WorldWideScience

Sample records for functional units governing

  1. Estimation by radiation inactivation of the size of functional units governing Sendai and influenza virus fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bundo-Morita, K.; Gibson, S.; Lenard, J.

    1987-01-01

    The target sizes associated with fusion and hemolysis carried out by Sendai virus envelope glycoproteins were determined by radiation inactivation analysis. The target size for influenza virus mediated fusion with erythrocyte ghosts at pH 5.0 was also determined for comparison. Sendai-mediated fusion with erythrocyte ghosts at pH 7.0 was likewise inactivated exponentially with increasing radiation dose, yielding a target size of 60 +/- 6 kDa, a value consistent with the molecular weight of a single F-protein molecule. The inactivation curve for Sendai-mediated fusion with cardiolipin liposomes at pH 7.0, however, was more complex. Assuming a multiple target-single hit model, the target consisted of 2-3 units of ca. 60 kDa each. A similar target was seen if the liposome contained 10% gangliosides or if the reaction was measured at pH 5.0, suggesting that fusion occurred by the same mechanism at high and low pH. A target size of 261 +/- 48 kDa was found for Sendai-induced hemolysis, in contrast with influenza, which had a more complex target size for this activity. Sendai virus fusion thus occurs by different mechanisms depending upon the nature of the target membrane, since it is mediated by different functional units. Hemolysis is mediated by a functional unit different from that associated with erythrocyte ghost fusion or with cardiolipin liposome fusion

  2. INTERNATIONAL GOVERNMENT SECURITIES: SPECIFIC FUNCTIONING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Versal

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available It’s disclosed the features of the international government securities market during 1993 – 2012: main players are the developed countries (Western Europe, Canada, USA with the increasing role of developing countries; debt crises have the negative impact as on the development of the international government securities market, but also on the international capital market as a whole; debt crises are not a spontaneous phenomenon, and usually occur as a result of inadequate growth in GDP increasing government debt.

  3. What University Governance Can Taiwan Learn from the United States?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Lung-Sheng; Land, Ming H.

    2010-01-01

    Due to changes from centralization to marketization, Taiwan's university governance must increase its effectiveness. The purpose of this paper was to introduce trends in and issues of Taiwan's university governance, describe university governance in the United States, and draw implications that Taiwan's university governance needs to learn from…

  4. Public Expectations in Local Governance: Unit Committees under ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-05-01

    May 1, 2017 ... Keywords: Governance, Decentralisation, Public Services Delivery, Unit ..... company after 24 hours, as indicated on the electricity company's forms. ...... Decentralisation and Poverty: Conceptual Framework and Application.

  5. 28 CFR 33.11 - Units of local government.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Criminal Justice Block Grants Eligible Applicants § 33.11 Units of local government. (a) Units of local... city, county, township, borough, parish, village, or other general purpose political subdivision of a...

  6. Functional unit for a processor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rohani, A.; Kerkhoff, Hans G.

    2013-01-01

    The invention relates to a functional unit for a processor, such as a Very Large Instruction Word Processor. The invention further relates to a processor comprising at least one such functional unit. The invention further relates to a functional unit and processor capable of mitigating the effect of

  7. United Kingdom government policy towards radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pritchard, G.

    1986-01-01

    There are three areas of radioactive waste management which exemplify, beyond any reasonable doubt, that the United Kingdom has in the past (and intends in the future), to pursue a policy of dispersal and disposal of radioactive wastes: These are: (I) dumping of low-level waste in the deep ocean and, on a parallel, seabed emplacement of highly active waste; (II) the liquid discharges from Windscale into the Irish Sea; and (III) land dumping of low- and intermediate-level waste

  8. 45 CFR 1607.4 - Functions of a governing body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Functions of a governing body. 1607.4 Section 1607... GOVERNING BODIES § 1607.4 Functions of a governing body. (a) A governing body shall have at least four... accordance with written policies adopted by the recipient's governing body. (b) In addition to other powers...

  9. The governance of federal debt in the United States of America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisele Mah

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The United State of America has been experiencing high debt to GDP ratio of more than 100% and these Public debts are detrimental. The main purpose of this study was to examine the shocks of the variables on others in the USA economy by using quarterly data. The variance decomposition and the Generalised Impulse Response Function techniques were employed to analyse the data. The result revealed that high variation of shocks in real federal debt is explained by their own innovations in the short run, by CPI followed by real federal debt its self. In the long run, this leads to CPI and real government spending. The GIRF reveals that in the short run, real federal debt responds negatively to shocks from CPI, real federal interest payment and real federal government tax receipts and positively to real federal debt and real government spending. In medium term, only real federal government tax receipts are negative while the others are positive. In the long run, the response are all positive to shock from the independent variables. The results lead to the recommendation that the US government should focus on real federal debt in the short run. In the medium term, US government should focus on increasing real government spending and reducing only real federal government tax receipts. In the long run the target should real be federal debt, CPI, real federal interest payment, real government spending and real federal government tax receipts

  10. Stability Operations and Government: An Inherently Military Function

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hula, Russell R

    2008-01-01

    Since the end of major combat operations in Iraq over 5 years ago, the United States has been playing catch-up trying to stabilize Iraq and transition authority to a new democratically elected government...

  11. 75 FR 52459 - Regulations Governing Agencies for Issue of United States Savings Bonds; Offering of United...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-26

    ... eliminate the option to purchase paper savings bonds through payroll deductions for United States government... savings bonds purchased through payroll sales; individuals will still be able to purchase paper savings bonds at financial institutions for themselves and as gifts. Payroll savers will be encouraged to...

  12. Contracting Out Government Procurement Functions: An Analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lamm, David; Yoder, Cory

    2008-01-01

    ...)), asked the Naval Postgraduate School (NPS) to analyze the contracting out of procurement functions currently being accomplished by Navy, Marine Corps, and other Department of Defense (DOD) Activities...

  13. Quality of Governance and Local Development: The Case of Top Nine Performing Local Government Units in the Philippines

    OpenAIRE

    MA. NIÑA I. ADRIANO

    2014-01-01

    There is a large body of literature that studies the link between good governance and development in a country level. However, only a few have exploited the same study in the local government unit (LGU) setting. This study attempts to establish the relationship between the quality of governance and the state of local development of the Top 9 Performing LGUs in the Philippines (La Union, Albay, Cavite, Ilocos Norte, Makati City Valenzuela City, Taguig City, Davao City and Angeles C...

  14. THE GENESIS OF THE FUNCTIONS OF GOVERNMENT DEBT SECURITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Osetskyi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Government borrowings appear at a certain stage of development the economic system. Governments used loans many centuries ago because there are often occurred situations when borrowings were the only way to attract additional financial resources. The preconditions for government loans from the position of creditors are also important. These, in particular, include: the availability of subjects that have the temporarily available funds; investor confidence in the state, that stimulating their interest in buying government debt securities; state’s ability to repay its obligations and so on. Thus, the article deals with the basic prerequisites of the government securities market and its function at different stages of develop-ment of economic relations. So, it was found, that the main functions of local borrowing in XIV-XX centuries include the following: fiscal, public debt management, improved economic situation in some areas and repayment of previously issued loans. In modern conditions the functions of government securities have expanded and include: regulation of the money market and stock market, smoothing unevenness of funds flow to the budget, funding various pro-grams, support the liquidity of financial institutions. The author also highlights that objective necessity of using government borrowing associated with the presence of contradictions between the existing needs of society and the state’s capacity to satisfy them within existing financial re-sources. And in such situations government securities are a means of mobilizing additional financial resources to the state budget.

  15. Social Functions of Corporate Governance in Modern Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D V Stanis

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The article demonstrates that realization of social functions in corporate governance increases the corporate competitiveness as the basis to economy development. It marks out several important social functions of modern Russian corporations. It's stressed that institution of corporation regulates not only moral basis of business ethics but also influences behavior norms that structure interactions in society.

  16. Functioning of the Governance Structure in the Tanzania Tobacco ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examines the functioning of tobacco value-chain in Urambo district in Tanzania, focusing mainly on the critical analysis of the value-chain agents and their functions, chain governance and the institutional environment in which the chain operates. It starts by mapping up the chain to have a pictorial representation ...

  17. Governing metropolitan green infrastructure in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert F. Young; E. Gregory McPherson

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we explore whether the enhancement of urban ecosystem services through largescale metropolitan treeplanting initiatives is being planned and executed as a component of traditional municipal government or represents new transdisciplinary strategies in environmental governance Drawing on qualitative interviews with...

  18. Quality of Governance and Local Development: The Case of Top Nine Performing Local Government Units in the Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MA. NIÑA I. ADRIANO

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available There is a large body of literature that studies the link between good governance and development in a country level. However, only a few have exploited the same study in the local government unit (LGU setting. This study attempts to establish the relationship between the quality of governance and the state of local development of the Top 9 Performing LGUs in the Philippines (La Union, Albay, Cavite, Ilocos Norte, Makati City Valenzuela City, Taguig City, Davao City and Angeles City as measured by the Local Governance Performance Management System (LGPMS, the nationwide governance performance evaluation and management tool used in the Philippines. I used the data generated by the LGPMS, particularly the state of local governance and the state of local development, to see if there is a relationship between the two variables using Spearman’s correlation coefficient. Results revealed that that there is no relationship between the quality of governance and the state of local development in the consistently top performing LGUs in the Philippines for the period 2009-2011. The findings of this study will be useful to government officials such as public administrators, LGU executives, policy makers, researchers, and students of public administration in addressing the issue of good governance and local development in their respective LGUs.

  19. 1 CFR 11.4 - The United States Government Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Documents under the general direction of the Administrative Committee. The online edition of the Manual... Government Printing Office (44 U.S.C. 4101). [54 FR 9677, Mar. 7, 1989, as amended at 58 FR 64872, Dec. 10...

  20. 76 FR 23541 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Government Units Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-27

    ... the United States; (2) To obtain descriptive information on the basic characteristics of governments... basic information on the governing board, authorizing legislation, the Web address, agency activity, and.../pension plan, government activity, public services, judicial or legal activities, and finance. The first...

  1. 75 FR 33734 - Regulations Affecting Publication of the United States Government Manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-15

    ...) The Director publishes a special edition of the Federal Register called ``The United States Government... its regulations the requirement that the United States Government Manual (Manual) be published and... INFORMATION CONTACT: Amy P. Bunk, Director of Legal Affairs and Policy, Office of the Federal Register, at...

  2. Traveling Uncharted Waters: The Exchange of Government Information between the United States and China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Rui

    1998-01-01

    Describes a program established between the United States and China for exchange of government publications through their national libraries, the Library of Congress and the National Library of China. Challenges to the program, including the shift to electronic formats in the United States and government Internet censorship in China, are…

  3. Functional Analysis of Kori Unit 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Seong Soo; Han, Jeong Hyun; Heo, Tae Young

    2009-07-01

    Function Analysis of Kori Unit 1 has been performed as a part of independent human factors review tasks for control room renovation of the plant. The top level goal defined for the scope of function analysis is 'Generate Electricity'. Through this function analysis of Kori Unit 1, the detailed sub-functions extracted from the existing design documents and procedures, functional relationships among the high level functions, functional classification of each hierarchical level, and tree diagrams of the hierarchical function structures of the plant were developed and identified as the result of the project. In addition, we investigated and compiled the specifications of MMIS devices used in Ulchin Nuclear Power Plant Unit 5,6 in accordance with the request from KAERI. The results of those researches will be used as basis data for independent review of the control room MMIS design of the Kori Unit 1

  4. Local Government Units in Indonesia: Demographic Attributes and Differences in Financial Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rusmin Rusmin

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the outcome of decentralisation reforms in Indonesia, focusing on the association between demographic characteristics and differences in the financial condition of local governments units. It investigates cross-sectional data pertaining to demographic characteristics and financial statements audited by the Supreme Audit Body of 419 Indonesian local government units for the fiscal year 2007. It utilises demographic attributes including scope of entity, location, tenure (date of entry, gender, human development index (HDI and size of local governments to explain differences in the financial condition of Indonesia’s local government. Local government financial condition is proxied by quick ratio, debt ratio, services ratio, and ratio of local to total revenues. The results suggest that scope and location of local government units help explain all of the financial condition variables. The findings further infer that local government units domiciled in Java tend to report better financial conditions relative to those domiciled in other islands. Our results also show that local government units with greater female populations and higher HDI are more likely to have a local authority that (1 has better ability to finance their general services from their unrestricted net assets, and (2 has greater ability to earn more revenues from local sources. Finally, this study documents that the larger the population of a local government unit, the higher its liquidity position, the stronger its ability to funding general services, and the greater its possibility earning revenues from its local sources.

  5. Efficiency of light curing units in a government dental school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nassar, Hani M; Ajaj, Reem; Hasanain, Fatin

    2018-01-01

    The light intensity of a light-curing unit is a crucial factor that affects the clinical longevity of resin composites. This study aimed to investigate the efficiency of light-curing units in use at a local governmental dental school for curing conventional and bulk-fill resin materials. A total of 166 light-curing units at three locations were examined, and the brand, type, clinic location, diameter of curing tip, tip cleanliness (using a visual score), and the output (in mW/cm 2 using a digital radiometer) were recorded. Only 23.5% of the units examined had clean tips, with the graduate student clinical area containing the highest percentage of clean tips. Further, tips with poor cleanliness score values were associated with significantly lower output intensities. A small percentage (9.4%) of units was capable of producing intensities higher than 1,200 mW/cm 2 and lower than 600 mW/cm 2 (7.6%). The majority of the low intensity units were located in the undergraduate student area, which also contained the highest number of units with intensities between 900 and 1,200 mW/cm 2 . The output of all the units in service was satisfactory for curing conventional resin composites, and most units were capable of curing bulk-fill resin materials.

  6. United People : designing a new model of global governance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Romme, A.G.L.; Ansell, C.; Buck, J.; Choi, Y.; van der Eyden, R.; Figueroa Huencho, V.; John, E.; Kunkler, T.; Mair, J.; Meijer, A.; Meyer, R.; Stephenson, K.; Välikangas, L.; Whitestone, N.; Yu, C.

    2018-01-01

    Human-driven changes on this planet have been giving rise to global warming, social instability, civil wars, and acts of terrorism. The existing system of global governance is not equipped to effectively address these enormous challenges. It is slow where one must move quickly, favors bureaucracy

  7. The internal audit as function to the corporate governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joksimović Marijana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to show the internal audit in function to the corporate governance. Within the planetary economy, internal auditing is determined as an essential means of the exact management of any business economic resources. Concurrently, corporate governance has received wide attention in recent years, both in practice and in academic research because of the main accounting scandals and large-scale corporate failures. The Institute of Internal Auditors presents that regardless of the reporting relationship the organization chooses, there are primary measures that will ensure that the reporting lines, support and enable the effectiveness and autonomy of the internal audit function. Corporate governance has become an increasingly critical issue after the corporate affairs which occurred all over the world and its specific role in the steadiness of financial intermediaries was highlighted by the intense crisis which impacts the financial markets from the summer of 2007. In fact, for financial intermediaries, the governance chain is all the more important not only because the intermediaries are basically in the business of risk acceptance, but also due to their peculiar role within the economy in the aggregation and transfer of financial resources. Regulation may impact on financial venture taking by financial intermediaries by way of the decision-making process pointed out in the various possible legal structures set forth by the law.

  8. A functional intranet for the United States Coast Guard Unit

    OpenAIRE

    Hannah, Robert Todd.

    1998-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution in unlimited. This thesis describes the complete development process of a friendly functional Intranet for an operational United States Coast Guard (USCG) electronic Support Unit (ESU) in Alameda, California. The final product is suitable for immediate use. It may also be used as a prototype for future Intranet development efforts. The methodology used to develop a finished, working product provides the core subject matter for this thesis. The disc...

  9. Identifying influential directors in the United States corporate governance network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xuqing; Vodenska, Irena; Wang, Fengzhong; Havlin, Shlomo; Stanley, H. Eugene

    2011-10-01

    The influence of directors has been one of the most engaging topics recently, but surprisingly little research has been done to quantitatively evaluate the influence and power of directors. We analyze the structure of the US corporate governance network for the 11-year period 1996-2006 based on director data from the Investor Responsibility Research Center director database, and we develop a centrality measure named the influence factor to estimate the influence of directors quantitatively. The US corporate governance network is a network of directors with nodes representing directors and links between two directors representing their service on common company boards. We assume that information flows in the network through information-sharing processes among linked directors. The influence factor assigned to a director is based on the level of information that a director obtains from the entire network. We find that, contrary to commonly accepted belief that directors of large companies, measured by market capitalization, are the most powerful, in some instances, the directors who are influential do not necessarily serve on boards of large companies. By applying our influence factor method to identify the influential people contained in the lists created by popular magazines such as Fortune, Networking World, and Treasury and Risk Management, we find that the influence factor method is consistently either the best or one of the two best methods in identifying powerful people compared to other general centrality measures that are used to denote the significance of a node in complex network theory.

  10. Identifying influential directors in the United States corporate governance network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xuqing; Vodenska, Irena; Wang, Fengzhong; Havlin, Shlomo; Stanley, H Eugene

    2011-10-01

    The influence of directors has been one of the most engaging topics recently, but surprisingly little research has been done to quantitatively evaluate the influence and power of directors. We analyze the structure of the US corporate governance network for the 11-year period 1996-2006 based on director data from the Investor Responsibility Research Center director database, and we develop a centrality measure named the influence factor to estimate the influence of directors quantitatively. The US corporate governance network is a network of directors with nodes representing directors and links between two directors representing their service on common company boards. We assume that information flows in the network through information-sharing processes among linked directors. The influence factor assigned to a director is based on the level of information that a director obtains from the entire network. We find that, contrary to commonly accepted belief that directors of large companies, measured by market capitalization, are the most powerful, in some instances, the directors who are influential do not necessarily serve on boards of large companies. By applying our influence factor method to identify the influential people contained in the lists created by popular magazines such as Fortune, Networking World, and Treasury and Risk Management, we find that the influence factor method is consistently either the best or one of the two best methods in identifying powerful people compared to other general centrality measures that are used to denote the significance of a node in complex network theory.

  11. Governing new technology: A comparative analysis of government support for nanotechnology in the Netherlands and the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eijmberts, Johannes

    This study examines this variance in national government support for nanotechnology---its shape, size, and policy priorities---by comparing the United States and the Netherlands. Our operating hypothesis is that national government support for nanotechnology development is driven not by the intrinsic nature of the technology but by longstanding structural and institutional arrangements. That is, in the U.S., pluralist political traditions and reliance on classical liberal market economics would suggest a detached national government approach, leaving any initiative to market actors. At the same time, legacies of corporatism in the Dutch political system and a tradition of greater direct government involvement in the national economy would suggest a government-led policy on nanotechnology development. The findings show otherwise. Early on, the U.S. government established the National Nanotechnology Initiative, an overarching federal mechanism to promote and coordinate nanotechnology development. Yet, despite its appearance of central direction and coordination, the NNI reflected pluralist arrangements by leaving ample autonomy for participating federal departments and agencies. The creation of the NNI was driven particularly by concerns of about foreign challenges to American global leadership in science and technology. In the Netherlands, by contrast, the path taken shows the legacy of Dutch corporatist practice---slow, incremental, and embedded in pre-existing institutional arrangements. The Dutch government initially took no directive role, relying instead on established links among universities, public research funding organizations, and industries to advance nanotechnology development in the Netherlands. However, over time, Dutch government involvement in nanotechnology grew to be more supportive, sizeable, comprehensive, and directive---particulary by requiring substantial investments in risk-related research as a condition for public funding and, notably, by

  12. Modelling local government unit credit risk in the Republic of Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Posedel

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to determine possible indicators that affect local unit credit risk and investigate their effect on default (credit risk of local government units in Croatia. No system for the estimation of local unit credit risk has been established in Croatia so far causing many practical problems in local unit borrowing. Because of the specific nature of the operations of local government units and legislation that does not allow local government units to go into bankruptcy, conventional methods for estimating credit risk are not applicable, and the set of standard potential determinants of credit risk has to be expanded with new indicators. Thus in the paper, in addition to the usual determinants of credit risk, the hypothesis of the influence of political factors on local unit credit risk in Croatia is also tested out, with the use of a Tobit model. Results of econometric analysis show that credit risk of local government units in Croatia is affected by the political structure of local government, the proportion of income tax and surtax in operating revenue, the ratio of net operating balance, net financial liabilities and direct debt to operating revenue, as well as the ratio of debt repayment and cash, and direct debt and operating revenue.

  13. United States Local Government Reform: The Emergence of the City Manager

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert McEVOY

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available City Managers came into being in the early 1900.s because of the corruption, waste, and lack of responsiveness of local governments in the United States. Business leaders in large cities had begun to recognise that major changes in their local governments were desperately needed for their businesses to grow and prosper. Andrew Carnegie, a founder of United States Steel, had indicated that business needed a stable society to prosper. Local government had to become responsive to the changing needs of the poor, abused and neglected children, the mentally ill and the elderly, to cite a few examples.

  14. The Evolving Contingency Contracting Market: Private Sector Self regulation and United States Government Monitoring of Procurement of Stability Operations Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    statements of work would be useful in ensuring ethical govern- ment procurement practices. Conclusions The United States conducts diplomatic, defense...THE EVOLVING CONTINGENCY CONTRACTING MARKET: PRIVATE SECTOR SELF-REGULATION AND UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT MONITORING OF PROCUREMENT OF STABILITY...MARKET: PRIVATE SECTOR SELF-REGULATION AND UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT MONITORING OF PROCUREMENT OF STABILITY OPERATIONS SERVICES Whitney Grespin January

  15. 10 CFR 455.141 - Grant awards for units of local government, public care institutions, and coordinating agencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Grant awards for units of local government, public care... CONSERVATION GRANT PROGRAMS FOR SCHOOLS AND HOSPITALS AND BUILDINGS OWNED BY UNITS OF LOCAL GOVERNMENT AND PUBLIC CARE INSTITUTIONS Grant Awards § 455.141 Grant awards for units of local government, public care...

  16. Nurse manager perspective of staff participation in unit level shared governance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox Sullivan, Sheila; Norris, Mitzi R; Brown, Lana M; Scott, Karen J

    2017-11-01

    To examine the nurse manager perspective surrounding implementation of unit level shared governance in one Veterans Health Administration facility. Nursing shared governance is a formal model allowing nursing staff decision-making input into clinical practice, quality improvement, evidence-based practice and staff professional development. Unit level shared governance is a management process where decision authority is delegated to nursing staff at the unit level. Convenience sampling was used to recruit ten nurse managers who participated in face-to-face semi-structured interviews. Data were analysed using content analysis and constant comparison techniques. Demographic data were described using descriptive statistics. The participants included seven female and three male nurse managers with seven Caucasian and three African American. Participant quotes were clustered to identify sub-themes that were then grouped into four global themes to describe unit level shared governance. The global themes were: (1) motivation, (2) demotivation, (3) recommendations for success, and (4) outcomes. These research findings resonate with previous studies that shared governance may be associated with increased nurse empowerment, self-management, engagement, and satisfaction. These findings reflect the need for nurse managers to promote and recognize staff participation in unit level shared governance. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Shelter from the Storm: Roles, responsibilities, and challenges in United States housing policy governance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willison, Charley

    2017-11-01

    Housing is a critical social determinant of health. Housing policy not only affects health by improving housing quality, affordability, and insecurity; housing policy affects health upstream through the politics that shape housing policy design, implementation, and management. These politics, or governance strategies, determine the successes or failures of housing policy programs. This paper is an overview of challenges in housing policy governance in the United States. I examine the important relationship between housing and health, and emphasize why studying housing policy governance matters. I then present three cases of housing governance challenges in the United States, from each pathway by which housing affects health - housing quality, affordability, and insecurity. Each case corresponds to an arm of the TAPIC framework for evaluating governance (Krieger and Higgins) [1], to assess mechanisms of housing governance in each case. While housing governance has come a long way over the past century, political decentralization and the expansion of the submerged state have increased the number of political actors and policy conflict in many areas. This creates inherent challenges for improving accountability, transparency, and policy capacity. In many instances, too, reduced government accountability and transparency increases the risk of harm to the public and lessens governmental integrity. Copyright © 2017 The Author. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. The analysis of the regional self-governing units forests in selected European countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbora Lišková

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on identification, analysis, description and comparison of the regional self-governing units (RSGU forests in selected European countries. The analysis deals not only with forests in the ownership of basic regional self-governing units such as villages but also with forests of higher regional self-governing unit such as regions or federated states. The identification and description of this type of ownership is not overly published in the Czech Republic. The published foreign overall studies and summaries state mainly the division into forests in public and private ownership. This article is created on the basis of the selection of relevant information sources according to corresponding key words. The methods of analysis of available literary sources, conspectus, comparison and interpretation were used to deal with the topic. The quantity of information is higher and more available within basic regional self-governing units than with higher regional self-governing units. On the basis of obtained information it can be stated that the share of forest ownership in the observed countries varies ranging from zero share in the ownership to fifty per cent share in Germany.

  19. Beyond Section 508: The Spectrum of Legal Requirements for Accessible e-Government Web Sites in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaeger, Paul T.

    2004-01-01

    In the United States, a number of federal laws establish requirements that electronic government (e-government) information and services be accessible to individuals with disabilities. These laws affect e-government Web sites at the federal, state, and local levels. To this point, research about the accessibility of e-government Web sites has…

  20. Local self governance in health - a study of it's functioning in Odisha, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panda, Bhuputra; Zodpey, Sanjay P; Thakur, Harshad P

    2016-10-31

    Local decision making is linked to several service quality improvement parameters. Rogi Kalyan Samitis (RKS) at peripheral decision making health units (DMHU) are composite bodies that are mandated to ensure accountability and transparency in governance, improve quality of services, and facilitate local responsiveness. There is scant literature on the nature of functioning of these institutions in Odisha. This study aimed to assess the perception of RKS members about their roles, involvement and practices with respect to local decision making and management of DMHUs; it further examined perceptual and functional differences between priority and non-priority district set-ups; and identified predictors of involvement of RKS members in local governance of health units. As members of RKS, health service providers, officials in administrative/managerial role, elected representatives, and officials from other departments (including independent members) constituted our study sample. A total of 112 respondents were interviewed across 6 districts, through a multi-stage stratified random sampling; we used a semi-structured interview schedule that comprised mainly of close-ended and some open-ended questions. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used to compare 3 priority (PD) and 3 non-priority districts (NPD), categorized on the basis of Infant Mortality Rate (IMR) estimates of 2011 as proxy of population health. Governance, human resource management, financial management and quality improvement functions were studied in detail. Opinion about various individual and organizational factors in local self-governance and predictors of involvement were identified. The socio-demographic profile and composition of respondents were comparable between PD and NPD. Majority of respondents were 'satisfied' with their current roles in the governance of local health institutions. About one-fourth opined that the amount of funds allocated to RKS under National Health Mission (NHM

  1. 8 CFR 312.2 - Knowledge of history and government of the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... fundamentals of the history, and of the principles and form of government, of the United States. A person who... person who is unable to demonstrate a knowledge and understanding of the fundamentals of the history, and... knowledge and understanding. (Approved by the Office of Management and Budget under control number 1115-0208...

  2. Leadership Development in Governments of the United Arab Emirates: Re-Framing a Wicked Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathias, Megan

    2017-01-01

    Developing the next generation of leaders in government is seen as a strategic challenge of national importance in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). This article examines the wicked nature of the UAE's leadership development challenge, identifying patterns of complexity, uncertainty, and divergence in the strategic intentions underlying current…

  3. Synthetic biology regulation and governance: Lessons from TAPIC for the United States, European Union, and Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trump, Benjamin D

    2017-11-01

    Synthetic biology is an emerging technology with potential benefits to various fields, yet also contains potential risks to human and environmental health. The field remains in an emerging state with limited quantitative guidance and a small but growing population of international researchers that conduct work within this field. Given the uncertain nature of this technology, an adaptive and anticipatory governance framework may be necessary to balance the potential benefits that may accrue from the technology's continued research alongside a desire to reduce or eliminate potential risks that may arise. However, such developments must account for the unique political and institutional factors that form a government's risk culture - something that can facilitate or impede the development of adaptive synthetic biology governance moving forward. The TAPIC framework helps illustrate those factors that are essential to develop good governance for emerging technologies like synthetic biology. Specifically, an application of TAPIC to synthetic biology governance indicates that the factors of accountability, participation, and integrity must be bolstered to improve technology governance in governments like with the United States, European Union, and Singapore. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Which functional unit to identify sustainable foods?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masset, Gabriel; Vieux, Florent; Darmon, Nicole

    2015-09-01

    In life-cycle assessment, the functional unit defines the unit for calculation of environmental indicators. The objective of the present study was to assess the influence of two functional units, 100 g and 100 kcal (420 kJ), on the associations between three dimensions for identifying sustainable foods, namely environmental impact (via greenhouse gas emissions (GHGE)), nutritional quality (using two distinct nutrient profiling systems) and price. GHGE and price data were collected for individual foods, and were each expressed per 100 g and per 100 kcal. Two nutrient profiling models, SAIN,LIM and UK Ofcom, were used to assess foods' nutritional quality. Spearman correlations were used to assess associations between variables. Sustainable foods were identified as those having more favourable values for all three dimensions. The French Individual and National Dietary Survey (INCA2), 2006-2007. Three hundred and seventy-three foods highly consumed in INCA2, covering 65 % of total energy intake of adult participants. When GHGE and price were expressed per 100 g, low-GHGE foods had a lower price and higher SAIN,LIM and Ofcom scores (r=0·59, -0·34 and -0·43, respectively), suggesting a compatibility between the three dimensions; 101 and 100 sustainable foods were identified with SAIN,LIM and Ofcom, respectively. When GHGE and price were expressed per 100 kcal, low-GHGE foods had a lower price but also lower SAIN,LIM and Ofcom scores (r=0·67, 0·51 and 0·47, respectively), suggesting that more environment-friendly foods were less expensive but also less healthy; thirty-four sustainable foods were identified with both SAIN,LIM and Ofcom. The choice of functional unit strongly influenced the compatibility between the sustainability dimensions and the identification of sustainable foods.

  5. Planning in All its (Dis)guises: Spheres of Government, Functional ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Planning in All its (Dis)guises: Spheres of Government, Functional Areas and ... Draft legislation such as the Spatial Planning and Land Use Management Bill ... of co-operative government where uncertainty and conflict exist is examined, ...

  6. CIT photoheliograph functional verification unit test program

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-01-01

    Tests of the 2/3-meter photoheliograph functional verification unit FVU were performed with the FVU installed in its Big Bear Solar Observatory vacuum chamber. Interferometric tests were run both in Newtonian (f/3.85) and Gregorian (f/50) configurations. Tests were run in both configurations with optical axis horizontal, vertical, and at 45 deg to attempt to determine any gravity effects on the system. Gravity effects, if present, were masked by scatter in the data associated with the system wavefront error of 0.16 lambda rms ( = 6328A) apparently due to problems in the primary mirror. Tests showed that the redesigned secondary mirror assembly works well.

  7. 76 FR 76477 - Notice of Proposal To Extend the Memorandum of Understanding Between the Government of the United...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-07

    ... Understanding Between the Government of the United States of America and the Government of the Republic of Peru... Certain Ethnological Material From the Colonial Period of Peru The Government of the Republic of Peru has... Republic of Peru Concerning the Imposition of Import Restrictions on Archaeological Material from Pre...

  8. Support for Development of Electronics and Materials Technologies by the Governments of the United States, Japan, West Germany, France, and the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    General Accounting Office, Washington, DC.

    The governments of the United States, Japan, West Germany, France, and the United Kingdom each have large research and development efforts involving government agencies, universities and industry. This document provides a comparative overview of policies and programs which contribute to the development of technologies in the general area of…

  9. Distorted governance: A case of the municipal unit in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bethuel Sibongiseni Ngcamu

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Local government community participation units or departments ineffectively and inefficiently operate based on the directive from their political organisations instead of achieving the objectives of the municipality as per the Integrated Development Plan (IDP. This has resulted in the marginalisation of the local communities on their participation in municipal governance which also has been exacerbated by the employment of employees based on political competencies rather than the unit’s core business requirements. On the backdrop of the above, this study aims to reveal municipal operational hindrances that prevent local communities to participate effectively in the eThekwini Municipality governance as permitted by South African local government legislation. This stated background has necessitated the study to adopt a qualitative approach whereby non-standardized interviews were conducted by the researcher to the sample size of 23. The findings of the study were analysed using NVivo software (version 10. The study revealed an extreme percentage (39% of activities performed by Community Participation and Action Support Unit (CP&AS which were based on coordinating unclear activities. Whereas, 22% were on capacity development of local communities, 12% on communication with internal and external stakeholders, 8% on monitoring and evaluation, 5% on policies, and 3% on partnership with other departments and spheres of government and elected officials and research respectively. The unbalanced and unclear activities performed by the respondents will assist the municipal decision-makers to understand the core causes of poor service delivery as it lies on the failure of the municipal officials to concentrate on their core business. This study contributes to the decision-makers’ understanding of the implications of using the municipal resources to advance political activities, consequently disadvantaging the alleged indigent local communities. The

  10. AUDIT OF MUNICIPALITIES AND LOCAL GOVERNMENT UNITS - THE CASE STUDY OF THE CZECH REPUBLIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard POSPISIL

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Public economics examines the influence of the state on economic equality and efficiency, and on conduction of business entities in connection with the various tax systems and individual behavior in private consumption. To manage the public economy is thorough knowledge of the real decision-making and allocation mechanisms. From a budgetary perspective, the public economy in the Czech Republic is characterized mainly by the state budget, 6,249 municipal budgets and 14 budgets of local government units. These all units are together subject to annual statutory audit, which mainly represents the analysis of the system of the Audit informative and monitoring indicators (ASIMI. The paper analyzes the outcome of the audit with the use of absolute and relative indicators and suggests possible changes and consolidation of municipal and local government budgets in the Czech Republic.

  11. Comparison of USDA Forest Service and stakeholder motivations and experiences in collaborative federal forest governance in the Western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emily Jane Davis; Eric M. White; Lee K. Cerveny; David Seesholtz; Meagan L. Nuss; Donald R. Ulrich

    2017-01-01

    In the United States, over 191 million acres of land is managed by the United States Department of Agriculture Forest Service, a federal government agency. In several western U.S. states, organized collaborative groups have become a de facto governance approach to providing sustained input on management decisions on much public land. This is most extensive in Oregon,...

  12. Data mining for assessing the credit risk of local government units in Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvija Vlah Jerić

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the past few decades, data mining techniques, especially artificial neural networks, have been used for modelling many real-world problems. This paper aims to test the performance of three methods: (1 an artificial neural network (ANN, (2 a hybrid artificial neural network and genetic algorithm approach (ANN-GA, and (2 the Tobit regression approach in determining the credit risk of local government units in Croatia. The evaluation of credit risk and prediction of debtor bankruptcy have long been regarded as an important topic in accounting and finance literature. In this research, credit risk is modelled under a regression approach unlike typical credit risk analysis, which is generally viewed as a classification problem. Namely, a standard evaluation of credit risk is not possible due to a lack of bankruptcy data. Thus, the credit risk of a local unit is approximated using the ratio of outstanding liabilities maturing in a given year to total expenditure of the local unit in the same period. The results indicate that the ANN-GA hybrid approach performs significantly better than the Tobit model by providing a significantly smaller average mean squared error. This work is beneficial to researchers and the government in evaluating a local government unit’s credit score.

  13. Nuclear. Exchange of letters between the Government of Canada and the Government of the United States of America. Treaty series 1993 no.5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    Discussions between officials of the Governments of the United States of America and Canada concerning cooperation between Canada and the United States of America on the application of non-proliferation assurances to Canadian uranium to be transferred from Canada to the United States of America for enrichment and fabrication into fuel and thereafter retransferred to Taiwan for use in nuclear reactors for the generation of electricity on Taiwan

  14. Method of synchronizing independent functional unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Changhoan

    2018-03-13

    A system for synchronizing parallel processing of a plurality of functional processing units (FPU), a first FPU and a first program counter to control timing of a first stream of program instructions issued to the first FPU by advancement of the first program counter; a second FPU and a second program counter to control timing of a second stream of program instructions issued to the second FPU by advancement of the second program counter, the first FPU is in communication with a second FPU to synchronize the issuance of a first stream of program instructions to the second stream of program instructions and the second FPU is in communication with the first FPU to synchronize the issuance of the second stream program instructions to the first stream of program instructions.

  15. A Systematic Evaluation of State Laws Governing Optometric Glaucoma Management in the United States Upto 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chodnicki, Kevin; Kalarn, Sachin; Quinn, Laura; Jampel, Henry; Saeedi, Osamah

    2018-03-01

    To describe state laws that govern the optometric practice of glaucoma management in the United States and to correlate those laws with state demographics upto 2015. We performed a cross-sectional ecological study of the 50 United States and the District of Columbia. Regulations governing optometric scope of practice as written by each state Board of Optometry were reviewed. Specific optometric privileges assessed included: ability to manage glaucoma independently, use of diagnostic pharmaceutical agents, use of therapeutic pharmaceutical agents (including topical and oral steroids and other oral pharmaceutical agents), IV injections, intraocular injections, therapeutic lasers, presence of defined referral, and comanagement guidelines, and hours of yearly continuing education needed for glaucoma management. Optometric privilege was compared with demographic and employment information for each state. Optometrists in all states, except for Massachusetts, and the District of Columbia are allowed to manage glaucoma; 16 states have defined comanagement guidelines. Therapeutic lasers are allowed in 3 states: Kentucky, Louisiana, and Oklahoma. States with defined comanagement guidelines had a mean of 6.9±1.9 ophthalmologists per 100,000 people, significantly more than the 5.3±1.1 in states without defined comanagement of glaucoma (Pstate, the less likely there is to be defined comanagement [β (SE)=-0.008 (0.003), P=0.02] and the greater the number of ophthalmologists in a given state, the more likely a state has defined comanagement [β (SE)=-0.13 (0.006)]. There is a diversity of regulations that govern optometric management of glaucoma in each of the 50 states and the District of Columbia. The number of optometrists and ophthalmologists in a state may influence state regulations governing optometric practice and referral guidelines.

  16. Local self governance in health - a study of it’s functioning in Odisha, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhuputra Panda

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Local decision making is linked to several service quality improvement parameters. Rogi Kalyan Samitis (RKS at peripheral decision making health units (DMHU are composite bodies that are mandated to ensure accountability and transparency in governance, improve quality of services, and facilitate local responsiveness. There is scant literature on the nature of functioning of these institutions in Odisha. This study aimed to assess the perception of RKS members about their roles, involvement and practices with respect to local decision making and management of DMHUs; it further examined perceptual and functional differences between priority and non-priority district set-ups; and identified predictors of involvement of RKS members in local governance of health units. Methods As members of RKS, health service providers, officials in administrative/managerial role, elected representatives, and officials from other departments (including independent members constituted our study sample. A total of 112 respondents were interviewed across 6 districts, through a multi-stage stratified random sampling; we used a semi-structured interview schedule that comprised mainly of close-ended and some open-ended questions. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used to compare 3 priority (PD and 3 non-priority districts (NPD, categorized on the basis of Infant Mortality Rate (IMR estimates of 2011 as proxy of population health. Governance, human resource management, financial management and quality improvement functions were studied in detail. Opinion about various individual and organizational factors in local self-governance and predictors of involvement were identified. Results The socio-demographic profile and composition of respondents were comparable between PD and NPD. Majority of respondents were ‘satisfied’ with their current roles in the governance of local health institutions. About one-fourth opined that the amount of funds

  17. Government regulation of forestry practices on private forest land in the United States: an assessment of state government responsibilities and program performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul V. Ellefson; Michael A. Kilgore; James E. Granskog

    2006-01-01

    In 2003, a comprehensive assessment of state government, forest practice regulatory programs in the United States was undertaken. Involved was an extensive review of the literature and information gathering h m program administration in all 50 states. The assessment determined that regulatory programs focus on a wide range of forestry practices applied to private...

  18. 76 FR 32011 - Memorandum of Understanding Between the Government of the United States of America and the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-02

    ... the United States of America and the Government of the Republic of Bolivia Notice of Proposal to... Government of the Republic of Bolivia Concerning the Imposition of Import Restrictions on Archaeological Material from the Pre-Columbian Cultures and Certain Ethnological Material from the Colonial and Republican...

  19. The Capacity and Institution Building (CIB Working Group of United Cities and Local Governments: Towards Improving Aid Effectiveness in the Local Government Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Kehoe

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The United Cities and Local Governments (UCLG Capacity and Institution Building (CIB Working Group gather together professional practitioners of local government associations (LGAs and individual local governments active in international cooperation, with the overall objective to improve the quality, coordination and alignment of their development cooperation interventions. The Working Group is the successor of the CIB Platform, which existed for many years within the former International Union of Local Authorities (IULA as an informal gathering of staff members of local government associations (LGAs involved in the field of municipal international cooperation (MIC and association capacity building (ACB. In addition to information exchange, the CIB Platform undertook specific initiatives such as a World Bank-funded program supporting ACB in several countries. In May 2004, the CIB was integrated into the structures of the newly-founded UCLG organisation, and its membership was expanded to also include staff members of international departments of cities active in international cooperation.

  20. ACCOUNTING AND FINANCIAL REPORTS IN THE FUNCTION OF CORPORATE GOVERNANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jugoslav Aničić

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Market economy development is highly dependent upon accounting data reliability and financial report quality because the investors decide more easily on investments in the market which had earned trust and safety in the previous period. Big financial scandals from the beginning of the 21st century and still actual financial crisis at the global level have especially contributed to that. The information prepared on the basis of high quality, transparent and comparable international standards considerably reduce investment risks as well as the cost of raising capital. On the other hand, the management of a large number of companies is focused on the creation of short-term personal benefits as opposed to the investors primarily interested in company survival and growth, that is, long-term goals. Information asymmetry is often present in the financial markets, and its damaging results, as a rule, are borne by shareholders and other stakeholders of the company. Corporate governance depends on legal, regulative and institutional environment, and it should balance the interests of the shareholders, capital owners, managers as well as company business managers.

  1. 22 CFR 63.6 - Assignment of United States Government employees to consult, lecture, teach, engage in research...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE PUBLIC DIPLOMACY AND EXCHANGES PAYMENTS TO AND ON BEHALF OF PARTICIPANTS IN THE INTERNATIONAL EDUCATIONAL AND CULTURAL EXCHANGE PROGRAM § 63.6 Assignment of United States... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Assignment of United States Government...

  2. 12 CFR 987.2 - Law governing rights and obligations of Banks, Finance Board, Office of Finance, United States...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Law governing rights and obligations of Banks, Finance Board, Office of Finance, United States and Federal Reserve Banks; rights of any Person against Banks, Finance Board, Office of Finance, United States and Federal Reserve Banks. 987.2 Section 987.2 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE...

  3. The usage of English phraseological units and their functions

    OpenAIRE

    RAKHIMOVA GUZAL YULDASHOVNA; ATAMURATOV DILSHOD ALIMBAYEVICH

    2016-01-01

    This article analyzes the units of phraseology and their major functions with examples which are complicated to understand. Besides, plenty of explanations of functions are stated here according to experienced scientists’ theories.

  4. The mechanisms of corporate governance in the United States: an assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldrighi Dante Mendes

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at evaluating the mechanisms of corporate governance currently at work in the United States. Section 1 turns its focus to the reasons accounting for the still relative scarceness of large shareholders in American publicly held companies. The analysis thereafter concentrates on assessing the efficacy of each of the pillars purportedly buttressing the American system of corporate control. The paper argues that the evidence provided by the existing corporate governance literature supports the following propositions: 1 the legal and regulatory framework actually restrains the scope for expropriating minority shareholders, though at the cost of inhibiting institutional investor activism; 2 as a rule, the board of directors do not comply with their mandatory duty of overseeing management, although some progress has recently been made, with directors in several companies becoming less submissive to chief executive officers; 3 the market for corporate control encounters a great number of difficulties (ranging from legal hurdles to high transaction costs and to serious free-riding problems, which are sufficient to cast a cloud on its reliability as a means of repressing managerial inefficiencies and rent-seeking; 4 competition in the product and capital markets is likely to produce effects only in the long-run.

  5. Local government units initiatives on coastal resource management in adjacent municipalities in Camarines Sur, Philippines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faustino, A. Z.; Madela, H. L.

    2018-03-01

    This research was conducted to determine the local government units (LGUs) initiatives on coastal resource management (CRM) in adjacent municipalities in Camarines Sur, Philippines. The respondents of this study are 100 fisherfolk leaders in the municipalities of Calabanga, Tinambac and Siruma. Descriptive, comparative and evaluative methods of research were employed and a survey questionnaire was used as the primary tool in data gathering. On the test of difference, the computed F-value of 12.038 and p-value of .001 revealed a very high difference in the implementation of CRM initiatives in the adjacent municipalities. The respondents in this study live below the poverty threshold. The intrusion of commercial fishers and the use of active fishing gears inside the 15-km municipal waters significantly affect the marine habitat while fishpond conversion kills the natural cycle in the mangrove forests. However, the FOs membership in the Municipal Fisheries and Aquatic Resources Management Council empower them to engage in governance which can be a venue for them to recommend policies related to CRM. As a result of this study, a CRM monitoring and evaluation model was crafted to guide the LGUs in the review, revision and crafting of CRM programs.

  6. Governing Health Care through Free Choice: Neoliberal Reforms in Denmark and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Lars Thorup; Stone, Deborah

    2015-10-01

    We compare free choice reforms in Denmark and the United States to understand what ideas and political forces could generate such similar policy reforms in radically different political contexts. We analyze the two cases using our own interpretation of neoliberalism as having "two faces." The first face seeks to expand private markets and shrink the public sector; the second face seeks to strengthen the public sector's capacity to govern through incentives and competition. First, we show why these two most-different cases offer a useful comparison to understand similar policy tools. Second, we develop our theoretical framework of the two faces of neoliberalism. Third, we examine Denmark's introduction of a free choice of hospitals in 2002, a policy that for the first time allowed some patients to receive care either in a public hospital outside their local area or in a private hospital. Fourth, we examine the introduction of free choice among private managed care plans into the US Medicare program in 1997. We show how policy makers in both countries used neoliberal reform as a mechanism to make their public health care sectors governable. Fifth, on the basis of our analysis, we draw five lessons about neoliberal policy reforms. Copyright © 2015 by Duke University Press.

  7. Professor Sir Mark Walport Government Chief Scientific Adviser Head of Government Science and Engineering Profession Chief Executive Designate of UK Research and Innovation United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland

    CERN Multimedia

    Bennett, Sophia Elizabeth

    2017-01-01

    Professor Sir Mark Walport Government Chief Scientific Adviser Head of Government Science and Engineering Profession Chief Executive Designate of UK Research and Innovation United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland

  8. Uniting Control Lyapunov and Control Barrier Functions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Romdlony, Zakiyullah; Jayawardhana, Bayu

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a nonlinear control design for solving the problem of stabilization with guaranteed safety. The design is based on the merging of a Control Lyapunov Function and a Control Barrier Function. The proposed control method allows us to combine the design of a stabilizer based on

  9. Effects of government incentives on wind innovation in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horner, Nathaniel; Azevedo, Inês; Hounshell, David

    2013-12-01

    In the United States, as elsewhere, state and federal governments have considered or implemented a range of policies to create more sustainable energy generation systems in response to concerns over climate change, security of fuel supply, and environmental impacts. These policies include both regulatory instruments such as renewable portfolio standards (RPSs) and market incentives such as tax credits. While these policies are primarily geared towards increasing renewable generation capacity, they can indirectly affect innovation in associated technologies through a ‘demand-pull’ dynamic. Other policies, such as public research and development (R&D) funding, directly incentivize innovation through ‘technology-push’ means. In this letter, we examine these effects on innovation in the United States wind energy industry. We estimate a set of econometric models relating a set of US federal and state policies to patenting activity in wind technologies over the period 1974-2009. We find that RPS policies have had significant positive effects on wind innovation, whereas tax-based incentives have not been particularly effective. We also find evidence that the effects of RPS incentives differ between states. Finally, we find that public R&D funding can be a significant driver of wind innovation, though its effect in the US has been modest.

  10. Effects of government incentives on wind innovation in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horner, Nathaniel; Azevedo, Inês; Hounshell, David

    2013-01-01

    In the United States, as elsewhere, state and federal governments have considered or implemented a range of policies to create more sustainable energy generation systems in response to concerns over climate change, security of fuel supply, and environmental impacts. These policies include both regulatory instruments such as renewable portfolio standards (RPSs) and market incentives such as tax credits. While these policies are primarily geared towards increasing renewable generation capacity, they can indirectly affect innovation in associated technologies through a ‘demand-pull’ dynamic. Other policies, such as public research and development (R and D) funding, directly incentivize innovation through ‘technology-push’ means. In this letter, we examine these effects on innovation in the United States wind energy industry. We estimate a set of econometric models relating a set of US federal and state policies to patenting activity in wind technologies over the period 1974–2009. We find that RPS policies have had significant positive effects on wind innovation, whereas tax-based incentives have not been particularly effective. We also find evidence that the effects of RPS incentives differ between states. Finally, we find that public R and D funding can be a significant driver of wind innovation, though its effect in the US has been modest. (letter)

  11. A Qualitative Analysis of Facilities Maintenance--A School Governance Function in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xaba, M. I.

    2012-01-01

    I analysed school facilities maintenance, a school governance function in South Africa. Qualitative interviews were conducted with 13 principals and three deputy principals as coordinators of this function at their schools. The interviews were purposively and conveniently selected to gather data regarding school facilities maintenance and gain…

  12. Contractual Alliance Governance: Impact of Different Contract Functions on Alliance Performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faems, D.L.M.; Alberink, Rutger; Groen, Arend J.; Klein Woolthuis, Rosalinde

    2010-01-01

    Recent research on alliance governance has emphasized that contracts can have both a control and coordination function. In this paper, we test the impact of these different contract functions on alliance performance. Conducting structural equation analyses on a sample of 270 Dutch technology

  13. The Text of a Protocol between the Agency and the Governments of Thailand and the United States of America Terminating the Agreement between the International Atomic Energy Agency, the Government of the Kingdom of Thailand and the Government of the United States of America for the Application of Safeguards and Terminating the Protocol Suspending that Agreement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    The text of a protocol between the Agency and the Governments of Thailand and the United States of America terminating the Agreement between the International Atomic Energy Agency, the Government of the Kingdom of Thailand and the Government of the United States of America for the Application of Safeguards and terminating the Protocol suspending that Agreement is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members. The Protocol entered into force on 27 June 1974, pursuant to Section 6 thereof.

  14. Canadian and the United States' health care systems performance and governance: elements of convergence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Globerman, Steven; Hodges, Hart; Vining, Aidan

    2002-01-01

    International comparisons of the organisation and performance of health care sectors are increasingly informing policy makers about potential policies relating to health care. Politicians, academics and critics in both the United States and Canada have compared and contrasted the health care systems in the two countries. Public debate tends to emphasise the differences between the US and Canadian health care systems. But, dramatic differences between the organisation and performances of health care systems of the two countries would be surprising given that most elements of divergence have only emerged in the last fifty years, and that health systems tend to be driven by the same basic economic problems. This paper provides an overview of the main economic efficiency issues that must be addressed by health care delivery systems, as well as statistical and related evidence on both input usage and output performance of the two health care systems. While Canada clearly spends less on health care, it is difficult to conclude that Canada has a more efficient health care system than the United States. In particular, the US population puts greater demands on its national health care system owing to a combination of behavioural patterns and socio-economic disparities that contribute to much higher rates of violent accidents, as well as specific diseases and other health problems. Also, the stylized representation of the US system as being 'market-driven' and the Canadian system as being 'centrally controlled' is, increasingly, inept. Both systems are evolving toward bureaucratic models that rely more on internal competition than market competition for governance. In this respect, economic forces are nudging both systems towards a convergence of structure and performance.

  15. 78 FR 12369 - United States Government Policy for Institutional Oversight of Life Sciences Dual Use Research of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-22

    ... Oversight of Life Sciences Dual Use Research of Concern AGENCY: Office of Science and Technology Policy... comments on the proposed United States Government Policy for Institutional Oversight of Life Sciences Dual... requirements for certain categories of life sciences research at institutions that accept Federal funding for...

  16. Human Trafficking in the United States. Part II. Survey of U.S. Government Web Resources for Publications and Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panigabutra-Roberts, Anchalee

    2012-01-01

    This second part of a two-part series is a survey of U.S. government web resources on human trafficking in the United States, particularly of the online publications and data included on agencies' websites. Overall, the goal is to provide an introduction, an overview, and a guide on this topic for library staff to use in their research and…

  17. Managing across levels of government: evaluation of federal-state roles and responsibilities involving nonfederal forests in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul V. Ellefson; Calder M. Hibbard; Michael A. Kilgore

    2006-01-01

    With the assistance of state foresters and federal agency executives, an evaluation was made of federal and state government roles and responsibilities focused nonfederal forests in the United States. The evaluation involved an inventory of legally (and administratively) defined federal roles, identification bf federal programs supporting accomplishment of such roles,...

  18. The United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority Government Division's written evidence to the Trade and Industry Committee inquiry into the Government's proposals for nuclear privatisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    Successful privatisation of the United Kingdom nuclear industry requires the best solution for the future of nuclear liabilities associated with the decommissioning of nuclear facilities and management of the resultant radioactive wastes. At least some of these liabilities will remain in the public sector. The UKAEA Government Division was brought into being in 1994 to manage the UKAEA's nuclear liabilities. The evidence presented suggests how the experience and expertise of this organisation may be valuable in deciding how public sector nuclear liabilities in general can best be handled. In particular, a number of operating principles have been established which could be successfully applied to the management of other nuclear liabilities. (UK)

  19. Text of a Protocol between the Agency and the Governments of Norway and the United States of America in Connection with the Application of Safeguards under a Co-Operation Agreement between the Two Governments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1973-01-01

    The text of a protocol between the Agency and the Governments of Norway and the United States of America in connection with the application of safeguards under the Agreement for Co-operation between the Government of the United States of America and the Government of Norway Concerning Civil Uses of Atomic Energy signed on 4 May 1967, as amended, is reproduced herein for the information of all Members. The protocol entered into force on 25 September 1973 pursuant to Section 4.

  20. Offshoring and access to location-specific advantages - the impact of governance mode and function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mykhaylenko, Alona; Motika, Agnes; Wæhrens, Brian Vejrum

    how access to particular offshoring advantages may provide this link. The results of a quantitative survey of more than 1000 Scandinavian firms show that certain offshoring factors (governance mode and type of offshored function) indeed impact the access a company acquires to certain offshoring...... advantages, which may explain the unpredictability of previous performance outcomes....

  1. A qualitative analysis of facilities maintenance - a school governance function in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M I Xaba

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available I analysed school facilities maintenance, a school governance function in South Africa. Qualitative interviews were conducted with 13 principals and three deputy principals as coordinators of this function at their schools. The interviews were purposively and conveniently selected to gather data regarding school facilities maintenance and gain insight into the challenges this function presents to schools and their governing bodies. Findings indicate that schools generally do not have organisational structures for planned facilities maintenance, nor do they have policies on facilities maintenance. Evidence of facilities maintenance at schools mainly relates to concerns with facilities repairs, (mostly "as the need arises" and general campus cleanliness; mostly with emergency and corrective forms of maintenance as opposed to crucial preventive maintenance. Therefore, there is a need for interim facilities maintenance committees and, in the long term, a whole-school approach to facilities maintenance that makes facilities maintenance a strategic lever for school functionality.

  2. Government financial support for civil aircraft research, technology and development in four European countries and the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandler, B.; Golaszewski, R.; Patten, C.; Rudman, B.; Scott, R.

    1980-01-01

    Data on the levels of government financial support for civil aircraft airframe and engine (CAAE) research and technology (R&T) in the United States and Europe (United Kingdom, West Germany, France and The Netherlands) and means of comparing these levels are provided. Data are presented for the years 1974-1977. European R&T expenditure data were obtained through visits to each of the four European countries, to the Washington office of the European Communities, and by a search of applicable literature. CAAE R&T expenditure data for the United States were obtained from NASA and Federal Aviation Administration (FAA).

  3. International Government-Procurement Obligations of the United States: An Overview

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tatelman, Todd B

    2005-01-01

    .... The most notable agreements are contained in the World Trade Organization (WTO) Agreement on Government Procurement and the procurement chapter of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA...

  4. 'Good Governance' dan 'Governability'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    - Pratikno

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available The article endeavors to trace the outset of governance concept, its dominant meanings and discourse, and its implication towards governability. The central role of government in the governing processes has predominantly been adopted. The concept of governance was emerged precisely in the context of the failure of government as key player in regulation, economic redistribution and political participation. Governance is therefore aimed to emphasize pattern of governing which are based both on democratic mechanism and sound development management. However, practices of such good governance concept –which are mainly adopted and promoted by donor states and agencies– tend to degrade state and/or government authority and legitimacy. Traditional function of the state as sole facilitator of equal societal, political and legal membership among citizens has been diminished. The logic of fair competition has been substituted almost completely by the logic of free competition in nearly all sectors of public life. The concept and practices of good governance have resulted in decayed state authority and failed state which in turn created a condition for "ungovernability". By promoting democratic and humane governance, the article accordingly encourages discourse to reinstall and bring the idea of accountable state back in.

  5. PLANNING IN ALL ITS (DISGUISES: SPHERES OF GOVERNMENT, FUNCTIONAL AREAS AND AUTHORITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeannie van Wyk

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The Constitution determines that the legislative and executive powers regarding 'regional planning and development', 'urban and rural development', 'provincial planning' and 'municipal planning' are divided among the three spheres of government. Yet the boundaries between these items listed in Schedules 4 and 5 of the Constitution are opaque and their precise content is not always apparent. Overlaps, conflicts and uncertainty may occur. In a number of landmark decisions the courts have provided content to these different functional areas. Clarity on what 'municipal planning' comprises leads to more certainty on the content of the other planning areas. Draft legislation such as the Spatial Planning and Land Use Management Bill (B14-2012 can also assist in adding substance to a demarcation of these different functional areas. Yet uncertainties still remain, occasioned by constitutional provisions such as sections 100, 139(1 and 155(6-(7, that permit intervention by national and provincial government in provinces and municipalities respectively, as well as the support and monitoring by provincial government in respect of municipalities. Few clear solutions are immediately apparent. The role of the constitutional principles of co-operative government where uncertainty and conflict exist is examined, especially where no veto of one sphere over another is possible. Principles of interpretation can also assist in delineating the boundaries of the different functional areas. It seems, however, that the courts will find themselves having to address the remaining inconsistencies.

  6. Quality Function Deployment: Application to Chemotherapy Unit Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neda Hashemi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Today’s healthcare organizations are challenged by pressures to meet growing population demands and enhance community health through improving service quality. Quality function deployment is one of the widely-used customerdriven approaches for health services development. In the current study, quality function deployment is used to improve the quality of chemotherapy unit services. Methods: First, we identified chemotherapy outpatient unit patients as chemotherapy unit customers. Then, the Delphi technique and component factor analysis with orthogonal rotation was employed to determine their expectations. Thereafter, data envelopment analysis was performed to specify user priorities. We determined the relationships between patients’ expectations and service elements through expert group consensus using the Delphi method and the relationships between service elements by Pearson correlation. Finally, simple and compound priorities of the service elements were derived by matrix calculation. Results: Chemotherapy unit patients had four main expectations: access, suitable hotel services, satisfactory and effective relationships, and clinical services. The chemotherapy unit has six key service elements of equipment, materials, human resources, physical space, basic facilities, and communication and training. There were four-level relationships between the patients’ expectations and service elements, with mostly significant correlations between service elements. According to the findings, the functional group of basic facilities was the most critical factor, followed by materials. Conclusion: The findings of the current study can be a general guideline as well as a scientific, structured framework for chemotherapy unit decision makers in order to improve chemotherapy unit services.

  7. A New Nonlinear Unit Root Test with Fourier Function

    OpenAIRE

    Güriş, Burak

    2017-01-01

    Traditional unit root tests display a tendency to be nonstationary in the case of structural breaks and nonlinearity. To eliminate this problem this paper proposes a new flexible Fourier form nonlinear unit root test. This test eliminates this problem to add structural breaks and nonlinearity together to the test procedure. In this test procedure, structural breaks are modeled by means of a Fourier function and nonlinear adjustment is modeled by means of an Exponential Smooth Threshold Autore...

  8. Functions and requirements for a cesium demonstration unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howden, G.F.

    1994-04-01

    Westinghouse Hanford Company is investigating alternative means to pretreat the wastes in the Hanford radioactive waste storage tanks. Alternatives include (but are not limited to) in-tank pretreatment, use of above ground transportable compact processing units (CPU) located adjacent to a tank farm, and fixed processing facilities. This document provides the functions and requirements for a CPU to remove cesium from tank waste as a demonstration of the CPU concept. It is therefore identified as the Cesium Demonstration Unit CDU

  9. Evaluation of the audit committees of government ministries in Namibia: Their compositions, functions and regulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Winnie Kandandu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the underlying study to this paper is to evaluate the audit committees in the government ministries in Namibia; by assessing their composition, the function and regulations that govern committees. The study used a qualitative approach of inquiry. A purposive sampling method was used as the researcher selected ministries with audit committees. Thematic and content analysis was used in this study. Both primary and secondary and data were used. On primary data, interviews were conducted and recorded with a voice recorder. Secondary data was during the review of existing literature on the subject. The study found that from the 4 government ministries with audit committees, only one ministry consisted of independent members as well as an independent chairperson, while 3 ministries are chaired by members within their organisations. There was clear evidence of lack of accounting / financial /auditing competence among the committee members. This trend is contrary to the best practice which requires that the chairperson of the audit committees be independent of the ministry as well as the members of the audit committee. The finding indicates possibility of lack of capacity to carry out the functions of audit committees; weak internal control systems; chances of conflict of interest and complacency due to the lack of independence. There is avenue for further research as more ministries in Namibia are now establishing their audit committees, especially as the Namibian Code of Corporate Governance (the NamCode gains more popularity among the public sector.

  10. A Comparison of Energy Transition Governance in Germany, The Netherlands and the United Kingdom

    OpenAIRE

    Laes, Erik; Gorissen, Leen; Nevens, Frank

    2014-01-01

    This paper reviews and analyzes the challenges of energy transition governance towards a low-carbon society as a political achievement. The main research question is how specific “transition governance approaches” (as advocated by transition theory) can be embedded/anchored in the policy-making logics and practices. We analyze three country cases, known for their path-breaking efforts in the area: Germany (due to its pioneering role in the development and diffusion of renewable energy technol...

  11. The Environmental, Social, Governance, and Financial Performance Effects on Companies that Adopt the United Nations Global Compact

    OpenAIRE

    Eduardo Ortas; Igor Álvarez; Ainhoa Garayar

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims to investigate companies’ environmental, social, governance (ESG), and financial implications of their commitment to the United Nations Global Compact (UNGC). The focus is placed on companies operating in the three countries with the highest number of UNGC participants: Spain, France, and Japan. The results clearly reveal that adoption of the UNGC often requires an organizational change that fosters stakeholder engagement, ultimately resulting in improvements in companies’ ESG...

  12. Data as a Strategic Resource: Self-determination, Governance, and the Data Challenge for Indigenous Nations in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Stephanie Carroll Rainie; Jennifer Lee Schultz; Eileen Briggs; Patricia Riggs; Nancy Lynn Palmanteer-Holder

    2017-01-01

    Data about Indigenous populations in the United States are inconsistent and irrelevant. Federal and state governments and researchers direct most collection, analysis, and use of data about U.S. Indigenous populations. Indigenous Peoples’ justified mistrust further complicates the collection and use of these data. Nonetheless, tribal leaders and communities depend on these data to inform decision making. Reliance on data that do not reflect tribal needs, priorities, and self-conceptions threa...

  13. Lacritin and Other New Proteins of the Lacrimal Functional Unit

    OpenAIRE

    McKown, Robert L.; Wang, Ningning; Raab, Ronald W.; Karnati, Roy; Zhang, Yinghui; Williams, Patricia B.; Laurie, Gordon W.

    2008-01-01

    The lacrimal functional unit (LFU) is defined by the 2007 International Dry Eye WorkShop as ‘an integrated system comprising the lacrimal glands, ocular surface (cornea, conjunctiva and meibomian glands) and lids, and the sensory and motor nerves that connect them’. The LFU maintains a healthy ocular surface primarily through a properly functioning tear film that provides protection, lubrication, and an environment for corneal epithelial cell renewal. LFU cells express thousands of proteins. ...

  14. 25 CFR 170.622 - What IRR programs, functions, services, and activities are subject to the self-governance...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What IRR programs, functions, services, and activities are subject to the self-governance construction regulations? 170.622 Section 170.622 Indians BUREAU OF..., functions, services, and activities are subject to the self-governance construction regulations? All IRR...

  15. Science-practice nexus for landslide surveying: technical training for local government units in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, A. L.; Hespiantoro, S.; Dyar, D.; Balzer, D.; Kuhn, D.; Torizin, J.; Fuchs, M.; Kastl, S.; Anhorn, J.

    2017-02-01

    The Indonesian archipelago is prone to various geological hazards on an almost day to day basis. In order to mitigate disaster risk and reduce losses, the government uses its unique setup of ministerial training institutions. The Centre for Development of Human Resources in Geology, Mineral and Coal offers different level of technical training to local governments in order to provide them with the necessary means to understand geological hazards, mitigate risks, and hence close the gap between local and national governments. One key factor has been the continuous incorporation of new scientific knowledge into their training curricula. The paper presents benefits and challenges of this science-practice nexus using the standardised landslide survey as one example where mobile technology has been introduced to the training just recently.

  16. Energy Efficiency Policy in the United States: Overview of Trends at Different Levels of Government

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doris, E.; Cochran, J.; Vorum, M.

    2009-12-01

    This report catalogs by sector--buildings, transportation, industrial, and power--energy efficiency policies at the federal, state, and local levels, and identifies some prominent policy trends. Four key findings emerged from this report: 1) leadership on energy efficiency is necessary--and is found--at each level of government; 2) there is no widely accepted methodology for evaluating energy efficiency policies; 3) coordination among the three levels of government--and across sectors--is increasingly important, and there are opportunities to significantly improve policy performance through a unified strategy; and 4) there are efficiencies to be gained by informing policies in one sector with experience from others.

  17. Energy Efficiency Policy in the United States. Overview of Trends at Different Levels of Government

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doris, Elizabeth [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Cochran, Jaquelin [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Vorum, Martin [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2009-12-01

    This report catalogs by sector--buildings, transportation, industrial, and power--energy efficiency policies at the federal, state, and local levels, and identifies some prominent policy trends. Four key findings emerged from this report: 1) leadership on energy efficiency is necessary--and is found--at each level of government; 2) there is no widely accepted methodology for evaluating energy efficiency policies; 3) coordination among the three levels of government--and across sectors--is increasingly important, and there are opportunities to significantly improve policy performance through a unified strategy; and 4) there are efficiencies to be gained by informing policies in one sector with experience from others.

  18. Coherent memory functions for finite systems: hexagonal photosynthetic unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barvik, I.; Herman, P.

    1990-10-01

    Coherent memory functions entering the Generalized Master Equation are presented for an hexagonal model of a photosynthetic unit. Influence of an energy heterogeneity on an exciton transfer is an antenna system as well as to a reaction center is investigated. (author). 9 refs, 3 figs

  19. Numerical distribution functions of fractional unit root and cointegration tests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    MacKinnon, James G.; Nielsen, Morten Ørregaard

    We calculate numerically the asymptotic distribution functions of likelihood ratio tests for fractional unit roots and cointegration rank. Because these distributions depend on a real-valued parameter, b, which must be estimated, simple tabulation is not feasible. Partly due to the presence...

  20. Research at the Dairy and Functional Foods Research Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dr. Peggy Tomasula is Research Leader of the Dairy and Functional Foods Research Unit (DFFRU), ARS, USDA, Wyndmoor, PA, a group that includes 11 Research Scientists, 4 of whom are Lead Scientists (LS), 13 support scientists, and 3 Retired Collaborators. The mission of the DFFRU is to solve critical ...

  1. Indiana Studies: Hoosier History, Government, and People. Unit III: From Sectional Division to Political Unity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barger, Harry D.; And Others

    Unit 3 of a six-unit series on Indiana state history designed to be taught in Indiana secondary schools tells the story of Indiana from 1829 to 1908. Chapter 1 discusses national issues in an Indiana context. The effects of social movements such as Abolition, the underground railroad, and the Fugitive Slave Law on Indiana politics are examined.…

  2. 76 FR 24816 - Government Employees Serving in Official Capacity in Nonprofit Organizations; Sector Unit...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-03

    ... amendments to the definition in Sec. 2640.102(q), which would define both sector mutual fund and sector unit... private sector, of $100 million or more (as adjusted for inflation) in any one year. Congressional Review... as follows: Sec. 2640.102 Definitions. * * * * * (q) Sector mutual fund or sector unit investment...

  3. 76 FR 6311 - Regulations Affecting Publication of the United States Government Manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-04

    ... materials. The Office of the Federal Register's official hours of business are Monday through Friday, 8:45 a... government officials to easily download the Manual for storage on their computers in an easy-to-use format... opportunity to order copies before printing at the rider rate. A rider rate is available before the start of...

  4. Efficiency in the United States electric industry: Transaction costs, deregulation, and governance structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Carl

    Transaction costs economics (TCE) posits that firms have an incentive to bypass the market mechanisms in situations where the cost of using the market is prohibitive. Vertical integration, among other governance mechanisms, can be used to minimize the transactions costs associated with the market mechanism. The study analyses different governance mechanisms, which range from complete vertical integration to the use of market mechanisms, for firms in the US electric sector. This sector has undergone tremendous change in the past decade including the introduction of retail competition in some jurisdictions. As a result of the push toward deregulation of the industry, vertically integration, while still significant in the sector, has steadily been replaced by alternative governance structures. Using a sample of 136 investor-owned electric utilities that reported data the US Federal Energy Regulatory Commission between 1996 and 2002, this study estimates firm level efficiency using Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) and relates these estimates to governance structure and public policies. The analysis finds that vertical integration is positively related to firm efficiency, although in a non-linear fashion suggesting that hybrid governance structures tend to be associated with lower efficiency scores. In addition, while some evidence is found for negative short-term effects on firm efficiency from the choice to deregulate, this result is sensitive to DEA model choice. Further, competition in retail markets is found to be positively related to firm level efficiency, but the retreat from deregulation, which occurred after 2000, is negatively associated with firm-level efficiency. These results are important in the ongoing academic and public policy debates concerning deregulation of the electric section and indicate that vertical economies remain in the industry, but that competition has provided incentives for improving firm level efficiency.

  5. [Structuro-functional units of the salivary and lacrimal glands].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostilenko, Iu P; Mysliuk, I V; Deviatkin, E A

    1986-09-01

    By means of the multilayer graphic and plastic reconstruction methods using series of semithin sections, spatial tridimensional organization of the epithelial complexes and blood microcirculatory bed in the rat palatal salivary glands and the lacrimal gland of the human newborn have been studied. Since their ducts serve not only for discharging their secrete into the external medium, but also for accumulation (as collectors), the sublobular unit--adenomere should be referred to as a part of elementary level of organization of the epithelial complexes. The adenomere has in its composition a collecting centrally situating duct. However, while studying structure of the blood microcirculatory bed, it is found out that there is not any strict territorial correspondence between its functional units and structural units of the glandular epithelium. Nevertheless, giving a great importance to a tight syntopic connection of the collecting ducts of the adenomeres with the postcapillary venules (that belong to filtrating microvessels), these are sublobular units--adenomeres that are distinguished as structural-functional units in the glands.

  6. Applying Quality Function Deployment Model in Burn Unit Service Improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keshtkaran, Ali; Hashemi, Neda; Kharazmi, Erfan; Abbasi, Mehdi

    2016-01-01

    Quality function deployment (QFD) is one of the most effective quality design tools. This study applies QFD technique to improve the quality of the burn unit services in Ghotbedin Hospital in Shiraz, Iran. First, the patients' expectations of burn unit services and their priorities were determined through Delphi method. Thereafter, burn unit service specifications were determined through Delphi method. Further, the relationships between the patients' expectations and service specifications and also the relationships between service specifications were determined through an expert group's opinion. Last, the final importance scores of service specifications were calculated through simple additive weighting method. The findings show that burn unit patients have 40 expectations in six different areas. These expectations are in 16 priority levels. Burn units also have 45 service specifications in six different areas. There are four-level relationships between the patients' expectations and service specifications and four-level relationships between service specifications. The most important burn unit service specifications have been identified in this study. The QFD model developed in the study can be a general guideline for QFD planners and executives.

  7. The Effects of Korean Medical Service Quality and Satisfaction on Revisit Intention of the United Arab Emirates Government Sponsored Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seoyoung; Kim, Eun-Kyung

    2017-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate medical service quality, satisfaction and to examine factors influencing hospital revisit intention of the United Arab Emirates government sponsored patients in Korea. A total of 152 UAE government sponsored patients who visited Korean hospitals participated in the questionnaire survey from August to November 2016. Stepwise multiple regression was used to identify the factors that affected the revisit intention of the participants. The mean scores of medical service quality, satisfaction, and revisit intention were 5.72 out of 7, 88.88 out of 100, 4.59 out of 5, respectively. Medical service quality and satisfaction, Medical service quality and revisit intention, satisfaction and revisit intention were positively correlated. Medical service of physician, visiting routes and responsiveness of medical service quality explained about 23.8% of revisit intention. There are needs for physicians to communicate with patients while ensuring sufficient consultation time based on excellent medical skills and nurses to respond immediately for the patients' needs through an empathic encounter in order to improve medical service quality and patient satisfaction so that to increase the revisit intention of the United Arab Emirates government sponsored patients. Further, it is necessary for the hospitals to have support plans for providing country specialized services in consideration of the UAE culture to ensure that physicians' and nurses' competencies are not undervalued by non-medical service elements such as interpreters and meals. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Comparison of risk management regulation from a corporate governance perspective within the German and united states legal areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Remmer Sassen

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Risk management is one of the main corporate governance components or management tasks. This paper details a comparison of risk management regulation from a corporate governance perspective of listed stock corporations in Germany and the United States (U.S.. Obviously, there are differences and commonalities between the national legal norms and the regulatory levels of risk management in both countries. The comparison helps to understand different traditions and practices in terms of how significant corporate governance rules are for risk management. Therefore, this article intends to inspire future research on the regulation of risk management across different regions and explore the relevance of national interests in the regulation of risk management. A principal finding of the comparison is that the U.S. corporate governance system seems to be more strongly regulated than the German system. This results from the powerful and coordinating role of the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC. Thus, the seemingly more liberal system of non-binding standards in the U.S. has a higher impact on the regulation of risk management than in Germany.

  9. Private Debt Overhang and the Government Spending Multiplier: Evidence for the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Bernardini, Marco; Peersman, Gert

    2015-01-01

    Using state-dependent local projection methods and historical U.S. data, we find that government spending multipliers are considerably larger in periods of private debt overhang. In particular, we find significant crowding-out of personal consumption and investment in low-debt states, resulting in multipliers that are significantly below one. Conversely, in periods of private debt overhang, there is a strong crowding-in effect, while multipliers are much larger than one. In high-debt states, ...

  10. MyHealthAtVanderbilt: policies and procedures governing patient portal functionality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbloom, S Trent; Stenner, Shane P; Anders, Shilo; Muse, Sue; Johnson, Kevin B; Jirjis, Jim; Jackson, Gretchen Purcell

    2011-01-01

    Explicit guidelines are needed to develop safe and effective patient portals. This paper proposes general principles, policies, and procedures for patient portal functionality based on MyHealthAtVanderbilt (MHAV), a robust portal for Vanderbilt University Medical Center. We describe policies and procedures designed to govern popular portal functions, address common user concerns, and support adoption. We present the results of our approach as overall and function-specific usage data. Five years after implementation, MHAV has over 129 800 users; 45% have used bi-directional messaging; 52% have viewed test results and 45% have viewed other medical record data; 30% have accessed health education materials; 39% have scheduled appointments; and 29% have managed a medical bill. Our policies and procedures have supported widespread adoption and use of MHAV. We believe other healthcare organizations could employ our general guidelines and lessons learned to facilitate portal implementation and usage. PMID:21807648

  11. Data as a Strategic Resource: Self-determination, Governance, and the Data Challenge for Indigenous Nations in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Carroll Rainie

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Data about Indigenous populations in the United States are inconsistent and irrelevant. Federal and state governments and researchers direct most collection, analysis, and use of data about U.S. Indigenous populations. Indigenous Peoples’ justified mistrust further complicates the collection and use of these data. Nonetheless, tribal leaders and communities depend on these data to inform decision making. Reliance on data that do not reflect tribal needs, priorities, and self-conceptions threatens tribal self-determination. Tribal data sovereignty through governance of data on Indigenous populations is long overdue. This article provides two case studies of the Ysleta del Sur Pueblo and Cheyenne River Sioux Tribe and their demographic and socioeconomic data initiatives to create locally and culturally relevant data for decision making.

  12. 20 CFR 404.1018 - Work by civilians for the United States Government or its instrumentalities-wages paid after 1983.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... States Claims Court, a judge of the United States Court of International Trade, a judge of the United... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Work by civilians for the United States Government or its instrumentalities-wages paid after 1983. 404.1018 Section 404.1018 Employees' Benefits...

  13. Federal Textbook on Citizenship. Our Constitution and Government: Lessons on the Constitution and Government of the United States for Use in the Public Schools by Candidates for Citizenship. Revised Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seckler-Hudson, Catheryn

    Designed especially for the use of the foreign-born who are preparing themselves for their naturalization examinations as applicants for United States citizenship, this textbook contains thirty lessons which tell about the government in the United States and about the kind of Constitution upon which it is founded. The text of each of the thirty…

  14. Perceived risk, trust in government, and response to repository siting in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraft, M.E.

    1991-01-01

    Conflicts over the siting of high-level radioactive waste repositories have been intense and unrelenting. Public and state opposition to implementation of the US Nuclear Waste Policy Act is tied closely to the perception of unacceptably high repository risks and to lack of trust and confidence in governmental agencies, particularly the DOE. This paper explores the relationship of perceived risk, trust in government, and opposition to repository siting in the US in an attempt to clarify the conditions of successful implementation of nuclear waste policy in the decades ahead

  15. The Effects of Korean Medical Service Quality and Satisfaction on Revisit Intention of the United Arab Emirates Government Sponsored Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seoyoung Lee, RN, MSN

    2017-06-01

    Conclusions: There are needs for physicians to communicate with patients while ensuring sufficient consultation time based on excellent medical skills and nurses to respond immediately for the patients' needs through an empathic encounter in order to improve medical service quality and patient satisfaction so that to increase the revisit intention of the United Arab Emirates government sponsored patients. Further, it is necessary for the hospitals to have support plans for providing country specialized services in consideration of the UAE culture to ensure that physicians' and nurses' competencies are not undervalued by non-medical service elements such as interpreters and meals.

  16. Private Catholic Elementary Schools Established by Religious Congregations in the United States: Emerging Governance Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Mary Grace

    2010-01-01

    Private Catholic elementary schools in the United States often trace their origins to religious congregations of women and men. The rapid decline of religious vocations and the choice of many religious to serve in diverse ministries since the Second Vatican Council, has had an effect on all Catholic schools. Schools founded by religious…

  17. Microbiological burden in air culture at various units of a tertiary care government hospital in Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binaya Sapkota

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background The environmental matrices (water, air, and surfaces play a vital role as reservoirs of Legionella spp. and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (Pseudomonas spp.. Hence, hospital environment control procedures are effective measures for reducing nosocomial infections. Aims This study was carried out to explore the profiles of microorganisms in air culture at various wards/units of a tertiary care hospital in Nepal. Methods A descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out at various wards/units of a tertiary care hospital in Nepal between January and September 2015 to explore the microbiological burden in inanimate objects. Each week one ward or unit was selected for the study. Bed, tap, the entire room, trolley, computer, phone, rack handles, table, chair, door, stethoscope, oxygen mask, gown, cupboard handles, and wash basins were selected for air culture testing. Ten different wards/units and 77 locations/pieces of equipment were selected for air culture by employing a simple random sampling technique. Information about the organisms was entered into the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS Version 22 (IBM: Armonk, NY and descriptive analyses were carried out. Results Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus, Micrococcus, coagulase negative staphylococcus (CONS, Bacillus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, yeast, and Acinetobacter were the most commonly detected organisms. In the postoperative ward, S. aureus was the most frequently detected microorganism. Micrococcus was detected in four out of 10 locations. In the x-ray unit, S. aureus was detected in three out of four locations. Conclusion S. aureus, Micrococcus, CONS, Bacillus, Pseudomonas, yeast, and Acinetobacter were the most common organisms detected.

  18. Foreign practice of introducing conventional communicative strategy in the implementation of the functions of government

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. P. Zarytska

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the role of conventional communicative strategy from the standpoint of foreign practice. Depending on scientific approaches to communications, business and management strategies based conventional communicative strategy implementation functions of government. It has certain methodological features and differences in different countries: UK, Germany, Australia, USA, Spain, Holland, Finland, New Zealand. Generalization showed that each state produces its conventional communicative strategy depending on the overall state objectives. However joint is considered important not only communication, but also the ability to communicate effectively, understand how to implement the vision of an opinion on relations between the state and society. Purpose conventional communicative strategy determined by the impact on the optimization of the authorities at the national and regional level, the processes of globalization, the experience of other states, its implementation in practical activities as well as their lack of predictive scenarios of the process of optimizing the functions of government. Demonstrated the appropriateness of existing methodologies to use in domestic practice of public administration.

  19. Understanding determinants of government and consumer behavior relative to product safety : an application of the theory of planned behavior to China and the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Domke, Laura

    2008-01-01

    The following thesis applies Icek Ajzen's Theory of Planned Behavior to explain consumer and government response to safety of Chinese-made products sold in China and the United States. The thesis relies on secondary data as it considers the responses and actions relative to product safety by four different groups: Chinese government, U.S. government, Chinese consumers and U.S. consumers. Increased globalization has heightened the need for a better understanding and agreement...

  20. The United States Government Interagency Process and the Failure of Institution Building in Iraq

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-06-12

    warehouses they were amazed to find pallets and pallets full of medical equipment from floor to ceiling that had had been in the warehouses for some... glass broken; and books and documents strewn about?”27 24 Durch, William ed. “Twenty-First-Century Peace Operations.” United States Institute of...health) to actors that potentially threaten domestic or international order (e.g., Egypt, Palestinian Authority, Lebanon ) Exploitation of legal

  1. The Text of Tile Master Agreement between the Agency and the United States of America Governing Sales of Source, By- Product and Special Nuclear Materials for research Purposes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1974-01-01

    The text of the Master Agreement Governing Sales of Source, Bye Product and Special Nuclear Materials for Research Purposes, which has been concluded between the Agency and the Government of the United States of America, is reproduced herein for the information of all Members,

  2. Effect of age on changes in motor units functional connectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arjunan, Sridhar P; Kumar, Dinesh

    2015-08-01

    With age, there is a change in functional connectivity of motor units in muscle. This leads to reduced muscle strength. This study has investigated the effect of age on the changes in the motor unit recruitment by measuring the mutual information between multiple channels of surface electromyogram (sEMG) of biceps brachii muscle. It is hypothesised that with ageing, there is a reduction in number of motor units, which can lead to an increase in the dependency of remaining motor units. This increase can be observed in the mutual information between the multiple channels of the muscle activity. Two channels of sEMG were recorded during the maximum level of isometric contraction. 28 healthy subjects (Young: age range 20-35years and Old: age range - 60-70years) participated in the experiments. The normalized mutual information (NMI), a measure of dependency factor, was computed for the sEMG recordings. Statistical analysis was performed to test the effect of age on NMI. The results show that the NMI among the older cohort was significantly higher when compared with the young adults.

  3. Comparison of USDA Forest Service and Stakeholder Motivations and Experiences in Collaborative Federal Forest Governance in the Western United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Emily Jane; White, Eric M; Cerveny, Lee K; Seesholtz, David; Nuss, Meagan L; Ulrich, Donald R

    2017-11-01

    In the United States, over 191 million acres of land is managed by the United States Department of Agriculture Forest Service, a federal government agency. In several western U.S. states, organized collaborative groups have become a de facto governance approach to providing sustained input on management decisions on much public land. This is most extensive in Oregon, where at least 25 "forest collaboratives" currently exist. This affords excellent opportunities for studies of many common themes in collaborative governance, including trust, shared values, and perceptions of success. We undertook a statewide survey of participants in Oregon forest collaboratives to examine differences in motivations, perceptions of success, and satisfaction among Forest Service participants ("agency participants"), who made up 31% of the sample, and other respondents ("non-agency") who represent nonfederal agencies, interest groups, citizens, and non-governmental groups. We found that agency participants differed from non-agency participants. They typically had higher annual incomes, and were primarily motivated to participate to build trust. However, a majority of all respondents were similar in not indicating any other social or economic motivations as their primary reason for collaborating. A majority also reported satisfaction with their collaborative-despite not ranking collaborative performance on a number of specific potential outcomes highly. Together, this suggests that collaboration in Oregon is currently perceived as successful despite not achieving many specific outcomes. Yet there were significant differences in socioeconomic status and motivation that could affect the ability of agency and nonagency participants to develop and achieve mutually-desired goals.

  4. Comparison of USDA Forest Service and Stakeholder Motivations and Experiences in Collaborative Federal Forest Governance in the Western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Emily Jane; White, Eric M.; Cerveny, Lee K.; Seesholtz, David; Nuss, Meagan L.; Ulrich, Donald R.

    2017-11-01

    In the United States, over 191 million acres of land is managed by the United States Department of Agriculture Forest Service, a federal government agency. In several western U.S. states, organized collaborative groups have become a de facto governance approach to providing sustained input on management decisions on much public land. This is most extensive in Oregon, where at least 25 "forest collaboratives" currently exist. This affords excellent opportunities for studies of many common themes in collaborative governance, including trust, shared values, and perceptions of success. We undertook a statewide survey of participants in Oregon forest collaboratives to examine differences in motivations, perceptions of success, and satisfaction among Forest Service participants ("agency participants"), who made up 31% of the sample, and other respondents ("non-agency") who represent nonfederal agencies, interest groups, citizens, and non-governmental groups. We found that agency participants differed from non-agency participants. They typically had higher annual incomes, and were primarily motivated to participate to build trust. However, a majority of all respondents were similar in not indicating any other social or economic motivations as their primary reason for collaborating. A majority also reported satisfaction with their collaborative—despite not ranking collaborative performance on a number of specific potential outcomes highly. Together, this suggests that collaboration in Oregon is currently perceived as successful despite not achieving many specific outcomes. Yet there were significant differences in socioeconomic status and motivation that could affect the ability of agency and nonagency participants to develop and achieve mutually-desired goals.

  5. REDDuced: From sustainability to legality to units of carbon—The search for common interests in international forest governance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDermott, Constance L.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: ► Global forest governance has narrowed in focus from sustainability to carbon. ► Translating forests into carbon units creates an appearance of global transparency. ► Controversial environmental and social concerns have been reframed as “safeguards”. ► Resulting in a proliferation of safeguarding initiatives and new complexities. ► Hence flows of information increase but fail to facilitate global coordination. -- Abstract: This paper examines the institutional history of international forest governance, from the emergence of global intergovernmental forestry forums, to non-state market-based certification schemes, to regional illegal logging initiatives, to Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation and forest enhancement (REDD+) under the UNFCCC. It observes how the early initiatives were criticised for their failure to achieve coordinated and widespread action on forest conservation due to a lack of economic incentives and conflict over environmental and social priorities. This failure has been proceeded by a narrowing of core focus across each successive institution—from sustainability to legality to units of carbon—thereby transforming forest conservation into an increasingly legible and tradable commodity. Indeed, a wide range of environmental, economic and social actors appear to share the goal of making forest management more globally legible. This narrowing of focus, however, has served to displace rather than resolve a large array of environmental and social conflicts. The issues have been displaced across both space and time, generating a growing plethora of institutions involved in defining REDD+ modalities and “safeguards”, including various UN bodies and programmes, international development banks, private certification schemes and national and subnational governments. Meanwhile there is little evidence of whether, where and how these efforts might affect forest change. In fact, the largest impact of REDD

  6. Multi-Functional Distributed Generation Unit for Power Quality Enhancement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeng, Zheng; Yang, Huan; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2015-01-01

    A multi-functional distributed generation unit (MFDGU) and its control strategy are proposed in this paper for the purpose of enhancing power quality in low-voltage networks. By using the 3H-bridge converter structure, an MFDGU can be applied in 3-phase 4-wire low-voltage distribution networks...... reference of the MFDGU, which can be easily implemented in three-phase networks. A 15kVA prototype consisting of three full bridge converters has been built and tested. Experimental results show the feasibility of the proposed topology and control strategy....

  7. Practical Problems of Giving Opinions by Regional Chambers of Accounting on the Possibility of Repayment of Obligations in Local Government Units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Tyniewicki

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Opinions of the regional accounting chambers on the possibility of repayment of the credit, loan or redemption of the securities by local government units have some specific features compared with the other opinions concerning the financial management of the local government. Firstly, they are only issued at the request of the unit that they concerned. Secondly, for the reason they relate to public debt issues, to some extent their content may be similar or “partial reproduction” of the standpoint of the regional chamber of accounting within already issued opinions referring to acts on budgetary planning process in local government units. The purpose of this article is to assess the legitimacy of issuing such opinions and to identify the relationship between the ordinances (resolutions on the possibility of repayment of the credit, loan or redemption of the securities and provisions of local government budget.

  8. Governance Based on Cost Analysis (Unit Cost Analysis for Vocational Schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandra Situmeang

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to calculate unit cost to produce one middle-level vocational school graduate (in Indonesian terms known as "Sekolah Menengah Kejuruan” abbreviated as SMK. The calculation is required because operational grant funds (in Indonesian terms known as antuan Operasional Sekolah abbreviated as BOS are distributed so far to the same extent in all areas of Indonesia and for all majors. This is most likely less than optimal because in fact there are very basic characteristics differences including; Economic capacity of each region, the cost standard for each region, and the type of department in the school. Based on this, the researcher assumed that cost analysis should be done by considering these things as a basis to provide BOS funds tailored to specific characteristics. The data to be analyzed in this research is North Sumatra province data. This research is conducted in two stages, which in this report only completed the first phase which is a survey in North Sumatra region. Stages of survey to obtain data which then analyzed with related data such as community income, learning outcomes through the value of national examinations, tuition fee, and conditions of learning facilities. The research is funded by the ministries of research, technology and higher education through competing grant schemes for fiscal year 2017 and 2018. The result of correlation analysis between the variables shows that there is a strong relationship between the average income with average tuition paid by the community and between average tuition paid by the community with Quality Level of Education Facilities. The result of correlation analysis also shows a moderate relationship between the average tuition with learning outcomes measured through average national exam and relationship between quality level of education facilities with average national exam. While the relationship between average income with average national exam does not have a strong

  9. Shipping cask demand associated with United States Government storage of commercial spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daling, P.M.; Engel, R.L.

    1983-05-01

    There were primarily two objectives of this study. The first was to develop estimates of the shipping cask fleet size that will be needed in the United States in the near future. These estimates were compared with current US spent fuel cask fleet size to determine its adequacy to provide the transportation services. The second objective was to develop estimates of the transportation costs associated with future movements of spent fuel. The results of this study were based on assumptions that were made prior to passage of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 which authorizes the Department of Energy (DOE) to provide Federal Interim Storage of spent fuel from commercial reactors. The Act requires that the DOE is responsible for transportation of the fuel, although private industry is to provide these services. This paper examined the impacts of various spent fuel management strategies on spent fuel transportation hardware requirements and transportation costs. Conclusions related to optimization of the spent fuel transportation system can be drawn from the results of this study. The conclusions can be affected by changing the given set of assumptions used in this analysis. 3 tables

  10. Recent government regulations in the United States seek to ensure the effectiveness of antibiotics by limiting their agricultural use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centner, Terence J

    2016-09-01

    The development of bacteria resistant to antibiotics is viewed as a medical health threat. Because thousands of people die every year due to antibiotic-resistant bacteria, efforts are underway to reduce antibiotic usage which in turn will reduce the development of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. In the United States, the use of antibiotics in the production of food animals to enhance animal growth has been identified as contributing to resistance. In 2015, a veterinary feed directive was adopted by the U.S. federal government prohibiting nontherapeutic uses of antibiotics in food animals that should reduce usage. The continued usage of antibiotics by producers for preventing disease may mean the directive is insufficient to reduce nontherapeutic antibiotic administration. This may lead some consumers to seek meat products from animals raised without antibiotics. A governmentally-sponsored labeling program could encourage reduction in antibiotic usage. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Availability and cost functions for periodically inspected preventively maintained units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaurio, J.K.

    1999-01-01

    Unavailability and cost rate functions are developed for components whose failures can occur randomly but they are detected only by periodic testing or inspections. If a failure occurs between consecutive inspections, the unit remains failed until the next inspection. Components are renewed by preventive maintenance periodically, or by repair or replacement after a failure, whichever occurs first (age-replacement). The model takes into account finite repair and maintenance durations as well as costs due to testing, repair, maintenance and lost production or accidents. For normally operating units the time-related penalty is loss of production. For standby safety equipment it is the expected cost of an accident that can happen when the component is down due to a dormant failure, repair or maintenance. The objective of maintenance optimization is to minimize the total cost rate by proper selection of two intervals, one for inspections and one for replacements. General conditions and techniques are developed for solving optimal test and maintenance intervals, with and without constraints on the production loss or accident rate. Insights are gained into how the optimal intervals depend on various cost parameters and reliability characteristics

  12. OPTIMALISASI FUNGSI HUMAS PEMERINTAH THE OPTIMIZATION OF GOVERNMENT PUBLIC RELATIONS FUNCTION

    OpenAIRE

    Anwar Sani

    2014-01-01

    Abstract, world democratization forces many organizations including the government in this case, of all types in many regions of the world, to consider giving more attention to the government public relations activities. The role will include contributing to good governance and respect for human rights. That would mean public relations in Indonesia, as elsewhere in Asia, will be involved in the development of public diplomacy. Aware of the problems as well as the demands of optimization and r...

  13. Flow Function of Pharmaceutical Powders Is Predominantly Governed by Cohesion, Not by Friction Coefficients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Lap Yin; Mao, Chen; Srivastava, Ishan; Du, Ping; Yang, Chia-Yi

    2017-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to demonstrate that the flow function (FFc) of pharmaceutical powders, as measured by rotational shear cell, is predominantly governed by cohesion but not friction coefficients. Driven by an earlier report showing an inverse correlation between FFc and the cohesion divided by the corresponding pre-consolidation stress (Wang et al. 2016. Powder Tech. 294:105-112), we performed analysis on a large data set containing 1130 measurements from a ring shear tester and identified a near-perfect inverse correlation between the FFc and cohesion. Conversely, no correlation was found between FFc and friction angles. We also conducted theoretical analysis and estimated such correlations based on Mohr-Coulomb failure model. We discovered that the correlation between FFc and cohesion can sustain as long as the angle of internal friction at incipient flow is not significantly larger than the angle of internal friction at steady-state flow, a condition covering almost all pharmaceutical powders. The outcome of this study bears significance in pharmaceutical development. Because the cohesion value is strongly influenced by the interparticle cohesive forces, this study effectively shows that it is more efficient to improve the pharmaceutical powder flow by lowering the interparticle cohesive forces than by lowering the interparticle frictions. Copyright © 2017 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. ISG15 governs mitochondrial function in macrophages following vaccinia virus infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Baldanta

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The interferon (IFN-stimulated gene 15 (ISG15 encodes one of the most abundant proteins induced by interferon, and its expression is associated with antiviral immunity. To identify protein components implicated in IFN and ISG15 signaling, we compared the proteomes of ISG15-/- and ISG15+/+ bone marrow derived macrophages (BMDM after vaccinia virus (VACV infection. The results of this analysis revealed that mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS were pathways altered in ISG15-/- BMDM treated with IFN. Mitochondrial respiration, Adenosine triphosphate (ATP and reactive oxygen species (ROS production was higher in ISG15+/+ BMDM than in ISG15-/- BMDM following IFN treatment, indicating the involvement of ISG15-dependent mechanisms. An additional consequence of ISG15 depletion was a significant change in macrophage polarization. Although infected ISG15-/- macrophages showed a robust proinflammatory cytokine expression pattern typical of an M1 phenotype, a clear blockade of nitric oxide (NO production and arginase-1 activation was detected. Accordingly, following IFN treatment, NO release was higher in ISG15+/+ macrophages than in ISG15-/- macrophages concomitant with a decrease in viral titer. Thus, ISG15-/- macrophages were permissive for VACV replication following IFN treatment. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that ISG15 governs the dynamic functionality of mitochondria, specifically, OXPHOS and mitophagy, broadening its physiological role as an antiviral agent.

  15. Agreement Between the International Atomic Energy Agency, the Government of Jamaica and the Government of the United States of America for Assistance in Securing Low Enriched Uranium for a Research Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    The text of the Agreement between the International Atomic Energy Agency, the Government of Jamaica and the Government of the United States of America for Assistance in Securing Low Enriched Uranium for a Research Reactor is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members of the Agency. The Agency's Board of Governors approved the text of the Agreement on 6 March 2013. The Agreement was signed by the authorized representatives of Jamaica on 25 November 2013, the United States on 2 May 2013 and the Director General of the IAEA on 16 December 2013. Pursuant to the Article XI of the Agreement, the Agreement entered into force on 16 December 2013, upon signature by the Director General of the IAEA and by the authorized representatives of Jamaica and the United States [fr

  16. Agreement among the Government of the Republic of Poland, the Government of the United States of America and the International Atomic Energy Agency for assistance in securing nuclear fuel for a research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The text of the Project and Supply Agreement among the Government of the Republic of Poland, the Government of the United States of America and the International Atomic Energy Agency for Assistance in Securing Nuclear Fuel for a Research Reactor is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members of the Agency. The Agency's Board of Governors approved the above mentioned Project and Supply Agreement on 14 June 2006. The Agreement was signed by the authorized representatives of Poland on 8 January 2007, the United States on 12 January 2007 and by the Director General of the IAEA on 16 January 2007. Pursuant to the Article XII of the Agreement, the Agreement entered into force on 16 January 2007, upon signature by the representatives of Poland, the United States and the Director General of the IAEA

  17. Agreement Between the International Atomic Energy Agency, the Government of Jamaica and the Government of the United States of America for Assistance in Securing Low Enriched Uranium for a Research Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    The text of the Agreement between the International Atomic Energy Agency, the Government of Jamaica and the Government of the United States of America for Assistance in Securing Low Enriched Uranium for a Research Reactor is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members of the Agency. The Agency's Board of Governors approved the text of the Agreement on 6 March 2013. The Agreement was signed by the authorized representatives of Jamaica on 25 November 2013, the United States on 2 May 2013 and the Director General of the IAEA on 16 December 2013. Pursuant to the Article XI of the Agreement, the Agreement entered into force on 16 December 2013, upon signature by the Director General of the IAEA and by the authorized representatives of Jamaica and the United States

  18. Agreement Between the International Atomic Energy Agency, the Government of Jamaica and the Government of the United States of America for Assistance in Securing Low Enriched Uranium for a Research Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    The text of the Agreement between the International Atomic Energy Agency, the Government of Jamaica and the Government of the United States of America for Assistance in Securing Low Enriched Uranium for a Research Reactor is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members of the Agency. The Agency's Board of Governors approved the text of the Agreement on 6 March 2013. The Agreement was signed by the authorized representatives of Jamaica on 25 November 2013, the United States on 2 May 2013 and the Director General of the IAEA on 16 December 2013. Pursuant to the Article XI of the Agreement, the Agreement entered into force on 16 December 2013, upon signature by the Director General of the IAEA and by the authorized representatives of Jamaica and the United States [es

  19. Partnership functioning: a case in point between government, nongovernment, and a university in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Saras; Kendall, Elizabeth; Forday, Peter; Cowan, Debbie

    2013-01-01

    Culturally and linguistically diverse (CALD) communities in Queensland, Australia, do not access health services, contributing to poor health outcomes. To improve health in CALD communities, a partnership was formed between the state government, two nongovernment CALD-specific organizations (NGOs), and a university to develop a service that could facilitate health service use. This qualitative research explored the partners' perspectives on how the partnership functioned and its outcomes. We sought to (1) explore how participants engaged with the principles of partnership, the processes they used, and their beliefs about the facilitators and barriers to intersectoral collaboration and (2) gain insights into how the partners perceived the development and functioning of the partnership. Qualitative, semistructured interviews were conducted with each of the key stakeholders in the partnership (n = 4). A focus group was also conducted with those working within the two NGO partners in the delivery of the service (n = 8). Open-ended questions drawn from the literature on partnership principles were used to guide the interviews and focus group data collection. The data were transcribed and analyzed using thematic principles. The four themes identified were: (1) Perceived benefits of the partnership outweighed organizational differences; (2) respectful relationships sustained the partnership; (3) mitigating conflict enabled the purpose of the partnership to be fulfilled; and (4) a neutral interpersonal space enabled the partnership to be enacted. Our study showed how contextual pressures created within the system can damage tenuous connections that have been developed between otherwise competitive organizations, leading to dissolution of partnerships. However, the study has also shown that partnerships may be purpose and time bound, not necessarily with respect to longevity. Through strategic negotiations, partnerships can be sustained until the goal of the partnership is

  20. Lacritin and other new proteins of the lacrimal functional unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKown, Robert L; Wang, Ningning; Raab, Ronald W; Karnati, Roy; Zhang, Yinghui; Williams, Patricia B; Laurie, Gordon W

    2009-05-01

    The lacrimal functional unit (LFU) is defined by the 2007 International Dry Eye WorkShop as 'an integrated system comprising the lacrimal glands, ocular surface (cornea, conjunctiva and meibomian glands) and lids, and the sensory and motor nerves that connect them'. The LFU maintains a healthy ocular surface primarily through a properly functioning tear film that provides protection, lubrication, and an environment for corneal epithelial cell renewal. LFU cells express thousands of proteins. Over 200 new LFU proteins have been discovered in the last decade. Lacritin is a new LFU-specific growth factor in human tears that flows through ducts to target corneal epithelial cells on the ocular surface. When applied topically in rabbits, lacritin appears to increase the volume of basal tear secretion. Lacritin is one of only a handful of tear proteins preliminarily reported to be downregulated in blepharitis and in two dry eye syndromes. Computational analysis predicts an ordered C-terminal domain that binds the corneal epithelial cell surface proteoglycan syndecan-1 (SDC1) and is required for lacritin's low nanomolar mitogenic activity. The lacritin-binding site on the N-terminus of SDC1 is exposed by heparanase. Heparanase is constitutively expressed by the corneal epithelium and appears to be a normal constituent of tears. Binding triggers rapid signaling to downstream NFAT and mTOR. A wealth of other new proteins, originally designated as hypothetical when first identified by genomic sequencing, are expressed by the human LFU including: ALS2CL, ARHGEF19, KIAA1109, PLXNA1, POLG, WIPI1 and ZMIZ2. Their demonstrated or implied roles in human genetic disease or basic cellular functions are fuel for new investigation. Addressing topical areas in ocular surface physiology with new LFU proteins may reveal interesting new biological mechanisms and help get to the heart of ocular surface dysfunction.

  1. Barriers to participation in governance and professional advancement: a comparison of internationally educated nurses and registered nurses educated in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Rebecca M; Foster, Jennifer W

    2013-01-01

    This study compared the perspectives of internationally educated nurses (IENs) and registered nurses (RNs) educated in the United States regarding participation in hospital governance structures and professional advancement. Nurses' participation in hospital governance is reported to contribute to empowerment. No research has examined how IENs' perceptions about participation in governance compared with those of U.S. RNs. Semistructured interviews were held with 82 nurses in 2 urban hospitals. Forty nurses were reinterviewed to follow up on themes. Internationally educated nurses and US RNs shared similar perspectives. Nurses in both samples did not value participation in governance, lacked guidance about how to advance, and preferred to at the bedside. Strategies to encourage nurses to participate in and value governance and professional advancement opportunities should be explored and adopted.

  2. Governance in English VET: On the Functioning of a Fractured "System"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keep, Ewart

    2015-01-01

    This article explores the governance structures that cover vocational education and training (VET) in England. The English VET system is highly fragmented, complex and unstable, and has tended to oscillate between centralised command and control, and attempts at marketisation. Its governance arrangements reflect this situation. The various…

  3. Federal Textbook on Citizenship. Our Constitution and Government: Lessons on the Constitution and Government of the United States for Use in the Public Schools by Candidates for Citizenship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seckler-Hudson, Catheryn

    Thirty lessons, including 60 illustrations of maps and charts, provide a study framework for candidates preparing for their naturalization examinations as applicants for U. S. citizenship. Representative government is described in terms of group associations, comparing family, community, church, school, city, state, and national organization. The…

  4. Financing of sports clubs from the budget of local self-government units – ways to support and the study the interpretation of regulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakub Rzeszowski

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The article characterises alternative methods of financing sports clubs. The text also presents the concept of a sports club as well as legal and organizational forms. The possibilities of raising funds were also discussed. The article highlights an importance of resources obtained by sports clubs from budgets of local self-government units. The summary concludes that sports clubs play a significant role and that without an appropriate financial support from local government units, the activities of these clubs would be constricted.

  5. Physical Unclonable Function with Multiplexing Units and its Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshikawa, Masaya; Asai, Toshiya; Shiozaki, Mitsuru; Fujino, Takeshi

    Recently, semiconductor counterfeiting has become an increasingly serious problem. Therefore, techniques to prevent the counterfeit by using random characteristic patterns that are difficult to control artificially have attracted attention. The physical unclonable function (PUF) is one of the techniques. It is a method to derive ID information peculiar to a device by detecting random physical features that cannot be controlled during the device's manufacture. Because information such as the ID information is difficult to replicate, PUF is used as a technique to prevent counterfeiting. Several studies have been reported on PUF. Arbiter PUF, which utilizes the difference in signal propagation delay between selectors, is the typical method of composing PUF using delay characteristics. This paper proposed a new PUF which is based on the arbiter PUF. The proposed PUF introduces new multiplexing selector units. It attempts to generate an effective response using the orders of three signal arrivals. Experiments using FPGAs verify the validity of the proposed PUF. Although Uniqueness is deteriorated, Correctness, Steadiness, Randomness and Resistance against the machine learning attacks are improved in comparison with conventional one.

  6. Needle puncture in rabbit functional spinal units alters rotational biomechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, Robert A; Bell, Kevin M; Quan, Bichun; Nuzhao, Yao; Sowa, Gwendolyn A; Kang, James D

    2015-04-01

    An in vitro biomechanical study for rabbit lumbar functional spinal units (FSUs) using a robot-based spine testing system. To elucidate the effect of annular puncture with a 16 G needle on mechanical properties in flexion/extension, axial rotation, and lateral bending. Needle puncture of the intervertebral disk has been shown to alter mechanical properties of the disk in compression, torsion, and bending. The effect of needle puncture in FSUs, where intact spinal ligaments and facet joints may mitigate or amplify these changes in the disk, on spinal motion segment stability subject to physiological rotations remains unknown. Rabbit FSUs were tested using a robot testing system whose force/moment and position precision were assessed to demonstrate system capability. Flexibility testing methods were developed by load-to-failure testing in flexion/extension, axial rotation, and lateral bending. Subsequent testing methods were used to examine a 16 G needle disk puncture and No. 11 blade disk stab (positive control for mechanical disruption). Flexibility testing was used to assess segmental range-of-motion (degrees), neutral zone stiffness (N m/degrees) and width (degrees and N m), and elastic zone stiffness before and after annular injury. The robot-based system was capable of performing flexibility testing on FSUs-mean precision of force/moment measurements and robot system movements were elastic zone stiffness in flexion and lateral bending. These findings suggest that disk puncture and stab can destabilize FSUs in primary rotations.

  7. The Environmental, Social, Governance, and Financial Performance Effects on Companies that Adopt the United Nations Global Compact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Ortas

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to investigate companies’ environmental, social, governance (ESG, and financial implications of their commitment to the United Nations Global Compact (UNGC. The focus is placed on companies operating in the three countries with the highest number of UNGC participants: Spain, France, and Japan. The results clearly reveal that adoption of the UNGC often requires an organizational change that fosters stakeholder engagement, ultimately resulting in improvements in companies’ ESG performance. Additionally, the results reveal that ESG performance has a significant impact on financial performance for companies that adopted the principles of the UNGC. These findings provide both non-financial and financial incentives to companies to commit to this voluntary corporate social responsibility (CSR initiative, which will have important implications on companies’ strategic management policies that aim to foster sustainable businesses and community development. Finally, the linkages between the UNGC-committed companies’ ESG and financial performance may be influenced by geographical spread, mainly due to the appearance of differences in the institutional, societal, and cultural settings.

  8. The EU Arbitration Convention : An evaluating assessment of the governance and functioning of the EU Arbitration Convention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pit, Harm Mark

    2017-01-01

    The EU Arbitration Convention An evaluating assessment of the governance and functioning of the EU Arbitration Convention Summary for non-experts The EU Arbitration Convention is a convention between EU Member States to eliminate double taxation arising from – for tax purposes – transfer pricing

  9. Corporate Governance: The Impact on the Role, Position, and Scope of Services of the Internal Audit Function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Paape

    2007-01-01

    textabstractCorporate scandals during the last decade fostered many Corporate Governance reports. These reports aimed at restoring checks and balances in companies to prevent fraudulent behaviour and restore public trust. One of the functions active in many organizations is Internal Audit. This

  10. Governance of Offshore IT Outsourcing at Shell Global Functions IT-BAM Development and Application of a Governance Framework to Improve Outsourcing Relationships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, Floor; van Hillegersberg, Jos; van Eck, Pascal; van der Kolk, Feiko; Jorissen, Rene; Oshri, Ilan; Kotlarsky, Julia

    The lack of effective IT governance is widely recognized as a key inhibitor to successful global IT outsourcing relationships. In this study we present the development and application of a governance framework to improve outsourcing relationships. The approach used to developing an IT governance

  11. Health worker posting and transfer at primary level in Tamil Nadu: Governance of a complex health system function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surekha Garimella

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Posting and transfer (PT of health personnel - placing the right health workers in the right place at the right time - is a core function of any large-scale health service. In the context of government health services, this may be seen as a simple process of bureaucratic governance and implementation of the rule of law. However the literature from India and comparable low and middle-income country health systems suggests that in reality PT is a contested domain, driven by varied expressions of private and public interest throughout the chain of implementation. Objective: To investigate policymaking for PT in the government health sector and implementation of policies as experienced by different health system actors and stakeholders at primary health care level. Methodology: We undertook an empirical case study of a PT reform policy at primary health care level in Tamil Nadu State, to understand how different groups of health systems actors experience PT. In-depth qualitative methods were undertaken to study processes of implementation of PT policies enacted through ′counselling′ of health workers (individualized consultations to determine postings and transfers. Results: PT emerges as a complex phenomenon, shaped partially by the laws of the state and partially as a parallel system of norms and incentives requiring consideration and coordination of the interests of different groups. Micro-practices of governance represent homegrown coping mechanisms of health administrators that reconcile public and private interests and sustain basic health system functions. Beyond a functional perspective of PT, it also reflects justice and fairness as it plays out in the health system. It signifies how well a system treats its employees, and by inference, is an index of the overall health of the system. Conclusions: For a complex governance function such as PT, the roles of private actors and private interests are not easily separable from the

  12. Urban forests' potential to supply marketable carbon emission offsets: a survey of municipal governments in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neelam C. Poudyal; Jacek P. Siry; J. M. Bowker

    2010-01-01

    This study assesses the motivation, willingness, and technical as well as managerial capacities of U.S. cities to store carbon and sell carbon offsets. Based on a national survey of urban foresters, arborists, and other officials responsible for urban forest management within U.S. municipal governments, results indicate that local governments are interested in selling...

  13. Over 10 million seawater temperature records for the United Kingdom Continental Shelf between 1880 and 2014 from 17 Cefas (United Kingdom government) marine data systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, David J.; Pinnegar, John K.; Maxwell, David L.; Dye, Stephen R.; Fernand, Liam J.; Flatman, Stephen; Williams, Oliver J.; Rogers, Stuart I.

    2018-01-01

    The datasets described here bring together quality-controlled seawater temperature measurements from over 130 years of departmental government-funded marine science investigations in the UK (United Kingdom). Since before the foundation of a Marine Biological Association fisheries laboratory in 1902 and through subsequent evolutions as the Directorate of Fisheries Research and the current Centre for Environment Fisheries & Aquaculture Science, UK government marine scientists and observers have been collecting seawater temperature data as part of oceanographic, chemical, biological, radiological, and other policy-driven research and observation programmes in UK waters. These datasets start with a few tens of records per year, rise to hundreds from the early 1900s, thousands by 1959, and hundreds of thousands by the 1980s, peaking with > 1 million for some years from 2000 onwards. The data source systems vary from time series at coastal monitoring stations or offshore platforms (buoys), through repeated research cruises or opportunistic sampling from ferry routes, to temperature extracts from CTD (conductivity, temperature, depth) profiles, oceanographic, fishery and plankton tows, and data collected from recreational scuba divers or electronic devices attached to marine animals. The datasets described have not been included in previous seawater temperature collation exercises (e.g. International Comprehensive Ocean-Atmosphere Data Set, Met Office Hadley Centre sea surface temperature data set, the centennial in situ observation-based estimates of sea surface temperatures), although some summary data reside in the British Oceanographic Data Centre (BODC) archive, the Marine Environment Monitoring and Assessment National (MERMAN) database and the International Council for the Exploration of the Sea (ICES) data centre. We envisage the data primarily providing a biologically and ecosystem-relevant context for regional assessments of changing hydrological conditions

  14. Over 10 million seawater temperature records for the United Kingdom Continental Shelf between 1880 and 2014 from 17 Cefas (United Kingdom government marine data systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. J. Morris

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The datasets described here bring together quality-controlled seawater temperature measurements from over 130 years of departmental government-funded marine science investigations in the UK (United Kingdom. Since before the foundation of a Marine Biological Association fisheries laboratory in 1902 and through subsequent evolutions as the Directorate of Fisheries Research and the current Centre for Environment Fisheries & Aquaculture Science, UK government marine scientists and observers have been collecting seawater temperature data as part of oceanographic, chemical, biological, radiological, and other policy-driven research and observation programmes in UK waters. These datasets start with a few tens of records per year, rise to hundreds from the early 1900s, thousands by 1959, and hundreds of thousands by the 1980s, peaking with  >  1 million for some years from 2000 onwards. The data source systems vary from time series at coastal monitoring stations or offshore platforms (buoys, through repeated research cruises or opportunistic sampling from ferry routes, to temperature extracts from CTD (conductivity, temperature, depth profiles, oceanographic, fishery and plankton tows, and data collected from recreational scuba divers or electronic devices attached to marine animals. The datasets described have not been included in previous seawater temperature collation exercises (e.g. International Comprehensive Ocean–Atmosphere Data Set, Met Office Hadley Centre sea surface temperature data set, the centennial in situ observation-based estimates of sea surface temperatures, although some summary data reside in the British Oceanographic Data Centre (BODC archive, the Marine Environment Monitoring and Assessment National (MERMAN database and the International Council for the Exploration of the Sea (ICES data centre. We envisage the data primarily providing a biologically and ecosystem-relevant context for regional assessments of changing

  15. Communication of 28 August 2003 received from the Government of the United States of America on behalf of the Member States of the Nuclear Suppliers Group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    The Director General has received a letter dated 28 August 2003 from the Government of the United States of America on behalf of participating Governments of the 'Nuclear Suppliers Group' (NSG). Attached to this letter is an updated version of a paper entitled 'The Nuclear Suppliers Group: Its Origins, Role and Activities'. The original version of the paper was issued as INFCIRC/539 on 15 September 1997, and a revision was issued on 17 April 2000 as INFCIRC/539/Rev.1. 2. In the light of the wish expressed at the end of the letter, the revised version of the paper, attached hereto, is being circulated to Member States of the IAEA

  16. The role of international institutions in the formation of international bioethical law: UNESCO and the United Nations General Assembly attempt to govern human cloning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuppuswamy, Chamundeeswari

    2007-01-01

    This article analyses the international governance of human reproductive cloning. Noting that bioethics is a new field of engagement for international lawyers, it recounts some of the institutional developments in bioethical law making. The role of UNESCO and the United Nations General Assembly is scrutinized and the author discusses the relative merits of the institutions' governance of human reproductive cloning. The author suggests that some international institutions and mechanisms are better suited than others for bioethical law making. The 2005 General Assembly resolution on human cloning is analysed in this context.

  17. Exploring overlapping functional units with various structure in protein interaction networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Fei Zhang

    Full Text Available Revealing functional units in protein-protein interaction (PPI networks are important for understanding cellular functional organization. Current algorithms for identifying functional units mainly focus on cohesive protein complexes which have more internal interactions than external interactions. Most of these approaches do not handle overlaps among complexes since they usually allow a protein to belong to only one complex. Moreover, recent studies have shown that other non-cohesive structural functional units beyond complexes also exist in PPI networks. Thus previous algorithms that just focus on non-overlapping cohesive complexes are not able to present the biological reality fully. Here, we develop a new regularized sparse random graph model (RSRGM to explore overlapping and various structural functional units in PPI networks. RSRGM is principally dominated by two model parameters. One is used to define the functional units as groups of proteins that have similar patterns of connections to others, which allows RSRGM to detect non-cohesive structural functional units. The other one is used to represent the degree of proteins belonging to the units, which supports a protein belonging to more than one revealed unit. We also propose a regularizer to control the smoothness between the estimators of these two parameters. Experimental results on four S. cerevisiae PPI networks show that the performance of RSRGM on detecting cohesive complexes and overlapping complexes is superior to that of previous competing algorithms. Moreover, RSRGM has the ability to discover biological significant functional units besides complexes.

  18. Governance of Offshore IT Outsourcing at Shell Global Functions IT-BAM Development and Application of a Governance Framework to Improve Outsourcing Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, Floor; van Hillegersberg, Jos; van Eck, Pascal; van der Kolk, Feiko; Jorissen, Rene

    The lack of effective IT governance is widely recognized as a key inhibitor to successful global IT outsourcing relationships. In this study we present the development and application of a governance framework to improve outsourcing relationships. The approach used to developing an IT governance framework includes a meta model and a customization process to fit the framework to the target organization. The IT governance framework consists of four different elements (1) organisational structures, (2) joint processes between in- and outsourcer, (3) responsibilities that link roles to processes and (4) a diverse set of control indicators to measure the success of the relationship. The IT governance framework is put in practice in Shell GFIT BAM, a part of Shell that concluded to have a lack of management control over at least one of their outsourcing relationships. In a workshop the governance framework was used to perform a gap analysis between the current and desired governance. Several gaps were identified in the way roles and responsibilities are assigned and joint processes are set-up. Moreover, this workshop also showed the usefulness and usability of the IT governance framework in structuring, providing input and managing stakeholders in the discussions around IT governance.

  19. 28 CFR 0.135 - Functions common to heads of organizational units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... organizational unit authority and responsibility for the reallotment of such funds and control of obligations and... organizational units. 0.135 Section 0.135 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE ORGANIZATION OF THE... Disqualification to Act § 0.135 Functions common to heads of organizational units. Subject to the general...

  20. Strengthening government management capacity to scale up HIV prevention programs through the use of Technical Support Units: lessons from Karnataka state, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sgaier, Sema K; Anthony, John; Bhattacharjee, Parinita; Baer, James; Malve, Vidyacharan; Bhalla, Aparajita; Hugar, Vijaykumar S

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Scaling up HIV prevention programming among key populations (female sex workers and men who have sex with men) has been a central strategy of the Government of India. However, state governments have lacked the technical and managerial capacity to oversee and scale up interventions or to absorb donor-funded programs. In response, the national government contracted Technical Support Units (TSUs), teams with expertise from the private and nongovernmental sectors, to collaborate with and assist state governments. In 2008, a TSU was established in Karnataka, one of 6 Indian states with the highest HIV prevalence in the country and where monitoring showed that its prevention programs were reaching only 5% of key populations. The TSU provided support to the state in 5 key areas: assisting in strategic planning, rolling out a comprehensive monitoring and evaluation system, providing supportive supervision to intervention units, facilitating training, and assisting with information, education, and communication activities. This collaborative management model helped to increase capacity of the state, enabling it to take over funding and oversight of HIV prevention programs previously funded through donors. With the combined efforts of the TSU and the state government, the number of intervention units statewide increased from 40 to 126 between 2009 and 2013. Monthly contacts with female sex workers increased from 5% in 2008 to 88% in 2012, and with men who have sex with men, from 36% in 2009 to 81% in 2012. There were also increases in the proportion of both populations who visited HIV testing and counseling centers (from 3% to 47% among female sex workers and from 6% to 33% among men who have sex with men) and sexually transmitted infection clinics (from 4% to 75% among female sex workers and from 7% to 67% among men who have sex with men). Changes in sexual behaviors among key populations were also documented. For example, between 2008 and 2010, the proportion of

  1. An International Comparison of Corporate Governance Models: a study on the formal independence and governance of one-tier and two-tier corporate boards of directors in the United States of America, the United Kingdom and the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.F. Maassen (Gregory)

    1999-01-01

    textabstractAccording to Cochran and Wartick (1988), corporate governance is an umbrella term that covers many aspects related to concepts, theories and practices of boards of directors and their executive and non-executive directors. It is a field that concentrates on the relationship between

  2. Nutrition Standards for Food Service Guidelines for Foods Served or Sold in Municipal Government Buildings or Worksites, United States, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onufrak, Stephen J; Zaganjor, Hatidza; Moore, Latetia V; Carlson, Susan; Kimmons, Joel; Galuska, Deborah

    2016-12-22

    The Institute of Medicine and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention have recommended that government agencies use nutrition standards for foods and beverages sold and provided at their facilities. In this study, we examine written nutrition standards for foods sold or served in local government buildings or worksites among US municipalities. We used data from a 2014 national survey of 1,945 municipal governments serving populations of 1,000 or more to assess the presence of written nutrition standards, the food groups or nutrients addressed by standards, and the populations served by facilities where standards are applied. The prevalence of standards was estimated by municipality population size, rural-urban status, census region, poverty prevalence, education level, and racial/ethnic composition. Overall, 3.2% of US municipalities reported nutrition standards with greater prevalence observed among large municipalities (12.8% of municipalities with ≥50,000 people vs 2.2% of municipalities with <2,500 people, P < .001). Prevalence differed by region, and standards were most common in the West (6.6%) and least common in the Midwest (2.0%, P = .003).The most common nutrition topics addressed in standards were offering low-calorie beverages, fruits and vegetables, and free drinking water. Most standards applied to facilities serving government employees (67%) or the general public (66%), with fewer serving institutionalized populations (23%). Few municipal governments reported having written nutrition standards for foods and beverages sold in their facilities in 2014. Implementing nutrition standards for foods sold or served by local governments is a strategy for increasing access to healthier foods and beverages among municipal employees and local residents.

  3. Electronic equipment. New functional units in NIM standard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheminaud, J.; Grasso, G.; Lacroix, C.; Le Baud, P.; Pichot, G.; Poirot, L.

    During the year 1974 some new modules have been developed: i) a tele-control for delay-time which utilizes a multiplexer-demultiplexer; ii) a fast pulse generator for light-emitting diodes which allows the test of devices using photomultipliers; iii) a plug-in-unit of variable shaper for fast pulses, with reset and zero dead time; iv) an amplifier with a 50MHz band-pass and an adjusting amplification from 0 to 10; v) a pocket generator delivering NIM pulses [fr

  4. Contextualizing Obesity and Diabetes Policy: Exploring a Nested Statistical and Constructivist Approach at the Cross-National and Subnational Government Level in the United States and Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo J. Gómez

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background This article conducts a comparative national and subnational government analysis of the political, economic, and ideational constructivist contextual factors facilitating the adoption of obesity and diabetes policy. Methods We adopt a nested analytical approach to policy analysis, which combines cross-national statistical analysis with subnational case study comparisons to examine theoretical prepositions and discover alternative contextual factors; this was combined with an ideational constructivist approach to policy-making. Results Contrary to the existing literature, we found that with the exception of cross-national statistical differences in access to healthcare infrastructural resources, the growing burden of obesity and diabetes, rising healthcare costs and increased citizens’ knowledge had no predictive affect on the adoption of obesity and diabetes policy. We then turned to a subnational comparative analysis of the states of Mississippi in the United States and Rio Grande do Norte in Brazil to further assess the importance of infrastructural resources, at two units of analysis: the state governments versus rural municipal governments. Qualitative evidence suggests that differences in subnational healthcare infrastructural resources were insufficient for explaining policy reform processes, highlighting instead other potentially important factors, such as state-civil societal relationships and policy diffusion in Mississippi, federal policy intervention in Rio Grande do Norte, and politicians’ social construction of obesity and the resulting differences in policy roles assigned to the central government. Conclusion We conclude by underscoring the complexity of subnational policy responses to obesity and diabetes, the importance of combining resource and constructivist analysis for better understanding the context of policy reform, while underscoring the potential lessons that the United States can learn from Brazil.

  5. Personal Data Protection in E-Government: Globalization or Glocalization? A Comparative Study of the United States, Germany and China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yuehua

    2010-01-01

    The development and diffusion of information and communication technologies, particularly the internet, creates a worldwide trend of using ICTs and the internet to deliver public services. This new form of electronic administration--e-government--potentially offers great benefits to society in that it can enhance public service efficiency,…

  6. The Budget of the United States Government. Department of Defense Budget for Fiscal Years 1992 and 1993

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-02-04

    facility will treat raw sewage discharges from Tijuana into the Tijuana River. These discharges have severely affected a National Wildlife Refuge and...partnership among government, academic, and private sector scientists to develop new medica - tions for the treatment of drug addiction. The 1992 proposal

  7. United abominations: Density functional studies of heavy metal chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoendorff, George [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Carbonyl and nitrile addition to uranyl (UO22+) are studied. The competition between nitrile and water ligands in the formation of uranyl complexes is investigated. The possibility of hypercoordinated uranyl with acetone ligands is examined. Uranyl is studied with diactone alcohol ligands as a means to explain the apparent hypercoordinated uranyl. A discussion of the formation of mesityl oxide ligands is also included. A joint theory/experimental study of reactions of zwitterionic boratoiridium(I) complexes with oxazoline-based scorpionate ligands is reported. A computational study was done of the catalytic hydroamination/cyclization of aminoalkenes with zirconium-based catalysts. Techniques are surveyed for programming for graphical processing units (GPUs) using Fortran.

  8. Oversight Institutions Within the United Nations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pontoppidan, Caroline Aggestam

    2015-01-01

    This article will give a description of the role of internal audit and governance functions within the United Nations system. The United Nations has, during the last 10 years, worked to establish effective oversight services. Oversight, governance and hereunder the internal audit function has been...

  9. Functional unit and product functionality—addressing increase in consumption and demand for functionality in sustainability assessment with LCA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Seung Jin; Kara, Sami; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    2016-01-01

    behaviour and demonstrates the vicious circle of improving product efficiency that leads to further consumption and environmental impact. To address this problem, a new framework of dynamic functional unit definition is put forward for performing comparative LCA to manage the development of product life...... consumption of products in provided services as well as in growing volumes. This article aims to present a new framework in defining a dynamic functional unit of product technologies that caters for changes in consumer behaviour and growing market. Methods: A new approach to defining the functional unit...... is demonstrated on a case study in which the analysis of historical data for two TV product technologies—CRT and LCD—is used to show how the total environmental impact is increasing due to the increased functionality which triggers an increase in the volume of the market. Despite the efforts of improving product...

  10. Quantifying the economic impact of government and charity funding of medical research on private research and development funding in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sussex, Jon; Feng, Yan; Mestre-Ferrandiz, Jorge; Pistollato, Michele; Hafner, Marco; Burridge, Peter; Grant, Jonathan

    2016-02-24

    Government- and charity-funded medical research and private sector research and development (R&D) are widely held to be complements. The only attempts to measure this complementarity so far have used data from the United States of America and are inevitably increasingly out of date. This study estimates the magnitude of the effect of government and charity biomedical and health research expenditure in the United Kingdom (UK), separately and in total, on subsequent private pharmaceutical sector R&D expenditure in the UK. The results for this study are obtained by fitting an econometric vector error correction model (VECM) to time series for biomedical and health R&D expenditure in the UK for ten disease areas (including 'other') for the government, charity and private sectors. The VECM model describes the relationship between public (i.e. government and charities combined) sector expenditure, private sector expenditure and global pharmaceutical sales as a combination of a long-term equilibrium and short-term movements. There is a statistically significant complementary relationship between public biomedical and health research expenditure and private pharmaceutical R&D expenditure. A 1% increase in public sector expenditure is associated in the best-fit model with a 0.81% increase in private sector expenditure. Sensitivity analysis produces a similar and statistically significant result with a slightly smaller positive elasticity of 0.68. Overall, every additional £1 of public research expenditure is associated with an additional £0.83-£1.07 of private sector R&D spend in the UK; 44% of that additional private sector expenditure occurs within 1 year, with the remainder accumulating over decades. This spillover effect implies a real annual rate of return (in terms of economic impact) to public biomedical and health research in the UK of 15-18%. When combined with previous estimates of the health gain that results from public medical research in cancer and

  11. A Correlational Study between IT Governance and the Effect on Strategic Management Functioning among Senior & Middle Management in Medium Scale Software Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurien, Sam

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to explore whether there are relationships between elements of information technology (IT) governance, strategic planning, and strategic functions among senior and mid-level management at medium-scaled software development firms. Several topics and models of IT governance literature were discussed and the gap in…

  12. Organism-Sediment Interactions Govern Post-Hypoxia Recovery of Ecosystem Functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Colen, Carl; Rossi, Francesca; Montserrat, Francesc; Andersson, Maria G. I.; Gribsholt, Britta; Herman, Peter M. J.; Degraer, Steven; Vincx, Magda; Ysebaert, Tom; Middelburg, Jack J.

    2012-01-01

    Hypoxia represents one of the major causes of biodiversity and ecosystem functioning loss for coastal waters. Since eutrophication-induced hypoxic events are becoming increasingly frequent and intense, understanding the response of ecosystems to hypoxia is of primary importance to understand and predict the stability of ecosystem functioning. Such ecological stability may greatly depend on the recovery patterns of communities and the return time of the system properties associated to these patterns. Here, we have examined how the reassembly of a benthic community contributed to the recovery of ecosystem functioning following experimentally-induced hypoxia in a tidal flat. We demonstrate that organism-sediment interactions that depend on organism size and relate to mobility traits and sediment reworking capacities are generally more important than recovering species richness to set the return time of the measured sediment processes and properties. Specifically, increasing macrofauna bioturbation potential during community reassembly significantly contributed to the recovery of sediment processes and properties such as denitrification, bedload sediment transport, primary production and deep pore water ammonium concentration. Such bioturbation potential was due to the replacement of the small-sized organisms that recolonised at early stages by large-sized bioturbating organisms, which had a disproportionately stronger influence on sediment. This study suggests that the complete recovery of organism-sediment interactions is a necessary condition for ecosystem functioning recovery, and that such process requires long periods after disturbance due to the slow growth of juveniles into adult stages involved in these interactions. Consequently, repeated episodes of disturbance at intervals smaller than the time needed for the system to fully recover organism-sediment interactions may greatly impair the resilience of ecosystem functioning. PMID:23185440

  13. THE PRINCIPLES OF TRANSPARENCY AND INCLUSIVENESS AS PILLARS OF GLOBAL GOVERNANCE: THE BRICS APPROACH TO THE UNITED NATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. G. Fernández

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The transparency of governance is not only a necessary and sufficient condition for bringing about accountability, but also the basis for the possibility of democracy in the global sphere. Although there is no automatic progress from transparency to democratic global governance, this principle helps to create more democratic, open and fair societies. Recently, the importance of inclusiveness, transparency and procedural safeguards has emerged as a critical theme. The practical implementation of fair global governance mechanisms, procedures, and institutions will always depend on the level of participation, contestation, or solidarity among the different stakeholders represented at the local, national or international level. Recent years have clearly shown a trend towards increasing transparency and inclusiveness in international organizations’ activities and operations, in contrast to opaqueness or lack of transparency which was a very common practice in diplomacy during past centuries. The inclusion of transparency and inclusiveness elements in the decision-making rules of an international organization are fundamental for these norms to be considered not only ‘more legal,’ but also to have a higher level of legitimacy. The General Assembly decided in its Resolution 60/251 of 2006 that the methods of work of the Human Rights Council should be transparent, fair and impartial and should enable genuine dialogue. Finally, the role played by the BRICS countries at the Security Council and the Human Rights Council is critical in regards to its working methods.

  14. Altered Morphology and Function of the Lacrimal Functional Unit in Protein Kinase Cα Knockout Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhuo; Li, Zhijie; Basti, Surendra; Farley, William J.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose. Protein kinase C (PKC) α plays a major role in the parasympathetic neural stimulation of lacrimal gland (LG) secretion. It also has been reported to have antiapoptotic properties and to promote cell survival. Therefore, the hypothesis for the present study was that PKCα knockout (−/−) mice have impaired ocular surface–lacrimal gland signaling, rendering them susceptible to desiccating stress and impaired corneal epithelial wound healing. In this study, the lacrimal function unit (LFU) and the stressed wound-healing response were examined in PKCα−/− mice. Methods. In PKCα+/+ control mice and PKCα−/− mice, tear production, osmolarity, and clearance rate were evaluated before and after experimental desiccating stress. Histology and immunofluorescent staining of PKC and epidermal growth factor were performed in tissues of the LFU. Cornified envelope (CE) precursor protein expression and cell proliferation were evaluated. The time course of healing and degree of neutrophil infiltration was evaluated after corneal epithelial wounding. Results. Compared with the PKCα+/+ mice, the PKCα−/− mice were noted to have significantly increased lacrimal gland weight, with enlarged, carbohydrate-rich, PAS-positive acinar cells; increased corneal epithelia permeability, with reduced CE expression; and larger conjunctival epithelial goblet cells. The PKCα−/− mice showed more rapid corneal epithelial healing, with less neutrophil infiltration and fewer proliferating cells than did the PKCα+/+ mice. Conclusions. The PKCα−/− mice showed lower tear production, which appeared to be caused by impaired secretion by the LG and conjunctival goblet cells. Despite their altered tear dynamics, the PKCα−/− mice demonstrated more rapid corneal epithelial wound healing, perhaps due to decreased neutrophil infiltration. PMID:20505191

  15. Evolution of Voltage-Dependent Anion Channel Function: From Molecular Sieve to Governator to Actuator of Ferroptosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John J. Lemasters

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC is well known as the pathway for passive diffusion of anionic hydrophilic mitochondrial metabolites across the outer membrane, but a more complex functionality of the three isoforms of VDAC has emerged, as addressed in the Frontiers in Oncology Research Topic on “Uncovering the Function of the Mitochondrial Protein VDAC in Health and Disease: from Structure-Function to Novel Therapeutic Strategies.” VDAC as the single most abundant protein in mitochondrial outer membranes is typically involved in isoform-specific interactions of the mitochondrion with its surroundings as, for example, during mitochondria-dependent pathways of cell death. VDAC closure can also act as an adjustable limiter (governator of global mitochondrial metabolism, as during hepatic ethanol metabolism to promote selective oxidation of membrane-permeant acetaldehyde. In cancer cells, high free tubulin inhibits VDAC1 and VDAC2, contributing to suppression of mitochondrial function in the Warburg phenomenon. Erastin, the canonical inducer of ferroptosis, opens VDAC in the presence of tubulin and hyperpolarizes mitochondria, leading to mitochondrial production of reactive oxygen species, mitochondrial dysfunction, and cell death. Our understanding of VDAC function continues to evolve.

  16. A new characterization of Bloch function in the unit ball of Cn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Jihuai.

    1989-07-01

    Bloch function in the unit disc v has many different but equivalent characterizations. Recently, a new characterization has been obtained by the study of Hankel operators. The purpose of this note is to generalize this characterization to the unit ball of C n . 7 refs

  17. On the analytical evaluation of the partition function for unit hypercubes in four dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hari Dass, N.D.

    1984-10-01

    The group integrations required for the analytic evaluation of the partition function for unit hypercubes in four dimensions are carried out. Modifications of the graphical rules for SU 2 group integrations cited in the literature are developed for this purpose. A complete classification of all surfaces that can be embedded in the unit hypercube is given and their individual contribution to the partition function worked out. Applications are discussed briefly. (orig.)

  18. Realized Incomes And Revenues Of Local And Branch (Regional Self-Government Units With Audit Review On Income-Earning Property

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dubravka Mahaček

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available In addition to other incomes, the incomes of local and branch (regional self-government units are made by the income-earning property as well. Statutory provisions determine their realization. This work presents basic kinds of these incomes with legal foundation, which is the base for their realization. The realization was observed on the county-level for a definite period (from 2003 to 2005. It is important to emphasise that the county-level realization includes the realization of the stated incomes within the frame of cities and communes on their area.

  19. Public management and governance

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bovaird, A. G; Löffler, Elke

    2009-01-01

    ... how the process of governing needs to be fundamentally altered if a government is to retain public trust and make better use of society's resources. Key themes covered include: ■ ■ ■ ■ the challenges and pressures which governments experience in an international context; the changing functions of modern government in the global economy; the 'mixed ec...

  20. Service functions of private community health stations in China: A comparison analysis with government-sponsored community health stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Wanli; Fan, Hong; Xu, Jing; Wang, Fang; Chai, Yun; Xu, Hancheng; Li, Yongbin; Liu, Liqun; Wang, Bin; Jin, Jianqiang; Lu, Zuxun

    2012-04-01

    In China, with the restructuring of health care system moving forward, private community health facilities have been playing a complementary but increasingly important role in providing public health and basic medical care services in urban areas. However, only limited evidence is available concerning the service functions of private community health facilities in China. The aim of this study was to explore the functions of private community health stations (PCHSs) to provide evidence-based recommendations for policy-making and practice in the development of urban community health services systems. A total of 818 PCHSs and 4320 government-sponsored community health stations (GCHSs) located in 28 cities of China were investigated in 2008. The percentages of stations that provided health services and the annual workload per community health worker (CHW) were compared between the two types of institutions. The results showed that the percentages of PCHSs providing public health services were significantly higher than those of GCHSs (P0.05). The annual workloads of all the public health services and basic medical services per CHW in PCHSs were lighter than those in GCHSs (P0.05). At present, the GCHSs are still the mainstream in urban China, which will last for a long period in future. However, our findings showed that the annual workloads of CHWs in PCHSs were no heavier than those in GCHSs, and the PCHSs were willing to provide public health services. In view of current inadequacy of health resources in China, it is feasible to further develop PCHSs under the guidance of the government, given that PCHSs can perform the basic functions of community health services, which is useful for the formation of public-private partnerships (PPP) and the improvement of community health services.

  1. Forest resources, government policy, and investment location decisions of the forest products industry in the southern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Changyou Sun; Daowei Zhang

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the results of an initial attempt to estimate the effects of state attributes on plant location and investment expenditure were presented for the forest products industry in the southern United States. A conditional logit model was used to analyze new plant births, and a time-series cross-section model to assess the total capital expenditure....

  2. 75 FR 73972 - Medicaid Program; Cost Limit for Providers Operated by Units of Government and Provisions To...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-30

    ... District Court for the District of Columbia on May 23, 2008 in Alameda County Medical Center, et al. v... limit on reimbursement. On May 23, 2008, the United States District Court for the District of Columbia...), DHHS is removing the word ``nursing facilities'' replacing it with ``NFs.'' In Sec. 447.272(a)(1), DHHS...

  3. Energy-efficient specialization of functional units in a Coarse-Grained Reconfigurable Array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Essen, B.; Panda, R.; Wood, A.; Ebeling, C.; Hauck, S.

    2010-01-01

    Functional units provide the backbone of any spatial accelerator by providing the computing resources. The desire for having rich and expensive functional units is in tension with producing a regular and energy-efficient computing fabric. This paper explores the design trade-off between complex, universal functional units and simpler, limited functional units. We show that a modest amount of specialization reduces the area-delay-energy product of an optimized architecture to 0.86x a baseline architecture. Furthermore, we provide a design guideline that allows an architect to customize the contents of the computing fabric just by examining the profile of benchmarks within the application domains. Functional units are the core of compute-intensive spatial accelerators. They perform the computation of interest with support from local storage and communication structures. Ideally, the functional units will provide rich functionality, supporting operations ranging from simple addition, to fused multiply-adds, to advanced transcendental functions and domain specific operations like add-compare-select. However, the total opportunity cost to support the more complex operations is a function of the cost of the hardware, the rate of occurrence of the operation in the application domain, and the inefficiency of emulating the operation with simpler operators. Examples of operations that are typically emulated in spatial accelerators are division and trigonometric functions, which can be solved using table-lookup based algorithms and the CORDIC algorithm. One reason to avoid having direct hardware support for complex operations in a tiled architecture like a Coarse-Grained Reconfigurable Array (CGRA) is that the expensive hardware will typically need to be replicated in some or all of the architecture's tiles. Tiled architecture are designed such that their tiles are either homogeneous or heterogeneous. Homogeneous architectures are simpler to design but heterogeneous

  4. Structure-function relationships governing activity and stability of a DNA alkylation damage repair thermostable protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perugino, Giuseppe; Miggiano, Riccardo; Serpe, Mario; Vettone, Antonella; Valenti, Anna; Lahiri, Samarpita; Rossi, Franca; Rossi, Mosè; Rizzi, Menico; Ciaramella, Maria

    2015-10-15

    Alkylated DNA-protein alkyltransferases repair alkylated DNA bases, which are among the most common DNA lesions, and are evolutionary conserved, from prokaryotes to higher eukaryotes. The human ortholog, hAGT, is involved in resistance to alkylating chemotherapy drugs. We report here on the alkylated DNA-protein alkyltransferase, SsOGT, from an archaeal species living at high temperature, a condition that enhances the harmful effect of DNA alkylation. The exceptionally high stability of SsOGT gave us the unique opportunity to perform structural and biochemical analysis of a protein of this class in its post-reaction form. This analysis, along with those performed on SsOGT in its ligand-free and DNA-bound forms, provides insights in the structure-function relationships of the protein before, during and after DNA repair, suggesting a molecular basis for DNA recognition, catalytic activity and protein post-reaction fate, and giving hints on the mechanism of alkylation-induced inactivation of this class of proteins. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  5. A Review Of The United States Government’s Status Quo North Korean Foreign Policy Approach And Reasons For Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-16

    AIR WAR COLLEGE AIR UNIVERSITY A REVIEW OF THE UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT’S STATUS QUO NORTH KOREAN FOREIGN POLICY APPROACH AND REASONS FOR...administration DPRK policy review . Initially the Obama administration also sought negotiations through Six-party offering official US aid. In his... movies and sports, as well as being educated in Switzerland. Mr. Kim invited Dennis Rodman to visit his country, who has made several trips.44 Former

  6. What are the corporate governance challenges for family businesses? : A comparison of the United Kingdom and China

    OpenAIRE

    Geng, Jia; Lawton, Philip

    2018-01-01

    The family business is ubiquitous. Its prevalence in the various forms of capitalisms that exist is a clear indication of its importance. Even throughout China’s history and now within its version of a modern socialist market, the family business has proven to be a foundation of societies. In the United Kingdom (UK), family businesses have been successful and had steady growth thanks to a conducive macro-environment that consisted of a democratic political system, an advanced legal system and...

  7. [Diffusion of clinical governance among the Italian Local Health Units (LHUs). Analysis of the Health Surveys, the Firm Acts and the Health Plans].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Belvis, A G; Biasco, A; Pelone, F; Romaniello, A; De Micco, F; Volpe, M; Ricciardi, W

    2009-01-01

    The objective of our research is to report on the diffusion of Clinical Governance, as introduced with the National Health Plan 2006-2008, by analysing the planning instruments set up by each Region (Regional Health Plans and Emergency Plans in regions with budget deficit), the organizational frameworks (Atti Aziendali, firm acts), and the surveys on performance and quality of healthcare among the Italian Local Health Units (Health Surveys). Our research was realized on September-December 2007 and consisted of the collection of all retrieved documents available on the web and on the online public access catalog (OPAC SBN) of the National Library Service. Futhermore, each document has been classified and analysed according to Chambers' Clinical Governance definition. A descriptive statistical and inferential analysis by applying the Chi-2 Test was performed to test the correlation between the diffusion of such a classified documents and the geographical partition of each LHU. Our results show a scarce diffusion of Firm acts (43%) and Health Surveys (24.9% of the total). Any remind to Clinical Governance instruments and methods inside each document resulted even poorer among both the organizational and performance surveys and the regional health planning frameworks, respectively.

  8. Difficulties in the dissemination and implementation of clinical guidelines in government neonatal intensive care units in Brazil: how managers, medical and nursing, position themselves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magluta, Cynthia; Gomes, Maria A de Sousa Mendes; Wuillaume, Susana M

    2011-08-01

    Clinical guidelines are tools that systematize scientific evidence and help to achieve proper care. Several difficulties are reported regarding the effective use, such as the shortcomings in the level of knowledge and attitudes by the professionals, the service structure and the preferences appointed by patients. An analysis of these difficulties was the objective of this study in the context of government Neonatal Intensive Care Units (NICU) in Brazil. A semi-structured survey was carried out with 53 managers (medical and nursing) of the 15 NICU in a convenient sample of two groups of government units in Brazil. The managers chose their answers from a list of difficulties to implement the guidelines based on the analytical model of Cabana and graded the difficulties found on a 5-point scale with no reference to quality. Respondents have reported several difficulties with the following priority: lack of professionals to provide care, being perceived as more critical within the nursing and physiotherapy crews, minor participation of professionals in the discussion process and inadequate infrastructure. The lack of acquaintance with the guidelines by the professionals has been reported by few of the surveyed. These findings show some common ground to literature pointing the importance of adequate infrastructure. Managers showed a low valuation of both the level of knowledge and the professionals' adhesion to the guidelines. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  9. Major alternatives for government policies, organizational structures, and actions in civilian nuclear reactor emergency management in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to identify and assess major alternatives for governmental policies, organizational structures, and actions in civilian nuclear reactor emergency management in the United States. The National Academy of Public Administration agreed to identify and evaluate alternatives for governmental policies, organizational structures, and actions in civilian nuclear reactor emergency management. It agreed to review present policies and practices in civilian nuclear reactor emergency management, to review selected experiences and practices of governmental agencies other than the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, and industries other than the nuclear power industry, and to identify alternatives to the present nuclear emergency system

  10. The instrument control unit of SPICA SAFARI: a macro-unit to host all the digital control functionalities of the spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Giorgio, Anna Maria; Biondi, David; Saggin, Bortolino; Shatalina, Irina; Viterbini, Maurizio; Giusi, Giovanni; Liu, Scige J.; Cerulli-Irelli, Paquale; Van Loon, Dennis; Cara, Christophe

    2012-09-01

    We present the preliminary design of the Instrument Control Unit (ICU) of the SpicA FAR infrared Instrument (SAFARI), an imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS) designed to give continuous wavelength coverage in both photometric and spectroscopic modes from around 34 to 210 µm. Due to the stringent requirements in terms of mass and volume, the overall SAFARI warm electronics will be composed by only two main units: Detector Control Unit and ICU. ICU is therefore a macro-unit incorporating the four digital sub-units dedicated to the control of the overall instrument functionalities: the Cooler Control Unit, the Mechanism Control Unit, the Digital processing Unit and the Power Supply Unit. Both the mechanical solution adopted to host the four sub-units and the internal electrical architecture are presented as well as the adopted redundancy approach.

  11. Russian Initiatives in Internet Governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey Sergeevich Shirin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the research of Russian initiatives concerning its participation in international system of Internet governance. In the research, conceptual and theoretic basis for participation of state governments in Internet governance is given, academic discourse of this issue is assessed, the review of main Russian initiatives made from 2005 (since the second stage of the World Summit on Information Society till the present day is carried out. The conclusion is made that the most successful Internet governance initiative of Russia is the implementation of cyrillic top level domains. Much less successful are Russian attempts to reconstruct existing organizational structure of Internet governance. Russian policy is assessed as a policy of preferring loud statements and PR rather than real influence on development of Internet technologies. Russia consideres Internet as political resource and tries to increase its influence on decision making process on a political, not operational level of Internet governance. The author states that federal government of the United States of America has fully lost the control on the domain name systems. These functions are going to be given to the private sector, while ICANN, which was established according to the Memorandum of Understanding/Joint Project Agreement with U.S. Department of Commerce, is becoming a truly independent international organization. Considering this, the author comes to the conclusion that political transformations for the sake of Russia are already made. He also forecast that next initiatives of Russia will be directed to the segmentation of the Internet.

  12. Role and Function Sub District in the Implementation of Local Government in Semarang City and District of Semarang Central Java Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunawan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Sub district in performing common functions government implementation and administration functions of the tasks that have been submitted by District City in accordance with the Law No. 32 Year 2004 on Regional Government and Government Regulation No. 19 Year 2008 on the District experienced a bottleneck in its application in the form of authority, institutional, resource human resources and management districts, the study used a qualitative approach, purposive sampling areas that have been submitted and have not been handed over authority to the districts, the results showed that the authority has submitted both the mayor and the regent was not fully submitted, institution or organization not adjust districts Government Regulation No. 19 in 2008, the quality and quantity of human resources become a bottleneck in the implementation of tasks and discretionary attributive.

  13. The Budget of the United States Government. Department of Defense Extract for Fiscal Years 1990 and 1991

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    8217110) pO : 1 0) @! lp C0)" cQ. cJ clj(% (% CZ.J c ’) m ’. c ’ (" Cv . 00 C=) c’) c" C4 J * n C" 0 OR CR D (’ Rcp .4 Ile V! C’J a: U) @0 C’ ’t cr 46 L...corrections; (3) a special outlier policy SEC. [808,7] S061!. Not to exceed $35.000,000 of the funds available for children’s hospitals and neonatal ...Continental United States, including design, architecture, and engi- 20580 (June 3, 1988); (4) a refinement to the DRGs for neonatal nearing services

  14. Discriminants and functional equations for polynomials orthogonal on the unit circle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ismail, M.E.H.; Witte, N.S.

    2000-01-01

    We derive raising and lowering operators for orthogonal polynomials on the unit circle and find second order differential and q-difference equations for these polynomials. A general functional equation is found which allows one to relate the zeros of the orthogonal polynomials to the stationary values of an explicit quasi-energy and implies recurrences on the orthogonal polynomial coefficients. We also evaluate the discriminants and quantized discriminants of polynomials orthogonal on the unit circle

  15. Implementing the United Kingdom Government's 10-Year Teenage Pregnancy Strategy for England (1999-2010): Applicable Lessons for Other Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadley, Alison; Chandra-Mouli, Venkatraman; Ingham, Roger

    2016-07-01

    Teenage pregnancy is an issue of inequality affecting the health, well-being, and life chances of young women, young men, and their children. Consequently, high levels of teenage pregnancy are of concern to an increasing number of developing and developed countries. The UK Labour Government's Teenage Pregnancy Strategy for England was one of the very few examples of a nationally led, locally implemented evidence-based strategy, resourced over a long duration, with an associated reduction of 51% in the under-18 conception rate. This article seeks to identify the lessons applicable to other countries. The article focuses on the prevention program. Drawing on the detailed documentation of the 10-year strategy, it analyzes the factors that helped and hindered implementation against the World Health Organization (WHO) ExpandNet Framework. The Framework strives to improve the planning and management of the process of scaling-up of successful pilot programs with a focus on sexual and reproductive health, making it particularly suited for an analysis of England's teenage pregnancy strategy. The development and implementation of the strategy matches the Framework's key attributes for successful planning and scaling up of sexual and reproductive health programs. It also matched the attributes identified by the Centre for Global Development for scaled up approaches to complex public health issues. Although the strategy was implemented in a high-income country, analysis against the WHO-ExpandNet Framework identifies many lessons which are transferable to low- and medium-income countries seeking to address high teenage pregnancy rates. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Modeling the Unites States government's economic cost of noise-induced hearing loss for a military population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tufts, Jennifer B; Weathersby, Paul K; Rodriguez, Francisco A

    2010-05-01

    The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the feasibility and utility of developing economic cost models for noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL). First, we outline an economic model of NIHL for a population of US Navy sailors with an "industrial"-type noise exposure. Next, we describe the effect on NIHL-related cost of varying the two central model inputs--the noise-exposure level and the duration of exposure. Such an analysis can help prioritize promising areas, to which limited resources to reduce NIHL-related costs should be devoted. NIHL-related costs borne by the US government were computed on a yearly basis using a finite element approach that took into account varying levels of susceptibility to NIHL. Predicted hearing thresholds for the population were computed with ANSI S3.44-1996 and then used as the basis for the calculation of NIHL-related costs. Annual and cumulative costs were tracked. Noise-exposure level and duration were systematically varied to determine their effects on the expected lifetime NIHL-related cost of a specific US Navy sailor population. Our nominal noise-exposure case [93 dB(A) for six years] yielded a total expected lifetime cost of US $13,472 per sailor, with plausible lower and upper bounds of US $2,500 and US $26,000. Starting with the nominal case, a decrease of 50% in exposure level or duration would yield cost savings of approximately 23% and 19%, respectively. We concluded that a reduction in noise level would be more somewhat more cost-effective than the same percentage reduction in years of exposure. Our economic cost model can be used to estimate the changes in NIHL-related costs that would result from changes in noise-exposure level and/or duration for a single military population. Although the model is limited at present, suggestions are provided for adapting it to civilian populations.

  17. Luria’s model of the functional units of the brain and the neuropsychology of dreaming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Téllez A.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally, neuropsychology has focused on identifying the brain mechanisms of specific psychological processes, such as attention, motor skills, perception, memory, language, and consciousness, as well as their corresponding disorders. However, there are psychological processes that have received little attention in this field, such as dreaming. This study examined the clinical and experimental neuropsychological research relevant to dreaming, ranging from sleep disorders in patients with brain damage, to brain functioning during REM sleep, using different methods of brain imaging. These findings were analyzed within the framework of Luria’s Three Functional Unit Model of the Brain, and a proposal was made to explain certain of the essential characteristics of dreaming. This explanation describes how, during dreaming, an activation of the First Functional Unit occurs, comprising the reticular formation of the brainstem; this activates, in turn, the Second Functional Unit — which is formed by the parietal, occipital, and temporal lobes and Unit L, which is comprised of the limbic system, as well as simultaneous hypo-functioning of the Third Functional Unit (frontal lobe. This activity produces a perception of hallucinatory images of various sensory modes, as well as a lack of inhibition, a non-selfreflexive thought process, and a lack of planning and direction of such oneiric images. Dreaming is considered a type of natural confabulation, similar to the one that occurs in patients with frontal lobe damage or schizophrenia. The study also suggests that the confabulatory, bizarre, and impulsive nature of dreaming has a function in the cognitiveemotional homeostasis that aids proper brain function throughout the day.

  18. Page | 70 LOCAL GOVERNMENT COUNCIL AS A CONSTITUENT ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fr. Ikenga

    Government of every State to ensure their existence under a law that provides for its establishment, structure, composition, finance and functions. This is the first impediment to the autonomy, independence and incorporation of the Local Government Councils as part of the federating units, having made them subject to the ...

  19. Power unit impedance and distance protection functions during faults in the external power grid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Lizer

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the problem of the risk of an unnecessary tripping of a generation unit’s underimpedance protection functions in circumstances of generator power swings following elimination of long-lasting fault in the external power grid. The fi rst part describes typical solutions of a generator impedance protection function (21e and unit distance protection function (21s. Starting characteristics of these protection functions are shown, as well as their typical operating logics and ways of calculating their settings. Then exemplary (the most common solutions of unit under-impedance relays power swing blocking functions are described. Following this introduction, the issues of the threat of unnecessary operation of fast-tripping protection zones of 21e and 21s protection functions are described, which arises in the circumstances of generator asynchronous power swings occurring after elimination of long-lasting faults in the grid supplied by the power unit. The paper also shows that the available power swing blocking functions may not be able to correctly detect the described conditions, thus allowing the unnecessary operation of under-impedance relays. How an impedance calculation algorithm affects the impedance trajectory seen by a protection relay is also resented.

  20. Innovative Approaches to Collaborative Groundwater Governance in the United States: Case Studies from Three High-Growth Regions in the Sun Belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megdal, Sharon B.; Gerlak, Andrea K.; Huang, Ling-Yee; Delano, Nathaniel; Varady, Robert G.; Petersen-Perlman, Jacob D.

    2017-05-01

    Groundwater is an increasingly important source of freshwater, especially where surface water resources are fully or over-allocated or becoming less reliable due to climate change. Groundwater reliance has created new challenges for sustainable management. This article examines how regional groundwater users coordinate and collaborate to manage shared groundwater resources, including attention to what drives collaboration. To identify and illustrate these facets, this article examines three geographically diverse cases of groundwater governance and management from the United States Sun Belt: Orange County Water District in southern California; Prescott Active Management Area in north-central Arizona; and the Central Florida Water Initiative in central Florida. These regions have different surface water laws, groundwater allocation and management laws and regulations, demographics, economics, topographies, and climate. These cases were selected because the Sun Belt faces similar pressures on groundwater due to historical and projected population growth and limited availability of usable surface water supplies. Collectively, they demonstrate groundwater governance trends in the United States, and illustrate distinctive features of regional groundwater management strategies. Our research shows how geophysical realities and state-level legislation have enabled and/or stimulated regions to develop groundwater management plans and strategies to address the specific issues associated with their groundwater resources. We find that litigation involvement and avoidance, along with the need to finance projects, are additional drivers of regional collaboration to manage groundwater. This case study underscores the importance of regionally coordinated and sustained efforts to address serious groundwater utilization challenges faced by the regions studied and around the world.

  1. Negotiation process of agreement for cooperation between the government of the United States of America and the Government of Japan concerning peaceful uses of atomic energy (1988) and future problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endo, Tetsuya

    2011-01-01

    Nuclear energy cooperation between the United States and Japan had proceeded well based on agreement for cooperation between the governments of both countries concerning peaceful uses of atomic energy. This article reviewed background and negotiation process of the agreement in details. Along with strengthening movement of non-proliferation policy after nuclear explosion tests in India and investigation results of international nuclear fuel cycle evaluation (INFCE) on compatibility of peaceful use of nuclear energy and non-proliferation policy, fifteen negotiation meetings of the agreement were held from August 1982 to January 1987 and the agreement was enacted in July 1988, which assured a stable and long-term development of nuclear fuel cycle in Japan. Stable general consent of nuclear facilities with agreed safeguards concepts, reciprocal agreement on equal terms and international transport of recovered plutonium were main agenda of negotiation. From the substantial agreement to signature and enactment of the agreement, their needed the hard process of the US domestic procedure and congressional review. Guideline of maritime transport of plutonium was added as an appendix in October 1988. Evaluation of negotiation process and future problems were also discussed since this agreement would end in July 2018 but be extended automatically unless terminated by written notice six months prior to the termination. (T. Tanaka)

  2. Weighted Anisotropic Integral Representations of Holomorphic Functions in the Unit Ball of

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arman Karapetyan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We obtain weighted integral representations for spaces of functions holomorphic in the unit ball and belonging to area-integrable weighted -classes with “anisotropic” weight function of the type ∏=1(1−|1|2−|2|2−⋯−||2, =(1,2,…,∈. The corresponding kernels of these representations are estimated, written in an integral form, and even written out in an explicit form (for =2.

  3. Synthesis and Excellent Duplex Stability of Oligonucleotides Containing 2'-Amino-LNA Functionalized with Galactose Units

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kumar, Rajesh; Ries, Annika; Wengel, Jesper

    2017-01-01

    A convenient method for the preparation of oligonucleotides containing internally-attached galactose and triantennary galactose units has been developed based on click chemistry between 2'-N-alkyne 2'-amino-LNA nucleosides and azido-functionalized galactosyl building blocks. The synthesized...

  4. Biomedical Mathematics, Unit VII: Exponential and Logarithmic Functions. Student Text. Revised Version, 1977.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biomedical Interdisciplinary Curriculum Project, Berkeley, CA.

    This collection of lessons, exercises, and experiments deals with exponential and logarithmic mathematical functions in the context of biomedical situations. Typical units in this collection provide discussion of the biomedical problem or setting, discussion of the mathematical concept, several example problems and solutions, and a set of problems…

  5. Unit-based functional IDDT testing for aging degradation monitoring in a VLIW processor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhao, Yong; Kerkhoff, Hans G.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, functional unit-based IDDT testing has been applied for a 90nm VLIW processor to monitor its aging degradation. This technique can provide health data for reliability evaluation as used in e.g. prognostic software for lifetime prediction. The test-program development based on the

  6. Impact of soil moisture deficit on ecosystem function across the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susan Moran; Morgan Ross; Mallory Burns

    2016-01-01

    The cumulative effect of recent prolonged warm drought on regional ecosystem function is still uncertain. Large regions of the United States are experiencing new hydroclimatic conditions with extreme variability in climate drivers such as total precipitation, precipitation patterns (e.g., storm size, intensity and frequency), and seasonal temperatures.

  7. Psychiatric disorders in children attending a Nigerian primary care unit: functional impairment and risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tunde-Ayinmode Mosunmola

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is dearth of data on the level of functional impairment and risk factors for psychiatric morbidity in children attending primary care services in developing countries like Nigeria. The risk factors for psychiatric morbidity and functional impairment in children attending the primary care unit of a teaching hospital in Ilorin, Nigeria was therefore investigated to obtain data that could be used in improving service provision by primary care physicians. Methods A cross-sectional two-stage design was employed for the study. The first stage involved administration of the Child Behavior Questionnaire (CBQ to 350 children while the children’s version of the schedule for affective disorders and schizophrenia was used for the second stage involving 157 children, all high scorers on CBQ (score of ≥ 7 and 30% of low scorers (score  In addition, the Children Global Assessment Scale was used to assess the functional status of the children (score of ≤ 70 indicates functional impairment while the mothers’ mental health status was assessed with the 12-item version of the General Health Questionnaire, a score of 3 or more on this instrument indicate presence of mental morbidity. Results It was observed that 11.4% of the children had diagnosable psychiatric disorders and 7.1% were functionally impaired; and those with psychiatric disorders were more functionally impaired than those without. Thus, significant negative correlation was noted between CBQ scores and CGAS (r = 0.53; p  Conclusions Child psychiatric disorders are prevalent in the primary care unit studied. Many of the risk factors identified in the study population are modifiable. Collaborative efforts between psychiatrists and primary care physicians could therefore help to reduce level of risk and functional impairment and psychiatric morbidity among children attending the primary care unit studied. It could also help improve referral rates of

  8. The role of the lacrimal functional unit in the pathophysiology of dry eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Michael E; Gao, Jianping; Siemasko, Karyn F; Beuerman, Roger W; Pflugfelder, Stephen C

    2004-03-01

    The majority of dry eye symptoms are due to a chronic inflammation of the lacrimal functional unit resulting in a loss of tear film integrity and normal function. This leads to a reduction in the ability of the ocular surface to respond to environmental challenges. The underlying cause of tear film dysfunction is the alteration of tear aqueous, mucin, and lipid components. This may result from a systemic autoimmune disease or a local autoimmune event. A lack of systemic androgen support to the lacrimal gland has been shown to be a facilitative factor in the initiation of this type of pathophysiology. Tear secretion is controlled by the lacrimal functional unit consisting of the ocular surface (cornea, conjunctiva, accessory lacrimal glands, and meibomian glands), the main lacrimal gland and the interconnecting innervation. If any portion of this functional unit is compromised, lacrimal gland support to the ocular surface is impeded. Factors such as neurogenic inflammation and T cell involvement in the disease pathogenesis as well as newly developed animal models of ocular surface inflammation are discussed.

  9. Giving us the ‘Biggest Bang for the Buck’ (or Not: Anti-trafficking government funding in Ukraine and the United Kingdom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiril Sharapov

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The focus of this paper is on government anti-trafficking policies and funding allocations in two case-study countries, Ukraine and the United Kingdom (UK. The paper discusses specific ways, or ‘vectors’, in which human trafficking has been discursively constructed by national policies and the solutions that have been offered to counteract it. It relies on publicly available information and information obtained via Freedom of Information requests from public authorities in these countries to explore the extent to which anti-trafficking funding allocated by national governments supports or unsettles such representations. A broader definition of human trafficking has been encoded into anti-trafficking policies in Ukraine, implicating migratory pressures and violation of irregular migrants’ human rights as the root causes of trafficking. However, the ability of the government to act upon this definition is limited by the ongoing socio-economic and political crises in Ukraine. This is in comparison to the politicised construction of trafficking by the UK government as a threat from international organised crime and ‘illegal’ immigration. The paper concludes that governments in both countries put their anti-trafficking money where ‘their mouths are’: crime, immigration and victim care in the UK, and awareness raising, victim care and training of ‘frontline professionals’ in Ukraine. Dándonos el "Mayor Rendimiento al Menor Coste" (o No: Financiación nacional contra la Trata en Ucrania y Reino Unido Resumen Este artículo se centra en la políticas gubernamentales contra la trata y la asignación financiera en dos países a modo de estudio de caso, Ucrania y Reino Unido. En concreto se discuten las vías específicas, o "vectores", que en el ámbito de las políticas nacionales se han ido formulando para afrontar el problema de la trata de seres humanos, así como las soluciones que se han ido proponiendo para neutralizarlo. Para

  10. The role of government in the development and diffusion of renewable energy technologies: Wind power in the United States, California, Denmark and Germany, 1970--2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawin, Janet Laughlin

    2001-07-01

    This dissertation seeks to determine the role of government policy in advancing the development and diffusion of renewable energy technologies, and to determine if specific policies or policy types are more effective than others in achieving these ends. This study analyzes legislation, regulations, research and development (R&D) programs and their impacts on wind energy in California, the rest of the United States, Denmark and Germany, from 1970 through 2000. These countries (and state) were chosen because each has followed a very different path and has adopted wind energy at different rates. Demand for energy, particularly electricity, is rising rapidly worldwide. Renewable energy technologies could meet much of the world's future demand for electricity without the national security, environmental and social costs of conventional technologies. But renewables now play only a minor role in the electric generation systems of most countries. According to conventional economic theory, renewable energy will achieve greater market penetration once it is cost-competitive with conventional generation. This dissertation concludes, however, that government policy is the most significant causal variable in determining the development and diffusion of wind energy technology. Policy is more important for bringing wind energy to maturity than a nation's wind resource potential, wealth, relative differences in electricity prices, or existing infrastructure. Further, policy is essential for enabling a technology to succeed in the marketplace once it is cost-competitive. Policies can affect a technology's perceived, or real, costs; they can reduce risks or increase the availability and affordability of capital; appropriate and consistent policies can eliminate barriers to wind technology. To be adopted on a large scale, renewables require effective, appropriate and, above all, consistent policies that are legislated with a long-term view toward advancing a technology and an

  11. Corelations between the landslides and the morphological and functional units of slopes in the Transylvanian Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gh. ROȘIAN

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The presence of fluvial morphology in the Transylvanian Basin, in form of an alternation of water divides and valley corridors, indicates favourable conditions for the genesis of geomorphologic processes. Under this aspect two sections stand out within this type of processes: river beds and slopes. In this paper, the emphasis is on the processes, developed on slopes. Water erosion and mass movement processes can be observed on their surface. From all mass movement processes, the emphasis will be put on the landslides. They will be observed in correlation with the morphologic and functional units of the slopes from different regional units of Transylvanian Basin. Eight case studies were taken into consideration regarding this aspect. Thus, we noticed that landslides particularly develop in the median part of the slopes which is corresponding to the maximum processual dynamic and transfer unit.

  12. A case study examination of structure and function in a state health department chronic disease unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alongi, Jeanne

    2015-04-01

    I explored the structural and operational practices of the chronic disease prevention and control unit of a state health department and proposed a conceptual model of structure, function, and effectiveness for future study. My exploratory case study examined 7 elements of organizational structure and practice. My interviews with staff and external stakeholders of a single chronic disease unit yielded quantitative and qualitative data that I coded by perspective, process, relationship, and activity. I analyzed these for patterns and emerging themes. Chi-square analysis revealed significant correlations among collaboration with goal ambiguity, political support, and responsiveness, and evidence-based decisions with goal ambiguity and responsiveness. Although my study design did not permit conclusions about causality, my findings suggested that some elements of the model might facilitate effectiveness for chronic disease units and should be studied further. My findings might have important implications for identifying levers around which capacity can be built that may strengthen effectiveness.

  13. The roles and functions of occupational health nurses in Brazil and in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marziale, Maria Helena Palucci; Hong, Oi Saeng; Morris, Judy A; Rocha, Fernanda Ludmilla Rossi

    2010-01-01

    Cross-sectional exploratory research developed to outline the roles and functions of occupational health nurses (OHNs) in Brazil and compare them with those in the United States. The sample consisted of 154 Brazilian occupational health nurses. First, the instrument Job Analysis Survey of Occupational Health Nursing Practice was translated into Portuguese, followed by data collection and data analysis, comparing the results of the proposed study in Brazil with the findings of a job delineation study conducted in the United States. It was found that most were women, white, between 41 and 50 years of age and working primarily at hospitals or medical centers as clinicians and managers/administrators. Besides, it was found that most Brazilian OHNs spend more time in managerial roles, followed by consultant and educator responsibilities while, in the United States, OHNs spend significantly more time in education/advisory roles.

  14. A minimum price per unit of alcohol: A focus group study to investigate public opinion concerning UK government proposals to introduce new price controls to curb alcohol consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lonsdale Adam J

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background UK drinkers regularly consume alcohol in excess of guideline limits. One reason for this may be the high availability of low-cost alcoholic beverages. The introduction of a minimum price per unit of alcohol policy has been proposed as a means to reduce UK alcohol consumption. However, there is little in-depth research investigating public attitudes and beliefs regarding a minimum pricing policy. The aim of the present research was to investigate people’s attitudes and beliefs toward the introduction of a minimum price per unit of alcohol policy and their views on how the policy could be made acceptable to the general public. Methods Twenty-eight focus groups were conducted to gain in-depth data on attitudes, knowledge, and beliefs regarding the introduction of a minimum price per unit of alcohol policy. Participants (total N = 218 were asked to give their opinions about the policy, its possible outcomes, and how its introduction might be made more acceptable. Transcribed focus-group discussions were analysed for emergent themes using inductive thematic content analysis. Results Analysis indicated that participants’ objections to a minimum price had three main themes: (1 scepticism of minimum pricing as an effective means to reduce harmful alcohol consumption; (2 a dislike of the policy for a number of reasons (e.g., it was perceived to ‘punish’ the moderate drinker; and (3 concern that the policy might create or exacerbate existing social problems. There was a general perception that the policy was aimed at ‘problem’ and underage drinkers. Participants expressed some qualified support for the policy but stated that it would only work as part of a wider campaign including other educational elements. Conclusions There was little evidence to suggest that people would support the introduction of a minimum price per unit of alcohol policy. Scepticism about the effectiveness of the policy is likely to represent the most

  15. A minimum price per unit of alcohol: A focus group study to investigate public opinion concerning UK government proposals to introduce new price controls to curb alcohol consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background UK drinkers regularly consume alcohol in excess of guideline limits. One reason for this may be the high availability of low-cost alcoholic beverages. The introduction of a minimum price per unit of alcohol policy has been proposed as a means to reduce UK alcohol consumption. However, there is little in-depth research investigating public attitudes and beliefs regarding a minimum pricing policy. The aim of the present research was to investigate people’s attitudes and beliefs toward the introduction of a minimum price per unit of alcohol policy and their views on how the policy could be made acceptable to the general public. Methods Twenty-eight focus groups were conducted to gain in-depth data on attitudes, knowledge, and beliefs regarding the introduction of a minimum price per unit of alcohol policy. Participants (total N = 218) were asked to give their opinions about the policy, its possible outcomes, and how its introduction might be made more acceptable. Transcribed focus-group discussions were analysed for emergent themes using inductive thematic content analysis. Results Analysis indicated that participants’ objections to a minimum price had three main themes: (1) scepticism of minimum pricing as an effective means to reduce harmful alcohol consumption; (2) a dislike of the policy for a number of reasons (e.g., it was perceived to ‘punish’ the moderate drinker); and (3) concern that the policy might create or exacerbate existing social problems. There was a general perception that the policy was aimed at ‘problem’ and underage drinkers. Participants expressed some qualified support for the policy but stated that it would only work as part of a wider campaign including other educational elements. Conclusions There was little evidence to suggest that people would support the introduction of a minimum price per unit of alcohol policy. Scepticism about the effectiveness of the policy is likely to represent the most significant barrier to

  16. A minimum price per unit of alcohol: a focus group study to investigate public opinion concerning UK government proposals to introduce new price controls to curb alcohol consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lonsdale, Adam J; Hardcastle, Sarah J; Hagger, Martin S

    2012-11-23

    UK drinkers regularly consume alcohol in excess of guideline limits. One reason for this may be the high availability of low-cost alcoholic beverages. The introduction of a minimum price per unit of alcohol policy has been proposed as a means to reduce UK alcohol consumption. However, there is little in-depth research investigating public attitudes and beliefs regarding a minimum pricing policy. The aim of the present research was to investigate people's attitudes and beliefs toward the introduction of a minimum price per unit of alcohol policy and their views on how the policy could be made acceptable to the general public. Twenty-eight focus groups were conducted to gain in-depth data on attitudes, knowledge, and beliefs regarding the introduction of a minimum price per unit of alcohol policy. Participants (total N = 218) were asked to give their opinions about the policy, its possible outcomes, and how its introduction might be made more acceptable. Transcribed focus-group discussions were analysed for emergent themes using inductive thematic content analysis. Analysis indicated that participants' objections to a minimum price had three main themes: (1) scepticism of minimum pricing as an effective means to reduce harmful alcohol consumption; (2) a dislike of the policy for a number of reasons (e.g., it was perceived to 'punish' the moderate drinker); and (3) concern that the policy might create or exacerbate existing social problems. There was a general perception that the policy was aimed at 'problem' and underage drinkers. Participants expressed some qualified support for the policy but stated that it would only work as part of a wider campaign including other educational elements. There was little evidence to suggest that people would support the introduction of a minimum price per unit of alcohol policy. Scepticism about the effectiveness of the policy is likely to represent the most significant barrier to public support. Findings also suggest that clearer

  17. Research Governance and the Role of Evaluation: A Comparative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molas-Gallart, Jordi

    2012-01-01

    Through a comparative study of the United Kingdom and Spain, this article addresses the effect of different research governance structures on the functioning and uses of research evaluation. It distinguishes three main evaluation uses: distributive, improvement, and controlling. Research evaluation in the United Kingdom plays important…

  18. The functional unit of Japanese word naming: evidence from masked priming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdonschot, Rinus G; Kiyama, Sachiko; Tamaoka, Katsuo; Kinoshita, Sachiko; Heij, Wido La; Schiller, Niels O

    2011-11-01

    Theories of language production generally describe the segment as the basic unit in phonological encoding (e.g., Dell, 1988; Levelt, Roelofs, & Meyer, 1999). However, there is also evidence that such a unit might be language specific. Chen, Chen, and Dell (2002), for instance, found no effect of single segments when using a preparation paradigm. To shed more light on the functional unit of phonological encoding in Japanese, a language often described as being mora based, we report the results of 4 experiments using word reading tasks and masked priming. Experiment 1 demonstrated using Japanese kana script that primes, which overlapped in the whole mora with target words, sped up word reading latencies but not when just the onset overlapped. Experiments 2 and 3 investigated a possible role of script by using combinations of romaji (Romanized Japanese) and hiragana; again, facilitation effects were found only when the whole mora and not the onset segment overlapped. Experiment 4 distinguished mora priming from syllable priming and revealed that the mora priming effects obtained in the first 3 experiments are also obtained when a mora is part of a syllable. Again, no priming effect was found for single segments. Our findings suggest that the mora and not the segment (phoneme) is the basic functional phonological unit in Japanese language production planning.

  19. Assessment of the integrity and functional requirement of moderator pump-motor units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soni, R.S.; Chawla, D.S.; Dutta, B.K.; Kushwaha, H.S.; Mahajan, S.C.; Kakodkar, A.

    1995-01-01

    The design of various active components in a nuclear power plant calls for a satisfactory analysis of these components for various loadings from the point of view of safety because a designated number of these components must always remain functional. Presented herein is the structural and seismic qualification of one the active components namely the moderator system pump-motor units for a typical PHWR. (author). 5 refs., 8 figs

  20. Implementation of the Pragmatic Function of Phraseological Units in a Literary Text

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterina Yuryevna Belozerova

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the identification and study of the pragmatic functions of phraseological units in modern fiction for teenagers using the example of the literary work A Perfect 10 by Chris Higgins (2013. In the present analysis of idioms the author relies on the fact that a language (as a form of expression can act as a key to the study and understanding of human communication. The idioms containing indirect characteristics of an emotional state of a person are chosen to be the object of the study. The analysis of the functional and pragmatic properties of English idioms is chosen to be the subject of the study. It was established that the phraseological units in the text of the novel by Chris Higgins are used in order to: show the emotional state; transmit the emotional stress; express the aggression and confidence in victory; express a negative attitude towards the situation; impose a subjective view on the reader; implement a positive, descriptive and pragmatic attitude with initially negative value; implement positive subjective evaluation. The analyzed phraseological units reveal the conditions and goals of situational dialogues, as well as reflect the knowledge, thoughts and ideas about the world in the field of interpersonal relations of teenagers. The main attention is given to the pragmatic aspect of the idiom function for the transmission of emotional and evaluative (positive and negative values in the process of communication. The targeted effects of phraseological units on the reader are considered as the realization of the pragmatic functions of idioms and are clearly transmitted to the reader

  1. Safety aspects of postanesthesia care unit discharge without motor function assessment after spinal anesthesia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aasvang, Eske Kvanner; Jørgensen, Christoffer Calov; Laursen, Mogens Berg

    2017-01-01

    Background: Postanesthesia care unit (PACU) discharge without observation of lower limb motor function after spinal anesthesia has been suggested to signifcantly reduce PACU stay and enhance resource optimization and early rehabilitation but without enough data to allow clinical recommendations...... or knee arthroplasty was noninferior to motor function assessment in achieving length of stay 4 days or less or 30-day readmissions. Because a nonsignifcant tendency toward increased adverse events during the frst 24h in the ward was discovered, further safety data are needed in patients without...

  2. Interactive governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Eva; Torfing, Jacob; Peters, B. Guy

    Governance has become one of the most commonly used concepts in contemporary political science. It is, however, often used to mean a variety of different things. This book helps to clarify this conceptual muddle by concentrating on one variety of governance-interactive governance. The authors argue...... that although the state may remain important for many aspects of governing, interactions between state and society represent an important, and perhaps increasingly important, dimension of governance. These interactions may be with social actors such as networks, with market actors or with other governments......, but all these forms represent means of governing involving mixtures of state action with the actions of other entities.This book explores thoroughly this meaning of governance, and links it to broader questions of governance. In the process of explicating this dimension of governance the authors also...

  3. Transformative environmental governance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaffin, Brian C.; Garmestani, Ahjond S.; Gunderson, Lance H.; Harm Benson, Melinda; Angeler, David G.; Arnold, Craig Anthony (Tony); Cosens, Barbara; Kundis Craig, Robin; Ruhl, J.B.; Allen, Craig R.

    2016-01-01

    Transformative governance is an approach to environmental governance that has the capacity to respond to, manage, and trigger regime shifts in coupled social-ecological systems (SESs) at multiple scales. The goal of transformative governance is to actively shift degraded SESs to alternative, more desirable, or more functional regimes by altering the structures and processes that define the system. Transformative governance is rooted in ecological theories to explain cross-scale dynamics in complex systems, as well as social theories of change, innovation, and technological transformation. Similar to adaptive governance, transformative governance involves a broad set of governance components, but requires additional capacity to foster new social-ecological regimes including increased risk tolerance, significant systemic investment, and restructured economies and power relations. Transformative governance has the potential to actively respond to regime shifts triggered by climate change, and thus future research should focus on identifying system drivers and leading indicators associated with social-ecological thresholds.

  4. Functional unit, technological dynamics, and scaling properties for the life cycle energy of residences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frijia, Stephane; Guhathakurta, Subhrajit; Williams, Eric

    2012-02-07

    Prior LCA studies take the operational phase to include all energy use within a residence, implying a functional unit of all household activities, but then exclude related supply chains such as production of food, appliances, and household chemicals. We argue that bounding the functional unit to provision of a climate controlled space better focuses the LCA on the building, rather than activities that occur within a building. The second issue explored in this article is how technological change in the operational phase affects life cycle energy. Heating and cooling equipment is replaced at least several times over the lifetime of a residence; improved efficiency of newer equipment affects life cycle energy use. The third objective is to construct parametric models to describe LCA results for a family of related products. We explore these three issues through a case study of energy use of residences: one-story and two-story detached homes, 1,500-3,500 square feet in area, located in Phoenix, Arizona, built in 2002 and retired in 2051. With a restricted functional unit and accounting for technological progress, approximately 30% of a building's life cycle energy can be attributed to materials and construction, compared to 0.4-11% in previous studies.

  5. Governance, Accountability, and Organizational Development: Eldercare Unit Managers' and Local Politicians' Experiences of and Responses to State Supervision of Swedish Eldercare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Katarina; Hanberger, Anders; Nygren, Lennart

    2018-02-22

    This article explores how local politicians and care unit managers in Swedish eldercare experience and respond to state supervision (SSV). Twelve politicians and twelve managers in 15 previously inspected municipalities were interviewed about their experiences of and reactions to SSV in relation to their views of care quality and routines in eldercare practice. The findings indicate that local managers and political chairs perceived SSV in eldercare positively at a superficial level but were critical of and disappointed with specific aspects of it. In terms of (a) governance, chairs and managers said SSV strengthened implementation of national policies via local actors, but they were critical of SSV's narrow focus on control and flaws in eldercare practice. With regard to (b) accountability, SSV was seen as limited to accountability for finances and systemic performance, and regarding (c) organizational development, SSV was seen as limited to improving routines and compliance with legislation, while local definitions of quality are broader than that. In general, local actors regarded SSV as improving administrative aspects and routines in practice but ignoring the relational content of eldercare quality.

  6. THE ROLE OF THE ACCOUNTANT PROFESSIONAL IN THE CONTEXT OF THE CORPORATE GOVERNANCE AND THE EXTERNALISATION OF THE ACCOUNTING FUNCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boghean Carmen

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available According to the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development - OECD, corporate governance is the system by means of which companies are managed and controlled. In 1999, were published the OECD Principles of Corporate Governance, these being currently recognized as one of the 12 pillars of international financial stability. The OECD principles served as a reference point for compiling a collection of national corporate governance codes. They focus mainly on the companies listed on regulated markets, although they also cover issues related to companies that have a big number of shareholders but are not listed. These principles refer to: the rights of shareholders and their protection, the equitable treatment of all shareholders, including the minority and foreign shareholders, the role and rights of stakeholders, the transparency of information and its prompt dissemination, the responsibilities of the Board of Directors and of the executive management.

  7. Bridging the Gap between Theory and Practice: Reviewing the functions and powers of local government in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annette Christmas

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The chairperson of the parliamentary Portfolio Committee on local government recently described local government in South Africa as “a chicken whose legs have been tied for too long”. In other words, even when the fetters that bind the chicken’s legs are loosed, it remains at a loss for what to do with its newfound freedom (Tsenoli 2007. This descriptive analogy ostensibly refers to the failure of local government to harness its newfound power in post-apartheid South Africa and to claim its rightful position as the driver of development at the local level, and instigator of bottom-up growth and progress, which is meant to shape and transform society in the new South Africa.

  8. Feasibility investigation of coupling a desalination prototype functioning by Aero-Evapo-Condensation with solar units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourouni, K.; Bouden, C.; Chaibi, M.

    2003-01-01

    The rural regions of south Mediterranean countries suffer from problems of drinking water supply. However, the majority of these regions have important resources of brackish salt water. Thus, brackish water desalination on a small scale presents a potential solution to this problem. For this reason, a number of small desalination prototypes are being developed worldwide. Bourouni et al. have developed a water desalination unit functioning by the Aero-Evapo-Condensation-Process (AECP) in order to satisfy this kind of water demand. One of the advantages of this prototype is that it allows the use of low temperature energy such as geothermal and solar energies abundant in these countries. An initial experiment was carried on an AECP prototype coupled to a geothermal spring in the south of Tunisia. The results relative to the technical and economic performances of the unit have shown that this kind of coupling is promising. On the other hand, the brackish water springs in these countries are often non-geothermal. In this case, the use of solar energy can be considered. Thus, we develop, in the present article, a feasibility investigation on the coupling of the AECP prototype with solar units. In fact, we analyse, in the first part of this article, the possibilities of this coupling in a manner that the functioning mode of the solar units will be compatible with that of the AECP prototype. To attempt this objective, two kinds of solar installation scenarios are considered and modelled to obtain their energetic contribution. Hence, the elaborated models are coupled to the one developed by Bourouni et al. for the AECP prototype to determine the technical and economic performances of the whole installation. In the last part of this article, a solar unit dimensioning is performed in order to minimise the total cost of the distilled water. (author)

  9. [Influence of functional dependence on the case mix in a geriatric unit].

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Guerrero, José Luis; Alonso-Fernández, Teresa; Gálvez, Noemí; García-Mayolín, Nieves

    2008-01-01

    To determine the influence of pre-admission functional status on the case mix in a geriatric unit, after adjustment by the diagnosis-related groups (DRG) patient classification system. We performed a retrospective observational study in patients admitted to the geriatric unit of a general hospital over a 2-year period. Patients with a length of stay of less than 2 days and transfers from other medical services and hospitals were excluded. The following data were obtained from the minimum data set and from chart review: age, sex, place of residence before admission, Charlson comorbidity index, pre-admission functional status and mobility, cognitive status, length of hospital stay, rate of in-hospital mortality, and the DRG (and DRG weight) for each patient. A total of 1065 patients were included in this study. The mean age was 84 years (64-102), and 64% were women. Patients with lower functional status were more often female (67.1 vs 55.8%; PDRG weight (P=.03). Once the more frequent DRG were reviewed, patients who were dependent had a greater number of respiratory infections and renal problems and had fewer cerebrovascular diseases. Some clinical characteristics differ in patients with functional dependence. This finding could influence the clinical management of medical services that treat more dependent patients.

  10. Interactive Governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    Governance analysis has exploded in recent years, and it has become nearly impossible to tell what difference the concept and practice of governance makes from those of government and state. In addition governance analysis has been placed more and more in the shadow of the new institutionalisms and...... and growth. However, interactive governance is not a property or effect of institutions; nor does it apply solely to those individuals who seek success above everything else. It is connective more than individualistic or collectivistic in nature; and it manifests a governability capacity which...

  11. Functional planning units for the management of an endangered Brazilian titi monkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouveia, Sidney F; Souza-Alves, João Pedro; de Souza, Bruno B; Beltrão-Mendes, Raone; Jerusalinsky, Leandro; Ferrari, Stephen F

    2017-05-01

    Conservation practices in the tropics often rely on the data available for a few, better-known species and the adoption of an appropriate spatial scale. By defining a set of landscape units that account for critical aspects of the focal species, the information available on these conservation targets can support regional conservation policies. Here, we define and classify adjacent landscapes, termed planning units, to orientate management decisions within and among these landscapes, which are occupied by an endangered flagship primate species (Coimbra-Filho's titi monkey, Callicebus coimbrai) from eastern Brazil. We use landscape boundaries (highways and river systems), and a high-resolution map of forest remnants to identify continuous and manageable landscapes. We employed functional landscape metrics based on the species' dispersal ability and home range size to characterize and classify these landscapes. We classified planning units by scoring them according to a suite of selected metrics through a Principal Component Analysis. We propose 31 planning units, containing one to six C. coimbrai populations, most with low values of habitat availability, functional connectivity and carrying capacity, and a high degree of degradation. Due to this poor landscape configuration, basic management practices are recommendable. However, additional aspects of the landscapes and the populations they contain (e.g., matrix type and genetic variability) should improve the scheme, which will require a closer integration of research aims with socio-political strategies. Even so, our scheme should prove useful for the combination of information on conservation targets (i.e., focal species) with management strategies on an administrative scale. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Facial transplantation: an anatomic and surgical analysis of the periorbital functional unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasilic, Dalibor; Barker, John H; Blagg, Ross; Whitaker, Iain; Kon, Moshe; Gossman, M Douglas

    2010-01-01

    Complete loss of eyelid pair is associated with chronic discomfort, corneal ulceration, and visual impairment. Contemporary reconstructive techniques rarely provide functionally acceptable results. Composite tissue allotransplantation may provide a viable alternative. This study reports on neurovascular anatomy and technical details of harvesting an isolated periorbital unit and discusses its functional potential. Twenty-four hemifaces (12 fresh cadavers) were dissected to study surgically relevant neurovascular structures and to develop an efficient harvest method. Angiographic analysis was performed in seven hemifaces following harvest. The superficial temporal and facial vessels demonstrated consistent location and diameters. Anatomic variability was characterized by the absence of the frontal branch of the superficial temporal artery or facial-to-angular artery continuation, but never of both vessels in the same hemiface. Angiographic analysis demonstrated filling of the eyelid arcades, provided the anastomoses between the internal and external carotid branches were preserved. The facial nerve exhibited consistent planar arrangement and diameters in the intraparotid and proximal extraparotid regions, but less so in the distal nerve course. The inferior zygomatic and buccal branches frequently coinnervated the orbicularis oculi and lower facial muscles with an unpredictable intermuscular course. Based on the foregoing, an effective surgical harvest of the periorbital composite was developed. Surgical harvest of a functional periorbital allotransplant is technically feasible. Revascularization of the isolated periorbital unit is influenced by variations in regional anatomy and cannot be guaranteed by a single vascular pedicle. The orbicularis oculi muscle and its innervation can be preserved, and recovery, albeit without the certainty of reflexive blinking, is expected.

  13. Electronic Government

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wimmer, Maria A.; Traunmüller, Roland; Grönlund, Åke

    This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Electronic Government, EGOV 2005, held in Copenhagen, Denmark, in August 2005. The 30 revised papers presented were carefully reviewed and selected from numerous submissions, and assess the state-of-the-art in e-government/e-governance...

  14. Leadership, Governance

    Science.gov (United States)

    : Environmental Documents, Reports LANL Home Calendar Search Contacts About » Leadership, Governance Leadership national security and energy challenges. Leadership, Governance Ethics, Accountability Los Alamos National . Director's Office terry wallace in leadership, governance Director Terry C. Wallace, Jr. Terry C. Wallace, Jr

  15. Stakeholder Governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flak, Leif Skiftenes; Rose, Jeremy

    2005-01-01

    to e-Government. Originally a management theory, stakeholder theory advocates addressing the concerns of all stakeholders in a firm, as opposed to concentration on the interests of senior managers and stockholders. Apart from the original profit focus, there is no serious conceptual mismatch between...... of governance. Finally, the paper makes recommendations for future work in adapting ST to the e-government context....

  16. The role of family planning in achieving safe pregnancy for serodiscordant couples: commentary from the United States government's interagency task force on family planning and HIV service integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Jennifer; Medley, Amy; Yeiser, Sarah; Nightingale, Vienna R; Mani, Nithya; Sripipatana, Tabitha; Abutu, Andrew; Johnston, Beverly; Watts, D Heather

    2017-03-08

    People living with HIV (PLHIV) have the right to exercise voluntary choices about their health, including their reproductive health. This commentary discusses the integral role that family planning (FP) plays in helping PLHIV, including those in serodiscordant relationships, achieve conception safely. The United States (US) President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) is committed to meeting the reproductive health needs of PLHIV by improving their access to voluntary FP counselling and services, including prevention of unintended pregnancy and counselling for safer conception. Inclusion of preconception care and counselling (PCC) as part of routine HIV services is critical to preventing unintended pregnancies and perinatal infections among PLHIV. PLHIV not desiring a current pregnancy should be provided with information and counselling on all available FP methods and then either given the method onsite or through a facilitated referral process. PLHIV, who desire children should be offered risk reduction counselling, support for HIV status disclosure and partner testing, information on safer conception options to reduce the risk of HIV transmission to the partner and the importance of adhering to antiretroviral treatment during pregnancy and breastfeeding to reduce the risk of vertical transmission to the infant. Integration of PCC, HIV and FP services at the same location is recommended to improve access to these services for PLHIV. Other considerations to be addressed include the social and structural context, the health system capacity to offer these services, and stigma and discrimination of providers. Evaluation of innovative service delivery models for delivering PCC services is needed, including provision in community-based settings. The US Government will continue to partner with local organizations, Ministries of Health, the private sector, civil society, multilateral and bilateral donors, and other key stakeholders to strengthen both the policy and

  17. Relative emissions intensity of dairy production systems: employing different functional units in life-cycle assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, S A; Topp, C F E; Ennos, R A; Chagunda, M G G

    2017-08-01

    This study aimed to assess the merit and suitability of individual functional units (FU) in expressing greenhouse gas emissions intensity in different dairy production systems. An FU provides a clearly defined and measurable reference to which input and output data are normalised. This enables the results from life-cycle assessment (LCA) of different systems to be treated as functionally equivalent. Although the methodological framework of LCA has been standardised, selection of an appropriate FU remains ultimately at the discretion of the individual study. The aim of the present analysis was to examine the effect of different FU on the emissions intensities of different dairy production systems. Analysis was based on 7 years of data (2004 to 2010) from four Holstein-Friesian dairy systems at Scotland's Rural College's long-term genetic and management systems project, the Langhill herd. Implementation of LCA accounted for the environmental impacts of the whole-farm systems and their production of milk from 'cradle to farm gate'. Emissions intensity was determined as kilograms of carbon dioxide equivalents referenced to six FU: UK livestock units, energy-corrected milk yield, total combined milk solids yield, on-farm land used for production, total combined on- and off-farm land used for production, and the proposed new FU-energy-corrected milk yield per hectare of total land used. Energy-corrected milk was the FU most effective for reflecting differences between the systems. Functional unit that incorporated a land-related aspect did not find difference between systems which were managed under the same forage regime, despite their comprising different genetic lines. Employing on-farm land as the FU favoured grazing systems. The proposed dual FU combining both productivity and land use did not differentiate between emissions intensity of systems as effectively as the productivity-based units. However, this dual unit displayed potential to quantify in a simple way

  18. 22 CFR 221.43 - Governing law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Governing law. 221.43 Section 221.43 Foreign... Administration § 221.43 Governing law. This Guarantee shall be governed by and construed in accordance with the laws of the United States of America governing contracts and commercial transactions of the United...

  19. Transnational Governance and Constitutionalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joerges, Christian; Sand, Inger-Johanne; Teubner, Gunther

    of democratic governance. The book refers to this term as a yardstick to which then contributors feel committed even where they plead for a reconceptualisation of constitutionalism or a discussion of its functional equivalents. 'Transnational governance' is neither public nor private, nor purely international......The term transnational governance designates untraditional types of international and regional collaboration among both public and private actors. These legally-structured or less formal arrangements link economic, scientific and technological spheres with political and legal processes...

  20. C30 Support Plate for Replacing Function of Service Pool 1 at Unit 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zsoldos, F.

    2006-01-01

    Paks NPP had a serious event at Unit 2 in April 2003. This event was connected to Service Pool 1, there was a cleaning tank int he pool to clean the fuel assemblies from sediments. The sediment problem has occurred at three of our four units, the cause of this problem was the decontamination of the steam generators. We have not made any decontamination at Unit 4 only, and there is no any problem at Unit 4 at all. The plant tried out the mentioned cleaning method at Unit 2 first time, and the event happened at that time. Because of the event the function of Service Pool 1 was not available, the damaged fuel and the cleaning tank is in the pool at this moment. We got the permission from the authority body to operate again Unit 2. This operation, the planned campaign was a short one because of the limited possibility to set up a proper core from the fuel assemblies what were available. Because of the short campaign we had to prepare a proper solution to accomplish the refuelling at Unit 2. The main obstacle was the unavailable functionality of Service Pool 1 which used to carry in fresh fuel and carry out the spent fuel with usage of C30 casks (we have two C30 casks, as it shown in their names the casks can contain 30 fuel assemblies, fresh or spent fuel depending on the given activity have to be done). The plant started to find out what would be the proper solution to replace the function of Service Pool 1 and the C30 support plate was found out as the possible solution to this problem. This C30 support plate is ready to launch the C30 casks or containers with the fresh or spent fuel into the reactor. It means that this C30 support plate is adjusted to the reactor main surface and in this way it ready to serve replacing Service Pool 1. Of course the reactor is empty during the preparation phase of the refuelling. First we carry out the spent fuel from the spent fuel pool, after that the fresh fuel is carried in and just after these preparing activities can be started

  1. Glomerular filtration rate and functional decline in an acute geriatric unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ocampo Chaparro, José Mauricio

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Low estimated Glomerular filtration rate (eGFR is associated with functional decline. Little is known on that association in hospitalized elderly. Objective: Determine if low eGFR is associated with functional decline. Methods: Prospective cohort study that included 1826 patients 60 years and older hospitalized in a Geriatric Acute Unit, admitted between January 2012 and August 2015. The outcome was functional status assessed four times by the Barthel Index (BI. Kidney function was estimated by MDRD-4 IDMS and was grouped into four categories according to eGFR (normal ≥90, mild 60-89, moderate 59-30, severe <30. Multivariate logistic regression models and GLIMMIX procedure for longitudinal analyzes were used. Results: Mean age was 82.3±7.2 years, 51 % were women. In multivariate logistic regression, a BI≤60 at admission was associated with age ≥80, female gender, high comorbidity, social deterioration, hypoalbuminemia, anemia, MMSE<19, while the presence of mild or moderate renal failure reduced this risk. In the longitudinal analysis, lower total BI at follow-up was associated with age ≥80, female gender, social deterioration, hospital stay ≥15 days, high comorbidity, hypoalbuminemia, MMSE<19. The presence of mild, moderate or severe renal impairment was associated with higher BI over time. Conclusions: A low eGFR was associated with lower risk for functional decline at admission and overtime. These findings differ from previous reports in the literature.

  2. Program governance

    CERN Document Server

    Khan, Muhammad Ehsan

    2014-01-01

    FOUNDATION OF GOVERNANCEGovernanceDefining GovernanceGovernance at Multiple LevelsSummaryReferencesTransaction Cost EconomicsTransactions-Core Elements and Attributes     Behavioral Assumptions     Governance Structure AttributesHazards of Concern     Incomplete Contracting     Bilateral Dependency and Fundamental Transformation     Adaptation or MaladaptationLinking Governance, Governance Structures, and ContractsThe Impact of Asset Specificity and Behavioral Assumptions on ContractsAp

  3. Plural Governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mols, Niels Peter; Menard, Claude

    2014-01-01

    Plural governance is a form of governance where a firm both makes and buys similar goods or services. Despite a widespread use of plural governance there are no transaction cost models of how plural governance affects performance. This paper reviews the literature about plural forms and proposes...... a model relating transaction cost and resource-based variables to the cost of the plural form. The model is then used to analyze when the plural form is efficient compared to alternative governance structures. We also use the model to discuss the strength of three plural form synergies....

  4. Structure and Function: Planning a New Intensive Care Unit to Optimize Patient Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jozef Kesecioğlu

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available To survey the recent medical literature reporting effects of intensive care unit (ICU design on patients’ and family members’ well-being, safety and functionality. Features of ICU design linked to the needs of patients and their family are single-rooms, privacy, quiet surrounding, exposure to daylight, views of nature, prevention of infection, a family area and open visiting hours. Other features such as safety, working procedures, ergonomics and logistics have a direct impact on the patient care and the nursing and medical personnel. An organization structured on the needs of the patient and their family is mandatory in designing a new intensive care. The main aims in the design of a new department should be patient centered care, safety, functionality, innovation and a future-proof concept.

  5. Characterizing functional complaints in patients seeking outpatient low-vision services in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Jamie C; Goldstein, Judith E; Chan, Tiffany L; Massof, Robert; Ramulu, Pradeep

    2014-08-01

    To characterize functional complaints of new low-vision rehabilitation patients. Prospective observational study. The Low Vision Rehabilitation Outcomes Study recruited 819 patients between 2008 and 2011 from 28 clinical centers in the United States. New patients referred for low-vision rehabilitation were asked, "What are your chief complaints about your vision?" before their appointment. Full patient statements were transcribed as free text. Two methods assessed whether statements indicated difficulty in each of 13 functional categories: (1) assessment by 2 masked clinicians reading the statement, and (2) a computerized search of the text for specific words or word fragments. Logistic regression models were used to predict the influence of age, gender, and visual acuity on the likelihood of reporting a complaint in each functional category. Prevalence and risk factors for patient concerns within various functional categories. Reading was the most common functional complaint (66.4% of patients). Other functional difficulties expressed by at least 10% of patients included driving (27.8%), using visual assistive equipment (17.5%), mobility (16.3%), performing in-home activities (15.1%), lighting and glare (11.7%), and facial recognition and social interactions (10.3%). Good agreement was noted between the masked clinician graders and the computerized algorithm for categorization of functional complaints (median κ of 0.84 across the 13 categories). Multivariate logistic regression models demonstrated that the likelihood of reading difficulties increased mildly with age (odds ratio, 1.4 per 10-year increment in age; 95% confidence interval, 1.3-1.6), but did not differ with visual acuity (P = 0.09). Additionally, men were more likely to report driving difficulties and difficulties related to lighting, whereas women were more likely to report difficulty with either in-home activities or facial recognition or social interaction (Pvision therapy. Copyright © 2014

  6. On Fréchet theorem in the set of measure preserving functions over the unit interval

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    So-Hsiang Chou

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we study the Fréchet theorem in the set of measure preserving functions over the unit interval and show that any measure preserving function on [0,1] can be approximated by a sequence of measure preserving piecewise linear continuous functions almost everywhere. Some application is included.

  7. 26 CFR 1.985-2 - Election to use the United States dollar as the functional currency of a QBU.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... functional currency of a QBU. 1.985-2 Section 1.985-2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT... Election to use the United States dollar as the functional currency of a QBU. (a) Background and scope—(1... currency for taxable years beginning on or before August 24, 1994. An election to use a dollar functional...

  8. Modified Current Differencing Unit and its Application for Electronically Reconfigurable Simple First-order Transfer Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SOTNER, R.

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Modified current differencing unit (MCDU and its simple filtering application are introduced in this paper. Modification of the well-known current differencing unit consists in weighted difference of both input currents controlled by adjustable current gain, controllable intrinsic resistance of both current input terminals, and availability of additional voltage terminal(s. Definition of MCDU therefore requires four adjustable parameters (B1, B2, Rp, Rn. A presented active element offers and combines benefits of electronically controllable current conveyor of second generation and current differencing unit and allows synthesis of interesting adjustable applications, which are not available by classical approaches based on simple elements. MCDU brings variability of the transfer function into the structure. It provides several transfer types without necessity of input or output node change by simple electronic tuning. A presented structure represents so-called reconnection-less reconfigurable current-mode filter for realization of all-pass, inverting high-pass, low-pass and direct transfer response. Behavioral model of the MCDU was prepared and carefully tested in filtering application. Spice simulations and measurements confirmed theoretical assumptions.

  9. Motor unit recruitment by size does not provide functional advantages for motor performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dideriksen, Jakob L; Farina, Dario

    2013-12-15

    It is commonly assumed that the orderly recruitment of motor units by size provides a functional advantage for the performance of movements compared with a random recruitment order. On the other hand, the excitability of a motor neuron depends on its size and this is intrinsically linked to its innervation number. A range of innervation numbers among motor neurons corresponds to a range of sizes and thus to a range of excitabilities ordered by size. Therefore, if the excitation drive is similar among motor neurons, the recruitment by size is inevitably due to the intrinsic properties of motor neurons and may not have arisen to meet functional demands. In this view, we tested the assumption that orderly recruitment is necessarily beneficial by determining if this type of recruitment produces optimal motor output. Using evolutionary algorithms and without any a priori assumptions, the parameters of neuromuscular models were optimized with respect to several criteria for motor performance. Interestingly, the optimized model parameters matched well known neuromuscular properties, but none of the optimization criteria determined a consistent recruitment order by size unless this was imposed by an association between motor neuron size and excitability. Further, when the association between size and excitability was imposed, the resultant model of recruitment did not improve the motor performance with respect to the absence of orderly recruitment. A consistent observation was that optimal solutions for a variety of criteria of motor performance always required a broad range of innervation numbers in the population of motor neurons, skewed towards the small values. These results indicate that orderly recruitment of motor units in itself does not provide substantial functional advantages for motor control. Rather, the reason for its near-universal presence in human movements is that motor functions are optimized by a broad range of innervation numbers.

  10. Fall risk as a function of time after admission to sub-acute geriatric hospital units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapp, Kilian; Ravindren, Johannes; Becker, Clemens; Lindemann, Ulrich; Jaensch, Andrea; Klenk, Jochen

    2016-10-07

    There is evidence about time-dependent fracture rates in different settings and situations. Lacking are data about underlying time-dependent fall risk patterns. The objective of the study was to analyse fall rates as a function of time after admission to sub-acute hospital units and to evaluate the time-dependent impact of clinical factors at baseline on fall risk. This retrospective cohort study used data of 5,255 patients admitted to sub-acute units in a geriatric rehabilitation clinic in Germany between 2010 and 2014. Falls, personal characteristics and functional status at admission were extracted from the hospital information system. The rehabilitation stay was divided in 3-day time-intervals. The fall rate was calculated for each time-interval in all patients combined and in subgroups of patients. To analyse the influence of covariates on fall risk over time multivariate negative binomial regression models were applied for each of 5 time-intervals. The overall fall rate was 10.2 falls/1,000 person-days with highest fall risks during the first week and decreasing risks within the following weeks. A particularly pronounced risk pattern with high fall risks during the first days and decreasing risks thereafter was observed in men, disoriented people, and people with a low functional status or impaired cognition. In disoriented patients, for example, the fall rate decreased from 24.6 falls/1,000 person-days in day 2-4 to about 13 falls/1,000 person-days 2 weeks later. The incidence rate ratio of baseline characteristics changed also over time. Fall risk differs considerably over time during sub-acute hospitalisation. The strongest association between time and fall risk was observed in functionally limited patients with high risks during the first days after admission and declining risks thereafter. This should be considered in the planning and application of fall prevention measures.

  11. Tension-filled Governance?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Celik, Tim Holst

    on the statesituated tension-filled functional relationship between legitimation and accumulation, the study both historically and theoretically reworks this approach and reapplies it for the post-1970s/1990s governance period. It asks whether and to what extent governance has served as a distinctive post- 1970s/1990s...

  12. The organization of human epidermis: functional epidermal units and phi proportionality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoath, Steven B; Leahy, D G

    2003-12-01

    The concept that mammalian epidermis is structurally organized into functional epidermal units has been proposed on the basis of stratum corneum (SC) architecture, proliferation kinetics, melanocyte:keratinocyte ratios (1:36), and, more recently, Langerhans cell: epidermal cell ratios (1:53). This article examines the concept of functional epidermal units in human skin in which the maintenance of phi (1.618034) proportionality provides a central organizing principle. The following empirical measurements were used: 75,346 nucleated epidermal cells per mm2, 1394 Langerhans cells per mm2, 1999 melanocytes per mm2, 16 (SC) layers, 900-microm2 corneocyte surface area, 17,778 corneocytes per mm2, 14-d (SC) turnover time, and 93,124 per mm2 total epidermal cells. Given these empirical data: (1) the number of corneocytes is a mean proportional between the sum of the Langerhans cell + melanocyte populations and the number of epidermal cells, 3393/17,778-17,778/93,124; (2) the ratio of nucleated epidermal cells over corneocytes is phi proportional, 75,346/17,778 approximately phi3; (3) assuming similar 14-d turnover times for the (SC) and Malpighian epidermis, the number of corneocytes results from subtraction of a cellular fraction equal to approximately 2/phi2 x the number of living cells, 75,436 - (2/phi2 x 75,346) approximately 17,778; and (4) if total epidermal turnover time equals (SC) turnover time x the ratio of living/dead cells, then compartmental turnover times are unequal (14 d for (SC) to 45.3 d for nucleated epidermis approximately 1/2phi) and cellular replacement rates are 52.9 corneocytes/69.3 keratinocytes per mm2 per h approximately 2/phi2. These empirically derived equivalences provide logicomathematical support for the presence of functional epidermal units in human skin. Validation of a phi proportional unit architecture in human epidermis will be important for tissue engineering of skin and the design of instruments for skin measurement.

  13. Estimating Water Footprints of Vegetable Crops: Influence of Growing Season, Solar Radiation Data and Functional Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betsie le Roux

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Water footprint (WF accounting as proposed by the Water Footprint Network (WFN can potentially provide important information for water resource management, especially in water scarce countries relying on irrigation to help meet their food requirements. However, calculating accurate WFs of short-season vegetable crops such as carrots, cabbage, beetroot, broccoli and lettuce presented some challenges. Planting dates and inter-annual weather conditions impact WF results. Joining weather datasets of just rainfall, minimum and maximum temperature with ones that include solar radiation and wind-speed affected crop model estimates and WF results. The functional unit selected can also have a major impact on results. For example, WFs according to the WFN approach do not account for crop residues used for other purposes, like composting and animal feed. Using yields in dry matter rather than fresh mass also impacts WF metrics, making comparisons difficult. To overcome this, using the nutritional value of crops as a functional unit can connect water use more directly to potential benefits derived from different crops and allow more straightforward comparisons. Grey WFs based on nitrogen only disregards water pollution caused by phosphates, pesticides and salinization. Poor understanding of the fate of nitrogen complicates estimation of nitrogen loads into the aquifer.

  14. Multiple functional units in the preattentive segmentation of speech in Japanese: evidence from word illusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Miyoko; Kolinsky, Régine

    2014-12-01

    We explored the functional units of speech segmentation in Japanese using dichotic presentation and a detection task requiring no intentional sublexical analysis. Indeed, illusory perception of a target word might result from preattentive migration of phonemes, morae, or syllables from one ear to the other. In Experiment I, Japanese listeners detected targets presented in hiragana and/or kanji. Phoneme migrations did occur, suggesting that orthography-independent sublexical constituents play some role in segmentation. However, syllable and especially mora migrations were more numerous. This pattern of results was not observed in French speakers (Experiment 2), suggesting that it reflects native segmentation in Japanese. To control for the intervention of kanji representations (many words are written in kanji, and one kanji often corresponds to one syllable), in Experiment 3, Japanese listeners were presented with target loanwords that can be written only in katakana. Again, phoneme migrations occurred, while the first mora and syllable led to similar rates of illusory percepts. No migration occurred for the second, "special" mora (/J/ or/N/), probably because this constitutes the latter part of a heavy syllable. Overall, these findings suggest that multiple units, such as morae, syllables, and even phonemes, function independently of orthographic knowledge in Japanese preattentive speech segmentation.

  15. Effects of zinc injection from hot functional test at Tomari Unit 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayakawa, Hitoshi; Mino, Yoshitaka; Nakahama, Satoshi; Aizawa, Yamato; Shimizu, Yuichi; Umehara, Ryuji; Kogawa, Noritaka

    2012-09-01

    At Tomari Nuclear Power Station unit 3 (hereafter Tomari unit 3, PWR, commercial operation from December 2009), the zinc injection for dose-rate reduction was started as early as at the Hot Functional Test (hereafter HFT) stage, for the first time in the world. The results of the Steam Generator (hereafter SG) insert plate analysis and the ambient dose-rate measurement till the end of the test operation reported heretofore, show the formation of the robust oxide film on the primary material surfaces and the associated corrosion suppression effect, and a considerable dose-rate reduction of about 40 to 60% lower than a reference plant. (*: Asian Water Chemistry Symposium in Nagoya on 2009 and NPC2010 in Canada). The material of SG tube is Alloy 690TT in Tomari unit 3. Generally, the dose-rates of the plants with Alloy 690TT SG are the highest at the 1. or 2. refueling outage (hereafter RFO), due to the effects of the Ni dissolution from the initial corrosion of Alloy 690TT. Therefore, the dose-rate of Tomari unit 3 at the 1. RFO is compared with those of the other Japanese PWR plants at their 1. RFO. As the result, the dose-rates inside the main components such as SG, Main Coolant Pipe (hereafter MCP) and Reactor Vessel (hereafter RV) are about 50% lower at the 1. RFO of Tomari unit 3 than those of a reference plant (a 3-Loop PWR plant in Japan). Therefore, an additional dose-rate reduction effects is expected by the Ni release rate reduction from Alloy 690TT and the effect of zinc injection. In this report, the actual dose-rates at the primary main components, the trends of the water chemistry and dose rates reduction effect with the zinc injection at the 1. RFO (offline in January 2011) of Tomari unit 3 are introduced. Also, a part of the experiences at the 2. RFO (offline in May 2012) is introduced. (authors)

  16. Optimization of the coherence function estimation for multi-core central processing unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheremnov, A. G.; Faerman, V. A.; Avramchuk, V. S.

    2017-02-01

    The paper considers use of parallel processing on multi-core central processing unit for optimization of the coherence function evaluation arising in digital signal processing. Coherence function along with other methods of spectral analysis is commonly used for vibration diagnosis of rotating machinery and its particular nodes. An algorithm is given for the function evaluation for signals represented with digital samples. The algorithm is analyzed for its software implementation and computational problems. Optimization measures are described, including algorithmic, architecture and compiler optimization, their results are assessed for multi-core processors from different manufacturers. Thus, speeding-up of the parallel execution with respect to sequential execution was studied and results are presented for Intel Core i7-4720HQ и AMD FX-9590 processors. The results show comparatively high efficiency of the optimization measures taken. In particular, acceleration indicators and average CPU utilization have been significantly improved, showing high degree of parallelism of the constructed calculating functions. The developed software underwent state registration and will be used as a part of a software and hardware solution for rotating machinery fault diagnosis and pipeline leak location with acoustic correlation method.

  17. How biological soil crusts became recognized as a functional unit: a selective history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Otto L.; Belnap, Jayne

    2016-01-01

    It is surprising that despite the world-wide distribution and general importance of biological soil crusts (biocrusts), scientific recognition and functional analysis of these communities is a relatively young field of science. In this chapter, we sketch the historical lines that led to the recognition of biocrusts as a community with important ecosystem functions. The idea of biocrusts as a functional ecological community has come from two main scientific branches: botany and soil science. For centuries, botanists have long recognized that multiple organisms colonize the soil surface in the open and often dry areas occurring between vascular plants. Much later, after the initial taxonomic and phyto-sociological descriptions were made, soil scientists and agronomists observed that these surface organisms interacted with soils in ways that changed the soil structure. In the 1970’s, research on these communities as ecological units that played an important functional role in drylands began in earnest, and these studies have continued to this day. Here, we trace the history of these studies from the distant past until 1990, when biocrusts became well-known to scientists and the public.

  18. Pore size determination using normalized J-function for different hydraulic flow units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Abedini

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Pore size determination of hydrocarbon reservoirs is one of the main challenging areas in reservoir studies. Precise estimation of this parameter leads to enhance the reservoir simulation, process evaluation, and further forecasting of reservoir behavior. Hence, it is of great importance to estimate the pore size of reservoir rocks with an appropriate accuracy. In the present study, a modified J-function was developed and applied to determine the pore radius in one of the hydrocarbon reservoir rocks located in the Middle East. The capillary pressure data vs. water saturation (Pc–Sw as well as routine reservoir core analysis include porosity (φ and permeability (k were used to develop the J-function. First, the normalized porosity (φz, the rock quality index (RQI, and the flow zone indicator (FZI concepts were used to categorize all data into discrete hydraulic flow units (HFU containing unique pore geometry and bedding characteristics. Thereafter, the modified J-function was used to normalize all capillary pressure curves corresponding to each of predetermined HFU. The results showed that the reservoir rock was classified into five separate rock types with the definite HFU and reservoir pore geometry. Eventually, the pore radius for each of these HFUs was determined using a developed equation obtained by normalized J-function corresponding to each HFU. The proposed equation is a function of reservoir rock characteristics including φz, FZI, lithology index (J*, and pore size distribution index (ɛ. This methodology used, the reservoir under study was classified into five discrete HFU with unique equations for permeability, normalized J-function and pore size. The proposed technique is able to apply on any reservoir to determine the pore size of the reservoir rock, specially the one with high range of heterogeneity in the reservoir rock properties.

  19. Vision-Related Functional Burden of Diabetic Retinopathy Across Severity Levels in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Jeffrey R; Doan, Quan V; Gleeson, Michelle; Haskova, Zdenka; Ramulu, Pradeep; Morse, Lawrence; Cantrell, Ronald A

    2017-09-01

    Among adults with diabetes in the United States, severe forms of diabetic retinopathy (DR) are significantly associated with a greater vision-related functional burden. To assess the functional burden of DR across severity levels in the United States. This cross-sectional study was based on 1004 participants 40 years or older with diabetes and valid ocular and sociodemographic outcomes in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES) (2005-2006 and 2007-2008). Diabetic retinopathy was based on fundus photograph grading, using the Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study severity scale. The analysis was performed from October 15, 2016, to June 15, 2017. Functional difficulties secondary to vision were assessed during a household questionnaire in which participants self-reported difficulty with reading, visuospatial tasks (ie, close-up work or finding things on a crowded shelf), mobility (ie, walking down steps, stairs, or curbs), and driving. The main outcome measure was vision-related functional burden, which was defined as present for individuals reporting moderate or greater difficulty in any of the aforementioned tasks. Of the 1004 persons with diabetes analyzed for this study (mean age, 65.7 years [95% CI, 64.0-67.3 years]; 51.1% male [95% CI, 47.1-55.2] and 48.9% female [95% CI, 44.8-52.9]), the prevalence was 72.3% for no retinopathy, 25.4% for mild and moderate nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy (NPDR), and 2.3% for severe NPDR or proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR). The prevalence of vision-related functional burden was 20.2% (95% CI, 16.3%-24.1%) for those with no retinopathy, 20.4% (95% CI, 15.3%-27.8%) for those with mild and moderate NPDR, and 48.5% (95% CI, 25.6%-71.5%) for those with severe NPDR or PDR (P = .02). In multivariable analysis, the odds of vision-related functional burden were significantly greater among those with severe NPDR or PDR relative to those with no retinopathy (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 3.59; 95

  20. Institutionalizing Global Governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasche, Andreas; Gilbert, Dirk Ulrich

    2012-01-01

    The United Nations Global Compact – which is a Global Public Policy Network advocating 10 universal principles in the areas of human rights, labor standards, environmental protection, and anticorruption – has turned into the world's largest corporate responsibility initiative. Although the Global...... Compact is often characterized as a promising way to address global governance gaps, it remains largely unclear why this is the case. To address this problem, we discuss to what extent the initiative represents an institutional solution to exercise global governance. We suggest that new governance modes...

  1. Altered morphology and function of the lacrimal functional unit in protein kinase C{alpha} knockout mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhuo; Li, Zhijie; Basti, Surendra; Farley, William J; Pflugfelder, Stephen C

    2010-11-01

    Protein kinase C (PKC) α plays a major role in the parasympathetic neural stimulation of lacrimal gland (LG) secretion. It also has been reported to have antiapoptotic properties and to promote cell survival. Therefore, the hypothesis for the present study was that PKCα knockout ((-/-)) mice have impaired ocular surface-lacrimal gland signaling, rendering them susceptible to desiccating stress and impaired corneal epithelial wound healing. In this study, the lacrimal function unit (LFU) and the stressed wound-healing response were examined in PKCα(-/-) mice. In PKCα(+/+) control mice and PKCα(-/-) mice, tear production, osmolarity, and clearance rate were evaluated before and after experimental desiccating stress. Histology and immunofluorescent staining of PKC and epidermal growth factor were performed in tissues of the LFU. Cornified envelope (CE) precursor protein expression and cell proliferation were evaluated. The time course of healing and degree of neutrophil infiltration was evaluated after corneal epithelial wounding. Compared with the PKCα(+/+) mice, the PKCα(-/-) mice were noted to have significantly increased lacrimal gland weight, with enlarged, carbohydrate-rich, PAS-positive acinar cells; increased corneal epithelia permeability, with reduced CE expression; and larger conjunctival epithelial goblet cells. The PKCα(-/-) mice showed more rapid corneal epithelial healing, with less neutrophil infiltration and fewer proliferating cells than did the PKCα(+/+) mice. The PKCα(-/-) mice showed lower tear production, which appeared to be caused by impaired secretion by the LG and conjunctival goblet cells. Despite their altered tear dynamics, the PKCα(-/-) mice demonstrated more rapid corneal epithelial wound healing, perhaps due to decreased neutrophil infiltration.

  2. Pulmonary function studies in healthy Filipino adults residing in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, F L; Kelso, J M

    1999-08-01

    Differences in lung volumes among various ethnic groups are known to occur; however, this has not been studied in Filipinos. We sought to assess pulmonary function in healthy, nonsmoking Filipinos residing in the United States compared with standards for white subjects. Healthy adult Filipinos, age 18 years or greater, were recruited. All subjects were screened with health questionnaires to exclude those with cardiopulmonary disease. Pulmonary function tests were performed by using forced expiratory maneuvers. Values for FEV(1 ), forced vital capacity (FVC), FEV(1 )/FVC, forced expiratory flow from 25% to 75% of FVC, and peak expiratory flow rate were compared with predicted values for white subjects (ie, without a racial adjustment). Two hundred twenty-four healthy subjects (121 men and 103 women) completed the study. The group means (as a percentage of the predicted standard for white subjects) were as follows: FEV(1 ), 86%; FVC, 84%; FEV(1 )/FVC, 103%; forced expiratory flow from 25% to 75% of FVC, 96%; and peak expiratory flow rate, 107%. These findings are very similar to those for African Americans and other Asians. We conclude that it is appropriate to use an 85% racial adjustment for FEV(1 ) and FVC when interpreting pulmonary function test results in Filipinos.

  3. 'Dose per unit content' functions: A robust tool for the interpretation of bioassay data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berkovski, V.; Bonchuk, Y.; Ratia, G.

    2003-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to investigate the influence of the consequences of the lack of primary bioassay information and to elaborate approaches which could improve the reliability of dose assessments. The aggregated time-dependent functions 'dose per unit organ (excretion) content' z(t) have been proposed in this study as a convenient and reliable tool for bioassay. The analysis of the variation of z with changes of AMAD has demonstrated the existence of areas of the relative invariance of z, which permits the selection of one (reference) function z for the whole area of stability. Within the framework of such an approach an arbitrary set of bioassay data can be approximated by the linear combination F(t) S i E/ i z(t-t i ), whereI> F(t) function of time t, which approximates the observed bioassay time trend; t i = time shift of the acute intake i; E i effective dose, associated with the acute intake i (the two last parameters are results of the approximation procedure). (author)

  4. Regulatory Governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Poul F.; Vetterlein, Antje

    2018-01-01

    Regulatory governance frameworks have become essential building blocks of world society. From supply chains to the regimes surrounding international organizations, extensive governance frameworks have emerged which structure and channel a variety of social exchanges, including economic, political...... by the International Transitional Administrations (ITAs) in Kosovo and Iraq as well as global supply chains and their impact on the garment industry in Bangladesh....

  5. Experimentalist governance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sabel, C.F.; Zeitlin, J.; Levi-Faur, D.

    2012-01-01

    A secular rise in volatility and uncertainty is overwhelming the capacities of conventional hierarchical governance and ‘command-and-control’ regulation in many settings. One significant response is the emergence of a novel, ‘experimentalist’ form of governance that establishes deliberately

  6. Remaking Governance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carver, John

    2000-01-01

    The Policy Governance model's philosophical foundations lie in Rousseau's social contract, Greenleaf's servant-leadership, and modern management theory. Policy Governance stresses primacy of the owner-representative role; full-board authority; superintendents as chief executive officers; authoritative prescription of "ends," bounded…

  7. Further evidence that similar principles govern recall from episodic and semantic memory: the Canadian prime ministerial serial position function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neath, Ian; Saint-Aubin, Jean

    2011-06-01

    The serial position function, with its characteristic primacy and recency effects, is one of the most ubiquitous findings in episodic memory tasks. In contrast, there are only two demonstrations of such functions in tasks thought to tap semantic memory. Here, we provide a third demonstration, showing that free recall of the prime ministers of Canada also results in a serial position function. Scale Independent Memory, Perception, and Learning (SIMPLE), a local distinctiveness model of memory that was designed to account for serial position effects in episodic memory, fit the data. According to SIMPLE, serial position functions observed in episodic and semantic memory all reflect the relative distinctiveness principle: items will be well remembered to the extent that they are more distinct than competing items at the time of retrieval. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. Text of the agreement between the International Atomic Energy Agency, the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization and the Government of the Republic of Italy concerning the International Centre for Theoretical Physics at Trieste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-02-01

    The text of the Agreement between the International Atomic Energy Agency, the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization and the Government of the Republic of Italy concerning the International Centre for Theoretical Physics at Trieste is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members. The Agreement was approved by the Agency`s Board of Governors on 25 February 1993, by the UNESCO General Conference on 16 November 1993, and ratified by the Italian Parliament on 2 January 1995.

  9. Text of the agreement between the International Atomic Energy Agency, the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization and the Government of the Republic of Italy concerning the International Centre for Theoretical Physics at Trieste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-02-01

    The text of the Agreement between the International Atomic Energy Agency, the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization and the Government of the Republic of Italy concerning the International Centre for Theoretical Physics at Trieste is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members. The Agreement was approved by the Agency's Board of Governors on 25 February 1993, by the UNESCO General Conference on 16 November 1993, and ratified by the Italian Parliament on 2 January 1995

  10. Project and supply agreement. The text of the agreement of 17 June 1993 between the International Atomic Energy Agency and the governments of Colombia and the United States of America concerning the transfer of enriched uranium for a research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-12-01

    The text of the Project and Supply Agreement, which was approved by the Agency's Board of Governors on 25 February 1993 and 2 December 1993, between the Agency and the Governments of Colombia and the United States of America for the transfer of enriched uranium for a research reactor is reproduced herein for the information of all Members. The agreement entered into force on 17 June 1994, pursuant to Article XII

  11. Architecture and functional ecology of the human gastrocnemius muscle-tendon unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Erin E; Dominy, Nathaniel J

    2016-04-01

    The gastrocnemius muscle-tendon unit (MTU) is central to human locomotion. Structural variation in the human gastrocnemius MTU is predicted to affect the efficiency of locomotion, a concept most often explored in the context of performance activities. For example, stiffness of the Achilles tendon varies among individuals with different histories of competitive running. Such a finding highlights the functional variation of individuals and raises the possibility of similar variation between populations, perhaps in response to specific ecological or environmental demands. Researchers often assume minimal variation in human populations, or that industrialized populations represent the human species as well as any other. Yet rainforest hunter-gatherers, which often express the human pygmy phenotype, contradict such assumptions. Indeed, the human pygmy phenotype is a potential model system for exploring the range of ecomorphological variation in the architecture of human hindlimb muscles, a concept we review here. © 2015 Anatomical Society.

  12. [Quality planning of Family Health Units using Quality Function Deployment (QFD)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volpato, Luciana Fernandes; Meneghim, Marcelo de Castro; Pereira, Antonio Carlos; Ambrosano, Gláucia Maria Bovi

    2010-08-01

    Quality is an indispensible requirement in the health field, and its pursuit is necessary in order to meet demands by a population that is aware of its rights, as part of the essence of good work relations, and to decrease technological costs. Quality thus involves all parties to the process (users and professionals), and is no longer merely an attribute of the health service. This study aimed to verify the possibility of quality planning in the Family Health Units, using Quality Function Deployment (QFD). QFD plans quality according to user satisfaction, involving staff professionals and identifying new approaches to improve work processes. Development of the array, called the House of Quality, is this method's most important characteristics. The results show a similarity between the quality demanded by users and the quality planned by professionals. The current study showed that QFD is an efficient tool for quality planning in public health services.

  13. Project and supply agreement. The text of the agreement of 15 January 1993 between the International Atomic Energy Agency and the Government of the Republic of Indonesia and the Government of the United States of America concerning the transfer of enriched uranium for materials test reactor fuel development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-08-01

    The text of the Project and Supply Agreement, which was approved by the Agency's Board of Governors on 4 December 1992 and concluded on 15 January 1993 between the Agency and the Governments of the Republic of Indonesia and the United States of America for the transfer of enriched uranium for materials test reactor fuel development is reproduced herein for the information of all Members. The agreement entered into force on 15 January 1993, pursuant to Article XII.1

  14. Ordinance concerning the implementation of the Agreement for cooperation on the peaceful uses of atomic energy between the Swiss Government and the Government of the United States of America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1957-01-01

    This Ordinance sets out the conditions for implementation of the Agreement for co-operation on the peaceful uses of atomic energy concluded by Switzerland and the United States on 21 June 1956, in particular with respect to classified information and material. The Ordinance entered into force on 1 April 1957 [fr

  15. Agreement for cooperation between the Government of Australia and the Government of the United States of America concerning technology for the separation of isotopes of uranium by laser excitation (SILEX agreement). Australian Treaty Series 2000 No. 19

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    This agreement between the Government of Australia and the Government of the USA (the Parties) stipulate that the Parties shall cooperate in research on and development and utilization of SILEX technology for peaceful purposes in accordance with the provisions of this Agreement and their applicable treaties, national laws, regulations and license requirements. Transfers under this Agreement of Restricted Data, sensitive nuclear technology, sensitive nuclear facilities and major critical components related to SILEX technology may be undertaken directly between the Parties or through authorized persons. Such transfers shall be subject to this Agreement and to such additional terms and conditions as may be agreed by the Parties. No such transfers shall take place except as may be authorized in Articles 3 and 4 of this Agreement. Cooperation under this Agreement within the territory of Australia shall not be for the purpose of constructing a uranium enrichment facility in Australia unless provided for by an amendment to this Agreement. Each Party retains its right to develop. or to continue to develop, outside the scope of this Agreement, enrichment technologies similar to SILEX technology, provided that the Party does not use information or data provided by the other Party pursuant to this Agreement. Copyright (2000) Commonwealth of Australia

  16. Renewing governance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loos, Gregory P

    2003-01-01

    Globalization's profound influence on social and political institutions need not be negative. Critics of globalization have often referred to the "Impossible Trinity" because decision-making must 1. respect national sovereignty, 2. develop and implement firm regulation, and 3. allow capital markets to be as free as possible. To many, such goals are mutually exclusive because history conditions us to view policy-making and governance in traditional molds. Thus, transnational governance merely appears impossible because current forms of governance were not designed to provide it. The world needs new tools for governing, and its citizens must seize the opportunity to help develop them. The rise of a global society requires a greater level of generality and inclusion than is found in most policy bodies today. Politicians need to re-examine key assumptions about government. States must develop ways to discharge their regulatory responsibilities across borders and collaborate with neighboring jurisdictions, multilateral bodies, and business. Concepts such as multilateralism and tripartism show great promise. Governments must engage civil society in the spirit of shared responsibility and democratic decision-making. Such changes will result in a renewal of the state's purpose and better use of international resources and expertise in governance.

  17. Parallel Execution of Functional Mock-up Units in Buildings Modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozmen, Ozgur [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Nutaro, James J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); New, Joshua Ryan [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-06-30

    A Functional Mock-up Interface (FMI) defines a standardized interface to be used in computer simulations to develop complex cyber-physical systems. FMI implementation by a software modeling tool enables the creation of a simulation model that can be interconnected, or the creation of a software library called a Functional Mock-up Unit (FMU). This report describes an FMU wrapper implementation that imports FMUs into a C++ environment and uses an Euler solver that executes FMUs in parallel using Open Multi-Processing (OpenMP). The purpose of this report is to elucidate the runtime performance of the solver when a multi-component system is imported as a single FMU (for the whole system) or as multiple FMUs (for different groups of components as sub-systems). This performance comparison is conducted using two test cases: (1) a simple, multi-tank problem; and (2) a more realistic use case based on the Modelica Buildings Library. In both test cases, the performance gains are promising when each FMU consists of a large number of states and state events that are wrapped in a single FMU. Load balancing is demonstrated to be a critical factor in speeding up parallel execution of multiple FMUs.

  18. Data Glove System Embedded With Inertial Measurement Units for Hand Function Evaluation in Stroke Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Bor-Shing; Hsiao, Pei-Chi; Yang, Shu-Yu; Su, Che-Shih; Lee, I-Jung

    2017-11-01

    This paper proposes a data glove system integrated with six-axis inertial measurement unit sensors for evaluating the hand function of patients who have suffered a stroke. The modular design of this data glove facilitates its use for stroke patients. The proposed system can use the hand's accelerations, angular velocities, and joint angles as calculated by a quaternion algorithm, to help physicians gain new insights into rehabilitation treatments. A clinical experiment was performed on 15 healthy subjects and 15 stroke patients whose Brunnstrom stages (BSs) ranged from 4 to 6. In this experiment, the participants were subjected to a grip task, thumb task, and card turning task to produce raw data and three features, namely, the average rotation speed, variation of movement completion time, and quality of movement; these features were extracted from the recorded data to form 2-D and 3-D scatter plots. These scatter plots can provide reference information and guidance to physicians who must determine the BSs of stroke patients. The proposed system demonstrated a hit rate of 70.22% on average. Therefore, this system can effectively reduce physicians' load and provide them with detailed information about hand function to help them adjust rehabilitation strategies for stroke patients.

  19. Sorption behavior of charged and neutral polar organic compounds on solid phase extraction materials: which functional group governs sorption?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bäuerlein, P.S.; Mansell, J.E.; ter Laak, T.L.; de Voogt, P.

    2012-01-01

    Numerous polar anthropogenic organic chemicals have been found in the aqueous environment. Solid phase extraction (SPE) has been applied for the isolation of these from aqueous matrices, employing various materials. Nevertheless, little is known about the influence of functional groups on the

  20. Organizational governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Nicolai Juul; Klein, Peter G.

    This chapter reviews and discusses rational-choice approaches to organizational governance. These approaches are found primarily in organizational economics (virtually no rational-choice organizational sociology exists), particularly in transaction cost economics, principal-agent theory...

  1. Waste governance

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Oelofse, Suzanna HH

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available of governance in Africa. The next section focuses on regulation, and the status of the regulatory frameworks in different African countries. Shortcomings in the regulatory framework are highlighted through examples in various countries. Specific policy...

  2. Exchange of notes constituting an agreement between the Government of Australia and the Government of the United States of America concerning Australian ores containing uranium or thorium (monazite and xenotime)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    The Agreement which entered into force on the date of its signature concerns the procedures for treatment of ores transferred from Australia to the United States containing more than 0.05 per cent by weight of uranium, thorium or both. It provides that such transfers are subject to the provisions of the Agreement on the Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy concluded between both countries on 5 July 1979; in particular with a view to non-proliferation principles. (NEA) [fr

  3. Private governance of ocean resources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groeneveld, R.A.; Bush, S.R.; Bailey, M.L.

    2017-01-01

    The United Nations (UN) post-2015 development agenda (United Nations 2015) calls for the establishment of a global partnership for sustainable development, ‘bringing together Governments, civil society, the private sector, the United Nations system and other actors and mobilizing all available

  4. PACE. A Program for Acquiring Competence in Entrepreneurship. Part II: Becoming an Entrepreneur. Unit D: Government Regulations and Small Businesses. Research and Development Series No. 194 B-4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. National Center for Research in Vocational Education.

    This three-part curriculum for entrepreneurship education is primarily for postsecondary level, including four-year colleges and adult education, but it can be adapted for special groups or vocational teacher education. The emphasis of the seven instructional units in Part II is establishing a business. Unit D focuses on business regulations at…

  5. The governance of complementary global regimes and the pursuit of human security : the interaction between the United Nations and the International Criminal Court

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marrone, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    This study offers an overview of the challenges occurring in the emerging regime of international criminal justice as a tool of sustainable peace. It illustrates the impact of such regime in international law and international relations focusing on the obstacles and concerns of its governance in the

  6. Facilities for Study and Research in the Offices of the United States Government at Washington. Bulletin, 1909, No. 1. Whole Number 398

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadley, Arthur Twining

    1909-01-01

    This bulletin contains a report prepared by President Hadley of Yale University on the facilities for advanced study and research in the offices of the National Government at Washington. Especial interest attaches to this publication. It sets forth, in compact form, information which has frequently been sought by institutions and individuals…

  7. Conceptions of Software Development by Project Managers: A Study of Managing the Outsourced Development of Software Applications for United States Federal Government Agencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisen, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    This study explores how project managers, working for private federal IT contractors, experience and understand managing the development of software applications for U.S. federal government agencies. Very little is known about how they manage their projects in this challenging environment. Software development is a complex task and only grows in…

  8. Report of the Comptroller General of the United States. Comments on selected aspects of the Administration's proposal for government assistance to private uranium enrichment groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    This report presents GAO's views on matters raised by the Vice Chairman, Joint Committee on Atomic Energy, related to the private ownership of uranium enrichment and reemphasizes GAO's belief that the Government should add on to one of its existing enrichment plants to provide the next increment of enrichment capacity

  9. Clinical Social Work. State Laws Governing Independent Practice and Reimbursement of Services. Fact Sheet for the Honorable Daniel K. Inouye, United States Senate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    General Accounting Office, Washington, DC. Div. of Human Resources.

    This fact sheet on state laws governing the independent practice and reimbursement of services for clinical social workers contains information from questionnaires sent to the state agencies responsible for health insurance regulations and Medicaid and licensing activities. Information on Ohio, the only state which did not respond, is not…

  10. Corporate Governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragoș-Mihail Daghie

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to analyze and understand the recently introduced form of managementof a company limited by shares. The Law no. 441/2006, which fundamentally amended Company Law,created this form of controlling the company, the corporate governance, but the legislation does not explicitlydefine what it wants to achieve through this instrument. This topic is recent in research as the theme ofgerman-roman commercial law systems (in French corporate governance system was introduced in 1966 andin Romania in 2006 but in terms of Anglo-Saxon law, the topic has been addressed years since 1776 (AdamSmith: The Wealth of Nations The concept of corporate governance would like, as a result, to establish somerules that companies must comply in order to achieve effective governance, transparent and beneficial forboth shareholders and for the minority. Corporate governance is a key element with an aim at improvingefficiency and economic growth in full accordance with the increase of investors’ confidence. Corporategovernance assumes a series of relationship between the company management, leadership, shareholders andthe other people concerned. Also corporate governance provides for that structure by means of which thecompany’s targets are set out and the means to achieve them and also the manner how to monitor such.

  11. The structure and function of the urokinase receptor, a membrane protein governing plasminogen activation on the cell surface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Behrendt, N; Rønne, E; Danø, K

    1995-01-01

    PA receptor, uPAR, is a cell-surface protein which plays an important role in the localization and regulation of these processes. In the present article a number of established conclusions concerning the structure and function of uPAR are presented, and in addition various models are discussed which might...... explain additional observations for which the mechanisms involved have not yet been clarified experimentally. uPAR is a highly glycosylated, 3-domain protein, anchored in the plasma membrane by a glycolipid moiety. The domain organization is important for efficient ligand-binding, and the NH2-terminal...

  12. The functional muscle-bone unit in children with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duran, I; Schütz, F; Hamacher, S; Semler, O; Stark, C; Schulze, J; Rittweger, J; Schoenau, E

    2017-07-01

    Our results suggest that the prevalence of bone health deficits in children with CP was overestimated, when using only age- and height-adjusted bone mineral content (BMC) and areal bone mineral density (aBMD). When applying the functional muscle-bone unit diagnostic algorithm (FMBU-A), the prevalence of positive results decreased significantly. We recommend applying the FMBU-A when assessing bone health in children with CP. The prevalence of bone health deficits in children with cerebral palsy (CP) might be overestimated because age- and height-adjusted reference percentiles for bone mineral content (BMC) and areal bone mineral density (aBMD) assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) do not consider reduced muscle activity. The aim of this study was to compare the prevalence of positive DXA-based indicators for bone health deficits in children with CP to the prevalence of positive findings after applying a functional muscle-bone unit diagnostic algorithm (FMBU-A) considering reduced muscle activity. The present study was a monocentric retrospective analysis of 297 whole body DXA scans of children with CP. The prevalence of positive results of age- and height-adjusted BMC and aBMD defined as BMC and aBMD below the P3 percentile and of the FMBU-A was calculated. In children with CP, the prevalence of positive results of age-adjusted BMC were 33.3% and of aBMD 50.8%. Height-adjusted results for BMC and aBMD were positive in 16.8 and 36.0% of cases. The prevalence of positive results applying the FMBU-A regarding BMC and aBMD were significantly (p BMC and aBMD (8.8 and 14.8%). Our results suggest that the prevalence of bone health deficits in children with CP was overestimated, when using age- and height-adjusted BMC and aBMD. When applying the FMBU-A, the prevalence decreased significantly. We recommend applying the FMBU-A when assessing bone health in children with CP.

  13. Federal Order approving the Agreement for cooperation on the peaceful uses of atomic energy between the Swiss Government and the Government of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1965-03-01

    This Order reproduces the Agreement of 11 August 1964 between Switzerland and the United Kingdom on peaceful nuclear cooperation. The Agreement entered into force on 5 August 1965 for a period of ten years, renewable. It provides for the sale by the UKAEA to Switzerland of research and power reactors, nuclear fuels and for UKAEA assistance in developing, constructing and operating nuclear fuel production facilities. The Agreement also provides that the Parties will negotiate a Safeguards Agreement with IAEA regarding material and equipment requiring such controls under the Agreement. (NEA) [fr

  14. Avaliation between precocious out of bed in the intensive care unit and functionality after discharge: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taciana Guterres de Carvalho

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Backgound and Objectives: The incidence of complications arising from the deleterious effects of immobility in the intensive care unit contributes to functional decline, increased length of hospital stay and reduced functionality. Physical therapy is able to promote recovery and preservation of functionality, which can minimize these complications - through early mobilization. To evaluate the functionality and independence of patients who underwent a early bed output in the Intensive Care Unit. Methods: A randomized controlled clinical trial was conducted with patients admitted to the Intensive Care Unit (ICU of the Santa Cruz Hospital and having a physiotherapy prescription. The patients were divided into conventional therapy group- control group and intervention group, who performed the protocol of early mobilization, promoting the bed output. The functionality was measured three times (retroactive to hospitalization, at discharge from the ICU and on hospital discharge through the instrument Functional Independence Measure (FIM. Results: Preliminary data indicates that the intervention group (n = 4 presented lower loss of functionality after discharge from the ICU, with a deficit of 19%, having recovered until the hospital discharge 97% of the prehospitalization measure. The control group (n = 5 showed higher loss in the ICU of 47.6%, and was discharged from hospital with only 72% of their basal rate. Conclusion: There was a lower loss rate and better recovery of functionality in the studied population when those were submitted to a systematized and early protocol of mobilization as well as shorter hospital stay.

  15. Local Government System in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir V. Redko

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the issues of the activities of the local government of Japan. Particular attention is drawn to the legal framework and the material basis for the functioning of local self-government bodies. The system of local self-government is considered as a special form of self-government with a specific functional and meaning; system of municipal management and delegation of authority, as well as features of interaction between civil and imperious levels. The allocation of the city with a special status, as well as the financial structure of the local government of Japan, is considered in detail.

  16. A novel dual-functional MEMS sensor integrating both pressure and temperature units

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Tao; Zhang Zhaohua; Ren Tianling; Miao Gujin; Zhou Changjian; Lin Huiwang; Liu Litian, E-mail: RenTL@tsinghua.edu.c [National Laboratory for Information Science and Technology, Institute of Microelectronics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2010-07-15

    This paper proposes a novel miniature dual-functional sensor integrating both pressure and temperature sensitive units on a single chip. The device wafer of SOI is used as a pizeoresistive diaphragm which features excellent consistency in thickness. The conventional anisotropic wet etching has been abandoned, while ICP etching has been employed to etch out the reference cave to minimize the area of individual device in the way that the 57.4{sup 0} slope has been eliminated. As a result, the average cost of the single chip is reduced. Two PN junctions with constant ratio of the areas of depletion regions have also been integrated on the same chip to serve as a temperature sensor, and each PN junction shows high linearity over -40 to 100 {sup 0}C and low power consumption. The iron implanting process for PN junction is exactly compatible with the piezoresistor, with no additional expenditure. The pressure sensitivity is 86 mV/MPa, while temperature sensitivity is 1.43 mV/{sup 0}C, both complying with the design objective.

  17. A novel dual-functional MEMS sensor integrating both pressure and temperature units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Tao; Zhang Zhaohua; Ren Tianling; Miao Gujin; Zhou Changjian; Lin Huiwang; Liu Litian

    2010-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel miniature dual-functional sensor integrating both pressure and temperature sensitive units on a single chip. The device wafer of SOI is used as a pizeoresistive diaphragm which features excellent consistency in thickness. The conventional anisotropic wet etching has been abandoned, while ICP etching has been employed to etch out the reference cave to minimize the area of individual device in the way that the 57.4 0 slope has been eliminated. As a result, the average cost of the single chip is reduced. Two PN junctions with constant ratio of the areas of depletion regions have also been integrated on the same chip to serve as a temperature sensor, and each PN junction shows high linearity over -40 to 100 0 C and low power consumption. The iron implanting process for PN junction is exactly compatible with the piezoresistor, with no additional expenditure. The pressure sensitivity is 86 mV/MPa, while temperature sensitivity is 1.43 mV/ 0 C, both complying with the design objective.

  18. Normative data for Farsi-speaking Iranians in the United States on measures of executive functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avila, Justina F; Verney, Steven P; Kauzor, Kaitlyn; Flowers, Amina; Mehradfar, Maryam; Razani, Jill

    2018-01-09

    As the Farsi-speaking Iranian population continues to grow in the United States, examination of their cognitive performance is an imperative first step to providing this group with culturally competent services. Thirty-six healthy primarily Farsi-speaking Iranian adults completed Farsi-translated and adapted versions of three frequently used measures of executive/subcortical functioning: Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST), Trail Making Test (TMT), and Color Trails Test (CTT). Participants' performance on each measure was compared to published normative data resulting in 0-85% of cognitively and medically healthy individuals being classified as impaired depending on the executive/subcortical test score examined, with the highest impairment rates for specific WCST outcome scores. These findings raise questions for the use of published norms with Farsi-speaking Iranians residing in the US. The present study provided normative data from this group of Farsi-speaking Iranians on the Farsi-translated and adapted versions of the WCST, TMT, and CTT.

  19. Function of "nontrauma" surgeons in level I trauma centers in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pate, J W

    1997-06-01

    Although the general "trauma" surgeon is usually the team leader in level I trauma centers, the use of surgical subspecialists and nonsurgeons is frequently ill-defined. This study was done to gain data in regard to actual use of subspecialists in busy centers. First, a survey of the patterns of staffing in 140 trauma centers was elicited by mail questionnaire, supplemented by telephone cells. Second, records of 400 consecutive patients at the Elvis Presley Trauma Center were reviewed to determine the use of subspecialists during the first 24 hours of care of individual patients. There were differences in the use of surgical subspecialists and nonsurgeons at different centers: in receiving, admitting, operating, and critical care areas and in privileges for admission and attending of inpatients. Consultation "guidelines" are used for many specific injuries. At our center, a mean of 1.92 subspecialists, in addition to general surgeons, were involved in the early care of each patient. Problems exist in many centers regarding the use of subspecialists, especially for management of facial and chest injuries. In some centers nonsurgeons function in the intensive care unit, and as admitting and attending physicians of trauma patients.

  20. Zinc injection during Hot Functional Test (HFT) in Tomari Unit 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayakawa, H.; Mino, Y.; Nakahama, S.; Aizawa, Y.; Nishimura, T.; Umehara, R.; Shimuz, Y.; Kogawa, N.; Ojima, Z.

    2010-01-01

    Zinc injection is performed to reduce radiation exposure around the world, and its effect is confirmed. In Japanese PWRs, the actual effect is also confirmed. Therefore, number of Japanese PWR plans, where zinc is injected, increase. We conclude that zinc injection from Hot Function Test (HFT), when RCS temperature and corrosion rate of material of primary components are increased firstly, is more effective for reducing radiation exposure, because oxide layer with zinc is more stable than with other metals such as cobalt and it is confirmed that zinc injection reduces corrosion amount of alloy 690TT in laboratory test. Therefore in Tomari Unit 3 (PWR, commercial operation from December 2009) of HOKKAIDO ELECTRIC POWER CO., INC, zinc injection was started from first Heat-up during trial operation. During HFT, zinc consumption coincides with assumed plan and Ni concentration is lower than in reference plant. Therefore we conclude that stable and fine oxide layer including zinc is formed. We hope that radiation exposure reduces because of these results. (We published at Asia Water Chemistry Symposium 2009 in NAGOYA.) Results of analysis of oxide layer on SG insert plate, removed after HFT, will be reported. Also Actual results of water chemistry and zinc injection after HFT will be reported. (author)

  1. Orthogonal rational functions on the unit circle: from the scalar to the matrix case.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bultheel, A.; Gonzalez-Vera, P.; Hendriksen, E.; Njastad, O.

    2006-01-01

    Special functions and orthogonal polynomials in particular have been around for centuries. Can you imagine mathematics without trigonometric functions, the exponential function or polynomials? In the twentieth century the emphasis was on special functions satisfying linear differential equations,

  2. Tax Governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boll, Karen; Brehm Johansen, Mette

    to wider international trends within tax administration, especially concerning the development of risk assessments and internal control in the corporations and a greater focus on monitoring of these elements by the tax authorities. Overall, the working paper concludes that Tax Governance as a model......This working paper presents an analysis of the experiences of Cooperative Compliance in Denmark. Cooperative Compliance denotes a specific kind of collaborative program for the regulation of large corporate taxpayers by the tax authorities. Cooperative Compliance programs have been implemented...... in several countries worldwide. In Denmark the program is called Tax Governance. Tax Governance has been studied using qualitative method and the analyses of the working paper build on an extensive base of in-depth interviews – primarily with tax directors from corporations participating in the program...

  3. Functional and Mental Health Status of United Kingdom Military Amputees Postrehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladlow, Peter; Phillip, Rhodri; Etherington, John; Coppack, Russell; Bilzon, James; McGuigan, M Polly; Bennett, Alexander N

    2015-11-01

    To evaluate the functional and mental health status of severely injured traumatic amputees from the United Kingdom military at the completion of their rehabilitation pathway and to compare these data with the published normative data. Retrospective independent group comparison of descriptive rehabilitation data recorded postrehabilitation. A military complex trauma rehabilitation center. Amputees (N=65; mean age, 29±6 y) were evaluated at the completion of their rehabilitation pathway; of these, 54 were operationally (combat) injured (23 unilateral, 23 bilateral, 8 triple) and 11 nonoperationally injured (all unilateral). Continuous ∼4-week inpatient, physician-led, interdisciplinary rehabilitation followed by ∼4-weeks of patient-led, home-based rehabilitation. The New Injury Severity Score at the point of injury was used as the baseline reference. The 6-minute walk test, Amputee Mobility Predictor with Prosthesis, Special Interest Group in Amputee Medicine, Defence Medical Rehabilitation Centre mobility and activity of daily living scores as well as depression (Patient Health Questionnaire-9), anxiety (General Anxiety Disorder Scale-7), mental health support, and pain scores were recorded at discharge and compared with the published normative data. The mean New Injury Severity Score was 40±15. After 34±14 months of rehabilitation, amputees achieved a mean 6-minute walk distance of 489±117 m compared with age-matched normative distances of 459 to 738 m. The 2 unilateral groups walked (544 m) significantly further (P>.05) than did the bilateral amputee (445±104 m) and triple amputee (387±99 m) groups. All groups demonstrated mean functional mobility scores consistent with scores of either active adults or community ambulators with limb loss. In total, 85% could walk/run independently and 95% could walk and perform activities of daily living independently with an aid/adaptation. No significant difference in mental health outcome was reported between the

  4. Mobilizing Government

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Cancan; Medaglia, Rony; Jensen, Tina Blegind

    2016-01-01

    The nature of inter-organizational collaboration between government and other stakeholders is rapidly changing with the introduction of open social media (OSM) platforms. Characterized by a high degree of informality as well as a blurred personal/professional nature, OSM can potentially introduce...... changes and tensions in the well-established routines of the public sector. This paper aims at shedding light on such changes, presenting findings from a study on the use of an OSM platform, WeChat, in an interorganizational collaboration project between government, university, and industry stakeholders...

  5. Comparison of Nutrition and Lung Function Outcomes in Patients with Cystic Fibrosis Living in Canada and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goss, Christopher H; Sykes, Jenna; Stanojevic, Sanja; Marshall, Bruce; Petren, Kristofer; Ostrenga, Josh; Fink, Aliza; Elbert, Alexander; Quon, Bradley S; Stephenson, Anne L

    2018-03-15

    A 10-year gap in the median age of survival for patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) was reported between patients living in Canada compared with patients living in the United States. Because both malnutrition and poor lung function are associated with an increased risk of mortality in CF, we investigated the temporal and longitudinal trends in lung function and nutrition between Canada and the United States. This cohort study used Canadian CF Registry and U.S. CF Foundation Patient Registry data from 1990 to 2013. A unified dataset was created to harmonize the variables collected within the two registries for the purpose of comparing outcomes between the two countries. We conducted three analyses: survival differences by birth cohort; population trends for FEV 1 and body mass index (BMI) over time; and individual patient FEV 1 and BMI trajectories. The study included a total of 37,772 patients in the United States and 5,149 patients in Canada. Patients with CF experienced significant improvements in nutritional status and lung function in both Canada and the United States during the study. In addition, the survival gap between the two countries is narrowing within younger birth cohorts. The improvements for the patients within the United States were most prominent in the BMI trajectories, where patients born after 1990 in the United States have higher BMI that has persisted over time. The reasons for the observed improvements, and catch-up in the United States, are likely multifactorial and include the introduction of high-fat, high-calorie diets; introduction of newborn screening; and/or improved access to care for CF children in the United States.

  6. Why Governments Intervene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brown, Dana; Knudsen, Jette Steen

    for this phenomenon. Research has tended either to rely on cross-country comparisons that generalize tendencies within given countries; or to over-generalize global trends. The current paper analyzes particular CSR policies in two countries – Denmark and the United Kingdom. We find that the rationales for government...... initiatives on CSR are neither consistent across countries or within them. Instead, CSR policies are utilized to address multiple issues crossing various areas of governance, including domestic social policy, global competitiveness policies and foreign policy....

  7. An international corporate governance index

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martynova, M.; Renneboog, L.D.R.; Wright, M.; Siegel, D.; Keasey, K.; Filatotchev, I.

    2013-01-01

    This chapter presents a comparative analysis of corporate governance regulatory systems and their development since 1990 in the United States and in 30 European countries. It introduces a proposed methodology that would help create detailed corporate governance indices which describe the primary

  8. Lithospheric Layering beneath the Contiguous United States Constrained by S-to-P Receiver Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, L.; Liu, K. H.; Kong, F.; Gao, S. S.

    2017-12-01

    The greatly-improved spatial coverage of broadband seismic stations as a result of the deployment of the EarthScope Transportable Array (TA) stations and the diversity of tectonic environments in the contiguous United States provide a unique opportunity to investigate the depth variation and nature of intra-lithospheric interfaces in different tectonic regimes. A total of 284,121 high-quality S-to-P receiver functions (SRFs) are obtained from 3,809 broadband seismic stations in the TA and other permanent and temporary deployments in the contiguous United States. The SRFs are computed using frequency domain deconvolution, and are stacked in consecutive circles with a radius of 2°. They are converted to depth series after move-out corrections using the IASP91 Earth model. Similar to previous SRF studies, a robust negative arrival, representing a sharp discontinuity of velocity reduction with depth, is visible in virtually all the stacked traces in the depth range of 30-110 km. Beneath the western US, the depth of this discontinuity is 69±17 km, and beneath the eastern US, it ranges from 75 to 90 km, both of which are comparable to the depth of the tomographically-determined lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary (LAB). In contrast, the depth of the discontinuity beneath the central US is 83±10 km which is significantly smaller than the 250 km LAB depth determined by seismic surface wave tomography. Based on previous seismic tomography, shear-wave splitting and mantle xenolith studies, we interpret this discontinuity as the top of a frozen-in layer of volatile-rich melt beneath the central US. The observations and the discrepancy between the SRF and seismic tomography results for the central US as well as the amplitude of the corresponding arrival on the SRFs may be explained by spatial variations of the thickness of the transitional layer between the "pure" lithosphere and the "pure" asthenosphere. Under this hypothesis, the consistency between the results from the

  9. The distribution of the zeros of holomorphic functions of moderate growth in the unit disc and the representation of meromorphic functions there

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kudasheva, E G; Khabibullin, Bulat N

    2009-01-01

    Let D be the unit disc in the complex plane C and H a class of holomorphic functions in D distinguished by a restriction on their growth in a neighbourhood of the boundary of the disc which is stated in terms of weight functions of moderate growth. Some results which describe the sequences of zeros for holomorphic functions in classes H of this type are obtained. The weight functions defining H are not necessarily radial; however the results obtained are new even in the case of radial constraints. Conditions for meromorphic functions in D ensuring that they can be represented as a ratio of two functions in H sharing no zeros are investigated. Bibliography: 28 titles.

  10. Heterotopia and capitalism in architecture. The ideological function of Heterotopias as own discourse of the architectural discipline in the age of biopolitical governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge León Casero

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Almost all the studies about Heterotopias undertaken in the field of architecture have focused on the identification or development of certain spaces as counter-sites, i.e., spaces able to put up resistance to the disciplinary techniques of an administrative power that normalises and controls individuals. By contrast, the present paper holds that, once the disciplinary conception of power has lead to biopolitics and completed the process of a real subsumption of society into capital, Heterotopias have begun to work unambiguously, optimising neoliberal relations of governance and production, losing the emancipatory power sometimes still ascribed to give way to their having an ideological and mystifying function for the power they purport to resist. Through the concept of Heterotopia, architects, urban planners and geographers continue to act as technicians in the service of capital, while nevertheless sincerely believing in the emancipatory power of their work.

  11. Economic Efficiency of Selected Financial System Institutions of Local Government

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urszula Rabiej

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Functioning of local government units, as for as the economic sphere is concerned, is based on the financial law regulations. Those regulations aim at solving economic and social problems. The analysis of economic efficiency concerning implemented regulations is of particular importance for changing the EU’s attitude towards the influence, which EU has on functioning of the local governments. Implementing the local budgets, based on regulations which economic efficiency hasn’t been evaluated on the stage of legislation, may have a negative impact on local community and the economic situation of the country. Frequent changes of financial law cause actions, which financial effects cannot be predicted. What is more, those unstable regulations make it impossible to plan essential parts of a budget in a right way. That has a great importance in terms of correctness of long-term financial perspectives of the local government units.

  12. Bank Governance

    OpenAIRE

    Laura Ard; Alexander Berg

    2010-01-01

    Principles of good governance have been a major component of international financial standards and are seen as essential to the stability and integrity of financial systems. Over the past 10 years much energy and attention have gone to improving the ability of company boards, managers, and owners to prudently navigate rapidly changing and volatile market conditions. So, how to explain the ...

  13. Government Organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krause Hansen, Hans; Salskov-Iversen, Dorte

    2017-01-01

    , with clearly defined boundaries between the public and private; and in terms of polycentrism, where power and authority are seen as dispersed among state and nonstate organizations, including business and civil society organizations. Globalization and new media technologies imply changes in the relationship...... democracy and the public sphere; and discourse approaches to studying the intersections of government, organizational change, and information and communication technology....

  14. Corporate Governance

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Andy Knight; David Malone; Faith Mitchell. Finance and Audit Committee. Members: Denis Desautels (Chairman); Ahmed Galal;. Frieda Granot; Elizabeth Parr-Johnston; Andrés Rozental;. Gordon Shirley. Governance Committee. Members: The Honourable Barbara McDougall (Chairman);. Claude-Yves Charron; Denis ...

  15. What’s in a name? A comparison of ‘open government’ definitions across seven Open Government Partnership members

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Clarke

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available No longer restricted to access to information laws and accountability measures, “open government” is now associated with a broad range of goals and functions, including public participation, open data, the improvement of public services and government efficiency. The 59 country strong Open Government Partnership (OGP suggests that consensus on the value of open government is emerging amongst public officials. Similarly, academics have shown a renewed interest in open government as they discuss, debate and critique the meaning and role of open government reforms today. Yet, despite the diverse aims and tools characterizing contemporary open government, public officials and academics typically approach the subject as a cohesive unit of analysis, making sweeping—and generally non-empirical—claims about its implications, without accounting for the homegrown flavours that may characterize open government in practice. Simply put, the practice and study of contemporary open government suffers a lack of definitional clarity: what exactly is open government today, and how does it vary across governments? In response to these questions, this paper analyses the content of open government policy documents in seven OGP member states (Azerbaijan, Brazil, Canada, Netherlands, Kenya, United Kingdom, and the United States, providing the first systematic, empirically-grounded multi-country comparison of contemporary open government. The paper suggests where the term departs from and retains its original meaning, and how its definition varies across different governments

  16. Self-assembly and omniphobic property of fluorinated unit end-functionalized poly(methyl methacrylate)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junyan, Liang; Pingdi, Xu; Jingxian, Bao; Ling, He; Nan, Zhu

    2018-03-01

    The self-assembly behavior of fluorinated unit end-functionalized poly(methyl methacrylate) (PDFHM-ef-PMMA) in solution and its influence on the surface microstructure, elemental composition and omniphobic property of cast film was investigated in this work. Specifically, three mixed solutions of tetrahydrofuran (THF)/methanol (MeOH), THF/H2O and THF/H2O/MeOH in various compositions were employed separately as the selective solvents. In THF/MeOH solution, the aggregate morphologies of PDFHM-ef-PMMA changed gradually from core-shell spheres to worm, and then to elliptical vesicles as MeOH content increased. In THF/H2O solution, spherical and bowl-shaped aggregates with significantly larger sizes than those in THF/MeOH solution were favored despite lower H2O content. The further addition of MeOH to THF/H2O mixture could reduce the size of aggregate but hardly change original aggregate morphology. During the film formation process, those self-assembled aggregates in THF/MeOH solution fused with one another to form a smooth surface. When such surface was fully covered by fluorinated segments, the outstanding hexadecane and water slide-off properties and ink-resistant property required for antifouling application were demonstrated. Instead, the aggregates formed in THF/H2O/MeOH mixture were subjected to secondary aggregation of PDFHM-ef-PMMA chains during solvent evaporation, leading to the formation of a particulate film with poor adhesion towards glass plate and hexadecane-repellent property.

  17. The biofilm-controlling functions of rechargeable antimicrobial N-halamine dental unit waterline tubing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porteous, Nuala; Schoolfield, John; Luo, Jie; Sun, Yuyu

    2011-01-01

    A study was conducted to test the biofilm-controlling functions of N-halamine tubing over an eight-month period. A laboratory system, simulating a teaching dental clinic, was used to test rechargeable N-halamine tubing (T) compared to an untreated control (C) using the unit manufacturer's tubing. For the long-term study, a recharged tubing (RC) treated with bleach was used to compare with the test (T) and the control (C) tubing. Source tap water was cycled through the lines at 1.4 mL/minute, five minutes on and 25 minutes off, eight hours/day, five days/week. Every three weeks, samples of effluent, recovered adherent bacteria from inside tubing surfaces, and SEM images were examined for bacterial and biofilm growth. After sampling, a recharging solution of chlorine bleach (1 : 10 dilution) was run through T and RC lines, left overnight, and rinsed out the next morning. One-way ANOVAs and Spearman correlations were performed to detect significant differences for T, RC, and C, and determine significance with time period and source water, respectively. Mean log CFU/mL for C effluent > T (p = 0.028), and C tubing > T (p = 0.035). Spearman correlations were significant between effluent and source water level for T (rho = 0.817), and T tubing (0.750); between RC tubing and source water level (rho = 0.836), and time (rho = 0.745); and between C and time (rho = 0.873). SEM imaging confirmed the presence of biofilm inside RC and C, but not inside T. N-halamine tubing completely inhibited biofilm formation without negatively affecting the physical properties of the effluent water. Further research on N-halamine tubing using a pure water source is recommended, as T effluent bacterial levels reflected the source tap water quality and proliferation of planktonic bacteria with no biofilm activity.

  18. Crustal thickness and Vp/Vs beneath the southeastern United States: Constraints from receiver function stacking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Q.; Gao, S. S.; Liu, K. H.

    2017-12-01

    To provide new constraints on crustal structure and evolution models beneath a collage of tectonic provinces in the southeastern United States, a total of 10,753 teleseismic receiver functions recorded by 125 USArray and other seismic stations are used to compute crustal thickness and Vp/Vs values. The resulting crustal thicknesses range from 25 km at the coast to 51 km beneath the peak of the southern Appalachians with an average of 36.2 km ± 5.5 km. The resulting crustal thicknesses correlate well with surface elevation and Bouguer gravity anomalies. Beneath the Atlantic Coastal Plain, the crustal thicknesses show a clear eastward thinning with a magnitude of 10 km, from about 40 km beneath the western margin to 30 km beneath the coast. The Vp/Vs values for the entire study area range from 1.71 to 1.90 with a mean value of 1.80 ± 0.04. The mean Vp/Vs value is 1.82±0.035 in the southern Appalachian Mountain. The slightly larger than normal crustal Vp/Vs for this area might be the result of significant erosion of the felsic upper crust over the past 300 million years. Alternatively, it could also suggest the existence of pervasive magmatic intrusion into the Appalachian crust. The Vp/Vs measurements in the Atlantic Coastal Plain increase toward the east, ranging from 1.75 to 1.82, probably indicating a gradual increase of mafic magmatic intrusion into thinner crust during the development of the passive continental margin.

  19. Fast analysis of molecular dynamics trajectories with graphics processing units-Radial distribution function histogramming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levine, Benjamin G.; Stone, John E.; Kohlmeyer, Axel

    2011-01-01

    The calculation of radial distribution functions (RDFs) from molecular dynamics trajectory data is a common and computationally expensive analysis task. The rate limiting step in the calculation of the RDF is building a histogram of the distance between atom pairs in each trajectory frame. Here we present an implementation of this histogramming scheme for multiple graphics processing units (GPUs). The algorithm features a tiling scheme to maximize the reuse of data at the fastest levels of the GPU's memory hierarchy and dynamic load balancing to allow high performance on heterogeneous configurations of GPUs. Several versions of the RDF algorithm are presented, utilizing the specific hardware features found on different generations of GPUs. We take advantage of larger shared memory and atomic memory operations available on state-of-the-art GPUs to accelerate the code significantly. The use of atomic memory operations allows the fast, limited-capacity on-chip memory to be used much more efficiently, resulting in a fivefold increase in performance compared to the version of the algorithm without atomic operations. The ultimate version of the algorithm running in parallel on four NVIDIA GeForce GTX 480 (Fermi) GPUs was found to be 92 times faster than a multithreaded implementation running on an Intel Xeon 5550 CPU. On this multi-GPU hardware, the RDF between two selections of 1,000,000 atoms each can be calculated in 26.9 s per frame. The multi-GPU RDF algorithms described here are implemented in VMD, a widely used and freely available software package for molecular dynamics visualization and analysis.

  20. Reduced functional measure of cardiovascular reserve predicts admission to critical care unit following kidney transplantation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen M S Ting

    Full Text Available There is currently no effective preoperative assessment for patients undergoing kidney transplantation that is able to identify those at high perioperative risk requiring admission to critical care unit (CCU. We sought to determine if functional measures of cardiovascular reserve, in particular the anaerobic threshold (VO₂AT could identify these patients.Adult patients were assessed within 4 weeks prior to kidney transplantation in a University hospital with a 37-bed CCU, between April 2010 and June 2012. Cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET, echocardiography and arterial applanation tonometry were performed.There were 70 participants (age 41.7±14.5 years, 60% male, 91.4% living donor kidney recipients, 23.4% were desensitized. 14 patients (20% required escalation of care from the ward to CCU following transplantation. Reduced anaerobic threshold (VO₂AT was the most significant predictor, independently (OR = 0.43; 95% CI 0.27-0.68; p<0.001 and in the multivariate logistic regression analysis (adjusted OR = 0.26; 95% CI 0.12-0.59; p = 0.001. The area under the receiver-operating-characteristic curve was 0.93, based on a risk prediction model that incorporated VO₂AT, body mass index and desensitization status. Neither echocardiographic nor measures of aortic compliance were significantly associated with CCU admission.To our knowledge, this is the first prospective observational study to demonstrate the usefulness of CPET as a preoperative risk stratification tool for patients undergoing kidney transplantation. The study suggests that VO₂AT has the potential to predict perioperative morbidity in kidney transplant recipients.

  1. The Role of Parents' Control in Early Adolescents' Psychological Functioning: A Longitudinal Investigation in the United States and China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qian; Pomerantz, Eva M.; Chen, Huichang

    2007-01-01

    This research compared the effects over time of parents' control and autonomy support on children's functioning in the United States and China. American and Chinese (N = 806) seventh graders (mean age = 12.73 years) participated in a 6-month longitudinal study. Children reported on their parents' psychological control, psychological autonomy…

  2. Forest products research and development organizations in a worldwide setting: A review of structure, governance, and measures of performance of organizations outside the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul V. Ellefson; Michael A. Kilgore; Kenneth E. Skog; Christopher D. Risbrudt

    2007-01-01

    Located in 23 countries, 40 forest-products research and development organizations outside the United States were reviewed in 2004 and 2005. The intent was to obtain a better understanding of how such organizations are structured and administered and their performance judged. Investing over $600 million annually, the 40 organizations employed 7,000 to 7,500 scientists...

  3. Project and supply agreement. The text of the agreement of 15 January 1993 between the International Atomic Energy Agency and the Government of the Republic of Indonesia and the Government of the United States of America concerning the transfer of enriched uranium for the fabrication of targets for the production of radioisotopes for medical purposes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-08-01

    The text of the Project and Supply Agreement, which was approved by the Agency's Board of Governors on 4 December 1992 and concluded on 15 January 1993 between the Agency and the Governments of the Republic of Indonesia and the United States of America for the transfer of enriched uranium for the fabrication of targets for the production of radioisotopes for medical purposes is reproduced herein for the information of all Members. The agreement entered into force on 15 January 1993, pursuant to Article XII.1

  4. Agreement among the Portuguese Republic, the Government of the United States of America and the International Atomic Energy Agency for assistance in securing nuclear fuel for a research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The text of the Agreement among the Portuguese Republic, the Government of the United States of America and the International Atomic Energy Agency for Assistance in Securing Nuclear Fuel for a Research Reactor is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members of the Agency. The Agency's Board of Governors approved the above mentioned Agreement on 14 June 2006. The Agreement was signed by the authorized representatives of Portugal on 27 June 2006 and the United States on 13 December 2006, and by the Director General of the IAEA on 14 December 2006. Pursuant to the Article XII.1 of the Agreement, the Agreement entered into force on 19 April 2007, the date on which the Agency received written notification from Portugal that its internal requirements for entry into force had been met

  5. Corporate governance and liquidity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farooq, Omar; Derrabi, Mohamed; Naciri, Monir

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of corporate governance mechanisms on liquidity in the MENA region, i.e. Morocco, Egypt, Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates, Jordan, Kuwait, and Bahrain. Using turnover as a proxy for liquidity, we document significant difference in liquidity between the pre......- and the post-crisis periods in the MENA region. In addition, our results show that bulk of this reduction in turnover can be explained due to weaknesses of corporate governance mechanisms. For example, that dividend payout ratio and choice of auditors – proxies for agency problems – can explain the entire...... difference in liquidity between the two periods. Furthermore, our results indicate that more than 50% of this difference between the two periods can be explained by operational and informational complexity of a firm – proxy for transparency. We argue that poor corporate governance mechanisms increase...

  6. Plural Governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mols, Niels Peter; Hansen, Jesper Rosenberg; Villadsen, Anders Ryom

    We suggest that both making and buying the same product or service has several effects on market performance. A model is developed and tested by use of 170 answers gathered from the Danish municipalities. The results support the hypotheses that both making and buying: (1) moderates the negative r...... on how the plurality is measured. The results indicate that internal production may facilitate effective governance of the relationships with suppliers. Implications for research on firm boundaries and for practice are also discussed....

  7. IT Governance

    OpenAIRE

    Šimková, Hana

    2008-01-01

    IT governance (control of information technology) is a frequently discussed topic today which represents current needs to take control of IT, judge impacts of all resolutions and lead up investments running to the information technology. It is very important for both small and large organizations to have IT which encourages business strategy and helps to meet objectives of a company. The theoretical part of this paper is focused on characterization of the main areas, benefits, rules and vario...

  8. Prokaryotic regulatory systems biology: Common principles governing the functional architectures of Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli unveiled by the natural decomposition approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freyre-González, Julio A; Treviño-Quintanilla, Luis G; Valtierra-Gutiérrez, Ilse A; Gutiérrez-Ríos, Rosa María; Alonso-Pavón, José A

    2012-10-31

    Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis are two of the best-studied prokaryotic model organisms. Previous analyses of their transcriptional regulatory networks have shown that they exhibit high plasticity during evolution and suggested that both converge to scale-free-like structures. Nevertheless, beyond this suggestion, no analyses have been carried out to identify the common systems-level components and principles governing these organisms. Here we show that these two phylogenetically distant organisms follow a set of common novel biologically consistent systems principles revealed by the mathematically and biologically founded natural decomposition approach. The discovered common functional architecture is a diamond-shaped, matryoshka-like, three-layer (coordination, processing, and integration) hierarchy exhibiting feedback, which is shaped by four systems-level components: global transcription factors (global TFs), locally autonomous modules, basal machinery and intermodular genes. The first mathematical criterion to identify global TFs, the κ-value, was reassessed on B. subtilis and confirmed its high predictive power by identifying all the previously reported, plus three potential, master regulators and eight sigma factors. The functionally conserved cores of modules, basal cell machinery, and a set of non-orthologous common physiological global responses were identified via both orthologous genes and non-orthologous conserved functions. This study reveals novel common systems principles maintained between two phylogenetically distant organisms and provides a comparison of their lifestyle adaptations. Our results shed new light on the systems-level principles and the fundamental functions required by bacteria to sustain life. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Economic Model For a Return on Investment Analysis of United States Government High Performance Computing (HPC) Research and Development (R & D) Investment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joseph, Earl C. [IDC Research Inc., Framingham, MA (United States); Conway, Steve [IDC Research Inc., Framingham, MA (United States); Dekate, Chirag [IDC Research Inc., Framingham, MA (United States)

    2013-09-30

    This study investigated how high-performance computing (HPC) investments can improve economic success and increase scientific innovation. This research focused on the common good and provided uses for DOE, other government agencies, industry, and academia. The study created two unique economic models and an innovation index: 1 A macroeconomic model that depicts the way HPC investments result in economic advancements in the form of ROI in revenue (GDP), profits (and cost savings), and jobs. 2 A macroeconomic model that depicts the way HPC investments result in basic and applied innovations, looking at variations by sector, industry, country, and organization size. A new innovation index that provides a means of measuring and comparing innovation levels. Key findings of the pilot study include: IDC collected the required data across a broad set of organizations, with enough detail to create these models and the innovation index. The research also developed an expansive list of HPC success stories.

  10. Coordination through IT governance: a literature review

    OpenAIRE

    L. Caporarello

    2006-01-01

    Organizations seek to mirror their corporate governance arrangements in the activities of their key subunits – as IT function – in order to lower their organizational coordination costs. Some researches evidence that the mode of corporate governance significantly influences the mode of IT governance: organizations that have centralized their corporate governance also tend to centralize their IT governance, whereas organizations that have decentralized their corporate governance tend to decent...

  11. Iridium terpyridine complexes as functional assembling units in arrays for the conversion of light energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flamigni, Lucia; Collin, Jean-Paul; Sauvage, Jean-Pierre

    2008-07-01

    In photosynthesis, sunlight energy is converted into a chemical potential by an electron transfer sequence that is started by an excited state and ultimately yields a long-lived charge-separated state. This process can be reproduced by carefully designed multicomponent artificial arrays of three or more components, and the stored energy can be used to oxidize or reduce molecules in solution, to inject electrons or holes, or to create an electron flow. Therefore, the process is important both for artificial-photosynthesis research and for photovoltaic and optoelectronic applications. Molecular arrays for photoinduced charge separation often use chromophores that resemble the natural ones. However, new synthetic components, including transition metal complexes, have had some success. This Account discusses the use of bis-terpyridine (tpy) metal complexes as assembling and functional units of such multicomponent arrays. M(tpy)2(n+) complexes have the advantage of yielding linear arrays with unambiguous geometry. Originally, Ru(tpy)2(2+) and Os(tpy)2(2+) were used as photosensitizers in triads containing typical organic donors and acceptors. However, it soon became evident that the relatively low excited state of these complexes could act as an energy drain of the excited state of the photosensitizer and, thus, seriously compete with charge separation. A new metal complex that preserved the favorable tpy geometry and yet had a higher energy level was needed. We identified Ir(tpy)2(3+), which displayed a higher energy level, a more facile reduction that favored charge separation, a longer excited-state lifetime, and strong spectroscopic features that were useful for the identification of intermediates. Ir(tpy)2(3+) was used in arrays with electron-donating gold porphyrin and electron-accepting free-base porphyrins. A judicious change of the free-base porphyrin photosensitizer with zinc porphyrin allowed us to shape the photoreactivity and led to charge separation with

  12. Getting Port Governance Right

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Langen, Peter; Saragiotis, Periklis

    2018-01-01

    This chapter discusses the relevance of ports for economic development and next identifies port governance as a critical determinant of a well-functioning port industry. While in the past decades privately owned terminal operating companies have emerged and contributed to more efficient supply ch...

  13. Examining Auditing as an Essential Element of Financial Management and Good Governance in Local Government

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sindisile Maclean

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the article is to address issues of auditing in the context of financial management as a contribution to good governance. Generally, not all local governments have effective and operational audit units and committees. As a result, auditing is not used as an essential element of good governance and this leads to bad audit outcomes like disclaimers and adverse opinions. The bad audit outcomes in local government have motivated the researcher to conduct the study on auditing. There are internal factors within the municipalities as well as external factors that are of interest and directed the researcher to have desire and commitment to make a contribution in this particular field of research. The key issues, amongst others, are principles of financial management, financial strategy, auditing functions such as forensic auditing, fraud auditing, forensic accounting and detection of fraud, including accounting systems and auditor’s role. This article will also attempt to reinforce existing theories and add value to local government financial discourse and good governance.

  14. An overview of herb and dietary supplement efficacy, safety and government regulations in the United States with suggested improvements. Part 1 of 5 series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Amy Christine

    2017-09-01

    series to forewarn consumers, clinicians, corporations, and governments of possible serious adverse events. They may also quicken the response rate during Phase IV post-marketing surveillance, in which governments could then exercise their regulatory powers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Changes in Nutritional and Functional Status in Longer Stay Patients Admitted to a Geriatric Evaluation and Management Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitley, A; Skliros, E; Graven, C; McIntosh, R; Lasry, C; Newsome, C; Bowie, A

    2017-01-01

    Malnutrition and functional decline are common in older inpatients admitted to subacute care settings. However the association between changes in nutritional status and relevant functional outcomes remains under-researched. This study examined changes in nutritional status, function and mobility in patients admitted to a Geriatric Evaluation and Management (GEM) unit who had a length of stay (LOS) longer than 21 days. A prospective, observational study. Two GEM units at St Vincent's Hospital Melbourne, Australia. Patients admitted to the GEM units who stayed longer than 21 days were included in the study. Patients were assessed on admission and prior to discharge using the Subjective Global Assessment (SGA), Functional Independence Measure (FIM) motor domain and the Modified Elderly Mobility Scale (MEMS). Fifty-nine patients (Mean age 84.0 ± 7 years) met the required length of stay and were included in the study. Fifty-four per cent (n=32) were malnourished on admission (SGA B/C) and 44% (n=26) were malnourished on discharge. Twenty-two per cent (n=13) improved SGA category, 75% remained stable (n=44) and 3% deteriorated (n=2) from admission to discharge. Total Motor FIM scores significantly increased from admission to discharge in both the improved (pnutritional status groups. Subjects who improved in nutritional status had a significantly higher MEMS score at discharge (pnutritional status at the time of discharge. Improvement in nutritional status was associated with greater improvement in mobility scores. Further studies are required to investigate the effectiveness of nutrition interventions, which will inform models of care aiming to optimise nutritional, functional, and associated clinical outcomes in patients admitted to GEM units.

  16. Community Security and Justice under United Nations Governance: Lessons from Chiefs’ Courts in South Sudan’s Protection of Civilians Sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Ibreck

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the public authority of chiefs’ courts within the United Nations Mission in South Sudan (UNMISS Protection of Civilians Sites (PoCs. After December 2013, UNMISS peacekeepers opened the gates of their bases to around 200,000 civilians fleeing war. This unintentionally created a legal and political anomaly. Over time, conflicts and crimes rose within the sites, and UNMISS improvised a form of administration. But while the internationals sought technical solutions, people displaced within the sites turned to familiar ‘customary’ methods to manage problems of insecurity, establishing chiefs’ courts. The PoC sites became an arena of plural authorities, with chiefs working alongside camp administrators, peacekeepers and humanitarian actors. We explore how and why the chiefs responded to insecurity within the sites and whether they engaged with, or diverged from United Nations actors and international norms. We demonstrate that justice remains central to the provision of security in contexts of war and displacement. International peace interventions are rightly wary of ‘customary’ justice processes that prioritise communities and families at the expense of individual rights, but this unique case shows that they are sources of trust and consistency that are resilient, adaptable and can contribute to human security.

  17. Report of the German Government about the conference for the environment and development held by the United Nations in June 1992 in Rio de Janeiro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    In this report the German government created the first guideline for changing to the decisions made in Rio. Subsequently they will immediately introduce the following measures: - Ratification of the treaty for climate protection and biological diversity, - measures in the interest of climatic agreements which are already coming into effect, - cooperating with other countries to promote worldwide consideration of the elements of the Rio-declaration, - cooperating with other countries to support the changing of the declaration on forest management and conservation and a dialogue about the continuing internationally co-ordinated arrangement with the aim of an international wood convertion on the basis of this interpretation, - help with the elaboration of a convention for the fight against desertification, -serious steps towards an effective UN-commission organisation for permanent development. - Participation in an effective organisation of the 'Global Environment Facility' which can be equally accepted by industrialized and developing countries, and in its financial supply. - Financial and technical support of developing countries by implementing Agenda 21 and the forest conservation declaration in the framework of development aid. (orig./DG) [de

  18. State preemption of local smoke-free laws in government work sites, private work sites, and restaurants - United States, 2005-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-05

    Smoke-free policies (i.e., policies that completely eliminate smoking in indoor workplaces and public places) result in health benefits, including preventing heart attacks. Preemptive legislation at the state level prohibits localities from enacting laws that vary from state law or are more stringent. A Healthy People 2010 objective (27-19) is to eliminate state laws that preempt stronger local tobacco control laws. A 2005 CDC review found that little progress was being made toward reducing the number of state laws preempting local smoking restrictions in three indoor settings: government work sites, private-sector work sites, and restaurants. These three settings were selected for analysis because they are settings that often are addressed by state and local smoking restrictions and because they are major settings where nonsmoking workers and patrons are exposed to secondhand smoke. This report updates the previous analysis and summarizes changes that occurred from December 31, 2004, to December 31, 2009, in state laws that preempt local smoke-free laws for the same three settings. During that period, the number of states preempting local smoking restrictions in at least one of these three settings decreased from 19 to 12. In contrast with the 2005 findings, this decrease indicates progress toward achieving the goal of eliminating state laws preempting local smoking restrictions. Further progress could result in additional reductions in secondhand smoke exposure.

  19. Reproductive capacity of Chrysoperla externa (Hagen) (Neuroptera, Chrysopidae) in function of the number of individuals per unit of rearing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pessoa, Luis Gustavo Amorim; Freitas, Sergio de

    2008-01-01

    Reproductive capacity of Chrysoperla externa (Hagen) (Neuroptera, Chrysopidae) in function of the number of individuals per unit of rearing. This work was carried out to investigate the reproductive potential of Chrysoperla externa subjected to different densities per rearing unit. Adults of the F 4 offspring were kept at 25 ± 1 deg C, RH 70 ± 10% and 12 h photo phase. It was used the following densities per rearing unit (10 cm of diameter by 23 cm of height, and volume of 1650 cm 3 ): 1 male: 3 female, 2 males: 6 females, 3 males: 9 females and 4 males: 12 females. It was evaluated the pre-oviposition period, the daily and total oviposition per female and per rearing unit, the percentage of viable and infertile eggs percentage and the exploitation index per female and per rearing unit. The density 4 males: 12 females presented better exploitation when compared to the other densities thus equalizing the low values obtained for the mean and total egg laying per female. (author)

  20. Evaluating Land Use and Emergency Management Plans for Natural Hazards as a Function of Good Governance:A Case Study from New Zealand

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wendy Saunders; Emily Grace; James Beban; David Johnston

    2015-01-01

    Plan evaluation is of utmost importance as a function of good governance. It provides a means to im-prove the institutional basis for implementing land use controls, provides an important opportunity to improve future plans to reduce risk, and improves the vision for sustainable development and management. This article provides an overview of the methods and findings of a plan evaluation project undertaken in New Zealand. The project analyzed 99 operative plans, provided in-depth analysis of ten plans, and included a capability and capacity study of councils. This is the first time all operative plans in New Zealand have had their natural hazard provisions assessed in this manner. The information provides an important baseline for future policy improvements, and a basis for future research and policy directions. The project found that, while New Zealand land use plans appear to be im-proving over time, there are still opportunities for im-provement. These include improving linkages between objectives, policies, and rules within land use plans; and strengthening the linkages between land use and emer-gency management plans. The largest challenge is the ac-cessibility, understanding of, and updating of hazard information.

  1. Social functions of high school athletics in the United States: a historical and comparative analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stokvis, R.

    2009-01-01

    In the United States competitive sport is part of the extra-curricular program of high schools. In the Netherlands, on the other hand, competitive sport is practiced in private clubs which are completely independent of the high schools. The consolidation and continuity of this difference can be

  2. Stability of a simple Levi–Civitá functional equation on non-unital ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ulam stability; Levi–Civitá equation; non-unital semigroup; 2-divisible group. 2010 Mathematics Subject Classification. Primary: 39B82. 1. Introduction ... for all x ∈ G? These kind of questions form the material for the stability theory of func-.

  3. Governing Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buch, Anders

    2012-01-01

    Most people agree that our world face daunting problems and, correctly or not, technological solutions are seen as an integral part of an overall solution. But what exactly are the problems and how does the engineering ‘mind set’ frame these problems? This chapter sets out to unravel dominant...... perspectives in challenge per-ception in engineering in the US and Denmark. Challenge perception and response strategies are closely linked through discursive practices. Challenge perceptions within the engineering community and the surrounding society are thus critical for the shaping of engineering education...... and the engineering profession. Through an analysis of influential reports and position papers on engineering and engineering education the chapter sets out to identify how engineering is problematized and eventually governed. Drawing on insights from governmentality studies the chapter strives to elicit the bodies...

  4. Governing Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buch, Anders

    2011-01-01

    Abstract: Most people agree that our world faces daunting problems and, correctly or not, technological solutions are seen as an integral part of an overall solution. But what exactly are the problems and how does the engineering ‘mind set’ frame these problems? This chapter sets out to unravel...... dominant perspectives in challenge perception in engineering in the US and Denmark. Challenge perception and response strategies are closely linked through discursive practices. Challenge perceptions within the engineering community and the surrounding society are thus critical for the shaping...... of engineering education and the engineering profession. Through an analysis of influential reports and position papers on engineering and engineering education the chapter sets out to identify how engineering is problematized and eventually governed. Drawing on insights from governmentality studies the chapter...

  5. Do reimbursement recommendation processes used by government drug plans in Canada adhere to good governance principles?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rawson NS

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Nigel SB Rawson,1–3 John Adams4 1Eastlake Research Group, Oakville, ON, 2Canadian Health Policy Institute, Toronto, ON, 3Fraser Institute, Vancouver, BC, 4Canadian PKU and Allied Disorders Inc., Toronto, ON, Canada Abstract: In democratic societies, good governance is the key to assuring the confidence of stakeholders and other citizens in how governments and organizations interact with and relate to them and how decisions are taken. Although defining good governance can be debatable, the United Nations Development Program (UNDP set of principles is commonly used. The reimbursement recommendation processes of the Canadian Agency for Drugs and Technologies in Health (CADTH, which carries out assessments for all public drug plans outside Quebec, are examined in the light of the UNDP governance principles and compared with the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence system in England. The adherence of CADTH's processes to the principles of accountability, transparency, participatory, equity, responsiveness and consensus is poor, especially when compared with the English system, due in part to CADTH's lack of genuine independence. CADTH's overriding responsibility is toward the governments that "own," fund and manage it, while the agency’s status as a not-for-profit corporation under federal law protects it from standard government forms of accountability. The recent integration of CADTH’s reimbursement recommendation processes with the provincial public drug plans’ collective system for price negotiation with pharmaceutical companies reinforces CADTH's role as a nonindependent partner in the pursuit of governments’ cost-containment objectives, which should not be part of its function. Canadians need a national organization for evaluating drugs for reimbursement in the public interest that fully embraces the principles of good governance – one that is publicly accountable, transparent and fair and includes all stakeholders

  6. Marine informational governance, a conceptual framework

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoefnagel, E.W.J.; Vos, de B.I.; Buisman, F.C.

    2013-01-01

    Marine governance involves interaction between networks and actors from different types and levels of organizations. The concept of multi-level or network governance steps away from the assumptions that supra-national and national government at the macro level is the dominant policy making unit. At

  7. 22 CFR 230.16 - Governing law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Governing law. 230.16 Section 230.16 Foreign... SUPPLEMENTAL APPROPRIATIONS ACT OF 2003, PUB. L. 108-11-STANDARD TERMS AND CONDITIONS § 230.16 Governing law. This Guarantee shall be governed by and construed in accordance with the laws of the United States of...

  8. E-government as Institutional Transformation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, A.J.; Zouridis, S.

    2004-01-01

    Throughout the world, e-government has become a key element of modernization and government reform programs. E-government has put a spell on public administration from Singapore to Uruguay and from the United States to Hong Kong. This worldwide movement is interesting from the perspective of

  9. High-density EEG coherence analysis using functional units applied to mental fatigue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caat, Michael ten; Lorist, Monicque M.; Bezdan, Eniko; Roerdink, Jos B.T.M.; Maurits, Natasha M.

    2008-01-01

    Electroencephalography (EEG) coherence provides a quantitative measure of functional brain connectivity which is calculated between pairs of signals as a function of frequency. Without hypotheses, traditional coherence analysis would be cumbersome for high-density EEG which employs a large number of

  10. Zadania inwestycyjne jednostek samorządu terytorialnego województwa lubelskiego w zakresie ochrony zdrowia = Investment projects of local government units in the province of Lublin about health care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martyna Warchoł

    2016-07-01

    2Katedra i Zakład Zdrowia Publicznego, Uniwersytet Medyczny w Lublinie,   mgr Martyna Warchoł1 dr n. med. Marzena Furtak – Niczyporuk2 mgr Małgorzata Pachuta3   Adres do korespondencji dr n. med. Marzena Furtak – Niczyporuk Uniwersytet Medyczny w Lublinie 20 – 081 Lublin ul. Chodźki 1       Abstrakt Wprowadzenie Samorząd terytorialny jest to związek publiczno-prawny, powołany przez państwo, ale odrębny od niego. Działa on w obrębie swoich struktur i w zakresie określonym przez nie oraz w ramach obowiązującego prawa. Jednostki samorząd terytorialnego jako podmioty tworzące dla podmiotów leczniczych mają określone w stosunku do tego zadania. Do nich zalicza się, m. in. zadania inwestycyjne. Cel pracy Celem pracy jest przedstawienie zadań inwestycyjnych jednostek samorządu terytorialnego  w zakresie ochrony zdrowia na terenie województwa lubelskiego. Materiał i metody W badaniu zastosowano metodę sondażu diagnostycznego. Narzędziem badawczym był kwestionariusz ankiety własnego autorstwa złożony z 24 pytań. Grupę badaną stanowili urzędnicy 213 samorządów gminnych województwa lubelskiego, z czego 170 to gminy wiejskie, 23 to gminy miejsko – wiejskie, 20 to gminy miejskie. Badania odbywały się na zasadzie anonimowości. Ankiety zostały wysyłane do respondentów za pomocą Internetu. Wyniki i wnioski Z badań wynika, że jednostki samorządu terytorialnego podejmują bardzo okrojone zadania inwestycyjne w zakresie ochrony. Często nie wykonując obowiązkowych zadań do których zobowiązują ich normy prawne.   Słowa kluczowe: jednostki samorządu terytorialnego, ochrona zdrowia, inwestycje.     Abstract Introduction Local government is the relationship of public - legal, appointed by the state, but distinct from it. It works within its structures, and to the extent specified by and under the law. Units of local government units as those that make up for those medicines are determined in relation to this task

  11. Do predictors of smoking relapse change as a function of duration of abstinence? Findings from the United States, Canada, United Kingdom and Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong, Hua-Hie; Borland, Ron; Cummings, K Michael; Partos, Timea

    2018-07-01

    To estimate predictors of time to smoking relapse and test if prediction varied by quit duration. Longitudinal cohort data from the International Tobacco Control Four-Country survey with annual follow up collected between 2002 and 2015. Canada, United States, United Kingdom and Australia. A total of 9171 eligible adult smokers who had made at least one quit attempt during the study period. Time to relapse was the main outcome. Predictor variables included pre-quit baseline measures of nicotine dependence, smoking and quitting-related motivations, quitting capacity and social influence, and also two post-quit measures, use of stop-smoking medications and quit duration (1-7 days, 8-14 days, 15-31 days, 1-3 months, 3-6 months, 6-12 months, 1-2 years and 2+ years), along with socio-demographics. All factors were predictive of relapse within the first 6 months of quitting but only wanting to quit, quit intentions and number of friends who smoke were still predictive of relapse in the 6-12-month period of quitting [hazard ratios (HR) = 1.20, P < 0.05; 1.13, P < 0.05; and 1.21, P < 0.001, respectively]. Number of friends smoking was the only remaining predictor of relapse in the 1-2 years quit period (HR = 1.19, P = 0.001) with none predictive beyond the 2-year quit period. Use of stop-smoking medications during quit attempts was related negatively to relapse during the first 2 weeks of quitting (HR = 0.71-0.84), but related positively to relapse in the 1-6-month quit period (HR = 1.29-1.54). Predictive effects of all factors showed significant interaction with quit duration except for perceiving smoking as an important part of life, prematurely stubbing out a cigarette and wanting to quit. Among adult smokers in the United States, Canada, United Kingdom and Australia, factors associated with smoking relapse differ between the early and later stages of a quit attempt, suggesting that the determinants of relapse change as a function of abstinence

  12. LOCAL GOVERNMENT AND INTERGOVERNMENTAL RELATIONS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GRACE

    issues of tax jurisdiction, revenue allocation, intergovernmental relations ... The 1999 Nigeria constitution stipulates the functions and powers of the ... systems of government, is characterized with diverse ethnic groups, ... states perceived to be an attempt by the federal government to relate directly to ..... excise taxes on oil.

  13. Governing the carbon offset market

    OpenAIRE

    Lovell, Heather C.

    2010-01-01

    Carbon offsets are produced and sold under the international climate change regime (the United Nations Kyoto Protocol) and also within an expanding voluntary offset market in which companies and individuals can voluntarily opt to compensate for their greenhouse gas emissions. The volume of carbon produced and consumed within compliance and voluntary markets has grown dramatically in the last 5 years, raising a number of governance challenges. This Focus Article gives an overview of the govern...

  14. Interoperability in the e-Government Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    TN-014 | 3 ing e- government systems focus primarily on these technical challenges [UNDP 2007a, p. 10; CS Transform 2009, p. 3]. More recently...Thailand’s government hits its own wall. Responding agencies and non- governmental groups are unable to share information vital to the rescue effort...Interoperability and Open Standards for e- Governance .” egov (Sep. 1, 2007): 17–19. [Secretary General, United Nations 2010] Secretary General, United

  15. Whole-body imaging of whole-organ, subresolution, basic functional unit (BFU) perfusion characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Yue; Ritman, Erik L.

    2008-08-01

    A BFU is an organ's smallest assembly of diverse cells that functions like the organ, such as the liver's hepatic lobules. There are approximately 107 BFUs in a human organ. These 100-200 μm structures are perfused by capillaries fed by a terminal arteriole (15μm diameter). BFU sizes, function and number per organ vary with disease, either by loss of BFUs and/or their decrease in function. The BFU is the upper limit of a spherical assembly of cells, immersed in a suitably nutrient medium, which can survive without its own blood supply. However, each BFU has its own blood supply to support the extra energy and/or solutes needed for providing its physiological function (e.g., contraction or secretion). A BFU function is best evaluated by its micro-perfusion, which can be readily evaluated with whole-body CT. Resolution of individual BFUs within in-situ organs, using clinical imaging devices, would require high radiation doses and/or the intolerably long scan-durations needed for suitable signal-to-noise image-data. However, it is possible to obtain a statistical description of the BFU number, size and function from wholebody CT by way of a model. In this study we demonstrate this capability by using the distribution of myocardial terminal arteriolar perfusion territories by way of a nested, multiple, regions-of-interest analysis of the heart wall imaged during transient opacification of its blood supply.

  16. Automated system of monitoring and positioning of functional units of mining technological machines for coal-mining enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meshcheryakov Yaroslav

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is show to the development of an automated monitoring and positioning system for functional nodes of mining technological machines. It describes the structure, element base, algorithms for identifying the operating states of a walking excavator; various types of errors in the functioning of microelectromechanical gyroscopes and accelerometers, as well as methods for their correction based on the Madgwick fusion filter. The results of industrial tests of an automated monitoring and positioning system for functional units on one of the opencast coal mines of Kuzbass are presented. This work is addressed to specialists working in the fields of the development of embedded systems and control systems, radio electronics, mechatronics, and robotics.

  17. The Drosophila melanogaster DmCK2beta transcription unit encodes for functionally non-redundant protein isoforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jauch, Eike; Wecklein, Heike; Stark, Felix; Jauch, Mandy; Raabe, Thomas

    2006-06-07

    Genes encoding for the two evolutionary highly conserved subunits of a heterotetrameric protein kinase CK2 holoenzyme are present in all examined eukaryotic genomes. Depending on the organism, multiple transcription units encoding for a catalytically active CK2alpha subunit and/or a regulatory CK2beta subunit may exist. The phosphotransferase activity of members of the protein kinase CK2alpha family is thought to be independent of second messengers but is modulated by interaction with CK2beta-like proteins. In the genome of Drosophila melanogaster, one gene encoding for a CK2alpha subunit and three genes encoding for CK2beta-like proteins are present. The X-linked DmCK2beta transcription unit encodes for several CK2beta protein isoforms due to alternative splicing of its primary transcript. We addressed the question whether CK2beta-like proteins are redundant in function. Our in vivo experiments show that variations of the very C-terminal tail of CK2beta isoforms encoded by the X-linked DmCK2beta transcription unit influence their functional properties. In addition, we find that CK2beta-like proteins encoded by the autosomal D. melanogaster genes CK2betates and CK2beta' cannot fully substitute for a loss of CK2beta isoforms encoded by DmCK2beta.

  18. Functioning of primary health care in opinion of managers of primary health care units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bojar, I; Wdowiak, L; Kwiatosz-Muc, M

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the research is to get to know opinions of primary health care managers concerning working of primary health care and concerning quality of medical services offered by family doctors out-patient clinics. The research among managers of primary health care units took place in all out-patient clinics in Lublin province. Research instrument was survey questionnaire of authors own construction. Results were statistically analyzed. From 460 surveys sent, 108 questionnaires were accepted to analysis. Majority of managers of out-patient clinics of primary health care is satisfied with the way and the quality of work of employed staff. In opinion of 71.3% of managers access to family doctor services is very good. Availability of primary health care services is better estimated by managers of not public units. The occupied local provide comfortable work for the staff in opinion of 78.5% of surveyed managers of out-patient clinics. Managers estimate the level of their services as very good (37.96%) and good (37.96%) comparing to other such a subjects present in the market. Internal program of improving quality is run in 22% of out-patient clinics, which were investigated. Managers of primary health care units assess the quality of their services as good and very good. They estimate positively the comfort and politeness in serving patients as well as technical status of equipment and the lodging. They assess availability of their services as very good. Large group of managers of family doctors practices recognizes neighborhood practices as a competitors.

  19. Motor units in the human medial gastrocnemius muscle are not spatially localized or functionally grouped.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Héroux, Martin E; Brown, Harrison J; Inglis, J Timothy; Siegmund, Gunter P; Blouin, Jean-Sébastien

    2015-08-15

    Human medial gastrocnemius (MG) motor units (MUs) are thought to occupy small muscle territories or regions, with low-threshold units preferentially located distally. We used intramuscular recordings to measure the territory of muscle fibres from MG MUs and determine whether these MUs are grouped by recruitment threshold or joint action (ankle plantar flexion and knee flexion). The territory of MUs from the MG muscle varied from somewhat localized to highly distributed, with approximately half the MUs spanning at least half the length and width of the muscle. There was also no evidence of regional muscle activity based on MU recruitment thresholds or joint action. The CNS does not have the means to selectively activate regions of the MG muscle based on task requirements. Human medial gastrocnemius (MG) motor units (MUs) are thought to occupy small muscle territories, with low-threshold units preferentially located distally. In this study, subjects (n = 8) performed ramped and sustained isometric contractions (ankle plantar flexion and knee flexion; range: ∼1-40% maximal voluntary contraction) and we measured MU territory size with spike-triggered averages from fine-wire electrodes inserted along the length (seven electrodes) or across the width (five electrodes) of the MG muscle. Of 69 MUs identified along the length of the muscle, 32 spanned at least half the muscle length (≥ 6.9 cm), 11 of which spanned all recording sites (13.6-17.9 cm). Distal fibres had smaller pennation angles (P recruitment threshold or contraction type, nor was there a relationship between MU territory size and recruitment threshold (Spearman's rho = -0.20 and 0.13, P > 0.18). MUs in the human MG have larger territories than previously reported and are not localized based on recruitment threshold or joint action. This indicates that the CNS does not have the means to selectively activate regions of the MG muscle based on task requirements. © 2015 The Authors. The Journal of

  20. Study on unitized inverter with photovoltaic grid-connected and stand-alone functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Haining; Su, Jianhui; Ding, Ming [Hefei University of Technology, Hefei (China)

    2008-07-01

    The main circuit and algorithm of unitized single phase inverter are presented, in which photovoltaic (PV) grid-connected algorithm, independency sine inverter algorithm and storage battery charge administer are all integrated basing on DSP (Digital Signal Processor). The control system identifies utility failure initiatively and then switches to independency power supply automatically. The methods of charging battery are multiform. Basing on material term to use utility or solar array to charge can optimize charge efficiency, assure the capacitance of battery and prolong life-span of battery. In addition, some results are offered basing on the prototype of a 2.5kW single phase inverter. (orig.)

  1. Study on government's optimal incentive intensity of intellectual property rights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chengbin; Sun, Shengxiang; Wei, Hua

    2018-05-01

    The integration of military and civilian technology in the development stage of weapon equipment is an inherent requirement for the development of the deep integration of the military and the civilian. In order to avoid repeated development of existing technology and improve the efficiency of weaponry development, the government should take effective measures to encourage development institutions to actively adopt existing intellectual property technology in the process of equipment development. According to the theory of utility function and the characteristics of practical problems, the utility function of government and weapon equipment development units is constructed, and the optimization model of incentive strength for national defense intellectual property is established. According to the numerical simulation, the conclusion is, to improve the development efficiency, and at the same time, to encourage innovation, thre government need to make a trade-off in incentive policy making, to achieve a high level in intellectual property rights' innovation and application.

  2. Telomere attrition, kidney function, and prevalent chronic kidney disease in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazidi, Moshen; Rezaie, Peyman; Covic, Adriac; Malyszko, Jolanta; Rysz, Jacek; Kengne, Andre Pascal; Banach, Maciej

    2017-10-06

    Telomere length is an emerging novel biomarker of biologic age, cardiovascular risk and chronic medical conditions. Few studies have focused on the association between telomere length (TL) and kidney function. We investigated the association between TL and kidney function/prevalent chronic kidney disease (CKD) in US adults. The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) participants with measured data on kidney function and TL from 1999 to 2002 were included. Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was based on CKD Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI) equation. Urinary albumin excretion was assessed using urinary albumin-creatinine ratio (ACR). We used multivariable adjusted linear and logistic regression models, accounting for the survey design and sample weights. Of the 10568 eligible participants, 48.0% ( n =5020) were men. Their mean age was 44.1 years. eGFR significantly decreased and ACR significantly increased across increasing quarters of TL (all p function remained robust even after adjusting for potential confounding factors, but the association between TL and ACR was only borderline significant (β-coefficient= -0.012, p =0.056). The association of kidney function with a marker of cellular senescence suggests an underlying mechanism influencing the progression of nephropathy.

  3. Immigration in the United States 2016 Presidential Debates: A Functional Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Hasani Yaseen

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes an analysis of the three U.S. 2016 presidential debates published in The New York Times using Benoit’s (2007a functional theory. The three presidential debates in the U.S., which occur every four years, remain as the most sensitive political rhetoric that lead to the election of the next U.S. President. These debates include discussion of different issues between the two presidential candidates. One of these issues is immigration. The U.S. presidential debates have been researched by many on various aspects but there has not been a study that focus primarily on the issue of immigration in the three 2016 U.S. presidential debates. All statements regarding this issue between the two presidential candidates, Trump and Clinton, were extracted from these debates and analyzed using Benoit's (2007a functional theory. Findings revealed that attack statements occurred more than acclaims, and defences were less used than acclaims. The statements included in these debates pertained to policy (30% and character (70%. As expected, general goals were employed more often using acclaim function rather than attack and defend. However, ideals were employed more often using defence than to acclaim and attack. Due to different contexts, situations, and participants, Benoit's (2007a functional theory may not be generalized for all debates. This study reveals certain inconsistencies regarding some of the hypotheses of Benoit's (2007a functional theory in relation to our knowledge of the presidential debates, specifically the issue of immigration.

  4. HAL/SM system functional design specification. [systems analysis and design analysis of central processing units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, C.; Williams, G. P. W., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    The functional design of a preprocessor, and subsystems is described. A structure chart and a data flow diagram are included for each subsystem. Also a group of intermodule interface definitions (one definition per module) is included immediately following the structure chart and data flow for a particular subsystem. Each of these intermodule interface definitions consists of the identification of the module, the function the module is to perform, the identification and definition of parameter interfaces to the module, and any design notes associated with the module. Also described are compilers and computer libraries.

  5. [Lower limb stump reconstruction with a functional calcaneo-plantar unit free flap. A series of 16 cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malikov, S; Dubert, T; Koupatadze, D; Nabokov, V; Polosov, R

    1999-04-01

    The main objective of surgery, once amputation is inevitable, is to preserve a functional stump. This report describes the immediate reconstruction of 16 leg stumps in children by transfer of a functional calcaneo-plantar unit. Of these, 3 were thigh and 13 were lower leg reconstructions. Amputation was performed for tumor in 4 cases, and was due to accidents in the remaining twelve. The main technical features of flap preparation are preservation of the calcaneum branch and attachment of the heel skin to the greater tuberosity of the calcaneum. One case resulted in failure due to vascular thrombosis. The other 15 cases resulted in bone consolidation after an average of 45 days, sensitive protection by 70 days, and very good trophic and protective results. The provision of good distal pressure area encourages overall development of the child. There was no morbidity at the donor site, and because there is no major muscle mass in the distal fragment, the overall risk is very low compared to that of total proximal leg replantation. The transfer of functional calcaneo-plantar tissue as a single unit is the best strategy for one-step restoration of good distal support area for the stump. All surgeons liable to perform leg amputations should be aware of this technical approach.

  6. Biological markers for kidney injury and renal function in the intensive care unit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Royakkers, A.A.N.M.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the investigations described in this thesis was to seek for answers to two relevant questions in ICUs in resource-rich settings, i.e., can new biological markers play a role in early recognition of AKI, and can new biological markers predict recovery of renal function in patients who

  7. Clinical features of unspecified functional bowel disorder in servicemen from a Chinese army unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin YAO

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective To investigate clinical manifestation of unspecified functional bowel disorder (UFBD, the features of coexistence with functional gastrointestinal disorder (FGID and its relationship with psychological factors and sleep disturbance in the Chinese Army servicemen. Methods cFGIDs were diagnosed based on the Rome Ⅲ Modular Questionnaire. The subjects were 189 servicemen with UFBD (UFBD group and 372 without FGID (control group. All subjects completed symptom checklist 90 (SCL-90 and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI questionnaire. Results 'Have to rush to the toilet when having a desire to defecate' was the most frequent symptom of UFBD (93.7%. More than one half of UFBD patients had the symptom 'a feeling of incomplete emptying as bowel movements' or 'straining during bowel movements'. Twenty-eight percent of UFBD subjects had combined FGID (namely cFGID. Among them, the most frequent was proctalgia fugax (7.9%, followed by cyclic vomiting syndrome (6.3%, functional fecal incontinence (6.3%, functional dyspepsia (4.8% and belching (4.8%. The UFBD group scored significantly higher than the control group in the global severity index (GSI and in all SCL-90 subscales (P0.05. Conclusion Pathogenesis of UFBD may be closely correlated with psychiatric and psychological factors and sleep disturbance. cFGID are associated with an increased severity of psychopathological features. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2017.01.15

  8. Functions in Contemporary Secondary Mathematics Textbook Series in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Daniel J.

    2011-01-01

    Textbooks play a central role in US mathematics classrooms (Stein, Remillard, & Smith, 2007) and functions are a key topic in secondary mathematics (Carlson, Jacobs, Coe, Larsen, & Hsu, 2002). This study presents results from an analysis of this essential topic in the latest editions of three textbook series: the Glencoe Mathematics…

  9. Engineering governance: introducing a governance meta framework.

    OpenAIRE

    Brand, N.; Beens, B.; Vuuregge, E.; Batenburg, R.

    2011-01-01

    There is a need for a framework that depicts strategic choices within an organisation with regard to potential governance structures. The governance meta framework provides the necessary structure in the current developments of governance. Performance as well as conformance are embedded in this framework and provide the balance for all governance domains. (aut.ref.)

  10. Descriptive, inferential, functional outcome data on 9,025 torture survivors over six years in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    The National Consortium of Torture Treatment Programs conducted a large voluntary research project among torture rehabilitation centers in the United States (US). Its goal is to fill the void in the literature on demographic and diagnostic data of torture survivors across a large country. Twenty-three centers across the US collaborated over six years, utilizing training and making decisions via conference calls and webinars. A data use agreement signed by all the participating centers governed plans and the use of the data. This study reports on torture survivors from 125 countries, 109 of which signed the United Nations Convention against Torture (UNCAT). Of the 9,025 torture survivors represented, most came from Africa and Asia and reported an average of 3.5 types of torture. Asylum seekers have different immigration experiences and show significantly higher rates of major depressive disorder (MDD) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) than refugees. Torture survivors at high risk of PTSD and MDD in this sample reported three or more types of torture, reported rape, and had the immigration status of asylum seeker. At one and two years after beginning treatment, both asylum seekers and refugees reported increased rates of employment and improvements in their immigration status. This longitudinal project provides basic data on a large number of torture survivors who accessed services in the US, and provides a foundation for long-term follow up on immigration status, employment status, diagnostic status, medical diagnoses, and eventually, the effectiveness of treatment for torture survivors in the US. This article shares demographic and diagnostic findings useful for informing programmatic and policy decisions. However, these findings on refugees and asylum seekers in the US may not reflect the experience in other receiving countries. Collaboration with other researchers across continents is required to provide a much needed, more complete picture of torture

  11. An updated view of hypothalamic-vascular-pituitary unit function and plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Tissier, Paul; Campos, Pauline; Lafont, Chrystel; Romanò, Nicola; Hodson, David J; Mollard, Patrice

    2017-05-01

    The discoveries of novel functional adaptations of the hypothalamus and anterior pituitary gland for physiological regulation have transformed our understanding of their interaction. The activity of a small proportion of hypothalamic neurons can control complex hormonal signalling, which is disconnected from a simple stimulus and the subsequent hormone secretion relationship and is dependent on physiological status. The interrelationship of the terminals of hypothalamic neurons and pituitary cells with the vasculature has an important role in determining the pattern of neurohormone exposure. Cells in the pituitary gland form networks with distinct organizational motifs that are related to the duration and pattern of output, and modifications of these networks occur in different physiological states, can persist after cessation of demand and result in enhanced function. Consequently, the hypothalamus and pituitary can no longer be considered as having a simple stratified relationship: with the vasculature they form a tripartite system, which must function in concert for appropriate hypothalamic regulation of physiological processes, such as reproduction. An improved understanding of the mechanisms underlying these regulatory features has implications for current and future therapies that correct defects in hypothalamic-pituitary axes. In addition, recapitulating proper network organization will be an important challenge for regenerative stem cell treatment.

  12. Contractile function and motor unit firing rates of the human hamstrings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk, Eric A; Rice, Charles L

    2017-01-01

    Neuromuscular properties of the lower limb in health, aging, and disease are well described for major lower limb muscles comprising the quadriceps, triceps surae, and dorsiflexors, with the notable exception of the posterior thigh (hamstrings). The purpose of this study was to further characterize major muscles of the lower limb by comprehensively exploring contractile properties in relation to spinal motor neuron output expressed as motor unit firing rates (MUFRs) in the hamstrings of 11 (26.5 ± 3.8) young men. Maximal isometric voluntary contraction (MVC), voluntary activation, stimulated contractile properties including a force-frequency relationship, and MUFRs from submaximal to maximal voluntary contractile intensities were assessed in the hamstrings. Strength and MUFRs were assessed at two presumably different muscle lengths by varying the knee joint angles (90° and 160°). Knee flexion MVCs were 60-70% greater in the extended position (160°). The frequency required to elicit 50% of maximum tetanic torque was 16-17 Hz. Mean MUFRs at 25-50% MVC were 9-31% less in the biceps femoris compared with the semimembranosus-semitendinosus group. Knee joint angle (muscle length) influenced MUFRs such that mean MUFRs were greater in the shortened (90°) position at 50% and 100% MVC. Compared with previous reports, mean maximal MUFRs in the hamstrings are greater than those in the quadriceps and triceps surae and somewhat less than those in the tibialis anterior. Mean maximal MUFRs in the hamstrings are influenced by changes in knee joint angle, with lower firing rates in the biceps femoris compared with the semimembranosus-semitendinosus muscle group. We studied motor unit firing rates (MUFRs) at various voluntary contraction intensities in the hamstrings, one of the only major lower limb muscles to have MUFRs affected by muscle length changes. Within the hamstrings muscle-specific differences have greater impact on MUFRs than length changes, with the biceps femoris

  13. Asymptotic formula for the Riesz means of the spectral functions of Laplace-Beltrami operator on unit sphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadly Nurullah Rasedee, Ahmad; Ahmedov, Anvarjon; Sathar, Mohammad Hasan Abdul

    2017-09-01

    The mathematical models of the heat and mass transfer processes on the ball type solids can be solved using the theory of convergence of Fourier-Laplace series on unit sphere. Many interesting models have divergent Fourier-Laplace series, which can be made convergent by introducing Riesz and Cesaro means of the series. Partial sums of the Fourier-Laplace series summed by Riesz method are integral operators with the kernel known as Riesz means of the spectral function. In order to obtain the convergence results for the partial sums by Riesz means we need to know an asymptotic behavior of the latter kernel. In this work the estimations for Riesz means of spectral function of Laplace-Beltrami operator which guarantees the convergence of the Fourier-Laplace series by Riesz method are obtained.

  14. Safety of persons protected by the Government Protection Bureau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojciech Lis

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The state is the organizational structure, which unites the whole nation by providing optimal conditions for the functioning and development. One of the conditions for the basic functions of the state is efficient administration headed by a person with the role of management. They not only hold the highest position, but also represent the authority of the state. For this reason, they need special protection. Each attack undermines the authority of the administration and trust in the state institutions. For the protection of persons performing managerial functions in the state corresponds to the Government Protection Bureau that providing them protection at the same time protect the state.

  15. Functional and Esthetic Comparison of Metal-Ceramic and All-Ceramic Posterior Three-Unit Fixed Dental Prostheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolaisen, Maj H; Bahrami, Golnosh; Schropp, Lars; Isidor, Flemming

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess functional and esthetic satisfaction plus evaluate changes in oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) using the Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP-14) after insertion of a metal-ceramic (MC-FDP) or a veneered zirconia all-ceramic (AC-FDP) posterior three-unit fixed dental prosthesis (FDP). Additionally, patients' and professionals' esthetic evaluations were compared. A convenience sample of 34 patients was randomized to receive a MC-FDP (n = 17) or an AC-FDP (n = 17). Patients were assessed using the OHIP-14 and also answered a questionnaire regarding satisfaction with function and esthetics using visual analog scales (VAS) before treatment and after 2 weeks, after 3 months, and after 1, 2, and 3 years. A fully dentate control group (n = 20) was also assessed using the OHIP-14. The operator and another observer evaluated the esthetics of the FDPs using VAS. The patients assessed the two FDP types similarly for all parameters. In contrast, there was a statistically significant difference in OHIP-14 results between the treated patients and the control group before treatment. After treatment, a statistically significant improvement in OHIP-14 was observed at all examinations. Patients were highly satisfied with the function and esthetics of the FDPs. The overall satisfaction with esthetics was statistically significantly higher among the patients than among the professionals at three out of five examinations. The patients experienced improved OHRQoL and increased satisfaction with function and esthetics after receiving a posterior three-unit FDP. No important differences were observed between the two types of FDPs when evaluated by the patient or the professionals.

  16. Organizational structuring and strategic business units in function of an effective management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovač Aleksandar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In modern business conditions, in the conditions of extremely fast market changes which affect the way and the organization of a company's business, it is necessary to set up such an organizational structure which will provide the necessary flexibility and the base for further growth and development of the company. Each wrong business decision results in a waste of time, money and energy. In order to minimize mistakes as much as possible it is necessary to have a quality system of accounting information which is essential for making business decisions. In that sense, in order to provide quality accounting information and to enable the monitoring of the performances of particular parts of the company by the central management, forming and organizational structuring of the strategic business units is an effective way to answer the challenges of the business environment. Recently, a certain tendency of changes in the field of organizational structuring is noticeable, or, more precisely, of organizational restructuring of the business systems in closer and wider environment with a goal of delegating authorities and responsibilities to the organizational divisions. Profit centre, as an organizational part of a company which does not have a legal status, is of an exceptional importance.

  17. Radiological mapping of functional transcription units of bacteriophage phiX174 and S13

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pollock, T.J.; Tessman, I.; Tessman, E.S.

    1978-01-01

    It has been found that the nearest promoter is not always the primary promoter for making translatable message. The technique of ultraviolet mapping was used to determine the location of promoter sites for translated mRNA coded for by bacteriophages phiX174 and S13. The method is based on the theory that the 'target size' for u.v. inactivation of expression of a gene is proportional to the distance between the promoter and the 3' end of the gene. This method has revealed an expected and some unexpected locations for the promoters responsible for gene expression. Ultraviolet-survival curves for expression of phage genes were interpreted in the following way. The contiguous genes D, F, G and H are expressed as a unit under the control of a promoter located near gene D. However, gene B (and probably the adjacent genes K and C) are controlled by a promoter distant from gene B, possibly in the region of gene H, rather than from a promoter located just before gene B. Likewise, gene A is controlled by a promoter distant from gene A. (author)

  18. "Fire Moss" Cover and Function in Severely Burned Forests of the Western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grover, H.; Doherty, K.; Sieg, C.; Robichaud, P. R.; Fulé, P. Z.; Bowker, M.

    2017-12-01

    With wildfires increasing in severity and extent throughout the Western United States, land managers need new tools to stabilize recently burned ecosystems. "Fire moss" consists of three species, Ceratodon purpureus, Funaria hygrometrica, and Bryum argentum. These mosses colonize burned landscapes quickly, aggregate soils, have extremely high water holding capacity, and can be grown rapidly ex-situ. In this talk, I will focus on our efforts to understand how Fire Moss naturally interacts with severely burned landscapes. We examined 14 fires in Arizona, New Mexico, Washington, and Idaho selecting a range of times since fire, and stratified plots within each wildfire by winter insolation and elevation. At 75+ plots we measured understory plant cover, ground cover, Fire Moss cover, and Fire Moss reproductive effort. On plots in the Southwest, we measured a suite of soil characteristics on moss covered and adjacent bare soil including aggregate stability, shear strength, compressional strength, and infiltration rates. Moss cover ranged from 0-75% with a mean of 16% across all plots and was inversely related to insolation (R2 = .32, p = stability and infiltration rates as adjacent bare ground. These results will allow us to model locations where Fire Moss will naturally increase postfire hillslope soil stability, locations for targeting moss restoration efforts, and suggest that Fire Moss could be a valuable tool to mitigate post wildfire erosion.

  19. On the applicability of the critical safety function concept to a uranium hexafluoride conversion unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, F.C.; Goncalves, J.S.; Melo, P.F. Frutuoso e; Medeiros, J.A.C.C.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a discussion on the applicability on the critical safety function (CSF) concept as a design criterion for the new UF 6 conversion plant of Industrias Nucleares do Brazil (INB). This discussion is in the context of accident management, under the safety function oriented management. Safety functions may be understood as those whose loss may lead to releases of radioactive material or highly toxic chemicals, having possible radiological and/or occupational consequences for workers, the public or the environment. They should be designed to prevent criticality and to ensure adequate process confinement, thus preventing radioactive material releases that might lead to internal or external exposure and highly toxic chemical releases and exposure. The main hazards is the potential release of chemicals, especially HF and UF 6 . A criticality hazard exists only if the conversion facility processes uranium with a 235 U concentration greater than 1% Industrial activities for UF 6 production include handling and processing explosive, toxic and lethal chemicals, such as HF, H 2 and elemental F 2 , besides intermediate compounds containing uranium. State trees and definition of logical arrangements to construct an annunciation system are the next development stages, resulting form the establishment of applicable CSFs as representative of the next development stages, resulting from the establishment of applicable CSFs as representative of the various systems that make up the conversion plant. Discussed also in the biggest challenge of the development of this innovation, that is, the uncertainties related to the impact of human factors (not subject to monitoring by sensors or process conventional instrumentation). (author)

  20. On the applicability of the critical safety function concept to a uranium hexafluoride conversion unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, F.C.; Goncalves, J.S.; Melo, P.F. Frutuoso e; Medeiros, J.A.C.C., E-mail: fcruz@nuclear.ufrj.br, E-mail: jsgoncalves@inb.gov.br, E-mail: frutuoso@nuclear.ufrj.br, E-mail: canedo@imp.ufrj.br [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia (COPPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    This paper presents a discussion on the applicability on the critical safety function (CSF) concept as a design criterion for the new UF{sub 6} conversion plant of Industrias Nucleares do Brazil (INB). This discussion is in the context of accident management, under the safety function oriented management. Safety functions may be understood as those whose loss may lead to releases of radioactive material or highly toxic chemicals, having possible radiological and/or occupational consequences for workers, the public or the environment. They should be designed to prevent criticality and to ensure adequate process confinement, thus preventing radioactive material releases that might lead to internal or external exposure and highly toxic chemical releases and exposure. The main hazards is the potential release of chemicals, especially HF and UF{sub 6}. A criticality hazard exists only if the conversion facility processes uranium with a {sup 235}U concentration greater than 1% Industrial activities for UF{sub 6} production include handling and processing explosive, toxic and lethal chemicals, such as HF, H{sub 2} and elemental F{sub 2}, besides intermediate compounds containing uranium. State trees and definition of logical arrangements to construct an annunciation system are the next development stages, resulting form the establishment of applicable CSFs as representative of the next development stages, resulting from the establishment of applicable CSFs as representative of the various systems that make up the conversion plant. Discussed also in the biggest challenge of the development of this innovation, that is, the uncertainties related to the impact of human factors (not subject to monitoring by sensors or process conventional instrumentation). (author)

  1. Estimating soil hydrological response by combining precipitation-runoff modeling and hydro-functional soil homogeneous units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aroca-Jimenez, Estefania; Bodoque, Jose Maria; Diez-Herrero, Andres

    2015-04-01

    Flash floods constitute one of the natural hazards better able to generate risk, particularly with regard to Society. The complexity of this process and its dependence on various factors related to the characteristics of the basin and rainfall make flash floods are difficult to characterize in terms of their hydrological response.To do this, it is essential a proper analysis of the so called 'initial abstractions'. Among all of these processes, infiltration plays a crucial role in explaining the occurrence of floods in mountainous basins.For its characterization the Green-Ampt model , which depends on the characteristics of rainfall and physical properties of soil has been used in this work.This is a method enabling to simulate floods in mountainous basins where hydrological response is sub-daily. However, it has the disadvantage that it is based on physical properties of soil which have a high spatial variability. To address this difficulty soil mapping units have been delineated according to the geomorphological landforms and elements. They represent hydro-functional mapping units that are theoretically homogeneous from the perspective of the pedostructure parameters of the pedon. So the soil texture of each homogeneous group of landform units was studied by granulometric analyses using standarized sieves and Sedigraph devices. In addition, uncertainty associated with the parameterization of the Green-Ampt method has been estimated by implementing a Monte Carlo approach, which required assignment of the proper distribution function to each parameter.The suitability of this method was contrasted by calibrating and validating a hydrological model, in which the generation of runoff hydrograph has been simulated using the SCS unit hydrograph (HEC-GeoHMS software), while flood wave routing has been characterized using the Muskingum-Cunge method. Calibration and validation of the model was from the use of an automatic routine based on the employ of the search algorithm

  2. Generic functional modelling of multi-pulse auto-transformer rectifier units for more-electric aircraft applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao YANG

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The Auto-Transformer Rectifier Unit (ATRU is one preferred solution for high-power AC/DC power conversion in aircraft. This is mainly due to its simple structure, high reliability and reduced kVA ratings. Indeed, the ATRU has become a preferred AC/DC solution to supply power to the electric environment control system on-board future aircraft. In this paper, a general modelling method for ATRUs is introduced. The developed model is based on the fact that the DC voltage and current are strongly related to the voltage and current vectors at the AC terminals of ATRUs. In this paper, we carry on our research in modelling symmetric 18-pulse ATRUs and develop a generic modelling technique. The developed generic model can study not only symmetric but also asymmetric ATRUs. An 18-pulse asymmetric ATRU is used to demonstrate the accuracy and efficiency of the developed model by comparing with corresponding detailed switching SABER models provided by our industrial partner. The functional models also allow accelerated and accurate simulations and thus enable whole-scale more-electric aircraft electrical power system studies in the future. Keywords: Asymmetric transformer, Functional modelling, More-Electric Aircraft, Multi-pulse rectifier, Transformer rectifier unit

  3. Evaluation of the Antimicrobial Functions of N-halamine Dental Unit Waterline Tubing for One Year.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porteous, N; Dang, S; Schoolfield, J; Sun, Y

    2016-03-01

    The objective of this study was to test the biofilm-controlling properties of N-halamine antimicrobial dental unit waterline (DUWL) tubing (T) tubing, without recharging over one year, compared to a control line (C). A simulated clinical model was used to pump ultrapure water through T and C lines at a rate of 1.4 mL/min, five minutes on, 15 minutes off, eight hours/day, five days a week. Samples of source water, effluent from T and C, and from the stagnant water in the carboy (liquid container) after bench work was completed (S2), were collected aseptically, serially diluted, and cultured on R2A agar for seven days every six weeks. SEM images of the inside surfaces of detached tubing sections were also taken. The carboy was rinsed with a 1:10 dilution of sodium hypochlorite after six months. Means of log transformed CFU values obtained in triplicate were paired by T and C lines across months for comparison by paired Student's t-tests. An increase in effluent and carboy bacterial counts were noted after six months, but decreased after bleach rinse of the carboy. No significant difference (p > 0.25) between T and C lines were observed; similarly, T and carboy were not significantly different (p > 0.30). SEM images showed biofilm attachment on the inside surface of C after two months, but not on T. Organisms identified in the effluent reflected those in the source carboy. No biofilm attachment was detected on the N-halamine test line after 12 months, indicating its antimicrobial properties were retained. Further evaluation is recommended to determine the optimal recharge interval for N-halamine DUWL tubing when ultrapure source water is used.

  4. Understanding Trends in Kidney Function 1 Year after Kidney Transplant in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yihung; Tilea, Anca; Gillespie, Brenda; Shahinian, Vahakn; Banerjee, Tanushree; Grubbs, Vanessa; Powe, Neil; Rios-Burrows, Nilka; Pavkov, Meda; Saran, Rajiv

    2017-08-01

    Lower eGFR 1 year after kidney transplant is associated with shorter allograft and patient survival. We examined how practice changes in the past decade correlated with time trends in average eGFR at 1 year after kidney transplant in the United States in a cohort of 189,944 patients who received a kidney transplant between 2001 and 2013. We calculated the average eGFR at 1 year after transplant for the recipient cohort of each year using the appropriate Modification of Diet in Renal Disease equation depending on the prevailing methodology of creatinine measurement, and used linear regression to model the effects of practice changes on the national post-transplant eGFR trend. Between the 2001-2005 period and the 2011-2013 period, average 1-year post-transplant eGFR remained essentially unchanged, with differences of 1.34 (95% confidence interval, 1.03 to 1.65) ml/min per 1.73 m 2 and 0.66 (95% confidence interval, 0.32 to 1.01) ml/min per 1.73 m 2 among deceased and living donor kidney transplant recipients, respectively. Over time, the mean age of recipients increased and more marginal organs were used; adjusting for these trends unmasked a larger temporal improvement in post-transplant eGFR. However, changes in immunosuppression practice had a positive effect on average post-transplant eGFR and balanced out the negative effect of recipient/donor characteristics. In conclusion, average 1-year post-transplant eGFR remained stable, despite increasingly unfavorable attributes in recipients and donors. With an aging ESRD population and continued organ shortage, preservation of average post-transplant eGFR will require sustained improvement in immunosuppression and other aspects of post-transplant care. Copyright © 2017 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  5. Tetraspanin-enriched microdomains: a functional unit in cell plasma membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yáñez-Mó, María; Barreiro, Olga; Gordon-Alonso, Mónica; Sala-Valdés, Mónica; Sánchez-Madrid, Francisco

    2009-09-01

    Membrane lipids and proteins are non-randomly distributed and are unable to diffuse freely in the plane of the membrane. This is because of multiple constraints imposed both by the cortical cytoskeleton and by the preference of lipids and proteins to cluster into diverse and specialized membrane domains, including tetraspanin-enriched microdomains, glycosylphosphatidyl inositol-linked proteins nanodomains and caveolae, among others. Recent biophysical characterization of tetraspanin-enriched microdomains suggests that they might be specially suited for the regulation of avidity of adhesion receptors and the compartmentalization of enzymatic activities. Moreover, modulation by tetraspanins of the function of adhesion receptors involved in inflammation, lymphocyte activation, cancer and pathogen infection suggests potential as therapeutic targets. This review explores this emerging picture of tetraspanin microdomains and discusses the implications for cell adhesion, proteolysis and pathogenesis.

  6. Global Trends in Academic Governance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, William K.; Finkelstein, Martin

    2009-01-01

    Even before the current global economic crisis, discontent with the governance of higher education institutions was widespread among faculty in the United States and throughout the world. Drawing from the 2007 Changing Academic Profession (CAP) survey of faculty in seventeen countries, the authors examine faculty perceptions of the current state…

  7. Watergate and American Government Textbooks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eksterowicz, Anthony J.; Cline, Paul C.

    1993-01-01

    Asserts that the Watergate scandal during the 1972 presidential election altered the U.S. government and the very mood of the United States. Presents a content analysis of 5 middle school, 5 secondary, and 12 college-level textbooks. Finds that the texts exhibit weak historical discussion or analysis of Watergate. (CFR)

  8. A Survey of Acute Pain Service Structure and Function in United States Hospitals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dawood Nasir

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Although the number of U.S. hospitals offering an acute pain service (APS is increasing, the typical structure remains unknown. This survey was undertaken to describe the structure and function of the APS in U.S. hospitals only. We contacted 200 non-teaching and 101 teaching U.S. hospitals. The person in charge of postoperative pain management completed and returned the survey. Seventy-four percent of responding hospitals had an organized APS. An APS was significantly more formally organized in academic/teaching hospitals when compared to non-teaching hospitals. Pain assessments included “pain at rest” (97%, “pain on activity” (63%, and reassessment after pain therapy intervention (88.8%. Responding hospitals utilized postoperative pain protocols significantly more commonly in teaching hospitals when compared to non-teaching and VA hospitals. Intravenous patient controlled analgesia (IV-PCA was managed most commonly by surgeons (75%, while epidural analgesia and peripheral nerve block infusions were exclusively managed by anesthesiologists. For improved analgesia, 62% allowed RNs to adjust the IV-PCA settings within set parameters, 43% allowed RN adjustment of epidural infusion rates, and 21% allowed RN adjustment of peripheral nerve catheter local anesthetic infusion rates.

  9. Universal failure model for multi-unit systems with shared functionality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volovoi, Vitali

    2013-01-01

    A Universal Failure Model (UFM) is proposed for complex systems that rely on a large number of entities for performing a common function. Economy of scale or other considerations may dictate the need to pool resources for common purpose, but the resulting strong coupling precludes the grouping of those components into modules. Existing system-level failure models rely on modularity for reducing modeling complexity, so the UFM will fill an important gap in constructing efficient system-level models. Conceptually, the UFM resembles cellular automata (CA) infused with realistic failure mechanisms. Components’ behavior is determined based on the balance between their strength (capacity) and their load (demand) share. If the load exceeds the components’ capacity, the component fails and its load share is distributed among its neighbors (possibly with a time delay and load losses). The strength of components can degrade with time if the load exceeds an elastic threshold. The global load (demand) carried by the system can vary over time, with the peak values providing shocks to the system (e.g., wind loads in civil structures, electricity demand, stressful activities to human bodies, or drought in an ecosystem). Unlike the models traditionally studied by CA, the focus of the presented model is on the system reliability, and specifically on the study of time-to-failure distributions, rather than steady-state patterns and average time-to-failure characteristics. In this context, the relationships between the types of failure distributions and the parameters of the failure model are discussed

  10. A physical function test for use in the intensive care unit: validity, responsiveness, and predictive utility of the physical function ICU test (scored).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denehy, Linda; de Morton, Natalie A; Skinner, Elizabeth H; Edbrooke, Lara; Haines, Kimberley; Warrillow, Stephen; Berney, Sue

    2013-12-01

    Several tests have recently been developed to measure changes in patient strength and functional outcomes in the intensive care unit (ICU). The original Physical Function ICU Test (PFIT) demonstrates reliability and sensitivity. The aims of this study were to further develop the original PFIT, to derive an interval score (the PFIT-s), and to test the clinimetric properties of the PFIT-s. A nested cohort study was conducted. One hundred forty-four and 116 participants performed the PFIT at ICU admission and discharge, respectively. Original test components were modified using principal component analysis. Rasch analysis examined the unidimensionality of the PFIT, and an interval score was derived. Correlations tested validity, and multiple regression analyses investigated predictive ability. Responsiveness was assessed using the effect size index (ESI), and the minimal clinically important difference (MCID) was calculated. The shoulder lift component was removed. Unidimensionality of combined admission and discharge PFIT-s scores was confirmed. The PFIT-s displayed moderate convergent validity with the Timed "Up & Go" Test (r=-.60), the Six-Minute Walk Test (r=.41), and the Medical Research Council (MRC) sum score (rho=.49). The ESI of the PFIT-s was 0.82, and the MCID was 1.5 points (interval scale range=0-10). A higher admission PFIT-s score was predictive of: an MRC score of ≥48, increased likelihood of discharge home, reduced likelihood of discharge to inpatient rehabilitation, and reduced acute care hospital length of stay. Scoring of sit-to-stand assistance required is subjective, and cadence cutpoints used may not be generalizable. The PFIT-s is a safe and inexpensive test of physical function with high clinical utility. It is valid, responsive to change, and predictive of key outcomes. It is recommended that the PFIT-s be adopted to test physical function in the ICU.

  11. The post-stroke depression and its impact on functioning in young and adult stroke patients of a rehabilitation unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaricai, Elena; Poenaru, Dan V

    2016-01-01

    Stroke is a leading cause of disability and a major public health problem. To determine frequency and degree of post-stroke depression (PSD) and its impact on functioning in young and adult stroke patients in a rehabilitation unit. The study included 72 stroke patients (aged 29-59 years) who were attending rehabilitation. The patients were assessed for depressive symptoms by Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), and their functioning by using the Stroke Impact Scale (SIS) and the Barthel Index of Activities of Daily Living (ADL). Forty-eight patients had different degrees of depression: borderline clinical depression (13.8%), moderate depression (34.7%), severe depression (15.2%) or extreme depression (2.9%). There were no significant differences of BDI scores in 30-39, 40-49 and 50-59 years groups. Statistically significant correlations were between BDI score and SIS score, between BDI score and ADL index, and between SIS score and ADL index in men, women and total study patients. More than half of the PSD patients had a moderate degree of depression. Significant correlations were noticed between depressive symptoms and functional status evaluated both by an instrument of assessing stroke impact upon general health and an instrument for assessing the everyday activities.

  12. Government and governance strategies in medical tourism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ormond, M.E.; Mainil, T.

    2015-01-01

    This chapter provides an overview of current government and governance strategies relative to medical tourism development and management around the world. Most studies on medical tourism have privileged national governments as key actors in medical tourism regulation and, in some cases, even

  13. Engineering governance: introducing a governance meta framework.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brand, N.; Beens, B.; Vuuregge, E.; Batenburg, R.

    2011-01-01

    There is a need for a framework that depicts strategic choices within an organisation with regard to potential governance structures. The governance meta framework provides the necessary structure in the current developments of governance. Performance as well as conformance are embedded in this

  14. Functional level at admission is a predictor of survival in older patients admitted to an acute geriatric unit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matzen, Lars E; Jepsen, Ditte B; Ryg, Jesper

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Functional decline is associated with increased risk of mortality in geriatric patients.Assessment of activities of daily living (ADL) with the Barthel Index (BI) at admission wasstudied as a predictor of survival in older patients admitted to an acute geriatric unit. METHODS......: All first admissions of patients with age >65 years between January 1st 2005 and December31st 2009 were included. Data on BI, sex, age, and discharge diagnoses were retrieved fromthe hospital patient administrative system, and data on survival until September 6th 2010 wereretrieved from the Civil...... Personal Registry. Co-morbidity was measured with Charlson ComorbidityIndex (CCI). Patients were followed until death or end of study. RESULTS: 5,087 patients were included, 1,852 (36.4%) men and 3,235 (63.6%) women with mean age(SD) 82.0 (6.8) and 84.0 (7.0) years respectively. The median [IQR] length...

  15. The contribution of maternal psychological functioning to infant length of stay in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cherry AS

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Amanda S Cherry,1 Melissa R Mignogna,1 Angela Roddenberry Vaz,1 Carla Hetherington,2 Mary Anne McCaffree,2 Michael P Anderson,3 Stephen R Gillaspy1 1Section of General and Community Pediatrics, Department of Pediatrics, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, OK, 2Neonatal Perinatal Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, University of Oklahoma, College of Medicine, Oklahoma City, OK, 3Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, College of Public Health, Oklahoma City, OK, USA Objective: Assess maternal psychological functioning within the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU and its contribution to neonate length of stay (LOS in the NICU.Study design: Mothers of infants admitted to the NICU (n=111 were assessed regarding postpartum depression, postpartum social support, postpartum NICU stress, and maternal anxiety at 2 weeks postpartum. Illness severity was assessed with the Clinical Risk Index for Babies (CRIB.Results: Postpartum depression was not significantly correlated with LOS, but was significantly correlated with trait anxiety (r=0.620, which was significantly correlated with LOS (r=0.227. Among mothers with previous mental health history, substance abuse history and CRIB score were the best predictors of LOS. For mothers without a prior mental health issues, delivery type, stress associated with infant appearance, and CRIB scores were the best predictors of LOS. In this group, LOS was found to increase on average by 7.06 days per one unit increase in stress associated with infant appearance among mothers with the same delivery type and CRIB score.Conclusion: Significant correlations of trait anxiety, stress associated with infant appearance, and parental role with LOS support the tenet that postpartum psychological functioning can be associated with NICU LOS. Keywords: NICU, postpartum depression, postpartum anxiety, parental stress, CRIB

  16. Federalism and multilevel governance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Wusten, H.; Agnew, J.; Mamadouh, V.; Secor, A.J.; Sharp, J.

    2015-01-01

    Federalism and multilevel governance both emphasize polycentricity in governing arrangements. With their different intellectual pedigrees, these concepts are discussed in two separate sections. Fragments are now increasingly mixed up in hybrid forms of governance that also encompass originally

  17. Developing digital forensic governance

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Grobler, M

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a Digital Forensic (DF) governance framework and its mapping on the SANS ISO/IEC 38500:2009 Corporate governance of information technology structure. DF governance assists organisations in guiding the management team...

  18. Voluntary Environmental Governance Arrangements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Heijden, J.

    2012-01-01

    Voluntary environmental governance arrangements have focal attention in studies on environmental policy, regulation and governance. The four major debates in the contemporary literature on voluntary environmental governance arrangements are studied. The literature falls short of sufficiently

  19. Library Research and Statistics. Research on Libraries and Librarianship in 2002; Number of Libraries in the United States and Canada; Highlights of NCES Surveys; Library Acquisition Expenditures, 2001-2002: U.S. Public, Academic, Special, and Government Libraries; LJ Budget Report: A Precarious Holding Pattern; Price Indexes for Public and Academic Libraries; Library Buildings 2002: The Building Buck Doesn't Stop Here.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Mary Jo; Oder, Norman; Halstead, Kent; Fox, Bette-Lee

    2003-01-01

    Includes seven reports that discuss research on libraries and librarianship, including academic, public, and school libraries; awards and grants; number of libraries in the United States and Canada; National Center for Education Statistics results; library expenditures for public, academic, special, and government libraries; library budgets; price…

  20. E-Government Dimension

    OpenAIRE

    Rosiyadi, Didi; Suryana, Nana; Cahyana, Ade; Nuryani, Nuryani

    2007-01-01

    Makalah ini mengemukakan E-Government Dimension yang merupakan salah satu hasil TahapanPengumpulan Data, dimana tahapan ini adalah bagian dari penelitian kompetitif di Lembaga Ilmu PengetahuanIndonesia 2007 yang sekarang sedang dilakukan. Data E-Government Dimension ini didapatkan dari berbagaisumber yang meliputi E-Government beberapa Negara di dunia, E-Government yang dibangun oleh beberapapenyedia aplikasi E-Government. E-Government Dimension terdiri dari tiga dimensi yaitu DemocraticDimen...

  1. Governing development of regions- case of Slovakia

    OpenAIRE

    Rudolf Bauer; Jana Knezova; Andrej Steiner

    2014-01-01

    Dynamism of development and competiveness of regions, as spatially and administratively defined units, depend not only on their natural, economic, social, and territorial potential but also on quality of regional development governance. At the time of creation of the regional level of territorial management in Slovakia there was expected that by introducing this new governance level the regional governments would become strong players in the field of regional development policy and provide su...

  2. Governance and Justice | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This program fosters better governance and justice systems so people can lead ... A man peers through a hole in a wall that separates Tijuana, Mexico, from the United States. ... Denial of health care or an education is unthinkable for most.

  3. Measuring Innovation in Government: An International Review and Case Study of the UAE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahroum, S.; AlSaleh, Y.; Al-Hashmi, S.

    2016-07-01

    Innovation is key to achieving multiple government functions and objectives, from ensuring the welfare and quality of life of citizens to advancing the economy as a whole. In the United Arab Emirates (UAE), innovation has become a strategic priority for the UAE Government, attracting substantial government investment in numerous public sector innovation initiatives. In order to monitor progress towards achieving its many innovation-driven aspirations, the UAE Government has pioneered the adoption of key performance benchmarks for monitoring innovation capability and performance. This paper examines UAE’s experience in this regard as an emerging economy and draws comparisons with the experiences of other countries that have attempted at developing frameworks and indicators for innovation management in government. (Author)

  4. Parallel Implementation of the Discrete Green's Function Formulation of the FDTD Method on a Multicore Central Processing Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Stefański

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Parallel implementation of the discrete Green's function formulation of the finite-difference time-domain (DGF-FDTD method was developed on a multicore central processing unit. DGF-FDTD avoids computations of the electromagnetic field in free-space cells and does not require domain termination by absorbing boundary conditions. Computed DGF-FDTD solutions are compatible with the FDTD grid enabling the perfect hybridization of FDTD with the use of time-domain integral equation methods. The developed implementation can be applied to simulations of antenna characteristics. For the sake of example, arrays of Yagi-Uda antennas were simulated with the use of parallel DGF-FDTD. The efficiency of parallel computations was investigated as a function of the number of current elements in the FDTD grid. Although the developed method does not apply the fast Fourier transform for convolution computations, advantages stemming from the application of DGF-FDTD instead of FDTD can be demonstrated for one-dimensional wire antennas when simulation results are post-processed by the near-to-far-field transformation.

  5. Cholesterol as a modifying agent of the neurovascular unit structure and function under physiological and pathological conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czuba, Ewelina; Steliga, Aleksandra; Lietzau, Grażyna; Kowiański, Przemysław

    2017-08-01

    The brain, demanding constant level of cholesterol, precisely controls its synthesis and homeostasis. The brain cholesterol pool is almost completely separated from the rest of the body by the functional blood-brain barrier (BBB). Only a part of cholesterol pool can be exchanged with the blood circulation in the form of the oxysterol metabolites such, as 27-hydroxycholesterol (27-OHC) and 24S-hydroxycholesterol (24S-OHC). Not only neurons but also blood vessels and neuroglia, constituting neurovascular unit (NVU), are crucial for the brain cholesterol metabolism and undergo precise regulation by numerous modulators, metabolites and signal molecules. In physiological conditions maintaining the optimal cholesterol concentration is important for the energetic metabolism, composition of cell membranes and myelination. However, a growing body of evidence indicates the consequences of the cholesterol homeostasis dysregulation in several pathophysiological processes. There is a causal relationship between hypercholesterolemia and 1) development of type 2 diabetes due to long-term high-fat diet consumption, 2) significance of the oxidative stress consequences for cerebral amyloid angiopathy and neurodegenerative diseases, 3) insulin resistance on progression of the neurodegenerative brain diseases. In this review, we summarize the current state of knowledge concerning the cholesterol influence upon functioning of the NVU under physiological and pathological conditions.

  6. Akt2 and nucleophosmin/B23 function as an oncogenic unit in human lung cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Chung Kwon; Nguyen, Truong L.X.; Lee, Sang Bae; Park, Sang Bum; Lee, Kyung-Hoon; Cho, Sung-Woo; Ahn, Jee-Yin

    2011-01-01

    The signaling network of protein kinase B(PKB)/Akt has been implicated in survival of lung cancer cells. However, understanding the relative contribution of the different isoform of Akt network is nontrival. Here, we report that Akt2 is highly expressed in human lung adenocarcinoma cell line A549 cells. Suppression of Akt2 expression in A549 cells results in notable inhibition of cell poliferation, soft agar growth, and invasion, accompanying by a decrease of nucleophosmin/B23 protein. Overexpression of Akt1 restores cancerous growth of A549 cells in B23-knockdown (KD) cells while Akt2 overexpression did not restore proliferating potential in cells with downregulated B23, thus suggesting Akt2 requires B23 to drive proliferation of lung cancer cell. Loss of functional Akt2 and B23 has similar defects on cell proliferation, apoptotic resistance and cell cycle regulation, while loss of Akt1 has less defects on cell proliferation, survial and cell cycle progression in A549 cells. Moreover, overexpression of B23 rescues the proliferative block induced as a consequence of loss of Akt2. Thus our data suggest that Akt2/B23 functions as an oncogenic unit to drive tumorigenesis of A549 lung cancer cells.

  7. Searching LOGIN, the Local Government Information Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jack, Robert F.

    1984-01-01

    Describes a computer-based information retrieval and electronic messaging system produced by Control Data Corporation now being used by government agencies and other organizations. Background of Local Government Information Network (LOGIN), database structure, types of LOGIN units, searching LOGIN (intersect, display, and list commands), and how…

  8. 12 CFR 404.22 - Government contracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Government contracts. 404.22 Section 404.22 Banks and Banking EXPORT-IMPORT BANK OF THE UNITED STATES INFORMATION DISCLOSURE Access to Records Under the Privacy Act of 1974 § 404.22 Government contracts. (a) Approval by Assistant General Counsel for...

  9. PRACTICE OF GOOD GOVERNANCE AND CORPORATE GOVERNANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bălăceanu Cristina

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Corporate governance reforms are occurring in countries around the globe and potentially impacting the population of the entire planet. In developing countries, such reforms occur in a larger context that is primarily defined by previous attempts at promoting “development” and recent processes of economic globalization. In this context, corporate governance reforms (in combination with the liberalising reforms associated with economic globalization, in effect represent a new development strategy for third world countries. The most basic questions that arise with respect to this situation are what the prospects for this new development model are and whether alternatives should be considered. Keywords: governance, corporate governance, economic globalization, development.

  10. Organizational Enablers for Project Governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, Ralf; Shao, Jingting; Pemsel, Sofia

    and their relationships to organizational success. Based on these results, the authors discovered that organizational enablers (including key factors such as leadership, governance, and influence of project managers) have a critical impact on how organizations operate, adapt to market fluctuations and forces, and make......While corporate culture plays a significant role in the success of any corporation, governance and “governmentality” not only determine how business should be conducted, but also define the policies and procedures organizations follow to achieve business functions and goals. In their book......, Organizational Enablers for Project Governance, Ralf Müller, Jingting Shao, and Sofia Pemsel examine the interaction of governance and governmentality in various types of companies and demonstrate how these factors drive business success and influence project work, efficiency, and profitability. The data...

  11. An exploration of the role of records management in corporate governance in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mpho Ngoepe

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Corporate governance maybe approached through several functions such as auditing, an internal audit committee, information management, compliance, corporate citizenship and risk management. However, most organisations, including governmental bodies, regularly exclude records management from the criteria for a good corporate-governance infrastructure. Proper records management could be the backbone of establishing good corporate governance.Objectives: Utilising the King report III on corporate governance as a framework, this quantitative study explores the role of records management in corporate governance in governmental bodies of South Africa.Method: Report data were collected through questionnaires directed to records managers and auditors in governmental bodies, as well as interviews with purposively selected auditors from the Auditor-General of South Africa. Data were analysed using various analytical tools and through written descriptions, numerical summarisations and tables.Results: The study revealed that records management is not regarded as an essential component for corporate governance. Records management is only discussed as a footnote; as a result it is a forgotten function with no consequences in government administration in South Africa. The study further revealed that most governmental bodies have established internal audit units and audit committees. However, records-management professionals were excluded from such committees.Conclusion: The study concludes by arguing that if records management is removed as a footnote of the public-sector operations and placed in the centre of operational concern, it will undoubtedly make a meaningful contribution to good corporate governance.

  12. Government debt in Greece: An empirical analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisele Mah

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Greek government debt has been increasing above the percentage stated in the growth and stability path from 112.9% in 2008 to 175.6% in 2013. This paper investigates the determinants of the general government debt in Greek by means of Vector Error Correction Model framework, Variance Decomposition and Generalized Impulse Response Function Analysis. The analysis showed a significant negative relationship between general government debt and government deficit, general government debt and inflation. Shocks to general government and inflation will cause general government debt to increase. Government deficit should be increased since there is gross capital formation included in its calculation which could be invested in income generating projects. The current account balance should be reduced by improving the net trade balance.

  13. Data governance implementation concept

    OpenAIRE

    Ullrichová, Jana

    2016-01-01

    This master´s thesis discusses concept of implementation for data governance. The theoretical part of this thesis is about data governance. It explains why data are important for company, describes definitoons of data governance, its history, its components, its principles and processes and fitting in company. Theoretical part is amended with examples of data governance failures and banking specifics. The main goal of this thesis is to create a concept for implementing data governance and its...

  14. Updated greenhouse gas and criteria air pollutant emission factors and their probability distribution functions for electricity generating units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai, H.; Wang, M.; Elgowainy, A.; Han, J.

    2012-01-01

    Greenhouse gas (CO 2 , CH 4 and N 2 O, hereinafter GHG) and criteria air pollutant (CO, NO x , VOC, PM 10 , PM 2.5 and SO x , hereinafter CAP) emission factors for various types of power plants burning various fuels with different technologies are important upstream parameters for estimating life-cycle emissions associated with alternative vehicle/fuel systems in the transportation sector, especially electric vehicles. The emission factors are typically expressed in grams of GHG or CAP per kWh of electricity generated by a specific power generation technology. This document describes our approach for updating and expanding GHG and CAP emission factors in the GREET (Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in Transportation) model developed at Argonne National Laboratory (see Wang 1999 and the GREET website at http://greet.es.anl.gov/main) for various power generation technologies. These GHG and CAP emissions are used to estimate the impact of electricity use by stationary and transportation applications on their fuel-cycle emissions. The electricity generation mixes and the fuel shares attributable to various combustion technologies at the national, regional and state levels are also updated in this document. The energy conversion efficiencies of electric generating units (EGUs) by fuel type and combustion technology are calculated on the basis of the lower heating values of each fuel, to be consistent with the basis used in GREET for transportation fuels. On the basis of the updated GHG and CAP emission factors and energy efficiencies of EGUs, the probability distribution functions (PDFs), which are functions that describe the relative likelihood for the emission factors and energy efficiencies as random variables to take on a given value by the integral of their own probability distributions, are updated using best-fit statistical curves to characterize the uncertainties associated with GHG and CAP emissions in life-cycle modeling with GREET.

  15. Updated greenhouse gas and criteria air pollutant emission factors and their probability distribution functions for electricity generating units

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cai, H.; Wang, M.; Elgowainy, A.; Han, J. (Energy Systems)

    2012-07-06

    Greenhouse gas (CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O, hereinafter GHG) and criteria air pollutant (CO, NO{sub x}, VOC, PM{sub 10}, PM{sub 2.5} and SO{sub x}, hereinafter CAP) emission factors for various types of power plants burning various fuels with different technologies are important upstream parameters for estimating life-cycle emissions associated with alternative vehicle/fuel systems in the transportation sector, especially electric vehicles. The emission factors are typically expressed in grams of GHG or CAP per kWh of electricity generated by a specific power generation technology. This document describes our approach for updating and expanding GHG and CAP emission factors in the GREET (Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in Transportation) model developed at Argonne National Laboratory (see Wang 1999 and the GREET website at http://greet.es.anl.gov/main) for various power generation technologies. These GHG and CAP emissions are used to estimate the impact of electricity use by stationary and transportation applications on their fuel-cycle emissions. The electricity generation mixes and the fuel shares attributable to various combustion technologies at the national, regional and state levels are also updated in this document. The energy conversion efficiencies of electric generating units (EGUs) by fuel type and combustion technology are calculated on the basis of the lower heating values of each fuel, to be consistent with the basis used in GREET for transportation fuels. On the basis of the updated GHG and CAP emission factors and energy efficiencies of EGUs, the probability distribution functions (PDFs), which are functions that describe the relative likelihood for the emission factors and energy efficiencies as random variables to take on a given value by the integral of their own probability distributions, are updated using best-fit statistical curves to characterize the uncertainties associated with GHG and CAP emissions in life

  16. Transitions governance: Towards a new governance paradigm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N. Frantzeskaki (Niki); D.A. Loorbach (Derk)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractThis paper presents a framework for governance in the context of large scale and long term societal change (transitions). We argue that existing theories of governance offer interesting descriptive insights for such a framework, but do not present innovative prescriptive ideas

  17. Leisure, Government and Governance: A Swedish Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindstrom, Lisbeth

    2011-01-01

    The leisure sector has witnessed a tremendous expansion since 1960. The purpose of this article is to analyse the decisions and goals of Swedish government policy during the period 1962 to 2005. The empirical analysis covers government Propositions and governmental investigations. The fields covered are sports, culture, exercise, tourism and…

  18. Japan's nuclear PA activity in local governments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujii, Nobuyuki

    1995-01-01

    This presentation emphasises some points of PA activities, based on the experience of 'cooperation projects for local governments'. Local governments distribute the public information directly to the residents. This is very important because officers of the local government can be the opinion leaders of the region. Local government exist very close to the residents, while the central government is a distant and faceless existence for the local people. It is believed that the local governments play an imperative role in PA activities. In other words, we must further utilize the organizations and functions of the local governments to implement PA activities. In conclusion, three recommendations are offered. Firstly, enough budget and authority should be given to the local governments as far as PA activities in their areas are concerned, and most of such activities should be entrusted to the local governments. Local governments should place more public relations officers, and continue the manpower development. Second, with regard to highly technical or specialized issues which a local governments cannot treat alone, related organizations like JAERO should support their PA activities. Third, such related organizations should also cooperate with local government including assistance in providing know-how, when their public information activities focus on educators, journalists, or the women. These three points should be given due consideration in our cooperation projects for the local governments, and JAERO is doing its best every day

  19. Local government and utility firms’ debts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marko Primorac

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The global financial crisis has affected the Croatian local public sector. In such circumstances, local government units’ debts and borrowing should be approached with caution. The highly interwoven financial operations of local government units and their utilities indicate the need for analysis of consolidated financial statements of local governments and utility companies in order to gain an insight into the real financial “health” of local units. Accordingly, the main aim of this paper is to analyze the size and the structure of the consolidated (local government and utility companies local public debt in Croatia. Accordingly, the paper presents the financial position of local government units supplemented with information on the financial operations of utility companies, with particular emphasis on the size and structure of their liabilities and gross and net debt. Although the current Budget Law does not require formal preparation of consolidated financial statements by local governments and their utility firms, consolidation is stipulated by International Public Sector Accounting Standards (IPSAS. The application of IPSAS regulations would be helpful in determining overall direct and indirect exposure of local government units arising from the financial operations of their utilities.

  20. Governance in the marine environment

    OpenAIRE

    Appleby, T.

    2015-01-01

    The governance of the UK Overseas Territories and Crown Dependencies is complex, endlessly fascinating and often politically charged. There is no area where this complexity is more demonstrable than in the marine environment, where the issues of extended maritime boundaries granted under the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, fishing and prospecting rights, marine conservation and competing sovereignty mean that the practical application of the law in this area is particularly d...

  1. Assistive technology needs, functional difficulties, and services utilization and coordination of children with developmental disabilities in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Sue C; Gold, Robert S

    2018-01-01

    Assistive technology (AT) enhances the ability of individuals with disabilities to be fully engaged in activities at home, at school, and within their communities-especially for children with developmental disabilities (DD) with physical, sensory, learning, and/or communication impairments. The prevalence of children with DD in the United States has risen from 12.84% in 1997 to 15.04% in 2008. Thus, it is important to monitor the status of their AT needs, functional difficulties, services utilization, and coordination. Using data from the 2009-2010 National Survey on Children with Special Health Care Needs (NS-CSHCN), we conducted bivariate and multivariate statistical analysis, which found that 90% or more of parents of both children with DD and other CSHCN reported that their child's AT needs were met for vision, hearing, mobility, communication, and durable medical equipment; furthermore, children with DD had lower odds of AT needs met for vision and hearing and increased odds for meeting AT needs in mobility and communication. Our findings outline the current AT needs of children with DD nationally. Fulfilling these needs has the potential to engender positive lifelong effects on the child's disabilities, sense of independence, self-confidence, and productivity.

  2. IT governance definitions and frameworks: a literature review

    OpenAIRE

    L. Caporarello

    2006-01-01

    Organizations seek to mirror their corporate governance arrangements in the activities of their key subunits – as IT function – in order to lower their organizational coordination costs. Some researches evidence that the mode of corporate governance significantly influences the mode of IT governance: organizations that have centralized their corporate governance also tend to centralize their IT governance, whereas organizations that have decentralized their corporate governance tend to dec...

  3. Obfuscation Framework Based on Functionally Equivalent Combinatorial Logic Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-03-01

    of Defense, or the United States Government . AFIT/GCS/ENG/08-12 Obfuscation Framework Based on Functionally Equivalent Combinatorial Logic Families...time, United States policy strongly encourages the sale and transfer of some military equipment to foreign governments and makes it easier for...Proceedings of the International Conference on Availability, Reliability and Security, 2007. 14. McDonald, J. Todd and Alec Yasinsac. “Of unicorns and random

  4. Allowable CO2 concentrations under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change as a function of the climate sensitivity probability distribution function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harvey, L D Danny

    2007-01-01

    Article 2 of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) calls for stabilization of greenhouse gas (GHG) concentrations at levels that prevent dangerous anthropogenic interference (DAI) in the climate system. Until recently, the consensus viewpoint was that the climate sensitivity (the global mean equilibrium warming for a doubling of atmospheric CO 2 concentration) was 'likely' to fall between 1.5 and 4.5 K. However, a number of recent studies have generated probability distribution functions (pdfs) for climate sensitivity with the 95th percentile of the expected climate sensitivity as large as 10 K, while some studies suggest that the climate sensitivity is likely to fall in the lower half of the long-standing 1.5-4.5 K range. This paper examines the allowable CO 2 concentration as a function of the 95th percentile of the climate sensitivity pdf (ranging from 2 to 8 K) and for the following additional assumptions: (i) the 50th percentile for the pdf of the minimum sustained global mean warming that causes unacceptable harm equal to 1.5 or 2.5 K; and (ii) 1%, 5% or 10% allowable risks of unacceptable harm. For a 1% risk tolerance and the more stringent harm-threshold pdf, the allowable CO 2 concentration ranges from 323 to 268 ppmv as the 95th percentile of the climate sensitivity pdf increases from 2 to 8 K, while for a 10% risk tolerance and the less stringent harm-threshold pdf, the allowable CO 2 concentration ranges from 531 to 305 ppmv. In both cases it is assumed that non-CO 2 GHG radiative forcing can be reduced to half of its present value, otherwise; the allowable CO 2 concentration is even smaller. Accounting for the fact that the CO 2 concentration will gradually fall if emissions are reduced to zero, and that peak realized warming will then be less than the peak equilibrium warming (related to peak radiative forcing) allows the CO 2 concentration to peak at 10-40 ppmv higher than the limiting values given above for a climate

  5. Data governance tools evaluation criteria, big data governance, and alignment with enterprise data management

    CERN Document Server

    Soares, Sunil

    2015-01-01

    Data governance programs often start off using programs such as Microsoft Excel and Microsoft SharePoint to document and share data governance artifacts. But these tools often lack critical functionality. Meanwhile, vendors have matured their data governance offerings to the extent that today's organizations need to consider tools as a critical component of their data governance programs. In this book, data governance expert Sunil Soares reviews the Enterprise Data Management (EDM) reference architecture and discusses key data governance tasks that can be automated by tools for business glossa

  6. RESTRUCTURING MEASURES, UPGRADING AND RETHINKING OF THE ROLE AND FUNCTIONING OF THE GOVERNMENT UNDER THE REQUIRED INFORMATION SOCIETY. CASE STUDY: GORJ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constanţa Enea

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The spirit of the Lisbon strategy (2000 defines a new opportunity to increase competitiveness at all levels, which is supported by the implementation of scientific knowledge, infrastructure and its implementation mechanisms to serve the new economy based on a new revolution, a life-oriented good for present and next, taking control of major risks that affect global action under uncertainty. With the relaunch of the Lisbon Strategy (2005, the policy has been recognized as a primary tool at the community level, helping to implement the idea of growth and jobs - not only because a third of the Community budget, but also that the strategies drawn up at the local and regional levels should form an integral part of efforts to promote sustainable development at local level. Programming period 2007-2013 suggests that one of the areas of intervention of the Structural Funds, namely the European Social Fund reform and upgrading administrative capacity in the context of achieving good governance, especially in those areas that generate progress, as well as economic, employment, education, social and environmental. Romania is the most important development opportunities, nearly four years after accession to the European Union and integration in an increasingly globalized economy. Romania's future is that of a dynamic, competitive and innovative, working in the economic, social and political European Union and the global economy. In this context, we can say that “we need to rebuild post-integration is first and foremost a spiritual and institutional process that must include all public and private interests carriers” (revised Lisbon Strategy, 2005, p.4. Therefore, the Romanian National Reform Programme for 2007- 2010, elaborated in the context of the European Strategy for Growth and Employment Strategy (revised Lisbon Strategy, 2005, p.4 states that “to achieve economic and employment performance, coupled with a social system is the essence of policies

  7. European Level Test of Romanian Enterprise Governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niculae Feleaga

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available The corporate governance is a central and dynamic aspect of the businesses. The term governance comes from the latin “gubernare”, meaning to guide and supposes that the corporate governance imply equally both the leadership function and that of control. As is known there are more ways of defining the enterprise governance starting from the simple stones, which focus on the enterprise and its shareholders, to the most complex ones incorporating individual or departamental responsability to implement a given function of the companies and which implies many other groups of persons. Responsability is the consequence of the law and reglementation application or contract agreements.

  8. European Level Test of Romanian Enterprise Governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niculae Feleaga

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available The corporate governance is a central and dynamic aspect of the businesses. The term governance comes from the latin “gubernare”, meaning to guide and supposes that the corporate governance imply equally both the leadership function and that of control. As is known there are more ways of defining the enterprise governance starting from the simple stones, which focus on the enterprise and its shareholders, to the most complex ones incorporating individual or departamental responsability to implement a given function of the companies and which implies many other groups of persons. Responsability is the consequence of the law and reglementation application or contract agreements.

  9. Why Governments Intervene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Jette Steen; Brown, Dana

    2015-01-01

    Why are national governments increasingly adopting policies on corporate social responsibility (CSR)? Government CSR policies have been explained either as a means of substituting or supporting (mirroring) domestic political-economic institutions and policies, or as a means for government...... to promote international competitiveness of domestic businesses. Both sets of explanations see governments as driving CSR policies to meet particular national government goals. Support is found for the thesis that CSR policies are often related to international competitiveness, yet our findings suggest...... that government goals in this regard are not necessarily pre-defined....

  10. Nurses' and nurse assistants' beliefs, attitudes and actions related to role and function in an inpatient stroke rehabilitation unit-A qualitative study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loft, Mia I; Poulsen, Ingrid; Esbensen, Bente A

    2017-01-01

    AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To explore nurses' and nurse assistants' beliefs, attitudes and actions related to their function in an inpatient stroke rehabilitation unit. BACKGROUND: Several attempts have been made to describe nurses' roles and functions in inpatient neurorehabilitation. However, current...... understandings of the contributions that nurses and nurse assistants make to neurorehabilitation remain sparse. DESIGN: Descriptive, interpretive qualitative study. METHODS: Participant observations were conducted during 1 month in a stroke rehabilitation unit at a university hospital in the Capital Region...... stroke rehabilitation. We obtained insights into nursing staff's beliefs and attitudes about rehabilitation-as well as their own role and function-and furthermore how the latter affects their actions in daily practice. RELEVANCE TO CLINICAL PRACTICE: The nursing role and function are still not clearly...

  11. Are gains in decision-making autonomy during early adolescence beneficial for emotional functioning? The case of the United States and china.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Lili; Pomerantz, Eva M; Wang, Qian

    2009-01-01

    This research examined the role of children's decision-making autonomy in their emotional functioning during early adolescence in the United States and China. Four times over the 7th and 8th grades, 825 American and Chinese children (M = 12.73 years) reported on the extent to which they versus their parents make decisions about issues children often deem as under their authority. Children also reported on their emotional functioning. American children made greater gains over time in decision-making autonomy than did Chinese children. Initial decision-making autonomy predicted enhanced emotional functioning similarly among American and Chinese children. However, gains over time in decision-making autonomy predicted enhanced emotional functioning more in the United States (vs. China) where such gains were normative.

  12. Factors Affecting the Productivity of Government Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerry P. Haenisch

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available While there have been a variety of studies concerning government worker motivation and productivity, few, if any, studies have focused specifically on state government workers’ perceptions about what factors affect their productivity. With more than 5 million workers employed by state governments in the United States, any improvement in state workplace productivity could have significant financial and service impact for society. In this study, state government workers identified those factors perceived as most affecting their workplace productivity. Data were collected through a survey offered to state government workers in the state of Wyoming. Factor analysis was used to derive key productivity factors from survey responses. The results indicate that state government workers appreciate having freedom and autonomy, like their jobs and the sense of achievement, and welcome teamwork, but feel limited by poor supervision and management, poor communications, and insufficient budgets and staffing. To improve productivity, the workers would eliminate bureaucracy, supervise better, and improve communication.

  13. To The Question Of Concept And Signs Of The Local Government

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levan T. Chikhladze

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present article author examines concept and features of the local government, provided in three legal acts, which are significant for the development of local government in the Russian legal acts. The important factor, uniting these acts is that they all are contributed to the functioning of the local government on the principles of decentralization. A special role in the formation of a decentralized local government in Russia is played by the Russian Constitution, adopted by population vote on the December 12, 1993. Particular importance plays the provisions of Article 3 and 12 of the Constitution of the Russian Federation from 1993. Provisions of the Law "On the General Principles of Local Self-Government in the Russian Federation" dated October 6, 2003 No. 131-FZ in the definition of local self-government, based on the principles of constitutional democracy. Provisions, defining the local government in the European Charter of Local Self-Government of the October 15, 1985 focus on the implementation of the relevant local government public authorities. The Charter makes an emphasis on the organs (representative government, not on the institutions (mechanisms of direct democracy. In conclusion, author underlines, that it is crucial to recognize that the municipal activities is based on the combination of local and state interests, cooperation of local governments and public authorities. Municipal authorities, by definition, cannot act outside of the general public policy management. They are endowed with the certain state powers, have a complex powers of state-imperious nature. So, the Charter make an emphasis on this fact, that local governments regulate substantial share of public affairs.

  14. Forms of global governence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxim V. Kharkevich

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Global governance as a concept defines the meaning of contemporary world politics both as a discipline and as reality. Interdependent and globalized world requires governance, and a global government has not been formed yet. The theoretical possibility of global governance without global government is proved and justified. The purpose of this article is to analytically identify possible forms of global governance. Three such forms of global governance are identified: hierarchical, market and network. In a hierarchy the governance is due to the asymmetry of power between the parties. Market control happens via anonymous pricing mechanism. Network, in contrast to the market is characterized by a closer value link between the actors, but unlike the hierarchical relationship actors are free to leave the network. Global governance takes three forms and is being implemented by different actors. To determine the most efficient form of global governance is impossible. Efficiency depends on the match between a form and an object of government. It should be noted that meta governance is likely to remain a monopoly of institutionally strong states in global governance.

  15. Irregular Techniques for Controlling Under-Governed Space

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Coburn, Matthew D

    2007-01-01

    The United States government has identified undergoverned areas in weakened or failed states as one of the threats faced by the United States and its allies because these spaces can provide safe havens for terrorists...

  16. Allergic TH2 Response Governed by B-Cell Lymphoma 6 Function in Naturally Occurring Memory Phenotype CD4+ T Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogasawara, Takashi; Kohashi, Yuko; Ikari, Jun; Taniguchi, Toshibumi; Tsuruoka, Nobuhide; Watanabe-Takano, Haruko; Fujimura, Lisa; Sakamoto, Akemi; Hatano, Masahiko; Hirata, Hirokuni; Fukushima, Yasutsugu; Fukuda, Takeshi; Kurasawa, Kazuhiro; Tatsumi, Koichiro; Tokuhisa, Takeshi; Arima, Masafumi

    2018-01-01

    Transcriptional repressor B-cell lymphoma 6 (Bcl6) appears to regulate T H 2 immune responses in allergies, but its precise role is unclear. We previously reported that Bcl6 suppressed IL-4 production in naïve CD4 + T cell-derived memory T H 2 cells. To investigate Bcl6 function in allergic responses in naturally occurring memory phenotype CD4 + T (MPT) cells and their derived T H 2 (MPT H 2) cells, Bcl6 -manipulated mice , highly conserved intron enhancer (hcIE)-deficient mice , and reporter mice for conserved noncoding sequence 2 (CNS2) 3' distal enhancer region were used to elucidate Bcl6 function in MPT cells. The molecular mechanisms of Bcl6-mediated T H 2 cytokine gene regulation were elucidated using cellular and molecular approaches. Bcl6 function in MPT cells was determined using adoptive transfer to naïve mice, which were assessed for allergic airway inflammation. Bcl6 suppressed IL-4 production in MPT and MPT H 2 cells by suppressing CNS2 enhancer activity. Bcl6 downregulated Il4 expression in MPT H 2 cells, but not MPT cells, by suppressing hcIE activity. The inhibitory functions of Bcl6 in MPT and MPT H 2 cells attenuated allergic responses. Bcl6 is a critical regulator of IL-4 production by MPT and MPT H 2 cells in T H 2 immune responses related to the pathogenesis of allergies.

  17. Allergic TH2 Response Governed by B-Cell Lymphoma 6 Function in Naturally Occurring Memory Phenotype CD4+ T Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogasawara, Takashi; Kohashi, Yuko; Ikari, Jun; Taniguchi, Toshibumi; Tsuruoka, Nobuhide; Watanabe-Takano, Haruko; Fujimura, Lisa; Sakamoto, Akemi; Hatano, Masahiko; Hirata, Hirokuni; Fukushima, Yasutsugu; Fukuda, Takeshi; Kurasawa, Kazuhiro; Tatsumi, Koichiro; Tokuhisa, Takeshi; Arima, Masafumi

    2018-01-01

    Transcriptional repressor B-cell lymphoma 6 (Bcl6) appears to regulate TH2 immune responses in allergies, but its precise role is unclear. We previously reported that Bcl6 suppressed IL-4 production in naïve CD4+ T cell-derived memory TH2 cells. To investigate Bcl6 function in allergic responses in naturally occurring memory phenotype CD4+ T (MPT) cells and their derived TH2 (MPTH2) cells, Bcl6-manipulated mice, highly conserved intron enhancer (hcIE)-deficient mice, and reporter mice for conserved noncoding sequence 2 (CNS2) 3′ distal enhancer region were used to elucidate Bcl6 function in MPT cells. The molecular mechanisms of Bcl6-mediated TH2 cytokine gene regulation were elucidated using cellular and molecular approaches. Bcl6 function in MPT cells was determined using adoptive transfer to naïve mice, which were assessed for allergic airway inflammation. Bcl6 suppressed IL-4 production in MPT and MPTH2 cells by suppressing CNS2 enhancer activity. Bcl6 downregulated Il4 expression in MPTH2 cells, but not MPT cells, by suppressing hcIE activity. The inhibitory functions of Bcl6 in MPT and MPTH2 cells attenuated allergic responses. Bcl6 is a critical regulator of IL-4 production by MPT and MPTH2 cells in TH2 immune responses related to the pathogenesis of allergies. PMID:29696026

  18. 社会主义新农村建设与乡镇政府职能转变%New Socialist Countryside and Townships in the Transformation of Government Functions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    连儒来

    2011-01-01

    Fifth plenary session of the proposed the construction socialism new countryside important strategic decision. The township government as the most grassroots power organizations and its role play and socialistic new countryside construction to achieve the goal of joys and sorrows is relevant, relates directly to the rural stability and development. As the reform of rural taxes, rural China has entered the era of tax, the traditional villages and towns after the function of the government has not adapt to the needs of the development of the situation. 2008 former township organization reform and not radically solve this problem, we must conform to the new rural construction of the new situation and new tasks reorientation its functions, change the government function, form honesty and high efficiency, transparency, behavior standards, the agency streamlined a service -oriented township governments.%党的十六届五中全会提出了建设社会主义新农村的重大战略决策。乡镇政府作为最基层政权组织,其职能作用的发挥与社会主义新农村建设目标的实现休戚相关,直接关系到农村的稳定和发展。随着农村税费改革,中国农村已进入后农业税时代,传统乡镇政府的职能已经不适应形势发展的需要。2008年以前的乡镇机构改革并没有从根本上解决这个问题,我们必须顺应新农村建设的新形势、新任务,对其职能进行重新定位,转变乡镇政府职能,建立廉洁高效、公开透明、行为规范、机构精简的服务型的乡镇政府。

  19. Recent Marijuana Use and Associations With Exhaled Nitric Oxide and Pulmonary Function in Adults in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papatheodorou, Stefania I; Buettner, Hannah; Rice, Mary B; Mittleman, Murray A

    2016-06-01

    The medical and recreational use of marijuana is now legal in some parts of the United States; the health effects are unknown. We aimed to evaluate associations between recent marijuana use and exhaled nitric oxide (eNO) and pulmonary function. We performed a cross-sectional study of 10,327 US adults participating in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey in the years 2007 to 2012. We examined associations between marijuana use and eNO, FEV1, FVC, the FEV1/FVC ratio, and forced expiratory flow (midexpiratory phase) (FEF25%-75%) by weighted linear regression. In the study population, there were 4,797 never users, 4,084 past marijuana users, 555 participants who used marijuana 5 to 30 days before the examination, and 891 participants who used marijuana 0 to 4 days before the examination. Current marijuana use in the past 4 days was associated with 13% lower eNO (95% CI, -18% to 8%). FVC was higher in past users (75 mL; 95% CI, 38-112) and current users in the past 5 to 30 days (159 mL; 95% CI, 80-237) and in users within 0 to 4 days of the examination (204 mL; 95% CI, 139-270) compared with never users. All associations remained unchanged and statistically significant in sensitivity analyses excluding current and past tobacco users. Current marijuana use was associated with lower levels of eNO and higher FVC. The lower eNO in marijuana smokers suggests that short-term exposure to marijuana may, like tobacco, acutely affect the pulmonary vascular endothelium and impair airflow through the small airways. Copyright © 2016 American College of Chest Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Government and Business

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campbell, John L.

    2015-01-01

    There is a vast literature about the relationships between government and business in advanced capitalist societies.......There is a vast literature about the relationships between government and business in advanced capitalist societies....

  1. Nordic Corporate Governance Revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Steen

    2016-01-01

    This paper reviews the key elements of the Nordic governance model, which include a distinct legal system, high governance ratings and low levels of corruption. Other characteristics include concentrated ownership, foundation ownership, semi two-tier board structures, employee representation...

  2. Exploring Knowledge Governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Nicolai Juul; Mahoney, Joseph T

    Knowledge governance is characterized as a distinctive research subject, the understanding of which cuts across diverse fields in management. In particular, it represents an intersection of knowledge management, strategic management, and theories of the firm. Knowledge governance considers how de...

  3. Imaging Crustal Structure of East Central United States using receiver function and implications for the accretion of juvenile crust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, S.; Levander, A.

    2017-12-01

    Almost half of the North American continental plate is formed by the juvenile terrane accretion between 1.8-1.0 Ga, therefore, the suturing process of juvenile crust in East Central United States, not receiving as much attention probably due to low station coverage before the deployment of US transportable array, is of great importance to better understand the evolution of North American Plate. The Yavapai province is formed by the accretion of juvenile crust during 1.8-1.7 Ga. The northeastern part of Yavapai province is accreted to the Superior province along the Spirit Lake Tectonic Zone (SLTZ). During the period of 1.7-1.6 Ga, the Mazatzal Province, bounded the south of Yavapai Province, was added to Laurentia. The previous research mainly focuses on the southwestern Yavapai-Mazatzal boundary (Karlstrom et.al 2002, Magnani et.al 2004) but less in the northeastern area that we are interested in. The Granite-Rhyolite province is the product of the suturing event of juvenile arc crust reoccurring along the southeast margin of Laurentia between 1.55-1.35 Ga, which has been proved by the Nd model age (Whitmeyer et.al 2007). Here we will select the Mw>=5.5 teleseismic events with epicenter distance between 35 and 90 recorded by 300 available seismic stations in our study region. The receiver functions will be calculated by the water-level deconvolution in frequency domain (Langston 1979) and iterative deconvolution in time domain (Ligorria et.al 1999). The common conversion point (CCP) stacking method will then be applied to the receiver functions to create the 3-D image volume by imaging the conversion points in space from the time domain signals (Levander and Miller 2012). The preliminary results show that the accretion process of the tectonic provinces may have different models. The profiles of CCP image volume will inform us the seismic evidence to model the suturing process of juvenile Yavapai, Mozatzal and Granite-Rhyolite crust, hence providing great

  4. Are Gains in Decision-Making Autonomy during Early Adolescence Beneficial for Emotional Functioning? The Case of the United States and China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Lili; Pomerantz, Eva M.; Wang, Qian

    2009-01-01

    This research examined the role of children's decision-making autonomy in their emotional functioning during early adolescence in the United States and China. Four times over the 7th and 8th grades, 825 American and Chinese children (M = 12.73 years) reported on the extent to which they versus their parents make decisions about issues children…

  5. Practice of good governance and corporate governance

    OpenAIRE

    Bălăceanu Cristina; Predonu Andreea – Monica

    2010-01-01

    Corporate governance reforms are occurring in countries around the globe and potentially impacting the population of the entire planet. In developing countries, such reforms occur in a larger context that is primarily defined by previous attempts at promoting “development” and recent processes of economic globalization. In this context, corporate governance reforms (in combination with the liberalising reforms associated with economic globalization), in effect re...

  6. The Knowledge Governance Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Nicolai J.

    with diverse capabilities of handling these transactions. Various open research issues that a knowledge governance approach may illuminate are sketched. Although knowledge governance draws clear inspiration from organizational economics and `rational' organization theory, it recognizes that knowledge......An attempt is made to characterize a `knowledge governance approach' as a distinctive, emerging field that cuts across the fields of knowledge management, organisation studies, strategy and human resource management. Knowledge governance is taken up with how the deployment of administrative...

  7. Project governance: selected South African government experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. van der Walt

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Some form of accountability and power structure binds all organisations. Such structures are typically referred to as the “governance” structure of the organisation. In organisations that have relatively mature project applications and methodologies in place, governance mechanisms are established on more permanent bases. With its focus on performance, results and outcomes, project governance establishes decision-making structures, as well as accountability and responsibility mechanisms in public institutions to oversee projects. As government institutions increasingly place emphasis on project applications for policy implementation and service delivery initiatives, mechanisms or structures should be established to facilitate clear interfaces between the permanent organisation and the temporary project organisation. Such mechanisms or structures should enhance the governance of projects, that is, the strategic alignment of projects, the decentralisation of decision- making powers, rapid resource allocation, and the participation of external stakeholders. The purpose of this article is to explore the concept “project governance”, and to highlight examples of project governance as applied in selected government departments in provincial and national spheres. This would enable the establishment of best practice examples and assist to develop benchmarks for effective project applications for service delivery improvement.

  8. Direct and Lead Units During Preparation for the Battle (Battlefield Function 19) as Accomplished by an Engineer Battalion Supporting a Heavy Brigade. Volume 1: Function Analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Clagg, Robert

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of the overall research program was to document the synchronization required by command and control tasks performed within the armored brigade, to include combat support and combat service support units...

  9. Transformative environmental governance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Transformative governance is an approach to environmental governance that has the capacity to respond to, manage, and trigger regime shifts in coupled social-ecological systems (SESs) at multiple scales. The goal of transformative governance is to actively shift degraded SESs to ...

  10. The essence of governance in health development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirigia Joses

    2011-03-01

    ' and to the WHO African Region context. Summary A strong case for broader health development governance framework has been made. A health development governance index with 10 functions and 42 sub-functions has been proposed to facilitate inter-country comparisons. Potential sources of data for estimating HDGI have been suggested. The Governance indices for individual sub-functions can aid policy-makers to establish the sources of weak health governance and subsequently develop appropriate interventions for ameliorating the situation.

  11. The essence of governance in health development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirigia, Joses Muthuri; Kirigia, Doris Gatwiri

    2011-03-28

    case for broader health development governance framework has been made. A health development governance index with 10 functions and 42 sub-functions has been proposed to facilitate inter-country comparisons. Potential sources of data for estimating HDGI have been suggested. The Governance indices for individual sub-functions can aid policy-makers to establish the sources of weak health governance and subsequently develop appropriate interventions for ameliorating the situation.

  12. [Endoplasmic-mitochondrial Ca(2+)-functional unit: dependence of respiration of secretory cells on activity of ryanodine- and IP3 - sensitive Ca(2+)-channels].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velykopols'ka, O Iu; Man'ko, B O; Man'ko, V V

    2012-01-01

    Using Clark oxygen electrode, dependence of mitochondrial functions on Ca(2+)-release channels activity of Chironomus plumosus L. larvae salivary glands suspension was investigated. Cells were ATP-permeabilized in order to enable penetration of exogenous oxidative substrates. Activation of plasmalemmal P2X-receptors (as well as P2Y-receptors) per se does not modify the endogenous respiration of salivary gland suspension. That is, Ca(2+)-influx from extracellular medium does not influence functional activity of mitochondria, although they are located along the basal part of the plasma membrane. Activation of RyRs intensifies endogenous respiration and pyruvate-malate-stimulated respiration, but not succinate-stimulated respiration. Neither activation of IP3Rs (via P2Y-receptors activation), nor their inhibition alters endogenous respiration. Nevertheless, IP3Rs inhibition by 2-APB intensifies succinate-stimulated respiration. All abovementioned facts testify that Ca2+, released from stores via channels, alters functional activity of mitochondria, and undoubtedly confirm the existence of endoplasmic-mitochondrial Ca(2+)-functional unit in Ch. plumosus larvae salivary glands secretory cells. In steady state of endoplasmic-mitochondrial Ca(2+)-functional unit the spontaneous activity of IP3Rs is observed; released through IP3Rs, Ca2+ is accumulated in mitochondria via uniporter and modulates oxidative processes. Activation of RyRs induces the transition of endoplasmic-mitochondrial Ca(2+)-functional unit to the active state, which is required to intensify cell respiration and oxidative phosphorylation. As expected, the transition of endoplasmic-mitochondrial Ca(2+)-functional unit to inactivated state (i. e. inhibition of Ca(2+)-release channels at excessive [Ca2+]i) limits the duration of signal transduction, has protective nature and prevents apoptosis.

  13. Project and supply agreement. The text of the agreement of 20 September 1990 between the International Atomic Energy Agency and the Governments of the Republic of Zaire and the United States of America concerning the transfer of enriched uranium for a research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The document reproduces the text of the Project and Supply Agreement which was approved by the Agency's Board of Governors on 15 June 1990, and concluded on 20 September 1990, among the Agency and the Governments of the Republic of Zaire and the United States of America for the transfer of enriched uranium for a research reactor in Zaire. The supplied material will be an instrumented fuel element containing uranium enriched to 19.98 percent in the isotope uranium-235. 1 tab

  14. Payment Procedures for Electronic Government Services

    OpenAIRE

    Pousttchi, Key; Wiedemann, Dietmar Georg

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we analyse payment procedures for their suitability for electronic government. We provide an overview of the payment procedures currently available on the market, compare the situation in electronic government with the situation in electronic commerce and analyze what we can transfer. Based on functional requirements we propose a scheme that allows public agencies to examine the appropriateness of any given payment procedure for electronic government.

  15. Editor's Choice - Acute Cardiovascular Care Association Position Paper on Intensive Cardiovascular Care Units: An update on their definition, structure, organisation and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnefoy-Cudraz, Eric; Bueno, Hector; Casella, Gianni; De Maria, Elia; Fitzsimons, Donna; Halvorsen, Sigrun; Hassager, Christian; Iakobishvili, Zaza; Magdy, Ahmed; Marandi, Toomas; Mimoso, Jorge; Parkhomenko, Alexander; Price, Susana; Rokyta, Richard; Roubille, Francois; Serpytis, Pranas; Shimony, Avi; Stepinska, Janina; Tint, Diana; Trendafilova, Elina; Tubaro, Marco; Vrints, Christiaan; Walker, David; Zahger, Doron; Zima, Endre; Zukermann, Robert; Lettino, Maddalena

    2018-02-01

    Acute cardiovascular care has progressed considerably since the last position paper was published 10 years ago. It is now a well-defined, complex field with demanding multidisciplinary teamworking. The Acute Cardiovascular Care Association has provided this update of the 2005 position paper on acute cardiovascular care organisation, using a multinational working group. The patient population has changed, and intensive cardiovascular care units now manage a large range of conditions from those simply requiring specialised monitoring, to critical cardiovascular diseases with associated multi-organ failure. To describe better intensive cardiovascular care units case mix, acuity of care has been divided into three levels, and then defining intensive cardiovascular care unit functional organisation. For each level of intensive cardiovascular care unit, this document presents the aims of the units, the recommended management structure, the optimal number of staff, the need for specially trained cardiologists and cardiovascular nurses, the desired equipment and architecture, and the interaction with other departments in the hospital and other intensive cardiovascular care units in the region/area. This update emphasises cardiologist training, referring to the recently updated Acute Cardiovascular Care Association core curriculum on acute cardiovascular care. The training of nurses in acute cardiovascular care is additionally addressed. Intensive cardiovascular care unit expertise is not limited to within the unit's geographical boundaries, extending to different specialties and subspecialties of cardiology and other specialties in order to optimally manage the wide scope of acute cardiovascular conditions in frequently highly complex patients. This position paper therefore addresses the need for the inclusion of acute cardiac care and intensive cardiovascular care units within a hospital network, linking university medical centres, large community hospitals, and smaller

  16. Transforming Government Service

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Keld

    2017-01-01

    The Danish government has defined an ambitious e-government strategy aiming to increase both citizen centricity and the efficiency of government service production and delivery. This research uses dynamic capability theory to compare a highly successful and a less successful e-government program...... both aiming at realizing this strategy by reengineering back office processes and implement one-stop shopping. The research contributes to the e-government literature by identifying key differences between the two cases in terms of dynamic capabilities, by identifying the importance...

  17. Space vehicle field unit and ground station system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judd, Stephen; Dallmann, Nicholas; Delapp, Jerry; Proicou, Michael; Seitz, Daniel; Michel, John; Enemark, Donald

    2017-09-19

    A field unit and ground station may use commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) components and share a common architecture, where differences in functionality are governed by software. The field units and ground stations may be easy to deploy, relatively inexpensive, and be relatively easy to operate. A novel file system may be used where datagrams of a file may be stored across multiple drives and/or devices. The datagrams may be received out of order and reassembled at the receiving device.

  18. Governance and organizational theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos E. Quintero Castellanos

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this essay is to propose a way to link the theoretical body that has been weaved around governance and organizational theory. For this, a critical exposition is done about what is the theoretical core of governance, the opportunity areas are identified for the link of this theory with organizational theory. The essay concludes with a proposal for the organizational analysis of administrations in governance. The essay addresses with five sections. The first one is the introduction. In the second one, I present a synthesis of the governance in its current use. In the next one are presented the work lines of the good governance. In the fourth part, I show the organizational and managerial limits in the governance theory. The last part develops the harmonization proposal for the governance and organizational theories.

  19. Hard and Soft Governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moos, Lejf

    2009-01-01

    of Denmark, and finally the third layer: the leadership used in Danish schools. The use of 'soft governance' is shifting the focus of governance and leadership from decisions towards influence and power and thus shifting the focus of the processes from the decision-making itself towards more focus......The governance and leadership at transnational, national and school level seem to be converging into a number of isomorphic forms as we see a tendency towards substituting 'hard' forms of governance, that are legally binding, with 'soft' forms based on persuasion and advice. This article analyses...... and discusses governance forms at several levels. The first layer is the global: the methods of 'soft governance' that are being utilised by transnational agencies. The second layer is the national and local: the shift in national and local governance seen in many countries, but here demonstrated in the case...

  20. ANALISIS TINGKAT KEMATANGAN (MATURITY LEVELS UNIT LAYANAN PENGADAAN KABUPATEN BADUNG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Gde Uma Darmapramita

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The implementation of government procurement of goods and service is governed by presidential regulation number 70 year of 2012.  According to that, in Badung Regency implemented centralized in Procurement Service Unit of Badung Regency. As the one of Indonesia procurement unit pilot, Procurement Service Unit of Badung Regency has given the opportunity to perform a self assessment of its  maturity levels as government unit. The objective of this research is to find factors that influence Procuremet Service Unit of Badung Regency maturity levels, and also to find out in what level is Procurement Service Unit of Badung Regency stand. Data collection for this research have done by  using questionnaire that involve 50 respondents who understand very well about the duties and function of Procurement Service Unit of Badung Regency to perform a government procurement of good and services. The data analysis have been performed by use of factor analysis and supported by SPSS program. The result shows there are 3 factors that influent the Procurement Service Unit of Badung Regency maturity levels, which are : the synergy and organization culture, resources and risk management and organization’s performance development.  Whereas the maturity levels of Procurement Service Unit of Badung Regency is stand at compliance. Based to the factors that formed, the highly commitment and strong leadership of Badung Regency leader are very decisive to push ahead the enhancement  and  the development of Procurement Service Unit of Badung Regency.  First thing can be done is to establish an independent Procurement Service Unit therewith its Procurement Unit Development road maps that can be tiered and sustainable plan, monitor and evaluate

  1. A new governance space for health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kickbusch, Ilona; Szabo, Martina Marianna Cassar

    2014-01-01

    Global health refers to ‘those health issues which transcend national boundaries and governments and call for actions on the global forces and global flows that determine the health of people’. (Kickbusch 2006) Governance in this trans-national and cross-cutting arena can be analyzed along three political spaces: global health governance, global governance for health, and governance for global health. It is argued that the management of the interface between these three political spaces of governance in the global public health domain is becoming increasingly important in order to move the global health agenda forward. Global health governance refers mainly to those institutions and processes of governance which are related to an explicit health mandate, such as the World Health Organization; global governance for health refers mainly to those institutions and processes of global governance which have a direct and indirect health impact, such as the United Nations, World Trade Organization or the Human Rights Council; governance for global health refers to the institutions and mechanisms established at the national and regional level to contribute to global health governance and/or to governance for global health – such as national global health strategies or regional strategies for global health. It can also refer to club strategies, such as agreements by a group of countries such as the BRICS. In all three political spaces, the involvement of a multitude of state and non-state actors has become the norm – that is why issues of legitimacy, accountability and transparency have moved to the fore. The transnational nature of global health will require the engagement of all actors to produce global public goods for health (GPGH) and to ensure a rules-based and reliably financed global public health domain. PMID:24560259

  2. A new governance space for health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kickbusch, Ilona; Szabo, Martina Marianna Cassar

    2014-01-01

    Global health refers to 'those health issues which transcend national boundaries and governments and call for actions on the global forces and global flows that determine the health of people'. (Kickbusch 2006) Governance in this trans-national and cross-cutting arena can be analyzed along three political spaces: global health governance, global governance for health, and governance for global health. It is argued that the management of the interface between these three political spaces of governance in the global public health domain is becoming increasingly important in order to move the global health agenda forward. Global health governance refers mainly to those institutions and processes of governance which are related to an explicit health mandate, such as the World Health Organization; global governance for health refers mainly to those institutions and processes of global governance which have a direct and indirect health impact, such as the United Nations, World Trade Organization or the Human Rights Council; governance for global health refers to the institutions and mechanisms established at the national and regional level to contribute to global health governance and/or to governance for global health--such as national global health strategies or regional strategies for global health. It can also refer to club strategies, such as agreements by a group of countries such as the BRICS. In all three political spaces, the involvement of a multitude of state and non-state actors has become the norm--that is why issues of legitimacy, accountability and transparency have moved to the fore. The transnational nature of global health will require the engagement of all actors to produce global public goods for health (GPGH) and to ensure a rules-based and reliably financed global public health domain.

  3. The Vertebrate Brain, Evidence of Its Modular Organization and Operating System: Insights into the Brain's Basic Units of Structure, Function, and Operation and How They Influence Neuronal Signaling and Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baslow, Morris H

    2011-01-01

    The human brain is a complex organ made up of neurons and several other cell types, and whose role is processing information for use in eliciting behaviors. However, the composition of its repeating cellular units for both structure and function are unresolved. Based on recent descriptions of the brain's physiological "operating system", a function of the tri-cellular metabolism of N-acetylaspartate (NAA) and N-acetylaspartylglutamate (NAAG) for supply of energy, and on the nature of "neuronal words and languages" for intercellular communication, insights into the brain's modular structural and functional units have been gained. In this article, it is proposed that the basic structural unit in brain is defined by its physiological operating system, and that it consists of a single neuron, and one or more astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, and vascular system endothelial cells. It is also proposed that the basic functional unit in the brain is defined by how neurons communicate, and consists of two neurons and their interconnecting dendritic-synaptic-dendritic field. Since a functional unit is composed of two neurons, it requires two structural units to form a functional unit. Thus, the brain can be envisioned as being made up of the three-dimensional stacking and intertwining of myriad structural units which results not only in its gross structure, but also in producing a uniform distribution of binary functional units. Since the physiological NAA-NAAG operating system for supply of energy is repeated in every structural unit, it is positioned to control global brain function.

  4. MODELING OF THE FUNCTIONING UNITS OF FUEL SYSTEM OF GAS TURBINE ENGINE AIRCRAFT IN VIEW OF AVIATION FUEL QUALITY CHANGES

    OpenAIRE

    I. I. Zavyalik; V. S. Oleshko; V. M. Samoylenko; E. V. Fetisov

    2016-01-01

    The article describes the developed modeling system in MATLAB Simulink which allows to simulate, explore and pre- dict the technical condition of the units of the aircraft gas turbine engine fuel system depending on aviation fuel quality changes.

  5. Role Orientation and Communication Behaviors of Faculty Governance Leaders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Michael T.; Pope, Myron L.

    This study, part of the National Data Base on Faculty Involvement in Governance project at the University of Alabama, attempted to profile the role orientations of faculty governance unit leaders, and to determine if those orientations differed under conditions of communication apprehension (how a unit leader interacts with others) or were…

  6. Governance or Governing – the Missing Link?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luminiţa Maria Crăciun

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Governance and governing are two distinct concepts, but they intertwine. “Good governing” exercises good influence on development. “Good governance” supposes first a relationship of power focused on a series of reforms structured at three levels: the political – administrative level, the economic level, and the level of civil society. As this dimension is difficult to measure, the qualitative evaluation of the governing act raised the interest of the World Bank researchers, who elaborated and monitored the dynamics of a set of indicators, which includes six major dimensions of the governing. A retrospective concerning the image of governing in Romania during the period from 1996 to 2005 suggests a modest increase of the score: from -0.138 (1996 to 0.008 (2002; that was partially achieved based on the voice and responsibility index and on the political stability index, not on those that measure more directly the administrative performance or the integrity of the governing act. For a comparative study, we chose seven countries for the purposes of analysis (two new European Union member states: Romania and Bulgaria; two older member countries of the European Union: Slovenia and Latvia; three non-member states: Moldova, Ukraine, and Georgia, which reveal the quality of the governing from a comparative perspective. Corruption control completes the image created by the analyzed indicators. The mere formal accomplishment of commitments made in the pre-accession activity, doubled by recent internal evolutions, bring doubts about the credibility of the anticorruption reforms, as Romania continues to be considered the country with the highest CPI in the European Union. The pessimism of public opinion and the fact that only 34% of the Romanian people consider that the level of corruption will decrease in the following three years constitutes an alarm signal addressed to the governance, in view of the real reformation of the administration system

  7. Treaty Series No. 60 (1985) - Agreement between the Government of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and the Government of the People's Republic of China for Co-operation in the Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy with exchange of letters - London, 3 June 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    The Agreement covers in particular co-operation in civil nuclear research, including reactor safety, radioactive waste management and radiation protection. Co-operation between the two Parties shall be for exclusively peaceful purposes and the transfer to third parties of any nuclear material, equipment or facilities supplied in the context of the present Agreement may not take place without prior consultation between the two Governments. In the event of such a transfer, the two Governments shall ensure that the third state pledges peaceful use only and accepts IAEA safeguards. (NEA) [fr

  8. Structural and functional studies of a phosphatidic acid-binding antifungal plant defensin MtDef4: Identification of an RGFRRR motif governing fungal cell entry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sagaram, Uma S.; El-Mounadi, Kaoutar; Buchko, Garry W.; Berg, Howard R.; Kaur, Jagdeep; Pandurangi, Raghoottama; Smith, Thomas J.; Shah, Dilip

    2013-12-04

    A highly conserved plant defensin MtDef4 potently inhibits the growth of a filamentous fungus Fusarium graminearum. MtDef4 is internalized by cells of F. graminearum. To determine its mechanism of fungal cell entry and antifungal action, NMR solution structure of MtDef4 has been determined. The analysis of its structure has revealed a positively charged patch on the surface of the protein consisting of arginine residues in its γ-core signature, a major determinant of the antifungal activity of MtDef4. Here, we report functional analysis of the RGFRRR motif of the γ-core signature of MtDef4. The replacement of RGFRRR to AAAARR or to RGFRAA not only abolishes fungal cell entry but also results in loss of the antifungal activity of MtDef4. MtDef4 binds strongly to phosphatidic acid (PA), a precursor for the biosynthesis of membrane phospholipids and a signaling lipid known to recruit cytosolic proteins to membranes. Mutations of RGFRRR which abolish fungal cell entry of MtDef4 also impair its binding to PA. Our results suggest that RGFRRR motif is a translocation signal for entry of MtDef4 into fungal cells and that this positively charged motif likely mediates interaction of this defensin with PA as part of its antifungal action.

  9. The Government's expectations for nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fraser, Lord.

    1997-01-01

    After the thorough review of nuclear policy in 1994/95, the United Kingdom government remains committed to the view that there is no justification for, and no foreseeable to return to the large-scale public funding of new nuclear power plants. The nuclear industry's relationships with government has changed in some respects as a consequence of the privatisation of British Energy and AEA (Technology). This does not, however, mean a loss of government interest and involvement in other respects. There will be a continuing close interest in the safety, security and prosperity of the industry; the regulatory framework for the industry will be as rigorous as ever. Public expectation that nuclear liabilities will be managed safely and effectively is a responsibility both for government and the industry. Internationally, nuclear developments present considerable challenges and opportunities which require the government and the industry to work closely together in order to maximise the value of Britain's contribution. (UK)

  10. Innovation in City Governments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lewis, Jenny M; Ricard, Lykke Margot; Klijn, Erik Hans

    Innovation has become an important focus for governments around the world over the last decade, with greater pressure on governments to do more with less, and expanding community expectations. Some are now calling this ‘social innovation’ – innovation that is related to creating new services...... that have value for stakeholders (such as citizens) in terms of the social and political outcomes they produce. Innovation in City Governments: Structures, Networks, and Leadership establishes an analytical framework of innovation capacity based on three dimensions: Structure - national governance...... project in Copenhagen, Barcelona and Rotterdam. The book provides major new insights on how structures, networks and leadership in city governments shape the social innovation capacity of cities. It provides ground-breaking analyses of how governance structures and local socio-economic challenges...

  11. Governance, Trust, and Taxes

    OpenAIRE

    Schrøter Joensen, Juanna; Weihe, Guðrið

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the role of social capital (trust) vis-à-vis the propensity of a country to be a tax haven. The empirical analysis corroborates that better governed countries have a higher ceteris paribus probability to be tax havens. However, social capital counteracts the effect of governance quality. This effect is so strong that the partial effect of governance quality is reversed for countries with the trust index in the top quartile – making these high trust countries le...

  12. Civil Society and Governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hulgård, Lars

    An illustration of how important the relationship is between civil society anbd governance. A short historic journey with four snapshots of times and situations that have provided interesting evidence about the connection between civil society and governance. My goal for the short historic journey...... is to make clear and hopefully even verify that providing knowledge about the impact of civil society and citizens’ participation on governance is one of the most urgent research tasks in the current period of time....

  13. Energy Efficiency Governance: Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    This handbook has been written to assist EE practitioners, government officials and stakeholders to establish effective EE governance structures for their country. The handbook provides readers with relevant information in an accessible format that will help develop comprehensive and effective governance mechanisms. For each of the specific topics dealt with (see Figure 1 in the Handbook), the IEA offers guidelines for addressing issues, or directs readers to examples of how such issues have been dealt with by specific countries.

  14. Codes of Good Governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beck Jørgensen, Torben; Sørensen, Ditte-Lene

    2013-01-01

    Good governance is a broad concept used by many international organizations to spell out how states or countries should be governed. Definitions vary, but there is a clear core of common public values, such as transparency, accountability, effectiveness, and the rule of law. It is quite likely......, transparency, neutrality, impartiality, effectiveness, accountability, and legality. The normative context of public administration, as expressed in codes, seems to ignore the New Public Management and Reinventing Government reform movements....

  15. Gobernanza Versus Gobierno Governance Versus Government

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dany-Robert Dufour

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available El desplazamiento del término moderno de gobierno por el postmoderno de gobernanza, pone de manifiesto un nuevo lenguaje postmoderno en el que se deja entrever que ambas nociones, gobierno y gobernanza, tienden a oponerse. La gobernanza corporativa designa la toma del poder del capitalismo financiero sobre el capitalismo industrial, que no es otra cosa que, por un lado, propender por la rentabilidad máxima para los accionistas, valorizar todo en el mercado sin consideraciones morales, obligar a los actores a la búsqueda de riesgo permanente y flexibilizar las relaciones jerárquicas en la Administración de la empresa; y por el otro, la marginación de la clase obrera. La gobernanza ha llegado a los asuntos políticos convirtiéndose en modelo de gestión pública por excelencia, ella trata que el gobierno reducido a su mínima expresión guie a una sociedad civil que adquiere un papel importante en la creación y seguimiento de las diferentes políticas, es decir, que el gobierno adquiere una forma flexible de regulación, es allá donde la gobernanza política nos conduce, a la supuesta autorregulación de los intereses privados que sumados pasan a configurar el interés general. En realidad se trata de una nueva forma de dominación marcada por un desvanecimiento político, donde la sociedad civil juega en contra del Estado. La gobernanza le está tendiendo una temible trampa a la democracia, en tanto se presenta como una ampliación de la democracia materializada en una mejor participación de la sociedad civil, destruyendo la persona pública que se forma por la unión de todos los otros y convirtiéndola en representante de intereses particulares.The displacement of the modern term of government for the postmodern one of governance, reveals a new postmodern language in which one is left to guess that both notions, government and governance, tend to be opposed. Corporate governance signifies the seizure of power of financial capitalism

  16. E-Government Partnerships Across Levels of Government

    OpenAIRE

    Charbit, Claire; Michalun, Varinia

    2009-01-01

    E-government Partnerships across Levels of Government, is an overview of the challenges and approaches to creating a collaborative and cooperative partnership across levels of government for e-government development and implementation.

  17. Governance, Trust and Taxes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weihe, Guri; Joensen, E. Juanna Schröter

    This paper examines the role of social capital (trust) vis-à-vis the propensity of a country to be a tax haven. The empirical analysis corroborates that better governed countries have a higher ceteris paribus probability to be tax havens. However, social capital counteracts the effect of governance...... quality. This effect is so strong that the partial effect of governance quality is reversed for countries with the trust index in the top quartile – making these high trust countries less likely to be tax havens – even as governance quality is increased. Thus it is crucial to consider the interaction...

  18. Practice, science and governance in interaction: European effort for the system-wide implementation of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) in Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stucki, Gerold; Zampolini, Mauro; Juocevicius, Alvydas; Negrini, Stefano; Christodoulou, Nicolas

    2017-04-01

    Since its launch in 2001, relevant international, regional and national PRM bodies have aimed to implement the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) in Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine (PRM), whereby contributing to the development of suitable practical tools. These tools are available for implementing the ICF in day-to-day clinical practice, standardized reporting of functioning outcomes in quality management and research, and guiding evidence-informed policy. Educational efforts have reinforced PRM physicians' and other rehabilitation professionals' ICF knowledge, and numerous implementation projects have explored how the ICF is applied in clinical practice, research and policy. Largely lacking though is the system-wide implementation of ICF in day-to-day practice across all rehabilitation services of national health systems. In Europe, system-wide implementation of ICF requires the interaction between practice, science and governance. Considering its mandate, the UEMS PRM Section and Board have decided to lead a European effort towards system-wide ICF implementation in PRM, rehabilitation and health care at large, in interaction with governments, non-governmental actors and the private sector, and aligned with ISPRM's collaboration plan with WHO. In this paper we present the current PRM internal and external policy agenda towards system-wide ICF implementation and the corresponding implementation action plan, while highlighting priority action steps - promotion of ICF-based standardized reporting in national quality management and assurance programs, development of unambiguous rehabilitation service descriptions using the International Classification System for Service Organization in Health-related Rehabilitation, development of Clinical Assessment Schedules, qualitative linkage and quantitative mapping of data to the ICF, and the cultural adaptation of the ICF Clinical Data Collection Tool in European languages.

  19. The impact of corporate governance on IFRS adoption choices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verriest, A.J.M.; Gaeremynck, A.; Thornton, D.B.

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the association between corporate governance strength and EU listed firms' choices with respect to International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) adoption in 2005. We measure governance strength by aggregating variables such as board independence, board functioning and audit

  20. Democracy over governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amelia Correa

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Varieties of institutional economics are available to evaluate varieties of capitalism. These methodologies dig behind preferences and technology to arrive at the ground on which agents make choices. The individual is at the foundation of these edifices, neoclassical and otherwise. Consequently, the denouement of all these models is that the market knows best in the absence of effective counterfactuals. A natural corollary is that the task of the government is to set effective mechanisms in place in order to approach the best outcomes. In contrast, we propose a framework which contends with the modern economy as an aggregate that evolves in historical time. Problems like effective demand failures are endemic to capitalist economies. Therefore, systematic State intervention is essential to their functioning. In particular, political economy teaches us that intervention must be in the interest of wage earners. In contrast to the earlier model, the fabric of norms and conventions that facilitate the growth and development of economies must emerge from the consciousness and practices of the working class.

  1. MODELING OF THE FUNCTIONING UNITS OF FUEL SYSTEM OF GAS TURBINE ENGINE AIRCRAFT IN VIEW OF AVIATION FUEL QUALITY CHANGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. I. Zavyalik

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the developed modeling system in MATLAB Simulink which allows to simulate, explore and pre- dict the technical condition of the units of the aircraft gas turbine engine fuel system depending on aviation fuel quality changes.

  2. Translanguaging in the Borderlands: Language Function in Theatre for Young Audiences Written in Spanish and English in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schildkret, Elizabeth

    2017-01-01

    In the United States, we tend to understand linguistic systems as separate and autonomous, and by this understanding, bilinguals are people who speak two different languages and switch between them. This understanding of bilingualism, however, does not reflect the reality of the way many bilinguals use language. Rather than "code-switch"…

  3. The Texts of the Agreements Between the International Atomic Energy Agency, the United Nations and the Federal Government of the Republic of Austria Regarding the Headquarters Seat and Related Agreements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    The texts of seven agreements concluded between the Agency and the Republic of Austria, as well as between the Agency, the United Nations and the Republic of Austria, are reproduced in this document for the information of all Members

  4. The impact of socioeconomic inequalities and lack of health insurance on physical functioning among middle-aged and older adults in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jinhyun; Richardson, Virginia

    2012-01-01

    Socioeconomic inequalities and lack of private health insurance have been viewed as significant contributors to health disparities in the United States. However, few studies have examined their impact on physical functioning over time, especially in later life. The current study investigated the impact of socioeconomic inequalities and lack of private health insurance on individuals' growth trajectories in physical functioning, as measured by activities of daily living. Data from the Health and Retirement Study (1994-2006) were used for this study, 6519 black and white adults who provided in-depth information about health, socioeconomic, financial and health insurance information were analysed. Latent growth curve modelling was used to estimate the initial level of physical functioning and its rate of change over time. Results showed that higher level of income and assets and having private health insurance significantly predicted better physical functioning. In particular, decline in physical functioning was slower among those who had private health insurance. Interestingly, changes in economic status, such as decreases in income and assets, had a greater impact on women's physical functioning than on men's. Black adults did not suffer more rapid declines in physical functioning than white adults after controlling for socioeconomic status. The current longitudinal study suggested that anti-poverty and health insurance policies should be enhanced to reduce the negative impact of socioeconomic inequalities on physical functioning throughout an individual's life course. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  5. Paradoxes around good governance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.G. Dijkstra (Geske)

    2013-01-01

    textabstract Good governance is not a new concept Ambrogio Lorenzetti made his frescoes on good and bad governance already in the years 1338-1340 They can be viewed in the Palazzo Publicco on one of the most beautiful squares of the world, the Piazza del Campo in Siena, Italy I assume many of you

  6. Human-centred Governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bason, Christian

    2017-01-01

    Design approaches are now being applied all over the world as a powerful approach to innovating public policies and services. Christian Bason, author of Leading public design: Discovering human-centred governance, argues that by bringing design methods into play, public managers can lead change...... with citizens at the centre, and discover a new model for steering public organisations: human-centred governance....

  7. Partnerships and Governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, Bodil

    Three models of cooperation are outlined and their consequences for governance discussed, using case studies of local multisectoral collaboration on labour market related social policy - active social policy - in Denmark.......Three models of cooperation are outlined and their consequences for governance discussed, using case studies of local multisectoral collaboration on labour market related social policy - active social policy - in Denmark....

  8. Educational Governance in Denmark

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moos, Lejf

    2014-01-01

    Denmark has entered global competition by expanding collaboration with European countries, which is profoundly impacting the public sector and school governance. Relations between the state and institutions are transforming from traditional democratic, public-sector models of governance into new forms characterized as corporate and market-driven…

  9. Benefit from the Government

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evert Pommer; Jedid-Jah Jonker

    2003-01-01

    Original title: Profijt van de overheid. Income levels are determined to a considerable extent by the government, which exerts an influence through social security and taxation. The traditional purchasing power tables are a reflection of this. However, the influence of the government goes

  10. Global Governance, Educational Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundy, Karen

    2007-01-01

    In the last half decade, a rising literature has focused on the idea that processes of economic, political and social globalization require analysis in terms of governance at the global level. It is argued in this article that emerging forms of global governance have produced significant challenges to conventional conceptions of international…

  11. Learning Democratic Global Governance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haavelsrud, Magnus

    1996-01-01

    Outlines a model process of developing knowledge from within different groups and cultures to allow more equitable participation of all world societies in the definition of global governance. Reviews concepts relevant to education's contributions toward learning and creating democratic global governance. Discusses the educational utility of…

  12. Governing EU employment policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Eva; Triantafillou, Peter; Damgaard, Bodil

    2015-01-01

    In the European Union (EU), employment policy is a prerogative of the member states. Therefore the EU's ability to govern in this area depends on its capability to involve national governments and relevant stakeholders in a collaborative effort to formulate and implement shared policy objectives....... of collaboration, the implementation phase mainly consists in the less demanding forms of cooperation and coordination....

  13. Tax administration good governance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Végh, Gyöngyi; Gribnau, Hans

    2018-01-01

    There is no doubt that tax administration is a complex matter. It is institutionalised by a governance framework which is strongly influenced by legal traditions, state governance approaches, historical developments, and norms and values of society. While there are many common aspects of national

  14. Australian Government Information Resources

    OpenAIRE

    Chapman, Bert

    2017-01-01

    Provides an overview of Australian Government information resources. Features content from Australian Government agency websites such as the Department of Environment and Energy, Department of Defence, Australian National Maritime Museum, ANZAC Memorial in Sydney, Department of Immigration & Border Protection, Australian Bureau of Statistics, Australian Dept. of Agriculture and Water Resources, Australian Parliament, Australian Treasury, Australian Transport Safety Board, and Australian Parl...

  15. DOD Open Government

    Science.gov (United States)

    increase transparency and openness. We encourage you to explore other information on our website to learn Defense Search DOD Open Government: Home Open Government @ DoD Transparency Congressional Inquiries IT Dashboard.gov Regulations.gov Challenge.gov Performance.gov ForeignAssistance.gov Transparency

  16. Negotiating Collaborative Governance Designs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plotnikof, Mie

    2017-01-01

    This chapter addresses the design and implementation issues of collaborative governance, a public management practice aimed at involving stakeholders in problem-solving and public innovation.......This chapter addresses the design and implementation issues of collaborative governance, a public management practice aimed at involving stakeholders in problem-solving and public innovation....

  17. Using IT Governance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brobst, Jan; Council, Chip

    2005-01-01

    The discussion in this article is intended to provide an examination of why top management, IT management, and internal auditors should be interested in IT governance. Some aspects of IT management will be described including implementation, auditing, availability, security, and alignment. One governance framework, COBIT, will be utilized as a…

  18. Governing through standards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brøgger, Katja

    This abstract adresses the ways in which new education standards have become integral to new modes of education governance. The paper explores the role of standards for accelerating the shift from national to transnational governance in higher education. Drawing on the case of higher education...

  19. Student Participation in Governance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deegan, William L.; And Others

    1970-01-01

    The success of student government activities on any campus is significantly affected by the amount of student participation permitted in the institution's decision-making processes. The traditional" model of government--characterized by tokenism--often results in the separate jurisdictions" model-- characterized by fragmentation and interest…

  20. The governance of adaptation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huitema, Dave; Adger, William Neil; Berkhout, Frans; Massey, Eric; Mazmanian, Daniel; Munaretto, Stefania; Plummer, Ryan; Termeer, Katrien

    2016-01-01

    The governance of climate adaptation involves the collective efforts of multiple societal actors to address problems, or to reap the benefits, associated with impacts of climate change. Governing involves the creation of institutions, rules and organizations, and the selection of normative