINGS OWNED BY UNITS OF LOCAL GOVERNMENT AND PUBLIC CARE INSTITUTIONS Grant Awards § 455.141 Grant awards for units of local government, public...

  18. A United Nations Global Health Panel for Global Health Governance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackey, Tim K; Liang, Bryan A

    2013-01-01

    The World Health Organization now relies upon voluntary contributions tied to specific projects, underwriting 75% of operations. A resulting cacophony of non-governmental, foundation, and private sector actors have emerged overlapping and fractionating WHO programs. In this expanding world of "global health organizations," WHO's role must be redefined. We propose coordination of global health initiatives through a United Nations Global Health Panel with active participation of WHO. Given recent events, the UN is poised to take a greater leadership role in global health.

  19. United States Local Government Reform: The Emergence of the City Manager

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert McEVOY

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available City Managers came into being in the early 1900.s because of the corruption, waste, and lack of responsiveness of local governments in the United States. Business leaders in large cities had begun to recognise that major changes in their local governments were desperately needed for their businesses to grow and prosper. Andrew Carnegie, a founder of United States Steel, had indicated that business needed a stable society to prosper. Local government had to become responsive to the changing needs of the poor, abused and neglected children, the mentally ill and the elderly, to cite a few examples.

  20. Nurse manager perspective of staff participation in unit level shared governance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox Sullivan, Sheila; Norris, Mitzi R; Brown, Lana M; Scott, Karen J

    2017-08-30

    To examine the nurse manager perspective surrounding implementation of unit level shared governance in one Veterans Health Administration facility. Nursing shared governance is a formal model allowing nursing staff decision-making input into clinical practice, quality improvement, evidence-based practice and staff professional development. Unit level shared governance is a management process where decision authority is delegated to nursing staff at the unit level. Convenience sampling was used to recruit ten nurse managers who participated in face-to-face semi-structured interviews. Data were analysed using content analysis and constant comparison techniques. Demographic data were described using descriptive statistics. The participants included seven female and three male nurse managers with seven Caucasian and three African American. Participant quotes were clustered to identify sub-themes that were then grouped into four global themes to describe unit level shared governance. The global themes were: (1) motivation, (2) demotivation, (3) recommendations for success, and (4) outcomes. These research findings resonate with previous studies that shared governance may be associated with increased nurse empowerment, self-management, engagement, and satisfaction. These findings reflect the need for nurse managers to promote and recognize staff participation in unit level shared governance. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Company Law Modernisation and Corporate Governance in the United Kingdom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman Tomasic

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Many elements of British company law are deeply embedded in nineteenth-century assumptions. Change has come very slowly when efforts have been made to modernise company law in the United Kingdom. The passage of the Companies Act 2006 was a significant advance after a lengthy period of debate and consultation, but the outcome is far from perfect. This legislation has, however, introduced some important new concepts into this body of British law. The Act sought to simplify company law and to start with a small firm focus as these comprise the vast majority of companies. For the first time, the Act also codified the duties of directors and introduced the concept of ‘enlightened shareholder value’, to give greater attention to stakeholders other than shareholders and to encourage companies to adopt more long-term perspectives. This paper explores some of these important changes.

  2. An Evaluation of United States Government Immigration Education Materials [and] Investigation of United States Immigration Education Correspondence Courses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielson, Lynn E.

    An analysis of eight current government publications on citizenship for immigrants to the United States and results of a survey investigating immigration education correspondence courses are provided. In the first part, subjective evaluations of eight textbooks, based on seven designated criteria (copyright, readability, subject matter,…

  3. Unit Circles and Inverse Trigonometric Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrera, Azael

    2014-01-01

    Historical accounts of trigonometry refer to the works of many Indian and Arab astronomers on the origin of the trigonometric functions as we know them now, in particular Abu al-Wafa (ca. 980 CE), who determined and named all known trigonometric functions from segments constructed on a regular circle and later on a unit circle (Moussa 2011;…

  4. 75 FR 52582 - Notice of Proposal To Extend the Agreement Between the Government of the United States of America...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-26

    ... Government of the Republic of Colombia Concerning the Imposition of Import Restrictions on Archaeological... Colombia The Government of the Republic of Colombia has informed the Government of the United States of its... Government of the Republic of Colombia Concerning the Imposition of Import Restrictions on...

  5. Management of government quality assurance functions for NASA contracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    This handbook sets forth requirements for NASA direction and management of government quality assurance functions performed for NASA contracts and is applicable to all NASA installations. These requirements will standardize management to provide the minimum oversight and effective use of resources. This handbook implements Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR) Part 46, NASA FAR Supplement 18-46, Quality Assurance, and NMI 7410.1. Achievement of established quality and reliability goals at all levels is essential to the success of NASA programs. Active participation by NASA and other agency quality assurance personnel in all phases of contract operations, including precontract activity, will assist in the economic and timely achievement of program results. This involves broad participation in design, development, procurement, inspection, testing, and preventive and corrective actions. Consequently, government, as well as industry, must place strong emphasis on the accomplishment of all functions having a significant bearing on quality and reliability from program initiation through end-use of supplies and services produced. For purposes of implementing NASA and other agency agreements, and to provide for uniformity and consistency, the terminology and definitions prescribed herein and in a future handbook shall be utilized for all NASA quality assurance delegations and subsequent redelegations.

  6. The Emergence of Governance and the Function of Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Poul F.

    2015-01-01

    Within the context of evolutionary governance theory (Van Assche et al. (Evolutionary governance theory: an introduction. Springer, 2014)), this contribution develops a particularly coevolutionary view of governance by understanding governance frameworks as forms of transfer. World society consists......, law and legal instruments gain a central role since legal formalization is the central element that enables successful transfers to take place....

  7. 78 FR 12369 - United States Government Policy for Institutional Oversight of Life Sciences Dual Use Research of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-22

    ... Public comments are sought on the entirety of the proposed United States Government Policy for... TECHNOLOGY POLICY United States Government Policy for Institutional Oversight of Life Sciences Dual Use... responsible conduct and communication of such research. The proposed Policy herein, United States...

  8. 75 FR 33734 - Regulations Affecting Publication of the United States Government Manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-15

    ... the United States Government Manual AGENCY: Administrative Committee of the Federal Register. ACTION... Organization Manual, produced under the authority of regulations of the Administrative Committee, was issued on... serve the needs of Federal officials, the Administrative Committee believes that distributing the Manual...

  9. Leadership Development in Governments of the United Arab Emirates: Re-Framing a Wicked Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathias, Megan

    2017-01-01

    Developing the next generation of leaders in government is seen as a strategic challenge of national importance in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). This article examines the wicked nature of the UAE's leadership development challenge, identifying patterns of complexity, uncertainty, and divergence in the strategic intentions underlying current…

  10. University governance and academic research : case studies of research units in Dutch and English universities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leisyte, Liudvika

    2007-01-01

    The central research question of our study addresses the effects of governing models on the research practices of basic research units in public universities in the fields of medieval history and biotechnology. We have used two organisational theories: resource dependence and neo-institutional

  11. Synthetic biology regulation and governance: Lessons from TAPIC for the United States, European Union, and Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trump, Benjamin D

    2017-08-02

    Synthetic biology is an emerging technology with potential benefits to various fields, yet also contains potential risks to human and environmental health. The field remains in an emerging state with limited quantitative guidance and a small but growing population of international researchers that conduct work within this field. Given the uncertain nature of this technology, an adaptive and anticipatory governance framework may be necessary to balance the potential benefits that may accrue from the technology's continued research alongside a desire to reduce or eliminate potential risks that may arise. However, such developments must account for the unique political and institutional factors that form a government's risk culture - something that can facilitate or impede the development of adaptive synthetic biology governance moving forward. The TAPIC framework helps illustrate those factors that are essential to develop good governance for emerging technologies like synthetic biology. Specifically, an application of TAPIC to synthetic biology governance indicates that the factors of accountability, participation, and integrity must be bolstered to improve technology governance in governments like with the United States, European Union, and Singapore. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Local self governance in health - a study of it's functioning in Odisha, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panda, Bhuputra; Zodpey, Sanjay P; Thakur, Harshad P

    2016-10-31

    Local decision making is linked to several service quality improvement parameters. Rogi Kalyan Samitis (RKS) at peripheral decision making health units (DMHU) are composite bodies that are mandated to ensure accountability and transparency in governance, improve quality of services, and facilitate local responsiveness. There is scant literature on the nature of functioning of these institutions in Odisha. This study aimed to assess the perception of RKS members about their roles, involvement and practices with respect to local decision making and management of DMHUs; it further examined perceptual and functional differences between priority and non-priority district set-ups; and identified predictors of involvement of RKS members in local governance of health units. As members of RKS, health service providers, officials in administrative/managerial role, elected representatives, and officials from other departments (including independent members) constituted our study sample. A total of 112 respondents were interviewed across 6 districts, through a multi-stage stratified random sampling; we used a semi-structured interview schedule that comprised mainly of close-ended and some open-ended questions. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used to compare 3 priority (PD) and 3 non-priority districts (NPD), categorized on the basis of Infant Mortality Rate (IMR) estimates of 2011 as proxy of population health. Governance, human resource management, financial management and quality improvement functions were studied in detail. Opinion about various individual and organizational factors in local self-governance and predictors of involvement were identified. The socio-demographic profile and composition of respondents were comparable between PD and NPD. Majority of respondents were 'satisfied' with their current roles in the governance of local health institutions. About one-fourth opined that the amount of funds allocated to RKS under National Health Mission (NHM

  13. 76 FR 48905 - United States Government Inter-Agency Anti-Counterfeiting Working Group: Request for Public...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-09

    ... Comments Regarding Strategy to Eliminate Counterfeit Products from the United States Government Supply... significant effort to eliminate counterfeit products from the U.S. Government supply chain. In June 2010, Vice... counterfeit products entering the U.S. Government supply chain and for curbing their entry into that supply...

  14. 76 FR 32011 - Memorandum of Understanding Between the Government of the United States of America and the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE... Republic of Bolivia Notice of Proposal to Extend the Memorandum of Understanding Between the Government of the United States of America and the Government of the Republic of Bolivia Concerning the...

  15. University Governance in the United Kingdom, the Netherlands and Japan : Correlates of varieties of NPM and academics’ power in universities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerheijden, Donald F.

    2017-01-01

    Comparing and contrasting reforms of governance arrangements in higher education systems in Japan with those in Europe (the United Kingdom and the Netherlands provide two very different examples), the paper focuses on the consequences of state-level governance reform for shared governance in the

  16. AUDIT OF MUNICIPALITIES AND LOCAL GOVERNMENT UNITS - THE CASE STUDY OF THE CZECH REPUBLIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard POSPISIL

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Public economics examines the influence of the state on economic equality and efficiency, and on conduction of business entities in connection with the various tax systems and individual behavior in private consumption. To manage the public economy is thorough knowledge of the real decision-making and allocation mechanisms. From a budgetary perspective, the public economy in the Czech Republic is characterized mainly by the state budget, 6,249 municipal budgets and 14 budgets of local government units. These all units are together subject to annual statutory audit, which mainly represents the analysis of the system of the Audit informative and monitoring indicators (ASIMI. The paper analyzes the outcome of the audit with the use of absolute and relative indicators and suggests possible changes and consolidation of municipal and local government budgets in the Czech Republic.

  17. The Best Adders of Opportunity Government Skills Initiatives in the United Kingdom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Simmons

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The focus of this paper is United Kingdom (UK govern¬ment initiatives over the last thirty years, or so, which have been designed to both up-skill the workforce and to improve the country’s international com¬petitive position. It also considers the impact which these educational inter¬ventions have had on the economic and human capital of the various stake¬holders including the government, employers and learners. It comes to the conclusion that, whilst some progress has been made in developing the human capital and the economic capital of the stakeholders these interventions have not significantly improved the United Kingdom’s global competitive position. The paper also points to the current political uncertainty in that country.

  18. The United States Government Interagency Process and the Failure of Institution Building in Iraq

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-06-12

    LTG Martin Dempsey, to make the case for an increase in the investment by the United States Government (USG) in the development of a self-sufficient...the exception of 5 Feil , Scott R. “The Failure of Incrementalism: Interagency Coordination Challenges and Responses.” In The Interagency and...society invested in establishing a stable democratic, and economically viable Iraq.” (SIGIR-06-045, 2007) 35 Interview, Scott Feil , 27 November 2007. 22

  19. Data mining for assessing the credit risk of local government units in Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvija Vlah Jerić

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the past few decades, data mining techniques, especially artificial neural networks, have been used for modelling many real-world problems. This paper aims to test the performance of three methods: (1 an artificial neural network (ANN, (2 a hybrid artificial neural network and genetic algorithm approach (ANN-GA, and (2 the Tobit regression approach in determining the credit risk of local government units in Croatia. The evaluation of credit risk and prediction of debtor bankruptcy have long been regarded as an important topic in accounting and finance literature. In this research, credit risk is modelled under a regression approach unlike typical credit risk analysis, which is generally viewed as a classification problem. Namely, a standard evaluation of credit risk is not possible due to a lack of bankruptcy data. Thus, the credit risk of a local unit is approximated using the ratio of outstanding liabilities maturing in a given year to total expenditure of the local unit in the same period. The results indicate that the ANN-GA hybrid approach performs significantly better than the Tobit model by providing a significantly smaller average mean squared error. This work is beneficial to researchers and the government in evaluating a local government unit’s credit score.

  20. AUDIT FUNCTION ROLE IN ACHIEVING AN EFFICIENT CORPORATE GOVERNANCE – CONCEPTUAL MODEL PROPOSAL

    OpenAIRE

    Melinda Timea Fülöp

    2013-01-01

    Nowadays corporate governance plays an important role in decisions making processes, which represents a relatively new approach for both Romanian scientific studies and practice. As a consequence we consider the increased attention given to corporate governance to be crucial, especially addressing the role of the audit function and the importance of the corporate governance code. Audit function is of particular practical importance in corporate governance, therefore we decided ...

  1. On the Apportionment of Administrative Governance Functions within Multi-Campus Universities and University Systems. Research & Occasional Paper Series: CSHE.16.13

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, C. Judson

    2013-01-01

    Most public universities in the United States are formed into systems, containing more than one university or campus. There are clear rationales for these systems, including overall planning and coordination, budgeting efficiency, and effectiveness of dealings with the state government. The distribution of internal governance functions between the…

  2. Physical health functioning among United Methodist clergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proeschold-Bell, Rae Jean; LeGrand, Sara

    2012-09-01

    United Methodist clergy have been found to have higher than average self-reported rates of obesity, diabetes, asthma, arthritis, and high blood pressure. However, health diagnoses differ from physical health functioning, which indicates how much health problems interfere with activities of daily living. Ninety-five percent (n = 1726) of all actively serving United Methodist clergy in North Carolina completed the SF-12, a measure of physical health functioning that has US norms based on self-administered survey data. Sixty-two percent (n = 1074) of our sample completed the SF-12 by self-administered formats. We used mean difference tests among self-administered clergy surveys to compare the clergy SF-12 Physical Composite Scores to US-normed scores. Clergy reported significantly better physical health composite scores than their gender- and age-matched peers, despite above average disease burden in the same sample. Although health interventions tailored to clergy that address chronic disease are urgently needed, it may be difficult to elicit participation given pastors' optimistic view of their physical health functioning.

  3. A More Accurate Measure of Local Public Goods: Overlapping Government Combinations as Units of Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel B. Stone

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study posits and tests the viability of a new unit of analysis for local public goods in metropolitan areas: overlapping government combinations (OGCs. Counties, municipalities, school districts, and other special districts operate simultaneously within the same space, each providing their own set of local public goods. Residents of the same city can live within the boundaries of different counties, school districts and other special districts and thus receive (and pay for very different quantities and qualities of public goods. Though there is a great deal of literature devoted to the variation of local public goods in a fragmented metropolitan region, there is none that cumulates the different local government types into units that represent the true bundles of local public goods that are provided to citizens and property owners. This study tackles this problem through the application of geographic information systems (GIS to stack counties, municipalities, and school districts in the Dallas-Fort Worth-Arlington CMSA into unique OGCs. The unique OGCs are compared to their underlying component governments with respect to property tax rates and school performance and are found to be statistically distinct.

  4. Effects of the core functions of government on the diversity of executive agendas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jennings, W.; Bevan, S.; Timmermans, A.; Breeman, G.E.; Brouard, S.; Chaqués-Bonafont, L.; Green-Pedersen, C.; John, P.; Mortensen, P.B.; Palau Roque, A.

    2011-01-01

    The distribution of attention across issues is of fundamental importance to the political agenda and outputs of government. This article presents an issue-based theory of the diversity of governing agendas where the core functions of government—defense, international affairs, the economy, government

  5. AUDIT FUNCTION ROLE IN ACHIEVING AN EFFICIENT CORPORATE GOVERNANCE – CONCEPTUAL MODEL PROPOSAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melinda Timea Fülöp

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays corporate governance plays an important role in decisions making processes, which represents a relatively new approach for both Romanian scientific studies and practice. As a consequence we consider the increased attention given to corporate governance to be crucial, especially addressing the role of the audit function and the importance of the corporate governance code. Audit function is of particular practical importance in corporate governance, therefore we decided meticulously to consider it, and especially to develop a conceptual framework for its role in support of an effective corporate governance. We consider that there are two levels and seven key elements utilized in order to achieve an effective corporate governance. In conclusion, audit function as a whole, with an active role in improving corporate governance, should perform correlated in terms of its components: internal audit, external audit and audit committees.

  6. The Effects of Korean Medical Service Quality and Satisfaction on Revisit Intention of the United Arab Emirates Government Sponsored Patients

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Seoyoung Lee; Eun-Kyung Kim

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate medical service quality, satisfaction and to examine factors influencing hospital revisit intention of the United Arab Emirates government sponsored patients in Korea...

  7. Supervision of the work of executive and administrative bodies of units of local self government in Croatia

    OpenAIRE

    Dario ?erđa; Teodor Antić

    2016-01-01

    The specificity of supervision over the work of executive and administrative bodies of local self-government lies in the contradiction between administrative characteristics of units of local self-government and its self-administrative characteristics. Therefore, it should be organised in a way that respects the self-administration powers of local self-government, but at the same time, protects legality in the entire legal system. This paper investigates the supervision of executive and admin...

  8. 20 CFR 404.1018a - Work by civilians for the United States Government or its instrumentalities-remuneration paid...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Government or its instrumentalities-remuneration paid prior to 1984. 404.1018a Section 404.1018a Employees... by civilians for the United States Government or its instrumentalities—remuneration paid prior to 1984. (a) General—remuneration paid prior to 1984. If you worked as a civilian employee of the...

  9. 22 CFR 63.6 - Assignment of United States Government employees to consult, lecture, teach, engage in research...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... employees to consult, lecture, teach, engage in research, or demonstrate special skills. 63.6 Section 63.6... Government employees to consult, lecture, teach, engage in research, or demonstrate special skills. An employee of the United States Government who has been assigned for service abroad to consult,...

  10. Method of synchronizing independent functional unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Changhoan

    2017-05-16

    A system for synchronizing parallel processing of a plurality of functional processing units (FPU), a first FPU and a first program counter to control timing of a first stream of program instructions issued to the first FPU by advancement of the first program counter; a second FPU and a second program counter to control timing of a second stream of program instructions issued to the second FPU by advancement of the second program counter, the first FPU is in communication with a second FPU to synchronize the issuance of a first stream of program instructions to the second stream of program instructions and the second FPU is in communication with the first FPU to synchronize the issuance of the second stream program instructions to the first stream of program instructions.

  11. Method of synchronizing independent functional unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Changhoan

    2017-02-14

    A system for synchronizing parallel processing of a plurality of functional processing units (FPU), a first FPU and a first program counter to control timing of a first stream of program instructions issued to the first FPU by advancement of the first program counter; a second FPU and a second program counter to control timing of a second stream of program instructions issued to the second FPU by advancement of the second program counter, the first FPU is in communication with a second FPU to synchronize the issuance of a first stream of program instructions to the second stream of program instructions and the second FPU is in communication with the first FPU to synchronize the issuance of the second stream program instructions to the first stream of program instructions.

  12. A Functional Equation Governing the Motion of a Compressible Fluid Flow

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The fundamental problem of the statistical dynamics of a turbulent flow, formulated in terms of characteristic functionals, has already been pointed out in the work of E. Hopf. In his work he deduced a functional equation governing the evolution of the characteristic functional of a turbulent velocity field in an incompressible field. In this paper we present a derivation of a dynamical equation governing the evolution of the characteristic functional of a turbulent velocity field in a compressible field. However, the characteristic functional equations we derived are governing the motions of an ideal gas and van der Waals gas.

  13. Local self governance in health - a study of it’s functioning in Odisha, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhuputra Panda

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Local decision making is linked to several service quality improvement parameters. Rogi Kalyan Samitis (RKS at peripheral decision making health units (DMHU are composite bodies that are mandated to ensure accountability and transparency in governance, improve quality of services, and facilitate local responsiveness. There is scant literature on the nature of functioning of these institutions in Odisha. This study aimed to assess the perception of RKS members about their roles, involvement and practices with respect to local decision making and management of DMHUs; it further examined perceptual and functional differences between priority and non-priority district set-ups; and identified predictors of involvement of RKS members in local governance of health units. Methods As members of RKS, health service providers, officials in administrative/managerial role, elected representatives, and officials from other departments (including independent members constituted our study sample. A total of 112 respondents were interviewed across 6 districts, through a multi-stage stratified random sampling; we used a semi-structured interview schedule that comprised mainly of close-ended and some open-ended questions. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used to compare 3 priority (PD and 3 non-priority districts (NPD, categorized on the basis of Infant Mortality Rate (IMR estimates of 2011 as proxy of population health. Governance, human resource management, financial management and quality improvement functions were studied in detail. Opinion about various individual and organizational factors in local self-governance and predictors of involvement were identified. Results The socio-demographic profile and composition of respondents were comparable between PD and NPD. Majority of respondents were ‘satisfied’ with their current roles in the governance of local health institutions. About one-fourth opined that the amount of funds

  14. The mechanisms of corporate governance in the United States: an assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldrighi Dante Mendes

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at evaluating the mechanisms of corporate governance currently at work in the United States. Section 1 turns its focus to the reasons accounting for the still relative scarceness of large shareholders in American publicly held companies. The analysis thereafter concentrates on assessing the efficacy of each of the pillars purportedly buttressing the American system of corporate control. The paper argues that the evidence provided by the existing corporate governance literature supports the following propositions: 1 the legal and regulatory framework actually restrains the scope for expropriating minority shareholders, though at the cost of inhibiting institutional investor activism; 2 as a rule, the board of directors do not comply with their mandatory duty of overseeing management, although some progress has recently been made, with directors in several companies becoming less submissive to chief executive officers; 3 the market for corporate control encounters a great number of difficulties (ranging from legal hurdles to high transaction costs and to serious free-riding problems, which are sufficient to cast a cloud on its reliability as a means of repressing managerial inefficiencies and rent-seeking; 4 competition in the product and capital markets is likely to produce effects only in the long-run.

  15. Coal Fires in the United States: A Case Study in Government Inattention

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCurdy, K. M.

    2006-12-01

    Coal fires occur in all coal producing nations. Like most other environmental problems fires are not confined by political boundaries. Important economic coal seams in the United States are found across the Inter-montaine west, the Midwest, and Appalachia. The age of these deposits differs, as does the grade and sulfur content of the coal, the mining techniques utilized for exploitation of this resource, and the markets in which the coal is traded. Coal fires are ordinary occurrences under extraordinary conditions. Every coal bed exposed in an underground or surface mine has the potential to ignite. These fires are spread thinly over the political geography and over time, so that constituencies rarely coalesce to petition government to address the coal fire problem. Coal fires produce serious problems with long term consequences for society. They threaten mine safety, consume a non-renewable resource, and produce toxic gases with serious health effects for local populations. Additionally, as coal production in the developing world intensifies, these problems worsen. The lack of government attention to coal fires is due to the confluence of at least four independent political factors: 1) The separated powers, federated system in which decisions in the United States are made; 2) Low levels of political energy available in Congress to be expended on coal fires, measured by the magnitude of legislative majorities and seniority; 3) The mid-twentieth century model of scientific and technical information moving indirectly to legislators through the bureaucratic agencies; 4) The chronic and diffuse nature of fires across space and time.

  16. Professor Sir Mark Walport Government Chief Scientific Adviser Head of Government Science and Engineering Profession Chief Executive Designate of UK Research and Innovation United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland

    CERN Multimedia

    Bennett, Sophia Elizabeth

    2017-01-01

    Professor Sir Mark Walport Government Chief Scientific Adviser Head of Government Science and Engineering Profession Chief Executive Designate of UK Research and Innovation United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland

  17. Effects of government incentives on wind innovation in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horner, Nathaniel; Azevedo, Inês; Hounshell, David

    2013-12-01

    In the United States, as elsewhere, state and federal governments have considered or implemented a range of policies to create more sustainable energy generation systems in response to concerns over climate change, security of fuel supply, and environmental impacts. These policies include both regulatory instruments such as renewable portfolio standards (RPSs) and market incentives such as tax credits. While these policies are primarily geared towards increasing renewable generation capacity, they can indirectly affect innovation in associated technologies through a ‘demand-pull’ dynamic. Other policies, such as public research and development (R&D) funding, directly incentivize innovation through ‘technology-push’ means. In this letter, we examine these effects on innovation in the United States wind energy industry. We estimate a set of econometric models relating a set of US federal and state policies to patenting activity in wind technologies over the period 1974-2009. We find that RPS policies have had significant positive effects on wind innovation, whereas tax-based incentives have not been particularly effective. We also find evidence that the effects of RPS incentives differ between states. Finally, we find that public R&D funding can be a significant driver of wind innovation, though its effect in the US has been modest.

  18. ACCOUNTING AND FINANCIAL REPORTS IN THE FUNCTION OF CORPORATE GOVERNANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jugoslav Aničić

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Market economy development is highly dependent upon accounting data reliability and financial report quality because the investors decide more easily on investments in the market which had earned trust and safety in the previous period. Big financial scandals from the beginning of the 21st century and still actual financial crisis at the global level have especially contributed to that. The information prepared on the basis of high quality, transparent and comparable international standards considerably reduce investment risks as well as the cost of raising capital. On the other hand, the management of a large number of companies is focused on the creation of short-term personal benefits as opposed to the investors primarily interested in company survival and growth, that is, long-term goals. Information asymmetry is often present in the financial markets, and its damaging results, as a rule, are borne by shareholders and other stakeholders of the company. Corporate governance depends on legal, regulative and institutional environment, and it should balance the interests of the shareholders, capital owners, managers as well as company business managers.

  19. The Evolving Contingency Contracting Market: Private Sector Self regulation and United States Government Monitoring of Procurement of Stability Operations Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    focused on sex trafficking . In recent years, there has been a pronounced shift to- wards labor trafficking . Legal guest workers are at risk of being...allegations of Trafficking in Persons (TIP)5. In 2002, the United States adopted a zero tolerance TIP policy regarding U.S. government employees and... trafficking and improving security and risk control through local engagement. Finally, the paper concludes with a discussion of government-led re

  20. An Evaluation of Emergency Preparedness of Local Government Unit on National Calamities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ROME B. MORALISTA

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This descriptive survey method was used to evaluate the Emergency Preparedness practices of Local Government Unit Municipality of Calinog on the National Calamities specifically the Typhoon Haiyan hit the town last November 8, 2013. The findings revealed that in preparing for the storm, the respondents preferred to contact a local geologist or country planning department; in making sure the family knows the name, address, and phone number of the contact person, they prefer to post emergency phone numbers at every phone; during flood watch and warning, the respondents preferred to gather the emergency supplies you previously stocked in your home and stay tuned to local radio or television station for updates; when it comes to an emergency supplies at home, the respondents have several cleaned containers of water, large enough for a 3-5 day supply of water; in preparing to evacuate, they prefer to fill their vehicle’s gas tank and make sure the emergency kit for their car is ready. Finally, when ordered to evacuate, the respondents preferred to take only essential items.

  1. Human Trafficking in the United States. Part II. Survey of U.S. Government Web Resources for Publications and Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panigabutra-Roberts, Anchalee

    2012-01-01

    This second part of a two-part series is a survey of U.S. government web resources on human trafficking in the United States, particularly of the online publications and data included on agencies' websites. Overall, the goal is to provide an introduction, an overview, and a guide on this topic for library staff to use in their research and…

  2. Changing Internal Governance: Are Leadership Roles and Management Structures in United Kingdom Universities Fit for the Future?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middlehurst, Robin

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines changes and developments in institutions' internal governance during the last decade, identifying points of continuity in the policy and political environment in the United Kingdom as well as points of difference. External drivers are discussed as part of the increasingly dynamic and volatile operating conditions for…

  3. Giving Africa voice within global governance : oral history, human rights and the United Nations (UN) Human Rights Council

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ndlovu-Gatsheni, S.J.

    2007-01-01

    The African continent and its people occupy a 'subaltern' position in global politics where voices from the African continent remain on the peripheries of global governance. Since the United Nations Human Rights Council, set up in 1996, is envisaged to be a forum for dialogue on thematic issues on

  4. Contractual Alliance Governance: Impact of Different Contract Functions on Alliance Performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faems, D.L.M.; Alberink, Rutger; Groen, Arend J.; Klein Woolthuis, Rosalinde

    2010-01-01

    Recent research on alliance governance has emphasized that contracts can have both a control and coordination function. In this paper, we test the impact of these different contract functions on alliance performance. Conducting structural equation analyses on a sample of 270 Dutch technology

  5. The role of local government units in attracting FDI. The case of the Lodz Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Dorozynski

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on the activities of local government units (LGUs in the Lodz voivodeship (Poland. More importantly, it compares the activities of local authorities in selected EU Member States of Central and Eastern Europe. Despite the fact, that foreign investors consider Central and Eastern Europe one area, the countries in the region differ significantly with respect to economic achievements, foreign direct investment (FDI absorption capacity, and the approach to investment incentives. In the literature some studies tried to identify some non-economic determinants of foreign direct investment. A consistent modelling of foreign direct investment flows needs to take account of not only the traditional determinants enumerated in literature, but also variables linked to the institutional environment, in which such investment takes place. Carlo Altomonte (2000 showed that an efficient institutional framework is a crucial determinant of foreign direct investment. That is why it is worth assessing whether the activities of regional authorities may contribute to an increased investment attractiveness of a region in the eyes of foreign investors. The aim is to evaluate local government’s efforts undertaken to attract FDI in view of a comparative analysis for regions in three countries: Hungary, Poland and Romania, and a direct research involving representatives of all counties and 36% of communes in the voivodeship of Lodz . The article centres around four aspects. First, it presents comparative analysis for selected Central and Eastern Europe (CEE regions and it reviews instruments used by the LGUs to attract FDIs. Then, it provides the evaluation of communes and counties’ preferences when it comes to attracting FDIs. The third analysed aspect is the impact of FDIs on local economies. Finally, we also identify impediments to the inflow of FDIs to communes and counties. The paper was prepared on the basis of the results of a questionnaire

  6. 29 CFR 453.9 - “Handling” of funds or other property by personnel functioning as a governing body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... functioning as a governing body. 453.9 Section 453.9 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor OFFICE OF LABOR... Bonded § 453.9 “Handling” of funds or other property by personnel functioning as a governing body. (a)(1... will be presented by those who, as trustees or members of an executive board or similar governing...

  7. Comparing government agendas: executive speeches in the Netherlands, United Kingdom, and Denmark

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mortensen, P.B.; Green-Pedersen, C.; Breeman, G.E.; Chaqués Bonafont, L.; Jennings, W.; John, P.; Palau, A.; Timmermans, A.

    2011-01-01

    At the beginning of each parliamentary session, almost all European governments give a speech in which they present the government’s policy priorities and legislative agenda for the year ahead. Despite the body of literature on governments in European parliamentary democracies, systematic research o

  8. Comparing government agendas: executive speeches in the Netherlands, United Kingdom, Denmark and Spain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mortensen, P.B.; Green-Pedersen, C.; Breeman, G.E.; Chaqués Bonafont, L.; Jennings, W.; John, P.; Palau Roque, A.; Timmermans, A.

    2009-01-01

    At the beginning of each Parliamentary session, almost all European governments give a speech in which they present the government’s policy goals and legislative agenda for the year to come. Despite the enormous body of literature on governments in European parliamentary democracies, systematic work

  9. Functional pronunciation units in English words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berndt, R S; D'Autrechy, C L; Reggia, J A

    1994-07-01

    Two distinct factors limit the orthographic regularity of English words: (a) Most characters can correspond to several different sounds and (b) characters can either stand alone or be combined in various ways for pronunciation as a single phoneme. This study addresses the second of these issues through the analysis of a large corpus of English words. Data are presented describing the frequency that each character (or character cluster) functioned in the corpus as a correspondent of a single phoneme rather than being combined with other characters (or decomposed). Examples are provided regarding potential applications of these data in the construction of stimulus materials for cognitive studies, in neuropsychological investigations of dyslexia, and in computational models of word naming.

  10. Groups as units of functional analysis, individuals as proximate mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, David Sloan

    2014-06-01

    Whenever selection operates at a given level of a multitier hierarchy, units at that level should become the object of functional analysis, and units at lower levels should be studied as proximate mechanisms. This intuition already exists for the study of genes in individuals, when individuals are the unit of selection. It is only beginning to be applied for the study of individuals in groups, when groups are the unit of selection. Smaldino's target article is an important step in this direction with an emphasis on human cultural evolution, but the same algorithm applies to all multilevel evolutionary processes.

  11. The Determinants Of United States Government Policy And Practice Towards Offsets In International Trade

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-12-01

    terms to describe their offset programs.7 Examples of such terms include “Strategic Industry Development Activities ( SIDAs )” (Australia...governments include: Argentina, Australia, Bulgaria, Cameroon, Czech Republic, Chile , Colombia, Croatia, Estonia, Georgia, Jordan, Kyrgyz Republic

  12. The Automation of Government Publications: Functional Requirements and Selected Software Systems for Serials Controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, Mary Sue; Purcell, Gary R.

    1985-01-01

    Describes computer-based software and network systems for application to serials and government publications. General and specific functional requirements (hardware, software, file structure) are discussed, and descriptive information about commercially available serials control systems and a list of distributors are provided. (CLB)

  13. Numerical solutions of a control problem governed by functional differential equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, H. T.; Thrift, P. R.; Burns, J. A.; Cliff, E. M.

    1978-01-01

    A numerical procedure is proposed for solving optimal control problems governed by linear retarded functional differential equations. The procedure is based on the idea of 'averaging approximations', due to Banks and Burns (1975). For illustration, numerical results generated on an IBM 370/158 computer, which demonstrate the rapid convergence of the method are presented.

  14. Quality Function Deployment: Application to Chemotherapy Unit Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neda Hashemi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Today’s healthcare organizations are challenged by pressures to meet growing population demands and enhance community health through improving service quality. Quality function deployment is one of the widely-used customerdriven approaches for health services development. In the current study, quality function deployment is used to improve the quality of chemotherapy unit services. Methods: First, we identified chemotherapy outpatient unit patients as chemotherapy unit customers. Then, the Delphi technique and component factor analysis with orthogonal rotation was employed to determine their expectations. Thereafter, data envelopment analysis was performed to specify user priorities. We determined the relationships between patients’ expectations and service elements through expert group consensus using the Delphi method and the relationships between service elements by Pearson correlation. Finally, simple and compound priorities of the service elements were derived by matrix calculation. Results: Chemotherapy unit patients had four main expectations: access, suitable hotel services, satisfactory and effective relationships, and clinical services. The chemotherapy unit has six key service elements of equipment, materials, human resources, physical space, basic facilities, and communication and training. There were four-level relationships between the patients’ expectations and service elements, with mostly significant correlations between service elements. According to the findings, the functional group of basic facilities was the most critical factor, followed by materials. Conclusion: The findings of the current study can be a general guideline as well as a scientific, structured framework for chemotherapy unit decision makers in order to improve chemotherapy unit services.

  15. Science-practice nexus for landslide surveying: technical training for local government units in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, A. L.; Hespiantoro, S.; Dyar, D.; Balzer, D.; Kuhn, D.; Torizin, J.; Fuchs, M.; Kastl, S.; Anhorn, J.

    2017-02-01

    The Indonesian archipelago is prone to various geological hazards on an almost day to day basis. In order to mitigate disaster risk and reduce losses, the government uses its unique setup of ministerial training institutions. The Centre for Development of Human Resources in Geology, Mineral and Coal offers different level of technical training to local governments in order to provide them with the necessary means to understand geological hazards, mitigate risks, and hence close the gap between local and national governments. One key factor has been the continuous incorporation of new scientific knowledge into their training curricula. The paper presents benefits and challenges of this science-practice nexus using the standardised landslide survey as one example where mobile technology has been introduced to the training just recently.

  16. The Emerging Role of the Federal Government in Public Elementary and Secondary Education in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shannon, Thomas A.

    When President Reagan took office in January 1981, the federal government had a four-fold function in public secondary and elementary education that included financing high-cost programs of overriding national significance and advancing the cause of civil rights throughout the nation. According to Reagan's "new federalism," the role of…

  17. Energy Efficiency Policy in the United States. Overview of Trends at Different Levels of Government

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doris, Elizabeth [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Cochran, Jaquelin [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Vorum, Martin [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2009-12-01

    This report catalogs by sector--buildings, transportation, industrial, and power--energy efficiency policies at the federal, state, and local levels, and identifies some prominent policy trends. Four key findings emerged from this report: 1) leadership on energy efficiency is necessary--and is found--at each level of government; 2) there is no widely accepted methodology for evaluating energy efficiency policies; 3) coordination among the three levels of government--and across sectors--is increasingly important, and there are opportunities to significantly improve policy performance through a unified strategy; and 4) there are efficiencies to be gained by informing policies in one sector with experience from others.

  18. Energy Efficiency Policy in the United States: Overview of Trends at Different Levels of Government

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doris, E.; Cochran, J.; Vorum, M.

    2009-12-01

    This report catalogs by sector--buildings, transportation, industrial, and power--energy efficiency policies at the federal, state, and local levels, and identifies some prominent policy trends. Four key findings emerged from this report: 1) leadership on energy efficiency is necessary--and is found--at each level of government; 2) there is no widely accepted methodology for evaluating energy efficiency policies; 3) coordination among the three levels of government--and across sectors--is increasingly important, and there are opportunities to significantly improve policy performance through a unified strategy; and 4) there are efficiencies to be gained by informing policies in one sector with experience from others.

  19. Indiana Studies: Hoosier History, Government, and People. Unit III: From Sectional Division to Political Unity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barger, Harry D.; And Others

    Unit 3 of a six-unit series on Indiana state history designed to be taught in Indiana secondary schools tells the story of Indiana from 1829 to 1908. Chapter 1 discusses national issues in an Indiana context. The effects of social movements such as Abolition, the underground railroad, and the Fugitive Slave Law on Indiana politics are examined.…

  20. Budget of the United States Government Mid-Session Review Fiscal Year 2002

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-08-01

    BA 580,289 640,803 546,945 OL 569,224 620,392 537,383 Anticipated Adjustments for the Final Sequestration Report: EITC Tax Compliance Initiative...House and Senate have been adjusted upward for the earned income tax compliance initia- tive included in the Treasury and General Government

  1. Efficiency in the United States electric industry: Transaction costs, deregulation, and governance structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Carl

    Transaction costs economics (TCE) posits that firms have an incentive to bypass the market mechanisms in situations where the cost of using the market is prohibitive. Vertical integration, among other governance mechanisms, can be used to minimize the transactions costs associated with the market mechanism. The study analyses different governance mechanisms, which range from complete vertical integration to the use of market mechanisms, for firms in the US electric sector. This sector has undergone tremendous change in the past decade including the introduction of retail competition in some jurisdictions. As a result of the push toward deregulation of the industry, vertically integration, while still significant in the sector, has steadily been replaced by alternative governance structures. Using a sample of 136 investor-owned electric utilities that reported data the US Federal Energy Regulatory Commission between 1996 and 2002, this study estimates firm level efficiency using Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) and relates these estimates to governance structure and public policies. The analysis finds that vertical integration is positively related to firm efficiency, although in a non-linear fashion suggesting that hybrid governance structures tend to be associated with lower efficiency scores. In addition, while some evidence is found for negative short-term effects on firm efficiency from the choice to deregulate, this result is sensitive to DEA model choice. Further, competition in retail markets is found to be positively related to firm level efficiency, but the retreat from deregulation, which occurred after 2000, is negatively associated with firm-level efficiency. These results are important in the ongoing academic and public policy debates concerning deregulation of the electric section and indicate that vertical economies remain in the industry, but that competition has provided incentives for improving firm level efficiency.

  2. The Effects of Korean Medical Service Quality and Satisfaction on Revisit Intention of the United Arab Emirates Government Sponsored Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seoyoung; Kim, Eun-Kyung

    2017-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate medical service quality, satisfaction and to examine factors influencing hospital revisit intention of the United Arab Emirates government sponsored patients in Korea. A total of 152 UAE government sponsored patients who visited Korean hospitals participated in the questionnaire survey from August to November 2016. Stepwise multiple regression was used to identify the factors that affected the revisit intention of the participants. The mean scores of medical service quality, satisfaction, and revisit intention were 5.72 out of 7, 88.88 out of 100, 4.59 out of 5, respectively. Medical service quality and satisfaction, Medical service quality and revisit intention, satisfaction and revisit intention were positively correlated. Medical service of physician, visiting routes and responsiveness of medical service quality explained about 23.8% of revisit intention. There are needs for physicians to communicate with patients while ensuring sufficient consultation time based on excellent medical skills and nurses to respond immediately for the patients' needs through an empathic encounter in order to improve medical service quality and patient satisfaction so that to increase the revisit intention of the United Arab Emirates government sponsored patients. Further, it is necessary for the hospitals to have support plans for providing country specialized services in consideration of the UAE culture to ensure that physicians' and nurses' competencies are not undervalued by non-medical service elements such as interpreters and meals. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. T- AND HAYMAN T-POINTS OF MEROMORPHIC FUNCTIONS FOR SMALL FUNCTIONS IN THE UNIT DISK

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu Nan; Zheng Jianhua

    2012-01-01

    In this article,we consider the singular points of meromorphic functions in the unit disk.We prove the second fundamental theorem for the Ahlfors-Shimizu's characteristic in the unit disk in terms of Nevanlinna theory in the angular domains,and obtain the existence of T-points and Hayman T-points dealing with small functions as target.

  4. 25 CFR 170.622 - What IRR programs, functions, services, and activities are subject to the self-governance...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What IRR programs, functions, services, and activities are subject to the self-governance construction regulations? 170.622 Section 170.622 Indians BUREAU OF..., functions, services, and activities are subject to the self-governance construction regulations? All...

  5. THE POTENTIAL OF INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATIONS TECHNOLOGICAL IN THE OPTIMIZATION OF LOCAL GOVERNMENT FUNCTIONING IN RUSSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Виктор Павлович Ляхов

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The shift to a new type of relations in the system of “community-state” with regard to informational and network nature of modern society seemed to be the most important strategic course in the realization of modernization project in Russia. On this ground the article deals with the opportunities of local government system optimization through the active implementation of informational and communication technologies into state authorities and local government activity.The purpose of e-municipality is the reduction of informational inequality level, the transparency and increase of local authorities controllability by society, engaging general community in governing process.It is necessary to cope with the problem of creating and realizing the strategy of the shift from the closed style of performance to the open one by the active development of informational and communication technologies and their implementation into the performance of local government.As a required and compulsory mechanism we suggest monitoring municipal management efficiency as well as legal determining and differentiating of functions, powers and liabilities of local authorities’ structures.The informational component of modernization process in Russia will enable to attain a new level of communicative management activity of local authorities as well as the monitoring of its results.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-10-41

  6. Research at the Dairy and Functional Foods Research Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dr. Peggy Tomasula is Research Leader of the Dairy and Functional Foods Research Unit (DFFRU), ARS, USDA, Wyndmoor, PA, a group that includes 11 Research Scientists, 4 of whom are Lead Scientists (LS), 13 support scientists, and 3 Retired Collaborators. The mission of the DFFRU is to solve critical ...

  7. United States Government Regulations and International Standards Related to Food Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, S. Suzanne

    Knowledge of government regulations relevant to the chemical analysis of foods is extremely important to persons working in the food industry. Federal laws and regulations reinforce the efforts of the food industry to provide wholesome foods, to inform consumers about the nutritional composition of foods, and to eliminate economic frauds. In some cases, they dictate what ingredients a food must contain, what must be tested, and the procedures used to analyze foods for safety factors and quality attributes. This chapter describes the US federal regulations related to the composition of foods. The reader is referred to references (1-4) for comprehensive coverage of US food laws and regulations. Many of the regulations referred to in this chapter are published in the various titles of the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) (5). This chapter also includes information about food standards and safety practices established by international organizations. Internet addresses are given at the end of this chapter for many of the government agencies, organizations, and documents discussed.

  8. Understanding determinants of government and consumer behavior relative to product safety : an application of the theory of planned behavior to China and the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Domke, Laura

    2008-01-01

    The following thesis applies Icek Ajzen's Theory of Planned Behavior to explain consumer and government response to safety of Chinese-made products sold in China and the United States. The thesis relies on secondary data as it considers the responses and actions relative to product safety by four different groups: Chinese government, U.S. government, Chinese consumers and U.S. consumers. Increased globalization has heightened the need for a better understanding and agreement...

  9. Microbiological burden in air culture at various units of a tertiary care government hospital in Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binaya Sapkota

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background The environmental matrices (water, air, and surfaces play a vital role as reservoirs of Legionella spp. and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (Pseudomonas spp.. Hence, hospital environment control procedures are effective measures for reducing nosocomial infections. Aims This study was carried out to explore the profiles of microorganisms in air culture at various wards/units of a tertiary care hospital in Nepal. Methods A descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out at various wards/units of a tertiary care hospital in Nepal between January and September 2015 to explore the microbiological burden in inanimate objects. Each week one ward or unit was selected for the study. Bed, tap, the entire room, trolley, computer, phone, rack handles, table, chair, door, stethoscope, oxygen mask, gown, cupboard handles, and wash basins were selected for air culture testing. Ten different wards/units and 77 locations/pieces of equipment were selected for air culture by employing a simple random sampling technique. Information about the organisms was entered into the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS Version 22 (IBM: Armonk, NY and descriptive analyses were carried out. Results Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus, Micrococcus, coagulase negative staphylococcus (CONS, Bacillus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, yeast, and Acinetobacter were the most commonly detected organisms. In the postoperative ward, S. aureus was the most frequently detected microorganism. Micrococcus was detected in four out of 10 locations. In the x-ray unit, S. aureus was detected in three out of four locations. Conclusion S. aureus, Micrococcus, CONS, Bacillus, Pseudomonas, yeast, and Acinetobacter were the most common organisms detected.

  10. On the Government Function Orientation in China’s Agricultural Management Reform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dongfang CHEN

    2016-01-01

    Since the reform and opening up,China’s market-oriented agricultural management reform has achieved remarkable results,but the reform has not yet been put in place,and there are some flaws in some areas of reform.To deepen the reform of government’s agricultural management reform under the new situation,it is necessary to further define the boundary between government and market on the basis of following the general rules of world’s agricultural development and considering China’s special situation of agriculture,nail down the scope of government functions,pinpoint the key areas of reform,and actively promote the rapid development of China’s characteristic modern agriculture.

  11. Analysis of United States Air Forces Central Government Purchase Card Reachback Viability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    Kiser HQ ACC – A7/K Langley AFB, VA 7. Col Marvin Smith HQ AFCENT – A7 Shaw AFB, SC 8. Lt Col Timothy Hawkins Naval Postgraduate School...Colonel Marvin Smith – for providing the necessary resources for us to go on the PMA trip • Colonel Scott Kiser – for selecting us to accompany Maj...closest to the originating location of the supply chain, which is usually in the contiguous United States. USAFCENT, based out of Shaw Air Force Base

  12. Differential assemblage of functional units in paddy soil microbiomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongkyu Kim

    Full Text Available Flooded rice fields are not only a global food source but also a major biogenic source of atmospheric methane. Using metatranscriptomics, we comparatively explored structural and functional succession of paddy soil microbiomes in the oxic surface layer and anoxic bulk soil. Cyanobacteria, Fungi, Xanthomonadales, Myxococcales, and Methylococcales were the most abundant and metabolically active groups in the oxic zone, while Clostridia, Actinobacteria, Geobacter, Anaeromyxobacter, Anaerolineae, and methanogenic archaea dominated the anoxic zone. The protein synthesis potential of these groups was about 75% and 50% of the entire community capacity, respectively. Their structure-function relationships in microbiome succession were revealed by classifying the protein-coding transcripts into core, non-core, and taxon-specific transcripts based on homologous gene distribution. The differential expression of core transcripts between the two microbiomes indicated that structural succession is primarily governed by the cellular ability to adapt to the given oxygen condition, involving oxidative stress, nitrogen/phosphorus metabolism, and fermentation. By contrast, the non-core transcripts were expressed from genes involved in the metabolism of various carbon sources. Among those, taxon-specific transcripts revealed highly specialized roles of the dominant groups in community-wide functioning. For instance, taxon-specific transcripts involved in photosynthesis and methane oxidation were a characteristic of the oxic zone, while those related to methane production and aromatic compound degradation were specific to the anoxic zone. Degradation of organic matters, antibiotics resistance, and secondary metabolite production were detected to be expressed in both the oxic and anoxic zones, but by different taxonomic groups. Cross-feeding of methanol between members of the Methylococcales and Xanthomonadales was suggested by the observation that in the oxic zone

  13. Governing education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ria Bronneman-Helmers

    2011-01-01

    Governing education. Trends in Dutch education policy 1990-2010 The Dutch government is responsible for e a cohesive and properly functioning education system. This report discusses the way in which the government fulfilled that responsibility in the period 1990-2010.  The study is

  14. Practical Problems of Giving Opinions by Regional Chambers of Accounting on the Possibility of Repayment of Obligations in Local Government Units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Tyniewicki

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Opinions of the regional accounting chambers on the possibility of repayment of the credit, loan or redemption of the securities by local government units have some specific features compared with the other opinions concerning the financial management of the local government. Firstly, they are only issued at the request of the unit that they concerned. Secondly, for the reason they relate to public debt issues, to some extent their content may be similar or “partial reproduction” of the standpoint of the regional chamber of accounting within already issued opinions referring to acts on budgetary planning process in local government units. The purpose of this article is to assess the legitimacy of issuing such opinions and to identify the relationship between the ordinances (resolutions on the possibility of repayment of the credit, loan or redemption of the securities and provisions of local government budget.

  15. Numerical distribution functions of fractional unit root and cointegration tests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    MacKinnon, James G.; Nielsen, Morten Ørregaard

    We calculate numerically the asymptotic distribution functions of likelihood ratio tests for fractional unit roots and cointegration rank. Because these distributions depend on a real-valued parameter, b, which must be estimated, simple tabulation is not feasible. Partly due to the presence...... of this parameter, the choice of model specification for the response surface regressions used to obtain the numerical distribution functions is more involved than is usually the case. We deal with model uncertainty by model averaging rather than by model selection. We make available a computer program which, given...

  16. 网上政府信息服务功能透视%Perspective of Government Network Information Service Functions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢宏

    2001-01-01

    The paper gives a description of the websites of 15 municipal governments in China as well as the information services provided by these websites.Meanwhile,it analyzes the functions these websites should provide.Finally,it points out the problems that should be paid attention to in the construction of municipal government websites.

  17. ROLE OF MANAGEMENT IN ORGANIZATION OF PRIMARY HEALTH CARE IN UNITS OF REGIONAL GOVERNMENT

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    The role of primary care is of great importance for the proper functioning of the health system. Social transformation in the last twenty year resulted in a fall of the interest of health care professionals to work in this segment of health care. At the same time, as a result of improving communications and increasing the available information, interested of individuals for their own health is growing. The first contact with an individual health care is in primary care segment, which must be ...

  18. The Budget of the United States Government. Department of Defense Extract for Fiscal Year 1985

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-02-01

    central function costs have risen by 8%, with a modest further rise proposed by 1989. Given the increasing emphasis on tax compliance and debt col...enacted during 1983: the Social Security Amendments of 1983, the Interest and Dividends Tax Compliance Act of 1983, and the Railroad Retirement...Responsibility Act of 1982 Highway Revenue Act of 1982 201.8 18.7 Social Security Amendments of 1983 35.8 Interest and Dividends Tax Compliance Act

  19. Foreign practice of introducing conventional communicative strategy in the implementation of the functions of government

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. P. Zarytska

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the role of conventional communicative strategy from the standpoint of foreign practice. Depending on scientific approaches to communications, business and management strategies based conventional communicative strategy implementation functions of government. It has certain methodological features and differences in different countries: UK, Germany, Australia, USA, Spain, Holland, Finland, New Zealand. Generalization showed that each state produces its conventional communicative strategy depending on the overall state objectives. However joint is considered important not only communication, but also the ability to communicate effectively, understand how to implement the vision of an opinion on relations between the state and society. Purpose conventional communicative strategy determined by the impact on the optimization of the authorities at the national and regional level, the processes of globalization, the experience of other states, its implementation in practical activities as well as their lack of predictive scenarios of the process of optimizing the functions of government. Demonstrated the appropriateness of existing methodologies to use in domestic practice of public administration.

  20. Complex graphemes as functional spelling units: evidence from acquired dysgraphia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tainturier, M J; Rapp, B C

    2004-04-01

    The visual word recognition literature suggests that complex graphemes (or digraphs) such as CK function as units. This proposal has also been put forward in recent spelling models (Houghton and Zorzi, 2003) and the study we report on here provides initial empirical support for the claim. We performed detailed analyses of the spelling performance of two brain-damaged individuals with graphemic buffer deficits. Results revealed that (a) FM and BWN made fewer errors on consonant digraphs (e.g., CK) than on matched controls clusters (e.g., CR) and (b) BWN produced more transposition errors on vowel digraphs than on control clusters. These result support the view that digraphs are represented as units in which the relative order of constituent letters is encoded.

  1. Eukaryotic protein domains as functional units of cellular evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jin, Jing; Xie, Xueying; Chen, Chen

    2009-01-01

    Modular protein domains are functional units that can be modified through the acquisition of new intrinsic activities or by the formation of novel domain combinations, thereby contributing to the evolution of proteins with new biological properties. Here, we assign proteins to groups with related...... biological processes. Evolutionary jumps are associated with a domain that coordinately acquires a new intrinsic function and enters new domain clubs, thereby providing the modified domain with access to a new cellular microenvironment. We also coordinately analyzed the covalent and noncovalent interactions...... that domains, and the proteins in which they reside, are selected during evolution through reciprocal interactions with protein domains in their local microenvironment. Based on this scheme, we propose a mechanism by which Tudor domains may have evolved to support different modes of epigenetic regulation...

  2. Function Group Based of Indonesian e-Government Grid Services Topology

    OpenAIRE

    Ummi Azizah Rachmawati; Heru Suhartanto; Dana Indra Sensuse

    2012-01-01

    Information and Communication Technology (ICTs) is growing rapidly due to human needs for communication and fast access to information. This brought a new awareness around the world to create good governance and clean government. This is known as public management reform, called e-Government (e-Gov). Interoperability is a key issue in implementing an e-Government system. Grid-based services for interoperability (eGov Grid) could be a solution for resource sharing and interoperability of e-Gov...

  3. The political culture of healthcare: why substantial dental care in Canada is covered by government insurance only in Québec - lessons for the United States?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flaer, P J; Younis, M Z; Benjamin, P L; Al-Hajeri, M

    2011-06-10

    This opinion paper explains the unique and favourable terms of dental health insurance coverage available to residents (both permanent and temporary) of the Province of Québec, Canada. In comparison, the United States and British Canada are the poor stepchildren of government-mediated provision of dental health coverage. The differences in dental healthcare provision between these regions are a question of culture - more specifically, of differing socio-political cultures and different perspectives on the importance of dental care. Lawmakers in the United States can learn from this policy of government-administered dental insurance that appears to work well in Québec.

  4. A comparison of gender diversity in the corporate governance codes of France, Germany, Spain, the Netherlands and the United Kingdom

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lückerath – Rovers, M.

    2009-01-01

    International differences exist in the legal, cultural, ownership and other aspects of corporate governance. Convergence, however, is achieved in core aspects of corporate governance, such as transparency, disclosure, and the importance of independent, non-executive directors (Mallin, 2007). Further

  5. Participation for effective environmental governance? Evidence from Water Framework Directive implementation in Germany, Spain and the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochskämper, Elisa; Challies, Edward; Newig, Jens; Jager, Nicolas W

    2016-10-01

    Effectiveness of participation in environmental governance is a proliferating assertion in literature that is also reflected in European legislation, such as the European Water Framework Directive (WFD). The Directive mandates participatory river basin management planning across the EU aiming at the delivery of better policy outputs and enhanced implementation. Yet, the impact of this planning mode in WFD implementation remains unclear, though the first planning phase was completed in 2009 and the first implementation cycle by the end of 2015. Notwithstanding the expanding body of literature on WFD implementation, a rather scattered single case study approach seems to predominate. This paper reports on implementation of the WFD in three case studies from Germany, Spain and the United Kingdom, reflecting three substantially different approaches to participatory river basin management planning, on the basis of a comparative case study design. We ask if and how participation improved the environmental standard of outputs and the quality of implementation. We found an increasing quality of outputs with increasing intensity of local participation. Further, social outcomes such as learning occurred within dialogical settings, whereas empowerment and network building emerged also in the case characterized mainly by one-way information. Finally, one important finding deviant from the literature is that stakeholder acceptance seems to be more related to processes than to outputs.

  6. Experimentalist governance

    OpenAIRE

    Sabel, C.F.; Zeitlin, J; D Levi-Faur

    2012-01-01

    A secular rise in volatility and uncertainty is overwhelming the capacities of conventional hierarchical governance and ‘command-and-control’ regulation in many settings. One significant response is the emergence of a novel, ‘experimentalist’ form of governance that establishes deliberately provisional frameworks for action and elaborates and revises these in light of recursive review of efforts to implement them in various contexts. Robust examples can be found in the United States and the E...

  7. Institutional Governance in Higher Education: Public Policy in France, Sweden and the United Kingdom. Yale Higher Education Research Group Working Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Premfors, Rune

    Major public policies for institutional governance in France, Sweden, and the United Kingdom over the past two decades are reviewed, and factors that may account for differences in policy developments in the three countries are considered. In France and (although only recently) in Sweden, politics have aimed at increasing institutional autonomy in…

  8. Governance and Purchasing Function under Social Health Insurance in Nepal: Looking Back and Moving Forward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapkota, V P; Bhusal, U P

    2017-01-01

    Nepal is pursuing Social Health Insurance as a way of mobilizing revenues to achieve Universal Health Coverage. The Social Health Insurance governance encourages service providers to maintain quality and efficiency in services provision by practicing strategic purchasing. Social Health Security Programme is a social protection program which aspires to achieve the goals of Social Health Insurance. Social Health Security Development Committee needs to consider following experiences to function as a strategic purchaser. The Social Health Security Development Committee need to be an independent body instead of falling under Ministry of Health. Similarly, purchasing of health services needs to be made strategic, i.e., Social Health Security Development Committee should use its financial power to guide the provider behavior that will eventually contribute to achieving the goals of quality and efficiency in service provision. The other social health security funds should be merged with Social Health Security Development Committee and develop a single national fund. Finally, the state has to regulate and monitor the performance of the SHI agency.

  9. Governance in English VET: On the Functioning of a Fractured "System"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keep, Ewart

    2015-01-01

    This article explores the governance structures that cover vocational education and training (VET) in England. The English VET system is highly fragmented, complex and unstable, and has tended to oscillate between centralised command and control, and attempts at marketisation. Its governance arrangements reflect this situation. The various…

  10. Urban forests' potential to supply marketable carbon emission offsets: a survey of municipal governments in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neelam C. Poudyal; Jacek P. Siry; J. M. Bowker

    2010-01-01

    This study assesses the motivation, willingness, and technical as well as managerial capacities of U.S. cities to store carbon and sell carbon offsets. Based on a national survey of urban foresters, arborists, and other officials responsible for urban forest management within U.S. municipal governments, results indicate that local governments are interested in selling...

  11. Physical Unclonable Function with Multiplexing Units and its Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshikawa, Masaya; Asai, Toshiya; Shiozaki, Mitsuru; Fujino, Takeshi

    Recently, semiconductor counterfeiting has become an increasingly serious problem. Therefore, techniques to prevent the counterfeit by using random characteristic patterns that are difficult to control artificially have attracted attention. The physical unclonable function (PUF) is one of the techniques. It is a method to derive ID information peculiar to a device by detecting random physical features that cannot be controlled during the device's manufacture. Because information such as the ID information is difficult to replicate, PUF is used as a technique to prevent counterfeiting. Several studies have been reported on PUF. Arbiter PUF, which utilizes the difference in signal propagation delay between selectors, is the typical method of composing PUF using delay characteristics. This paper proposed a new PUF which is based on the arbiter PUF. The proposed PUF introduces new multiplexing selector units. It attempts to generate an effective response using the orders of three signal arrivals. Experiments using FPGAs verify the validity of the proposed PUF. Although Uniqueness is deteriorated, Correctness, Steadiness, Randomness and Resistance against the machine learning attacks are improved in comparison with conventional one.

  12. Corporate Governance: The Impact on the Role, Position, and Scope of Services of the Internal Audit Function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Paape

    2007-01-01

    textabstractCorporate scandals during the last decade fostered many Corporate Governance reports. These reports aimed at restoring checks and balances in companies to prevent fraudulent behaviour and restore public trust. One of the functions active in many organizations is Internal Audit. This func

  13. The EU Arbitration Convention : An evaluating assessment of the governance and functioning of the EU Arbitration Convention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pit, Harm Mark

    2017-01-01

    The EU Arbitration Convention An evaluating assessment of the governance and functioning of the EU Arbitration Convention Summary for non-experts The EU Arbitration Convention is a convention between EU Member States to eliminate double taxation arising from – for tax purposes – transfer pricing pro

  14. Corporate Governance: The Impact on the Role, Position, and Scope of Services of the Internal Audit Function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Paape

    2007-01-01

    textabstractCorporate scandals during the last decade fostered many Corporate Governance reports. These reports aimed at restoring checks and balances in companies to prevent fraudulent behaviour and restore public trust. One of the functions active in many organizations is Internal Audit. This func

  15. Corporate Governance: The Impact on the Role, Position, and Scope of Services of the Internal Audit Function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Paape

    2007-01-01

    textabstractCorporate scandals during the last decade fostered many Corporate Governance reports. These reports aimed at restoring checks and balances in companies to prevent fraudulent behaviour and restore public trust. One of the functions active in many organizations is Internal Audit. This

  16. Two soft-error mitigation techniques for functional units of DSP processors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rohani, Alireza; Kerkhoff, Hans G.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents two soft-error mitigation methods for DSP processors. Considering that a DSP processor is composed of several functional units and each functional unit constitutes of a control unit, some registers and combinational logic, a unique characteristic of DSP workloads has been deploye

  17. Two soft-error mitigation techniques for functional units of DSP processors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rohani, A.; Kerkhoff, Hans G.

    This paper presents two soft-error mitigation methods for DSP processors. Considering that a DSP processor is composed of several functional units and each functional unit constitutes of a control unit, some registers and combinational logic, a unique characteristic of DSP workloads has been

  18. Complex governance to cope with global environmental risk: an assessment of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turnheim, Bruno; Tezcan, Mehmet Y

    2010-09-01

    In this article, a framework is suggested to deal with the analysis of global environmental risk governance. Climate Change is taken as a particular form of contemporary environmental risk, and mobilised to refine and characterize some salient aspects of new governance challenges. A governance framework is elaborated along three basic features: (1) a close relationship with science, (2) an in-built reflexivity, and (3) forms of governmentality. The UNFCCC-centered system is then assessed according to this three-tier framework. While the two-first requisites are largely met, the analysis of governmentality points to some institutional weak spots.

  19. New functional units for coke machine automatic control system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parfenov, G.I.; Bannikov, L.S.; Vakarenko, I.M.; Grishin, S.P.

    1983-01-01

    A new device used in the control systems of coking plants is discussed. The system is capable of operating in fully automatic, semi-automatic, or manual modes. Examples of the usage of the unit include the stopping of coke machines within limits of +/- 200 mm. It is concluded that the use of the units reduce manufacture, adjustment, and service costs.

  20. Teleseismic receiver function imaging of the Pacific Northwest, United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eager, Kevin Charles

    The origins of widespread Cenozoic tectonomagmatism in the Pacific Northwest, United States likely involve complex dynamics including subduction of the Juan de Fuca plate and mantle upwelling processes, all of which are reflected in the crust and upper mantle. To provide an improved understanding of these processes, I analyze P-to- S converted phases using the receiver function method to image topographic variations on regional seismic discontinuities in the upper mantle, which provides constraints on mantle thermal structure, and the crust-mantle interface, which provides constraints on crustal thickness and composition. My results confirm complexity in the Juan de Fuca slab structure as found by regional tomographic studies, including limited evidence of the slab penetrating the transition zone between the 410 and 660 km discontinuities. Evidence is inconclusive for a simple mantle plume beneath the central Oregon High Lava Plains, but indicates a regional increase in mantle temperatures stretching to the east. This result implies the inflow of warm material, either from around the southern edge of the Juan de Fuca plate as it descends into the mantle, or from a regional upwelling to the east related to the Yellowstone hotspot. Results for regional crustal structure reveal thin (˜31 km) crust beneath the High Lava Plains relative to surrounding regions that exhibit thicker (35+ km) crust. The thick (≥ 40 km) crust of the Owyhee Plateau has a sharp western boundary and normal Poisson's ratio, a measure of crustal composition. I find a slightly thickened crust and low Poisson's ratio between Steens Mountain and the Owyhee Plateau, consistent with residuum from source magma of the Steens flood basalts. Central and southern Oregon exhibit very high Poisson's ratios and low velocity zones within the crust, suggesting a degree of intracrustal partial melt not seen along the center of the age-progressive High Lava Plains magmatic track, perhaps due to crustal melt

  1. Nutrition Standards for Food Service Guidelines for Foods Served or Sold in Municipal Government Buildings or Worksites, United States, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onufrak, Stephen J; Zaganjor, Hatidza; Moore, Latetia V; Carlson, Susan; Kimmons, Joel; Galuska, Deborah

    2016-12-22

    The Institute of Medicine and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention have recommended that government agencies use nutrition standards for foods and beverages sold and provided at their facilities. In this study, we examine written nutrition standards for foods sold or served in local government buildings or worksites among US municipalities. We used data from a 2014 national survey of 1,945 municipal governments serving populations of 1,000 or more to assess the presence of written nutrition standards, the food groups or nutrients addressed by standards, and the populations served by facilities where standards are applied. The prevalence of standards was estimated by municipality population size, rural-urban status, census region, poverty prevalence, education level, and racial/ethnic composition. Overall, 3.2% of US municipalities reported nutrition standards with greater prevalence observed among large municipalities (12.8% of municipalities with ≥50,000 people vs 2.2% of municipalities with beverages, fruits and vegetables, and free drinking water. Most standards applied to facilities serving government employees (67%) or the general public (66%), with fewer serving institutionalized populations (23%). Few municipal governments reported having written nutrition standards for foods and beverages sold in their facilities in 2014. Implementing nutrition standards for foods sold or served by local governments is a strategy for increasing access to healthier foods and beverages among municipal employees and local residents.

  2. An International Comparison of Corporate Governance Models: a study on the formal independence and governance of one-tier and two-tier corporate boards of directors in the United States of America, the United Kingdom and the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.F. Maassen (Gregory)

    1999-01-01

    textabstractAccording to Cochran and Wartick (1988), corporate governance is an umbrella term that covers many aspects related to concepts, theories and practices of boards of directors and their executive and non-executive directors. It is a field that concentrates on the relationship between bo

  3. Individual Educational Plans in Swedish Schools -- Forming Identity and Governing Functions in Pupils' Documentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreasson, Ingela; Carlsson, Maj Asplund

    2013-01-01

    The documentation of pupils in Swedish schools is extensive and a documentation culture has come to characterize the schools in recent years. In the context of decentralization and changing governance, focus has increasingly been directed towards assessment, follow-up and evaluation of pupils' learning and social development. This article examines…

  4. The Central Information Services Function in County Governments: From Controller to Enabler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Patricia T.; Bertot, John Carlo

    1994-01-01

    Discussion of the role of county government regarding the management of information technology focuses on a national study of the centralized management of information technology that was conducted to identify practices; assess benefits, costs, and constraints; enumerate critical success factors; and identify future challenges. (Contains 12…

  5. Governance of Offshore IT Outsourcing at Shell Global Functions IT-BAM Development and Application of a Governance Framework to Improve Outsourcing Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, Floor; van Hillegersberg, Jos; van Eck, Pascal; van der Kolk, Feiko; Jorissen, Rene

    The lack of effective IT governance is widely recognized as a key inhibitor to successful global IT outsourcing relationships. In this study we present the development and application of a governance framework to improve outsourcing relationships. The approach used to developing an IT governance framework includes a meta model and a customization process to fit the framework to the target organization. The IT governance framework consists of four different elements (1) organisational structures, (2) joint processes between in- and outsourcer, (3) responsibilities that link roles to processes and (4) a diverse set of control indicators to measure the success of the relationship. The IT governance framework is put in practice in Shell GFIT BAM, a part of Shell that concluded to have a lack of management control over at least one of their outsourcing relationships. In a workshop the governance framework was used to perform a gap analysis between the current and desired governance. Several gaps were identified in the way roles and responsibilities are assigned and joint processes are set-up. Moreover, this workshop also showed the usefulness and usability of the IT governance framework in structuring, providing input and managing stakeholders in the discussions around IT governance.

  6. 28 CFR 0.135 - Functions common to heads of organizational units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... organizational units. 0.135 Section 0.135 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE ORGANIZATION OF THE... Disqualification to Act § 0.135 Functions common to heads of organizational units. Subject to the general supervision and direction of the Attorney General, the head of each organizational unit within the Department...

  7. 12 CFR 987.2 - Law governing rights and obligations of Banks, Finance Board, Office of Finance, United States...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., Finance Board, Office of Finance, United States and Federal Reserve Banks; rights of any Person against Banks, Finance Board, Office of Finance, United States and Federal Reserve Banks. 987.2 Section 987.2 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD OFFICE OF FINANCE BOOK-ENTRY PROCEDURE FOR...

  8. A study of the functions and effectiveness of school governance in Hong Kong schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Tam

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In the wake of Hong Kong Government’s amendments to the Education Ordinance requiring all schools to establish an incorporated management committee (IMC to oversee school management, schools are obliged to adopt a new governance structure. This study attempts to understand the roles and responsibilities of IMC members as well as their collaboration in the reform era, using a quantitative study. The implications of the new policy to local schools will be discussed.

  9. Energy/Environment/Economy. An Annotated Bibliography of Selected U.S. Government Publications Concerning United States Energy Policy, Supplement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ENVIRO/INFO, Green Bay, WI.

    This annotated bibliography supplements ED 077 704. It provides a selective listing of 93 U.S. Federal Government publications germane to the energy crisis and its attendant environmental and economic implications. Primary emphasis is placed upon documents presenting energy policy issues which have emerged, plus statistical reportage which…

  10. Personal Data Protection in E-Government: Globalization or Glocalization? A Comparative Study of the United States, Germany and China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yuehua

    2010-01-01

    The development and diffusion of information and communication technologies, particularly the internet, creates a worldwide trend of using ICTs and the internet to deliver public services. This new form of electronic administration--e-government--potentially offers great benefits to society in that it can enhance public service efficiency,…

  11. Energy/Environment/Economy. An Annotated Bibliography of Selected U.S. Government Publications Concerning United States Energy Policy, Supplement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ENVIRO/INFO, Green Bay, WI.

    This annotated bibliography supplements ED 077 704. It provides a selective listing of 93 U.S. Federal Government publications germane to the energy crisis and its attendant environmental and economic implications. Primary emphasis is placed upon documents presenting energy policy issues which have emerged, plus statistical reportage which…

  12. Governance Regimes and Nationality Diversity in Corporate Boards : A Comparative Study of Germany, the Netherlands and the United Kingdom

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Veen, K.; Elbertsen, J.

    2008-01-01

    Manuscript Type: Empirical Research Question: In this study, the level of nationality diversity of a corporate board is seen as directly dependent on the governance regime of the country of origin of the company. Therefore, to what extent can differences in nationality diversity in corporate boards

  13. Capturing government policy on the left-right scale: evidence from the United Kingdom, 1956-2006

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hakhverdian, A.

    2009-01-01

    The left-right scheme is the most widely used and parsimonious representation of political competition. Yet, long time series of the left-right position of governments are sparse. Existing methods are of limited use in dynamic settings due to insufficient time points which hinders the proper

  14. Personal Data Protection in E-Government: Globalization or Glocalization? A Comparative Study of the United States, Germany and China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yuehua

    2010-01-01

    The development and diffusion of information and communication technologies, particularly the internet, creates a worldwide trend of using ICTs and the internet to deliver public services. This new form of electronic administration--e-government--potentially offers great benefits to society in that it can enhance public service efficiency,…

  15. Unit 1002: The Modes and Functions of Discourse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Univ., Minneapolis. Center for Curriculum Development in English.

    The purpose of this 10th-grade unit on language is to pose, for students, basic and tentative questions about the rhetorical uses of language. Examples are provided which designate the modes of language: Daniel Fogarty's story of rhetoric to show language which informs; materials from Northrop Frye to show language which inquires; a John F.…

  16. Functionalization of thiocrown ethers containing the thioacetal unit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buter, Jan; Meijer, Renzo H.; Kellogg, Richard M.; Meijer, H.C.

    1998-01-01

    Thiocrown ethers containing thioacetal units are readily prepared by reaction of the cesium salts of long chain dithiols with methylene dibromide. Preparation of the trimethylsilyl derivatives followed by condensation with aldehydes under basic conditions (Peterson reaction) leads to the expected ma

  17. Oversight Institutions Within the United Nations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pontoppidan, Caroline Aggestam

    2015-01-01

    This article will give a description of the role of internal audit and governance functions within the United Nations system. The United Nations has, during the last 10 years, worked to establish effective oversight services. Oversight, governance and hereunder the internal audit function has been...... a key priority within the United Nations and a crucial ingredient in the Secretary-General’s efforts to reform and strengthen the United Nations to meet the challenges of the 21st century....

  18. Oversight Institutions Within the United Nations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pontoppidan, Caroline Aggestam

    2015-01-01

    This article will give a description of the role of internal audit and governance functions within the United Nations system. The United Nations has, during the last 10 years, worked to establish effective oversight services. Oversight, governance and hereunder the internal audit function has been...... a key priority within the United Nations and a crucial ingredient in the Secretary-General’s efforts to reform and strengthen the United Nations to meet the challenges of the 21st century....

  19. Interdependence between government levels in Brazilian health policy: the implementation of Emergency Care Units in the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lima, Luciana Dias; Machado, Cristiani Veira; O'Dwyer, Gisele; Baptista, Tatiana Wargas de Faria; de Andrade, Carla Lourenço Tavares; Konder, Mariana Teixeira

    2015-02-01

    This article addresses policymaking related to Emergency Care Units (ECU) in the State of Rio de Janeiro between 2007 and 2013, duly identifying the relationships between the various levels of government in this process. It prioritized the context of policy formulation, the factors that motivated the inclusion and maintenance of ECUs on the state agenda and the process of how the policy was implemented in the state. The study was based on the literature that defines the agenda and implementation of public policies and on contributions from historic institutionalism. The research involved analysis of documents, secondary data, and 51 interviews with people in positions of authority in state and municipal governments. The priority given to ECUs in the government agenda was the result of a confluence of historical, structural, political and institutional factors, as well as the current context. The results of this study indicate the existence of interdependence between levels of government, however federal coordination problems have prejudiced the integration of the various components of emergency health care in the state.

  20. Function classes on the unit disc an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Pavlovic, Miroslav

    2013-01-01

    The monograph contains a study on various function classes, a number of new results and new or easy proofs of old result (Fefferman-Stein theorem on subharmonic behavior,theorem on conjugate functions on Bergman spaces), which might be interesting for specialists, a full discussion on g-function (all p > 0), and a treatment of lacunary series with values in quasi-Banach spaces.

  1. The Budget of the United States Government. Department of Defense Budget for Fiscal Years 1992 and 1993

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-02-04

    1983 1986 1987 1989 1990 juana use has been falling steadily since 1979. Reported cocaine use among seniors has fallen steadily since 1985...changes. The experiment reduced adoles- cent use of cigarettes, alcohol, and mari- juana . • Project ALERT, a school-based program for...for Government plans, where the spon- sor of the program can be assumed to continue in existence indefinitely. A more appropriate consideration for

  2. On purpose in science, conservation and government. The functional integrity of the earth is at issue not biodiversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodwell, George M

    2002-08-01

    of the integrity of function of landscapes (and waterbodies). Emphasis falls on forests in the normally naturally forested parts of the earth because forests are so large in area globally and have such a large influence on virtually every aspect of environment. Functional integrity requires structural integrity over 85% or more of the naturally forested zone in most areas. It also requires objective measurement and definition by the scientific community. Suddenly, conservation has become, not the preservation of biodiversity, honorable as that may be, but the preservation of the functional integrity of the human environment. That purpose is the central purpose that we assign to the governments that we establish in democracies to define and defend the public interest. It is past time for the scientific and conservation communities to recognize the urgency of this transition, join in defining competent new objectives for conservation, and to convey to the public the urgency of the need for governmental responsibility in protecting the public interest in a habitable biosphere.

  3. Industrial Network Governance and Governmental Intervention——A Case Study of the Intervention of the Federal Government of the United States in the Governance of Native Motor Industrial Network%产业网络治理与政府干预——基于美国政府参与本土汽车产业治理案例分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    景秀艳

    2012-01-01

    The Industrial network governance includes corporate governance, inter- enterprise net- work governance, and it is also bounded by powerful authorities from industrial external environment subject. The network subject with key resources controls and sets the interaction patterns and rules of network members, but economic crisis may lead to industrial network governance failure, so it is nee- essary for governmental intervention as the subject of industry environmental authorities to be in- volved in network governance. Taking American native car industry as an empirical case, the paper analyzes the participation process and methods of the federal government of the United States in the network governance, and puts forwards the government intervention needs keeping justice, procedures, diagnosing problems, finding specific solutions, etc. regulating%产业网络治理包含公司治理、企业间网络治理,还受到产业外部环境主体的权力约束。掌握关键资源的网络主体控制和设定产业网络成员交互模式和规则。经济危机可能导致产业网络自身治理失效,政府干预作为产业环境权力主体需参与网络治理。以美国本土汽车产业为实证案例,分析美国联邦政府参与网络治理的过程和方法,提出政府干预需注重公平公正、规范程序、辨明问题并采取针对措施等政策建议。

  4. Micro HTA as a tool for clinical governance: the experience of the Breast Unit in "Santa Maria" Terni Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanguinetti, A; Lucchini, R; Triola, R; Avenia, S; Bistoni, G; Conti, C; Santoprete, S; Avenia, N

    2013-01-01

    The last decade has witnessed the affirmation of the paradigm Health Technology Assessment (HTA) as a tool for government innovation technology in health care. As is known, this is an approach of evaluation oriented policy making that, in addition to provide for the disclosure of its results, it is proposed to consider simultaneously the clinical, economic, organizational, ethical and social issues arising from the introduction or disposal of a health technology, understood in the broadest sense of the term. In order to reconstruct a realistic picture of its level of implementation we have reproduced a micro HTA which served to assess the Harmonic Focus® device usefulness in breast surgery.

  5. United abominations: Density functional studies of heavy metal chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoendorff, George [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Carbonyl and nitrile addition to uranyl (UO22+) are studied. The competition between nitrile and water ligands in the formation of uranyl complexes is investigated. The possibility of hypercoordinated uranyl with acetone ligands is examined. Uranyl is studied with diactone alcohol ligands as a means to explain the apparent hypercoordinated uranyl. A discussion of the formation of mesityl oxide ligands is also included. A joint theory/experimental study of reactions of zwitterionic boratoiridium(I) complexes with oxazoline-based scorpionate ligands is reported. A computational study was done of the catalytic hydroamination/cyclization of aminoalkenes with zirconium-based catalysts. Techniques are surveyed for programming for graphical processing units (GPUs) using Fortran.

  6. Thermal stability of homologous functional units of Helix pomatia hemocyanin does not correlate with carbohydrate content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yesilyurt, Betül T; Gielens, Constant; Meersman, Filip

    2008-07-01

    The thermal stability of the eight functional units of beta-hemocyanin of the gastropodan mollusc Helix pomatia was investigated by FTIR spectroscopy. Molluscan hemocyanin functional units have a molecular mass of approximately 50 kDa and generally contain three disulfide bridges: two in the mainly alpha-helical N-terminal domain and one in the C-terminal beta-sheet domain. They show more than 50% sequence homology and it is assumed that they adopt a similar conformation. However, the functional units of H. pomatiabeta-hemocyanin, designated HpH-a to HpH-h, differ considerably in their carbohydrate content (0-18 wt%). Most functional units are exceptionally stable with a melting temperature in the range 77-83 degrees C. Two functional units, HpH-b and HpH-c, however, have a reduced stability with melting temperature values of 73 degrees C and 64 degrees C, respectively. Although the most glycosylated functional unit (HpH-g) has the highest temperature stability, there is no linear correlation between the degree of glycosylation of the functional units and the unfolding temperature. This is ascribed to variations in secondary structure as well as in glycan attachment sites. Moreover, the disulfide bonds might play an important role in the conformational stability of the functional units. Sequence comparison of molluscan hemocyanins suggests that the less stable functional units, HpH-b and HpH-c, similar to most of their paralogous counterparts, lack the disulfide bond in the C-terminal domain.

  7. A cost-effective methodology for the design of massively-parallel VLSI functional units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkateswaran, N.; Sriram, G.; Desouza, J.

    1993-01-01

    In this paper we propose a generalized methodology for the design of cost-effective massively-parallel VLSI Functional Units. This methodology is based on a technique of generating and reducing a massive bit-array on the mask-programmable PAcube VLSI array. This methodology unifies (maintains identical data flow and control) the execution of complex arithmetic functions on PAcube arrays. It is highly regular, expandable and uniform with respect to problem-size and wordlength, thereby reducing the communication complexity. The memory-functional unit interface is regular and expandable. Using this technique functional units of dedicated processors can be mask-programmed on the naked PAcube arrays, reducing the turn-around time. The production cost of such dedicated processors can be drastically reduced since the naked PAcube arrays can be mass-produced. Analysis of the the performance of functional units designed by our method yields promising results.

  8. A Correlational Study between IT Governance and the Effect on Strategic Management Functioning among Senior & Middle Management in Medium Scale Software Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurien, Sam

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to explore whether there are relationships between elements of information technology (IT) governance, strategic planning, and strategic functions among senior and mid-level management at medium-scaled software development firms. Several topics and models of IT governance literature were discussed and the gap in…

  9. A Correlational Study between IT Governance and the Effect on Strategic Management Functioning among Senior & Middle Management in Medium Scale Software Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurien, Sam

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to explore whether there are relationships between elements of information technology (IT) governance, strategic planning, and strategic functions among senior and mid-level management at medium-scaled software development firms. Several topics and models of IT governance literature were discussed and the gap in…

  10. The APOBEC Protein Family: United by Structure, Divergent in Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salter, Jason D; Bennett, Ryan P; Smith, Harold C

    2016-07-01

    The APOBEC (apolipoprotein B mRNA editing catalytic polypeptide-like) family of proteins have diverse and important functions in human health and disease. These proteins have an intrinsic ability to bind to both RNA and single-stranded (ss) DNA. Both function and tissue-specific expression varies widely for each APOBEC protein. We are beginning to understand that the activity of APOBEC proteins is regulated through genetic alterations, changes in their transcription and mRNA processing, and through their interactions with other macromolecules in the cell. Loss of cellular control of APOBEC activities leads to DNA hypermutation and promiscuous RNA editing associated with the development of cancer or viral drug resistance, underscoring the importance of understanding how APOBEC proteins are regulated.

  11. A Review Of The United States Government’s Status Quo North Korean Foreign Policy Approach And Reasons For Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-16

    Korea’s "Year of Friendship." Harvard International Review , 2015. 28 Nielsen, Suzanne C. "American Civil-Military Relations The Soldier and the State...AIR WAR COLLEGE AIR UNIVERSITY A REVIEW OF THE UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT’S STATUS QUO NORTH KOREAN FOREIGN POLICY APPROACH AND REASONS FOR...Colonel Spencer holds a Bachelor of Science degree in Mathematics, Masters of Education, and a Doctorate degree in Business Administration. She

  12. Functional unit and product functionality—addressing increase in consumption and demand for functionality in sustainability assessment with LCA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Seung Jin; Kara, Sami; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The static functional unit definition in the current LCA framework has limitations in addressing the changing product functionality and associated environmental impact of constantly evolving product technologies. As a result, it overlooks the changes in consumer behaviour of increased co...... cycle design that helps keep the total environmental impact of the company’s product portfolio within absolute boundaries....

  13. BOREL RADIUS AND T-RADIUS OF THE ALGEBROIDAL FUNCTION IN THE UNIT DISC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kong Yinying

    2012-01-01

    Using Ahlfors' theory of covering surface and a type-function,we confirm the existence theorem of a Borel radius and a T-radius for the algebroidal function dealing with multiple values in the unit disc,which briefly extend some results for the algebroidal functions in the complex plane.

  14. 电子政务发展促进政府职能转变研究%Study on E-government Affairs Development Stimulating Transformation of Government Functions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘彦红

    2015-01-01

    政府职能转变在网络时代的大背景下迎来了新变革,电子政务迅速发展,政府事务数字化、信息化,建立了一种新型的网络政府服务形式和公共事务管理机制。电子政务的推行对政府职能转变产生了深远影响,是现代化政府建设的必由之路。%In the context of network times, change has come to the transformation of government functions. E-government affairs has developed quickly, digital information has established a new internet government form and management of public services mechanism. The implement of e-government affairs has exerted far-reaching influence to transformation of government functions, and become the only road to construct modern government.

  15. The interplay between genotype, metabolic state and cofactor treatment governs phenylalanine hydroxylase function and drug response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staudigl, Michael; Gersting, Søren W; Danecka, Marta K; Messing, Dunja D; Woidy, Mathias; Pinkas, Daniel; Kemter, Kristina F; Blau, Nenad; Muntau, Ania C

    2011-07-01

    The discovery of a pharmacological treatment for phenylketonuria (PKU) raised new questions about function and dysfunction of phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH), the enzyme deficient in this disease. To investigate the interdependence of the genotype, the metabolic state (phenylalanine substrate) and treatment (BH(4) cofactor) in the context of enzyme function in vitro and in vivo, we (i) used a fluorescence-based method for fast enzyme kinetic analyses at an expanded range of phenylalanine and BH(4) concentrations, (ii) depicted PAH function as activity landscapes, (iii) retraced the analyses in eukaryotic cells, and (iv) translated this into the human system by analyzing the outcome of oral BH(4) loading tests. PAH activity landscapes uncovered the optimal working range of recombinant wild-type PAH and provided new insights into PAH kinetics. They demonstrated how mutations might alter enzyme function in the space of varying substrate and cofactor concentrations. Experiments in eukaryotic cells revealed that the availability of the active PAH enzyme depends on the phenylalanine-to-BH(4) ratio. Finally, evaluation of data from BH(4) loading tests indicated that the patient's genotype influences the impact of the metabolic state on drug response. The results allowed for visualization and a better understanding of PAH function in the physiological and pathological state as well as in the therapeutic context of cofactor treatment. Moreover, our data underscore the need for more personalized procedures to safely identify and treat patients with BH(4)-responsive PAH deficiency.

  16. Functional Genetic Screen to Identify Interneurons Governing Behaviorally Distinct Aspects of Drosophila Larval Motor Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matt Q. Clark

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Drosophila larval crawling is an attractive system to study rhythmic motor output at the level of animal behavior. Larval crawling consists of waves of muscle contractions generating forward or reverse locomotion. In addition, larvae undergo additional behaviors, including head casts, turning, and feeding. It is likely that some neurons (e.g., motor neurons are used in all these behaviors, but the identity (or even existence of neurons dedicated to specific aspects of behavior is unclear. To identify neurons that regulate specific aspects of larval locomotion, we performed a genetic screen to identify neurons that, when activated, could elicit distinct motor programs. We used 165 Janelia CRM-Gal4 lines—chosen for sparse neuronal expression—to ectopically express the warmth-inducible neuronal activator TrpA1, and screened for locomotor defects. The primary screen measured forward locomotion velocity, and we identified 63 lines that had locomotion velocities significantly slower than controls following TrpA1 activation (28°. A secondary screen was performed on these lines, revealing multiple discrete behavioral phenotypes, including slow forward locomotion, excessive reverse locomotion, excessive turning, excessive feeding, immobile, rigid paralysis, and delayed paralysis. While many of the Gal4 lines had motor, sensory, or muscle expression that may account for some or all of the phenotype, some lines showed specific expression in a sparse pattern of interneurons. Our results show that distinct motor programs utilize distinct subsets of interneurons, and provide an entry point for characterizing interneurons governing different elements of the larval motor program.

  17. Optimizing Power Heterogeneous Functional Units for Dynamic and Static Power Reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshinori Sato

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Power consumption is the major constraint for modern microprocessor designs. In particular, static power consumption becomes a serious problem as the transistor size shrinks via semiconductor technology improvement. This paper proposes a technique that reduces the static power consumed by functional units. It exploits the activity rate of functional units and utilizes the power heterogeneous functional units. From detailed simulations, we investigate the conditions in which the proposed technique works effectively for simultaneous dynamic and static power reduction and find that we can reduce the total power by 11.2% if two out of four leaky functional units are replaced by leakless ones in the situation where the static power occupies half of the total power.

  18. Silver Nanoparticles, Ions, and Shape Governing Soil Microbial Functional Diversity: Nano Shapes Micro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Yujia; Hunting, Ellard R; Wouters, Marja; Peijnenburg, Willie J G M; Vijver, Martina G

    2016-01-01

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) affect microbial metabolic processes at single cell level or lab-culture strains. However, the impact of different AgNPs properties such as the particle, ion release, and shape on functional responses of natural soil microbial communities remain poorly understood. Therefore, we assessed the relative importance of particles and ions of AgNPs in bacterial toxicity and how the functional diversity of soil microbial communities were impacted by AgNPs shapes (i.e., plates, spheres, and rods) in laboratory incubations. Our results showed that the relative contribution of AgNPs(particle) increased with increasing exposure concentrations (accounted for about 60-68% of the total toxicity at the highest exposure level). In addition, the functional composition of the microbial community differed significantly according to different AgNPs shapes. The various properties of AgNPs thus can significantly and differentially affect the functional composition of microbial communities and associated ecosystem processes depending on the level of environmental exposure.

  19. Plasma Membrane Association by N-Acylation Governs PKG Function in Toxoplasma gondii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Kevin M; Long, Shaojun; Sibley, L David

    2017-05-02

    Cyclic GMP (cGMP)-dependent protein kinase (protein kinase G [PKG]) is essential for microneme secretion, motility, invasion, and egress in apicomplexan parasites, However, the separate roles of two isoforms of the kinase that are expressed by some apicomplexans remain uncertain. Despite having identical regulatory and catalytic domains, PKG(I) is plasma membrane associated whereas PKG(II) is cytosolic in Toxoplasma gondii To determine whether these isoforms are functionally distinct or redundant, we developed an auxin-inducible degron (AID) tagging system for conditional protein depletion in T. gondii By combining AID regulation with genome editing strategies, we determined that PKG(I) is necessary and fully sufficient for PKG-dependent cellular processes. Conversely, PKG(II) is functionally insufficient and dispensable in the presence of PKG(I) The difference in functionality mapped to the first 15 residues of PKG(I), containing a myristoylated Gly residue at position 2 that is critical for membrane association and PKG function. Collectively, we have identified a novel requirement for cGMP signaling at the plasma membrane and developed a new system for examining essential proteins in T. gondiiIMPORTANCEToxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular apicomplexan parasite and important clinical and veterinary pathogen that causes toxoplasmosis. Since apicomplexans can only propagate within host cells, efficient invasion is critically important for their life cycles. Previous studies using chemical genetics demonstrated that cyclic GMP signaling through protein kinase G (PKG)-controlled invasion by apicomplexan parasites. However, these studies did not resolve functional differences between two compartmentalized isoforms of the kinase. Here we developed a conditional protein regulation tool to interrogate PKG isoforms in T. gondii We found that the cytosolic PKG isoform was largely insufficient and dispensable. In contrast, the plasma membrane-associated isoform

  20. Transit times of water particles in the vadose zone across catchment states and catchments functional units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprenger, Matthias; Weiler, Markus

    2014-05-01

    Understanding the water movement in the vadose zone and its associated transport of solutes are of major interest to reduce nutrient leaching, pollution transport or other risks to water quality. Soil physical models are widely used to asses such transport processes, while the site specific parameterization of these models remains challenging. Inverse modeling is a common method to adjust the soil physical parameters in a way that the observed water movement or soil water dynamics are reproduced by the simulation. We have shown that the pore water stable isotope concentration can serve as an additional fitting target to simulate the solute transport and water balance in the unsaturated zone. In the presented study, the Mualem- van Genuchten parameters for the Richards equation and diffusivity parameter for the convection-dispersion equation have been parameterized using the inverse model approach with Hydrus-1D for 46 experimental sites of different land use, topography, pedology and geology in the Attert basin in Luxembourg. With the best parameter set we simulated the transport of a conservative solute that was introduced via a pulse input at different points in time. Thus, the transit times in the upper 2 m of the soil for different catchment states could be inferred for each location. It has been shown that the time a particle needs to pass the -2 m depth plane highly varies from the systems state and the systems forcing during and after infiltration of that particle. Differences in transit times among the study sites within the Attert basin were investigated with regards to its governing factors to test the concept of functional units. The study shows the potential of pore water stable isotope concentration for residence times and transport analyses in the unsaturated zone leading to a better understanding of the time variable subsurface processes across the catchment.

  1. Wright functions governed by fractional directional derivatives and fractional advection diffusion equations

    CERN Document Server

    D'Ovidio, Mirko

    2012-01-01

    We consider fractional directional derivatives and establish some connection with stable densities. Solutions to advection equations involving fractional directional derivatives are presented and some properties investigated. In particular we obtain solutions written in terms of Wright functions by exploiting operational rules involving the shift operator. We also consider fractional advection diffusion equations involving fractional powers of the negative Laplace operator and directional derivatives of fractional order and discuss the probabilistic interpretations of solutions.

  2. 75 FR 23563 - Delegation of Certain Functions Under Section 104(g) of the United States-India Peaceful Atomic...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-04

    ...;#0; ] Memorandum of April 27, 2010 Delegation of Certain Functions Under Section 104(g) of the United... of the United States, including section 301 of title 3, United States Code, I hereby delegate to you the functions and authority conferred upon the President by section 104(g) of the United...

  3. Implementing the United Kingdom Government's 10-Year Teenage Pregnancy Strategy for England (1999-2010): Applicable Lessons for Other Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadley, Alison; Chandra-Mouli, Venkatraman; Ingham, Roger

    2016-07-01

    Teenage pregnancy is an issue of inequality affecting the health, well-being, and life chances of young women, young men, and their children. Consequently, high levels of teenage pregnancy are of concern to an increasing number of developing and developed countries. The UK Labour Government's Teenage Pregnancy Strategy for England was one of the very few examples of a nationally led, locally implemented evidence-based strategy, resourced over a long duration, with an associated reduction of 51% in the under-18 conception rate. This article seeks to identify the lessons applicable to other countries. The article focuses on the prevention program. Drawing on the detailed documentation of the 10-year strategy, it analyzes the factors that helped and hindered implementation against the World Health Organization (WHO) ExpandNet Framework. The Framework strives to improve the planning and management of the process of scaling-up of successful pilot programs with a focus on sexual and reproductive health, making it particularly suited for an analysis of England's teenage pregnancy strategy. The development and implementation of the strategy matches the Framework's key attributes for successful planning and scaling up of sexual and reproductive health programs. It also matched the attributes identified by the Centre for Global Development for scaled up approaches to complex public health issues. Although the strategy was implemented in a high-income country, analysis against the WHO-ExpandNet Framework identifies many lessons which are transferable to low- and medium-income countries seeking to address high teenage pregnancy rates. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Service functions of private community health stations in China: A comparison analysis with government-sponsored community health stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Wanli; Fan, Hong; Xu, Jing; Wang, Fang; Chai, Yun; Xu, Hancheng; Li, Yongbin; Liu, Liqun; Wang, Bin; Jin, Jianqiang; Lu, Zuxun

    2012-04-01

    In China, with the restructuring of health care system moving forward, private community health facilities have been playing a complementary but increasingly important role in providing public health and basic medical care services in urban areas. However, only limited evidence is available concerning the service functions of private community health facilities in China. The aim of this study was to explore the functions of private community health stations (PCHSs) to provide evidence-based recommendations for policy-making and practice in the development of urban community health services systems. A total of 818 PCHSs and 4320 government-sponsored community health stations (GCHSs) located in 28 cities of China were investigated in 2008. The percentages of stations that provided health services and the annual workload per community health worker (CHW) were compared between the two types of institutions. The results showed that the percentages of PCHSs providing public health services were significantly higher than those of GCHSs (Pservices providing between PCHSs and GCHSs (P>0.05). The annual workloads of all the public health services and basic medical services per CHW in PCHSs were lighter than those in GCHSs (Peducation materials distribution (P>0.05). At present, the GCHSs are still the mainstream in urban China, which will last for a long period in future. However, our findings showed that the annual workloads of CHWs in PCHSs were no heavier than those in GCHSs, and the PCHSs were willing to provide public health services. In view of current inadequacy of health resources in China, it is feasible to further develop PCHSs under the guidance of the government, given that PCHSs can perform the basic functions of community health services, which is useful for the formation of public-private partnerships (PPP) and the improvement of community health services.

  5. Energy-efficient specialization of functional units in a Coarse-Grained Reconfigurable Array

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Essen, B; Panda, R; Wood, A; Ebeling, C; Hauck, S

    2010-12-01

    Functional units provide the backbone of any spatial accelerator by providing the computing resources. The desire for having rich and expensive functional units is in tension with producing a regular and energy-efficient computing fabric. This paper explores the design trade-off between complex, universal functional units and simpler, limited functional units. We show that a modest amount of specialization reduces the area-delay-energy product of an optimized architecture to 0.86x a baseline architecture. Furthermore, we provide a design guideline that allows an architect to customize the contents of the computing fabric just by examining the profile of benchmarks within the application domains. Functional units are the core of compute-intensive spatial accelerators. They perform the computation of interest with support from local storage and communication structures. Ideally, the functional units will provide rich functionality, supporting operations ranging from simple addition, to fused multiply-adds, to advanced transcendental functions and domain specific operations like add-compare-select. However, the total opportunity cost to support the more complex operations is a function of the cost of the hardware, the rate of occurrence of the operation in the application domain, and the inefficiency of emulating the operation with simpler operators. Examples of operations that are typically emulated in spatial accelerators are division and trigonometric functions, which can be solved using table-lookup based algorithms and the CORDIC algorithm. One reason to avoid having direct hardware support for complex operations in a tiled architecture like a Coarse-Grained Reconfigurable Array (CGRA) is that the expensive hardware will typically need to be replicated in some or all of the architecture's tiles. Tiled architecture are designed such that their tiles are either homogeneous or heterogeneous. Homogeneous architectures are simpler to design but heterogeneous

  6. United States Government Accountability Office report on nanotechnology: nanomaterials are widely used in commerce, but EPA faces challenges in regulating risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Nanotechnology involves the ability to control matter at the scale of a nanometer--one billionth of a meter. The world market for products that contain nanomaterials is expected to reach $2.6 trillion by 2015. In this context, the United States Government Accountability Office (GAO): (1) identified examples of current and potential uses of nanomaterials, (2) determined what is known about the potential human health and environmental risks from nanomaterials, (3) assessed actions the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has taken to better understand and regulate the risks posed by nanomaterials as well as its authorities to do so, and (4) identified approaches that other selected national authorities and U.S. states have taken to address the potential risks associated with nanomaterials. The GAO analyzed selected laws and regulations, reviewed information on the EPA's Nanoscale Materials Stewardship Program, and consulted with EPA officials and legal experts to obtain their perspectives on the EPA's authorities to regulate nanomaterials.

  7. Research unit INTERNANO: Mobility, aging and functioning of engineered inorganic nanoparticles at the aquatic-terrestrial interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaumann, Gabriele Ellen; Metreveli, George; Baumann, Thomas; Klitzke, Sondra; Lang, Friederike; Manz, Werner; Nießner, Reinhard; Schulz, Ralf; Vogel, Hans-Jörg

    2013-04-01

    Engineered inorganic nanoparticles (EINP) are expected to pass the wastewater-river-topsoil-groundwater pathway. Despite their increasing release, the processes governing the EINP aging and the changes in functionality in the environment are up to now largely unknown. The objective of the interdisciplinary research unit INTERNANO funded by the DFG is to identify the processes relevant for the fate of EINP and EINP-associated pollutants in the interfacial zone between aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. The research unit consists of six subprojects and combines knowledge from aquatic and terrestrial sciences as well as from microbiology, ecotoxicology, physicochemistry, soil chemistry and soil physics. For the identification of key processes we will consider compartment specific flow conditions, physicochemistry and biological activity. Situations representative for a floodplain system are simulated using micromodels (μm scale) as well as incubation, soil column and joint laboratory stream microcosm experiments. These results will be transferred to a joint aquatic-terrestrial model system on EINP aging, transport and functioning across the aquatic-terrestrial transition zone. EINP isolation and characterization will be carried out via a combination of chromatographic, light scattering and microscopic methods including dynamic light scattering, elemental analysis, hydrodynamic radius chromatography, field flow fractionation as well as atomic force microscopy, Raman microscopy and electron microscopy. INTERNANO generates fundamental aquatic-terrestrial process knowledge, which will help to evaluate the environmental significance of the EINP at aquatic-terrestrial interfaces. Thus, INTERNANO provides a scientific basis to assess and predict the environmental impact of EINP release into the environment.

  8. Schwarz-Pick estimates for positive real part holomorphic functions on unit ball and polydisc

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    We give higher order derivatives Schwarz-Pick estimates for all positive real part holomorphic functions on Bn and D n,and generalize early work on Schwarz-Pick estimate of higher order derivatives for holomorphic functions with positive real part on unit disk in C.

  9. Phosphorylation of nucleoporin Tpr governs its differential localization and is required for its mitotic function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajanala, Kalpana; Sarkar, Anshuk; Jhingan, Gagan Deep; Priyadarshini, Raina; Jalan, Manisha; Sengupta, Sagar; Nandicoori, Vinay Kumar

    2014-08-15

    A major constituent of the nuclear basket region of the nuclear pore complex (NPC), nucleoporin Tpr, plays roles in regulating multiple important processes. We have previously established that Tpr is phosphorylated in both a MAP-kinase-dependent and MAP-kinase-independent manner, and that Tpr acts as both a substrate and as a scaffold for ERK2 (also known as MAPK1). Here, we report the identification of S2059 and S2094 as the major novel ERK-independent phosphorylation sites and T1677, S2020, S2023 and S2034 as additional ERK-independent phosphorylation sites found in the Tpr protein in vivo. Our results suggest that protein kinase A phosphorylates the S2094 residue and that the site is hyperphosphorylated during mitosis. Furthermore, we find that Tpr is phosphorylated at the S2059 residue by CDK1 and the phosphorylated form distinctly localizes with chromatin during telophase. Abrogation of S2059 phosphorylation abolishes the interaction of Tpr with Mad1, thus compromising the localization of both Mad1 and Mad2 proteins, resulting in cell cycle defects. The identification of novel phosphorylation sites on Tpr and the observations presented in this study allow better understanding of Tpr functions.

  10. Perivascular Mast Cells Govern Shear Stress-Induced Arteriogenesis by Orchestrating Leukocyte Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omary Chillo

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The body has the capacity to compensate for an occluded artery by creating a natural bypass upon increased fluid shear stress. How this mechanical force is translated into collateral artery growth (arteriogenesis is unresolved. We show that extravasation of neutrophils mediated by the platelet receptor GPIbα and uPA results in Nox2-derived reactive oxygen radicals, which activate perivascular mast cells. These c-kit+/CXCR-4+ cells stimulate arteriogenesis by recruiting additional neutrophils as well as growth-promoting monocytes and T cells. Additionally, mast cells may directly contribute to vascular remodeling and vascular cell proliferation through increased MMP activity and by supplying growth-promoting factors. Boosting mast cell recruitment and activation effectively promotes arteriogenesis, thereby protecting tissue from severe ischemic damage. We thus find that perivascular mast cells are central regulators of shear stress-induced arteriogenesis by orchestrating leukocyte function and growth factor/cytokine release, thus providing a therapeutic target for treatment of vascular occlusive diseases.

  11. Transfer Function Bounds for Partial-unit-memory Convolutional Codes Based on Reduced State Diagram

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, P. J.

    1984-01-01

    The performance of a coding system consisting of a convolutional encoder and a Viterbi decoder is analytically found by the well-known transfer function bounding technique. For the partial-unit-memory byte-oriented convolutional encoder with m sub 0 binary memory cells and (k sub 0 m sub 0) inputs, a state diagram of 2(K) (sub 0) was for the transfer function bound. A reduced state diagram of (2 (m sub 0) +1) is used for easy evaluation of transfer function bounds for partial-unit-memory codes.

  12. Innovative Approaches to Collaborative Groundwater Governance in the United States: Case Studies from Three High-Growth Regions in the Sun Belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megdal, Sharon B.; Gerlak, Andrea K.; Huang, Ling-Yee; Delano, Nathaniel; Varady, Robert G.; Petersen-Perlman, Jacob D.

    2017-05-01

    Groundwater is an increasingly important source of freshwater, especially where surface water resources are fully or over-allocated or becoming less reliable due to climate change. Groundwater reliance has created new challenges for sustainable management. This article examines how regional groundwater users coordinate and collaborate to manage shared groundwater resources, including attention to what drives collaboration. To identify and illustrate these facets, this article examines three geographically diverse cases of groundwater governance and management from the United States Sun Belt: Orange County Water District in southern California; Prescott Active Management Area in north-central Arizona; and the Central Florida Water Initiative in central Florida. These regions have different surface water laws, groundwater allocation and management laws and regulations, demographics, economics, topographies, and climate. These cases were selected because the Sun Belt faces similar pressures on groundwater due to historical and projected population growth and limited availability of usable surface water supplies. Collectively, they demonstrate groundwater governance trends in the United States, and illustrate distinctive features of regional groundwater management strategies. Our research shows how geophysical realities and state-level legislation have enabled and/or stimulated regions to develop groundwater management plans and strategies to address the specific issues associated with their groundwater resources. We find that litigation involvement and avoidance, along with the need to finance projects, are additional drivers of regional collaboration to manage groundwater. This case study underscores the importance of regionally coordinated and sustained efforts to address serious groundwater utilization challenges faced by the regions studied and around the world.

  13. Innovative Approaches to Collaborative Groundwater Governance in the United States: Case Studies from Three High-Growth Regions in the Sun Belt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megdal, Sharon B; Gerlak, Andrea K; Huang, Ling-Yee; Delano, Nathaniel; Varady, Robert G; Petersen-Perlman, Jacob D

    2017-05-01

    Groundwater is an increasingly important source of freshwater, especially where surface water resources are fully or over-allocated or becoming less reliable due to climate change. Groundwater reliance has created new challenges for sustainable management. This article examines how regional groundwater users coordinate and collaborate to manage shared groundwater resources, including attention to what drives collaboration. To identify and illustrate these facets, this article examines three geographically diverse cases of groundwater governance and management from the United States Sun Belt: Orange County Water District in southern California; Prescott Active Management Area in north-central Arizona; and the Central Florida Water Initiative in central Florida. These regions have different surface water laws, groundwater allocation and management laws and regulations, demographics, economics, topographies, and climate. These cases were selected because the Sun Belt faces similar pressures on groundwater due to historical and projected population growth and limited availability of usable surface water supplies. Collectively, they demonstrate groundwater governance trends in the United States, and illustrate distinctive features of regional groundwater management strategies. Our research shows how geophysical realities and state-level legislation have enabled and/or stimulated regions to develop groundwater management plans and strategies to address the specific issues associated with their groundwater resources. We find that litigation involvement and avoidance, along with the need to finance projects, are additional drivers of regional collaboration to manage groundwater. This case study underscores the importance of regionally coordinated and sustained efforts to address serious groundwater utilization challenges faced by the regions studied and around the world.

  14. Two distinct phosphorylation events govern the function of muscle FHOD3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iskratsch, Thomas; Reijntjes, Susan; Dwyer, Joseph; Toselli, Paul; Dégano, Irene R; Dominguez, Isabel; Ehler, Elisabeth

    2013-03-01

    Posttranslational modifications such as phosphorylation are universally acknowledged regulators of protein function. Recently we characterised a striated muscle-specific isoform of the formin FHOD3 that displays distinct subcellular targeting and protein half-life compared to its non-muscle counterpart and which is dependent on phosphorylation by CK2 (formerly casein kinase 2). We now show that the two isoforms of FHOD3 are already expressed in the vertebrate embryonic heart. Analysis of CK2 alpha knockout mice showed that phosphorylation by CK2 is also required for proper targeting of muscle FHOD3 to the myofibrils in embryonic cardiomyocytes in situ. The localisation of muscle FHOD3 in the sarcomere varies depending on the maturation state, being either broader or restricted to the Z-disc proper in the adult heart. Following myofibril disassembly, such as that in dedifferentiating adult rat cardiomyocytes in culture, the expression of non-muscle FHOD3 is up-regulated, which is reversed once the myofibrils are reassembled. The shift in expression levels of different isoforms is accompanied by an increased co-localisation with p62, which is involved in autophagy, and affects the half-life of FHOD3. Phosphorylation of three amino acids in the C-terminus of FHOD3 by ROCK1 is sufficient for activation, which results in increased actin filament synthesis in cardiomyocytes and also a broader localisation pattern of FHOD3 in the myofibrils. ROCK1 can directly phosphorylate FHOD3, and FHOD3 seems to be the downstream mediator of the exaggerated actin filament formation phenotype that is induced in cardiomyocytes upon the overexpression of constitutively active ROCK1. We conclude that the expression of the muscle FHOD3 isoform is characteristic of the healthy mature heart and that two distinct phosphorylation events are crucial to regulate the activity of this isoform in thin filament assembly and maintenance.

  15. Role and Function Sub District in the Implementation of Local Government in Semarang City and District of Semarang Central Java Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunawan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Sub district in performing common functions government implementation and administration functions of the tasks that have been submitted by District City in accordance with the Law No. 32 Year 2004 on Regional Government and Government Regulation No. 19 Year 2008 on the District experienced a bottleneck in its application in the form of authority, institutional, resource human resources and management districts, the study used a qualitative approach, purposive sampling areas that have been submitted and have not been handed over authority to the districts, the results showed that the authority has submitted both the mayor and the regent was not fully submitted, institution or organization not adjust districts Government Regulation No. 19 in 2008, the quality and quantity of human resources become a bottleneck in the implementation of tasks and discretionary attributive.

  16. Luria’s model of the functional units of the brain and the neuropsychology of dreaming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Téllez A.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally, neuropsychology has focused on identifying the brain mechanisms of specific psychological processes, such as attention, motor skills, perception, memory, language, and consciousness, as well as their corresponding disorders. However, there are psychological processes that have received little attention in this field, such as dreaming. This study examined the clinical and experimental neuropsychological research relevant to dreaming, ranging from sleep disorders in patients with brain damage, to brain functioning during REM sleep, using different methods of brain imaging. These findings were analyzed within the framework of Luria’s Three Functional Unit Model of the Brain, and a proposal was made to explain certain of the essential characteristics of dreaming. This explanation describes how, during dreaming, an activation of the First Functional Unit occurs, comprising the reticular formation of the brainstem; this activates, in turn, the Second Functional Unit — which is formed by the parietal, occipital, and temporal lobes and Unit L, which is comprised of the limbic system, as well as simultaneous hypo-functioning of the Third Functional Unit (frontal lobe. This activity produces a perception of hallucinatory images of various sensory modes, as well as a lack of inhibition, a non-selfreflexive thought process, and a lack of planning and direction of such oneiric images. Dreaming is considered a type of natural confabulation, similar to the one that occurs in patients with frontal lobe damage or schizophrenia. The study also suggests that the confabulatory, bizarre, and impulsive nature of dreaming has a function in the cognitiveemotional homeostasis that aids proper brain function throughout the day.

  17. 75 FR 27155 - Delegation of Authority Relating To Certain Functions Under Section 201 (B) of the United States...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-14

    ... Certain Functions Under Section 201 (B) of the United States- india Nuclear Cooperation Approval And... section 301 of title 3, United States Code, I hereby delegate to you the certification and reporting functions conferred upon the President by section 201 (b) of the United States-India Nuclear...

  18. 75 FR 13427 - Delegation of Certain Functions Under Section 204(c) of the United States-India Nuclear...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-22

    ... Functions Under Section 204(c) of the United States-India Nuclear Cooperation Approval and Nonproliferation... President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States of America, including section 301 of title 3, United States Code, I hereby delegate to you the functions conferred upon the President by section...

  19. The Iraqi Governing Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    Social Education, 2004

    2004-01-01

    This article provides the details of the chronological events surrounding the establishment of a Governing Council in Iraq in July 2003 by the United States, acting as the leader of the Coalition Provisional Authority (CPA) that administers Iraq. The following topics are discussed in the article: (1) The Composition of the Governing Council; (2)…

  20. Power unit impedance and distance protection functions during faults in the external power grid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Lizer

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the problem of the risk of an unnecessary tripping of a generation unit’s underimpedance protection functions in circumstances of generator power swings following elimination of long-lasting fault in the external power grid. The fi rst part describes typical solutions of a generator impedance protection function (21e and unit distance protection function (21s. Starting characteristics of these protection functions are shown, as well as their typical operating logics and ways of calculating their settings. Then exemplary (the most common solutions of unit under-impedance relays power swing blocking functions are described. Following this introduction, the issues of the threat of unnecessary operation of fast-tripping protection zones of 21e and 21s protection functions are described, which arises in the circumstances of generator asynchronous power swings occurring after elimination of long-lasting faults in the grid supplied by the power unit. The paper also shows that the available power swing blocking functions may not be able to correctly detect the described conditions, thus allowing the unnecessary operation of under-impedance relays. How an impedance calculation algorithm affects the impedance trajectory seen by a protection relay is also resented.

  1. Functional Recovery in Patients With and Without Intensive Care Unit-Acquired Weakness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dettling-Ihnenfeldt, Daniela Susanne; Wieske, Luuk; Horn, Janneke; Nollet, Frans; van der Schaaf, Marike

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this work was to compare the patient-reported functional health status with regard to physical, psychological, and social functioning of intensive care unit (ICU) survivors with and without ICU-acquired weakness (ICU-AW). Single-center prospective study in ICU patients who were mechanically ventilated for more than 2 days and who survived to ICU discharge. Functional health status was assessed at 3, 6, and 12 months after ICU discharge, using the Sickness Impact Profile 68 (SIP68). The independent effect of ICU-AW on impaired functional status (SIP68 scores > 20) was analyzed using a multivariable logistic regression model. A total of 133 patients were included, 60 with ICU-AW. Intensive care unit-acquired weakness was an independent predictor for impaired functional health status at 3 months after ICU discharge (odds ratio, 0.27; 95% confidence interval, 0.08-0.94; P = 0.04) but not at 6 and 12 months. Physical functioning was significantly more impaired in patients with ICU-AW at 3 and 12 months. Psychological functioning and social functioning were comparable between the groups, with little restrictions in psychological functioning, and severe long-lasting restrictions in social functioning. The findings of this study urge the need to develop interdisciplinary rehabilitation interventions for ICU survivors, which should be continued after hospital discharge.

  2. Functionalization of SBA-15 mesoporous silica by Cu-phosphonate units: Probing of synthesis route

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laskowski, Lukasz, E-mail: lukasz.laskowski@kik.pcz.pl [Czestochowa University of Technology, Institute of Computational Intelligence, Al. Armii Krajowej 36, 42-201 Czestochowa (Poland); Czestochowa University of Technology, Institute of Physics, Al. Armii Krajowej 19, 42-201 Czestochowa (Poland); Laskowska, Magdalena, E-mail: magdalena.laskowska@onet.pl [Czestochowa University of Technology, Institute of Physics, Al. Armii Krajowej 19, 42-201 Czestochowa (Poland)

    2014-12-15

    Mesoporous silica SBA-15 containing propyl-copper phosphonate units was investigated. The structure of mesoporous samples was tested by N{sub 2} isothermal sorption (BET and BHJ analysis), TEM microscopy and X-Ray scattering. Quantitative analysis EDX has given information about proportions between component atoms in the sample. Quantitative elemental analysis has been carried out to support EDX. To examine bounding between copper atoms and phosphonic units the Raman spectroscopy was carried out. As a support of Raman scattering, the theoretical calculations were made based on density functional theory, with the B3LYP method. By comparison of the calculated vibrational spectra of the molecule with experimental results, distribution of the active units inside silica matrix has been determined. - Graphical abstract: The present study is devoted to mesoporous silica SBA-15 containing propyl-copper phosphonate units. The species were investigated to confirm of synthesis procedure correctness by the micro-Raman technique combined with DFT numerical simulations. Complementary research was carried out to test the structure of mesoporous samples. - Highlights: • SBA-15 silica functionalized with propyl-copper phosphonate units was synthesized. • Synthesis efficiency probed by Raman study supported with DFT simulations. • Homogenous distribution of active units was proved. • Synthesis route enables precise control of distance between copper ions.

  3. Giving us the ‘Biggest Bang for the Buck’ (or Not: Anti-trafficking government funding in Ukraine and the United Kingdom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiril Sharapov

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The focus of this paper is on government anti-trafficking policies and funding allocations in two case-study countries, Ukraine and the United Kingdom (UK. The paper discusses specific ways, or ‘vectors’, in which human trafficking has been discursively constructed by national policies and the solutions that have been offered to counteract it. It relies on publicly available information and information obtained via Freedom of Information requests from public authorities in these countries to explore the extent to which anti-trafficking funding allocated by national governments supports or unsettles such representations. A broader definition of human trafficking has been encoded into anti-trafficking policies in Ukraine, implicating migratory pressures and violation of irregular migrants’ human rights as the root causes of trafficking. However, the ability of the government to act upon this definition is limited by the ongoing socio-economic and political crises in Ukraine. This is in comparison to the politicised construction of trafficking by the UK government as a threat from international organised crime and ‘illegal’ immigration. The paper concludes that governments in both countries put their anti-trafficking money where ‘their mouths are’: crime, immigration and victim care in the UK, and awareness raising, victim care and training of ‘frontline professionals’ in Ukraine. Dándonos el "Mayor Rendimiento al Menor Coste" (o No: Financiación nacional contra la Trata en Ucrania y Reino Unido Resumen Este artículo se centra en la políticas gubernamentales contra la trata y la asignación financiera en dos países a modo de estudio de caso, Ucrania y Reino Unido. En concreto se discuten las vías específicas, o "vectores", que en el ámbito de las políticas nacionales se han ido formulando para afrontar el problema de la trata de seres humanos, así como las soluciones que se han ido proponiendo para neutralizarlo. Para

  4. The role of government in the development and diffusion of renewable energy technologies: Wind power in the United States, California, Denmark and Germany, 1970--2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawin, Janet Laughlin

    2001-07-01

    This dissertation seeks to determine the role of government policy in advancing the development and diffusion of renewable energy technologies, and to determine if specific policies or policy types are more effective than others in achieving these ends. This study analyzes legislation, regulations, research and development (R&D) programs and their impacts on wind energy in California, the rest of the United States, Denmark and Germany, from 1970 through 2000. These countries (and state) were chosen because each has followed a very different path and has adopted wind energy at different rates. Demand for energy, particularly electricity, is rising rapidly worldwide. Renewable energy technologies could meet much of the world's future demand for electricity without the national security, environmental and social costs of conventional technologies. But renewables now play only a minor role in the electric generation systems of most countries. According to conventional economic theory, renewable energy will achieve greater market penetration once it is cost-competitive with conventional generation. This dissertation concludes, however, that government policy is the most significant causal variable in determining the development and diffusion of wind energy technology. Policy is more important for bringing wind energy to maturity than a nation's wind resource potential, wealth, relative differences in electricity prices, or existing infrastructure. Further, policy is essential for enabling a technology to succeed in the marketplace once it is cost-competitive. Policies can affect a technology's perceived, or real, costs; they can reduce risks or increase the availability and affordability of capital; appropriate and consistent policies can eliminate barriers to wind technology. To be adopted on a large scale, renewables require effective, appropriate and, above all, consistent policies that are legislated with a long-term view toward advancing a technology and an

  5. A minimum price per unit of alcohol: A focus group study to investigate public opinion concerning UK government proposals to introduce new price controls to curb alcohol consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lonsdale Adam J

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background UK drinkers regularly consume alcohol in excess of guideline limits. One reason for this may be the high availability of low-cost alcoholic beverages. The introduction of a minimum price per unit of alcohol policy has been proposed as a means to reduce UK alcohol consumption. However, there is little in-depth research investigating public attitudes and beliefs regarding a minimum pricing policy. The aim of the present research was to investigate people’s attitudes and beliefs toward the introduction of a minimum price per unit of alcohol policy and their views on how the policy could be made acceptable to the general public. Methods Twenty-eight focus groups were conducted to gain in-depth data on attitudes, knowledge, and beliefs regarding the introduction of a minimum price per unit of alcohol policy. Participants (total N = 218 were asked to give their opinions about the policy, its possible outcomes, and how its introduction might be made more acceptable. Transcribed focus-group discussions were analysed for emergent themes using inductive thematic content analysis. Results Analysis indicated that participants’ objections to a minimum price had three main themes: (1 scepticism of minimum pricing as an effective means to reduce harmful alcohol consumption; (2 a dislike of the policy for a number of reasons (e.g., it was perceived to ‘punish’ the moderate drinker; and (3 concern that the policy might create or exacerbate existing social problems. There was a general perception that the policy was aimed at ‘problem’ and underage drinkers. Participants expressed some qualified support for the policy but stated that it would only work as part of a wider campaign including other educational elements. Conclusions There was little evidence to suggest that people would support the introduction of a minimum price per unit of alcohol policy. Scepticism about the effectiveness of the policy is likely to represent the most

  6. Can technical, functional and structural characteristics of dental units predict Legionella pneumophila and Pseudomonas aeruginosa contamination?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aprea, Luigi; Cannova, Lucia; Firenze, Alberto; Bivona, Maria S; Amodio, Emanuele; Romano, Nino

    2010-12-01

    Legionella pneumophila and Pseudomonas aeruginosa are common colonizers of water environments, particularly dental unit waterlines. The aim of this study was to assess whether the technical, functional and structural characteristics of dental units can influence the presence and the levels of opportunistic pathogens. Overall, 42 water samples were collected from dental units in a teaching hospital in Palermo, Italy, including 21 samples from the 21 taps supplied by the municipal water distribution system and 21 samples from oral rinsing cups at 21 dental units. L. pneumophila was present in 16 out of 21 water samples (76.2%) from dental units, and the median concentration was higher in samples from oral rinsing cups than in those from taps (P < 0.001). P. aeruginosa was equally distributed in water samples collected from oral rinsing cups and from taps. Some characteristics of dental units (age, number of chairs per room, number of patients per day and water temperature) were slightly associated with the presence of P. aeruginosa, but not with contamination by L. pneumophila. Our experience suggests that L. pneumophila is frequently detected in dental units, as reported in previous studies, whereas P. aeruginosa is not a frequent contaminant. As a consequence, microbiological control of water quality should be routinely performed, and should include the detection of opportunistic pathogens when bacterial contamination is expected.

  7. Gap Phenomenon of an Abstract Willmore Type Functional of Hypersurface in Unit Sphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanqi Zhu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available For an n-dimensional hypersurface in unit sphere, we introduce an abstract Willmore type called Wn,F-Willmore functional, which generalizes the well-known classic Willmore functional. Its critical point is called the Wn,F-Willmore hypersurface, for which the variational equation and Simons’ type integral equalities are obtained. Moreover, we construct a few examples of Wn,F-Willmore hypersurface and give a gap phenomenon characterization by use of our integral formula.

  8. A Weighted Estimate for the Square Function on the Unit Ball in $\\C^n$

    OpenAIRE

    PETERMICHL, stefanie; Wick, Brett D.

    2007-01-01

    We show that the Luzin area integral or the square function on the unit ball of ℂn, regarded as an operator in the weighted space L2(w) has a linear bound in terms of the invariant A2 characteristic of the weight. We show a dimension-free estimate for the “area-integral” associated with the weighted L2(w) norm of the square function. We prove the equivalence of the classical and the invariant A2 classes.

  9. Density functional theory calculation on many-cores hybrid central processing unit-graphic processing unit architectures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genovese, Luigi; Ospici, Matthieu; Deutsch, Thierry; Méhaut, Jean-François; Neelov, Alexey; Goedecker, Stefan

    2009-07-21

    We present the implementation of a full electronic structure calculation code on a hybrid parallel architecture with graphic processing units (GPUs). This implementation is performed on a free software code based on Daubechies wavelets. Such code shows very good performances, systematic convergence properties, and an excellent efficiency on parallel computers. Our GPU-based acceleration fully preserves all these properties. In particular, the code is able to run on many cores which may or may not have a GPU associated, and thus on parallel and massive parallel hybrid machines. With double precision calculations, we may achieve considerable speedup, between a factor of 20 for some operations and a factor of 6 for the whole density functional theory code.

  10. THE UNIT BALL OF C*-ALGEBRA AND DIFFERENTIABILITY OF SUPPORT FUNCTION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Y. Dehghan; I. Sadeqi

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we show that the unit ball of an infinite dimensional commutative C*-algebra lacks strongly exposed points, so they have no predual. Also in the second part, we use the concept of strongly exposed points in the Frechet differentiability of support convex functions.

  11. Health through the global functionality stimulation of the elderly in a continuing care unit

    OpenAIRE

    Marques,Patrícia; Oliveira, Irene

    2011-01-01

    Work performed under the Stage Specialization in Medical-Surgical Nursing in Integrated Continuing Care Unit (ICCU), in order to describe the health gains achieved with a program to stimulate the overall functionality, adapted to the degree of physical dependence patients and the psychological profile.

  12. Constructing Knowledge about the Trigonometric Functions and Their Geometric Meaning on the Unit Circle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altman, Renana; Kidron, Ivy

    2016-01-01

    Processes of knowledge construction are investigated. A learner is constructing knowledge about the trigonometric functions and their geometric meaning on the unit circle. The analysis is based on the dynamically nested epistemic action model for abstraction in context. Different tasks are offered to the learner. In his effort to perform the…

  13. Biomedical Mathematics, Unit VII: Exponential and Logarithmic Functions. Student Text. Revised Version, 1977.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biomedical Interdisciplinary Curriculum Project, Berkeley, CA.

    This collection of lessons, exercises, and experiments deals with exponential and logarithmic mathematical functions in the context of biomedical situations. Typical units in this collection provide discussion of the biomedical problem or setting, discussion of the mathematical concept, several example problems and solutions, and a set of problems…

  14. Quaternary Structure and Functional Unit of Energy Coupling Factor (ECF)-type Transporters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beek, Josy ter; Duurkens, Ria H.; Erkens, Guus B.; Slotboom, Dirk Jan

    2011-01-01

    ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters mediate transport of diverse substrates across membranes. We have determined the quaternary structure and functional unit of the recently discovered ECF-type (energy coupling factor) of ABC transporters, which is widespread among prokaryotes. ECF transporters

  15. Synthesis and Excellent Duplex Stability of Oligonucleotides Containing 2'-Amino-LNA Functionalized with Galactose Units

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kumar, Rajesh; Ries, Annika; Wengel, Jesper

    2017-01-01

    A convenient method for the preparation of oligonucleotides containing internally-attached galactose and triantennary galactose units has been developed based on click chemistry between 2'-N-alkyne 2'-amino-LNA nucleosides and azido-functionalized galactosyl building blocks. The synthesized...

  16. Person Response Functions and the Definition of Units in the Social Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelhard, George, Jr.; Perkins, Aminah F.

    2011-01-01

    Humphry (this issue) has written a thought-provoking piece on the interpretation of item discrimination parameters as scale units in item response theory. One of the key features of his work is the description of an item response theory (IRT) model that he calls the logistic measurement function that combines aspects of two traditions in IRT that…

  17. A Reconfigurable Functional Unit with Conditional Execution for Multi-Exit Custom Instructions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noori, Hamid; Mehdipour, Farhad; Inoue, Koji; Murakami, Kazuaki

    Encapsulating critical computation subgraphs as application-specific instruction set extensions is an effective technique to enhance the performance of embedded processors. However, the addition of custom functional units to the base processor is required to support the execution of these custom instructions. Although automated tools have been developed to reduce the long design time needed to produce a new extensible processor for each application, short time-to-market, significant non-recurring engineering and design costs are issues. To address these concerns, we introduce an adaptive extensible processor in which custom instructions are generated and added after chip-fabrication. To support this feature, custom functional units (CFUs) are replaced by a reconfigurable functional unit (RFU). The proposed RFU is based on a matrix of functional units which is multi-cycle with the capability of conditional execution. A quantitative approach is utilized to propose an efficient architecture for the RFU and fix its constraints. To generate more effective custom instructions, they are extended over basic blocks and hence, multiple exits custom instructions are proposed. Conditional execution has been added to the RFU to support the multi-exit feature of custom instructions. Experimental results show that multi-exit custom instructions enhance the performance by an average of 67% compared to custom instructions limited to one basic block. A maximum speedup of 4.7, compared to a general embedded processor, and an average speedup of 1.85 was achieved on MiBench benchmark suite.

  18. Why Are Employees Leaving the Federal Government? Results of an Exit Survey. A Report to the President and the Congress of the United States. A Special Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merit Systems Protection Board, Washington, DC.

    The success of virtually every endeavor of the Federal Government depends on the skills, abilities, and motivations of its work force. Yet recent years have seen increasing concern about the quality of the Federal work force and the Government's ability to retain its most capable employees. In any given year, the Government loses nearly 120,000…

  19. Psychiatric disorders in children attending a Nigerian primary care unit: functional impairment and risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tunde-Ayinmode Mosunmola

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is dearth of data on the level of functional impairment and risk factors for psychiatric morbidity in children attending primary care services in developing countries like Nigeria. The risk factors for psychiatric morbidity and functional impairment in children attending the primary care unit of a teaching hospital in Ilorin, Nigeria was therefore investigated to obtain data that could be used in improving service provision by primary care physicians. Methods A cross-sectional two-stage design was employed for the study. The first stage involved administration of the Child Behavior Questionnaire (CBQ to 350 children while the children’s version of the schedule for affective disorders and schizophrenia was used for the second stage involving 157 children, all high scorers on CBQ (score of ≥ 7 and 30% of low scorers (score  In addition, the Children Global Assessment Scale was used to assess the functional status of the children (score of ≤ 70 indicates functional impairment while the mothers’ mental health status was assessed with the 12-item version of the General Health Questionnaire, a score of 3 or more on this instrument indicate presence of mental morbidity. Results It was observed that 11.4% of the children had diagnosable psychiatric disorders and 7.1% were functionally impaired; and those with psychiatric disorders were more functionally impaired than those without. Thus, significant negative correlation was noted between CBQ scores and CGAS (r = 0.53; p  Conclusions Child psychiatric disorders are prevalent in the primary care unit studied. Many of the risk factors identified in the study population are modifiable. Collaborative efforts between psychiatrists and primary care physicians could therefore help to reduce level of risk and functional impairment and psychiatric morbidity among children attending the primary care unit studied. It could also help improve referral rates of

  20. Theorizing governance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gupta, J.; Verrest, H.; Jaffe, R.; Gupta, J.; Pfeffer, K.; Verrest, H.; Ros-Tonen, M.

    2015-01-01

    This chapter presents an overview of governance theories and discusses the emergence of governance as an analytical and a normative tool. It reviews theories that conceptualize the relations between different governance actors, including debates on interactive and hybrid governance, and presents

  1. Opinion Poll of Information Unit managers of Central Libraries of Government Universities within Metro-Tehran regarding Services offered by Rose System and Nasim Iman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Rahimi

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Using a descriptive survey methodology, the data was collected using a questionnaire and calling on the Information and Acquision unit managers in 15 government universities in metro-Tehran. Findings indicate that the population studied utilize the services, databases and e-journals offered by both rose system and nasim iman. Furthermore they are all partake in consortium purchases. Average means for Rose system was 1.78 and for Nasim Iman was 1.77 indicating relative satisfaction with services. Among the principle reasons for dissatisfaction were irregular increase of annual subscription fees to electronic resources, and failure to fully uphold the terms of contracts between these companies and the universities. To resolve these issues, the companies need first to draft a suitable policy for offering services fitting the needs of universities. These services should be offered at reasonable price. Secondly the relevant powers-that-be must facilitate the entry of third party agents into the competition or alternatively lay in the grounds to the universities to directly engage in consortium purchase from foreign publishers.

  2. Transformative environmental governance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaffin, Brian C.; Garmestani, Ahjond S.; Gunderson, Lance H.; Harm Benson, Melinda; Angeler, David G.; Arnold, Craig Anthony (Tony); Cosens, Barbara; Kundis Craig, Robin; Ruhl, J.B.; Allen, Craig R.

    2016-01-01

    Transformative governance is an approach to environmental governance that has the capacity to respond to, manage, and trigger regime shifts in coupled social-ecological systems (SESs) at multiple scales. The goal of transformative governance is to actively shift degraded SESs to alternative, more desirable, or more functional regimes by altering the structures and processes that define the system. Transformative governance is rooted in ecological theories to explain cross-scale dynamics in complex systems, as well as social theories of change, innovation, and technological transformation. Similar to adaptive governance, transformative governance involves a broad set of governance components, but requires additional capacity to foster new social-ecological regimes including increased risk tolerance, significant systemic investment, and restructured economies and power relations. Transformative governance has the potential to actively respond to regime shifts triggered by climate change, and thus future research should focus on identifying system drivers and leading indicators associated with social-ecological thresholds.

  3. Interactive governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Eva; Torfing, Jacob; Peters, B. Guy

    Governance has become one of the most commonly used concepts in contemporary political science. It is, however, often used to mean a variety of different things. This book helps to clarify this conceptual muddle by concentrating on one variety of governance-interactive governance. The authors argue...... that although the state may remain important for many aspects of governing, interactions between state and society represent an important, and perhaps increasingly important, dimension of governance. These interactions may be with social actors such as networks, with market actors or with other governments......, but all these forms represent means of governing involving mixtures of state action with the actions of other entities.This book explores thoroughly this meaning of governance, and links it to broader questions of governance. In the process of explicating this dimension of governance the authors also...

  4. Stability of a Simple Levi–Civitá Functional Equation on Non-Unital Commutative Semigroups

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Jaeyoung Chung; Heather Hunt; Allison Perkins; Prasanna K Sahoo

    2014-08-01

    In this paper, we study the Hyers–Ulam stability of a simple Levi–Civitá functional equation $f(x+y)=f(x)h(y)+f(y)$ and its pexiderization $f(x+y)=g(x) h(y)+k(y)$ on non-unital commutative semigroups by investigating the functional inequalities $|f(x+y)-f (x)h(y)-f(y)|≤ \\epsilon$ and $|f(x+y)-g(x)h(y)-k(y)|≤ \\epsilon$, respectively. We also study the bounded solutions of the simple Levi–Civitá functional inequality.

  5. Constructing knowledge about the trigonometric functions and their geometric meaning on the unit circle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altman, Renana; Kidron, Ivy

    2016-10-01

    Processes of knowledge construction are investigated. A learner is constructing knowledge about the trigonometric functions and their geometric meaning on the unit circle. The analysis is based on the dynamically nested epistemic action model for abstraction in context. Different tasks are offered to the learner. In his effort to perform the different tasks, he has the opportunity to understand the process used to create unit circle representations of trigonometric expressions. The theoretical framework of abstraction in context is used to analyse the evolution of the learner's construction of knowledge in the transition from 'triangle' trigonometry to 'circle' trigonometry.

  6. A Plan for Individualizing Instruction for the Senior Government Class Through Use of Problem Solving Units. Colorado Western States Small Schools Project Documentation (Silverton High School, Silverton, Colorado, 1963-64).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgs, Norman E.

    During the 1963-64 school year, a secondary teacher from the rurally isolated area of Silverton, Colorado initiated an individualized program in problem solving for a senior social studies class (N=8-10). Utilizing community resources, the instructor planned several units on government, while the students selected resource materials from the…

  7. Racial Disparities in Functional Limitations Among Hispanic Women in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinn, Juanita J; Hummer, Robert A

    2016-04-01

    This article assesses whether there are race differences in functional health among Hispanic women in the United States; ascertains whether the race differences in functional health vary by age; and examines the extent to which race differences in functional health are attributable to key dimensions of demographic, geographic, and socioeconomic heterogeneity. The analysis is based on 15 years of aggregated data from the National Health Interview Survey. Both U.S.- and foreign-born Black and other race Hispanic women display a higher level of functional limitations than their White Hispanic counterparts. There is little evidence that such health differences widen with age. U.S.-born Black Hispanic women, however, suffer from a high burden of functional limitations across the adult age range. This research speaks to the need for greater attention to racial differences in health among Hispanics and particularly so within the U.S.-born segment of this rapidly aging population. © The Author(s) 2015.

  8. Corelations between the landslides and the morphological and functional units of slopes in the Transylvanian Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gh. ROȘIAN

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The presence of fluvial morphology in the Transylvanian Basin, in form of an alternation of water divides and valley corridors, indicates favourable conditions for the genesis of geomorphologic processes. Under this aspect two sections stand out within this type of processes: river beds and slopes. In this paper, the emphasis is on the processes, developed on slopes. Water erosion and mass movement processes can be observed on their surface. From all mass movement processes, the emphasis will be put on the landslides. They will be observed in correlation with the morphologic and functional units of the slopes from different regional units of Transylvanian Basin. Eight case studies were taken into consideration regarding this aspect. Thus, we noticed that landslides particularly develop in the median part of the slopes which is corresponding to the maximum processual dynamic and transfer unit.

  9. Mapping quantal touch using 7 Tesla functional magnetic resonance imaging and single-unit intraneural microstimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez Panchuelo, Rosa Maria; Ackerley, Rochelle; Glover, Paul M; Bowtell, Richard W; Wessberg, Johan; Francis, Susan T; McGlone, Francis

    2016-05-07

    Using ultra-high field 7 Tesla (7T) functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we map the cortical and perceptual responses elicited by intraneural microstimulation (INMS) of single mechanoreceptive afferent units in the median nerve, in humans. Activations are compared to those produced by applying vibrotactile stimulation to the unit's receptive field, and unit-type perceptual reports are analyzed. We show that INMS and vibrotactile stimulation engage overlapping areas within the topographically appropriate digit representation in the primary somatosensory cortex. Additional brain regions in bilateral secondary somatosensory cortex, premotor cortex, primary motor cortex, insula and posterior parietal cortex, as well as in contralateral prefrontal cortex are also shown to be activated in response to INMS. The combination of INMS and 7T fMRI opens up an unprecedented opportunity to bridge the gap between first-order mechanoreceptive afferent input codes and their spatial, dynamic and perceptual representations in human cortex.

  10. Functionalization of SBA-15 mesoporous silica by Cu-phosphonate units: Probing of synthesis route

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laskowski, Lukasz; Laskowska, Magdalena

    2014-12-01

    Mesoporous silica SBA-15 containing propyl-copper phosphonate units was investigated. The structure of mesoporous samples was tested by N2 isothermal sorption (BET and BHJ analysis), TEM microscopy and X-Ray scattering. Quantitative analysis EDX has given information about proportions between component atoms in the sample. Quantitative elemental analysis has been carried out to support EDX. To examine bounding between copper atoms and phosphonic units the Raman spectroscopy was carried out. As a support of Raman scattering, the theoretical calculations were made based on density functional theory, with the B3LYP method. By comparison of the calculated vibrational spectra of the molecule with experimental results, distribution of the active units inside silica matrix has been determined.

  11. Interactive governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Eva; Torfing, Jacob; Peters, B. Guy

    that although the state may remain important for many aspects of governing, interactions between state and society represent an important, and perhaps increasingly important, dimension of governance. These interactions may be with social actors such as networks, with market actors or with other governments...... explore some of the more fundamental questions about governance theory. For example, although governance is talked about a great deal political science has done relatively little about how to measure this concept. Likewise, the term multi-level governance has become widely used but its important...

  12. Interactive Governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    Governance analysis has exploded in recent years, and it has become nearly impossible to tell what difference the concept and practice of governance makes from those of government and state. In addition governance analysis has been placed more and more in the shadow of the new institutionalisms and...... and growth. However, interactive governance is not a property or effect of institutions; nor does it apply solely to those individuals who seek success above everything else. It is connective more than individualistic or collectivistic in nature; and it manifests a governability capacity which...

  13. 76 FR 22003 - Delegation of Functions and Authority Under Sections 315 and 325 of Title 32, United States Code

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-20

    ... 325 of Title 32, United States Code Memorandum for the Secretary of Defense By the authority vested in... 301 of title 3, United States Code, I hereby delegate to you: (a) the functions and authority of the President contained in section 315 of title 32, United States Code, to permit a commissioned officer of...

  14. 78 FR 37921 - Delegation of Reporting Functions Specified in Section 491 of Title 10, United State Code

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-24

    ... Specified in Section 491 of Title 10, United States Code Notice of June 20, 2013--Continuation of the... Reporting Functions Specified in Section 491 of Title 10, United State Code Memorandum for the Secretary of... of America, including section 301 of title 3 of the United States Code, I hereby delegate to you...

  15. 78 FR 37923 - Delegation of Reporting Functions Specified in Section 491 of Title 10, United State Code

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-24

    ... Specified in Section 491 of Title 10, United States Code Notice of June 20, 2013--Continuation of the... Reporting Functions Specified in Section 491 of Title 10, United State Code Memorandum for the Secretary of... of America, including section 301 of title 3 of the United States Code, I hereby delegate to you...

  16. Governing Warfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harste, Gorm

      It would seem as though warfare has gotten out of control, not only in Iraq and Afghanistan, but also in Central Africa. The paper outlines the strategic history of politically controlled warfare since the early Enlightenment. The argument is that control is implausible. The idea of control has...... the risks of lacking unity and displays the organisational trap to the fatal political myth of controlled warfare: Does it come from the military organisation system itself, from political ideologies of goal-rational governance, or from the chameleonic logic of wars?  ...... administration. While organisation systems continue to make some kind of political control possible, this is not the case in relation to wars. The organisation system is the in-between that should mediatise politics and war but is not functionally equivalent to just and unjust wars. The paper investigates...

  17. The role of family planning in achieving safe pregnancy for serodiscordant couples: commentary from the United States government's interagency task force on family planning and HIV service integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Jennifer; Medley, Amy; Yeiser, Sarah; Nightingale, Vienna R; Mani, Nithya; Sripipatana, Tabitha; Abutu, Andrew; Johnston, Beverly; Watts, D Heather

    2017-03-08

    People living with HIV (PLHIV) have the right to exercise voluntary choices about their health, including their reproductive health. This commentary discusses the integral role that family planning (FP) plays in helping PLHIV, including those in serodiscordant relationships, achieve conception safely. The United States (US) President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) is committed to meeting the reproductive health needs of PLHIV by improving their access to voluntary FP counselling and services, including prevention of unintended pregnancy and counselling for safer conception. Inclusion of preconception care and counselling (PCC) as part of routine HIV services is critical to preventing unintended pregnancies and perinatal infections among PLHIV. PLHIV not desiring a current pregnancy should be provided with information and counselling on all available FP methods and then either given the method onsite or through a facilitated referral process. PLHIV, who desire children should be offered risk reduction counselling, support for HIV status disclosure and partner testing, information on safer conception options to reduce the risk of HIV transmission to the partner and the importance of adhering to antiretroviral treatment during pregnancy and breastfeeding to reduce the risk of vertical transmission to the infant. Integration of PCC, HIV and FP services at the same location is recommended to improve access to these services for PLHIV. Other considerations to be addressed include the social and structural context, the health system capacity to offer these services, and stigma and discrimination of providers. Evaluation of innovative service delivery models for delivering PCC services is needed, including provision in community-based settings. The US Government will continue to partner with local organizations, Ministries of Health, the private sector, civil society, multilateral and bilateral donors, and other key stakeholders to strengthen both the policy and

  18. An experimental study on the conversion between IFPUG and UCP functional size measurement units#

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Juan J.CUADRADO-GALLEGO; Alain ABRAN; Pablo RODRGUEZ-SORIA; Miguel A.LARA

    2014-01-01

    The use of functional size measurement (FSM) methods in software development organizations is growing during the years. Also, object oriented (OO) techniques have become quite a standard to design the software and, in particular, Use Cases is one of the most used techniques to specify functional requirements. Main FSM methods do not include specific rules to measure the software functionality from its Use Cases analysis. To deal with this issue some other methods like Kramer’s functional measurement method have been developed. Therefore, one of the main issues for those organizations willing to use OO functional measurement method in order to facilitate the use cases count procedure is how to convert their portfolio functional size from the previously adopted FSM method towards the new method. The objective of this research is to find a statistical relationship for converting the software functional size units measured by the International Function Point Users Group (IFPUG) function point analysis (FPA) method into Kramer-Smith’s use cases points (UCP) method and vice versa. Methodologies for a correct data gathering are proposed and results obtained are analyzed to draw the linear and non-linear equations for this correlation. Finally, a conversion factor and corresponding conversion intervals are given to establish the statistical relationship.

  19. Bootloader with reprogramming functionality for electronic control units in vehicles: Analysis, design and Implementation

    OpenAIRE

    Pehrsson, David; Garza, Jesús

    2012-01-01

    In an automotive context today’s need of testing functions while in factory, correcting faults in the workshop or adding extra value in the aftermarket makes it very important to easily be able to download new software to the electronic control units in vehicles. In the platform for standard automotive software development called AUTOSAR, two known protocols are presented to specify the procedure on how to implement this download operation: Unified Diagnostic Services (UDS) and the Universal ...

  20. Functional modelling of symmetrical multi-pulse auto- transformer rectifier units for aerospace applications

    OpenAIRE

    YANG Tao; BOZHKO, Serhiy; Asher, Greg

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims to develop a functional model of symmetrical multi-pulse Auto-Transformer Rectifier Units (ATRUs) for More-Electric Aircraft (MEA) applications. The ATRU is seen as the most reliable way readily to be applied in the MEA. Interestingly, there is no model of ATRUs suitable for unbalanced or faulty conditions at the moment. This paper is aimed to fill this gap and develop functional models suitable for both balanced and unbalanced conditions. Using the fact that the DC voltage an...

  1. Functional unit, technological dynamics, and scaling properties for the life cycle energy of residences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frijia, Stephane; Guhathakurta, Subhrajit; Williams, Eric

    2012-02-07

    Prior LCA studies take the operational phase to include all energy use within a residence, implying a functional unit of all household activities, but then exclude related supply chains such as production of food, appliances, and household chemicals. We argue that bounding the functional unit to provision of a climate controlled space better focuses the LCA on the building, rather than activities that occur within a building. The second issue explored in this article is how technological change in the operational phase affects life cycle energy. Heating and cooling equipment is replaced at least several times over the lifetime of a residence; improved efficiency of newer equipment affects life cycle energy use. The third objective is to construct parametric models to describe LCA results for a family of related products. We explore these three issues through a case study of energy use of residences: one-story and two-story detached homes, 1,500-3,500 square feet in area, located in Phoenix, Arizona, built in 2002 and retired in 2051. With a restricted functional unit and accounting for technological progress, approximately 30% of a building's life cycle energy can be attributed to materials and construction, compared to 0.4-11% in previous studies.

  2. On accelerating the functional shift in government fishery management%政府渔业管理职能转变应驶入快车道

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李富荣

    2012-01-01

    China is at the stage of transformation from traditional fishery to modern fishery, which is a big challenge for government fishery management. But the functional shift in government fishery management does not catch pace of the development in other areas. The paper analyzed the negative results of slow functional shift in government fishery management, explored the ways of accelerating the functional shift in government fishery management according to the current status of fishery economy and fishery management, and put forward that to accelerate the pace of functional shift in government fishery management is the fundamental way to solve the problems in fishery management in China.%当前,我国渔业正处在从传统渔业向现代渔业过渡的转型期,这对政府渔业管理职能提出了新的要求,但政府渔业管理职能转变的步伐却始终未能快步向前。论文分析了政府渔业管理职能转变迟缓引发的不良后果,根据我国渔业经济发展和渔业管理面临的新形势,对如何加快政府渔业管理职能转变进行了探索,提出只有切实加快政府渔业管理职能转变的进程,才是解决当前我国渔业管理种种问题的根本之道。

  3. The Deep Analysis of Local Governments' Functional Optimization in Our Country%我国地方政府职能优化的深层探析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆永娟

    2012-01-01

    20世纪80年代之后,随着新公共管理、治理、新公共服务理论的兴起,西方发达国家相继进行了地方政府改革与职能转变。改革开放之后,随着社会主义市场经济体制的确立,我国也相应调整了政府职能。但是现实中地方政府职能还存在着许多的问题,亟需优化与改善。以服务型政府为目标导向,从制度、组织、技术层面探索地方政府职能优化的路径。%After the 1980s,with the rise of new theory on the public management,public administration and new public service,the western developed countries have continued the local government's reformation and functional change.After the reform and opening,with establishing the socialist market economic system,our country also has the corresponding adjustment for the government function.But in reality the local government function still has many problems,it is urgent to optimize and improve.To a service-oriented government as the goal orientation,the article explores the paths of local government function optimization from system,organization,technical level.

  4. 论依法执政的功能与价值%Function and Value of Law-based Governance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴广庆

    2012-01-01

    科学执政、民主执政、依法执政的提出,进一步完善了党的执政方式,提高了党的执政能力。在推动依法治国,建设社会主义法治国家的进程中,依法执政是关键,是实现党的领导和执政的基本途径和重要保障。依法执政要求党领导人民依法管理国家和社会事务,保障国家机关依法行使权力,保护公民合法权利,树立党的权威。但是,也要看到依法执政的局限性,防止出现滥用法律和以情代法的误区。坚持依法执政,必须坚持与时俱进,不断改革和完善党的领导方式和执政方式。%Capacity for scientific,democratic and law-based governance further improve the Party’s way of wielding power and the governing ability.In the process of managing state affairs according to law and building a socialist country under the rule of law,law-based governance is the key link and the basic approach and important guarantee for realizing the Party’s leadership and governance.In the process of law-based governance,the party leads people to manage state and social affairs by law,supervises the government organs to exercise power in accordance with the law,protects citizens legitimate rights and strengthens the authority.But law-based governance also has limitations,such as abuse of law or no law.It has to persevere in keeping pace with the time,reform and improve the way of the Partys leadership and governance to carry out law-based governance.

  5. Safety Aspects of Postanesthesia Care Unit Discharge without Motor Function Assessment after Spinal Anesthesia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aasvang, Eske Kvanner; Jørgensen, Christoffer Calov; Laursen, Mogens Berg

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Postanesthesia care unit (PACU) discharge without observation of lower limb motor function after spinal anesthesia has been suggested to significantly reduce PACU stay and enhance resource optimization and early rehabilitation but without enough data to allow clinical recommendations....... METHODS: A multicenter, semiblinded, noninferiority randomized controlled trial of discharge from the PACU with or without assessment of lower limb motor function after elective total hip or knee arthroplasty under spinal anesthesia was undertaken. The primary outcome was frequency of a successful fast.......70 to 1.35). Adverse events in the ward during the first 24 h occurred in 5.8% versus 7.4% with or without motor function assessment, respectively (OR, 0.77; 95% CI, 0.5 to 1.19, P = 0.24). CONCLUSIONS: PACU discharge without assessment of lower limb motor function after spinal anesthesia for total hip...

  6. Esthetics Function of the United Front%统一战线的美学意蕴

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张安

    2012-01-01

    统一战线作为我们党在革命、建设和改革中的一个重要法宝,蕴涵着常常让人忽视的美学价值。统一战线具有着巨大的崇高美、和谐美和逻辑美。其中,崇高美包括使命崇高和人格崇高;和谐美是统一战线的内在本质和根本要求,统一战线本身就体现着和谐,蕴含着对和谐的不懈追求;而逻辑美体现在现实逻辑美和理论逻辑美两个方面。总的来说,这三个方面,它们既相对独立,发挥着各自的作用,又相辅相成,在整体上构成了统一战线的美学意蕴。%The United front as an important magic weapon of our party in the revolution period, construction period and re- form period, implies that the neglected aesthetic Function. There are sublime beauty, harmonious beauty and logical beauty in the united front. Among them, sublime beauty includes sublime of the mission and sublime personality; harmonious beauty is the inherent nature and fundamental requirements of the united front, the united front embodies harmony itself, contains the relentless pursuit of harmony ; and logical beauty includes beauty of realistic logic and beauty of theoretical logic. In general, on these three aspects, they are relatively independent, play their role, but complementary, constitute esthetics function of the United Front in the overall.

  7. Bridging the Gap between Theory and Practice: Reviewing the functions and powers of local government in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annette Christmas

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The chairperson of the parliamentary Portfolio Committee on local government recently described local government in South Africa as “a chicken whose legs have been tied for too long”. In other words, even when the fetters that bind the chicken’s legs are loosed, it remains at a loss for what to do with its newfound freedom (Tsenoli 2007. This descriptive analogy ostensibly refers to the failure of local government to harness its newfound power in post-apartheid South Africa and to claim its rightful position as the driver of development at the local level, and instigator of bottom-up growth and progress, which is meant to shape and transform society in the new South Africa.

  8. THE ROLE OF THE ACCOUNTANT PROFESSIONAL IN THE CONTEXT OF THE CORPORATE GOVERNANCE AND THE EXTERNALISATION OF THE ACCOUNTING FUNCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boghean Carmen

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available According to the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development - OECD, corporate governance is the system by means of which companies are managed and controlled. In 1999, were published the OECD Principles of Corporate Governance, these being currently recognized as one of the 12 pillars of international financial stability. The OECD principles served as a reference point for compiling a collection of national corporate governance codes. They focus mainly on the companies listed on regulated markets, although they also cover issues related to companies that have a big number of shareholders but are not listed. These principles refer to: the rights of shareholders and their protection, the equitable treatment of all shareholders, including the minority and foreign shareholders, the role and rights of stakeholders, the transparency of information and its prompt dissemination, the responsibilities of the Board of Directors and of the executive management.

  9. Plural Governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mols, Niels Peter; Menard, Claude

    2014-01-01

    Plural governance is a form of governance where a firm both makes and buys similar goods or services. Despite a widespread use of plural governance there are no transaction cost models of how plural governance affects performance. This paper reviews the literature about plural forms and proposes...... a model relating transaction cost and resource-based variables to the cost of the plural form. The model is then used to analyze when the plural form is efficient compared to alternative governance structures. We also use the model to discuss the strength of three plural form synergies....

  10. Program governance

    CERN Document Server

    Khan, Muhammad Ehsan

    2014-01-01

    FOUNDATION OF GOVERNANCEGovernanceDefining GovernanceGovernance at Multiple LevelsSummaryReferencesTransaction Cost EconomicsTransactions-Core Elements and Attributes     Behavioral Assumptions     Governance Structure AttributesHazards of Concern     Incomplete Contracting     Bilateral Dependency and Fundamental Transformation     Adaptation or MaladaptationLinking Governance, Governance Structures, and ContractsThe Impact of Asset Specificity and Behavioral Assumptions on ContractsAp

  11. Plural Governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mols, Niels Peter; Menard, Claude

    2014-01-01

    Plural governance is a form of governance where a firm both makes and buys similar goods or services. Despite a widespread use of plural governance there are no transaction cost models of how plural governance affects performance. This paper reviews the literature about plural forms and proposes...... a model relating transaction cost and resource-based variables to the cost of the plural form. The model is then used to analyze when the plural form is efficient compared to alternative governance structures. We also use the model to discuss the strength of three plural form synergies....

  12. The contribution of motor unit pairs to the correlation functions computed from surface myoelectric signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Cueto, José A; Erim, Zeynep

    2005-11-01

    The contribution of motor unit action potential trains (MUAPT) of distinct motor units (MU) to the crosscorrelation function between myoelectric signals (MES) recorded at the skin surface is studied. In specific, the significance of the correlation between the firing activity of concurrently active MUs (which results in cross-terms in the overall correlation function) is compared to the representation obtained using the contributions of single MUs at each recording site (auto-terms). A model for the generation of surface MUAPs is combined with the generation of MU firing statistics in order to obtain surface MUAPTs. MU firing statistics are simulated to incorporate MU synchronization levels reported in the literature. Alternatively, experimental firing statistics are fed to the model generating the MUAPTs. The contribution of individual MU pairs to the global myoelectric signal correlation function is assessed. Results indicate that the cross-terms from different MUs decrease steadily contributing very little to the overall correlation for record lengths as short as 30 s. Thus, the error expected when computing the crosscorrelation function between two channels of MES as the superposition of the auto-terms contributed by single MUs (i.e., ignoring the cross-terms from different MUs) is shown to be very small.

  13. Value Distribution for a Class of Small Functions in the Unit Disk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul A. Gunsul

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available If is a meromorphic function in the complex plane, R. Nevanlinna noted that its characteristic function (, could be used to categorize according to its rate of growth as ||=→∞. Later H. Milloux showed for a transcendental meromorphic function in the plane that for each positive integer , (,(/=((, as →∞, possibly outside a set of finite measure where denotes the proximity function of Nevanlinna theory. If is a meromorphic function in the unit disk ={∶||<1}, analogous results to the previous equation exist when limsup→1−((,/log(1/(1−=+∞. In this paper, we consider the class of meromorphic functions in for which limsup→1−((,/log(1/(1−<∞, lim→1−(,=+∞, and (,′/=((, as →1. We explore characteristics of the class and some places where functions in the class behave in a significantly different manner than those for which limsup→1−((,/log(1/(1−=+∞ holds. We also explore connections between the class and linear differential equations and values of differential polynomials and give an analogue to Nevanlinna's five-value theorem.

  14. Reflection upon the Government Micro-blog’s Guiding Function in Public Sentiments%政务微博舆情引导能力思考

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵铄岚

    2016-01-01

    On the basis of a scientific definition of government micro-blog and public sentiment,it is pointed out what constitutes the advantages and functions of the government micro-blog in guiding the public sentiments.And the existing prob-lems are put under examination:the laws and rules governing the development of government micro-blogs are far from com-plete;the safeguarding capacity construction of government micro-blogs is badly needed;inadequate awareness is found for the importance of the guiding function of government micro-blogs;the mechanism for government micro-blogs is incomplete and unscientific.And coping measures are suggested:relevant laws and stipulations be promptly drawn up;and policy flaws be made up for;a concise and efficient leading body be formed and responsibilities be substantially fulfilled;the top five mecha-nisms be established to actively guide the public sentiments so as to provide some helpful reference for the healthy development of government micro-blogs.%在对政务微博与舆情进行科学界定的基础上,指出了政务微博引导社会舆情的优势和作用,分析了政务微博引导舆情存在问题:规范政务微博发展的法律法规严重不健全,政务微博保障能力建设亟待加强,对政务微博引导社会舆情重要性认识不清、重视不够,政务微博机制不健全、管理不科学,进而提出了有效引导舆情的对策建议:尽快制定完善相关法律法规、补齐短板,组建精干高效的领导机构、强化责任落实,建立五大机制、积极主动引导社会舆情,为政务微博的健康发展提供参考。

  15. Institutionalizing Global Governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasche, Andreas; Gilbert, Dirk Ulrich

    2012-01-01

    The United Nations Global Compact – which is a Global Public Policy Network advocating 10 universal principles in the areas of human rights, labor standards, environmental protection, and anticorruption – has turned into the world's largest corporate responsibility initiative. Although the Global...... Compact is often characterized as a promising way to address global governance gaps, it remains largely unclear why this is the case. To address this problem, we discuss to what extent the initiative represents an institutional solution to exercise global governance. We suggest that new governance modes...

  16. Implementation of Special Function Unit for Vertex Shader Processor Using Hybrid Number System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avni Agarwal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The world of 3D graphic computing has undergone a revolution in the recent past, making devices more computationally intensive, providing high-end imaging to the user. The OpenGL ES Standard documents the requirements of graphic processing unit. A prime feature of this standard is a special function unit (SFU, which performs all the required mathematical computations on the vertex information corresponding to the image. This paper presents a low-cost, high-performance SFU architecture with improved speed and reduced area. Hybrid number system is employed here in order to reduce the complexity of operations by suitably switching between logarithmic number system (LNS and binary number system (BNS. In this work, reduction of area and a higher operating frequency are achieved with almost the same power consumption as that of the existing implementations.

  17. Relative emissions intensity of dairy production systems: employing different functional units in life-cycle assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, S A; Topp, C F E; Ennos, R A; Chagunda, M G G

    2017-08-01

    This study aimed to assess the merit and suitability of individual functional units (FU) in expressing greenhouse gas emissions intensity in different dairy production systems. An FU provides a clearly defined and measurable reference to which input and output data are normalised. This enables the results from life-cycle assessment (LCA) of different systems to be treated as functionally equivalent. Although the methodological framework of LCA has been standardised, selection of an appropriate FU remains ultimately at the discretion of the individual study. The aim of the present analysis was to examine the effect of different FU on the emissions intensities of different dairy production systems. Analysis was based on 7 years of data (2004 to 2010) from four Holstein-Friesian dairy systems at Scotland's Rural College's long-term genetic and management systems project, the Langhill herd. Implementation of LCA accounted for the environmental impacts of the whole-farm systems and their production of milk from 'cradle to farm gate'. Emissions intensity was determined as kilograms of carbon dioxide equivalents referenced to six FU: UK livestock units, energy-corrected milk yield, total combined milk solids yield, on-farm land used for production, total combined on- and off-farm land used for production, and the proposed new FU-energy-corrected milk yield per hectare of total land used. Energy-corrected milk was the FU most effective for reflecting differences between the systems. Functional unit that incorporated a land-related aspect did not find difference between systems which were managed under the same forage regime, despite their comprising different genetic lines. Employing on-farm land as the FU favoured grazing systems. The proposed dual FU combining both productivity and land use did not differentiate between emissions intensity of systems as effectively as the productivity-based units. However, this dual unit displayed potential to quantify in a simple way

  18. An update of the International Joint Commission's 1998 report, unsafe dams? seven years later what has changed? a report to the Governments of the United States and Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-03-15

    In February 1998, the International Joint Commission of Canada and the United States (IJC) submitted a report to the governments of the United States and Canada on the safety of dams and dykes that are directly subject to IJC Orders. One of the report's conclusions was that some regulated facilities that are under IJC Orders at the border are not subject to comprehensive government safety inspections and that oversight by governments was unsatisfactory. In early 2004, the IJC asked the owners of regulated facilities to update information furnished for the 1998 report, including information on safety inspections and emergency action plans, governmental oversight of inspections, inundation maps, security protocols and any other information concerning safety and security. In addition, the IJC asked for the assistance of its boards to provide information on steps that have been taken since 1998 to ensure the safety and security of these structures. Relevant federal, state and provincial government agencies were also requested to provide additional information regarding safety, security and governmental oversight of structures listed in the 1998 report. This document provided a summary of the information received pursuant to these requests as well as information from several other consultation processes. The report made several recommendations including that the governments take appropriate steps to ensure the safety and security of facilities at the border, particularly for those that are not regulated by the IJC. It was suggested that more United States federal funding be provided to Maine and Minnesota to increase the frequency of inspections. 2 tabs., 3 appendices.

  19. Reduced cognitive function in children with toxocariasis in a nationally representative sample of the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Michael G; Haseeb, M A

    2012-12-01

    Toxocariasis has recently been recognised as a potentially important neglected infection in developed countries, particularly those that experience substantive health disparities such as the United States. Given a relatively high prevalence of infection, an association between Toxocara infection and cognitive function may elucidate an important mechanism by which toxocariasis could contribute significantly to morbidity while still remaining hidden and, thus, neglected. To assess the potential relationship between toxocariasis and cognitive function, this investigation measured differences in components of both the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised (WISC-R) and the Wide Range Achievement Test-Revised (WRAT-R) in children seropositive and in children seronegative for Toxocara antibodies in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, a large, nationally-representative survey of the United States population. Seropositive children scored significantly lower on the WISC-R and WRAT-R compared with the seronegative children. Moreover, this relationship was independent of socioeconomic status, ethnicity, gender, rural residence, cytomegalovirus infection and blood lead levels. These results identify an important association that may reflect morbidity attributable to a genuine neglected infection. Nevertheless, longitudinal data are required to confirm an etiological connection between toxocariasis and cognitive function, as well as the true population attributable risk for toxocariasis and its chronic sequelae.

  20. Functional unit size of the neurotoxin receptors on the voltage-dependent sodium channel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelides, K J; Nutter, T J; Elmer, L W; Kempner, E S

    1985-03-25

    Radiation inactivation was used in situ to determine the functional unit sizes of the neurotoxin receptors of the voltage-dependent sodium channel from rat brain. Frozen or lyophilized synaptosomes were irradiated with high energy electrons generated by a linear accelerator and assayed for [3H]saxitoxin, 125I-Leiurus quinquestriatus quinquestriatus (alpha-scorpion toxin), 125I-Centruroides suffusus suffusus (beta-scorpion toxin), and batrachotoxinin-A 20 alpha-[3H]benzoate binding activity. The functional unit size of the neurotoxin receptors determined in situ by target analysis are 220,000 for saxitoxin, 263,000 for alpha-scorpion toxin, and 45,000 for beta-scorpion toxin. Analysis of the inactivation curve for batrachotoxinin-A 20 alpha-benzoate binding to the channel yields two target sizes of Mr approximately 287,000 (50%) and approximately 51,000 (50%). The results are independent of the purity of the membrane preparation. Comparison of the radiation inactivation data with the protein composition of the rat brain sodium channel indicates that there are at least two functional components.

  1. Understanding the Functional Central Limit Theorems with Some Applications to Unit Root Testing with Structural Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Aquino

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The application of different unit root statistics is by now a standard practice in empirical work. Even when it is a practical issue, these statistics have complex nonstandard distributions depending on functionals of certain stochastic processes, and their derivations represent a barrier even for many theoretical econometricians. These derivations are based on rigorous and fundamental statistical tools which are not (very well known by standard econometricians. This paper aims to fill this gap by explaining in a simple way one of these fundamental tools: namely, the Functional Central Limit Theorem. To this end, this paper analyzes the foundations and applicability of two versions of the Functional Central Limit Theorem within the framework of a unit root with a structural break. Initial attention is focused on the probabilistic structure of the time series to be considered. Thereafter, attention is focused on the asymptotic theory for nonstationary time series proposed by Phillips (1987a, which is applied by Perron (1989 to study the effects of an (assumed exogenous structural break on the power of the augmented Dickey-Fuller test and by Zivot and Andrews (1992 to criticize the exogeneity assumption and propose a method for estimating an endogenous breakpoint. A systematic method for dealing with efficiency issues is introduced by Perron and Rodriguez (2003, which extends the Generalized Least Squares detrending approach due to Elliot et al. (1996. An empirical application is provided.

  2. Acoustic emission monitoring of hot functional testing: Watts Bar Unit 1 Nuclear Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hutton, P.H.; Dawson, J.F.; Friesel, M.A.; Harris, J.C.; Pappas, R.A.

    1984-06-01

    Acoustic emission (AE) monitoring of selected pressure boundary areas at TVA's Watts Bar, Unit 1 Nuclear Power Plant during hot functional preservice testing is described in this report. The report deals with background, methodology, and results. The work discussed here is a major milestone in a program supported by NRC to develop and demonstrate application of AE monitoring for continuous surveillance of reactor pressure boundaries to detect and evaluate growing flaws. The subject work demonstrated that anticipated problem areas can be overcome. Work is continuing toward AE monitoring during reactor operation.

  3. Uncontracted Rys Quadrature Implementation of up to G Functions on Graphical Processing Units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asadchev, Andrey; Allada, Veerendra; Felder, Jacob; Bode, Brett M; Gordon, Mark S; Windus, Theresa L

    2010-03-09

    An implementation is presented of an uncontracted Rys quadrature algorithm for electron repulsion integrals, including up to g functions on graphical processing units (GPUs). The general GPU programming model, the challenges associated with implementing the Rys quadrature on these highly parallel emerging architectures, and a new approach to implementing the quadrature are outlined. The performance of the implementation is evaluated for single and double precision on two different types of GPU devices. The performance obtained is on par with the matrix-vector routine from the CUDA basic linear algebra subroutines (CUBLAS) library.

  4. Functional redundancy and the process of professionalization: the case of registered nurses in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levi, M

    1980-01-01

    Registered nurses have been attempting to achieve professional status for nearly a century. Historical investigation of their efforts in the United States and a case study of the 1976 Seattle Nurses' strike indicate major obstacles to the professionalizing project. The most important of these are the inability of the nurses to control the labor supply, and their failure to define or monopolize a distinct set of tasks. One result is functional redundancy: there is no job nurses perform that is not also performed by some other occupation.

  5. Thyroid Function Changes Related to Use of Iodinated Water in United States Space Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMonigal, Kathleen A.; Braverman, Lewis E.; Dunn, John T.; Stanbury, John B.; Wear, Mary L.; Hamm, Peggy B.; Sauer, Richard L.; Billica, Roger D.; Pool, Sam L.

    1999-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has used iodination as a method of microbial disinfection of potable water systems in United States spacecraft and long-duration habitability modules. A review of the effects on the thyroid following consumption o iodinated water by NASA astronauts was conducted. Pharmacological doses of iodine consumed by astronauts transiently decreased thyroid function, as reflected in serum TSH values. Although the adverse effects of excess iodine consumption in susceptible individuals are well documented, exposure to high doses of iodine during space flight did not result in a statistically significant increase in long-term thyroid disease in the astronaut population.

  6. Modified Current Differencing Unit and its Application for Electronically Reconfigurable Simple First-order Transfer Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SOTNER, R.

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Modified current differencing unit (MCDU and its simple filtering application are introduced in this paper. Modification of the well-known current differencing unit consists in weighted difference of both input currents controlled by adjustable current gain, controllable intrinsic resistance of both current input terminals, and availability of additional voltage terminal(s. Definition of MCDU therefore requires four adjustable parameters (B1, B2, Rp, Rn. A presented active element offers and combines benefits of electronically controllable current conveyor of second generation and current differencing unit and allows synthesis of interesting adjustable applications, which are not available by classical approaches based on simple elements. MCDU brings variability of the transfer function into the structure. It provides several transfer types without necessity of input or output node change by simple electronic tuning. A presented structure represents so-called reconnection-less reconfigurable current-mode filter for realization of all-pass, inverting high-pass, low-pass and direct transfer response. Behavioral model of the MCDU was prepared and carefully tested in filtering application. Spice simulations and measurements confirmed theoretical assumptions.

  7. Structure and Function: Planning a New Intensive Care Unit to Optimize Patient Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jozef Kesecioğlu

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available To survey the recent medical literature reporting effects of intensive care unit (ICU design on patients’ and family members’ well-being, safety and functionality. Features of ICU design linked to the needs of patients and their family are single-rooms, privacy, quiet surrounding, exposure to daylight, views of nature, prevention of infection, a family area and open visiting hours. Other features such as safety, working procedures, ergonomics and logistics have a direct impact on the patient care and the nursing and medical personnel. An organization structured on the needs of the patient and their family is mandatory in designing a new intensive care. The main aims in the design of a new department should be patient centered care, safety, functionality, innovation and a future-proof concept.

  8. Experimentalist governance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sabel, C.F.; Zeitlin, J.; Levi-Faur, D.

    2012-01-01

    A secular rise in volatility and uncertainty is overwhelming the capacities of conventional hierarchical governance and ‘command-and-control’ regulation in many settings. One significant response is the emergence of a novel, ‘experimentalist’ form of governance that establishes deliberately

  9. Remaking Governance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carver, John

    2000-01-01

    The Policy Governance model's philosophical foundations lie in Rousseau's social contract, Greenleaf's servant-leadership, and modern management theory. Policy Governance stresses primacy of the owner-representative role; full-board authority; superintendents as chief executive officers; authoritative prescription of "ends," bounded freedom for…

  10. Corporate Governance

    OpenAIRE

    International Finance Corporation; UN Global Compact

    2017-01-01

    Corporate citizenship - a commitment to ethical behavior in business strategy, operations, and culture - has been on the periphery of corporate governance and board leadership, linked mainly to corporate reputation. However, in today’s globalized and interconnected world, investors, creditors, and other stakeholders have come to recognize that environmental, social, and governance responsi...

  11. Estimating Water Footprints of Vegetable Crops: Influence of Growing Season, Solar Radiation Data and Functional Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betsie le Roux

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Water footprint (WF accounting as proposed by the Water Footprint Network (WFN can potentially provide important information for water resource management, especially in water scarce countries relying on irrigation to help meet their food requirements. However, calculating accurate WFs of short-season vegetable crops such as carrots, cabbage, beetroot, broccoli and lettuce presented some challenges. Planting dates and inter-annual weather conditions impact WF results. Joining weather datasets of just rainfall, minimum and maximum temperature with ones that include solar radiation and wind-speed affected crop model estimates and WF results. The functional unit selected can also have a major impact on results. For example, WFs according to the WFN approach do not account for crop residues used for other purposes, like composting and animal feed. Using yields in dry matter rather than fresh mass also impacts WF metrics, making comparisons difficult. To overcome this, using the nutritional value of crops as a functional unit can connect water use more directly to potential benefits derived from different crops and allow more straightforward comparisons. Grey WFs based on nitrogen only disregards water pollution caused by phosphates, pesticides and salinization. Poor understanding of the fate of nitrogen complicates estimation of nitrogen loads into the aquifer.

  12. Functional tooth regeneration using a bioengineered tooth unit as a mature organ replacement regenerative therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshima, Masamitsu; Mizuno, Mitsumasa; Imamura, Aya; Ogawa, Miho; Yasukawa, Masato; Yamazaki, Hiromichi; Morita, Ritsuko; Ikeda, Etsuko; Nakao, Kazuhisa; Takano-Yamamoto, Teruko; Kasugai, Shohei; Saito, Masahiro; Tsuji, Takashi

    2011-01-01

    Donor organ transplantation is currently an essential therapeutic approach to the replacement of a dysfunctional organ as a result of disease, injury or aging in vivo. Recent progress in the area of regenerative therapy has the potential to lead to bioengineered mature organ replacement in the future. In this proof of concept study, we here report a further development in this regard in which a bioengineered tooth unit comprising mature tooth, periodontal ligament and alveolar bone, was successfully transplanted into a properly-sized bony hole in the alveolar bone through bone integration by recipient bone remodeling in a murine transplantation model system. The bioengineered tooth unit restored enough the alveolar bone in a vertical direction into an extensive bone defect of murine lower jaw. Engrafted bioengineered tooth displayed physiological tooth functions such as mastication, periodontal ligament function for bone remodeling and responsiveness to noxious stimulations. This study thus represents a substantial advance and demonstrates the real potential for bioengineered mature organ replacement as a next generation regenerative therapy.

  13. Final Governing Equation of Plane Elasticity of Icosahedral Quasicrystals and General Solution Based on Stress Potential Function

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Lian-He; FAN Tian-You

    2006-01-01

    @@ The stress potential function theory for plane elasticity of icosahedral quasicrystals is developed. By introducing stress functions, huge numbers of basic equations involving elasticity of icosahedral quasicrystals are reduced to a single partial differential equation of the 12th order.

  14. How biological soil crusts became recognized as a functional unit: a selective history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Otto L.; Belnap, Jayne

    2016-01-01

    It is surprising that despite the world-wide distribution and general importance of biological soil crusts (biocrusts), scientific recognition and functional analysis of these communities is a relatively young field of science. In this chapter, we sketch the historical lines that led to the recognition of biocrusts as a community with important ecosystem functions. The idea of biocrusts as a functional ecological community has come from two main scientific branches: botany and soil science. For centuries, botanists have long recognized that multiple organisms colonize the soil surface in the open and often dry areas occurring between vascular plants. Much later, after the initial taxonomic and phyto-sociological descriptions were made, soil scientists and agronomists observed that these surface organisms interacted with soils in ways that changed the soil structure. In the 1970’s, research on these communities as ecological units that played an important functional role in drylands began in earnest, and these studies have continued to this day. Here, we trace the history of these studies from the distant past until 1990, when biocrusts became well-known to scientists and the public.

  15. Incremental multivariable predictive functional control and its application in a gas fractionation unit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    施惠元; 苏成利; 曹江涛; 李平; 宋英莉; 李宁波

    2015-01-01

    The control of gas fractionation unit (GFU) in petroleum industry is very difficult due to multivariable characteristics and a large time delay. PID controllers are still applied in most industry processes. However, the traditional PID control has been proven not sufficient and capable for this particular petro-chemical process. In this work, an incremental multivariable predictive functional control (IMPFC) algorithm was proposed with less online computation, great precision and fast response. An incremental transfer function matrix model was set up through the step-response data, and predictive outputs were deduced with the theory of single-value optimization. The results show that the method can optimize the incremental control variable and reject the constraint of the incremental control variable with the positional predictive functional control algorithm, and thereby making the control variable smoother. The predictive output error and future set-point were approximated by a polynomial, which can overcome the problem under the model mismatch and make the predictive outputs track the reference trajectory. Then, the design of incremental multivariable predictive functional control was studied. Simulation and application results show that the proposed control strategy is effective and feasible to improve control performance and robustness of process.

  16. Optimization of the coherence function estimation for multi-core central processing unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheremnov, A. G.; Faerman, V. A.; Avramchuk, V. S.

    2017-02-01

    The paper considers use of parallel processing on multi-core central processing unit for optimization of the coherence function evaluation arising in digital signal processing. Coherence function along with other methods of spectral analysis is commonly used for vibration diagnosis of rotating machinery and its particular nodes. An algorithm is given for the function evaluation for signals represented with digital samples. The algorithm is analyzed for its software implementation and computational problems. Optimization measures are described, including algorithmic, architecture and compiler optimization, their results are assessed for multi-core processors from different manufacturers. Thus, speeding-up of the parallel execution with respect to sequential execution was studied and results are presented for Intel Core i7-4720HQ и AMD FX-9590 processors. The results show comparatively high efficiency of the optimization measures taken. In particular, acceleration indicators and average CPU utilization have been significantly improved, showing high degree of parallelism of the constructed calculating functions. The developed software underwent state registration and will be used as a part of a software and hardware solution for rotating machinery fault diagnosis and pipeline leak location with acoustic correlation method.

  17. Discussion on the Role and Functions of Local Government in Developing Modern Agriculture%地方政府发展现代农业对策探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马素英

    2012-01-01

    Local government plays an important role in agricultural development, in order to better display the functions of local government in developing modern agriculture, overcome the market failure, and actively guide the healthy and benign development of market, some strategic suggestions were proposed, providing references for developing modern agriculture.%地方政府在农业发展中有重要的作用,为了更好地彰显地方政府在现代农业发展中的功能,克服市场失灵的缺陷,积极引导市场健康、良性发展,根据现代农业发展所存在的问题,对地方政府如何发展现代农业提出一些策略性建议,为发展现代农业提供参考.

  18. Pore size determination using normalized J-function for different hydraulic flow units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Abedini

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Pore size determination of hydrocarbon reservoirs is one of the main challenging areas in reservoir studies. Precise estimation of this parameter leads to enhance the reservoir simulation, process evaluation, and further forecasting of reservoir behavior. Hence, it is of great importance to estimate the pore size of reservoir rocks with an appropriate accuracy. In the present study, a modified J-function was developed and applied to determine the pore radius in one of the hydrocarbon reservoir rocks located in the Middle East. The capillary pressure data vs. water saturation (Pc–Sw as well as routine reservoir core analysis include porosity (φ and permeability (k were used to develop the J-function. First, the normalized porosity (φz, the rock quality index (RQI, and the flow zone indicator (FZI concepts were used to categorize all data into discrete hydraulic flow units (HFU containing unique pore geometry and bedding characteristics. Thereafter, the modified J-function was used to normalize all capillary pressure curves corresponding to each of predetermined HFU. The results showed that the reservoir rock was classified into five separate rock types with the definite HFU and reservoir pore geometry. Eventually, the pore radius for each of these HFUs was determined using a developed equation obtained by normalized J-function corresponding to each HFU. The proposed equation is a function of reservoir rock characteristics including φz, FZI, lithology index (J*, and pore size distribution index (ɛ. This methodology used, the reservoir under study was classified into five discrete HFU with unique equations for permeability, normalized J-function and pore size. The proposed technique is able to apply on any reservoir to determine the pore size of the reservoir rock, specially the one with high range of heterogeneity in the reservoir rock properties.

  19. Codes of Good Governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beck Jørgensen, Torben; Sørensen, Ditte-Lene

    2013-01-01

    Good governance is a broad concept used by many international organizations to spell out how states or countries should be governed. Definitions vary, but there is a clear core of common public values, such as transparency, accountability, effectiveness, and the rule of law. It is quite likely......, however, that national views of good governance reflect different political cultures and institutional heritages. Fourteen national codes of conduct are analyzed. The findings suggest that public values converge and that they match model codes from the United Nations and the European Council as well...... as conceptions of good governance from other international organizations. While values converge, they are balanced and communicated differently, and seem to some extent to be translated into the national cultures. The set of global public values derived from this analysis include public interest, regime dignity...

  20. Conceptions of Software Development by Project Managers: A Study of Managing the Outsourced Development of Software Applications for United States Federal Government Agencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisen, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    This study explores how project managers, working for private federal IT contractors, experience and understand managing the development of software applications for U.S. federal government agencies. Very little is known about how they manage their projects in this challenging environment. Software development is a complex task and only grows in…

  1. Conceptions of Software Development by Project Managers: A Study of Managing the Outsourced Development of Software Applications for United States Federal Government Agencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisen, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    This study explores how project managers, working for private federal IT contractors, experience and understand managing the development of software applications for U.S. federal government agencies. Very little is known about how they manage their projects in this challenging environment. Software development is a complex task and only grows in…

  2. Alignment between business process governance and IT governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rahimi, Fatemeh; Møller, Charles; Hvam, Lars

    2014-01-01

    The importance of business processes and the increasing centrality of IT to an organization's performance have called for a specific focus on business process governance and IT governance in contemporary enterprises. Despite the wide scope of business process management, which covers both business...... the presence of mutual adjustment between business process and IT management functions to support strategic and operational process and IT decision making....... and IT domains, and the profound impact of IT on process innovations, the association between business process governance and IT governance remains under-explored. Analyzing the constituting elements of the two governance concepts, we propose the necessity of alignment between business process and IT governance...

  3. Uniting functional network topology and oscillations in the fronto-parietal single unit network of behaving primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dann, Benjamin; Michaels, Jonathan A; Schaffelhofer, Stefan; Scherberger, Hansjörg

    2016-08-15

    The functional communication of neurons in cortical networks underlies higher cognitive processes. Yet, little is known about the organization of the single neuron network or its relationship to the synchronization processes that are essential for its formation. Here, we show that the functional single neuron network of three fronto-parietal areas during active behavior of macaque monkeys is highly complex. The network was closely connected (small-world) and consisted of functional modules spanning these areas. Surprisingly, the importance of different neurons to the network was highly heterogeneous with a small number of neurons contributing strongly to the network function (hubs), which were in turn strongly inter-connected (rich-club). Examination of the network synchronization revealed that the identified rich-club consisted of neurons that were synchronized in the beta or low frequency range, whereas other neurons were mostly non-oscillatory synchronized. Therefore, oscillatory synchrony may be a central communication mechanism for highly organized functional spiking networks.

  4. 22 CFR 221.43 - Governing law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Governing law. 221.43 Section 221.43 Foreign... Administration § 221.43 Governing law. This Guarantee shall be governed by and construed in accordance with the laws of the United States of America governing contracts and commercial transactions of the...

  5. Organizational governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Nicolai Juul; Klein, Peter G.

    This chapter reviews and discusses rational-choice approaches to organizational governance. These approaches are found primarily in organizational economics (virtually no rational-choice organizational sociology exists), particularly in transaction cost economics, principal-agent theory, and the ......This chapter reviews and discusses rational-choice approaches to organizational governance. These approaches are found primarily in organizational economics (virtually no rational-choice organizational sociology exists), particularly in transaction cost economics, principal-agent theory...

  6. Oligomeric structure and minimal functional unit of the electrogenic sodium bicarbonate cotransporter NBCe1-A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Liyo; Sassani, Pakan; Azimov, Rustam; Pushkin, Alexander; Abuladze, Natalia; Peti-Peterdi, Janos; Liu, Weixin; Newman, Debra; Kurtz, Ira

    2008-09-26

    The electrogenic sodium bicarbonate cotransporter NBCe1-A mediates the basolateral absorption of sodium and bicarbonate in the proximal tubule. In this study the oligomeric state and minimal functional unit of NBCe1-A were investigated. Wild-type (wt) NBCe1-A isolated from mouse kidney or heterologously expressed in HEK293 cells was predominantly in a dimeric state as was shown using fluorescence energy transfer, pulldown, immunoprecipitation, cross-linking experiments, and nondenaturing perfluorooctanoate-PAGE. NBCe1-A monomers were found to be covalently linked by S-S bonds. When each of the 15 native cysteine residues were individually removed on a wt-NBCe1-A backbone, dimerization of the cotransporter was not affected. In experiments involving multiple native cysteine residue removal, both Cys(630) and Cys(642) in extracellular loop 3 were shown to mediate S-S bond formation between NBCe1-A monomers. When native NBCe1-A cysteine residues were individually reintroduced into a cysteineless NBCe1-A mutant backbone, the finding that a Cys(992) construct that lacked S-S bonds functioned normally indicated that stable covalent linkage of NBCe1-A monomers was not a necessary requirement for functional activity of the cotransporter. Studies using concatameric constructs of wt-NBCe1-A, whose activity is resistant to methanesulfonate reagents, and an NBCe1-A(T442C) mutant, whose activity is completely inhibited by methanesulfonate reagents, confirmed that NBCe1-A monomers are functional. Our results demonstrate that wt-NBCe1-A is predominantly a homodimer, dependent on S-S bond formation that is composed of functionally active monomers.

  7. Developmental integration in a functional unit: deciphering processes from adult dental morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labonne, Gaëlle; Navarro, Nicolas; Laffont, Rémi; Chateau-Smith, Carmela; Montuire, Sophie

    2014-01-01

    The evolution of mammalian dentition is constrained by functional necessity and by the non-independence of morphological structures. Efficient chewing implies coherent tooth coordination from development to motion, involving covariation patterns (integration) within dental parts. Using geometric morphometrics, we investigate the modular organization of the highly derived vole dentition. Integration patterns between and within the upper and lower molar rows are analyzed to identify potential modules and their origins (functional and developmental). Results support an integrated adult dentition pattern for both developmental and functional aspects. The integration patterns between opposing molar pairs suggest a transient role for the second upper and lower molars during the chewing motion. Upper and lower molar rows form coherent units but the relative integration of molar pairs is in contradiction with existing developmental models. Emphasis on the first three cusps to grow leads to a very different integration pattern, which would be congruent with developmental models. The early developmental architecture of traits is masked by later stages of growth, but may still be deciphered from the adult phenotype, if careful attention is paid to relevant features.

  8. Speckle-Tracking analysis of left ventricular systolic function in the intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cinotti, Raphaël; Delater, Adrien; Fortuit, Camille; Roquilly, Antoine; Mahé, Pierre-Joachim; Demeure-dit-Latte, Dominique; Asehnoune, Karim

    2015-01-01

    Speckle-tracking analysis is a new available tool in order to assess left ventricular function in cardiology. Its novelty relies on the technological ability to track natural acoustic markers (known as speckle) within the myocardium during the cardiac cycle. This technology allows the evaluation of myocardium strain during systole and diastole. To date, global longitudinal strain (GLS) has been extensively studied in cardiology. It is now well established that GLS is more sensitive than left ventricular ejection fraction with 2D echocardiography in detecting systolic function impairment. It is also superior to left ventricular ejection fraction in the prediction of major cardio-vascular events. In the intensive care unit (ICU) setting, data are scarce. In experimental model and human studies in septic shock, speckle-tracking analysis suggests that GSL is impaired along with preserved left ventricular ejection fraction. Recent data also suggest that GLS impairment could predict in-ICU mortality in septic shock. In severe subarachnoid haemorrhage patients, speckle-tracking analysis could be more sensitive in detecting stress cardiomyopathy. However, there are many gaps to fill in the critically ill patient. For instance, the influence of mechanical ventilation on GLS is not fully elucidated, and there are, to date, too few data to exactly assess potential GLS alterations on the patient's outcome. Nonetheless, this new tool provides objective and sensitive data with acceptable intra and inter-observer variability and may be of primary interest in the evaluation of left-ventricular systolic function in the ICU.

  9. Corporate Governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragoș-Mihail Daghie

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to analyze and understand the recently introduced form of managementof a company limited by shares. The Law no. 441/2006, which fundamentally amended Company Law,created this form of controlling the company, the corporate governance, but the legislation does not explicitlydefine what it wants to achieve through this instrument. This topic is recent in research as the theme ofgerman-roman commercial law systems (in French corporate governance system was introduced in 1966 andin Romania in 2006 but in terms of Anglo-Saxon law, the topic has been addressed years since 1776 (AdamSmith: The Wealth of Nations The concept of corporate governance would like, as a result, to establish somerules that companies must comply in order to achieve effective governance, transparent and beneficial forboth shareholders and for the minority. Corporate governance is a key element with an aim at improvingefficiency and economic growth in full accordance with the increase of investors’ confidence. Corporategovernance assumes a series of relationship between the company management, leadership, shareholders andthe other people concerned. Also corporate governance provides for that structure by means of which thecompany’s targets are set out and the means to achieve them and also the manner how to monitor such.

  10. Problems of Revenue Generation in Local Government ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Every local jurisdiction has its unique economic, social and physical ... Therefore, the concept of local government is to bring governance closer to the people ... for Local Governments to be able to perform these functions creditably, they need ...

  11. [Barriers and challenges of the functional healthcare risk management units in hospitals of Madrid health service].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardo-Hernández, A; Navarro-Royo, C; Arguedas-Sanz, R; Albeniz-Lizarraga, C; Morón-Merchante, J

    2014-01-01

    To identify the barriers and challenges for the effective development of risk management units in hospitals of the Madrid Health Service. Descriptive cross-sectional study aimed at the management teams and members of the functional units of 31 hospitals in the Madrid Health Service. A self-administered questionnaire requesting answers in free text was used, identifying up to five barriers and challenges, and their prioritization by awarding from 1-5 points according to their importance. A discourse analysis was then conducted, grouping common themes and sorting them according to their score. The overall response rate was 94%. The most frequently identified barriers were lack of time (21%), inadequate safety culture (13%), lack of publication of their activities (10%), and lack of training (10%). The most important challenge was developing the training (18%), followed by improving the culture (17%), communication of safety activities (11%), and achieve leadership from the managers of the services (11%). According to the study conditions, the main identified barrier identified was the lack of available time, and the principal challenge found was promoting a proactive learning culture. Copyright © 2013 SECA. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  12. Exploration on Collaborative Innovation Model of Chinese Government, Production, Education and Research Units%我国政产学研协同创新模式的探索

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴海燕; 徐芝亮; 魏玲玲

    2014-01-01

    There are all sorts of defects in current government-production-education-research collaboration, which is no longer favor to realize the cooperation among these four departments. To speed up the emergence and development of new collaborative innovation model among government, production, education and research units, using the collaborative theory, new collaborative innovation model was explored and designed in the paper from such aspects as the overall model design, positioning, concept innovation, institutions and mechanisms and others. This will provide references for speeding up the realization of government-production-education-research cooperation for government and research institutions (colleges and universities), and enterprises.%现有的政产学研协作模式已出现种种弊端,越来越不利于目前我国政产学研合作的开展。为了加快政产学研协同创新模式的诞生和发展,文章运用政产学研协同理论,在模型设计、目标定位、理念革新、体制机制等方面对政产学研协同创新模式进行了探索和设想,以期能够为加快政府、科研机构(高校)、企业等实现政产学研合作提供参考。

  13. The theta-syllable: a unit of speech information defined by cortical function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oded eGhitza

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A recent commentary (Oscillators and syllables: a cautionary note. Cummins, 2012 questions the validity of a class of speech perception models inspired by the possible role of neuronal oscillations in decoding speech (e.g., Ghitza 2011, Giraud & Poeppel 2012. In arguing against the approach, Cummins raises a cautionary flag from a phonetician’s point of view. Here we respond to his arguments from an auditory processing viewpoint, referring to a phenomenological model of Ghitza (2011 taken as a representative of the criticized approach. We shall conclude by proposing the theta-syllable as an information unit defined by cortical function – an alternative to the conventional, ambiguously defined syllable. In the large context, the resulting discussion debate should be viewed as a subtext of acoustic and auditory phonetics vs. articulatory and motor theories of speech reception.

  14. [Quality planning of Family Health Units using Quality Function Deployment (QFD)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volpato, Luciana Fernandes; Meneghim, Marcelo de Castro; Pereira, Antonio Carlos; Ambrosano, Gláucia Maria Bovi

    2010-08-01

    Quality is an indispensible requirement in the health field, and its pursuit is necessary in order to meet demands by a population that is aware of its rights, as part of the essence of good work relations, and to decrease technological costs. Quality thus involves all parties to the process (users and professionals), and is no longer merely an attribute of the health service. This study aimed to verify the possibility of quality planning in the Family Health Units, using Quality Function Deployment (QFD). QFD plans quality according to user satisfaction, involving staff professionals and identifying new approaches to improve work processes. Development of the array, called the House of Quality, is this method's most important characteristics. The results show a similarity between the quality demanded by users and the quality planned by professionals. The current study showed that QFD is an efficient tool for quality planning in public health services.

  15. The Role of Formylated Peptides and Formyl Peptide Receptor 1 in Governing Neutrophil Function during Acute Inflammation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorward, David A.; Lucas, Christopher D.; Chapman, Gavin B.; Haslett, Christopher; Dhaliwal, Kevin; Rossi, Adriano G.

    2015-01-01

    Neutrophil migration to sites of inflammation and the subsequent execution of multiple functions are designed to contain and kill invading pathogens. These highly regulated and orchestrated processes are controlled by interactions between numerous receptors and their cognate ligands. Unraveling and identifying those that are central to inflammatory processes may represent novel therapeutic targets for the treatment of neutrophil-dominant inflammatory disorders in which dysregulated neutrophil recruitment, function, and elimination serve to potentiate rather than resolve an initial inflammatory insult. The first G protein–coupled receptor to be described on human neutrophils, formyl peptide receptor 1 (FPR1), is one such receptor that plays a significant role in the execution of these functions through multiple intracellular signaling pathways. Recent work has highlighted important observations with regard to both receptor function and the importance and functional relevance of FPR1 in the pathogenesis of a range of both sterile and infective inflammatory conditions. In this review, we explore the multiple components of neutrophil migration and function in both health and disease, with a focus on the role of FPR1 in these processes. The current understanding of FPR1 structure, function, and signaling is examined, alongside discussion of the potential importance of FPR1 in inflammatory diseases suggesting that FPR1 is a key regulator of the inflammatory environment. PMID:25791526

  16. Governments Role in Education on Citizenship Development : A Comparative Study of the United States and Swedenʼs Educational Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Harris, Matthew

    2012-01-01

        The purpose of this research is to examine the connection between the institution of education and its effects on citizenship development in a given country. A new theory is developed making the case that education is an institution supported by national governments to promote norms and values of the ideal citizen through socialization. This theory is based on the use of new institutionalism and historical institutionalism to show the effects education has on a society. This thesis then t...

  17. Transnational Governance and Constitutionalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joerges, Christian; Sand, Inger-Johanne; Teubner, Gunther

    The term transnational governance designates untraditional types of international and regional collaboration among both public and private actors. These legally-structured or less formal arrangements link economic, scientific and technological spheres with political and legal processes......, supranational nor totally denationalised. It is neither arbitrary nor accidental that we present our inquiries into this phenomenon in the series of International Studies on Private Law Theory....... of democratic governance. The book refers to this term as a yardstick to which then contributors feel committed even where they plead for a reconceptualisation of constitutionalism or a discussion of its functional equivalents. 'Transnational governance' is neither public nor private, nor purely international...

  18. The structure and function of the urokinase receptor, a membrane protein governing plasminogen activation on the cell surface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Behrendt, N; Rønne, E; Danø, K

    1995-01-01

    PA receptor, uPAR, is a cell-surface protein which plays an important role in the localization and regulation of these processes. In the present article a number of established conclusions concerning the structure and function of uPAR are presented, and in addition various models are discussed which might...... to an interplay between uPAR and other, unidentified components. In addition to the function in the regulation of proteolysis, uPAR seems to play a role in internalization processes and in cellular signal transduction and adhesion. A few reagents have been identified which are capable to inhibit the interaction...... between uPAR and uPA. The growing knowledge on the structure and function of uPAR which is a result of protein chemical analyses, functional studies and analyses of other, interacting components, should help to obtain a better understanding of the regulation of extracellular proteolysis. In conjunction...

  19. 美国政府社交媒体研究--以美国联邦政府总务管理局的政府社交媒体应用体系为例%United States GovernmentSocial MediaResearch:Taking the Government Social Media Application System of U.S. General Services Administrationfor Example

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王焕

    2015-01-01

    By studying both the social media system in the U.S. General Services Administration and relative a-cademic publications, the research tries to understand the strategy and functions of social media in American govern-ments. Finally, the research draws the conclusion that the governmental social media is being used as an emerging E-government platform.%文章通过对美国联邦总务管理局的社交媒体系统进行案例研究,试图梳理美国政府社交媒体的功能、作用与应用体系,并得出政府社交媒体是一种正在形成的新型电子政务平台这一结论,为国内后续研究与实践奠定基础。

  20. Governing Global Migration

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    This study explores the global regulative function of migration politics. Its main aim is to rethink migration politics through an engagement with the Foucauldian governmentality perspective, which focuses on the relation between government and thought. A secondary aim is to use this perspective to explore the global description of migration and migration politics which is emerging with the currently evolving global governance of migration. Doing so, it wishes to contribute both to the study ...

  1. Making Government Work Better

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The reform of China’s government bodies got a powerful push this March as lawmakers at the National People’s Congress approved an extensive reshuffle plan of the State Council,which focuses on streamlining government department functions.In a recent interview with People’s Daily and Xinhua News Agency,a spokesperson for the State Commission Office for Public Sector Reform answered questions about the progress being made in the administrative reform.

  2. The Review of Public Crisis Countermeasures of the United States Government During the Process of Sandy%“桑迪”过程中美国政府公共危机应对措施述评

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高祥荣

    2013-01-01

      近年来,“风险社会”这个概念逐渐被人们所接受。2012年10月底的“桑迪”飓风便是这样一个“风险”,它对美国、古巴等国造成了巨大的损失,政府如何应对各种公共危机日益成为一个重要课题。文章将论述美国政府在“桑迪”过程中的危机应对措施,比较之前美国的“卡特里娜”飓风中政府的应对措施,评论其积极作用以及存在的问题。最后,得出“缩减力”管理、重视公民危机教育以及各种危机治理机制的选择三个方面的启示。%  In recent years,the concept of“Risk Society”has been gradually accepted. Hurricane Sandy in the end of October is a case,which has caused great damages to the United States,Cuba and other countries. It has become a significant topic for the government to deal with various public crises. This article is to discuss the crisis countermeasures of the United States Government during the process of Sandy and comment on its positive effects and its problems compared with the countermeasures of the government in the Hurricane Katrina. Finally,threes conclusions of reduction management, attaching great importance to the crisis education of the citizens and the selections of various crises governing mechanism have been drawn.

  3. Good Governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S de la Harpe

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available This issue of the Potchefstroom Electronic Law Journal (PELJ is entirely dedicated to the concept of good governance. It is the outcome of the first Summer/Winter school on Good Governance which was held at North-West University, Potchefstroom (SA in January 2006 and at Tilburg University, Tilburg (NL in January 2007. This Summer/Winter school has now become a yearly event with a bi-annual theme. Academic staff from both universities collaborate in teaching this course. Students from the two universities who participate in the Summer/Winter school have the unique possibility to deepen their knowledge on a particular subject while enjoying a cross-cultural learning environment. The subject of good governance was not selected by chance but was chosen because of its impact in many fields and the many ways in which the concept is used. It was time for a deeper insight into this multiple role of the concept of good governance. The contributions to this journal are the analytical outcome of the research done in preparation for the lectures given during the Summer/Winter school. As the contributions directly apply the good governance concept to various specific fields of expertise, this introduction will be used to give a short reflection on the concept as such.

  4. What’s in a name? A comparison of ‘open government’ definitions across seven Open Government Partnership members

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Francoli

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available No longer restricted to access to information laws and accountability measures, “open government” is now associated with a broad range of goals and functions, including public participation, open data, the improvement of public services and government efficiency. The 59 country strong Open Government Partnership (OGP suggests that consensus on the value of open government is emerging amongst public officials. Similarly, academics have shown a renewed interest in open government as they discuss, debate and critique the meaning and role of open government reforms today. Yet, despite the diverse aims and tools characterizing contemporary open government, public officials and academics typically approach the subject as a cohesive unit of analysis, making sweeping—and generally non-empirical—claims about its implications, without accounting for the homegrown flavours that may characterize open government in practice. Simply put, the practice and study of contemporary open government suffers a lack of definitional clarity: what exactly is open government today, and how does it vary across governments? In response to these questions, this paper analyses the content of open government policy documents in seven OGP member states (Azerbaijan, Brazil, Canada, Netherlands, Kenya, United Kingdom, and the United States, providing the first systematic, empirically-grounded multi-country comparison of contemporary open government. The paper suggests where the term departs from and retains its original meaning, and how its definition varies across different governments

  5. What’s in a name? A comparison of ‘open government’ definitions across seven Open Government Partnership members

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Clarke

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available No longer restricted to access to information laws and accountability measures, “open government” is now associated with a broad range of goals and functions, including public participation, open data, the improvement of public services and government efficiency. The 59 country strong Open Government Partnership (OGP suggests that consensus on the value of open government is emerging amongst public officials. Similarly, academics have shown a renewed interest in open government as they discuss, debate and critique the meaning and role of open government reforms today. Yet, despite the diverse aims and tools characterizing contemporary open government, public officials and academics typically approach the subject as a cohesive unit of analysis, making sweeping—and generally non-empirical—claims about its implications, without accounting for the homegrown flavours that may characterize open government in practice. Simply put, the practice and study of contemporary open government suffers a lack of definitional clarity: what exactly is open government today, and how does it vary across governments? In response to these questions, this paper analyses the content of open government policy documents in seven OGP member states (Azerbaijan, Brazil, Canada, Netherlands, Kenya, United Kingdom, and the United States, providing the first systematic, empirically-grounded multi-country comparison of contemporary open government. The paper suggests where the term departs from and retains its original meaning, and how its definition varies across different governments

  6. Parallel Execution of Functional Mock-up Units in Buildings Modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozmen, Ozgur [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Nutaro, James J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); New, Joshua Ryan [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-06-30

    A Functional Mock-up Interface (FMI) defines a standardized interface to be used in computer simulations to develop complex cyber-physical systems. FMI implementation by a software modeling tool enables the creation of a simulation model that can be interconnected, or the creation of a software library called a Functional Mock-up Unit (FMU). This report describes an FMU wrapper implementation that imports FMUs into a C++ environment and uses an Euler solver that executes FMUs in parallel using Open Multi-Processing (OpenMP). The purpose of this report is to elucidate the runtime performance of the solver when a multi-component system is imported as a single FMU (for the whole system) or as multiple FMUs (for different groups of components as sub-systems). This performance comparison is conducted using two test cases: (1) a simple, multi-tank problem; and (2) a more realistic use case based on the Modelica Buildings Library. In both test cases, the performance gains are promising when each FMU consists of a large number of states and state events that are wrapped in a single FMU. Load balancing is demonstrated to be a critical factor in speeding up parallel execution of multiple FMUs.

  7. Stakeholder Governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flak, Leif Skiftenes; Rose, Jeremy

    2005-01-01

    The e-government field, like most young fields, lacks a strong body of well-developed theory. One strategy for coping with theoretical immaturity is to import and adapt theories from other, more mature fields. This study reviews Stakeholder Theory (ST) and investigates its potential in relation...... to e-Government. Originally a management theory, stakeholder theory advocates addressing the concerns of all stakeholders in a firm, as opposed to concentration on the interests of senior managers and stockholders. Apart from the original profit focus, there is no serious conceptual mismatch between...... stakeholder theory and government’s objective of providing policy and services for citizens and organizations – society’s stakeholders. Potential problems with adapting a management theory to a government setting are discussed. The paper further discusses how information technology impacts a stakeholder model...

  8. Stakeholder Governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flak, Leif Skiftenes; Rose, Jeremy

    2005-01-01

    The e-government field, like most young fields, lacks a strong body of well-developed theory. One strategy for coping with theoretical immaturity is to import and adapt theories from other, more mature fields. This study reviews Stakeholder Theory (ST) and investigates its potential in relation...... to e-Government. Originally a management theory, stakeholder theory advocates addressing the concerns of all stakeholders in a firm, as opposed to concentration on the interests of senior managers and stockholders. Apart from the original profit focus, there is no serious conceptual mismatch between...... stakeholder theory and government’s objective of providing policy and services for citizens and organizations – society’s stakeholders. Potential problems with adapting a management theory to a government setting are discussed. The paper further discusses how information technology impacts a stakeholder model...

  9. AN EXPERIMENTAL COURSE IN MATHEMATICS FOR THE NINTH YEAR. UNIT 12, TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New York State Education Dept., Albany.

    THIS TEACHING GUIDE FOR TRIGONOMETRY IS THE FINAL UNIT OF A SERIES OF 12 UNITS FOR AN EXPERIMENTAL COURSE IN MATHEMATICS FOR GRADE 9. BACKGROUND MATERIAL FOR TEACHERS AS WELL AS QUESTIONS AND ACTIVITIES FOR CLASSROOM PRESENTATIONS ARE PROVIDED. A GLOSSARY OF MATHEMATICAL TERMS FOR THE 12 UNITS CONCLUDES THE REPORT. (RP)

  10. Governing Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buch, Anders

    2012-01-01

    of knowledge, belief and opinions in which engineering is immersed. Thus the overall objective is explorative. By investigating the language, practices and techniques by which engineering is governed the chapter sets out to point to the presumptions, stipulations and ‘limits’ of the dominant discourses...

  11. Military Government

    Science.gov (United States)

    1949-07-01

    Public finance -------------------~·---------------------22 Civilian protection -------------------------------------23 Public health and sanitation...22. PUBLIC. ~INANCE.~q. Basic "planning data for public finance in- clude-- (1) ·rrax·ation systems: - .(2)- ~ethods of_tpaking appropriations.- ( 3...Probable ·adequacy- of public funds. (.4) Administrative .. _ organization for_ public finance sections. b. Military government -staff sections

  12. Government Organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krause Hansen, Hans; Salskov-Iversen, Dorte

    2017-01-01

    , with clearly defined boundaries between the public and private; and in terms of polycentrism, where power and authority are seen as dispersed among state and nonstate organizations, including business and civil society organizations. Globalization and new media technologies imply changes in the relationship...... democracy and the public sphere; and discourse approaches to studying the intersections of government, organizational change, and information and communication technology....

  13. Electronic Government

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wimmer, Maria A.; Traunmüller, Roland; Grönlund, Åke

    This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Electronic Government, EGOV 2005, held in Copenhagen, Denmark, in August 2005. The 30 revised papers presented were carefully reviewed and selected from numerous submissions, and assess the state-of-the-art in e...

  14. The structure and function of the urokinase receptor, a membrane protein governing plasminogen activation on the cell surface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Behrendt, N; Rønne, E; Danø, K

    1995-01-01

    PA receptor, uPAR, is a cell-surface protein which plays an important role in the localization and regulation of these processes. In the present article a number of established conclusions concerning the structure and function of uPAR are presented, and in addition various models are discussed which might...... explain additional observations for which the mechanisms involved have not yet been clarified experimentally. uPAR is a highly glycosylated, 3-domain protein, anchored in the plasma membrane by a glycolipid moiety. The domain organization is important for efficient ligand-binding, and the NH2-terminal...... to an interplay between uPAR and other, unidentified components. In addition to the function in the regulation of proteolysis, uPAR seems to play a role in internalization processes and in cellular signal transduction and adhesion. A few reagents have been identified which are capable to inhibit the interaction...

  15. Operational Use of the US Army Reserve in Foreign Disaster Relief to Support the United States Government’s Strategic Use of Humanitarian Assistance and Disaster Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-21

    in military operations over the last two decades are foundational for the USAR’s institutional agility and flexibility. Reservists are also...Assistance and Disaster Response A Monograph by MAJ Kelly J. Pajak United States Army Reserve School of Advanced Military ...PERFORMING ORG REPORT NUMBER 9. SPONSORING / MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Advanced Operational Arts Studies Fellowship, Advanced Military

  16. Forest products research and development organizations in a worldwide setting: A review of structure, governance, and measures of performance of organizations outside the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul V. Ellefson; Michael A. Kilgore; Kenneth E. Skog; Christopher D. Risbrudt

    2007-01-01

    Located in 23 countries, 40 forest-products research and development organizations outside the United States were reviewed in 2004 and 2005. The intent was to obtain a better understanding of how such organizations are structured and administered and their performance judged. Investing over $600 million annually, the 40 organizations employed 7,000 to 7,500 scientists...

  17. Functional recovery of elderly patients hospitalized in geriatric and general medicine units. The PROgetto DImissioni in GEriatria Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palleschi, Lorenzo; De Alfieri, Walter; Salani, Bernardo; Fimognari, Filippo Luca; Marsilii, Alberto; Pierantozzi, Andrea; Di Cioccio, Luigi; Zuccaro, Stefano Maria

    2011-02-01

    To investigate the characteristics of patients who regain function during hospitalization and the differences in terms of functional outcomes between patients admitted to geriatric and general medicine units. Multicenter, prospective cohort study. Acute care geriatric and medical wards of five Italian hospitals. One thousand forty-eight elderly patients hospitalized for acute medical diseases. Functional status 2 weeks before hospital admission (baseline), at admission, and at discharge, as measured using the Barthel Index (BI). Geriatric patients were older (P<.001) and had lower preadmission functional levels (P<.001) than medical patients. Between baseline and discharge, 43.2% of geriatric and 18.9% of medical patients declined in physical function. In the subpopulation of 464 patients who had declined before hospitalization (between baseline and admission), 59% improved during hospitalization (45% of geriatric and 75% of medical patients), whereas only approximately 1% declined further. High baseline function (odds ratio (OR)=1.03, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.02-1.04, per point of BI) and greater functional decline before hospitalization (OR 0.95, 95% CI 0.94-0.97, per % point of BI decline) were significant predictors of in-hospital functional improvement; type of hospital ward and age were not. Although geriatric patients have overall worse functional outcomes, in-hospital functional recovery may be frequent even in geriatric units, particularly in patients with greater preadmission functional loss and high baseline level of function. © 2011, Copyright the Authors. Journal compilation © 2011, The American Geriatrics Society.

  18. Small government or big government?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MATEO SPAHO

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Since the beginning of the twentieth century, economists and philosophers were polarizedon their positions beyond the role that the government should have in the economy. On one hand John Maynard Keynes represented, within the optics of market economy, a position where the state should intervene in the economy to maintain the aggregate demand and the employment in the country, without hesitation in creating budget deficits and public debt expansion. This approach happens especially in the moments when the domestic economy and global economic trends show a weak growth or a recession. This means a heavy interference inthe economy, with higher income but with high expenditure to GDP too. On the other side, Liberals and Neoliberalsled by Friedrich Hayek advocated a withdrawal of the government from economic activity not just in moments of economic growth but also during the crisis, believing that the market has self-regulating mechanisms within itself. The government, as a result will have a smaller dimension with lower income and also low expenditures compared to the GDP of the country. We took the South-Eastern Europe countries distinguishing those with a "Big Government" or countries with "Small Government". There are analyzed the economic performances during the global crisis (2007-2014. In which countries the public debt grew less? Which country managed to attract more investments and which were the countries that preserved the purchasing power of their consumers? We shall see if during the economic crisis in Eastern Europe the Great Government or the Liberal and "Small" one has been the most successful the model.

  19. Corporate governance and liquidity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farooq, Omar; Derrabi, Mohamed; Naciri, Monir

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of corporate governance mechanisms on liquidity in the MENA region, i.e. Morocco, Egypt, Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates, Jordan, Kuwait, and Bahrain. Using turnover as a proxy for liquidity, we document significant difference in liquidity between the pre......- and the post-crisis periods in the MENA region. In addition, our results show that bulk of this reduction in turnover can be explained due to weaknesses of corporate governance mechanisms. For example, that dividend payout ratio and choice of auditors – proxies for agency problems – can explain the entire...... difference in liquidity between the two periods. Furthermore, our results indicate that more than 50% of this difference between the two periods can be explained by operational and informational complexity of a firm – proxy for transparency. We argue that poor corporate governance mechanisms increase...

  20. Why Governments Intervene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brown, Dana; Knudsen, Jette Steen

    Why are national governments increasingly adopting policies on Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR)? What is the rationale and purpose of these policies? Scholars from various disciplines including Political Science, International Relations and Management Studies have offered explanations...... for this phenomenon. Research has tended either to rely on cross-country comparisons that generalize tendencies within given countries; or to over-generalize global trends. The current paper analyzes particular CSR policies in two countries – Denmark and the United Kingdom. We find that the rationales for government...... initiatives on CSR are neither consistent across countries or within them. Instead, CSR policies are utilized to address multiple issues crossing various areas of governance, including domestic social policy, global competitiveness policies and foreign policy....

  1. Corporate governance and liquidity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farooq, Omar; Derrabi, Mohamed; Naciri, Monir

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of corporate governance mechanisms on liquidity in the MENA region, i.e. Morocco, Egypt, Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates, Jordan, Kuwait, and Bahrain. Using turnover as a proxy for liquidity, we document significant difference in liquidity between the pre......- and the post-crisis periods in the MENA region. In addition, our results show that bulk of this reduction in turnover can be explained due to weaknesses of corporate governance mechanisms. For example, that dividend payout ratio and choice of auditors – proxies for agency problems – can explain the entire...... difference in liquidity between the two periods. Furthermore, our results indicate that more than 50% of this difference between the two periods can be explained by operational and informational complexity of a firm – proxy for transparency. We argue that poor corporate governance mechanisms increase...

  2. X-ray characterization of tripyridinium bis[tetrabromidoferrate(III)] bromide asymmetric unit in solution by Debye function analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baniasadi, F.; Sahraei, N.; Fathi, M. B.; Tehranchi, M. M.; Safari, N.; Amani, V.

    2016-09-01

    Abundant asymmetric unit of the [FeBr4]2[py.H]3Br magnetic molecule in the acetonitrile solvent was characterized via Debye function analysis (DFA) of the X-ray powder diffraction pattern from dilute solution. A diluted solution of the material in acetonitrile solvent has been prepared to reduce, as far as possible, the interaction between the molecular units. The X-ray diffraction from the sample was measured and Debye function simulations of three out of ten chemically plausible molecular units were observed to suitably comply with the experimental results. These three configurations were further optimized with first-principles method in the framework of density functional theory (DFT) and the most stable structure according to the calculated total energy is presented.

  3. Tension-filled Governance?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Celik, Tim Holst

    Since the crisis-engrossed 1970s, and especially the 1990s, ‘governance’ has become a dominant concern and concept; notably, within particularly political science, a certain diagnosis explicitly or implicitly focused on a shift ‘from government to governance’ has become increasingly popular....... This study examines the governance phenomenon of the post-1970/1990s period from a state-situated and historically informed perspective. Specifically, taking initial analytical departure in an approach of the early 1970s associated with James O’Connor, Jürgen Habermas and Claus Offe focused...... on the statesituated tension-filled functional relationship between legitimation and accumulation, the study both historically and theoretically reworks this approach and reapplies it for the post-1970s/1990s governance period. It asks whether and to what extent governance has served as a distinctive post- 1970s/1990s...

  4. 土地市场体系中的政府职能定位研究%Positioning of Government Function in China Land Market System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴九兴

    2015-01-01

    在厘清地方政府在土地市场体系中职能定位的基础上,分析了地方政府对土地市场的管制可能产生的各种影响.研究结果表明,在现行土地市场体系中,政府既是规则制定者,又是市场参与者,还是市场管理者;政府管制对土地资源配置、经济发展、社会公平产生显著影响.未来土地市场与政府职能的关系调整,应着眼于市场在配置资源中的决定性作用.要从坚定市场化改革方向、突出土地利用规划引导、完善城乡地价管理制度体系、改革土地收益分配机制、强化土地权属管理制度等方面加大力度;政府准确定位自身职能,发挥自身在土地市场体系中的制度供给、市场治理和利益协调等功用,特别是政府应尽快构建和完善城乡统一的建设用地市场的体制机制.%Based on the clear positioning of governments in land market system and the analysis of the various effects of government regulation on land market, this paper presents the findings as followed: in current land market system, governments undertake the responsibility of rule-makers, market participants and market supervisors, who exert a significant impact on land resources configuration, economic development, and social equality. In terms of the future adjustment of relationship between land market and government functions,the key is to focus on the decisive role of the market in land resource allocation. In this respect, more efforts should be paid to staunch the market-oriented reform, highlight the land use planning guidance, improve urban and rural land management system, reform the land income distribution mechanism,and strengthen management systems in land tenure. It is also suggested that governments fully perform functions in the institutional supply of land market system, the market governance and benefit coordination and in particular build and improve a unified construction land market system and mechanism as soon

  5. Avaliation between precocious out of bed in the intensive care unit and functionality after discharge: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taciana Guterres de Carvalho

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Backgound and Objectives: The incidence of complications arising from the deleterious effects of immobility in the intensive care unit contributes to functional decline, increased length of hospital stay and reduced functionality. Physical therapy is able to promote recovery and preservation of functionality, which can minimize these complications - through early mobilization. To evaluate the functionality and independence of patients who underwent a early bed output in the Intensive Care Unit. Methods: A randomized controlled clinical trial was conducted with patients admitted to the Intensive Care Unit (ICU of the Santa Cruz Hospital and having a physiotherapy prescription. The patients were divided into conventional therapy group- control group and intervention group, who performed the protocol of early mobilization, promoting the bed output. The functionality was measured three times (retroactive to hospitalization, at discharge from the ICU and on hospital discharge through the instrument Functional Independence Measure (FIM. Results: Preliminary data indicates that the intervention group (n = 4 presented lower loss of functionality after discharge from the ICU, with a deficit of 19%, having recovered until the hospital discharge 97% of the prehospitalization measure. The control group (n = 5 showed higher loss in the ICU of 47.6%, and was discharged from hospital with only 72% of their basal rate. Conclusion: There was a lower loss rate and better recovery of functionality in the studied population when those were submitted to a systematized and early protocol of mobilization as well as shorter hospital stay.

  6. Reflection on the government governance and dilemma in the development of competitive sports in the United States%镜鉴与反思:美国竞技体育发展中的政府治理及其困境

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    浦义俊; 吴贻刚

    2016-01-01

    By using the methods of literature,historical analysis and logical analysis,the government governance and the predicament in the development of competitive sports in the United States are studied.First,the paper analyzes and summarizes the government administration modes in the de-velopment of competitive sports,including the legal governance on the professional and amateur sports systems,indirect sports financing management,cooperative sports service governance between non-administrative departments and local governments,which all have played a key role in promo-ting the development of American competitive sports;however,the government administration on sports is still faced with many crises,such as the inequality trends of opportunity for the public to participate in competitive sports as a result of American social structure fission,the narcissism and reward-oriented mode of competitive sports development pattern driven by American inertia of thinking "exceptionalism";though the United States government decision -making mechanism is advanced,there is much favor for the upper interest group so that the public's sports rights are dam-aged.Finally,it points out some problems that need to be solved in the governance of Chinese com-petitive sports.%运用文献资料法、历史分析法、逻辑分析法等,对美国竞技体育发展中的政府治理方式及困境进行研究。美国竞技体育发展中的政府治理方式,具体表现为对职业竞技体育系统和业余竞技体育系统的法制治理方式、间接性体育融资治理方式、非体育职能部门和地方政府协作式的体育服务治理方式,这些治理方式对推动美国竞技体育的逐渐成长起到了关键作用。美国竞技体育发展进程中政府治理仍然面临着诸多危机,主要表现为美国社会结构的裂变加速着美国民众竞技体育发展机会的不平等趋势;“美国例外主义”的优越性思维惯性促使美国竞技体

  7. Management of Critical Asset and Adjustment of Government Functions%关键资产管理与政府职能新定位

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨充霖

    2012-01-01

    Government functioning in society and economy has been a fundamental and controversial problem.In this article the author gives a solution to it from the perspective of critical asset.Critical asset is a kind of asset that can not be substituted for in maintaining a nation's critical social welfare such as subsistence,safety,health and sustainability.Critical asset is different from but overlaps with state-owned asset.The "criticalities" of critical asset together with its position in a nation's total asset makes its management the fundamental functions of government.The initiatives of government's performing these functions are propagating,accounting,legislating for and establishing a dynamic control system of its national critical asset.%政府在经济和社会管理中的职能定位历来是公共管理中基本的但又争议未决的问题。本文从关键资产的角度提出一种分析和解决思路。关键资产是对人类的生存、安全和健康等关键福利具有不可替代性的自然、人造、人力和社会资产,关键资产管理是政府的基本职能。政府管理关键资产的当务之急是强化关键资产意识,做好关键资产核算,健全关键资产法规,建立科学管理机制。

  8. Design Choices for Thermofluid Flow Components and Systems that are Exported as Functional Mockup Units

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wetter, Michael; Fuchs, Marcus; Nouidui, Thierry

    2015-09-21

    This paper discusses design decisions for exporting Modelica thermofluid flow components as Functional Mockup Units. The purpose is to provide guidelines that will allow building energy simulation programs and HVAC equipment manufacturers to effectively use FMUs for modeling of HVAC components and systems. We provide an analysis for direct input-output dependencies of such components and discuss how these dependencies can lead to algebraic loops that are formed when connecting thermofluid flow components. Based on this analysis, we provide recommendations that increase the computing efficiency of such components and systems that are formed by connecting multiple components. We explain what code optimizations are lost when providing thermofluid flow components as FMUs rather than Modelica code. We present an implementation of a package for FMU export of such components, explain the rationale for selecting the connector variables of the FMUs and finally provide computing benchmarks for different design choices. It turns out that selecting temperature rather than specific enthalpy as input and output signals does not lead to a measurable increase in computing time, but selecting nine small FMUs rather than a large FMU increases computing time by 70%.

  9. [Technical and functional standards and implementation of a clinical information system in intensive care units].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez Tello, V; Alvarez Rodríguez, J; Núñez Reiz, A; González Sánchez, J A; Hernández Abadía de Barbará, A; Martínez Fresneda, M; Morrondo Valdeolmillos, P; Nicolás Arfelis, J M; Pujol Varela, I; Calvete Chicharro, M

    2011-11-01

    Clinical Information Systems (CIS) are becoming a useful tool for managing patients and data in the ICU. However, the existing CIS differ in their capabilities and technical requirements. It is therefore essential for intensivists, as the end clients of these applications, to define the suitable minimum specifications required in order to be operative and helpful. The Spanish Society of Intensive Care Medicine and Coronary Units, through its Organization and Management Workgroup, has designated a group of clinical and software experts to draft a document with the recommendable technical and operating requirements of these systems. The group was formed by ten people supported by managers or engineers from the five principal industries producing CIS in Spain. The project involved the following phases: a) Completion of a check list. This step was considered necessary in order to establish the precise current situation of CIS applications. b) Discussion of the results by the group of experts in a meeting and in online format. The requirements were grouped into four sections: technical, functional, safety and data management. All requirements were classified as basic and optional in order to allow the end user to choose among different options according to the existing budget, though ensuring a minimal set of useful characteristics. A chronogram for the installation process was also proposed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier España, S.L. y SEMICYUC. All rights reserved.

  10. Micro HTA as a tool for clinical governance: the experience of the Breast Unit in “Santa Maria” Terni Hospital

    Science.gov (United States)

    SANGUINETTI, A.; LUCCHINI, R.; TRIOLA, R.; AVENIA, S.; BISTONI, G.; CONTI, C.; SANTOPRETE, S.; AVENIA, N.

    2013-01-01

    Summary The last decade has witnessed the affirmation of the paradigm Health Technology Assessment (HTA) as a tool for government innovation technology in health care. As is known, this is an approach of evaluation oriented policy making that, in addition to provide for the disclosure of its results, it is proposed to consider simultaneously the clinical, economic, organizational, ethical and social issues arising from the introduction or disposal of a health technology, understood in the broadest sense of the term. In order to reconstruct a realistic picture of its level of implementation we have reproduced a micro HTA which served to assess the Harmonic Focus® device usefulness in breast surgery. PMID:24342156

  11. Economic Model For a Return on Investment Analysis of United States Government High Performance Computing (HPC) Research and Development (R & D) Investment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joseph, Earl C. [IDC Research Inc., Framingham, MA (United States); Conway, Steve [IDC Research Inc., Framingham, MA (United States); Dekate, Chirag [IDC Research Inc., Framingham, MA (United States)

    2013-09-30

    This study investigated how high-performance computing (HPC) investments can improve economic success and increase scientific innovation. This research focused on the common good and provided uses for DOE, other government agencies, industry, and academia. The study created two unique economic models and an innovation index: 1 A macroeconomic model that depicts the way HPC investments result in economic advancements in the form of ROI in revenue (GDP), profits (and cost savings), and jobs. 2 A macroeconomic model that depicts the way HPC investments result in basic and applied innovations, looking at variations by sector, industry, country, and organization size. A new innovation index that provides a means of measuring and comparing innovation levels. Key findings of the pilot study include: IDC collected the required data across a broad set of organizations, with enough detail to create these models and the innovation index. The research also developed an expansive list of HPC success stories.

  12. Economic Model For a Return on Investment Analysis of United States Government High Performance Computing (HPC) Research and Development (R & D) Investment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joseph, Earl C.; Conway, Steve; Dekate, Chirag

    2013-09-30

    This study investigated how high-performance computing (HPC) investments can improve economic success and increase scientific innovation. This research focused on the common good and provided uses for DOE, other government agencies, industry, and academia. The study created two unique economic models and an innovation index: 1 A macroeconomic model that depicts the way HPC investments result in economic advancements in the form of ROI in revenue (GDP), profits (and cost savings), and jobs. 2 A macroeconomic model that depicts the way HPC investments result in basic and applied innovations, looking at variations by sector, industry, country, and organization size.  A new innovation index that provides a means of measuring and comparing innovation levels. Key findings of the pilot study include: IDC collected the required data across a broad set of organizations, with enough detail to create these models and the innovation index. The research also developed an expansive list of HPC success stories.

  13. The New Education Governance Paradigm in the United Kingdom%英格兰基础教育治理范式评析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱春芳; 高益民

    2015-01-01

    20世纪80年代以来,英格兰政府采用了产出性导航的教育治理范式,该范式的前提是学校具有资源自治权,该范式通过绩效问责的准市场机制运行,即由一些半官方机构对各个阶段的教育机构进行绩效评估,并根据评估结果提供资助。但政府在增加学校资源自治的同时对专业自治的控制却加强了,其结果就是中央政府对学校的控制力度空前强化。因此,新范式中自治与控制的概念值得进一步审视。%An output-steering governance paradigm became dominant in the public sector ever since the 1980s, and the new paradigm operated through a performance-oriented market accountability mechanism. A number of quangos were established to assess performance at every level of the education system, and funding was calculated on the basis of performance assessment. Meanwhile, by increasing autonomy of education organizations over resource allocation and tightening control over professional autonomy, central government’s control reaches an unprecedented height. Thus, the conceptions of autonomy and control in the new governance paradigm deserve further consideration.

  14. Mobilizing Government

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Cancan; Medaglia, Rony; Jensen, Tina Blegind

    2016-01-01

    The nature of inter-organizational collaboration between government and other stakeholders is rapidly changing with the introduction of open social media (OSM) platforms. Characterized by a high degree of informality as well as a blurred personal/professional nature, OSM can potentially introduce...... changes and tensions in the well-established routines of the public sector. This paper aims at shedding light on such changes, presenting findings from a study on the use of an OSM platform, WeChat, in an interorganizational collaboration project between government, university, and industry stakeholders...... in the four dimensions of time, task, team, and transition. Specifically, we report on new collaboration procedures that are characterized by an ad-hoc and non-linear management of time; a sense of shared commitment to the accomplishment of tasks; a serendipitous recruitment of team members based on expertise...

  15. Functions of non executive directors in corporate governance%非执行董事在公司治理中的职能发挥

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄一松

    2015-01-01

    Non executive directors include the independent non executive directors and the associate non executive directors, and both have the unique function which the executive directors lack.The state regulatory authorities should further strengthen the independent non executive director system and establish a system of the associate non executive directors in order to enrich the governance mechanism of the board of directors and improve the corporate governance.%非执行董事包括独立非执行董事和关联非执行董事,二者都拥有区别于执行董事的独特职能。国家监管部门应当进一步强化独立非执行董事制度,同时建立关联非执行董事制度,以丰富董事会的治理机制,完善公司治理。

  16. Organizational governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Nicolai Juul; Klein, Peter G.

    This chapter reviews and discusses rational-choice approaches to organizational governance. These approaches are found primarily in organizational economics (virtually no rational-choice organizational sociology exists), particularly in transaction cost economics, principal-agent theory......, and the incomplete-contracts or property-rights approach. We distill the main unifying characteristics of these streams, survey each stream, and offer some critical commentary and suggestions for moving forward....

  17. Plural Governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mols, Niels Peter; Hansen, Jesper Rosenberg; Villadsen, Anders Ryom

    We suggest that both making and buying the same product or service has several effects on market performance. A model is developed and tested by use of 170 answers gathered from the Danish municipalities. The results support the hypotheses that both making and buying: (1) moderates the negative r...... on how the plurality is measured. The results indicate that internal production may facilitate effective governance of the relationships with suppliers. Implications for research on firm boundaries and for practice are also discussed....

  18. Plural Governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mols, Niels Peter; Hansen, Jesper Rosenberg; Villadsen, Anders Ryom

    We suggest that both making and buying the same product or service has several effects on market performance. A model is developed and tested by use of 170 answers gathered from the Danish municipalities. The results support the hypotheses that both making and buying: (1) moderates the negative r...... on how the plurality is measured. The results indicate that internal production may facilitate effective governance of the relationships with suppliers. Implications for research on firm boundaries and for practice are also discussed....

  19. The internationalization of internet governance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Park, Y.J.

    2009-01-01

    Starting from 1998, the government of the United States took up responsibility for creating and overseeing the Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers. That Corporation manages the global infrastructures of identifiers on the internet. Beginning with 2003, the United Nations has

  20. CORPORATE GOVERNANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Alexandru SITARU

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The work is aimed to examine the issues “corporate governance” involves, with the goal set to clarify the meanings of such notion, and to provide an overall image of the positive effects arising implementing the corporate governance principles. The first section includes a series of definitions for the purpose of explaining and outlining the concept of “corporate governance”, subsequently giving a definition that appears adequate to us, from the legal standpoint pre eminently. The second section has for purpose to state the corporate governance Principles, and briefly examine the same. Its purpose also includes concretely illustrating the efficient operation methods for a “corporation”, as well as the main dilemmas, and the existing solutions for the same within the internal structure of a joint stock company to adopt, and subject itself to, such principles. Finally, the last section of the work underlines the corporate governance importance, and states the goals to be attained for purposes of securing effective, balanced, and not in the last place profitable management.

  1. Approaching Moisture Recycling Governance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keys, Patrick; Wang-Erlandsson, Lan; Gordon, Line; Galaz, Victor; Ebbesson, Jonas

    2017-04-01

    The spatial and temporal dynamics of water resources are a continuous challenge for effective and sustainable national and international governance. Despite the surface watershed being the typical unit of water management, recent advances in hydrology have revealed 'atmospheric watersheds' - otherwise known as precipitationsheds. Also, recent research has demonstrated that water flowing within a precipitationshed may be modified by land-use change in one location, while the effect of this modification could be felt in a different province, nation, or continent. Notwithstanding these insights, the major legal and institutional implications of modifying moisture recycling have remained unexplored. In this presentation, we examine potential approaches to moisture recycling governance. We first identify a set of international study regions, and then develop a typology of moisture recycling relationships within these regions ranging from bilateral moisture exchange to more complex networks. This enables us to classify different types of legal and institutional governance principles. Likewise, we relate the moisture recycling types to existing land and water governance frameworks and management practices. The complexity of moisture recycling means institutional fit will be difficult to generalize for all moisture recycling relationships, but our typology allows the identification of characteristics that make effective governance of these normally ignored water flows more tenable.

  2. Orthogonal rational functions on the unit circle: from the scalar to the matrix case.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bultheel, A.; Gonzalez-Vera, P.; Hendriksen, E.; Njastad, O.

    2006-01-01

    Special functions and orthogonal polynomials in particular have been around for centuries. Can you imagine mathematics without trigonometric functions, the exponential function or polynomials? In the twentieth century the emphasis was on special functions satisfying linear differential equations, bu

  3. Understanding School Boards and Their Use of Different Models of Governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael R. Ford

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In this article, the authors apply Mel Gill’s (2002 description of governance model types to a national sample of school board members in the United States. The authors find that the majority of school board members take a policy-driven approach to board governance, while a substantial percentage take a traditional approach that delegates clear authority to the organization executive. Multinomial-logistic regression analysis and a series of analysis of variance tests are used to identify the structural and group dynamic differences between difference governance model types. The authors find that governance models have an impact on the group dynamics of organizations and that board approaches to governance differ substantially by area, concluding that future studies of governance models should consider the differences in governance strategies across functional areas.

  4. An overview of herb and dietary supplement efficacy, safety and government regulations in the United States with suggested improvements. Part 1 of 5 series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Amy Christine

    2016-11-03

    series to forewarn consumers, clinicians, corporations, and governments of possible serious adverse events. They may also quicken the response rate during Phase IV post-marketing surveillance, in which governments could then exercise their regulatory powers.

  5. Duplication and partitioning in evolution and function of homoeologous Q loci governing domestication characters in polyploid wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zengcui; Belcram, Harry; Gornicki, Piotr; Charles, Mathieu; Just, Jérémy; Huneau, Cécile; Magdelenat, Ghislaine; Couloux, Arnaud; Samain, Sylvie; Gill, Bikram S.; Rasmussen, Jack B.; Barbe, Valérie; Faris, Justin D.; Chalhoub, Boulos

    2011-01-01

    The Q gene encodes an AP2-like transcription factor that played an important role in domestication of polyploid wheat. The chromosome 5A Q alleles (5AQ and 5Aq) have been well studied, but much less is known about the q alleles on wheat homoeologous chromosomes 5B (5Bq) and 5D (5Dq). We investigated the organization, evolution, and function of the Q/q homoeoalleles in hexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Q/q gene sequences are highly conserved within and among the A, B, and D genomes of hexaploid wheat, the A and B genomes of tetraploid wheat, and the A, S, and D genomes of the diploid progenitors, but the intergenic regions of the Q/q locus are highly divergent among homoeologous genomes. Duplication of the q gene 5.8 Mya was likely followed by selective loss of one of the copies from the A genome progenitor and the other copy from the B, D, and S genomes. A recent V329-to-I mutation in the A lineage is correlated with the Q phenotype. The 5Bq homoeoalleles became a pseudogene after allotetraploidization. Expression analysis indicated that the homoeoalleles are coregulated in a complex manner. Combined phenotypic and expression analysis indicated that, whereas 5AQ plays a major role in conferring domestication-related traits, 5Dq contributes directly and 5Bq indirectly to suppression of the speltoid phenotype. The evolution of the Q/q loci in polyploid wheat resulted in the hyperfunctionalization of 5AQ, pseudogenization of 5Bq, and subfunctionalization of 5Dq, all contributing to the domestication traits. PMID:22042872

  6. 24 CFR 570.486 - Local government requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Local government requirements. 570... Development Block Grant Program § 570.486 Local government requirements. (a) Citizen participation requirements of a unit of general local government. Each unit of general local government shall meet...

  7. Reduced functional measure of cardiovascular reserve predicts admission to critical care unit following kidney transplantation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen M S Ting

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There is currently no effective preoperative assessment for patients undergoing kidney transplantation that is able to identify those at high perioperative risk requiring admission to critical care unit (CCU. We sought to determine if functional measures of cardiovascular reserve, in particular the anaerobic threshold (VO₂AT could identify these patients. METHODS: Adult patients were assessed within 4 weeks prior to kidney transplantation in a University hospital with a 37-bed CCU, between April 2010 and June 2012. Cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET, echocardiography and arterial applanation tonometry were performed. RESULTS: There were 70 participants (age 41.7±14.5 years, 60% male, 91.4% living donor kidney recipients, 23.4% were desensitized. 14 patients (20% required escalation of care from the ward to CCU following transplantation. Reduced anaerobic threshold (VO₂AT was the most significant predictor, independently (OR = 0.43; 95% CI 0.27-0.68; p<0.001 and in the multivariate logistic regression analysis (adjusted OR = 0.26; 95% CI 0.12-0.59; p = 0.001. The area under the receiver-operating-characteristic curve was 0.93, based on a risk prediction model that incorporated VO₂AT, body mass index and desensitization status. Neither echocardiographic nor measures of aortic compliance were significantly associated with CCU admission. CONCLUSIONS: To our knowledge, this is the first prospective observational study to demonstrate the usefulness of CPET as a preoperative risk stratification tool for patients undergoing kidney transplantation. The study suggests that VO₂AT has the potential to predict perioperative morbidity in kidney transplant recipients.

  8. Functional status of United States children supported with a left ventricular assist device at heart transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulic, Anica; Maeda, Katsuhide; Zhang, Yulin; Chen, Sharon; McElhinney, Doff B; Dykes, John C; Hollander, Amanda M; Hollander, Seth A; Murray, Jenna; Reinhartz, Olaf; Gowan, Mary Alice; Rosenthal, David N; Almond, Christopher S

    2017-08-01

    As survival with pediatric left ventricular assist devices (LVADs) has improved, decisions regarding the optimal support strategy may depend more on quality of life and functional status (FS) rather than mortality alone. Limited data are available regarding the FS of children supported with LVADs. We sought to compare the FS of children supported with LVADs vs vasoactive infusions to inform decision making around support strategies. Organ Procurement and Transplant Network data were used to identify all United States children aged between 1 and 21 years at heart transplant (HT) between 2006 and 2015 for dilated cardiomyopathy and supported with an LVAD or vasoactive infusions alone at HT. FS was measured using the 10-point Karnofsky and Lansky scale. Of 701 children who met the inclusion criteria, 430 (61%) were supported with vasoactive infusions, and 271 (39%) were supported with an LVAD at HT. Children in the LVAD group had higher median FS scores at HT than children in the vasoactive infusion group (6 vs 5, p < 0.001) but lower FS scores at listing (4 vs 6, p < 0.001). The effect persisted regardless of patient location at HT (home, hospital, intensive care) or device type. Discharge by HT occurred in 46% of children in the LVAD group compared with 26% of children in the vasoactive infusion cohort (p = 0.001). Stroke was reported at HT in 3% of children in the LVAD cohort and in 1% in the vasoactive infusion cohort (p = 0.04). Among children with dilated cardiomyopathy undergoing HT, children supported with LVADs at HT have higher FS than children supported with vasoactive infusions at HT, regardless of device type or hospitalization status. Children supported with LVADs at HT were more likely to be discharged from the hospital but had a higher prevalence of stroke at HT. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Acute Cardiovascular Care Association Position Paper on Intensive Cardiovascular Care Units: An update on their definition, structure, organisation and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnefoy-Cudraz, Eric; Bueno, Hector; Casella, Gianni; De Maria, Elia; Fitzsimons, Donna; Halvorsen, Sigrun; Hassager, Christian; Iakobishvili, Zaza; Magdy, Ahmed; Marandi, Toomas; Mimoso, Jorge; Parkhomenko, Alexander; Price, Susana; Rokyta, Richard; Roubille, Francois; Serpytis, Pranas; Shimony, Avi; Stepinska, Janina; Tint, Diana; Trendafilova, Elina; Tubaro, Marco; Vrints, Christiaan; Walker, David; Zahger, Doron; Zima, Endre; Zukermann, Robert; Lettino, Maddalena

    2017-08-01

    Acute cardiovascular care has progressed considerably since the last position paper was published 10 years ago. It is now a well-defined, complex field with demanding multidisciplinary teamworking. The Acute Cardiovascular Care Association has provided this update of the 2005 position paper on acute cardiovascular care organisation, using a multinational working group. The patient population has changed, and intensive cardiovascular care units now manage a large range of conditions from those simply requiring specialised monitoring, to critical cardiovascular diseases with associated multi-organ failure. To describe better intensive cardiovascular care units case mix, acuity of care has been divided into three levels, and then defining intensive cardiovascular care unit functional organisation. For each level of intensive cardiovascular care unit, this document presents the aims of the units, the recommended management structure, the optimal number of staff, the need for specially trained cardiologists and cardiovascular nurses, the desired equipment and architecture, and the interaction with other departments in the hospital and other intensive cardiovascular care units in the region/area. This update emphasises cardiologist training, referring to the recently updated Acute Cardiovascular Care Association core curriculum on acute cardiovascular care. The training of nurses in acute cardiovascular care is additionally addressed. Intensive cardiovascular care unit expertise is not limited to within the unit's geographical boundaries, extending to different specialties and subspecialties of cardiology and other specialties in order to optimally manage the wide scope of acute cardiovascular conditions in frequently highly complex patients. This position paper therefore addresses the need for the inclusion of acute cardiac care and intensive cardiovascular care units within a hospital network, linking university medical centres, large community hospitals, and smaller

  10. Shakabpa' s 1947-1949 "Business" Trip to India, United States, and United Kingdom and the National Government's Reaction%1947—1949年夏格巴印美英“商务”之行及国民政府的应对

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张皓

    2012-01-01

    From June 1947 to April 1949, the national government made a set of representations to India, the United States, and the United Kingdom about Shakabpa' s separatist activities. Supported by India, the United States, and the United Kingdom, the infamous separatist Shakabpa took advantage of the Kuomintang government' s forthcoming collapse to "visit" the three countries and therefore to foment splits. The three countries had different purposes on Tibet. India attempted to inherit the advantages grabbed by the United Kingdom from Tibet. The Unit- ed States attempted to replace the United Kingdom to interfere with Tibet. The United Kingdom continued to hold its banal claim that China had ~' suzerainty" instead sovereignty in Tibet. The national government took a series of measures accordingly to oppose Shakabpa' s separatist activities and these countries' interference with China' s ter- ritorial and sovereignty integrity. It clearly indicated the Chinese nation' s solemn stand. "Neither foreign loans for trade nor making Tibet independent for which Shakabpa plotted were fulfilled as he wished. " However, the national government also made a mistake. It wrongly assumed that the three countries would respect China' s sovereignty and refuse to issue visas on "Tibetan passports. " Therefore the national government mistakenly assumed that since it re- fused to issue passports to Shakabpa and his accomplices, they would not have been able to go abroad. It failed to anticipate the flexible measures taken by the United States and United Kingdom.%1947年6月至1949年4月,国民政府围绕夏格巴分裂活动,同印度、美国、英国展开了一场交涉。著名分裂分子夏格巴在印度、美国、英国的支持下,乘国民党政府即将崩溃之机,“出访”三国,制造分裂。而三国对西藏的企图各有不同,印度企图继承英国在藏获得的侵略权益,美国企图取代英国而插手西藏问题,英国继续维持所谓中

  11. Surveillance for Asian H5N1 avian influenza in the United States. The government initiates early detection efforts in wild birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ip, Hon S.; Slota, Paul G.

    2006-01-01

    Increasing concern over the potential for migratory birds to introduce the Asian H5N1 strain of avian influenza to North America prompted the White House Policy Coordinating Committee for Pandemic Influenza Preparedness to request that the U.S. Departments of Agriculture (USDA) and Interior (DOI) develop a plan for the early detection of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) in the United States. To promote coordination among wildlife, agriculture, and human health agencies on HPAI surveillance efforts, the two Departments worked with representatives from the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, the International Association of Fish and Wildlife Agencies, and the Alaska Department of Fish and Game to develop the U.S. Interagency Strategic Plan for Early Detection of Asian H5N1 Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza in Wild Migratory Birds.

  12. Two Successful Approaches to Teaching AP Government

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladd, Brian; Stepp, Heidi

    2013-01-01

    Amador Valley High School, in Pleasanton, California, uses two unique approaches to teaching Advanced Placement Government and Politics. AP Government consists of six units: Constitutional Underpinnings; Political Behavior and Political Beliefs; Mass Media, Interest Groups, and Political Parties; Institutions of Government; Civil Liberties and…

  13. 31 CFR 210.3 - Governing law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Governing law. 210.3 Section 210.3... CLEARING HOUSE § 210.3 Governing law. (a) Federal law. The rights and obligations of the United States and..., are governed by this part, which has the force and effect of Federal law. (b) Incorporation...

  14. 22 CFR 230.16 - Governing law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Governing law. 230.16 Section 230.16 Foreign... SUPPLEMENTAL APPROPRIATIONS ACT OF 2003, PUB. L. 108-11-STANDARD TERMS AND CONDITIONS § 230.16 Governing law. This Guarantee shall be governed by and construed in accordance with the laws of the United States...

  15. Skills Governance and the Workforce Development Programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hordern, Jim

    2013-01-01

    In the United Kingdom higher education environment, government may make efforts to encourage institutions to engage in governance structures to secure policy objectives through a steering approach. In this article connections between skills governance structures and the recent Higher Education Funding Council for England workforce development…

  16. Changes in Early Adolescents' Sense of Responsibility to their Parents in the United States and China: Implications for Academic Functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomerantz, Eva M.; Qin, Lili; Wang, Qian; Chen, Huichang

    2011-01-01

    This research examined American and Chinese children's sense of responsibility to their parents during early adolescence, with a focus on its implications for children's academic functioning. Four times over the seventh and eighth grades, 825 children (mean age = 12.73 years) in the United States and China reported on their sense of responsibility to their parents. Information on children's academic functioning was also collected from children as well as school records. Although children's sense of responsibility to their parents declined over the seventh and eighth grades in the United States, this was not the case in China. In both countries, children's sense of responsibility was predictive of enhanced academic functioning among children over time. PMID:21466541

  17. An EPQ Model with Unit Production Cost and Set-Up Cost as Functions of Production Rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behrouz Afshar-Nadjafi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Extensive research has been devoted to economic production quantity (EPQ problem. However, no attention has been paid to problems where unit production and set-up costs must be considered as functions of production rate. In this paper, we address the problem of determining the optimal production quantity and rate of production in which unit production and set-up costs are assumed to be continuous functions of production rate. Based on the traditional economic production quantity (EPQ formula, the cost function associated with this model is proved to be nonconvex and a procedure is proposed to solve this problem. Finally, utility of the model is presented using some numerical examples and the results are analyzed.

  18. Thinking about the Future of Global Water Governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph W. Dellapenna

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Global water problems are likely to increase in severity, rendering existing governance approaches unable to cope with the resulting problems. We inquire into the relationship between global water governance structures, particularly those involving the United Nations, and look at how those structures are likely to respond to and shape projected water futures. Building on story lines of possible water futures taken from existing scenarios, we discuss the functions to be performed by global water governance. We aim to open a discussion about four global water governance options and to introduce the constraints and possibilities for each option. We argue that the nature of the water problem calls for structural changes. However unfeasible these may appear today, such transitions do occur, and, if the narrative is sufficiently sound, it can be used by social movements and networks to mobilize policy entrepreneurs and directional leaders to work for such changes.

  19. Prokaryotic regulatory systems biology: Common principles governing the functional architectures of Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli unveiled by the natural decomposition approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freyre-González, Julio A; Treviño-Quintanilla, Luis G; Valtierra-Gutiérrez, Ilse A; Gutiérrez-Ríos, Rosa María; Alonso-Pavón, José A

    2012-10-31

    Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis are two of the best-studied prokaryotic model organisms. Previous analyses of their transcriptional regulatory networks have shown that they exhibit high plasticity during evolution and suggested that both converge to scale-free-like structures. Nevertheless, beyond this suggestion, no analyses have been carried out to identify the common systems-level components and principles governing these organisms. Here we show that these two phylogenetically distant organisms follow a set of common novel biologically consistent systems principles revealed by the mathematically and biologically founded natural decomposition approach. The discovered common functional architecture is a diamond-shaped, matryoshka-like, three-layer (coordination, processing, and integration) hierarchy exhibiting feedback, which is shaped by four systems-level components: global transcription factors (global TFs), locally autonomous modules, basal machinery and intermodular genes. The first mathematical criterion to identify global TFs, the κ-value, was reassessed on B. subtilis and confirmed its high predictive power by identifying all the previously reported, plus three potential, master regulators and eight sigma factors. The functionally conserved cores of modules, basal cell machinery, and a set of non-orthologous common physiological global responses were identified via both orthologous genes and non-orthologous conserved functions. This study reveals novel common systems principles maintained between two phylogenetically distant organisms and provides a comparison of their lifestyle adaptations. Our results shed new light on the systems-level principles and the fundamental functions required by bacteria to sustain life. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Test of the Constancy - Velocity Hypothesis: Navy Unit Functioning and Performance over 12 Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-31

    It was found in Bowers & Krauz (1983) and Bowers, Krauz & Denison (�) that Project Upgrade rates for fleet units (the rate of occurrence of...studies documented in Bowers, Krauz & Denison (1983), it was apparent that the typical Upgrade case was a person who, starting out on an even keel in...Project Upgrade rates in Navy units. Technical Report to the Office of Naval Research, May, 1983. Bowers, D.G., and Krauz , L.S. Organizational

  1. Governing Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buch, Anders

    2011-01-01

    Abstract: Most people agree that our world faces daunting problems and, correctly or not, technological solutions are seen as an integral part of an overall solution. But what exactly are the problems and how does the engineering ‘mind set’ frame these problems? This chapter sets out to unravel...... dominant perspectives in challenge perception in engineering in the US and Denmark. Challenge perception and response strategies are closely linked through discursive practices. Challenge perceptions within the engineering community and the surrounding society are thus critical for the shaping...... of engineering education and the engineering profession. Through an analysis of influential reports and position papers on engineering and engineering education the chapter sets out to identify how engineering is problematized and eventually governed. Drawing on insights from governmentality studies the chapter...

  2. Governing Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buch, Anders

    2012-01-01

    Most people agree that our world face daunting problems and, correctly or not, technological solutions are seen as an integral part of an overall solution. But what exactly are the problems and how does the engineering ‘mind set’ frame these problems? This chapter sets out to unravel dominant...... perspectives in challenge per-ception in engineering in the US and Denmark. Challenge perception and response strategies are closely linked through discursive practices. Challenge perceptions within the engineering community and the surrounding society are thus critical for the shaping of engineering education...... and the engineering profession. Through an analysis of influential reports and position papers on engineering and engineering education the chapter sets out to identify how engineering is problematized and eventually governed. Drawing on insights from governmentality studies the chapter strives to elicit the bodies...

  3. Internet Governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Veiga

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available It has now become quite obvious that the Internet has brought significant changes to our society and a break on how we lived before its emergence. It is still too early to assess the impact on society of the new services at our disposal, such as the capacity to communicate faster and cheaper on a global scale, access information and, perhaps more importantly, to produce and disseminate information in a way that is accessible to all.It is clear that the advent of the Information Society implies changes in our society that constitute a point of no return. However, contrary to what happened when we entered the Industrial Age about three centuries ago, when the changing process was slow and led by older individuals, these days the entrance into the Information Society is taking place rapidly and the decisive players are younger people. The global nature of the Internet, the possibility of producing and distributing any type of content in digital form at almost zero cost, as well as the vast number of people who use the web, have highlighted the need for new forms of intervention in a sector where there are many types of players. It is in this context that the problem of Internet Governance becomes a very current issue, inasmuch as one feels the need to guarantee a diversity of rights and duties, which may appear difficult to reconcile.This paper presents a brief overview of the main players and initiatives which, in the field of Internet Governance, have tried to contribute to turning this network into a factor for social development and democraticity on a global scale.

  4. Analyzing the role of the government from the perspective of coal resources management in the United States%从美国煤炭资源管理看政府定位

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王昆

    2014-01-01

    China shares some similarities with the United States in terms of area ,population and GDP . This article analyzes the role of the government from the perspective of the coal resources management in the United States ,which hopefully could help to improving China's mineral resources management .The United States is abundant of coal resources ..The coal industry shares 40% of mining sector and play an important role in the United States . The coal industry is highly concentrated and shows a good safety record .The top 5 producers contribute over half of production .The mineral management in the United States has two characteristics :different types of mineral ownership coexist ;three catalogues of mineral resources are subject to different management system .Coal is leased competitively .Government makes many efforts to realize multiple uses ,fair return ,diligent development and conservation of coal resources . The role of government is far more than a "night watcher"in the modern market economy .We should take national conditions , development stages and legal system into consideration and choose a right way to improve mineral resources management constantly .%美国疆域辽阔、经济总量大、人口较多,和我国有较强的可比性。本文通过对美国煤炭资源管理的研究,分析政府在资源管理中的定位,为完善我国矿产资源管理提供借鉴。美国煤炭资源、地位重要,占矿业比重大,集中度高,安全生产水平高。矿产资源管理制度的主要特点是产权多元、分类管理。煤炭租约原则上一律实行竞争性出让。在以规划统筹各类资源的利用,实现资源公平收益,抑制投机,防止资源浪费等方面做了相应的制度安排,体现了政府"干预"。现代市场经济中政府的角色不仅仅是"守夜人",美国矿产资源管理的一些理念和做法值得进一步研究,我们应综合考虑国情矿情、发展阶段、现实法

  5. Food Safety Regulatory Functions Conversion of Government in China and Its Influencing Factors%我国食品安全监管政府职能的历史转换及其影响因素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张炜达; 任端平

    2011-01-01

    理清食品安全监管政府职能的历史转换具有重要的意义.我国食品安全监管中的政府职能从与计划经济体制相适应向与市场经济体制相适应转变,具体经历了对食品卫生实施内部全面管理、国家外部监督管理和对食品安全实施政府动态监控3个阶段.食品安全监管政府职能的历史转换主要受政府职能总体定位和食品安全现状的影响.%Clarifying the historical transition of food safety regulatory functions of the government is of great significance.China's food safety regulatory functions from the government in the planned economic system to adapt with the market economic system to adapt to changes, specifically through the implementation of food hygiene within the overall management of the national external oversight of food safety management and dynamic monitoring of the three stages of the implementation of government. Food safety regulatory functions of the government is mainly affected by the historical transformation of government functions overall positioning and status of food safety.

  6. Functional level at admission is a predictor of survival in older patients admitted to an acute geriatric unit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matzen, Lars E; Jepsen, Ditte B; Ryg, Jesper

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Functional decline is associated with increased risk of mortality in geriatric patients.Assessment of activities of daily living (ADL) with the Barthel Index (BI) at admission wasstudied as a predictor of survival in older patients admitted to an acute geriatric unit. METHODS...... to an acute geriatricunit. These data suggest that assessment of ADL may have a potential role in decisionmaking for the clinical management of frail geriatric inpatients....

  7. Synthesis and Excellent Duplex Stability of Oligonucleotides Containing 2′-Amino-LNA Functionalized with Galactose Units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh Kumar

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available A convenient method for the preparation of oligonucleotides containing internally-attached galactose and triantennary galactose units has been developed based on click chemistry between 2′-N-alkyne 2′-amino-LNA nucleosides and azido-functionalized galactosyl building blocks. The synthesized oligonucleotides show excellent binding affinity and selectivity towards complementary DNA/RNA strands with an increase in the melting temperature of up to +23.5 °C for triply-modified variants.

  8. Social functions of high school athletics in the United States: a historical and comparative analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stokvis, R.

    2009-01-01

    In the United States competitive sport is part of the extra-curricular program of high schools. In the Netherlands, on the other hand, competitive sport is practiced in private clubs which are completely independent of the high schools. The consolidation and continuity of this difference can be

  9. Functional Roles and Social Roles: Adolescents' Significant Others in the United States and Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darling, Nancy; And Others

    This study examined the quality of relations characterizing adolescents' social environments and related variations in the quality of relations to associates' social roles and to the gender and culture of both associates and subjects. It investigated whether adolescents from Japan and from the United States described their relationships with…

  10. Prevention of acute kidney injury and protection of renal function in the intensive care unit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joannidis, Michael; Druml, Wilfred; Forni, Lui G.; Groeneveld, A. B. Johan; Honore, Patrick; Oudemans-van Straaten, Heleen M.; Ronco, Claudio; Schetz, Marie R. C.; Woittiez, Arend Jan

    2010-01-01

    Acute renal failure on the intensive care unit is associated with significant mortality and morbidity. To determine recommendations for the prevention of acute kidney injury (AKI), focusing on the role of potential preventative maneuvers including volume expansion, diuretics, use of inotropes, vasop

  11. Functional diversity in summer annual grass and legume intercrops in the Northeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    A warm-season annual intercropping experiment was conducted across the Northeastern United States with four trials in 2013 and five trials in 2014 with four crop species selected based on differences in stature and nitrogen acquisition traits: 1) pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum L.); 2) sorghum suda...

  12. T-government for benefit realisation

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    This paper proposes a model for t-Government and highlights the research agenda needed to increase understanding of transformational government and the processes involved in furthering the agenda of the t-Government. In particular, both an operational and a conceptual model for the effective involvement of citizens and businesses in government functioning have been proposed. This will help to define an agenda for t-Government research that emerges from national UK strategy and ...

  13. On the relation between the Lebesgue integral means and Nevanlinna characteristic of analytic functions in the unit disc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya. V. Vasyl’kiv

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The best possible asymptotic estimates for Lebesgue integral means $m_{p}(r,log f, 1 leq p$ of logarithms of analytic functions $f(z$ in the unit disc in terms of their Nevanlinna characteristic $T(r,f$ are obtained. We get sharp relation between the order of $T(r,f$ and the order of $m_{p}(r,log f$ for an analytic function $f(z$ of finite order $alpha(f.$ This generalizes well-known results of L.~R.~Sons and C.~N.~Linden.

  14. Legitimacy of Government Function Outsourcing in People’ s Livelihood Construction%民生建设中政府职能外包的正当性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    葛先园

    2014-01-01

    国家理性是诠释民生建设中政府职能外包之正当性的有力工具。功利性的国家理性属于目的理性的范畴,它“见风使舵”,有利于维护社会公共秩序。规范主义的国家理性,在公法视域中通过把自身具化为“政府固有职能”的概念而呈现出来。我国民生建设中许多政府打算做的事情,超出了“政府固有职能”的范围,须外包给社会组织来完成。%Reason of nation is a powerful tool to explain the legitimacy of government function outsourcing in people ’ s liveli-hood construction.Utilitarian reason of state, belonging to aim reason, has proved to be flexible and is conducive to the mainte-nance of social order.Normative reason of state is manifested as “inherently governmental functions” in the scope of public laws. Many activities in people ’ s livelihood construction in China are beyond the scope of “inherently governmental functions” and should be outsourced by social organizations.

  15. EcoTILLING-based association mapping efficiently delineates functionally relevant natural allelic variants of candidate genes governing agronomic traits in chickpea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepak eBajaj

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The large-scale mining and high-throughput genotyping of novel gene-based allelic variants in natural mapping population are essential for association mapping to identify functionally relevant molecular tags governing useful agronomic traits in chickpea. The present study employs an alternative time-saving, non-laborious and economical pool-based EcoTILLING approach coupled with agarose gel detection assay to discover 1133 novel SNP allelic variants from diverse coding and regulatory sequence components of 1133 transcription factor (TF genes by genotyping in 192 diverse desi and kabuli chickpea accessions constituting a seed weight association panel. Integrating these SNP genotyping data with seed weight field phenotypic information of 192 structured association panel identified eight SNP alleles in the eight TF genes regulating seed weight of chickpea. The associated individual and combination of all SNPs explained 10-15 and 31% phenotypic variation for seed weight, respectively. The EcoTILLING-based large-scale allele mining and genotyping strategy implemented for association mapping is found much effective for a diploid genome crop species like chickpea with narrow genetic base and low genetic polymorphism. This optimized approach thus can be deployed for various genomics-assisted breeding applications with optimal expense of resources in domesticated chickpea. The seed weight-associated natural allelic variants and candidate TF genes delineated have potential to accelerate marker-assisted genetic improvement of chickpea.

  16. How to Promote Economic Development in Liaoning by Speeding up Government Function Transformation%加快转变政府职能与促进辽宁经济发展的建议

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭小芳; 王宁宁

    2015-01-01

    加快转变政府职能对于辽宁经济发展具有重要意义。辽宁省面临经济减速压力大、产能过剩矛盾突出、企业经营存在困难的现状,亟待进一步打开转变政府职能这扇大门,以政府职能转变的新成效为经济社会发展注入新的动力和活力。从政府职能转变的角度,可以通过政府职能重新定位、政府权力边界重新界定、政府服务内容重新设计三个方面来促进辽宁经济加快发展。%Government function transformation is important for the economic development in Liaoning prov-ince.With pressure on slowing down the economy , contradiction of excess production capacity and difficulties in enterprise ’ s operation , the government of Liaoning province should further transform its functions so as to inject new dynamism and vitality into the economic and social development .To reposition government functions , redefine government right boundaries and redesign the government services may promote economic development in Liaoning .

  17. Spheres of SA Government, responsibilities and delivery

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Oelofse, Suzanna HH

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available with distinctive but interdependent and interrelated functional responsibilities. The new local sphere of government was created by amalgamating over 800 municipalities into 283 municipalities. This chapter discusses the responsibilities of the Government...

  18. Musculoskeletal disorders in hemodialysis patients and its impact on physical function (Zagazig University Nephrology Unit, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amany R El-Najjar

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion Musculoskeletal system involvement remains a common problem that limits the physical function of patients with renal failure, in particular, those treated with long-term maintenance dialysis.

  19. Local government borrowing practice in Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anto Bajo

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to analyze local government units’ borrowing in Croatia. Throughout the paper, we present the financial positions of local government units according to the size and structure of their gross and net debts, analyze borrowing conditions with commercial banks and the state development bank and discuss potential opportunities for and constraints on the issue of municipal bonds. Croatian local government units are not overindebted but do use guarantees to avoid central government borrowing restrictions.Sources of potential financial instability and risks to the creditworthiness of local government units can be found in the financial operations of utility companies. Inaugurating a credit rating system would improve control of adherence to budgetary constraints and determination of priorities for approving local government units’ borrowing.

  20. 制造业的数字化革命与政府职能转变%Manufacturing Industry Digital Revolution and Government Functional Transformation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋景媛

    2012-01-01

    数字化正在引发全球制造业的深刻变革。制造业正在由标准化走向个性化,从国际化走向本地化,与服务业之间的界限将变得更加模糊。在此过程中,社会生产方式、产业组织结构、管理和消费模式都将发生变化;全球竞争由国家层面转向企业和个人。社会环境变迁使得政府原有管理方式不再适用;管理水平受到挑战。为适应中国制造业转型的国际环境,政府职能需要实现"三个转变":即从经济过程的调控者转变为市场环境的维护者、公共知识和社会创新的培育者和产权制度的保护者。%The digitization is initiating a profound transformation of the global manufacturing industry.The manufacturing industry is moving from standardization to personalization,from international towards local production,the boundaries between manufacturing and service industries will become more blurred.In this process,the social mode of production,industrial organization structure,management and consumption patterns will change.Global competition among nations will give way to the competition among businesses and individuals.The Government's original management style is no longer applicable under the changing social environment.Therefore,in order to adapt to the international environment for China's manufacturing sector transition,the government functions need to make adjustment in three aspects,that is,realizing the transformation from the regulator of economic process to the defender of market environment,the public knowledge and social innovation nursery and the property right system protector.

  1. Vector-Valued Dirichlet-Type Functions on the Unit Ball of Cn

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Ying-kui; LIU Pei-de

    2005-01-01

    The vector-valued Dirichlet-type spaces on the unit ball of Cn is introduced. We discuss the pointwise multipliers of Dirichlet-type spaces. Sufficient conditions of the pointwise multipliers of D2μ for 0≤μ<2 if n=1 or D2μ,q for 0<μ<1 if n≥2 are given. Finally, Rademacher p-type space is characterized by vector-valued sequence spaces.

  2. High-density EEG coherence analysis using functional units applied to mental fatigue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caat, Michael ten; Lorist, Monicque M.; Bezdan, Eniko; Roerdink, Jos B.T.M.; Maurits, Natasha M.

    2008-01-01

    Electroencephalography (EEG) coherence provides a quantitative measure of functional brain connectivity which is calculated between pairs of signals as a function of frequency. Without hypotheses, traditional coherence analysis would be cumbersome for high-density EEG which employs a large number of

  3. High-density EEG coherence analysis using functional units applied to mental fatigue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caat, Michael ten; Lorist, Monicque M.; Bezdan, Eniko; Roerdink, Jos B.T.M.; Maurits, Natasha M.

    2008-01-01

    Electroencephalography (EEG) coherence provides a quantitative measure of functional brain connectivity which is calculated between pairs of signals as a function of frequency. Without hypotheses, traditional coherence analysis would be cumbersome for high-density EEG which employs a large number of

  4. Formation of functional CENP-B boxes at diverse locations in repeat units of centromeric DNA in New World monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kugou, Kazuto; Hirai, Hirohisa; Masumoto, Hiroshi; Koga, Akihiko

    2016-06-13

    Centromere protein B, which is involved in centromere formation, binds to centromeric repetitive DNA by recognizing a nucleotide motif called the CENP-B box. Humans have large numbers of CENP-B boxes in the centromeric repetitive DNA of their autosomes and X chromosome. The current understanding is that these CENP-B boxes are located at identical positions in the repeat units of centromeric DNA. Great apes also have CENP-B boxes in locations that are identical to humans. The purpose of the present study was to examine the location of CENP-B box in New World monkeys. We recently identified CENP-B box in one species of New World monkeys (marmosets). In this study, we found functional CENP-B boxes in CENP-A-assembled repeat units of centromeric DNA in 2 additional New World monkeys (squirrel monkeys and tamarins) by immunostaining and ChIP-qPCR analyses. The locations of the 3 CENP-B boxes in the repeat units differed from one another. The repeat unit size of centromeric DNA of New World monkeys (340-350 bp) is approximately twice that of humans and great apes (171 bp). This might be, associated with higher-order repeat structures of centromeric DNA, a factor for the observed variation in the CENP-B box location in New World monkeys.

  5. Prevalence and impact of dementia-related functional limitations in the United States, 2001 to 2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrighi, Henry Michael; McLaughlin, Trent; Leibman, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    These analyses examined the relationship between dementia and comorbid conditions with respect to degree of functional impairment and emotional impact. Analyses were conducted using National Health Interview Survey (2001 through 2005) data from a subset of individuals aged > or =60 years with activity limitations attributed to dementia, senility, or Alzheimer disease compared with those whose limitations were attributed to other conditions. The mean number of limited activities was 6.84 (95% confidence interval: 6.48-7.20) for persons with dementia-related limitations and 4.87 (95% confidence interval: 4.81-4.93) for those with limitations not dementia related. Both groups reported similar prevalence of diabetes, acute myocardial infarction, heart disease, prostate cancer, breast cancer, angina, and emphysema; respondents with dementia-related functional limitations were more likely to report diabetes, depression or anxiety, and vision problems as being related to functional limitations. Persons with dementia-related functional limitations were also more likely than persons with non-dementia-related functional limitations to report feeling sad, hopeless, worthless, nervous, and that "everything is an effort." Improving or maintaining functional independence in patients with dementia will likely require a multifaceted approach across disease states. Additional research will help define the impact of dementia on the development and progression of functional limitations related to comorbidities.

  6. C-terminal functional unit of Rapana thomasiana (marine snail, gastropod) hemocyanin isoform RtH1: isolation and characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parvanova, Katja; Idakieva, Krassimira; Todinova, Svetla; Genov, Nicolay

    2003-09-23

    Rapana thomasiana hemocyanin (RtH) is a mixture of two hemocyanin (Hc) isoforms termed RtH1 and RtH2. Both subunit types are built up of eight functional units (FUs). The C-terminal functional unit (RtH1-h) of the Rapana Hc subunit 1 has been isolated by limited trypsinolysis of the subunit polypeptide chain. The oxy- and apo-forms of the unit are characterized by fluorescence spectroscopy. Upon excitation of RtH1-h at 295 or 280 nm, tryptophyl residues buried in the hydrophobic interior of the protein globule determine the fluorescence emission. This is confirmed by quenching experiments with acrylamide, cesium chloride and potassium iodide. The copper-dioxygen system at the binuclear active site quenches the indole emission of the oxy-RtH1-h. The removal of this system increases the fluorescence quantum yield and causes structural rearrangement of the microenvironment of the emitting tryptophyl residues in the apo-RtH1-h. The thermal stability of the apo-RtH1-h is characterized fluorimetrically by the "melting" temperature T(m) (65 degrees C) and by the transition temperature T(m) (83 degrees C) obtained by differential scanning calorimetry for oxy-RtH1-h. The results confirm the role of the copper-dioxygen complex for the stabilization of the Hc structure in solution.

  7. 从心脑主神明之争探讨中医学脑的功能%Study on functions of brain in TCM from issue of heart or brain governing the spirit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴颢昕; 梅晓云

    2011-01-01

    The author analyzed the theoretical basis of 'heart governing the spirit', 'brain governing the spirit', and thought that the 'heart governing the spirit' was a kind of theory that based on the holism of TCM, 'heart governing the spirit' explained the relationship among five internal organs, heart and spirit, it played important role in the treatment of brain disease in TCM. But the theory of 'heart governing the spirit' also caused the incomplete recognition on the brain. The author put forward that brain was an organ with the functions of governing consciousness, sport, thought and memory.%分析了“心主神明”与“脑主神明”的理论依据,认为“心主神明”论是建立在中医整体观念之上,说明五脏、心、精神活动之间关系的一种学说,对中医脑病的治疗具有重要的指导作用.但“心主神明”论也导致中医对脑这一重要的器官缺乏独立和完整性的认识.提出应当提倡“脑是主管知觉、运动、思维和记忆的器官”的观点.

  8. The System Analysis of Social Organization to Undertake the Functions of the Government%社会组织承接政府职能的制度分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田小彪

    2014-01-01

    本文在社会组织承接政府职能的理论基础上,从制度分析的角度对我国社会组织承接政府职能的制度安排以及对社会组织承接政府职能存在的问题和风险进行了理论分析,并对社会组织承接政府职能的制度创新提出了合理性建议,从而使社会组织更好地服务于社会。%This paper is based on the theories of Social organization to undertake the government function, from the perspective of system analysis to our country in the current system arrangement of social organization to undertake the functions of the government, at the same time, the social organization to undertake the functions of the government existing problems and risks are analyzed. Then it put forward reasonable suggestions about the system analysis of social organization to undertake the functions of the government, so as to better serve for the society and benefit the country.

  9. Transformative environmental governance | Science Inventory ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Transformative governance is an approach to environmental governance that has the capacity to respond to, manage, and trigger regime shifts in coupled social-ecological systems (SESs) at multiple scales. The goal of transformative governance is to actively shift degraded SESs to alternative, more desirable, or more functional regimes by altering the structures and processes that define the system. Transformative governance is rooted in ecological theories to explain cross-scale dynamics in complex systems, as well as social theories of change, innovation, and technological transformation. Similar to adaptive governance, transformative governance involves a broad set of governance components, but requires additional capacity to foster new social-ecological regimes including increased risk tolerance, significant systemic investment, and restructured economies and power relations. Transformative governance has the potential to actively respond to regime shifts triggered by climate change, and thus future research should focus on identifying system drivers and leading indicators associated with social-ecological thresholds. Transformative governance has the potential to actively respond to regime shifts triggered by climate change, and thus future research should focus on identifying system drivers and leading indicators associated with social-ecological thresholds.

  10. Global Trends in Academic Governance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, William K.; Finkelstein, Martin

    2009-01-01

    Even before the current global economic crisis, discontent with the governance of higher education institutions was widespread among faculty in the United States and throughout the world. Drawing from the 2007 Changing Academic Profession (CAP) survey of faculty in seventeen countries, the authors examine faculty perceptions of the current state…

  11. Watergate and American Government Textbooks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eksterowicz, Anthony J.; Cline, Paul C.

    1993-01-01

    Asserts that the Watergate scandal during the 1972 presidential election altered the U.S. government and the very mood of the United States. Presents a content analysis of 5 middle school, 5 secondary, and 12 college-level textbooks. Finds that the texts exhibit weak historical discussion or analysis of Watergate. (CFR)

  12. Evolution of morphological integration. I. Functional units channel stress-induced variation in shrew mandibles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badyaev, Alexander V; Foresman, Kerry R

    2004-06-01

    Stress-induced deviations from normal development are often assumed to be random, yet their accumulation and expression can be influenced by patterns of morphological integration within an organism. We studied within-individual developmental variation (fluctuating asymmetry) in the mandible of four shrew species raised under normal and extreme environments. Patterns of among-individual variation and fluctuating asymmetry were strongly concordant in traits that were involved in the attachment of the same muscles (i.e., functionally integrated traits), and fluctuating asymmetry was closely integrated among these traits, implying direct developmental interactions among traits involved in the same function. Stress-induced variation was largely confined to the directions delimited by functionally integrated groups of traits in the pattern that was concordant with species divergence--species differed most in the same traits that were most sensitive to stress within each species. These results reveal a strong effect of functional complexes on directing and incorporating stress-induced variation during development and might explain the historical persistence of sets of traits involved in the same function in shrew jaws despite their high sensitivity to environmental variation.

  13. HESS Opinions: Functional units: a novel framework to explore the link between spatial organization and hydrological functioning of intermediate scale catchments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Zehe

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This opinion paper proposes a novel framework for exploring how spatial organization alongside with spatial heterogeneity controls functioning of intermediate scale catchments of organized complexity. Key idea is that spatial organization in landscapes implies that functioning of intermediate scale catchments is controlled by a hierarchy of functional units: hillslope scale lead topologies and embedded elementary functional units (EFUs. We argue that similar soils and vegetation communities and thus also soil structures "co-developed" within EFUs in an adaptive, self-organizing manner as they have been exposed to similar flows of energy, water and nutrients from the past to the present. Class members of the same EFU (class are thus deemed to belong to the same ensemble with respect to controls of the energy balance and related vertical flows of capillary bounded soil water and heat. Class members of superordinate lead topologies are characterized by the same spatially organized arrangement of EFUs along the gradient driving lateral flows of free water as well as a similar surface and bedrock topography. We hence postulate that they belong to the same ensemble with respect to controls on rainfall runoff transformation and related vertical and lateral fluxes of free water. We expect class members of these functional units to have a distinct way how their architecture controls the interplay of state dynamics and integral flows, which is typical for all members of one class but dissimilar among the classes. This implies that we might infer on the typical dynamic behavior of the most important classes of EFU and lead topologies in a catchment, by thoroughly characterizing a few members of each class. A major asset of the proposed framework, which steps beyond the concept of hydrological response units, is that it can be tested experimentally. In this respect, we reflect on suitable strategies based on stratified observations drawing from process

  14. [Lower limb stump reconstruction with a functional calcaneo-plantar unit free flap. A series of 16 cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malikov, S; Dubert, T; Koupatadze, D; Nabokov, V; Polosov, R

    1999-04-01

    The main objective of surgery, once amputation is inevitable, is to preserve a functional stump. This report describes the immediate reconstruction of 16 leg stumps in children by transfer of a functional calcaneo-plantar unit. Of these, 3 were thigh and 13 were lower leg reconstructions. Amputation was performed for tumor in 4 cases, and was due to accidents in the remaining twelve. The main technical features of flap preparation are preservation of the calcaneum branch and attachment of the heel skin to the greater tuberosity of the calcaneum. One case resulted in failure due to vascular thrombosis. The other 15 cases resulted in bone consolidation after an average of 45 days, sensitive protection by 70 days, and very good trophic and protective results. The provision of good distal pressure area encourages overall development of the child. There was no morbidity at the donor site, and because there is no major muscle mass in the distal fragment, the overall risk is very low compared to that of total proximal leg replantation. The transfer of functional calcaneo-plantar tissue as a single unit is the best strategy for one-step restoration of good distal support area for the stump. All surgeons liable to perform leg amputations should be aware of this technical approach.

  15. HAL/SM system functional design specification. [systems analysis and design analysis of central processing units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, C.; Williams, G. P. W., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    The functional design of a preprocessor, and subsystems is described. A structure chart and a data flow diagram are included for each subsystem. Also a group of intermodule interface definitions (one definition per module) is included immediately following the structure chart and data flow for a particular subsystem. Each of these intermodule interface definitions consists of the identification of the module, the function the module is to perform, the identification and definition of parameter interfaces to the module, and any design notes associated with the module. Also described are compilers and computer libraries.

  16. Effect of Early Rehabilitation during Intensive Care Unit Stay on Functional Status: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Avila, Ana Cristina; Serón, Pamela; Fan, Eddy; Gaete, Mónica; Mickan, Sharon

    2015-01-01

    Critically ill survivors may have functional impairments even five years after hospital discharge. To date there are four systematic reviews suggesting a beneficial impact for mobilisation in mechanically ventilated and intensive care unit (ICU) patients, however there is limited information about the influence of timing, frequency and duration of sessions. Earlier mobilisation during ICU stay may lead to greater benefits. This study aims to determine the effect of early rehabilitation for functional status in ICU/high-dependency unit (HDU) patients. Systematic review and meta-analysis. MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINALH, PEDro, Cochrane Library, AMED, ISI web of science, Scielo, LILACS and several clinical trial registries were searched for randomised and non-randomised clinical trials of rehabilitation compared to usual care in adult patients admitted to an ICU/HDU. Results were screened by two independent reviewers. Primary outcome was functional status. Secondary outcomes were walking ability, muscle strength, quality of life, and healthcare utilisation. Data extraction and methodological quality assessment using the PEDro scale was performed by primary reviewer and checked by two other reviewers. The authors of relevant studies were contacted to obtain missing data. 5733 records were screened. Seven articles were included in the narrative synthesis and six in the meta-analysis. Early rehabilitation had no significant effect on functional status, muscle strength, quality of life, or healthcare utilisation. However, early rehabilitation led to significantly more patients walking without assistance at hospital discharge (risk ratio 1.42; 95% CI 1.17-1.72). There was a non-significant effect favouring intervention for walking distance and incidence of ICU-acquired weakness. Early rehabilitation during ICU stay was not associated with improvements in functional status, muscle strength, quality of life or healthcare utilisation outcomes, although it seems to improve walking

  17. Effect of Early Rehabilitation during Intensive Care Unit Stay on Functional Status: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cristina Castro-Avila

    Full Text Available Critically ill survivors may have functional impairments even five years after hospital discharge. To date there are four systematic reviews suggesting a beneficial impact for mobilisation in mechanically ventilated and intensive care unit (ICU patients, however there is limited information about the influence of timing, frequency and duration of sessions. Earlier mobilisation during ICU stay may lead to greater benefits. This study aims to determine the effect of early rehabilitation for functional status in ICU/high-dependency unit (HDU patients.Systematic review and meta-analysis. MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINALH, PEDro, Cochrane Library, AMED, ISI web of science, Scielo, LILACS and several clinical trial registries were searched for randomised and non-randomised clinical trials of rehabilitation compared to usual care in adult patients admitted to an ICU/HDU. Results were screened by two independent reviewers. Primary outcome was functional status. Secondary outcomes were walking ability, muscle strength, quality of life, and healthcare utilisation. Data extraction and methodological quality assessment using the PEDro scale was performed by primary reviewer and checked by two other reviewers. The authors of relevant studies were contacted to obtain missing data.5733 records were screened. Seven articles were included in the narrative synthesis and six in the meta-analysis. Early rehabilitation had no significant effect on functional status, muscle strength, quality of life, or healthcare utilisation. However, early rehabilitation led to significantly more patients walking without assistance at hospital discharge (risk ratio 1.42; 95% CI 1.17-1.72. There was a non-significant effect favouring intervention for walking distance and incidence of ICU-acquired weakness.Early rehabilitation during ICU stay was not associated with improvements in functional status, muscle strength, quality of life or healthcare utilisation outcomes, although it seems to

  18. 41 CFR 105-50.001-2 - Political subdivision or local government.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... local government. 105-50.001-2 Section 105-50.001-2 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal... OR TECHNICAL SERVICES TO STATE AND LOCAL UNITS OF GOVERNMENT § 105-50.001-2 Political subdivision or local government. Political subdivision or local government means a local unit of government,...

  19. Clinical features of unspecified functional bowel disorder in servicemen from a Chinese army unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin YAO

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective To investigate clinical manifestation of unspecified functional bowel disorder (UFBD, the features of coexistence with functional gastrointestinal disorder (FGID and its relationship with psychological factors and sleep disturbance in the Chinese Army servicemen. Methods cFGIDs were diagnosed based on the Rome Ⅲ Modular Questionnaire. The subjects were 189 servicemen with UFBD (UFBD group and 372 without FGID (control group. All subjects completed symptom checklist 90 (SCL-90 and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI questionnaire. Results 'Have to rush to the toilet when having a desire to defecate' was the most frequent symptom of UFBD (93.7%. More than one half of UFBD patients had the symptom 'a feeling of incomplete emptying as bowel movements' or 'straining during bowel movements'. Twenty-eight percent of UFBD subjects had combined FGID (namely cFGID. Among them, the most frequent was proctalgia fugax (7.9%, followed by cyclic vomiting syndrome (6.3%, functional fecal incontinence (6.3%, functional dyspepsia (4.8% and belching (4.8%. The UFBD group scored significantly higher than the control group in the global severity index (GSI and in all SCL-90 subscales (P0.05. Conclusion Pathogenesis of UFBD may be closely correlated with psychiatric and psychological factors and sleep disturbance. cFGID are associated with an increased severity of psychopathological features. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2017.01.15

  20. Possible Application of Quality Function Deployment in Software Systems Development in the United States Air Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-12-01

    his cooperation in acquiring QFD Designer. I also wish to thank Mr Allen Chartier of the American Supplieri Institute for his help in identifying...and What Didn’t," Transactions from the Symposium on Quality Function Deployment. 305-335. Dearborn MI: ASI Press, 1989. Pressman, Roger S. Software

  1. Preparation of a Corannulene-functionalized Hexahelicene by Copper(I)-catalyzed Alkyne-azide Cycloaddition of Nonplanar Polyaromatic Units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez, Celedonio M; Barbero, Héctor; Ferrero, Sergio

    2016-09-18

    The main purpose of this video is to show 6 reaction steps of a convergent synthesis and prepare a complex molecule containing up to three nonplanar polyaromatic units, which are two corannulene moieties and a racemic hexahelicene linking them. The compound described in this work is a good host for fullerenes. Several common organic reactions, such as free-radical reactions, C-C coupling or click chemistry, are employed demonstrating the versatility of functionalization that this compound can accept. All of these reactions work for planar aromatic molecules. With subtle modifications, it is possible to achieve similar results for nonplanar polyaromatic compounds.

  2. A New Weighting Function for Estimating Microwave Sounding Unit Channel 4 Temperature Trends Simulated by CMIP5 Climate Models

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xuanze; ZHENG Xiaogu; YANG Chi; LUO San

    2013-01-01

    A new static microwave sounding unit (MSU) channel 4 weighting function is obtained from using Coupled Model Inter-comparison Project,Phase 5 (CMIP5) historical multimodel simulations as inputs into the fast Radiative Transfer Model for TOVS (RTTOV vl0).For the same CMIP5 model simulations,it is demonstrated that the computed MSU channel 4 brightness temperature (T4) trends in the lower stratosphere over both the globe and the tropics using the proposed weighting function are equivalent to those calculated by RTTOV,but show more cooling than those computed using the traditional UAH (University of Alabama at Huntsville) or RSS (Remote Sensing Systems in Santa Rosa,California) static weighting functions.The new static weighting function not only reduces the computational cost,but also reveals reasons why trends using a radiative transfer model are different from those using a traditional static weighting function.This study also shows that CMIP5 model simulated T4 trends using the traditional UAH or RSS static weighting functions show less cooling than satellite observations over the globe and the tropics.Although not completely removed,this difference can be reduced using the proposed weighting function to some extent,especially over the tropics.This work aims to explore the reasons for the trend differences and to see to what extent they are related to the inaccurate weighting functions.This would also help distinguish other sources for trend errors and thus better understand the climate change in the lower stratosphere.

  3. Regaining water swallowing function in the rehabilitation of critically ill patients with intensive-care-unit acquired muscle weakness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Simone; Sauter, Wolfgang; Starrost, Ulrike; Pohl, Marcus; Mehrholz, Jan

    2017-03-21

    Treatment in intensive care units (ICUs) often results in swallowing dysfunction. Recent longitudinal studies have described the recovery of critically ill people, but we are not aware of studies of the recovery of swallowing function in patients with ICU-acquired muscle weakness. This paper aims to describe the time course of regaining water swallowing function in patients with ICU-acquired weakness in the post-acute phase and to describe the risks of regaining water swallowing function and the risk factors involved. This cohort study included patients with ICU-acquired muscle weakness in our post-acute department, who were unable to swallow. We monitored the process of regaining water swallowing function using the 3-ounce water swallowing test. We included 108 patients with ICU-acquired muscle weakness. Water swallowing function was regained after a median of 12 days (interquartile range =17) from inclusion in the study and after a median of 59 days (interquartile range= 36) from the onset of the primary illness. Our multivariate Cox Proportional Hazard model yielded two main risk factors for regaining water swallowing function: the number of medical tubes such as catheters at admission to the post-acute department (adjusted hazard ratio [HR] = 1.282; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.099-1.495) and the time until weaning from the respirator in days (adjusted HR =1.02 per day; 95%CI: 0.998 to 1.008). We describe a time course for regaining water swallowing function based on daily tests in the post-acute phase of critically ill patients. Risk factors associated with regaining water swallowing function in rehabilitation are the number of medical tubes and the duration of weaning from the respirator. Implications for rehabilitation Little guidance is available for the management of swallowing dysfunction in the rehabilitation of critically ill patients with intensive-care-units acquired muscle weakness. There is a time dependent pattern of recovery from

  4. Position of the Functions of State Audit Under the Guidance the Idea of National Governance%国家治理导向下的国家审计职能定位研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    项贤国; 朱玲

    2014-01-01

    Governance under the guide of national audit plays an important role to the construction of the socialist market econo -my in China.Visiting ancient, modern and contemporary three different stages of development of the national audit functions , exca-vating trajectory in different historical stages of the accurate positioning of China 's national audit function has important implications . The national audit to promote the government administrative government by law , highly efficient , clean and transparent , to achieve national governance .Governance under the guide of national audit function should be located in supervision function , efficiency, public and order , this makes the national audit of state intervention and regulation of operation of macro economy strong support and tools.%国家治理导向下的国家审计对我国社会主义市场经济建设具有重要作用。考察古代、近代和当代三个不同发展阶段的国家审计职能,挖掘不同历史阶段的发展轨迹对当下我国国家审计职能的准确定位具有重要的启示意义。国家审计促进政府行政的法治化、高效化、廉洁化和透明化,以实现国家治理目标。国家治理导向下的国家审计职能应定位于监督、效率、公开和秩序职能,这使国家审计成为国家干预宏观经济运行和调控的有力支撑和工具。

  5. Emerging theoretical understanding of pluricentric coordination in public governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reff Pedersen, Anne; Sehested, Karina; Sørensen, Eva

    2011-01-01

    institutionally or functionally demarcated units that follows a specific pregiven rational logic of consequentiality. This view is apparent in public administration theory, organization theory, and planning theory. In recent years, this unitary, rationalist understanding of coordination has been challenged...... processes in which public authorities seek to govern their subjects. In the new theories, one of the main questions is how to get a better hold of this new understanding of coordination in processes of public governance. The article aims to do so by bringing together insights from three theoretical strands......: public administration theory, organizational theory, and planning theory to show how each of them are currently contributing to the development of what we define as a theory of pluricentric coordination in public governance....

  6. Governing boards and profound organizational change in hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fennell, M L; Alexander, J A

    1989-01-01

    Over the past decade the importance of governing boards as policy-making setting and oversight units within organizations has increased dramatically. Although this is true for both corporate- and private-sector organizations (Bacon and Brown 1977; Gelman 1988), it is particularly relevant to the health sector. Hospital governing boards, long considered inconsequential in hospital management, have recently become subject to closer scrutiny. The role of governing boards in decisions affecting hospital strategy and hospital performance is once again a topic of some interest in boardrooms and hospital trade journals. Impressive evidence of the renewed interest in governance is provided by the funding of an instructional consortium by the S.K. Kellogg Foundation to help strengthen trusteeship and governing board decision making, and to improve education for health services managers in the area of governance. Members of the consortium include the Hospital Research and Educational Trust, the American Hospital Association, the American College of Healthcare Executives, and the Association for University Programs in Health Administration. Among the activities being undertaken by this consortium is the development of a self-assessment tool/methodology for boards, a bibliography and reference guide on effective governance for practicing trustees, research workshops for faculty in health administration programs, and a teaching guide on governance and trustee leadership. Despite this interest, the question with which we began this article persists. Do governing boards make a difference? In the course of our review of previous work on governance we found that, more often than not, that question has been transformed into: how do boards influence hospital performance? And very often that question has been further narrowed into: which board structure leads to better hospital performance? We have argued for a respecification of the initial question. Rather than pursuing a definition

  7. Mapping quantal touch using 7 Tesla functional magnetic resonance imaging and single-unit intraneural microstimulation.

    OpenAIRE

    Sanchez Panchuelo, Rosa; Ackerley, Rochelle M.; Glover, Paul M.; Bowtell, Richard W; Wessberg, Johan; Francis, Susan T.; McGlone, Francis

    2016-01-01

    eLife digest The skin contains multiple types of sensory nerves that inform the brain about events occurring on the surface of the body. One way to study how this process works is to insert a very fine needle through the skin to stimulate a single sensory nerve with a small electrical current. This technique – known as intraneural microstimulation – can activate touch responses in the brain without an object actually contacting the skin. Another technique called functional magnetic resonance ...

  8. A parabolic function to modify Thornthwaite estimates of potential evapotranspiration for the eastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, G.J.

    1989-01-01

    Errors of the Thornthwaite model can be analyzed using adjusted pan evaporation as an index of potential evapotranspiration. An examination of ratios of adjusted pan evaporation to Thornthwaite potential evapotranspiration indicates that the ratios are highest in the winter and lowest during summer months. This trend suggests a parabolic pattern. In this study a parabolic function is used to adjust Thornthwaite estimates of potential evapotranspiration. Forty locations east of the Rocky Mountains are analyzed. -from Author

  9. Government and governance strategies in medical tourism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ormond, M.E.; Mainil, T.

    2015-01-01

    This chapter provides an overview of current government and governance strategies relative to medical tourism development and management around the world. Most studies on medical tourism have privileged national governments as key actors in medical tourism regulation and, in some cases, even

  10. Engineering governance: introducing a governance meta framework.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brand, N.; Beens, B.; Vuuregge, E.; Batenburg, R.

    2011-01-01

    There is a need for a framework that depicts strategic choices within an organisation with regard to potential governance structures. The governance meta framework provides the necessary structure in the current developments of governance. Performance as well as conformance are embedded in this fram

  11. Purpose, structure, and function of the United States National Dental Practice-Based Research Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Gregg H.; Williams, O. Dale; Korelitz, James J.; Fellows, Jeffrey L.; Gordan, Valeria V.; Makhija, Sonia K.; Meyerowitz, Cyril; Oates, Thomas W.; Rindal, D. Brad; Benjamin, Paul L.; Foy, Patrick J.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Following a successful2005–2012 phase with three regional practice-based research networks (PBRNs), a single, unified national network called “The National Dental PBRN” was created in 2012 in the United States to improve oral health by conducting practice-based research and serving dental professionals through education and collegiality. Methods Central administration is based in Alabama. Regional centres are based in Alabama, Florida, Minnesota, Oregon, New York and Texas, with a Coordinating Centre in Maryland. Ideas for studies are prioritized by the Executive Committee, comprised mostly of full-time clinicians. Results To date, 2736 persons have enrolled, from all six network regions; enrollment continues to expand. They represent a broad range of practitioners, practice types, and patient populations. Practitioners are actively improving every step of the research process, from idea generation, to study development, field testing, data collection, and presentation and publication. Conclusions Practitioners from diverse settings are partnering with fellow practitioners and academics to improve clinical practice and meet the needs of clinicians and their patients. Clinical significance This “nation’s network” aims to serve as a precious national resource to improve the scientific basis for clinical decision-making and foster movement of the latest evidence into routine practice. PMID:23597500

  12. Organized Crime and Drug Enforcement Task Force. Hearing before the Committee on the Judiciary. United States Senate, Ninety-Eighth Congress, First Session on the Organized Crime and Drug Enforcement Task Force in the Mid-Atlantic Region Which Would Coordinate Government Agencies, Including U.S. Attorneys, the FBI, DEA, Customs Service, BATF, and the IRS. Dover, Delaware.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on the Judiciary.

    This document presents testimony and proceedings from the Congressional hearings on organized crime and drug enforcement in the Mid-Atlantic region, and government efforts to solve these problems. Opening statements are presented from Senators Strom Thurmond and Joseph Biden. Testimony is also presented from the United States attorneys for the…

  13. Genetic Algorithm Supported by Graphical Processing Unit Improves the Exploration of Effective Connectivity in Functional Brain Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawrence Wing Chi Chan

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Brain regions of human subjects exhibit certain levels of associated activation upon specific environmental stimuli. Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI detects regional signals, based on which we could infer the direct or indirect neuronal connectivity between the regions. Structural Equation Modeling (SEM is an appropriate mathematical approach for analyzing the effective connectivity using fMRI data. A maximum likelihood (ML discrepancy function is minimized against some constrained coefficients of a path model. The minimization is an iterative process. The computing time is very long as the number of iterations increases geometrically with the number of path coefficients. Using regular Quad-Core Central Processing Unit (CPU platform, duration up to three months is required for the iterations from 0 to 30 path coefficients. This study demonstrates the application of Graphical Processing Unit (GPU with the parallel Genetic Algorithm (GA that replaces the Powell minimization in the standard program code of the analysis software package. It was found in the same example that GA under GPU reduced the duration to 20 hours and provided more accurate solution when compared with standard program code under CPU.

  14. Differentiation and healthy family functioning of Koreans in South Korea, South Koreans in the United States, and White Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyejin; Prouty, Anne M; Smith, Douglas B; Ko, Mei-Ju; Wetchler, Joseph L; Oh, Jea-Eun

    2015-01-01

    Inconsistent results have been found in prior research on the Bowen Family Systems Theory concept of differentiation of self and its application to individuals, couples, and families of different cultural backgrounds. In this regard, this study examined the impact of differentiation of self on healthy family functioning, family communication, and family satisfaction with 277 participants including South Koreans living in South Korea, South Korean-born citizens living in the United States, and White Americans living in the United States. Multigroup confirmatory factor analysis identified the measurement invariance of a differentiation scale (DSI-R) used for the three study groups. An analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) found significant differences between White Americans and South Koreans with regard to the level of differentiation. Results of multigroup structural equation modeling (SEM) analyses found a significant association between differentiation of self and healthy family functioning across the three groups with the American group having significantly higher differentiation than the two South Korean groups." Implications for clinical practice and future research are discussed. © 2013 American Association for Marriage and Family Therapy.

  15. transnational initiatives towards natural resource governance in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RAYAN_

    challenges to include the burgeoning water-energy-food nexus. ... 2017 TRANSNATIONAL INITIATIVES TOWARDS NATURAL RESOURCE GOVERNANCE. 215. 2 Taylor ...... corridors into multipurpose functional arrangements for renewable.

  16. A dimeric structure of PD-L1: functional units or evolutionary relics?

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Yong; Liu, Peipei; Gao, Feng; Cheng, Hao; Qi, Jianxun; Gao, George F

    2010-01-01

    PD-L1 is a member of the B7 protein family, most of whose members so far were identified as dimers in a solution and crystalline state, either complexed or uncomplexed with their ligand(s). The binding of PD-L1 with its receptor PD-1 (CD279) delivers an inhibitory signal regulating the T cell function. Simultaneously with the Garboczi group, we successfully solved another structure of human PD-L1 (hPD-L1). Our protein crystallized in the space group of C2221 with two hPD-L1 molecules per asym...

  17. Corporate Governance Country Assessment : Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2005-01-01

    Since 1998, significant corporate governance reforms have been introduced and are underway, including reforms in the structure and function of the board of directors of listed companies, the establishment of the Thai Institute of Directors Association and the Department of Special Investigation, the adoption by the Stock Exchange of Thailand (SET) of 15 principles of good corporate governance, and draft legislation to reinforce the rights of minority shareholders. In addition, the Securities ...

  18. Voluntary Environmental Governance Arrangements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Heijden, J.

    2012-01-01

    Voluntary environmental governance arrangements have focal attention in studies on environmental policy, regulation and governance. The four major debates in the contemporary literature on voluntary environmental governance arrangements are studied. The literature falls short of sufficiently

  19. Developing digital forensic governance

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Grobler, M

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a Digital Forensic (DF) governance framework and its mapping on the SANS ISO/IEC 38500:2009 Corporate governance of information technology structure. DF governance assists organisations in guiding the management team...

  20. Voluntary Environmental Governance Arrangements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Heijden, J.

    2012-01-01

    Voluntary environmental governance arrangements have focal attention in studies on environmental policy, regulation and governance. The four major debates in the contemporary literature on voluntary environmental governance arrangements are studied. The literature falls short of sufficiently specify

  1. 12 CFR 404.22 - Government contracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Government contracts. 404.22 Section 404.22 Banks and Banking EXPORT-IMPORT BANK OF THE UNITED STATES INFORMATION DISCLOSURE Access to Records Under the Privacy Act of 1974 § 404.22 Government contracts. (a) Approval by Assistant General Counsel...

  2. Family functioning as a mediator between neighborhood conditions and children's health: evidence from a national survey in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Yingling; Chen, Qian

    2012-06-01

    This study examines whether the associations between neighborhood conditions and children's health can be indirect and operate through aspects of family functioning. We use data from the 2007 National Survey of Children's Health in the United States with the interviewed parents/guardians as the only source of the data. Our study sample includes 53,023 children aged between 6 and 17 years. Using structural equation modeling, we test both direct and indirect relationships between a family functioning index, a general indicator of children's health status, and three neighborhood factors: neighborhood physical resources, environmental threats, and collective efficacy. Covariates in the analysis include gender, age, income, race, family structure, parental education, and health insurance coverage. All the three neighborhood factors show direct associations with children's general health status, as well as indirect associations mediated by aspects of family functioning. Among the three neighborhood factors, collective efficacy and environmental threats are found to have much stronger associations with children's general health than physical resources. When designing health-promoting neighborhoods for children and families, it may be more efficient for urban planners and health professionals to focus on community programs that reduce environmental stressors and foster neighborhood cohesion than programs that solely improve physical infrastructure. This study also verifies that aspects of family functioning mediate the associations between neighborhood conditions and children's health. It is recommended that both family and neighborhood are critical points for child health intervention. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Measuring Innovation in Government: An International Review and Case Study of the UAE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahroum, S.; AlSaleh, Y.; Al-Hashmi, S.

    2016-07-01

    Innovation is key to achieving multiple government functions and objectives, from ensuring the welfare and quality of life of citizens to advancing the economy as a whole. In the United Arab Emirates (UAE), innovation has become a strategic priority for the UAE Government, attracting substantial government investment in numerous public sector innovation initiatives. In order to monitor progress towards achieving its many innovation-driven aspirations, the UAE Government has pioneered the adoption of key performance benchmarks for monitoring innovation capability and performance. This paper examines UAE’s experience in this regard as an emerging economy and draws comparisons with the experiences of other countries that have attempted at developing frameworks and indicators for innovation management in government. (Author)

  4. Website Quality in Government

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørum, Hanne; Andersen, Kim Normann; Clemmensen, Torkil

    2013-01-01

    Purpose – The objective of this paper is to investigate how webmasters within government bodies explain quality of websites. Despite the central position for advancing the communication, bridging usability tests and design, there are surprisingly few studies on how webmasters perceive, experience...... and explain website quality or design issues. Design/methodology/approach – The authors' unit of analysis is webmasters from Norwegian web-award-winning organizations. Eight webmasters from four types of websites were interviewed. The websites were purposefully sampled, using the strategy of maximal variation...... sampling to maximize difference between the four types of websites. Findings – The findings reveal that issues concerning usability are found to be an important dimension of website quality. The authors' analysis of how webmasters explain website quality reveals substantial variance in explanation...

  5. Functional soil organic carbon pools for major soil units and land uses in southern Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kögel-Knabner, Ingrid; Wiesmeier, Martin

    2015-04-01

    Soil management, especially the type and intensity of land use, affect the carbon cycle to a high extent as they modify carbon sequestration in a specific soil. Thus man is intervening in the natural carbon cycle on a global scale. In our study, the amount of active, intermediate and passive SOC pools was determined for major soil types and land uses of Bavaria in southern Germany. Our SOC inventory revealed only slightly lower total SOC stocks in cropland soils compared to forest soils, when both top- and subsoils were considered. In cropland and grassland soils around 90% of total SOC stocks can be assigned to the intermediate and passive SOC pool. High SOC stocks in grassland soils are partly related to a higher degree of soil aggregation compared to cropland soils. The contribution of intermediate SOC in cropland soils was similar to that in grassland soils due to an increased proportion of SOM associated with silt and clay particles. The cultivation-induced loss of SOC due to aggregate disruption is at least partly compensated by increased formation of organo-mineral associations as a result of tillage that continuously promotes the contact of crop residues with reactive mineral surfaces. Contrary, forest soils were characterized by distinctly lower proportions of intermediate and passive SOC and a high amount of active SOC in form of litter and particulate organic matter which accounted for almost 40% of total SOC stocks. The determination of the current SOC content of silt and clay fractions for major soil units and land uses allowed an estimation of the C saturation deficit corresponding to the long-term C sequestration potential. The results showed that cropland soils have a low level of C saturation of around 50% and could store considerable amounts of additional SOC. A relatively high C sequestration potential was also determined for grassland soils. In contrast, forest soils had a low C sequestration potential as they were almost C saturated. The high

  6. VT Certified Local Governments

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Vermont established its Certified Local Government (CLG) program in 1985 to better help local governments integrate historic preservation concerns with planning and...

  7. The Development of the Role of Assistant Secretary of Defense (Public Affairs) as a Reflection of Mass Media Uses and Functions in the United States Federal Government.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-06-06

    fN neeay md identify by block number) D FO N 1473 EDITION OF INOV 6S IS OBSOLETE SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF THIS PAGE (Whten Data Entered) THE...will be historical in nature. It intends to use primary source materials where possible and further intends to cross-check sources when circumstances...permit. Secondary sources such as newspaper accounts will be used where primary source materials cannot be located. It should be noted here that the

  8. Flying the Friendly Skies May Not be so Friendly in Outer Space: International and Domestic Law Leaves United States’ Citizen Space Tourists without a Remedy for Injury Caused by Government Space Debris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marla Stayduhar

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available “Ladies and Gentlemen, we would like to welcome you to the moon. Please keep your seat belt fastened until the pilot completely stops at the gate. If this is your final destination, please collect your bags at baggage claim D. If you are headed on to Mars, your bags will be checked through to your final destination.”These words may sound funny now, but the possibility of them becoming a reality is not as far-fetched as it might seem. On September 18, 2006, Anousheh Ansari, a United States citizen of Iranian origin, became the fourth space tourist and the first female civilian to enter outer space.1 She also became the first astronaut to keep a space blog of her experiences to which readers could post a response.2 Shortly before Ms. Ansari’s adventure, on October 1, 2005, Gregory Olsen, scientist and entrepreneur, was the third paying civilian space tourist, and took flight on a Russian shuttle.3 Although his trip cost $20 million,4 it is not unforeseeable that  ordinary citizens will soon be able to take a short trip around the moon or visit a space resort. It has been estimated that space tourism has the potential to generate $10 billion to $20 billion in income in the next few decades.5 Counting on that projection, Virgin Galactic, founded by Richard Branson (the well-known billionaire adventurer6, recently reached an agreement with the State of New Mexico to build a space port on state land.7 Moreover, recent batches of space vehicle competitions and exhibits have piqued greater interest in space tourism for adventurers, scientists, travel agents and government officials alike.8

  9. Multi-dimensional Function of Government in the Protection of Cultural heritage in Suzhou%苏州文化遗产保护中的政府多维职能

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    纪丽萍

    2014-01-01

    Protection of cultural heritage has become an important function of the local government in China. As the existence of “fragmentation” defects, it is necessary to reconstruct cultural heritage protection functions of Chinese local governments. Suzhou has achieved conspicuous effect in the cultural heritage protection, which is attributed to the munici-pal function transformation, and has formed a multi-dimensional governance mechanism for the protection of cultural her-itage. Its function has transfomred from the monopolization to the service, from main body to guiding, from closed to open, from fragmentation to integration, and from tradition to innovation. Such multi-dimensional governance mechanism can pro-vide some beneficial enlightenment to other places of China.%保护文化遗产已成为当前我国地方政府的重要职能。因存在“碎片化”缺陷,我国地方政府的文化遗产保护职能必须进行重构。苏州在文化遗产保护方面成效显著,这归因于苏州市政府经过职能转变已形成了文化遗产保护的多维治理机制:从包办到服务;从主体到主导;从封闭到开放,从分散到整合;从传统到创新。此种多维治理机制可以为我国地方政府文化遗产保护职能的转变提供一些有益启示。

  10. Special Care Units and Traditional Care in Dementia: Relationship with Behavior, Cognition, Functional Status and Quality of Life - A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeroen S. Kok

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Special care facilities for patients with dementia gain increasing attention. However, an overview of studies examining the differences between care facilities with respect to their effects on behavior, cognition, functional status and quality of life is lacking. Results: Our literature search resulted in 32 studies published until October 2012. Overall, patients with dementia who lived at special care units (SCUs showed a significantly more challenging behavior, more agitation/aggression, more depression and anxiety, more cases of global cognitive impairment and a better psychosocial functioning. There was a tendency towards a better functional status in specialized care facilities, and a better quality of life was found in favor of the SCU group compared to the traditional nursing home (n-SCU group. Longitudinal studies showed an increased number of neuropsychiatric cases, more patients displaying deteriorating behavior and resistance to care as well as less decline in activities of daily living (ADL in the SCU group compared to the n-SCU group. Patients in small-scale, homelike SCUs showed more agitation and less ADL decline compared to SCU patients. Conclusion: This review shows that the patient characteristics in SCU and n-SCU settings and, to a minor extent, in SCU and small-scale, homelike SCU settings are different. Over time, there are differences between n-SCU, SCU and small-scale, homelike SCU facilities for some variables.

  11. An exploration of the role of records management in corporate governance in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mpho Ngoepe

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Corporate governance maybe approached through several functions such as auditing, an internal audit committee, information management, compliance, corporate citizenship and risk management. However, most organisations, including governmental bodies, regularly exclude records management from the criteria for a good corporate-governance infrastructure. Proper records management could be the backbone of establishing good corporate governance.Objectives: Utilising the King report III on corporate governance as a framework, this quantitative study explores the role of records management in corporate governance in governmental bodies of South Africa.Method: Report data were collected through questionnaires directed to records managers and auditors in governmental bodies, as well as interviews with purposively selected auditors from the Auditor-General of South Africa. Data were analysed using various analytical tools and through written descriptions, numerical summarisations and tables.Results: The study revealed that records management is not regarded as an essential component for corporate governance. Records management is only discussed as a footnote; as a result it is a forgotten function with no consequences in government administration in South Africa. The study further revealed that most governmental bodies have established internal audit units and audit committees. However, records-management professionals were excluded from such committees.Conclusion: The study concludes by arguing that if records management is removed as a footnote of the public-sector operations and placed in the centre of operational concern, it will undoubtedly make a meaningful contribution to good corporate governance.

  12. An exploration of the role of records management in corporate governance in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mpho Ngoepe

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Corporate governance maybe approached through several functions such as auditing, an internal audit committee, information management, compliance, corporate citizenship and risk management. However, most organisations, including governmental bodies, regularly exclude records management from the criteria for a good corporate-governance infrastructure. Proper records management could be the backbone of establishing good corporate governance.Objectives: Utilising the King report III on corporate governance as a framework, this quantitative study explores the role of records management in corporate governance in governmental bodies of South Africa.Method: Report data were collected through questionnaires directed to records managers and auditors in governmental bodies, as well as interviews with purposively selected auditors from the Auditor-General of South Africa. Data were analysed using various analytical tools and through written descriptions, numerical summarisations and tables.Results: The study revealed that records management is not regarded as an essential component for corporate governance. Records management is only discussed as a footnote; as a result it is a forgotten function with no consequences in government administration in South Africa. The study further revealed that most governmental bodies have established internal audit units and audit committees. However, records-management professionals were excluded from such committees.Conclusion: The study concludes by arguing that if records management is removed as a footnote of the public-sector operations and placed in the centre of operational concern, it will undoubtedly make a meaningful contribution to good corporate governance.

  13. Transformation of government function of health management under the perspective of new public service theory%新公共服务理论视角下的政府卫生管理职能转变

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘静; 李之; 王宏志

    2008-01-01

    分析了新公共服务理论视角下的政府卫生管理职能定位,揭示了现阶段我国政府卫生管理在医疗卫生服务体系、医疗机构运行机制、医疗卫生管理体制、医疗卫生服务市场监管体系4个方面存在的职能不到位、错位、越位及缺位现象,提出了政府卫生管理职能转变的6条途径.%The paper analyzes the orientation of health management function of government under the perspective of new public service theory, tries to reveal the unimplementation, dislocation, offside and absence of government function at four aspects including health service system, health organization operating mechanism, health management system and health service supervision system, and puts forward six approaches for transformation of government function of health management.

  14. A physical function test for use in the intensive care unit: validity, responsiveness, and predictive utility of the physical function ICU test (scored).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denehy, Linda; de Morton, Natalie A; Skinner, Elizabeth H; Edbrooke, Lara; Haines, Kimberley; Warrillow, Stephen; Berney, Sue

    2013-12-01

    Several tests have recently been developed to measure changes in patient strength and functional outcomes in the intensive care unit (ICU). The original Physical Function ICU Test (PFIT) demonstrates reliability and sensitivity. The aims of this study were to further develop the original PFIT, to derive an interval score (the PFIT-s), and to test the clinimetric properties of the PFIT-s. A nested cohort study was conducted. One hundred forty-four and 116 participants performed the PFIT at ICU admission and discharge, respectively. Original test components were modified using principal component analysis. Rasch analysis examined the unidimensionality of the PFIT, and an interval score was derived. Correlations tested validity, and multiple regression analyses investigated predictive ability. Responsiveness was assessed using the effect size index (ESI), and the minimal clinically important difference (MCID) was calculated. The shoulder lift component was removed. Unidimensionality of combined admission and discharge PFIT-s scores was confirmed. The PFIT-s displayed moderate convergent validity with the Timed "Up & Go" Test (r=-.60), the Six-Minute Walk Test (r=.41), and the Medical Research Council (MRC) sum score (rho=.49). The ESI of the PFIT-s was 0.82, and the MCID was 1.5 points (interval scale range=0-10). A higher admission PFIT-s score was predictive of: an MRC score of ≥48, increased likelihood of discharge home, reduced likelihood of discharge to inpatient rehabilitation, and reduced acute care hospital length of stay. Scoring of sit-to-stand assistance required is subjective, and cadence cutpoints used may not be generalizable. The PFIT-s is a safe and inexpensive test of physical function with high clinical utility. It is valid, responsive to change, and predictive of key outcomes. It is recommended that the PFIT-s be adopted to test physical function in the ICU.

  15. Real-space density functional theory on graphical processing units: computational approach and comparison to Gaussian basis set methods

    CERN Document Server

    Andrade, Xavier

    2013-01-01

    We discuss the application of graphical processing units (GPUs) to accelerate real-space density functional theory (DFT) calculations. To make our implementation efficient, we have developed a scheme to expose the data parallelism available in the DFT approach; this is applied to the different procedures required for a real-space DFT calculation. We present results for current-generation GPUs from AMD and Nvidia, which show that our scheme, implemented in the free code OCTOPUS, can reach a sustained performance of up to 90 GFlops for a single GPU, representing an important speed-up when compared to the CPU version of the code. Moreover, for some systems our implementation can outperform a GPU Gaussian basis set code, showing that the real-space approach is a competitive alternative for DFT simulations on GPUs.

  16. Real-Space Density Functional Theory on Graphical Processing Units: Computational Approach and Comparison to Gaussian Basis Set Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Xavier; Aspuru-Guzik, Alán

    2013-10-01

    We discuss the application of graphical processing units (GPUs) to accelerate real-space density functional theory (DFT) calculations. To make our implementation efficient, we have developed a scheme to expose the data parallelism available in the DFT approach; this is applied to the different procedures required for a real-space DFT calculation. We present results for current-generation GPUs from AMD and Nvidia, which show that our scheme, implemented in the free code Octopus, can reach a sustained performance of up to 90 GFlops for a single GPU, representing a significant speed-up when compared to the CPU version of the code. Moreover, for some systems, our implementation can outperform a GPU Gaussian basis set code, showing that the real-space approach is a competitive alternative for DFT simulations on GPUs.

  17. Catalytic nucleic acids (DNAzymes) as functional units for logic gates and computing circuits: from basic principles to practical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orbach, Ron; Willner, Bilha; Willner, Itamar

    2015-03-11

    This feature article addresses the implementation of catalytic nucleic acids as functional units for the construction of logic gates and computing circuits, and discusses the future applications of these systems. The assembly of computational modules composed of DNAzymes has led to the operation of a universal set of logic gates, to field programmable logic gates and computing circuits, to the development of multiplexers/demultiplexers, and to full-adder systems. Also, DNAzyme cascades operating as logic gates and computing circuits were demonstrated. DNAzyme logic systems find important practical applications. These include the use of DNAzyme-based systems for sensing and multiplexed analyses, for the development of controlled release and drug delivery systems, for regulating intracellular biosynthetic pathways, and for the programmed synthesis and operation of cascades.

  18. PRACTICE OF GOOD GOVERNANCE AND CORPORATE GOVERNANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bălăceanu Cristina

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Corporate governance reforms are occurring in countries around the globe and potentially impacting the population of the entire planet. In developing countries, such reforms occur in a larger context that is primarily defined by previous attempts at promoting “development” and recent processes of economic globalization. In this context, corporate governance reforms (in combination with the liberalising reforms associated with economic globalization, in effect represent a new development strategy for third world countries. The most basic questions that arise with respect to this situation are what the prospects for this new development model are and whether alternatives should be considered. Keywords: governance, corporate governance, economic globalization, development.

  19. The Environmental Impacts of a Desktop Computer: Influence of Choice of Functional Unit, System Boundary and User Behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simanovska, J.; Šteina, Māra; Valters, K.; Bažbauers, G.

    2009-01-01

    The pollution prevention during the design phase of products and processes in environmental policy gains its importance over the other, more historically known principle - pollution reduction in the end-of-pipe. This approach requires prediction of potential environmental impacts to be avoided or reduced and a prioritisation of the most efficient areas for action. Currently the most appropriate method for this purpose is life cycle assessment (LCA)- a method for accounting and attributing all environmental impacts which arise during the life time of a product, starting with the production of raw materials and ending with the disposal, or recycling of the wasted product at the end of life. The LCA, however, can be misleading if the performers of the study disregard gaps of information and the limitations of the chosen methodology. During the study we researched the environmental impact of desktop computers, using a simplified LCA method - Indicators' 99, and by developing various scenarios (changing service life, user behaviour, energy supply etc). The study demonstrates that actions for improvements lie in very different areas. The study also concludes that the approach of defining functional unit must be sufficiently flexible in order to avoid discounting areas of potential actions. Therefore, with regard to computers we agree with other authors using the functional unit "one computer" but suggest not to bind this to service life or usage time, but to develop several scenarios varying these parameters. The study also demonstrates the importance of a systemic approach when assessing complex product systems - as more complex the system is, the more broad the scope for potential actions. We conclude that, regarding computers, which belong to energy using and material- intensive products, the measures to reduce environmental impacts lie not only with the producer and user of the particular product, but also with the whole national energy supply and waste management

  20. The contribution of maternal psychological functioning to infant length of stay in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cherry AS

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Amanda S Cherry,1 Melissa R Mignogna,1 Angela Roddenberry Vaz,1 Carla Hetherington,2 Mary Anne McCaffree,2 Michael P Anderson,3 Stephen R Gillaspy1 1Section of General and Community Pediatrics, Department of Pediatrics, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, OK, 2Neonatal Perinatal Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, University of Oklahoma, College of Medicine, Oklahoma City, OK, 3Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, College of Public Health, Oklahoma City, OK, USA Objective: Assess maternal psychological functioning within the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU and its contribution to neonate length of stay (LOS in the NICU.Study design: Mothers of infants admitted to the NICU (n=111 were assessed regarding postpartum depression, postpartum social support, postpartum NICU stress, and maternal anxiety at 2 weeks postpartum. Illness severity was assessed with the Clinical Risk Index for Babies (CRIB.Results: Postpartum depression was not significantly correlated with LOS, but was significantly correlated with trait anxiety (r=0.620, which was significantly correlated with LOS (r=0.227. Among mothers with previous mental health history, substance abuse history and CRIB score were the best predictors of LOS. For mothers without a prior mental health issues, delivery type, stress associated with infant appearance, and CRIB scores were the best predictors of LOS. In this group, LOS was found to increase on average by 7.06 days per one unit increase in stress associated with infant appearance among mothers with the same delivery type and CRIB score.Conclusion: Significant correlations of trait anxiety, stress associated with infant appearance, and parental role with LOS support the tenet that postpartum psychological functioning can be associated with NICU LOS. Keywords: NICU, postpartum depression, postpartum anxiety, parental stress, CRIB

  1. A New Model of Governance: One University's Journey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Beth A; Scanlan, Therese

    2015-01-01

    In the nearly 50 years, since the Medicare Program established funding for nursing education in the United States, there has been a steady migration away from hospital-controlled programs toward those which function as wholly owned subsidiaries within larger health care systems. Private sector health care organizations in particular are under increasing pressure to adapt at the risk of losing all of their funding. However, accomplishing this presents multiple challenges for today's nursing education programs in terms of their regulatory compliance, accreditation, autonomy, and, above all, governance model. The authors outline the journey toward, and specific challenges involved in creating, implementing and administering a new governance model, which sustains the overall mission and vision of the education institution while functioning seamlessly within a modern corporate health care system.

  2. E-GOVERNMENT DATABASES: A RETROSPECTIVE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RAJESH CHAUHAN

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The government is the biggest producer of information and efficient management of the vast amount of data available within the government departments is of utmost importance. Due to the advent of information and communication technology (ICT, the e-government applications are being implemented to improve government functioning by exploiting ICT potential. In order to meet government data needs, the databases need to be designed conforming to standard database design principles. This research paper attempts to study the structure of existing databases used in the government departments as e-government applications. The study reveals the extent of adherence to the most basic parameters while designing the database keeping in view the long term sustainability of e-government applications.

  3. Local government and utility firms’ debts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marko Primorac

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The global financial crisis has affected the Croatian local public sector. In such circumstances, local government units’ debts and borrowing should be approached with caution. The highly interwoven financial operations of local government units and their utilities indicate the need for analysis of consolidated financial statements of local governments and utility companies in order to gain an insight into the real financial “health” of local units. Accordingly, the main aim of this paper is to analyze the size and the structure of the consolidated (local government and utility companies local public debt in Croatia. Accordingly, the paper presents the financial position of local government units supplemented with information on the financial operations of utility companies, with particular emphasis on the size and structure of their liabilities and gross and net debt. Although the current Budget Law does not require formal preparation of consolidated financial statements by local governments and their utility firms, consolidation is stipulated by International Public Sector Accounting Standards (IPSAS. The application of IPSAS regulations would be helpful in determining overall direct and indirect exposure of local government units arising from the financial operations of their utilities.

  4. Data governance implementation concept

    OpenAIRE

    Ullrichová, Jana

    2016-01-01

    This master´s thesis discusses concept of implementation for data governance. The theoretical part of this thesis is about data governance. It explains why data are important for company, describes definitoons of data governance, its history, its components, its principles and processes and fitting in company. Theoretical part is amended with examples of data governance failures and banking specifics. The main goal of this thesis is to create a concept for implementing data governance and its...

  5. Structure and Evolution of Government Functions---From the Perspective of the Supply of Public Goods%政府职能的结构与演化--基于公共产品供给的视角

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋丙涛; 潘美薇

    2016-01-01

    政府职能的转型迟缓正在成为中国进一步发展的瓶颈,而现有的讨论多集中在形而下的执行层面,难免出现头疼医头的痼疾。将政府视为公共产品的提供者,从公共产品需求结构变迁的角度厘清政府职能的发展脉络,特别是强调公共产品需求结构决定政府职能的原则。市场实际上是制度构建的产物,是典型的政府提供的公共产品,因此,政府与市场之间不是同一层面的相互替代的关系,而是上下游的供给与支持的关系。在市场经济发展初期,政府就应该积极提供发展型公共产品,推动市场机制的形成与发展;但当市场经济发展到一定程度之后,当弱势群体的生存成为主要的公共产品需求时,政府的主要职能就是社会保障体系的构建,因此,一个理想的现代政府职能结构应该以兼顾生存与发展的双元财政模式为基础。%Delayed transformation of government functions is becoming a bottleneck to the further de-velopment of China,and the existing discussions mostly focus on the implementation of policy.In this paper,we regarded the government as a supplier of public goods,and investigated the history of the de-velopment of government functions from the view of the demand structure of public goods,especially emphasized the principle of public product demand structure determining the function of the govern-ment.The market is actually a product of the institution construction,is a typical public goods provided by the government;therefore,the government and the market are not in the same level of mutual sub-stitution relationship,but the relationship between supply and support of the upstream and down-stream.Secondly,in the early stage of the development of market economy,the government should pro-vide developmental public goods,and promote the formation and development of the market mechanism. However,in a developed market economy,when the demand

  6. The Orientation of the National Audit Function and its Realization Path Based on National Governance%基于国家治理的国家审计职能定位及实现路径

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘博; 金静; 孙国萍

    2014-01-01

    The audit is essentially performance of supervising and restricting powers by powers in accord -ance with the law , the national audit is an important tool for national governance , and it has important significance to maintain a healthy economic and social development .With the development and transfor-mation of the concept of national governance , the function of the national audit is gradually changing and adjusting .Based on the relationship between national governance and national audit as the breakthrough point , the paper analyzes the function orientation of the national audit in national governance , and puts forward the realization path of national audit function .%审计从本质上讲是国家依法用权力监督制约权力的行为,国家审计是国家治理的重要工具,对于维护经济社会健康发展有着重要意义。随着国家治理理念的发展和转变,国家审计的职能正逐渐发生转变和调整。文章以国家治理与国家审计的关系为切入点,分析了国家审计在国家治理中发挥的职能和作用,并提出了国家审计发挥职能作用的实现路径。

  7. Internal control, corporation governance and risk management - - On the perspective of function%内部控制、公司治理与风险管理——一个职能论的视角

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白华

    2012-01-01

    现有研究大多认为内部控制是制度,内部控制、公司治理和风险管理之间存在交叉重叠的关系。这会导致多套管理制度并存于企业的混乱局面。事实上,内部控制不是制度,而是职能,是管理职能中的控制职能。内部控制、公司治理与风险管理不存在谁包含谁的问题,内部控制与风险管理涵义相同,公司治理中体现了内部控制或风险管理思想。内部控制、公司治理和风险管理具有内在一致性,可以统一于一套企业管理制度之中。%Most of the current researches indicate that the enterprises internal control is the interweaving and overlapping of the system, internal control, corporation governance and risk management. This will cause the confusion due to the coexistence of multiple sets of management system in the enterprises. In fact, the internal control is not a system but a function, and it is the controlling function in management function. Concerning internal control, corporation governance and risk management, none of them includes any other. Internal control and risk management are of the same meaning, and the corporation governance embodies the thought of internal control and risk management. The internal control, corporation governance and risk management are internally consistent with each other, and they can be integrated in the enterprises management system.

  8. Overall structure and functional design on sport E-government platform%体育电子政务平台的总体结构与功能设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾文伟

    2014-01-01

    体育电子政务能够加快全民健身公共信息服务网络建设,提高全民健身公共信息服务能力。总体结构与功能设计是开发电子政务平台的基础性工作,本文对此展开研究。总体结构是体育电子政务平台所包含的业务功能模块和规模程度,以总体结构研究为基础,分别研究了体育信息发布系统、体育横向应用系统、办公自动化系统、体育管理信息系统、系统维护管理系统等功能。运用本文设计的功能开发的体育电子政务平台,具有功能强大、适用性强等特点。%Sport e-government can accelerate network construction of national fitness public information service and improve the capacity of national fitness public information service.The paper studies the basic work for developing e-government platform that is the overall structure and functional design.The overall structure is the business function module and scale extent that are included in the sport e-government platform.The paper studies sport information release system,sport transverse application system,office automation system,sport management information system,system maintenance management system and other functions based on overall structure design.Sport e-government platform used features designed in this paper has the characteristics of powerful,applicability and so on.

  9. Leisure, Government and Governance: A Swedish Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindstrom, Lisbeth

    2011-01-01

    The leisure sector has witnessed a tremendous expansion since 1960. The purpose of this article is to analyse the decisions and goals of Swedish government policy during the period 1962 to 2005. The empirical analysis covers government Propositions and governmental investigations. The fields covered are sports, culture, exercise, tourism and…

  10. Sustainable Food Governance by Governments and Markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterveer, P.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    The environmental consequences of the increasing global seafood production and consumption are substantial and drive a search for providing more adequate governance responses. In recent years, market-based approaches to sustainable seafood governance have gained considerable traction. Born in part

  11. Category of functional tooth units in relation to the number of teeth and masticatory ability in Japanese adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueno, Masayuki; Yanagisawa, Tomohito; Shinada, Kayoko; Ohara, Satoko; Kawaguchi, Yoko

    2010-02-01

    The purposes of this study were (1) to examine differences in dental status among various age groups, particularly, focusing on whether subjects retained 20 or more natural teeth, and (2) to investigate the relationship among dental status, the number and categories of functional tooth units (FTUs), and masticatory ability. A dental examination and self-administered questionnaire were conducted in a total of 2,164 residents aged 40 to 75 years who dwelt in Japan. The percentage of subjects with 20 and more natural teeth and their number of posterior teeth decreased with age. There was not much difference in the mean number of FTUs in subjects with and without 20 or more natural teeth, but those with 20 natural teeth had fewer numbers of FTUs than those with more than 20 natural teeth. The categories of the FTUs were extremely different. Subjects with 20 or more natural teeth had FTUs consisting mostly of natural to natural teeth. Subjects with 19 or fewer natural teeth had many FTUs consisting of removable prosthetic teeth. The subjective chewing ability test was significantly correlated with the number of natural teeth. Subjects could chew the higher number of test foods as the number of natural teeth increased. Not only the number of natural teeth but the categories of FTUs appear to be key factors of chewing ability. It is important to keep as many natural teeth as possible so that the person's categories of FTUs are mainly composed of natural to natural teeth to maintain better oral function.

  12. E-Government: Trends and Sophistication at the Local Level of Government

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tony Wohlers

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Innovations in information communication technologies have contributed to new forms of interaction between governments and citizens in the United States and other industrialized democracies. The adoption of these technologies at different levels of government has contributed to the emergence of electronic-government or e-government designed to communicate information, deliver services, and offer additional avenues designed to interact with and participate in government. Based on a detailed content analysis of government websites in conjunction with descriptive and multiple regression approaches, this study assesses and explains the level of egovernment sophistication at the local level of government across different States in the United States. The study argues that local e-government sophistication increases for municipalities governed by professional managers, endowed with more organizational resources, characterized by higher socioeconomic levels, increasing population size, and located in the west. While the findings support the hypothesis, the descriptive analysis also illustrates that local governments have not fully embraced the potentials of e-government.

  13. Repositioning the Government Function in the Heavy and Chemical Industries Era%重化工业时代政府功能的重新定位

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵津; 李健英

    2012-01-01

    20世纪20年代末,中国的社会变革在提速,国内化工产业正轰轰烈烈地壮大起来。重化工业的发展离不开政府的介入和扶持,南京政府相应制订了规模宏大的发展计划,然而技术劣势是政府发展计划的软肋。对于以永利为代表的新生力量来说,只要获得足够的发展资金,它们就有机会创造新的辉煌。永利利用外资因未获得政府的长期免税权而取消,加入公股的计划又因政府财政困难而搁浅,种种尝试未改变永利资金困难的局面。但加入公股的举措却使永利开始带有明显的官商合办色彩,由此迂回地获得政府的政策扶持和保护。%The domestic chemical industry had been vigorously growing up in a rapid changing Chinese social in the late 1920s. The Nanjing government had correspondingly made a largescale development plans since heavy chemical industry couldnt develop without the government'ssupport, however, the technical disadvantage was the soft underbelly of the government development plans. As a representative of the new force, the Yung Lee Soda Company ( also known as the Pacific Chemical Industries, Ltd. ) would have the opportunity to create new glories if the company got sufficient funds for development. The company couldnt change the funds difficult situation because it had to cancel the use of foreign capital since it failed to obtain the Government's long term tax free right, and failed to join the public shares because of the Government financial difficulties. At last, in a roundabout way the company got support and protection from the Government by joining the public shares.

  14. Data governance tools evaluation criteria, big data governance, and alignment with enterprise data management

    CERN Document Server

    Soares, Sunil

    2015-01-01

    Data governance programs often start off using programs such as Microsoft Excel and Microsoft SharePoint to document and share data governance artifacts. But these tools often lack critical functionality. Meanwhile, vendors have matured their data governance offerings to the extent that today's organizations need to consider tools as a critical component of their data governance programs. In this book, data governance expert Sunil Soares reviews the Enterprise Data Management (EDM) reference architecture and discusses key data governance tasks that can be automated by tools for business glossa

  15. Thinking and Countermeasures About Science and Technology Community Undertake the Work of Government Functions%科技社团承接政府职能工作的思考与对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈晓君

    2016-01-01

    从符合国际社会的通行做法、行政体制改革和科技创新体系建设的需要及科技发展的内在规律诸方面,阐述科技社团承接政府职能的必然性;在党和政府的高度重视下,例举我国我省科技社团承接政府职能工作的成果与进展,剖析我国科技社团承接政府职能工作的优势与不足;通过关注国外科技社团承接政府职能工作的现状与主要操作方法,通过研究英国科技社团参与国家决策咨询的实践,得到有益的启示;借鉴国外的理念与经验,对政府层面与科技社团层面提出建议与对策。%From conforms to the international practice, administrative system reform and the need of the construction of the science and technology innovation system and the inherent law of the development of science and technology aspects, elaborated the certainty of science and technology association to undertake the functions of the government; Under the communist party of china and government’s attention, to illustrate our province science and technology in our country society accept the results of the work of government function and progress of science and technology in our country the corporate undertake the advantages and disadvantages of the functions of the government work;By focusing on the current situation of foreign science and technology association to undertake the functions of the government work and the main operation method, through the practice of community participation in the country's decision-making advice research in UK , to obtain beneficial enlightenment; Learn lessons from foreign ideas and experience, and offer Suggestions and countermeasures from the sight of government and science and technology community.

  16. PKI in Government Identity Management Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Al-Khouri, Ali M

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of the PKI project initiated part of the UAE national ID card program. It primarily shows the operational model of the PKI implementation that is indented to integrate the federal government identity management infrastructure with e-government initiatives owners in the country. It also explicates the agreed structure of the major components in relation to key stakeholders; represented by federal and local e-government authorities, financial institutions, and other organizations in both public and private sectors. The content of this article is believed to clarify some of the misconceptions about PKI implementation in national ID schemes, and explain how the project is envisaged to encourage the diffusion of e-government services in the United Arab Emirates. The study concludes that governments in the Middle East region have the trust in PKI technology to support their e-government services and expanding outreach and population trust, if of course accompani...

  17. Factors Affecting the Productivity of Government Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerry P. Haenisch

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available While there have been a variety of studies concerning government worker motivation and productivity, few, if any, studies have focused specifically on state government workers’ perceptions about what factors affect their productivity. With more than 5 million workers employed by state governments in the United States, any improvement in state workplace productivity could have significant financial and service impact for society. In this study, state government workers identified those factors perceived as most affecting their workplace productivity. Data were collected through a survey offered to state government workers in the state of Wyoming. Factor analysis was used to derive key productivity factors from survey responses. The results indicate that state government workers appreciate having freedom and autonomy, like their jobs and the sense of achievement, and welcome teamwork, but feel limited by poor supervision and management, poor communications, and insufficient budgets and staffing. To improve productivity, the workers would eliminate bureaucracy, supervise better, and improve communication.

  18. Government-oriented Land Circulation from the Perspective of Social Governance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    This paper firstly summed up institutional change of land circulation after the foundation of new China,analyzed main characteristics and internal drawbacks of government-oriented land circulation,discussed the governance cost of local government-oriented land circulation,and evaluated the governance performance on the basis of the transaction cost theory. Results show that local government-oriented land circulation is a resource allocation mode for maximizing benefits of an organization,and its microscopic functions and values are mainly encouragement and restriction,while its macroscopic functions are comprehensive administration of results of state policies. Finally,it put forward policy suggestions for improving local government-oriented land circulation: cultivating diversified rural land circulation modes and regulating acts of local officials; stressing that building harmonious land circulation mechanism is the responsibility of central government; setting up recognition mechanism of the public to local government.

  19. A comprehensive sustainability appraisal of water governance in Phoenix, AZ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Kelli L; Wiek, Arnim; Withycombe Keeler, Lauren

    2013-02-15

    In Phoenix, Arizona and other metropolitan areas, water governance challenges include variable climate conditions, growing demands, and continued groundwater overdraft. Based on an actor-oriented examination of who does what with water and why, along with how people interact with hydro-ecological systems and man-made infrastructure, we present a sustainability appraisal of water governance for the Phoenix region. Broadly applicable to other areas, our systems approach to sustainable water governance overcomes prevailing limitations to research and management by: employing a comprehensive and integrative perspective on water systems; highlighting the activities, intentions, and rules that govern various actors, along with the values and goals driving decisions; and, establishing a holistic set of principles for social-ecological system integrity and interconnectivity, resource efficiency and maintenance, livelihood sufficiency and opportunity, civility and democratic governance, intra- and inter-generational equity, and finally, precaution and adaptive capacity. This study also contributes to reforming and innovating governance regimes by illuminating how these principles are being met, or not, in the study area. What is most needed in metropolitan Phoenix is enhanced attention to ecosystem functions and resource maintenance as well as social equity and public engagement in water governance. Overall, key recommendations entail: addressing interconnections across hydrologic units and sub-systems (e.g., land and water), increasing decentralized initiatives for multiple purposes (e.g., ecological and societal benefits of green infrastructure), incorporating justice goals into decisions (e.g., fair allocations and involvement), and building capacity through collaborations and social learning with diverse interests (e.g., scientists, policymakers, and the broader public).

  20. Recovery of sit-to-stand function in patients with intensive-care-unit-acquired muscle weakness: Results from the General Weakness Syndrome Therapy cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Simone; Burridge, Jane H; Pohl, Marcus; Oehmichen, Frank; Mehrholz, Jan

    2016-10-12

    To describe the time course of recovery of sit-to-stand function in patients with intensive-care-unit-acquired muscle weakness and the impact of recovery. A cohort study in post-acute intensive care unit and rehabilitation units. Patients with chronic critical illness and intensive-care-unit-acquired muscle weakness were included. Sit-to-stand function was measured daily, using a standardized chair height, defined as 120% of the individual's knee height. A total of 150 patients were recruited according to the selection criteria. The primary outcome of independent sit-to-stand function was achieved by a median of 56 days (interquartile range Q1-Q3 = 32-90 days) after rehabilitation onset and a median of 113 days (Q1-Q3=70-148 days) after onset of illness. The final multivariate model for recovery of sit-to-stand function included 3 variables: age (adjusted hazard ratio (HR) = 0.96 (95% CI 0.94-0.99), duration of ventilation (HR=0.99 (95% CI 0.98-1.00) and Functional Status Score for the Intensive Care Unit (FSS-ICU) (adjusted HR=1.12 (95% CI 1.08-1.16)). Rapid recovery of sit-to-stand function for most patients with intensive-care-unit-acquired muscle weakness were seen. The variables older age and longer duration of ventilation decreased, and higher FSS-ICU increased the chance of regaining independent sit-to-stand function.

  1. European Level Test of Romanian Enterprise Governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niculae Feleaga

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available The corporate governance is a central and dynamic aspect of the businesses. The term governance comes from the latin “gubernare”, meaning to guide and supposes that the corporate governance imply equally both the leadership function and that of control. As is known there are more ways of defining the enterprise governance starting from the simple stones, which focus on the enterprise and its shareholders, to the most complex ones incorporating individual or departamental responsability to implement a given function of the companies and which implies many other groups of persons. Responsability is the consequence of the law and reglementation application or contract agreements.

  2. European Level Test of Romanian Enterprise Governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niculae Feleaga

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available The corporate governance is a central and dynamic aspect of the businesses. The term governance comes from the latin “gubernare”, meaning to guide and supposes that the corporate governance imply equally both the leadership function and that of control. As is known there are more ways of defining the enterprise governance starting from the simple stones, which focus on the enterprise and its shareholders, to the most complex ones incorporating individual or departamental responsability to implement a given function of the companies and which implies many other groups of persons. Responsability is the consequence of the law and reglementation application or contract agreements.

  3. Organizational Enablers for Project Governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, Ralf; Shao, Jingting; Pemsel, Sofia

    While corporate culture plays a significant role in the success of any corporation, governance and “governmentality” not only determine how business should be conducted, but also define the policies and procedures organizations follow to achieve business functions and goals. In their book, Organi...

  4. ANALISIS TINGKAT KEMATANGAN (MATURITY LEVELS UNIT LAYANAN PENGADAAN KABUPATEN BADUNG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Gde Uma Darmapramita

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The implementation of government procurement of goods and service is governed by presidential regulation number 70 year of 2012.  According to that, in Badung Regency implemented centralized in Procurement Service Unit of Badung Regency. As the one of Indonesia procurement unit pilot, Procurement Service Unit of Badung Regency has given the opportunity to perform a self assessment of its  maturity levels as government unit. The objective of this research is to find factors that influence Procuremet Service Unit of Badung Regency maturity levels, and also to find out in what level is Procurement Service Unit of Badung Regency stand. Data collection for this research have done by  using questionnaire that involve 50 respondents who understand very well about the duties and function of Procurement Service Unit of Badung Regency to perform a government procurement of good and services. The data analysis have been performed by use of factor analysis and supported by SPSS program. The result shows there are 3 factors that influent the Procurement Service Unit of Badung Regency maturity levels, which are : the synergy and organization culture, resources and risk management and organization’s performance development.  Whereas the maturity levels of Procurement Service Unit of Badung Regency is stand at compliance. Based to the factors that formed, the highly commitment and strong leadership of Badung Regency leader are very decisive to push ahead the enhancement  and  the development of Procurement Service Unit of Badung Regency.  First thing can be done is to establish an independent Procurement Service Unit therewith its Procurement Unit Development road maps that can be tiered and sustainable plan, monitor and evaluate

  5. Government and Business

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campbell, John L.

    2015-01-01

    There is a vast literature about the relationships between government and business in advanced capitalist societies.......There is a vast literature about the relationships between government and business in advanced capitalist societies....

  6. Nordic Corporate Governance Revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Steen

    2016-01-01

    This paper reviews the key elements of the Nordic governance model, which include a distinct legal system, high governance ratings and low levels of corruption. Other characteristics include concentrated ownership, foundation ownership, semi two-tier board structures, employee representation...

  7. Typology of State-Level Community College Governance Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Jeffrey A.; Friedel, Janice Nahra

    2017-01-01

    Despite having a well-documented history about community colleges across the United States, relatively few discussions have covered state-level governance structures. To understand the typology of state community college governance structures, it must first be recognized that community college governance is characterized as a complex web of…

  8. Discovery of MLL1 binding units, their localization to CpG Islands, and their potential function in mitotic chromatin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bina, Minou; Wyss, Phillip; Novorolsky, Elise; Zulkelfi, Noorfatin; Xue, Jing; Price, Randi; Fay, Matthew; Gutmann, Zach; Fogler, Brian; Wang, Daidong

    2013-12-28

    Mixed Lineage Leukemia 1 (MLL1) is a mammalian ortholog of the Drosophila Trithorax. In Drosophila, Trithorax complexes transmit the memory of active genes to daughter cells through interactions with Trithorax Response Elements (TREs). However, despite their functional importance, nothing is known about sequence features that may act as TREs in mammalian genomic DNA. By analyzing results of reported DNA binding assays, we identified several CpG rich motifs as potential MLL1 binding units (defined as morphemes). We find that these morphemes are dispersed within a relatively large collection of human promoter sequences and appear densely packed near transcription start sites of protein-coding genes. Genome wide analyses localized frequent morpheme occurrences to CpG islands. In the human HOX loci, the morphemes are spread across CpG islands and in some cases tail into the surrounding shores and shelves of the islands. By analyzing results of chromatin immunoprecipitation assays, we found a connection between morpheme occurrences, CpG islands, and chromatin segments reported to be associated with MLL1. Furthermore, we found a correspondence of reported MLL1-driven "bookmarked" regions in chromatin to frequent occurrences of MLL1 morphemes in CpG islands. Our results implicate the MLL1 morphemes in sequence-features that define the mammalian TREs and provide a novel function for CpG islands. Apparently, our findings offer the first evidence for existence of potential TREs in mammalian genomic DNA and the first evidence for a connection between CpG islands and gene-bookmarking by MLL1 to transmit the memory of highly active genes during mitosis. Our results further suggest a role for overlapping morphemes in producing closely packed and multiple MLL1 binding events in genomic DNA so that MLL1 molecules could interact and reside simultaneously on extended potential transcriptional maintenance elements in human chromosomes to transmit the memory of highly active genes

  9. Updated greenhouse gas and criteria air pollutant emission factors and their probability distribution functions for electricity generating units

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cai, H.; Wang, M.; Elgowainy, A.; Han, J. (Energy Systems)

    2012-07-06

    Greenhouse gas (CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O, hereinafter GHG) and criteria air pollutant (CO, NO{sub x}, VOC, PM{sub 10}, PM{sub 2.5} and SO{sub x}, hereinafter CAP) emission factors for various types of power plants burning various fuels with different technologies are important upstream parameters for estimating life-cycle emissions associated with alternative vehicle/fuel systems in the transportation sector, especially electric vehicles. The emission factors are typically expressed in grams of GHG or CAP per kWh of electricity generated by a specific power generation technology. This document describes our approach for updating and expanding GHG and CAP emission factors in the GREET (Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in Transportation) model developed at Argonne National Laboratory (see Wang 1999 and the GREET website at http://greet.es.anl.gov/main) for various power generation technologies. These GHG and CAP emissions are used to estimate the impact of electricity use by stationary and transportation applications on their fuel-cycle emissions. The electricity generation mixes and the fuel shares attributable to various combustion technologies at the national, regional and state levels are also updated in this document. The energy conversion efficiencies of electric generating units (EGUs) by fuel type and combustion technology are calculated on the basis of the lower heating values of each fuel, to be consistent with the basis used in GREET for transportation fuels. On the basis of the updated GHG and CAP emission factors and energy efficiencies of EGUs, the probability distribution functions (PDFs), which are functions that describe the relative likelihood for the emission factors and energy efficiencies as random variables to take on a given value by the integral of their own probability distributions, are updated using best-fit statistical curves to characterize the uncertainties associated with GHG and CAP emissions in life

  10. Updated greenhouse gas and criteria air pollutant emission factors and their probability distribution functions for electricity generating units

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cai, H.; Wang, M.; Elgowainy, A.; Han, J. (Energy Systems)

    2012-07-06

    Greenhouse gas (CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O, hereinafter GHG) and criteria air pollutant (CO, NO{sub x}, VOC, PM{sub 10}, PM{sub 2.5} and SO{sub x}, hereinafter CAP) emission factors for various types of power plants burning various fuels with different technologies are important upstream parameters for estimating life-cycle emissions associated with alternative vehicle/fuel systems in the transportation sector, especially electric vehicles. The emission factors are typically expressed in grams of GHG or CAP per kWh of electricity generated by a specific power generation technology. This document describes our approach for updating and expanding GHG and CAP emission factors in the GREET (Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in Transportation) model developed at Argonne National Laboratory (see Wang 1999 and the GREET website at http://greet.es.anl.gov/main) for various power generation technologies. These GHG and CAP emissions are used to estimate the impact of electricity use by stationary and transportation applications on their fuel-cycle emissions. The electricity generation mixes and the fuel shares attributable to various combustion technologies at the national, regional and state levels are also updated in this document. The energy conversion efficiencies of electric generating units (EGUs) by fuel type and combustion technology are calculated on the basis of the lower heating values of each fuel, to be consistent with the basis used in GREET for transportation fuels. On the basis of the updated GHG and CAP emission factors and energy efficiencies of EGUs, the probability distribution functions (PDFs), which are functions that describe the relative likelihood for the emission factors and energy efficiencies as random variables to take on a given value by the integral of their own probability distributions, are updated using best-fit statistical curves to characterize the uncertainties associated with GHG and CAP emissions in life

  11. Space vehicle field unit and ground station system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Judd, Stephen; Dallmann, Nicholas; Delapp, Jerry; Proicou, Michael; Seitz, Daniel; Michel, John; Enemark, Donald

    2017-09-19

    A field unit and ground station may use commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) components and share a common architecture, where differences in functionality are governed by software. The field units and ground stations may be easy to deploy, relatively inexpensive, and be relatively easy to operate. A novel file system may be used where datagrams of a file may be stored across multiple drives and/or devices. The datagrams may be received out of order and reassembled at the receiving device.

  12. Space vehicle field unit and ground station system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judd, Stephen; Dallmann, Nicholas; Delapp, Jerry; Proicou, Michael; Seitz, Daniel; Michel, John; Enemark, Donald

    2016-10-25

    A field unit and ground station may use commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) components and share a common architecture, where differences in functionality are governed by software. The field units and ground stations may be easy to deploy, relatively inexpensive, and be relatively easy to operate. A novel file system may be used where datagrams of a file may be stored across multiple drives and/or devices. The datagrams may be received out of order and reassembled at the receiving device.

  13. Constitutional moments in governing science and technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasanoff, Sheila

    2011-12-01

    Scholars in science and technology studies (STS) have recently been called upon to advise governments on the design of procedures for public engagement. Any such instrumental function should be carried out consistently with STS's interpretive and normative obligations as a social science discipline. This article illustrates how such threefold integration can be achieved by reviewing current US participatory politics against a 70-year backdrop of tacit constitutional developments in governing science and technology. Two broad cycles of constitutional adjustment are discerned: the first enlarging the scope of state action as well as public participation, with liberalized rules of access and sympathetic judicial review; the second cutting back on the role of the state, fostering the rise of an academic-industrial complex for technology transfer, and privatizing value debates through increasing delegation to professional ethicists. New rules for public engagement in the United Sates should take account of these historical developments and seek to counteract some of the anti-democratic tendencies observable in recent decades.

  14. FCB function of a class of supercritical units%一类超临界机组的FCB功能

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高升; 郭荣; 肖伯乐

    2012-01-01

    为了实现一类超临界机组的FCB功能,结合汽轮机的特殊要求,对旁路容量的选择、高排通风阀通径的选择、给水泵配置进行了分析和计算.结果表明:将冷再压力控制在0.7 MPa时得到的热力系统配置满足FCB初始工况和结束工况的需求.高压旁路与3个PCV阀组合的方案能防止锅炉超压;锅炉负荷达40% BMCR时,3个PCV阀配合低压旁路使冷再压力满足汽轮机高调门开启要求;合适的高排通风阀通径及独立的减温装置可保证高压缸排汽不超温;内切换给水泵汽轮机加上汽源管路的合理设计能保证给水泵出力;完善的控制策略设计保证了设备能及时准确地动作.由此证明,这类超临界燃煤机组进行FCB试验是可行的,全自动的FCB控制过程已在采用同类汽机的亚临界燃油机组上取得成功.%Based on the special requirement of the steam turbine, three key factors were analyzed and calculated in order to achieve FCB (fast cut back) function of a class of supercritical units. The three points include bypass capacity selection, HP (high pressure) cylinder ventilation valve size selection and feed-water pump configuration. The results show that when the cold re-heater pressure was controlled at 0.7 MPa, the derived thermal system configuration met with the demand of FCB at initial and end stages. Combination of three PCVs( pressure control valve) with the HP bypass can prevent the boiler overpressure. The turbine HP control valve opening condition was met by the LP (low pressure) bypass and 3PCVs when the boiler load was at 40% BMCR. HP cylinder exhaust temperature was controlled by the appropriate size for HP cylinder ventilation valves and the independent temperature reducing device. Feedwater pump output was guaranteed by steam supply inner switching function of feedwater pump turbine and rational piping. And the devices were controlled timely and accurately by the detailed control strategy

  15. Big Bad Governance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, James T.

    1999-01-01

    Argues that the Association of Governing Boards of Universities and Colleges' statement on governance calls for more centralized authority, rejecting both the principles and the practice of shared governance and diminishing the role of faculty. Suggests that the association revise its statement to include a better understanding of how academe…

  16. Transformative environmental governance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Transformative governance is an approach to environmental governance that has the capacity to respond to, manage, and trigger regime shifts in coupled social-ecological systems (SESs) at multiple scales. The goal of transformative governance is to actively shift degraded SESs to ...

  17. Global water governance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gupta, J.; Falkner, R.

    2013-01-01

    Although (fresh) water challenges are primarily local in nature, globalization has led to feedback effects that make many water challenges global in nature. This chapter examines global water governance. It discusses four phases of water governance, argues that water governance is dispersed and

  18. Global water governance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gupta, J.; Falkner, R.

    2013-01-01

    Although (fresh) water challenges are primarily local in nature, globalization has led to feedback effects that make many water challenges global in nature. This chapter examines global water governance. It discusses four phases of water governance, argues that water governance is dispersed and inco

  19. Project governance: selected South African government experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. van der Walt

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Some form of accountability and power structure binds all organisations. Such structures are typically referred to as the “governance” structure of the organisation. In organisations that have relatively mature project applications and methodologies in place, governance mechanisms are established on more permanent bases. With its focus on performance, results and outcomes, project governance establishes decision-making structures, as well as accountability and responsibility mechanisms in public institutions to oversee projects. As government institutions increasingly place emphasis on project applications for policy implementation and service delivery initiatives, mechanisms or structures should be established to facilitate clear interfaces between the permanent organisation and the temporary project organisation. Such mechanisms or structures should enhance the governance of projects, that is, the strategic alignment of projects, the decentralisation of decision- making powers, rapid resource allocation, and the participation of external stakeholders. The purpose of this article is to explore the concept “project governance”, and to highlight examples of project governance as applied in selected government departments in provincial and national spheres. This would enable the establishment of best practice examples and assist to develop benchmarks for effective project applications for service delivery improvement.

  20. Improved PI-PD control design using predictive functional optimization for temperature model of a fluidized catalytic cracking unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Hongbo; Li, Haisheng

    2017-03-01

    Proportional-integral-derivative (PID) control is widely used in industry because of its simple structure and convenient implementation. However, PID control is suitable for small time delay systems; while if too large delay is encountered, PID control may not obtain the desired performance. Proportional-integral-proportional-derivative (PI-PD) control is a modified of PID control and can get improved control performance; however, due to the complex controller parameter tuning, the PI-PD control is used in a limited scope. Inspired by the advantage of predictive functional control (PFC), a new PI-PD control design using PFC optimization is proposed in this paper. The proposed method not only inherits the advantage of PFC, which does well in coping with the time delay, but also has the same structure as the PI-PD controller. The proposed method is tested on the preheated temperature control of crude oil in a fluidized catalytic cracking unit. The results show that the proposed controller improves control performance compared with typical PID control and PI-PD control.

  1. Assistive Technology Needs, Functional Difficulties, and Services Utilization and Coordination of Children with Developmental Disabilities in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Sue C; Gold, Robert S

    2017-01-31

    Assistive technology (AT) enhances the ability of individuals with disabilities to be fully engaged in activities at home, at school, and within their communities-especially for children with developmental disabilities (DD) with physical, sensory, learning, and/or communication impairments. The prevalence of children with DD in the United States has risen from 12.84% in 1997 to 15.04% in 2008. Thus, it is important to monitor the status of their AT needs, functional difficulties, services utilization, and coordination. Using data from the 2009-2010 National Survey on Children with Special Health Care Needs (NS-CSHCN), we conducted bivariate and multivariate statistical analysis, which found that 90% or more of parents of both children with DD and other CSHCN reported that their child's AT needs were met for vision, hearing, mobility, communication, and durable medical equipment; furthermore, children with DD had lower odds of AT needs met for vision and hearing and increased odds for meeting AT needs in mobility and communication. Our findings outline the current AT needs of children with DD nationally. Fulfilling these needs has the potential to engender positive lifelong effects on the child's disabilities, sense of independence, self-confidence, and productivity.

  2. Emergency medicine in the United Arab Emirates

    OpenAIRE

    Fares, Saleh; Irfan, Furqan B; Corder, Robert F; Al Marzouqi, Μuneer Abdulla; Al Zaabi, Ahmad Hasan; Idrees, Marwa Mubarak; Abbo, Michael

    2014-01-01

    It has been a decade since emergency medicine was recognized as a specialty in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). In this short time, emergency medicine has established itself and developed rapidly in the UAE. Large, well-equipped emergency departments (EDs) are usually located in government hospitals, some of which function as regional trauma centers. Most of the larger EDs are staffed with medically or surgically trained physicians, with board-certified emergency medicine physicians serving as...

  3. Payment Procedures for Electronic Government Services

    OpenAIRE

    Pousttchi, Key; Wiedemann, Dietmar Georg

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we analyse payment procedures for their suitability for electronic government. We provide an overview of the payment procedures currently available on the market, compare the situation in electronic government with the situation in electronic commerce and analyze what we can transfer. Based on functional requirements we propose a scheme that allows public agencies to examine the appropriateness of any given payment procedure for electronic government.

  4. A new governance space for health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kickbusch, Ilona; Szabo, Martina Marianna Cassar

    2014-01-01

    Global health refers to 'those health issues which transcend national boundaries and governments and call for actions on the global forces and global flows that determine the health of people'. (Kickbusch 2006) Governance in this trans-national and cross-cutting arena can be analyzed along three political spaces: global health governance, global governance for health, and governance for global health. It is argued that the management of the interface between these three political spaces of governance in the global public health domain is becoming increasingly important in order to move the global health agenda forward. Global health governance refers mainly to those institutions and processes of governance which are related to an explicit health mandate, such as the World Health Organization; global governance for health refers mainly to those institutions and processes of global governance which have a direct and indirect health impact, such as the United Nations, World Trade Organization or the Human Rights Council; governance for global health refers to the institutions and mechanisms established at the national and regional level to contribute to global health governance and/or to governance for global health--such as national global health strategies or regional strategies for global health. It can also refer to club strategies, such as agreements by a group of countries such as the BRICS. In all three political spaces, the involvement of a multitude of state and non-state actors has become the norm--that is why issues of legitimacy, accountability and transparency have moved to the fore. The transnational nature of global health will require the engagement of all actors to produce global public goods for health (GPGH) and to ensure a rules-based and reliably financed global public health domain.

  5. Entrenching Good Government Reforms

    OpenAIRE

    Tushnet, Mark V.

    2011-01-01

    Those concerned with enumerated powers, the Tenth Amendment, and limited governance have many questions about current trends in U.S. governance: Has the federal government grown too large? Is it doing too much? Has it transgressed lawful limits? Is the federal‐state relationship out of balance? Assuming that the federal government has gotten too large, what can you do about it? Or, more generally, what can you do if you think that the federal government is too big, or too small, or is doin...

  6. 美国霸权与全球治理——美国在全球治理中的角色及其困境%U.S. Hegemony and Global Governance: The Role of the United States in Global Governance and Its Dilemmas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘丰

    2012-01-01

    As the sole superpower in international system, the strategies, policies and actions of the United States have been influencing the global governance framework fundamentally. There are four representative viewpoints--pragmatist, op- timist isolationist and skeptieist--on the relationship between U.S. hegemony and global governance in academia, which reflects the complex understandings on the role of the United States in global governance. Considering the practice of the U- nited States in global governance, we can conclude that its global governance strategy is a part of its global strategy, for which the core purpose is to maintain the domination of the United States in international system, and to consolidate and ex- pand its hegemony. However, since the hegemonie governance model of the United States is facing there kinds of dilem- mas-the strength dilemma, the willingness dilemma and the legitimacy dilemma, it can not carry out effective governance in global affairs. During the course of the global governance reform, the United States win continue to play a crucial role, but the participation of emerging nations and the reforms of international institutions will no doubt transform the hegemonic governance model.%作为国际体系中唯一的超级大国,美国在全球治理领域的战略、政策及行动对全球治理架构具有举足轻重的影响。对于美国霸权与全球治理之间的关系,学术界存在实用论、乐观论、孤立论和怀疑论等几种代表性观点,反映出人们对于美国全球治理角色的认识具有复杂性。从美国政府的实践来看,美国全球治理战略是其全球战略的一部分,核心目的是维持美国在国际体系中的主导地位,巩固和扩充其霸权基础。然而,美国的霸权治理模式面临实力困境、意愿困境以及正当性困境等三重困境,因而无法为有效的全球治理提供保障。在未来全球治理架构的改革过程中,美国仍

  7. Hard and Soft Governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moos, Lejf

    2009-01-01

    and discusses governance forms at several levels. The first layer is the global: the methods of 'soft governance' that are being utilised by transnational agencies. The second layer is the national and local: the shift in national and local governance seen in many countries, but here demonstrated in the case......The governance and leadership at transnational, national and school level seem to be converging into a number of isomorphic forms as we see a tendency towards substituting 'hard' forms of governance, that are legally binding, with 'soft' forms based on persuasion and advice. This article analyses...... of Denmark, and finally the third layer: the leadership used in Danish schools. The use of 'soft governance' is shifting the focus of governance and leadership from decisions towards influence and power and thus shifting the focus of the processes from the decision-making itself towards more focus...

  8. Governance and organizational theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos E. Quintero Castellanos

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this essay is to propose a way to link the theoretical body that has been weaved around governance and organizational theory. For this, a critical exposition is done about what is the theoretical core of governance, the opportunity areas are identified for the link of this theory with organizational theory. The essay concludes with a proposal for the organizational analysis of administrations in governance. The essay addresses with five sections. The first one is the introduction. In the second one, I present a synthesis of the governance in its current use. In the next one are presented the work lines of the good governance. In the fourth part, I show the organizational and managerial limits in the governance theory. The last part develops the harmonization proposal for the governance and organizational theories.

  9. Enacting Governance through Strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandtner, Christof; Höllerer, Markus A.; Meyer, Renate E.

    2017-01-01

    Over the past two decades, research has emphasised a shift from city government to urban governance. Such a shift brings about its very own challenges, namely governance gaps, uncertain configurations in governance and a limited capacity to act. In this paper, we argue that the concurrent rise...... of strategy documents in city administration addresses these challenges. Our central claim is that strategy documents can be understood as a distinct discursive device through which local governments enact aspired governance configurations. We illustrate our argument empirically using two prominent examples...... that, while showing similar features and characteristics, are anchored in different administrative traditions and institutional frameworks: the city administrations of Sydney, Australia, and Vienna, Austria. The contribution of the paper is to show how strategy documents enact governance configurations...

  10. RESTRUCTURING MEASURES, UPGRADING AND RETHINKING OF THE ROLE AND FUNCTIONING OF THE GOVERNMENT UNDER THE REQUIRED INFORMATION SOCIETY. CASE STUDY: GORJ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constanţa Enea

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The spirit of the Lisbon strategy (2000 defines a new opportunity to increase competitiveness at all levels, which is supported by the implementation of scientific knowledge, infrastructure and its implementation mechanisms to serve the new economy based on a new revolution, a life-oriented good for present and next, taking control of major risks that affect global action under uncertainty. With the relaunch of the Lisbon Strategy (2005, the policy has been recognized as a primary tool at the community level, helping to implement the idea of growth and jobs - not only because a third of the Community budget, but also that the strategies drawn up at the local and regional levels should form an integral part of efforts to promote sustainable development at local level. Programming period 2007-2013 suggests that one of the areas of intervention of the Structural Funds, namely the European Social Fund reform and upgrading administrative capacity in the context of achieving good governance, especially in those areas that generate progress, as well as economic, employment, education, social and environmental. Romania is the most important development opportunities, nearly four years after accession to the European Union and integration in an increasingly globalized economy. Romania's future is that of a dynamic, competitive and innovative, working in the economic, social and political European Union and the global economy. In this context, we can say that “we need to rebuild post-integration is first and foremost a spiritual and institutional process that must include all public and private interests carriers” (revised Lisbon Strategy, 2005, p.4. Therefore, the Romanian National Reform Programme for 2007- 2010, elaborated in the context of the European Strategy for Growth and Employment Strategy (revised Lisbon Strategy, 2005, p.4 states that “to achieve economic and employment performance, coupled with a social system is the essence of policies

  11. Corporate governance and government owned corporations in Queensland

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    MCDONOUGH, Darryl D

    1998-01-01

    ...) - principles of corporate governance applicable to government owned corporations - history of corporatisation - objectives and features of the Government Owned Corporations Act 1993 - categorisation...

  12. US Local Government Delegation Visits Sichuan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chuan; You

    2015-01-01

    A 12-member US Local Government Delegationled by Wisconsin Lieutenant Governor Rebecca Kleefisch visited Sichuan Province December 11-13 at the invitation of the CPAFFC.Consisting of lieutenant governors,state legislators,mayors,government officials of cities and counties from eight states—Wisconsin,Washington,New York,Colorado,Illinois,Tennessee,Kansas and Missouri—the delegation was organized by the China-United States Exchange Foundation(CUSEF).Established in Hong Kong in 2008

  13. Multivariate analysis of countries' government and health-care system influences on opioid availability for cancer pain relief and palliative care: more than a function of human development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilson, Aaron M; Maurer, Martha A; Lebaron, Virginia T; Ryan, Karen M; Cleary, James F

    2013-02-01

    Many international governmental and nongovernmental organizations regard unrelieved cancer pain as a significant global public health problem. Although opioids such as morphine are considered essential medicines in the provision of palliative care and for treating cancer pain, especially when the pain is severe, low- and middle-income countries often lack such medications. The primary aim of this study was to examine countries' government and health-care system influences on opioid availability for cancer pain and palliative care, as a means to identify implications for improving appropriate access to prescription opioids. A multivariate regression of 177 countries' consumption of opioids (in milligrams/death from cancer and AIDS) contained country-level predictor variables related to public health, including Human Development Index, palliative care infrastructure, and health system resources and expenditures. Results were highly explanatory (adjusted R(2) = 82%) and Human Development Index was the most predictive variable when controlling for all other factors in the statistical model (B = 11.875, confidence interval = 10.216, 13.534, p Human Development Index. However, Human Development Index is not the most policy-relevant factor, and this finding should be reconciled against the reality that many countries with low or medium Human Development Index have succeeded in creating and sustaining a health-care system to strengthen cancer pain care and palliative care, including through the appropriate use of essential prescription opioids.

  14. Automatic chemical monitoring in the composition of functions performed by the unit level control system in the new projects of nuclear power plant units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denisova, L. G.; Khrennikov, N. N.

    2014-08-01

    The article presents information on the state of regulatory framework and development of a subsystem for automated chemical monitoring of water chemistries in the primary and secondary coolant circuits used as part of the automatic process control system in new projects of VVER reactor-based nuclear power plant units. For the strategy of developing and putting in use the water chemistry-related part of the automated process control system within the standard AES-2006 nuclear power plant project to be implemented, it is necessary to develop regulatory documents dealing with certain requirements imposed on automatic water chemistry monitoring systems in accordance with the requirements of federal codes and regulations in the field of using atomic energy.

  15. Taking Government Function Transforming, Opening New Chapter for Learned Society%承接政府转移职能,开创学会工作新局面

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨晓静; 胡承淼; 刘勇

    2015-01-01

    学会作为社会力量的重要组成部分,以其政府联系社会公众的桥梁和纽带作用及人才、专业和组织等方面的优势,是政府履行社会职能、服务社会公众的主要助手。学会有效承接政府转移职能,是顺应时代发展的必然要求,是学会发挥自身优势的重要途径。因此,在国家体制改革的新形势下,中国粮油学会把承接政府转移职能作为学会创新发展的重要工作内容之一,在国家粮食局和中国科协等部门支持下,在科技奖励、人才评价、成果鉴定和成果转化推广等方面提供优质服务,取得了显著成效,努力在服务全面深化改革及政府职能转变大局中发挥更大作用。%Learned society has been an integral part of grass-root community. As a good coordinator, it is able to provide a platform for government to better serve the people, with its strength in building a talent pool and leveraging expertise. These not-for-profit-organizations are emerging to take over functions that were previously considered preserve of government. That is an inevitable result as society develops. Besides, it is absolute an innovative way from which academic associations could make advantages and develop themselves. China, today, is going through administrative reform of state functions. In this context, Chinese Cereals and Oils Association (CCOA) is in position to carry out relevant duties and functions from the government and takes work as one of priorities on its agenda. Under support of State Administration of Grain ( SAG) and China Association for Science and Technology ( CAST) , works have been carried out and tailored services have been already provided, including recognizing and awarding science and technology contributions, grant professional titles, evaluate achievements in cereal and oil science and technology, and promote production application. All those efforts have already made a difference. What's more

  16. 社会性别统计在提高政府服务职能中的应用%Gender Statistics and Its Use in the Promotion of Government Service Functions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈淑梅; 陈澜燕; 王向梅

    2012-01-01

    在政府职能适应社会发展的需求,迫切需要由管理型向服务型转变之际,社会性别统计作为一种寻求改变的工具,有潜力成为政府职能转变的技术性要素,即为服务型政府提供技术性支持,以服务于社会中的所有个体。本文强调以女权主义政治经济学的观念为导向,在基层组织日常工作的统计表格中加入社会性别统计,既可以提供分性别的统计数据,反映不同群体的利益和需求,又可为政府制定科学、有效、全面的政策提供事实依据。%Owing to the demand of social development and the transition of the focus of government functions from managing society to servicing it, gender statistics has become a tool for transformation and has demonstrated potential to be an essential technical element in the transformation of government functions. That is for gender statistics to be a technical support for social services, benefiting all indi- viduals in society. This paper suggests the use of feminist political economy in making gender statistics part of everyday report of work by grassroots organizations. The outcome of such use is the provision of sex-disaggregated information to reflect different social needs and interests in order to provide sufficient evidence for the government to make sound, effective, and comprehensive policies.

  17. Role and Function Position of the City Government in the Background of City Marketing%城市经营背景下的政府角色与职能定位

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨丽丽; 龚会莲

    2012-01-01

      作为一种新型的城市治理模式,城市经营通过发挥市场机制的作用来实现政府对城市公共资源的有效配置,是治理政府失灵和市场失灵的有效手段。在城市经营过程中,政府角色和职能的定位尤为重要,在很大程度上决定着城市经营的成败。现阶段,政府的中心工作应该是“掌舵”,而不是“划桨”;政府应强化公共服务职能,追求公共利益;政府应努力建立良好的公私合作伙伴关系;政府应建立科学的城市管理绩效考核机制%  As a new model of the city administration, the city government disposes public resource efficiently through market mechanism by the means of the city marketing, which is an effective measure to eliminate government ineffectiveness and market ineffec⁃tiveness. In the process of the city marketing, the role and function position of the city is even more important,which decides on the success or failure of the city marketing. Recent⁃ly, the government’s centre task is“to operate the rudder”, but not“to paddle”; the govern⁃ment should enhance the function of the public service and seek public Interests; the gov⁃ernment should establish good public-private partnership; the government should establish scientific mechanism of performance appraisal for city management.

  18. Governance crisis: the challenge chinese governments facing in the new era

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi-jun Wang

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Communist Party of China (CPC has completed the conscious transformation from a revolutionary party to the ruling party. It is inevitable for such a big country like China to make some small mistakes in the process of the reform. However, these small mistakes of the Chinese ruling-party and crisis of the Chinese governance may turn into big mistakes at the macro level and even subversive mistakes. Especially, since1990s, governance crisis of Chinese governments, such as the crisis of administrative efficiency, official conviction, governments’ accountability and executive ability, aroused and increased remarkably in the process of its government governance and made its administrative reform lag behind its economic reform. In order to change the government function, reform the governance model and improve the administrative reform of China, it has extreme significance of practical and theoretical research value to analyze the causes of governance crisis in the process of China’s government governance and explore countermeasures suitable for national conditions in governance the governance crisis of Chinese government.

  19. Are Gains in Decision-Making Autonomy during Early Adolescence Beneficial for Emotional Functioning? The Case of the United States and China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Lili; Pomerantz, Eva M.; Wang, Qian

    2009-01-01

    This research examined the role of children's decision-making autonomy in their emotional functioning during early adolescence in the United States and China. Four times over the 7th and 8th grades, 825 American and Chinese children (M = 12.73 years) reported on the extent to which they versus their parents make decisions about issues children…

  20. The Legal Structure of Ring-Fenced Bodies in the United Kingdom - A Response to Consultation Paper CP19/14 on the Implementation of Ring-fencing: on Legal Structure, Governance and the continuity of Services and Facilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Heine (Klaus); V.L.E. Cedeno-Brea (Enmanuel)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ This paper is submitted by Prof. Dr. Klaus Heine1 and Enmanuel Cedeño-Brea2, in response to the Prudential Regulatory Authority’s (PRA) Consultation Paper CP19/14 on “The Implementation of Ring-fencing: consultation on legal structure, governance and the continuity of s