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Sample records for functional mri findings

  1. Cognitive function and MRI findings in very low birth weight infants

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    Imamura, Atsuko; Takagishi, Yuka; Takada, Satoru; Uetani, Yoshiyuki; Nakamura, Toru; Nakamura, Hajime [Kobe Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine; Inagaki, Yuko

    1996-07-01

    Twenty-two very low birth weight infants at preschool ages of 5-6 years were studied to clarify the correlation between cognitive function and MRI findings. Cognitive function was evaluated by the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised (WISC-R) and the Frostig developmental test of visual perception. Ventricular enlargement, assessed by the bioccipital index (B.I.) measured on MRI, was correlated to cognitive disorders. Children with periventricular high intensity areas (T{sub 2}-weighted images) extending from the posterior periventricular region to the parietal lobe tend to highly suffer from cerebral palsy and visuoperceptual impairment. These results indicate that the disorders of cognitive function in very low birth weight infants were caused by a damage of association fibers in periventricular areas which was detectable by MRI. (author)

  2. Select and Cluster: A Method for Finding Functional Networks of Clustered Voxels in fMRI

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    DonGiovanni, Danilo

    2016-01-01

    Extracting functional connectivity patterns among cortical regions in fMRI datasets is a challenge stimulating the development of effective data-driven or model based techniques. Here, we present a novel data-driven method for the extraction of significantly connected functional ROIs directly from the preprocessed fMRI data without relying on a priori knowledge of the expected activations. This method finds spatially compact groups of voxels which show a homogeneous pattern of significant connectivity with other regions in the brain. The method, called Select and Cluster (S&C), consists of two steps: first, a dimensionality reduction step based on a blind multiresolution pairwise correlation by which the subset of all cortical voxels with significant mutual correlation is selected and the second step in which the selected voxels are grouped into spatially compact and functionally homogeneous ROIs by means of a Support Vector Clustering (SVC) algorithm. The S&C method is described in detail. Its performance assessed on simulated and experimental fMRI data is compared to other methods commonly used in functional connectivity analyses, such as Independent Component Analysis (ICA) or clustering. S&C method simplifies the extraction of functional networks in fMRI by identifying automatically spatially compact groups of voxels (ROIs) involved in whole brain scale activation networks. PMID:27656202

  3. MRI findings and cognitive functions in a small cohort of myotonic dystrophy type 1: Retrospective analyses.

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    Bajrami, Arsida; Azman, Filiz; Yayla, Vildan; Cagirici, Sultan; Keskinkiliç, Cahit; Sozer, Nejla

    2017-02-01

    Myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1) is a progressive multisystemic disease with common cognitive deficits and potential brain involvement in addition to the cardinal muscular and systemic symptoms. Impaired mental function associated with nonspecific pathological findings such as white-matter hyperintense lesions (WMHLs), ventricular enlargement and brain atrophy on brain MRI have been previously reported in DM1 patients. While some studies showed correlation of brain morphological changes with neuropsychological and clinical parameters including CTG repeat sizes and disease severity scales in DM1, others failed. The goal of this study was to retrospectively investigate cranial MR abnormalities, predominantly WMHLs, and their effects on clinical and cognitive deficits in a small, phenotypically or genotypically well-characterized cohort of DM1 patients.

  4. The Association of MRI Findings and Neuropsychological Functioning after the First Recognized Seizure

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    Byars, Anna W.; deGrauw, Ton J.; Johnson, Cynthia S.; Fastenau, Philip S.; Perkins, Susan M.; Egelhoff, John C.; Kalnin, Andrew; Dunn, David W.; Austin, Joan K.

    2009-01-01

    Summary Purpose To explore relationships between MRI abnormalities of the brain and neuropsychological functioning in children who were evaluated following their first recognized seizure. Methods Subjects were children aged 6 to 14 years with a first recognized seizure within the past 3 months who participated in a larger prospective study of child adaptation. The 249 children with neuropsychological testing and neuroimaging were studied. Children underwent neuropsychological examination an average of 2.8 months and MRI examination an average of 1.3 months after the first recognized seizure. On factor analysis four factors were found for neuropsychological function: LANG = Language, PS = Processing Speed, EC = Executive/Construction, VMEM = Verbal Memory and Learning. For analysis, structural abnormalities found on MRI were classified as significant (yes/no) based on whether they were presumed to be related to the seizure condition. Results On MRI, 34 (14%) had structural abnormalities that were judged to be significant in that they were possibly related to their seizures. Children with significant abnormalities had significantly lower estimated IQ scores and significantly lower language, processing speed, executive/constructional ability, and verbal memory and learning factor scores than did children without significant abnormalities. Conclusions Children who have structural brain abnormalities at onset have slightly lower cognitive functioning overall, and all neuropsychological domains seemed to be affected relatively equally. This pattern was apparent even when we restricted the analysis to children with intellectual functioning in the broadly normal range. PMID:17442004

  5. MRI Findings In Dengue Encephalitis

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    Ashraf V.V

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Neurological manifestations are rare in dengue fever. Two cases with encephalopathy and systemic features of dengue fever with abnormal CSF and MR imaging are reported. Striking MRI finding was bilateral symmetrical thalamic lesions similar to those reported in Japanese encephalitis. This report highlights that MRI findings can be similar in dengue and Japanese encephalitis.

  6. Convergent Findings of Altered Functional and Structural Brain Connectivity in Individuals with High Functioning Autism: A Multimodal MRI Study.

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    Mueller, Sophia; Keeser, Daniel; Samson, Andrea C; Kirsch, Valerie; Blautzik, Janusch; Grothe, Michel; Erat, Okan; Hegenloh, Michael; Coates, Ute; Reiser, Maximilian F; Hennig-Fast, Kristina; Meindl, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Brain tissue changes in autism spectrum disorders seem to be rather subtle and widespread than anatomically distinct. Therefore a multimodal, whole brain imaging technique appears to be an appropriate approach to investigate whether alterations in white and gray matter integrity relate to consistent changes in functional resting state connectivity in individuals with high functioning autism (HFA). We applied diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and resting state functional connectivity magnetic resonance imaging (fcMRI) to assess differences in brain structure and function between 12 individuals with HFA (mean age 35.5, SD 11.4, 9 male) and 12 healthy controls (mean age 33.3, SD 9.0, 8 male). Psychological measures of empathy and emotionality were obtained and correlated with the most significant DTI, VBM and fcMRI findings. We found three regions of convergent structural and functional differences between HFA participants and controls. The right temporo-parietal junction area and the left frontal lobe showed decreased fractional anisotropy (FA) values along with decreased functional connectivity and a trend towards decreased gray matter volume. The bilateral superior temporal gyrus displayed significantly decreased functional connectivity that was accompanied by the strongest trend of gray matter volume decrease in the temporal lobe of HFA individuals. FA decrease in the right temporo-parietal region was correlated with psychological measurements of decreased emotionality. In conclusion, our results indicate common sites of structural and functional alterations in higher order association cortex areas and may therefore provide multimodal imaging support to the long-standing hypothesis of autism as a disorder of impaired higher-order multisensory integration.

  7. Convergent Findings of Altered Functional and Structural Brain Connectivity in Individuals with High Functioning Autism: A Multimodal MRI Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophia Mueller

    Full Text Available Brain tissue changes in autism spectrum disorders seem to be rather subtle and widespread than anatomically distinct. Therefore a multimodal, whole brain imaging technique appears to be an appropriate approach to investigate whether alterations in white and gray matter integrity relate to consistent changes in functional resting state connectivity in individuals with high functioning autism (HFA. We applied diffusion tensor imaging (DTI, voxel-based morphometry (VBM and resting state functional connectivity magnetic resonance imaging (fcMRI to assess differences in brain structure and function between 12 individuals with HFA (mean age 35.5, SD 11.4, 9 male and 12 healthy controls (mean age 33.3, SD 9.0, 8 male. Psychological measures of empathy and emotionality were obtained and correlated with the most significant DTI, VBM and fcMRI findings. We found three regions of convergent structural and functional differences between HFA participants and controls. The right temporo-parietal junction area and the left frontal lobe showed decreased fractional anisotropy (FA values along with decreased functional connectivity and a trend towards decreased gray matter volume. The bilateral superior temporal gyrus displayed significantly decreased functional connectivity that was accompanied by the strongest trend of gray matter volume decrease in the temporal lobe of HFA individuals. FA decrease in the right temporo-parietal region was correlated with psychological measurements of decreased emotionality. In conclusion, our results indicate common sites of structural and functional alterations in higher order association cortex areas and may therefore provide multimodal imaging support to the long-standing hypothesis of autism as a disorder of impaired higher-order multisensory integration.

  8. IMAGING (MRI) FINDINGS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    maxillary lesions frequently affect the alveolar ridge and body. Maxillary lesions ... lesion can occur centrally in the medullary bone or develop. *Correspondence: ... could not be picked up from this view as MRI cannot image bone. Fig 3: Computed ... cross-section of the lesion will fall in the focal trough. When the lesion is ...

  9. Functional hemispherotomy in Rasmussen syndrome in the absence of classic MRI findings

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    Yasunori Nagahama

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A 7-year-old previously healthy girl presented with a left-sided focal seizure without impaired consciousness and subsequently developed epilepsia partialis continua. Initial MRI was normal, and the subsequent images only showed a focal T2/FLAIR hyperintense area without cortical atrophy. She was diagnosed with Rasmussen syndrome by pathology and promptly treated with functional hemispherotomy. Rasmussen syndrome is a rare progressive neurological disorder, the only definitive cure for which is hemispheric disconnection. The disease presents a management dilemma, especially early in disease course without characteristic neuroimaging features. A high index of suspicion, multidisciplinary approach, and clear timely communication with the family are critical.

  10. MRI findings in Hirayama disease.

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    Raval, Monali; Kumari, Rima; Dung, Aldrin Anthony Dung; Guglani, Bhuvnesh; Gupta, Nitij; Gupta, Rohit

    2010-11-01

    The objective of the study was to study the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features of Hirayama disease on a 3 Tesla MRI scanner. Nine patients with clinically suspected Hirayama disease were evaluated with neutral position, flexion, contrast-enhanced MRI and fast imaging employing steady-state acquisition (FIESTA) sequences. The spectrum of MRI features was evaluated and correlated with the clinical and electromyography findings. MRI findings of localized lower cervical cord atrophy (C5-C7), abnormal curvature, asymmetric cord flattening, loss of attachment of the dorsal dural sac and subjacent laminae in the neutral position, anterior displacement of the dorsal dura on flexion and a prominent epidural space were revealed in all patients on conventional MRI as well as with the dynamic 3D-FIESTA sequence. Intramedullary hyperintensity was seen in four patients on conventional MRI and on the 3D-FIESTA sequence. Flow voids were seen in four patients on conventional MRI sequences and in all patients with the 3D-FIESTA sequence. Contrast enhancement of the epidural component was noted in all the five patients with thoracic extensions. The time taken for conventional and contrast-enhanced MRI was about 30-40 min, while that for the 3D-FIESTA sequence was 6 min. Neutral and flexion position MRI and the 3D-FIESTA sequence compliment each other in displaying the spectrum of findings in Hirayama disease. A flexion study should form an essential part of the screening protocol in patients with suspected Hirayama disease. Newer sequences such as the 3D-FIESTA may help in reducing imaging time and obviating the need for contrast.

  11. MRI findings in Hirayama disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raval Monali

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to study the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI features of Hirayama disease on a 3 Tesla MRI scanner. Nine patients with clinically suspected Hirayama disease were evaluated with neutral position, flexion, contrast-enhanced MRI and fast imaging employing steady-state acquisition (FIESTA sequences. The spectrum of MRI features was evaluated and correlated with the clinical and electromyography findings. MRI findings of localized lower cervical cord atrophy (C5-C7, abnormal curvature, asymmetric cord flattening, loss of attachment of the dorsal dural sac and subjacent laminae in the neutral position, anterior displacement of the dorsal dura on flexion and a prominent epidural space were revealed in all patients on conventional MRI as well as with the dynamic 3D-FIESTA sequence. Intramedullary hyperintensity was seen in four patients on conventional MRI and on the 3D-FIESTA sequence. Flow voids were seen in four patients on conventional MRI sequences and in all patients with the 3D-FIESTA sequence. Contrast enhancement of the epidural component was noted in all the five patients with thoracic extensions. The time taken for conventional and contrast-enhanced MRI was about 30-40 min, while that for the 3D-FIESTA sequence was 6 min. Neutral and flexion position MRI and the 3D-FIESTA sequence compliment each other in displaying the spectrum of findings in Hirayama disease. A flexion study should form an essential part of the screening protocol in patients with suspected Hirayama disease. Newer sequences such as the 3D-FIESTA may help in reducing imaging time and obviating the need for contrast.

  12. MRI findings in cranial eumycetoma

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    Munawwar Ahmed

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Cranial eumycetoma (CE due to direct inoculation of Madurella grisea into the scalp is extremely rare. We describe a case of CE caused by direct inoculation of M. grisea with the characteristic MRI findings of the "dot-in-circle" sign and a conglomeration of multiple, extremely hypointense "dots."

  13. MRI in insulinomas; Preliminary findings

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    Liessi, Guido (Ospedale Civile, Castelfranco Veneto (Italy). Servizio di Radiologia); Pasquali, Claudio; Alfano D' Andrea, Alfonso; Pedrazzoli, Sergio (Padova Universita, I Cattedra di: Patologia Speciale Chirurgica (Italy). Istituto di Clinica Chirurgica); Scandellari, Cesare (Padova Universita, Cattedra di Medicina Interna V (Italy). Istituto di Semeiotica Medica)

    After establishing the diagnosis of an insulinoma, most surgeons prefer preoperative localization. Selective arteriography is usually considered the gold standard for this purpose. Recently, computed tomography (CT) and preoperative US have contended the role to angiography. MRI has been used in few cases of endocrine pancreatic tumors, and its role in this particular field has to be defined. Between November 1988-September 1990 7 adult patients who had undergone surgery were evaluated. Eight tumors were resected in 6 patients who were cured; in an 18-year-old woman surgical treatment was unsuccessful. Arterio-graphy, CT, preoperative US, MRI and intraoperative US detected 2, 6, 6, 5 and 6 tumors respectively. Two insulinomas (0.2 and 0.7 cm) were found at histologic examination in resected specimen. The ability of intra-operative US and careful surgical exploration to resolve more than 90 percent of cases makes the preoperative use of arteriography and CT questionable value. If further experience confirms these findings, US and MRI may suffice. (author). 13 refs.; 3 figs.; 1 tab.

  14. Relationship between chronic pain and brain reorganization after deafferentation: A systematic review of functional MRI findings

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    C.R. Jutzeler

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: Based solely on advanced functional neuroimaging results, there is only limited evidence for a relationship between chronic pain intensity and reorganization after deafferentation. The review demonstrates the need for additional neuroimaging studies to clarify the relationship between chronic pain and reorganization.

  15. Congenital dacryocystocele: prenatal MRI findings

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    Yazici, Zeynep [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Uludag University, Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, Bursa (Turkey); Kline-Fath, Beth M.; Rubio, Eva I.; Calvo-Garcia, Maria A.; Linam, Leann E. [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Yazici, Bulent [Uludag University, Department of Ophthalmology, Faculty of Medicine, Bursa (Turkey)

    2010-12-15

    Congenital dacryocystocele can be diagnosed prenatally by imaging. Prenatal MRI is increasingly utilized for fetal diagnosis. To present the radiological and clinical features of seven fetuses with congenital dacryocystocele diagnosed with prenatal MRI. The institutional database of 1,028 consecutive prenatal MR examinations performed during a period of 4 years was reviewed retrospectively. The cases of congenital dacryocystocele were identified by reading the report of each MRI study. The incidence of dacryocystocele diagnosed with prenatal MRI was 0.7% (n=7/1,028). The dacryocystocele was bilateral in three fetuses. Mean gestational age at the time of diagnosis was 31 weeks. The indication for prenatal MRI was the presence or the suspicion of central nervous system abnormality in six fetuses and diaphragmatic hernia in one. Dacryocystocele was associated with an intranasal cyst in six of ten eyes. Prenatal sonography revealed dacryocystocele in only two of seven fetuses. Of eight eyes with postnatal follow-up, four did not have any lacrimal symptoms. Prenatal MRI can delineate congenital dacryocystocele more clearly and in a more detailed fashion than ultrasonography. Presence of dacryocystocele was symptomatic in only 50% of our patients, supporting that prenatal diagnosis of dacryocystocele might follow a benign course. (orig.)

  16. Clinical functional MRI. Presurgical functional neuroimaging

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    Stippich, C. (ed.) [Heidelberg Univ. (Germany). Div. of Neuroradiology

    2007-07-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) permits noninvasive imaging of the ''human brain at work'' under physiological conditions. This is the first textbook on clinical fMRI. It is devoted to preoperative fMRI in patients with brain tumors and epilepsies, which are the most well-established clinical applications. By localizing and lateralizing specific brain functions, as well as epileptogenic zones, fMRI facilitates the selection of a safe treatment and the planning and performance of function-preserving neurosurgery. State of the art fMRI procedures are presented, with detailed consideration of the physiological and methodological background, imaging and data processing, normal and pathological findings, diagnostic possibilities and limitations, and other related techniques. All chapters are written by recognized experts in their fields, and the book is designed to be of value to beginners, trained clinicians and experts alike. (orig.)

  17. MRI findings of juvenile psoriatic arthritis

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    Lee, Edward Y.; Kleinman, Paul K. [Harvard Medical School, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Children' s Hospital Boston, MA (United States); Sundel, Robert P.; Kim, Susan [Harvard Medical School, Rheumatology Program, Division of Immunology and the Department of Pediatrics, Boston, MA (United States); Children' s Hospital Boston, MA (United States); Zurakowski, David [Harvard Medical School, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Harvard Medical School, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Boston, MA (United States); Children' s Hospital Boston, MA (United States)

    2008-11-15

    The aim of this study was to describe the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features of juvenile psoriatic arthritis (JpsA) in children in order to facilitate early diagnosis and proper management. Two pediatric radiologists retrospectively reviewed in consensus a total of 37 abnormal MRI examinations from 31 pediatric patients (nine boys, 22 girls; age range 1-17 years; mean age 9.4 years) who had a definite diagnosis of JpsA and underwent MRI. Each MRI was evaluated for synovium abnormality (thickening and enhancement), joint effusion (small, moderate, and large), bone marrow abnormality (edema, enhancement, and location of abnormality), soft tissue abnormality (edema, enhancement, atrophy, and fatty infiltration), tendon abnormality (thickening, edema, tendon sheath fluid, and enhancement), and articular abnormality (joint space narrowing and erosion). The distribution of abnormal MRI findings among the six categories for the 37 MRI examinations was evaluated. The number of abnormal MRI findings for each MRI examination was assessed. Age at MRI examination and all six categories of abnormal MRI findings according to gender were evaluated. There were a total 96 abnormal MRI findings noted on 37 abnormal MRI examinations from 31 pediatric patients. The 37 abnormal MRI examinations included MRI of the hand (n=8), knee (n = 8), ankle (n = 5), pelvis (n = 5), temporomandibular joint (n = 4), wrist (n = 3), foot (n = 2), elbow (n = 1), and shoulder (n = 1). Twenty-eight diffuse synovial thickening and/or enhancement were the most common MRI abnormality (29.2%). Joint effusion comprised 22 abnormal MRI findings (22.9%). There were 16 abnormal MRI bone marrow edema and/or enhancement findings (16.7%), and in seven (7.3%) the edema involved non-articular sites. Soft tissue abnormality manifested as edema and/or enhancement constituted 14 abnormal MRI findings (14.5%). There were ten MRI abnormalities (10.4%) involving tendons. Articular abnormality seen as joint space

  18. Unusual MRI Findings in a Polio Survivor

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    Masaaki Sakamoto

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A 63-year-old male consulted our institution due to worsening of right hip pain for approximately one month. The patient had no apparent functional disorders besides rigidity of the right ankle secondary to childhood poliomyelitis. Plain radiographs demonstrated narrowing of the right hip joint space. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI showed unusual findings in the right gluteus medius muscle, suspecting a malignant musculoskeletal tumor. Further examinations clarified acute inflammation caused by Staphylococcus aureus with no atypia. After treatment, serum inflammatory markers normalized and MRI showed homogeneous fat signal intensity in the muscle, which was consistent with poliomyelitis. Total hip arthroplasty was performed due to progression of osteoarthritis. Intraoperative findings showed flaccidity of the gluteus medius muscle, and histological examination of the specimen also was compatible with poliomyelitis. Postoperatively there was no hip instability and the patient has been able to resume his previous physical activity. To our knowledge, this is the first report regarding polio survivors combined with septic arthritis, and sole MRI examination was unable to lead to the diagnosis. The current patient demonstrates the possibility that the involved muscles in poliomyelitis exist even in asymptomatic regions, which will be helpful for accurate diagnosis and life guidance in polio survivors.

  19. Musculoskeletal MRI findings of juvenile localized scleroderma

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    Eutsler, Eric P. [Nemours Children' s Health System/Alfred I. duPont Hospital for Children, Wilmington, DE (United States); Washington University School of Medicine, Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology, St. Louis, MO (United States); Horton, Daniel B. [Nemours Children' s Health System/Alfred I. duPont Hospital for Children, Division of Rheumatology, Department of Pediatrics, Wilmington, DE (United States); Rutgers Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Department of Pediatrics, New Brunswick, NJ (United States); Epelman, Monica [Nemours Children' s Health System/Nemours Children' s Hospital, Department of Medical Imaging, Orlando, FL (United States); Finkel, Terri [Nemours Children' s Health System/Nemours Children' s Hospital, Department of Pediatrics, Orlando, FL (United States); Averill, Lauren W. [Nemours Children' s Health System/Alfred I. duPont Hospital for Children, Wilmington, DE (United States)

    2017-04-15

    Juvenile localized scleroderma comprises a group of autoimmune conditions often characterized clinically by an area of skin hardening. In addition to superficial changes in the skin and subcutaneous tissues, juvenile localized scleroderma may involve the deep soft tissues, bones and joints, possibly resulting in functional impairment and pain in addition to cosmetic changes. There is literature documenting the spectrum of findings for deep involvement of localized scleroderma (fascia, muscles, tendons, bones and joints) in adults, but there is limited literature for the condition in children. We aimed to document the spectrum of musculoskeletal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of both superficial and deep juvenile localized scleroderma involvement in children and to evaluate the utility of various MRI sequences for detecting those findings. Two radiologists retrospectively evaluated 20 MRI studies of the extremities in 14 children with juvenile localized scleroderma. Each imaging sequence was also given a subjective score of 0 (not useful), 1 (somewhat useful) or 2 (most useful for detecting the findings). Deep tissue involvement was detected in 65% of the imaged extremities. Fascial thickening and enhancement were seen in 50% of imaged extremities. Axial T1, axial T1 fat-suppressed (FS) contrast-enhanced and axial fluid-sensitive sequences were rated most useful. Fascial thickening and enhancement were the most commonly encountered deep tissue findings in extremity MRIs of children with juvenile localized scleroderma. Because abnormalities of the skin, subcutaneous tissues and fascia tend to run longitudinally in an affected limb, axial T1, axial fluid-sensitive and axial T1-FS contrast-enhanced sequences should be included in the imaging protocol. (orig.)

  20. Neurosarcoidosis with unusual MRI findings

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    Handler, M.S. (Dept. of Pathology and Oncology, Kansas Univ. Medical Center, KS (United States)); Johnson, L.M. (Dept. of Neurology, Kansas Univ. Medical Center, KS (United States)); Dick, A.R. (Dept. of Neurology, Kansas Univ. Medical Center, KS (United States)); Batnitzky, S. (Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Kansas Univ. Medical Center, KS (United States))

    1993-02-01

    This 53-year-old white male presented with a 4-month-history of weakness and pain. Despite an initial partial response to steroid therapy, his neurologic deterioration progressed culminating in paraparesis, paresthesias, urinary incontinence, altered mentation and a 20 Ib weight loss. A gadolinium-enhanced MRI study showed a pattern suggestive of perivascular involvement. A subsequent cerebral biopsy was diagnostic for neurosarcoidosis. (orig.)

  1. MRI findings of extramedullary haemopoiesis

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    Chourmouzi, D.; Pistevou-Gompaki, K.; Plataniotis, G.; Skaragas, G.; Papadopoulos, L.; Drevelegas, A. [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology and Radiation Oncology, AHEPA University Hospital, Thessaloniki (Greece)

    2001-09-01

    Extramedullary haemopoiesis (EH) is a compensatory process associated with chronic haemolytic anaemia. It is rare, however, for such an abnormality to cause spinal cord compression. We present two patients with known beta-thalassaemia intermedia who developed spinal cord compression due to masses of extramedullary haematopoietic tissue in the epidural space of the thoracic spine. The EH masses were diagnosed by MRI as an isointense epidural lesion on both T1- and T2-weighted images, compressing severely the spinal cord. After administration of a paramagnetic agent, an intermediate enhancement of the masses was evident. All the vertebral bodies had low to intermediate signal intensity as a result of displacement of fatty marrow by haematopoietic marrow. Expansion of thoracic ribs with bilateral paravertebral masses were characteristic. A small dose of radiotherapy was given and marked improvement in neurological symptoms was evident. An MRI examination established shrinkage of the mass and decompression of spinal cord. The role of MRI in diagnosis of EH masses is essential and radiation therapy is a very effective treatment for this rare complication. (orig.)

  2. MRI findings in 100 epileptic children

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    Suzukawa, Junko; Sugimoto, Tateo; Araki, Atsushi (Kansai Medical School, Moriguchi, Osaka (Japan)) (and others)

    1993-02-01

    Findings of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain were retrospectively reviewed in 100 consecutive pediatric patients with epilepsy in relation to the type of epilepsy and prognosis. There were 65 boys and 35 girls, ranging in age from 3 months to 25 years. Among 100 patients, 67 (a total of 102 lesions) showed abnormal findings on MRI. Morphological abnormalities, including ventricular enlargement, atrophy and malformation, were seen in 54 patients. Periventricular (n=14), frontal (n=3), temporal (n=8) and occipital (n=7) areas were of high signal intensity on T2-weighted images. According to the type of epilepsy, MRI abnormality was seen in 34 (61%) of 56 patients with partial seizures and 33 (76%) of 44 patients with generalized seizures. When associated with cerebral palsy and mental retardation, the incidence of MRI abnormality was high. There was no sigificant correlation between MRI findings and prognosis. (N.K.).

  3. Anencephaly: MRI findings and pathogenetic theories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calzolari, Ferdinando; Gambi, Beatrice; Garani, Giampaolo; Tamisari, Lalla

    2004-12-01

    We describe the MRI appearances of an anencephalic newborn who survived for 13 h; particularities of this case are male gender and the absence of other associated malformations. Moreover, we discuss the pathogenetic theories of anencephaly, correlating MRI findings with embryological data. An exencephaly-anencephaly sequence due to amnion rupture is hypothesized.

  4. Anencephaly: MRI findings and pathogenetic theories

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    Calzolari, Ferdinando [Azienda Ospedaliera Universitaria, Department of Neuroradiology, Ferrara (Italy); Gambi, Beatrice [Ospedale S. Donato, Neonatal Unit, Arezzo (Italy); Garani, Giampaolo; Tamisari, Lalla [Universita degli Studi, Neonatal Unit, Ferrara (Italy)

    2004-12-01

    We describe the MRI appearances of an anencephalic newborn who survived for 13 h; particularities of this case are male gender and the absence of other associated malformations. Moreover, we discuss the pathogenetic theories of anencephaly, correlating MRI findings with embryological data. An exencephaly-anencephaly sequence due to amnion rupture is hypothesized. (orig.)

  5. MRI findings of Guillain-Barre syndrome

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    Park, Won Kyu; Lee, Hwa Jin; Byun, Woo Mok [Yeungnam Univ. College of Medicine, Taegu (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-04-01

    To evaluate MRI findings of Guillain-Barre syndrome. In six patients with Guillain-Barre syndrome diagnosed by clinical, cerebrospinal fluid and electrophysiologic findings, a retrospective review of MR findings was conducted. Follow-up MRI scans were carried out in two patients showing minimal clinical improvement. Marked or moderate enhancement of thickened nerve roots was seen in all cases on gadopentetate dimeglumine enhanced axial T1-weighted images. Two patterns were seen; one was even enhancement of both anterior and posterior nerve roots (n=1) and the other was enhancement of anterior nerve roots only (n=5). Enhancement and thickness of nerve roots was seen to have slightly decreased on MRI follow-up at 32 and 50 days; clinical and electrophysiologic examination showed minimal improvement. Although MRI findings of nerve root enhancement are nonspecific and can be seen in neoplastic and other inflammatory diseases, the enhancement of thickened anterior nerve roots within the cal sac suggests Guillain-Barre syndrome.

  6. MRI finding of ethylmalonic encephalopathy: case report

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    Kim, Jin Yong; Lee, Shi Kyung; Han, Chun Hwan; Rho, Eun Jin [Kangnam General Hospital Public Corporation, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-12-01

    Ethylmalonic encephalopathy is a rare syndrom characterized by developmental delay, acrocyanosis, petechiae, chronic diarrhea, and ethylmalonic, lactic, and methylsuccinic aciduria. We report the MRI finding of ethylmalonic encephalopathy including previously unreported intracranial hematoma.

  7. Brain MRI Findings in Congenital Muscular Dystrophy

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    J Gordon Millichap

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI findings in 13 patients with congenital muscular dystrophy (MDCIC and Fukutin-related protein (FKRP gene mutations were retrospectively reviewed in a study at Hammersmith Hospital, London, UK, and European centers.

  8. MRI findings in acute Hendra virus meningoencephalitis

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    Nakka, P.; Amos, G.J. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Princess Alexandra Hospital, Woolloongabba, Qld 4102 (Australia); Saad, N., E-mail: nivena100@hotmail.com [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Princess Alexandra Hospital, Woolloongabba, Qld 4102 (Australia); Jeavons, S. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Princess Alexandra Hospital, Woolloongabba, Qld 4102 (Australia)

    2012-05-15

    Aim: To describe serial changes in brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in acute human infection from two outbreaks of Hendra virus (HeV), relate these changes to disease prognosis, and compare HeV encephalitis to reported cases of Nipah virus encephalitis. Materials and methods: The MRI images of three human cases (two of which were fatal) of acute HeV meningoencephalitis were reviewed. Results: Cortical selectivity early in the disease is evident in all three patients, while deep white matter involvement appears to be a late and possibly premorbid finding. This apparent early grey matter selectivity may be related to viral biology or ribavirin pharmacokinetics. Neuronal loss is evident at MRI, and the rate of progression of MRI abnormalities can predict the outcome of the infection. In both fatal cases, the serial changes in the MRI picture mirrored the clinical course. Conclusion: This is the first comprehensive report of serial MRI findings in acute human cerebral HeV infection from two outbreaks. The cortical selectivity appears to be an early finding while deep white matter involvement a late, and possibly premorbid, finding. In both fatal cases, the serial changes in MRI mirrored the clinical course.

  9. Vertebral involvement in SAPHO syndrome: MRI findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nachtigal, A.; Cardinal, E.; Bureau, N.J. [Dept. of Radiology, Univ. de Montreal, QC (Canada); Sainte-Marie, L.G. [Dept. of Internal Medicine, Univ. de Montreal, QC (Canada); Milette, F. [Department of Pathology, Univ. de Montreal, QC (Canada)

    1999-03-01

    We report on the MRI findings in the vertebrae and surrounding soft tissues in two patients with the SAPHO syndrome (Synovitis, Acne, Pustulosis, Hyperostosis, Osteitis). The MRI findings include abnormal bone marrow signal, either focal or diffuse, of the vertebral bodies and posterior elements; hyperintense paravertebral soft tissue swelling and abnormal signal of the intervertebral discs. These changes are consistent with discitis and osteitis. (orig.) With 6 figs., 17 refs.

  10. Fucosidosis: MRI and MRS findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oner, Ali Y.; Akpek, Sergin [Gazi University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Ankara (Turkey); Cansu, Ali; Serdaroglu, Ayse [Gazi University School of Medicine, Department of Paediatrics, Ankara (Turkey)

    2007-10-15

    Fucosidosis is a rare, autosomal recessive lysosomal storage disease in which fucose-containing glycolipids, glycoproteins, and oligosaccharides accumulate in tissues as a consequence of {alpha}-l-fucosidase enzyme deficiency. We present the MR imaging findings of diffuse white-matter hyperintensity and pallidal curvilinear streak hyperintensity in a 6-year-old Caucasian girl with a diagnosis of fucosidosis based on cDNA isolated from skin fibroblasts. This report also includes the MRS findings of a decreased N-acetylaspartate/choline ratio together with an abnormal peak at 3.8 ppm which expand the knowledge of the neuroradiological spectrum of this rare disease. (orig.)

  11. MRI findings of enteroviral encephalomyelitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Saied Abdelgawad

    2016-09-01

    Conclusion: Enterovirus encephalomyelitis has characteristic lesion locations in the posterior portions of the brain stem, substantia nigra, dentate nucleus and within the anterior horns of spinal cord. Recognition of these findings in the presence of suggestive clinical presentation can help to establish the diagnosis of enterovirus encephalomyelitis.

  12. Functional and morphological findings in early and advanced stages of HIV infection: A comparison of sup 99m Tc-HMPAO SPECT with CT and MRI studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tatsch, K.; Bauer, W.M.; Markl, A.; Kirsch, C.M. (Klinikum Grosshadern, Muenchen (Germany, F.R.). Radiologische Klinik und Poliklinik); Schielke, E.; Einhaeupl, K.M. (Klinikum Grosshadern, Muenchen (Germany, F.R.). Neurologische Klinik)

    1990-12-01

    In fourty patients at early and advanced stages of HIV infection (Water-Reed stages I-VI) regional cerebral blood flow was determined by {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO SPECT, comparing the results with CT and MRI findings. All patients with HIV encephalopathy (AIDS dementia complex) had pathologic SPECT results (multilocular, patchy uptake defects), but also in earlier and even earliest stages of HIV infection positive SPECT findings were observed. Compared to functional SPECT imaging, morphologically orientated method (CT, MRI) were insensitive in detecting HIV-induced foci: More than 50% of the patients with pathologic SPECT findings had negative CT or MRI scans. Most patients in advanced Walter Reed stages had neurological abnormalities accompanied by positive SPECT. Subtle alterations of HMPAO uptake were observed even in a few cases of early HIV infection without neurological CNS symptoms. The data presented suggest that HMPAO SPECT is highly sensitive in the detection of altered brain perfusion not only in advanced but also early stages of HIV infection. Changes in regional cerebral blood flow are presented before noticeable structural defects may be observed. (orig./MG).

  13. MRI findings in the painful hemiplegic shoulder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tavora, D.G.F., E-mail: danielgurgel@sarah.b [Department of Radiology, Sarah Network of Hospitals for Rehabilitation, Fortaleza (Brazil); Gama, R.L.; Bomfim, R.C. [Department of Radiology, Sarah Network of Hospitals for Rehabilitation, Fortaleza (Brazil); Nakayama, M. [Department of Radiology, Federal University of Grande Dourados, Dourados (Brazil); Silva, C.E.P. [Department of Statistics, Sarah Network of Hospitals for Rehabilitation, Fortaleza (Brazil)

    2010-10-15

    Aim: To evaluate the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings in painful hemiplegic shoulder (PHS) in hemiplegic post-stroke patients. Materials and methods: Patients with hemiplegia following their first cerebrovascular accident who were admitted to the Sarah Network of Hospitals for Rehabilitation were studied. Forty-five patients with pain in the hemiplegic shoulder and 23 post-stroke patients without shoulder pain were investigated. MRI and radiographic findings of the hemiplegic and contralateral asymptomatic shoulders were evaluated. Results: Some MRI findings were more frequent in PHS group, including synovial capsule thickening, synovial capsule enhancement, and enhancement in the rotator cuff interval. Conclusions: Adhesive capsulitis was found to be a possible cause of PHS.

  14. Fetal MRI: incidental findings in the mother

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdullah, Selwan B. [University of Maryland Medical Center, Diagnostic Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States); University of Minnesota, Medical School, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Dietz, Kelly R.; Holm, Tara L. [University of Minnesota, Department of Radiology, Minneapolis, MN (United States)

    2016-11-15

    Fetal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a routinely used tool in prenatal diagnosis; however, there is a lack of studies evaluating incidental findings observed in the mother. This study describes and quantifies incidental findings observed in the mother during fetal MRI. We reviewed all fetal MRI studies at the University of Minnesota Medical Center from February 2008 to September 2014. Two pediatric radiologists retrospectively conducted a consensus evaluation. The maternal findings were categorized into neurologic, gynecologic, urinary, gastrointestinal and musculoskeletal. Hydronephrosis consistent with the stage of pregnancy was recorded but was not included as an abnormal finding. Abnormal findings were classified into three groups, depending on their clinical significance: level I (low), level II (medium) and level III (high). We evaluated 332 pregnant patients with a mean age of 29.3 years and a mean gestational age of 29 weeks. Of these, 55.4% had at least 1 incidental finding, for a total of 262 incidental maternal findings. Of the 262 abnormalities, 113 (43.1%) were neurologic, 69 were gynecologic (26.3%), 36 (13.7%) urinary, 24 (9.2%) gastrointestinal and 20 (7.6%) musculoskeletal. Of the 262 incidental findings, 237 (90.5%) were level I, 24 (9.2%) were level II and 1 (0.4%) was level III. Our results suggest that although the vast majority of incidental maternal findings are benign, more significant findings are still encountered and should be expected. (orig.)

  15. MRI and CT findings of intracranial neurosyphilis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suh, Hong Kil; Shim, Ya Seong; Kim, Seon Bok; Kim, Uk Jung; Lee, Shin Ho; Jung, Hae Kyuong; Lee, Eil Seong; Kang, Ik Won [Hallym University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Hyeun Cha [Sungkyunkwan University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-02-01

    To evaluate the CT and MRI findings of neurosyphilis. We retrospectively reviewed the CT and MR imaging findings in five patients with intracranial neurosyphilis confirmed by CSF, VDRL, TPHA, and clinical follow-up. MR imaging was performed in all five cases, and CT in two. The MRI and CT findings of intracranial neurosyphilis included infarction (n=3), focal inflammation (n=1) and encephalopathy (n=1). There was a total of ten infaretions : three of the basal ganglia, two each of the frontal lobe, watershed zone, and cerebellum, and one of the occipital lobe. Intaretion was most common in MCA territory (n=9; 50%), followed by the watershed zone (16.6%), posterior cerebral artery territory (16.6%), and posterior inferior cerebellar artery territory (11.1%). The size of the lesion varied from 1cm to larger than one lobe. One patient showed diffuse high signal intensity in the left temporal lobe, but on follow-up MRI, this had resolved. The most common finding of neurosyphilis, as seen on MRI and CT, was infarction in middle cerebral arterial territory.

  16. MRI findings of treated bacterial septic arthritis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bierry, Guillaume; Huang, Ambrose J.; Chang, Connie Y.; Torriani, Martin; Bredella, Miriam A. [Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Musculoskeletal Imaging and Intervention, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States)

    2012-12-15

    The purpose of this study was to report the MRI findings that can be encountered in successfully treated bacterial septic arthritis. The study included 12 patients (8 male and 4 female; mean age 38 years, range 9-85) with 13 proven cases of bacterial septic arthritis. The joints involved were hip (n = 3), knee (n = 3), shoulder (n = 2), sacroiliac (n = 2), ankle (n = 1), wrist (n = 1), and elbow (n = 1). MRI examinations following surgical debridement and at initiation of antibiotic therapy and after successful treatment were compared for changes in effusion, synovium, bone, and periarticular soft tissues. Imaging findings were correlated with microbiological and clinical findings. Joint effusions were present in all joints at baseline and regressed significantly at follow-up MRI (p = 0.001). Abscesses were present in 5 cases (38 %), and their sizes decreased significantly at follow-up (p = 0.001). Synovial enhancement and thickening were observed in all joints at both baseline and follow-up MRI. Myositis/cellulitis was present in 10 cases (77 %) at baseline and in 8 cases (62 %) at follow-up MRI. Bone marrow edema was present in 10 joints (77 %) at baseline and persisted in 8 joints (62 %). Bone erosions were found in 8 joints (62 %) and persisted at follow-up MRI in all cases. The sizes of joint effusions and abscesses appear to be the factors with the most potential for monitoring therapy for septic arthritis, since both decreased significantly following successful treatment. Synovial thickening and enhancement, periarticular myositis/cellulitis, and bone marrow edema can persist even after resolution of the infection. (orig.)

  17. Isovaleric acidaemia: cranial CT and MRI findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sogut, Ayhan; Acun, Ceyda; Tomsac, Nazan; Demirel, Fatma [Department of Paediatrics, Karaelmas University, Zonguldak (Turkey); Aydin, Kubilay [Department of Radiology, Istanbul Medical School, Istanbul University, Camlikyolu, B. mehmetpasa sokak yavuz apt. No:10/10, Etiler, Istanbul (Turkey); Aktuglu, Cigdem [Department of Paediatrics, Cerrahpasa Medical School, Istanbul University, Istanbul (Turkey)

    2004-02-01

    Isovaleric acidaemia is an inborn error of leucine metabolism due to deficiency of isovaleryl-CoA dehydrogenase, which results in accumulation of isovaleric acid in body fluids. There are acute and chronic-intermittent forms of the disease. We present the cranial CT and MRI findings of a 19-month-old girl with the chronic-intermittent form of isovaleric acidaemia. She presented with severe metabolic acidosis, hyperglycaemia, glycosuria, ketonuria and acute encephalopathy. Cranial CT revealed bilateral hypodensity of the globi pallidi. MRI showed signal changes in the globi pallidi and corticospinal tracts of the mesencephalon, which were hypointense on T1-weighted and hyperintense on T2-weighted images. (orig.)

  18. MRI Findings in Patients with TMJ Click

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahrokh Imanimoghaddam

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: It has been shown that joint click, an initial and common finding in internal derangement (ID, respond to neither conservative treatment nor surgical intervention. This raises the question as to whether it must be treated in the absence of other pertinent signs and symptoms, so the aim of this study was to investigate and compare the MRI findings of TMJ in both normal subjects and patients with click, in order to determine the importance of click in predicting TMJ pathological changes. Methods: A total of 26 patients with clinical symptoms of disk displacement with reduction (DDwR according to RDC/TMD were compared to 14 normal subjects in terms of their MRI findings, including disk displacement, effusion, condylar osteoarthritic changes and disk deformities. Results: Out of 80 joints in total (52 affected joints in 26 patients and 28 joints in control group, 48 were shown with normal disk position in MRI whereas 28 (35% and 4 (5% were categorised as DDwR and (disk displacement without reduction DDwoR, respectively. Statistically significant correlations were established between the following pairs of variables in order: Click and disk displacement, effusion and disk displacement, disk displacement and effusion with disk deformity. Conclusion: The correlation between the presence of click and disk displacement, disk deformity and effusion emphasizes the importance of MRI for an accurate diagnosis and development of an appropriate treatment plan in these cases and shows that clinical examination is not sufficient for these purposes.

  19. Extended MRI findings of intersection syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Roger P.; Hatem, Stephen F.; Recht, Michael P. [Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH (United States)

    2009-02-15

    The symptoms and physical findings of intersection syndrome have been well described in the clinical medical literature. However, the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings in patients with intersection syndrome of the forearm have only recently been described in a small number of patients. We review our experience with imaging of intersection syndrome, describe previously unreported MRI findings, and emphasize modifications to MRI protocols for its evaluation. Institutional review board approval was obtained for this retrospective review of patients with MRI findings consistent with intersection syndrome of the forearm during the period from January 2004 to September 2006. Six patients were identified, three males and three females, with an average age of 39.3 years. The MRI examinations were reviewed to assess signal abnormalities within and adjacent to the first and second dorsal extensor tendon compartments (DETC): tendinosis, peritendinous edema or fluid, muscle edema, subcutaneous edema, and juxtacortical edema. The overall longitudinal extent of signal alterations was measured as well as the distance from Lister's tubercle to the crossover of the first and second DETC. Review of the MRIs showed increased intrasubstance tendon signal suggesting tendinosis in two of the six patients, peritendinous edema or fluid in all six patients, muscle edema in five of the six patients, and subcutaneous edema in three of the six patients. Juxtacortical edema was seen in one patient. Peritendinous edema or fluid extended distally beyond the radiocarpal joint in three of the six patients. The average distance from Lister's tubercle to the crossover of the first and second DETC was 3.95 cm, in keeping with recently published data. Intersection syndrome is an uncommon MRI diagnosis. In addition to the previously described MRI findings of edema adjacent to the first or second DETC, possibly with proximal extension and subcutaneous edema, we have identified

  20. Placenta percreta: methotrexate treatment and MRI findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heiskanen, Nonna; Kröger, Jaana; Kainulainen, Sakari; Heinonen, Seppo

    2008-02-01

    Our patient was a 24-year-old gravida 2 para 0 woman. After delivery, placenta percreta was noticed. There was no postpartum hemorrhage, and the patient desired future pregnancies. Although placenta percreta is rare, its sequelae include potentially lethal hemorrhage and loss of reproduction function. Placenta percreta was confirmed histologically and with ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Placenta percreta was treated conservatively with methotrexate. On follow-up, MRI showed a small calcified transmural extension of the placenta throughout the uterus in the right fundal area. Color Doppler ultrasonography showed no blood flow in the corresponding area, and maternal serum human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) was undetectable. Use of MRI is a new method to detect abnormal placentation, and it could be used on follow-up in selective cases with other follow-up modalities. However, it seems likely that conservative management to preserve future fertility remains a secured and reasonable alternative when a patient has no active bleeding.

  1. Quality assurance in functional MRI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Thomas T; Glover, Gary H; Mueller, Bryon A

    2015-01-01

    Over the past 20 years, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has ben- efited greatly from improvements in MRI hardware and software. At the same time, fMRI researchers have pushed the technical limits of MRI systems and greatly in- fluenced the development of state-of-the-art systems....... Minimizing image noise and maximizing system stability is critical in fMRI because the blood oxygenation level- dependent (BOLD) signal changes that are used for most fMRI studies represent only a small fraction of the total MR signal. In addition, multiple imaging volumes must be acquired over time to track...... cognitive processes. As a result, MRI scanners must have excellent time-series stability to accurately measure BOLD signal changes over the course of a long time series (typically on the order of 10 min per scan). fMRI studies are particularly demanding on the scanner hardware because they utilize fast...

  2. Postoperative MRI findings after cholesteatoma surgery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Segawa, Yuko; Tono, Tetsuya; Kano, Kiyo; Morimitsu, Tamotsu [Miyazaki Medical Coll., Kiyotake (Japan)

    1995-07-01

    This study was designed to show MRI findings of postoperative middle ear pathologies and to discuss the usefulness of Gadolinium-enhanced MRI in evaluating the postoperative state of cholesteatoma. Thirty-eight ears which underwent intact canal wall tympanoplasty for cholesteatoma were examined. Recurrent cholesteatoma was detected as an iso-intensity area on T1-weighted images with negative enhancement. Notably, residual cholesteatoma were generally depicted as a round iso-intensity area with negative enhancement. Residual cholesteatoma less than 5 mm in diameter were, however, not generally detectable with our MRI scanner. Granulation tissue can be separated from cholesteatoma as an area with positive enhancement. Cholesterol granuloma shows a characteristic high signal pattern on both T1 and T2-weighted images. Hypovascular fibrous tissue and fluid collection may be depicted as a pattern similar to that of cholesteatoma. However, the signal is usually more homogeneous than that of cholesteatoma. We conclude that Gadolinium-enhanced MRI is useful for detecting postoperative cholesteatoma and avoiding unnecessary second-look operations after cholesteatoma surgery, by the canal-up procedure. (author).

  3. Primary hypertrophic osteoarthropathy: ultrasound and MRI findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, Brook; Kraft, Jeannette K. [Leeds Children' s Hospital at The Leeds General Infirmary, Clarendon Wing Radiology Department, Leeds, West Yorkshire (United Kingdom); Amin, Tania; Leone, Valentina; Wood, Mark [Leeds Children' s Hospital at The Leeds General Infirmary, Department of Paediatric Rheumatology, Leeds (United Kingdom)

    2016-05-15

    Primary hypertrophic osteoarthropathy is a rare genetic disorder related to failures in prostaglandin metabolism. Patients present with joint pain, limb enlargement, skin thickening and finger clubbing. Radiographs show characteristic periosteal reaction and thickening along the long bones. We present MRI and US findings in a child with the condition. Ultrasound showed echogenic tissue surrounding the long bones, presumably reflecting oedema and inflammatory tissue. Doppler sonograms demonstrated increased vascularity on the surface of some superficial bony structures. (orig.)

  4. Brain MRI findings of neuropsychiatric lupus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jang-Wook; Kwon, Bae Ju; Lee, Seung-Ro; Hahm, Chang-Kok; Moon, Won Jin; Jeon, Eui Yong; Bae, Sang-Chul [Hanyang Univ. School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-12-01

    To evaluate the brain MRI findings in patients with neuropsychiatric lupus. In 26 patients (M:F = 2:24 ; aged 9-48 years) in whom the presence of systemic lupus erythematosus was clinically or pathologically proven and in whom neuropsychiatric lupus was also clinically diagnosed, the findings of brain MRI were retrospectively evaluated. MR images were analyzed with regard to the distribution, location, size and number of lesions due to cerebral ischemia or infarction, the presence of cerebral atrophy, and the extent and degree of brain parenchymal and intravascular enhancement. The most common MRI findings were lesions due to cerebral ischemia or infarction occurring in 18 patients (69%), and located within deep periventricular white matter (n=10), subcortical white matter (n=8), the cerebral cortex (n=7), basal ganglia (n=7), or brain stem or cerebellum (n=2). The lesions were single (n=3) or multiple (n=15), and in 17 patients were less than 1cm in diameter in regions other than the cerebral cortex. In six of these patients, lesions of 1-4cm in diameter in this region were combined, and one occurred in the cerebral cortex only. Cerebral atrophy was seen in 16 patients (62%), in ten of whom there was no past history of treatment with steroids for more than six months. In 15 patients (58%), contrast-enhanced MR image revealed diffuse enhancement of the basal ganglia or intravascular enhancement. In no case were MRI findings normal. The primary mainfestations of neuropsychiatric lupus are multifocal ischemia or infarctions in the cerebral cortex, and subcortical and deep white matter, and the cerebral atrophy. Contrast-enhanced MR images also demonstrated diffuse enhancement of the basal ganglia and intravascular enhancement, both thought to be related to the congestion due to the stagnation of cerebral blood flow.

  5. MRI VERSUS ARTHROSCOPY: A COMPARISON OF FINDINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somashekhara Reddy

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to correlate the findings of Magnetic Resonance Imaging with Arthroscopy in internal derangements of knee and to assess the sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of Magnetic Resonance Imaging in comparison to Arthroscopy. METHODS AND MATERIALS Fifty six patients with history of suspected internal derangement of knee were evaluated prospectively with MRI and correlated with arthroscopy during a one and half a year period from March 2012 to September 2013.1.5 Tesla MRI machine using a closed extremity coil is used. Sequences used in MRI of the knee include Turbo-spin echo (TSE, FFE (Gradient echo and Short Tau Inversion Recovery (STIR sequences in Axial, Sagittal and Coronal planes using a slice thickness of 3 mm with a 0.3 mm slice gap. Arthroscopy of the knee with standard anteromedial and anterolateral portals with the patient in supine position done in all the cases. RESULTS The diagnostic sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of MRI in detecting cruciate ligament and meniscal injuries as compared to Arthroscopy are as follows: Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL: 97.29%, 89.47%, 94.64%; Posterior Cruciate Ligament (PCL: 100%, 100%, 100%; Medial Meniscus (MM: 100%, 93.33%, 98.21% and Lateral Meniscus (LM: 93.10, 92.59, 92.85. Most common lesions found were ACL and Medial Meniscal tears (posterior horn of MM being the most common site. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION  MRI is a useful non-invasive modality having high sensitivity, specificity and accuracy in diagnosing cruciate ligament and meniscal injuries.  MRI should be considered as the first line of investigation in all patients with suspected internal derangements of knee.  MRI being easily available and non-invasive is useful as a pre-operative screening modality, thus improves the quality of diagnostic and therapeutic arthroscopies and further reduces the morbidity.  Arthroscopy is the standard diagnosing tool in all patients with suspected internal

  6. Extra-mammary findings in breast MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rinaldi, Pierluigi; Costantini, M.; Belli, P.; Giuliani, M.; Bufi, E.; Fubelli, R.; Distefano, D.; Romani, M.; Bonomo, L. [Catholic University - Policlinic A. Gemelli, Department of Bio-Imaging and Radiological Sciences, Rome (Italy)

    2011-11-15

    Incidental extra-mammary findings in breast Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) may be benign in nature, but may also represent a metastasis or another important lesion. We aimed to analyse the prevalence and clinical relevance of these unexpected findings. A retrospective review of 1535 breast MRIs was conducted. Only axial sequences were reassessed. Confirmation examinations were obtained in all cases. 285 patients had a confirmed incidental finding, which were located in the liver (51.9%), lung (11.2%), bone (7%), mediastinal lymph nodes (4.2%) or consisted of pleural/pericardial effusion (15.4%). 20.4% of incidental findings were confirmed to be malignant. Positive predictive value for MRI to detect a metastatic lesion was high if located within the bone (89%), lymph nodes (83%) and lung (59%), while it was low if located within the liver (9%) or if it consisted of pleural/pericardial effusion (6%). The axial enhanced sequence showed superior sensitivity to unenhanced images in detecting metastatic lesions, especially if only smaller ({<=}10 mm.) lesions were considered. The prevalence of metastatic incidental extra-mammary findings is not negligible. Particular attention should be to incidental findings located within the lung, bone and mediastinal lymph nodes. (orig.)

  7. Periarthritis of the shoulder-MRI findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirano, Mako; Nomura, Kazutoshi; Hashimoto, Noburo; Fukumoto, Tetsuya; Oshima, Suguru; Katahira, Kazuhiro [Kumamoto National Hospital (Japan)

    1997-09-01

    We examined MRI findings in patients with periarthritis of the shoulder. We excluded cuff tears, calcified tendinitis, instability of the shoulder, fracture and impingement syndrome of young patients. Subjects comprised 36 cases, 38 shoulders (25 men and 11 women), with an average age of 59.1 years (42-75). Scanning was performed on a Gyroscan T5-II 0.5-T (Philips). T1-weighted and T2-weighted sequences in the coronal oblique plane, T2-weighted sequences in the coronal sagittal plane and horizontal plane were taken. Twelve shoulders showed some change in the humeral heads. Degeneration of the rotator cuff was observed in 15 shoulders. Joint fluid collection was observed in the gleno-humeral joints of 15 shoulders, in the subacromial bursa of 11 shoulders and in the acromio-clavicular joints of 7 shoulders. Twenty four shoulders had fluid collection in the sheath of the long head of the biceps long tendon. Localized high signal area was observed around the inferior pouch in 11 shoulders. We studied the relationship between MRI findings and clinical symptoms. There was no significant relationship but the shoulders with night pain and severe contractures had a higher positive rate of joint fluid collection on MRI than the shoulders without night pain and with less contractures. (author)

  8. Clinical and MRI findings of brucellar spondylodiscitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bozgeyik, Zulkif [Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, Firat University, 23119 Elazig (Turkey)], E-mail: bozgeyik4@hotmail.com; Ozdemir, Huseyin [Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, Firat University, 23119 Elazig (Turkey); Demirdag, Kutbettin; Ozden, Mehmet [Department of Infection Disease, Faculty of Medicine, Firat University, Elazig (Turkey); Sonmezgoz, Fitnet [Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, Firat University, 23119 Elazig (Turkey); Ozgocmen, Salih [Division of Rheumatology, Department of PMR, Faculty of Medicine, Firat University, Elazig (Turkey)

    2008-07-15

    Objective: The aim of this retrospective study was to report the clinical features and MR imaging findings of patients with brucellar spondylodiscitis. Materials and methods: Twenty-two patients with spondylodiscitis, recruited among 152 patients with brucellosis referred from the Department of Infectious Diseases. Patients were diagnosed based on positive clinical findings, {>=}1/160 titers of brucella agglutination tests and/or positive blood cultures. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed to all of the patients with spondylodiscitis. Signal changes and enhancement of vertebral bodies, involvement of paravertebral soft tissues and epidural spaces, nerve root and cord compression and abscess formation were assessed. Results: All of the patients (n = 22; 7 F, 15 M) had {>=}1/160 titers of brucella agglutination test and blood culture was positive in 9. A great majority of the patients had involvement at only one vertebrae level (n = 21, 95.5%), whereas one patient (4.5%) had multilevel involvement. In MRI, eight patients had soft tissue involvement and three had abscess formation. All cases had vertebral and discal enhancement. Additionally epidural extension was detected in four cases, posterior longitudinal ligament (PLL) elevation in five cases and root compression in two cases. Conclusion: Brucella is still a public health problem in endemic areas. MRI is a highly sensitive and non-invasive imaging technique which should be first choice of imaging in the early diagnosis of spondylodiscitis.

  9. Non-Infectious Ischiogluteal Bursitis: MRI Findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sung Moon; Lee, Young Hwan; Suh, Kyung Jin; Kim, Sung Moon; Shin, Myung Jin; Jang, Han Won

    2004-01-01

    Objective We wished to report on the MRI findings of non-infectious ischiogluteal bursitis. Materials and Methods The MRI findings of 17 confirmed cases of non-infectious ischiogluteal bursitis were analyzed: four out of the 17 cases were confirmed with surgery, and the remaining 13 cases were confirmed with MRI plus the clinical data. Results The enlarged bursae were located deep to the gluteus muscles and postero-inferior to the ischial tuberosity. The superior ends of the bursal sacs abutted to the infero-medial aspect of the ischial tuberosity. The signal intensity within the enlarged bursa on T1-weighted image (WI) was hypo-intense in three cases (3/17, 17.6%), iso-intense in 10 cases (10/17, 58.9%), and hyper-intense in four cases (4/17, 23.5%) in comparison to that of surrounding muscles. The bursal sac appeared homogeneous in 13 patients (13/17, 76.5%) and heterogeneous in the remaining four patients (4/17, 23.5%) on T1-WI. On T2-WI, the bursa was hyper-intense in all cases (17/17, 100%); it was heterogeneous in 10 cases and homogeneous in seven cases. The heterogeneity was variable depending on the degree of the blood-fluid levels and the septae within the bursae. With contrast enhancement, the inner wall of the bursae was smooth (5/17 cases), and irregular (12/17 cases) because of the synovial proliferation and septation. Conclusion Ischiogluteal bursitis can be diagnosed with MRI by its characteristic location and cystic appearance. PMID:15637479

  10. Non-infectious ischiogluteal bursitis: MRI findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Kil Ho; Jang, Han Won [Yeungnam University College of Medicine, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sung Moon [Keimyung University College of Medicine, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Young Hwan [Daegu Hyosung Catholic University College of Medicine, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Suh, Kyung Jin [Suh and Joo MR Clinic, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sung Moon; Shin, Myung Jin [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-12-15

    We wished to report on the MRI findings of non-infectious ischiogluteal bursitis. The MRI findings of 17 confirmed cases of non-infectious ischiogluteal bursitis were analyzed: four out of the 17 cases were confirmed with surgery, and the remaining 13 cases were confirmed with MRI plus the clinical data. The enlarged bursae were located deep to the gluteus muscles and postero-inferior to the ischial tuberosity. The superior ends of the bursal sacs abutted to the infero-medial aspect of the ischial tuberosity. The signal intensity within the enlarged bursa on T1-weighted image (WI) was hypo-intense in three cases (3/17, 17.6%), iso-intense in 10 cases (10/17, 58.9%), and hyper-intense in four cases (4/17, 23.5%) in comparison to that of surrounding muscles. The bursal sac appeared homogeneous in 13 patients (13/17, 76.5%) and heterogeneous in the remaining four patients (4/17, 23.5%) on T1-WI. On T2-WI, the bursa was hyper-intense in all cases (17/17, 100%); it was heterogeneous in 10 cases and homogeneous in seven cases. The heterogeneity was variable depending on the degree of the blood-fluid levels and the septae within the bursae. With contrast enhancement, the inner wall of the bursae was smooth (5/7 cases), and irregular (12/17 cases) because of the synovial proliferation and septation. Ischiogluteal bursitis can be diagnosed with MRI by its characteristic location and cystic appearance.

  11. Various MRI findings of spinal ependymoma

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    Shin, Yoon Joo; Lee, Eugene; Lee, Joon Woo; Kang, Yu Suhn; Hyun, Seung Jae; Kim, Ki Jeong; Jahng, Tae Ahn; Kim, Hyun Jib; Kang, Heung Sik [Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-06-15

    To present the typical and atypical magnetic resonance image (MRI) findings of intramedullary spinal ependymomas, and compare these findings with pathological subtypes. Between January 2003 to November 2014, 47 patients who had spinal ependymoma with pathologic confirmation, were retrospectively reviewed with all electronic medical records and MR images. MR imaging was done in all cases, and the images of spinal ependymomas and associated enhancement patterns were correlated with pathologic findings. The enhancement patterns were categorized into four categories: homogeneous, heterogeneous, rim-enhancement, and non-enhancement. Heterogeneous enhancement was observed in 50% of the cases. Among the 47 cases, 35 cases were well-marginated, with 21 being cervically located. All lesions were centrally located in the axial axis. Most of the cases showed T1-iso signal intensity (81%) and T2-high signal intensity (72%). The hemosiderin cap sign, syringomyelia, tumoral and non-tumoral cysts were well demonstrated. The most common pathologic type was cellular ependymoma. However, due to the small sample size, we believe it inappropriate to statistically discuss the MRI findings according to the pathologic subtype. Most spinal ependymoma showed T1-iso signal intensity and T2-high signal intensity, with enhancement patterns other than homogeneous enhancement.

  12. MRI Findings in Spinal Canal Stenosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Barzin

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Spinal canal stenosis results from progressive narrowing of the central spinal canal and the lateral recesses. Primary (congenital lumbar spinal stenosis is associated with achondroplastic dwarfism. The spinal canal may become narrowed by bulging or protrusion of the intervertebral disc annulus, herniation of the nucleus pulposus posteriorly, thickening of the posterior longitudinal ligament, hypertrophy of the facet joints, hypertrophy of the ligamentum flavum, epidural fat deposition, spondylosis of the intervertebral disc margins and uncovertebral joint hypertrophy in the neck. The central canal and the neurorecess may be compromised by tumor infiltration, such as metastatic disease, or by infectious spondylitis."nAP diameter of the normal adult cervical canal has a mean value of 17-18 mm at vertebral levels C3-5. The lower cervical canal measures 12-14 mm. Cervical stenosis is associated with an AP diameter of less than 10 mm. The thoracic spinal canal varies from 12 to 14 mm in diameter in the adult. The diameter of the normal lumbar spinal canal varies from 15 to 27 mm. Lumbar stenosis results from a spinal canal diameter of less than 12 mm in some patients; a diameter of 10 mm is definitely stenotic."nSpinal MRI is the most suitable technique for the diagnosis of spinal stenosis. The examination should be performed using thin sections (3 mm and high resolution, including the axial and sagittal planes using T1-weighted, proton-density, and T2-weighted techniques. The bony and osteophytic components are seen best using a T2-weighted gradient-echo technique."nOn MRI, findings of spinal stenosis have a variable presentation depending on the specific disease. The goal of spinal imaging is to localize the site and level of disease and to help differentiate between conditions in which patients require surgery or conservative treatment."nIn this presentation, different kinds of spinal canal stenosis and their MRI findings would be discussed.

  13. Functional cine-MRI of the pelvic floor - normal anatomy and pathologic findings; Funktionelle MRT des Beckenbodens: normale Anatomie und pathologische Befunde

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    Sprenger, D.; Lienemann, A.; Reiser, M. [Klinikum Grosshadern, Muenchen (Germany). Inst. fuer Radiologische Diagnostik; Anthuber, C. [Klinikum Grosshadern, Muenchen (Germany). Frauenklinik

    2000-05-01

    Purpose. Functional MRI of the pelvic floor allows mapping and definition of different forms of pelvic floor dysfunction. Methods. We performed functional MRT of the pelvic floor in 39 healthy nulliparas and 324 patients. The diagnosis of a pathological organ descent was made if certain landmarks of the pelvic floor compartments descended below the pubococcygeal reference-line (PC-line). Results. If there was no organ descent below the PC-line on straining and if the pelvic floor muscles hardly changed position, a normal finding was diagnosed. 70% of organ prolapses came in the combined form. The generally gradual development of an organ descent led to a change of the main finding in 21,6%. The masking of a cystocele (48,6%) or of an enterocele (34,3%) by a rectocele was most frequent in these cases. Discussion. The use of functional MRI of the pelvic floor appears to be especially useful in young patients, in cases of divergent clinical and sonographic or radiological findings and if the presence of a predominant hernial sac with or without enterocele/rectocele is supposed. (orig.) [German] Ziel. Die funktionelle MRT des Beckenbodens ermoeglicht die Dokumentation und Definition der verschiedenen Manifestationsformen einer Beckenbodeninsuffizienz. Methodik. Es wurde bei 39 gesunden Nulliparen und 324 Patientinnen eine funktionelle MRT des Beckenbodens durchgefuehrt. Ein pathologischer Organdeszensus wurde dokumentiert, wenn bestimmte Kennstrukturen der Beckenbodenkompartimente unterhalb der pubokokygealen Referenzlinie (PC-Linie) zu liegen kamen. Ergebnisse. Beim Normalbefund zeigt sich unter Pressen kein Deszensus der Kennstrukturen unterhalb der PC-Linie und die Beckenbodenmuskulatur veraendert ihre Position kaum. In 70% fand sich die kombinierte Form eines Organdeszensus. Die meist stufenweise Entwicklung eines Organvorfalles fuehrte bei 21.6% zu einem Wechsel des Hauptbefundes. Am haeufigsten war hierbei die Maskierung einer Zystozele (48,6%) oder einer

  14. Arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia: MRI findings

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    Wall, E.E. van der; Bootsma, M.M.; Schalij, M.J. [Dept. of Cardiology, Leiden Univ. Medical Center, Leiden (Netherlands); Kayser, H.W.M.; Roos, A. de [Dept. of Radiology, Leiden Univ. Medical Center, Leiden (Netherlands)

    2000-06-01

    Arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia (ARVD) is a heart muscle disorder of unknown cause that is characterized pathologically by fibrofatty replacement of the right ventricular myocardium. Clinical manifestations include structural and functional malformations of the right ventricle, electrocardiographic abnormalities, and presentation with ventricular tachycardias with left bundle branch pattern or sudden death. The disease is often familial with an autosomal inheritance. In addition to right ventricular dilatation, right ventricular aneurysms are typical deformities of ARVD and they are distributed in the so-called ''triangle of dysplasia'', i. e., right ventricular outflow tract, apex, and infundibulum. Ventricular aneurysms at these sites can be considered pathognomonic of ARVD. Another typical hallmark of ARVD is fibrofatty infiltration of the right ventricular free wall. These functional and morphologic characteristics are relevant to clinical imaging investigations such as contrast angiography, echocardiography, radionuclide angiography, ultrafast computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Among these techniques, MRI allows the clearest visualization of the heart, in particular because the right ventricle is involved, which is usually more difficult to explore with the other imaging modalities. Furthermore, MRI offers the specific advantage of visualizing adipose infiltration as a bright signal of the right ventricular myocardium. MRI provides the most important anatomic, functional, and morphologic criteria for diagnosis of ARVD within one single study. As a result, MRI appears to be the optimal imaging technique for detecting and following patients with clinical suspicion of ARVD. (orig.) [German] Die arrhythmogene rechtsventrikulaere Dysplasie (ARVD), eine Herzmuskelerkrankung unklarer Aetiologie, ist pathologisch durch fettige Degeneration des rechtsventrikulaeren Myokards gekennzeichnet. Die klinischen Symptome

  15. MRI and neurological findings in patients with spinal metastases

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    Switlyk, M.D.; Hole, K.H.; Knutstad, K. [Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Oslo University Hospital, Norwegian Radium Hospital, Oslo (Norway)], E-mail: marta.switlyk@radiumhospitalet.no; Skjeldal, S.; Zaikova, O. [Department of Orthopedics, Oslo University Hospital, Norwegian Radium Hospital, Oslo (Norway); Hald, J.K. [Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Oslo University Hospital, Rikshospitalet, Oslo (Norway); Seierstad, T. [Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Oslo University Hospital, Norwegian Radium Hospital, Oslo (Norway); Faculty of Health Sciences, Buskerud University College, Drammen (Norway)

    2012-12-15

    Background. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the recommended primary investigation method for metastatic spinal cord compression (MSCC). Initiating treatment before the development of motor deficits is essential to preserve neurological function. However, the relationship between MRI-assessed grades of spinal metastatic disease and neurological status has not been widely investigated. Purpose. To analyze the association between neurological function and MRI-based assessment of the extent of spinal metastases using two different grading systems. Material and Methods. A total of 284 patients admitted to our institution for initial radiotherapy or surgery for symptomatic spinal metastases were included in the study. Motor and sensory deficits were categorized according to the Frankel classification system. Pre-treatment MRI evaluations of the entire spine were scored for the extent of spinal metastases, presence and severity of spinal cord compression, and nerve root compression. Two MRI-based scales were used to evaluate the degree of cord compression and spinal canal narrowing and relate these findings to neurological function. Results. Of the patients included in the study, 28 were non-ambulatory, 49 were ambulatory with minor motor deficits, and 207 had normal motor function. Spinal cord compression was present in all patients with Frankel scores of B or C, 23 of 35 patients with a Frankel score of D (66%), and 48 of 152 patients with a Frankel score of E (32%). The percentage of patients with severe spinal canal narrowing increased with increasing Frankel grades. The grading according to the scales showed a significant association with the symptoms according to the Frankel scale (P < 0.001). Conclusion. In patients with neurological dysfunction, the presence and severity of impairment was associated with the epidural tumor burden. A significant number of patients had radiological spinal cord compression and normal motor function (occult MSCC)

  16. Spinal epidural abscess: correlation between MRI findings and outcome

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    Tung, G.A.; Yim, J.W.K.; Rogg, J.M. [Dept. of Diagnostic Imaging, Brown University School of Medicine, Providence, RI (United States); Mermel, L.A.; Philip, L. [Dept. of Internal Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, Brown University School of Medicine and Rhode Island Hospital, Providence (United States)

    1999-12-01

    Our purpose was to determine if specific MRI findings in spinal epidural abscess (SEA), at the time of diagnosis, are associated with the clinical outcome. The clinical records and MRI studies of 18 patients with SEA were reviewed and follow-up was obtained from the outpatient medical record, telephone interview, or both. The association between findings on contrast-enhanced MRI and clinical outcome (weakness, neck or back pain, and incomplete functional recovery) was evaluated. With univariate analysis, narrowing of 50 % or more of the central spinal canal (P = 0.03), peripheral contrast-enhancement (P = 0.05), and abnormal spinal cord signal intensity (P = 0.05) were associated with weakness at follow-up. Persistent neck or back pain was associated with spinal canal narrowing (P = 0.02), peripheral contrast-enhancement (P = 0.02), and an abscess longer than 3 cm (P = 0.04) on MRI. Incomplete clinical recovery was associated with both abscess length (P = 0.01) and the severity of canal narrowing (P = 0.01). Abscess length, enhancement pattern, and severity of canal narrowing can be incorporated in a grading system that can be used to predict outcome. (orig.)

  17. Intrasplenic masses of ``preserved`` functioning splenic tissue in sickle cell disease: correlation of imaging findings (CT, ultrasound, MRI, and nuclear scintigraphy)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levin, T.L. [Department of Radiology, Columbia-Presbyterian Medical Center, Babies and Children`s Hospital of New York, 3959 Broadway, BHN 3-318, New York, NY 10032 (United States); Berdon, W.E. [Department of Radiology, Columbia-Presbyterian Medical Center, Babies and Children`s Hospital of New York, 3959 Broadway, BHN 3-318, New York, NY 10032 (United States); Haller, J.O. [Department of Radiology, SUNY Downstate Medical Center, Brooklyn, New York (United States); Ruzal-Shapiro, C. [Department of Radiology, Columbia-Presbyterian Medical Center, Babies and Children`s Hospital of New York, 3959 Broadway, BHN 3-318, New York, NY 10032 (United States); Hurlet-Jenson, A. [Department of Pediatrics, Columbia-Presbyterian Medical Center, Babies and Children`s Hospital of New York, New York (United States)

    1996-09-01

    Purpose. We studied six patients with sickle cell disease (SSD), five homozygous for sickle cell anemia and one with sickle beta-thalassemia, in whom rounded intrasplenic masses proved to be preserved functioning splenic tissue. Materials and methods. Available images including computed tomography, ultrasonography, bone scans (Tc-99m MDP), liver spleen scans (Tc-99m sulfur colloid), and MRI were evaluated. Results. The masses were low density on CT (in an otherwise calcified spleen), hypoechoic relative to the echogenic spleen on US, and had the imaging characteristics of normal spleen on MRI. They failed to accumulate Tc-99m MDP but did demonstrate uptake of Tc-99m sulfur colloid. Conclusion. In a patient with SSD and intrasplenic masses, proper correlation of multiple imaging modalities will establish the diagnosis of functioning splenic tissue and avoid mistaken diagnosis of splenic abscess or infarction. (orig.). With 2 figs., 1 tab.

  18. MRI findings of mucocele in the sinuses

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    Yamashita, Toshio; Hori, Yoshiro; Kumazawa, Tadachika; Kato, Tsutomu; Tanaka, Yoshimasa; Yamauchi, Yasuo; Matsumura, Hiroshi (Kansai Medical School, Moriguchi, Osaka (Japan))

    1989-07-01

    Eight patients with pyocele or mucocele in the frontal, ethmoidal and sphenoidal sinuses were examined with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and the results were compared with conventional tomography and CT results. CT is a useful tool in detecting mucocele in the sinuses, however, it has limitation of evaluating the qualitative and solid structural changes. MRI is able to show the entire feature of cysts with multidirectional imaging, and the extent of the cysts especially to the orbit and skull base could be identified three-dimensionally. Long spin echo (SE) image showed a higher signal intensity than short SE image in all cases and it was possible to diagnose the content of the cysts and to differetiate between cyst and tumor. Bone destruction could not be visualized by MRI, therefore, CT should be used in combination with MRI in selected cases. (author).

  19. MRI findings in thoracic outlet syndrome

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    Aralasmak, Ayse; Sharifov, Rasul; Kilicarslan, Rukiye; Alkan, Alpay [Bezmialem Vakif University, Department of Radiology, Fatih/Istanbul (Turkey); Cevikol, Can; Karaali, Kamil; Senol, Utku [Akdeniz University, Department of Radiology, Antalya (Turkey)

    2012-11-15

    We discuss MRI findings in patients with thoracic outlet syndrome (TOS). A total of 100 neurovascular bundles were evaluated in the interscalene triangle (IS), costoclavicular (CC), and retropectoralis minor (RPM) spaces. To exclude neurogenic abnormality, MRIs of the cervical spine and brachial plexus (BPL) were obtained in neutral. To exclude compression on neurovascular bundles, sagittal T1W images were obtained vertical to the longitudinal axis of BPL from spinal cord to the medial part of the humerus, in abduction and neutral. To exclude vascular TOS, MR angiography (MRA) and venography (MRV) of the subclavian artery (SA) and vein (SV) in abduction were obtained. If there is compression on the vessels, MRA and MRV of the subclavian vessels were repeated in neutral. Seventy-one neurovascular bundles were found to be abnormal: 16 arterial-venous-neurogenic, 20 neurogenic, 1 arterial, 15 venous, 8 arterial-venous, 3 arterial-neurogenic, and 8 venous-neurogenic TOS. Overall, neurogenic TOS was noted in 69%, venous TOS in 66%, and arterial TOS in 39%. The neurovascular bundle was most commonly compressed in the CC, mostly secondary to position, and very rarely compressed in the RPM. The cause of TOS was congenital bone variations in 36%, congenital fibromuscular anomalies in 11%, and position in 53%. In 5%, there was unilateral brachial plexitis in addition to compression of the neurovascular bundle. Severe cervical spondylosis was noted in 14%, contributing to TOS symptoms. For evaluation of patients with TOS, visualization of the brachial plexus and cervical spine and dynamic evaluation of neurovascular bundles in the cervicothoracobrachial region are mandatory. (orig.)

  20. MRI Findings of Rectal Submucosal Tumors

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    Kim, Hon Soul; Kim, Joo Hee; Lim, Joon Seok; Choi, Jin Young; Chung, Yong Eun; Park, Mi Suk; Kim, Myeong Jin; Kim, Ki Whang; Kim, Sang Kyum [Yonsei University Health System, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-08-15

    Rectal submucosal lesions encompass a wide variety of benign and malignant tumors involving the rectum. With optical colonoscopy, any mass-like protrusion covered by normal mucosa, whether the underlying process is intramural or extramural in origin, may be reported as a submucosal lesion. Whereas the assessment of submucosal lesions may be limited with performing optical colonoscopy, cross-sectional imaging such as CT, transrectal ultrasonography and MRI allows the evaluation of perirectal tissues and pelvic organs in addition to the entire thickness of the rectum, and so this is advantageous for the assessment of rectal submucosal tumors. Among these, MRI is the best investigative modality for soft tissue characterization. Therefore, knowledge of the MRI features of rectal submucosal tumors can help achieve accurate preoperative diagnoses and facilitate the appropriate management.

  1. MRI findings in aphasic status epilepticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toledo, Manuel; Munuera, Josep; Sueiras, Maria; Rovira, Rosa; Alvarez-Sabín, José; Rovira, Alex

    2008-08-01

    Ictal-MRI studies including diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), perfusion-weighted imaging (PWI), and MR-angiography (MRA) in patients with aphasic status epilepticus (ASE) are lacking. In this report, we aim to describe the consequences of the ASE on DWIs and its impact on cerebral circulation. We retrospectively studied eight patients with ASE confirmed by ictal-EEG, who underwent ictal-MRI shortly after well-documented onset (mean time delay 3 h). ASE consisted in fluctuating aphasia, mostly associated with other subtle contralateral neurological signs such as hemiparesia, hemianopia, or slight clonic jerks. In MRI, six patients showed cortical temporoparietal hyperintensity in DWI and four of them had also ipsilateral pulvinar lesions. Five patients showed close spatial hyperperfusion areas matching the DWI lesions and an enhanced blow flow in the middle cerebral artery. Parenchymal lesions and hemodynamic abnormalities were not associated with seizure duration or severity in any case. The resolution of DWI lesions at follow-up MRI depended on the length of the MRIs interval. In patients with ASE, lesions on DWI in the temporo-parietal cortex and pulvinar nucleus combined with local hyperperfusion can be observed, even when they appear distant from the epileptic focus or the language areas.

  2. Is the Number of Different MRI Findings More Strongly Associated with Low Back Pain Than Single MRI Findings?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hancock, Mark J; Kjaer, Per; Kent, Peter

    2017-01-01

    STUDY DESIGN: A cross-sectional and longitudinal analysis using 2 different data sets OBJECTIVE.: To investigate if the number of different MRI findings present is more strongly associated with low back pain (LBP) than single MRI findings. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Most previous studies have in...

  3. Brain MRI findings in Wernicke encephalopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wicklund, Meredith R; Knopman, David S

    2013-08-01

    A 71-year-old woman with myelofibrosis on chemotherapy experienced an acute illness with nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. Two weeks later, she developed an acute confusional state characterized by disorientation and fluctuating alertness with normal speech and language. Her neurologic examination demonstrated an upper motor neuron pattern of right hemiparesis. She reported double vision though ophthalmoparesis was not appreciated. Her gait was normal. While hospitalized, she developed generalized tonic-clonic seizures. Brain MRI revealed a small area of restricted diffusion of the left precentral gyrus (figure). She was diagnosed with a stroke with secondary seizures; however, as the confusional state resolved, she developed profound retrograde and anterograde amnesia. Review of the brain MRI showed high T2 signal in the medial thalamus and contrast enhancement of the mamillary bodies; a diagnosis of Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome was entertained and she was started on thiamine replacement. The encephalopathy and hemiparesis resolved though she remains severely amnestic.

  4. Clinical functional MRI. Persurgical functional neuroimaging. 2. ed.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stippich, Christoph (ed.) [Univ. Hospitals Basel (Switzerland). Division of Diagnostic and Inventional Neuroradiology

    2015-06-01

    The second, revised edition of this successful textbook provides an up-to-date description of the use of preoperative fMRI in patients with brain tumors and epilepsies. State of the art fMRI procedures are presented, with detailed consideration of practical aspects, imaging and data processing, normal and pathological findings, and diagnostic possibilities and limitations. Relevant information on brain physiology, functional neuroanatomy, imaging technique, and methodology is provided by recognized experts in these fields. Compared with the first edition, chapters have been updated to reflect the latest developments and in particular the current use of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and resting-state fMRI. Entirely new chapters are included on resting-state presurgical fMRI and the role of DTI and tractography in brain tumor surgery. Further chapters address multimodality functional neuroimaging, brain plasticity, and pitfalls, tips, and tricks.

  5. Muscle MRI findings in facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerevini, Simonetta; Caliendo, Giandomenico; Falini, Andrea [IRCCS San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Neuroradiology Unit, Head and Neck Department, Milan (Italy); Scarlato, Marina; Previtali, Stefano Carlo [IRCCS San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Department of Neurology, INSPE and Division of Neuroscience, Milan (Italy); Maggi, Lorenzo; Pasanisi, Barbara; Morandi, Lucia [Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Neurologico ' ' Carlo Besta' ' , Neuromuscular Diseases and Neuroimmunology Unit, Milan (Italy); Cava, Mariangela [IRCCS San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Department of Radiology and Center for Experimental Imaging, Milan (Italy)

    2016-03-15

    Facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD) is characterized by extremely variable degrees of facial, scapular and lower limb muscle involvement. Clinical and genetic determination can be difficult, as molecular analysis is not always definitive, and other similar muscle disorders may have overlapping clinical manifestations. Whole-body muscle MRI examination for fat infiltration, atrophy and oedema was performed to identify specific patterns of muscle involvement in FSHD patients (30 subjects), and compared to a group of control patients (23) affected by other myopathies (NFSHD). In FSHD patients, we detected a specific pattern of muscle fatty replacement and atrophy, particularly in upper girdle muscles. The most frequently affected muscles, including paucisymptomatic and severely affected FSHD patients, were trapezius, teres major and serratus anterior. Moreover, asymmetric muscle involvement was significantly higher in FSHD as compared to NFSHD patients. In conclusion, muscle MRI is very sensitive for identifying a specific pattern of involvement in FSHD patients and in detecting selective muscle involvement of non-clinically testable muscles. Muscle MRI constitutes a reliable tool for differentiating FSHD from other muscular dystrophies to direct diagnostic molecular analysis, as well as to investigate FSHD natural history and follow-up of the disease. (orig.)

  6. Retroflexed holoprosencephaly. X-ray CT findings and MRI findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagano, N.; Ohno, K.; Masaoka, H.; Fukai, N.; Matsushima, Y.

    1987-02-01

    We report a case of holoprosencephaly with retroflexion and discuss the usefulness of X-ray CT in its diagnosis. A 2-month-old infant, admitted with severe hydrocephalus, underwent a ventriculo-peritoneal shunt. The brain was retroflexed with subdural fluid collection after the procedure. The pathological condition was, however, gradually improved by the use of an additional subduro-peritoneal shunt. The shift and distortion of the brain were observed by means of serial X-ray CT scans. MRI revealed the brain stuck mainly to the frontal bone, monoventricle, the so-called dorsal sac, and probably the pituitary gland, but not the fourth ventricle nor the aqueduct. Sagittal and coronal sections of MRI and axial sections of X-ray CT proved to be useful in the diagnosis and classification of the holoprosencephaly, even without other invasive diagnostic procedures.

  7. MRI findings of benign monomelic amyotrophy of lower limb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamano, T; Mutoh, T; Hirayama, M; Ito, K; Kimura, M; Aita, T; Kiyosawa, K; Ohtaki, T; Kuriyama, M

    1999-06-01

    We report here magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of two patients with benign monomelic amyotrophy of lower limb. Both subjects showed unilateral amyotrophy of the lower limb with a benign clinical course, and the affected muscles demonstrated neurogenic changes. On T1- and T2-weighted MRI, marked atrophy and increased signal intensity were found mainly in gastrocnemius and soleus muscles. Moreover, MRI examination also revealed that thigh muscles including semitendinosus, semimembranosus, and vastus intermedius and lateralis muscles were involved in one of the patients. We concluded that muscle MRI is very useful for detecting affected muscles, especially deep skeletal muscles in patients with benign monomelic amyotrophy of lower limb.

  8. MRI findings and differential diagnosis in children with cerebral paragonimiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen Zeng

    2016-06-01

    Conclusions: The clinical manifestations of cerebral paragonimiasis are nonspecific in children while the MRI findings of cerebral paragonimiasis are characteristic, including irregular hemorrhage, ring-like enhancement and disproportionately large areas of surrounding edema. Brain MRI plays an important role in the diagnosis of cerebral paragonimiasis in children.

  9. CT and MRI findings of ameloblastoma in two cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cihangiroglu, M.; Akfirat, M.; Yildirim, H. [Department of Radiology, Firat University School of Medicine, Elazig (Turkey)

    2002-05-01

    We report CT and MRI findings in two patients with ameloblastoma. One case had a multilocular mixed lesion and the other had a unilocular solid pattern. The second case is probably one of the youngest reported. CT and MRI can be used to delineate and show the extent of the tumour. (orig.)

  10. Unusual MRI findings in grey matter heteropia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soto Ares, G.; Hamon-Kerautret, M.; Leclerc, X.; Pruvo, J.P. [Service de Neuroradiologie, Hopital Roger Salengro, CHRU, Lille (France); Houlette, C. [Service de Radiologie, CHRU, Rouen (France); Godefroy, O. [Service de Neurologie B, CHRU, Lille (France)

    1998-02-01

    We report unusual MRI patterns in patients with grey matter heterotopia. Standard T1- and T2-weighted spin-echo and inversion-recovery sequences were used in 22 patients presenting with seizures or developmental delay. The images were reviewed for signal change surrounding white matter and for atypical size, morphology or topography. We found 10 cases of subependymal heterotopias 11 of focal subcortical heterotopia and of diffuse subcortical heterotopia. On clinical or MRI grounds, 8 cases were considered unusual: 2 of the subependymal type, 2 of focal subcortical heterotopia with white matter abnormalities, 2 of focal subcortical heterotopia with no clinicoradiological correlation 1 of extensive hemispheric subcortical heterotopia and 1 of diffuse subcortical heterotopia confined to the frontal lobe. The classical classification of heterotopia enables easy radiological diagnosis even in cases with unusual patterns. In some cases, heterogeneity and high signal in surrounding white matter can be found. Cortical dysplasia is the most frequent associated malformation. (orig.) With 7 figs., 2 tabs., 10 refs.

  11. MRI findings in meningeal cysts of the vertebral column

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chalkias, S.M. [Dept. of Radiology, AHEPA General Hospital of the Aristotelian Univ., Thessaloniki (Greece); Cova, M.A. [Dept. of Radiology, University Hospital of Trieste, Ospedale di Cattinara (Italy); Ricci, C. [Dept. of Radiology, University Hospital of Trieste, Ospedale di Cattinara (Italy); Magnaldi, S. [Dept. of Radiology, University Hospital of Trieste, Ospedale di Cattinara (Italy); Pozzi-Mucelli, R.S. [Dept. of Radiology, University Hospital of Trieste, Ospedale di Cattinara (Italy)

    1993-10-01

    The aim of this study was to demonstrate the MRI findings and to emphasise the contribution of MRI to the diagnosis of this rare pathology. MRI findings were evaluated according to a new classification that divides MCs into extradural cysts without (type 1) or with (type 2) spinal nerve root fibres and intradural cysts (type 3). Because of its high contrast resolution MRI can distinguish the three types of MC. The use of the different levels of signal intensity of the cyst and CSF in T2-weighted images to distinguish communicating from non-communicating MCs is illustrated. This diagnostic sign exploitats the signal loss due to flow phenomena of CSF pulsations on ungated sequences to reveal the communication of the MC with the SAS. We recommend MRI as the most sensitive and specific modality for the study of MCs. (orig.)

  12. Inflammatory pseudotumor of the liver: 13 cases of MRI findings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fu Hua Yah; Kang Rong Zhou; Ya Ping Jiang; Wei Bin Shi

    2001-01-01

    @@INTRODUCTION Inflammatory pseudotumor of the liver ,a rare benign lesion ,is often confused with the malignant tumors .Until 1998,less than 80 cases had been reported in the world [1,2].The accuracy of the pre-surgical diagnosis was low p[3,4] ,and very few materials on the diagnosis using dynamic MRI were reported [5-7] .We collected thirteen cases of inflammatory pseudotumor of the liver were collected and roved by pathology with MRI studies .Our purpose is to describe and analyze the MRI findings of this lesion and find out the valuable signs suggesting the diagnosis so as to avoid unnecessary operations.

  13. Solitary infantile choriocarcinoma of the liver: MRI findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoef, Marianne van der; Willi, Ulrich V.; Huisman, Thierry A.G.M. [University Children' s Hospital Zurich, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Zurich (Switzerland); Niggli, Felix K. [University Children' s Hospital Zurich, Department of Paediatrics, Zurich (Switzerland)

    2004-10-01

    Infantile hepatic choriocarcinoma is a rare, highly malignant germ-cell tumour believed to result from a choriocarcinoma of the placenta that spreads to the child. Most infants present with a characteristic clinical picture of anaemia, hepatomegaly and precocious puberty. Imaging findings, including conventional MRI, may be non-specific. To improve the accuracy of diagnosis, we present the imaging findings of contrast-enhanced dynamic MRI in a 4.5-month-old boy with infantile hepatic choriocarcinoma. (orig.)

  14. MRI in Optic Neuritis: Structure, Function, Interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuglø, Dan

    2011-01-01

    resonance imaging (MRI), and the visual evoked potential (VEP) continues to show a delayed P100 indicating persistent demyelination. The explanation for this apparent discrepancy between structure and function could be due to either a redundancy in the visual pathways so that some degree of signal loss...... are low. Functional MRI (fMRI) is a non-invasive technique that can measure brain activity with a high spatial resolution. Recently, technical and methodological advancements have made it feasible to record VEPs and fMRI simultaneously and the relationship between averaged VEPs and averaged fMRI signals...... have been described. Still, to take full advantage of simultaneously recorded VEP-fMRI one would ideally want to track single-trial changes in the VEP and use this information in the fMRI analysis. In order to do this we examined 10 healthy volunteers with simultaneous VEP-fMRI. Different measures...

  15. MRI findings in acute idiopathic transverse myelopathy in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andronikou, Savvas; Albuquerque-Jonathan, Glenda; Hewlett, Richard [Department of Paediatric Radiology, Red Cross Children' s Hospital, University of Cape Town and School of Child and Adolescent Health, Klipfontein Road, Cape Town (South Africa); Wilmshurst, Jo [Department of Paediatric Neurology, Red Cross Children' s Hospital, University of Cape Town and School of Child and Adolescent Health, Cape Town (South Africa)

    2003-09-01

    To describe the clinical and MRI findings in three children with acute idiopathic myelopathy (AIM). Retrospective review of the clinical presentation, MRI findings and outcome of three patients diagnosed with acute idiopathic transverse myelitis. Of note was the swift onset of symptoms in all patients, without any preceding illness or history of vaccination in two of the patients, and the rapid resolution of symptoms on steroid therapy in all the patients. MRI showed T2-weighted hyperintensity and patchy enhancement with gadolinium, but the extensive cord involvement did not correlate with the severity of presentation or outcome. Our findings do not support that MRI evidence alone of diffuse myelopathy is a predictor of poor outcome in childhood AIM. (orig.)

  16. MRI findings in an adolescent with type I citrullinaemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Longo, Daniela; Delfino, Luciana; Fariello, Giuseppe [Bambino Gesu Children' s Hospital, Department of Paediatric Radiology, Rome (Italy); Genovese, Elisabetta; Cannata, Vittorio [Bambino Gesu Children' s Hospital, Department of Medical Direction/Medical Physics, Rome (Italy); Deodato, Federica; Dionisi-Vici, Carlo [Bambino Gesu Children' s Hospital, Division of Metabolism, Department of Neuroscience, Rome (Italy); Goffredo, Bianca [Bambino Gesu Children' s Hospital, Laboratory, Rome (Italy)

    2008-02-15

    Citrullinaemia is a rare inborn error of urea cycle metabolism. We describe the MRI findings in a 16-year-old boy with type I citrullinaemia during an episode of acute hyperammonaemic encephalopathy and compare them to his previous follow-up MRI studies. MRI revealed bilateral high signal intensity in the cingulate, perirolandic, parietal and temporoinsular cortex, the subcortical white matter and left thalamus. Diffusion-weighted imaging showed high signal intensity and low apparent diffusion coefficient values in the frontoparietal lobes. To our knowledge, MRI findings in an adolescent with type I citrullinaemia have not been previously reported. Since our patient's neuroradiological findings showed greater similarity to type II citrullinaemia, we think his brain injury during this acute episode was probably age-related and independent of the type of citrullinaemia. (orig.)

  17. Osmotic demyelination syndrome with a dysequilibrium syndrome: reversible MRI findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agildere, A.M.; Coskun, M.; Boyvat, F. [Baskent University Medical School Hospital, Radiology Department, Ankara (Turkey); Benli, S. [Baskent University Medical School Hospital, Neurology Department, Ankara (Turkey); Erten, Y.; Oezdemir, N. [Baskent University Medical School Hospital, Nephrology Department, Ankara (Turkey)

    1998-04-01

    Neurological disorders may be seen in end-stage renal disease patients due to uraemia or to complications of dialysis. A dysequilibrium syndrome may be seen, usually soon after or towards the end of haemodialysis. This group of patients has no particular findings on MRI. On the other hand, the osmotic demyelination syndrome has definitive MRI findings, not to date reported with the dysequilibrium syndrome. We report a patient with end-stage renal disease and the dysequilibrium syndrome who showed findings of osmotic demyelination on MRI. The patient had a convulsion after a first haemodialysis, with quadriparesis and hyperactive deep tendon reflexes and bilateral Babinski signs. The upper motor neurone signs lasted for a week. Meanwhile, he was also dysarthric and had dysphagia. He recovered neurologically without any residuum following appropriate treatment and there was improvement on MRI. (orig.) With 3 figs., 11 refs.

  18. Synovial Hemangioma in the Knee: MRI Findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harun Arslan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Synovial hemangiomas are rare benign tumors of vascular origin. A 23-year-old boy presented with knee pain and swelling. The boy had developed symptoms 18-months earlier. He was diagnosed with synovial hemangioma based on magnetic resonnance imaging examination and histopathologic findings of the arthroscopic biopsy tissue. We present the magnetic resonance imaging and histopathologic findings of synovial hemangioma of the knee.

  19. Postnatal in-vivo MRI findings in anencephaly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poretti, A; Meoded, A; Ceritoglu, E; Boltshauser, E; Huisman, T A G M

    2010-12-01

    We report on the MRI findings of an anencephalic infant who survived 10 weeks postnatally. MRI showed absence of the cranial vault, all supratentorial structures, and the cerebellum. A brainstem primordium without pontine prominence was present. The brainstem was surrounded by the area cerebrovasculosa. The absence of a pontine prominence in an anencephalic infant without cerebellar tissue supports the hypothesis that absent pontine prominence is found in children with a prenatal loss of cerebellar tissue.

  20. MRI findings of complete growth hormone deficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ichiba, Yozo [National Hospital of Okayama (Japan)

    1995-10-01

    Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging was performed on the pituitary gland of 20 children (age range, 2-11 years) with short stature due to growth hormone deficiency. Sixteen patients with multiple pituitary hormone deficiency showed disappearance of the pituitary stalk, disappearance of high signal area of the posterior pituitary, presence of ectopic pituitary, and decreased volume of the anterior pituitary. Many of them had a history of perinatal abnormalities such as asphyxia at delivery, breech delivery, and bradytocia. On the contrary, patients with isolated growth hormone deficiency presented no abnormal findings on MR images, and had no history of perinatal abnormalities. The findings of pituitary stalk separation syndrome suggested the presence of multiple hypopituitarism. (S.Y.).

  1. MRI findings associated with luxatio erecta humeri

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krug, David K.; Vinson, Emily N.; Helms, Clyde A. [Duke University Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Box 3808, Durham, NC (United States)

    2010-01-15

    Luxatio erecta humeri is a rare type of inferior glenohumeral dislocation with a unique radiographic appearance; however, the magnetic resonance imaging findings associated with this dislocation have not been described in the radiology literature. The purpose of this study is to identify magnetic resonance imaging findings associated with this uncommon type of glenohumeral dislocation. The magnetic resonance imaging features of four patients with clinical and radiographic evidence of luxatio erecta humeri were reviewed retrospectively by two musculoskeletal-trained radiologists. The reported mechanism of injury in all four patients was falling. The MR imaging examinations were evaluated for the presence of rotator cuff and biceps tendon pathology, glenoid labrum pathology, joint capsule and glenohumeral ligament injury, fractures and bone marrow contusions, articular cartilage injury, and joint effusions. All four patients demonstrated pathology of the glenohumeral joint. Three of the four patients demonstrated rotator cuff tears, including large full thickness tears of the supraspinatus and infraspinatus tendons in two patients, and small full thickness tear of the supraspinatus tendon with partial thickness tear of the infraspinatus tendon in the third patient. In the two patients with large full thickness tears of the supraspinatus and infraspinatus tendons, one patient demonstrated tearing of the subscapularis tendon with dislocation of a partially torn long head of the biceps tendon, and the second patient demonstrated full thickness tearing of the intra-articular biceps tendon. All four patients demonstrated injuries to the glenoid labrum and both anterior and posterior bands of the inferior glenohumeral ligament. Contusions or fractures of the humeral head were seen in two of the patients. Three of the four patients demonstrated cartilage abnormalities including a focal cartilage defect in the anterior inferior glenoid in one patient, and cartilage surface

  2. Impaired target detection in schizophrenia and the ventral attentional network: Findings from a joint event-related potential-functional MRI analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wynn, Jonathan K; Jimenez, Amy M; Roach, Brian J; Korb, Alexander; Lee, Junghee; Horan, William P; Ford, Judith M; Green, Michael F

    2015-01-01

    Schizophrenia patients have abnormal neural responses to salient, infrequent events. We integrated event-related potentials (ERP) and fMRI to examine the contributions of the ventral (salience) and dorsal (sustained) attention networks to this dysfunctional neural activation. Twenty-one schizophrenia patients and 22 healthy controls were assessed in separate sessions with ERP and fMRI during a visual oddball task. Visual P100, N100, and P300 ERP waveforms and fMRI activation were assessed. A joint independent components analysis (jICA) on the ERP and fMRI data were conducted. Patients exhibited reduced P300, but not P100 or N100, amplitudes to targets and reduced fMRI neural activation in both dorsal and ventral attentional networks compared with controls. However, the jICA revealed that the P300 was linked specifically to activation in the ventral (salience) network, including anterior cingulate, anterior insula, and temporal parietal junction, with patients exhibiting significantly lower activation. The P100 and N100 were linked to activation in the dorsal (sustained) network, with no group differences in level of activation. This joint analysis approach revealed the nature of target detection deficits that were not discernable by either imaging methodology alone, highlighting the utility of a multimodal fMRI and ERP approach to understand attentional network deficits in schizophrenia.

  3. Impaired target detection in schizophrenia and the ventral attentional network: Findings from a joint event-related potential–functional MRI analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wynn, Jonathan K.; Jimenez, Amy M.; Roach, Brian J.; Korb, Alexander; Lee, Junghee; Horan, William P.; Ford, Judith M.; Green, Michael F.

    2015-01-01

    Schizophrenia patients have abnormal neural responses to salient, infrequent events. We integrated event-related potentials (ERP) and fMRI to examine the contributions of the ventral (salience) and dorsal (sustained) attention networks to this dysfunctional neural activation. Twenty-one schizophrenia patients and 22 healthy controls were assessed in separate sessions with ERP and fMRI during a visual oddball task. Visual P100, N100, and P300 ERP waveforms and fMRI activation were assessed. A joint independent components analysis (jICA) on the ERP and fMRI data were conducted. Patients exhibited reduced P300, but not P100 or N100, amplitudes to targets and reduced fMRI neural activation in both dorsal and ventral attentional networks compared with controls. However, the jICA revealed that the P300 was linked specifically to activation in the ventral (salience) network, including anterior cingulate, anterior insula, and temporal parietal junction, with patients exhibiting significantly lower activation. The P100 and N100 were linked to activation in the dorsal (sustained) network, with no group differences in level of activation. This joint analysis approach revealed the nature of target detection deficits that were not discernable by either imaging methodology alone, highlighting the utility of a multimodal fMRI and ERP approach to understand attentional network deficits in schizophrenia. PMID:26448909

  4. Impaired target detection in schizophrenia and the ventral attentional network: Findings from a joint event-related potential–functional MRI analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan K. Wynn

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Schizophrenia patients have abnormal neural responses to salient, infrequent events. We integrated event-related potentials (ERP and fMRI to examine the contributions of the ventral (salience and dorsal (sustained attention networks to this dysfunctional neural activation. Twenty-one schizophrenia patients and 22 healthy controls were assessed in separate sessions with ERP and fMRI during a visual oddball task. Visual P100, N100, and P300 ERP waveforms and fMRI activation were assessed. A joint independent components analysis (jICA on the ERP and fMRI data were conducted. Patients exhibited reduced P300, but not P100 or N100, amplitudes to targets and reduced fMRI neural activation in both dorsal and ventral attentional networks compared with controls. However, the jICA revealed that the P300 was linked specifically to activation in the ventral (salience network, including anterior cingulate, anterior insula, and temporal parietal junction, with patients exhibiting significantly lower activation. The P100 and N100 were linked to activation in the dorsal (sustained network, with no group differences in level of activation. This joint analysis approach revealed the nature of target detection deficits that were not discernable by either imaging methodology alone, highlighting the utility of a multimodal fMRI and ERP approach to understand attentional network deficits in schizophrenia.

  5. Membranous lipodystrophy: skeletal findings on CT and MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nwawka, O.K.; Schneider, Robert; Mintz, Douglas N. [Hospital for Special Surgery, Department of Radiology and Imaging, New York, NY (United States); Bansal, Manjula [Hospital for Special Surgery, Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, New York, NY (United States); Lane, Joseph [Hospital for Special Surgery, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, New York, NY (United States)

    2014-10-15

    Membranous lipodystrophy, also known as Nasu-Hakola disease, is a rare hereditary condition with manifestations in the nervous and skeletal systems. The radiographic appearance of skeletal lesions has been well described in the literature. However, CT and MRI findings of lesions in the bone have not been documented to date. This report describes the radiographic, CT, MRI, and histopathologic skeletal findings in a case of membranous lipodystrophy. With corroborative pathologic findings, a diagnosis of membranous lipodystrophy on imaging allows for appropriate clinical management of disease manifestations. (orig.)

  6. Membranous lipodystrophy: skeletal findings on CT and MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwawka, O Kenechi; Schneider, Robert; Bansal, Manjula; Mintz, Douglas N; Lane, Joseph

    2014-10-01

    Membranous lipodystrophy, also known as Nasu-Hakola disease, is a rare hereditary condition with manifestations in the nervous and skeletal systems. The radiographic appearance of skeletal lesions has been well described in the literature. However, CT and MRI findings of lesions in the bone have not been documented to date. This report describes the radiographic, CT, MRI, and histopathologic skeletal findings in a case of membranous lipodystrophy. With corroborative pathologic findings, a diagnosis of membranous lipodystrophy on imaging allows for appropriate clinical management of disease manifestations.

  7. MRI gadolinium enhancement precedes neuroradiological findings in acute necrotizing encephalopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Takeshi; Tamura, Takuya; Nagai, Yuhki; Ueda, Hiroyuki; Awaya, Tomonari; Shibata, Minoru; Kato, Takeo; Heike, Toshio

    2013-11-01

    We report a 2-year-old Japanese boy with acute necrotizing encephalopathy (ANE) triggered by human herpes virus-6, who presented insightful magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings. He was admitted due to impaired consciousness and a convulsion, 2 days after the onset of an upper respiratory infection. At admission, cranial MRI showed marked gadolinium enhancement at the bilateral thalami, brainstem and periventricular white matter without abnormal findings in noncontrast MRI sequences. On the following day, noncontrast computed tomography demonstrated homogeneous low-density lesions in the bilateral thalami and severe diffuse brain edema. The patient progressively deteriorated and died on the 18th day of admission. The pathogenesis of ANE remains mostly unknown, but it has been suggested that hypercytokinemia may play a major role. Overproduced cytokines cause vascular endothelial damage and alter the permeability of the vessel wall in the multiple organs, including the brain. The MRI findings in our case demonstrate that blood-brain barrier permeability was altered prior to the appearance of typical neuroradiological findings. This suggests that alteration of blood-brain barrier permeability is the first step in the development of the brain lesions in ANE, and supports the proposed mechanism whereby hypercytokinemia causes necrotic brain lesions. This is the first report demonstrating MRI gadolinium enhancement antecedent to typical neuroradiological findings in ANE.

  8. Prognostic value of MRI findings in sciatica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vroomen, P.C.A.J.; Krom, M.C.T.F.M. de [Department of Neurology, Maastricht University Hospital (Netherlands); Wilmink, J.T. [Division of Neuroradiology, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Maastricht University Hospital (Netherlands)

    2002-01-01

    The natural course of sciatica due to disc herniation is generally favourable but individually unpredictable. Some patients recover only after prolonged conservative therapy or surgery. This study aims to ascertain whether magnetic resonance (MR) imaging features can be used to predict outcome of sciatica and help to identify patients unlikely to respond to conservative management. For a transversal diagnostic study 274 primary care patients underwent early MR imaging for leg pain. One hundred and thirty-three patients with sciatica were followed for 3 months, both patients and physicians being unaware of MR imaging findings. At 12 weeks a favourable prognosis was indicated by the following features: annular rupture (P=0.02) and nerve root compression on MR imaging (P=0.03). Poor prognosis was indicated by disc herniation in the foramen (P=0.004). Our findings show that early MR imaging features are related to prognosis. However, the associations are not strong enough to justify routine use of early MR imaging to predict the prognosis of sciatica. (orig.)

  9. Muscle hernias of the lower leg: MRI findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mellado, J.M. [Radiology Department, Hospital Virgen de la Cinta, Tortosa, Tarragona (Spain)]|[IDI - Centre Tarragona, Ressonancia Magnetica, Hospital Joan XXIII, Tarragona (Spain); Perez del Palomar, L. [Radiology Department, Hospital Virgen de la Cinta, Tortosa, Tarragona (Spain)

    1999-08-01

    Muscle hernias of the lower leg involving the tibialis anterior, peroneus brevis, and lateral head of the gastrocnemius were found in three different patients. MRI findings allowed recognition of herniated muscle in all cases and identification of fascial defect in two of them. MR imaging findings and the value of dynamic MR imaging is emphasized. (orig.) With 3 figs., 10 refs.

  10. Reliability of MRI findings in candidates for lumbar disc prosthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berg, Linda; Espeland, Ansgar [Haukeland University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Bergen (Norway); University of Bergen, Section for Radiology, Department of Surgical Sciences, Bergen (Norway); Neckelmann, Gesche [Haukeland University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Bergen (Norway); Gjertsen, Oeivind [Oslo University Hospital, Department of Neuroradiology, Oslo (Norway); Hellum, Christian [Oslo University Hospital, Department of Orthopaedics, Oslo (Norway); University of Oslo, Department of Orthopaedics, Oslo (Norway); Johnsen, Lars G. [University Hospital of Trondheim, National Centre for Diseases of the Spine, Trondheim (Norway); University Hospital of Trondheim, Orthopaedic Department, Trondheim (Norway); Eide, Geir E. [Haukeland University Hospital, Centre for Clinical Research, Bergen (Norway); University of Bergen, Department of Public Health and Primary Health Care, Bergen (Norway)

    2012-07-15

    Limited reliability data exist for localised magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings relevant to planning of treatment with lumbar disc prosthesis and later outcomes. We assessed the reliability of such findings in chronic low back pain patients who were accepted candidates for disc prosthesis. On pretreatment MRI of 170 patients (mean age 41 years; 88 women), three experienced radiologists independently rated Modic changes, disc findings and facet arthropathy at L3/L4, L4/L5 and L5/S1. Two radiologists rerated 126 examinations. For each MRI finding at each disc level, agreement was analysed using the kappa statistic and differences in prevalence across observers using a fixed effects model. All findings at L3/L4 and facet arthropathy at L5/S1 had a mean prevalence <10% across observers and were not further analysed, ensuring interpretable kappa values. Overall interobserver agreement was generally moderate or good (kappa 0.40-0.77) at L4-S1 for Modic changes, nucleus pulposus signal, disc height (subjective and measured), posterior high-intensity zone (HIZ) and disc contour, and fair (kappa 0.24) at L4/L5 for facet arthropathy. Posterior HIZ at L5/S1 and severely reduced subjective disc height at L4/L5 differed up to threefold in prevalence between observers (p < 0.0001). Intraobserver agreement was mostly good or very good (kappa 0.60-1.00). In candidates for disc prosthesis, mostly moderate interobserver agreement is expected for localised MRI findings. (orig.)

  11. MRI findings of miliary tuberculosis of the brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Chang Lak; Song, Chang June; Ahn, Young Jun; Youn, Wan Gyu; Jung, Youn Sin; Cho, June Sik [Chungnam National Univ. College of Medicine, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-07-01

    To evaluate MRI(Magnetic Resonance Imaging) findings of miliary tuberculosis of the brain Six patients with miliary tuberculosis of the brain diagnosed by characteristic clinical or laboratory findings were studied with spin echo MRI before and after contrast enhancement. We retrospectively evaluated MRI findings according to the appearance, distribution, location, and enhancement pattern of the granulomas as well as associated other abnormalities. In six patients, contrast-enhanced MRI of the brain showed numerous punctate, contrast enhancing lesions scattered throughout the brain. Unenhanced MRI failed to demonstrate small granulomas except a few small foci of high signal intensity on T2-weighted images. The shapes of enhancing granulomas were homogeneous nodular enhancement in 86% of cases and small ring enhancement in 14%. 98% of granulomas were smaller than 3-mm and 2% were larger. Although several lesions were located in the basal ganglia, thalamus, and brain stem, the majority were located in the subpial and subarachnoid space. There was no significant difference in distribution of granulomas between the supratentorial and the infratentorial areas. Other associated abnormalities were focal meningitis in five cases and focal cerebritis in one. On chest radiograph, all patients had miliary tuberculosis in the lungs. Contrast-enhanced T1-weighted MR imaging showed numerous round, very small enhancing lesions scattered throughout the brain. The majority of lesions were located in the subpial and subarachnoid space. Contrast-enhanced T1-weighted images are helpful in the detection and diagnosis of miliary disseminated tuberculous granulomas and meningitis.

  12. MRI and brain spect findings in patients with unilateral temporal lobe epilepsy and normal CT scan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.G. Carrilho

    1994-06-01

    Full Text Available 26 patients with temporal lobe epilepsy clinically documented by several abnormal interictal surface EEGs with typical unitemporal epileptiform activity and a normal CT scan were studied. Interictal99mTC HMPAO brain SPECT and MRI were performed in all subjects. Abnormalities were shown in 61.5% of MRI (n=16 and 65.4% of SPECT (n=17. Hippocampal atrophy associated to a high signal on T2-weighted MRI slices suggesting mesial temporal sclerosis was the main finding (n=12; 75% of abnormal MRI. MRI correlated well to surface EEG in 50% (n=13. There was also a good correlation between MRI and SPECT in 30.7% (n=8. SPECT and EEG were in agreement in 57.7% (n=l5. MRI, SPECT and EEG were congruent in 26.9% (n=7. These results support the usefulness of interictal brain SPECT and MRI in detecting lateralized abnormalities in temporal lobe epilepsy. On the other hand, in two cases, interictal SPECT correlated poorly with surface EEG. This functional method should not be used isolately in the detection of temporal lobe foci. MRI is more useful than CT as a neuroimaging technique in temporal lobe epilepsy. It may detect small structural lesions and mesial temporal lobe sclerosis which are not easily seen with traditional CT scanning.

  13. Useful MRI findings for differential diagnosis of sublingual mass lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ida, Mizue; Kurabayashi, Tohru; Yoshino, Norio; Tetumura, Akemi; Honda, Eiichi; Ohbayashi, Naoto; Sasaki, Takehito; Enomoto, Shoji; Amagasa, Teruo [Tokyo Medical and Dental Univ. (Japan). Graduate School

    2001-06-01

    The purpose of this study is to identify useful MRI findings for differentiating sublingual mass lesions. MR images of 29 patients with sublingual swelling were retrospectively reviewed. Patients were categorized into 4 groups according to their final diagnoses: cysts, benign tumors, inflammation and malignant tumors. Clinical symptoms and MRI findings of the patients in each diagnostic category were investigated. Of 29 patients, 6 had benign tumors, 6 had ranula, 6 had inflammation, 11 had malignant tumors. Eighteen patients (62%) were correctly diagnosed as one of 4 disease categories by clinical findings alone. Signal intensity of lesions compared to the muscle and the normal sublingual space (SLS) was not characteristic for any of the diagnostic categories. Only ranulas showed homogenous signal intensity within the lesion on T2 images. Hemangiomas were easily diagnosed by the characteristic contour and architecture including flow void. All lesions with ragged boundaries were either inflammatory or malignant masses. The lesions with ragged boundaries accompanied by expansion of the SLS were inflammatory masses. The lesions with smooth boundaries and a capsule-like rim were either cysts or benign tumors. Utilizing these MRI findings, 25 of 29 patients (86%) were correctly categorized into one of 4 diagnostic categories. Four lesions without a capsule-like rim confined within SLS could not be correctly categorized. These were 2 cases of inflammatory mass and 2 cases of malignant salivary gland tumor. MRI findings were efficient for differentiation of sublingual mass lesions. However, some cases of malignant salivary gland tumor originating from the sublingual gland could not be differentiated on MRI findings from cases of chronic inflammation. (author)

  14. Purulent meningitis with unusual diffusion-weighted MRI findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abe, M.; Takayama, Y. E-mail: y-taka@fki.fitweb.or.jp; Yamashita, H.; Noguchi, M.; Sagoh, T

    2002-10-01

    We describe unusual findings obtained by diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in a patient with acute purulent meningitis caused by penicillin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae. Along cerebral convexities and the Sylvian fissure, multiple small intense lesions showed high signal intensity in these sequences. This may be the first report of diffusion-weighted in purulent meningitis.

  15. Malignant Peripheral Nerve Sheath Tumour: CT and MRI Findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimiliano Sperandio

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumour (MPNST is extremely rare malignancy in the general population, occurring more frequently in patients with Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1. In the literature five cases of MPNST arising from the parapharyngeal space (PPS in patients without neurofibromatosis have been reported. We report imaging techniques in a patient with MPNST in the PPS, who had neither a family history nor sign of NF1. Computed tomography (CT scan and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI were performed for a correct therapeutic planning. CT and MRI findings were correlated with hystopathological diagnosis.

  16. MRI Findings of Brucellar Spondylitis: A Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jin Woo; Kim, Myung Soon; Kim, Young Ju [Dept. of Radiology, Wonju Christian Hospital, Yonsei University Wonju College of Medicine, Wonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-03-15

    Brucellosis is a systemic infectious disease, and musculoskeletal involvement is a frequent complication. Particularly, spondylitis is a common involvement. However, early diagnosis of brucellar spondylitis is often difficult due to non-specific clinical symptoms and long latent period. Especially in Korea, where tuberculosis is an endemic disease, differentiation between tuberculous and brucellar spondylitis is clinically and radiologically more challenging. A 59-year-old male cattle farmer, who presented with non-specific back pain, had spondylitis on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and serologic test finally confirmed brucellar spondylitis. Therefore, we report a case of a rather rare disease in Korea, brucellar spondylitis with a review of MRI findings.

  17. Hyperplastic callus formation in osteogenesis imperfecta: CT and MRI findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rieker, O.; Kreitner, K.F. [Klinik fuer Radiologie, Johannes-Gutenberg-Univ. Mainz (Germany); Karbowski, A. [Orthopaedische Abtl., Krankenhaus der Augustinerinnen, Koeln (Germany)

    1998-09-01

    Hyperplastic callus formation is a noteworthy condition in patients with osteogenesis imperfecta because it often mimicks osteosarcoma on radiography. The findings of CT and MRI in hyperplastic callus formation have not been reported. In the presented case, MRI demonstrated contrast enhancement and edema of the surrounding soft tisssue, consistent with benign as well as malignant disease. Computed tomography showed a calcified rim of the lesion which may be a useful feature to rule out osteosarcoma in this condition. (orig.) With 2 figs., 18 refs.

  18. MRI findings of intrinsic and extrinsic duodenal abnormalities and variations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atman, Ebru Dusunceli; Erden, Ayse; Ustuner, Evren; Uzun, Caglar; Bektas, Mehmet [Ankara University School of Medicine, Ankara (Turkmenistan)

    2015-12-15

    This pictorial review aims to illustrate the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings and presentation patterns of anatomical variations and various benign and malignant pathologies of the duodenum, including sphincter contraction, major papilla variation, prominent papilla, diverticulum, annular pancreas, duplication cysts, choledochocele, duodenal wall thickening secondary to acute pancreatitis, postbulbar stenosis, celiac disease, fistula, choledochoduodenostomy, external compression, polyps, Peutz-Jeghers syndrome, ampullary carcinoma and adenocarcinoma. MRI is a useful imaging tool for demonstrating duodenal pathology and its anatomic relationships with adjacent organs, which is critical for establishing correct diagnosis and planning appropriate treatment, especially for surgery.

  19. [Value of MRI findings in Gayet-Wernicke encephalopathy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenz, V; Vargas, M I; Bin, J F; Bogorin, A; Grebici-Guessoum, M; Jacques, C; Marin, H; Zöllner, G; Dietemann, J L

    2002-09-01

    Wernicke encephalopathy (Wernicke-Korsakoff encephalopathy) is related to thiamine deficiency. We report the MRI findings in four patients with visualization of bilateral and symmetrical hyperintense foci on T2W and FLAIR images involving the periaqueductal gray matter, the mamillary bodies and around the third ventricle. Diffusion weighted images obtained in two patients demonstrated mild hypersignal in the same areas. Contrast enhancement within the mamillary bodies was noted in one patient. Follow-up MRI obtained in three patients showed rapid regression of signal abnormalities without correlation with good clinical outcome.

  20. Necrotizing fasciitis: unreliable MRI findings in the preoperative diagnosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arslan, Arzu E-mail: arzuarslan@netscape.net; Pierre-Jerome, Claude; Borthne, Arne

    2000-12-01

    The authors present two cases of necrotizing fasciitis (NF), one case of dermatomyositis and one case of posttraumatic muscle injury, which have similar magnetic resonance imaging findings in terms of skin, subcutaneous fat, superficial and deep fasciae and muscle involvement. These cases highlight the need for cautious interpretation of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings, for they are nonspecific and the preoperative decision should be based mostly on the evolution of the clinical status.

  1. A study of brain MRI findings in children with epilepsy

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    Kanematsu, Sachiko; Sumida, Sawako; Muto, Ayako; Osawa, Makiko; Ono, Yuko [Tokyo Women' s Medical Coll. (Japan); Uchida, Moriyasu; Maruyama, Hiroshi

    2000-06-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging in the brain was performed in 293 patients with childhood-onset (<15 y.o.) epilepsy who had been classified into 4 groups, idiopathic localization-related epilepsy (ILRE), 78 patients; idiopathic generalized epilepsy (IGE), 116 patients; symptomatic localization-related epilepsy (SLRE), 68 patients and symptomatic generalized epilepsy (SGE), 31 patients, with the Classification of Epilepsies and Epileptic Syndrome (1989 International League Against Epilepsy). The examination was performed with a 1.5 T magnet. One hundred twenty-five patients (42.7%) showed abnormal findings, and the incidence in each group was as follows: Idiopathic epilepsy: The rate of abnormal findings in the ILRE and IGE groups was 21.8% and 20.7%, respectively. Most of the abnormal findings were secondary changes, such as diffuse or localized brain atrophy. Of the congenital abnormalities, the main finding was arachnoid cyst. Symptomatic epilepsy: The rate of abnormality in the SLRE patients was 88.2%, and 85% of the findings were secondary changes, i.e., brain atrophy, or degeneration of the white matter. In the SGE group, the rate was 77.4%, with an almost equal percentage of congenital and secondary changes. Of 255 patients who were examined by electroencephalography (EEG) on the same day as MRI, about 50% showed a correlation between the EEG records and the MRI abnormalities. However, only 8 patients showed a correlation in localization between the EEG and MRI abnormalities. (author)

  2. Application of functional MRI in epilepsy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Ai-hong; LI Kun-cheng; PIAO Chang-fu; LI Hong-li

    2005-01-01

    Objective To review the recent development of functional MRI application in epilepsy. Data sources Both Chinese and English language literatures were researched using MEDLINE/ CD ROM (1996-2005) and the Chinese Biomedical Literature Disk (1996-2005). Study selection Published articles about functional MRI application and epilepsy were selected.Data extraction Data were mainly extracted from 38 articles which are listed in the reference section of this review.Results fMRI can be used to localize seizure foci through detecting these cerebral hemodynamic changes produced by epileptiform discharges. EEG-triggered fMRI, which has higher spatial and temporal resolution, helps to detect the spatiotemporal pattern of spike origin and propagation, and define localization of the epileptogenic focus. fMRI is also useful in language and memory cognitive function assessment and presurgical assessment of refractory epilepsy. Atypically distributed cognitive function areas can be detected by fMRI, because of cortical language and memory areas reorganization during long-term epileptic activity in patients with epilepsy. Conclusions fMRI technique plays a very important role in cognitive function and presurgical assessment of patients with epilepsy. It is meaningful for understanding pathogenesis of epilepsy.

  3. Functional MRI and CT biomarkers in oncology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winfield, J.M. [Institute of Cancer Research and Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust, CRUK Imaging Centre at the Institute of Cancer Research, Sutton (United Kingdom); Institute of Cancer Research and Royal Marsden Hospital, MRI Unit, Sutton (United Kingdom); Payne, G.S.; DeSouza, N.M. [Institute of Cancer Research and Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust, CRUK Imaging Centre at the Institute of Cancer Research, Sutton (United Kingdom)

    2015-04-01

    Imaging biomarkers derived from MRI or CT describe functional properties of tumours and normal tissues. They are finding increasing numbers of applications in diagnosis, monitoring of response to treatment and assessment of progression or recurrence. Imaging biomarkers also provide scope for assessment of heterogeneity within and between lesions. A wide variety of functional parameters have been investigated for use as biomarkers in oncology. Some imaging techniques are used routinely in clinical applications while others are currently restricted to clinical trials or preclinical studies. Apparent diffusion coefficient, magnetization transfer ratio and native T{sub 1} relaxation time provide information about structure and organization of tissues. Vascular properties may be described using parameters derived from dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI, dynamic contrast-enhanced CT, transverse relaxation rate (R{sub 2}*), vessel size index and relative blood volume, while magnetic resonance spectroscopy may be used to probe the metabolic profile of tumours. This review describes the mechanisms of contrast underpinning each technique and the technical requirements for robust and reproducible imaging. The current status of each biomarker is described in terms of its validation, qualification and clinical applications, followed by a discussion of the current limitations and future perspectives. (orig.)

  4. Aberrant functioning of the putamen links delusions, antipsychotic drug dose, and compromised connectivity in first episode psychosis--Preliminary fMRI findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raij, Tuukka T; Mäntylä, Teemu; Kieseppä, Tuula; Suvisaari, Jaana

    2015-08-30

    The dopamine theory proposes the relationship of delusions to aberrant signaling in striatal circuitries that can be normalized with dopamine D2 receptor-blocking drugs. Localization of such circuitries, as well as their upstream and downstream signaling, remains poorly known. We collected functional magnetic resonance images from first-episode psychosis patients and controls during an audiovisual movie. Final analyses included 20 patients and 20 controls; another sample of 10 patients and 10 controls was used to calculate a comparison signal-time course. We identified putamen circuitry in which the signal aberrance (poor correlation with the comparison signal time course) was predicted by the dopamine theory, being greater in patients than controls; correlating positively with delusion scores; and correlating negatively with antipsychotic-equivalent dosage. In Granger causality analysis, patients showed a compromised contribution of the cortical salience network to the putamen and compromised contribution of the putamen to the default mode network. Results were corrected for multiple comparisons at the cluster level with primary voxel-wise threshold p < 0.005 for the salience network contribution, but liberal primary threshold p < 0.05 was used in other group comparisons. If replicated in larger studies, these findings may help unify and extend current hypotheses on dopaminergic dysfunction, salience processing and pathogenesis of delusions.

  5. Utility of functional MRI in pediatric neurology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freilich, Emily R; Gaillard, William D

    2010-01-01

    Functional MRI (fMRI), a tool increasingly used to study cognitive function, is also an important tool for understanding not only normal development in healthy children, but also abnormal development, as seen in children with epilepsy, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, and autism. Since its inception almost 15 years ago, fMRI has seen an explosion in its use and applications in the adult literature. However, only recently has it found a home in pediatric neurology. New adaptations in study design and technologic advances, especially the study of resting state functional connectivity as well as the use of passive task design in sedated children, have increased the utility of functional imaging in pediatrics to help us gain understanding into the developing brain at work. This article reviews the background of fMRI in pediatrics and highlights the most recent literature and clinical applications.

  6. Long-Term MRI Findings in Operated Rotator Cuff Tear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kyroelae, K.; Niemitukia, L.; Jaroma, H.; Vaeaetaeinen, U. [Kuopio Univ. Hospital (Finland). Dept. of Orthopaedics and Traumatology

    2004-08-01

    Purpose: To describe magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings at long-term follow-up after rotator cuff (RC) tear using standard MRI sequences without fat saturation. Material and Methods: Twenty-eight patients aged 55.8{+-}7.6 underwent MRI examination 4.6{+-}2.1 years after surgery for RC tear. Standard sequences in oblique coronal, oblique sagittal, and axial planes were obtained. The RC, including re-tears and tendon degeneration, was independently evaluated by two observers. Thickness of the supraspinatus tendon and narrowing of the subacromial space were measured. The clinical outcome was evaluated with the Constant score and compared with the MRI findings. Results: The RC tear was traumatic in 18 (64%) patients and degenerative in 10 (36%). At follow-up, 11 (39%) had normal RC tendons with good clinical outcome. Four (14%) patients had painful tendinosis without RC tear. A full-thickness RC tear was found in 7 (25%) patients and a partial tear in 6 (21%). In one patient with a full-thickness tear, and in two with partial tear, tendinosis was found in another of the RC tendons. The subacromial space was narrowed in 13 (46%) of the patients. A narrowing of the subacromial space correlated with re-tear (P<0.05). Conclusions: The RC may be evaluated with standard MRI sequences without fat saturation at long-term follow-up. A normal appearance of the RC is correlated with good clinical outcome, while re-tear and tendinosis are associated with pain.

  7. MRI findings on de Quervain`s disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murase, Tsuyoshi [Osaka National Hospital (Japan); Kitano, Keiji; Shimada, Kozo; Tokumaru, Hiroshi; Komi, Katsumi

    1996-08-01

    de Quervain`s disease is a stenosing tenosynovitis affecting the first extensor compartment of the wrist. Conservative treatment including steroid injection is primarily indicated and satisfactory result can be obtained in most cases. However, it often fails in cases where fibrocartilagenous septum exists within the first compartment. Surgical release of the compartment and resection of the septum is recommended for these instances. The incidence of the septum in the compartment is reported to be about 30 to 40 per cent in normal population, though over 90 per cent in operative cases. In this study, MRI was employed to evaluate the anatomical variation in the first extensor compartment of the wrist in de Quervain`s disease. There were 13 hands in 5 men and 10 women. Their average age was 49.5 years old (19 to 76 y.o.). Axial T1 weighted MR images around the radial styloid process were obtained. Eight hands which resisted conservative treatment were operated on and first compartment was directly inspected. The other 5 were well treated with one or two steroid injection. In all operative cases, MRI revealed that the EPB tendon exists apart from the APL tendon surrounded with thick high intensity area. That finding correspond to the operative findings. That were fibrocartilagenous septum dividing the first compartment and dense synovium around the EPB tendon. On the other hands, in 5 hands which responded to steroid injection, EPB was identified only in 2 on MRI and could not be distinguished from APL in the other 3. Consequently, MRI provides useful information to make a strategy for treating de Quervain`s disease. In cases whose MRI show that EPB and APL are accommodated in one common canal non-surgical treatment should be continued while in the cases of separate EPB tunnel with surrounding proliferating synovium early operation might be considered. (author)

  8. MRI in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy; Correlation between MRI findings and clinical features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kodama, Kazuhiro (Chiba Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1992-04-01

    The present study investigated magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features in temporal lobe epilepsy and correlated them with clinical variables, such as age, illness duration, past history, and the frequency of seizure. Cerebral MRI was performed in 45 patients with temporal lobe epilepsy of unknown etiology, using a 0.5 T and/or a 1.5 T MRI systems. The temporal lobe was seen as high signal intensity on T2-weighted images and/or proton density-weighted images in 6 patients, although it was missed on CT and T1-weighted images. The high intensity area seemed to reflect sclerosis of the temporal lobe. This finding was significantly associated with partial seizure. Of these patients, 3 had a history of febrile convulsions. Ten patients had slight dilatation of the inferior horn of the lateral ventricle. They were significantly old at the time of onset and examination, as compared with those without dilatation. Furthermore, 6 patients with unilateral dilatation were significantly younger than the other 4 with bilateral dilatation. Nine patients had small multiple high signal areas in white matter, mainly in the parietal lobe, which suggested vascular origin. These patients were significantly old at the time of onset and examination, as compared with those having no such findings. In depicting high signal intensity areas, a 1.5 T MRI system was not always superior to a 0.5 T MRI system. Proton density-weighted images were better than T2-weighted images in some patients. (N.K.).

  9. Calcific tendonitis of pectoralis major: CT and MRI findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cahir, John [Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital NHS Trust, Department of Radiology, Middlesex (United Kingdom); Saifuddin, Asif [Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital NHS Trust, Department of Radiology, Middlesex (United Kingdom); University College London, The Institute of Orthopaedics and Musculoskeletal Sciences, London (United Kingdom); London Bone and Soft Tissue Tumour Service, London (United Kingdom)

    2005-04-01

    The shoulder is the most common location for calcific tendonitis. Presentation of calcific tendonitis at other sites is unusual and may lead to diagnostic difficulty. We report a case of calcific tendonitis of the pectoralis major insertion and describe the CT and MRI findings. The presence of an associated cortical defect at the site of tendon insertion may lead to the incorrect diagnosis of neoplastic process. (orig.)

  10. Clinically relevant magnetic resonance imaging (MRI findings in elite swimmers’ shoulders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arno Celliers

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Shoulder pain is the most common and well-documented site of musculoskeletal pain in elite swimmers. Structural abnormalities on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI of elite swimmers’ symptomatic shoulders are common. Little has been documented about the association between MRI findings in the asymptomatic shoulder versus the symptomatic shoulder.Objective: To assess clinically relevant MRI findings in the shoulders of symptomatic and asymptomatic elite swimmers.Method: Twenty (aged 16–23 years elite swimmers completed questionnaires on their swimming training, pain and shoulder function. MRI of both shoulders (n = 40 were performed and all swimmers were given a standardised clinical shoulder examination. Results: Both shoulders of 11 male and 9 female elite swimmers (n = 40 were examined. Eleven of the 40 shoulders were clinically symptomatic and 29 were asymptomatic. The most common clinical finding in both the symptomatic and asymptomatic shoulders was impingement during internal rotation, with impingement in 54.5% of the symptomatic shoulders and in 31.0% of the asymptomatic shoulders. The most common MRI findings in the symptomatic and asymptomatic shoulders were supraspinatus tendinosis (45.5% vs. 20.7%, subacromial subdeltoid fluid (45.5% vs. 34.5%, increased signal in the AC Joint (45.5% vs. 37.9% and AC joint arthrosis (36.4% vs. 34.5%. Thirty-nine (97.5% of the shoulders showed abnormal MRI features.Conclusion: MRI findings in the symptomatic and asymptomatic shoulders of young elite swimmers are similar and care should be taken when reporting shoulder MRIs in these athletes. Asymptomatic shoulders demonstrate manifold MRI abnormalities that may be radiologically significant but appear not to be clinically significant.

  11. Imaging Findings of Brain Death on 3-Tesla MRI

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    Sohn, Chul Ho [Dept. of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Hwa Pyung [Dept. of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, CHA Gumi Medical Center, CHA University, Gumi (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jun Beom [Dept. of Radiology, Korean Armed Force Daejeon Hospital, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Chang, Hyuk Won; Kim, Easlmaan; Park, Ui Jun; Kim, Hyoung Tae [Keimyung University College of Medicine, Dongsan Medical Center, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Eun Hee [Dept. of Radiology, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of); Ku, Jeong Hun [Dept. of Biomedical Engineering, Keimyung University College of Medicine, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-09-15

    To demonstrate the usefulness of 3-tesla (3T) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) including T2-weighted imaging (T2WI), diffusion weighted imaging (DWI), time-of-flight (TOF) magnetic resonance angiography (MRA), T2*-weighted gradient recalled echo (GRE), and susceptibility weighted imaging (SWI) in diagnosing brain death. Magnetic resonance imaging findings for 10 patients with clinically verified brain death (group I) and seven patients with comatose or stuporous mentality who did not meet the clinical criteria of brain death (group II) were retrospectively reviewed. Tonsilar herniation and loss of intraarterial flow signal voids (LIFSV) on T2WI were highly sensitive and specific findings for the diagnosis of brain death (p < 0.001 and < 0.001, respectively). DWI, TOF-MRA, and GRE findings were statistically different between the two groups (p = 0.015, 0.029, and 0.003, respectively). However, cortical high signal intensities in T2WI and SWI findings were not statistically different between the two group (p = 0.412 and 1.0, respectively). T2-weighted imaging, DWI, and MRA using 3T MRI may be useful for diagnosing brain death. However, SWI findings are not specific due to high false positive findings.

  12. Postinterventional MRI findings following MRI-guided laser ablation of osteoid osteoma

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    Fuchs, S., E-mail: simon.fuchs@charite.de [Department of Radiology, Charité, Humboldt University, Berlin (Germany); Gebauer, B.; Stelter, L.; Schäfer, M.L.; Renz, D.M. [Department of Radiology, Charité, Humboldt University, Berlin (Germany); Melcher, I.; Schaser, K. [Center for Musculoskeletal Surgery, Charité, Humboldt University, Berlin (Germany); Hamm, B.; Streitparth, F. [Department of Radiology, Charité, Humboldt University, Berlin (Germany)

    2014-04-15

    Objective: To evaluate postinterventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) characteristics following MRI-guided laser ablation of osteoid osteoma (OO). Materials and methods: 35 patients treated with MRI-guided laser ablation underwent follow-up MRI immediately after the procedure, after 3, 6, 12, 24, 36, and up to 48 months. The imaging protocol included multiplanar fat-saturated T2w TSE, unenhanced and contrast-enhanced T1w SE, and subtraction images. MR images were reviewed regarding the appearance and size of treated areas, and presence of periablation bone and soft tissue changes. Imaging was correlated with clinical status. Results: Mean follow-up time was 13.6 months. 28/35 patients (80%) showed a postinterventional “target-sign” appearance consisting of a fibrovascular rim zone and a necrotic core area. After an initial increase in total lesion diameter after 3 months, a subsequent progressive inward remodeling process of the zonal compartments was observed for up to 24 months. Periablation bone and soft tissue changes showed a constant decrease over time. MR findings correlated well with the clinical status. Clinical success was achieved in 32/35 (91%). Conclusions: Evaluation of long-term follow-up MRI after laser ablation of OO identified typical postinterventional changes and thus may contribute to the interpretation of therapeutic success and residual or recurrent OO in suspected cases.

  13. Repaired supraspinatus tendons in clinically improving patients: Early postoperative findings and interval changes on MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jung Eun; Park, Ji Seon; Ryu, Kyung Nam; Rhee, Yong Girl [Kyung Hee University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, So Hee; Park, So Young; Jin Wook [Dept. of Radiology, Kyung Hee University Hospital at Gangdong, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-04-15

    To demonstrate and further determine the incidences of repaired supraspinatus tendons on early postoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings in clinically improving patients and to evaluate interval changes on follow-up MRIs. Fifty patients, who showed symptomatic and functional improvements after supraspinatus tendon repair surgery and who underwent postoperative MRI twice with a time interval, were included. The first and the second postoperative MRIs were obtained a mean of 4.4 and 11.5 months after surgery, respectively. The signal intensity (SI) patterns of the repaired tendon on T2-weighted images from the first MRI were classified into three types of heterogeneous high SI with fluid-like bright high foci (type I), heterogeneous high SI without fluid-like bright high foci (type II), and heterogeneous or homogeneous low SI (type III). Interval changes in the SI pattern, tendon thickness, and rotator cuff interval thickness between the two postoperative MRIs were evaluated. The SI patterns on the first MRI were type I or II in 45 tendons (90%) and type III in five (10%). SI decreased significantly on the second MRI (p < 0.050). The mean thickness of repaired tendons and rotator cuff intervals also decreased significantly (p < 0.050). Repaired supraspinatus tendons exhibited high SI in 90% of clinically improving patients on MRI performed during the early postsurgical period. The increased SI and thickness of the repaired tendon decreased on the later MRI, suggesting a gradual healing process rather than a retear.

  14. Pelvic Hydatid Disease: CT and MRI Findings Causing Sciatica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanal, Hatice Tuba; Kocaoglu, Murat; Bulakbasi, Nail; Yildirim, Duzgun [Gulhane Military Medical School, Department of Radiology, 06018, Ankara (Turkmenistan)

    2007-12-15

    Pelvic masses, especially hydatid disease, rarely present with sciatica. We present the computed tomography (CT) and the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of a 49-year-old female patient with presacral hydatid disease, who was evaluated for her sciatica. We also want to emphasize the importance of assessing the pelvis of patients with symptoms and clinical findings that are inconsistent and that cannot be satisfactorily explained by the spinal imaging findings. isc herniation in the lumbar spine is a well-known etiology of back pains and sciatica, but whenever disc herniation of the lumbar spine is excluded by the employed imaging modalities, then the pelvis should be examined for other possible etiologies of nerve compression. We describe here a patient, who was complaining of sciatica, with no abnormal findings in her lumbar spinal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The cause of her sciatica was found to be associated with a pelvic hydatid cyst compressing the lumbosacral nerve plexus. In conclusion, if no pathology is evident for the lumbar discal structures, in connection with the cause of sciatica and lumbar back pains, then the pelvis should also be examined for the possible etiologies of compression of the lumbosacral nerve plexus. Whenever a multiseptated cyst is come across in a patient of an endemic origin with a positive history for hydatid disease like surgery, indicating recurrence, hydatid cyst is the most likely diagnosis.

  15. MRI findings of spinal visceral larva migrans of Toxocara canis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, In Ho, E-mail: leeinho1974@hanmail.ne [Department of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, 50 Ilwon-dong, Gangnam-Gu, Seoul 135-710 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Radiology, Chungnam National University Hospital, 33 Munhwa-ro, Jung-gu, Daejeon 301-721 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sung Tae, E-mail: st7.kim@hotmail.co [Department of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, 50 Ilwon-dong, Gangnam-Gu, Seoul 135-710 (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Dae Kun, E-mail: odk6464@nate.co [Department of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, 50 Ilwon-dong, Gangnam-Gu, Seoul 135-710 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hyung-Jin, E-mail: hyungkim@skku.ed [Department of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, 50 Ilwon-dong, Gangnam-Gu, Seoul 135-710 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Keon Ha, E-mail: somatom@skku.ed [Department of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, 50 Ilwon-dong, Gangnam-Gu, Seoul 135-710 (Korea, Republic of); Jeon, Pyoung, E-mail: drpjeon@gmail.co [Department of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, 50 Ilwon-dong, Gangnam-Gu, Seoul 135-710 (Korea, Republic of); Byun, Hong Sik, E-mail: byun5474@skku.ed [Department of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, 50 Ilwon-dong, Gangnam-Gu, Seoul 135-710 (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-08-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to investigate the MRI findings of visceral larva migrans (VLS) of Toxocara canis in spinal cord. Materials and methods: We retrospectively reviewed spinal MRI findings in eight patients with serologically proven Toxocara canis between 2005 and 2008. We evaluated the location, length, extent and migration of the lesion, MR signal intensity (SI), enhancement pattern, and swelling of the spinal cord. We evaluated clinical features including presenting symptoms and signs and treatment response. Results: Total 8 patients (M = 8; age range 36-79 years) were included. The lesions were located in the cervical or thoracic spinal cord in all patients. All lesions showed high SI and minimal or mild swelling of involved spinal cord on T2WI and focal nodular enhancement on posterior or posterolateral segment of spinal cord. The length of involved lesion was relatively short in most patients. There was a migration of lesion in one patient. In spite of albendazole or steroid treatment, neurological symptoms or signs were not significantly improved in all patients. Conclusion: Although all lesions show non-specific imaging findings like non-tumorous myelopathy mimicking transverse myelitis, single lesion, focal nodular enhancement on posterior or posterolateral segment of spinal cord, relatively short segmental involvement and migration of lesion may be characteristic findings of spinal VLM of Toxocara canis. In addition, the reluctant response to the treatment may be characteristic of spinal VLM of Toxocara canis.

  16. ORIGINAL ARTICLE CASE REPORT Functional MRI in pre-surgical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    CASE REPORT. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is an MRI technique ... most promising direct clinical application is in pre-surgical planning, where fMRI is ... robust and established, although it is interesting to note that recent.

  17. Functional MRI in human motor control studies and clinical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toma, Keiichiro [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Graduate School of Medicine; Nakai, Toshiharu [Inst. of Biomedical Research and Innovation, Kobe (Japan)

    2002-07-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has been a useful tool for the noninvasive mapping of brain function associated with various motor and cognitive tasks. Because fMRI is based on the blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) effect, it does not directly record neural activity. With the fMRI technique, distinguishing BOLD signals creased by cortical projection neurons from those created by intracortical neurons appears to be difficult. Two major experimental designs are used in fMRI studies: block designs and event-related designs. Block-designed fMRI presupposes the steady state of regional cerebral blood flow and has been applied to examinations of brain activation caused by tasks requiring sustained or repetitive movements. By contrast, the more recently developed event-related fMRI with time resolution of a few seconds allows the mapping of brain activation associated with a single movement according to the transient aspects of the hemodynamic response. Increasing evidence suggests that multiple motor areas are engaged in a networked manner to execute various motor acts. In order to understand functional brain maps, it is important that one understands sequential and parallel organizations of anatomical connections between multiple motor areas. In fMRI studies of complex motor tasks, elementary parameters such as movement length, force, velocity, acceleration and frequency should be controlled, because inconsistency in those parameters may alter the extent and intensity of motor cortical activation, confounding interpretation of the findings obtained. In addition to initiation of movements, termination of movements plays an important role in the successful achievement of complex movements. Brain areas exclusively related to the termination of movements have been, for the first time, uncovered with an event-related fMRI technique. We propose the application of fMRI to the elucidation of the pathophysiology of movement disorders, particularly dystonia

  18. MRI findings of prolonged post-traumatic sternal pain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grosse, Alexandra; Grosse, Claudia; Anderson, Suzanne [University Hospital of Berne, Department of Diagnostic, Pediatric and Interventional Radiology, Berne (Switzerland); Steinbach, Lynne [University of California San Francisco, Department of Radiology, San Francisco, CA (United States)

    2007-05-15

    The objective of this study was to characterize the different causes of prolonged sternal pain following thoracic trauma with involvement of the sternum and to define criteria for sternal nonunion diagnosis using MRI. Five patients with abnormalities of the sternum were evaluated for prolonged sternal pain following thoracic trauma using MRI. MR images were evaluated by two radiologists in consensus. The patients were selected from the radiology database, which included 8 patients with post-traumatic prolonged sternal pain. Two patients (n = 2) revealed a sternal nonunion after sternal fracture. One patient had a sternal fracture with delayed union and minor displacement of the sternal halves. Abnormal signal intensity alterations adjacent to and within the manubrio-sternal joint were evident in 2 patients and considered due to trauma-related changes in the manubrio-sternal joint. The 3 patients who were not included in the study had no abnormalities of the sternum: 1 of them proved to have a well-healed sternal fracture and nonunion of a rib fracture, 1 had subtle Tietze's syndrome, and 1 patient revealed no pathological findings on imaging. Various factors may be responsible for prolonged sternal pain following thoracic trauma, and these can be viewed with MRI. In cases of sternal nonunion there was common fluid-like signal in the fracture interspace between the bony edges, and the bone marrow adjacent to the nonunion showed altered signal intensity. MRI identified sternal nonunion and other trauma-related abnormalities of the sternum following chest trauma. (orig.)

  19. CORRELATION OF PAIN AND DISABILITY WITH MRI FINDINGS IN PATIENTS WITH LUMBAR DISCOGENIC BACK PAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surendra K. Wani

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Lumbar disc prolapse is one of the common causes of low back pain seen in the working population. There are contradictorty reports regarding the clinical significance of various magnetic resonance imaging (MRI findings observed in these patients. Purpose: The aim of the study was to determine the association of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI findings with intensity of pain and self reported disability among persons with lumbar discogenic back pain. Material And Methods: A consecutive series of patients aged between 20 – 50 years, who were investigated by MRI of lumbar spine because of LBP(Low Back Pain were selected.LBP intensity was measured by using Numerical Pain Rating Scale (NPRS and functional disability by Modified Oswestry Disability Questionnaire (MODI. Each MRI scan was assessed and graded by radiologist according to standardized protocol. Results: The Pearson’s correlation coefficient for pain intensity on NPRS (r value = -0.01614 and disability percentage ( r value =-0.5628 in discogenic back pain patients demonstrated negative correlation. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that there is no association of MRI findings in the lumbar spine with intensity of pain and disability among persons with lumbar discogenic back pain.

  20. Neuroradiological findings in primary progressive aphasia: CT, MRI and cerebral perfusion SPECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinnatamby, R. [Dept. of Radiology, Addenbrooke`s Hospital NHS Trust, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Antoun, N.A. [Dept. of Radiology, Addenbrooke`s Hospital NHS Trust, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Freer, C.E.L. [Dept. of Radiology, Addenbrooke`s Hospital NHS Trust, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Miles, K.A. [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Addenbrooke`s Hospital NHS Trust, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Hodges, J.R. [Dept. of Neurology, Addenbrooke`s Hospital NHS Trust, Cambridge (United Kingdom)

    1996-04-01

    Primary progressive aphasia (PPA) is defined as progressive decline in language for 2 or more years with preservation of activities of daily living and general cognitive functions. Whereas the clinical features of this syndrome have been well documented, the neuroradiological findings have not been studied systematically. We studied 13 patients with PPA retrospectively: 10 underwent CT, 12 MRI and 12 cerebral perfusion studies using {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO SPECT. CT and MR images were scored for focal atrophy by two independent assessors. Initial qualitative assessment of SPECT images was confirmed by quantitative analysis. CY was normal in 5 patients. Focal atrophy, affecting predominantly the left temporal lobe, was seen in 4 of 10 patients on CT, and 10 of 12 on MRI. Atrophy was localised primarily to the superior and middle temporal gyri on MRI. All 12 patients who underwent SPECT had unilateral temporal lobe perfusion defects, in 2 patients of whom MRI was normal. CT is relatively insensitive to focal abnormalities in PPA; MRI and SPECT are the imaging modalities of choice. MRI allows accurate, specific localisation of atrophy with the temporal neocortex. SPECT may reveal a functional decrease in cerebral perfusion prior to establishment of structural change. (orig.)

  1. Relationship between MRI and clinical findings in the acromioclavicular joint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jordan, L.K.; Griffiths, H.L. [Department of Radiology, University of Missouri Health Care (United States); Kenter, K. [Department of Orthopedics, University of Missouri Health Care (United States)

    2002-09-01

    Objective: To determine the relationship between the magnetic resonance (MR) appearance of the acromioclavicular (AC) joint and the physical findings. Design: A total of 116 consecutive patients underwent routine MR imaging (MRI) of the shoulder over an 18-month period. All MR studies were interpreted by a blinded, experienced musculoskeletal radiologist. Eleven variables were studied: the presence of osteophytes; fluid in the joint; fluid outside the joint; high signal in the clavicle or in the acromion; fluid in the subacromial bursa; irregularity of the joint margins; bulging of the capsule; widening of the joint; the age of the patient; and the presence of a rotator cuff tear. The clinical information was supplied by an experienced shoulder surgeon blinded to the MRI findings. A control group of 23 normal volunteers was also studied. Results: The only statistically significant correlation (P=0.0249) was between high signal in the distal clavicle and degenerative changes found clinically. A weaker relationship existed between fluid in the joint and the clinical examination and between increasing degenerative changes and advancing age. Otherwise, no material relationship was found between any of the other MR abnormalities and the clinical picture. Conclusion: There appears to be no real correlation between the MR appearances and the clinical findings in the AC joint. (orig.)

  2. Multidetector CT and MRI findings in periportal space pathologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karcaaltincaba, Musturay [Department of Radiology, Hacettepe University School of Medicine, Ankara 06100 (Turkey)]. E-mail: musturayk@yahoo.com; Haliloglu, Mithat [Department of Radiology, Hacettepe University School of Medicine, Ankara 06100 (Turkey); Akpinar, Erhan [Department of Radiology, Hacettepe University School of Medicine, Ankara 06100 (Turkey); Akata, Deniz [Department of Radiology, Hacettepe University School of Medicine, Ankara 06100 (Turkey); Ozmen, Mustafa [Department of Radiology, Hacettepe University School of Medicine, Ankara 06100 (Turkey); Ariyurek, Macit [Department of Radiology, Hacettepe University School of Medicine, Ankara 06100 (Turkey); Akhan, Okan [Department of Radiology, Hacettepe University School of Medicine, Ankara 06100 (Turkey)

    2007-01-15

    Periportal region is an anatomic space around portal vein comprising hepatic artery, bile duct, nerves, lymphatics and a potential space. Periportal pathologies may involve any of these structures diffusely or focally with characteristic radiologic findings. Radiologic findings can be helpful in differential diagnosis of pathologies of periportal structures including periportal cavernomatous transformation, hepatic artery aneurysm, biliary diseases, neurofibromatosis, lymphoma, langerhans' cell histiocytosis, periportal fatty infiltration and other causes of periportal halo in adult and pediatric patients. Lobar/segmental intrahepatic involvement can be seen in neurofibromatosis, cavernomatous transformation, fatty infiltration and periportal edema. In this review, we discuss CT and MRI findings of periportal pathologies which can be in the form of diffuse or segmental/lobar involvement.

  3. Eosinophilic Otitis Media: CT and MRI Findings and Literature Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Won Jung; Lee, Jeong Hyun; Lim, Hyun Kyung; Yoon, Tae Hyun; Cho, Kyung Ja; Baek, Jung Hwan [Asan Medical Center, Ulsan University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-06-15

    Eosinophilic otitis media (EOM) is a relatively rare, intractable, middle ear disease with extremely viscous mucoid effusion containing eosinophils. EOM is associated with adult bronchial asthma and nasal allergies. Conventional treatments for otitis media with effusion (OME) or for chronic otitis media (COM), like tympanoplasty or mastoidectomy, when performed for the treatment of EOM, can induce severe complications such as deafness. Therefore, it should be differentiated from the usual type of OME or COM. To our knowledge, the clinical and imaging findings of EOM of temporal bone are not well-known to radiologists. We report here the CT and MRI findings of two EOM cases and review the clinical and histopathologic findings of this recently described disease entity.

  4. MRI findings in patients with defecatory dysfunction after surgical correction of anorectal malformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cui, Yong; Shao, Guang-rui [Second Hospital of Shandong University, Department of Radiology, Jinan (China); Wang, Ruo-yi [Second Hospital of Shandong University, Department of Pediatric Surgery, Jinan (China); Zhang, Yuan [Second Hospital of Shandong University, Evidence-based Medical Center, Jinan (China); Zhang, Shu-hui [Second Hospital of Shandong University, Department of Laboratory, Jinan (China)

    2013-08-15

    Postoperative anorectal malformation patients frequently have defecatory dysfunction. MRI may be useful in the management of these patients. To analyze static and dynamic MRI findings in patients with defecatory dysfunction after correction of anorectal malformation (ARM), and compare differences between patients with constipation and fecal incontinence. Pelvic MRI studies of 20 constipated and 32 incontinent postoperative ARM patients were analyzed retrospectively to determine the location and morphology of the neorectum, presence of peritoneal fat herniation, presence of scarring, development of the striated muscle complex (SMC) and any other abnormalities. The two groups were then compared using {chi} {sup 2}-test. Eighteen patients also underwent MRI defecography to evaluate pelvic floor function and abnormalities are reported. The children with incontinence were more likely to have abnormal location of the neorectum (P = 0.031), increased anorectal angle (ARA) (P = 0.031) and peritoneal fat herniation (P = 0.032), and less likely to have dilation of the neorectum (P = 0.027), than the children with constipation. There were no significant differences between the two groups in incidence of focal stenosis of the neorectum (P = 0.797), presence of extensive scarring (P = 0.591) and developmental agenesis of the SMC (P > 0.05). MRI defecography showed 6 anterior rectoceles, 6 cystoceles and 18 pelvic floor descents. MRI is a helpful imaging modality in postoperative ARM patients with defecatory dysfunction, and it shows distinct differences between the children with constipation and incontinence and provides individualized information to guide further treatment. (orig.)

  5. To see bruxism: a functional MRI study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Since the pathophysiology of bruxism is not clearly understood, there exists no possible treatment. The aim of this study is to investigate the cerebral activation differences between healthy subjects and patients with bruxism on behalf of possible aetiological factors. Methods: 12 healthy subjects and 12 patients with bruxism, a total of 24 right-handed female subjects (aged 20–27 years) were examined using functional MRI during tooth-clenching and resting tasks. Imaging was performed with 3.0-T MRI scanner with a 32-channel head coil. Differences in regional brain activity between patients with bruxism and healthy subjects (control group) were observed with BrainVoyager QX 2.8 (Brain Innovation, Maastricht, Netherlands) statistical data analysis program. Activation maps were created using the general linear model: single study and multistudy multisubject for statistical group analysis. This protocol was approved by the ethics committee of medical faculty of Kirikkale University, Turkey (02/04), based on the guidelines set forth in the Declaration of Helsinki. Results: The group analysis revealed a statistically significant increase in blood oxygenation level-dependent signal of three clusters in the control group (p < 0.005), which may indicate brain regions related with somatognosis, repetitive passive motion, proprioception and tactile perception. These areas coincide with Brodmann areas 7, 31, 39 and 40. It is conceivable that there are differences between healthy subjects and patients with bruxism. Conclusions: Our findings indicate that there was a decrease of cortical activation pattern in patients with bruxism in clenching tasks. This indicates decreased blood flow and activation in regional neuronal activity. Bruxism, as an oral motor disorder concerns dentistry, neurology and psychiatry. These results might improve the understanding and physiological handling of sleep bruxism. PMID:25806864

  6. Adult cerebellar medulloblastoma: CT and MRI findings in eight cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho Neto, Arnolfo de; Bertoldi, Guilherme A. [Parana Univ., Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Radiologia Diagnostica]. E-mail: arnolfo.carvalho@avalon.sul.com.br; Gasparetto, Emerson L. [Parana Univ., Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Hospital das Clinicas. Secao de Radiologia Diagnostica; Ono, Sergio E. [Parana Univ., Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina; Gomes, Andre F. [Diagnostico Avancado Por Imagem (DAPI), Curitiba, PR (Brazil)

    2003-06-01

    Medulloblastoma is a brain tumor of neuro epithelial origin, which represents 15 to 30% of all pediatric brain tumors, and less than 1% of CNS adult neoplasms. We report the imaging findings of 8 adult patients with medulloblastoma. The mean age was 35 years, ranging from 20 to 65 years, and the male:female rate was 3:5. The tumors were predominantly lateral (63%), hyperdense on CT scans (83%), and on the MRI, hypointense on T1 (100%) and hyperintense on T2 (80%) weighted images. It was seen intratumoral necrosis and cysts in six cases and calcifications in three. Hydrocephalus was observed in 5 cases and brain stem invasion in four. The imaging findings of medulloblastomas in adults are different of those in child, and also nonspecific. Although these tumors are uncommon in adults, they must be considered in the differential diagnosis of cerebellar masses in the posterior fossa of this age group. (author)

  7. Chondromyxoid fibroma of the temporal bone: CT and MRI findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tarhan, N.C.; Yologlu, Z.; Tutar, N.U.; Coskun, M.; Agildere, A.M. [Baskent Univ. School of Medicine, Bahcelievler Ankara (Turkey). Dept. of Radiology; Arikan, U. [Baskent Univ. School of Medicine, Bahcelievler Ankara (Turkey). Dept. of Pathology

    2000-10-01

    We present the case of a 44-year-old woman with chondromyxoid fibroma of temporal bone origin. Since this is the least common bone tumor of cartilaginous origin, it is highly unusual to find this tumor in the skull. In fact, the literature describes 18 cases of this form of neoplasia arising in the skull, only 4 of these having originated in the temporal bone. To date, the radiological features of these tumors, and especially features detected using the latest imaging modalities, have not been described in detail. This report is unique in that it is the first to present a case of chondromyxoid fibroma of the temporal bone accompanied by detailed CT and MRI findings. (orig.)

  8. Characteristic CT and MRI findings of intracranial chondroma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duan, Fuhong; Qiu, Shijun; Liu, Zhenyin; Lv, Xiaofei; Feng, Xia; Xiong, Wei; An, Jie; Chen, Jing; Yang, Weicong; Wen, Chuhong [Department of Medical Imaging Center, Nanfang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, Guangdong (China)], E-mail: qiushijun006@163.com; Jiang, Jianwei; Chang, Jun [Department of Radiology, The Third Affiliated Hospital of Nantong University, Wuxi, Jiangsu (China)

    2012-12-15

    Background. Intracranial chondromas are rare benign tumors. To date, few data are available on their neuroradiological features. Purpose. To describe a series of patients with intracranial chondroma and to analyze and discuss the computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features that may distinguish chondromas from other intracranial neoplasms. Material and Methods. We retrospectively analyzed clinical and medical imaging data of six patients who had pathologically confirmed intracranial chondromas in our two institutions between July 2006 and September 2011. Both CT and MRI scanning were performed in all six cases. Results. Five tumors were located at the skull base and one originated from the falx. CT images revealed well-demarcated, irregular lobulated and variable density masses with obvious calci?cation (6/6), no or slight enhancement, without peritumoral edema, and frequently accompanied by erosion and destruction of surrounding bone (5/6). Tumor parenchyma appeared heterogeneously hypointense on T1WI, and hyperintense or mixed hyperintense and hypointense on T2WI, while the calcification appeared hypointense on T1WI and T2WI in five cases, demonstrating significant inhomogeneous enhancement on postcontrast MRI, which revealed the typical 'punica granatum seeds' sign. Only one case showed homogeneous low signal intensity on T1WI and high signal intensity on T2WI, and relatively uniform obvious enhancement on postcontrast scans. Conclusion. These characteristic CT and MR findings, combined with the location of the lesions and the history of a long duration of clinical symptoms, may prove helpful in differentiating intracranial chondromas from other more common tumors.

  9. Case of calcified intracranial tuberculoma presenting unique MRI findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinjo, Toshihiko; Mukawa, Jiro; Miyagi, Kouichi; Takara, Eiichi; Mekaru, Susumu; Ishikawa, Yasunari

    1988-05-01

    A 41-year-old male patient was admitted in our Ryukyu University Hospital complaining of parosmia. He had a history of miliary tuberculosis 21 years ago. Neurologically he showed left anosmia and hyperreflexia of the right upper extremity. Plain skull X-P and CT scan revealed a calcified mass, 25 mm in diameter, at the left frontal base. In MRI, the mass showed isointensity using the T/sub 1/ weighted inversion recovery sequence and heterogenously low intensity using the T/sub 2/ weighted spin echo sequence. Surgery was performed by bifrontal craniotomy. Then the tumor was removed totally including two coexisting small tumors. Histologically, they consisted of calcified caseous tissue and thick collagen capsule, suggesting old calcified tuberculomas. Postoperative course was uneventful and did not result in meningitis. Antituberculous therapy of streptmycin, isoniazid and rifapicin was given for 2 weeks, started on the operative day. MRI findings were presented in detail and the guideline of antituberculous therapy to the tuberculoma was discussed.

  10. An isolated fourth ventricle in neurosarcoidosis: MRI findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hesselmann, Volker; Terstegge, Klaus; Schulte, Oliver; Krug, Barbara; Lackner, Klaus [Department of Radiology, University of Cologne, Joseph Stelzmann Strasse 9, 50924 Cologne (Germany); Wedekind, Christoph [Department of Neurosurgery, University of Cologne, Joseph Stelzmann Strasse 9, 50924 Cologne (Germany); Voges, Juergen [Department of Stereotaxy und Functional Neurosurgery, University of Cologne, Joseph Stelzmann Strasse 9, 50924 Cologne (Germany)

    2002-07-01

    We report on an isolated enlargement of the fourth ventricle in a patient with neurosarcoidosis which developed 3 years after the insertion of a ventriculo-atrial shunt. Repeated MRI images were obtained in a patient with known neurosarcoidosis between 1995 and 2000. Imaging findings were correlated to the medical course of the patient, who developed a hydrocephalus and a trapped fourth ventricle consecutively. The isolation was presumably due to granulomatous inflammation of the ependyma surrounding the fourth ventricular outlets. The isolated fourth ventricle was responsible for a deterioration of neurological status. Neurosarcoidosis is a severe complication in sarcoidosis patients. An isolated enlargement of the fourth ventricle is a rare complication in clinically deteriorated patients with neurosarcoidosis and ventricular drainage, which may require neurosurgical treatment. (orig.)

  11. MRI findings of muscle involvement in idiopathic hypereosinophilic syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hundt, W.; Staebler, A.; Reiser, M. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Klinikum Grosshadern, Muenchen (Germany)

    1999-04-01

    A 40-year-old white man presented with fever, muscle pain, skin nodules and persistent hypereosinophilia over a period of 1 year. In addition, he had ventricular arrhythmias with episodes of tachycardia. Besides a lack of response to antiparasitic therapy, laboratory and pathological data excluded the diagnosis of trichinosis or any other parasitic infection. The patient`s course of the disease over the previous 1{sup 1}/{sub 2} years was compatible with hypereosinophilic syndrome. In a muscle biopsy several eosinophilic perivascular and leucocytic intravascular infiltrates were found, indicative of muscle involvement by the disease. This is a report on the MRI findings of muscle involvement in idiopathic hypereosinophilic syndrome. (orig.) With 3 figs., 25 refs.

  12. Joint brain connectivity estimation from diffusion and functional MRI data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Shu-Hsien; Lenglet, Christophe; Parhi, Keshab K.

    2015-03-01

    flow is introduced and used to model the propagation of information between GM areas through WM fiber bundles. The link capacity, i.e., ability to transfer information, is characterized by the relative strength of fiber bundles, e.g., fiber count gathered from the tractography of dMRI data. The node information demand is considered to be proportional to the correlation between neural activity at various cortical areas involved in a particular functional mode (e.g. visual, motor, etc.). These two properties lead to the link capacity and node demand constraints in the proposed model. Moreover, the information flow of a link cannot exceed the demand from either end node. This is captured by the feasibility constraints. Two different cost functions are considered in the optimization formulation in this paper. The first cost function, the reciprocal of fiber strength represents the unit cost for information passing through the link. In the second cost function, a min-max (minimizing the maximal link load) approach is used to balance the usage of each link. Optimizing the first cost function selects the pathway with strongest fiber strength for information propagation. In the second case, the optimization procedure finds all the possible propagation pathways and allocates the flow proportionally to their strength. Additionally, a penalty term is incorporated with both the cost functions to capture the possible missing and weak anatomical connections. With this set of constraints and the proposed cost functions, solving the network optimization problem recovers missing and weak anatomical connections supported by the functional information and provides the functional-associated anatomical subnetworks. Feasibility is demonstrated using realistic diffusion and functional MRI phantom data. It is shown that the proposed model recovers the maximum number of true connections, with fewest number of false connections when compared with the connectivity derived from a joint

  13. Neuro-pharmacological functional MRI of epilepsy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiriyama, Hideki; Makabe, Tetsuo; Tomita, Susumu; Omoto, Takashi; Asari, Shoji [Okayama Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine; Aihara, Hiroshi; Kinugasa, Kazushi; Nishimoto, Akira; Ito, Takahiko

    2000-03-01

    We studied patients with epilepsy by neuro-pharmacological functional MRI technique using diazepam. Five normal volunteers and 7 patients with epilepsy were investigated. MRI was performed by a 1.5 T unit (SIGNA Horizon, GE) using the following parameters: TR/TE 5000 msec/80 msec, FA 90 deg, FOV 200 mm, matrix 128 x 128, slice thickness 7 mm. We performed MRI scanning over 5 minutes (2 minutes before and 3 minutes after injection of diazepam) for each 1 session; we scanned 3 sessions for each patient at intervals of 5 minutes. The diazepam was injected rapidly from the antecubital vein. The dose of diazepam was 0.05 mg/kg/injection (total dose was 0.15 mg/kg). The data were analyzed statistically using t-test. Signal change after administration of diazepam was less than 1 to 2% in healthy volunteers. By contrast, in patient with epilepsy, the signal change was almost 3%, which was significantly greater than that of the normal area (p=0.01). The neuro-pharmacological functional MRI technique using diazepam might be a useful method to identify epileptic foci. (author)

  14. Intratemporal and extratemporal facial nerve schwannoma: CT and MRI findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Keum Won [Pohang Medical Center, Pohang (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Ho Kyu; Shin, Ji Hoon; Choi, Choong Gon; Suh, Dae Chul [Asan Medical Center, Ulsan Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Cheong, Hae Kwan [Dongguk Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-05-01

    To analyze the characteristics of CT and MRI findings of facial nerve schwannoma in ten patients. Ten patients with pathologically confirmed facial nerve schwannoma, underwent physical and radilolgic examination. The latter involved MRI in all ten and CT scanning in six. We analyzed the location (epicenter), extent and number of involved segments of tumors, tuumor morphology, and changes in adjacent bony structures. The major symptoms of facial nerve schwannoma were facial nerve paralysis in seven cases and hearing loss in six. Epicenters were detected at the intraparotid portion in five cases, the intracanalicular portion in two, the cisternal portion in one, and the intratemporal portion in two. The segment most frequently involved was the mastoid (n=6), followed by the parotid (n=5), intracanalicular (n=4), cisternal (n=2), the labyrinthine/geniculate ganglion (n=2) and the tympanic segment (n=1). Tumors affected two segments of the facial nerve in eight cases, only one segment in one, and four continuous segments in one. Morphologically, tumors were ice-cream cone shaped in the cisternal segment tumor (1/1), cone shaped in intracanalicular tumors (2/2), oval shaped in geniculate ganglion tumors (1/1), club shaped in intraparotid tumors (5/5) and bead shaped in the diffuse-type tumor (1/1). Changes in adjacent bony structures involved widening of the stylomastoid foramen in intraparotid tumors (5/5), widening of the internal auditary canal in intracanalicular and cisternal tumors (3/3), bony erosion of the geniculate fossa in geniculate ganglion tumors (2/2), and widening of the facial nerve canal in intratemporal and intraparotid tumors (6/6). The characteristic location, shape and change in adjacent bony structures revealed by facial schwannomas on CT and MR examination lead to correct diagnosis.

  15. MRI findings in acute stage after head trauma and intellectual outcome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamazaki, Shingo; Hashimoto, Kunio; Yatsushige, Hiroshi; Kubota, Yoshihiro; Tabata, Hitoshi [Tsuchiura Kyodo General Hospital, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1998-12-01

    Disturbance of mental function, as a sequela of head trauma, occurred not only after severe head injury, but after mild to moderate head injury. Although initial Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score and its chronological change have been shown as good predictive indices of functional outcome in severely head injured patients, a useful predictive index has not been established in cases with mild to moderate head injury. In this study, MRI and CT image findings of acute stage in 17 head injured cases with initial GCS score 9 or more were analyzed and compared with intellectual outcome. MRI findings which suggest diffuse axonal injury (DAI findings) were seen in 7 out of 17, focal cerebral contusion of eloquent area in 6, and lesions of medial temporal lobe in 9. Medial temporal lobe lesions (MTL) were demonstrated as hyperintensity area in proton density weighted image (PDWI) within 3 days and in T2 weighted image more than 7 days after injury, and were not seen in CT or T1WI in most cases. All cases with MTL of dominant side failed in returning to pre-injury work or position. Comparison with MRI findings and WAIS-R 3 months after injury showed statistically significant correlation of MTL with impaired IQ, although DAI findings could not have significant correlation with poor functional coutcome. Etiology of MTL might be primary brain damage caused by collision of temporal lobe against basal dura or shearing force, rather than secondary changes following ischemia or deafferentation. These results suggest the importance of MRI examination (PDWI) to disclose post-traumatic changes and to predict intellectual outcome. (author)

  16. Finding related functional neuroimaging volumes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Finn Årup; Hansen, Lars Kai

    2004-01-01

    We describe a content-based image retrieval technique for finding related functional neuroimaging experiments by voxelization of sets of stereotactic coordinates in Talairach space, comparing the volumes and reporting related volumes in a sorted list. Voxelization is accomplished by convolving each...

  17. Functional connectomics from resting-state fMRI

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smith, S.M.; Vidaurre, D.; Beckmann, C.F.; Jenkinson, M.; Nichols, T.E.; Robinson, E.C.; Woolrich, M.W.; Barch, D.M.

    2013-01-01

    Spontaneous fluctuations in activity in different parts of the brain can be used to study functional brain networks. We review the use of resting-state functional MRI (rfMRI) for the purpose of mapping the macroscopic functional connectome. After describing MRI acquisition and image-processing metho

  18. Preoperative MRI findings predict two-year postoperative clinical outcome in lumbar spinal stenosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pekka Kuittinen

    Full Text Available To study the predictive value of preoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI findings for the two-year postoperative clinical outcome in lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS.84 patients (mean age 63±11 years, male 43% with symptoms severe enough to indicate LSS surgery were included in this prospective observational single-center study. Preoperative MRI of the lumbar spine was performed with a 1.5-T unit. The imaging protocol conformed to the requirements of the American College of Radiology for the performance of MRI of the adult spine. Visual and quantitative assessment of MRI was performed by one experienced neuroradiologist. At the two-year postoperative follow-up, functional ability was assessed with the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI 0-100% and treadmill test (0-1000 m, pain symptoms with the overall Visual Analogue Scale (VAS 0-100 mm, and specific low back pain (LBP and specific leg pain (LP separately with a numeric rating scale from 0-10 (NRS-11. Satisfaction with the surgical outcome was also assessed.Preoperative severe central stenosis predicted postoperatively lower LP, LBP, and VAS when compared in patients with moderate central stenosis (p<0.05. Moreover, severe stenosis predicted higher postoperative satisfaction (p = 0.029. Preoperative scoliosis predicted an impaired outcome in the ODI (p = 0.031 and lowered the walking distance in the treadmill test (p = 0.001. The preoperative finding of only one stenotic level in visual assessment predicted less postoperative LBP when compared with patients having 2 or more stenotic levels (p = 0.026. No significant differences were detected between quantitative measurements and the patient outcome.Routine preoperative lumbar spine MRI can predict the patient outcome in a two-year follow up in patients with LSS surgery. Severe central stenosis and one-level central stenosis are predictors of good outcome. Preoperative finding of scoliosis may indicate worse functional ability.

  19. First metatarsophalangeal joint- MRI findings in asymptomatic volunteers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dietrich, Tobias Johannes; Pfirrmann, Christian W.A. [University of Zurich, Radiology, Orthopedic University Hospital Balgrist, Zurich (Switzerland); Figueira da Silva, Flora Luciana [University of Zurich, Radiology, Orthopedic University Hospital Balgrist, Zurich (Switzerland); Radiology, Hospital Mae de Deus and Mae de Deus Center, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Abreu, Marcelo Rodrigues de [Radiology, Hospital Mae de Deus and Mae de Deus Center, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Klammer, Georg [University of Zurich, Orthopedic Surgery, Orthopedic University Hospital Balgrist, Zurich (Switzerland)

    2015-04-01

    To evaluate the spectrum and frequency of MR findings of the first metatarsophalangeal joint (MTPJ) in asymptomatic volunteers. MR imaging of 30 asymptomatic forefeet was performed with a dedicated extremity 1.5-Tesla system. Participants were between 20 and 49 years of age (mean ± SD: 35.5 ± 8.4 years). Two radiologists assessed cartilage, bone, capsuloligamentous structures, and tendons of first MTPJs on MR images. Cartilage defects were observed in 27 % (n = 8) of first MTPJs, most frequently located at the base of the proximal phalanx (23 %, n = 7), whereas cartilage defects of the metatarsal head (13 %, n = 4) and the metatarsosesamoid compartment were rare (0 %-3 %, n = 0-1). Bone marrow oedema-like signal changes were present in 37 % (n = 11) and subchondral cysts in 20 % (n = 6) of first MTPJs. Hyperintense areas on intermediate-weighted sequences (range: 30-43 %, n = 9-13) and on fluid-sensitive sequences with fat suppression (range: 33-60 %, n = 10-18) within the medial and lateral collateral ligament complex were common. Plantar recesses (77 %, n = 23) and distal dorsal recesses (87 %, n = 26) were frequently observed. Cartilage defects, bone marrow oedema-like signal changes, subchondral cysts, plantar recesses, and distal dorsal recesses were common findings on MRI of first MTPJs in asymptomatic volunteers. The collateral ligaments were often heterogeneous in structure and showed increased signal intensity. (orig.)

  20. MRI reporting by radiographers: Findings of an accredited postgraduate programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piper, Keith [Allied Heath Professions Department, Canterbury Christ Church University, North Holmes Road, Canterbury, Kent CT1 1QU (United Kingdom)], E-mail: keith.piper@canterbury.ac.uk; Buscall, Kaie [Allied Heath Professions Department, Canterbury Christ Church University, North Holmes Road, Canterbury, Kent CT1 1QU (United Kingdom); Thomas, Nigel [X-Ray Department, Trafford General Hospital, Manchester M41 5SL (United Kingdom)

    2010-05-15

    Aim: To analyse the objective structured examination (OSE) results of the first three cohorts of radiographers (n = 39) who completed an accredited postgraduate certificate (PgC) programme in reporting of general magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) investigations and to compare the agreement rates with those demonstrated for a small group of consultant radiologists. Method: Forty MRI investigations were used in the OSE which included the following anatomical areas and abnormal appearances: knee; meniscal/ligament injuries, bone bruises, effusions and osteochondral defects; lumbar spine: intervertebral disc morphology, vertebral collapse, tumours (bone and soft tissue), spinal stenosis and/or nerve root involvement; internal auditory meati (IAM): acoustic neuroma. Incidental findings included maxillary polyp, arachnoid cyst, renal cyst, hydroureter, pleural effusion and metastases (adrenal, lung, perirenal and/or thoracic spine). Sensitivity, specificity and total percentage agreement rates were calculated for all radiographers (n = 39) using all reports (n = 1560). A small representative subgroup of reports (n = 27) was compared to the three consultant radiologists' reports which were produced when constructing the OSE. Kappa values were estimated to measure agreement in four groups: consultant radiologists only; radiographers and each of the consultant radiologists independently. Results: The sensitivity, specificity and agreement rates for the three cohorts (combined) of radiographers were 99.0%, 99.0% and 89.2%, respectively. For the majority (5/9) of anatomical areas and/or pathological categories no significant differences (p < 0.05) were found between the mean Kappa scores (K = 0.47-0.76) for different groups of observers, whether radiographers were included in the group analysis or not. Where differences were apparent, this was in cases (4/9) where the variation was either not greater than found between radiologists and/or of no clinical significance

  1. CT and MRI findings of calcified spinal meningiomas: correlation with pathological findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Ji Won; Kim, Hak Jin [Pusan National University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Busan (Korea); Pusan National University School of Medicine, Medical Research Institute, Busan (Korea); Lee, In Sook [Pusan National University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Busan (Korea); Pusan National University School of Medicine, Medical Research Institute, Busan (Korea); Pusan National University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Busan (Korea); Choi, Kyung-Un [Pusan National University School of Medicine, Medical Research Institute, Busan (Korea); Pusan National University Hospital, Department of Pathology, Busan (Korea); Lee, Young Hwan [Catholic University of Daegu School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Daegu (Korea); Yi, Jae Hyuck [Kyungpook National University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Daegu (Korea); Song, Jong Woon [Inje University Pusan Paik Hospital, Department of Radiology, Busan (Korea); Suh, Kyung Jin [Dongguk University Gyungju Hospital, College of Medicine, Dongguk University, Department of Radiology, Gyungju (Korea)

    2010-04-15

    This study was designed to present characteristic CT and MR findings of calcified spinal meningiomas that correlate with pathological findings and to assess the efficacy of CT for the detection of calcifications within a mass in comparison to MRI. Between 1998 and 2009, 10 out of 11 patients who had pathologically confirmed psammomatous meningiomas showed gross calcifications on CT images and were included in this study. On CT scans of the 10 patients, the distribution pattern, morphology and number of calcifications within masses were evaluated. MRI was performed in seven patients and signal intensities of masses were assessed. The pathological results analyzed semi-quantitatively were compared with the density or the size of calcifications within a mass as seen on a CT scan. Seven of 10 masses were located at the thoracic spine level. Eight masses had intradural locations. The other two masses had extradural locations. Four masses were completely calcified based on standard radiographs and CT. Symptoms duration, the size of the mass and size or number of calcifications within a mass had no correlation. The location, size, and distribution pattern of calcifications within masses were variable. On MR images, signal intensity of calcified tumor varied on all imaging sequences. All the masses enhanced after injection of intravenous contrast material. A calcified meningioma should be first suggested when extradural or intradural masses located in the spine contain calcifications regardless of the size or pattern as depicted on CT, especially in the presence of enhancement as seen on MR images. (orig.)

  2. Pediatric primary and metastatic neuroblastoma: MRI findings: pictorial review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nour-Eldin, Nour-Eldin A; Abdelmonem, Ola; Tawfik, Ahmed M; Naguib, Nagy N N; Klingebiel, Thomas; Rolle, Udo; Schwabe, Dirk; Harth, Marc; Eltoukhy, Mohammed M; Vogl, Thomas J

    2012-09-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has become one of the most valuable modalities for initial and follow-up imaging of suspected or known neuroblastoma (NBL) owing to its excellent inherent contrast, lack of ionizing radiation and multiplanar imaging capability. Importantly, NBL has a variable appearance on different imaging modalities, and this is particularly pertinent to MRI. MRI is a cornerstone for management of NBL, providing essential information at initial presentation regarding diagnosis, staging, resectability and relation to vital structures. It can also define the extent of residual disease after surgical resection or assess the efficacy of treatment. Follow-up MRI is frequently performed to ensure sustained complete remission or to monitor known residual disease. This pictorial review article aims to provide the reader with a concise, yet comprehensive, collection of MR images of primary and metastatic NBL lesions with relevant correlation with other imaging modalities. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. CT and MRI of aortic coarctation: pre- and postsurgical findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaosmanoglu, Ali Devrim; Khawaja, Ranish Deedar Ali; Onur, Mehmet Ruhi; Kalra, Mannudeep K

    2015-03-01

    OBJECTIVE. The purpose of this article is to summarize the roles of CT and MRI in the diagnosis and follow-up of patients with aortic coarctation. CONCLUSION. Aortic coarctation is a common congenital heart disease accounting for approximately 6-8% of congenital heart defects. Despite its deceptively simple anatomic presentation, it is a complex medical problem with several associated anatomic and physiologic abnormalities. CT and MRI may provide very accurate information of the coarctation anatomy and other associated cardiac abnormalities.

  4. Imaging tools to study pharmacology: functional MRI on small rodents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth eJonckers

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI is an excellent tool to study the effect of pharmacological modulations on brain function in a non-invasive and longitudinal manner. We introduce several blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD fMRI techniques, including resting state (rsfMRI, stimulus-evoked (st-fMRI, and pharmacological MRI (phMRI. Respectively, these techniques permit the assessment of functional connectivity during rest as well as brain activation triggered by sensory stimulation and/or a pharmacological challenge. The first part of this review describes the physiological basis of BOLD fMRI and the hemodynamic response on which the MRI contrast is based. Specific emphasis goes to possible effects of anaesthesia and the animal’s physiological conditions on neural activity and the hemodynamic response. The second part of this review describes applications of the aforementioned techniques in pharmacologically-induced, as well as in traumatic and transgenic disease models and illustrates how multiple fMRI methods can be applied successfully to evaluate different aspects of a specific disorder. For example, fMRI techniques can be used to pinpoint the neural substrate of a disease beyond previously defined hypothesis-driven regions-of-interest (ROIs. In addition, fMRI techniques allow one to dissect how specific modifications (e.g. treatment, lesion etc. modulate the functioning of specific brain areas (st-fMRI, phMRI and how functional connectivity (rsfMRI between several brain regions is affected, both in acute and extended time frames. Furthermore, fMRI techniques can be used to assess/explore the efficacy of novel treatments in depth, both in fundamental research as well as in preclinical settings. In conclusion, by describing several exemplary studies, we aim to highlight the advantages of functional MRI in exploring the acute and long-term effects of pharmacological substances and/or pathology on brain functioning along with

  5. A morphological comparison of cervical spondylotic myelopathy: MRI and dissection findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsurumi, Takamasa; Goto, Noboru; Shibata, Masakazu; Goto, Jun; Kamiyama, Akemi

    2005-03-01

    The number of people with functional disabilities has been increasing with the rapid changes of age structure in the overall population. One of the major causes of disturbances in daily activities is cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM). The transverse area and sagittal diameter of the spinal cord measured by MRI is reported to correlate with the clinical manifestations of CSM, the duration of the disease, and the speed of recovery after surgery in patients with CSM. The purpose of this research is to determine the morphological characteristics of CSM as seen in MRI findings including the spinal cord sagittal diameter, transverse diameter, transverse area and flatness ratio. Twenty-eight of several patients with CSM were treated conservatively after carrying out measurements by MRI. In addition, anatomical studies were carried out on the spinal cords after anatomical dissection of the vertebral column in seven cadavers with CSM. These results, when compared with the morphological analysis of the cervical spinal cord, show that there is a correlation between the transverse areas at C4, C5 and C6 levels, as those at every level of the cervical transverse areas of tissue sections in the dissection cadavers were 10-18% smaller than those in the MRI patients. These results should be taken into account for the treatment of CSM patients.

  6. Neurotuberculosis: Hallazgos intracraneanos en RM Neurotuberculosis: Intracranial MRI findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Docampo

    2012-06-01

    retrospectively selected 20 patients with positive MRI findings of intracranial tuberculosis. Twelve of them were males and 8 were females, with an age range of between 8 months and 49 years (mean age: 21years. Clinical diagnosis was obtained by lumbar puncture and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF culture. Eleven patients presented positive HIV serology. MRIs were performed using 0.5T and 1.5 T scanners and computed tomography (CT of the brain was also performed in two patients. Diffusion-weighted technique was performed in two patients and spectroscopy in one patient. Results. Of the total patients studied (n=20, 14 presented convexity subarachnoid involvement and 13 subarachnoid basal cystern involvement (leptomeningeal involvement, 13 presented tuberculomas, 11 large-vessel angiitis, 7 smallvessel angiitis, 7 hydrocephalia, 6 parenchymatous infarction and one pachymeningeal involvement. Combined lesions were observed in 15 patients. Conclusion. The most frequent location of neurotuberculosis in this series was meningeal with leptomeningeal involvement (14 patients with subarachnoid involvement, followed by cysternal involvement in 13 patients, and only one patient had pachymeningeal involvement. The most frequent parenchymatous finding of tuberculosis was tuberculoma in 13 patients, 5 with a miliary pattern and only one with pseudo-tumoral behavior.

  7. Language lateralization of a bilingual person with epilepsy using a combination of fMRI and neuropsychological assessment findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Grady, Christopher; Omisade, Antonina; Sadler, R Mark

    2016-10-01

    This report describes the findings of language functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in a left-handed Urdu and English speaker with right hemisphere-originating epilepsy and unclear language dominance. fMRI is a reliable method for determining hemispheric language dominance in presurgical planning. However, the effects of bilingualism on language activation depend on many factors including age of acquisition and proficiency in the tested language, and morphological properties of the language itself. This case demonstrates that completing fMRI in both spoken languages and interpreting the results within the context of a neuropsychological assessment are essential in arriving at accurate conclusions about language distribution in bilingual patients.

  8. MRI findings in spinal subdural and epidural hematomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braun, Petra [Department of Radiology, Hospital La Plana, Ctra. De Vila-real a Borriana km. 0.5, 12540 Vila-real (Castello) (Spain)], E-mail: PetraBraun@gmx.de; Kazmi, Khuram [Department of Radiology, Penn State Milton S. Hershey Medical Center, 500 University Drive, Hershey, PA 17033 (United States); Nogues-Melendez, Pablo; Mas-Estelles, Fernando; Aparici-Robles, Fernando [Department of Radiology, La Fe Hospital, Avenida Campanar, 21, 46009 Valencia (Spain)

    2007-10-15

    Background: Spinal hematomas are rare entities that can be the cause of an acute spinal cord compression syndrome. Therefore, an early diagnosis is of great importance. Patients and Methods: From 2001 to 2005 seven patients with intense back pain and/or acute progressive neurological deficit were studied via 1.5 T MRI (in axial and sagittal T1- and T2-weighted sequences). Follow-up MRI was obtained in six patients. Results: Four patients showed the MRI features of a hyperacute spinal hematoma (two spinal subdural hematoma [SSH] and two spinal epidural hematoma [SEH]), isointense to the spinal cord on T1- and hyperintense on T2-weighted sequences. One patient had an early subacute SEH manifest as heterogeneous signal intensity with areas of high signal intensity on T1- and T2-weighted images. Another patient had a late subacute SSH with high signal intensity on T1- and T2-weighted sequences. The final patient had a SEH in the late chronic phase being hypointense on T1- and T2-weighted sequences. Discussion: MRI is valuable in diagnosing the presence, location and extent of spinal hematomas. Hyperacute spinal hematoma and the differentiation between SSH and SEH are particular diagnostic challenges. In addition, MRI is an important tool in the follow-up in patients with conservative treatment.

  9. Functional MRI experiments : acquisition, analysis and interpretation of data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramsey, NF; Hoogduin, H; Jansma, JM

    2002-01-01

    Functional MRI is widely used to address basic and clinical neuroscience questions. In the key domains of fMRI experiments, i.e. acquisition, processing and analysis, and interpretation of data, developments are ongoing. The main issues are sensitivity for changes in fMRI signal that are associated

  10. Anatomy, pathology, and MRI findings in the sports hernia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shortt, Conor P; Zoga, Adam C; Kavanagh, Eoin C; Meyers, William C

    2008-03-01

    "Sports hernia" is a frequently used term on athletic injury reports and in the sportscasting media, but its true definition remains elusive in the medical literature. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a useful tool in the evaluation of clinical athletic pubalgia, yet specific pathologies associated with this commonly encountered syndrome are poorly described in the imaging literature. In this article we review the musculoskeletal anatomy of the pubic region as well as several reproducible patterns of pathology on MRI we have encountered in patients with a clinical diagnosis of sports hernia.

  11. Value of repeat brain MRI in children with focal epilepsy and negative findings on initial MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeon, Tae Yeon; Kim, Ji Hye; Lee, Jee Hun; Yoo, So Young; Hwang, Sook Min; Lee, Mun Hyang [Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-08-01

    To evaluate the value of repeat brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in identifying potential epileptogenic lesions in children with initial MRI-negative focal epilepsy. Our Institutional Review Board approved this retrospective study and waived the requirement for informed consent. During a 15-year period, 257 children (148 boys and 109 girls) with initial MRI-negative focal epilepsy were included. After re-evaluating both initial and repeat MRIs, positive results at repeat MRI were classified into potential epileptogenic lesions (malformation of cortical development and hippocampal sclerosis) and other abnormalities. Contributing factors for improved lesion conspicuity of the initially overlooked potential epileptogenic lesions were analyzed and classified into lesion factors and imaging factors. Repeat MRI was positive in 21% (55/257) and negative in 79% cases (202/257). Of the positive results, potential epileptogenic lesions comprised 49% (27/55) and other abnormalities comprised 11% of the cases (28/257). Potential epileptogenic lesions included focal cortical dysplasia (n = 11), hippocampal sclerosis (n = 10), polymicrogyria (n = 2), heterotopic gray matter (n = 2), microlissencephaly (n = 1), and cortical tumor (n = 1). Of these, seven patients underwent surgical resection. Contributing factors for new diagnoses were classified as imaging factors alone (n = 6), lesion factors alone (n = 2), both (n = 18), and neither (n = 1). Repeat MRI revealed positive results in 21% of the children with initial MRI-negative focal epilepsy, with 50% of the positive results considered as potential epileptogenic lesions. Enhanced MRI techniques or considering the chronological changes of lesions on MRI may improve the diagnostic yield for identification of potential epileptogenic lesions on repeat MRI.

  12. Correlation of MRI findings with clinical findings of trochanteric pain syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blankenbaker, Donna G.; Ullrick, Steven R.; Davis, Kirkland W.; De Smet, Arthur A. [University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Department of Radiology, Madison, WI (United States); Haaland, Ben; Fine, Jason P. [University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Departments of Biostatistics and Medical Informatics and Statistics, Madison, WI (United States)

    2008-10-15

    Greater trochanter pain syndrome due to tendinopathy or bursitis is a common cause of hip pain. The previously reported magnetic resonance (MR) findings of trochanteric tendinopathy and bursitis are peritrochanteric fluid and abductor tendon abnormality. We have often noted peritrochanteric high T2 signal in patients without trochanteric symptoms. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the MR findings of peritrochanteric fluid or hip abductor tendon pathology correlate with trochanteric pain. We retrospectively reviewed 131 consecutive MR examinations of the pelvis (256 hips) for T2 peritrochanteric signal and abductor tendon abnormalities without knowledge of the clinical symptoms. Any T2 peritrochanteric abnormality was characterized by size as tiny, small, medium, or large; by morphology as feathery, crescentic, or round; and by location as bursal or intratendinous. The clinical symptoms of hip pain and trochanteric pain were compared to the MR findings on coronal, sagittal, and axial T2 sequences using chi-square or Fisher's exact test with significance assigned as p<0.05. Clinical symptoms of trochanteric pain syndrome were present in only 16 of the 256 hips. All 16 hips with trochanteric pain and 212 (88%) of 240 without trochanteric pain had peritrochanteric abnormalities (p=0.15). Eighty-eight percent of hips with trochanteric symptoms had gluteus tendinopathy while 50% of those without symptoms had such findings (p=0.004). Other than tendinopathy, there was no statistically significant difference between hips with or without trochanteric symptoms and the presence of peritrochanteric T2 abnormality, its size or shape, and the presence of gluteus medius or minimus partial thickness tears. Patients with trochanteric pain syndrome always have peritrochanteric T2 abnormalities and are significantly more likely to have abductor tendinopathy on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). However, although the absence of peritrochanteric T2 MR abnormalities

  13. MRI findings with periventricular leukomalacia. Correlation with neurological development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uehara, Hisakazu; Yoshioka, Hiroshi; Hasegawa, Koh; Doi, Yasuo; Matsuo, Yasutaka; Murata, Miyuki; Sawada, Tadashi [Kyoto Prefectural Univ. of Medicine (Japan); Kotani, Hiromi; Goma, Hideyo

    1998-08-01

    In 22 infants with PVL, who were born at 35 weeks gestational age or less, correlation between severity of white matter lesions on MRI and developmental quotient (DQ) of infants was studied. MRI was obtained later than 7 months of age and the severity of white matter lesions was classified as follows: Group I: periventricular white matter is focally affected (n=7), Group II: periventricular white matter is diffusely affected (n=10), and Group III: subcortical white matter is also affected (n=5). Perinatal characteristics including gestational weeks, birth weight, Apgar score, procedure of delivery, and duration of mechanical ventilation revealed no significant differences between the groups. Seventeen infants developed cerebral palsy, while the other 5 infants (4 in Group I, 1 in Group II) showed normal development at 1 year of age, MRI of 4 among these 5 infants only revealed unilateral cysts around the anterior horn of lateral ventricles. Enjoji developmental test showed significant differences in gross motor DQ between Group I and III at both 1 and 2 corrected ages. Although more quantitative criteria will be required for precise classification, it is suggested that the severity of the white matter lesions on MRI is well correlated with gross motor development in PVL. (author)

  14. MRI findings in the upper cervical spine of rheumatoid arthritis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawaida, Hidefumi; Sakou, Takashi; Morizono, Yoshiyuki; Yoshikuni, Nagatoshi; Taketomi, Eiji; Hashiguchi, Masanao

    1989-04-01

    In 55 patients with rheumatoid arthritis associated with upper cervical spine abnormality, the presence or absence of medullary and upper cervical pressures was examined on sagittal MRI scans. Atlanto-dental anterior incomplete dislocation and horizontal dislocation were imaged concurrently with X-rays. For horizontal dislocation, an abnormal Redlund-Johnell value and a Ranawat value of 7 mm or less were always associated with medullary pressure as seen on MRI. For anterior incomplete dislocation, upper cervical pressure was always associated when a space available for the spinal cord was 13 mm or less or frequently associated when the atlanto-dental interval was 8 mm or more. Many of the patients with the upper cervical abnormalities complained of occipital or cervical pain. The pain was always encountered in patients with an abnormal Redlund-Johnell value. Roentgenography of the cervical spine confirmed MRI-proven medullary or upper cervical pressure, suggesting the potential of MRI in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. (Namekawa, K).

  15. MRI findings of eosinophilic myelomeningoencephalitis due to Angiostrongylus cantonensis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, E.; Ma, D.; Liang, Y.; Ji, A.; Gan, S

    2005-02-01

    AIM: To study the imaging characteristics of eosinophilic myelomeningoencephalitis due to Angiostrongylus cantonensis using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Seventeen MRI examinations of the brain and spinal cord in five patients with angiostrongyliasis cantonensis of the central nervous system were performed. The final diagnosis was based on typical clinical symptoms, results of blood and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) tests, and the presence of nematode larvae in the CSF. The sequential MRI follow-up examinations were carried out at a different stage for every patient from 1 to 28 weeks after the onset of symptoms. The features of the lesions in the brain, spinal cord, meninges and nerve roots on MRI were studied, moreover, the development of the lesions was analysed on follow-up MRI. RESULTS: Abnormalities were demonstrated on MRI in all five cases. They included three cases of meningoencephalitis, one case of encephalitis and one myelomeningitis. The locations and appearances of the lesions were as follows: (1) brain involvement in four cases (including cerebrum in four, cerebellum in two and brain stem in three), and spinal cord involvement in one case. These lesions were diffuse or scattered and appeared as similar or slightly reduced signal intensity on T1-weighted images (T1WI), high signal intensity on T2-weighted images (T2WI) and turbo fluid attenuated inversion recovery pulse sequence (FLAIR) images. After administration of gadolinium chelate (Gd-DTPA), multiple round or oval enhancing nodules, with diameters ranging from 3 to 10 mm, were seen on T1WI, a few lesions appeared as stick-shaped enhancement whose longest measurement was 14 mm. Diffuse or local oedema around the lesion could be seen. (2) Meningeal involvement in four cases, a case of ependymal involvement and a case of nerve root involvement were among them. These lesions appeared as linear or nodular enhancement of the leptomeninges and ependyma, as well as nerve root

  16. Bayesian estimation of the hemodynamic response function in functional MRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrelec, G.; Benali, H.; Ciuciu, P.; Poline, J.-B.

    2002-05-01

    Functional MRI (fMRI) is a recent, non-invasive technique allowing for the evolution of brain processes to be dynamically followed in various cognitive or behavioral tasks. In BOLD fMRI, what is actually measured is only indirectly related to neuronal activity through a process that is still under investigation. A convenient way to analyze BOLD fMRI data consists of considering the whole brain as a system characterized by a transfer response function, called the Hemodynamic Response Function (HRF). Precise and robust estimation of the HRF has not been achieved yet: parametric methods tend to be robust but require too strong constraints on the shape of the HRF, whereas non-parametric models are not reliable since the problem is badly conditioned. We therefore propose a full Bayesian, non-parametric method that makes use of basic but relevant a priori knowledge about the underlying physiological process to make robust inference about the HRF. We show that this model is very robust to decreasing signal-to-noise ratio and to the actual noise sampling distribution. We finally apply the method to real data, revealing a wide variety of HRF shapes.

  17. Structural and Functional Brain Remodeling during Pregnancy with Diffusion Tensor MRI and Resting-State Functional MRI.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russell W Chan

    Full Text Available Although pregnancy-induced hormonal changes have been shown to alter the brain at the neuronal level, the exact effects of pregnancy on brain at the tissue level remain unclear. In this study, diffusion tensor imaging (DTI and resting-state functional MRI (rsfMRI were employed to investigate and document the effects of pregnancy on the structure and function of the brain tissues. Fifteen Sprague-Dawley female rats were longitudinally studied at three days before mating (baseline and seventeen days after mating (G17. G17 is equivalent to the early stage of the third trimester in humans. Seven age-matched nulliparous female rats served as non-pregnant controls and were scanned at the same time-points. For DTI, diffusivity was found to generally increase in the whole brain during pregnancy, indicating structural changes at microscopic levels that facilitated water molecular movement. Regionally, mean diffusivity increased more pronouncedly in the dorsal hippocampus while fractional anisotropy in the dorsal dentate gyrus increased significantly during pregnancy. For rsfMRI, bilateral functional connectivity in the hippocampus increased significantly during pregnancy. Moreover, fractional anisotropy increase in the dentate gyrus appeared to correlate with the bilateral functional connectivity increase in the hippocampus. These findings revealed tissue structural modifications in the whole brain during pregnancy, and that the hippocampus was structurally and functionally remodeled in a more marked manner.

  18. Structural and Functional Brain Remodeling during Pregnancy with Diffusion Tensor MRI and Resting-State Functional MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Russell W; Ho, Leon C; Zhou, Iris Y; Gao, Patrick P; Chan, Kevin C; Wu, Ed X

    2015-01-01

    Although pregnancy-induced hormonal changes have been shown to alter the brain at the neuronal level, the exact effects of pregnancy on brain at the tissue level remain unclear. In this study, diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and resting-state functional MRI (rsfMRI) were employed to investigate and document the effects of pregnancy on the structure and function of the brain tissues. Fifteen Sprague-Dawley female rats were longitudinally studied at three days before mating (baseline) and seventeen days after mating (G17). G17 is equivalent to the early stage of the third trimester in humans. Seven age-matched nulliparous female rats served as non-pregnant controls and were scanned at the same time-points. For DTI, diffusivity was found to generally increase in the whole brain during pregnancy, indicating structural changes at microscopic levels that facilitated water molecular movement. Regionally, mean diffusivity increased more pronouncedly in the dorsal hippocampus while fractional anisotropy in the dorsal dentate gyrus increased significantly during pregnancy. For rsfMRI, bilateral functional connectivity in the hippocampus increased significantly during pregnancy. Moreover, fractional anisotropy increase in the dentate gyrus appeared to correlate with the bilateral functional connectivity increase in the hippocampus. These findings revealed tissue structural modifications in the whole brain during pregnancy, and that the hippocampus was structurally and functionally remodeled in a more marked manner.

  19. Incidental findings at MRI-enterography in patients with suspected or known Crohn's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Michael Dam; Nathan, Torben; Kjeldsen, Jens

    2010-01-01

    AIM: To determine the frequency and clinical impact of incidental findings detected with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-enterography in patients with suspected or known Crohn's disease (CD). METHODS: Incidental findings were defined as unexpected lesions outside the small intestine...

  20. A comparison of MRI, radiographic and clinical findings of the position of the TMJ articular disc following open treatment of condylar neck fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Alexander; Zahnert, Diana; Klengel, Steffen; Loukota, Richard; Eckelt, Uwe

    2007-10-01

    We examined the position and function of the articular disc after open treatment of condylar fractures by comparing magnetic resonance images (MRI) and radiographs with clinical data. MRI and radiographs were taken after treatment of 28 patients with 33 fractures of the mandibular condyles. In all cases, the disc was located in the fossa after open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF). The MRI, radiographic and clinical findings did not correlate, and damage to the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) could be seen more clearly on MRI than on clinical or radiographic examination. Damage to soft tissues seen on MRI after treatment was more pronounced in dislocated than in displaced fractures.

  1. Incidental findings at MRI-enterography in patients with suspected or known Crohn s disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Michael; Dam; Jensen; Torben; Nathan; Jens; Kjeldsen; Sφren; Rafael; Rafaelsen

    2010-01-01

    AIM:To determine the frequency and clinical impact of incidental findings detected with magnetic resonance imaging(MRI)-enterography in patients with suspected or known Crohn's disease(CD). METHODS:Incidental findings were defined as unexpected lesions outside the small intestine,not previously known or suspected at the time of referral, and not related to inflammatory bowel disease.Through a systematic review of medical charts we analyzed the clinical impact of incidental findings,and compared the MRI find...

  2. The MRI findings of a de Garengeot hernia.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Halpenny, D

    2012-03-01

    The presence of the appendix within a femoral hernia is rare. It was first described by the French surgeon Jacques Croissant de Garengeot in 1731. This phenomenon accounts for 0.8-1% of all femoral hernias. Acute appendicitis occurring within a femoral hernia is even rarer and is difficult to diagnose pre-operatively. This type of hernia is termed a de Garengeot hernia. The ultrasonographic and CT imaging features of de Garengeot hernias have been described previously. We report a case of a 57-year-old female who presented with a painful right-sided groin mass. She underwent MRI of the inguinal region, which successfully diagnosed this rare hernia pre-operatively. To our knowledge, this is the first description of a de Garengeot hernia diagnosed using MRI.

  3. Multifocal bone and bone marrow lesions in children - MRI findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raissaki, Maria; Demetriou, Stelios; Spanakis, Konstantinos; Skiadas, Christos; Karantanas, Apostolos H. [University of Crete, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, University Hospital of Heraklion, Heraklion, Crete (Greece); Katzilakis, Nikolaos; Stiakaki, Eftichia [University of Crete, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pediatric Hematology-Oncology, University Hospital of Heraklion, Heraklion, Crete (Greece); Velivassakis, Emmanouil G. [University Hospital of Heraklion, Orthopedic Clinic, Heraklion, Crete (Greece)

    2017-03-15

    Polyostotic bone and bone marrow lesions in children may be due to various disorders. Radiographically, lytic lesions may become apparent after loss of more than 50% of the bone mineral content. Scintigraphy requires osteoblastic activity and is not specific. MRI may significantly contribute to the correct diagnosis and management. Accurate interpretation of MRI examinations requires understanding of the normal conversion pattern of bone marrow in childhood and of the appearances of red marrow rests and hyperplasia. Differential diagnosis is wide: Malignancies include metastases, multifocal primary sarcomas and hematological diseases. Benign entities include benign tumors and tumor-like lesions, histiocytosis, infectious and inflammatory diseases, multiple stress fractures/reactions and bone infarcts/ischemia. (orig.)

  4. Typical atypical findings on dynamic MRI of the breast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurz, Kathinka D., E-mail: kurk@sus.no [Department of Radiology, Stavanger University Hospital, Postbox 8100, 4068 Stavanger (Norway); Roy, Sumit, E-mail: rosu@sus.no [Department of Radiology, Stavanger University Hospital, Postbox 8100, 4068 Stavanger (Norway); Moedder, Ulrich, E-mail: Moedder@uni-duesseldorf.de [Institute of Diagnostic Radiology, Duesseldorf University Hospital (Germany); Skaane, Per, E-mail: Per.Skaane@ulleval.no [Department of Radiology, Ullevaal University Hospital, University of Oslo (Norway); Saleh, Andreas, E-mail: saleh@uni-duesseldorf.de [Institute of Diagnostic Radiology, Duesseldorf University Hospital (Germany)

    2010-11-15

    Dynamic contrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE MRI) of the breast has become an important tool to detect and characterize breast disease. The American College of Radiology Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) provides a standardized vocabulary for describing the morphologic features and contrast kinetics of breast lesions. However, some lesions may show morphologic and dynamic MR features not consistent with their histologic nature resulting in incorrect categorization as malignant or benign. Another cause of diagnostic problems is artifacts. Thus correct interpretation of dynamic MRI of the breast demands knowledge of the most common pitfalls encountered in clinical practice. A pictorial overview of these is presented, with particular reference to the differentiation of malignant tumors from benign lesions.

  5. Spectrum of MRI findings in clinical athletic pubalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zajick, Donald C; Zoga, Adam C; Omar, Imran M; Meyers, William C

    2008-03-01

    Athletic pubalgia is a frequently encountered syndrome for clinicians who treat active patients participating in a wide variety of athletic endeavors worldwide. Pathologies associated with this clinical scenario span anatomically from the pubic symphysis to the hip and include a myriad of poorly understood and incompletely described musculoskeletal entities, many of which are centered about the pubic symphysis and its tendinous attachments. In this article, we discuss the relevant anatomy and pathophysiology for the most frequently encountered of these disorders, using magnetic resonance (MR) images as a guide. We describe an MR imaging protocol tailored to clinical athletic pubalgia. We then review reproducible MRI patterns of pathology about the pubic symphysis, the rectus abdominis/adductor aponeurosis and the inguinal ring, as well as a group of clinically confounding entities remote from the symphysis but visible by MRI.

  6. Ledderhose Disease: Clinical, Radiological (Ultrasound and MRI), and Anatomopathological Findings

    OpenAIRE

    Omor, Y.; Dhaene, B.; Grijseels, S.; Alard, S.

    2015-01-01

    Plantar fibromatosis, or Ledderhose disease, is a rare hyperproliferative disorder of the plantar aponeurosis. It may occur at any age, with the greatest prevalence at middle age and beyond. This disorder is more common in men than woman and it is sometimes associated with other forms of fibromatosis. Diagnosis is based on clinical examination. Ultrasound (US) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can be useful to confirm the diagnosis. A 44-year-old man with Ledderhose disease who underwent u...

  7. Ultrasound and MRI findings in appendicular and truncal fat necrosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinson, Philip [Leeds Teaching Hospitals, Department of Radiology, Leeds (United Kingdom); Leeds Teaching Hospitals, Musculoskeletal Centre, X-Ray Department, Chapel Allerton Hospital, Leeds (United Kingdom); Farrant, Joanna M.; McKie, Scott [Leeds Teaching Hospitals, Department of Radiology, Leeds (United Kingdom); Bourke, Grainne [Leeds Teaching Hospitals, Department of Plastic Surgery, Leeds (United Kingdom); Merchant, William [Leeds Teaching Hospitals, Department of Pathology, Leeds (United Kingdom); Horgan, Kieran J. [Leeds Teaching Hospitals, Department of Surgery, Leeds (United Kingdom)

    2008-03-15

    The objective was to evaluate ultrasound and MRI in clinical appendicular and truncal fat necrosis. Thirty-three patients (14 men, 19 women, median age 55, range 29-95) were retrospectively evaluated. Histologically, three groups were seen: Group 1 (n = 18) consisted of patients with subcutaneous masses with septal and extrinsic oedema; in Group 2 (n = 11) necrosis occurred within lipomatous tumours and little oedema; and in Group 3 (n = 4) there were large complex masses consistent with Morel-Lavallee lesions. Two experienced radiologists reviewed MR (n = 30) and ultrasound (n = 32) images with consensus agreement. MRI was performed on a 1.5T system with T1-weighted, T2-weighted fat-suppressed and T1-weighted fat-suppressed post-intravenous gadolinium sequences obtained in two orthogonal planes. Ultrasound (linear 5- to 13.5-MHz probe) was performed in the longitudinal and short axis. Anatomical position, size, shape (oval, linear, ill-defined), internal architecture (lobules, septi or stranding), intrinsic signal characteristics, presence of surrounding pseudocapsule, extrinsic linear stranding and vascularity (gadolinium enhancement or power Doppler) were recorded. Anatomical locations were buttock/thigh (n = 17), leg (n = 6), upper limb (n = 5) and thoracic/abdominal wall (n = 5) with the majority of lesions (30 out of 33) oval/linear in shape. On ultrasound and MRI most lesions showed internal fat lobules, intervening septi and a surrounding pseudocapsule. Fat necrosis can usually be identified as containing multiple fat lobules on ultrasound and MRI despite a varying degree of inflammatory change surrounding and within the mass. (orig.)

  8. Cystic angiomatosis with splenic involvement: unusual MRI findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vanhoenacker, F.M. [Dept. of Radiology, Univ. Hospital Antwerp, Edegem (Belgium); Dept. of Radiology, AZ St-Maarten, Campus Duffel, Duffel (Belgium); Schepper, A.M. [Dept. of Radiology, Univ. Hospital Antwerp, Edegem (Belgium); Raeve, H. [Dept. of Pathology, Univ. Hospital Antwerp, Edegem (Belgium); Berneman, Z. [Dept. of Hematology, Univ. Hospital Antwerp, Edegem (Belgium)

    2003-12-01

    Cystic angiomatosis is a rare disorder with a poor prognosis. We describe a case of a 33-year-old woman who presented with longstanding bone pain, hemolytic anemia, and an enlarged spleen. Radiologically, multiple osseous lesions with a mixed pattern of lytic and sclerotic areas were seen within the shoulders, spine, and pelvis. On CT and MRI of the abdomen, the spleen was markedly enlarged, with internal hyperdense foci on non-contrast CT scan, corresponding to low signal intensity areas on all MR pulse sequences. After administration of contrast, a mottled enhancement pattern throughout the entire spleen was seen both on CT and MRI. Cystic angiomatosis was proven by histological analysis of a biopsy specimen of an involved vertebra and histopathological examination of the spleen after subsequent splenectomy. This is the first report of a patient with disseminated cystic angiomatosis with splenic involvement in which the MRI features differ from the previous reports. Instead of the usual pattern consisting of multiple well-defined cystic lesions, a diffuse involvement replacing the entire spleen, with heterogeneous signal intensities on T2-weighted images and heterogeneous enhancement pattern, was seen in our patient. (orig.)

  9. Resting-state functional MRI in an intraoperative MRI setting: proof of feasibility and correlation to clinical outcome of patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roder, Constantin; Charyasz-Leks, Edyta; Breitkopf, Martin; Decker, Karlheinz; Ernemann, Ulrike; Klose, Uwe; Tatagiba, Marcos; Bisdas, Sotirios

    2016-08-01

    OBJECTIVE The authors' aim in this paper is to prove the feasibility of resting-state (RS) functional MRI (fMRI) in an intraoperative setting (iRS-fMRI) and to correlate findings with the clinical condition of patients pre- and postoperatively. METHODS Twelve patients underwent intraoperative MRI-guided resection of lesions in or directly adjacent to the central region and/or pyramidal tract. Intraoperative RS (iRS)-fMRI was performed pre- and intraoperatively and was correlated with patients' postoperative clinical condition, as well as with intraoperative monitoring results. Independent component analysis (ICA) was used to postprocess the RS-fMRI data concerning the sensorimotor networks, and the mean z-scores were statistically analyzed. RESULTS iRS-fMRI in anesthetized patients proved to be feasible and analysis revealed no significant differences in preoperative z-scores between the sensorimotor areas ipsi- and contralateral to the tumor. A significant decrease in z-score (p < 0.01) was seen in patients with new neurological deficits postoperatively. The intraoperative z-score in the hemisphere ipsilateral to the tumor had a significant negative correlation with the degree of paresis immediately after the operation (r = -0.67, p < 0.001) and on the day of discharge from the hospital (r = -0.65, p < 0.001). Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis demonstrated moderate prognostic value of the intraoperative z-score (area under the curve 0.84) for the paresis score at patient discharge. CONCLUSIONS The use of iRS-fMRI with ICA-based postprocessing and functional activity mapping is feasible and the results may correlate with clinical parameters, demonstrating a significant negative correlation between the intensity of the iRS-fMRI signal and the postoperative neurological changes.

  10. Clustered functional MRI of overt speech production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sörös, Peter; Sokoloff, Lisa Guttman; Bose, Arpita; McIntosh, Anthony R; Graham, Simon J; Stuss, Donald T

    2006-08-01

    To investigate the neural network of overt speech production, event-related fMRI was performed in 9 young healthy adult volunteers. A clustered image acquisition technique was chosen to minimize speech-related movement artifacts. Functional images were acquired during the production of oral movements and of speech of increasing complexity (isolated vowel as well as monosyllabic and trisyllabic utterances). This imaging technique and behavioral task enabled depiction of the articulo-phonologic network of speech production from the supplementary motor area at the cranial end to the red nucleus at the caudal end. Speaking a single vowel and performing simple oral movements involved very similar activation of the cortical and subcortical motor systems. More complex, polysyllabic utterances were associated with additional activation in the bilateral cerebellum, reflecting increased demand on speech motor control, and additional activation in the bilateral temporal cortex, reflecting the stronger involvement of phonologic processing.

  11. Focal nodular hyperplasia: typical and atypical MRI findings with emphasis on the use of contrast media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marin, D. [Department of Radiological Sciences, University of Rome ' La Sapienza' , Rome (Italy)], E-mail: danielemarin2@gmail.com; Brancatelli, G. [Sezione di Radiologia, Ospedale Specializzato in Gastroenterologia, ' Saverio de Bellis' - IRCCS, Castellana Grotte (Bari) (Italy); Istituto di Scienze Radiologiche, Universita di Palermo, Palermo (Italy); Department of Radiology, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Federle, M.P. [Department of Radiology, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Lagalla, R. [Istituto di Scienze Radiologiche, Universita di Palermo, Palermo (Italy); Catalano, C.; Passariello, R. [Department of Radiological Sciences, University of Rome ' La Sapienza' , Rome (Italy); Midiri, M. [Istituto di Scienze Radiologiche, Universita di Palermo, Palermo (Italy); Vilgrain, V. [Service de Radiologie, Hopital Beaujon, Clichy (France)

    2008-05-15

    Focal nodular hyperplasia is a benign hypervascular hepatic tumour, frequently detected in asymptomatic patients undergoing imaging studies for unrelated reasons. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) generally allows a confident differential diagnosis with other hypervascular liver lesions, either benign or malignant. In addition, due to the recent development of hepatospecific MRI contrast agents, MRI concomitantly enables functional and morphological information to be obtained, thus providing important clues for the detection and characterization of focal nodular hyperplasia lesions.

  12. Cyclic sciatica caused by infiltrative endometriosis: MRI findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yekeler, Ensar; Kumbasar, Basak; Tunaci, Atadan; Barman, Ahmet; Tunaci, Mehtap [Department of Radiology, Istanbul Faculty of Medicine, Istanbul University, 34390, Capa, Istanbul (Turkey); Bengisu, Ergin [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Istanbul Faculty of Medicine, Istanbul University, Istanbul (Turkey); Yavuz, Ekrem [Department of Pathology, Istanbul Faculty of Medicine, Istanbul University, 34390, Capa, Istanbul (Turkey)

    2004-03-01

    Endometriosis, an important gynecological disorder of reproductive women, affects most commonly the ovaries and less frequently the gastrointestinal tract, chest, urinary tract, and soft tissues. Endometriosis classically appears on MRI as a mass with a large cystic component and variable signal intensities on T1- and T2-weighted images due to the presence of variable degradation of hemorrhagic products. Endometriosis in an atypical location, an infiltrative appearance and without cystic-hemorrhagic components has rarely been described. We report on a 33-year-old woman with cyclic sciatica due to histologically documented infiltrative endometriosis involving the area of the left sciatic notch. (orig.)

  13. Ledderhose Disease: Clinical, Radiological (Ultrasound and MRI, and Anatomopathological Findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Omor

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Plantar fibromatosis, or Ledderhose disease, is a rare hyperproliferative disorder of the plantar aponeurosis. It may occur at any age, with the greatest prevalence at middle age and beyond. This disorder is more common in men than woman and it is sometimes associated with other forms of fibromatosis. Diagnosis is based on clinical examination. Ultrasound (US and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI can be useful to confirm the diagnosis. A 44-year-old man with Ledderhose disease who underwent ultrasound and MR is described in this paper.

  14. Ledderhose Disease: Clinical, Radiological (Ultrasound and MRI), and Anatomopathological Findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omor, Y; Dhaene, B; Grijseels, S; Alard, S

    2015-01-01

    Plantar fibromatosis, or Ledderhose disease, is a rare hyperproliferative disorder of the plantar aponeurosis. It may occur at any age, with the greatest prevalence at middle age and beyond. This disorder is more common in men than woman and it is sometimes associated with other forms of fibromatosis. Diagnosis is based on clinical examination. Ultrasound (US) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can be useful to confirm the diagnosis. A 44-year-old man with Ledderhose disease who underwent ultrasound and MR is described in this paper.

  15. MRI cervical spine findings in asymptomatic fighter pilots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrén-Mallmin, M; Linder, J

    1999-12-01

    MRI of the cervical spine for evaluation concerning degenerative lesions was performed on asymptomatic experienced military high performance aircraft pilots (mean age 42 yr with mean accumulated flying time of 2600 h), and for comparison on age-matched controls without military flying experience. Young military high performance aircraft pilots (mean age 23 yr with 220 h of flying per person) were also examined. There were significantly more osteophytes, disk protrusions, compressions of the spinal cord and foraminal stenoses in the experienced pilots than in the age-matched controls. Low frequency of low grade degenerative lesions was found in the young and inexperienced pilots.

  16. Multimodal functional neuroimaging: integrating functional MRI and EEG/MEG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Bin; Liu, Zhongming

    2008-01-01

    Noninvasive functional neuroimaging, as an important tool for basic neuroscience research and clinical diagnosis, continues to face the need of improving the spatial and temporal resolution. While existing neuroimaging modalities might approach their limits in imaging capability mostly due to fundamental as well as technical reasons, it becomes increasingly attractive to integrate multiple complementary modalities in an attempt to significantly enhance the spatiotemporal resolution that cannot be achieved by any modality individually. Electrophysiological and hemodynamic/metabolic signals reflect distinct but closely coupled aspects of the underlying neural activity. Combining fMRI and EEG/MEG data allows us to study brain function from different perspectives. In this review, we start with an overview of the physiological origins of EEG/MEG and fMRI, as well as their fundamental biophysics and imaging principles, we proceed with a review of the major advances in the understanding and modeling of neurovascular coupling and in the methodologies for the fMRI-EEG/MEG simultaneous recording. Finally, we summarize important remaining issues and perspectives concerning multimodal functional neuroimaging, including brain connectivity imaging.

  17. Age-related findings on MRI in neurofibromatosis type 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gill, Deepak S. [Children' s Hospital at Westmead, The T. Y. Nelson Department of Neurology, Sydney, NSW (Australia); Hyman, Shelley L. [Children' s Hospital at Westmead, Neurogenetics Research Unit, Sydney (Australia); Steinberg, Adam [Children' s Hospital at Westmead, Department of Radiology, Sydney (Australia); North, Kathryn N. [Children' s Hospital at Westmead, The T. Y. Nelson Department of Neurology, Sydney, NSW (Australia); Children' s Hospital at Westmead, Neurogenetics Research Unit, Sydney (Australia)

    2006-10-15

    T2 hyperintensities (T2H) on MRI are the most common CNS lesions in individuals with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1). The aim was to determine the frequency, signal characteristics and localization of T2H at different ages. In addition, we examined the sensitivity of different MR imaging sequences in detecting these lesions. We studied prospectively a cohort of children, adolescents and young adults with NF1 using T2-volume (T2-V) and conventional MRI sequences. Lesions were designated as either discrete or diffuse, and the region of signal abnormality was recorded. A total of 103 patients were studied (age range 8.0-25.4 years, mean 13.9 years). The frequency, size, and intensity of T2H decreased with age in the basal ganglia (BG) and the cerebellum/brainstem (CB/BS). The majority of thalamic and CB/BS lesions were diffuse. Of the total cohort, 80% had diffuse bilateral hippocampal hyperintensities and 18.4% had hemispheric lesions best demonstrated on FLAIR; there was no significant difference in the frequency or signal intensity of hemispheric lesions with age. Lesions in the cerebral hemispheres and hippocampus imaged by MR do not change in prevalence over time, suggesting a different pathological basis from the lesions in the in BG and CB/BS that resolve with age. FLAIR and T2-V sequences are more sensitive in detecting lesions than standard T2-weighted sequences. (orig.)

  18. Clinical findings just after return to play predict hamstring re-injury, but baseline MRI findings do not

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.J. de Vos (Robert-Jan); G. Reurink (Gustaaf); G.J. Goudswaard (Gert Jan); M.H. Moen (Maaike); A. Weir (Adam); J.L. Tol (Johannes)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Background Acute hamstring re-injuries are common and hard to predict. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between clinical and imaging findings and the occurrence of hamstring re-injuries. Methods We obtained baseline data (clinical and MRI finding

  19. Can pathoanatomical pathways of degeneration in lumbar motion segments be identified by clustering MRI findings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Rikke Krüger; Jensen, Tue S; Kjaer, Per

    2013-01-01

    Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is the gold standard for detailed visualisation of spinal pathological and degenerative processes, but the prevailing view is that such imaging findings have little or no clinical relevance for low back pain. This is because these findings appear to have little...... association with treatment effects in clinical populations, and mostly a weak association with the presence of pain in the general population.However, almost all research into these associations is based on the examination of individual MRI findings, despite its being very common for multiple MRI findings...... to coexist. Therefore, this proof-of-concept study investigated the capacity of a multivariable statistical method to identify clusters of MRI findings and for those clusters to be grouped into pathways of vertebral degeneration....

  20. Mapping Human Brain Function with MRI at 7 Tesla

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    @@ In the past decade, the most significant development in MRI is the introduction of fMRI, which permits the mapping of human brain function with exquisite details noninvasively. Functional mapping can be achieved by measuring changes in the blood oxygenation level (I.e. The BOLD contrast) or cerebral blood flow.

  1. When Learning and Remembering Compete: A Functional MRI Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huijbers, W.; Pennartz, C.M.A.; Cabeza, R.; Daselaar, S.M.

    2009-01-01

    Recent functional neuroimaging evidence suggests a bottleneck between learning new information and remembering old information. In two behavioral experiments and one functional MRI (fMRI) experiment, we tested the hypothesis that learning and remembering compete when both processes happen within a b

  2. Prenatal MRI Findings of Fetuses with Congenital High Airway Obstruction Sequence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guimaraes, Carolina V. A.; Linam, Leann E.; Kline-Fath, Beth M. [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati (United States)] (and others)

    2009-04-15

    To define the MRI findings of congenital high airway obstruction sequence (CHAOS) in a series of fetuses. Prenatal fetal MR images were reviewed in seven fetuses with CHAOS at 21 to 27 weeks of gestation. The MRI findings were reviewed. The MRI parameters evaluated included the appearance of the lungs and diaphragm, presence or absence of hydrops, amount of amniotic fluid, airway appearance, predicted level of airway obstruction, and any additional findings or suspected genetic syndromes. All the fetuses viewed (7 of 7) demonstrated the following MRI findings: dilated airway below the level of obstruction, increased lung signal, markedly increased lung volumes with flattened or inverted hemidiaphragms, massive ascites, centrally positioned and compressed heart, as well as placentomegaly. Other frequent findings were anasarca (6 of 7) and polyhydramnios (3 of 7). MRI identified the level of obstruction as laryngeal in five cases and tracheal in two cases. In four of the patients, surgery or autopsy confirmed the MRI predicted level of obstruction. Associated abnormalities were found in 4 of 7 (genetic syndromes in 2). Postnatal radiography (n = 3) showed markedly hyperinflated lungs with inverted or flattened hemidiaphragms, strandy perihilar opacities, pneumothoraces and tracheotomy. Two fetuses were terminated and one fetus demised in utero. Four fetuses were delivered via ex utero intrapartum treatment procedure. MRI shows a consistent pattern of abnormalities in fetuses with CHAOS, accurately identifies the level of airway obstruction, and helps differentiate from other lung abnormalities such as bilateral congenital pulmonary airway malformation by demonstrating an abnormally dilated airway distal to the obstruction.

  3. MRI findings in the patients with the presumptive clinical diagnosis of Tolosa-Hunt syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cakirer, Sinan [Department of Radiology, Neuroradiology Section, Istanbul Sisli Etfal Hospital, 81120 Istanbul (Turkey)

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this study was to present our experience in MRI diagnosis of 23 patients with the clinical findings suggesting Tolosa-Hunt syndrome (THS). Cranial MRI studies of the patients with a clinical history of at least one episode of unilateral or bilateral orbital and periorbital pain, and associated paresis of one or more of third to sixth cranial nerves, were performed on a 1.5-T MRI scanner. Whereas 5 patients had the diagnosis of THS, paracavernous meningiomas in 4 patients, pituitary macroadenomas with cavernous sinus infiltration in 3 patients, Meckel's cave neurinoma in 1 patient, and suprasellar epidermoid in 1 patient were surgically proven MRI findings. Other pathological MRI findings were leptomeningeal metastases in 3 patients, granulomatous pachymeningitis sequelae in 2 patients, and aneurysm with compression on cavernous sinus in 1 patient. Three patients had normal MRI findings. The incidence of radiologically proven diagnosis of THS among the patients with the clinical findings suggesting THS seemed to be low in our study. In conclusion, MRI is the most valuable imaging technique to distinguish THS from other THS-like entities, and permits a precise assessment, management, and therapeutic planning of the underlying pathological conditions. (orig.)

  4. The clinical characteristics and MRI findings of acquired hepatocerebral degeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-yu DONG

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Acquired hepatocerebral degeneration (AHD is a rare chronic encephalopathy, and its etiology is usually correlated with cirrhosis and portal hypertension. In this study, clinical and radiological data of 326 patients with cirrhosis of the liver were retrospectively analyzed, among whom 11 patients were diagnosed as AHD, with the incidence of 3.37% . The most common neurological symptoms were static tremor (9 cases and ataxia (7 cases. Cerebral MRI showed T1WI hyperintensity in bilateral globus pallidus of all 11 patients. The lesions were also involved in bilateral thalamus (one case, tegment of midbrain (one case, bilateral posterior crus of internal capsule (one case and bilateral putamen (one case. Anti-Parkinson's disease drugs, such as levodopa and benserazide, had not presented satisfactory clinical effect. DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2015.02.014

  5. Thoracic Splenosis after a Gunshot: Diffusion-Weighted MRI Findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tutar, Onur; Bakan, Selim; Samanci, Cesur; Nurili, Fuat; Sayman, Haluk Burcak; Akman, Canan

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background Intrathoracic splenosis is a rare condition resulting from concomitant rupture of the spleen and left hemidiaphragm after a traumatic event involving the spleen and the diaphragma and is defined as autotransplantation of splenic tissue in thorax. Case Report The aim of this study was to present a case report of a combined intrathoracic and subcutaneous splenosis in a patient 19 years after penetrating trauma. She has left dorsal side pain and routine chest roentgenogram shows pleural nodular masses. The patient was referred to us for radiologic work up. Conclusions The MRI scans revealed the intrathoracic and subcutan masses as mainly hypointense on T1-weighted images and hyperintense on T2-weighted images and significant restriction in diffusion-weighted images. Scintigraphy revealed abnormal hot spots in subcutaneous tissue and diaphragmatic pleura of the left hemithorax. PMID:25745523

  6. Functional MRI of Language Processing and Recovery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Méndez Orellana (Carolina)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ My thesis describe the utility of implementing fMRI to investigate how the language system is reorganized in brain damaged patients. Specifically for aphasia research fMRI allows to show how specific language treatment methods have the potential to enhance language

  7. MRI findings of serous atrophy of bone marrow and associated complications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boutin, Robert D. [Department of Radiology, Sacramento, CA (United States); White, Lawrence M. [University of Toronto, Joint Department of Medical Imaging, Toronto General Hospital, Toronto, ON (Canada); Laor, Tal [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Spitz, Damon J. [New England Baptist Hospital, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Lopez-Ben, Robert R. [Carolinas HealthCare System, Charlotte Radiology, Diagnostic Radiology, Charlotte, NC (United States); Stevens, Kathryn J. [Stanford University, Department of Radiology, Stanford, CA (United States); Bredella, Miriam A. [Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Division of Musculoskeletal Imaging and Intervention, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States)

    2015-09-15

    To report the MRI appearance of serous atrophy of bone marrow (SABM) and analyse clinical findings and complications of SABM. A retrospective search of MRI examinations of SABM was performed. Symptoms, underlying conditions, MRI findings, delay in diagnosis and associated complications were recorded. We identified 30 patients (15 male, 15 female; mean age: 46 ± 21 years) with MRI findings of SABM. Underlying conditions included anorexia nervosa (n = 10), cachexia from malignant (n = 5) and non-malignant (n = 7) causes, massive weight loss after bariatric surgery (n = 1), biliary atresia (n = 1), AIDS (n = 3), endocrine disorders (n = 2) and scurvy (n = 1). MRI showed mildly hypointense signal on T1- weighted and hyperintense signal on fat-suppressed fluid-sensitive images of affected bone marrow in all cases and similar signal abnormalities of the adjacent subcutaneous fat in 29/30 cases. Seven patients underwent repeat MRI due to initial misinterpretation of bone marrow signal as technical error. Superimposed fractures of the hips and lower extremities were common (n = 14). SABM occurs most commonly in anorexia nervosa and cachexia. MRI findings of SABM are often misinterpreted as technical error requiring unnecessary repeat imaging. SABM is frequently associated with fractures of the lower extremities. (orig.)

  8. MRI findings of cryptococcal infection on CNS: The long term follow-up: Case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Min Yun; Sol, Chang Ho; Kim, Byung Soo [Pusan National University College of Medicine, Pusan (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Chun Phil [Maryknoll Hospital, pusan (Korea, Republic of); Park, Beung Ho [Dong-a University College of Medicine, Pusan (Korea, Republic of)

    1993-07-15

    Authors presented the serial changes of brain MRI findings in two cases of cryptococcal meningitis. The MRI findings of the first patient (53 year old female) consisted of dilated Virchow-Robin spaces, leptomeningeal enhancement, cryptococcals and hydrocephalus. Dilated Virchow-Robin spaces were noted on the first MR obtained 33 days after symptom onset. The size and number of dilated Virchow-Robin space gradually decreased since 119 days after symptom onset (62 days after treatment). Faint leptomeningeal enhancement was found at cerebellar region on the first MRI, which became more distant and intense on the day 119, probably due to improper treatment. The leptomeningeal enhancement decreased on the days 156. Mild hydrocephalus was noted on MRI obtained 70 days after symptom onset, which markedly aggravated on the days 119. It decreased after steroid therapy alone. Enhancing cryptococcomas of variable size were noted at the right temporal lobe and cerebellum on MRI of the day 119, which decreased in size and number on the day 156. On the day 295 MRI showed nearly disappearance of the dilated Virchow-Robin space, but final leptomeningeal enhancement, cerebellar cryptococcomas and hydrocephalus still remained. The MRI findings of the second patient(36 year old female) showed the findings similar to those of the first patient. Initial MRI obtained 18 days after symptom onset showed no abnormal findings. Dilated Virchow-Robin spaces were noted on the day 36 (13 days after treatment onset), which nearly disappeared on the day 109. Enhancing cryptococcomas in both basal ganglia and cerebral cortex and leptomeningeal enhancement were noted on MRI of the day 136. Both cryptococcomas and leptomeningeal enhancement decreased in size and enhancing degree on the day 157. Hydrocephalus was noted on the day 109.

  9. Tendon involvement in rheumatoid arthritis of the wrist: MRI findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valeri, G.; Ferrara, C.; Ercolani, P.; De Nigris, E. [Ancona Univ. (Italy). Dept. of Radiology; Giovagnoni, A. [Modena Univ. (Italy). Dept. of Radiology

    2001-03-01

    Objective. To evaluate the distribution and extent of wrist tendon alterations in patients with active rheumatoid arthritis (RA) using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Design and patients. Forty-three clinically active RA patients with an illness duration of less than 4 years and no clinical evidence of tendons tears were enrolled in the study. There were 10 men and 33 women, with an average age of 52 years (range 33-63 years). MRI of both wrists, with one exception, was performed at 1.0 T using T1- and T2-weighted sequences (slice thickness 3 mm). Twelve healthy subjects (8 women, 4 men; mean age 31 years) were also evaluated as a control group. Two radiologists reviewed each of four schematic anatomical regions (volar, dorsal, ulnar, radial) for the degree of tendon and tendon sheath alterations using two progressive scales. Results. In the control group all tendons had homogeneous low signal intensity on all sequences. A small amount of fluid was found in six subjects but the diameter was always less than 1 mm. In the patient group minimal fluid (<2 mm) was found in 35 (41%) wrists, grade 2 fluid (<2>5mm) in 26 (31%) and grade 3 fluid (>5 mm) in 24 (28%). Fiftynine (69%) of the grade 1 changes were in the volar compartment but grade 2 involvement was evenly distributed. Grade 3 changes were most common in the dorsal compartment and combined grade 2 and 3 in the dorsal and ulnar compartments were 32 (38%) and 25 (30%) compared with 16 (18%) and 17 (20%) respectively in the volar and radial compartments. The tendons were normal (grade 0) in 47 (46%) wrists. A maximum tendon signal change (grade 1) was demonstrated in 28 wrists (32%). When associated with other individual tendons grades this grade was demonstrated in the dorsal compartment in 30 (35%) wrists, in the volar compartment in 12 (14%), in the radial compartment in 17 (20%) and in the ulnar compartment in 26 (30%). A partial tear (grade 2) was detected in 7 (8%) wrists, all involving the dorsal and ulnar

  10. Osteoskeletal manifestations of scurvy: MRI and ultrasound findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polat, Ahmet Veysel; Bekci, Tumay; Selcuk, Mustafa Bekir [Ondokuz Mayis University, Kurupelit, Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, Samsun (Turkey); Say, Ferhat [Ondokuz Mayis University, Kurupelit, Department of Orthopaedics and Traumatology, Faculty of Medicine, Samsun (Turkey); Bolukbas, Emrah [Ondokuz Mayis University, Kurupelit, Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine, Samsun (Turkey)

    2015-08-15

    Scurvy has become very rare in the modern world. The incidence of scurvy in the pediatric population is extremely low. In the pediatric population, musculoskeletal manifestations are more common and multiple subperiosteal hematomas are an important indicator for the diagnosis of scurvy. Although magnetic resonance imaging findings of scurvy are well described in the literature, to our knowledge, ultrasound findings have not yet been described. In this article, we report a case of scurvy with associated magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasound findings. (orig.)

  11. Magnetic Resonance, Functional (fMRI) -- Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... their nature and the strength of the MRI magnet. Many implanted devices will have a pamphlet explaining ... large cylinder-shaped tube surrounded by a circular magnet. You will lie on a moveable examination table ...

  12. Novel MRI finding for diagnosis of invasive placenta praevia: evaluation of findings for 65 patients using clinical and histopathological correlations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ueno, Yoshiko; Kitajima, Kazuhiro; Maeda, Tetsuo; Suenaga, Yuko; Takahashi, Satoru; Sugimura, Kazuro [Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Kobe (Japan); Kawakami, Fumi [Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Pathology, Kobe (Japan); Matsuoka, Shozo; Tanimura, Kenji; Yamada, Hideto [Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Kobe (Japan); Ohno, Yoshiharu [Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Kobe (Japan); Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Advanced Biomedical Imaging Research, Kobe (Japan)

    2014-04-15

    To review established magnetic resonance (MR) criteria and describe a new MR finding for the diagnosis of invasive placenta praevia. A retrospective review of prenatal MRI examinations of 65 patients (median age: 35 years) who underwent MR for the screening of invasive placenta praevia. All MRIs were performed on a 1.5-T unit, including axial, coronal and sagittal T2-weighted half-Fourier single-shot turbo spin echo imaging. Fifteen patients were diagnosed with invasive placenta praevia. Two experienced radiologists reviewed the MR images and evaluated a total of six MRI features of the placenta, including our novel finding of the placental protrusion into the internal os (placental protrusion sign). Inter-rater reliability was assessed by using kappa statistics. Features with a kappa statistic >0.40 were evaluated using Fisher's two-sided exact test for comparison of their capabilities for placental invasion assessment. Interobserver reliability was moderate or better for the intraplacental T2 dark band, intraplacental abnormal vascularity, uterine bulging, heterogeneous placenta and placental protrusion sign. Fisher's two-sided exact test results showed all these features were significantly associated with invasive placenta praevia. The novel MRI finding of a placental protrusion sign is a useful addition to the established MRI findings for the diagnosis of invasive placenta praevia. (orig.)

  13. Neural Basis of Tics: A Functional MRI Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Event-related functional MRI (fMRI was used to study the neural basis of spontaneous motor and vocal tics in 10 patients with Tourette syndrome, at the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, Bethesda, MD.

  14. MRI findings in injured articular cartilage of the knee correlated with surgical findings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xiao-ming; PENG Wen-jia; WU Hua; Kacher Daniel; XIA Li-ming; AI Fei; LI Feng; XIONG Wei

    2009-01-01

    Background There is a strong need for quick noninvasive diagnostic technique that can give a valid estimate of the status of the cartilage reliably,discriminating intact cartilage from various grades of impaired cartilage.The goal of this study was to assess the incidence of knee cartilage injuries and compare the accuracy of two-dimension spin echo(2D SE)and fast spin echo(FSE)(conventional MRI),three-dimensional spoiled gradient echo(3D SPGR),three-dimensional fast imaging employing steady state acquisition(3D FIESTA)MR imaging sequences with surgical examination of the articular cartilage.Methods One hundred and thirty-eight knees with history of knee trauma received conventional MRI,3D SPGR and 3D FIESTA MRI examination before surgery,and surgical examination of articular cartilage was used as reference standard.A modified version of the Noyes classification system was applied for the evaluation of the lateral femoral condyle(LFC),medial femoral condyle(MFC),lateral tibial plateau(LTP),medial tibial plateau(MTP),trochlea and patella.The incidence and distributions of different injured grades at different articular surfaces of knee were assessed.A series of assessment indeces of 3D SPGR,3D FIESTA,and the combination of the conventional MRI and 3D SPGR imaging were calculated.Results The incidence of cartilage defects(grade 2 to 4)was 22%(183/828),according to surgical examination.Grade 3 and 4 lesions were absent at the medial tibial plateau.The rates of exact match between the grading results of different MRI procedures and surgical examination were 49% of 3D SPGR,61% of 3D FIESTA,and 82% of the combination of 3D SPGR and conventional MRI.Also,the combination of 3D SPGR and conventional MR imaging provided the highest sensitivity,specificity,accuracy,positive and negative predictive values,at 71%,97%,90%,90% and 90%,respectively.Conclusions For all the articular surfaces of the traumatic knees,about one fifth(22%)were cartilage defects.Both 3D SPGR and 3D

  15. Internal mammary lymph nodes as incidental findings at screening breast MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Kimberly M; Munir, Reema; Wisner, Dorota J; Azziz, Ania; Holland, Belinda Chang; Kornak, John; Joe, Bonnie N

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the prevalence of internal mammary lymph nodes (IMLNs) on breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in a screening population. We retrospectively reviewed 92 consecutive screening breast MRI exams. Logistic regression was performed to ascertain the risk of IMLNs in cancer-free subjects and to determine whether the risk varies with age. IMLNs were present in 48.9% of patients. Mean node size was 4 mm (range, 3-10 mm). The prevalence of IMLNs was not related to age. No patients developed breast cancer after a mean follow-up of 3 years. Subcentimeter IMLNs are common incidental findings at screening breast MRI. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. CT and MRI findings in X-linked progressive deafness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altay, Hakan; Savaş, Recep; Oğüt, Fatih; Kirazli, Tayfun; Alper, Hüdaver

    2008-09-01

    Congenital X-linked mixed deafness is a rare anomaly that has typical features and can be diagnosed on the basis of progressive mixed hearing loss and the typical imaging findings. Recognition of these findings may alter the course of treatment and perilymph gushing can be avoided. A 10-year-old male patient presented with a history of progressive hearing loss. Computed tomography of the temporal bones showed bulbous dilatation of the fundi of the internal auditory canals (IAC) and the absence of the bony plates separating the basal turn of the cochleas and IAC. Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated obliteration of the labyrinthine spaces at the right side.

  17. Orbital and Intracranial Effects of Microgravity: 3T MRI Findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, L. A.; Sargsyan, A.; Hasan, K. M.; Polk, J. D.; Hamilton, D. R.

    2012-01-01

    Goals and Objectives of this presentation are: 1. To briefly describe a newly discovered clinical entity related to space flight. 2. To describe normal anatomy and pathologic changes of the optic nerve, posterior globe, optic nerve sheath and pituitary gland related to exposure to microgravity. 3. To correlate imaging findings with known signs of intracranial hypertension.

  18. MRI FINDINGS DO NOT CORRELATE WITH OUTCOME IN ATHLETES WITH CHRONIC GROIN PAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrien Daigeler

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available This trial aimed to assess the value of MRI in the differential diagnosis of chronic groin pain in athletes, a condition caused by various pathologies, the most common being posterior abdominal wall deficiency, osteitis pubis and muscular imbalance. Nineteen subjects with clinically ruled-out hernia and recurrent episodes of exercise-triggered groin pain were assessed. Dynamic MRI was performed under Valsalva manoeuver and at rest within a training- free period and after training activity. Follow-up was performed after 4 years using a questionnaire and physical examination. An incipient hernia was seen in one case, Valsalva manoeuver provoked a visible bulging in 7 others (3 bilateral. Eight athletes showed symphysitis (accompanied by bulging in 3 cases. MRI visualized one hydrocele, one osteoma of the left femur, one enchondroma of the pubic bone, and one dilated left ureter without clinical symptoms or therapeutic relevance. MRI findings after training and during the training free period did not vary. Fifteen participants were available for a follow-up control examination 4 years later - one suffered from ongoing pain, eleven were free of symptoms and three had improvement. However, most of them improved only with changing or reducing training. There were four participants with a specific therapy of their MRI findings. MRI revealed a variety of pathological findings in athletes suffering from chronic groin pain, but it was not reliable enough in differentiating between diagnoses requiring conservative or operative treatment. The MRI examination within the training interval did not have an advantage to that within the training-free period. Further randomized prospective trials with a long follow-up should establish whether MRI findings could be of help in the choice between conservative and surgical treatment for chronic groin pain

  19. Hepatic involvement of histiocytic sarcoma: CT and MRI findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubo, Takatosh; Ohtomo, Kuni [Graduate School of Medicine, University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan); Kiryu, Shigeru; Akai, Hiroyuki; Ora, Yasunori; Tojo, Arinobu; Yoshida, Hideo; Kato, Naoya; Nakano, Yoshiyasu [Institute of Medical Science, University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan)

    2016-09-15

    Histiocytic sarcoma in the liver is an extremely rare hematological malignancy. Herein, we reported the case of a 68-year-old woman who presented with characteristic wedge-shaped abnormality bounded by hepatic veins on computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging of the liver. In the wedge-shaped area, decreased portal flow and the deposition of iron were observed. These imaging findings are consistent with intrasinusoidal tumor cell infiltration. A liver biopsy was performed, and histiocytic sarcoma was confirmed histopathologically.

  20. Hepatic Involvement of Histiocytic Sarcoma: CT and MRI Findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubo, Takatoshi [Department of Radiology, Graduate School of Medicine, University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-8654 (Japan); Kiryu, Shigeru; Akai, Hiroyuki [Department of Radiology, Institute of Medical Science, University of Tokyo, Tokyo 108-8639 (Japan); Ota, Yasunori [Department of Pathology, Institute of Medical Science, University of Tokyo, Tokyo 108-8639 (Japan); Tojo, Arinobu [Department of Hematology and Oncology, Institute of Medical Science, University of Tokyo, Tokyo 108-8639 (Japan); Yoshida, Hideo [Department of Gastroenterology, Japanese Red Cross Medical Center, Tokyo 150-8935 (Japan); Kato, Naoya [Advanced Medical Science, Institute of Medical Science, University of Tokyo, Tokyo 108-8639 (Japan); Nakano, Yoshiyasu [Department of Radiology, Institute of Medical Science, University of Tokyo, Tokyo 108-8639 (Japan); Ohtomo, Kuni [Department of Radiology, Graduate School of Medicine, University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-8654 (Japan)

    2016-11-01

    Histiocytic sarcoma in the liver is an extremely rare hematological malignancy. Herein, we reported the case of a 68-year-old woman who presented with characteristic wedge-shaped abnormality bounded by hepatic veins on computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging of the liver. In the wedge-shaped area, decreased portal flow and the deposition of iron were observed. These imaging findings are consistent with intrasinusoidal tumor cell infiltration. A liver biopsy was performed, and histiocytic sarcoma was confirmed histopathologically.

  1. Gastrocnemius tendinosis--A frequent finding on MRI knee examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jawahar, Anugayathri; Lu, Yanan; Okur, Gokcan; Kliethermes, Stephanie; Lomasney, Laurie

    2015-12-01

    Gastrocnemius tendinosis (GT) is one potential cause for posterior knee pain, commonly overlooked on clinical examinations and imaging. This study assesses the frequency of GT on MR imaging in a convenience sample based on a database search and associations with other articular pathologies and clinical findings. With IRB approval, retrospective review was completed on 300 randomly selected MR knee exams performed from February 2009 to June 2010. Following de-identification, axial T2 and sagittal PD images, with or without fat suppression, were reviewed by 2 radiologists. The gastrocnemius tendon femoral attachments were graded as normal, mild (few cysts, thickening, intermediate signal) or severe GT (multiple cysts, marrow edema, tear). Select associated MR findings of internal derangement were documented. Clinical charts were reviewed for clinical presentation, physical exam findings, and select demographics. The inter-observer reliability for presence/grading of GT was very high (kappa statistic=0.97). Frequency of GT was 50.33%, most frequently involving medial head of gastrocnemius (63.6%). Grades of GT were 41.7% and 17.2% for mild and severe respectively. Univariate analysis showed statistically significant relationship between grade of GT with arthrosis (p=0.05) and clinical joint effusion (p=0.02). Multivariate analysis showed higher odds of severe GT for individuals with medial plus lateral GT. Statistical significance was noted for presence of both GT and ACL tear (13.9%; p=0.02). Significant findings of our analysis included GT presented with predominant involvement of medial head of gastrocnemius tendon, mild in severity, strong association with ACL tear, presented frequently as posterior knee pain, limited joint motion and clinical joint effusion. However, there was no statistically significant association between demographic features and medical comorbidities in the patients. Increased understanding of frequency of GT allows more accurate reporting of

  2. Why do some find it hard to disagree? An fMRI study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan F Dominguez D

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available People often find it hard to disagree with others, but how this disposition varies across individuals or how it is influenced by social factors like other people’s level of expertise remains little understood. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI, we found that activity across a network of brain areas (comprising posterior medial frontal cortex, anterior insula, inferior frontal gyrus, lateral orbitofrontal cortex, and angular gyrus was modulated by individual differences in the frequency with which participants actively disagreed with statements made by others. Specifically, participants who disagreed less frequently exhibited greater brain activation in these areas when they actually disagreed. Given the role of this network in cognitive dissonance, our results suggest that some participants had more trouble disagreeing due to a heightened cognitive dissonance response. Contrary to expectation, the level of expertise (high or low had no effect on behavior or brain activity.

  3. Functional Imaging of Autonomic Regulation: Methods and Key Findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul M Macey

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Central nervous system processing of autonomic function involves a network of regions throughout the brain which can be visualized and measured with neuroimaging techniques, notably functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI. The development of fMRI procedures has both confirmed and extended earlier findings from animal models, and human stroke and lesion studies. Assessments with fMRI can elucidate interactions between different central sites in regulating normal autonomic patterning, and demonstrate how disturbed systems can interact to produce aberrant regulation during autonomic challenges. Understanding autonomic dysfunction in various illnesses reveals mechanisms that potentially lead to interventions in the impairments. The objectives here are to: 1 describe the fMRI neuroimaging methodology for assessment of autonomic neural control, 2 outline the widespread, lateralized distribution of function in autonomic sites in the normal brain which includes structures from the neocortex through the medulla and cerebellum, 3 illustrate the importance of the time course of neural changes when coordinating responses, and how those patterns are impacted in conditions of sleep-disordered breathing, and 4 highlight opportunities for future research studies with emerging methodologies. Methodological considerations specific to autonomic testing include timing of challenges relative to the underlying fMRI signal, spatial resolution sufficient to identify autonomic brainstem nuclei, blood pressure and blood oxygenation influences on the fMRI signal, and the sustained timing, often measured in minutes of challenge periods and recovery. Key findings include the lateralized nature of autonomic organization, which is reminiscent of asymmetric motor, sensory and language pathways. Testing brain function during autonomic challenges demonstrate closely-integrated timing of responses in connected brain areas during autonomic challenges, and the involvement with

  4. Indeterminate findings on oncologic PET/CT: What difference dose PET/MRI make?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fraum, Tyler J.; Fowler, Kathryn J.; McConathy, Jonathan; Dehdashti, Farokh [Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology, Washington University School of Medicine, Saint Louis (United States)

    2016-12-15

    Positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) with 2-deoxy-2-[{sup 18}F]fluoro-D-glucose (FDG) has become the standard of care for the initial staging and subsequent treatment response assessment of many different malignancies. Despite this success, PET/CT is often supplemented by MRI to improve assessment of local tumor invasion and to facilitate detection of lesions in organs with high background FDG uptake. Consequently, PET/MRI has the potential to expand the clinical value of PET examinations by increasing reader certainty and reducing the need for subsequent imaging. This study evaluates the ability of FDG-PET/MRI to clarify findings initially deemed indeterminate on clinical FDG-PET/CT studies. A total of 190 oncology patients underwent whole-body PET/CT, immediately followed by PET/MRI utilizing the same FDG administration. Each PET/CT was interpreted by our institution's nuclear medicine service as a standard-of-care clinical examination. Review of these PET/CT reports identified 31 patients (16 %) with indeterminate findings. Two readers evaluated all 31 PET/CT studies, followed by the corresponding PET/MRI studies. A consensus was reached for each case, and changes in interpretation directly resulting from PET/MRI review were recorded. Interpretations were then correlated with follow-up imaging, pathology results, and other diagnostic studies. In 18 of 31 cases with indeterminate findings on PET/CT, PET/MRI resulted in a more definitive interpretation by facilitating the differentiation of infection/inflammation from malignancy (15/18), the accurate localization of FDG-avid lesions (2/18), and the characterization of incidental non-FDG-avid solid organ lesions (1/18). Explanations for improved reader certainty with PET/MRI included the superior soft tissue contrast of MRI and the ability to assess cellular density with diffusion-weighted imaging. The majority (12/18) of such cases had an appropriate standard of reference; in all 12 cases

  5. Identification of subgroups of inflammatory and degenerative MRI findings in the spine and sacroiliac joints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnbak, Bodil; Jensen, Rikke Krüger; Manniche, Claus;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to investigate subgroups of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings for the spine and sacroiliac joints (SIJs) using latent class analysis (LCA), and to investigate whether these subgroups differ in their demographic and clinical characteristics. METHODS......: The sample included 1037 patients aged 18-40 years with persistent low back pain (LBP). LCA was applied to MRI findings of the spine and SIJs. The resulting subgroups were tested for differences in self-reported demographic and clinical characteristics. RESULTS: A five-class model was identified: Subgroup 1...... the subgroups with predominantly spinal findings (Subgroups 1-3), median age, prevalence of men, being overweight and previous LBP episodes were statistically significantly lower in Subgroup 1, higher in Subgroup 2 and highest in Subgroup 3. CONCLUSIONS: Five distinct subgroups of MRI findings in the spine...

  6. MRI and SPECT findings as a predictive factor for postencephalitic epilepsy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mizobuchi, Masahiro; Tanaka, Chiharu; Sako, Kazuya; Murakami, Nobuto; Nihira, Atsuko [Nakamura Memorial Hospital, Sapporo (Japan)

    2000-04-01

    Relationship between postencephalitic epilepsy and acute phase symptoms, CSF, EEG and MRI findings was assessed by Kaplan-Meier method. Thirteen of 34 patients manifestated epilepsy including four intractable cases. Women (7/11), herpes simplex virus (6/7), seizures in acute phase (12/18), abnormal findings or MRI (6/7) were statistically significant. Four of nine patients with hyperperfusion area by HMPAO-SPECT in acute phase and two of three patients with hypoperfusion area by IMP-SPECT in recovery phase had epilepsy. Hyperperfusion in acute phase reflected acute seizures and inflammations, whereas hypoperfusion in the recovery phase reflected hypometabolism caused by brain damage. These findings suggest epileptogenicity, MRI and SPECT findings may predict prognosis of postencephalitic epilepsy. (author)

  7. MRI findings of type II sacral agenesis: A case report and literature review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sang A; Kim, Myung Soon; Kwon, Woo Cheol [Dept. of Radiology, Yonsei University Wonju College of Medicine, Wonju Severance Christian Hospital, Wonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-07-15

    Sacral agenesis (or caudal regression syndrome) is a rare congenital anomaly involving various levels of coccygeal, sacral, and even lumbar or lower thoracic vertebral dysgenesis, as well as spinal cord abnormalities. A few cases have been previously reported in Korea, especially based upon MRI findings. We describe a case of a 4-year-old girl with partially bilateral agenesis of the sacrum (type II), and club-shaped (chisel-shaped) spinal cord disruption. We also review MRI findings of sacral agenesis, focused on classification and radiological findings.

  8. Correlation of clinical and MRI findings of tempero mandibular joint internal derangement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chowdary U

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The most common clinical features of tempero-mandibular joint internal derangement are correlated with the MRI findings of shape of the disc in an attempt to find the etiology of tempero-mandibular joint internal derangement. In this study, the clinical parameters of pain, muscle tenderness, clicking with in the joint (like early, middle and late are correlated with the MRI findings of disc shapes. (like biconcave, thick, lengthened, folded, adhesion. The study reveals any trauma that leads to muscle tenderness results in internal derangement of tempero-mandibular joint.

  9. MRI findings of malignant lymphoma presenting in bones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, Sungwook; Cho, Jeamin; Suh, Jin Suck [College of Medicine, Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Ha, Doohoe [CHA General Hospital, College of Medicine, Pochon CHA University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-02-01

    To analyze the MR finding of skeletal malignant lymphoma. The authors retrospectively reviewed the MR imaging findings (location, signal intensity and contrastenhancement of lesions, and patterns of bone marrow involvement) of 12 patients with malignant lymphoma presenting in bones and confirmed by incisional biopsy, blind bone marrow biopsy or follow-up MR imaging. Among the 15 lesions in 12 patients, the spine was the most commonly involved site (n=3D5), followed by the ilium (n=3D4), femur (n=3D3), sternum (n=3D2), titia (n=3D1). On T1-weighted images, lesions showed signal intensity close to muscle, while on T2-weighted images, involved bones showed variable signal intensity from muscle to water signal intensity. Patterns of bone marrow involvement were nodular (n=3D2), diffuse (n=3D5), or segmental (n=3D8). All cases of segmental bone marrow involvement also produced soft tissue mass. In two cases in which this occurred, cortical breakdown was not noted. On T1- and T2-weighted MR images, particularly the latter, bone marrow involvement of malignant lymphoma was observed, with variable signal intensity. Contrast enhanced images revealed distinct lesion. Patterns of bone marrow involvement varied. (author)

  10. Abnormal findings of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus involving the brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishikawa, Akira; Okada, Jun; Kondo, Hirobumi (Kitasato Univ., Sagamihara, Kanagawa (Japan). School of Medicine); Kashiwazaki, Sadao

    1992-06-01

    To elucidate the clinical significance of MRI on central nervous system systemic lupus erythematosus (CNS-SLE), MRI and CT scans were performed in 35 patients with SLE, of 18 patients who had CNS manifestations at the time of MRI examinations. The investigations were also carried out in 17 patients without CNS-SLE. The rate of detection of abnormal findings on MRI in patients with CNS-SLE was 77.2% (14/18), which was high, as compared with the rate of those on CT scans (50%: 9/18). Especially, all of 4 patients with seizure and 3 patients with encephalopathy showed abnormal MRI findings, although respectively 50% and 33.3% of them had abnormal CT scan findings. MRI findings were classified into 4 groups below: (1) Large focal are as increased signal intensity at T2 weighted image. These were observed in 2 of 4 patients with seizure and 1 of 3 patients with encephalopathy, which were completely resolved after treatment. (2) Patchy subcortical foci of increased signal intensity at T2 weighted image. These were observed in 11 of 18 CNS-SLE and 7 of 17 without CNS-SLE, which were not detected by CT scan. (3) All of six patients with cerebral infarctions showed high signal intensity areas at T2 weighted image and low signal intensity areas at T1 weighted image. (4) Normal findings were observed in 4 of 18 CNS-SLE (22.2%). We concluded that MRI is useful for the evaluation of CNS-SLE and provides more information than CT scan. (author).

  11. Language networks in children: Evidence from functional MRI studies

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    We review functional MRI and other neuroimaging studies of language skills in children from infancy to adulthood. These studies show developmental changes in the networks of brain regions supporting language, which can be affected by brain injuries or neurological disorders. Particular aspects of language rely on networks that lateralize to the dominant hemisphere; others rely on bilateral or non-dominant mechanisms. Multiple fMRI tasks for pediatric patients characterize functional brain reo...

  12. Lumbar disc herniation at high levels : MRI and clinical findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paek, Chung Ho; Kwon, Soon Tae; Lee, Jun Kyu; Ahn, Jae Sung; Lee, Hwan Do; Chung, Yon Su; Jeong, Ki Ho; Cho, Jun Sik [Chungnam National Univ. College of Medicine, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-04-01

    To assess the frequency, location, associated MR findings, and clinical symptoms of the high level lumbar disc herniation(HLDH). A total of 1076 patients with lunbar disc herniation were retrospectively reviewed. MR images of 41 of these with HLDH(T12-L1, L1-2, L2-3) were analysed in terms of frequency, location, and associated MR findings, and correlated with clinical symptoms of HLDH. The prevalence of HLDH was 3.8%(41/1076). HLDH was located at T12-L1 level in four patients(10%), at L1-2 level in 14(34%), at L2-3 level in 21(51%), and at both L1-2 and L2-3 levels in two. The age of patients ranged from 20 to 72 years (mean, 44), and there were 26 men and 16 women. In 11(27%), whose mean age was 32 years, isolated disc herniation was limited to these high lumbar segments. The remaining 30 patients had HLDH associated with variable involvement of the lower lumbar segments. Associated lesions were as follow : lower level disc herniation(14 patients, 34%); apophyseal ring fracture(8 patients, 19%); Schmorl's node and spondylolisthesis (each 6 patients, each 14%); spondylolysis(3 patients, 7%); and retrolisthesis(2 patients, 5%). In 20 patients(49%) with HLDH(n=41), there was a previous history of trauma. Patients with HLDH showed a relatively high incidence of associated coexisting abnormalities such as lower lumbar disc herniation, apophyseal ring fracture, Schmorl's node, spondylolysis, and retrolisthesis. In about half of all patients with HLDH there was a previous history of trauma. The mean age of patients with isolated HLDH was lower; clinical symptoms of the condition were relatively nonspecific and their incidence was low.

  13. MRI Features of Intracranial Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumors in Adults:Comparing with Histopathological Findings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石浩军; 孔祥泉; 徐海波; 徐丽莹; 刘定西

    2004-01-01

    Summary: The MRI appearances of 7 adult patients with pathologically proven intracranial primitive neuroectodermal tumors (PNET) were retrospectively analyzed. The MRI features were compared with findings in pathology and surgery. In this group, the tumor masses were most commonly found in the semisphere of cerebrum and in the vermis of cerebellum. They were relatively large and 4 were in lobulated shape. All of them had well-defined margins. MR images showed the tumors to be mildly or obviously hypointense on Ti-weighted images and hyperintense on T2-weighted images. Most masses had heterogeneous appearances with some cystic and necrotic areas. Intratumoral haemorrhage and focal calcification were occasionally seen. Mostly, there was no or only mild surrounding edema. Marked inhomogeneous contrast enhancement on MRI was seen in 6 cases except one. Two patients with multiple intracranial metastases were revealed on MR images. In this series, there was good correlation between MRI features and findings in pathology and surgery.These results showed that certain MRI features might suggest the diagnosis of intracranial PNET in adults. MRI is an effective technique to detect these tumors and is helpful to treatment planning and follow-up.

  14. Perianal disease in pediatric Crohn disease: a review of MRI findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Compton, Gregory L.; Bartlett, Murray [Royal Children' s Hospital, Medical Imaging Department, Parkville, Victoria (Australia)

    2014-10-15

    Perianal complications of Crohn disease are a common occurrence in children and can result in significant morbidity when not accurately characterized prior to surgical intervention. MRI is an excellent imaging modality for the evaluation of perianal inflammatory bowel disease - allowing characterization and detailed description of perianal fistulas. MRI has many advantages over other imaging modalities for the pediatric patient. Radiologists will benefit from a sophisticated understanding of perianal anatomy, the classification of perianal fistulas, the advantages MRI offers in characterization of perianal fistulas as well as the common and incidental findings that are important in the MRI evaluation of perianal inflammatory bowel disease in children. Perianal fistulas are found at a high rate in pediatric referrals and are more commonly found in male patients. (orig.)

  15. MRI findings in an infant with vaccine-associated paralytic poliomyelitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopes Ferraz-Filho, Jose Roberto [Sao Jose do Rio Preto Medical School, Department of Radiology, Hospital de Base, Sao Paulo, State (Brazil); Sao Jose do Rio Preto Medical School, Department of Radiology, Sao Jose do Rio Preto, Sao Paulo State (Brazil); Santos Torres, Ulysses dos; Portela de Oliveira, Eduardo; Soares Souza, Antonio [Sao Jose do Rio Preto Medical School, Department of Radiology, Hospital de Base, Sao Paulo, State (Brazil)

    2010-12-15

    Although acute flaccid paralysis is a manifestation observed in several neurologic and muscular disorders, vaccine-associated paralytic poliomyelitis (VAPP) is an exceedingly rare etiology. In the clinical setting of acute flaccid paralysis, MRI is useful in differentiating between VAPP and other conditions. Additionally, MRI can assess the extent of lesions. However, reports on MRI findings in VAPP are scarce in the pediatric radiology literature. We report a Brazilian infant who developed VAPP 40 days after receiving the first dose of oral polio vaccine (OPV). MR images of the cervical and thoracic spinal cord showed lesions involving the anterior horn cell, with increased signal intensity on T2-weighted sequences. We would like to emphasize the importance of considering VAPP as a differential diagnosis in patients with acute flaccid paralysis and an MRI showing involvement of medulla oblongata or spinal cord, particularly in countries where OPV is extensively administered. (orig.)

  16. Brain MRI findings in two cases with eclampsia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uenal, Mustafa; Senakayli, Oe Cem; Serce, Kemal [Karadeniz Technical Univ., Trabzon, (Turkey). Dept. of Radiology

    1996-08-01

    Neurological complications in patients with eclampsia are varied and include headache, visual disturbances, focal neurological deficits, altered mental status and coma. Occasionally, a focal neurological deficit includes a variety of visual disturbances. The pathophysiology of CNS abnormalities in patients with eclampsia is uncertain. Our cases, combined with a review of the literature, demonstrate that there is no correlation among severity of hypertension, parity, and location of lesions at initial magnetic resonance (MR) imaging findings or between the severity of hypertension and neurological symptoms. Two typical patterns are seen on MR images of patients with eclampsia. Lesions in the region of the posterior cerebral circulation are most common and are frequently associated with visual disturbances. Although there are lesions in the deep white matter or basal ganglia, a focal neurological deficit or alterations in mental status may not develop. This demonstrates the sensitivity of MR imaging in the detection of abnormalities in patients with eclampsia, even those without neurological deficits. 13 refs., 1 tab., 2 figs.

  17. Isolated acute nontraumatic cortical subarachnoid hemorrhage: Etiologies based on MRI findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Eun; Kang, Myung Jin; Kim, Sang Hyeon [Dept. of Radiology, Dong-A University Medical Center, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    The purpose of this study was to identify common underlying etiologies that may be responsible for isolated acute nontraumatic cortical subarachnoid hemorrhage (cSAH) by analysis of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of the brain. From August 2005 to February 2014, 15 cSAH patients were admitted to our institution. All patients with cSAH underwent brain MRI and magnetic resonance angiography as a part of their initial evaluation. An analysis of the patients' medical history, clinical presentations, and brain MRI findings was retrospectively performed. Among the combined pathologies that were suspected causes of cSAH, 11 patients showed acute or subacute cerebral infarctions at the ipsilateral hemisphere of cSAH on the diffusion-weighted images. Four of 11 patients had only cerebral infarction, but the other 7 had combined vasculopathy of extra- and intracranial arteries. Four of 15 patients who did not have cerebral infarction, had intracranial artery stenosis, or showed possible cerebral amyloid angiopathy, or no abnormal findings on the brain MRI. Ischemic stroke, such as cerebral infarction or vasculopathy of the extra and intracranial arteries is regarded as a common underlying etiology of the cSAH based on MRI findings.

  18. GPU accelerated dynamic functional connectivity analysis for functional MRI data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akgün, Devrim; Sakoğlu, Ünal; Esquivel, Johnny; Adinoff, Bryon; Mete, Mutlu

    2015-07-01

    Recent advances in multi-core processors and graphics card based computational technologies have paved the way for an improved and dynamic utilization of parallel computing techniques. Numerous applications have been implemented for the acceleration of computationally-intensive problems in various computational science fields including bioinformatics, in which big data problems are prevalent. In neuroimaging, dynamic functional connectivity (DFC) analysis is a computationally demanding method used to investigate dynamic functional interactions among different brain regions or networks identified with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data. In this study, we implemented and analyzed a parallel DFC algorithm based on thread-based and block-based approaches. The thread-based approach was designed to parallelize DFC computations and was implemented in both Open Multi-Processing (OpenMP) and Compute Unified Device Architecture (CUDA) programming platforms. Another approach developed in this study to better utilize CUDA architecture is the block-based approach, where parallelization involves smaller parts of fMRI time-courses obtained by sliding-windows. Experimental results showed that the proposed parallel design solutions enabled by the GPUs significantly reduce the computation time for DFC analysis. Multicore implementation using OpenMP on 8-core processor provides up to 7.7× speed-up. GPU implementation using CUDA yielded substantial accelerations ranging from 18.5× to 157× speed-up once thread-based and block-based approaches were combined in the analysis. Proposed parallel programming solutions showed that multi-core processor and CUDA-supported GPU implementations accelerated the DFC analyses significantly. Developed algorithms make the DFC analyses more practical for multi-subject studies with more dynamic analyses.

  19. Findings at brain MRI in children with dengue fever and neurological symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastogi, Ruchi; Garg, Bhavya

    2016-01-01

    Dengue is a flavivirus of the genus arbovirus with four serotypes, from DEN 1 to DEN 4. There has been an increase in incidence of dengue infection in children in the tropics and subtropics. Dengue has a variable clinical presentation, with many patients being asymptomatic. Its clinical manifestations in children vary from fever and arthralgia to life-threatening dengue hemorrhagic fever and dengue shock syndrome. We describe MRI findings in children with neurological involvement including dengue encephalopathy, acute hypoxic injury and dengue encephalitis. Dengue encephalopathy is usually secondary to multisystem derangement such as shock, hepatitis, coagulopathy and concurrent bacterial infection and is relatively common. Dengue encephalitis from direct neuronal invasion is rare. Nonspecific changes are seen on brain MRI in dengue infection. Clinical and laboratory findings as well as outcome do not necessarily correspond with brain MRI findings.

  20. Findings at brain MRI in children with dengue fever and neurological symptoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rastogi, Ruchi; Garg, Bhavya [Indraprastha Apollo Hospitals, Department of Radiodiagnosis, New Delhi (India)

    2016-01-15

    Dengue is a flavivirus of the genus arbovirus with four serotypes, from DEN 1 to DEN 4. There has been an increase in incidence of dengue infection in children in the tropics and subtropics. Dengue has a variable clinical presentation, with many patients being asymptomatic. Its clinical manifestations in children vary from fever and arthralgia to life-threatening dengue hemorrhagic fever and dengue shock syndrome. We describe MRI findings in children with neurological involvement including dengue encephalopathy, acute hypoxic injury and dengue encephalitis. Dengue encephalopathy is usually secondary to multisystem derangement such as shock, hepatitis, coagulopathy and concurrent bacterial infection and is relatively common. Dengue encephalitis from direct neuronal invasion is rare. Nonspecific changes are seen on brain MRI in dengue infection. Clinical and laboratory findings as well as outcome do not necessarily correspond with brain MRI findings. (orig.)

  1. Functional topography of the corpus callosum investigated by DTI and f MRI

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mara; Fabri; Chiara; Pierpaoli; Paolo; Barbaresi; Gabriele; Polonara

    2014-01-01

    This short review examines the most recent functional studies of the topographic organization of the human corpus callosum, the main interhemispheric commissure. After a brief description of its anatomy, development, microstructure, and function, it examines and discusses the latest findings obtained using diffusion tensor imaging(DTI) and tractography(DTT) and functional magnetic resonance imaging(f MRI), three recently developed imaging techniques that have significantly expanded and refined our knowledge of the commissure. While DTI and DTT have been providing insights into its microstructure, integrity and level of myelination, f MRI has been the key technique in documenting the activation of white matter fibers, particularly in the corpus callosum. By combining DTT and f MRI it has been possible to describe the trajectory of the callosal fibers interconnecting the primary olfactory, gustatory, motor, somatic sensory, auditory and visual cortices at sites where the activation elicited by peripheral stimulation was detected by fMRI. These studies have demonstrated the presence of callosal fiber tracts that cross the commissure at the level of the genu, body, and splenium, at sites showing f MRI activation. Altogether such findings lend further support to the notion that the corpus callosum displays a functional topographic organization that can be explored with f MRI.

  2. Functional MRI studies in disruptive behaviour disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellani, M; Garzitto, M; Brambilla, P

    2012-03-01

    Aggressive or antisocial behaviours with violations of social rules are the main features of disruptive behaviour disorders (DBDs), which are developmental diseases and include conduct disorder and oppositional defiant disorder. In the last decade, several efforts have been made to shed light on the biological underpinnings of DBDs. In this context, the main findings of functional magnetic resonance imaging studies in DBD are reported here. There are indications of neural dysfunctions in response to affective stimuli, especially regarding medial and orbitofrontal prefrontal cortex and connected subcortical structures.

  3. The clinical and genetic correlates of MRI findings in myotonic dystrophy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bachmann, G. [Neuromuscular and Genetic Research Group, Department of Radiology, Justus Liebig University, Giessen (Germany); Damian, M.S. [Department of Neurology, University of Giessen (Germany); Koch, M. [Department of Human Genetics, University of Marburg (Germany); Schilling, G. [Department of Psychiatry, University of Giessen (Germany); Fach, B. [Department of Neurology, University of Giessen (Germany); Stoeppler, S. [Department of Neurology, University of Giessen (Germany)

    1996-10-01

    Amplification of an unstable CTG trinucleotide repeat sequence in a protein kinase gene on chromosome 19 has recently been recognised as the molecular basis of myotonic dystrophy (DM), a multisystem disorder with a wide spectrum of muscular and extramuscular manifestations. The CTG expansion of 40 patients was assessed by direct genotype analysis of the white blood cell DNA and correlated with MRI of the brain and muscles, and with functional clinical data. Cerebral pathology on MRI consisted of diffuse atrophy (68 %), subcortical white matter lesions (65 %), wide Virchow-Robin spaces (38 %) and thickening of the skull (35 %). Cerebral atrophy and extent of white matter disease correlated significantly with mental retardation, duration of disease and CTG fragment amplification. MRI of the muscular system showed fatty degeneration of different degrees in neighbouring muscles causing a mosaic pattern of the thigh in 38 % and the calf in 44 %. Muscular changes on MRI were strongly correlated with muscular impairment but less strongly with CTG expansion. Changes on MRI reflect the stage of development of tissue pathology in DM, modified by defect of the DM gene. Pathology on MRI is strongly correlated with functional deficits. (orig.). With 8 figs., 3 tabs.

  4. MRI findings of hemolytic uremic syndrome with encephalopathy: widespread symmetrical distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Hiroshi; Takaba, Hitonori; Inoue, Takeshi; Saku, Yoshisuke; Saito, Fumihiko; Ibayashi, Setsuro; Fujishima, Masatoshi

    2003-01-01

    The authors report the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings in a 22-year-old woman with hemolytic uremic syndrome and encephalopathy secondary to verotoxin-producing Escherichia coli. Multiple lesions in the midbrain, cerebellum, occipital lobe, and basal ganglia showed high signal intensity on T2-weighted images with widespread symmetrical distribution. Most of these findings showed remarkable reduction on MRI images obtained 70 days after the onset. It is suggested that edema induced by local breakdown of blood-brain barrier might play an important role in the patient.

  5. A non-alcoholic Wernicke’s encephalopathy case with atypical MRI findings: Clinic versus radiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alpaydin, Sezin; Sirin, Hadiye; Calli, Cem; Celebisoy, Neşe

    2015-01-01

    Wernicke's Encephalopathy is an acute neuropsychiatric syndrome that can be seen in both alcohol abusers and non-alcoholic population as a result of thiamine deficiency. We herein report a non-alcoholic patient with typical clinical presentations but atypical MRI findings. Early clinical suspicion of WE is especially important in non-alcoholic patients with atypical MRI findings. The diagnosis of this group is more difficult to make and the prognosis of the syndrome mostly depends on early initiation of thiamine supplementation. PMID:26306933

  6. Brain Perfusion MRI Findings in Patients with Behcet’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alpay Alkan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To search brain perfusion MRI (pMRI changes in Behcet’s disease (BD with or without neurological involvement. Materials and Method. The pMRI were performed in 34 patients with BD and 16 healthy controls. Based on neurologic examination and post-contrast MRI, 12 patients were classified as Neuro-Behcet (group 1, NBD and 22 patients as BD without neurological involvement (group 2. Mean transit time (MTT, time to peak (TTP, relative cerebral blood volume (rCBV, and relative cerebral blood flow (rCBF were obtained and compared to those of healthy control group (group 3. Results. There was a significant difference in the MTT and rCBF within the pons and parietal cortex in groups 1 and 2. rCBV increased in cerebral pedicle in group 1 compared with groups 2 and 3. In the temporal lobe white matter, prolonged MTT and decreased rCBF were found in groups 1 and 2. In the corpus striatum, internal capsule, and periventricular white matter, rCBF increased in group 1 compared with group 3 and decreased in groups 1 and 2. Conclusion. Brain pMRI is a very sensitive method to detect brain involvement in patients with BD and aids the clinical diagnosis of NBD, especially in patients with negative MRI findings.

  7. Functional MRI of swallowing: from neurophysiology to neuroplasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malandraki, Georgia A; Johnson, Sterling; Robbins, Joanne

    2011-10-01

    Swallowing is a complex neurogenic sensorimotor process involving all levels of the neuraxis and a vast number of muscles and anatomic structures. Disruption of any of these anatomic or functional components can lead to swallowing disorders (also known as dysphagia). Understanding the neural pathways that govern swallowing is necessary in diagnosing and treating patients with dysphagia. Functional MRI (fMRI) is a prevalent and effective neuroimaging method that has been used to study the complex neurophysiologic control of swallowing in vivo. This article presents a summary of the research studies that have used fMRI to study the neural control of swallowing in normal subjects and dysphagic patients, and to investigate the effects of swallowing treatments on neuroplasticity. Methodologic challenges and caveats are discussed, and a case study of a pre-posttreatment paradigm is presented to highlight potential future directions of fMRI applications in swallowing research and clinical practice. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Meningiomas with conventional MRI findings resembling intraaxial tumors: can perfusion-weighted MRI be helpful in differentiation?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hakyemez, Bahattin [Uludag University Medical School, Department of Radiology, Bursa (Turkey); Bursa State Hospital, Department of Radiology, Bursa (Turkey); Yildirim, Nalan; Erdogan, Cueneyt; Parlak, Mufit [Uludag University Medical School, Department of Radiology, Bursa (Turkey); Kocaeli, Hasan; Korfali, Ender [Uludag University Medical School, Department of Neurosurgery, Bursa (Turkey)

    2006-10-15

    To investigate the contribution of perfusion-weighted MRI to the differentiation of meningiomas with atypical conventional MRI findings from intraaxial tumors. We retrospectively analyzed 54 meningiomas, 12 glioblastomas and 13 solitary metastases. We detected 6 meningiomas with atypical features on conventional MRI resembling intraaxial tumors. The regional cerebral blood flow (rCBV) ratios of all tumors were calculated via perfusion-weighted MRI. The signal intensity-time curves were plotted and three different curve patterns were observed. The type 1 curve resembled normal brain parenchyma or the postenhancement part was minimally below the baseline, the type 2 curve was similar to the type 1 curve but with the postenhancement part above the baseline, and the type 3 curve had the postenhancement part below the baseline accompanied by widening of the curve. Student's t-test was used for statistical analysis. On CBV images meningiomas were hypervascular and the mean rCBV ratio was 10.58{+-}2.00. For glioblastomas and metastatic lesions, the rCBV ratios were 5.02{+-}1.40 and 4.68{+-}1.54, respectively. There was a statistically significant difference in rCBV ratios between meningiomas and glioblastomas and metastases (P<0.001). Only one of the meningiomas displayed a type 2 curve while five showed a type 3 curve. Glioblastomas and metastases displayed either a type 1 or a type 2 curve. None of the meningiomas showed a type 1 curve and none of the glioblastomas or metastases showed a type 3 curve. (orig.)

  9. Primary Sjoegren's syndrome initially manifested by optic neuritis: MRI findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kadota, Y.; Tokumaru, A.M.; Kohyama, S.; Okizuka, H.; Kaji, T.; Kusano, S. [Department of Radiology, National Defense Medical College, Saitama (Japan); Kamakura, K. [Department of Internal Medicine, National Defense Medical College, Saitama (Japan)

    2002-04-01

    We herein describe the MRI findings in a patient clinically diagnosed with primary Sjoegren's syndrome (SjS) initially manifested by retrobulbar optic neuritis. A 63-year-old woman suddenly had left ocular pain and progressive visual disturbance. MR T2-weighted images revealed hyperintensity in the left optic nerve, with swelling. Contrast-enhanced T1-weighted images showed no abnormal enhancement. Follow-up MRI 6 months after admission revealed no significant changes in the affected optic nerve. To our knowledge, optic neuritis as a complication of SjS has been reported in ten patients [1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6] and MRI findings in only one of them [6]. We thought MR images were useful for visualizing optic nerve involvement in SjS and observing its course. (orig.)

  10. Detailed shoulder MRI findings in manual wheelchair users with shoulder pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrow, Melissa M B; Van Straaten, Meegan G; Murthy, Naveen S; Braman, Jonathan P; Zanella, Elia; Zhao, Kristin D

    2014-01-01

    Shoulder pain and pathology are common in manual wheelchair (MWC) users with paraplegia, and the biomechanical mechanism of injury is largely unknown. Establishing patterns of MRI characteristics in MWC users would help advance understanding of the mechanical etiology of rotator cuff disease, thus improving the logic for prescribed interventions. The purpose of this study was to report detailed shoulder MRI findings in a sample of 10 MWC users with anterolateral shoulder pain. The imaging assessments were performed using our standardized MRI Assessment of the Shoulder (MAS) guide. The tendon most commonly torn was the supraspinatus at the insertion site in the anterior portion in either the intrasubstance or articular region. Additionally, widespread tendinopathy, CA ligament thickening, subacromial bursitis, labral tears, and AC joint degenerative arthrosis and edema were common. Further reporting of detailed shoulder imaging findings is needed to confirm patterns of tears in MWC users regarding probable tendon tear zone, region, and portion. This investigation was a small sample observational study and did not yield data that can define patterns of pathology. However, synthesis of detailed findings from multiple studies could define patterns of pathological MRI findings allowing for associations of imaging findings to risk factors including specific activities.

  11. Detailed Shoulder MRI Findings in Manual Wheelchair Users with Shoulder Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa M. B. Morrow

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Shoulder pain and pathology are common in manual wheelchair (MWC users with paraplegia, and the biomechanical mechanism of injury is largely unknown. Establishing patterns of MRI characteristics in MWC users would help advance understanding of the mechanical etiology of rotator cuff disease, thus improving the logic for prescribed interventions. The purpose of this study was to report detailed shoulder MRI findings in a sample of 10 MWC users with anterolateral shoulder pain. The imaging assessments were performed using our standardized MRI Assessment of the Shoulder (MAS guide. The tendon most commonly torn was the supraspinatus at the insertion site in the anterior portion in either the intrasubstance or articular region. Additionally, widespread tendinopathy, CA ligament thickening, subacromial bursitis, labral tears, and AC joint degenerative arthrosis and edema were common. Further reporting of detailed shoulder imaging findings is needed to confirm patterns of tears in MWC users regarding probable tendon tear zone, region, and portion. This investigation was a small sample observational study and did not yield data that can define patterns of pathology. However, synthesis of detailed findings from multiple studies could define patterns of pathological MRI findings allowing for associations of imaging findings to risk factors including specific activities.

  12. Characteristic MRI Findings of upper Limb Muscle Involvement in Myotonic Dystrophy Type 1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuma Sugie

    Full Text Available The objective of our study was to evaluate the relation between muscle MRI findings and upper limb weakness with grip myotonia in patients with myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1. Seventeen patients with DM1 were evaluated by manual muscle strength testing and muscle MRI of the upper limbs. Many DM1 patients presenting with decreased grasping power frequently showed high intensity signals in the flexor digitorum profundus (FDP muscles on T1-weighted imaging. Patients presenting with upper limb weakness frequently also showed high intensity signals in the flexor pollicis longus, abductor pollicis longus, and extensor pollicis muscles. Disturbances of the distal muscles of the upper limbs were predominant in all DM1 patients. Some DM1 patients with a prolonged disease duration showed involvement of not only distal muscles but also proximal muscles in the upper limbs. Muscle involvement of the upper limbs on MRI strongly correlated positively with the disease duration or the numbers of CTG repeats. To our knowledge, this is the first study to provide a detailed description of the distribution and severity of affected muscles of the upper limbs on MRI in patients with DM1. We conclude that muscle MRI findings are very useful for identifying affected muscles and predicting the risk of muscle weakness in the upper limbs of DM1 patients.

  13. Comparison of MRI findings with traditional criteria in diagnosis of Pendred syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharghi, Sasan; Haghpanah, Vahid; Heshmat, Ramin; Fard-Esfahani, Armaghan; Hadizadeh, Homayoun; Lashkari, Anahita; Tabatabaei, Ozra; Taheri, Eghbal; Motesaddi, Massoud; Mojtahedi, Alireza; Larijani, Bagher

    2007-02-01

    Pendred syndrome, defined as the constellation of goiter, sensori-neural hearing loss, and positive perchlorate discharge test, is the most frequent cause of congenital deafness. Newly introduced diagnostic approaches to the disease are rather expensive and complicated, therefore we evaluated the value of MRI as the sole, or adjunctive diagnostic approach, and compared it with the traditional ones. Presuming the classic triad as the gold standard, we compared MRI findings in six such defined patients with six cases having goiter, hearing loss, and normal perchlorate discharge test. Our results indicated that MRI was 83.6% sensitive and 66.7% specific in patients fulfilling all three criteria (complete), while in the 'partial' group the sensitivity and specificity were 66.7% and 100% respectively. In conclusion, MRI, although impressive as an adjunctive diagnostic tool, may not replace the holistic approach, and the latter may be more convenient, cheaper, and still more accurate. However in 'partial' cases with equivocal findings, and in relatives of the patients, MRI may be a valuable diagnostic adjunct.

  14. MRI findings of pancreatic lymphoma and autoimmune pancreatitis: A comparative study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishigami, Kousei, E-mail: Ishigamikousei@aol.co [Department of Clinical Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka, 812-8582 (Japan); Tajima, Tsuyoshi; Nishie, Akihiro; Ushijima, Yasuhiro [Department of Clinical Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka, 812-8582 (Japan); Fujita, Nobuhiro [Department of Anatomic Pathology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University (Japan); Asayama, Yoshiki; Kakihara, Daisuke; Irie, Hiroyuki [Department of Clinical Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka, 812-8582 (Japan); Ito, Tetsuhide; Igarashi, Hisato [Department of Medicine and Bioregulatory Science, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University (Japan); Nakamura, Masafumi [Department of Surgery and Oncology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University (Japan); Honda, Hiroshi [Department of Clinical Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka, 812-8582 (Japan)

    2010-06-15

    Purpose: To clarify whether there are differences in MRI findings between pancreatic lymphomas and autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP). Materials and methods: MRI of 8 patients with pancreatic lymphomas and 21 patients with AIP were retrospectively reviewed. For multifocal pancreatic lymphomas (n = 2) and AIP (n = 4), the largest 2 lesions were evaluated. Ten pancreatic lymphomas and 25 AIP were compared on three bases: the signal intensity on T2-weighted images, internal homogeneity, and presence or absence of capsule-like rim. In 8 lymphomas and 19 AIP, the enhancement pattern on dynamic MRI was compared, as well. Results: On T2-weighted images, pancreatic lymphomas comprised 5, 5 and 4 lesions with low (iso), slightly high, and moderately high intensity, respectively, while the numbers for AIP were 14, 10, and 1 (P < 0.01). Nine of 10 (90%) lymphomas appeared homogenous, and 11 of 25 (44%) AIP were homogenous (P < 0.05). A capsule-like rim was present in 9 of 25 (36%) AIP, but was not seen in lymphomas (P < 0.05). On dynamic MRI, 18 of 19 (94.7%) AIP showed persistent (n = 5) or delayed enhancement (n = 13), and 6 of 8 (75%) lymphomas showed low intensity without delayed enhancement (P < 0.001). Conclusion: MRI findings for pancreatic lymphomas and AIP were significantly different, which may be helpful for the differential diagnosis of these two diseases.

  15. Localized hypertrophic neuropathy of the sciatic nerve in children: MRI findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roux, Adrien; Treguier, Catherine; Bruneau, Bertrand; Marin, Franck; Gandon, Yves; Gauvrit, Jean-Yves [University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Hopital Sud, 16 Boulevard de Bulgarie, BP 90347, Rennes cedex 2 (France); Riffaud, Laurent [University Hospital, Department of Pediatric Neurosurgery, Hopital Sud, Rennes (France); Violas, Philippe [University Hospital, Department of Pediatric Surgery, Hopital Sud, Rennes (France); Michel, Anne [University Hospital, Department of Neurological Functional Explorations, Hopital Sud, Rennes (France)

    2012-08-15

    Localized hypertrophic neuropathy (LHN) of the sciatic nerve in children is a rare condition characterized by a painless neurological deficit in the sciatic nerve territory. To demonstrate the role of MRI using a specific protocol and describe the primary findings in LHN. Imaging in four children (age 2 years to 12 years) is presented. All children presented with lower limb asymmetry. Three had a steppage gait. LHN was confirmed by electrophysiological studies and by MRI of the whole sciatic nerve with a dedicated protocol covering the lumbar spine and the lower limb. There were four direct MRI findings: (1) linear and focal hypertrophy with progressive enlargement of a peripheral nerve or plexus diameter, (2) abnormal hyperintensity of the nerve on T2-weighted images, (3) preserved fascicular configuration, and (4) variable enhancement after intravenous gadolinium administration. In addition there were atrophy and fatty infiltration of innervated muscles. MRI was helpful for determining the extent of lesions and in excluding peripheral nerve compression or tumour. MRI of the whole sciatic nerve is the method of choice for diagnosing LHN of the sciatic nerve. (orig.)

  16. Gait improvement after treadmill training in ischemic stroke survivors A critical review of functional MRI studies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiang Xiao; Dongfeng Huang; Bryan O'Young

    2012-01-01

    Stroke survivors often present with abnormal gait, movement training can improve the walking performance post-stroke, and functional MRI can objectively evaluate the brain functions before and after movement training. This paper analyzes the functional MRI changes in patients with ischemic stroke after treadmill training with voluntary and passive ankle dorsiflexion. Functional MRI showed that there are some changes in some regions of patients with ischemic stroke including primary sensorimotor cortex, supplementary motor area and cingulate motor area after treadmill training. These findings suggest that treadmill training likely improves ischemic stroke patients' lower limb functions and gait performance and promotes stroke recovery by changing patients' brain plasticity; meanwhile, the novel treadmill training methods can better training effects.

  17. MRI findings on iatrogenic spinal infection following various pain management procedures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yu Jin; Lee, Jee Young; Kim, Bong Man [Dept. of Radiology, Dankook University Hospital, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of); Min, Sang Hyuk [Dept. of Orthopedic Surgery, Dankook University Hospital, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-12-15

    The aim of this study was to investigate and report magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of iatrogenic spinal infection (ISI). We retrospectively reviewed the clinical and MRI findings on 18 patients diagnosed with ISI. The MRI findings were evaluated for the number of spinal segments showing inflammation in the longitudinal span and affected vertebral bodies and discs, the presence of abscess in the epidural or paravertebral space, paravertebral myositis, and skip lesions. Among the 18 patients, the range of the longitudinal span of spinal inflammation was 2-11 (mean = 5.84) vertebral segments. 17 of the 18 patients had three or more contiguous vertebral segments. The osteomyelitis and disc destruction was apparent in 77.8% and 66.7% of the patients, and 78% of patients with osteomyelitis showed involvement of one or two vertebrae; 91.7% of patients with disc destruction showed involvement of single disc. The incidence of epidural or paravertebral abscesses, and paravertebral myositis were 88.9%, and 94.4%. There were no spinal skip lesions. MRI findings of those are wide longitudinal span of infection, involvement of no more than one or two vertebral bodies and a single disc, large abscesses, extensive myositis and no skip lesions, can be a useful ISI-diagnostic tool.

  18. Lumbar Modic Changes - A Comparison Between Findings at Low-and High-field MRI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendix, Tom; Sorensen, Joan S; Henriksson, Gustaf A C

    2012-01-01

    Study Design. A cross-sectional observational study.Objective. To investigate if there is a difference in findings of lumbar Modic changes in low-field (0.3 Tesla) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as compared to high field (1.5 Tesla).Summary of Background Data. It is a challenge to give patients...

  19. MRI findings of small cell neuroendocrime carcinoma of the uterine cervix: A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Won, You Sun; Yi, Boem Ha; Lee, Hae Kyung; Lee, Min Hee; Choi, Seo Youn; Kwak, Jeong Ja [Soonchunhyang University College of Medicine, Bucheon Hospital, Bucheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    Small cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the uterine cervix is a rare primary neoplasm, accounting for less than 5% of all uterine cervical cancers. The tumor is known to have an aggressive behavior and poor prognosis. In this article, we present the MRI findings of 5 cases of pathologically-proven small cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the uterine cervix, including diffusion-weighted images.

  20. MRI Findings of Coexistence of Ectopic Neurohypophysis, Corpus Callosum Dysgenesis, and Periventricular Neuronal Heterotopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harun Arslan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Ectopic neurohypophysis is a pituitary gland abnormality, which can accompany growth hormone deficiency associated with dwarfism. Here we present magnetic resonance imaging (MRI findings of a rare case of ectopic neurohypophysis, corpus callosum dysgenesis, and periventricular neuronal heterotopia coexisting, with a review of the literature.

  1. Functional MRI of the brain: localisation of eloquent cortex in focal brain lesion therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dymarkowski, S.; Sunaert, S.; Oostende, S. van; Hecke, P. van; Wilms, G.; Demaerel, P.; Marchal, G. [Department of Radiology, University Hospitals, Leuven (Belgium); Nuttin, B.; Plets, C. [Department of Neurosurgery, University Hospitals, Leuven (Belgium)

    1998-12-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility of functional MRI (fMRI) in a clinical environment on a large patient group, and to evaluate the pretherapeutic value of localisation of eloquent cortex. Forty patients with focal brain lesions of different origin were studied using fMRI. Functional information was obtained using motor, somatosensory, auditory and phonological stimuli depending on the localisation of the lesions. To obtain information about the spatial accuracy of fMRI, the results were compared with postoperative electrocortical stimulation. Two patients with secondary trigeminal neuralgia were scanned using a motor protocol and were implanted with an extradural plate electrode. Imaging was successful in 40 of 42 patients (including the 2 with trigeminal neuralgia). These patients were analysed for strength of activation, the relation of the lesion to activation sites and the presence of mass effect. The correlation between these data and surgical findings provided significant additional clinical information. Functional MRI can be accurately performed in patients with focal brain lesions using a dedicated approach. Functional MRI offers important clinical information as a contribution to a decrease in posttherapeutic morbidity. The accuracy of the technique can be confirmed by other modalities, including invasive cortical electrostimulation. (orig.) With 7 figs., 2 tabs., 25 refs.

  2. Functional Connectivity in MRI Is Driven by Spontaneous BOLD Events.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas W Allan

    Full Text Available Functional brain signals are frequently decomposed into a relatively small set of large scale, distributed cortical networks that are associated with different cognitive functions. It is generally assumed that the connectivity of these networks is static in time and constant over the whole network, although there is increasing evidence that this view is too simplistic. This work proposes novel techniques to investigate the contribution of spontaneous BOLD events to the temporal dynamics of functional connectivity as assessed by ultra-high field functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI. The results show that: 1 spontaneous events in recognised brain networks contribute significantly to network connectivity estimates; 2 these spontaneous events do not necessarily involve whole networks or nodes, but clusters of voxels which act in concert, forming transiently synchronising sub-networks and 3 a task can significantly alter the number of localised spontaneous events that are detected within a single network. These findings support the notion that spontaneous events are the main driver of the large scale networks that are commonly detected by seed-based correlation and ICA. Furthermore, we found that large scale networks are manifestations of smaller, transiently synchronising sub-networks acting dynamically in concert, corresponding to spontaneous events, and which do not necessarily involve all voxels within the network nodes oscillating in unison.

  3. Epithelioid Myofibroblastoma in an Old-Male Breast: A Case Report with MRI Findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyma Yildiz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Myofibroblastoma of the breast (MFB is a very rare benign stromal tumor. In recent years, increase in mammographic screenings has resulted in increased diagnosis of MFB. Most cases are old males and postmenopausal women. MFB may be confused as malignant, clinically, morphologically, or by imaging. Immunohistochemistry is essential for final diagnosis in these cases. We report a case of a pathologically diagnosed MFB in an 80-year-old male patient who had coexisting prostate cancer and describe its imaging characteristics, especially magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. In this paper, histopathological and MRI findings of the MFB were discussed.

  4. Sporadic bilateral adrenal medullary hyperplasia: apparent false positive MIBG scan and expected MRI findings

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    Yung, Babington C.K.; Loke, Tony K.L.; Tse, T.W.; Tsang, M.W.; Chan, James C.S. E-mail: jcschan@ha.org.hk

    2000-10-01

    Adrenal medullary hyperplasia is a rare cause of clinical symptoms and biochemical findings identical to pheochromocytoma occurring mostly in multiple endocrine neoplasia patients. The scenario of positive MIBG scan, but no focal lesion found on CT and MRI led to diagnostic and management difficulties. Like pheochromocytoma, surgical excision can lead to clinical and biochemical recovery. We report this unusual case of sporadic bilateral adrenal medullary hyperplasia, with hypertension and biochemical abnormalities alleviated after surgical adrenalectomy. Based on T2 values reported in literature, high signal focal lesions may not appear on T2-weighted MRI images until development of frank pheochromocytoma. MIBG scan remains the most sensitive imaging modality for this condition.

  5. Management of intracranial incidental findings on brain MRI; Management intrakranieller Zufallsbefunde in der MRT-Bildgebung

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    Langner, S.; Buelow, R.; Kirsch, M. [University Medicine Greifswald (Germany). Inst. for Diagnostic Radiology and Neuroradiology; Fleck, S. [University Medicine Greifswald (Germany). Dept. of Neurosurgery; Angermaier, A. [University Medicine Greifswald (Germany). Dept. of Neurology

    2016-12-15

    The wider use of MRI for imaging of the head in both research and clinical practice has led to an increasing number of intracranial incidental findings. Most of these findings have no immediate medical consequences. Nevertheless, knowledge of common intracranial incidental findings and their clinical relevance is necessary to adequately discuss the findings with the patient. Based on the author's experiences from a large population-based study, the most common incidental MR findings in the brain will be presented, discussing their clinical relevance and giving recommendations for management according to the current literature and guidelines.

  6. MRI in assessing children with learning disability, focal findings, and reduced automaticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urion, David K; Huff, Hanalise V; Carullo, Maria Paulina

    2015-08-18

    In children with clinically diagnosed learning disabilities with focal findings on neurologic or neuropsychological evaluations, there is a hypothesized association between disorders in automaticity and focal structural abnormalities observed in brain MRIs. We undertook a retrospective analysis of cases referred to a tertiary-hospital-based learning disabilities program. Individuals were coded as having a focal deficit if either neurologic or neuropsychological evaluation demonstrated focal dysfunction. Those with abnormal MRI findings were categorized based on findings. Children with abnormalities from each of these categories were compared in terms of deficits in automaticity, as measured by the tasks of Rapid Automatized Naming, Rapid Alternating Stimulus Naming, or the timed motor performance battery from the Physical and Neurological Examination for Soft Signs. Data were compared in children with and without disorders of automaticity regarding type of brain structure abnormality. Of the 1,587 children evaluated, 127 had a focal deficit. Eighty-seven had a brain MRI (52 on 1.5-tesla machines and 35 on 3.0-tesla machines). Forty of these images were found to be abnormal. These children were compared with a clinic sample of 150 patients with learning disabilities and no focal findings on examination, who also had undergone MRI. Only 5 of the latter group had abnormalities on MRI. Reduced verbal automaticity was associated with cerebellar abnormalities, whereas reduced automaticity on motor or motor and verbal tasks was associated with white matter abnormalities. Reduced automaticity of retrieval and slow timed motor performance appear to be highly associated with MRI findings. © 2015 American Academy of Neurology.

  7. MRI findings in 6 cases of children by inadvertent ingestion of diphenoxylate-atropine

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    Xiao Lianxiang [Shandong University School of Medicine, Shandong Medical Imaging Research Institute , No. 44 West Wenhua Road, Jinan 250012 (China); Lin Xiangtao, E-mail: yishui1982@126.com [Shandong University School of Medicine, Shandong Medical Imaging Research Institute, No. 44 West Wenhua Road, Jinan 250012 (China); Cao Jinfeng [Shandong University School of Medicine, Shandong Medical Imaging Research Institute , No. 44 West Wenhua Road, Jinan 250012 (China); Wang Xueyu [Division of Pediatrics, Shandong Provincial Hospital, Shandong University, No. 324 Jingwu Road, Jinan 250021 (China); Wu Lebin [Shandong Medical Imaging Research Institute, No. 324 Jingwu Road, Jinan 250021 (China)

    2011-09-15

    Purpose: Compound diphenoxylate (diphenoxylate-atropine) poisoning can cause toxic encephalopathy in children, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain in this condition has not been reported. This study is to analyze brain MRI findings and to investigate the relations between MRI features and possible pathophysiological changes in children. Methods: Six children accidentally swallowed compound diphenoxylate, 4 males, 2 females, aged 20-46 months, average 33 months. Quantity of ingested diphenoxylate-atropine was from 6 to 30 tablets, each tablet contains diphenoxylate 2.5 mg and atropine 0.025 mg. These patients were referred to our hospital within 24 h after diphenoxylate-atropine ingestion, and underwent brain MRI scan within 24-72 h after emergency treatment. The characteristics of conventional MRI were analyzed. Results: These pediatric patients had various symptoms of opioid intoxication and atropine toxicity. Brain MRI showed abnormal low signal intensity on T1-weighted images (T1WI) and abnormal high signal intensity on T2-weighted images (T2WI) and fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) imaging in bilateral in all cases; abnormal high signal intensity on T1WI, T2WI and FLAIR in 4 cases. Encephalomalacia was observed in 3 cases during follow-up. Conclusion: In the early stage of compound diphenoxylate poisoning in children, multiple extensive edema-necrosis and hemorrhagic-necrosis focus were observed in basic nucleus, pallium and cerebellum, these resulted in the corresponding brain dysfunction with encephalomalacia. MRI scan in the early stage in this condition may provide evidences of brain impairment, and is beneficial for the early diagnosis, treatment and prognosis assessment.

  8. Synchronous rectal and prostate cancer – The impact of MRI on incidence and imaging findings

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    Sturludóttir, Margrét, E-mail: margret.sturludottir@karolinska.se [Department of Radiology, Karolinska University Hospital, 17176 Solna (Sweden); Martling, Anna, E-mail: anna.martling@ki.se [Center of Surgical Gastroenterology, Karolinska University Hospital, 17176 Solna (Sweden); Department of Molecular Medicine and Surgery, Karolinska Institutet, 17177 Solna (Sweden); Carlsson, Stefan, E-mail: stefan.carlsson@ki.se [Department of Urology, Karolinska University Hospital, 17176 Solna (Sweden); Department of Molecular Medicine and Surgery, Karolinska Institutet, 17177 Solna (Sweden); Blomqvist, Lennart, E-mail: lennart.k.blomqvist@ki.se [Department of Radiology, Karolinska University Hospital, 17176 Solna (Sweden); Department of Molecular Medicine and Surgery, Karolinska Institutet, 17177 Solna (Sweden)

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: •Prostate and rectal cancers are two of the most common cancers in male. •Synchronous diagnosis of prostate and rectal cancer is a rare identity. •Strong increase in the synchronous diagnosis likely due to improved diagnostic methods. •Pre-treatment MRI for rectal cancer has led to increased synchronous diagnosis. -- Abstract: Objective: To evaluate the incidence of synchronous diagnosis of rectal and prostate cancer and to identify how the role of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for preoperative staging of rectal cancer has affected the incidence. Methods: Regional data from the Swedish Colorectal Cancer Registry and the Regional Cancer Registry in Stockholm-Gotland area (two million inhabitants) between the years 1995–2011 were used. Patients were included when the rectal cancer was diagnosed prior to the prostate cancer. Medical records and pre-treatment MRI were retrospectively reviewed. Results: Of 29,849 patients diagnosed with either disease, synchronous diagnosis was made in 29 patients (0.1%). Two patients were diagnosed in the years 1995–1999, seven patients between the years 2000–2005 and 20 patients between the years 2006–2011. The most common presentation, for the prostate cancer was incidental finding during staging for rectal cancer, n = 20, and of those led MRI to the diagnosis in 14 cases. At retrospective review, all patients had focal lesions in the prostate on MRI and patients with higher suspicion of malignancy on MRI had more locally advanced disease. Conclusion: Synchronous rectal and prostate cancer are a rare entity, but a strong increase in synchronous diagnosis is seen which may be attributed to improved diagnostic methods, including the use of pre-treatment MRI in routine work-up for rectal cancer.

  9. Comparison of MRI and renal cortical scintigraphy findings in childhood acute pyelonephritis: preliminary experience

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    Kovanlikaya, Arzu; Okkay, Nese; Cakmakci, Handan E-mail: cakmakh@egenet.com.tr; Oezdogan, Oezhan; Degirmenci, Berna; Kavukcu, Salih

    2004-01-01

    Objective: The diagnosis of acute pyelonephritis in children remains a clinical challenge. It may cause permanent renal scar formation and results in the chronic renal failure if prompt diagnosis and treatment are delayed. The purpose of this study is to compare magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and renal cortical scintigraphy (RCS) findings in childhood acute pyelonephritis and to determine pyelonephritic foci in the acute phase. Materials and method: Twenty children (15 females and five males) with symptoms dysuria, enuresis, costovertebral pain, fever of 37.5 degree sign C or more and/or positive urine culture were imaged by unenhanced turbo spin echo T2, spin echo T1-weighted, pre- and post-gadolinium inversion recovery MRI and RCS. Both imaging techniques were read independently by two radiologists and nuclear medicine specialists. Sensitivity and specificity of MRI in detecting acute pyelonephritic foci and scar lesions were calculated. Furthermore, in order to calculate the reliability of MRI over RCS in differentiating scar tissue and acute pyelonephritic foci, follow-up MRI studies were done in six patients after treatment of acute pyelonephritis. Results: Sensitivity and specificity of MRI in the detection of pyelonephritic lesions were found to be 90.9 and 88.8%, respectively. There is no statistically significant difference in lesion detection between the two diagnostic modalities (P>0.05). Conclusion: Post-gadolinium MR images show significant correlation with RCS in the determination of renal pathology. Moreover, the ability of discriminating acute pyelonephritic foci and renal scar in early stages of disease is the superiority of MRI.

  10. Hypercapnic evaluation of vascular reactivity in healthy aging and acute stroke via functional MRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan V. Raut

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Functional MRI (fMRI is well-established for the study of brain function in healthy populations, although its clinical application has proven more challenging. Specifically, cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR, which allows the assessment of the vascular response that serves as the basis for fMRI, has been shown to be reduced in healthy aging as well as in a range of diseases, including chronic stroke. However, the timing of when this occurs relative to the stroke event is unclear. We used a breath-hold fMRI task to evaluate CVR across gray matter in a group of acute stroke patients (<10 days from stroke; N = 22 to address this question. These estimates were compared with those from both age-matched (N = 22 and younger (N = 22 healthy controls. As expected, young controls had the greatest mean CVR, as indicated by magnitude and extent of fMRI activation; however, stroke patients did not differ from age-matched controls. Moreover, the ipsilesional and contralesional hemispheres of stroke patients did not differ with respect to any of these measures. These findings suggest that fMRI remains a valid tool within the first few days of a stroke, particularly for group fMRI studies in which findings are compared with healthy subjects of similar age. However, given the relatively high variability in CVR observed in our stroke sample, caution is warranted when interpreting fMRI data from individual patients or a small cohort. We conclude that a breath-hold task can be a useful addition to functional imaging protocols for stroke patients.

  11. Brain CT and MRI findings of a long-term case of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis

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    Aoshiba, Kazunori; Ota, Kohei; Komatsuzaki, Satoshi; Kobayashi, Itsuro; Maruyama, Shoichi

    1987-11-01

    Our study involved a long-term case (ten years) of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis. The case began with a 23 year-old experiencing visual deterioration. During the course of his illness, amnesia, autism and abnormal behavior were observed without any myoclonus. On the electroencephalogram, periodic synclonous discharge was shown in the early stage of his illness and subsequently disappeared. The brain CT and the MRI disclosed diffuse lesions in both cortical and subcortical areas of the cerebral hemispheres. The location and spread of lesions were more clearly revealed by the MRI than the brain CT. These findings suggest that the MRI is more useful than the brain CT in the diagnosis of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis.

  12. Methanol-induced toxic optic neuropathy with diffusion weighted MRI findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanrivermis Sayit, Asli; Aslan, Kerim; Elmali, Muzaffer; Gungor, Inci

    2016-12-01

    We report a 52-year-old man with methanol intoxication who showed optic nerve damage as assessed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). He was admitted to the hospital with blurred vision after the consumption of alcohol (600-700 ml of cologne). He was treated with intravenous ethanol, NaHCO3 and hemodialysis. On admission, a brain and orbital MRI was performed. Bilateral mild contrast enhancement was detected on the contrast-enhanced images in the retrobulbar segment of the optic nerves (RBONs). Also, diffusion-weighted images showed restricted diffusion in the RBONs. Diagnosis was considered as methanol-induced optic neuropathy based on the MRI findings of the optic nerves.

  13. Acute patellofemoral pain: aggravating activities, clinical examination, MRI and ultrasound findings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brushoj, C.; Holmich, P.; Nielsen, M.B.;

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To investigate acute anterior knee pain caused by overuse in terms of pain location, aggravating activities, findings on clinical examination and ultrasound/MRI examination. To determine if acute anterior knee pain caused by overuse should be classified as a subgroup of patellofemoral...... pain syndrome (PFPS). Methods: In a observational study design 30 army recruits with anterior knee pain (mean duration of pain 4 weeks) were examined using the PFPS pain severity scale (PSS), knee pain diagrams, standardised clinical examination, ultrasound and MRI examinations. Results: On PSS typical......%)), but other synovial covered structures including the fat pad of Hoffa (12 patients (40%)), the medial plica and the joint line (12 patients (40%)) were also involved. Only eight patients (27%) experienced pain on the patellofemoral compression test. Only discrete changes was detected on MRI...

  14. MRI of double-bundle ACL reconstruction: evaluation of graft findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiekara, Tommi; Paakkala, Antti [Tampere University Hospital, Medical Imaging Centre, Tampere (Finland); Jaervelae, Timo [Sports Clinic and Hospital Mehilaeinen, Tampere (Finland); Huhtala, Heini [University of Tampere, School of Health Sciences, Tampere (Finland)

    2012-07-15

    To demonstrate the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of double-bundle (DB) anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction grafts. Sixty-six patients with DB ACL reconstruction were evaluated with MRI 2 years postoperatively. Graft thickness was measured separately by two musculoskeletal radiologists. The MRI findings of graft disruption, signal intensity (SI) changes, cystic degeneration, arthrofibrosis, and impingement were analyzed. The statistical significance of the association between MRI findings was calculated. The mean anteromedial (AM) graft thickness was reduced 9% and the mean posterolateral (PL) graft thickness was reduced 18% from the original graft thickness. Disruption was seen in 3% of AM grafts and 6% of PL grafts and a partial tear in 8 and 23%, respectively. Both grafts were disrupted in 3% of patients. Increased SI was seen in 14% of intact AM grafts and in 60% of partially torn AM grafts (p = 0.032). In PL grafts the increased SI was seen in 51% of the intact grafts and in 93% of the partially torn grafts (p = 0.005). Cystic degeneration was seen in 8% of AM grafts and in 5% of PL grafts. Diffuse arthrofibrosis was seen in 5% of patients and a localized cyclops lesion in 3% of patients. Impingement of the AM graft was seen in 8% of patients. Both grafts were disrupted in 3% of patients. Also, the frequencies of other complications were low. The use of orthogonal sequences in the evaluation of the PL graft SI seems to cause volume-averaging artefacts. (orig.)

  15. TRUS, CT and MRI findings of hydatid disease of seminal vesicles

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    Saglam, M.; Tasar, M.; Bulakbasi, N.; Tayfun, C.; Somuncu, I. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Guelhane Military Medical Academy and Medical School, Ankara (Turkey)

    1998-07-01

    Hydatid disease of the urogenital system, especially seminal vesicles and prostate, or retroperitoneum is a very rare condition. Secondary dissemination of seminal vesicles has not been described before. We describe the transrectal ultrasonography (TRUS), CT and MRI findings of a secondary solitary hydatid cyst of the left seminal vesicle, in a patient with disseminated hydatid disease involving all abdominal organs except for right kidney. We obtained typical findings of hydatid cyst at all modalities. (orig.) With 3 figs., 11 refs.

  16. Desmoplastic fibroma of bone in a toe: Radiographic and MRI findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ok Hwa; Kim, Seon Jeong; Kim Ji Yeon; Ryu, Ji Hwa [Inje University, Haeundae Paik Hospital, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Choo, Hye Jung [Dept. of Radiology, Inje University, Busan Paik Hospital, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Lee, In Sook [Dept. of Radiology, Busan National University Hospital, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Suh, Kyung Jin [Dept. of Radiology, Dongguk University, Gyeongju Hospital, Gyeongju (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-12-15

    Desmoplastic fibroma is a rare benign primary bone tumor that is histologically similar to the soft tissue desmoid tumor. It most often involves the mandible, large long bone or iliac bone. Desmoplastic fibroma in a toe has been extremely rarely reported. Authors report a rare case of desmoplastic fibroma of bone occurring in the distal phalanx of a foot, with descriptions of the radiographic and MRI findings, correlation of the radiologic and pathologic findings, and discussion on the differential diagnosis of the tumor.

  17. Comparison between clinical, ultrasound, CT, MRI, and pathology findings in dogs presented for suspected thyroid carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taeymans, Olivier; Penninck, Dominique G; Peters, Rachel M

    2013-01-01

    This study compares clinical, ultrasound, computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and pathology findings in 16 prospectively, and seven retrospectively recruited dogs presented for suspected thyroid carcinoma. Of these, 17 were confirmed thyroid carcinoma, while six were initially misdiagnosed. These included four carotid body tumors, one para-esophageal abscess, and one undifferentiated squamous cell carcinoma. Thyroid carcinomas occurred in older dogs without evidence of sex predilection, and were more often unilateral. All were large, heterogeneous, moderately to strongly vascularized, and most commonly contained areas of dystrophic mineralization and/or fluid accumulations. On MRI, thyroid carcinomas appeared hyperintense compared to surrounding musculature in all imaging sequences used, while on CT they had a lower attenuation value than normal thyroid gland tissue. Histologically confirmed tumor capsule disruption with invasion of the surrounding structures was most commonly detected with MRI. Palpation was not an accurate predictor of locally invasive vs. well-encapsulated masses. Computed tomography had the highest specificity (100%) and MRI had the highest sensitivity (93%) in diagnosing thyroid carcinoma, while ultrasound had considerably lower results. We conclude that ultrasound is adequate for use as a screening tool for dogs with suspected thyroid carcinoma, but recommend either CT or MRI for preoperative diagnosis and staging.

  18. Reliability of MRI Findings of Peroneal Tendinopathy in Patients with Lateral Chronic Ankle Instability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hee Jin; Kim, Hyung Soo; Chung, Soo Tae; Park, Noh Hyuck; Yoo, Jeong Hyun; Park, Jai Hyung; Kim, Joo Hak; Lee, Tae Woo; Lee, Chang Hyun; Oh, Se Man

    2010-01-01

    Background Patients with chronic lateral ankle instability also have peroneal tendinopathy often. However, preoperative MRIs of these patients are vague in many cases. Our study was performed to see the reliability of MRI findings of peroneal tendinopathy in patients with chronic lateral ankle instability. Methods MRI images for 82 patients who had chronic lateral ankle instability, and had received surgical treatment between March 2006 and November 2009 were compared with impressions from operating rooms. The mean age of patients was 36.4 years (range, 15 to 64 years), 82 ankles were studied, and patients with rheumatoid diseases were excluded from the study. Results Of the 82 cases, 26 were true positives, 38 true negatives, 13 false positives and 5 false negatives. Of 39 cases of peroneal tendinopathy diagnosed from MRI, 14 had peroneal tendon partial tears, 15 tenosynovitis, 3 dislocations, 17 low-lying muscle bellies, and 6 peroneus quartus muscles. Of 31 cases of peroneal tendinopathy observed in surgery 11 had peroneal tendon partial tears, 4 tenosynovitis, 5 dislocations, 12 low-lying muscle belliess, and 1 peroneus quartus muscle. Sensitivity and specificity of peroneal tendinopathy were 83.9% and 74.5%, respectively. Positive predictive value was 66.7%. Negative predictive value was 88.4%. Accuracy rate was 78.0%. Conclusions MRI is a useful diagnostic tool for detecting peroneal tendinopathy in patients with chronic lateral ankle instability. However, MRI is vague in many cases. Therefore, a thorough delicate physical examination and careful observation is needed. PMID:21119941

  19. The paediatric wrist revisited - findings of bony depressions in healthy children on radiographs compared to MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avenarius, Derk M.F.; Eldevik, Petter [University Hospital North Norway, Department of Radiology, Tromsoe (Norway); Ording Mueller, Lil-Sofie [University Hospital North Norway, Department of Radiology, Tromsoe (Norway); Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children, Department of Radiology, London (United Kingdom); Owens, Catherine M. [Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children, Department of Radiology, London (United Kingdom); University College London, Institute of Child Health, London (United Kingdom); Rosendahl, Karen [Haukeland University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Bergen (Norway); University of Bergen, Department of Surgical Sciences, Bergen (Norway); Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children, Department of Radiology, London (United Kingdom)

    2012-07-15

    The presence of erosions is used for diagnosis and monitoring of disease activity in juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). Assessment of carpal bone erosions in children is challenging due to lack of normal references. To define normal appearances of bony depressions in the wrist on radiographs and MRI. MRI and radiography of the wrist were performed in 88 healthy children, 5-15 years of age. We assessed the number of bony depressions within the carpals/proximal metacarpals on both modalities, separately and combined. A total of 75 carpal depressions were identified on radiography compared to 715 on MRI. The number of bony depressions identified radiographically showed no statistically significant difference across age-groups. Within the metacarpals, there was no significant difference between bony depressions identified by MRI or radiography, except at the bases of the second metacarpal. Bony depressions that resemble erosions are normal findings in the wrist in children. MRI identifies more depressions than radiographs in the carpus. Some bony depressions occur at typical locations and should be accounted for when assessing the wrist in JIA to avoid overstaging. (orig.)

  20. MRI findings in children with neurofibromatosis type 1: a prospective study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Es, S. [Dept. of Radiology, Royal Alexandra Hospital for Children, Paramatta (Australia); North, K.N. [Dept. of Neurology, Royal Alexandra Hospital for Children, Paramatta (Australia); McHugh, K. [Dept. of Radiology, Royal Alexandra Hospital for Children, Paramatta (Australia); De Silva, M. [Dept. of Radiology, Royal Alexandra Hospital for Children, Paramatta (Australia)

    1996-07-01

    To determine the frequency and nature of MRI lesions in children with neurofibromatosis type I (NF1), 50 patients aged 8 to 16 years were evaluated prospectively with cranial MRI. Forty-one children were asymptomatic with respect to central nervous system pathology, and 50% were macrocephalic. Sixteen patients (32%) had normal MRI examinations. Thirty-two patients (64%) had high intensity lesions of T2-weighted images and 16 patients (32%) had hyperintense lesions on T1-weighted images. Seven patients (14%) had ventricular dilatation (associated with increased intracranial pressure in 2) and 11 patients (22%) had optic pathway lesions (optic glioma in 7). MRI was superior to CT in differentiating optic sheath thickening and optic nerve tortuosity from optic glioma in four patients. An intracranial tumour (ependymoma) and sphenoid wing dysplasia were evident in individual patients. Findings previously unreported in NF1 included an aqueductal web resulting in hydrocephalus, intracular neurofibroma resulting in retinal detachment, and asymptomatic enlargement of the septum pellucidum. T1 and T2 signal abnormalities in isolation were not associated with neurological deficits or the occurrence of macrocephaly, and all lesions that required intervention were suspected clinically. Macrocephaly in the absence of increased intracranial pressure or accelerated head growth is not an indication for neuroimaging in children with NF1. However, the majority of children (68%) had disease-specific abnormalities and thus MRI may provide a useful adjunct to clinical evaluation in the diagnosis of equivocal cases. (orig.)

  1. Functional MRI in awake unrestrained dogs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory S Berns

    Full Text Available Because of dogs' prolonged evolution with humans, many of the canine cognitive skills are thought to represent a selection of traits that make dogs particularly sensitive to human cues. But how does the dog mind actually work? To develop a methodology to answer this question, we trained two dogs to remain motionless for the duration required to collect quality fMRI images by using positive reinforcement without sedation or physical restraints. The task was designed to determine which brain circuits differentially respond to human hand signals denoting the presence or absence of a food reward. Head motion within trials was less than 1 mm. Consistent with prior reinforcement learning literature, we observed caudate activation in both dogs in response to the hand signal denoting reward versus no-reward.

  2. Relationship of specific MRI findings to treatment outcomes in patients receiving transforaminal epidural steroid injections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lechmann, Marco; Rosskopf, Andrea; Ehrmann, Christine; Sutter, Reto; Pfirrmann, Christian W.A.; Peterson, Cynthia K. [University of Zuerich, Department of Radiology, Orthopaedic University Hospital Balgrist, Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2016-12-15

    To determine whether specific MRI findings are related to outcomes after lumbar transforaminal epidural steroid injections (TFESI) and to assess the inter-rater reliability of imaging diagnosis. A prospective outcomes study on 156 consecutive patients with 1-month follow-up outcomes data and MRI within 3 months of TFESI was conducted. Pain levels (numerical rating scale) (NRS) were recorded prior to injection. Overall 'improvement' was determined using the Patients Global Impression of Change (PGIC) scale and NRS data were collected at three time points post injection. Two radiologists independently evaluated all images blinded to treatment outcome for reliability of diagnosis. The Chi-square test compared MRI findings for the senior radiologist to 'improvement'. NRS change scores were compared to MRI findings with the unpaired t-test or ANOVA. Kappa and percent agreement assessed inter-rater agreement of diagnosis. The only abnormality linked to 'improvement' (p = 0.03) and higher NRS change scores (p = 0.0001) at 1 month was the disc herniation morphology 'protrusion + sequestration'. Patients with degeneration by osteophytes (p = 0.034), grade 3 foraminal nerve root compression (p = 0.01) and foraminal/extraforaminal location of herniation (p = 0.014) also had higher 1 month NRS change scores. Reliability of diagnosis was 'fair' to 'substantial' depending on MRI findings. Patients with disc protrusion plus sequestration were significantly more likely to report overall improvement and more pain reduction at 1 month. Higher pain reduction was noted in patients with degeneration by osteophytes, grade 3 foraminal nerve root compression, or foraminal/extraforaminal disc herniation location. (orig.)

  3. Negative predictive value of multiparametric MRI for prostate cancer detection: Outcome of 5-year follow-up in men with negative findings on initial MRI studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Itatani, R., E-mail: banguliao@gmail.com [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kumamoto University, 1-1-1, Honjo, Kumamoto 860-8556 (Japan); Department of Radiology, Kumamoto Chuo Hospital, 1-5-1, Tainoshima, Kumamoto 862-0965 (Japan); Namimoto, T. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kumamoto University, 1-1-1, Honjo, Kumamoto 860-8556 (Japan); Atsuji, S.; Katahira, K.; Morishita, S. [Department of Radiology, Kumamoto Chuo Hospital, 1-5-1, Tainoshima, Kumamoto 862-0965 (Japan); Kitani, K.; Hamada, Y. [Department of Urology, Kumamoto Chuo Hospital, 1-5-1, Tainoshima, Kumamoto 862-0965 (Japan); Kitaoka, M. [Department of Pathology, Kumamoto Chuo Hospital, 1-5-1, Tainoshima, Kumamoto 862-0965 (Japan); Nakaura, T. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Amakusa Medical Center, Kameba 854-1, Amakusa, Kumamoto 863-0046 (Japan); Yamashita, Y. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kumamoto University, 1-1-1, Honjo, Kumamoto 860-8556 (Japan)

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • We assess the negative predictive value of multiparametric MRI for prostate cancer. • Patients with positive prostate biopsy findings were defined as false-negative. • Patients with negative initial prostate biopsy findings were followed up for 5 years. • The negative predictive value was 89.6% for significant prostate cancer. • MRI is a useful tool to rule out significant prostate cancer before biopsy. - Abstract: Objective: To assess the clinical negative predictive value (NPV) of multiparametric MRI (mp-MRI) for prostate cancer in a 5-year follow-up. Materials and methods: One hundred ninety-three men suspected of harboring prostate cancer with negative MRI findings were included. Patients with positive transrectal ultrasound (TRUS)-guided biopsy findings were defined as false-negative. Patients with negative initial TRUS-guided biopsy findings were followed up and only patients with negative findings by digital rectal examination, MRI, and repeat biopsy and no increase in PSA at 5-year follow-up were defined as “clinically negative”. The clinical NPV of mp-MRI was calculated. For quantitative analysis, mean signal intensity on T2-weighted images and the mean apparent diffusion coefficient value on ADC maps of the initial MRI studies were compared between peripheral-zone (PZ) cancer and the normal PZ based on pathologic maps of patients who had undergone radical prostatectomy. Results: The clinical NPV of mp-MRI was 89.6% for significant prostate cancer. Small cancers, prostatitis, and benign prostatic hypertrophy masking prostate cancer returned false-negative results. Quantitative analysis showed that there was no significant difference between PZ cancer and the normal PZ. Conclusion: The mp-MRI revealed a high clinical NPV and is a useful tool to rule out clinically significant prostate cancer before biopsy.

  4. Would the field of cognitive neuroscience be advanced by sharing functional MRI data?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weissman Daniel H

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract During the past two decades, the advent of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI has fundamentally changed our understanding of brain-behavior relationships. However, the data from any one study add only incrementally to the big picture. This fact raises important questions about the dominant practice of performing studies in isolation. To what extent are the findings from any single study reproducible? Are researchers who lack the resources to conduct a fMRI study being needlessly excluded? Is pre-existing fMRI data being used effectively to train new students in the field? Here, we will argue that greater sharing and synthesis of raw fMRI data among researchers would make the answers to all of these questions more favorable to scientific discovery than they are today and that such sharing is an important next step for advancing the field of cognitive neuroscience.

  5. Emerging role of functional brain MRI in low-grade glioma surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friismose, Ancuta; Traise, Peter; Markovic, Ljubo

    Learning objectives 1. To describe the use of functional MRI (fMRI) in cranial surgery planning for patients with low-grade gliomas (LGG). 2. To show the increasing importance of fMRI in the clinical setting. Background LGG include brain tumors classified by the World Health Organization as grade I....... Language comprehension and visual tasks can be added to visualize Wernicke’s area or the visual cortex. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is used to map nerve tract course relative to the tumour. Conclusion FMRI has proven its clinical utility in locating eloquent brain areas with relation to tumor site...... be used to map eloquent cortex areas, thus minimizing postoperative deficits and improving surgical performance. Findings and procedure details Patients diagnosed with low-grade gliomas located in eloquent brain areas undergo fMRI prior to surgery. The exams are performed on a 3T MR system (Achieva TX...

  6. Structural and functional correlates of visual field asymmetry in the human brain by diffusion kurtosis MRI and functional MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connell, Caitlin; Ho, Leon C; Murphy, Matthew C; Conner, Ian P; Wollstein, Gadi; Cham, Rakie; Chan, Kevin C

    2016-11-09

    Human visual performance has been observed to show superiority in localized regions of the visual field across many classes of stimuli. However, the underlying neural mechanisms remain unclear. This study aims to determine whether the visual information processing in the human brain is dependent on the location of stimuli in the visual field and the corresponding neuroarchitecture using blood-oxygenation-level-dependent functional MRI (fMRI) and diffusion kurtosis MRI, respectively, in 15 healthy individuals at 3 T. In fMRI, visual stimulation to the lower hemifield showed stronger brain responses and larger brain activation volumes than the upper hemifield, indicative of the differential sensitivity of the human brain across the visual field. In diffusion kurtosis MRI, the brain regions mapping to the lower visual field showed higher mean kurtosis, but not fractional anisotropy or mean diffusivity compared with the upper visual field. These results suggested the different distributions of microstructural organization across visual field brain representations. There was also a strong positive relationship between diffusion kurtosis and fMRI responses in the lower field brain representations. In summary, this study suggested the structural and functional brain involvements in the asymmetry of visual field responses in humans, and is important to the neurophysiological and psychological understanding of human visual information processing.

  7. Cortical restricted diffusion as the predominant MRI finding in sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talbott, Sabrina D.; Sattenberg, Ronald J.; Heidenreich, Jens O. (Dept. of Radiology, Univ. of Louisville, Louisville (United States)), e-mail: sdtalb02@gwise.louisville.edu; Plato, Brian M (Dept. of Neurology, Univ. of Louisville, Louisville (United States)); Parker, John (Dept. of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Univ. of Louisville, Louisville (United States))

    2011-04-15

    Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease is a rare and fatal neurodegenerative disorder with MR findings predominantly limited to the grey matter of the cortex and the basal ganglia. Sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease can produce a spectrum of MR imaging findings of the brain, most notably on DWI and FLAIR sequences. Involvement of the basal ganglia and neocortex is the most common finding, but isolated involvement of the cortex can also be seen. We describe the clinical history and MRI findings of three patients with sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease confirmed by brain biopsy or autopsy and review the literature of imaging manifestations of this disease

  8. First report of MRI findings in a case of an autoamputated wandering calcified ovary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahajan PS

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Parag Suresh Mahajan, Nazeer Ahamad, Sheik Akbar Hussain Department of Radiology, Al-Khor Hospital, Hamad Medical Corporation, Doha, Qatar Abstract: An autoamputated wandering calcified ovary (AWCO is an extremely rare cause of abdominal calcification in the pediatric population. We present the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI features of AWCO in a child. To our knowledge, the MRI features of AWCO have not been previously described in the published literature. Our case report indicates that the MRI findings are characteristic in the diagnosis of an AWCO and can completely obviate the need for invasive procedures in this mostly benign disease. An AWCO should be considered in all cases of mobile calcific opacities on radiographs in female patients. We advise that MRI be conducted in all suspected cases of AWCO for accurate and noninvasive diagnosis, and regular follow-up should be performed with ultrasound. The findings in our case report have the potential to change the course of investigations and management in suspected cases. Keywords: magnetic resonance imaging, ovary, adnexa, autoamputation, wandering calcification

  9. CT and MRI findings of cerebral ischemic lesions in the cortical and perforating arterial system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kameyama, Masakuni; Udaka, Fukashi; Nishinaka, Kazuto; Kodama, Mitsuo; Urushidani, Makoto; Kawamura, Kazuyuki; Inoue, Haruhisa; Kageyama, Taku [Sumitomo Hospital, Osaka (Japan)

    1995-07-01

    It is clinically useful to divide the location of infarction into the cortical and perforating arterial system. Computerized tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) now make the point of infarction a simple and useful task in daily practice. The diagnostic modality has also demonstrated that risk factors and clinical manifestations are different for infarction in the cortical as opposed to the perforating system. In this paper, we present various aspects of images of cerebral ischemia according to CT and/or MRI findings. With the advance of imaging mechanics, diagnostic capability of CT or/and MRI for cerebral infarction has markedly been improved. We must consider these points on evaluating the previously reported results. In addition, we always consider the pathological background of these image-findings for the precise interpretation of their clinical significance. In some instances, dynamic study such as PET or SPECT is needed for real interpretations of CT and/or MRI images. We paid special reference to lacunar stroke and striatocapsular infarct. In addition, `branch atheromatous disease (Caplan)` was considered, in particular, for their specific clinical significances. Large striatocapsular infarcts frequently show cortical signs and symptoms such as aphasia or agnosia in spite of their subcortical localization. These facts, although have previously been known, should be re-considered for their pathoanatomical mechanism. (author).

  10. Prevalence of cartilaginous tumours as an incidental finding on MRI of the knee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stomp, Wouter; Reijnierse, Monique; Bloem, Johan L. [Leiden University Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Leiden (Netherlands); Kloppenburg, Margreet [Leiden University Medical Center, Department of Rheumatology, Leiden (Netherlands); Leiden University Medical Center, Department of Clinical Epidemiology, Leiden (Netherlands); Mutsert, Renee de; Heijer, Martin den [Leiden University Medical Center, Department of Clinical Epidemiology, Leiden (Netherlands); Bovee, Judith V.M.G. [Leiden University Medical Center, Department of Pathology, Leiden (Netherlands); Collaboration: NEO study group

    2015-12-15

    The purpose was to determine prevalence of enchondromas and atypical cartilaginous tumour/chondrosarcoma grade 1 (ACT/CS1) of the knee on MRI in a large cohort study, namely the Netherlands Epidemiology of Obesity (NEO) study. Participants aged 45 to 65 years were prospectively included, oversampling overweight and obese persons. Within a subgroup of participants, MRI of the right knee was performed and screened for incidental cartilaginous tumours, as defined by their characteristic location and appearance. Forty-nine cartilaginous tumours were observed in 44 out of 1285 participants (estimated population prevalence 2.8 %, 95 % CI 2.0-4.0 %). Mean largest tumour diameter was 12 mm (range 2-31 mm). Eight participants with a tumour larger than 20 mm or a tumour with aggressive features were referred to rule out low-grade chondrosarcoma. One was lost to follow-up, three had histologically proven ACT/CS1 and four had dynamic contrast MRI findings consistent with benign enchondroma. Incidental cartilaginous tumours were relatively common on knee MRI and may be regarded as a normal concurrent finding. However, more tumours than expected were ACT/CS1. Because further examination was performed only when suspicion of chondrosarcoma was high, the actual prevalence might be even higher. (orig.)

  11. Brain MRI findings in patients with mucopolysaccharidosis types I and II and mild clinical presentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matheus, M.Gisele; Castillo, Mauricio; Smith, J. Keith [Department of Radiology, University of North Carolina School of Medicine, 27599-7510, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); Armao, Diane [Department of Pathology, University of North Carolina School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); Towle, Diane; Muenzer, Joseph [Department of Genetics and Metabolism, University of North Carolina School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, NC (United States)

    2004-08-01

    Our objective was to determine the brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) abnormalities in a selected group of patients with mucopolysaccharidosis (MPS) types I and II who had only mild clinical manifestations. We retrospectively assessed MRI brain studies in 18 patients with MPS (type I: 6 and type II: 12). We evaluated abnormal signal intensity in the white matter, widening of the cortical sulci, size of the supratentorial ventricles, dilatation of the perivascular spaces (PVS) and enlargement of the subarachnoid spaces. We observed a broad spectrum of findings, and despite severely abnormal MRI studies, no patients had mental retardation. We also observed that dilated PVS, previously believed to be caused by macroscopic deposition of the mucopolysaccharides, had an appearance similar to cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in all MRI sequences performed, even in FLAIR and trace diffusion weighted images. Based on our results, we believe that with the exception of white matter abnormalities and brain atrophy, all other findings may be related to abnormal resorption of CSF, and there is no relationship between the imaging and clinical manifestations of the disease. (orig.)

  12. A retrospective review of pituitary MRI findings in children on growth hormone therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsai, Sarah L.; Lawrence, Sarah [University of Ottawa, Division of Endocrinology, Children' s Hospital of Eastern Ontario, Ottawa (Canada); Laffan, Eoghan [Children' s University Hospital, Pediatric Radiology, Dublin 1 (Ireland)

    2012-07-15

    Patients with congenital hypopituitarism might have the classic triad of pituitary stalk interruption syndrome, which consists of: (1) an interrupted or thin pituitary stalk, (2) an absent or ectopic posterior pituitary (EPP), and (3) anterior pituitary hypoplasia or aplasia. To examine the relationship between pituitary anatomy and the degree of hormonal dysfunction. This study involved a retrospective review of MRI findings in all children diagnosed with congenital growth hormone deficiency from 1988 to 2010 at a tertiary-level pediatric hospital. Of the 52 MRIs reviewed in 52 children, 26 children had normal pituitary anatomy and 26 had one or more elements of the classic triad. Fourteen of fifteen children with multiple pituitary hormone deficiencies had structural anomalies on MRI. Twelve of 37 children with isolated growth hormone deficiency had an abnormal MRI. Children with multiple pituitary hormone deficiencies were more likely to have the classic triad than children with isolated growth hormone deficiency. A normal MRI was the most common finding in children with isolated growth hormone deficiency. (orig.)

  13. Enhanced Thalamic Functional Connectivity with No fMRI Responses to Affected Forelimb Stimulation in Stroke-Recovered Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Woo H.; Suh, Ji-Yeon; Kim, Jeong K.; Jeong, Jaeseung; Kim, Young R.

    2017-01-01

    Neurological recovery after stroke has been extensively investigated to provide better understanding of neurobiological mechanism, therapy, and patient management. Recent advances in neuroimaging techniques, particularly functional MRI (fMRI), have widely contributed to unravel the relationship between the altered neural function and stroke-affected brain areas. As results of previous investigations, the plastic reorganization and/or gradual restoration of the hemodynamic fMRI responses to neural stimuli have been suggested as relevant mechanisms underlying the stroke recovery process. However, divergent study results and modality-dependent outcomes have clouded the proper interpretation of variable fMRI signals. Here, we performed both evoked and resting state fMRI (rs-fMRI) to clarify the link between the fMRI phenotypes and post-stroke functional recovery. The experiments were designed to examine the altered neural activity within the contra-lesional hemisphere and other undamaged brain regions using rat models with large unilateral stroke, which despite the severe injury, exhibited nearly full recovery at ∼6 months after stroke. Surprisingly, both blood oxygenation level-dependent and blood volume-weighted (CBVw) fMRI activities elicited by electrical stimulation of the stroke-affected forelimb were completely absent, failing to reveal the neural origin of the behavioral recovery. In contrast, the functional connectivity maps showed highly robust rs-fMRI activity concentrated in the contra-lesional ventromedial nucleus of thalamus (VM). The negative finding in the stimuli-induced fMRI study using the popular rat middle cerebral artery model denotes weak association between the fMRI hemodynamic responses and neurological improvement. The results strongly caution the indiscreet interpretation of stroke-affected fMRI signals and demonstrate rs-fMRI as a complementary tool for efficiently characterizing stroke recovery. PMID:28119575

  14. Post-mortem forensic neuroimaging: correlation of MSCT and MRI findings with autopsy results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Kathrin; Lövblad, Karl-Olof; Scheurer, Eva; Ozdoba, Christoph; Thali, Michael J; Aghayev, Emin; Jackowski, Christian; Anon, Javier; Frickey, Nathalie; Zwygart, Karin; Weis, Joachim; Dirnhofer, Richard

    2007-11-15

    Multislice-computed tomography (MSCT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are increasingly used for forensic purposes. Based on broad experience in clinical neuroimaging, post-mortem MSCT and MRI were performed in 57 forensic cases with the goal to evaluate the radiological methods concerning their usability for forensic head and brain examination. An experienced clinical radiologist evaluated the imaging data. The results were compared to the autopsy findings that served as the gold standard with regard to common forensic neurotrauma findings such as skull fractures, soft tissue lesions of the scalp, various forms of intracranial hemorrhage or signs of increased brain pressure. The sensitivity of the imaging methods ranged from 100% (e.g., heat-induced alterations, intracranial gas) to zero (e.g., mediobasal impression marks as a sign of increased brain pressure, plaques jaunes). The agreement between MRI and CT was 69%. The radiological methods prevalently failed in the detection of lesions smaller than 3mm of size, whereas they were generally satisfactory concerning the evaluation of intracranial hemorrhage. Due to its advanced 2D and 3D post-processing possibilities, CT in particular possessed certain advantages in comparison with autopsy with regard to forensic reconstruction. MRI showed forensically relevant findings not seen during autopsy in several cases. The partly limited sensitivity of imaging that was observed in this retrospective study was based on several factors: besides general technical limitations it became apparent that clinical radiologists require a sound basic forensic background in order to detect specific signs. Focused teaching sessions will be essential to improve the outcome in future examinations. On the other hand, the autopsy protocols should be further standardized to allow an exact comparison of imaging and autopsy data. In consideration of these facts, MRI and CT have the power to play an important role in future forensic

  15. Trigeminal nerve deficit in large and compressive acoustic neuromas and its correlation with MRI findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karkas, Alexandre; Lamblin, Eléa; Meyer, Mikael; Gay, Emmanuel; Ternier, Jessica; Schmerber, Sébastien

    2014-10-01

    Evaluate the prevalence of preoperative trigeminal nerve deficit in large/compressive acoustic neuromas and try to find a correlation between pre/postoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings and pre/postoperative trigeminal nerve deficit. Case series with chart review. University medical center. Retrospective study (1994-2009) including patients with stage 4 or 5 acoustic neuromas (Zini-Magnan classification). All patients underwent surgical resection. Pre- and postoperative trigeminal symptoms were sought. Imaging criteria were sought on pre- and 3-month postoperative MRI scans. Pearson χ(2) statistical test was used. Fifty-three patients (27 females, mean 51 years) were operated on. Preoperatively, 3 patients (5.7%) had trigeminal neuralgia, 1 (1.9%) trigeminal anesthesia, and 28 (52.8%) trigeminal hypoesthesia. Sixteen patients (30.2%) had no corneal reflex (ophthalmic branch); keratitis occurred in 1 patient (1.9%). Postoperatively, 2 patients (3.8%) had trigeminal neuralgia, 1 (1.9%) trigeminal anesthesia, and 24 (45.3%) trigeminal hypoesthesia. Twenty-six patients (49%) had no corneal reflex; keratitis occurred in 11 patients (20.7%). Preoperative trigeminal hypoesthesia was statistically correlated with impaction of the tumor on cerebellar peduncles on preoperative MRI. Postoperative trigeminal hypoesthesia was statistically correlated with nonvisibility of the trigeminal nerve on postoperative MRI. In large/compressive acoustic neuromas, trigeminal nerve deficit has to be sought to avoid corneal complications in particular. Trigeminal hypoesthesia occurs preoperatively in about half of the cases. It remains relatively stable after tumor removal, but there appears to be an increased rate of absent corneal reflex and keratitis postoperatively. We were able to correlate pre/postoperative trigeminal hypoesthesia with pre/postoperative MRI findings. © American Academy of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery Foundation 2014.

  16. Biphosphonate-induced osteonecrosis of the jaws: CT and MRI spectrum of findings in 32 patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bisdas, S. [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Johann Wolfgang GoeUniversity Hospital, Frankfurt (Germany)], E-mail: sbisdas@yahoo.com; Chambron Pinho, N.; Smolarz, A.; Sader, R. [Department of Dentomaxillofacial and Plastic Surgery, Johann Wolfgang GoeUniversity Hospital, Frankfurt (Germany); Vogl, T.J.; Mack, M.G. [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Johann Wolfgang GoeUniversity Hospital, Frankfurt (Germany)

    2008-01-15

    Aim: To evaluate the computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of biphosphonate therapy-associated changes of the mandible and maxilla. Materials and Methods: Thirty-two patients with a clinical history of pain, purulent discharge, and swelling in the mandible or maxilla as well as non-healing dental extraction were examined. All patients had received biphosphonate medication for approximately 33 months. Non-contrast enhanced CT and contrast-enhanced MRI were performed and, subsequently, all patients underwent a surgical removal of the affected bone, the histological diagnosis of which confirmed osteonecrosis. The images were read by two head and neck radiologists in consensus. Results: Osteonecrosis with Actinomyces infection was identified in the mandible of 18 patients, in the maxilla of eight patients, and in both jaws in six patients. The CT images showed predominantly osteolytic lesions and sclerotic regions in the jaws with or without periostal bone proliferation. There was a reduction of the marrow space in the jaws. The T1-weighted MRI signal was hypointense in nearly all cases. The gadolinium-enhanced MRI images revealed intensity changes of the cortical and subcortical bone structures in all patients. The T2-weighted MRI signal was hypointense on the affected side in the majority of the cases (28/32). Pathological gadolinium enhancement was observed in the neighbouring soft tissues, including the masticator space in all patients. Reactive lymphadenopathy was found in all patients in submental and jugulodigastric areas. Conclusion: Biphosphonate-induced osteonecrosis of the jaws presents a wide variety of CT and MRI features that are readily recognized and help to determine the extent of the disease; however, they are not specific for the disease.

  17. Cornelia de Lange syndrome: Correlation of brain MRI findings with behavioral assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roshan Lal, Tamanna R; Kliewer, Mark A; Lopes, Thelma; Rebsamen, Susan L; O'Connor, Julia; Grados, Marco A; Kimball, Amy; Clemens, Julia; Kline, Antonie D

    2016-06-01

    Neurobehavioral and developmental issues with a broad range of deficits are prominent features of Cornelia de Lange syndrome (CdLS), a disorder due to disruption of the cohesin protein complex. The etiologic relationship of these clinical findings to anatomic abnormalities on neuro-imaging studies has not, however, been established. Anatomic abnormalities in the brain and central nervous system specific to CdLS have been observed, including changes in the white matter, brainstem, and cerebellum. We hypothesize that location and severity of brain abnormalities correlate with clinical phenotype in CdLS, as seen in other developmental disorders. In this study, we retrospectively evaluated brain MRI studies of 15 individuals with CdLS and compared these findings to behavior at the time of the scan. Behavior was assessed using the Aberrant Behavior Checklist (ABC), a validated behavioral assessment tool with several clinical features. Ten of fifteen (67%) of CdLS patients had abnormal findings on brain MRI, including cerebral atrophy, white matter changes, cerebellar hypoplasia, and enlarged ventricles. Other findings included pituitary tumors or cysts, Chiari I malformation and gliosis. Abnormal behavioral scores in more than one behavioral area were seen in all but one patient. All 5 of the 15 (33%) patients with normal structural MRI studies had abnormal ABC scores. All normal ABC scores were noted in only one patient and this was correlated with moderately abnormal MRI changes. Although our cohort is small, our results suggest that abnormal behaviors can exist in individuals with CdLS in the setting of relatively normal structural brain findings. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Do positive MRI findings in the lumbar spine predict future seeking care for low back pain in young teenagers?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Per; Leboeuf-Yde, Charlotte; Korsholm, Lars

    in girls. However, multiple testing increases the probability of chance findings. Conclusion: Some positive MRI findings seem to predict future seeking care for LBP. However, when interpreting lumbar spine MRI from young teenagers in a clinical setting, gender variations and the lumbar level...

  19. Neurolymphomatosis on F 18 FDG PET/CT and MRI Findings: A Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Chae Moon; Lee, Sang Woo; Lee, Hong Je; Song, Bong Il; Kim, Hae Won; Kang, Sungmin; Jeong, Shin Young; Ahn, Byeong Cheol; Lee, Jaetae; Chae, Yee Soo [Kyungpook National Univ. Hospital, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-03-15

    Neurolymphomatosis is a rare manifestation of malignant lymphoma. A 74 year old man, in complete remission from diffuse large B cell lymphoma, presented with a loss of pain and temperature sensation in the left hemiface and left upper extremity, and motor weakness in the left upper and both lower extremities. Cerebrospinal fluid analysis and brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings were negative. Combined fluorine 18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (FDG PET/CT) revealed multiple linear hypermetabolic lesions along the mandibular branch of the left trigeminal nerve, left brachial plexus, right adrenal gland, right femoral nerve, and both sciatic nerves, which corresponded to the patient's complex neurologic symptoms. C spine and pelvic MRI revealed diffuse thickening with enhancement in the left sciatic nerve, but negative findings for other sites identified by FDG PET/CT. These findings for other sites identified by FDG PET/CT. These findings suggest that FDG PET/CT can detect peripheral nerve infiltration by malignant lymphoma earlier than MRI. Thus, if a patient with a history of lymphoma presents with neurologic symptoms, FDG PET/CT should be performed to evaluate neurolymphomatosis.

  20. Case of dentato-rubro-pallido-luysian atrophy. MRI findings and disturbance of ocular movement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Usui, Sadanari; Komiya, Tadatoshi

    1988-06-01

    A clinical case of dentato-rubro-pallido-luysian atrophy (DRPLA) was reported. We established several aspects on the basis of MRI findings and a neuro-otological study. A 47-year-old woman had gait disturbance, involuntary movements, speech disturbance, and memory disturbance at the age of 42. She was admitted to the hospital because of worsening of the gait disturbance. Neurological examinations showed choreo-athetosis of the face, neck and upper extremities, mental disturbance, and scanning speech. However, she had neither ocular disturbance nor epilepsy or myoclonus. On the MRI-CT, an atrophy of midbrain and pontine tegmentum was observed. The neuro-otological study showed gaze nystagmus at the horizontal gaze, rebound nystagmus, hypometria of the saccade, saccadic pursuit, reduction of the optokinetic nystagmus, and increase in caloric nystagmus by means of visual input. A severe atrophy of the brainstem tegmentum and a mild atrophy of the cerebellar hemisphere and cerebral cortex are regarded as neuro-radiological features of DRPLA. Moreover, tegmental atrophy is related to ocular disturbance as a clinical feature. Various neuro-otological findings reveal many systems of ocular movements, i.e., a smooth pursuit system, a saccade system, and a vestibulo-ocular reflex system, involving flocculus. DRPLA can be clinically diagnosed by means of clinical features, MRI findings, and neuro-otological findings. A variety of neuro-otological abnormalities may indicate a progression of the ocular disturbance and a variety of lesions.

  1. Functional MRI of music emotion processing in frontotemporal dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agustus, Jennifer L; Mahoney, Colin J; Downey, Laura E; Omar, Rohani; Cohen, Miriam; White, Mark J; Scott, Sophie K; Mancini, Laura; Warren, Jason D

    2015-03-01

    Frontotemporal dementia is an important neurodegenerative disorder of younger life led by profound emotional and social dysfunction. Here we used fMRI to assess brain mechanisms of music emotion processing in a cohort of patients with frontotemporal dementia (n = 15) in relation to healthy age-matched individuals (n = 11). In a passive-listening paradigm, we manipulated levels of emotion processing in simple arpeggio chords (mode versus dissonance) and emotion modality (music versus human emotional vocalizations). A complex profile of disease-associated functional alterations was identified with separable signatures of musical mode, emotion level, and emotion modality within a common, distributed brain network, including posterior and anterior superior temporal and inferior frontal cortices and dorsal brainstem effector nuclei. Separable functional signatures were identified post-hoc in patients with and without abnormal craving for music (musicophilia): a model for specific abnormal emotional behaviors in frontotemporal dementia. Our findings indicate the potential of music to delineate neural mechanisms of altered emotion processing in dementias, with implications for future disease tracking and therapeutic strategies.

  2. Comparison of MRI findings with clinical symptoms in temporomandibular joint internal derangement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Ki Jeong [Chonbuk National University College of Medicine, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-06-15

    To determine the clinical correlation of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of temporomandibular joint internal derangements. The MR images of 150 TMJs in 75 patients were analyzed. The clinical symptoms were pain in the pre auricular area and masticatory muscles and TMJ sounds. There was a statistically significant relationship between the MRI diagnoses of different types of disc displacements and clinical findings of pain, clicking, and crepitus. The risk of TMJ pain was increased when the disc displacement without reduction occurred at the same time in combination with the osteoarthrosis and effusion. Regardless of the results, the data indicate that each of these MR imaging variables may not be regarded as the unique and dominant factor in defining TMJ pain occurrence.

  3. MRI findings of the subacute combined degeneration of the spinal cord : a case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Joo Chang; Cha, Sang Hoon; Lee, Sang Soo; Hun, Bae Il; Han, Gi Seok; Kim, Sung Jin; Park, Kil Sun [College of Medicine and Medical Research Institute, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-05-01

    Subacute combined degeneration (SCD) of the spinal cord is a neurological complication arising from vitamin B{sub 12} deficiency. Typical findings are demyelination and axonal loss of the posterior and lateral columns of the thoracic and cervical spinal cord, leading to sensory ataxia and paresthesia. Clinical and neurological features and MRI findings all contribute to the diagnosis of this entity. In the Korean medical literature, only one case of of SCD involving pre-treatment MRI has been reported. We describe one case of SCD in a post-gastrectomy patient who initially presented with progressive sensory abnormality in both upper and lower extremities and showed T2 hyperintensity in the posterior and lateral columns of the spinal cord; this diminished, with clinical improvement, after vitamin B12 therapy. Our report includes the MR images obtained during follow up. (author)

  4. Serial MRI findings of osteoporotic vertebral fractures in the thoracic and lumbar spine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamada, Yoshitaka; Henmi, Tatsuhiko; Sakamoto, Rintaro; Hiasa, Masahiko [Health Insurance Naruto Hospital, Tokushima (Japan)

    1998-12-01

    The prognosis of osteoporotic vertebral fractures in the thoracic and lumbar spine was studied by serial MRI findings. This study covered 80 vertebrae in 69 patients treated conservatively and followed-up for more than six months (23 males and 46 females, average age 70 yrs). Group A, characterized by poor diagnostic imaging, consisted of patients who had both severely collapsed vertebra which was progressive in the lateral roentgenogram and delayed improvement in MRI signal intensities. Group B, consisting of poor clinical prognosis, comprised patients with persistent back pain. The predictive factors for Group A were found to be T{sub 1}-low finding over the entire vertebra within one month after injury and fractures of Th{sub 12} or L{sub 1} vertebra. Areas of T{sub 1}-low and T{sub 2}-low intensity adjacent to the vertebral disc presented no improvement in signal intensity and often caused persistent back pain. (author)

  5. Adaptive cyclic physiologic noise modeling and correction in functional MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beall, Erik B

    2010-03-30

    Physiologic noise in BOLD-weighted MRI data is known to be a significant source of the variance, reducing the statistical power and specificity in fMRI and functional connectivity analyses. We show a dramatic improvement on current noise correction methods in both fMRI and fcMRI data that avoids overfitting. The traditional noise model is a Fourier series expansion superimposed on the periodicity of parallel measured breathing and cardiac cycles. Correction using this model results in removal of variance matching the periodicity of the physiologic cycles. Using this framework allows easy modeling of noise. However, using a large number of regressors comes at the cost of removing variance unrelated to physiologic noise, such as variance due to the signal of functional interest (overfitting the data). It is our hypothesis that there are a small variety of fits that describe all of the significantly coupled physiologic noise. If this is true, we can replace a large number of regressors used in the model with a smaller number of the fitted regressors and thereby account for the noise sources with a smaller reduction in variance of interest. We describe these extensions and demonstrate that we can preserve variance in the data unrelated to physiologic noise while removing physiologic noise equivalently, resulting in data with a higher effective SNR than with current corrections techniques. Our results demonstrate a significant improvement in the sensitivity of fMRI (up to a 17% increase in activation volume for fMRI compared with higher order traditional noise correction) and functional connectivity analyses.

  6. Imaging brain neuronal activity using functionalized magnetonanoparticles and MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhtari, Massoud; Bragin, Anatol; Moats, Rex; Frew, Andrew; Mandelkern, Mark

    2012-10-01

    This study explored the use of non-radioactive 2-deoxy glucose (2DG)-labeled magnetonanoparticles (MNP) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to detect functional activity during rest, peripheral stimulation, and epileptic seizures, in animal models. Non-radioactive 2DG was covalently attached to magnetonanoparticles composed of iron oxide and dextran and intravenous (tail) injections were performed. 2DG-MNP was injected in resting and stimulated naïve rodents and the subsequent MRI was compared to published (14)C-2DG autoradiography data. Reproducibility and statistical significance was established in one studied model. Negative contrast enhancement (NCE) in acute seizures and chronic models of epilepsy were investigated. MRI NCE due to 2DG-MNP particles was compared to that of plain (unconjugated) MNP in one animal. NCE due to 2DG-MNP particles at 3 T, which is approved for human use, was also investigated. Histology showed presence of MNP (following intravenous injection) in the brain tissues of resting naïve animal. 2DG-MNP intraparenchymal uptake was visible on MRI and histology. The locations of NCE agreed with published results of 2DG autoradiography in resting and stimulated animals and epileptic rats. Localization of epileptogenicity was confirmed by subsequent depth-electrode EEG (iEEG). Non-radioactive 2DG-MNP can cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and may accurately localize areas of increased activity. Although, this proof-of-principle study involves only a limited number of animals, and much more research and quantification are necessary to demonstrate that 2DG-MNP, or MNPs conjugated with other ligands, could eventually be used to image localized cerebral function with MRI in humans, this MNP-MRI approach is potentially applicable to the use of many bioactive molecules as ligands for imaging normal and abnormal localized cerebral functions.

  7. An Introduction to Normalization and Calibration Methods in Functional MRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Thomas T.; Glover, Gary H.; Mueller, Bryon A.; Greve, Douglas N.; Brown, Gregory G.

    2013-01-01

    In functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), the blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) signal is often interpreted as a measure of neural activity. However, because the BOLD signal reflects the complex interplay of neural, vascular, and metabolic processes, such an interpretation is not always valid. There is growing evidence that changes…

  8. Functional MRI of human hypothalamic responses following glucose ingestion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smeets, P.A.M.; Graaf, C. de; Stafleu, A.; Osch, M.J.P. van; Grond, J. van der

    2005-01-01

    The hypothalamus is intimately involved in the regulation of food intake, integrating multiple neural and hormonal signals. Several hypothalamic nuclei contain glucose-sensitive neurons, which play a crucial role in energy homeostasis. Although a few functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) stud

  9. CT, MRI, and FDG PET/CT findings of sinonasal sarcoma: Differentiation from squamous cell carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jin Ho; Yoon, Dae Young; Baek, Sora; Park, Min Woo; Kwon, Kee Hwan; Rho, Young Soo [Kangdong Sacred Heart Hospital, Hallym University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-07-15

    To evaluate computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography/CT (PET/CT) findings for the differentiation of sinonasal sarcoma from squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). We retrospectively reviewed CT, MRI, and FDG PET/CT results in 20 patients with pathologically proven sinonasal sarcoma (n = 7) and SCC (n = 13). Imaging characteristics of tumors, such as the shape, size, margin, MRI signal intensity, pattern of enhancement, local tumor invasion, and maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) were analyzed and compared between sarcoma and SCC. The SUVmax of sarcomas (7.4 ± 2.1) was significantly lower than the SUVmax of the SCCs (14.3 ± 4.5) (p = 0.0013). However, no significant difference in the shape, size, margin, MRI signal intensity, pattern of enhancement, and local tumor invasion was observed between sarcoma and SCC. Although CT and MR imaging features are nonspecific, FDG PET/CT is useful in distinguishing between sinonasal sarcoma and SCC based on the SUVmax value.

  10. Review of MRI technique and imaging findings in athletic pubalgia and the "sports hernia".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullens, Frank E; Zoga, Adam C; Morrison, William B; Meyers, William C

    2012-12-01

    The clinical syndrome of athletic pubalgia has prematurely ended many promising athletic careers, has made many active, fitness conscious adults more sedentary, and has served as a diagnostic and therapeutic conundrum for innumerable trainers and physicians worldwide for decades. This diagnosis actually arises from one or more lesions within a spectrum of musculoskeletal and visceral injuries. In recent years, MRI has helped define many of these syndromes, and has proven to be both sensitive and specific for numerous potential causes of athletic pubalgia. This text will provide a comprehensive, up to date review of expected and sometimes unexpected MRI findings in the setting of athletic pubalgia, and will delineate an imaging algorithm and MRI protocol to help guide radiologists and other clinicians dealing with refractory, activity related groin pain in an otherwise young, healthy patient. There is still more to be learned about prevention and treatment plans for athletic pubalgia lesions, but accurate diagnosis should be much less nebulous and difficult with the use of MRI as a primary imaging modality.

  11. MRI findings and spreading patterns of necrotizing external otitis: Is a poor outcome predictable?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, B.J. [Department of Radiology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Han, M.H. [Department of Radiology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of) and Clinical Research Institute, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of) and Institute of Radiation Medicine, Seoul National University Medical Research Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)]. E-mail: hanmh@radcom.snu.ac.kr; Oh, S.H. [Department of Otorhinolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Song, J.J. [Department of Otorhinolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Chang, K.-H. [Department of Radiology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Clinical Research Institute, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Institute of Radiation Medicine, Seoul National University Medical Research Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-06-15

    AIM: To evaluate spreading patterns of necrotizing external otitis (NEO) by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and to identify spreading patterns related to a poor outcome. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fourteen patients with NEO were divided into good and poor outcome groups according to their final clinical outcomes. Initial MRI images were retrospectively reviewed for regional abnormalities, and follow-up MRI images were reviewed for ICA flow void abnormality and for the following five spreading patterns: medial, crossed, anterior, intracranial, and combined. The frequencies of the abnormal flow void or spreading patterns were compared between the good and poor response groups. RESULTS: Seven (50%) and seven (50%) patients were respectively allocated to the good and poor outcome groups. Retrocondylar fat infiltration was the most commonest finding on initial MRI images (93%). The frequencies of the abnormal flow void and spreading patterns in the good and poor groups, respectively, were: abnormal flow void, 0 and four (57%); anterior, two (29%) and three (43%); medial, six (86%) and seven (100%); crossed, six (86%) and seven (100%); intracranial middle cranial fossa, one (14%) and four (57%); intracranial posterior cranial fossa, four (57%) and six (86%); intracranial foramen magnum, one (14%) and six (86%). CONCLUSIONS: NEO almost always involves the retrocondylar fat and spreads via various pathways to extracranial or intracranial spaces. The presence of an abnormal flow void and intracranial dural enhancement, particularly in the middle cranial fossa and foramen magnum, may indicate a poor prognosis.

  12. Correlation of MRI findings to histology of acetaminophen toxicity in the mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Aliza T; Ou, Xiawei; James, Laura P; Jambhekar, Kedar; Pandey, Tarun; McCullough, Sandra; Chaudhuri, Shubhra; Borrelli, Michael J

    2012-02-01

    Acetaminophen (APAP) toxicity is responsible for approximately half of all cases of acute liver failure in the United States. The mouse model of APAP toxicity is widely used to examine mechanisms of APAP toxicity. Noninvasive approaches would allow for serial measurements in a single animal to study the effects of experimental interventions on the development and resolution of hepatocellular necrosis. The following study examined the time course of hepatic necrosis using small animal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) following the administration of 200 mg/kg ip APAP given to B6C3F1 male mice. Mice treated with saline served as controls (CON). Other mice received treatment with the clinical antidote N-acetylcysteine (APAP+NAC). Mouse liver pathology was characterized using T1- and T2-weighted sequences at 2, 4, 8 and 24 h following APAP administration. Standard assays for APAP toxicity [serum alanine aminotransaminase (ALT) levels and hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining of liver sections] were examined relative to MRI findings. Overall, T2 sequences had a greater sensitivity for necrosis and hemorrhage than T1 (FLASH) images. Liver injury severity scoring of MR images demonstrated increased scores in the APAP mice at 4, 8 and 24 h compared to the CON mice. APAP+NAC mice had MRI scores similar to the CON mice. Semiquantitative analysis of hepatic hemorrhage strongly correlated with serum ALT. Small animal MRI can be used to monitor the evolution of APAP toxicity over time and to evaluate the response to therapy.

  13. Review of MRI Technique and imaging findings in athletic pubalgia and the “sports hernia”

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mullens, Frank E. [Department of Radiology, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Zoga, Adam C., E-mail: Adam.zoga@jefferson.edu [Department of Radiology, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Morrison, William B. [Department of Radiology, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Meyers, William C. [Chairman of Surgery, Drexel University College of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2012-12-15

    The clinical syndrome of athletic pubalgia has prematurely ended many promising athletic careers, has made many active, fitness conscious adults more sedentary, and has served as a diagnostic and therapeutic conundrum for innumerable trainers and physicians worldwide for decades. This diagnosis actually arises from one or more lesions within a spectrum of musculoskeletal and visceral injuries. In recent years, MRI has helped define many of these syndromes, and has proven to be both sensitive and specific for numerous potential causes of athletic pubalgia. This text will provide a comprehensive, up to date review of expected and sometimes unexpected MRI findings in the setting of athletic pubalgia, and will delineate an imaging algorithm and MRI protocol to help guide radiologists and other clinicians dealing with refractory, activity related groin pain in an otherwise young, healthy patient. There is still more to be learned about prevention and treatment plans for athletic pubalgia lesions, but accurate diagnosis should be much less nebulous and difficult with the use of MRI as a primary imaging modality.

  14. CLIPPERS-like MRI findings in a patient with multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, R M; Machado, G; Souza, A S; Lin, K; Corrêa-Neto, Y

    2013-04-15

    Chronic lymphocytic inflammation with pontine perivascular enhancement responsive to steroids (CLIPPERS) has been described as a clinically and radiologically distinct pontine-predominant encephalomyelitis with a favorable response to high dose corticosteroids and usually requiring chronic immunosuppresive therapy. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) reveals a characteristic pattern of punctate and curvilinear enhancement lesions in the pons extending variably to surrounding areas. We herein describe such imaging findings in a patient with a definite diagnosis of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (MS).

  15. MRI and US findings of subcutaneous fat necrosis of the newborn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasireddy, Syam; Long, Scott D. [Southern Illinois University, Department of Radiology, Springfield, IL (United States); St. John' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Springfield, IL (United States); Sacheti, Bhavna [Medical College of Wisconsin, Department of Pediatric Critical Care, Milwaukee, WI (United States); Children' s Hospital Wisconsin, Department of Critical Care, Milwaukee, WI (United States); Mayforth, Ruth D. [Southern Illinois University, Department of Surgery, Springfield, IL (United States); St. John' s Hospital, Department of Surgery, Springfield, IL (United States)

    2009-01-15

    Subcutaneous fat necrosis of the newborn (SCFN) is an uncommon, benign disorder found in full-term or post-mature neonates. It usually presents in neonates who have experienced perinatal difficulty such as asphyxia, peripheral hypoxemia, hypothermia, meconium aspiration or trauma. We present a newborn with abnormal findings on MRI and US within the axilla, neck, and abdominal walls that were pathologically proved via biopsy to be subcutaneous fat necrosis. (orig.)

  16. Recent developments in multivariate pattern analysis for functional MRI

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi Yang; Fang Fang; Xuchu Weng

    2012-01-01

    Multivariate pattern analysis (MVPA) is a recently-developed approach for functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data analyses.Compared with the traditional univariate methods,MVPA is more sensitive to subtle changes in multivariate patterns in fMRI data.In this review,we introduce several significant advances in MVPA applications and summarize various combinations of algorithms and parameters in different problem settings.The limitations of MVPA and some critical questions that need to be addressed in future research are also discussed.

  17. Modified Classification of MRI Findings to Predict Histologic Grading of Liposarcomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, Tae Yong; Lee, In Sook; Hwang, In Kyung; Choi, Yoon Young [Pusan National University Yangsan Hospital, Yangsan (Korea, Republic of); Yang, Ik [Hallym University Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sun Joo [Inje University Paik Hospital, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-04-15

    To predict the histopathologic grading of liposarcomas with the modified classification of MRI findings. The 47 MRI studies of pathologically confirmed liposarcomas were retrospectively analyzed, and found to have well-differentiated (n=17) and myxoid (n=16) types, representing the 'low grade' sarcomas, as well as the round cell (n=9) and pleomorphic (n=5) types, which represent the 'high grade' sarcomas. The MRI findings of liposarcomas were classified into four groups as the one with fat signal above 80%, 20-80%, below 20%, and no fat signal on T1-weighted images (WIs), into three groups as the one with high signals with reticular or irregular lines, homogeneous above 50% of the area, and heterogeneous above 50% on the T2WIs, and into three groups as the one enhanced with reticular or irregular lines and enhancement areas above 50% and below 50% on the Gd-DTPA T1WIs. The sarcomas with a lower amount of fat signals on T1WIs had a significantly higher histologic grade (p = 0.026) and also showed heterogeneous high signals above 50% on the T2WIs was statistically significant difference (p =0.010) but not on the contrast enhanced T1WIs (p = 0.070). The modified classification of the MR findings could help predict the histologic grading of liposarcomas

  18. Assignment Confidence in Localization of the Hand Motor Cortex: Comparison of Structural Imaging With Functional MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, Neslin; Mohan, Suyash; Maralani, Pejman J; Duddukuri, Srikalyan; O'Rourke, Donald M; Melhem, Elias R; Wolf, Ronald L

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to assign confidence levels to structural MRI and functional MRI (fMRI) for localization of the primary motor cortex. Ninety-one fMRI studies with at least one motor task (178 hemispheres) were identified. Three anatomic assessments were used to localize the primary motor cortex: relation between the superior frontal sulcus and precentral sulcus; cortical thickness; and configuration of the precentral knob. In 105 hemispheres, interreader agreement was assessed for two investigators with different experience levels. Confidence ratings from 0 to 5 (0, no confidence; 5, 100% confidence) were assigned for fMRI and each anatomic localization method. Cortical thickness had the highest confidence rating (mean, 4.90 ± 0.47 [SD]) with only one failure. The relation between the superior frontal sulcus and precentral sulcus had the lowest confidence rating (4.33 ± 0.91) with three failures. The greatest statistical significance was observed for the cortical thickness and superior frontal sulcus-precentral sulcus methods (post hoc Bonferroni test, p Confidence rating scores were significantly higher for the cortical thickness sign than for fMRI results (4.72 ± 0.54) for a single motor task (post hoc Bonferroni test, p = 0.006); however, the mean confidence rating for fMRI improved to 4.87 ± 0.36 when additional motor tasks were performed. Interreader differences were least for the cortical thickness sign (paired t test, t = 4.25, p confidence regarding localization of the primary motor cortex; however, localization of motor function is more specific when combined with fMRI findings. Multiple techniques can be used to increase confidence in identifying the hand motor cortex.

  19. Joint Compression-Segmentation of functional MRI Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, N.; Wu, Mo; Forchhammer, Søren

    2005-01-01

    Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) data sets are four dimensional (4D) and very large in size. Compression can enhance system performance in terms of storage and transmission capacities. Two approaches are investigated: adaptive DPCM and integer wavelets. In the DPCM approach, each voxel...... information. Each voxel time sequence is DPCM coded using a quantized autoregressive model. The prediction residuals are coded by simple Rice coding for high decoder throughput. In the wavelet approach, the 4D fMRI data set is mapped to a 3D data set, with the 3D volume at each time instance being laid out...... into a 2D plane as a slice mosaic. 3D integer wavelet packets are used for lossless compression of fMRI data. The wavelet coefficients are compressed by 3D context-based adaptive arithmetic coding. An object-oriented compression mode is also introduced in the wavelet codec. An elliptic mask combined...

  20. The future of functional MRI in clinical medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullmore, Ed

    2012-08-15

    In the last 20 years or so, functional MRI has matured very rapidly from being an experimental imaging method in the hands of a few labs to being a very widely available and widely used workhorse of cognitive neuroscience and clinical neuroscience research internationally. FMRI studies have had a considerable impact on our understanding of brain system phenotypes of neurological and psychiatric disorders; and some impact already on development of new therapeutics. However, the direct benefit of fMRI to individual patients with brain disorders has so far been minimal. Here I provide a personal perspective on what has already been achieved, and imagine how the further development of fMRI over the medium term might lead to even greater engagement with clinical medicine.

  1. Dynamic enhanced MRI of the subacromial bursa: correlation with arthroscopic and histological findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuzaki, S. [Dept. of Radiology, Osaka Kosei-nenkin Hospital (Japan); Yoneda, M. [Shoulder and Sports Medicine Service, Osaka Kosei-nenkin Hospital, Osaka City, Osaka (Japan); Kobayashi, Y. [Dept. of Pathology, Osaka Kosei-nenkin Hospital (Japan); Fukushima, S. [Dept. of Orthopaedic Surgery, Sapporo Tokeidai Hospital, Osaka (Japan); Wakitani, S. [Dept. of Orthopaedic Surgery, Shinsyu Univ., Matsumato (Japan)

    2003-09-01

    Objective: To assess dynamic MRI with Gd-DTPA enhancement for evaluating inflammatory changes in the subacromial bursa. Design and patients: We detected the signal intensity changes in dynamic MRI of the subacromial bursa, and confirmed these macroscopically by arthroscopy and histologically. The signal intensity was measured using built-in software, and the enhancement ratio (E ratio) was calculated from dynamic MR images. In addition, as a parameter of the rate of the increase in the signal intensity from 0 to 80 s, the mean increase per second in the E ratio was obtained as the coefficient of enhancement (CE). The correlation was studied of the E ratio and CE with the arthroscopic findings (redness, villous formation, thickening and adhesion), and of the E ratio and CE with the histological findings (capillary proliferation, papillary hyperplasia, fibrosis and inflammatory cell infiltration) of the subacromial bursa. Of patients with shoulder pain, this study included those with rotator cuff injury; patients with rheumatoid arthritis or pitching shoulder disorders were excluded. There were 27 patients (15 men, 12 women) ranging in age from 25 to 73 years (mean 49.1 years). Dynamic MRI of the shoulder was also performed on the healthy side of 10 patients and in five normal young volunteers. Results and conclusions: Changes in signal intensity on dynamic MRI were measured in the subacromial bursa. The E ratio (80 s) and CE (0-80 s) were significantly correlated with redness and villous formation as arthroscopic findings, positively correlated with capillary proliferation and papillary hyperplasia as histological findings (p < 0.05), and negatively correlated with fibrosis as a histological finding (p < 0.05) in the subacromial bursa. The patterns of dynamic curves were well correlated with the bursoscopic and histological findings of the synovium of the subacromial bursa. Dynamic MRI appears to correlate with inflammatory activity of synovium of the subacromial

  2. Antenatal MRI Findings of Placental Accreta%产前胎盘植入的MRI诊断

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石慧; 全显跃; 孙希杰

    2015-01-01

    目的胎盘植入为产科少见而危重的妊娠并发症,影像诊断较困难,本文旨在探讨产前胎盘植入的 MRI 表现及误诊原因。资料与方法回顾性分析经手术及病理证实的18例产前胎盘植入的 MRI 表现及分型。结果产前 MRI 疑诊15例(83.33%),表现为子宫壁明显变薄,结合带不连续,局部胎盘与子宫壁分界不清;胎盘内信号不均,可见 T2 HASTE 序列为极低信号、TruFISP 序列为高信号的增粗扭曲血管影及低信号条索影;胎盘后方可见 T1WI 高信号、T2WI 低信号血肿影。漏诊3例(16.67%)中,2例为粘连型,1例为植入型,产前 MRI 未能明确诊断。结论MRI 是诊断胎盘植入的辅助工具,MRI 对胎盘肌层植入及穿透的诊断准确率较高,而对粘连型植入诊断准确率较低。%Purpose Placenta accreta is a rare but severe pregnancy complications, and imaging diagnosis is always difficult. This paper aims to analyze the MRI manifestations of placenta accreta, and explore its misdiagnosis reasons. Materials and Methods A retrospective study was carried out on the findings and classification of MRI plain scan and diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) scan of 18 patients with placenta accreta confirmed surgically and pathologically. Results The prenatal MRI scan reported 15 patients of placenta accreta correctly (83.33%), and missed 3 (16.67%) among which 2 were with placenta accreta and the other 1 with placenta increta. The MRI of placenta accreta presented rather thin muscular layer, discontinuous junctional zone, and some unclear boundary of placenta and uterine wall; the signal of the placenta was heterogeneous, and we could see enlarged vessels of extremely low signal on T2 HASTE and high signal on TruFISP sequences, and low signal of thick intraplacental band; moreover, hematoma with high intensity on T1WI and low intensity on T2WI could be seen. DWI demonstrated uneven intensity and dark thicker

  3. Finding multivariate outliers in fMRI time-series data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnotti, John F; Billor, Nedret

    2014-10-01

    A fundamental challenge for researchers studying the brain is to explain how distributed patterns of brain activity relate to a specific representation or computation. Multivariate techniques are therefore becoming increasingly popular for pattern localization of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data. The increased power of these techniques can be offset by their susceptibility to multivariate outliers, a problem not directly encountered when fMRI data are analyzed in more common univariate analysis techniques. We test how two algorithms, High Dimensional Blocked Adaptive Computationally Efficient Outlier Nominators (HD BACON) and Principal Component based Outlier detection (PCOut), can detect multivariate outliers in high-dimensional fMRI data, in which the number of variables is larger than the number of observations. We show how these methods can be applied to individual, voxel time-series to identify outlying voxels within a region of interest. Finally, we compare these methods with simulated data to identify which aspects of the data each method is most sensitive to. Voxels identified by both algorithms were primarily on the edges of univariate activation clusters and near the boundaries between different tissue types. Simulation results showed the PCOut outperformed HD BACON, maintaining both high sensitivity and specificity across a wide range of outlier contamination percentages. Our results suggest that multivariate analysis of fMRI can benefit from including multivariate outlier detection as a routine data quality check prior to model fitting. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Comparison of post-surgical MRI presentation of the pituitary gland and its hormonal function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bladowska, Joanna; Sokolska, Violetta; Sozański, Tomasz; Bednarek-Tupikowska, Grażyna; Sąsiadek, Marek

    2010-01-01

    Summary Background: Post-surgical evaluation of the pituitary gland in MRI is difficult because of a change of anatomical conditions. It depends also on numerous other factors, including: size and expansion of a tumour before surgery, type of surgical access, quality and volume of filling material used and time of its resorption.The aim of the study was to compare MR image of the pituitary gland after surgery with clinical findings and to establish a correlation between MRI presentation of spared pituitary and its hormonal function. Material/Methods: 124 patients after resection of pituitary adenomas – 409 MRI results in total – were studied. With a 1.5-T unit, T1-weighted sagittal and coronal, enhanced and unenhanced images were obtained. Results: The pituitary gland seemed to be normal in MRI in 11 patients, 8 of them had completely regular pituitary function but in 3 of them we noticed a partial hypopituitarism. In 99 patients only a part of the pituitary gland was recognised, 53 of them had hypopituitarism but 46 of them were endocrinologically healthy. 14 patients seemed to have no persistent pituitary gland in MRI, in comparison to hormonal studies: there was panhypopituitarism in 6 and hypopituitarism in 8 cases. Conclusions: MRI presentation of post – surgical pituitary gland doesn’t necessarily correlate with its hormonal function – there was a significant statistical difference. Some patients with partial pituitary seems normal hormonal function. In some cases the pituitary seem normal in MRI but these patients have hormonal disorders and need substitution therapy. PMID:22802758

  5. Passive ventricular mechanics modelling using MRI of structure and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, V Y; Lam, H I; Ennis, D B; Young, A A; Nash, M P

    2008-01-01

    Patients suffering from dilated cardiomyopathy or myocardial infarction can develop left ventricular (LV) diastolic impairment. The LV remodels its structure and function to adapt to pathophysiological changes in geometry and loading conditions and this remodeling process can alter the passive ventricular mechanics. In order to better understand passive ventricular mechanics, a LV finite element model was developed to incorporate physiological and mechanical information derived from in vivo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) tissue tagging, in vivo LV cavity pressure recording and ex vivo diffusion tensor MRI (DTMRI) of a canine heart. MRI tissue tagging enables quantitative evaluation of cardiac mechanical function with high spatial and temporal resolution, whilst the direction of maximum water diffusion (the primary eigenvector) in each voxel of a DTMRI directly correlates with the myocardial fibre orientation. This model was customized to the geometry of the canine LV during diastasis by fitting the segmented epicardial and endocardial surface data from tagged MRI using nonlinear finite element fitting techniques. Myofibre orientations, extracted from DTMRI of the same heart, were incorporated into this geometric model using a free form deformation methodology. Pressure recordings, temporally synchronized to the tissue tagging MRI data, were used to simulate the LV deformation during diastole. Simulation of the diastolic LV mechanics allowed us to estimate the stiffness of the passive LV myocardium based on kinematic data obtained from tagged MRI. This integrated physiological model will allow more insight into the regional passive diastolic mechanics of the LV on an individualized basis, thereby improving our understanding of the underlying structural basis of mechanical dysfunction in pathological conditions.

  6. Differences in MRI findings between subgroups of recent-onset childhood arthritis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirkhus, Eva [Oslo University Hospital, Rikshospitalet, Department of Radiology, Oslo (Norway); Flatoe, Berit; Smith, Hans-Joergen [Oslo University Hospital, Rikshospitalet and University of Oslo, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Oslo (Norway); Riise, Oeystein [Oslo University Hospital, Rikshospitalet, Department of Pediatrics, Oslo (Norway); Reiseter, Tor [Oslo University Hospital, Ullevaal, Department of Radiology, Oslo (Norway)

    2011-04-15

    MRI is sensitive for joint inflammation, but its ability to separate subgroups of arthritis in children has been questioned. Infectious arthritis (IA), postinfectious arthritis (PA), transient arthritis (TA) and juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) are subgroups that may need early, different treatment. To determine whether MRI findings differ in IA, PA/TA and JIA in recent-onset childhood arthritis. Fifty-nine children from a prospective study of incidence of arthritis (n = 216) were, based on clinical and biochemical criteria, examined by MRI. Joint fluid, synovium, bone marrow, soft tissue and cartilage were scored retrospectively and analysed by Pearson chi-square test and logistic regression analysis. Fifty-nine children had MRI of one station. IA was suggested by bone marrow oedema (OR 7.46, P = 0.011) and absence of T1-weighted and T2-weighted low signal intensity synovial tissue (OR 0.06, P = 0.015). Furthermore, soft-tissue oedema and reduced contrast enhancement in the epiphyses were more frequent in children with IA. JIA correlated positively with low signal intensity synovial tissue (OR 13.30, P < 0.001) and negatively with soft-tissue oedema (OR 0.20, P = 0.018). No significant positive determinants were found for PA/TA, but bone marrow oedema, soft-tissue oedema, irregular thickened synovium and low signal intensity synovial tissue was less frequent than in IA/JIA. In children with high clinical suspicion of recent onset arthritis, there was a significant difference in the distribution of specific MRI features among the diagnostic groups. (orig.)

  7. Rotator cuff tears: correlation between geometric tear patterns on MRI and arthroscopy and pre- and postoperative clinical findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sela, Yaron; Eshed, Iris; Shapira, Shachar; Oran, Ariel; Vogel, Guy; Herman, Amir; Perry Pritsch, Moshe

    2015-02-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is considered to be the best non-invasive procedure for the evaluation of rotator cuff (RC) tendon tears. Burkhart's classification is a geometric classification of full-thickness RC tears on MRI. To correlate MRI and arthroscopic geometric full-thickness RC tears according to the Burkhart's classification with pre- and postoperative clinical findings. Patients who underwent arthroscopic RC repair between 2006 and 2010 were retrospectively evaluated. Preoperative MRI and arthroscopic surgical reports were reviewed for tear geometry (Burkhart's) by three (1 radiologist, 2 surgeons) and two (surgeons) readers. MRIs were also evaluated for tear size and change of tear size in successive sagittal sections and for muscle mass and fatty infiltration. Clinical examinations were performed preoperatively and at least 12 months afterwards. Postoperative function questionnaires were filled in by the patients. Forty-six patients (35 men, 11 women; mean age, 57 years; range, 41-72 years) were evaluated. Tears depicted on MRIs were classified as crescent in 11 patients (24%), longitudinal in three (6.5%), massive contracted in 29 (63%), and cuff arthropathy in three (6.5%). Muscle changes were noted almost exclusively in patients with massive tears and cuff arthropathy (16/32 patients, P = 0.013). MRIs and arthroscopic geometric classifications were in close agreement. Tear type did not correlate with pre- and postoperative physical examination or with postoperative clinical questionnaires scores. Geometric RC tear characterizations on preoperative MRIs were closely associated with arthroscopic findings. Postoperative results were not affected by the geometric pattern of the tears. © The Foundation Acta Radiologica 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  8. MRI-defined subcortical ischemic vascular disease: baseline clinical and neuropsychological findings. The LADIS Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jokinen, Hanna; Kalska, Hely; Ylikoski, Raija

    2009-01-01

    and Disability (LADIS) study, aged 65-84 years, underwent comprehensive clinical and neuropsychological examinations, and brain MRI at the baseline assessment. The subjects meeting the SIVD imaging criteria (n = 89) were compared to the other subjects of the sample (n = 524). RESULTS: SIVD was associated...... of global cognitive function, psychomotor speed, attention and executive functions, verbal fluency, and working memory. CONCLUSION: In this population of nondisabled older adults with WML, SIVD was related to specific clinical and functional characteristics. Neuropsychological features included psychomotor...

  9. MRI-findings of nodular lesions in an enlarged spleen, associated with visceral Leishmaniasis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raeymaeckers, Steven, E-mail: Steven.Raeymaeckers@vub.ac.be [ZNA Middelheim, Lindendreef 1, 2020 Antwerpen (Belgium); Docx, Martine; Demeyere, Nathan [ZNA Middelheim, Lindendreef 1, 2020 Antwerpen (Belgium)

    2012-10-15

    Highlights: ► We confirm a previous report that infection with Leishmania can manifest multiple nodular lesions of the spleen. ► We confirm these lesions to be readily detectable with present imaging modalities. ► We affirm the fact that these lesions are hypoechoic on ultrasound, though in our case no hypoechoic halo was observed. ► We found these lesions to be hypodense on CT in the delayed phase after intravenous contrast administration. ► In addition to these previous findings we found that the spleen showed an inhomogeneous intensity on MRI; upon closer examination whilst scrolling through the T2-weighted sequences we can note multiple ill-defined and heterogeneous hypointense nodules. -- Abstract: We present a case of a 15-month-old Moroccan girl with fever of unknown origin, hepatosplenomegaly and multiple hypoechoic nodular splenic lesions that appear hypodense on CT. T2-weighted MRI sequences show a markedly inhomogeneous intensity of the parenchyma, seemingly caused by multiple ill-defined and heterogeneous hypointense nodules. Laboratory tests confirmed a recent infection with Leishmania, a parasite endemic to (sub)tropic regions. During and after therapy these lesions gradually resolved. To our knowledge this is the second published case in which different imaging modalities were able to demonstrate organ lesions associated with Leishmania. It is also the first report of MRI-findings associated with these lesions.

  10. Brain herniations into the dural venous sinus or calvarium: MRI findings, possible causes and clinical significance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Battal, Bilal; Hamcan, Salih; Akgun, Veysel; Sari, Sebahattin; Tasar, Mustafa [Gulhane Military Medical School, Department of Radiology, Ankara (Turkey); Oz, Oguzhan [Gulhane Military Medical School, Department of Neurology, Ankara (Turkey); Castillo, Mauricio [University of North Carolina School of Medicine, Division of Neuroradiology, Department of Radiology, Chapel Hill, NC (United States)

    2016-06-15

    To determine frequency, imaging features and clinical significance of herniations of brain parenchyma into dural venous sinuses (DVS) and/or calvarium found on MRI. A total of 6160 brain MRI examinations containing at least one high-resolution T1- or T2-weighted sequence were retrospectively evaluated to determine the presence of incidental brain herniations into the DVS or calvarium. MRI sequences available for review were evaluated according to their capability to demonstrate these herniations. Patients' symptoms and clinical findings were recorded. Twenty-one (0.32 %) brain parenchyma herniations into the DVS (n = 18) or calvarium (n = 3) in 20 patients were detected. The most common locations of the herniations were the transverse sinuses (n = 13) and those involving inferior gyrus of the temporal lobe (n = 9). High-resolution T1- and T2-weighted sequences were equally useful in the detection of these brain herniations. According to clinical symptoms, brain herniations were considered to be incidental but headaches were present in nine patients. Brain herniations with surrounding cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) into the DVS and/or calvarium are incidental findings and not proven to be associated with any symptoms. Although rare, these herniations are more common than previously recognized and should not be confused with arachnoid granulations, clots or tumours. (orig.)

  11. A case of primary malignant fibrous histiocytoma of the pancreas: CT and MRI findings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ri-Sheng Yu; Jia-Wei Wang; Ying Chen; Wen-Hong Ding; Xiu-Fang Xu; Li-Rong Chen

    2008-01-01

    Primary malignant fibrous histiocytoma (MFH) of the pancreas is rare and a distinct clinical entity. We report a case of recurrence of pancreatic MFH with computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)findings. A 67-year-old man presented with a history of decreased body weight over the past 6 mo. Abdominal CT revealed a large, multilocular cystic mass in the head of the pancreas with obvious atrophy in the body and tail of the pancreas. After 6 mo postoperatively, MRI demonstrated a recurrent large mass in the primary area of the head of the pancreas. The lesion was heterogeneous, hypointense to the liver on Tl-weighted imaging, and heterogeneously hyperintense to the liver with a hypointense area in the central part of the tumor on fat-saturated T2-weighted imaging. Contrastenhanced Tl-weighted imaging demonstrated a large multilocular cystic mass with a cystic wall, fibrous septa and enhancement of solid components. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on recurrence of primary MFH of the pancreas, and the first with MRI findings.

  12. The Neural Basis of Typewriting: A Functional MRI Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuichi Higashiyama

    Full Text Available To investigate the neural substrate of typewriting Japanese words and to detect the difference between the neural substrate of typewriting and handwriting, we conducted a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI study in 16 healthy volunteers. All subjects were skillful touch typists and performed five tasks: a typing task, a writing task, a reading task, and two control tasks. Three brain regions were activated during both the typing and the writing tasks: the left superior parietal lobule, the left supramarginal gyrus, and the left premotor cortex close to Exner's area. Although typing and writing involved common brain regions, direct comparison between the typing and the writing task revealed greater left posteromedial intraparietal cortex activation in the typing task. In addition, activity in the left premotor cortex was more rostral in the typing task than in the writing task. These findings suggest that, although the brain circuits involved in Japanese typewriting are almost the same as those involved in handwriting, there are brain regions that are specific for typewriting.

  13. MRI findings of the brain in high-voltage electrical burn patient: case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Cheung Sook; Hong, Sung Hwan; Lee, Myung Joon; Cho, Seong Whi; Lee, Eil Seong; Kang, Ik Won [Hallym University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-05-01

    We report the delayed sequelae arising in a case of electrical injury, reviewing the literature on the subject and focusing on the MRI findings of the brain. A 23-year-old male suffered burns to the left parietal scalp, both feet, and the anterior chest wall. Neurological symptoms and MRI abnormalities appeared 14 days after the insult and continued for about three months. T1-weight MR images demonstrated homogeneous hypointensity, while T2-weighted images depicted hyperintense finger-like projections. Contrast-enhanced T1-weighted images demonstrated strong band-like enhancement, indicating meningeal hyperemia. Follow-up MR imaging showed that the lesion had disappeared, indicating that the cerebral edema and meaningeal hyperemia were reversible.

  14. [MRI findings in iliotibial band friction syndrome: a report of two cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isusi, M; Oleaga, L; Campo, M; Grande, D

    2007-01-01

    We present the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings in two males clinically diagnosed with iliotibial band friction syndrome (IBFS), a frequent cause of pain in the lateral compartment of the knee. Coronal T2-weighted images with fat saturation show an ill-defined area of high signal intensity in the soft tissues situated immediately below the iliotibial band lateral to the external condyle of the femur. No thickening of the iliotibial band or changes in its signal intensity were observed. Osseous edema and subchondral osseous erosion in the external condyle of the femur were observed in both cases. Pain in the lateral compartment of the knee might be due to multiple causes that should be included in the differential diagnosis and MRI can play a significant role in reaching the definitive diagnosis.

  15. Acute neck pain due to tendonitis of the longus colli: CT and MRI findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Artenian, D.J.; Lipman, J.K.; Scidmore, G.K.; Brant-Zawadzki, M.

    1989-05-01

    Calcific retropharyngeal tendonitis is an under-recognized cause of acute cervical pain produced by inflammation of the longus colli muscle. Although the clinical presentation may mimic more serious disorders, the diagnosis can be established radiographically by identification of prevertebral soft tissue calcification and swelling. Six patients with typical signs and symptoms of retropharyngeal tendonitis are presented. All were evaluated with plain films, four with CT and one with MRI. The pathognomonic finding of amorphous calcification anterior to C1-2 with associated asymmetric soft tissue swelling was clearly demonstrated by CT. Diffuse swelling of the longus colli muscle was shown as prominent high signal in the prevertebral region by T2 weighted MRI.

  16. MRI findings of a large pedunculated eccrine poroma: A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Seung Hyun; Ryu, Jeong Ah; Lee, Jung Il; Pyo, Ju Yeon; Oh, Young Ha [Dept. of ,Hanyang University Guri Hospital, Guri (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Chul Min [Dept. of Radiology, Hanyang University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-02-15

    Eccrine poroma is a rare benign neoplasm of the eccrine sweat gland that usually presents as a small skin lesion such as a papule or nodule. This benign tumor has an overall good prognosis; however, eccrine porocarcinomas can arise from long-standing pre-existing benign eccrine poromas. We reported the case of a 37-year-old man with mental retardation who presented with an 8-cm pedunculated and densely pigmented eccrine poroma on the left hip. The tumor showed low signal intensity on T1-weighted MRI, with inhomogenously high signal intensity on T2-weighted images and strong contrast enhancement after intravenous gadolinium administration. It directly extended from the dermal layer, and the subcutaneous tissue was preserved. Radiologists should be aware that eccrine poromas could be large and pedunculated. Furthermore, related MRI findings and diagnostic clues should be carefully considered.

  17. CT and MRI findings in patients with hyperglycemic encephalopathy : three cases report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Sun Hee; Choi, Hye Young [College of Medicine, Ewha Womans Unviersity, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-03-01

    We describe the distinctive brain CT and MRI findings seen in the putamen of three patients with hyperglycemia. The chief complaint of these patients was either chorea (n=3D1) or mental change (n=3D2). They showed hyperglycemia, but physical examination and laboratory data revealed no other abnormalities. In all patients, non-enhanced CT scanning revealed high-attenuated lesions in the unilateral putamen. In two of the three patients, brain MRI performed two days after the onset of symptoms showed an abnormally high signal on T1-weighted images and a low signal on T2-weighted images. One patient had a history of diabetes mellitus, and another had acute myocardiac infarction. The third had no specific history. After the correction of hyperglycemia, the patient's symptoms subsided and diabetes mellitus was diagnosed. (author)

  18. Correlation between MRI findings and long-term outcome in patients with severe brain trauma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pierallini, A.; Pantano, P.; Fantozzi, L.M.; Bonamini, M. [Dept. of Neurological Sciences, Univ. di Roma (Italy); Vichi, R.; Zylberman, R.; Pisarri, F. [Hospital San Giovanni Battista, SMOM, Roma (Italy); Colonnese, C. [IRCCS Neuromed, Pozzilli (Italy); Bozzao, L. [Dept. of Neurological Sciences, Univ. di Roma (Italy); IRCCS Neuromed, Pozzilli (Italy)

    2000-12-01

    Our aim was to relate MRI findings in patients with severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) to clinical severity and long-term outcome. We studied 37 patients with severe TBI, who were submitted to clinical assessment for disability and cognition and to MRI 60-90 days after trauma. Clinical assessment was also performed 3, 6 and 12 months later. The number and volume of lesions in various cerebral structures were calculated semiautomatically from FLAIR and fast field-echo images. Possible correlations between total and regional lesion volume and clinical deficits were then investigated. The frontal and temporal lobes were most frequently involved. Total lesion volume on FLAIR images correlated significantly with clinical outcome, whereas that on FFE images did not. Regional analysis showed that FLAIR lesion volume in the corpus callosum correlated significantly with scores on disability and cognition scales at the first clinical assessment. FLAIR lesion volume in the frontal lobes correlated significantly with clinical scores 1 year later. (orig.)

  19. Congenital muscular dystrophy with merosin deficiency: MRI findings in five patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farina, L.; Milanesi, I.; Ciceri, E.; Savoiardo, M. [Dept. of Neuroradiology, Ist. Nazionale Neurologico C. Besta, Milan (Italy); Morandi, L.; Mora, M. [Dept. of Neuromuscular Disorders, Ist. Nazionale Neurologico C. Besta, Milan (Italy); Moroni, I.; Pantaleoni, C. [Dept. of Child Neurology, Ist. Nazionale Neurologico C. Besta, Milan (Italy)

    1998-12-01

    We present the MRI findings in five patients with congenital muscular dystrophy (CMD) and merosin (laminin {alpha} 2) deficiency, which was total in one and partial in four. In one patient with partial merosin deficiency, MRI was normal. The other four patients had supratentorial white matter abnormalities. In three, T2-weighted images revealed subcortical, deep lobar and periventricular high signal in white matter, while in the other there were only small peritrigonal areas of increased signal. On T1-weighted images, there was slightly low signal. Cortical abnormalities were absent. None of these changes were accompanied by symptoms or signs of central nervous system involvement. White matter abnormalities in a patient with CMD should prompt investigation of merosin. (orig.) With 4 figs., 11 refs.

  20. MRI findings of spinal angiomyolipoma: A case report and literature review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sang A; Kim, Myung Soon; Jung, Soon Hee [Yonsei University Wonju College of Medicine, Wonju Severance Christian Hospital, Wonju (Korea, Republic of); Jeon, Young Wook [Dept. of Radiology, Kangwon National University Hospital, Kangwon National University School of Medicine, Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-01-15

    Spinal angiomyolipoma (AML) is a rare disease. It is often reviewed with spinal angiolipoma. Both are composed of vascular and mature adipose elements. However, only AML contains broader array of mesenchymal component. They are accounting for 0.14% to 1.2% of spinal tumors. They appear as fat containing hypervascular tumor located at epidural space of thoracic spine. Spinal AML is more frequently infiltrative and often occurs more ventrally than angiolipoma. Previous studies have employed conventional radiograph, myelogram, and CT scan for spinal AML studies. Recently, MRI has been used for spinal AML in a few studies. Here, we describe a case of typical thoracic spinal AML with a review of its MRI findings and other differential diagnosis for epidural spinal mass with similar characteristics.

  1. MRI Findings of Juvenile Xanthogranuloma of the Spinal Cord: A Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Se Young; Park, Hee Jin; Lee, So Yeon; Chung, Eun Chul; Park, Hae Won; Kook, Shin Ho; Rho, Myung Ho; Goo, Ji Hye [Dept. of Kangbuk Samsung Hospital, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-03-15

    Juvenile xanthogranuloma (JXG) is a proliferative histiocytic disorder experienced during childhood and adolescents. JXG commonly presents as a solitary cutaneous lesion. Despite the term 'juvenile', development of the disease during adulthood is possible, although spinal JXG is extremely rare in adults. We describe a 67-year-old female patient who presented with an intradural-extramedullary (IDEM) tumor of the spinal cord. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings indicative of JXG of the spinal cord were seen, which was then confirmed pathologically. A lumbar spinal MRI with contrast enhancement showed an oval-shaped, well-defined IDEM tumor at the L1 level. This tumor had mixed signal intensity on the T1-weighted image and high signal intensity on the T2-weighted image. Central homogenous enhancement was observed after contrast administration.

  2. Combination of functional MRI with SAS and MRA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sumida, Masayuki; Takeshita, Shinichirou; Kutsuna, Munenori; Akimitsu, Tomohide; Arita, Kazunori; Kurisu, Kaoru [Hiroshima Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine

    1999-02-01

    For presurgical diagnosis of brain surface, combination of functional MRI (fMRI) with the MR angiography was examined. This method could visualize brain bay, convolution and vein as index of surface. Five normal adults (male, mean age: 28-year-old) and 7 patients with brain tumor on the main locus to surface (male: 4, female: 3, mean age: 52.3-year-old) were studied. fMRI was performed by SPGR method (TR 70, TE 40, flip angle 60, one slice, thickness 10 mm, FOV 20 cm, matrix 128 x 128). The brain surface was visualized by SAS (surface anatomy scanning). SAS was performed by FSE method (TR 6000, TE 200, echo train 16, thickness 20 mm, slice 3, NEX 2). Cortical veins near superior sagittal sinus were visualized by MRA with 2D-TOF method (TR 50, TE 20, flip angle 60, thickness 2 mm, slice 28, NEX 1). These images were superimposed and functional image of peripheral sensorimotor region was evaluated anatomically. In normal adults, high signal was visualized at another side of near sensorimotor region at 8 of 10 sides. All high signal area of fMRI agreed with cortical vein near sensorimotor region that was visualized by MRA. In patients with brain tumor, signal was visualized at another side of sensorimotor region of tumor without 2 cases with palsy. In another side of tumor, signal of fMRI was visualized in 5 of 7 cases. The tumor was visualized as opposite low signal field in SAS. Locational relation between tumor and brain surface and brain function was visualized distinctly by combination of MRA, SAS and MRA. This method could become useful for presurgical diagnosis. (K.H.)

  3. Acetabular stress fractures in military endurance athletes and recruits: incidence and MRI and scintigraphic findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, T.R. [Portsmouth Naval Medical Center, Radiology Department, Charette Health Care Center, Portsmouth, VA (United States); Puckett, M.L.; Shin, A.Y.; Gorman, J.D. [Naval Medical Center San Diego, Radiology Department, San Diego, CA (United States); Denison, G. [US Naval Hospital Guam (United States)

    2002-05-01

    Objective: To evaluate the incidence and the MRI and scintigraphic appearance of acetabular stress (fatigue) fractures in military endurance athletes and recruits. Design and patients: One hundred and seventy-eight active duty military endurance trainees with a history of activity-related hip pain were evaluated by both MRI and bone scan over a 2-year period. Patients in the study ranged in age from 17 to 45 years. They had hip pain related to activity and had plain radiographs of the hip and pelvis that were interpreted as normal or equivocal. The study was originally designed to evaluate the MRI and scintigraphic appearance of femoral neck stress fractures. Patients had scintigraphy and a limited MRI examination (coronal imaging only) within 48 h of the bone scan. Twelve patients demonstrated imaging findings compatible with acetabular stress fractures. Results: Stress fractures are common in endurance athletes and in military populations; however, stress fracture of the acetabulum is uncommon. Twelve of 178 patients (6.7%) in our study had imaging findings consistent with acetabular stress fractures. Two patterns were identified. Seven of the 12 (58%) patients had acetabular roof stress fractures. In this group, two cases of bilateral acetabular roof stress fractures were identified, one with a synchronous tensile sided femoral neck stress fracture. The remaining five of 12 (42%) patients had anterior column stress fractures, rarely occurring in isolation, and almost always occurring with inferior pubic ramus stress fracture (4 of 5, or 80%). One case of bilateral anterior column stress fractures was identified without additional sites of injury. Conclusions: Stress fractures are commonplace in military populations, especially endurance trainees. Acetabular stress fractures are rare and therefore unrecognized, but do occur and may be a cause for activity-related hip pain in a small percentage of military endurance athletes and recruits. (orig.)

  4. Functional MRI in pre-surgical planning: case study and cautionary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Functional MRI in pre-surgical planning: case study and cautionary notes. ... Since its inception almost 20 years ago, functional magnetic resonance imaging ... Although the clinical applications of fMRI are still limited, there have recently been ...

  5. Diffuse Infantile Hepatic Hemangioendothelioma With Early Central Enhancement in an Adult: A Case Report of CT and MRI Findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Aisheng; Dong, Hui; Zuo, Changjing; He, Tianlin

    2015-12-01

    Infantile hepatic hemangioendothelioma (IHH) is the most common vascular tumor of the liver in infancy. Adult with IHH is extremely rare. We presented a diffuse IHH in an adult patient with computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance image (MRI) findings.A 39-year-old man was admitted to our hospital because of a 2-year history of abnormal liver function tests and a 7-day history of jaundice. Physical examination revealed enlarged liver. Unenhanced abdominal CT showed enlargement of the liver with diffuse hypodensity. Enhanced CT on the arterial phase revealed multiple centrally enhanced lesions diffusely involved the enlarged liver. The enhanced areas of the lesions became larger on the portal phase and all the lesions became homogeneous enhanced on the delayed phase. These lesions showed heterogeneously hyperintense on T2-weighted image, hypointense on T1-weighted image, and early centrally enhanced on dynamic gadolinium-enhanced MRI, with complete tumor enhancement after 180 s. The patient underwent orthotopic liver transplantation. IHH type 2 was confirmed by pathology. The patient died of tumor recurrence in the liver 4 months after transplantation.Unlike the previously described imaging appearances of IHH, this case showed diffuse nodules with early central enhancement on CT and MRI. Considering the importance of the ability to differentiate IHH from other hepatic tumors, radiologists should be aware of these imaging appearances to establish knowledge of the entire spectrum of IHH.

  6. Chronotype Modulates Language Processing-Related Cerebral Activity during Functional MRI (fMRI.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Rosenberg

    Full Text Available Based on individual daily physiological cycles, humans can be classified as early (EC, late (LC and intermediate (IC chronotypes. Recent studies have verified that chronotype-specificity relates to performance on cognitive tasks: participants perform more efficiently when tested in the chronotype-specific optimal time of day than when tested in their non-optimal time. Surprisingly, imaging studies focussing on the underlying neural mechanisms of potential chronotype-specificities are sparse. Moreover, chronotype-specific alterations of language-related semantic processing have been neglected so far.16 male, healthy ECs, 16 ICs and 16 LCs participated in a fast event-related functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI paradigm probing semantic priming. Subjects read two subsequently presented words (prime, target and were requested to determine whether the target word was an existing word or a non-word. Subjects were tested during their individual evening hours when homeostatic sleep pressure and circadian alertness levels are high to ensure equal entrainment.Chronotype-specificity is associated with task-performance and brain activation. First, ECs exhibited slower reaction times than LCs. Second, ECs showed attenuated BOLD responses in several language-related brain areas, e.g. in the left postcentral gyrus, left and right precentral gyrus and in the right superior frontal gyrus. Additionally, increased BOLD responses were revealed for LCs as compared to ICs in task-related areas, e.g. in the right inferior parietal lobule and in the right postcentral gyrus.These findings reveal that even basic language processes are associated with chronotype-specific neuronal mechanisms. Consequently, results might change the way we schedule patient evaluations and/or healthy subjects in e.g. experimental research and adding "chronotype" as a statistical covariate.

  7. Frontal MRI findings associated with impairment on the Executive Interview (EXIT25).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royall, D R; Rauch, R; Román, G C; Cordes, J A; Polk, M J

    2001-01-01

    We examined the association between the Executive Interview (EXIT25), a bedside measure of executive control, and regional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) pathology among 52 consecutive geriatric patients presenting to a university dementia assessment clinic. Left frontal (p QED]. The EXIT25's associations with right hemisphere lesions did not persist after adjusting for left frontal lesions. Left posterior lesions did not significantly affect the EXIT25. Similarly, left frontal circuit pathology worsened EXIT25 scores (p < .05). Pathology in left anterior subcortical structures showed a trend (p = .052). EXIT25 scores were not affected by right subcortical pathology, nor by pathology in either hippocampus. We conclude that the EXIT25 is specifically affected by frontal system MRI lesions, particularly on the left. This conclusion is consistent with earlier functional neuroimaging studies associating EXIT25 performance with left mesiofrontal perfusion.

  8. Exploring brainstem function in multiple sclerosis by combining brainstem reflexes, evoked potentials, clinical and MRI investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnano, Immacolata; Pes, Giovanni Mario; Pilurzi, Giovanna; Cabboi, Maria Paola; Ginatempo, Francesca; Giaconi, Elena; Tolu, Eusebio; Achene, Antonio; Salis, Antonio; Rothwell, John C; Conti, Maurizio; Deriu, Franca

    2014-11-01

    To investigate vestibulo-masseteric (VMR), acoustic-masseteric (AMR), vestibulo-collic (VCR) and trigemino-collic (TCR) reflexes in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS); to relate abnormalities of brainstem reflexes (BSRs) to multimodal evoked potentials (EPs), clinical and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) findings. Click-evoked VMR, AMR and VCR were recorded from active masseter and sternocleidomastoid muscles, respectively; TCR was recorded from active sternocleidomastoid muscles, following electrical stimulation of the infraorbital nerve. EPs and MRI were performed with standard techniques. Frequencies of abnormal BSRs were: VMR 62.1%, AMR 55.1%, VCR 25.9%, TCR 58.6%. Brainstem dysfunction was identified by these tests, combined into a four-reflex battery, in 86.9% of cases, by EPs in 82.7%, MRI in 71.7% and clinical examination in 37.7% of cases. The sensitivity of paired BSRs/EPs (93.3%) was significantly higher than combined MRI/clinical testing (70%) in patients with disease duration ⩽6.4years. BSR alterations significantly correlated with clinical, EP and MRI findings. The four-BSR battery effectively increases the performance of standard EPs in early detection of brainstem impairment, otherwise undetected by clinical examination and neuroimaging. Multiple BSR assessment usefully supplements conventional testing and monitoring of brainstem function in MS, especially in newly diagnosed patients. Copyright © 2014 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Preoperative functional MRI localization of language areas in Chinese patients with brain tumors Validation with intraoperative electrocortical mapping

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hechun Xia; Wei Huang; Liang Wu; Hui Ma; Xiaodong Wang; Xuexin Chen; Shengyu Sun; Xiaoxiong Jia

    2012-01-01

    Ten Chinese patients with brain tumors involving language regions were selected. Preoperative functional MRI was performed to locate Broca's or Wernicke's area, and the cortex that was essential for language function was determined by electrocortical mapping. A site-by-site comparison between functional MRI and electrocortical mapping was performed with the aid of a neuronavigation device. Results showed that the sensitivity and specificity of preoperative functional MRI were 80.0% and 85.0% in Broca's area and 66.6% and 85.2% in Wernicke's area, respectively. These experimental findings indicate that functional MRI is an accurate, reliable technique with which to identify the location of Wernicke's area or Broca's area in patients with brain tumors.

  10. Extraspinal incidental findings on routine MRI of lumbar spine: Prevalence and reporting Rates in 1278 patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuncel, Sedat Alpaslan; Cagli, Bekir; Tekatas, Aslan; Kirici, Yadigar Mehmet; Unlu, Ercument; Genchellac, Haken [Trakya University Faculty of Medicine, Balkan Campus, Edirne (Turkmenistan)

    2015-08-15

    The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence and reporting rate of incidental findings (IF) in adult outpatients undergoing lumbar magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Re-evaluation of a total of 1278 lumbar MRI images (collected from patients with a mean age of 50.5 years, range 16-91 years) captured between August 2010-August 2011 was done by a neuroradiologist and a musculoskeletal radiologist. IFs were classified according to organ or system (liver, gallbladder, kidney, bladder, uterus, ovary, lymph node, intestine and aorta). The rate of reporting of a range of IF was examined. The outcome of each patient's treatment was evaluated based on review of hospital records and by telephone interviews. A total of 253 IFs were found in 241 patients (18.8% of 1278). Among these, clinically significant IFs (n = 34) included: 2 renal masses (0.15%), 2 aortic aneurysms (0.15%), 2 cases of hydronephrosis (0.15%), 11 adrenal masses (0.86%), 7 lymphadenopathies (0.55%), 6 cases of endometrial or cervical thickening (0.47%), 1 liver hemangioma (0.08%), 1 pelvic fluid (0.08%) and 2 ovarian dermoid cysts (0.15%). Overall, 28% (71/253) of IFs were included in the clinical reports, while clinically significant findings were reported in 41% (14/34) of cases. Extraspinal IFs are commonly detected during a routine lumbar MRI, and many of these findings are not clinically significant. However, IFs including clinically important findings are occasionally omitted from formal radiological reports.

  11. Do MRI findings identify patients with low back pain or sciatica who respond better to particular interventions?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steffens, Daniel; Hancock, Mark J; Pereira, Leani S M

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can reveal a range of degenerative findings and anatomical abnormalities; however, the clinical importance of these remains uncertain and controversial. We aimed to investigate if the presence of MRI findings identifies patients with low back pain (LBP......) or sciatica who respond better to particular interventions. METHODS: MEDLINE, EMBASE and CENTRAL databases were searched. We included RCTs investigating MRI findings as treatment effect modifiers for patients with LBP or sciatica. We excluded studies with specific diseases as the cause of LBP. Risk of bias...

  12. Functional MRI, DTI and neurophysiology in horizontal gaze palsy with progressive scoliosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haller, Sven; Wetzel, Stephan G. [University Hospital Basel, Institute of Radiology, Department of Neuroradiology, Basel (Switzerland); Luetschg, Juerg [University Children' s Hospital (UKBB), Basel (Switzerland)

    2008-05-15

    Horizontal gaze palsy with progressive scoliosis (HGPPS) is an autosomal recessive disease due to a mutation in the ROBO3 gene. This rare disease is of particular interest because the absence, or at least reduction, of crossing of the ascending lemniscal and descending corticospinal tracts in the medulla predicts abnormal ipsilateral sensory and motor systems. We evaluated the use of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) for the first time in this disease and compared it to diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) tractography and neurophysiological findings in the same patient with genetically confirmed ROBO3 mutation. As expected, motor fMRI, somatosensory evoked potentials (SSEP) and motor evoked potentials (MEP) were dominantly ipsilateral to the stimulation side. DTI tractography revealed ipsilateral ascending and descending connectivity in the brainstem yet normal interhemispheric connections in the corpus callosum. Auditory fMRI revealed bilateral auditory activation to monaural left-sided auditory stimulation. No significant cortical activation was observed after monaural right-sided stimulation, a hearing defect having been excluded. Prosaccades fMRI showed no activations in the eye-movement network. Motor fMRI confirmed the established findings of DTI and neurophysiology in the same patient. In suspected HGPPS, any technique appears appropriate for further investigation. Auditory fMRI suggests that a monaural auditory system with bilateral auditory activations might be a physiological advantage as compared to a binaural yet only unilateral auditory system, in analogy to anisometropic amblyopia. Moving-head fMRI studies in the future might show whether the compensatory head movements instead of normal eye movements activate the eye-movement network. (orig.)

  13. Non-invasive aspergillosis of the paranasal sinuses: CT and MRI findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert, Y. [Service de Radiologie Ouest, Hopital Claude Huriez, 59 Lille (France); Lamy, O. [Service de Radiologie Ouest, Hopital Claude Huriez, 59 Lille (France); Chevalier, D. [Service d`Orl, Hopital Claude Huriez, 59 Lille (France); Rocourt, N. [Service de Radiologie Ouest, Hopital Claude Huriez, 59 Lille (France); Darras, J. [Service d`Orl, Hopital Claude Huriez, 59 Lille (France); Piquet, J.J. [Service d`Orl, Hopital Claude Huriez, 59 Lille (France); Lemaitre, L. [Service de Radiologie Ouest, Hopital Claude Huriez, 59 Lille (France)

    1995-08-01

    Aspergillosis is the most common fungal infection of the paranasal sinuses, and needs to be recognized because it requires surgical removal. Twenty proven cases of aspergillosis of the paranasal sinuses are reported here. CT was performed in all the cases and MRI in 2 cases. The maxillary sinus was affected in 19 patients and the sphenoid sinus in 1. Mycosis was unilateral in all but 1 of the cases. Foci of increased attenuation at CT were observed in 18 cases, with calcification in 10 cases and/or dental material in 13 cases. An increased bony wall thickness was observed in 16 cases. All the patients but 1 had at least one of the signs. At MRI the fungal mass displayed a hypointense signal on T1- and T2-weighted images. No enhancement was noted on post-contrast T1-weighted images. The diagnosis of paranasal sinus aspergillosis is suggested by the CT findings, when a hyperdense mass with calcifications and/or dental material is noted with thickening of the sinus wall. MRI may have a complementary diagnostic role in doubtful cases. (orig.)

  14. Serial MRI and MRS studies with unusual findings in Rasmussen's encephalitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuerkdogan-Soezueer, D. [Department of Pediatric Neurology, Institute of Neurological Sciences, Marmara University, Istanbul (Turkey); Oezek, M.M.; Pamir, M.N. [Department of Neurosurgery, Institute of Neurological Sciences, Marmara University, Istanbul (Turkey); Sav, A. [Department of Pathology, Institute of Neurological Sciences, Marmara University, Istanbul (Turkey); Dincer, A. [Radyomar MR Center, Istanbul (Turkey)

    2000-06-01

    Rasmussen's syndrome is characterized by intractable seizures and progressive neuropsychiatric deterioration secondary to unilateral cortical inflammation and tissue destruction. Diagnosis of Rasmussen's syndrome in the early phase depends mainly on the clinical features. Neuroimaging and histopathologic examinations may not be specific during this period. We report a case of Rasmussen's syndrome followed by serial MRI and magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) studies over a 3- to 16-month period. A healthy 6-year-old boy presented with focal motor seizures. An MRI study demonstrated prominent enlargement and T2 hyperintensity of the left mesial temporal lobe and perisylvian region. This early finding evolved to volume loss and later progressive atrophy of the ipsilateral hemisphere when epilepsia partialis continua occurred. Being aware of those early MRI features in a patient with increasing frequency of focal motor seizures should suggest Rasmussen's syndrome. In addition, we found prominently increased myoinositol concentration in atrophic cortex which might reflect increased gliosis in the late period of the disease. (orig.)

  15. Pseudo-subarachnoid hemorrhage in cryptococcal meningitis: MRI findings and pathological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakae, Yoshiharu; Kudo, Yosuke; Yamamoto, Ryoo; Johkura, Ken

    2013-12-01

    A pseudo-subarachnoid hemorrhage (pseudo-SAH) is a brain computed tomography (CT) finding that is seen as high-density areas along the basal cisterns, the sylvian vallecula/fissure, the tentorium cerebella, or the cortical sulci, although no SAH is found upon lumbar puncture or at autopsy. There is one report of cryptococcal meningitis presenting as pseudo-SAH, but the explanatory pathology is unknown. A 68-year-old woman with headache, fever, decreased hearing, and decreased vision was admitted to our hospital. Cerebrospinal fluid India ink staining was positive, and culture yielded Cryptococcus neoformans. Cryptococcus meningitis was diagnosed. Head CT and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed no abnormality upon admission, but 1 month later, head CT showed iso- to high-density areas within the sulci, and fluid-attenuated inversion recovery MRI showed high signal intensity within the convexity sulci resembling an SAH. These areas were enhanced by gadolinium on T1-weighted images. Lumber puncture produced no evidence of bleeding. Biopsy of the left frontal lobe sulci was performed, and histopathological study revealed inflammation and granulation with capsules of C. neoformans. The inflammation and granulation at the convexity sulci induced by the C. neoformans infection explained the pseudo-SAH in this case. Physicians should be aware that cryptococcal meningitis-induced inflammation and granulation at the sulci can present as pseudo-SAH on CT and MRI.

  16. MRI findings in patients with severe trismus following radiotherapy for nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, Kunwar S S; King, Ann D; Paunipagar, Bhawan K; Abrigo, Jill; Vlantis, Alexander C; Leung, Sing F; Ahuja, Anil T

    2009-11-01

    The aim of the study was to document MRI findings in masticator structures in patients with trismus developing after radiotherapy for nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). MRI neck examinations were reviewed in 35 patients with marked trismus, defined as an interincisal gap of 25 mm or less, post-radiotherapy for NPC. Patients with trismus before treatment, infiltration of masticator structures at the time of trismus, or previous surgery involving the masticator structures were excluded. Sixteen patients had no significant abnormality in their masticator structures (46%). Nineteen patients (54%) had abnormalities comprising radiotherapy-induced masticator muscle fibrosis (n = 19), denervation atrophy of the masticator muscles secondary to mandibular nerve damage (n = 1), mandibular ramus signal abnormalities (n = 5), mandibular condyle sclerosis with or without capsular thickening (n = 5), perimasticator fibrosis extending into the masticator space (n = 3) and inflammation secondary to severe sinusitis extending into the masticator space (n = 2). Nine patients (26%) had more than one type of abnormality. Twenty-two patients (63%) had concomitant skull base osteoradionecrosis which extended into the pterygoid bases in 16 patients (45%). The presence of several MRI abnormalities in the masticator structures of patients with trismus after radiotherapy suggests that trismus is multifactorial. This study advances the understanding of mechanisms behind this debilitating side effect of radiotherapy.

  17. MRI findings in patients with severe trismus following radiotherapy for nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhatia, Kunwar S.S.; King, Ann D.; Paunipagar, Bhawan K.; Abrigo, Jill; Ahuja, Anil T. [The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Prince of Wales Hospital, Department of Diagnostic Radiology and Organ Imaging, Faculty of Medicine, Hong Kong, S.A.R. (China); Vlantis, Alexander C. [The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Prince of Wales Hospital, Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, Hong Kong, S.A.R. (China); Leung, Sing F. [The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Prince of Wales Hospital, Department of Clincal Oncology, Faculty of Medicine, Hong Kong, S.A.R. (China)

    2009-11-15

    The aim of the study was to document MRI findings in masticator structures in patients with trismus developing after radiotherapy for nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). MRI neck examinations were reviewed in 35 patients with marked trismus, defined as an interincisal gap of 25 mm or less, post-radiotherapy for NPC. Patients with trismus before treatment, infiltration of masticator structures at the time of trismus, or previous surgery involving the masticator structures were excluded. Sixteen patients had no significant abnormality in their masticator structures (46%). Nineteen patients (54%) had abnormalities comprising radiotherapy-induced masticator muscle fibrosis (n = 19), denervation atrophy of the masticator muscles secondary to mandibular nerve damage (n = 1), mandibular ramus signal abnormalities (n = 5), mandibular condyle sclerosis with or without capsular thickening (n = 5), perimasticator fibrosis extending into the masticator space (n = 3) and inflammation secondary to severe sinusitis extending into the masticator space (n = 2). Nine patients (26%) had more than one type of abnormality. Twenty-two patients (63%) had concomitant skull base osteoradionecrosis which extended into the pterygoid bases in 16 patients (45%). The presence of several MRI abnormalities in the masticator structures of patients with trismus after radiotherapy suggests that trismus is multifactorial. This study advances the understanding of mechanisms behind this debilitating side effect of radiotherapy. (orig.)

  18. Evaluation of various somatosensory stimulations for functional MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hara, Kazushi; Nakasato, Nobukazu; Mizoi, Kazuo; Yoshimoto, Takashi [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). School of Medicine; Shimizu, Hiroaki

    1997-01-01

    The aim of this functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study was to test detectability of activated area using various somatosensory stimulations. The following stimulations were performed in normal volunteers: regular or irregular electrical median nerve stimulation (n=5, each), tactile stimulation to the palm and fingers (n=8), pain stimulation to the index finger (n=5) or to the palm and fingers (n=5). fMRI was acquired with a spoiled gradient echo sequence at 1.5 T. Detectability of activated area was the highest when the pain stimulation was applied to the palm and fingers (80%). A successful rate for the tactile stimulation was 25%, and the other stimulations failed to demonstrate any activation. When successful, the highest signal activation on fMRI was seen on a sulcus, which presumably arose from a vein. The sulcus was defined as the central sulcus by somatosensory evoked field using a median nerve stimulation. Our study indicates that the pain stimulation to the palm and fingers may be a choice for the sensory fMRI. (author)

  19. Inaudible functional MRI using a truly mute gradient echo sequence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marcar, V.L. [University of Zurich, Department of Psychology, Neuropsychology, Treichlerstrasse 10, 8032 Zurich (Switzerland); Girard, F. [GE Medical Systems SA, 283, rue de la Miniere B.P. 34, 78533 Buc Cedex (France); Rinkel, Y.; Schneider, J.F.; Martin, E. [University Children' s Hospital, Neuroradiology and Magnetic Resonance, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Steinwiesstrasse 75, 8032 Zurich (Switzerland)

    2002-11-01

    We performed functional MRI experiments using a mute version of a gradient echo sequence on adult volunteers using either a simple visual stimulus (flicker goggles: 4 subjects) or an auditory stimulus (music: 4 subjects). Because the mute sequence delivers fewer images per unit time than a fast echo planar imaging (EPI) sequence, we explored our data using a parametric ANOVA test and a non-parametric Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney test in addition to performing a cross-correlation analysis. All three methods were in close agreement regarding the location of the BOLD contrast signal change. We demonstrated that, using appropriate statistical analysis, functional MRI using an MR sequence that is acoustically inaudible to the subject is feasible. Furthermore compared with the ''silent'' event-related procedures involving an EPI protocol, our mGE protocol compares favourably with respect to experiment time and the BOLD signal. (orig.)

  20. Congenital heart disease. Evaluation of anatomy and function by MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rebergen, S.A.; Roos, A. de [Dept. of Radiology, Leiden Univ. Medical Center, Leiden (Netherlands)

    2000-06-01

    With the increasing number of patients surviving after therapeutic intervention for congenital heart disease (CHD), accurate and frequent follow-up of their morphologic and functional cardiovascular status is required, preferably with a noninvasive imaging technique. Echocardiography, either transthoracic or transesophageal, has been the first choice for this purpose, and will probably keep that status, at least in a large segment of the CHD spectrum. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is an established method for high-resolution visualization of cardiovascular morphology. In the past decade, newer MRI techniques have been developed that allow functional evaluation of CHD patients. Particularly the introduction of breath-hold imaging, contrast-enhanced MRA and user-friendly computer software for image analysis may move functional MRI of CHD from the science laboratory to clinical use. It is already evident that MRI is superior to echocardiography in certain areas of limited echocardiographic acces, such as the pulmonary artery branches and the aortic arch in adult patients. But MRI has also a unique potential for accurate volumetric analysis of ventricular function and cardiovascular blood flow, without any geometric assumptions. If supported by increased cooperation between cardiologists and radiologists, MRI will grow into a useful noninvasive imaging tool that, together with echocardiography, will obviate the need for invasive catheter studies for diagnostic purposes. (orig.) [German] Weltweit werden jaehrlich etwa 1,5 Millionen Kinder mit kongenitalen Herzerkrankungen (CHD, congenital heart disease) geboren. Durch Verbesserung der verschiedenen chirurgischen und interventionellen Techniken ist die Ueberlebensrate von CHD-Patienten drastisch gestiegen. Immer mehr Patienten mit postoperativen Residuen, Folgezustaenden und Komplikationen benoetigen eine umfassende Nachsorge. Die Darstellung und Quantifizierung morphologischer und funktioneller kardiovaskulaerer

  1. Functional MRI and Response Inhibition in Children Exposed to Cocaine in utero

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheinkopf, Stephen J.; Lester, Barry M.; Sanes, Jerome N.; Eliassen, James C.; Hutchison, Emmette R.; Seifer, Ronald; LaGasse, Linda L.; Durston, Sarah; Casey, B. J.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the potential long-term effects of cocaine exposure on brain functioning using fMRI in school-aged children. The sample included 12 children with prenatal cocaine exposure and 12 non-exposed children (8–9 years old). Groups did not differ on IQ, socioeconomic status, or perinatal risk factors. A response inhibition task was administered during an fMRI scan using a 1.5-T MRI system. Task performance did not differentiate groups, but groups were differentiated by patterns of task-related brain activity. Cocaine-exposed children showed greater activation in the right inferior frontal cortex and caudate during response inhibition, whereas non-exposed children showed greater activations in temporal and occipital regions. These preliminary findings suggest that prenatal cocaine may affect the development of brain systems involved in the regulation of attention and response inhibition. PMID:19372696

  2. Functional MRI in Patients with Intracranial Lesions near Language Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakyemez, B; Erdogan, C; Yildirim, N; Bora, I; Bekar, A; Parlak, M

    2006-06-30

    We aimed to depict Broca's area and Wernicke's area by word generation and sentence formation paradigms in patients with various intracranial lesions adjacent to language areas using functional MRI technique and to evaluate the ability of functional MRI to lateralize the hemispheric dominance for language. Twenty-three right-handed patients were included in this study. Lesions were classified as low-grade glioma (n=8), high-grade glioma (n=9), metastasis (n=1), meningioma (n=1), arteriovenous malformation (n=2) and mesial temporal sclerosis (n=2). We performed blood-oxygenated-level-dependant functional MRI using a 1.5-T unit. Word generation and sentence formation tasks were used to activate language areas. Language areas were defined as Brodmann 44, 45 (Broca's area) and Brodmann 22 area (Wernicke's area). Laterality index was used to show the dominant hemisphere. Two poorly cooperative patients showed no activation and were excluded from the study. Broca's area was localized in 21 patients (100 %). Wernicke's area, on the other hand, could only be localized in eight of the 21 patients (38 %).The left hemisphere was dominant in 86% of patients while atypical language lateralization (right or bilateral) was demonstrated in 14% of the patients. Bilateral activation areas were shown in 10% of those patients while right cerebral hemisphere was dominant in 4% of the patients. Word generation and sentence formation tasks are especially helpful in localizing Broca's area. Wernicke's area could also be demonstrated in some of the cases. Functional MRI can be used as an important and useful means of demonstrating language areas in patients with lesions adjacent to those areas and depicting the hemispheric dominance.

  3. Relationship between the clinical characteristics of osteomyelitis and the finding of extraosseous fat on MRI in pediatric patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mattis, Tod A. [Spectrum Health Helen Devos Children' s Hospital, Grand Rapids, MI (United States); Michigan State University, College of Human Medicine, Radiology, Grand Rapids, MI (United States); Grand Rapids Medical Education Partners, Grand Rapids, MI (United States); Borders, Heather L.; Ellinger, Doug M.; Junewick, Joseph J. [Spectrum Health Helen Devos Children' s Hospital, Grand Rapids, MI (United States); Michigan State University, College of Human Medicine, Radiology, Grand Rapids, MI (United States); Advanced Radiology Services, Grand Rapids, MI (United States)

    2011-10-15

    MRI is frequently utilized to evaluate patients for osteomyelitis. The findings of intramedullary and extramedullary fat globules as well as extramedullary fat-fluid levels can help improve the specificity of MRI for this diagnosis. To correlate these MRI findings with the clinical characteristics in children with osteomyelitis. A retrospective electronic medical record search for pediatric patient charts from March 2004 to November 2009 that contained the word ''osteomyelitis'' in the ''principal diagnosis'' portion of the international classification of disease (ICD) billing code. Each electronic chart was reviewed. MRI examinations of selected children were reviewed by a pediatric radiologist, a general radiologist and a transitional year resident. A total of 10 patients/11 MRI studies were included. Five of the 11 had the MRI finding of extramedullary globular fat signal. There was a significantly increased likelihood of seeing this finding in children of pubertal or postpubertal age compared to those of prepubertal age (p < 0.05). This study provides evidence that the MRI finding of extramedullary fat globules in children with acute osteomyelitis is associated with the clinical characteristic of being within or above the age range for puberty. (orig.)

  4. Improved detection of event-related functional MRI signals using probability functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagberg, G E; Zito, G; Patria, F; Sanes, J N

    2001-11-01

    Selecting an optimal event distribution for experimental use in event-related fMRI studies can require the generation of large numbers of event sequences with characteristics hard to control. The use of known probability distributions offers the possibility to control event timing and constrain the search space for finding optimal event sequences. We investigated different probability distributions in terms of response estimation (estimation efficiency), detectability (detection power, parameter estimation efficiency, sensitivity to true positives), and false-positive activation. Numerous simulated event sequences were generated selecting interevent intervals (IEI) from the uniform, uniform permuted, Latin square, exponential, binomial, Poisson, chi(2), geometric, and bimodal probability distributions and fixed IEI. Event sequences from the bimodal distribution, like block designs, had the best performance for detection and the poorest for estimation, while high estimation and detectability occurred for the long-decay exponential distribution. The uniform distribution also yielded high estimation efficiency, but probability functions with a long tail toward higher IEI, such as the geometric and the chi(2) distributions, had superior detectability. The distributions with the best detection performance also had a relatively high incidence of false positives, in contrast to the ordered distributions (Latin square and uniform permuted). The predictions of improved sensitivities for distributions with long tails were confirmed with empirical data. Moreover, the Latin square design yielded detection of activated voxels similar to the chi(2) distribution. These results indicate that high detection and suitable behavioral designs have compatibility for application of functional MRI methods to experiments requiring complex designs.

  5. Herpes simplex encephalitis: MRI findings in two cases confirmed by polymerase chain reaction assay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, J.W.; Kim, I.O.; Kim, W.S.; Yeon, K.M. [Dept. of Radiology and the Institute of Radiation Medicine, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea); Lee, H.-J.; Hwang, Y.S. [Dept. of Paediatrics, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea)

    2001-09-01

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV) type I causes a fulminant necrotising meningoencephalitis distinguished from other encephalitides by its focal and often haemorrhagic nature. Specific antiviral therapy with acyclovir can significantly improve the prognosis. We present MRI findings of two cases of herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE) confirmed by PCR analysis, focusing on the serial changes after acyclovir therapy: gyral swelling, high signal intensity on T2-weighted images in the subfrontal region, temporal lobe and insula in the initial stage, then regional extension with enhancement and haemorrhage despite appropriate acyclovir therapy, and finally encephalomalacia and brain atrophy. (orig.)

  6. Incidental optochiasmatic cavernoma: Case report of an unusual finding on 3 Tesla MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trentadue, Mirko; Pozzi Mucelli, Roberto; Piovan, Enrico; Pizzini, Francesca Benedetta

    2016-08-01

    Cavernoma is a vascular hamartoma, which represents 10-20% of all central nervous system vascular malformations. The majority (80%) of them are supratentorial, while involvement of the cranial nerves and the optic pathways is extremely rare. The main clinical presentation of optochiasmatic cavernomas consists of chiasmatic apoplexy, which is a neurosurgical emergency. Here, we report a case in which the finding was incidentally detected in a 49-year-old man. We describe the imaging characteristics of the lesion in such a rare location, highlighting the role of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) (specifically 3 Tesla) in the management of asymptomatic patients.

  7. Diffuse spinal and intercostal nerve involvement in chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy: MRI findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oguz, B.; Oguz, K.K.; Cila, A. [Dept. of Radiology, Hacettepe Univ. Faculty of Medicine, Ankara (Turkey); Tan, E. [Dept. of Neurology, Hacettepe Univ. Faculty of Medicine, Ankara (Turkey)

    2003-12-01

    Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (CIDP) is an uncommon demyelinating disorder with a relapsing and remitting or continuously progressive course. Hypertrophic nerve roots, sometimes associated with gadolinium enhancement, has been reported more commonly in lumbar spine and less commonly in the brachial plexus and cervical roots; however, diffuse involvement of intercostal nerves bilaterally has never been reported previously. We present MRI findings which include diffuse enlargement and mild enhancement of roots and extraforaminal segments of nerves in all segments except a short segment between T12-L2 as well as all the intercostal nerves in a case of CIPD with a 10-year history. (orig.)

  8. Labyrinthitis ossificans in a child with sickle cell disease: CT and MRI findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Benjamin P. [Boston University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Boston Medical Center, Boston, MA (United States); Northwestern University, Section of Neuroradiology, Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL (United States); Saito, Naoko; Wang, Jimmy J.; Mian, Asim Z.; Sakai, Osamu [Boston University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Boston Medical Center, Boston, MA (United States)

    2009-09-15

    The association between sensorineural hearing loss and sickle cell disease has been described, and labyrinthine hemorrhage has been reported with sickle cell disease. We report the CT and MRI findings of labyrinthitis ossificans in a child with sickle cell disease who presented with sensorineural hearing loss. Labyrinthitis ossificans is associated with an infectious, inflammatory, or destructive insult to the membranous labyrinth; however, it has not been specifically described with sickle cell disease. Recognition of this condition is important because it affects both management and prognosis of this disease. (orig.)

  9. High temporal resolution functional MRI using parallel echo volumar imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rabrait, C.; Ciuciu, P.; Ribes, A.; Poupon, C.; Dehaine-Lambertz, G.; LeBihan, D.; Lethimonnier, F. [CEA Saclay, DSV, I2BM, Neurospin, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette (France); Le Roux, P. [GEHC, Buc (France); Dehaine-Lambertz, G. [Unite INSERM 562, Gif Sur Yvette (France)

    2008-07-01

    Purpose: To combine parallel imaging with 3D single-shot acquisition (echo volumar imaging, EVI) in order to acquire high temporal resolution volumar functional MRI (fMRI) data. Materials and Methods: An improved EVI sequence was associated with parallel acquisition and field of view reduction in order to acquire a large brain volume in 200 msec. Temporal stability and functional sensitivity were increased through optimization of all imaging parameters and Tikhonov regularization of parallel reconstruction. Two human volunteers were scanned with parallel EVI in a 1.5 T whole-body MR system, while submitted to a slow event-related auditory paradigm. Results: Thanks to parallel acquisition, the EVI volumes display a low level of geometric distortions and signal losses. After removal of low-frequency drifts and physiological artifacts,activations were detected in the temporal lobes of both volunteers and voxel-wise hemodynamic response functions (HRF) could be computed. On these HRF different habituation behaviors in response to sentence repetition could be identified. Conclusion: This work demonstrates the feasibility of high temporal resolution 3D fMRI with parallel EVI. Combined with advanced estimation tools,this acquisition method should prove useful to measure neural activity timing differences or study the nonlinearities and non-stationarities of the BOLD response. (authors)

  10. CT, MRI, and FDG-PET/CT imaging findings of abdominopelvic desmoplastic small round cell tumors: Correlation with histopathologic findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Weidong, E-mail: dongw.z@163.com [State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, 651 Dongfengdong Road, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510060 (China) and Department of Radiology, Cancer Center, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510060 (China); Li Chuanxing, E-mail: lichuanh@mail.sysu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, 651 Dongfengdong Road, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510060 (China); Department of Radiology, Cancer Center, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510060 (China); Liu Qingyu, E-mail: liu.qingyu@163.com [Department of Radiology, No. 2 Affiliated Hospital, 107 Yanjiangxi Road, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510120 (China); Hu Yingying, E-mail: yingyinghu1981@163.com [State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, 651 Dongfengdong Road, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510060 (China) and Department of Radiology, Cancer Center, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510060 (China); Cao Yun, E-mail: caoyun@mail.sysu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, 651 Dongfengdong Road, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510060 (China); Department of Pathology, Cancer Center, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510060 (China); Huang Jinhua, E-mail: drhuangjh@163.com [State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, 651 Dongfengdong Road, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510060 (China) and Department of Radiology, Cancer Center, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510060 (China)

    2011-11-15

    Objective: To analyze computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography (FDG-PET)/CT imaging features of abdominopelvic desmoplastic small round cell tumor (DSRCT) and to improve the diagnostic efficacy of these techniques for the detection of such tumor. Methods: We retrospectively analyzed 7 cases of abdominopelvic DSRCT confirmed by histopathologic analysis. Among the 7 patients, 5 patients had undergone CT scanning, 2 of which were also examined with FDG-PET/CT imaging, and 2 had undergone MRI. Unenhanced and contrast-enhanced examinations were performed in all patients, and 2 patients had also undergone dynamic CT contrast-enhanced examinations. Image characteristics, such as shape, size, number, edge, attenuation, and intensity of each lesion before and after contrast enhancement were analyzed and compared with the pathomorphology of the tumors. Results: Multiple large masses in the abdominopelvis were detected in 6 cases, and a large mass in the pelvis was detected in 1 case. Six cases showed largest mass in pelvis, and 1 case in mesentery. None of the masses had a definite organ origin. CT showed soft tissue masses with patchy foci of hypodense areas. MR T1-weighted images revealed lesions with mild hypointense areas and patchy hypointense areas in 2 cases and lesions with patchy hyperintense areas in 1 case. T2-weighted images showed lesions with mixed isointense and hyperintense areas in 1 case and lesions with mixed hypointense, isointense, and hyperintense areas in another. Contrast-enhanced CT and T1-weighted images showed mildly heterogeneous enhancement of the lesions. Other associated findings included peritoneal seeding (n = 3), peritoneal effusions (n = 3), hepatic metastasis (n = 2), bone metastasis (n = 1), and mesenteric and retroperitoneal lymphadenopathy (n = 4). FDG-PET/CT showed multiple nodular foci of increased metabolic activity in the abdominopelvic masses, in the hepatic and

  11. Visual recovery after perinatal stroke evidenced by functional and diffusion MRI: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saudan-Frei Sonja

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background After perinatal brain injury, clinico-anatomic correlations of functional deficits and brain plasticity remain difficult to evaluate clinically in the young infant. Thus, new non-invasive methods capable of early functional diagnosis are needed in young infants. Case Presentation The visual system recovery in an infant with perinatal stroke is assessed by combining diffusion tensor imaging (DTI and event-related functional MRI (ER-fMRI. All experiments were done at 1.5T. A first DTI experiment was performed at 12 months of age. At 20 months of age, a second DTI experiment was performed and combined with an ER-fMRI experiment with visual stimuli (2 Hz visual flash. At 20 months of age, ER-fMRI showed significant negative activation in the visual cortex of the injured left hemisphere that was not previously observed in the same infant. DTI maps suggest recovery of the optic radiation in the vicinity of the lesion. Optic radiations in the injured hemisphere are more prominent in DTI at 20 months of age than in DTI at 12 months of age. Conclusion Our data indicate that functional cortical recovery is supported by structural modifications that concern major pathways of the visual system. These neuroimaging findings might contribute to elaborate a pertinent strategy in terms of diagnosis and rehabilitation.

  12. Syringomyelia: Correlation between MRI and clinical findings before and after surgery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroth, G.; Palmbach, M.

    1988-12-01

    A comparison between clinical and MRI findings in 20 patients with syringomyelia produced the following results: 1. The position and extent of the syrinx do not correspond with the clinical findings. 2. Successfully operated syringomyelia cavities collapse in their sagittal diameters. The resulting oval shape of the syrinx can be used to evaluate shunt insufficiency. 3. In almost half of the patients the diameter of the spinal cord is within the 95% of normal controls and would therefore not have been diagnosed by myelography. 4. Anomalies of the cranio-cervical junction were present in only one-third of the patients. This finding does not support the hypothesis that syringomyelia is caused by hydrodynamic factors only.

  13. MRI findings of the wrist in patients with multiple osteonecrosis in large joints of the extremities

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    Saitoh, Shinobu; Ebata, Tatsuki; Abe, Kazuhiro [Chiba Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine; Imai, Katsumi; Rokkaku, Tomoyuki

    1998-02-01

    We evaluated MRI findings of the wrist in patients who had multiple osteonecrosis in the large joints of their extremities (hips, knees, shoulders, and ankles) and compared these with the clinical symptoms and radiographical findings. Sixty wrists of 30 patients (3 males and 27 females) with multiple osteonecrosis were studied. Subjects ranged in age from 16 to 59 years. Their primary diseases were SLE in 24 patients, alcoholic osteonecrosis in two, Sjoegren`s syndrome in one, dermatomyositis in one, leukemia in one, and MCTD in one patient. Using MRI, we found osteonecrosis in seven wrists of four patients. Lesions were seen in six scaphoids of three patients, in two lunates of two patients, and in one capitate. We noted a reduced range of motion in three of the seven wrists with osteonecrosis. Two of the seven complained at wrist pain at motion, although three wrists were symptom free. Radiographically, an abnormality was recognized in two of the seven wrists. Generally, osteonecrosis of the lunate (Kienboeck`s disease) is more frequent than that of the scaphoid (Preiser`s disease). However in the present series, we found a higher osteonecrosis rate of the scaphoid than the lunate, using MRI. The discrepancy can be explained by the vascularity. In 1986, Gelberman reported that the scaphoid, the capitate, and 8% of the lunate had either vessels entering only one surface or large areas of bone that were dependent on a single vessel. The present study is consistent with these anatomical features. In other words, the present results demonstrated that Kienboeck`s disease can be induced not only by a deficient blood supply but also by some additional factors. (author)

  14. Additional findings at preoperative breast MRI: the value of second-look digital breast tomosynthesis

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    Clauser, Paola; Pancot, Martina; Girometti, Rossano; Bazzocchi, Massimo; Zuiani, Chiara [University of Udine, Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria, ' ' S.Maria della Misericordia' ' , Institute of Diagnostic Radiology, Department of Medical and Biological Sciences, Udine (Italy); Carbonaro, Luca A. [IRCCS Policlinico San Donato, Unit of Radiology, Milan (Italy); Sardanelli, Francesco [IRCCS Policlinico San Donato, Unit of Radiology, Milan (Italy); Universita degli Studi di Milano, Department of Biomedical Sciences of Health, Milan (Italy)

    2015-10-15

    To evaluate second-look digital breast tomosynthesis (SL-DBT) for additional findings (AFs) at preoperative MRI compared with second-look ultrasound (SL-US). We included 135 patients with breast cancer who underwent digital mammography (DM), DBT, US, and MRI at two centres. MR images were retrospectively evaluated to find AFs, described as focus, mass, or non-mass; ≤10 mm or >10 mm in size; BI-RADS 3, 4, or 5. DM and DBT exams were reviewed looking for MRI AFs; data on SL-US were collected. Reference standard was histopathology or ≥12-month negative follow-up. Fisher exact test and McNemar test were used. Eighty-four AFs were detected in 53/135 patients (39 %, 95 %CI 31-48 %). A correlate was found for 44/84 (52 %, 95 %CI 41-63 %) at SL-US, for 20/84 (24 %, 95 %CI 11-28 %) at SL-DM, for 42/84 (50 %, 95 %CI 39-61 %) at SL-DBT, for 63/84 (75 %, 95 %CI 64-84 %) at SL-DBT, and/or SL-US, the last rate being higher than for SL-US only, overall (p < 0.001), for mass or non-mass, ≤ or >10 mm, BI-RADS 4 or 5, or malignant lesions (p < 0.031). Of 21 AFs occult at both SLs, 17 were malignant (81 %, 95 %CI 58-94 %). When adding SL-DBT to SL-US, AFs detection increased from 52 % to 75 %. MR-guided biopsy is needed for the remaining 25 %. (orig.)

  15. Contrast-associated transient cortical blindness: three cases with MRI and electrophysiology findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baguma, Marius; Younan, Nadia; London, Frédéric; Ossemann, Michel; Vandermeeren, Yves

    2016-09-26

    Transient cortical blindness (TCB) is a rare but striking complication following contrast agent injection. TCB might be secondary to a direct toxicity of the contrast agent, leading to an osmotic disruption of the blood-brain barrier (BBB), with a preferential involvement of the posterior circulation and occipital cortex. We report a series of three patients with contrast medium-associated TCB (intra-arterial injection of non-ionic contrast agent during diagnostic cerebral angiography for two of them and coronary angioplasty for the other one). In two patients, the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was unremarkable; in the other patient, typical MRI findings were observed, with FLAIR hyperintensities in the right occipital cortex and decreased apparent diffusions coefficient (ADC). Interestingly, this patient also presented posterior rhythmic epileptiform activities on electroencephalogram during the first 36 h. Visual evoked potentials (VEPs) showed normal retinal potential, but a massive destructuration of the later potentials of the cortical origin. To our knowledge, this is the first time that VEPs acquired during TCB are reported. We discuss these findings with respect to the pathophysiology of TCB.

  16. Chronic exertional compartment syndrome of the forearm in motocross racers: findings on MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gielen, Jan Louis [Antwerp University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Antwerp (Belgium); Antwerp University Hospital, Multidisciplinary Department of Sports Medicine, Antwerp (Belgium); Peersman, Benjamin; Dyck, Pieter van; Vanhoenacker, Filip [Antwerp University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Antwerp (Belgium); Peersman, Geert [ZNA, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Antwerp (Belgium); Roelant, Ella [Antwerp University Hospital, Department of Scientific Coordination, Antwerp (Belgium); Roeykens, Johan [Antwerp University Hospital, Multidisciplinary Department of Sports Medicine, Antwerp (Belgium)

    2009-12-15

    The purpose of this prospective study was to demonstrate the findings of MRI in motocross racers with chronic exertional compartment syndrome (CECS) of the forearm. Racers with proven CECS and without CECS and male individuals not involved in strenuous activities with the forearm were included. Signal intensity (SI) and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) obtained before and after exercise were compared (D-SNR). Magnetic resonance imaging after exercise showed an increase in SI and SNR in the muscles on T2-WI. The SI increase was obvious in the flexor digitorum superficialis (FDS) and profundus (FDP) in all CECS patients. In addition, a minor SI and SNR increase in the extensor carpi radialis longus (ECRL) was noted. In the non-symptomatic group of motocross racers, there was only a minor increase in SI and the SNR, which was similar in the FDP and ECRL muscles. In the untrained individuals a remarkable increase in the SI and SNR of the FDS/FDP-ECRL was noted. This increased SI and SNR was not present in the majority of non-symptomatic racers. Post-exertional MRI produces significant findings in CECS of the forearm. The motocross racers without post-exertional oedema in the FDP/FDS had no CECS. (orig.)

  17. Partial achilles tendon rupture presenting with giant hematoma; MRI findings of 4 year follow up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarsilmaz, Aysegul; Varer, Makbule; Coskun, Gulten; Apaydın, Melda; Oyar, Orhan

    2011-12-01

    In the young population, spontaneous rupture of Achilles tendon is very rare. The big hematoma is also rare finding of the Achilles tendon partial rupture. It is usually seen with complete rupture. We presented imaging findings of 4 years follow up of the spontaneous partial rupture of Achilles tendon presenting with giant expanding hematoma and mimicking complete rupture radiologically. We discussed the alterations of tendon signal intensity and result of conservative therapy after partial rupture with big hematoma in the long term. A 29 year-old man, applied with pain and swelling in the retrocalcaneal region of left ankle. He did not have chronic metabolic disease. He was not active in physical activities. X-ray radiograms were normal. At magnetic resonance images (MRI), there was an intratendinous big hematoma, subcutanous fat planes were edematous around tendon. The diagnosis was partial rupture and giant hematoma. Hematoma was drained. The conservative treatment was applied and his complaints disappeared. After treatment, approximately 4 years later, control MRI showed thickened and hypointense tendon in all images. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Chronic exertional compartment syndrome of the forearm in motocross racers: findings on MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gielen, Jan Louis; Peersman, Benjamin; Peersman, Geert; Roelant, Ella; Van Dyck, Pieter; Vanhoenacker, Filip; Roeykens, Johan

    2009-12-01

    The purpose of this prospective study was to demonstrate the findings of MRI in motocross racers with chronic exertional compartment syndrome (CECS) of the forearm. Racers with proven CECS and without CECS and male individuals not involved in strenuous activities with the forearm were included. Signal intensity (SI) and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) obtained before and after exercise were compared (D-SNR). Magnetic resonance imaging after exercise showed an increase in SI and SNR in the muscles on T2-WI. The SI increase was obvious in the flexor digitorum superficialis (FDS) and profundus (FDP) in all CECS patients. In addition, a minor SI and SNR increase in the extensor carpi radialis longus (ECRL) was noted. In the non-symptomatic group of motocross racers, there was only a minor increase in SI and the SNR, which was similar in the FDP and ECRL muscles. In the untrained individuals a remarkable increase in the SI and SNR of the FDS/FDP-ECRL was noted. This increased SI and SNR was not present in the majority of non-symptomatic racers. Post-exertional MRI produces significant findings in CECS of the forearm. The motocross racers without post-exertional oedema in the FDP/FDS had no CECS.

  19. Cine-MRI versus two-dimensional echocardiography to measure in vivo left ventricular function in rat heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuckey, Daniel J; Carr, Carolyn A; Tyler, Damian J; Clarke, Kieran

    2008-08-01

    Two-dimensional echocardiography is the most commonly used non-invasive method for measuring in vivo cardiac function in experimental animals. In humans, measurements of cardiac function made using cine-MRI compare favourably with those made using echocardiography. However, no rigorous comparison has been made in small animals. Here, standard short-axis two-dimensional (2D) echocardiography (2D-echo) and cine-MRI measurements were made in the same rats, both control and after chronic myocardial infarction. Correlations between the two techniques were found for end diastolic area, stroke area and ejection fraction, but cine-MRI measurements of ejection fraction were 12+/-6% higher than those made using 2D-echo, because of the 1.8-fold higher temporal resolution of the MRI technique (4.6 ms vs 8.3 ms). Repeated measurements on the same group of rats over several days showed that the cine-MRI technique was more reproducible than 2D-echo, in that 2D-echo would require five times more animals to find a statistically significant difference. In summary, caution should be exercised when comparing functional results acquired using short-axis 2D-echo vs cine-MRI. The accuracy of cine-MRI allows identification of alterations in heart function that may be missed when using 2D-echo.

  20. MRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    MRI does not use ionizing radiation. No side effects from the magnetic fields and radio waves have been reported. The most common type of contrast (dye) used is gadolinium. It is very safe. Allergic reactions rarely ...

  1. INTRACRANIAL AND INTRASPINAL TUMOURS: REVIEW OF MRI FINDINGS IN A RARE NF - 2 CASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahoo

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Neurofibromatosis type 2 is a rare autosomal dominant syndrome, characterized by multiple intracranial and intraspinal tumours associated with ocular abnormalities. The most common tumor associated with the disease is the vestibule cochlear schwannoma, and as many as 10% of patients with this tumor have neurofibromatosis type 2. Based on clinical and imaging findings the diagnostic of neurofibromatosis type 2 can be made. In this report we aim to report a 24 - year - old male who was evaluated for progressive h earing loss, vertigo, ataxic gait and right lower limb weakness. During the workup, cranial CT, Brain and whole s pine MRI was done which showed all the findings in one patient including bilateral vestibulocochlear schwannoma, multiple meningiomas, and intr amedullary and extramedullary tumours in spinal cord.

  2. MRI findings of otic and sinus barotrauma in patients with carbon monoxide poisoning during hyperbaric oxygen therapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Wang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: To study the MRI findings of otic and sinus barotrauma in patients with carbon monoxide(CO poisoning during hyperbaric oxygen (HBO therapy and examine the discrepancies of otic and sinus abnormalities on MRI between barotrauma and acute otitis media with effusion. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eighty patients with CO-poisoning diagnosed with otic and sinus barotrauma after HBO therapy were recruited. Brain MRI was performed to predict delayed encephalopathy. Over the same period, 88 patients with acute otitis media with effusion on MRI served as control. The abnormalities of the middle ear and paranasal sinuses on MRI were noted and were compared between groups. Nine patients with barotrauma were followed up by MRI. RESULTS: In the barotrauma group, 92.5% of patients had bilateral middle ear abnormalities on MRI, and 60% of patients had both middle ear cavity and mastoid cavity abnormalities on MRI in both ears. Both rates were higher than those in the control group (p = 0.000. In the two groups, most abnormalities on MRI were observed in the mastoid cavity. The rate of sinus abnormalities of barotrauma was 66.3%, which was higher than the 50% in the control group (p = 0.033. In the nine patients with barotrauma followed up by MRI, the otic barotrauma and sinus abnormalities had worsened in 2 patients and 5 patients, respectively. CONCLUSION: MRI is able to depict the abnormalities of otic and sinus barotrauma in patients with CO-poisoning during HBO therapy and to differentiate these from acute otitis media with effusion.

  3. Quantitative evaluation of the reticuloendothelial system function with dynamic MRI.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting Liu

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To evaluate the reticuloendothelial system (RES function by real-time imaging blood clearance as well as hepatic uptake of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticle (SPIO using dynamic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI with two-compartment pharmacokinetic modeling. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Kinetics of blood clearance and hepatic accumulation were recorded in young adult male 01b74 athymic nude mice by dynamic T2* weighted MRI after the injection of different doses of SPIO nanoparticles (0.5, 3 or 10 mg Fe/kg. Association parameter, Kin, dissociation parameter, Kout, and elimination constant, Ke, derived from dynamic data with two-compartment model, were used to describe active binding to Kupffer cells and extrahepatic clearance. The clodrosome and liposome were utilized to deplete macrophages and block the RES function to evaluate the capability of the kinetic parameters for investigation of macrophage function and density. RESULTS: The two-compartment model provided a good description for all data and showed a low sum squared residual for all mice (0.27±0.03. A lower Kin, a lower Kout and a lower Ke were found after clodrosome treatment, whereas a lower Kin, a higher Kout and a lower Ke were observed after liposome treatment in comparison to saline treatment (P<0.005. CONCLUSION: Dynamic SPIO-enhanced MR imaging with two-compartment modeling can provide information on RES function on both a cell number and receptor function level.

  4. Cortical language activation in aphasia:a functional MRI study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐晓俊; 张敏鸣; 商德胜; 汪启东; 罗本燕; 翁旭初

    2004-01-01

    Background Functional neuroimaging has been used in neurolinguistic research on normal subjects and on patients with brain damage. This study was designed to investigate the differences of the neural basis underlying language processing between normal subjects and aphasics.Methods Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used to map the language network in 6 normal subjects and 3 patients with aphasia who were in the stage of recovery from acute stroke. The participants performed a word generation task during multi-slice functional scanning for the measurement of signal change associated with regional neural activity induced by the task. Results In normal subjects, a distributed language network was activated. Activations were present in the frontal, temporal, parietal and occipital regions. In the patient group, however, no activation was detected in the left inferior frontal gyrus whether the patient had a lesion in the left frontal lobe or not. Two patients showed activations in some right hemisphere regions where no activation appeared in normal subjects. Conclusions fMRI with word generation task is feasible for evaluating language function in aphasic patients. Remote effect of focal lesion and functional redistribution or reorganisation can be found in aphasic patients.

  5. Post traumatic deafness: a pictorial review of CT and MRI findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maillot, Olivier; Attyé, Arnaud; Boyer, Eric; Heck, Olivier; Kastler, Adrian; Grand, Sylvie; Schmerber, Sébastien; Krainik, Alexandre

    2016-06-01

    Hearing loss is a common functional disorder after trauma, and radiologists should be aware of the ossicular, labyrinthine or brain lesions that may be responsible. After a trauma, use of a systematic approach to explore the main functional components of auditory pathways is essential. Conductive hearing loss is caused by the disruption of the conductive chain, which may be due to ossicular luxation or fracture. This pictorial review firstly describes the normal 2-D and 3-D anatomy of the ossicular chain, including the incudo-malleolar and incudo-stapedial joints. The role of 3-D CT in the post-traumatic evaluation of injury to the temporal bone is then evaluated. In the case of sensorineural hearing loss, CT can detect pneumolabyrinth and signs of perilymphatic fistulae but fails to detect subtle lesions within the inner ear, such as labyrinthine haemorrhage or localized brain axonal damage along central auditory pathways. The role that MRI with 3-D-FLAIR acquisition plays in the detection of inner ear haemorrhage and post-traumatic lesions of the brain parenchyma that may lead to auditory agnosia is also discussed. • The most common middle ear injuries are incudo-malleolar and incudo-stapedial joint luxation. • In patients with SNHL, CT can detect pneumolabyrinth or perilymphatic fistula • 3-D-FLAIR MRI appears the best sequence to highlight labyrinthine haemorrhage • Axonal damage and brain hematoma may lead to deafness.

  6. Utility of Postmortem Autopsy via Whole-Body Imaging: Initial Observations Comparing MDCT and 3.0T MRI Findings with Autopsy Findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cha, Jang Gyu; Kim, Dong Hun; Paik, Sang Hyun [National Institute of Scientific Investigation, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-08-15

    We prospectively compared whole-body multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) and 3.0T magnetic resonance (MR) images with autopsy findings. Five cadavers were subjected to whole-body, 16- channel MDCT and 3.0T MR imaging within two hours before an autopsy. A radiologist classified the MDCT and 3.0T MRI findings into major and minor findings, which were compared with autopsy findings. Most of the imaging findings, pertaining to head and neck, heart and vascular, chest, abdomen, spine, and musculoskeletal lesions, corresponded to autopsy findings. The causes of death that were determined on the bases of MDCT and 3.0T MRI findings were consistent with the autopsy findings in four of five cases. CT was useful in diagnosing fatal hemorrhage and pneumothorax, as well as determining the shapes and characteristics of the fractures and the direction of external force. MRI was effective in evaluating and tracing the route of a metallic object, soft tissue lesions, chronicity of hemorrhage, and bone bruises. A postmortem MDCT combined with MRI is a potentially powerful tool, providing noninvasive and objective measurements for forensic investigations

  7. Utility of Postmortem Autopsy via Whole-Body Imaging: Initial Observations Comparing MDCT and 3.0T MRI Findings with Autopsy Findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Jang Gyu; Kim, Dong Hun; Kim, Dae Ho; Paik, Sang Hyun; Park, Jai Soung; Park, Seong Jin; Lee, Hae Kyung; Hong, Hyun Sook; Choi, Duek Lin; Chung, Nak Eun; Lee, Bong Woo; Seo, Joong Seok

    2010-01-01

    Objective We prospectively compared whole-body multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) and 3.0T magnetic resonance (MR) images with autopsy findings. Materials and Methods Five cadavers were subjected to whole-body, 16-channel MDCT and 3.0T MR imaging within two hours before an autopsy. A radiologist classified the MDCT and 3.0T MRI findings into major and minor findings, which were compared with autopsy findings. Results Most of the imaging findings, pertaining to head and neck, heart and vascular, chest, abdomen, spine, and musculoskeletal lesions, corresponded to autopsy findings. The causes of death that were determined on the bases of MDCT and 3.0T MRI findings were consistent with the autopsy findings in four of five cases. CT was useful in diagnosing fatal hemorrhage and pneumothorax, as well as determining the shapes and characteristics of the fractures and the direction of external force. MRI was effective in evaluating and tracing the route of a metallic object, soft tissue lesions, chronicity of hemorrhage, and bone bruises. Conclusion A postmortem MDCT combined with MRI is a potentially powerful tool, providing noninvasive and objective measurements for forensic investigations. PMID:20592923

  8. Globus pallidus high-signal lesions: A predominant MRI finding in children with neurofibromatosis type 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arif Khan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Lesions of the brain, recognized as unidentified bright objects (UBOs, are commonly observed as areas of increased T2-weighted signal intensity on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI in children with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1. Identification of these lesions is not currently encompassed in the National Institute of Health (NIH diagnostic criteria for NF1. Objective: We aimed to determine the prevalence of UBOs in children with NF1 and identify areas of the brain that are commonly affected by these lesions, allowing us to evaluate whether UBOs should be included in the diagnostic criteria for the diagnosis of NF1. Materials and Methods: We reviewed the cranial MRI scans of 22 children who had been diagnosed with sporadic or familial NF1 in accordance with the criteria established by NIH. UBOs were present in 81% of the children with NF1. Results: These lesions have a predilection for specific areas of the brain, including the globus pallidus (72%, cerebellum (66%, brainstem (27% and cerebral hemispheres (16%. The prevalence of UBOs identified varied significantly with age and sex; they were infrequent in children less than 4 years of age but were common in those aged between 4 and 12 years of age. UBOs were more commonly seen in males (66.6% compared with females (33.3%. Repeat MRI scan on a subset of these patients with UBOs did not show any significant changes despite a worsening in clinical symptoms. Conclusion and Discussion: We have shown that UBOs are a common finding in children with NF1, and are most prevalent between the ages of 4 and 12 years. Many sites of the brain are affected by these lesions, most notably the globus pallidus and the cerebellum. Further research must be conducted to elucidate the significance of UBOs in patients with NF1 and whether these lesions have any utility in the clinical detection of NF1.

  9. A study on clinical findings about vertebral disease diagnosed with MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ham-Gyum [Ansan College, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-09-15

    In order to analyze clinical characteristics like sex-and age-based onset frequency and onset region from vertebral disease cases, this study investigated total 1,291 cases of vertebral disease that were diagnosed via magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) from January to December 2004 at B University Hospital in metropolitan area. For higher diagnostic accuracy in cases of spinal disorder diagnosed, this study analyzed findings from data reading conducted by veteran specialists in diagnostic radiology. But this study excluded uncertain lesion cases, the cases requiring differential diagnosis from other disorders and so on from subjects under analysis. This study employed superconductive 1.5 Tesla SIGNA MR/i for MRI test and basically received resulting images via FSE (fast spin echo). In particular, this study obtained T1 and T2 myelogram with regard to regional characteristics (such as cervical vertebrae, thoracic vertebrae and lumbar vertebra) and imaging characteristics for sagittal and transverse section. As a result, this study came to the following conclusions: 1. In terms of general characteristics of subjects under analysis, male group comprised 53.5% and female 46.5% out of total 1,291 subjects. 2. The regional onset frequency of spinal disorders was converged primarily on lumbar vertebra (65.5%), which was followed by cervical vertebrae (27.3%) and thoracic vertebrae (7.0%) respectively. 3. Top 10 cases with high onset frequency of spinal disorders can be listed as follows: 1) posterior bulging disc 65.8% 2) narrowing of neural foramen 23.8% 3) herniated intervertebral disc (HIVD) 22.4% 4) spinal stenosis 16.7% 5) osteochondrosis 6.4% 6) compression fracture 6.4% 7) facet joint arthropathy 6.2% 8) spondylolisthesis 6.0% 9) spinal cord tumor 3.5% 10) inter body fusion 2.6%.

  10. Quantitative evaluation of statistical inference in resting state functional MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xue; Kang, Hakmook; Newton, Allen; Landman, Bennett A

    2012-01-01

    Modern statistical inference techniques may be able to improve the sensitivity and specificity of resting state functional MRI (rs-fMRI) connectivity analysis through more realistic characterization of distributional assumptions. In simulation, the advantages of such modern methods are readily demonstrable. However quantitative empirical validation remains elusive in vivo as the true connectivity patterns are unknown and noise/artifact distributions are challenging to characterize with high fidelity. Recent innovations in capturing finite sample behavior of asymptotically consistent estimators (i.e., SIMulation and EXtrapolation - SIMEX) have enabled direct estimation of bias given single datasets. Herein, we leverage the theoretical core of SIMEX to study the properties of inference methods in the face of diminishing data (in contrast to increasing noise). The stability of inference methods with respect to synthetic loss of empirical data (defined as resilience) is used to quantify the empirical performance of one inference method relative to another. We illustrate this new approach in a comparison of ordinary and robust inference methods with rs-fMRI.

  11. Unicompartmental knee arthroplasty MRI: impact of slice-encoding for metal artefact correction MRI on image quality, findings and therapy decision

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agten, Christoph A.; Pfirrmann, Christian W.A.; Sutter, Reto [Balgrist University Hospital, Radiology Department, Zurich (Switzerland); University of Zurich, Faculty of Medicine, Zurich (Switzerland); Grande, Filippo del [Regional Hospital, Radiology, Lugano (Switzerland); Fucentese, Sandro F.; Blatter, Samuel [University of Zurich, Faculty of Medicine, Zurich (Switzerland); Balgrist University Hospital, Orthopedics, Zurich (Switzerland)

    2015-07-15

    To evaluate the impact of slice-encoding for metal artefact correction (SEMAC) on image quality, findings, and therapy decision in patients with unicompartmental knee arthroplasty (UKA). Forty-five painful UKAs were examined at 1.5T-MRI (STIR, proton-density(PD)-weighted sequence, each with SEMAC and high-bandwidth). Artefact size, image quality, anatomic depiction, and clinically relevant findings were compared between SEMAC and high-bandwidth (2 readers). In 30 patients, therapy decision was retrospectively assessed by two orthopaedic surgeons without MRI, with high-bandwidth-MRI, and with SEMAC-MRI. SEMAC reduced mean artefact size for STIR (11.8 cm{sup 2} vs. 37.7 cm{sup 2}) and PD (16.8 cm{sup 2} vs. 18.9 cm{sup 2}), p < 0.0005 for both comparisons. SEMAC showed more blurring than high-bandwidth, p < 0.0005. STIR-SEMAC revealed more bone marrow oedema (29 vs. 18 patients, p = 0.001, 30 vs. 13 patients, p < 0.0005, for reader 1 and 2 respectively). PD-SEMAC was worse in detecting meniscal lesions (6 missed, p = 0.031, 9 missed, p = 0.004, by reader 1 and 2 respectively) than PD-high-bandwidth. Revision-surgery was chosen in 12 and 11 patients without MRI (surgeon 1 and 2), with high-bandwidth-MRI in 15 and 14 patients, and with SEMAC-MRI in 19 and 14 patients. STIR-SEMAC was useful in detecting bone marrow oedema and influenced the orthopaedic surgeons' decisions towards surgery, while PD-SEMAC showed no clinical benefit. (orig.)

  12. Cerebral Functional Reorganization in Ischemic Stroke after Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation: An fMRI Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Zhang, Xue-Wei; Zuo, Zhen-Tao; Lu, Jie; Meng, Chun-Ling; Fang, Hong-Ying; Xue, Rong; Fan, Yong; Guan, Yu-Zhou; Zhang, Wei-Hong

    2016-12-01

    Our study aimed to figure out brain functional reorganization evidence after repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) using the resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rsfMRI). Twelve patients with unilateral subcortex lesion in the middle cerebral artery territory were recruited. Seven of them received a 10-day rTMS treatment beginning at about 5 days after stroke onset. The remaining five received sham treatment. RsfMRI and motor functional scores were obtained before and after rTMS or sham rTMS. The rTMS group showed motor recovery according to the behavioral testing scores, while there was no significant difference of motor functional scores in the sham group before and after the sham rTMS. It proved that rTMS facilitates motor recovery of early ischemic stroke patients. Compared with the sham, the rTMS treatment group achieved increased functional connectivity (FC) between ipsilesional M1 and contralesional M1, supplementary motor area, bilateral thalamus, and contralesional postcentral gyrus. And decreased FC was found between ipsilesional M1 and ipsilesional M1, postcentral gyrus and inferior and middle frontal gyrus. Increased or decreased FC detected by rsfMRI is an important finding to understand the mechanism of brain functional reorganization. The rTMS treatment is a promising therapeutic approach to facilitate motor rehabilitation for early stroke patients. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Unusual MRI findings of dural arteriovenous fistula: Isolated perfusion lesions mimicking TIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Yong-Won

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The diagnosis of transient ischemic attack (TIA based on clinical history and objective findings, even including multiparametric MRI, can be misleading. We report two patients who presented with TIA-like deficits with isolated perfusion lesions in corresponding areas but were finally diagnosed as transient neurological symptoms associated with dural arteriovenous fistula (dAVF. Case presentation Two patients presented with transient focal neurological symptoms lasting less than one hour. An isolated perfusion deficit with no diffusion change in the clinically relevant area was shown on brain MRI, indicating transient ischemia as the most plausible cause of neurological symptoms. However, cerebral angiography let to diagnosis of dAVF in both cases. Intracerebral hemorrhage occurred after the initial diagnosis of TIA in one patient, and the small area of perfusion abnormality accompanied by the enlarged cortical vein in the other case helped to identify the dAVF through the further investigation. The pattern of perfusion-weighted imaging in both cases revealed increase of mean transit time and relative cerebral blood volume denoting the venous congestion in a clinically corresponding area. Conclusion Reported cases are uncommon clinical presentation of a dAVF, which can be misdiagnosed as TIA on clinical grounds. In rare cases, the isolated perfusion deficits could be attributable to venous congestion, despite the similar pattern of clinical presentation, such as with TIA.

  14. Kager's fat pad inflammation associated with HIV infection and AIDS: MRI findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Godoy-Santos, Alexandre Leme; Fernandes, Tulio Diniz; Camanho, Gilberto Luis [University of Sao Paulo, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Bordalo-Rodrigues, Marcelo; Rosemberg, Laercio [University of Sao Paulo, Department of Radiology, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Lei Munhoz Lima, Ana Lucia [University of Sao Paulo, Department of Infectious Disease, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Maffulli, Nicola [Mile End Hospital, Centre for Sports and Exercise Medicine Barts and The London School of Medicine and Dentistry, London (United Kingdom)

    2014-09-15

    To describe magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features of Kager's fat pad inflammation in HIV-positive patients with lipodystrophy due to protease inhibitor treatment and posterior ankle pain. A case-control, cross-sectional study; group 1 included 14 HIV-positive patients using protease inhibitors, presenting lipodystrophy syndrome and having posterior ankle pain; group 2 (CGHIV-) included 112 HIV-negative patients without lipodystrophy syndrome who were being evaluated for posterior ankle pain; group 3 (CGHIV + 1) included 23 HIV-positive patients not using a protease inhibitor, without lipodystrophy syndrome and with posterior ankle pain; group 4 (CGHIV + 2) comprised 18 HIV-positive patients who were being treated with a protease inhibitor and had lipodystrophy syndrome but did not have posterior ankle pain. Images were evaluated for the presence of edema by two radiologists who were blinded to clinical features. Fisher's exact test was used to evaluate differences among the groups. Interobserver variation was tested using Cohen's kappa (κ) statistic. The presence of edema within Kager's fat pad was strongly associated with symptoms in HIV-positive patients who had lipodystrophy (p ≤ 0.0001). Concordance between observers was excellent (κ > 0.9). MRI findings of Kager's fat pad inflammation related to HIV/AIDS is a source of symptoms in HIV patients with posterior ankle pain using protease inhibitors and having lipodystrophy syndrome. (orig.)

  15. Degenerative disk vascularization on MRI: correlation with clinical and histopathologic findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staebler, A. [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Klinikum Grosshadern, Muenchen (Germany); Scheidler, J. [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Klinikum Grosshadern, Muenchen (Germany); Seiderer, M. [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Klinikum Grosshadern, Muenchen (Germany); Reiser, M. [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Klinikum Grosshadern, Muenchen (Germany); Weiss, M. [Dept. of Pathology, Klinikum Grosshadern, Muenchen (Germany); Kroedel, A. [Dept. of Orthopedic Surgery, Klinikum Grosshadern, Muenchen (Germany)

    1996-02-01

    Fifty-tree patients with localized painful spine syndrome were investigated prospectively by contrast-enhanced MRI. Pain was not predominantly radiating and there was no clinical evidence of spinal infection. In all patients, sagittal SE T1-weighted, fast-SE T2-weighted or turbo-STIR, and T1-weighted frequency-selective fat-suppressed images were obtained. We identified 37 vascularized disks in 26 patients. In 18 patients the changes had occurred spontaneously, in 6, the affected disk had been operated on previously, and 2 patients had spondylolisthesis. In 15 patients, vascularization was accompanied by medullary edema adjacent to the vertebral endplates. In one of the vascularized disks, herniation was also found. In seven patients, ventral diskectomy was performed. Histopathologic findings confirmed disk vascularization in six of seven cases. Degenerative, band-like disk vascularization is a feature which is associated with local pain. It is demonstrated by contrast-enhanced MRI. Degenerative disk vascularization is an important differential diagnosis to bacterial spondylodiskitis. It can be a cause of pain in patients with postdiskectomy syndrome. (orig./MG)

  16. Cervical and lumbar MRI in asymptomatic older male lifelong athletes: Frequency of degenerative findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Healy, J.F.; Healy, B.B.; Wong, W.H.M.; Olson, E.M. [Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States)

    1996-01-01

    The athletic activity of the adult U.S. population has increased markedly in the last 20 years. To evaluate the possible long-term effects of such activity on the cervical and lumbar spine, we studied a group of asymptomatic currently very active lifelong male athletes over age 40 (41-69 years old, av. age 53). Nineteen active, lifelong male athletes were studied with MRI and the results compared with previous imaging studies of other populations. An athletic history and a spine history were also taken. Evidence of asymptomatic degenerative spine disease was similar to that seen in published series of other populations. Degenerative changes including disk protrusion and herniation, spondylosis, and spinal stenosis were present and increased in incidence with increasing patient age. In this group, all MRI findings proved to be asymptomatic and did not limit athletic activity. The incidence of lumbar degenerative changes in our study population of older male athletes was similar to those seen in other populations. 14 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Iliopsoas injury: an MRI study of patterns and prevalence correlated with clinical findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bui, Kimmie L.; Ilaslan, Hakan; Recht, Michael; Sundaram, Murali [Cleveland Clinic, Department of Radiology, Cleveland, OH (United States)

    2008-03-15

    The objective was to retrospectively determine the prevalence and patterns of iliopsoas injuries based on consecutive MRI examinations, correlated with clinical findings. From 4,862 consecutive MRI examinations of the hips and pelvis, 32 patients with 33 iliopsoas injuries were identified and graded as muscle strain, partial tendon tear, and complete tendon tears. These patients' medical records were reviewed to determine age, gender, and cause of symptoms. The prevalence of iliopsoas tendon and myotendinous injuries was 0.66% (95% CI: 0.44-0.89). There were 18 females and 14 males whose ages ranged from 7 to 95 years (mean, 54 years). The most frequent presenting symptom was hip pain and the most frequent clinical diagnosis, an occult fracture. The most common injuries in patients under 65 years (16 patients) were muscle strains and partial tendon tears, most often due to an athletic injury. The most common injury in patients 65 years and older (16 patients) was a complete tear (8 patients, all females), 2 of which were spontaneous in origin. Each grade of iliopsoas injury occurred with similar frequency. The more advanced the age of the patient, the more severe the injury. Non-athletic injuries predominated in patients 65 years and older; athletic injuries were the most common cause of iliopsoas injury in patients under 65 years. (orig.)

  18. A study of brain MRI findings and clinical response of bladder empting failure in brain bladder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyakoda, Keiichi (Yamashina Aiseikai Hospital, Kyoto (Japan)); Watanabe, Kousuke

    1993-02-01

    In 45 patients (38 males and 7 females; average age:78 years) with brain bladder, who did not have any peripheral neuropathies and spinal disturbance, cerebral findings of MRI (1.5 T) T[sub 2] enhanced image were analyzed in comparison with those of 7 control patients with normal urination after BPH operations. Patients with neurogenic bladder were divided into three groups as follows: 33 patients with a chief complaint of urinary disturbance (Group I), 9 patients with urinary incontinence (Group II) and 3 patients with balanced bladder (Group III). High frequency of lacune (24%) of the globus pallidus and low signalling of the corpus striatum (30%) was found in Group I patients, but low frequency in other Group patients and control patients. Furthermore, pathologic changes with various grades in the globus pallidus were observed in 91% of Group I patients. In the treatment of urinary disturbance, a high improvement rate of micturition disorder (77%) was obtained in patients treated with a combination of dantrolene and TURp (TUIbn for females). However, patients who had clear lacune of the globus pallidus showed the low improvement rate. It should be possible that the globus pallidus contributes to control the movement of the external sphincter and the pelvic base muscles as well as other striated muscles. Moreover, lacune was rarely found in the urination center of the brain-stem on MRI. (author).

  19. HIV Infection Is Associated with Impaired Striatal Function during Inhibition with Normal Cortical Functioning on Functional MRI

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    du Plessis, Stéfan; Vink, Matthijs; Joska, John A; Koutsilieri, Eleni; Bagadia, Asif; Stein, Dan J; Emsley, Robin

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of HIV infection on cortical and subcortical regions of the frontal-striatal system involved in the inhibition of voluntary movement. Functional MRI (fMRI) studies suggest that human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is associated with

  20. Considerations for Resting State Functional MRI and Functional Connectivity Studies in Rodents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Ju ePan

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Resting state functional MRI (rs-fMRI and functional connectivity mapping have become widely used tools in the human neuroimaging community and their use is rapidly spreading into the realm of rodent research as well. One of the many attractive features of rs-fMRI is that it is readily translatable from humans to animals and back again. Changes in functional connectivity observed in human studies can be followed by more invasive animal experiments to determine the neurophysiological basis for the alterations, while exploratory work in animal models can identify possible biomarkers for further investigation in human studies. These types of interwoven human and animal experiments have a potentially large impact on neuroscience and clinical practice. However, impediments exist to the optimal application of rs-fMRI in small animals, some similar to those encountered in humans and some quite different. In this review we identify the most prominent of these barriers, discuss differences between rs-fMRI in rodents and in humans, highlight best practices for animal studies, and review selected applications of rs-fMRI in rodents. Our goal is to facilitate the integration of human and animal work to the benefit of both fields.

  1. Functional MRI for immediate monitoring stereotactic thalamotomy in a patient with essential tremor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hesselmann, Volker; Schaaf, Maike; Krug, Barbara; Lackner, Klaus [University of Cologne, Department of Radiology, Cologne (Germany); Maarouf, Mohammed; Hunsche, Stefan; Sturm, Volker [University of Cologne, Department of Stereotaxy and Functional Neurosurgery, Cologne (Germany); Lasek, Kathrin [Universitaetsklinikum Schleswig Holstein, Klinik fuer Neurologie, Luebeck (Germany); Wedekind, Christoph [Akademisches Lehrkrankenhaus der Universitaet Erlangen-Nuernberg, Belegabteilung fuer Neurochirurgie, Klinikum Bamberg, Bamberg (Germany)

    2006-10-15

    The effect of stereotactic thalamotomy was assessed with pre- and postoperative functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) under motor stimulation. A patient with unilateral essential tremor (ET) of the left arm underwent stereotactically guided thalamotomy of the right ventral intermediate thalamic nucleus (VIM). FMRI was done directly before and after surgery on a 1.5-Tesla scanner. The stimulation paradigm was maintainance of the affected arm in an extended position and hand clenching being performed in a block design manner. Statistical analysis was done with Brain Voyager 2000. After thalamotomy the tremor diminished completely. As a difference between the pre- and postoperative fMRI, a significant activation was found in the VIM contralateral to the activation site, adjacent to the inferior olivary nucleus contralateral to the activation site and in the dorsal cingulum. In conclusion, fMRI can detect the functional effect of thalamotomy for tremor treatment. Direct postoperative fMRI provides a sufficient method for estimating the effect of thalamotomy immediately after intervention. The importance of the intermediate thalamic nucleus and the olivary nucleus in tremor generation is supported by our findings. (orig.)

  2. Visualization and analysis of functional cardiac MRI data

    Science.gov (United States)

    McVeigh, Elliot R.; Guttman, Michael A.; Poon, Eric; Pisupati, Chandrasekhar; Moore, Christopher C.; Zerhouni, Elias A.; Solaiyappan, Meiyappan; Heng, PhengAnn

    1994-05-01

    Rapid analysis of large multi-dimensional data sets is critical for the successful implementation of a comprehensive MR cardiac exam. We have developed a software package for the analysis and visualization of cardiac MR data. The program allows interactive visualization of time and space stacks of MRI data, automatic segmentation of myocardial borders and myocardial tagging patterns, and visualization of functional parameters such a motion, strain, and blood flow, mapped as colors in an interactive dynamic 3D volume rendering of the beating heart.

  3. Pathologic Findings in MRI-Guided Needle Core Biopsies of the Breast in Patients with Newly Diagnosed Breast Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Siziopikou, K. P.; P. Jokich; Cobleigh, M.

    2011-01-01

    The role of MRI in the management of breast carcinoma is rapidly evolving from its initial use for specific indications only to a more widespread use on all women with newly diagnosed early stage breast cancer. However, there are many concerns that such widespread use is premature since detailed correlation of MRI findings with the underlying histopathology of the breast lesions is still evolving and clear evidence for improvements in management and overall prognosis of breast cancer patients...

  4. A comparison of three clustering methods for finding subgroups in MRI, SMS or clinical data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kent, Peter; Jensen, Rikke K; Kongsted, Alice

    2014-01-01

    ). There is a scarcity of head-to-head comparisons that can inform the choice of which clustering method might be suitable for particular clinical datasets and research questions. Therefore, the aim of this study was to perform a head-to-head comparison of three commonly available methods (SPSS TwoStep CA, Latent Gold......'s ease of use and interpretability of the presentation of results.We analysed five real datasets of varying complexity in a secondary analysis of data from other research projects. Three datasets contained only MRI findings (n = 2,060 to 20,810 vertebral disc levels), one dataset contained only pain...... intensity data collected for 52 weeks by text (SMS) messaging (n = 1,121 people), and the last dataset contained a range of clinical variables measured in low back pain patients (n = 543 people). Four artificial datasets (n = 1,000 each) containing subgroups of varying complexity were also analysed testing...

  5. Churg-Strauss Syndrome with Cardiac Involvement: A Case Report with CT and MRI Findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Seong Joo; Cho, Young Jun; Kim, Keum; Hwang, Cheol Mok; Kim, Dae Ho [Dept. of Radiology, Konyang University College of Medicine, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Eu Gene [Dept. of Internal Medicine, Konyang University College of Medicine, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-02-15

    This is a case report of Churg-Strauss Syndrome (CSS) associated with cardiac involvement which is demonstrated in chest CT and cardiac MRI (CMR) without specific cardiac symptoms. A 32-year-old woman had a 3-year history of bronchial asthma, chronic sinusitis, and otitis media. The patient had various typical findings of CSS. The patient had no specific cardiac symptoms or signs such as chest pain, palpitations, syncope, or murmur, but she had diffuse low attenuation lesions in the inner wall of the left ventricle (LV) in contrast-enhanced CT. This corresponded to the area of subendocardial hyperenhancement in delayed contrast-enhanced CMR images. She was treated with steroids for 2 months. Follow-up delayed contrast-enhanced CMR of the LV showed a decrease in the size of the subendocardial enhancement area, and she had no symptoms. Therefore, the radiologist and clinician both should pay careful attention to observe possible cardiac involvement in case of CSS.

  6. Spinal aneurysmal bone cyst causing acute cord compression without vertebral collapse: CT and MRI findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan, Monica S.M.; Wong, Yiu-Chung; Yuen, Ming-Keung [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Tuen Mun Hospital, Hongkong (China); Lam, Dicky [Department of Orthopaedics and Traumatology, Hongkong (China)

    2002-08-01

    Aneurysmal bone cyst (ABC) of the spine can cause acute spinal cord compression in young patients. We report the CT and MRI findings in a histology-proven case of spinal ABC presenting with sudden paraplegia. Typical features of a spinal ABC at the thoracic level with considerable extension into the posterior epidural space and cord compression were demonstrated. Special note was made of the disproportionately large longitudinal extent of the epidural component of the lesion. Associated vertebral collapse was absent. A fracture of the overlying cortex had probably allowed the lesion to decompress and track along the epidural space without significantly jeopardizing integrity of the osseous structures. This case illustrates a less frequently recognised mechanism of acute spinal cord compression by ABC. (orig.)

  7. MRI findings in multifetal pregnancies complicated by twin reversed arterial perfusion sequence (TRAP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guimaraes, Carolina V.A.; Kline-Fath, Beth M.; Linam, Leann E.; Calvo Garcia, Maria A.; Rubio, Eva I. [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Lim, Foong-Yen [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Division of Pediatric Surgery, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    2011-06-15

    Twin reversed arterial perfusion sequence (TRAP) is a rare complication in multifetal monochorionic pregnancies in which a normal ''pump'' twin provides circulation to an abnormal acardiac co-twin, resulting in high-output cardiac dysfunction in the pump twin. To define fetal MRI findings of TRAP sequence. Fetal MR images were retrospectively reviewed in 35 pregnancies complicated by TRAP sequence. Abnormalities of the pump twin, acardiac twin, umbilical cord, placenta and amniotic fluid were reviewed. Acardiac twins were classified as: acephalus (51%), anceps (40%), amorphus (9%), acormus (0%). Common findings in acardiac twins include subcutaneous edema (77%), absent cardiac structures (86%), absent or abnormal thoracic cavity (100%), abnormal abdominal organs (100%), superior limbs absent (46%) or abnormal (51%), and inferior limbs present but abnormal (83%). There were pump twin findings of cardiac dysfunction in 43% and intracranial ischemic changes in 3%. Umbilical cord anomalies were present in 97%. Acardiac twins present with a predictable pattern of malformation with poorly developed superior structures, more normally formed inferior structures and absent or rudimentary heart. Although usually absent, abnormal heart structures can be seen and do not exclude TRAP sequence. Pump twins are commonly normal with exception of findings of cardiac dysfunction and possible brain ischemia. (orig.)

  8. Functional MRI of the cervical spine after distortion injury; MR-Funktionsdiagnostik der Halswirbelsaeule nach Schleudertrauma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schnarkowski, P. [Muenchen Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Radiologische Diagnostik; Weidenmaier, W. [Muenchen Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Radiologische Diagnostik; Heuck, A. [Muenchen Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Radiologische Diagnostik; Reiser, M.F. [Muenchen Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Radiologische Diagnostik

    1995-04-01

    50 patients with a history of distortion injury of the cervical spine were examined with static and functional MRI. Functional MRI consisted of different patient`s positions from maximal extension to maximal flexion (30 , 0 , 25 , 40 , 50 ). T{sub 2}*-weighted gradient echo sequences were performed in a sagittal view for the different positions. Ligamentous instabilities and disc protrusions were seen only in functional MRI in 17 patients. These findings correlated with the neurological symptoms. Two patients were treated by operative fusion because of these findings. (orig.) [Deutsch] Bei 50 Patienten mit einem Schleudertrauma der Halswirbelsaeule wurden zu den statischen Magnetresonanztomogrammen der Halswirbelsaeule MR-Funktionsaufnahmen durchgefuehrt. Diese Funktionsaufnahmen erfolgten in 5 verschiedenen Flexionsgraden von maximaler Reklination bis zur maximalen Inklination (30 , 0 , 25 , 40 , 50 ). T{sub 2}*-gewichtete Gradienten-Echo-Sequenzen in sagittaler Schnittfuehrung wurden fuer jeden Flexionsgrad angefertigt. Bandinstabilitaeten und Bandscheibenvorwoelbungen konnten bei 17 Patienten nur in bestimmten Flexionsgraden erfasst werden. Diese 17 Patienten zeigten eine umschriebene neurologische Symptomatik, die von ihrer Lokalisation mit den in der MR-Funktionsdiagnostik erhobenen Befunden korrelierten. Zwei Patienten wurden aufgrund diese Befunde mit einer operativen Fusion therapiert. (orig.)

  9. Striated nephrogram as an incidental finding in MRI examination of children; Streifiges Nephrogramm als Zufallsbefund nach Kontrastmittelgabe bei Kindern in der MRT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strocka, S.; Sorge, I.; Ritter, L.; Hirsch, F.W. [Leipzig Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Pediatric Radiology

    2016-01-15

    A highly striated contrast pattern of the kidneys occasionally appears in abdominal MRI examinations of children following the administration of gadolinium. As this phenomenon is well known but has not yet been explicitly described in literature, we investigated how frequently and in which clinical context this occurred. 855 abdominal MRI examinations with contrast media of 362 children between 2006 and 2014 were analysed retrospectively. A striated renal parenchyma was found in a total of nine children and eleven examinations (1.3 % of examinations) and did only occur at a field strength of 3 Tesla. Of these children, seven had previously had tumors and chemotherapy. In two children there was no evidence of a previously serious condition with medications or a kidney disease. All of them had a normal renal function. A noticeably striated nephrogram in the later phase of an MRI examination following administration of gadolinium may appear as an incidental finding in examinations at 3 Tesla without pathological relevance.

  10. A case study of voltage-gated potassium channel antibody-related limbic encephalitis with PET/MRI findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian K. Day

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Preclinical and clinical studies have demonstrated the significance of inflammation and autoantibodies in epilepsy, and the use of immunotherapies in certain situations has become an established practice. Temporal lobe epilepsy can follow paraneoplastic or nonparaneoplastic limbic encephalitis associated with antibodies directed against brain antigens. Here, we focus on a patient with worsening confusion and temporal lobe seizures despite treatment with antiepileptic medications. Serial brain MRIs did not conclusively reveal structural abnormalities, so the patient underwent brain PET/MRI to simultaneously evaluate brain structure and function, revealing bitemporal abnormalities. The patient was diagnosed with voltage-gated potassium channel antibody-related limbic encephalitis based on clinical presentation, imaging findings, and antibody testing. Treatment included the addition of a second antiepileptic agent and oral steroids. His seizures and cognitive deficits improved and stabilized.

  11. MRI findings in the lumbar spines of asymptomatic elite junior tennis players

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajeswaran, G.; Healy, J.C. [Chelsea and Westminster Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Department of Radiology, London, England (United Kingdom); Turner, M. [The National Tennis Centre, Lawn Tennis Association, London (United Kingdom); Gissane, C. [St Mary' s University, Twickenham, Middlesex (United Kingdom)

    2014-07-15

    To evaluate the MRI findings in the lumbar spines of asymptomatic elite junior tennis players. The lumbar spine MRI studies of 98 asymptomatic junior elite tennis players (51 male, 47 female) with a mean age of 18 years (age range 11.2-26.3 years; standard deviation 3.1) was reviewed by two consultant musculoskeletal radiologists using consensus opinion. Images were assessed using accepted classification systems. Four players (4 %) had no abnormality. Facet joint arthropathy occurred in 89.7 % of the players, being mild in 84.5 % of cases. There were 41 synovial cysts in 22.4 % of the cohort all occurring in the presence of facet arthropathy. Disc degeneration was noted in 62.2 % of players, being mild in 76.2 % of those affected. Disc herniation was noted in 30.6 % of players, with 86.1 % of these being broad based and 13.9 % being focal. There was nerve root compression in 2 %. There were 41 pars interarticularis abnormalities in 29.6 % of patients, 63.4 % of these being grades 1-3. There was grade 1 spondylolisthesis in 5.1 % of players. The prevalence of facet joint arthropathy, disc degeneration, disc herniation and pars interarticularis fracture was lower in female players than in male and lower in the under 16-year-olds compared with the over 20-year-olds. There is a significant amount of underlying pathology that would normally go undetected in this group of asymptomatic elite athletes. Whilst these findings cannot be detected clinically, their relevance is in facilitating appropriate prehabilitation to prevent loss of playing time and potentially career-ending injuries. (orig.)

  12. Whole-body MRI in neurofibromatosis: incidental findings and prevalence of scoliosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaremko, Jacob L.; MacMahon, Peter J.; Torriani, Martin; Bredella, Miriam A. [Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Musculoskeletal Imaging and Intervention, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Merker, Vanessa L.; Plotkin, Scott R. [Massachusetts General Hospital, Department of Neurology and Cancer Center, Boston, MA (United States); Mautner, Victor F. [University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Department of Neurology, Hamburg (Germany)

    2012-08-15

    To demonstrate incidental findings and scoliosis on whole-body MRI (WBMRI) in patients with neurofibromatosis type 1 and 2 (NF1 and NF2, respectively), and schwannomatosis. Institutional review board approval and written informed consent were obtained for this prospective HIPAA-compliant study. A total of 247 subjects (141 with NF1, 55 with NF2, 51 with schwannomatosis; 132 women (53.5%); mean age, 41 years, range, 18-97 years) underwent WBMRI using coronal STIR (TR/TE: 4190/111 ms, TI: 150 ms) and T1-weighted images (TR/TE: 454/10 ms), 10-mm slice thickness, imaging time {proportional_to}40 min. Images were reviewed for the presence of incidental findings, outside of nerve sheath tumors. The presence of scoliosis was recorded and curve morphology was assessed and quantified. Incidental findings other than scoliosis were recorded in 104/247 (42%) patients, most often affecting the musculoskeletal system (65/247 patients, 26%). We found 16/247 (6.5%) significant incidental findings likely to affect clinical management, including avascular necrosis of bone in eight patients (five with NF2), eight insufficiency fractures, and four non-neurogenic neoplasms (Hodgkin's lymphoma, liposarcoma, dermoid cyst, large uterine myoma requiring excision). Scoliosis was seen in 50/247 patients (20%), including 8/55 with NF2 (15%) and 11/51 with schwannomatosis (22%). Incidental findings in the neurofibromatoses frequently involve the skeleton. Given the relatively high incidence of unsuspected osteonecrosis and stress fractures, close attention to the skeleton on WBMRI is advised. In addition, knowledge of common incidental findings can help clinicians prepare patients who undergo WBMRI for potential unexpected findings. (orig.)

  13. Whole-body MRI in neurofibromatosis: incidental findings and prevalence of scoliosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaremko, Jacob L; MacMahon, Peter J; Torriani, Martin; Merker, Vanessa L; Mautner, Victor F; Plotkin, Scott R; Bredella, Miriam A

    2012-08-01

    To demonstrate incidental findings and scoliosis on whole-body MRI (WBMRI) in patients with neurofibromatosis type 1 and 2 (NF1 & NF2, respectively), and schwannomatosis. Institutional review board approval and written informed consent were obtained for this prospective HIPAA-compliant study. A total of 247 subjects (141 with NF1, 55 with NF2, 51 with schwannomatosis; 132 women (53.5%); mean age, 41 years, range, 18-97 years) underwent WBMRI using coronal STIR (TR/TE: 4190/111 ms, TI: 150 ms) and T1-weighted images (TR/TE: 454/10 ms), 10-mm slice thickness, imaging time ~40 min. Images were reviewed for the presence of incidental findings, outside of nerve sheath tumors. The presence of scoliosis was recorded and curve morphology was assessed and quantified. Incidental findings other than scoliosis were recorded in 104/247 (42%) patients, most often affecting the musculoskeletal system (65/247 patients, 26%). We found 16/247 (6.5%) significant incidental findings likely to affect clinical management, including avascular necrosis of bone in eight patients (five with NF2), eight insufficiency fractures, and four non-neurogenic neoplasms (Hodgkin's lymphoma, liposarcoma, dermoid cyst, large uterine myoma requiring excision). Scoliosis was seen in 50/247 patients (20%), including 8/55 with NF2 (15%) and 11/51 with schwannomatosis (22%). Incidental findings in the neurofibromatoses frequently involve the skeleton. Given the relatively high incidence of unsuspected osteonecrosis and stress fractures, close attention to the skeleton on WBMRI is advised. In addition, knowledge of common incidental findings can help clinicians prepare patients who undergo WBMRI for potential unexpected findings.

  14. Clinical fMRI of language function in aphasic patients: Reading paradigm successful, while word generation paradigm fails

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engstroem, Maria; Landtblom, Anne-Marie; Ragnehed, Mattias; Lundberg, Peter (Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization (CMIV), Linkoeping Univ., Linkoeping (Sweden)), e-mail: maria.engstrom@liu.se; Karlsson, Marie; Crone, Marie (Dept. of Clinical and Experimental Medicine/Logopedics, Linkoeping Univ., Linkoeping (Sweden)); Antepohl, Wolfram (Dept. of Clinical and Experimental Medicine/Rehabilitation, Linkoeping Univ., Linkoeping (Sweden))

    2010-07-15

    Background: In fMRI examinations, it is very important to select appropriate paradigms assessing the brain function of interest. In addition, the patients' ability to perform the required cognitive tasks during fMRI must be taken into account. Purpose: To evaluate two language paradigms, word generation and sentence reading for their usefulness in examinations of aphasic patients and to make suggestions for improvements of clinical fMRI. Material and Methods: Five patients with aphasia after stroke or trauma sequelae were examined by fMRI. The patients' language ability was screened by neurolinguistic tests and elementary pre-fMRI language tests. Results: The sentence-reading paradigm succeeded to elicit adequate language-related activation in perilesional areas whereas the word generation paradigm failed. These findings were consistent with results on the behavioral tests in that all patients showed very poor performance in phonemic fluency, but scored well above mean at a reading comprehension task. Conclusion: The sentence-reading paradigm is appropriate to assess language function in this patient group, while the word-generation paradigm seems to be inadequate. In addition, it is crucial to use elementary pre-fMRI language tests to guide the fMRI paradigm decision.

  15. Multisite functional connectivity MRI classification of autism: ABIDE results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jared A Nielsen

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Systematic differences in functional connectivity MRI metrics have been consistently observed in autism, with predominantly decreased cortico-cortical connectivity. Previous attempts at single subject classification in high-functioning autism using whole brain point-to-point functional connectivity have yielded about 80% accurate classification of autism vs. control subjects across a wide age range. We attempted to replicate the method and results using the Autism Brain Imaging Data Exchange including resting state fMRI data obtained from 964 subjects and 16 separate international sites.Methods: For each of 964 subjects, we obtained pairwise functional connectivity measurements from a lattice of 7266 regions of interest covering the gray matter (26.4 million "connections" after preprocessing that included motion and slice timing correction, coregistration to an anatomic image, normalization to standard space, and voxelwise removal by regression of motion parameters, soft tissue, CSF, and white matter signals. Connections were grouped into multiple bins, and a leave-one-out classifier was evaluated on connections comprising each set of bins. Age, age-squared, gender, handedness, and site were included as covariates for the classifier.Results: Classification accuracy significantly outperformed chance but was much lower for multisite prediction than for previous single site results. As high as 60% accuracy was obtained for whole brain classification, with the best accuracy from connections involving regions of the default mode network, parahippocampal and fusiform gyri, insula, Wernicke Area, and intraparietal sulcus. The classifier score was related to symptom severity, social function, daily living skills, and verbal IQ. Classification accuracy was significantly higher for sites with longer BOLD imaging times.Conclusions: Multisite functional connectivity classification of autism outperformed chance using a simple leave

  16. Simultaneous resting-state functional MRI and electroencephalography recordings of functional connectivity in patients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirino, Eiji; Tanaka, Shoji; Fukuta, Mayuko; Inami, Rie; Arai, Heii; Inoue, Reiichi; Aoki, Shigeki

    2017-04-01

    It remains unclear how functional connectivity (FC) may be related to specific cognitive domains in neuropsychiatric disorders. Here we used simultaneous resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rsfMRI) and electroencephalography (EEG) recording in patients with schizophrenia, to evaluate FC within and outside the default mode network (DMN). Our study population included 14 patients with schizophrenia and 15 healthy control participants. From all participants, we acquired rsfMRI data, and simultaneously recorded EEG data using an MR-compatible amplifier. We analyzed the rsfMRI-EEG data, and used the CONN toolbox to calculate the FC between regions of interest. We also performed between-group comparisons of standardized low-resolution electromagnetic tomography-based intracortical lagged coherence for each EEG frequency band. FC within the DMN, as measured by rsfMRI and EEG, did not significantly differ between groups. Analysis of rsfMRI data showed that FC between the right posterior inferior temporal gyrus and medial prefrontal cortex was stronger among patients with schizophrenia compared to control participants. Analysis of FC within the DMN using rsfMRI and EEG data revealed no significant differences between patients with schizophrenia and control participants. However, rsfMRI data revealed over-modulated FC between the medial prefrontal cortex and right posterior inferior temporal gyrus in patients with schizophrenia compared to control participants, suggesting that the patients had altered FC, with higher correlations across nodes within and outside of the DMN. Further studies using simultaneous rsfMRI and EEG are required to determine whether altered FC within the DMN is associated with schizophrenia. © 2016 The Authors. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology.

  17. Interpreting the effects of altered brain anatomical connectivity on fMRI functional connectivity: a role for computational neural modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horwitz, Barry; Hwang, Chuhern; Alstott, Jeff

    2013-01-01

    Recently, there have been a large number of studies using resting state fMRI to characterize abnormal brain connectivity in patients with a variety of neurological, psychiatric, and developmental disorders. However, interpreting what the differences in resting state fMRI functional connectivity (rsfMRI-FC) actually reflect in terms of the underlying neural pathology has proved to be elusive because of the complexity of brain anatomical connectivity. The same is the case for task-based fMRI studies. In the last few years, several groups have used large-scale neural modeling to help provide some insight into the relationship between brain anatomical connectivity and the corresponding patterns of fMRI-FC. In this paper we review several efforts at using large-scale neural modeling to investigate the relationship between structural connectivity and functional/effective connectivity to determine how alterations in structural connectivity are manifested in altered patterns of functional/effective connectivity. Because the alterations made in the anatomical connectivity between specific brain regions in the model are known in detail, one can use the results of these simulations to determine the corresponding alterations in rsfMRI-FC. Many of these simulation studies found that structural connectivity changes do not necessarily result in matching changes in functional/effective connectivity in the areas of structural modification. Often, it was observed that increases in functional/effective connectivity in the altered brain did not necessarily correspond to increases in the strength of the anatomical connection weights. Note that increases in rsfMRI-FC in patients have been interpreted in some cases as resulting from neural plasticity. These results suggest that this interpretation can be mistaken. The relevance of these simulation findings to the use of functional/effective fMRI connectivity as biomarkers for brain disorders is also discussed.

  18. TWave: high-order analysis of functional MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnathan, Michael; Megalooikonomou, Vasileios; Faloutsos, Christos; Faro, Scott; Mohamed, Feroze B

    2011-09-15

    The traditional approach to functional image analysis models images as matrices of raw voxel intensity values. Although such a representation is widely utilized and heavily entrenched both within neuroimaging and in the wider data mining community, the strong interactions among space, time, and categorical modes such as subject and experimental task inherent in functional imaging yield a dataset with "high-order" structure, which matrix models are incapable of exploiting. Reasoning across all of these modes of data concurrently requires a high-order model capable of representing relationships between all modes of the data in tandem. We thus propose to model functional MRI data using tensors, which are high-order generalizations of matrices equivalent to multidimensional arrays or data cubes. However, several unique challenges exist in the high-order analysis of functional medical data: naïve tensor models are incapable of exploiting spatiotemporal locality patterns, standard tensor analysis techniques exhibit poor efficiency, and mixtures of numeric and categorical modes of data are very often present in neuroimaging experiments. Formulating the problem of image clustering as a form of Latent Semantic Analysis and using the WaveCluster algorithm as a baseline, we propose a comprehensive hybrid tensor and wavelet framework for clustering, concept discovery, and compression of functional medical images which successfully addresses these challenges. Our approach reduced runtime and dataset size on a 9.3GB finger opposition motor task fMRI dataset by up to 98% while exhibiting improved spatiotemporal coherence relative to standard tensor, wavelet, and voxel-based approaches. Our clustering technique was capable of automatically differentiating between the frontal areas of the brain responsible for task-related habituation and the motor regions responsible for executing the motor task, in contrast to a widely used fMRI analysis program, SPM, which only detected the

  19. Functional MRI of language lateralization during development in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Scott K; Vannest, Jennifer; Mecoli, Marc; Jacola, Lisa M; Tillema, Jan-Mendelt; Karunanayaka, Prasanna R; Schmithorst, Vincent J; Yuan, Weihong; Plante, Elena; Byars, Anna W

    2007-09-01

    Changes in the distribution of language function in the brain have been documented from infancy through adulthood. Even macroscopic measures of language lateralization reflect a dynamic process of language development. In this review, we summarize a series of functional MRI studies of language skills in children ages of five to 18 years, both typically-developing children and children with brain injuries or neurological disorders that occur at different developmental stages with different degrees of severity. These studies used a battery of fMRI-compatible language tasks designed to tap sentential and lexical language skills that develop early and later in childhood. In typically-developing children, lateralization changes with age are associated with language skills that have a protracted period of development, reflecting the developmental process of skill acquisition rather than general maturation of the brain. Normative data, across the developmental period, acts as a reference for disentangling developmental patterns in brain activation from changes due to developmental or acquired abnormalities. This review emphasizes the importance of considering age and child development in neuroimaging studies of language.

  20. Whole-body MRI in patients with Non-bacterial Osteitis: Radiological findings and correlation with clinical data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnoldi, A.P.; Geyer, L.L. [Institute for Clinical Radiology, Ludwig-Maximilians-University Hospital, Munich (Germany); Schlett, C.L.; Weckbach, S. [University Hospital Heidelberg, Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Heidelberg (Germany); Douis, H. [University Hospital Birmingham, Department of Radiology, Birmingham (United Kingdom); Voit, A.M.; Bleisteiner, F.; Jansson, A.F. [Dr. von Hauner Children' s Hospital, Ludwig-Maximilians-University, Department of Rheumatology and Immunology, Munich (Germany)

    2017-06-15

    To correlate clinical findings of Non-bacterial Osteitis (NBO) with whole-body MRI (WB-MRI) findings and determine a radiologic index for NBO (RINBO) which allows standardized reporting of WB-MRI. In a prospective study, 40 patients with diagnosis of NBO underwent clinical examination and WB-MRI in which STIR- and T1- weighted images were assessed for NBO-typical lesions. Parameters of interest for RINBO were: number of radiologically active lesions (RAL), size of the patients' maximum RAL presence of extramedullary and spinal involvement. Results were tested for statistical agreement of clinical and MR-based lesion detection. RINBO was tested for correlation with clinical activity. 62/95 clinically/radiologically active lesions were found in 30/33 patients. In 45 % of the cohort, more active lesions were detected by WB-MRI than by clinical examination. RINBO was a significant predictor for the presence of clinically active lesions. WB-MRI is a powerful diagnostic tool for patients with NBO which can reveal asymptomatic disease activity. With RINBO a standardized evaluation approach is proposed which helps assessing radiologic disease burden and predicts clinical disease activity. (orig.)

  1. Investigation of acupoint specificity by multivariate granger causality analysis from functional MRI data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Yuanyuan; Bai, Lijun; Zhang, Wensheng; Xue, Ting; Ren, Yanshuang; Zhong, Chongguang; Wang, Hu; You, Youbo; Liu, Zhenyu; Dai, Jianping; Liu, Yijun; Tian, Jie

    2011-07-01

    To investigate the acupoint specificity by exploring the effective connectivity patterns of the poststimulus resting brain networks modulated by acupuncture at the PC6, with the same meridian acupoint PC7 and different meridian acupoint GB37. The functional MRI (fMRI) study was performed in 36 healthy right-handed subjects receiving acupuncture at three acupoints, respectively. Due to the sustained effects of acupuncture, a novel experimental paradigm using the nonrepeated event-related (NRER) design was adopted. Psychophysical responses (deqi sensations) were also assessed. Finally, a newly multivariate Granger causality analysis (mGCA) was used to analyze effective connectivity patterns of the resting fMRI data taken following acupuncture at three acupoints. Following acupuncture at PC6, the red nucleus and substantia nigra emerged as central hubs, in comparison with the fusiform gyrus following acupuncture at GB37. Red nucleus was also a target following acupuncture at PC7, but with fewer inputs than those of PC6. In addition, the most important target following acupuncture at PC7 was located at the parahippocampus. Our findings demonstrated that acupuncture at different acupoints may exert heterogeneous modulatory effects on the causal interactions of brain areas during the poststimulus resting state. These preliminary findings provided a clue to elucidate the relatively function-oriented specificity of acupuncture effects. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  2. Ultrasound of the coracoclavicular ligaments in the acute phase of an acromioclavicular disjunction: Comparison of radiographic, ultrasound and MRI findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faruch Bilfeld, Marie; Lapegue, Franck; Chiavassa Gandois, Helene; Bayol, Marie Aurelie; Sans, Nicolas [CHU Toulouse-Purpan, Service de Radiologie, Toulouse Cedex 9 (France); Bonnevialle, Nicolas [CHU Toulouse-Purpan, Service d' Orthopedie, Toulouse Cedex 9 (France)

    2017-02-15

    Acromioclavicular joint injuries are typically diagnosed by clinical and radiographic assessment with the Rockwood classification, which is crucial for treatment planning. The purpose of this study was to describe how the ultrasound findings of acromioclavicular joint injury compare with radiography and MRI findings. Forty-seven patients with suspected unilateral acromioclavicular joint injury after acute trauma were enrolled in this prospective study. All patients underwent digital radiography, ultrasound and 3T MRI. A modified Rockwood classification was used to evaluate the coracoclavicular ligaments. The classifications of acromioclavicular joint injuries diagnosed with radiography, ultrasound and MRI were compared. MRI was used as the gold standard. The agreement between the ultrasound and MRI findings was very good, with a correlation coefficient of 0.83 (95 % CI: 0.72-0.90; p < 0.0001). Ultrasound detected coracoclavicular ligament injuries with a sensitivity of 88.9 %, specificity of 90.0 %, positive predictive value of 92.3 % and negative predictive value of 85.7 %. The agreement between the ultrasound and radiography findings was poor, with a correlation coefficient of 0.69 (95 % CI: 0.51-0.82; p < 0.0001). Ultrasound is an effective examination for the diagnostic work-up of lesions of the coracoclavicular ligaments in the acute phase of an acromioclavicular injury. (orig.)

  3. Impact of Mitoxantrone on MRI Findings in Patients with Secondary Progressive Multiple Sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Afraze

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Determining the effect of Mitoxantrone on MRI findings in patients with secondary progressive multiple sclerosis (SPMS "nPatients and Methods: In clinical trial, 25 SPMS patients were enrolled in this study. Brain and spinal cord MRI were performed before and after treatment with Mitoxantrone. The number, shape, and distribution of the plaques and the size of the largest and smallest plaques were assessed in T1 W, T2 W and FLAIR sequences and compared before and after treatment. "nResults: The mean age of the patients was 38.9 years (24-57. There were 15 women and 10 men. The mean plaque count reduction after treatment was 3±2.6, 3.3±2.5 and 3.1±2.3 in T1W, T2W and FLAIR sequences, respectively (all p<0.0001. The mean of the greatest plaque size reduction was 4.3±3.7 mm in T1W, 4.6±4.1 mm in T2W and 4.6±3.9 mm in the FLAIR sequence (all p<0.0001. The mean of the smallest plaque size reduction was 0.29±0.44, 0.29±0.52 and 0.24±0.53 mm in T1W, T2W and FLAIR sequences, respectively (all p<0.0001. There was no significant difference regarding the location and shape of the plaques before and after treatment (both p's>0.3. Also, there was not any significant difference between before and after treatment images regarding edema and ventricular dilation (p>0.9."nConclusion: Mitoxantrone can decrease the number and size of plaques in SPMS patients.

  4. Reviews of functional MRI: the ethical dimensions of methodological critique.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Anderson

    Full Text Available Neuroimaging studies involving human subjects raise a range of ethics issues. Many of these issues are heightened in the context of neuroimaging research involving persons with mental health disorders. There has been growing interest in these issues among legal scholars, philosophers, social scientists, and as well as neuroimagers over the last decade. Less clear, however, is the extent to which members of the neuroimaging community are engaged with these issues when they undertake their research and report results. In this study, we analyze the peer-reviewed review literature involving fMRI as applied to the study of mental health disorders. Our hypothesis is that, due to the critical orientation of reviews, and the vulnerability of mental health population, the penetrance of neuroethics will be higher in the review literature in this area than it is in the primary fMRI research literature more generally. We find that while authors of reviews do focus a great deal of attention on the methodological limitations of the studies they discussed, contrary to our hypothesis, they do not frame concerns in ethical terms despite their ethical significance. We argue that an ethics lens on such discussion would increase the knowledge-value of this scholarly work.

  5. Acquisition and analysis strategies in functional MRI at high fields

    CERN Document Server

    Windischberger, C

    2001-01-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging represents a non-invasive technique to examine neuronal activity in the brain. It applies radio waves to excite nuclear spins, using the emitted signal during relaxation for image generation. Signal modulations from local blood flow and oxygenation level changes caused by neuronal activity are the basis for calculating functional brain maps with high spatial resolution. The present work discusses concepts for improving the spatial and temporal resolution, as well as sophisticated analysis approaches. Besides an exhaustive description of image reconstruction algorithms, computational simulations on echo-shifting in echo-planar imaging are presented and effects on spatial resolution are quantified. The results demonstrate that echo-shifting causes only minimal resolution losses for high signal-to-noise data, but leads to severe resolution degradation (up to 30 %) in images with low signal-to-noise ratios. After an overview of the mechanisms that cause fMRI signal changes su...

  6. A central analgesic mechanism of acupuncture for migraine An ongoing functional MRI study**

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lei Lan; Yujie Gao; Fang Zeng; Wei Qin; Mingkai Dong; Mailan Liu; Taipin Guo; Fanrong Liang

    2013-01-01

    Shaoyang acupoints are the most frequently used in migraine treatment. However, the central anal-gesic mechanism remains poorly understood. Studies have demonstrated that single stimulus of the verum acupuncture in healthy subjects can induce significant connectivity or activity changes in pain-related central networks compared with sham acupuncture. However, these findings are not indicative of the central analgesic mechanism of acupuncture at Shaoyang acupoints. Thus, we recruited 100 migraine sufferers and randomly assigned them into five groups: Shaoyang uncommon acupoint, Shaoyang common acupoint, Yangming uncommon acupoint, non-acupoint control, and blank control groups. Subjects were subjected to evaluation of curative effects and functional MRI prior to and after 10 and 20 acupuncture treatments. Al subjects were diagnosed by physicians and enrol ed fol owing clinical physical examination. Subjects were observed during 1-4 weeks after inclusion. At the fifth week, the first clinical evaluation and resting functional MRI were conducted. The Shaoyang uncom-mon acupoint, Shaoyang common acupoint, Yangming uncommon acupoint, and non-acupoint control grousp then were treated with acupuncture, five times per week, 20 times in total over 4 weeks. The second and third clinical evaluations and resting functional MRI screenings were conducted fol owing 10 and 20 acupuncture treatments. The blank control group was observed during the 5 to 8 week pe-riod, fol owed by clinical evaluation and resting functional MRI. The aim of this study was to examine changes in brain functional activity and central networks in subjects with migraine undergoing acu-puncture at Shaoyang uncommon acupoints. This study provides a further explanation of the central analgesic mechanism by which acupuncture at Shaoyang acupoints treats migraine.

  7. Infimal convolution of total generalized variation functionals for dynamic MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schloegl, Matthias; Holler, Martin; Schwarzl, Andreas; Bredies, Kristian; Stollberger, Rudolf

    2017-07-01

    To accelerate dynamic MR applications using infimal convolution of total generalized variation functionals (ICTGV) as spatio-temporal regularization for image reconstruction. ICTGV comprises a new image prior tailored to dynamic data that achieves regularization via optimal local balancing between spatial and temporal regularity. Here it is applied for the first time to the reconstruction of dynamic MRI data. CINE and perfusion scans were investigated to study the influence of time dependent morphology and temporal contrast changes. ICTGV regularized reconstruction from subsampled MR data is formulated as a convex optimization problem. Global solutions are obtained by employing a duality based non-smooth optimization algorithm. The reconstruction error remains on a low level with acceleration factors up to 16 for both CINE and dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI data. The GPU implementation of the algorithm suites clinical demands by reducing reconstruction times of one dataset to less than 4 min. ICTGV based dynamic magnetic resonance imaging reconstruction allows for vast undersampling and therefore enables for very high spatial and temporal resolutions, spatial coverage and reduced scan time. With the proposed distinction of model and regularization parameters it offers a new and robust method of flexible decomposition into components with different degrees of temporal regularity. Magn Reson Med 78:142-155, 2017. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  8. Muscle MRI findings in patients with limb girdle muscular dystrophy with calpain 3 deficiency (LGMD2A) and early contractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercuri, Eugenio; Bushby, Kate; Ricci, Enzo; Birchall, Daniel; Pane, Marika; Kinali, Maria; Allsop, Joanna; Nigro, Vincenzo; Sáenz, Amets; Nascimbeni, Annachiara; Fulizio, Luigi; Angelini, Corrado; Muntoni, Francesco

    2005-02-01

    Limb girdle muscular dystrophy 2A is a common variant secondary to mutations in the calpain 3 gene. A proportion of patients has early and severe contractures, which can cause diagnostic difficulties with other conditions. We report clinical and muscle magnetic resonance imaging findings in seven limb girdle muscular dystrophy 2A patients (four sporadic and three familial) who had prominent and early contractures. All patients showed a striking involvement of the posterior thigh muscles. The involvement of the other thigh muscles was variable and was related to clinical severity. Young patients with minimal functional motor impairment showed a predominant involvement of the adductors and semimembranosus muscles while patients with restricted ambulation had a more diffuse involvement of the posterolateral muscles of the thigh and of the vastus intermedius with relative sparing of the vastus lateralis, sartorius and gracilis. At calf level all patients showed involvement of the soleus muscle and of the medial head of the gastrocnemius with relative sparing of the lateral head. MRI findings were correlated to those found in two patients with the phenotype of limb girdle muscular dystrophy 2A without early contractures and the pattern observed was quite similar. However, the pattern observed in limb girdle muscular dystrophy 2A is different from that reported in other muscle diseases such as Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy and Bethlem myopathy which have a significant clinical overlap with limb girdle muscular dystrophy 2A once early contractures are present. Our results suggest that muscle MRI may help in recognising patients with limb girdle muscular dystrophy 2A even when the clinical presentation overlaps with other conditions, and may therefore, be used as an additional investigation to target the appropriate biochemical and genetic tests.

  9. MRI findings in renal transplant recipients with hip and knee pain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donmez, Fuldem Yildirim [Baskent University Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Fevzi Cakmak Caddesi 10. sokak no: 45, Bahcelievler 06490, Ankara (Turkey)], E-mail: fuldemyildirim@yahoo.com; Basaran, Ceyla [Baskent University Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Fevzi Cakmak Caddesi 10. sokak no: 45, Bahcelievler 06490, Ankara (Turkey)], E-mail: ceylab@baskent-ank.edu.tr; Ulu, Esra Meltem Kayahan [Baskent University Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Fevzi Cakmak Caddesi 10. sokak no: 45, Bahcelievler 06490, Ankara (Turkey)], E-mail: emkayahanulu@yahoo.com; Uyusur, Arzu [Baskent University Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Fevzi Cakmak Caddesi 10. sokak no: 45, Bahcelievler 06490, Ankara (Turkey)], E-mail: arzuuyusur@yahoo.com; Tarhan, Nefise Cagla [Baskent University Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Fevzi Cakmak Caddesi 10. sokak no: 45, Bahcelievler 06490, Ankara (Turkey)], E-mail: caglat@baskent-ank.edu.tr; Muhtesem Agildere, A. [Baskent University Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Fevzi Cakmak Caddesi 10. sokak no: 45, Bahcelievler 06490, Ankara (Turkey)], E-mail: amuhtesem@superonline.com

    2009-09-15

    Purpose: To evaluate and demonstrate the MRI findings of renal transplant recipients with hip and knee pain and to investigate the most common etiology of pain. Materials and methods: 69 hip MRIs of 57 patients with hip pain and 30 knee MRIs of 24 patients with knee pain with no history of trauma were retrospectively evaluated by two radiologists. Results: In the evaluation of hip MRIs, 24 patients had avascular necrosis and effusion, 2 patients had bone marrow edema consistent with early stage of avascular necrosis. 18 patients had only intraarticular effusion, 6 patients had tendinitis, 6 patients had bursitis and 1 patient had soft tissue abscess. Five patients had muscle edema and five patients had muscle atrophy as additional findings to the primary pathologies. Among patients with knee pain, nine patients had degenerative joint disease. Seven patients had chondromalacia, five had bone marrow edema, six had meniscal tear, six had ligament rupture and two had bone infarct. Three of the patients had muscle edema accompanying to other pathologies. Conclusion: The most common etiology of hip pain in renal transplant recipients is avascular necrosis as expected, intraarticular effusion is found to be Second reason for pain. However, knee pain is explained by ligament pathology, meniscal tear, chondromalacia or degenerative joint disease rather than osteonecrosis.

  10. Correlation Between MRI and Ultrasonographic Findings in Meniscal Injuries of the Knee.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Sasani

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available "nIntroduction: The purpose of this study was to evaluate ability of ultrasonography in the diagnosis of injuries of the knee menisci including tear, intrasubstance degeneration (ISD and cyst. "nMaterials and Methods: This study included ultrasound examination of knee joints of 100 patients after MR imaging, who were referred by clinicians without informing us about their symptoms and physical examinations. Then ultrasonographic results were correlated with MRI findings. "nResults: The 23 meniscal tear diagnosis made in MR examination in different segments of menisci and 19 (82.6% cases were diagnosed sonographically and the rest were reported as ISD (13% and normal (4.4%. Among the 69 cases in which MR examination interpreted as ISD in different segments, 66.7% were reported as ISD and others were diagnosed as meniscal tear (10% and normal(23% by sonography. There was a significant correlation between ultrasound and MR findings in meniscal tears (82.6% and relatively significant in ISD(66.7%. "nConclusion: Ultrasonographic study of the menisci is an inexpensive, noninvasive, easily available and reliable imaging modality.   

  11. Scanning fast and slow: current limitations of 3 Tesla functional MRI and future potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boubela, Roland N.; Kalcher, Klaudius; Nasel, Christian; Moser, Ewald

    2014-02-01

    Functional MRI at 3T has become a workhorse for the neurosciences, e.g., neurology, psychology, and psychiatry, enabling non-invasive investigation of brain function and connectivity. However, BOLD-based fMRI is a rather indirect measure of brain function, confounded by fluctuation related signals, e.g. head or brain motion, brain pulsation, blood flow, intermixed with susceptibility differences close or distant to the region of neuronal activity. Even though a plethora of preprocessing strategies have been published to address these confounds, their efficiency is still under discussion. In particular, physiological signal fluctuations closely related to brain supply may mask BOLD signal changes related to "true" neuronal activation. Here we explore recent technical and methodological advancements aimed at disentangling the various components, employing fast multiband vs. standard EPI, in combination with fast temporal ICA.Our preliminary results indicate that fast (TRbrain, even at a rather coarse macroscopic level, we should be very cautious in the interpretation of neuroscientific findings, in particular when comparing different groups (e.g., age, sex, medication, pathology, etc.). From a technical point of view our goal should be to sample brain activity at layer specific resolution with low TR, covering as much of the brain as possible without violating SAR limits. We hope to stimulate discussion towards a better understanding and a more quantitative use of fMRI.

  12. Neonatal pyruvate dehydrogenase deficiency due to a R302H mutation in the PDHA1 gene: MRI findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soares-Fernandes, Joao P.; Ribeiro, Manuel; Magalhaes, Zita; Rocha, Jaime F. [Hospital de S. Marcos, Department of Neuroradiology, Braga (Portugal); Teixeira-Gomes, Roseli [Hospital Pedro Hispano, Division of Neuropediatrics, Matosinhos (Portugal); Cruz, Romeu [Hospital Geral de Sto. Antonio, Department of Neuroradiology, Porto (Portugal); Leijser, Lara M. [Leiden University Medical Center, Department of Paediatrics, Division of Neonatology, Leiden (Netherlands)

    2008-05-15

    Pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) deficiency is one of the most common causes of congenital lactic acidosis. Correlations between the genetic defect and neuroimaging findings are lacking. We present conventional and diffusion-weighted MRI findings in a 7-day-old male neonate with PDH deficiency due to a mosaicism for the R302H mutation in the PDHA1 gene. Corpus callosum dysgenesis, widespread increased diffusion in the white matter, and bilateral subependymal cysts were the main features. Although confirmation of PDH deficiency depends on specialized biochemical analyses, neonatal MRI plays a role in evaluating the pattern and extent of brain damage, and potentially in early diagnosis and clinical decision making. (orig.)

  13. Ultrasound of the coracoclavicular ligaments in the acute phase of an acromioclavicular disjonction: Comparison of radiographic, ultrasound and MRI findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faruch Bilfeld, Marie; Lapègue, Franck; Chiavassa Gandois, Hélène; Bayol, Marie Aurélie; Bonnevialle, Nicolas; Sans, Nicolas

    2017-02-01

    Acromioclavicular joint injuries are typically diagnosed by clinical and radiographic assessment with the Rockwood classification, which is crucial for treatment planning. The purpose of this study was to describe how the ultrasound findings of acromioclavicular joint injury compare with radiography and MRI findings. Forty-seven patients with suspected unilateral acromioclavicular joint injury after acute trauma were enrolled in this prospective study. All patients underwent digital radiography, ultrasound and 3T MRI. A modified Rockwood classification was used to evaluate the coracoclavicular ligaments. The classifications of acromioclavicular joint injuries diagnosed with radiography, ultrasound and MRI were compared. MRI was used as the gold standard. The agreement between the ultrasound and MRI findings was very good, with a correlation coefficient of 0.83 (95 % CI: 0.72-0.90; p acromioclavicular injury. • Ultrasound is appropriate for acute acromioclavicular trauma due to its accessibility. • Ultrasound contributes to the diagnostic work-up of acute lesions of the coracoclavicular ligaments. • Ultrasound is appropriate in patients likely to benefit from surgical treatment. • Ultrasound could be a supplement to standard radiography in acute acromioclavicular trauma.

  14. Preliminary fMRI findings in experimentally sleep-restricted adolescents engaged in a working memory task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tlustos Sarah J

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Here we report preliminary findings from a small-sample functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI study of healthy adolescents who completed a working memory task in the context of a chronic sleep restriction experiment. Findings were consistent with those previously obtained on acutely sleep-deprived adults. Our data suggest that, when asked to maintain attention and burdened by chronic sleep restriction, the adolescent brain responds via compensatory mechanisms that accentuate the typical activation patterns of attention-relevant brain regions. Specifically, it appeared that regions that are normally active during an attention-demanding working memory task in the well-rested brain became even more active to maintain performance after chronic sleep restriction. In contrast, regions in which activity is normally suppressed during such a task in the well-rested brain showed even greater suppression to maintain performance after chronic sleep restriction. Although limited by the small sample, study results provide important evidence of feasibility, as well as guidance for future research into the functional neurological effects of chronic sleep restriction in general, the effects of sleep restriction in children and adolescents, and the neuroscience of attention and its disorders in children.

  15. Scanning fast and slow: current limitations of 3 Tesla functional MRI and future potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roland N Boubela

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Functional MRI at 3T has become a workhorse for the neurosciences, e.g., neurology, psychology, and psychiatry, enabling non-invasive investigation of brain function and connectivity. However, BOLD-based fMRI is a rather indirect measure of brain function, confounded by fluctuation related signals, e.g. head or brain motion, brain pulsation, blood flow, intermixed with susceptibility differences close or distant to the region of neuronal activity. Even though a plethora of preprocessing strategies have been published to address these confounds, their efficiency is still under discussion. In particular, physiological signal fluctuations closely related to brain supply may mask BOLD signal changes related to true neuronal activation. Here we explore recent technical and methodological advancements aimed at disentangling the various components, employing fast multiband vs. standard EPI, in combination with fast temporal ICA.Our preliminary results indicate that fast (TR< 0.5s scanning may help to identify and eliminate physiologic components, increasing tSNR and functional contrast. In addition, biological variability can be studied and task performance better correlated to other measures. This should increase specificity and reliability in fMRI studies. Furthermore, physiological signal changes during scanning may then be recognized as a source of information rather than a nuisance. As we are currently still undersampling the complexity of the brain, even at a rather coarse macroscopic level, we should be very cautious in the interpretation of neuroscientific findings, in particular when comparing different groups (e.g., age, sex, medication, pathology, etc.. From a technical point of view our goal should be to sample brain activity at layer specific resolution with low TR, covering as much of the brain as possible without violating SAR limits. We hope to stimulate discussion towards a better understanding and a more quantitative use of fMRI.

  16. Brain functions after sports-related concussion: insights from event-related potentials and functional MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosselin, Nadia; Saluja, Rajeet Singh; Chen, Jen-Kai; Bottari, Carolina; Johnston, Karen; Ptito, Alain

    2010-10-01

    The high incidence of concussions in contact sports and their impact on brain functions are a major cause for concern. To improve our understanding of brain functioning after sports-related concussion, advanced functional assessment techniques, namely event-related potentials (ERPs) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), have been recently used in research studies. Contrary to neuropsychological tests that measure verbal and/or motor responses, ERPs and fMRI assess the neural activities associated with cognitive/behavioral demands, and thus provide access to better comprehension of brain functioning. In fact, ERPs have excellent temporal resolution, and fMRI identifies the involved structures during a task. This article describes ERP and fMRI techniques and reviews the results obtained with these tools in sports-related concussion. Although these techniques are not yet readily available, they offer a unique clinical approach, particularly for complex cases (ie, athletes with multiple concussions, chronic symptoms) and objective measures that provide valuable information to guide management and return-to-play decision making.

  17. The MRI findings of meningeal peripheral-type primitive neuroectodermal tumors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李文一

    2014-01-01

    Objective To analyze the MRI features of Ewing sarcoma/peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumors(pPNETs)arising from the meninges.Methods The MRI imaging of 9 patients with Ewing sarcoma/pPNET were reviewed retrospectively,and imaging features and pathological characteristics were analyzed.Results The age of most patients ranged from 10 to 20

  18. MRI findings in Kirner deformity: normal insertion of the flexor digitorum profundus tendon without soft-tissue enhancement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jaejoon; Ahn, Joong Kyong; Koh, Eun-Mi; Cha, Hoon-Suk [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Department of Medicine, Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea); Choi, Sang-Hee [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea)

    2010-09-15

    Kirner deformity is characterized by volar and radial incurvature of the distal phalanx of the 5th finger. A proposed causative mechanism includes abnormal distal insertion of the flexor digitorum profundus tendon along the volar surface of the distal phalanx of the 5th finger. A chronic inflammatory process or altered vascularisation of the soft tissues has also been suggested as the underlying causative mechanism based on MRI findings. We present a teenage boy with Kirner deformity, along with supplementary imaging of his father who also has the deformity, to illustrate MRI findings that dispute the above hypotheses. MRI in both son and father show normal insertion of the deep flexor tendon and no signs of inflammation. (orig.)

  19. Human articular cartilage: in vitro correlation of MRI and histologic findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uhl, M.; Allmann, K.H.; Laubenberger, J.; Langer, M. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, University Hospital of Freiburg (Germany); Ihling, C.; Tauer, U.; Adler, C.P. [Department of Pathology, University Hospital of Freiburg (Germany)

    1998-09-01

    The aim of our study was to correlate MRI with histologic findings in normal and degenerative cartilage. Twenty-two human knees derived from patients undergoing amputation were examined with 1.0- and 1.5-T MR imaging units. Firstly, we optimized two fat-suppressed 3D gradient-echo sequences. In this pilot study two knees were examined with fast imaging with steady precession (FISP) sequences and fast low-angle shot (FLASH, SPGR) sequence by varying the flip angles (40, 60, 90 ) and combining each flip angle with different echo time (7, 10 or 11, 20 ms). We chose the sequences with the best visual contrast between the cartilage layers and the best measured contrast-to-noise ratio between cartilage and bone marrow. Therefore, we used a 3D FLASH fat-saturated sequence (TR/TE/flip angle = 50/11 ms/40 ) and a 3D FISP fat-saturated sequence (TR/TE/flip angle = 40/10 ms/40 ) for cartilage imaging in 22 human knees. The images were obtained at various angles of the patellar cartilage in relation to the main magnetic field (0, 55, 90 ). The MR appearances were classified into five categories: normal, intracartilaginous signal changes, diffuse thinning (cartilage thickness < 3 mm), superficial erosions, and cartilage ulcers. After imaging, the knees were examined macroscopically and photographed. In addition, we performed histologic studies using light microscopy with several different stainings, polarization, and dark field microscopy as well as electron microscopy. The structural characteristics with the cartilage lesions were correlated with the MR findings. We identified a hyperintense superficial zone in the MR image which did not correlate to the histologically identifiable superficial zone. The second lamina was hypointense on MRI and correlated to the bulk of the radial zone. The third (or deep) cartilage lamina in the MR image seemed to represent the combination of the lowest portion of the radial zone and the calcified cartilage. The width of the hypointense second

  20. Evolution and current challenges in the teaching of functional MRI and functional brain imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savoy, Robert L

    2012-08-15

    The report of any new and successful method for studying the world triggers the need to train people in the use of that method. In the case of functional magnetic resonance imaging and its use for examining human brain function in vivo, expertise is required in a greater collection of domains than usual. Development of fMRI training programs started shortly after the announcement of BOLD-based fMRI in humans. These programs had a variety of durations and primary content areas. All programs had to deal with the challenge of bringing interested researchers from a wide variety of areas-many of whom had little or no understanding of MR physics, and/or experimental psychology, and/or the nuances of data analysis and modeling-to a sufficiently detailed level of knowledge that both the funding agencies, and the existing proprietors of the technology (often radiologists or MR physicists at hospitals) would take the research proposals of new investigators seriously. Now that fMRI-based research is well established, there are new educational challenges. Some have to do with the growing list of technologies used to study human brain function in vivo. But perhaps more daunting is the challenge of training consumers of the reports and claims based on fMRI and other brain imaging modalities. As fMRI becomes influential in contexts beyond the research environment-from the clinic to the courtroom to the legislature-training consumers of fMRI-based claims will take on increasing importance, and represents its own unique challenges for education.

  1. Detection of Brain Reorganization in Pediatric Multiple Sclerosis Using Functional MRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    surgical site. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Functional brain mapping using fMRI, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), pediatric-onset multiple sclerosis (POMS...Fluency, for verbal fluency; DKEFS Trails, for visual motor-sequencing; and a Grooved Pegboard task to assess manipulation dexterity. Results for...epilepsy patients at our institution. We have explored fMRI for improving epilepsy surgical planning in pediatric patients. To that end we acquired

  2. [Functional MRI at 1 Tesla. Basic paradigms and clinical application].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarcz, Attila; Auer, Tibor; Komoly, Sámuel; Dóczi, Tamás; Janszky, József

    2007-07-30

    To perform functional MRI experiments at low magnetic field, and to set up routine protocol to help the planning of neurosurgical operations and the examination of epilepsy patients. An optimized 2D EPI sequence was applied to yield functional MR images in basic paradigms such as finger tapping and internal word generation. Further, activation was induced also by a task involving mental navigation based on the retrieval of individually familiar visuo-spatial knowledge. Low resolution (matrix of 64x64) functional MR images satisfactorily visualized moto-sensor strip and speech centers. In the mental navigation task bilateral activation of the hippocampal formation was observed. Determination of motor area was also performed in an epilepsy patient whose seizure focus had been found in the area of pre- and post-central gyrus. The dislocation of the motor cortex was demonstrated. Functional MR images with fine quality can be obtained in basic paradigms even at low magnetic field if MR imaging parameters and paradigms are optimized.

  3. Structure and function relationship of human heart from DENSE MRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghaddam, Abbas N.; Gharib, Morteza

    2007-03-01

    The study here, suggests a macroscopic structure for the Left Ventricle (LV), based on the heart kinematics which is obtained through imaging. The measurement of the heart muscle deformation using the Displacement ENcoding with Stimulated Echoes (DENSE) MRI, which describes the heart kinematics in the Lagrangian frame work, is used to determine the high resolution patterns of true myocardial strain. Subsequently, the tangential Shortening Index (SI) and the thickening of the LV wall are calculated for each data point. Considering the heart as a positive-displacement pump, the contribution of each segment of LV in the heart function, can be determined by the SI and thickening of the wall in the same portion. Hence the SI isosurfaces show the extent and spatial distribution of the heart activity and reveals its macro structure. The structure and function of the heart are, therefore, related which in turn results in a macroscopic model for the LV. In particular, it was observed that the heart functionality is not uniformly distributed in the LV, and the regions with greater effect on the pumping process, form a band which wraps around the heart. These results, which are supported by the established histological evidence, may be considered as a landmark in connecting the structure and function of the heart through imaging. Furthermore, the compatibility of this model with microscopic observations about the fiber direction is investigated. This method may be used for planning as well as post evaluation of the ventriculoplasty.

  4. Correlation between developmental disorders and MRI findings in very low birth weight infants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukuda, Kuniaki; Endo, Shoichi; Goda, Tomoko; Ota, Akira; Akita, Yuji; Furukawa, Seikyo (Kagawa Children' s National Sanatorium, Zentsuji (Japan))

    1994-08-01

    We investigated the prevalence of developmental disorders in very low birth weight infants, their risk factors during the neonatal period, and the correlation between their neurological symptoms and their MRI findings. Seventy-three infants, who were followed up for more than 5 years in the developmental clinic, were enrolled. The developmental disorders included 6 patients with cerebral palsy (CP) and 6 patients with mental retardation (MR). The types of CP were as follows: spastic diplegia (3), spastic quadriplegia (2), athetotic quadriplegia (1). Intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) and mechanical ventilation (MV) were significant risk factors for CP and MR and retinopathy was also a significant risk factor for MR. Periventricular areas of bright signal intensity on T2 (TR 2000 msec/TE 120 mse) weighted images, compatible with old, small white matter infarcts, gliosis or demyelination, were observed in only three of the seven patients. We measured the width of anterior horns, the maximum diameter of cerebrum, and the minimum thickness of white matter in occipital lobe on T1 (TR 500 msec/TE 20 msec) weighted transaxial images in eight patients (five patients with CP, three patients with MR). The maximum diameters of cerebrums and the minimum thickness of white matters were significantly smaller in patients with CP or MR than those in controls, respectively. The DQ of patients significantly correlated with the maximum diameters of cerebrums and the minimum thickness of white matters in left occipital lobe significantly correlated with DQ. (author).

  5. Interplay between functional connectivity and scale-free dynamics in intrinsic fMRI networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciuciu, Philippe; Abry, Patrice; He, Biyu J

    2014-07-15

    Studies employing functional connectivity-type analyses have established that spontaneous fluctuations in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) signals are organized within large-scale brain networks. Meanwhile, fMRI signals have been shown to exhibit 1/f-type power spectra - a hallmark of scale-free dynamics. We studied the interplay between functional connectivity and scale-free dynamics in fMRI signals, utilizing the fractal connectivity framework - a multivariate extension of the univariate fractional Gaussian noise model, which relies on a wavelet formulation for robust parameter estimation. We applied this framework to fMRI data acquired from healthy young adults at rest and while performing a visual detection task. First, we found that scale-invariance existed beyond univariate dynamics, being present also in bivariate cross-temporal dynamics. Second, we observed that frequencies within the scale-free range do not contribute evenly to inter-regional connectivity, with a systematically stronger contribution of the lowest frequencies, both at rest and during task. Third, in addition to a decrease of the Hurst exponent and inter-regional correlations, task performance modified cross-temporal dynamics, inducing a larger contribution of the highest frequencies within the scale-free range to global correlation. Lastly, we found that across individuals, a weaker task modulation of the frequency contribution to inter-regional connectivity was associated with better task performance manifesting as shorter and less variable reaction times. These findings bring together two related fields that have hitherto been studied separately - resting-state networks and scale-free dynamics, and show that scale-free dynamics of human brain activity manifest in cross-regional interactions as well.

  6. Memory Deficits in Schizophrenia: A Selective Review of Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrienne C. Lahti

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Schizophrenia is a complex chronic mental illness that is characterized by positive, negative and cognitive symptoms. Cognitive deficits are most predictive of long-term outcomes, with abnormalities in memory being the most robust finding. The advent of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI has allowed exploring neural correlates of memory deficits in vivo. In this article, we will give a selective review of fMRI studies probing brain regions and functional networks that are thought to be related to abnormal memory performance in two memory systems prominently affected in schizophrenia; working memory and episodic memory. We revisit the classic “hypofrontality” hypothesis of working memory deficits and explore evidence for frontotemporal dysconnectivity underlying episodic memory abnormalities. We conclude that fMRI studies of memory deficits in schizophrenia are far from universal. However, the current literature does suggest that alterations are not isolated to a few brain regions, but are characterized by abnormalities within large-scale brain networks.

  7. Correlation of CT-based regional cardiac function (SQUEEZ) with myocardial strain calculated from tagged MRI: an experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourmorteza, Amir; Chen, Marcus Y; van der Pals, Jesper; Arai, Andrew E; McVeigh, Elliot R

    2016-05-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the correlation between local myocardial function estimates from CT and myocardial strain from tagged MRI in the same heart. Accurate detection of regional myocardial dysfunction can be an important finding in the diagnosis of functionally significant coronary artery disease. Tagged MRI is currently a reference standard for noninvasive regional myocardial function analysis; however, it has practical drawbacks. We have developed a CT imaging protocol and automated image analysis algorithm for estimating regional cardiac function from a few heartbeats. This method tracks the motion of the left ventricular (LV) endocardial surface to produce local function maps: we call the method Stretch Quantification of Endocardial Engraved Zones (SQUEEZ). Myocardial infarction was created by ligation of the left anterior descending coronary artery for 2 h followed by reperfusion in canine models. Tagged and cine MRI scans were performed during the reperfusion phase and first-pass contrast enhanced CT scans were acquired. The average delay between the CT and MRI scans was myocardial strain (Ecc) was calculated from the tagged MRI data. The agreement between peak systolic Ecc and SQUEEZ was investigated in 162 segments in the 9 hearts. Linear regression and Bland-Altman analysis was used to assess the correlation between the two metrics of local LV function. The results show good agreement between SQUEEZ and Ecc: (r = 0.71, slope = 0.78, p function. The good agreement between the estimates of local myocardial function obtained from CT SQUEEZ and tagged MRI provides encouragement to investigate the use of SQUEEZ for measuring regional cardiac function at a low clinical dose in humans.

  8. Functional mapping of the sensorimotor cortex: combined use of magnetoencephalography, functional MRI, and motor evoked potentials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morioka, T. [Dept. of Neurosurgery, Neurological Inst., Kyshu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan); Fujii, K. [Dept. of Neurosurgery, Neurological Inst., Kyshu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan); Fukui, M. [Dept. of Neurosurgery, Neurological Inst., Kyshu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan); Mizushima, A. [Dept. of Radiology, Kyushu Univ. Fukuoka (Japan); Matsumoto, S. [Dept. of Radiology, Kyushu Univ. Fukuoka (Japan); Hasuo, K. [Dept. of Radiology, Kyushu Univ. Fukuoka (Japan); Yamamoto, T. [Dept. of Otolaryngology, Kyushu Univ. Fukuoka (Japan); Tobimatsu, S. [Dept. of Clinical Neurophysiology, Neurological Inst., Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan)

    1995-10-01

    Combined use of magnetoencephalography (MEG), functional magnetic resonance imaging (f-MRI), and motor evoked potentials (MEPs) was carried out on one patient in an attempt to localise precisely a structural lesion to the central sulcus. A small cyst in the right frontoparietal region was thought to be the cause of generalised seizures in an otherwise asymptomatic woman. First the primary sensory cortex was identified with magnetic source imaging (MSI) of somatosensory evoked magnetic fields using MEG and MRI. Second, the motor area of the hand was identified using f-MRI during handsqueezing. Then transcranial magnetic stimulation localised the hand motor area on the scalp, which was mapped onto the MRI. There was a good agreement between MSI, f-MRI and MEP as to the location of the sensorimotor cortex and its relationship to the lesion. Multimodality mapping techniques may thus prove useful in the precise localisation of cortical lesions, and in the preoperative determination of the best treatment for peri-rolandic lesions. (orig.)

  9. Primary clear cell carcinoma in the liver:CT and MRI findings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qing-Yu Liu; Hai-Gang Li; Ming Gao; Xiao-Feng Lin; Yong Li; Jian-Yu Chen

    2011-01-01

    AIM:To retrospectively analyze the computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) appearances of primary clear cell carcinoma of the liver (PCCCL) and compare the imaging appearances of PCCCL and common type hepatocellular carcinoma (CHCC) to determine whether any differences exist between the two groups.METHODS:Twenty cases with pathologically proven PCCCL and 127 cases with CHCC in the Second Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University were included in this study.CT or MRI images from these patients were retrospectively analyzed.The following imaging findings were reviewed:the presence of liver cirrhosis,tumor size,the enhancement pattern on dynamic contrast scanning,the presence of pseudo capsules,tumor rupture,portal vein thrombosis and lymph node metastasis.RESULTS:Both PCCCL and CHCC were prone to occur in patients with liver cirrhosis,the association rate of liver cirrhosis was 80.0% and 78.7%,respectively (P > 0.05).The mean sizes of PCCCL and CHCC tumors were (7.28 ± 4.25) cm and (6.96 ± 3.98) cm,respectively.Small HCCs were found in 25.0% (5/20) of PCCCL and 19.7% (25/127) of CHCC cases.No significant differences in mean size and ratio of small HCCs were found between the two groups (P = 0.658 and 0.803,respectively).Compared with CHCC patients,PCCCL patients were more prone to form pseudo capsules (49.6% vs 75.0%,P = 0.034).Tumor rupture,typical HCC enhancement patterns and portal vein tumor thrombosis were detected in 15.0% (3/20),72.2% (13/18) and 20.0% (4/20) of patients with PCCCL and 3.1% (4/127),83.6% (97/116) and 17.3% (22/127) of patients with CHCC,respectively.There were no significant differences between the two groups (all P > 0.05).No patients with PCCCL and 2.4% (3/127) of patients with CHCC showed signs of lymph node metastasis (P > 0.05).CONCLUSION:The imaging characteristics of PCCCL are similar to those of CHCC and could be useful for differentiating these from other liver tumors (such as hemangioma and hepatic

  10. The Brain Functional State of Music Creation: an fMRI Study of Composers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jing; Yang, Hua; Zhang, Xingxing; He, Hui; Luo, Cheng; Yao, Dezhong

    2015-07-23

    In this study, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to explore the functional networks in professional composers during the creation of music. We compared the composing state and resting state imagery of 17 composers and found that the functional connectivity of primary networks in the bilateral occipital lobe and bilateral postcentral cortex decreased during the composing period. However, significantly stronger functional connectivity appeared between the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), the right angular gyrus and the bilateral superior frontal gyrus during composition. These findings indicate that a specific brain state of musical creation is formed when professional composers are composing, in which the integration of the primary visual and motor areas is not necessary. Instead, the neurons of these areas are recruited to enhance the functional connectivity between the ACC and the default mode network (DMN) to plan the integration of musical notes with emotion.

  11. Multiparametric MRI in the assessment of response of rectal cancer to neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy: A comparison of morphological, volumetric and functional MRI parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoetker, Andreas M. [Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, Department of Radiology, New York, NY (United States); Universitaetsmedizin Mainz, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Mainz (Germany); Tarlinton, Lisa; Gollub, Marc J. [Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, Department of Radiology, New York, NY (United States); Mazaheri, Yousef [Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, Department of Medical Physics, New York, NY (United States); Woo, Kaitlin M.; Goenen, Mithat [Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, New York, NY (United States); Saltz, Leonard B. [Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, Department of Medicine, Gastrointestinal Oncology Service, New York, NY (United States); Goodman, Karyn A. [Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, Department of Radiation Oncology, New York, NY (United States); Garcia-Aguilar, Julio [Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, Department of Surgery, New York, NY (United States)

    2016-12-15

    To compare morphological and functional MRI metrics and determine which ones perform best in assessing response to neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (CRT) in rectal cancer. This retrospective study included 24 uniformly-treated patients with biopsy-proven rectal adenocarcinoma who underwent MRI, including diffusion-weighted (DW) and dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) sequences, before and after completion of CRT. On all MRI exams, two experienced readers independently measured longest and perpendicular tumour diameters, tumour volume, tumour regression grade (TRG) and tumour signal intensity ratio on T2-weighted imaging, as well as tumour volume and apparent diffusion coefficient on DW-MRI and tumour volume and transfer constant K{sup trans} on DCE-MRI. These metrics were correlated with histopathological percent tumour regression in the resected specimen (%TR). Inter-reader agreement was assessed using the concordance correlation coefficient (CCC). For both readers, post-treatment DW-MRI and DCE-MRI volumetric tumour assessments were significantly associated with %TR; DCE-MRI volumetry showed better inter-reader agreement (CCC=0.700) than DW-MRI volumetry (CCC=0.292). For one reader, mrTRG, post-treatment T2 tumour volumetry and assessments of volume change made with T2, DW-MRI and DCE-MRI were also significantly associated with %TR. Tumour volumetry on post-treatment DCE-MRI and DW-MRI correlated well with %TR, with DCE-MRI volumetry demonstrating better inter-reader agreement. (orig.)

  12. MRI findings associated with development of incident knee pain over 48 months: data from the osteoarthritis initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joseph, Gabby B.; Hou, Stephanie W.; Nardo, Lorenzo; Heilmeier, Ursula; Link, Thomas M. [University of California, San Francisco, Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, San Francisco, CA (United States); Nevitt, Michael C.; McCulloch, Charles E. [University of California, San Francisco, Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, San Francisco, CA (United States)

    2016-05-15

    The purpose of this nested case-control study was to identify baseline, incident, and progressive MRI findings visible on standard MRI clinical sequences that were associated with development of incident knee pain in subjects at risk for OA over a period of 48 months. We analyzed 60 case knees developing incident pain (WOMAC{sub pain} = 0 at baseline and WOMAC{sub pain} ≥ 5 at 48 months) and 60 control knees (WOMAC{sub pain} = 0 at baseline and WOMAC{sub pain} = 0 at 48 months) from the Osteoarthritis Initiative. 3 T knee MRIs were analyzed using a modified WORMS score (cartilage, meniscus, bone marrow) at baseline and after 48 months. Baseline and longitudinal findings were grouped into logistic regression models and compared using likelihood-ratio tests. For each model that was significant, a stepwise elimination was used to isolate significant MRI findings. One baseline MRI finding and three findings that changed from baseline to 48 months were associated with the development of pain: at baseline, the severity of a cartilage lesion in the medial tibia was associated with incident pain - (odds ratio (OR) for incident pain = 3.05; P = 0.030). Longitudinally, an incident effusion (OR = 9.78; P = 0.005), a progressive cartilage lesion of the patella (OR = 4.59; P = 0.009), and an incident medial meniscus tear (OR = 4.91; P = 0.028) were associated with the development of pain. Our results demonstrate that baseline abnormalities of the medial tibia cartilage as well as an incident joint effusion, progressive patella cartilage defects, and an incident medial meniscus tear over 48 months may be associated with incident knee pain. Clinically, this study helps identify MRI findings that are associated with the development of knee pain. (orig.)

  13. MRI findings in soccer players with long-standing adductor-related groin pain and asymptomatic controls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Branci, Sonia; Thorborg, Kristian; Bech, Birthe Højlund

    2015-01-01

    soccer players displayed different positive MRI findings, and asymptomatic soccer players had significantly higher odds (OR ranging from 6.3 to 13.3) for BMO, adductor tendinopathy and degenerative changes than non-soccer players. CONCLUSIONS: ARGP in soccer players was associated with central disc...

  14. Gender differences in creative thinking: behavioral and fMRI findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Anna; Thybusch, Kristin; Pieritz, Karoline; Hermann, Christiane

    2014-03-01

    Gender differences in creativity have been widely studied in behavioral investigations, but this topic has rarely been the focus of neuroscientific research. The current paper presents follow-up analyses of a previous fMRI study (Abraham et al., Neuropsychologia 50(8):1906-1917, 2012b), in which behavioral and brain function during creative conceptual expansion as well as general divergent thinking were explored. Here, we focus on gender differences within the same sample. Conceptual expansion was assessed with the alternate uses task relative to the object location task, whereas divergent thinking was assessed in terms of responses across both the alternate uses and object location tasks relative to n-back working memory tasks. While men and women were indistinguishable in terms of behavioral performance across all tasks, the pattern of brain activity while engaged in the tasks in question was indicative of strategy differences between the genders. Brain areas related to semantic cognition, rule learning and decision making were preferentially engaged in men during conceptual expansion, whereas women displayed higher activity in regions related to speech processing and social perception. During divergent thinking, declarative memory related regions were strongly activated in men, while regions involved in theory of mind and self-referential processing were more engaged in women. The implications of gender differences in adopted strategies or cognitive style when faced with generative tasks are discussed.

  15. MB-SWIFT functional MRI during deep brain stimulation in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehto, Lauri J; Idiyatullin, Djaudat; Zhang, Jinjin; Utecht, Lynn; Adriany, Gregor; Garwood, Michael; Gröhn, Olli; Michaeli, Shalom; Mangia, Silvia

    2017-08-07

    Recently introduced 3D radial MRI pulse sequence entitled Multi-Band SWeep Imaging with Fourier Transformation (MB-SWIFT) having virtually zero acquisition delay was used to obtain functional MRI (fMRI) contrast in rat's brain at 9.4 T during deep brain stimulation (DBS). The results demonstrate that MB-SWIFT allows functional images free of susceptibility artifacts, and provides an excellent fMRI activation contrast in the brain. Flip angle dependence of the MB-SWIFT fMRI signal and elimination of the fMRI contrast while using saturation bands, indicate a blood flow origin of the observed fMRI contrast. MB-SWIFT fMRI modality permits activation studies in the close proximity to an implanted lead, which is not possible to achieve with conventionally used gradient echo and spin echo - echo planar imaging fMRI techniques. We conclude that MB-SWIFT fMRI is a powerful imaging modality for investigations of functional responses during DBS. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Functional MRI of sustained attention in bipolar mania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleck, D E; Eliassen, J C; Durling, M; Lamy, M; Adler, C M; DelBello, M P; Shear, P K; Cerullo, M A; Lee, J-H; Strakowski, S M

    2012-03-01

    We examined sustained attention deficits in bipolar disorder and associated changes in brain activation assessed by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). We hypothesized that relative to healthy participants, those with mania or mixed mania would (1) exhibit incremental decrements in sustained attention over time, (2) overactivate brain regions required for emotional processing and (3) progressively underactivate attentional regions of prefrontal cortex. Fifty participants with manic/mixed bipolar disorder (BP group) and 34 healthy comparison subjects (HC group) received an fMRI scan while performing a 15-min continuous performance task (CPT). The data were divided into three consecutive 5-min vigilance periods to analyze sustained attention. Composite brain activation maps indicated that both groups activated dorsal and ventral regions of an anterior-limbic network, but the BP group exhibited less activation over time relative to baseline. Consistent with hypotheses 1 and 2, the BP group showed a marginally greater behavioral CPT sustained attention decrement and more bilateral amygdala activation than the HC group, respectively. Instead of differential activation in prefrontal cortex over time, as predicted in hypothesis 3, the BP group progressively decreased activation in subcortical regions of striatum and thalamus relative to the HC group. These results suggest that regional activation decrements in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex accompany sustained attention decrements in both bipolar and healthy individuals. Stable amygdala overactivation across prolonged vigils may interfere with sustained attention and exacerbate attentional deficits in bipolar disorder. Differential striatal and thalamic deactivation in bipolar disorder is interpreted as a loss of amygdala (emotional brain) modulation by the ventrolateral prefrontal-subcortical circuit, which interferes with attentional maintenance.

  17. Exploring the brain network: a review on resting-state fMRI functional connectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Heuvel, Martijn P; Hulshoff Pol, Hilleke E

    2010-08-01

    Our brain is a network. It consists of spatially distributed, but functionally linked regions that continuously share information with each other. Interestingly, recent advances in the acquisition and analysis of functional neuroimaging data have catalyzed the exploration of functional connectivity in the human brain. Functional connectivity is defined as the temporal dependency of neuronal activation patterns of anatomically separated brain regions and in the past years an increasing body of neuroimaging studies has started to explore functional connectivity by measuring the level of co-activation of resting-state fMRI time-series between brain regions. These studies have revealed interesting new findings about the functional connections of specific brain regions and local networks, as well as important new insights in the overall organization of functional communication in the brain network. Here we present an overview of these new methods and discuss how they have led to new insights in core aspects of the human brain, providing an overview of these novel imaging techniques and their implication to neuroscience. We discuss the use of spontaneous resting-state fMRI in determining functional connectivity, discuss suggested origins of these signals, how functional connections tend to be related to structural connections in the brain network and how functional brain communication may form a key role in cognitive performance. Furthermore, we will discuss the upcoming field of examining functional connectivity patterns using graph theory, focusing on the overall organization of the functional brain network. Specifically, we will discuss the value of these new functional connectivity tools in examining believed connectivity diseases, like Alzheimer's disease, dementia, schizophrenia and multiple sclerosis. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Prostatic abscess and seminal vesicle abscess: MRI findings and quantitative analysis of apparent diffusion coefficient values

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Ren

    2015-06-01

    Conclusion: PA and SVA can be characteristically demonstrated by MRI, and the lesions show especially restricted diffusion by DWI with low ADC values. These demonstrations facilitate their qualitative and quantitative diagnosis.

  19. Osteomyelitis and pyogenic infection of the sacroiliac joint. MRI findings and review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haliloglu, M. [Dept. of Radiology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN (United States); Kleiman, M.B. [Dept. of Pediatrics, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN (United States); Siddiqui, A.R. [Division of Nuclear Medicine, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN (United States); Cohen, M.D. [Dept. of Radiology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN (United States)

    1994-09-01

    Acute pyogenic sacroiliac joint infection and osteomyelitis of adjacent bones often present with severe, poorly localized lower back, pelvic of hip pain. Five cases of sacroiliac joint infection or sacroiliac bone osteomyelitis were evaluated by MRI. MRI may be a helpful diagnostic tool to evaluate early changes of infection in the sacroiliac area. It is very sensitive for detecting bone marrow abnormalities; however, it is non-specific and can not accurately differentiate osteomyelitis from sacroiliitis. (orig.)

  20. MRI findings and clinical symptoms of patients with epilepsy referring to Valli-e-asr hospital between 2009 and 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Dehghani Firuzabadi

    2013-02-01

    Materials and Methods: This descriptive-analytical study, evaluated sixty over- 18 patients with epilepsy from April 2009 through April 2010 presented with seizure in Birjand Vali-e-asr hospital. Pseudo seizure cases, pregnant women with seizure, items with non-initial seizure, and those whose seizure was associated with pyrexia were excluded from the study. After getting the history of the subjects and their examination, the results of diagnosing measures (i.e. EEG, CT, MRI were recorded in a questionnaire. The obtained data was then analysed by means of SPSS (V: 13 at the significant level α=0.05. Results: Sixty patients whose mean age was 34.4 years were assessed generalized tonic-clonic (grand mal seizures were reported in 78.4%. Initial EEG was abnormal in 51.7%, but specific findings were reported to be abnormal in 19.3%. Brain CT and MRI examinations were abnormal in 35% and 50%, respectively. As revealed by MRI scans, the most common trauma was hippocampal sclerosis (30% were abnormal, and the most common epileptogenic trauma spot was the temporal lobe (46.7% MRI was abnormal in 29% of patients<30-or equal to 30 yrs and in 72.4% of subjects over 30 yrs (P=0.001. Besides, it was found that epilepsy was abnormal in Generalized tonic-clonic seizure (42.6% and in other kinds of seizure (76.9% P=0.03. Conclusion: It was found that EEG and brain MRI almost reveal specific features of epileptic cases only in 10% of the subjects, while it is abnormal in 51.3% of all patients with epileptic seizures. Thus, it is more sensitive than CT (35% and even MRI (50%. MRI has a tangible advantage in showing the kind and position of trauma.

  1. Haptic fMRI: combining functional neuroimaging with haptics for studying the brain's motor control representation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menon, Samir; Brantner, Gerald; Aholt, Chris; Kay, Kendrick; Khatib, Oussama

    2013-01-01

    A challenging problem in motor control neuroimaging studies is the inability to perform complex human motor tasks given the Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) scanner's disruptive magnetic fields and confined workspace. In this paper, we propose a novel experimental platform that combines Functional MRI (fMRI) neuroimaging, haptic virtual simulation environments, and an fMRI-compatible haptic device for real-time haptic interaction across the scanner workspace (above torso ∼ .65×.40×.20m(3)). We implement this Haptic fMRI platform with a novel haptic device, the Haptic fMRI Interface (HFI), and demonstrate its suitability for motor neuroimaging studies. HFI has three degrees-of-freedom (DOF), uses electromagnetic motors to enable high-fidelity haptic rendering (>350Hz), integrates radio frequency (RF) shields to prevent electromagnetic interference with fMRI (temporal SNR >100), and is kinematically designed to minimize currents induced by the MRI scanner's magnetic field during motor displacement (Tesla fMRI scanner's baseline noise variation (∼.85±.1%). Finally, HFI is haptically transparent and does not interfere with human motor tasks (tested for .4m reaches). By allowing fMRI experiments involving complex three-dimensional manipulation with haptic interaction, Haptic fMRI enables-for the first time-non-invasive neuroscience experiments involving interactive motor tasks, object manipulation, tactile perception, and visuo-motor integration.

  2. Natural history of lumbar disc herniation. MRI findings of improved case treated non-operatively

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujii, Hideyo; Hachiya, Masafumi; Ohnari, Katsuhiro [Minami Kyosai Hospital, Yokohama (Japan)] [and others

    1995-04-01

    This study was to determine whether magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can predict the changes in morphology of herniation. MRI examinations were done in 42 patients with symptomatic lumbar disc herniation, who were managed conservatively. Of these patients, 15 underwent Gd-DTPA-enhanced MRI. Morphology of herniation was classified as protrusion (n=15) and prolapse (n=27). The patients in the group of protrusion were significantly younger than those in the group of prolapse. Symptoms tended to improve earlier in the group of prolapse. Reduction of herniation was observed in one in the group of protrusion and 21 in the group of prolapse. Herniation was shown as hyperintensity on T2-weighted images in 16 patients and as isointensity in 26 patients. Enhancement of the nerve root, which was observed on the first contrast-enhanced MRI, disappeared in 8 patients whose symptoms improved. Herniation was reduced more readily in the group of prolapse than in the group of protrusion, revealing the potential of MRI to predict morphological changes of herniation. Furthermore, Gd-DTPA-enhanced MRI was useful in determining the prognosis of herniation. (N.K.).

  3. Enhanced MRI in lumbar disc herniation. Study on the types of herniation and histological findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koh, Sadao; Okamura, Yuji; Honda, Eiichiro; Takazawa, Shunji [Misato Junshin Hospital, Saitama (Japan); Ohno, Ryuichi; Yasuma, Tsuguo

    1999-06-01

    In the cases which had surgery after enhanced MRI, prolapsed form of hernia and the usefulness of enhanced MRI were examined. The patients were 13 males (14 intervertebral discs) and 5 females (6 intervertebral discs) with lumber disc herniation. The lumber disc herniation was classified into 3 types reference to Macnab's classification; SE (protrusion and subligamentous extrusion), TE (transligamentous extrusion) and SEQ (sequestration). Prolapsed forms were identified in 20 intervertebral discs. Enhanced MRI showed positive in 9 intervertebral discs (SE 1, TE 4 and SEQ 4) and showed negative in 11 discs (SE 10 and TE 1). As for the period from development to enhanced MRI, the significant difference wasn't recognized between positive group and negative group. The diagnostic rate of enhanced MRI was 88.9% (8/9) in sensitivity, 90.9% (10/11) in specificity and 90.0% (18/20) in accuracy. In enhanced MRI, engorged epidural venous plexus was also imaged, and minute change as only annular tear couldn't be detected. Looking from 2 directions crossing at right angles, the effect of contrast enhancement should be judged. (K.H.)

  4. Turner syndrome: neuroimaging findings: structural and functional.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Mullaney, Ronan

    2009-01-01

    Neuroimaging studies of Turner syndrome can advance our understanding of the X chromosome in brain development, and the modulatory influence of endocrine factors. There is increasing evidence from neuroimaging studies that TX individuals have significant differences in the anatomy, function, and metabolism of a number of brain regions; including the parietal lobe; cerebellum, amygdala, hippocampus; and basal ganglia; and perhaps differences in "connectivity" between frontal and parieto-occipital regions. Finally, there is preliminary evidence that genomic imprinting, sex hormones and growth hormone have significant modulatory effects on brain maturation in TS.

  5. Functional findings in irritable bowel syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Iris Posserud; Amanda Ersryd; Magnus Simrén

    2006-01-01

    The pathophysiology of IBS is complex and still incompletely known. Both central and peripheral factors, including psychosocial factors, abnormal GI motility and secretion, and visceral hypersensitivity, are thought to contribute to the symptoms of IBS. Several studies have demonstrated altered GI motor function in IBS patients and the pattern differs between IBS subgroups based on the predominant bowel pattern. Few studies have so far addressed GI secretion in IBS, but there are some evidence supporting altered secretion in the small intestine of IBS patients. Visceral hypersensitivity is currently considered to be perhaps the most important pathophysiological factor in IBS. Importantly, several external and internal factors can modulate visceral sensitivity, as well as GI motility, and enhanced responsiveness within the GI tract to for instance stress and nutrients has been demonstrated in IBS patients. Today IBS is viewed upon as a disorder of dysregulation of the so-called brain-gut axis, involving abnormal function in the enteric, autonomic and/or central nervous systems, with peripheral alterations probably dominating in some patients and disturbed central processing of signals from the periphery in others.

  6. Synchronized Babinski and Chaddock signs preceded the MRI findings in a case of repetitive transient ischemic attack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuzono, Kosuke; Yoshiki, Takao; Wakutani, Yosuke; Manabe, Yasuhiro; Yamashita, Toru; Deguchi, Kentaro; Ikeda, Yoshio; Abe, Koji

    2013-01-01

    We herein report a 53-year-old female with repeated transient ischemic attack (TIA) symptoms including 13 instances of right hemiparesis that decreased in duration over 4 days. Two separate examinations using diffusion weighted image (DWI) in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed normal findings, but we observed that both Babinski and Chaddock signs were completely synchronized with her right hemiparesis. We were only able to diagnose this case of early stage TIA using clinical signs. This diagnosis was confirmed 4 days after the onset by the presence of abnormalities on the MRI. DWI-MRI is generally useful when diagnosing TIA, but a neurological examination may be more sensitive, especially in the early stages.

  7. Mentalizing in schizophrenia: A multivariate functional MRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Andrew K; Dzafic, Ilvana; Robinson, Gail A; Reutens, David; Mowry, Bryan

    2016-12-01

    Schizophrenia is associated with mentalizing deficits that impact on social functioning and quality of life. Recently, schizophrenia has been conceptualized as a disorder of neural dysconnectivity and network level analyses offers a means of understanding the underlying deficits leading to mentalizing difficulty. Using an established mentalizing task (The Triangles Task), functional magnetic resonance images (fMRI) were acquired from 19 patients with schizophrenia and 17 age- and sex-matched healthy controls (HCs). Participants were required to watch short animations of two triangles interacting with each other with the interactions either random (no interaction), physical (patterned movement), or mental (intentional movement). Task-based Partial Least Squares (PLS) was used to analyze activation differences and commonalities between the three conditions and the two groups. Seed-based PLS was used to assess functional connectivity with peaks identified in the task-based PLS. Behavioural PLS was then performed using the accuracy from the mental conditions. Patients with schizophrenia performed worse on the mentalizing condition compared to HCs. Task-based PLS revealed one significant latent variable (LV) that explained 42.9% of the variance in the task, with theLV separating the mental condition from the physical and random conditions in patients with schizophrenia, but only the mental from physical in healthy controls. The mental animations were associated with increased modulation of the inferior frontal gyri bilaterally, left superior temporal gyrus, right postcentral gyrus, and left caudate nucleus. The physical/random animations were associated with increased modulation of the right medial frontal gyrus and left superior frontal gyrus. Seed-based PLS identified increased functional connectivity with the left inferior frontal gyrus (liFG) and caudate nucleus in patients with schizophrenia, during the mental and physical interactions, with functional connectivity

  8. Three Tesla MRI for the diagnosis of meniscal and anterior cruciate ligament pathology: a comparison to arthroscopic findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sampson, M.J. [Department of Radiology Sports Surgery Clinic, Santry Demesne, Dublin (Ireland)], E-mail: allymattsampson@hotmail.com; Jackson, M.P.; Moran, C.J.; Moran, R. [Department of Orthopaedics, Sports Surgery Clinic, Santry Demesne, Dublin (Ireland); Eustace, S.J. [Department of Radiology Sports Surgery Clinic, Santry Demesne, Dublin (Ireland); Shine, S. [Department of Radiology, Cappagh Hospital, Finglas, Dublin (Ireland)

    2008-10-15

    Aim: To assess the accuracy of 3 T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the evaluation of meniscal and anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury. Materials and methods: Sixty-one consecutive patients were identified who were referred for evaluation of suspected intra-articular pathology with a 3 T MRI and who, subsequently, underwent an arthroscopic procedure of the knee were included for the study. Two musculoskeletal radiologists interpreted the images. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value were then calculated for the MRI versus the arthroscopic findings as a reference standard. Results: The sensitivity and specificity for the overall detection of meniscal tears in this study was 84 and 93%, respectively. The results for the medial meniscus separately were 91 and 93% and for the lateral 77 and 93%. The evaluation of ACL integrity was 100% sensitive and specific. The meniscal tear type was correctly identified in 75% of cases and its location in 94%. Conclusion: This study demonstrates good results of 3 T MRI in the evaluation of the injured knee. Caution should still be given to the interpretation on MRI of a lateral meniscus tear, and it is suggested that the standard diagnostic criteria of high signal reaching the articular surface on two consecutive image sections be adhered to even at these higher field strengths.

  9. MRI and N-isopropyl(I-123)p-iodoamphetamine SPECT findings in cases of moyamoya disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suto, Yuji; Kato, Terumi; Ohta, Yoshio (Tottori Univ., Yonago (Japan). School of Medicine); Caner, B.E.

    1993-07-01

    Six patients with moyamoya disease underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and in 4 of 6 cases, MRI findings were compared with N-isopropyl(I-123)p-iodoamphetamine (IMP) single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) brain scans to determine if there was a correlation between the morphology, as seen on MRI, and cerebral perfusion and/or metabolic changes detected by IMP-SPECT. MRI clearly revealed abnormalities secondary to moyamoya disease: nonvisualization of a signal void flow sign in the arteries, moyamoya vessels, and cerebral atrophy. All the perfusion abnormalities of the cortex, except a small one, observed on MR images were also detected on IMP-SPECT images, but small white matter abnormalities demonstrated on MR images could not be revealed by IMP-SPECT. Interestingly, in 2 patients, 2 additional cortical defects that were not observed on MR images were revealed by IMP-SPECT. Moreover, 3 areas with perfusion defects were larger on the IMP-SPECT scans than on the MR images. The cortical defects observed on the IMP-SPECT images but not on the MR images may reflect mild ischemia and/or certain metabolic abnormalities that lead to low tracer accumulation. Overall, IMP-SPECT and MRI may play complementary roles in the evaluation of this disease. (author).

  10. MRI with intrathecal MRI gadolinium contrast medium administration: a possible method to assess glymphatic function in human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eide, Per Kristian; Ringstad, Geir

    2015-11-01

    Recently, the "glymphatic system" of the brain has been discovered in rodents, which is a paravascular, transparenchymal route for clearance of excess brain metabolites and distribution of compounds in the cerebrospinal fluid. It has already been demonstrated that intrathecally administered gadolinium (Gd) contrast medium distributes along this route in rats, but so far not in humans. A 27-year-old woman underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with intrathecal administration of gadobutrol, which distributed throughout her entire brain after 1 and 4.5 h. MRI with intrathecal Gd may become a tool to study glymphatic function in the human brain.

  11. Analysis of Revision Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction according to the combined injury, degenerative change, and MRI findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Jin Hwan; Lee, Yong Seuk; Chang, Moon Jong; Yim, Hyun Seok

    2011-12-01

    The purposes of this study were to analyze the results of revision ACL reconstruction, and to determine the effects of pre-revision combined injuries, degenerative changes, and post-revision magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings on clinical results. Forty patients (41 operations) were enrolled in this study. Clinical results and stabilities were evaluated. Radiological results were evaluated using Fairbank scale. For the subgroup analysis, Fairbank scale and preoperative combined injuries were used. Follow-up MRIs were also available for 31(75.6%) patients and we searched for relations between MRI findings and clinical results. Significant improvements in subjective, objective scores (ppre-revision surgery and final follow-up results. In the subgroup analysis according to the degenerative change, the mild group achieved better clinical results than the severe group (p=0.015 and 0.035, respectively). In the subgroup analysis according to the combined injuries, no significant difference was observed between 2 groups in terms of final follow-up Lysholm and IKDC subjective scores (p=0.083 and 0.085, respectively). No relation was found between clinical or stability results and MRI findings (p=0.26~0.99). Our results show that the severities of combined injuries were not correlated with clinical results, but the severities of degenerative changes were correlated with clinical results and that results were better in the no or mildly degenerated group. We also found that MRI is helpful for evaluating revision ACL, but that no relation was found between clinical or stability results and MRI findings of the graft after revision surgery.

  12. MRI bone marrow findings in 63 patients with type I Gaucher's disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poll, L.W. [Berufsgenossenschaftliche Unfallklinik Duisburg GmbH (Germany). Abt. Radiologie; Willers, R. [Duesseldorf Univ. (Germany). Zentrum fuer Information, Kommunikation und Medientechnologie; Haeussinger, D. [Universitaetsklinikum Duesseldorf (Germany). Klinik fuer Gastroenterologie, Hepatologie und Infektiologie; Moedder, U. [Universitaetsklinikum Duesseldorf (Germany). Inst. fuer Radiologie; Dahl, S. vom [St.-Franziskus-Hospital Koeln, Akademisches Lehrkrankenhaus der Koeln Univ. (Germany). Klinik fuer Innere Medizin.

    2010-11-15

    Purpose: To determine whether MR bone marrow findings in Gaucher patients may help to identify patients at high risk of developing severe Gaucher bone complications exemplified by avascular necrosis (AVN) of the femoral head. Materials and Methods: MR images were obtained in 63 Type I Gaucher patients through a standard protocol using coronal T1 and T2-weighted sequences of the lower extremities. The location and extent of infiltrated marrow was established using a semi-quantitative MRI scoring method (Duesseldorf Gaucher score, DGS) and the morphological pattern of bone marrow involvement determined (whether homogeneous type A or non-homogeneous type B). The active marrow process with bone edema and AVN of the femoral head were also analyzed. Results: Bone marrow involvement was observed in femoral sites more than in tibial sites. A high DGS was significantly correlated with type B morphology and femoral AVN (both p < 0.0001). Splenectomized patients showed a significantly higher Duesseldorf Gaucher score and type B morphology than non-splenectomized patients (both p < 0.05). AVN was seen in 46 % of patients with type B morphology versus 3 % in type A morphology (p < 0.0001). DGS and morphology of bone marrow involvement were not significantly correlated with active marrow processes. Conclusion: Type B marrow morphology and extensive marrow packing were significantly associated with AVN of the femoral head (both p < 0.0001). These patterns are considered predictive and may be employed in a disease management context to alert physicians to the need for urgent therapeutic measures. (orig.)

  13. [Three siblings with type 3 GM1-gangliosidosis--pathophysiology of dystonia and MRI findings].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uyama, E; Terasaki, T; Owada, M; Naito, M; Araki, S

    1990-08-01

    GM1-gangliosidosis is a rare neurovisceral storage disease caused by an inherited deficiency of acid beta-galactosidase. The characteristic neurological feature of type 3 (adult or chronic) GM1-gangliosidosis is usually a slowly progressive dystonia with dysarthria due to predominant involvement of basal ganglia. About 20 adult patients with this disorder have been reported in the literature. However, there are no reports of 3 brothers with type 3 GM1-gangliosidosis, and MRI findings. Case 1 (proband): A 28-year-old man was hospitalized because of facial grimace, dysarthria, and generalized dystonia. He was born after normal pregnancy and delivery. His development was normal until 3 years of age when the difficulties of speaking and walking were noticed by his parents. These neurological abnormalities progressed slowly and facial grimace and dystonic movements occurred 7 years later. He could not walk at 22 years of age. On admission, he was bedridden with marked scoliosis and subluxation of the mandibule. The communication was possible only by pointing the words written on the board. Case 2: A 33-year-old man, elder brother of case 1, showed the similar neurological features and clinical course. Slit-lamp examination revealed corneal opacities which were located in the deep stroma. Case 3: A 33-year-old man, elder brother of case 1 or case 2. At age 10-11, he noted similar symptoms as case 1 or case 2. The severity of dystonia was milder than his brothers. A diagnosis of GM1-gangliosidosis in three patients was made on the basis of the following data.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  14. Quantitative NumART2* mapping in functional MRI studies at 1.5 T.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagberg, Gisela E; Bianciardi, Marta; Patria, Fabiana; Indovina, Iole

    2003-12-01

    Quantitative mapping of the effective transverse relaxation time, T2* and proton density was performed in a motor activation functional MRI (fMRI) study using multi-echo, echo planar imaging (EPI) and NumART2* (Numerical Algorithm for Real time T2*). Comparisons between NumART2* and conventional single echo EPI with an echo time of 64 ms were performed for five healthy participants examined twice. Simulations were also performed to address specific issues associated with the two techniques, such as echo time-dependent signal variation. While the single echo contrast varied with the baseline T2* value, relative changes in T2* remained unaffected. Statistical analysis of the T2* maps yielded fMRI activation patterns with an improved statistical detection relative to conventional EPI but with less activated voxels, suggesting that NumART2* has superior spatial specificity. Two effects, inflow and dephasing, that may explain this finding were investigated. Particularly, a statistically significant increase in proton density was found in a brain area that was detected as activated by conventional EPI but not by NumART2* while no such changes were observed in brain areas that showed stimulus correlated signal changes on T2* maps.

  15. Maturation of language networks in children: A systematic review of 22years of functional MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss-Croft, Louise J; Baldeweg, Torsten

    2015-12-01

    Understanding how language networks change during childhood is important for theories of cognitive development and for identifying the neural causes of language impairment. Despite this, there is currently little systematic evidence regarding the typical developmental trajectory for language from the field of neuroimaging. We reviewed functional MRI (fMRI) studies published between 1992 and 2014, and quantified the evidence for age-related changes in localisation and lateralisation of fMRI activation in the language network (excluding the cerebellum and subcortical regions). Although age-related changes differed according to task type and input modality, we identified four consistent findings concerning the typical maturation of the language system. First, activation in core semantic processing regions increases with age. Second, activation in lower-level sensory and motor regions increases with age as activation in higher-level control regions reduces. We suggest that this reflects increased automaticity of language processing as children become more proficient. Third, the posterior cingulate cortex and precuneus (regions associated with the default mode network) show increasing attenuation across childhood and adolescence. Finally, language lateralisation is established by approximately 5years of age. Small increases in leftward lateralisation are observed in frontal regions, but these are tightly linked to performance.

  16. Masking level differences--a diffusion tensor imaging and functional MRI study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David S Wack

    Full Text Available In our previous study we investigated Masking Level Differences (MLD using functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI, but were unable to confirm neural correlations for the MLD within the auditory cortex and inferior colliculus. Here we have duplicated conditions from our previous study, but have included more participants and changed the study site to a new location with a newer scanner and presentation system. Additionally, Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI is included to allow investigation of fiber tracts that may be involved with MLDs. Twenty participants were included and underwent audiometric testing and MRI scanning. The current study revealed regions of increased and decreased activity within the auditory cortex when comparing the combined noise and signal of the dichotic MLD stimuli (N0Sπ and NπS0 with N0S0. Furthermore, we found evidence of inferior colliculus involvement. Our DTI findings show strong correlations between DTI measures within the brainstem and signal detection threshold levels. Patterns of correlation when the signal was presented only to the right ear showed an extensive network in the left hemisphere; however, the opposite was not true for the signal presented only to the left ear. Our current study was able to confirm what we had previously hypothesized using fMRI, while extending our investigation of MLDs to include the characteristics of connecting neural pathways.

  17. Comparison of left ventricular function assessment between echocardiography and MRI in Duchenne muscular dystrophy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buddhe, Sujatha; Lewin, Mark; Olson, Aaron; Soriano, Brian D. [University of Washington School of Medicine and Seattle Children' s Hospital, Division of Cardiology, Department of Pediatrics, Seattle, WA (United States); Ferguson, Mark [U