WorldWideScience

Sample records for functional group identity

  1. Functional trait responses to grazing are mediated by soil moisture and plant functional group identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Shuxia; Li, Wenhuai; Lan, Zhichun; Ren, Haiyan; Wang, Kaibo

    2015-12-11

    Abundant evidence has shown that grazing alters plant functional traits, community structure and ecosystem functioning of grasslands. Few studies, however, have tested how plant responses to grazing are mediated by resource availability and plant functional group identity. We examined the effects of grazing on functional traits across a broad range of species along a soil moisture gradient in Inner Mongolia grassland. Our results showed that trait syndromes of plant size (individual biomass) and shoot growth (leaf N content and leaf density) distinguished plant species responses to grazing. The effects of grazing on functional traits were mediated by soil moisture and dependent on functional group identity. For most species, grazing decreased plant height but increased leaf N and specific leaf area (SLA) along the moisture gradient. Grazing enhanced the community-weighted attributes (leaf NCWM and SLACWM), which were triggered mainly by the positive trait responses of annuals and biennials and perennial grasses, and increased relative abundance of perennial forbs. Our results suggest that grazing-induced species turnover and increased intraspecific trait variability are two drivers for the observed changes in community weighted attributes. The dominant perennial bunchgrasses exhibited mixed tolerance-resistance strategies to grazing and mixed acquisitive-conservative strategies in resource utilization.

  2. Changes in bird functional diversity across multiple land uses: interpretations of functional redundancy depend on functional group identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luck, Gary W; Carter, Andrew; Smallbone, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    Examinations of the impact of land-use change on functional diversity link changes in ecological community structure driven by land modification with the consequences for ecosystem function. Yet, most studies have been small-scale, experimental analyses and primarily focussed on plants. There is a lack of research on fauna communities and at large-scales across multiple land uses. We assessed changes in the functional diversity of bird communities across 24 land uses aligned along an intensification gradient. We tested the hypothesis that functional diversity is higher in less intensively used landscapes, documented changes in diversity using four diversity metrics, and examined how functional diversity varied with species richness to identify levels of functional redundancy. Functional diversity, measured using a dendogram-based metric, increased from high to low intensity land uses, but observed values did not differ significantly from randomly-generated expected values. Values for functional evenness and functional divergence did not vary consistently with land-use intensification, although higher than expected values were mostly recorded in high intensity land uses. A total of 16 land uses had lower than expected values for functional dispersion and these were mostly low intensity native vegetation sites. Relations between functional diversity and bird species richness yielded strikingly different patterns for the entire bird community vs. particular functional groups. For all birds and insectivores, functional evenness, divergence and dispersion showed a linear decline with increasing species richness suggesting substantial functional redundancy across communities. However, for nectarivores, frugivores and carnivores, there was a significant hump-shaped or non-significant positive linear relationship between these functional measures and species richness indicating less redundancy. Hump-shaped relationships signify that the most functionally diverse

  3. Language and Group Identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milroy, Leslie

    1982-01-01

    Explores the tension between the manner in which intergroup language differences are used to symbolize group membership and the manner in which they mirror and reinforce social class and power distinctions. (EKN)

  4. Saving Face and Group Identity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Tor; Mao, Lei; Villeval, Marie-Claire

    2015-01-01

    their self- but also other group members' image. This behavior is frequent even in the absence of group identity. When group identity is more salient, individuals help regardless of whether the least performer is an in-group or an out-group. This suggests that saving others' face is a strong social norm.......Are people willing to sacrifice resources to save one's and others' face? In a laboratory experiment, we study whether individuals forego resources to avoid the public exposure of the least performer in their group. We show that a majority of individuals are willing to pay to preserve not only...

  5. Two functions of verbal intergroup discrimination : Identity and instrumental motives as a result of group identification and threat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheepers, D; Spears, R; Doosje, B; Manstead, ASR

    2003-01-01

    In two studies, the authors examined the circumstances under which discrimination has an identity confirmation function or an instrumental function (instigating collective action). In Study 1, participants (N = 601) described a situation in which they had discriminated and then completed measures of

  6. Group identity and leading-by-example

    OpenAIRE

    Drouvelis, Michalis; Nosenzo, Daniele

    2012-01-01

    We study the interplay between leading-by-example and group identity in a public goods game experiment. A common identity between the leader and her followers is beneficial for cooperation: average contributions are more than 30% higher than in a treatment where no identity was induced. In two further treatments we study the effects of heterogeneous identities. We find no effect on cooperation when only part of the followers share the leader’s identity, or when followers share a common identi...

  7. Saving Face and Group Identity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Tor; Mao, Lei; Villeval, Marie-Claire

    2015-01-01

    Are people willing to sacrifice resources to save one's and others' face? In a laboratory experiment, we study whether individuals forego resources to avoid the public exposure of the least performer in their group. We show that a majority of individuals are willing to pay to preserve not only th...

  8. AFM Study of Surface Nanobubbles on Binary Self-Assembled Monolayers on Ultraflat Gold with Identical Macroscopic Static Water Contact Angles and Different Terminal Functional Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Bo; Chen, Kun; Schmittel, Michael; Schönherr, Holger

    2016-11-01

    All experimental findings related to surface nanobubbles, such as their pronounced stability and the striking differences of macroscopic and apparent nanoscopic contact angles, need to be addressed in any theory or model of surface nanobubbles. In this work we critically test a recent explanation of surface nanobubble stability and their consequences and contrast this with previously proposed models. In particular, we elucidated the effect of surface chemical composition of well-controlled solid-aqueous interfaces of identical roughness and defect density on the apparent nanoscopic contact angles. Expanding on a previous atomic force microscopy (AFM) study on the systematic variation of the macroscopic wettability using binary self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) on ultraflat template stripped gold (TSG), we assessed here the effect of different surface chemical composition for macroscopically identical static water contact angles. SAMs on TSG with a constant macroscopic water contact angle of 81 ± 2° were obtained by coadsorption of a methyl-terminated thiol and a second thiol with different terminal functional groups, including hydroxy, amino, and carboxylic acid groups. In addition, surface nanobubbles formed by entrainment of air on SAMs of a bromoisobutyrate-terminated thiol were analyzed by AFM. Despite the widely differing surface potentials and different functionality, such as hydrogen bond acceptor or donor, and different dipole moments and polarizability, the nanoscopic contact angles (measured through the condensed phase and corrected for AFM tip broadening effects) were found to be 145 ± 10° for all surfaces. Hence, different chemical functionalities at identical macroscopic static water contact angle do not noticeably influence the apparent nanoscopic contact angle of surface nanobubbles. This universal contact angle is in agreement with recent models that rely on contact line pinning and the equilibrium of gas outflux due to the Laplace pressure and

  9. Interrelation of group, micro-group and interpersonal identities of employees in production groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidorenkov A.V.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article represents the results of mathematical and statistical analysis of the links between the levels of the identity of employees (group, micro-group and interpersonal by three components (cognitive, affective and behavioral in 37 industrial groups with expertise in different fields. The significant linear relationship between micro-group and interpersonal identity (for all components, high linear relationship between group identity and micro-group identity (only for affective component and the lack of linear relationship between the components of inter- personal and group identity are revealed. Higher influence of group identity on micro-group (for all components and interpersonal identity (for cognitive and behavioral components is found out in the totality of intercorrelation between group, micro-group and interpersonal identities. Non-linear relationship between group and micro-group identity for all components is revealed. This non-linear relation indicates that increase in expressiveness of one of the components of group iden- tity leads to decrease in expressiveness of the respective component of micro-group identity. This effect occurs until definite moment, after which, on the contrary, further reinforcement of the components of group identity leads to the increase in expressiveness of micro-group identity. These established consistent patterns are interpreted in the article.

  10. Balanced identity in the minimal groups paradigm.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yarrow Dunham

    Full Text Available Balanced Identity Theory [1] formalizes a set of relationships between group attitude, group identification, and self-esteem. While these relationships have been demonstrated for familiar and highly salient social categories, questions remain regarding the generality of the balance phenomenon and its causal versus descriptive status. Supporting the generality and rapidity of cognitive balance, four studies demonstrate that the central predictions of balance are supported even for previously unfamiliar "minimal" social groups to which participants have just been randomly assigned. Further, supporting a causal as opposed to merely descriptive interpretation, manipulating any one component of the balance model (group attitude, group identification, or self-esteem affects at least one of the related components. Interestingly, the broader pattern of cognitive balance was preserved across such manipulations only when the manipulation strengthens as opposes to weakens the manipulated construct. Taken together, these findings indicate that Balanced Identity Theory has promise as a general theory of intergroup attitudes, and that it may be able to shed light on prior inconsistencies concerning the relationship between self-esteem and intergroup bias.

  11. Local identities involving Jacobi elliptic functions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Avinash Khare; Arul Lakshminarayan; Uday Sukhatme

    2004-06-01

    We derive a number of local identities involving Jacobi elliptic functions and use them to obtain several new results. First, we present an alternative, simpler derivation of the cyclic identities discovered by us recently, along with an extension to several new cyclic identities. Second, we obtain a generalization to cyclic identities in which successive terms have a multiplicative phase factor exp$(2i=s)$, where $s$ is any integer. Third, we systematize the local identities by deriving four local `master identities' analogous to the master identities for the cyclic sums discussed by us previously. Fourth, we point out that many of the local identities can be thought of as exact discretizations of standard non-linear differential equations satisfied by the Jacobi elliptic functions. Finally, we obtain explicit answers for a number of definite integrals and simpler forms for several indefinite integrals involving Jacobi elliptic functions.

  12. Hierarchical Identity-Based Lossy Trapdoor Functions

    CERN Document Server

    Escala, Alex; Libert, Benoit; Rafols, Carla

    2012-01-01

    Lossy trapdoor functions, introduced by Peikert and Waters (STOC'08), have received a lot of attention in the last years, because of their wide range of applications in theoretical cryptography. The notion has been recently extended to the identity-based scenario by Bellare et al. (Eurocrypt'12). We provide one more step in this direction, by considering the notion of hierarchical identity-based lossy trapdoor functions (HIB-LTDFs). Hierarchical identity-based cryptography generalizes identitybased cryptography in the sense that identities are organized in a hierarchical way; a parent identity has more power than its descendants, because it can generate valid secret keys for them. Hierarchical identity-based cryptography has been proved very useful both for practical applications and to establish theoretical relations with other cryptographic primitives. In order to realize HIB-LTDFs, we first build a weakly secure hierarchical predicate encryption scheme. This scheme, which may be of independent interest, is...

  13. Ward identities and Wilson renormalization group for QED

    CERN Document Server

    Bonini, M; Marchesini, G

    1994-01-01

    We analyze a formulation of QED based on the Wilson renormalization group. Although the ``effective Lagrangian'' used at any given scale does not have simple gauge symmetry, we show that the resulting renormalized Green's functions correctly satisfies Ward identities to all orders in perturbation theory. The loop expansion is obtained by solving iteratively the Polchinski's renormalization group equation. We also give a new simple proof of perturbative renormalizability. The subtractions in the Feynman graphs and the corresponding counterterms are generated in the process of fixing the physical conditions.

  14. Ward identities and Wilson renormalization group for QED

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonini, M.; D'Attanasio, M.; Marchesini, G.

    1994-04-01

    We analyze a formulation of QED based on the Wilson renormalization group. Although the "effective lagrangian" used at any given scale does not have simple gauge symmetry, we show that the resulting renormalized Green's function correctly satisfies Ward identities to all orders in perturbation theory. The loop expansion is obtained by solving iteratively the Polchinski renormalization group equation. We also give a new simple proof of perturbative renormalizability. The subtractions in the Feynman graphs and the corresponing counter-terms are generated in the process of fixing the physical conditions.

  15. Knot polynomial identities and quantum group coincidences

    CERN Document Server

    Morrison, Scott; Snyder, Noah

    2010-01-01

    We construct link invariants using the D_2n subfactor planar algebras, and use these to prove new identities relating certain specializations of colored Jones polynomials to specializations of other quantum knot polynomials. These identities can also be explained by coincidences between small modular categories involving the even parts of the D_2n planar algebras. We discuss the origins of these coincidences, explaining the role of SO level-rank duality, Kirby-Melvin symmetry, and properties of small Dynkin diagrams. One of these coincidences involves G_2 and does not appear to be related to level-rank duality.

  16. Within-Group Differences in Sexual Orientation and Identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worthington, Roger L.; Reynolds, Amy L.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to examine within-group differences among self-identified sexual orientation and identity groups. To understand these within-group differences, 2 types of analysis were conducted. First, a sample of 2,732 participants completed the Sexual Orientation and Identity Scale. Cluster analyses were used to identify 3…

  17. Within-Group Differences in Sexual Orientation and Identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worthington, Roger L.; Reynolds, Amy L.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to examine within-group differences among self-identified sexual orientation and identity groups. To understand these within-group differences, 2 types of analysis were conducted. First, a sample of 2,732 participants completed the Sexual Orientation and Identity Scale. Cluster analyses were used to identify 3…

  18. Individuality and social influence in groups : Inductive and deductive routes to group identity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Postmes, T; Spears, R; Lee, AT; Novak, RJ

    2005-01-01

    A distinction between forms of social identity formation in small interactive groups is investigated. In groups in which a common identity is available or given, norms for individual behavior may be deduced; from group properties (deductive identity). In groups in which interpersonal relations are c

  19. Social identity and the recognition of creativity in groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adarves-Yorno, Inmaculada; Postmes, Tom; Haslam, S. Alexander

    2006-01-01

    This paper develops an analysis of creativity that is informed by the social identity approach. Two studies are reported that support this analysis. Study I (N = 73) manipulated social identity salience and the content of group norms. The group norm was either conservative (i.e. promoted no change)

  20. Dual identity, in-group projection, and out-group feelings among ethnic minority groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verkuyten, Maykel; Martinovic, Borja

    2016-01-01

    This study extends research on dual identity and in-group projection by considering category prototypicality and indispensability, and by focusing on ethnic minority members and their attitudes towards the native majority and minority out-groups. Among a sample of 491 participants of the three large

  1. Who Is Blameworthy? Social Identity and Inter-Group Bullying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gini, Gianluca

    2007-01-01

    Using social identity theory (SIT; Tajfel and Turner, 1979) and social identity development theory (SIDT; Nesdale, 1999) as a framework, this study investigated attitudes towards inter-group bullying at school. Preadolescent boys and girls (n = 314) participated in a study, utilizing the short story technique, in which they were induced to…

  2. Peer Groups, Social Identity, and Children's Bullying Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, Amanda L.; Nesdale, Drew

    2009-01-01

    Drawing on social identity theory, this study explored the impact of the peer group on childhood bullying. Participants were 351 students, aged 8 to 13 years. Involvement in bullying, friendship group membership, norms of particular groups, and intra-group positions (prototypical vs. peripheral) were determined using peer reports. Results revealed…

  3. Group processes in medical education: learning from social identity theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burford, Bryan

    2012-02-01

    The clinical workplace in which doctors learn involves many social groups, including representatives of different professions, clinical specialties and workplace teams. This paper suggests that medical education research does not currently take full account of the effects of group membership, and describes a theoretical approach from social psychology, the social identity approach, which allows those effects to be explored. The social identity approach has a long history in social psychology and provides an integrated account of group processes, from the adoption of group identity through a process of self-categorisation, to the biases and conflicts between groups. This paper outlines key elements of this theoretical approach and illustrates their relevance to medical education. The relevance of the social identity approach is illustrated with reference to a number of areas of medical education. The paper shows how research questions in medical education may be usefully reframed in terms of social identity in ways that allow a deeper exploration of the psychological processes involved. Professional identity and professionalism may be viewed in terms of self-categorisation rather than simply attainment; the salience of different identities may be considered as influences on teamwork and interprofessional learning, and issues in communication and assessment may be considered in terms of intergroup biases. Social identity theory provides a powerful framework with which to consider many areas of medical education. It allows disparate influences on, and consequences of, group membership to be considered as part of an integrated system, and allows assumptions, such as about the nature of professional identity and interprofessional tensions, to be made explicit in the design of research studies. This power to question assumptions and develop deeper and more meaningful research questions may be increasingly relevant as the nature and role of the medical profession change

  4. Bridges or Barriers? Conceptualization of the Role of Multiple Identity Gateway Groups in Intergroup Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aharon Levy

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The modern era of globalization has been accompanied by a massive growth in interconnections between groups, and has led to the sharing of multiple identities by individuals and groups. Following these developments, research has focused on the issue of multiple identities, and has shed important light on how individuals who hold these complex forms of identity feel and behave, and on the reactions they elicit from members of other groups. However, the potential of groups with such multiple identities (e.g., biracials, immigrants, etc. to affect the intergroup relations between the groups that represent the respective sources of the different identities (e.g., Blacks and Whites, country of origin and country of residence, etc. has not been examined to date. Accordingly, in this paper, we first systematically explore the potential of groups in which people identify with multiple social categories, or groups that are perceived as such by others, to play a role in intergroup dynamics. Next, we offer a theoretical framework outlining what functions groups of people with shared multiple identities may serve (as bridges or barriers by proposing how their presence may facilitate or deteriorate intergroup relations. Finally, we present recent empirical research examining how groups of people with shared multiple identities can act as gateways and bridge the cleft between two separate groups that represent the respective sources of their different identities, and discuss the theoretical and practical implications for the field of intergroup relations.

  5. Identity: Globalization, culture and psychological functioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Narh Doku

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 This paper examines the influence of globalization on psychological functioning. It noted that globalization is somehow a vital step toward both a more stable world and better lives for people in it. However, human lives are increasingly being challenged and integrated into larger global networks of relationships. The forces of globalization are taxing the youth, families, and cultural systems worldwide. All social systems are contaminated by the need to borrow values, morals, skills, and competencies from the next regions or nations. The process of globalization and its attendant consequences may lead to a stripping away of culture identity. It will lead to a break down in social interaction within a local context, a vital means that used to build a great sense of cultural identity and belongingness. This is because globalization is speeding up social and cultural processes such that time and space are no longer constrain on human activities. Conditions and social interactions are now organized so as to connect presence and absent others. Then also most people in the world now develop a bicultural identity, in which part of their identity is rooted in their local culture while another part stems from an awareness of their relation to the global culture. Furthermore, there is pervasiveness of identity confusion as local cultures change in response to globalization, some young people find themselves at home in neither the local culture nor the global culture

  6. Identity: Globalization, culture and psychological functioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Narh Doku

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the influence of globalization on psychological functioning. It noted that globalization is somehow a vital step toward both a more stable world and better lives for people in it. However, human lives are increasingly being challenged and integrated into larger global networks of relationships. The forces of globalization are taxing the youth, families, and cultural systems worldwide. All social systems are contaminated by the need to borrow values, morals, skills, and competencies from the next regions or nations. The process of globalization and its attendant consequences may lead to a stripping away of culture identity. It will lead to a break down in social interaction within a local context, a vital means that used to build a great sense of cultural identity and belongingness. This is because globalization is speeding up social and cultural processes such that time and space are no longer constrain on human activities. Conditions and social interactions are now organized so as to connect presence and absent others. Then also most people in the world now develop a bicultural identity, in which part of their identity is rooted in their local culture while another part stems from an awareness of their relation to the global culture. Furthermore, there is pervasiveness of identity confusion as local cultures change in response to globalization, some young people find themselves at home in neither the local culture nor the global culture.

  7. Stress and nurses' horizontal mobbing: moderating effects of group identity and group support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topa, Gabriela; Moriano, Juan A

    2013-01-01

    Horizontal mobbing is a process of systematic and repeated aggression towards a worker by coworkers. Among others, stress has been pointed out as one of the antecedents that favors the onset of horizontal mobbing, whereas group support to the target could act as a buffer. Moreover, the social identity approach emphasizes that group identity is an antecedent of group support. This study explores the interaction of group support and group identity in the explanation of horizontal mobbing in a sample (N = 388) of registered nurses and licensed practical nurses employed at two large hospitals in Madrid and Navarre (Spain). The results show that stress is positively associated to horizontal mobbing, whereas group support and group identity were negative predictors of horizontal mobbing. Furthermore, the combination of low group identity and low group support precipitated HM among nurses.

  8. On some analogues of Carlitz's identity for the hyperoctahedral group

    CERN Document Server

    Biagioli, Riccardo

    2009-01-01

    We give a new description of the flag major index, introduced by Adin and Roichman, by using a major index defined by Reiner. This allows us to establish a connection between an identity of Reiner and some more recent results due to Chow and Gessel. Furthermore we generalize the main identity of Chow and Gessel by computing the four-variate generating series of descents, major index, length, and number of negative entries over Coxeter groups of type $B$ and $D$.

  9. Boundaries of American Identity: Relations between Ethnic Group Prototypicality and Policy Attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huynh, Que-Lam; Devos, Thierry; Altman, Hannah R

    2015-08-01

    We sought to document that the extent to which different ethnic groups are perceived as embodying the American identity is more strongly linked to anti-minority policy attitudes and acculturation ideologies among majority group members (European Americans) than among minority group members (Asian Americans or Latino/as). Participants rated 13 attributes of the American identity as they pertain to different ethnic groups, and reported their endorsement of policy attitudes and acculturation ideologies. We found a relative consensus across ethnic groups regarding defining components of the American identity. However, European Americans were perceived as more prototypical of this American identity than ethnic minorities, especially by European American raters. Moreover, for European Americans but not for ethnic minorities, relative ingroup prototypicality was related to anti-minority policy attitudes and acculturation ideologies. These findings suggest that for European Americans, perceptions of ethnic group prototypicality fulfill an instrumental function linked to preserving their group interests and limiting the rights afforded to ethnic minorities.

  10. Group Coaching: A New Way of Constructing Leadership Identity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aas, Marit; Vavik, Mette

    2015-01-01

    This paper focuses on group coaching, one of the newer school leadership development approaches to recently emerge. Using a group-coaching methodology developed at the University of Oslo, we deconstruct the concept of leadership identity as it is reported in texts from students in the National Principal Programme. We suggest that leaders develop…

  11. Effects of Collaborative Activities on Group Identity in Virtual World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyungsung; Seo, Sumin

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the effects of collaborative activities on group identity in a virtual world such as "Second Life." To achieve this purpose, this study adopted events that promoted participants' interactions using tools inherent in "Second Life." The interactive tools given to the control group in…

  12. Different groups, different motives: identity motives underlying changes in identification with novel groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Easterbrook, Matt; Vignoles, Vivian L

    2012-08-01

    Social identification is known to have wide-reaching implications, but theorists disagree about the underlying motives. Integrating motivated identity construction theory with recent social identity research, the authors predicted which motives underlie identification with two types of groups: interpersonal networks and social categories. In a five-wave longitudinal study of social identity processes among 268 new university residents, multilevel analyses showed that motives involved in identity enactment processes--self-esteem, belonging, and efficacy--significantly predicted within-person changes in identification with flatmates (an interpersonal network group), whereas motives involved in identity definition processes--meaning, self-esteem, and distinctiveness--significantly predicted within-person changes in identification with halls of residence (an abstract social category). This article discusses implications for research into identity motives and social identity.

  13. Polycomb group proteins Ring1A/B are functionally linked to the core transcriptional regulatory circuitry to maintain ES cell identity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Endoh, M.; Endo, T.A.; Endoh, T.; Fujimura, Y.; Ohara, O.; Toyoda, T.; Otte, A.P.; Okano, M.; Brockdorff, N.; Vidal, M.; Koseki, H.

    2008-01-01

    The Polycomb group (PcG) proteins mediate heritable silencing of developmental regulators in metazoans, participating in one of two distinct multimeric protein complexes, the Polycomb repressive complexes 1 (PRC1) and 2 (PRC2). Although PRC2 has been shown to share target genes with the core transcr

  14. Ethnic identity, identity coherence, and psychological functioning: testing basic assumptions of the developmental model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syed, Moin; Juang, Linda P

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of the present study was to test three fundamental theoretical propositions from Phinney's (1990) developmental model about the relations among ethnic identity, identity coherence, and psychological functioning: (a) ethnic identity is more strongly related to identity coherence for ethnic minorities than for Whites; (b) ethnic identity is more strongly related to psychological functioning for ethnic minorities than for Whites; and (c) identity coherence mediates the association between ethnic identity and psychological functioning for ethnic minorities, but not for Whites. These hypotheses were tested in three independent samples of ethnically diverse youth. In general, we found weak to moderate support for these three hypotheses, suggesting that the theoretically proposed differences in ethnic identity between ethnic minorities and Whites may not be supported by data. Implications for theory and measurement of ethnic identity are discussed.

  15. Van Hove correlation functions for identical fermions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macke, Wilhelm; Miesenböck, Helga M.; Hingerl, Kurt; Bachlechner, Martina E.

    1989-02-01

    For a quantum system of identical fermions a partition of the density-density correlation function in its ``self'' and ``distinct'' part is presented. These quantities show different properties than their classical counterparts, e.g., they violate the ``detailed balance'' and are not necessarily real. Nevertheless it can be expected that they will provide a good tool for a better description of the self-motion in many-particle systems and are therefore investigated in second-order perturbation theory of the interparticle potential.

  16. Group Identity, Deliberative Democracy and Diversity in Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser-Burgess, Sheron

    2012-01-01

    Democratic deliberation places the burden of self-governance on its citizens to provide mutual justifying reasons (Gutmann & Thompson, 1996). This article concerns the limiting effect that group identity has on the efficacy of democratic deliberation for equality in education. Under conditions of a powerful majority, deliberation can be repressive…

  17. Dilogarithm Identities in Conformal Field Theory and Group Homology

    CERN Document Server

    Dupont, J L

    1994-01-01

    Recently, Rogers' dilogarithm identities have attracted much attention in the setting of conformal field theory as well as lattice model calculations. One of the connecting threads is an identity of Richmond-Szekeres that appeared in the computation of central charges in conformal field theory. We show that the Richmond-Szekeres identity and its extension by Kirillov-Reshetikhin can be interpreted as a lift of a generator of the third integral homology of a finite cyclic subgroup sitting inside the projective special linear group of all $2 \\times 2$ real matrices viewed as a {\\it discrete} group. This connection allows us to clarify a few of the assertions and conjectures stated in the work of Nahm-Recknagel-Terhoven concerning the role of algebraic $K$-theory and Thurston's program on hyperbolic 3-manifolds. Specifically, it is not related to hyperbolic 3-manifolds as suggested but is more appropriately related to the group manifold of the universal covering group of the projective special linear group of al...

  18. The Development of In-Group Favoritism : Between Social Reality and Group Identity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verkuyten, Maykel; Wolf, Angela de

    2007-01-01

    This study examined how social reality restricts children’s tendency for in-group favoritism in group evaluations. Children were faced with social reality considerations and with group identity concerns. Using short stories, in this experimental study, conducted among 3 age groups (6-, 8-, and 10-ye

  19. Interactivity in Second Language via Social Identity and Group Cohesiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Rojas Alfaro

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Se describen y analizan la influencia de la identidad y la unión de grupo como factores que facilitan o dificultan los procesos interactivos en el aprendizaje del inglés como segunda lengua. Se señala la conexión entre el aprendizaje interactivo de un idioma y factores como identidad social, personal, y unión de grupo. El efecto de la integración del grupo y la identidad en el aprendizaje de un segundo idioma son esenciales dado que pocos estudios se han referido al efecto de tales variables en la interacción de grupo. Con el estudio de un caso realizado en dos grupos de estudiantes adultos se diagnosticó el estado de cohesión del grupo y su impacto en el aprendizaje interactivo. This research explores the influence of identity and group cohesion as factors that facilitate or hinder interactive processes in ESL classrooms. In particular, this paper addresses the connection between interactive language learning, social and personal identity, and group cohesiveness. The effect of group cohesion and identity in second language learning has been addressed in relatively few studies on the impact of those membership variables in determining interactivity in communicative language teaching. A case study carried out in two college level classes diagnosed the status of group membership and its impact on interactivity.

  20. Cluster functional renormalization group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuther, Johannes; Thomale, Ronny

    2014-01-01

    Functional renormalization group (FRG) has become a diverse and powerful tool to derive effective low-energy scattering vertices of interacting many-body systems. Starting from a free expansion point of the action, the flow of the RG parameter Λ allows us to trace the evolution of the effective one- and two-particle vertices towards low energies by taking into account the vertex corrections between all parquet channels in an unbiased fashion. In this work, we generalize the expansion point at which the diagrammatic resummation procedure is initiated from a free UV limit to a cluster product state. We formulate a cluster FRG scheme where the noninteracting building blocks (i.e., decoupled spin clusters) are treated exactly, and the intercluster couplings are addressed via RG. As a benchmark study, we apply our cluster FRG scheme to the spin-1/2 bilayer Heisenberg model (BHM) on a square lattice where the neighboring sites in the two layers form the individual two-site clusters. Comparing with existing numerical evidence for the BHM, we obtain reasonable findings for the spin susceptibility, the spin-triplet excitation energy, and quasiparticle weight even in coupling regimes close to antiferromagnetic order. The concept of cluster FRG promises applications to a large class of interacting electron systems.

  1. Differential and Functional Identities for the Elliptic Trilogarithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian A.B. Strachan

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available When written in terms of $vartheta$-functions, the classical Frobenius-Stickelberger pseudo-addition formula takes a very simple form. Generalizations of this functional identity are studied, where the functions involved are derivatives (including derivatives with respect to the modular parameter of the elliptic trilogarithm function introduced by Beilinson and Levin. A differential identity satisfied by this function is also derived. These generalized Frobenius-Stickelberger identities play a fundamental role in the development of elliptic solutions of the Witten-Dijkgraaf-Verlinde-Verlinde equations of associativity, with the simplest case reducing to the above mentioned differential identity.

  2. On identities involving the sixth order mock theta functions

    CERN Document Server

    Lovejoy, Jeremy

    2009-01-01

    We present q-series proofs of four identities involving sixth order mock theta functions from Ramanujan's lost notebook. We also show how Ramanujan's identities can be used to give a quick proof of four sixth order identities of Berndt and Chan.

  3. [Anatomic, functional and identity results after clitoris transposition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramowicz, S; Oden, S; Dietrich, G; Marpeau, L; Resch, B

    2016-10-01

    Every year 3 millions of young women had undergone female genital mutilation. The psychological, identical and sexual consequences, as well as the treatment were described only recently. After a sociodemographic and cultural reminder, we analyze the anatomical, psychological, identital, and functional results of the reconstructive surgery. We conducted a retrospective monocentric study. Thirty women were included in our series. All the patients operated according to the technique of Pierre Foldes were contacted again, to estimate their motivations for this surgery and study the results on femininity, anatomy, psychology and functionality of this intervention. Twenty-six women were able to be estimated in the long term. Their main motivation was in 77% of the cases the research for a feminine identity. We compared the pre- and postoperative results, as well as different predefined under groups. The results shown a significant improvement between the pre- and the postoperative estimation for each of the items. The patients indicate an improvement: anatomical in 96% of the cases, for identity in 88% of the cases, psychological in 96% of the cases, and for sexuality in 88% of the cases. This technique allows an improvement for anatomy and functionality but also for physical image, well-being and feminity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Social identity and the development of children's group attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesdale, D; Flesser, D

    2001-01-01

    This study assessed predictions drawn from social identity theory (SIT; Tajfel & Turner) concerning the acquisition of young children's intra- and intergroup attitudes and cognitions. In a minimal group study, 5- and 8-year-old children (N = 258) were arbitrarily assigned to teams that varied in their drawing ability (social status). In addition, the study varied the extent to which the children believed they could change teams (social mobility) and whether the team had additional positive qualities beyond their drawing skill (social change). The children subsequently rated their liking for, and similarity to, the ingroup and the outgroup and the extent to which they wished to change groups. Consistent with SIT and research with adults, the results indicated that children as young as 5 years of age were sensitive to the status of their social group, and that ingroup status has important implications for both their desire to remain group members as well as their perceived similarity to other group members. The extent to which the findings provide support for SIT and the intergroup similarities between adults and children are discussed.

  5. Identity Functions and Empathetic Tendencies of Teacher Candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ay, Alpaslan; Kadi, Aysegul

    2016-01-01

    Objective of this research is to investigate identity functions and empathetic tendencies of teacher candidates. Sample consists of 232 teacher candidates in social studies teacher education. Survey model is preferred to investigate the difference between identity functions and empathetic tendencies of teacher candidates. And also correlational…

  6. Renegotiation of Identity: The Social Context of Aphasia Support Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shadden, Barbara B.; Agan, Joseph P.

    2004-01-01

    This article discusses identity as it relates to aphasia and the resulting impact on life participation. The relationships among social identity, language, and social interaction are considered from the sociocultural perspective. Core social identity concepts are identified and used to examine the broad classifications of aphasia intervention.…

  7. Escaping the Self: Identity, Group Identification and Violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Hardie-Bick

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article draws on the early work of Erich Fromm. In Escape from Freedom Fromm (1969 [1941] directly addressed the psychological mechanisms of escape modern individuals employ to protect themselves from feelings of ontological insecurity and existential estrangement. The article builds on Fromm’s analysis by discussing the significance of his escape mechanisms for understanding the dynamic psychological attractions of identifying with entitative groups. Fromm’s work will be discussed in relation to Hogg’s recent work on uncertainty-identity theory. The aim of the article is to examine the advantages of combining Fromm’s psychoanalytic analysis with Hogg’s uncertainty-identity theory and to highlight the potential this approach has for understanding why groups engage in violent and destructive behaviour. Este artículo se inspira en las primeras obras de Erich Fromm. En El miedo a la libertad, Fromm (1969 [1941] abordó directamente los mecanismos psicológicos de evasión que los individuos modernos emplean para protegerse de los sentimientos de inseguridad ontológica y distanciamiento existencial. Este artículo se basa en el análisis de Fromm exponiendo el significado de sus mecanismos de evasión para entender las atracciones psicológicas dinámicas de identificación con grupos entitativos. Se analizará la obra de Fromm en relación con la obra reciente de Hogg sobre la teoría de incertidumbre identitaria. El objetivo del artículo es examinar las ventajas de combinar el análisis psicoanalítico de Fromm con la teoría de incertidumbre identitaria de Hogg, y destacar el potencial que tiene esta aproximación para comprender por qué los grupos adoptan un comportamiento violento y destructivo. DOWNLOAD THIS PAPER FROM SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=2875737

  8. Function Projective Synchronization of Two Identical New Hyperchaotic Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    A function projective synchronization of two identical hyperchaotic systems is defined and the theorem of sufficient condition is given. Based on the active control method and symbolic computation Maple, the scheme of function projective synchronization is developed to synchronize the two identical new hyperchaotic systems constructed by Yan up to a scaling function matrix with different initial values. Numerical simulations are used to verify the effectiveness of the scheme.

  9. Masters Level Graduate Student Writing Groups: Exploring Academic Identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruggles, Tosha M.

    2012-01-01

    This action research project explores masters level graduate student writing and academic identity during one semester in an interdisciplinary masters program. Informing this study is a two part theoretical framework including the Academic Literacy Model (Lea and Street) and Wenger's concept of identity. The purpose of this exploration was to…

  10. An Identity-Based Group Signature with Membership Revocation in the Standard Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ibraimi, Luan; Nikova, Svetla; Hartel, Pieter; Jonker, Willem

    2010-01-01

    Group signatures allow group members to sign an arbitrary number of messages on behalf of the group without revealing their identity. Under certain circumstances the group manager holding a tracing key can reveal the identity of the signer from the signature. Practical group signature schemes should

  11. The generalized exponential function and fractional trigonometric identities

    KAUST Repository

    Radwan, Ahmed G.

    2011-08-01

    In this work, we recall the generalized exponential function in the fractional-order domain which enables defining generalized cosine and sine functions. We then re-visit some important trigonometric identities and generalize them from the narrow integer-order subset to the more general fractional-order domain. Generalized hyperbolic function relations are also given. © 2011 IEEE.

  12. From the Generation Memory to the Group Identity: The Film "A Throat Full of Strawberries"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataša Delač

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In the work entitled “From the generation memory to the group identity: the film "A Throat Full of Strawberries", the influence of personal and collective memory on generation identity is analyzed. The work is based on Jan Assmann and Aleida Assmann’s theory of memory, with a special review of the books “Cultural Memory” (Jan Assmann, and “Work on the National Memory” and “The Long Shadow of the Past” (Aleida Assmann. Firstly, the analysis includes the mapping, then the explanation of the memory figures which appear in the movie. Also, the thesis which I covered in the work refers to the difference between Halbwachs’s  term “the images of memory”, and “the figure of memory” introduced by Assmann: the figures of memory are complementary to the first term “because they include not only pictorial, but narrative forms as well.” (Assmann. In this paper, the relation between personal and collective memory is examined, as well as how individual memory influences the establishment of one’s group memory, and how memory and remembrance affect what we call generation identity. The Film “A Throat Full of Strawberries” (by Srdjan Karanovic, 1985 was chosen as my case study. This movie is a sequel to the series “The Unpicked Strawberries” (Srdjan Karanovic, 1976. It tells about a reunion of the group of people of the particular generation, who evoke the memories about the events during the 60’s (the time of their youth, so the topic this film is focused on represents the starting point for the study of the generation memory and its function. The aim of this paper is to prove that generation memory has the crucial role when it comes to the creation of one’s group identity

  13. Function projective synchronization of identical and non-identical modified finance and Shimizu–Morioka systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S R Kareem; K S Sojo; A N Njah

    2012-07-01

    In this paper, function projective synchronizations (FPS) of identical and non-identical modified finance systems (MFS) and Shimizu-Morioka system (S-MS) are studied via active control technique. The technique is applied to construct a response system which synchronizes with a given drive system for a desired function relation between identical MFS, identical S-MS and between MFS and S-MS. The results are validated via numerical simulations.

  14. Automatic structures and growth functions for finitely generated abelian groups

    CERN Document Server

    Kamei, Satoshi

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we consider the formal power series whose n-th coefficient is the number of copies of a given finite graph in the ball of radius n centred at the identity element in the Cayley graph of a finitely generated group and call it the growth function. Epstein, Iano-Fletcher and Uri Zwick proved that the growth function is a rational function if the group has a geodesic automatic structure. We compute the growth function in the case where the group is abelian and see that the denominator of the rational function is determined from the rank of the group.

  15. Migratory Homes: Redesigning Group Identity, Prototyping Social Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Traganou, Jilly

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes Migratory Homes, two collaborative projects that investigate the notion of home/land and belonging in conditions of displacement. The fundamental question that Migratory Homes asks is “how can the disparate identities that constitute mixed societies collectively and equally participate in the creation of a common ‘home/land’ that would be co-designed, co-produced, and co-owned”? Through iterative engagements with conditions of everyday materiality, and by activating processes of co-design as research, Migratory Homes attempt to prototype conditions for social change.

  16. Identity confusion and depression in groups of adolescents having psychiatric and physical symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuhadaroğlu, F

    1999-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the identity status of adolescents having psychiatric and physical symptoms and the relation of depression with identity problems in adolescence. Three groups of university students were given a sociodemographic questionnaire, Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and Sense of Identity Assessment Form (SIAF). The first group consisted of 31 students who were seen by the consultant psychiatrist at the Student Health Center of a university in Ankara. The second group included 37 students who applied to the same center with various physical complaints but did not need to be consulted by the psychiatrist. The third group was a group of 50 healthy students at the same university. The analysis revealed that only those with psychiatric complaints had identity confusion and that for the males in this group depressive symptoms are significant predictors of identity confusion.

  17. Towards Detecting Group Identities in Complex Artificial Societies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grappiolo, Corrado; Yannakakis, Georgios N.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a framework for modelling group struc- tures and dynamics in both artificial societies and human-populated vir- tual environments such as computer games. The group modelling (GM) framework proposed focuses on the detection of existing, pre-defined group structures and is compo......This paper presents a framework for modelling group struc- tures and dynamics in both artificial societies and human-populated vir- tual environments such as computer games. The group modelling (GM) framework proposed focuses on the detection of existing, pre-defined group structures...

  18. Towards Detecting Group Identities in Complex Artificial Societies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grappiolo, Corrado; Yannakakis, Georgios N.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a framework for modelling group struc- tures and dynamics in both artificial societies and human-populated vir- tual environments such as computer games. The group modelling (GM) framework proposed focuses on the detection of existing, pre-defined group structures and is compo......This paper presents a framework for modelling group struc- tures and dynamics in both artificial societies and human-populated vir- tual environments such as computer games. The group modelling (GM) framework proposed focuses on the detection of existing, pre-defined group structures...

  19. Liouville theory Ward identities for generating functional and modular geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Takhtajan, L A

    1994-01-01

    We continue the study of quantum Liouville theory through Polyakov's functional integral \\cite{Pol1,Pol2}, started in \\cite{T1}. We derive the perturbation expansion for Schwinger's generating functional for connected multi-point correlation functions involving stress-energy tensor, give the "dynamical" proof of the Virasoro symmetry of the theory and compute the value of the central charge, confirming previous calculation in \\cite{T1}. We show that conformal Ward identities for these correlation functions contain such basic facts from Kähler geometry of moduli spaces of Riemann surfaces, as relation between accessory parameters for the Fuchsian uniformization, Liouville action and Eichler integrals, Kähler potential for the Weil-Petersson metric, and local index theorem. These results affirm the fundamental role, that universal Ward identities for the generating functional play in Friedan-Shenker modular geometry \\cite{FS}.

  20. Language Identities in Students' Writings about Group Work in Their Mathematics Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planas, Nuria

    2011-01-01

    In this article, I explore language identities and processes of negotiation concerning parts of these identities as seen by a group of students from a bilingual mathematics classroom. A collection of 10 students' individual writings on the questions "What language do you use during group work in your mathematics class and why?" is…

  1. The Effects of Virtual Communities on Group Identity in Classroom Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Tu-Kuang; Lin, Yu-Tzeng

    2016-01-01

    Group identity is a critical component in developing effective classroom management. While there have been numerous studies on group identity, they have primarily focused on its effects on the physical classroom entity. Advances in information technology, however, have enabled the creation of virtual communities, which have become a vital channel…

  2. The Effects of Virtual Communities on Group Identity in Classroom Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Tu-Kuang; Lin, Yu-Tzeng

    2016-01-01

    Group identity is a critical component in developing effective classroom management. While there have been numerous studies on group identity, they have primarily focused on its effects on the physical classroom entity. Advances in information technology, however, have enabled the creation of virtual communities, which have become a vital channel…

  3. Urban district identity as a common ingroup identity : The different role of ingroup prototypicality for minority and majority groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ufkes, Elze G.; Otten, Sabine; Van der Zee, Karen I.; Giebels, Ellen; Dovidio, John F.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we examined how identification with urban districts as a common ingroup identity and perceived ingroup prototypicality influence the attitudes of residents toward other ethnic groups in their neighborhood. The overall conclusion of two field studies (N?=?214 and N?=?98) is that for ma

  4. Urban district identity as a common ingroup identity: The different role of ingroup prototypicality for minority and majority groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ufkes, E.G.; Otten, S.; Zee, van der K. I.; Giebels, E.; Dovidio, J. F.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we examined how identification with urban districts as a common ingroup identity and perceived ingroup prototypicality influence the attitudes of residents toward other ethnic groups in their neighborhood. The overall conclusion of two field studies (N = 214 and N = 98) is that for ma

  5. Globus Nexus: A Platform-As-A-Service provider of research Identity, Profile, and Group Management, Future Generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chard, Kyle; Lidman, Mattias; McCollam, Brendan; Bryan, Josh; Ananthakrishnan, Rachana; Tuecke, Steven; Foster, Ian

    2016-03-01

    Globus Nexus is a professionally hosted Platform-as-a-Service that provides identity, profile and group management functionality for the research community. Many collaborative e-Science applications need to manage large numbers of user identities, profiles, and groups. However, developing and maintaining such capabilities is often challenging given the complexity of modern security protocols and requirements for scalable, robust, and highly available implementations. By outsourcing this functionality to Globus Nexus, developers can leverage best-practice implementations without incurring development and operations overhead. Users benefit from enhanced capabilities such as identity federation, flexible profile management, and user-oriented group management. In this paper we present Globus Nexus, describe its capabilities and architecture, summarize how several e-Science applications leverage these capabilities, and present results that characterize its scalability, reliability, and availability.

  6. Identity as constraint and resource in interest group evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halpin, Darren; Daugbjerg, Carsten

    2015-01-01

    a constraint and a resource for radical group change. While group scholars have long noted instances of change in overall organisational form—say from amateur scientific group to environmental campaign group—the literature is short on persuasive accounts of the mechanism(s) that drive or constrain such radical...... types of change. How can we explain groups getting from form A to form B? In this article we explore how tools from the historical institutionalism literature might aid in the analytical process. Specifically we focus on the combination of focussing events, internal challengers to the status quo...

  7. Physical forces shape group identity of swimming Pseudomonas putida cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Rodriguez-Espeso

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The often striking macroscopic patterns developed by motile bacterial populations on agar plates are a consequence of the environmental conditions where the cells grow and spread. Parameters such as medium stiffness and nutrient concentration have been reported to alter cell swimming behavior, while mutual interactions among populations shape collective patterns. One commonly observed occurrence is the mutual inhibition of clonal bacteria when moving towards each other, which results in a distinct halt at a finite distance on the agar matrix before having direct contact. The dynamics behind this phenomenon (i.e. intolerance to mix in time and space with otherwise identical others has been traditionally explained in terms of cell-to-cell competition/cooperation regarding nutrient availability. In this work, the same scenario has been revisited from an alternative perspective: the effect of the physical mechanics that frame the process, in particular the consequences of collisions between moving bacteria and the semi-solid matrix of the swimming medium. To this end we set up a simple experimental system in which the swimming patterns of Pseudomonas putida were tested with different geometries and agar concentrations. A computational analysis framework that highlights cell-to-medium interactions was developed to fit experimental observations. Simulated outputs suggested that the medium is compressed in the direction of the bacterial front motion. This phenomenon generates what was termed a compression wave that goes through the medium preceding the swimming population and that determines the visible high-level pattern. Taken together, the data suggested that the mechanical effects of the bacteria moving through the medium created a factual barrier that impedes to merge with neighboring cells swimming from a different site. The resulting divide between otherwise clonal bacteria is thus brought about by physical forces –not genetic or metabolic

  8. Effects of group identity on resource use in a simulated commons dilemma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, R M; Brewer, M B

    1984-05-01

    In a review of research on in-group categorization and group identity, Brewer (1979) proposed that cooperative solutions to social dilemmas, such as Hardin 's (1968) "tragedy of the commons ", may be achieved by exploiting the positive consequences arising from a common social-group identity. Three laboratory experiments were conducted to assess the effects of making salient either a superordinate (collective) or subordinate (differentiating) group identity in heterogeneous groups. In the first two experiments, naturally occurring social categories were used as a basis for group differentiation. In the third, the level of social-group identity was manipulated by varying the common fate of the group members. It was predicted that individual restraint would be most likely when a superordinate group identity was made salient and under conditions in which feedback indicated that the common resource was being depleted. Results from all three experiments provide support for this general hypothesis, indicating that cooperative responding is enhanced even when the basis for superordinate group identity is minimal.

  9. Illegitimacy and identity threat in (inter)action: predicting intergroup orientations among minority group members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livingstone, Andrew G; Spears, Russell; Manstead, Antony S R; Bruder, Martin

    2009-12-01

    We test the hypothesis that intergroup orientations among minority group members are shaped by the interaction between the perceived illegitimacy of intergroup relations and identity threat appraisals, as well as their main effects. This is because together they serve to focus emotion-mediated reactions on the out-group's role in threatening in-group identity. In a large-scale field study (N=646), conducted among the Welsh minority in the UK, we quasi-manipulated the extent to which Welsh identity was dependent on the 'threatened' Welsh language. Results supported our hypothesis that the illegitimacy x identity threat interaction would be strongest where Welsh identity was most dependent upon the Welsh language, and through intergroup anger would predict support for more radical, unconstitutional forms of action.

  10. Capitalism, Identity Politics, and Queerness Converge: LGBT Employee Resource Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Githens, Rod P.

    2009-01-01

    Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) employee resource groups have brought about substantial organizational change within corporations. Capitalist structures have enabled these changes to occur more quickly in the private sector than within the public sector. In this article, I explore how capitalism has converged with two approaches of…

  11. Using Personal Growth Groups in Multicultural Counseling Courses to Foster Students' Ethnic Identity Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowell, P. Clay; Benshoff, James M.

    2008-01-01

    This study was designed to examine the relationship between personal growth group (PGG) experiences in multicultural counseling courses and counseling students' ethnic identity development. Differences in ethnic identity development were compared between counseling students who participated in a PGG experience as part of a multicultural counseling…

  12. The induction of shared identity : The positive role of individual distinctiveness for groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jans, Lise; Postmes, Tom; Van der Zee, Karen I.

    2011-01-01

    This article examines inductive processes of social identity formation, the bottom-up processes by which individual group members influence a social identity, integrating it with work on entitativity. Three studies tested the prediction that feelings of individual distinctiveness mediate the relatio

  13. Fairness, intrinsic motivations and social identity in group decisions

    OpenAIRE

    Gaspari, Diana

    2014-01-01

    This thesis is a collection of three studies concerning behavioral economics in group decision contexts. Laboratory experiments are our main tool to maintain control over the specific settings that we want to analyze and they allow us to isolate the phenomena we are interested in. In the first chapter, we look at how fairness influences trust between two individuals. A relationship frequently begins with the act of splitting a common endowment. The fairness of this division may influence t...

  14. Correlation between relatives given complete genotypes: from identity by descent to identity by function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sverdlov, Serge; Thompson, Elizabeth A

    2013-09-01

    In classical quantitative genetics, the correlation between the phenotypes of individuals with unknown genotypes and a known pedigree relationship is expressed in terms of probabilities of IBD states. In existing approaches to the inverse problem where genotypes are observed but pedigree relationships are not, dependence between phenotypes is either modeled as Bayesian uncertainty or mapped to an IBD model via inferred relatedness parameters. Neither approach yields a relationship between genotypic similarity and phenotypic similarity with a probabilistic interpretation corresponding to a generative model. We introduce a generative model for diploid allele effect based on the classic infinite allele mutation process. This approach motivates the concept of IBF (Identity by Function). The phenotypic covariance between two individuals given their diploid genotypes is expressed in terms of functional identity states. The IBF parameters define a genetic architecture for a trait without reference to specific alleles or population. Given full genome sequences, we treat a gene-scale functional region, rather than a SNP, as a QTL, modeling patterns of dominance for multiple alleles. Applications demonstrated by simulation include phenotype and effect prediction and association, and estimation of heritability and classical variance components. A simulation case study of the Missing Heritability problem illustrates a decomposition of heritability under the IBF framework into Explained and Unexplained components.

  15. Level two string functions and Rogers Ramanujan type identities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arel Genish

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The level two string functions are calculated exactly for all simply laced Lie algebras, using a ladder coset construction. These are the characters of cosets of the type G/U(1r, where G is the algebra at level two and r is its rank. This coset is a theory of generalized parafermions. A conjectured Rogers Ramanujan type identity is described for these characters. Using the exact string functions, we verify the Rogers Ramanujan type expressions, that are the main focus of this work.

  16. Racial discrimination, multiple group identities, and civic beliefs among immigrant adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Wing Yi; Latzman, Robert D

    2015-10-01

    The present study tested the independent and interactive effects of multiple group identities (i.e., American and ethnic) and racial discrimination on civic beliefs among immigrant adolescents. Seventy-seven participants completed a questionnaire during after-school programs. Ethnic identity was positively associated with civic beliefs whereas racial discrimination was negatively related to civic beliefs, and racial discrimination moderated the relationships between multiple group identities and civic beliefs. Our findings highlight the importance of studying structural and individual factors jointly in the investigation of civic beliefs among immigrant adolescents. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. The value of identity: olfactory notes on orbitofrontal cortex function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottfried, Jay A; Zelano, Christina

    2011-12-01

    Neuroscientific research has emphatically promoted the idea that the key function of the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) is to encode value. Associative learning studies indicate that OFC representations of stimulus cues reflect the predictive value of expected outcomes. Neuroeconomic studies suggest that the OFC distills abstract representations of value from discrete commodities to optimize choice. Although value-based models provide good explanatory power for many different findings, these models are typically disconnected from the very stimuli and commodities giving rise to those value representations. Little provision is made, either theoretically or empirically, for the necessary cooperative role of object identity, without which value becomes orphaned from its source. As a step toward remediating the value of identity, this review provides a focused olfactory survey of OFC research, including new work from our lab, to highlight the elemental involvement of this region in stimulus-specific predictive coding of both perceptual outcomes and expected values.

  18. Longitudinal Relationships Between Family Functioning and Identity Development in Hispanic Adolescents: Continuity and Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Seth J; Mason, Craig A; Pantin, Hilda; Szapocznik, José

    2009-04-01

    The present study was designed to investigate trajectories of identity development and their relationship to family functioning in a sample of Hispanic adolescents and their primary caregivers. Two hundred fifty adolescents completed measures of identity coherence and confusion and of family functioning, and parents completed measures of family functioning. Significant variability over time and across individuals emerged in identity confusion, but not in identity coherence. As a result, the present analyses focused on identity confusion. Changes in adolescent-reported, but not parent-reported, family functioning were significantly related to changes in identity confusion. Follow-up analyses suggested that family functioning primarily influences identity confusion in early adolescence, but that identity confusion begins to exert a reciprocal effect in middle adolescence. Exploratory latent growth mixture modeling (LGMM) analyses produced three classes of adolescents based on their baseline values and change trajectories in identity confusion. The potential for family-strengthening interventions to affect identity development is discussed.

  19. THE DIFFERENCES IN MORAL, GROUP IDENTITY AND THE PERCON’S VARIABILITY DEPENDING ON THE EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Aleksandrobna Kolinichenko

    2017-06-01

    Results. The results of the study have revealed the dominance of all specified assessment parameters in the group of test subjects with incomplete higher education: higher level of moral development in all dilemmas (the opposition of life values (compassion and following the law, self-interest – the interests of the city (law, business (benefit and law, personal interests (career and the freedom of another person, except for the dilemma of the opposition between the interests of a majority and a single person. The differences have also been revealed between the two groups of test subjects according to the group identity, group variability, the desirability of the common categories of identity.

  20. Functional Richness and Identity Do Not Strongly Affect Invasibility of Constructed Dune Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Tanya J; French, Kristine; Jolley, Dianne F

    2017-01-01

    Biotic effects are often used to explain community structure and invasion resistance. We evaluated the contribution of functional richness and identity to invasion resistance and abiotic resource availability using a mesocosm experiment. We predicted that higher functional richness would confer greater invasion resistance through greater resource sequestration. We also predicted that niche pre-emption and invasion resistance would be higher in communities which included functional groups similar to the invader than communities where all functional groups were distinct from the invader. We constructed communities of different functional richness and identity but maintained constant species richness and numbers of individuals in the resident community. The constructed communities represented potential fore dune conditions following invader control activities along the Australian east coast. We then simulated an invasion event by bitou (Chrysanthemoides monilifera ssp. rotundata DC. Norl.), a South African shrub invader. We used the same bitou propagule pressure across all treatments and monitored invasion success and resource availability for 13 months. Contrary to our predictions, we found that functional richness did not mediate the number of bitou individuals or bitou cover and functional identity had little effect on invasion success: there was a trend for the grass single functional group treatment to supress bitou individuals, but this trend was obscured when grasses were in multi functional group treatments. We found that all constructed communities facilitated bitou establishment and suppressed bitou cover relative to unplanted mesocosms. Abiotic resource use was either similar among planted communities, or differences did not relate to invasion success (with the exception of light availability). We attribute invasion resistance to bulk plant biomass across planted treatments rather than their functional group arrangement.

  1. Identity Centrality and In-Group Superiority Differentially Predict Reactions to Historical Victimization and Harm Doing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rezarta Bilali

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Two U.S. studies report a differential effect of identity centrality and in-group superiority on reactions to in-group victimization and in-group harm-doing. Study 1 (N = 80 found that higher identity centrality predicted less justification for freely-recalled in-group victim events, whereas higher in-group superiority predicted more justification for freely-recalled in-group harm-doing events. Study 2 (N = 105 reexamined these findings in specific contexts of historical victimization (Pearl Harbor and harm-doing (Hiroshima and Nagasaki, finding that in-group superiority was a predictor of reactions to historical in-group harm-doing (justification, emotional reactions, importance of events, whereas centrality was a predictor of reactions to historical in-group victimization.

  2. Group identity, ethnic separatism and multiple out-groups : the Basque case

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martinovic, B.; Verkuyten, M.J.A.M.; Weesie, H.M.

    2010-01-01

    Within the context of the Basque Country in Spain we examined how ethnic (Basque) and national (Spanish) identification relate to the evaluation of Spaniards, Basques, Andalusians and Catalans. On a sample of adolescent participants we tested a structural equation model which considered identity con

  3. The political downside of dual identity: group identifications and religious political mobilization of Muslim minorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinovic, Borja; Verkuyten, Maykel

    2014-12-01

    Research on the political mobilization of ethnic minorities has shown that dual ethno-national identification facilitates involvement in political action on behalf of the ethnic group. This study extends this research by proposing that a dual identity can impede political mobilization on behalf of another relevant in-group--the religious community - especially if this in-group is not accepted by the wider society. Using a sample of 641 Muslims of Turkish origin living in Germany and the Netherlands, dual ethno-national identity (Turkish-German/Turkish-Dutch) was examined in relation to religious Muslim identification and religious political mobilization. Dual identity was expected to be indirectly related to lower mobilization via decreased religious group identification. Further, this mediating process was predicted to be stronger for Turkish Muslims who perceived relatively high religious group discrimination. In both countries we found support for the mediating hypothesis, however, the moderating role of discrimination was confirmed only for the Netherlands. Turkish-Dutch identification was associated with lower support for religious political mobilization because of lower Muslim identification only for Turkish-Dutch participants who perceived high levels of discrimination. These findings indicate that a strong dual (ethno-national) identity can undermine minority members' support for political rights and actions on behalf of a third relevant in-group, and therefore qualify the social psychological benefits of the dual identity model.

  4. Do dimensions of ethnic identity mediate the association between perceived ethnic group discrimination and depressive symptoms?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brittian, Aerika S; Kim, Su Yeong; Armenta, Brian E; Lee, Richard M; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J; Schwartz, Seth J; Villalta, Ian K; Zamboanga, Byron L; Weisskirch, Robert S; Juang, Linda P; Castillo, Linda G; Hudson, Monika L

    2015-01-01

    Ethnic group discrimination represents a notable risk factor that may contribute to mental health problems among ethnic minority college students. However, cultural resources (e.g., ethnic identity) may promote psychological adjustment in the context of group-based discriminatory experiences. In the current study, we examined the associations between perceptions of ethnic group discrimination and depressive symptoms, and explored dimensions of ethnic identity (i.e., exploration, resolution, and affirmation) as mediators of this process among 2,315 ethnic minority college students (age 18 to 30 years; 37% Black, 63% Latino). Results indicated that perceived ethnic group discrimination was associated positively with depressive symptoms among students from both ethnic groups. The relationship between perceived ethnic group discrimination and depressive symptoms was mediated by ethnic identity affirmation for Latino students, but not for Black students. Ethnic identity resolution was negatively and indirectly associated with depressive symptoms through ethnic identity affirmation for both Black and Latino students. Implications for promoting ethnic minority college students' mental health and directions for future research are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. Ethnic identity, intergroup contact, and outgroup orientation among diverse groups of adolescents on the Internet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tynes, Brendesha M; Giang, Michael T; Thompson, Geneene N

    2008-08-01

    The relationship among adolescents' (N = 228) ethnic identity, outgroup orientation, and online intergroup experiences was examined across three groups: European Americans, ethnic minorities (i.e., Latino and African Americans), and multiracials. Similar to previous studies, ethnic minorities reported significantly higher ethnic identity than European Americans and multiracials. Although outgroup orientation did not differ among ethnic groups, European Americans reported that they had more online intergroup contact than the other ethnic groups; greater intergroup contact was also related to higher outgroup orientation for this group. These results show that ethnic identity remains stronger for ethnic minorities, but intergroup interaction has become a salient and influential aspect of the online experience for European Americans. Implications are drawn for understanding and improving online and offline intergroup relations.

  6. Forming identities in residential care for children: Manoeuvring between social work and peer groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stokholm, Anja

    2009-01-01

    The general goal of Danish residential care institutions with a therapeutic objective is to change children's behaviour and redirect their identity formation. This goal is pursued through an individualized focus on development. Dynamics of the resident group is rarely targeted directly...... in the pedagogical work. This article challenges the implicit understanding that social work is the primary source of identity transformation and that peer group interaction is mainly an obstacle to overcome. On the contrary, this article argues that learning about the social dynamics of the children's group...... is a precondition for understanding how social work influences individual children. © The Author(s), 2009....

  7. Groups 4 Health: Evidence that a social-identity intervention that builds and strengthens social group membership improves mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haslam, Catherine; Cruwys, Tegan; Haslam, S Alexander; Dingle, Genevieve; Chang, Melissa Xue-Ling

    2016-04-01

    Social isolation and disconnection have profound negative effects on mental health, but there are few, if any, theoretically-derived interventions that directly target this problem. We evaluate a new intervention, Groups 4 Health (G4H), a manualized 5-module psychological intervention that targets the development and maintenance of social group relationships to treat psychological distress arising from social isolation. G4H was tested using a non-randomized control design. The program was delivered to young adults presenting with social isolation and affective disturbance. Primary outcome measures assessed mental health (depression, general anxiety, social anxiety, and stress), well-being (life satisfaction, self-esteem) and social connectedness (loneliness, social functioning). Our secondary goal was to assess whether mechanisms of social identification were responsible for changes in outcomes. G4H was found to significantly improve mental health, well-being, and social connectedness on all measures, both on program completion and 6-month follow-up. In line with social identity theorizing, analysis also showed that improvements in depression, anxiety, stress, loneliness, and life satisfaction were underpinned by participants' increased identification both with their G4H group and with multiple groups. This study provides preliminary evidence of the potential value of G4H and its underlying mechanisms, but further examination is required in other populations to address issues of generalizability, and in randomized controlled trials to address its wider efficacy. Results of this pilot study confirm that G4H has the potential to reduce the negative health-related consequences of social disconnection. Future research will determine its utility in wider community contexts. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Investigating evolutionary conservation of dendritic cell subset identity and functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thien-Phong eVu Manh

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Dendritic cells (DC were initially defined as mononuclear phagocytes with a dendritic morphology and an exquisite efficiency for naïve T cell activation. DC encompass several subsets initially identified by their expression of specific cell surface molecules and later shown to excel in distinct functions and to develop under the instruction of different transcription factors or cytokines. Very few cell surface molecules are expressed in a specific manner on any immune cell type. Hence, to identify cell types, the sole use of a small number of cell surface markers in classical flow cytometry can be deceiving. Moreover, the markers currently used to define mononuclear phagocyte subsets vary depending on the tissue and animal species studied and even between laboratories. This has led to confusion in the definition of DC subset identity and in their attribution of specific functions. There is a strong need to identify a rigorous and consensus way to define mononuclear phagocyte subsets, with precise guidelines potentially applicable throughout tissues and species. We will discuss the advantages, drawbacks and complementarities of different methodologies: cell surface phenotyping, ontogeny, functional characterization and molecular profiling. We will advocate that gene expression profiling is a very rigorous, largely unbiased and accessible method to define the identity of mononuclear phagocyte subsets, which strengthens and refines surface phenotyping. It is uniquely powerful to yield new, experimentally testable, hypotheses on the ontogeny or functions of mononuclear phagocyte subsets, their molecular regulation and their evolutionary conservation. We propose defining cell populations based on a combination of cell surface phenotyping, expression analysis of hallmark genes and robust functional assays, in order to reach a consensus and integrate faster the huge but scattered knowledge accumulated by different laboratories on different cell types

  9. Knowing me, knowing you : Anonymity effects on social identity processes within groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lea, M; Spears, R; de Groot, D

    The Social Identity Model of Deindividuation Effects (SIDE) proposes that depersonalization of self and others is responsible for the effects of visual anonymity on group behavior The authors investigated these mediating processes by assessing the effects of group-based self-categorization and

  10. Knowing me, knowing you : Anonymity effects on social identity processes within groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lea, M; Spears, R; de Groot, D

    2001-01-01

    The Social Identity Model of Deindividuation Effects (SIDE) proposes that depersonalization of self and others is responsible for the effects of visual anonymity on group behavior The authors investigated these mediating processes by assessing the effects of group-based self-categorization and stere

  11. Bullying and Social Identity: The Effects of Group Norms and Distinctiveness Threat on Attitudes towards Bullying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojala, Kris; Nesdale, Drew

    2004-01-01

    Drawing from social identity theory (Tajfel & Turner, 1979), an experiment was carried out to determine the extent to which children's attitudes towards bullying could be moderated by in-group norms and perceived threat to group distinctiveness. The study investigated the responses of 120 male primary school students aged 10-13 years from five…

  12. Use of Group Counseling to Address Ethnic Identity Development: Application with Adolescents of Mexican Descent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malott, Krista M.; Paone, Tina R.; Humphreys, Kourtney; Martinez, Triana

    2010-01-01

    This article provides qualitative outcomes from a group counseling intervention whose goal was to facilitate the ethnic identity development of Mexican-origin youth. Outcomes revealed that participants perceived group participation as meaningful. Themes that emerged from the data included the importance of the relationship to engender change,…

  13. Prejudice, Ethnic Identity, Contact and Ethnic Group Preferences Among Dutch Young Adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Masson, C.N.; M.J.A.M. Verkuyten (Maykel)

    1993-01-01

    textabstractSocial identity theory, the contact hypothesis, and prejudice research are three important perspectives for studying ingroup information and preferences in the context of ethnic groups. This paper studies the utility of the three perspectives in a particular interethnic group context amo

  14. Knowing me, knowing you : Anonymity effects on social identity processes within groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lea, M; Spears, R; de Groot, D

    2001-01-01

    The Social Identity Model of Deindividuation Effects (SIDE) proposes that depersonalization of self and others is responsible for the effects of visual anonymity on group behavior The authors investigated these mediating processes by assessing the effects of group-based self-categorization and stere

  15. A Functional Analytic Approach to Group Psychotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenberghe, Luc

    2009-01-01

    This article provides a particular view on the use of Functional Analytical Psychotherapy (FAP) in a group therapy format. This view is based on the author's experiences as a supervisor of Functional Analytical Psychotherapy Groups, including groups for women with depression and groups for chronic pain patients. The contexts in which this approach…

  16. Genetic and genomic approaches to understanding macrophage identity and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, Christopher K

    2015-04-01

    A major goal of our laboratory is to understand the molecular mechanisms that underlie the development and functions of diverse macrophage phenotypes in health and disease. Recent studies using genetic and genomic approaches suggest a relatively simple model of collaborative and hierarchical interactions between lineage-determining and signal-dependent transcription factors that enable selection and activation of transcriptional enhancers that specify macrophage identity and function. In addition, we have found that it is possible to use natural genetic variation as a powerful tool for advancing our understanding of how the macrophage deciphers the information encoded by the genome to attain specific phenotypes in a context-dependent manner. Here, I will describe our recent efforts to extend genetic and genomic approaches to investigate the roles of distinct tissue environments in determining the phenotypes of different resident populations of macrophages.

  17. IDENTITY-BASED MULTISIGNATURE AND AGGREGATE SIGNATURE SCHEMES FROM M-TORSION GROUPS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cheng Xiangguo; Liu Jingmei; Guo Lifeng; Wang Xinmei

    2006-01-01

    An identity-based multisignature scheme and an identity-based aggregate signature scheme are proposed in this paper. They are both from m-torsion groups on super-singular elliptic curves or hyper-elliptic curves and based on the recently proposed identity-based signature scheme of Cha and Cheon. Due to the sound properties of m-torsion groups and the base scheme, it turns out that our schemes are very simple and efficient. Both schemes are proven to be secure against adaptive chosen message attack in the random oracle model under the normal security notions with the assumption that the Computational Diffie-Hellman problem is hard in the m-torsion groups.

  18. The functions of ritual in social groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson-Jones, Rachel E; Legare, Cristine H

    2016-01-01

    Ritual cognition builds upon social learning biases that may have become specialized for affiliation within social groups. The adaptive problems of group living required a means of identifying group members, ensuring commitment to the group, facilitating cooperation, and maintaining group cohesion. We discuss how ritual serves these social functions.

  19. Strengthening the Feeling of Identity and Self-esteem Through Group Music and Imagery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Inge Nygaard

    than 4 in the years 2008-2010. I will present two case studies concerning two of the participants taking part in these group experiences. Focus will be on developments in the self-reported problem area of `strengthening the feeling of identity and self-esteem", which both clients shose among different...... understanding). I will present selected excerpts of the client´s processes such as the music they listen to, mandalas, narratives and their closing self reported outcome of the treatment. I will relate this to the theory model and show how strengthening of the feeling of identity and self-esteem through Group...

  20. Approaches to Pendent Groups' Functionalization of Polyimide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Pendent groups' functionalization of polyimide is an optimum approach to improve its processability and achieve functionalized polyimide materials. There are two types of modification routes for pendent groups functionalization of polyimide: monomer route and macromolecular route. In this paper, various approaches for pendent groups' functionalization of polyimide are introduced. At the same time, a new method to achieve functional polyimide materials without decreasing its thermal stability and mechanical properties is mentioned.

  1. ABO-identical blood group matching has no survival benefit for AB heart transplant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergenfeldt, Henrik; Höglund, Peter; Andersson, Bodil; Rådegran, Göran; Ohlsson, Mattias; Nilsson, Johan

    2015-03-01

    Although identical blood group matching is preferred, it is uncertain if this results in improved survival and, if so, how large the survival benefits are. Earlier studies have yielded conflicting results and are mostly based on single-center cohorts with few long-term results. Recipients with blood group AB are of particular interest regarding nonidentical blood group matching because they may receive organs from all blood groups. We wanted to test the hypothesis that ABO-identical matching results in superior survival in recipients with blood group AB. We used data from the International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation registry to match a cohort of heart donors with transplant recipients with blood group AB. Cox regression analysis was used to assess the influence of blood group on outcome after heart transplantation. All-cause cumulative mortality during the study period was the primary end point. The study material consisted of 3,589 adult patients with blood group AB who had received heart transplants, representing 18,085 patient-years. No significant difference in survival after identical, as opposed to compatible, ABO matching was found for recipients with blood group AB. In subgroup analysis, we found improved survival for younger recipients (ABO-identical organs. In the subgroup of recipients younger than 55 years of age, our study suggests improved survival for recipients with blood group AB transplanted with an organ from a donor with blood group O. Copyright © 2015 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Balancing the Fair Treatment of Others While Preserving Group Identity and Autonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killen, Melanie; Elenbaas, Laura; Rutland, Adam

    2016-04-01

    Social exclusion and inclusion from groups, as well as the distribution of resources, are fundamental aspects of social life, and serve as sources of conflicts that bear on issues of fairness and equality, beginning in childhood. For the most part, research on social exclusion and allocation of resources has not focused on the issue of group membership. Yet, social exclusion from groups and the denial of resources reflect societal issues pertaining to social inequality and its counterpoint, fair treatment of others. Social inequality occurs when opportunities and resources are distributed unevenly in society, often through group norms about allocation that reflect socially defined categories of persons. This occurs at multiple levels of societal organization, from experiences of exclusion in childhood such as being left out of a play activity, to being denied access to resources as a member of a group. These situations extend to larger level experiences in the adult world concerning social exclusion from voting, for example, or participation in educational institutions. Thus, most decisions regarding social exclusion and the denial of resources involve considerations of group identity and group membership, implicitly or explicitly, which contribute to prejudice and bias, even though this has rarely been investigated in developmental science. Current research illustrating the role of group identity and autonomy regarding decision-making about social exclusion and the denial of resources is reviewed from the Social Reasoning Developmental model, one that integrates social domain theory and developmental social identity theories to investigate how children use moral, conventional, and psychological judgments to evaluate contexts reflecting group identity, group norms, and intergroup dynamics.

  3. Reactance to (or Acceptance of) Stereotypes : Implicit and Explicit Responses to Group Identity Threat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Lemus, Soledad; Bukowski, Marcin; Spears, Russell; Telgal, Maika

    2015-01-01

    We propose that reactance to threats to individual freedom can be broadened to include threats to group identity and its associated values and norms. In two studies we primed women and men with (counter) stereotypical roles and measured implicit activation of reactance versus acceptance goals, task

  4. The Protective Role of Group Identity: Sectarian Antisocial Behavior and Adolescent Emotion Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrilees, Christine E.; Taylor, Laura K.; Goeke-Morey, Marcie C.; Shirlow, Peter; Cummings, E. Mark; Cairns, Ed

    2014-01-01

    The protective role of strength of group identity was examined for youth in a context of protracted political conflict. Participants included 814 adolescents (M[subscript age] = 13.61, SD = 1.99 at Time 1) participating in a longitudinal study in Belfast, Northern Ireland. Utilizing hierarchical linear modeling, the results show that the effect of…

  5. Illegitimacy and identity threat in (inter)action : Predicting intergroup orientations among minority group members

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Livingstone, Andrew G.; Spears, Russell; Manstead, Antony S. R.; Bruder, Martin

    2009-01-01

    We test the hypothesis that intergroup orientations among minority group members are shaped by the interaction between the perceived illegitimacy of intergroup relations and identity threat appraisals, as well as their main effects. This is because together they serve to focus emotion-mediated react

  6. Effects of Achievement Motivation, Social Identity, and Peer Group Norms on Academic Conformity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masland, Lindsay C.; Lease, A. Michele

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated whether academic achievement motivation and social identity explain variation in children's conformity to positive academic behaviors (n = 455 children in grades three through five). Structural equation modeling suggested that academic value and peer group academic norms were positively related to academic conformity.…

  7. Dream Interpretation Groups: Facilitating Identity Development of Adolescents and Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Joanne

    A systems perspective recognizes the necessity of drawing on numerous resources for strengthening the family. The dream interpretation group method, in some ways an elitist approach, focuses on the transitional individual as the nodal point for building family strengths. The individual experiencing changes in identity development is equipped with…

  8. Do the Groups to Which I Belong Make Me "Me"?: Reflections on Community and Identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Splitter, Laurance J.

    2007-01-01

    This article discusses the implications of some current philosophical thinking about groups, culture and the politics of identity (exploring the views of Anthony Appiah, Amartya Sen and Nel Noddings, among others) for education generally, and for issues of classroom organization in particular. My basic thesis is that, when we understand the…

  9. Effects of Achievement Motivation, Social Identity, and Peer Group Norms on Academic Conformity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masland, Lindsay C.; Lease, A. Michele

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated whether academic achievement motivation and social identity explain variation in children's conformity to positive academic behaviors (n = 455 children in grades three through five). Structural equation modeling suggested that academic value and peer group academic norms were positively related to academic conformity.…

  10. The political downside of dual identity : Group identifications and religious political mobilization of Muslim minorities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martinovic, Borja; Verkuijten, Maykel

    2014-01-01

    Research on the political mobilization of ethnic minorities has shown that dual ethno-national identification facilitates involvement in political action on behalf of the ethnic group. This study extends this research by proposing that a dual identity can impede political mobilization on behalf of a

  11. Dream Interpretation Groups: Facilitating Identity Development of Adolescents and Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Joanne

    A systems perspective recognizes the necessity of drawing on numerous resources for strengthening the family. The dream interpretation group method, in some ways an elitist approach, focuses on the transitional individual as the nodal point for building family strengths. The individual experiencing changes in identity development is equipped with…

  12. Enactment of Teacher Identity in Resolving Student Disagreements in Small Group Peer Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Bal Krishna

    2013-01-01

    This study presents a sequential analysis of the enactment of teacher identity in closing disagreements among students in small group peer interactions in an advanced academic writing class. In doing so, it discusses: (a) the micro-details of how oppositional stances and opinions are constructed, challenged and/or defended; (b) the sequential…

  13. Ethnic helping and group identity : A study among majority group children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sierksma, Jellie; Thijs, Jochem; Verkuijten, Maykel

    2014-01-01

    Two vignette studies were conducted on children's evaluations of ethnic helping. In the first study, 272 native Dutch children (mean age = 10.7) evaluated a child who refused to help in an intra-group context (Dutch-Dutch or Turkish-Turkish) or inter-group context (Dutch-Turkish or Turkish-Dutch). C

  14. Ethnic Helping and Group Identity: A Study among Majority Group Children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sierksma, J.; Thijs, J.T.; Verkuyten, M.J.A.M.

    2014-01-01

    Two vignette studies were conducted on children's evaluations of ethnic helping. In the first study, 272 native Dutch children (mean age = 10.7) evaluated a child who refused to help in an intra-group context (Dutch-Dutch or Turkish-Turkish) or inter-group context (Dutch-Turkish or Turkish-Dutch). C

  15. Ethnic Helping and Group Identity: A Study among Majority Group Children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sierksma, J.; Thijs, J.T.; Verkuyten, M.J.A.M.

    2014-01-01

    Two vignette studies were conducted on children's evaluations of ethnic helping. In the first study, 272 native Dutch children (mean age = 10.7) evaluated a child who refused to help in an intra-group context (Dutch-Dutch or Turkish-Turkish) or inter-group context (Dutch-Turkish or Turkish-Dutch). C

  16. Quasi-convex Functions in Carnot Groups

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mingbao SUN; Xiaoping YANG

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, the authors introduce the concept of h-quasiconvex functions on Carnot groups G. It is shown that the notions of h-quasiconvex functions and h-convex sets are equivalent and the L∞ estimates of first derivatives of h-quasiconvex functions are given. For a Carnot group G of step two, it is proved that h-quasiconvex functions are locally bounded from above. Furthermore, the authors obtain that h-convex functions are locally Lipschitz continuous and that an h-convex function is twice differentiable almost everywhere.

  17. CHD3 proteins and polycomb group proteins antagonistically determine cell identity in Arabidopsis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernst Aichinger

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Dynamic regulation of chromatin structure is of fundamental importance for modulating genomic activities in higher eukaryotes. The opposing activities of Polycomb group (PcG and trithorax group (trxG proteins are part of a chromatin-based cellular memory system ensuring the correct expression of specific transcriptional programs at defined developmental stages. The default silencing activity of PcG proteins is counteracted by trxG proteins that activate PcG target genes and prevent PcG mediated silencing activities. Therefore, the timely expression and regulation of PcG proteins and counteracting trxG proteins is likely to be of fundamental importance for establishing cell identity. Here, we report that the chromodomain/helicase/DNA-binding domain CHD3 proteins PICKLE (PKL and PICKLE RELATED2 (PKR2 have trxG-like functions in plants and are required for the expression of many genes that are repressed by PcG proteins. The pkl mutant could partly suppress the leaf and flower phenotype of the PcG mutant curly leaf, supporting the idea that CHD3 proteins and PcG proteins antagonistically determine cell identity in plants. The direct targets of PKL in roots include the PcG genes SWINGER and EMBRYONIC FLOWER2 that encode subunits of Polycomb repressive complexes responsible for trimethylating histone H3 at lysine 27 (H3K27me3. Similar to mutants lacking PcG proteins, lack of PKL and PKR2 caused reduced H3K27me3 levels and, therefore, increased expression of a set of PcG protein target genes in roots. Thus, PKL and PKR2 are directly required for activation of PcG protein target genes and in roots are also indirectly required for repression of PcG protein target genes. Reduced PcG protein activity can lead to cell de-differentiation and callus-like tissue formation in pkl pkr2 mutants. Thus, in contrast to mammals, where PcG proteins are required to maintain pluripotency and to prevent cell differentiation, in plants PcG proteins are required to promote

  18. CHD3 proteins and polycomb group proteins antagonistically determine cell identity in Arabidopsis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernst Aichinger

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Dynamic regulation of chromatin structure is of fundamental importance for modulating genomic activities in higher eukaryotes. The opposing activities of Polycomb group (PcG and trithorax group (trxG proteins are part of a chromatin-based cellular memory system ensuring the correct expression of specific transcriptional programs at defined developmental stages. The default silencing activity of PcG proteins is counteracted by trxG proteins that activate PcG target genes and prevent PcG mediated silencing activities. Therefore, the timely expression and regulation of PcG proteins and counteracting trxG proteins is likely to be of fundamental importance for establishing cell identity. Here, we report that the chromodomain/helicase/DNA-binding domain CHD3 proteins PICKLE (PKL and PICKLE RELATED2 (PKR2 have trxG-like functions in plants and are required for the expression of many genes that are repressed by PcG proteins. The pkl mutant could partly suppress the leaf and flower phenotype of the PcG mutant curly leaf, supporting the idea that CHD3 proteins and PcG proteins antagonistically determine cell identity in plants. The direct targets of PKL in roots include the PcG genes SWINGER and EMBRYONIC FLOWER2 that encode subunits of Polycomb repressive complexes responsible for trimethylating histone H3 at lysine 27 (H3K27me3. Similar to mutants lacking PcG proteins, lack of PKL and PKR2 caused reduced H3K27me3 levels and, therefore, increased expression of a set of PcG protein target genes in roots. Thus, PKL and PKR2 are directly required for activation of PcG protein target genes and in roots are also indirectly required for repression of PcG protein target genes. Reduced PcG protein activity can lead to cell de-differentiation and callus-like tissue formation in pkl pkr2 mutants. Thus, in contrast to mammals, where PcG proteins are required to maintain pluripotency and to prevent cell differentiation, in plants PcG proteins are required to promote

  19. CHD3 proteins and polycomb group proteins antagonistically determine cell identity in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aichinger, Ernst; Villar, Corina B R; Farrona, Sara; Reyes, José C; Hennig, Lars; Köhler, Claudia

    2009-08-01

    Dynamic regulation of chromatin structure is of fundamental importance for modulating genomic activities in higher eukaryotes. The opposing activities of Polycomb group (PcG) and trithorax group (trxG) proteins are part of a chromatin-based cellular memory system ensuring the correct expression of specific transcriptional programs at defined developmental stages. The default silencing activity of PcG proteins is counteracted by trxG proteins that activate PcG target genes and prevent PcG mediated silencing activities. Therefore, the timely expression and regulation of PcG proteins and counteracting trxG proteins is likely to be of fundamental importance for establishing cell identity. Here, we report that the chromodomain/helicase/DNA-binding domain CHD3 proteins PICKLE (PKL) and PICKLE RELATED2 (PKR2) have trxG-like functions in plants and are required for the expression of many genes that are repressed by PcG proteins. The pkl mutant could partly suppress the leaf and flower phenotype of the PcG mutant curly leaf, supporting the idea that CHD3 proteins and PcG proteins antagonistically determine cell identity in plants. The direct targets of PKL in roots include the PcG genes SWINGER and EMBRYONIC FLOWER2 that encode subunits of Polycomb repressive complexes responsible for trimethylating histone H3 at lysine 27 (H3K27me3). Similar to mutants lacking PcG proteins, lack of PKL and PKR2 caused reduced H3K27me3 levels and, therefore, increased expression of a set of PcG protein target genes in roots. Thus, PKL and PKR2 are directly required for activation of PcG protein target genes and in roots are also indirectly required for repression of PcG protein target genes. Reduced PcG protein activity can lead to cell de-differentiation and callus-like tissue formation in pkl pkr2 mutants. Thus, in contrast to mammals, where PcG proteins are required to maintain pluripotency and to prevent cell differentiation, in plants PcG proteins are required to promote cell

  20. Relating Functional Groups to the Periodic Table

    Science.gov (United States)

    Struyf, Jef

    2009-01-01

    An introduction to organic chemistry functional groups and their ionic variants is presented. Functional groups are ordered by the position of their specific (hetero) atom in the periodic table. Lewis structures are compared with their corresponding condensed formulas. (Contains 5 tables.)

  1. Relating Functional Groups to the Periodic Table

    Science.gov (United States)

    Struyf, Jef

    2009-01-01

    An introduction to organic chemistry functional groups and their ionic variants is presented. Functional groups are ordered by the position of their specific (hetero) atom in the periodic table. Lewis structures are compared with their corresponding condensed formulas. (Contains 5 tables.)

  2. Parenting, identity development, internalizing symptoms, and alcohol use: a cross-sectional study in a group of Italian adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellerone, Monica; Tolini, Giacomo; Polopoli, Caterina

    2016-01-01

    Background Literature has demonstrated the adaptive function of identity development and parenting toward manifestation of problem behaviors in adolescence. These dimensions act on both internalizing and externalizing symptoms. Methods The objective is to investigate the relationship between identity status, parenting, and adolescent problems, which may manifest through internalized (phobias, obsessions, depression, eating disorders, entropy) and externalized modes (alcohol use and school discomfort). The research involved 198 Italian students (104 males and 94 females) in the 4th year (mean =16.94 years, standard deviation =0.35) and 5th year (mean =17.94 years, standard deviation =0.43) of senior secondary schools, who live in Caltanissetta, a town located in Sicily, Italy. The research lasted for 1 school year. The general group consisted of 225 students with a mortality rate of 12%. They completed an anamnestic questionnaire to provide 1) basic information, 2) alcohol consumption attitude in the past 30 days, and 3) their beliefs about alcohol; the “Ego Identity Process Questionnaire” to investigate identity development; the “Parental Bonding Instrument” to measure the perception of parenting during childhood; and the “Constraints of Mind” to value the presence of internalizing symptoms. Results Data show that identity status influences alcohol consumption. Low-profile identity and excessive maternal control affect the relational dependence and the tendency to perfectionism in adolescents. Among the predictors of alcohol use, there are socioeconomic status, parental control, and the presence of internalizing symptoms. Conclusion Family is the favored context of learning beliefs, patterns, and values that affect the broader regulatory social environment, and for this reason, it is considered the privileged context on which to intervene to reduce the adolescents’ behavior problems. This deviance could be an external manifestation of the difficulty

  3. Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Identity as a Moderator of Relationship Functioning After Sexual Assault.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gemberling, Tess M; Cramer, Robert J; Miller, Rowland S; Stroud, Caroline H; Noland, Ramona M; Graham, James

    2015-12-01

    Sexual assault is unfortunately common, especially among lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) individuals. Yet, the associations of such victimization have not yet been extensively established in the areas of sexual identity and romantic relationship functioning. Accordingly, the present study examined the associations between lifetime sexual assault, LGB identity, and romantic relationship functioning in a sample of 336 LGB individuals. A history of sexual assault was associated with attachment anxiety and several sexual identity components (i.e., higher levels of acceptance concerns, identity uncertainty, internalized homonegativity, and identity superiority). Furthermore, an association of sexual assault and attachment avoidance was moderated by internalized homonegativity. Finally, a more secure LGB identity was associated with healthier romantic relationship functioning. Collectively, these findings are applicable to services for LGB sexual assault victims, suggesting the incorporation of treatment that bolsters LGB identity and couple functioning. Limitations and future directions are discussed.

  4. Snus user identity and addiction. A Swedish focus group study on adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edvardsson Ingrid

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The teenage years are the years when adolescents seek their identity, and part of this involves experimenting with tobacco. The use of tobacco as such, and norms among their friends, is more important to the adolescents than the norms of parents when it comes to using tobacco or not. The aim was to explore the significance of using snus for adolescents, and attitudes to snus, as well as the reasons why they began using snus and what maintained and facilitated the use of snus. Methods Adolescents who use snus were interviewed in focus groups. The material was analysed using content analysis. Results Four groups of boys and one group of girls were interviewed, a total of 27 students from the upper secondary vocational program. Three themes related to the students’ opinions on and experiences of using snus were found: Circumstances pertaining to snus debut indicate what makes them start using snus. Upholding, which focuses on the problem of becoming addicted and development of identity, and approach, where the adolescents reflect on their snus habits in relation to those around them. A number of factors were described as relevant to behaviour and norm building for the development into becoming a snus user. Attitudes and actions from adults and friends as well as – for the boys – development of an identity as a man and a craftsman influenced behaviour. Conclusions The results showed that development of identity was of major importance when adolescents start using snus. The adolescents were initially unable to interpret the early symptoms of abstinence problems, but subsequently became well aware of being addicted. Once they were stuck in addiction and in the creation of an image and identity, it was difficult to stop using snus. These factors are important when considering interventions of normative changes and tobacco prevention in schools as well as among parents.

  5. On topological groups admitting a base at identity indexed with $\\omega^\\omega$

    OpenAIRE

    Leiderman, Arkady G.; Pestov, Vladimir G.; Tomita, Artur H.

    2015-01-01

    A topological group $G$ is said to have a local $\\omega^\\omega$-base if the neighbourhood system at identity admits a monotone cofinal map from the directed set $\\omega^\\omega$. In particular, every metrizable group is such, but the class of groups with a local $\\omega^\\omega$-base is significantly wider. The aim of this article is to better understand the boundaries of this class, by presenting new examples and counter-examples. Ultraproducts and non-arichimedean ordered fields lead to natur...

  6. Making history: the Bloomsbury group's construction of aesthetic and sexual identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, C

    1994-01-01

    This essay examines the way England's well-known Bloomsbury group in the first decades of this century negotiated the legacy of prominent figures of the generation before in order to create its own identity. Looking at the group's ideas about both aesthetics and sexuality, the author shows how the group privileged Leo Tolstoy over J. A. M. Whistler, and Oscar Wilde over Walter Pater. The introduction and conclusion seek to set this study in the context of current issues in gay and lesbian studies.

  7. Silsesquioxane nanoparticles with reactive internal functional groups

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brozek, Eric M. ..; Washton, Nancy M.; Mueller, Karl T.; Zharov, Ilya

    2017-02-01

    A series of silsesquioxane nanoparticles containing reactive internal organic functionalities throughout the entire particle body have been synthesized using a surfactant-free method with organosilanes as the sole precursors and a base catalyst. The organic functional groups incorporated are vinyl, allyl, mercapto, cyanoethyl, and cyanopropyl groups. The sizes and morphologies of the particles were characterized using SEM and nitrogen adsorption, while the compositions were confirmed using TGA, FT-IR, solid state NMR, and elemental analysis. The accessibility and reactivity of the functional groups inside the particles were demonstrated by performing bromination and reduction reactions in the interior of the particles.

  8. Reactions to group devaluation and social inequality: A comparison of social identity and system justification predictions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuma Kevin Owuamalam

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available System justification theory (SJT proposes that support for social inequality should be stronger among members of devalued groups than among members of higher status groups; that embracing the system in this way soothes anger and leads to a withdrawal of support for social change; and that these effects should occur when group interest is weak. We compared these SJT predictions with identity management and hope for group advancement accounts that we deduced from social identity theory (SIT and that suggest that both system justification and support for social change will be significant when group interest is strong. Consistent with the SIT-based accounts, Study 1 (N = 116, Malaysia, Mage =19.09 years showed that strong identifiers were more concerned about their ingroup’s reputation than weak identifiers, and that this concern increased system justification but only before an outgroup audience to whom a need to present one’s group in good light is normally strong. Study 2 (N = 375, Australia, Mage = 23.59 years conceptually replicated Study 1’s results and further revealed that strong identifiers justified the system due to the hope that their ingroup status would improve in the future. Finally, Study 3 (N = 132, Germany, Mage = 20.34 years revealed that system justification soothed anger and reduced support for social protest but only when group interest was strong (not weak. We did not find evidence in support of SJT predictions.

  9. Sameness: The regulatory crux with nanomaterial identity and grouping schemes for hazard assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walser, Tobias; Studer, Christoph

    2015-08-01

    Regulators and industry need clear rules for identification and grouping of nanomaterials for a streamlined quantitative hazard evaluation. Therefore, we provide convincing reasons for (i) why to introduce pragmatic definition of identities for nanomaterials, (ii) how to combine them into entities, and ultimately (iii) how the entities might be evaluated with testing strategies based on clouds of similar nanomaterials. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Between Form and Function: History and Identity in the Blogosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurie Johnson

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the question of identity formation in the blogosphere (that is, do bloggers identify as such from the perspective of a cultural history of blog technologies, incorporating the early origins of internet technologies.

  11. Polycomb group genes Psc and Su(z)2 maintain somatic stem cell identity and activity in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morillo Prado, Jose Rafael; Chen, Xin; Fuller, Margaret T

    2012-01-01

    Adult stem cells are essential for the proper function of many tissues, yet the mechanisms that maintain the proper identity and regulate proliferative capacity in stem cell lineages are not well understood. Polycomb group (PcG) proteins are transcriptional repressors that have recently emerged as important regulators of stem cell maintenance and differentiation. Here we describe the role of Polycomb Repressive Complex 1 (PRC1) genes Posterior sex combs (Psc) and Suppressor of zeste two (Su(z)2) in restricting the proliferation and maintaining the identity of the Cyst Stem Cell (CySC) lineage in the Drosophila testis. In contrast, Psc and Su(z)2 seem to be dispensable for both germline stem cell (GSC) maintenance and germ cell development. We show that loss of Psc and Su(z)2 function in the CySC lineage results in the formation of aggregates of mutant cells that proliferate abnormally, and display abnormal somatic identity correlated with derepression of the Hox gene Abdominal-B. Furthermore, we show that tumorigenesis in the CySC lineage interferes non-cell autonomously with maintenance of GSCs most likely by displacing them from their niche.

  12. Artificial Evolution for the Detection of Group Identities in Complex Artificial Societies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grappiolo, Corrado; Togelius, Julian; Yannakakis, Georgios N.

    2013-01-01

    This paper aims at detecting the presence of group structures in complex artificial societies by solely observing and analysing the interactions occurring among the artificial agents. Our approach combines: (1) an unsupervised method for clustering interactions into two possible classes, namely in......- group and out-group, (2) reinforcement learning for deriving the existing levels of collaboration within the society, and (3) an evolutionary algorithm for the detection of group structures and the assignment of group identities to the agents. Under a case study of static societies — i.e. the agents do...... not evolve their social preferences — where agents interact with each other by means of the Ultimatum Game, our approach proves to be successful for small-sized social networks independently on the underlying social structure of the society; promising results are also registered for mid-size societies....

  13. Congruences on Zappa-Szép Products of Semilattices with An Identity and Groups

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiangping XIAO; Yonghua LI

    2012-01-01

    Let P =E (8) G be a Zappa-Szép product of a semilattice E with an identity and a group G.In this paper,we first introduce the concept of congruence pairs for P,and then prove that every congruence on P can be described by such a congruence pair.In fact the congruence lattice on P is lattice-isomorphic to the set of all congruence pairs for P.Finally,we characterize group congruences on P.

  14. A group of facial normal descriptors for recognizing 3D identical twins

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Huibin

    2012-09-01

    In this paper, to characterize and distinguish identical twins, three popular texture descriptors: i.e. local binary patterns (LBPs), gabor filters (GFs) and local gabor binary patterns (LGBPs) are employed to encode the normal components (x, y and z) of the 3D facial surfaces of identical twins respectively. A group of facial normal descriptors are thus achieved, including Normal Local Binary Patterns descriptor (N-LBPs), Normal Gabor Filters descriptor (N-GFs) and Normal Local Gabor Binary Patterns descriptor (N-LGBPs). All these normal encoding based descriptors are further fed into sparse representation classifier (SRC) for identification. Experimental results on the 3D TEC database demonstrate that these proposed normal encoding based descriptors are very discriminative and efficient, achieving comparable performance to the best of state-of-the-art algorithms. © 2012 IEEE.

  15. Theta Function Identities Associated with Ramanujan's Modular Equations of Degree 15

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Rupam Barman; Nayandeep Deka Baruah

    2010-06-01

    We present alternative proofs of some of Ramanujan’s theta function identities associated with the modular equations of composite degree 15. Along the way we also find some new theta-function identities. We also give simple proofs of his modular equations of degree 15.

  16. Longitudinal Relationships between Family Functioning and Identity Development in Hispanic Adolescents: Continuity and Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Seth J.; Mason, Craig A.; Pantin, Hilda; Szapocznik, Jose

    2009-01-01

    The present study was designed to investigate trajectories of identity development and their relationship to family functioning in a sample of Hispanic adolescents and their primary caregivers. Two hundred fifty adolescents completed measures of identity coherence and confusion and of family functioning, and parents completed measures of family…

  17. Explaining Lifelong Loyalty: The Role of Identity Fusion and Self-Shaping Group Events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newson, Martha; Buhrmester, Michael; Whitehouse, Harvey

    2016-01-01

    Pledging lifelong loyalty to an ingroup can have far-reaching behavioural effects, ranging from ordinary acts of ingroup kindness to extraordinary acts of self-sacrifice. What motivates this important form of group commitment? Here, we propose one especially potent answer to this question-the experience of a visceral sense of oneness with a group (i.e., identity fusion). In a sample of British football fans, a population in which high levels of lifelong loyalty are thought to be common, we first examined the hypothesised relationship between fusion and perceptions of lifelong loyalty to one's club. We further explored the hypothesis that fusion and lifelong loyalty are not merely a reflection of past time investment in a group, but also reflect a deeper, memory-based process of feeling personally shaped by key group events, both euphoric and dysphoric. We found broad support for these hypotheses. Results suggest that feeling personally self-shaped by club events (e.g., crucial wins and losses), rather than time invested in the club, leads to greater identity fusion to one's club. In turn, fusion engenders a sense of lifelong club loyalty. We discuss our findings in relation to the growing literature on the experiential origins of intense social cohesion.

  18. Harmonic functions on groups and Fourier algebras

    CERN Document Server

    Chu, Cho-Ho

    2002-01-01

    This research monograph introduces some new aspects to the theory of harmonic functions and related topics. The authors study the analytic algebraic structures of the space of bounded harmonic functions on locally compact groups and its non-commutative analogue, the space of harmonic functionals on Fourier algebras. Both spaces are shown to be the range of a contractive projection on a von Neumann algebra and therefore admit Jordan algebraic structures. This provides a natural setting to apply recent results from non-associative analysis, semigroups and Fourier algebras. Topics discussed include Poisson representations, Poisson spaces, quotients of Fourier algebras and the Murray-von Neumann classification of harmonic functionals.

  19. Multiple Bracket Function, Stirling Number, and Lah Number Identities

    OpenAIRE

    Coskun, Hasan

    2012-01-01

    The author has constructed multiple analogues of several families of combinatorial numbers in a recent article, including the bracket symbol, and the Stirling numbers of the first and second kind. In the present paper, a multiple analogue of another sequence, the Lah numbers, is developed, and certain associated identities and significant properties of all these sequences are constructed.

  20. Social-Identity Functions of Attraction to Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Highhouse, Scott; Thornbury, Erin E.; Little, Ian S.

    2007-01-01

    This article examines the self-presentation goals that underlie attraction to organizations. Expanding on Lievens and Highhouse's (2003) instrumental vs. symbolic classification of corporate attributes, a theory of symbolic attraction is presented that posits social-identity consciousness as a moderator of the relation between symbolic inferences…

  1. Functional Group Chemistry (by James R. Hanson)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karty, Joel M.

    2002-06-01

    Given its density and brevity and the apparent requirement of previous organic chemistry knowledge, Functional Group Chemistry is inappropriate as a stand-alone text for first-year organic students. It is also difficult to imagine using it as a supplement to a traditional textbook, since the textbook would presumably provide the same material in greater depth and with better clarity. The end-of-chapter problems in Functional Group Chemistry, however, would provide excellent exam and supplemental homework questions, and would be appropriate given the greater emphasis on reaction mechanisms in the traditional textbook. Perhaps the best use for Functional Group Chemistry, then, is for students returning after having had a year of organic chemistry, either for a quick reference, or for an in-depth review in studying for a standardized exam.

  2. Controlling Functional Group Architecture in Artificial Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-02

    further enable enzyme encapsulation to improve the efficiency of light-driven hydrogen fuel production. 5. Changes in key personnel, if applicable : -None ...Controlling Functional Group Architecture in Artificial Cells 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER W9132T-14-2-0002 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6...cycloadditions to modify reactive groups within the phospholipid membrane structure and how the nature of the reactive elements, the copper catalyst

  3. Unveiling Collaborative Group Identities in Social Synthetic Environments from Interaction Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grappiolo, Corrado

    identities, to populations of socially driven individuals, by solely analysing the ongoing levels of cooperation of the interactions. Our group modelling framework is intended to be used in computer-mediated interaction scenarios, for simplicity called social synthetic environments, which can be effectively...... used to simulate aspects of real-life, yet by maintaining a customisable level of control of the phenomena under investigation. Examples of social synthetic environments are theoretical games and cooperative computer games. The proposed framework is composed of two pipelined modules. The first one...

  4. Generalised root identities for zeta functions of curves over finite fields

    CERN Document Server

    Stone, Richard

    2012-01-01

    We consider generalised root identities for zeta functions of curves over finite fields, \\zeta_{k}, and compare with the corresponding analysis for the Riemann zeta function. We verify numerically that, as for \\zeta, the \\zeta_{k} do satisfy the generalised root identities and we investigate these in detail for the special cases of \\mu=0,-1\\:\\&\\:-2. Unlike for \\zeta, however, we show that in the setting of zeta functions of curves over finite fields the \\mu=-2 root identity is consistent with the Riemann hypothesis (RH) proved by Weil. Comparison of this analysis with the corresponding calculations for \\zeta illuminates the fact that, even though both \\zeta and \\zeta_{k} have both Euler and Hadamard product representations, it is the detailed structure of the counting function, N(T), which drives the Cesaro computations on the root side of these identities and thereby determines the implications of the root identities for RH in each setting.

  5. Aspects of the Functional Renormalisation Group

    CERN Document Server

    Pawlowski, J M

    2005-01-01

    We discuss structural aspects of the functional renormalisation group. Flows for a general class of correlation functions are derived, and it is shown how symmetry relations of the underlying theory are lifted to the regularised theory. A simple equation for the flow of these relations is provided. The setting includes general flows in the presence of composite operators and their relation to standard flows, an important example being NPI quantities. We discuss optimisation and derive a functional optimisation criterion. Applications deal with the interrelation between functional flows and the quantum equations of motion, general Dyson-Schwinger equations. We discuss the combined use of these functional equations as well as outlining the construction of practical renormalisation schemes, also valid in the presence of composite operators. Furthermore, the formalism is used to derive various representations of modified symmetry relations in gauge theories, as well as to discuss gauge-invariant flows. We close w...

  6. The Circular Velocity Function of Group Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Abramson, Louis E; Benson, Andrew J; Kollmeier, Juna A; Mulchaey, John S

    2013-01-01

    A robust prediction of LCDM cosmology is the halo circular velocity function (CVF), a dynamical cousin of the halo mass function. However, the correspondence between theoretical and observed CVFs is uncertain: cluster galaxies are reported to exhibit a power-law CVF consistent with N-body simulations, but that of the field is distinctly Schechter-like, flattened relative to LCDM expectations at circular velocities v_c < 200 km/s. Groups offer a powerful probe of the role of environment in this discrepancy as they bridge the field and clusters. Here, we construct the CVF for a large, mass- and multiplicity-complete sample of group galaxies from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. Using independent photometric v_c estimators, we find no transition from field- to LCDM-shaped CVF above v_c = 50 km/s as a function of group halo mass. All groups with 12.4 < log(M_halo/M_sun) < 15.1 (Local Group analogs to rich clusters) display similar Schechter-like CVFs that are marginally suppressed at low-v_c compared to tha...

  7. Identity Development as a Buffer of Adolescent Risk Behaviors in the Context of Peer Group Pressure and Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumas, Tara M.; Ellis, Wendy E.; Wolfe, David A.

    2012-01-01

    We examined identity development as a moderator of the relation between peer group pressure and control and adolescents' engagement in risk behaviors. Participants (n = 1070; M[subscript age] = 15.45 years) completed a self-report measure of "identity exploration", the degree to which they have explored a variety of self-relevant values, beliefs…

  8. Identity Development as a Buffer of Adolescent Risk Behaviors in the Context of Peer Group Pressure and Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumas, Tara M.; Ellis, Wendy E.; Wolfe, David A.

    2012-01-01

    We examined identity development as a moderator of the relation between peer group pressure and control and adolescents' engagement in risk behaviors. Participants (n = 1070; M[subscript age] = 15.45 years) completed a self-report measure of "identity exploration", the degree to which they have explored a variety of self-relevant values, beliefs…

  9. Parenting, identity development, internalizing symptoms, and alcohol use: a cross-sectional study in a group of Italian adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pellerone M

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Monica Pellerone, Giacomo Tolini, Caterina Polopoli Faculty of Human and Social Sciences, “Kore” University of Enna, Enna, Italy Background: Literature has demonstrated the adaptive function of identity development and parenting toward manifestation of problem behaviors in adolescence. These dimensions act on both internalizing and externalizing symptoms.Methods: The objective is to investigate the relationship between identity status, parenting, and adolescent problems, which may manifest through internalized (phobias, obsessions, depression, eating disorders, entropy and externalized modes (alcohol use and school discomfort. The research involved 198 Italian students (104 males and 94 females in the 4th year (mean =16.94 years, standard deviation =0.35 and 5th year (mean =17.94 years, standard deviation =0.43 of senior secondary schools, who live in Caltanissetta, a town located in Sicily, Italy. The research lasted for 1 school year. The general group consisted of 225 students with a mortality rate of 12%. They completed an anamnestic questionnaire to provide 1 basic information, 2 alcohol consumption attitude in the past 30 days, and 3 their beliefs about alcohol; the “Ego Identity Process Questionnaire” to investigate identity development; the “Parental Bonding Instrument” to measure the perception of parenting during childhood; and the “Constraints of Mind” to value the presence of internalizing symptoms.Results: Data show that identity status influences alcohol consumption. Low-profile identity and excessive maternal control affect the relational dependence and the tendency to perfectionism in adolescents. Among the predictors of alcohol use, there are socioeconomic status, parental control, and the presence of internalizing symptoms.Conclusion: Family is the favored context of learning beliefs, patterns, and values that affect the broader regulatory social environment, and for this reason, it is considered the privileged

  10. Social Identity Mapping: A procedure for visual representation and assessment of subjective multiple group memberships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruwys, Tegan; Steffens, Niklas K; Haslam, S Alexander; Haslam, Catherine; Jetten, Jolanda; Dingle, Genevieve A

    2016-12-01

    In this research, we introduce Social Identity Mapping (SIM) as a method for visually representing and assessing a person's subjective network of group memberships. To provide evidence of its utility, we report validating data from three studies (two longitudinal), involving student, community, and clinical samples, together comprising over 400 participants. Results indicate that SIM is easy to use, internally consistent, with good convergent and discriminant validity. Each study also illustrates the ways that SIM can be used to address a range of novel research questions. Study 1 shows that multiple positive group memberships are a particularly powerful predictor of well-being. Study 2 shows that social support is primarily given and received within social groups and that only in-group support is beneficial for well-being. Study 3 shows that improved mental health following a social group intervention is attributable to an increase in group compatibility. In this way, the studies demonstrate the capacity for SIM to make a contribution both to the development of social-psychological theory and to its practical application.

  11. Spherical functions on affine Lie groups

    CERN Document Server

    Etingof, P; Kirillov, A A; Pavel Etingof; Igor Frenkel; Alexander Kirillov Jr

    1994-01-01

    We show that the space of holomorphic functions of a fixed degree on an affine Lie group which take values in a finite-dimensional representation of this group and are equivariant with respect to (twisted) conjugacy coin- cides with the space of conformal blocks of the Wess-Zumino-Witten conformal field theory on an elliptic curve with punctures, or, equivalently,with the space of states of the Chern-Simons topological field theory in genus 1. This provides a group-theoretic realization of the Segal modular functor for elliptic curves. We also show that the the radial part of the second order Laplace operator on an affine Lie group acting in the space of equivariant functions coincides with the operator defining the Knizhnik-Zamolodchikov connection on conformal blocks on elliptic curves, and its eigenfunctions coincide with the correlation functions of conformal blocks. At the critical value of the degree (minus the dual Coxeter number of the underlying simple Lie algebra) there exist higher order Laplace op...

  12. The circular velocity function of group galaxies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abramson, Louis E. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics and Kavli Institute for Cosmological Physics, The University of Chicago, 5640 South Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Williams, Rik J.; Benson, Andrew J.; Kollmeier, Juna A.; Mulchaey, John S., E-mail: labramson@uchicago.edu [The Observatories of the Carnegie Institution for Science, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States)

    2014-09-20

    A robust prediction of ΛCDM cosmology is the halo circular velocity function (CVF), a dynamical cousin of the halo mass function. The correspondence between theoretical and observed CVFs is uncertain, however: cluster galaxies are reported to exhibit a power-law CVF consistent with N-body simulations, but that of the field is distinctly Schechter-like, flattened compared to ΛCDM expectations at circular velocities v {sub c} ≲ 200 km s{sup –1}. Groups offer a powerful probe of the role environment plays in this discrepancy as they bridge the field and clusters. Here, we construct the CVF for a large, mass- and multiplicity-complete sample of group galaxies from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. Using independent photometric v {sub c} estimators, we find no transition from field to ΛCDM-shaped CVF above v {sub c} = 50 km s{sup –1} as a function of group halo mass. All groups with 12.4 ≲ log M {sub halo}/M {sub ☉} ≲ 15.1 (Local Group analogs to rich clusters) display similar Schechter-like CVFs marginally suppressed at low v {sub c} compared to that of the field. Conversely, some agreement with N-body results emerges for samples saturated with late-type galaxies, with isolated late-types displaying a CVF similar in shape to ΛCDM predictions. We conclude that the flattening of the low-v {sub c} slope in groups is due to their depressed late-type fractions—environment affecting the CVF only to the extent that it correlates with this quantity—and that previous cluster analyses may suffer from interloper contamination. These results serve as useful benchmarks for cosmological simulations of galaxy formation.

  13. Functional renormalization group approach to neutron matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Drews

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The chiral nucleon-meson model, previously applied to systems with equal number of neutrons and protons, is extended to asymmetric nuclear matter. Fluctuations are included in the framework of the functional renormalization group. The equation of state for pure neutron matter is studied and compared to recent advanced many-body calculations. The chiral condensate in neutron matter is computed as a function of baryon density. It is found that, once fluctuations are incorporated, the chiral restoration transition for pure neutron matter is shifted to high densities, much beyond three times the density of normal nuclear matter.

  14. Taxonomic Identity Resolution of Highly Phylogenetically Related Strains and Selection of Phylogenetic Markers by Using Genome-Scale Methods: The Bacillus pumilus Group Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espariz, Martín; Zuljan, Federico A.; Esteban, Luis; Magni, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Bacillus pumilus group strains have been studied due their agronomic, biotechnological or pharmaceutical potential. Classifying strains of this taxonomic group at species level is a challenging procedure since it is composed of seven species that share among them over 99.5% of 16S rRNA gene identity. In this study, first, a whole-genome in silico approach was used to accurately demarcate B. pumilus group strains, as a case of highly phylogenetically related taxa, at the species level. In order to achieve that and consequently to validate or correct taxonomic identities of genomes in public databases, an average nucleotide identity correlation, a core-based phylogenomic and a gene function repertory analyses were performed. Eventually, more than 50% such genomes were found to be misclassified. Hierarchical clustering of gene functional repertoires was also used to infer ecotypes among B. pumilus group species. Furthermore, for the first time the machine-learning algorithm Random Forest was used to rank genes in order of their importance for species classification. We found that ybbP, a gene involved in the synthesis of cyclic di-AMP, was the most important gene for accurately predicting species identity among B. pumilus group strains. Finally, principal component analysis was used to classify strains based on the distances between their ybbP genes. The methodologies described could be utilized more broadly to identify other highly phylogenetically related species in metagenomic or epidemiological assessments. PMID:27658251

  15. Ising exponents from the functional renormalisation group

    CERN Document Server

    Litim, Daniel F

    2010-01-01

    We study the 3d Ising universality class using the functional renormalisation group. With the help of background fields and a derivative expansion up to fourth order we compute the leading index, the subleading symmetric and anti-symmetric corrections to scaling, the anomalous dimension, the scaling solution, and the eigenperturbations at criticality. We also study the cross-correlations of scaling exponents, and their dependence on dimensionality. We find a very good numerical convergence of the derivative expansion, also in comparison with earlier findings. Evaluating the data from all functional renormalisation group studies to date, we estimate the systematic error which is found to be small and in good agreement with findings from Monte Carlo simulations, \\epsilon-expansion techniques, and resummed perturbation theory.

  16. Who wants to know? The effect of audience on identity expression among minority group members

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barreto, M; Spears, R; Ellemers, N; Shahinper, K

    2003-01-01

    Statements of social identification among ethnic minority members were examined as a function of group membership of the participants, group membership of the audience, and personal identifiability. In Study 1, Turkish migrants and Iranian refugees in the Netherlands expressed their identification w

  17. Science learning, group membership, and identity in an urban middle school

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olitsky, Stacy I.

    2005-12-01

    The issue of inequalities in science education outcomes among students from different racial and socioeconomic backgrounds in the U.S. is related not only to access to resources, but also to schools' inability to facilitate students developing identities associated with science. While some of the obstacles to identity development in science relate to issues over which teachers and students have limited control, others are more amenable to local efforts toward change. This dissertation describes an interpretive case study of a racially, ethnically, and socio-economically diverse eighth grade science classroom in an urban magnet school in order to explore the relationship between school and classroom structures, student and teacher agency in enacting positive changes within classrooms, and identity formation in science. The results of this study indicate that structural issues such as the high status ascribed to science, the school's selection process, discourses surrounding the purposes of learning, resource inequalities, and negative stereotype threat can contribute to classroom interactions in which some students' claims to membership in a community centered on science are rejected, thereby interfering with group membership. While some teacher practices accentuated the impacts of these structures, others, such as de-emphasizing standardized tasks and providing students with opportunities to make unique, science-related contributions reduced them. In addition, the teacher's strategies when she was teaching out of field, which included positioning herself as a learner and making visible her "backstage" performance of exploring ideas and accessing resources were associated with a greater diversity of students participating. Further, students were able to develop interest and a sense of solidarity surrounding even new, abstract content when such content became associated with successful interaction rituals during which science language and procedures served as a

  18. Lectures on the functional renormalization group method

    CERN Document Server

    Polonyi, J

    2001-01-01

    These introductory notes are about functional renormalization group equations and some of their applications. It is emphasised that the applicability of this method extends well beyond critical systems, it actually provides us a general purpose algorithm to solve strongly coupled quantum field theories. The renormalization group equation of F. Wegner and A. Houghton is shown to resum the loop-expansion. Another version, due to J. Polchinski, is obtained by the method of collective coordinates and can be used for the resummation of the perturbation series. The genuinely non-perturbative evolution equation is obtained in a manner reminiscent of the Schwinger-Dyson equations. Two variants of this scheme are presented where the scale which determines the order of the successive elimination of the modes is extracted from external and internal spaces. The renormalization of composite operators is discussed briefly as an alternative way to arrive at the renormalization group equation. The scaling laws and fixed poin...

  19. Antibiotic inhibition of group I ribozyme function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Ahsen, U; Davies, J; Schroeder, R

    1991-09-26

    The discovery of catalytically active RNA has provided the basis for the evolutionary concept of an RNA world. It has been proposed that during evolution the functions of ancient catalytic RNA were modulated by low molecular weight effectors, related to antibiotics, present in the primordial soup. Antibiotics and RNA may have coevolved in the formation of the modern ribosome. Here we report that a set of aminoglycoside antibiotics, which are known to interact with the decoding region of the 16S ribosomal RNA of Escherichia coli, inhibit the second step of splicing of the T4 phage-derived td intron. Thus catalytic RNA seems to interact not only with a mononucleotide and an amino acid, but also with another class of biomolecules, the sugars. Splicing of other group I introns but not group II introns was inhibited. The similarity in affinity and specificity of these antibiotics for group I introns and rRNAs may result from recognition of evolutionarily conserved structures.

  20. Update Your Status: Exploring Pre-Service Teacher Identities in an Online Discussion Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yolanda; Curwood, Jen Scott

    2015-01-01

    A substantial body of research indicates that a teacher's identity is an essential aspect of their professional practice. As this body of research grows, researchers have increasingly sought to investigate the nature of pre-service teacher identities. This paper reports on a study that examined identities in the context of a pre-service cohort's…

  1. Update Your Status: Exploring Pre-Service Teacher Identities in an Online Discussion Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yolanda; Curwood, Jen Scott

    2015-01-01

    A substantial body of research indicates that a teacher's identity is an essential aspect of their professional practice. As this body of research grows, researchers have increasingly sought to investigate the nature of pre-service teacher identities. This paper reports on a study that examined identities in the context of a pre-service cohort's…

  2. Social identification when an in-group identity is unclear : The role of self-anchoring and self-stereotyping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Veelen, Ruth; Otten, Sabine; Hansen, Nina

    2013-01-01

    The present paper investigates how people identify with groups depending on the clarity of a group's identity content. According to self-categorization theory, self-stereotyping (i.e., projection of group prototypes onto self) should be the cognitive process underlying social identification. We argu

  3. Genetically encoded tools: bridging the gap between neuronal identity and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Yong Ku

    2015-01-21

    Genetically encoded tools are positioned to serve a unique and critical role in bridging the gap between the genetic identity of neurons and their functional properties. However, the use of these tools is limited by our current understanding of cell-type identity. As we make technological advances that focus on capturing functional aspects of neurons such as connectivity, activity, and metabolic states, our understanding of neuronal identity will deepen and may enable the use of genetically encoded tools for modulating disease-specific circuits for therapeutic purposes.

  4. Identity's identities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kim Ebensgaard

    in Academic English and more everyday-based English, identity as a lexeme is definitely worth having a look at. This paper presents a lexicological study of identity in which some of its senses are identified and their behaviors in actual discourse are observed. Drawing on data from the 2011 section...... of the Corpus of Contemporary American English, a behavioral profile of the distributional characteristics of identity is set up. Behavioral profiling is a lexicographical method developed by the corpus linguist Stefan Th. Gries which, by applying semantic ID tagging and statistical analysis, provides a fine......-grained insight into the semantic affinities of one or more lexemes. The main premise is that the semantic properties of a linguistic unit are reflected in its distributional characteristics, and, thus, by observing association patterns of a lexeme we can gain useful insights into its semantic affinities. Thus...

  5. When Is Group Membership Zero-Sum? Effects of Ethnicity, Threat, and Social Identity on Dual National Identity

    OpenAIRE

    Michael Smithson; Arthur Sopeña; Platow, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an investigation into marginalizing racism, a form of prejudice whereby ingroup members claim that specific individuals belong to their group, but also exclude them by not granting them all of the privileges of a full ingroup member. One manifestation of this is that perceived degree of outgroup membership will covary negatively with degree of ingroup membership. That is, group membership may be treated as a zero-sum quantity (e.g., one cannot be both Australian and Iraqi)...

  6. Three-particle integrable systems with elliptic dependence on momenta and theta function identities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aminov, G., E-mail: aminov@itep.ru [Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Moscow (Russian Federation); Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology, Dolgoprudny (Russian Federation); Mironov, A., E-mail: mironov@itep.ru [Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Moscow (Russian Federation); Theory Department, Lebedev Physics Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation); Morozov, A., E-mail: morozov@itep.ru [Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Moscow (Russian Federation); Zotov, A., E-mail: zotov@itep.ru [Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Moscow (Russian Federation); Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology, Dolgoprudny (Russian Federation); Steklov Mathematical Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2013-11-04

    We claim that some non-trivial theta-function identities at higher genus can stand behind the Poisson commutativity of the Hamiltonians of elliptic integrable systems, which were introduced in [1,2] and are made from the theta-functions on Jacobians of the Seiberg–Witten curves. For the case of three-particle systems the genus-2 identities are found and presented in the Letter. The connection with the Macdonald identities is established. The genus-2 theta-function identities provide the direct way to construct the Poisson structure in terms of the coordinates on the Jacobian of the spectral curve and the elements of its period matrix. The Lax representations for the two-particle systems are also obtained.

  7. Three-particle Integrable Systems with Elliptic Dependence on Momenta and Theta Function Identities

    CERN Document Server

    Aminov, G; Morozov, A; Zotov, A

    2013-01-01

    We claim that some non-trivial theta-function identities at higher genus can stand behind the Poisson commutativity of the Hamiltonians of elliptic integrable systems, which are made from the theta-functions on Jacobians of the Seiberg-Witten curves. For the case of three-particle systems the genus-2 identities are found and presented in the paper. The connection with the Macdonald identities is established. The genus-2 theta-function identities provide the direct way to construct the Poisson structure in terms of the coordinates on the Jacobian of the spectral curve and the elements of its period matrix. The Lax representations for the two-particle systems are also obtained.

  8. Analytic continuation of functional renormalization group equations

    CERN Document Server

    Floerchinger, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    Functional renormalization group equations are analytically continued from imaginary Matsubara frequencies to the real frequency axis. On the example of a scalar field with O(N) symmetry we discuss the analytic structure of the flowing action and show how it is possible to derive and solve flow equations for real-time properties such as propagator residues and particle decay widths. The formalism conserves space-time symmetries such as Lorentz or Galilei invariance and allows for improved, self-consistent approximations in terms of derivative expansions in Minkowski space.

  9. Teacher Identity and the Marketizised Society. Discursive Constructions in Teachers’ Discussion Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Irisdotter Aldenmyr

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available In the latest decennium, there have been several and gradual changes in the Swedish and other European school systems. The steering system has become more decentralized and the entire school system is now a part of the freedom of trade. Schools are competing with each other and this has, according to previous research, an effect on how teachers think about, and carry out their everyday activities (Gerwitz et al. 1995; Irisdotter 2006. How teachers think about themselves, their students and the educational task is of great importance for the social climate of the classroom and, in the longer run, society in general. The current study dicusses how teachers‘ identities and self-understandings are influenced by the marketization of society. The material analysed consists of group discussions in three different teacher groups in compulsory school in Sweden. Questions raised are: Can teachers work within the context of marketization and yet relate to it with an attitude of self-awareness and critical reflection? And how can teachers deal with both traditional teacher values and progressive, democratic values that may be in conflict with the conditions of a marketizised school system?

  10. When Is Group Membership Zero-Sum? Effects of Ethnicity, Threat, and Social Identity on Dual National Identity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Smithson

    Full Text Available This paper presents an investigation into marginalizing racism, a form of prejudice whereby ingroup members claim that specific individuals belong to their group, but also exclude them by not granting them all of the privileges of a full ingroup member. One manifestation of this is that perceived degree of outgroup membership will covary negatively with degree of ingroup membership. That is, group membership may be treated as a zero-sum quantity (e.g., one cannot be both Australian and Iraqi. Study 1 demonstrated that judges allocate more zero-sum membership assignments and lower combined membership in their country of origin and their adopted country to high-threat migrants than low-threat migrants. Study 2 identified a subtle type of zero-sum reasoning which holds that stronger degree of membership in one's original nationality constrains membership in a new nationality to a greater extent than stronger membership in the new nationality constrains membership in one's original nationality. This pattern is quite general, being replicated in large samples from four nations (USA, UK, India, and China. Taken together, these studies suggest that marginalizing racism is more than a belief that people retain a "stain" from membership in their original group. Marginalizing racism also manifests itself as conditional zero-sum beliefs about multiple group memberships.

  11. When Is Group Membership Zero-Sum? Effects of Ethnicity, Threat, and Social Identity on Dual National Identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smithson, Michael; Sopeña, Arthur; Platow, Michael J

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an investigation into marginalizing racism, a form of prejudice whereby ingroup members claim that specific individuals belong to their group, but also exclude them by not granting them all of the privileges of a full ingroup member. One manifestation of this is that perceived degree of outgroup membership will covary negatively with degree of ingroup membership. That is, group membership may be treated as a zero-sum quantity (e.g., one cannot be both Australian and Iraqi). Study 1 demonstrated that judges allocate more zero-sum membership assignments and lower combined membership in their country of origin and their adopted country to high-threat migrants than low-threat migrants. Study 2 identified a subtle type of zero-sum reasoning which holds that stronger degree of membership in one's original nationality constrains membership in a new nationality to a greater extent than stronger membership in the new nationality constrains membership in one's original nationality. This pattern is quite general, being replicated in large samples from four nations (USA, UK, India, and China). Taken together, these studies suggest that marginalizing racism is more than a belief that people retain a "stain" from membership in their original group. Marginalizing racism also manifests itself as conditional zero-sum beliefs about multiple group memberships.

  12. Parental Identity and Its Relation to Parenting and Psychological Functioning in Middle Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadjukoff, Päivi; Pulkkinen, Lea; Lyyra, Anna-Liisa; Kokko, Katja

    2016-04-02

    Objective. This article focuses on identity as a parent in relation to parenting and psychological functioning in middle age. Design. Drawn from the Jyväskylä Longitudinal Study of Personality and Social Development, 162 participants (53% females) with children (age 36), represented the Finnish age-cohort born in 1959. Parental identity was assessed at ages 36, 42, and 50. Results. In both women and men, parental identity achievement increased from age 36 to 42 and remained stable to 50. The level of parental identity achievement was higher in women than in men. Achievement was typical for women and foreclosure for men. Participants' education, occupational status, and number of offspring were not related to parental identity status. As expected, parental identity achievement was associated with authoritative (indicated by higher nurturance and parental knowledge about the child's activities) parenting style. No significant associations emerged between parental identity foreclosure and restrictiveness as an indicator of authoritarian parenting style. The diffused men outscored others in parental stress. Achieved parental identity was related to generativity in both genders and to higher psychological and social well-being in men. Conclusions. At present, many parenting programs are targeted to young parents. This study highlighted the importance of a later parenting phase at around age 40, when for many, the children are approaching puberty. Therefore, parenting programs and support should also be designed for middle-aged parents. Specifically men may need additional support for their active consideration and engagement in the fathering role.

  13. The implementation evaluation of primary care groups of practice: a focus on organizational identity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pozzebon Marlei

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since 2002 the Health Ministry of Québec (Canada has been implementing a primary care organizational innovation called 'family medicine groups'. This is occurring in a political context in which the reorganization of primary care is considered necessary to improve health care system performance. More specifically, the purpose of this reform has been to overcome systemic deficiencies in terms of accessibility and continuity of care. This paper examines the first years of implementation of the family medicine group program, with a focus on the emergence of the organizational identity of one of the pilot groups located in the urban area of Montreal. Methods An in-depth longitudinal case study was conducted over two and a half years. Face to face individual interviews with key informants from the family medicine group under study were conducted over the research period considered. Data was gathered throuhg observations and documentary analysis. The data was analyzed using temporal bracketing and Fairclough's three-dimensional critical discourse analytical techniques. Results Three different phases were identified over the period under study. During the first phase, which corresponded to the official start-up of the family medicine group program, new resources and staff were only available at the end of the period, and no changes occurred in medical practices. Power struggles between physicians and nurses characterized the second phase, resulting in a very difficult integration of advanced nurse practitioners into the group. Indeed, the last phase was portrayed by initial collaborative practices associated with a sensegiving process prompted by a new family medicine group director. Conclusions The creation of a primary care team is a very challenging process that goes beyond the normative policy definitions of who is on the team or what the team has to do. To fulfil expectations of quality improvement through team-based care

  14. When and how groups utilize dissenting newcomer knowledge : Newcomers' future prospects condition the effect of language-based identity strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kane, Aimee A.; Rink, Floor

    2016-01-01

    Two experiments suggest that newcomers' structural role (permanent vs. temporary appointment) in the groups they enter conditions the extent to which their use of language-based identity strategies (integrating vs. differentiating) influences groups' willingness to accept them and utilize their diss

  15. When and how groups utilize dissenting newcomer knowledge : Newcomers' future prospects condition the effect of language-based identity strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kane, Aimee A.; Rink, Floor

    2016-01-01

    Two experiments suggest that newcomers' structural role (permanent vs. temporary appointment) in the groups they enter conditions the extent to which their use of language-based identity strategies (integrating vs. differentiating) influences groups' willingness to accept them and utilize their diss

  16. N=4 superconformal Ward identities for correlation functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.V. Belitsky

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we study the four-point correlation function of the energy–momentum supermultiplet in theories with N=4 superconformal symmetry in four dimensions. We present a compact form of all component correlators as an invariant of a particular abelian subalgebra of the N=4 superconformal algebra. This invariant is unique up to a single function of the conformal cross-ratios which is fixed by comparison with the correlation function of the lowest half-BPS scalar operators. Our analysis is independent of the dynamics of a specific theory, in particular it is valid in N=4 super Yang–Mills theory for any value of the coupling constant. We discuss in great detail a subclass of component correlators, which is a crucial ingredient for the recent study of charge-flow correlations in conformal field theories. We compute the latter explicitly and elucidate the origin of the interesting relations among different types of flow correlations previously observed in arXiv:1309.1424.

  17. Spectral functions and transport coefficients from the functional renormalization group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tripolt, Ralf-Arno

    2015-06-03

    In this thesis we present a new method to obtain real-time quantities like spectral functions and transport coefficients at finite temperature and density using the Functional Renormalization Group approach. Our non-perturbative method is thermodynamically consistent, symmetry preserving and based on an analytic continuation from imaginary to real time on the level of the flow equations. We demonstrate the applicability of this method by calculating mesonic spectral functions as well as the shear viscosity for the quark-meson model. In particular, results are presented for the pion and sigma spectral function at finite temperature and chemical potential, with a focus on the regime near the critical endpoint in the phase diagram of the quark-meson model. Moreover, the different time-like and space-like processes, which give rise to a complex structure of the spectral functions, are discussed. Finally, based on the momentum dependence of the spectral functions, we calculate the shear viscosity and the shear viscosity to entropy density ratio using the corresponding Green-Kubo formula.

  18. Social Identity and the Transition to Entrepreneurship: The Role of Group Identification with Workplace Peers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obschonka, Martin; Goethner, Maximilian; Silbereisen, Rainer K.; Cantner, Uwe

    2012-01-01

    What role does social identity play in the transition from employed work to entrepreneurship? It was expected that social identity affects the cognitive processes that, according to the theory of planned behavior (TPB), underlie the formation of entrepreneurial intentions. Focusing on academic scientists' intentions to commercialize research…

  19. Understanding how common ingroup identity undermines collective action among disadvantaged-group members

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ufkes, Elze Gooitzen; Calcagno, Justine; Glasford, Demis; Dovidio, John F.

    2016-01-01

    Past research has consistently demonstrated that creating a sense of a common ingroup identity can be beneficial for reducing intergroup tensions and creating intergroup harmony. At the same time, however, creating a strong sense of a common ingroup identity has elements that may undermine disadvant

  20. Using Psychodrama Techniques to Promote Counselor Identity Development in Group Supervision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholl, Mark B.; Smith-Adcock, Sondra

    2007-01-01

    The authors briefly introduce the concepts, techniques, and theory of identity development associated with J. L. Moreno's (1946, 1969, 1993) Psychodrama. Based upon Loganbill, Hardy, and Delworth's (1982) model, counselor identity development is conceptualized as consisting of seven developmental themes or vectors (e.g., issues of awareness and…

  1. Identity of the subunits and the stoicheiometry of prosthetic groups in trimethylamine dehydrogenase and dimethylamine dehydrogenase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasprzak, A A; Papas, E J; Steenkamp, D J

    1983-01-01

    Trimethylamine dehydrogenases from bacterium W3A1 and Hyphomicrobium X and the dimethylamine dehydrogenase from Hyphomicrobium X were found to contain only one kind of subunit. The millimolar absorption coefficient of a single [4Fe-4S] cluster in trimethylamine dehydrogenase from bacterium W3A1 was estimated to be 14.8 mM-1 . cm-1 at 443 nm. From this value a 1:1 stoicheiometry of the prosthetic groups, 6-S-cysteinyl-FMN and the [4Fe-4S] cluster, was established. Millimolar absorption coefficients of the three enzymes were in the range 49.4-58.7 mM-1 . cm-1 at approx. 440 nm. This range of values is consistent with the presence of two [4Fe-4S] clusters and two flavin residues, for which the millimolar absorption coefficient had earlier been found to be 12.3 mM-1 . cm-1 at 437 nm. The N-terminal amino acid was alanine in each of the three enzymes. Sequence analysis of the first 15 residues from the N-terminus of dimethylamine dehydrogenase indicated a single unique sequence. Two identical subunits, each containing covalently bound 6-S-cysteinyl-FMN and a [4Fe-4S] cluster, in each of the enzymes are therefore indicated. Images Fig. 1. PMID:6882357

  2. Emergence of Diversity in a Group of Identical Bio-robots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Vitanza

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Learning capabilities, often guided by competition/cooperation, play a fundamental and ubiquitous role in living beings. Moreover, several behaviours, such as feeding and courtship, involve environmental exploration and exploitation, including local competition, and lead to a global benefit for the colony. This can be considered as a form of global cooperation, even if the individual agent is not aware of the overall effect. This paper aims to demonstrate that identical biorobots, endowed with simple neural controllers, can evolve diversified behaviours and roles when competing for the same resources in the same arena. These behaviours also produce a benefit in terms of time and energy spent by the whole group. The robots are tasked with a classical foraging task structured through the cyclic activation of resources. The result is that each individual robot, while competing to reach the maximum number of available targets, tends to prefer a specific sequence of subtasks. This indirectly leads to the global result of task partitioning, whereby the cumulative energy spent, in terms of the overall travelled distance and the time needed to complete the task, tends to be minimized. A series of simulation experiments is conducted using different numbers of robots and scenarios: the common emergent result obtained is the role specialization of each robot. The description of the neural controller and the specialization mechanisms are reported in detail and discussed.

  3. Racial Identity Matters: The Relationship between Racial Discrimination and Psychological Functioning in African American Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellers, Robert M.; Copeland-Linder, Nikeea; Martin, Pamela P.; Lewis, R. L'Heureux

    2006-01-01

    This study examines the interrelationships among racial discrimination, racial identity, and psychological functioning in a sample of 314 African American adolescents. Racial discrimination was associated with lower levels of psychological functioning as measured by perceived stress, depressive symptomatology, and psychological well-being.…

  4. Sub-functionalization to ovule development following duplication of a floral organ identity gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galimba, Kelsey D; Di Stilio, Verónica S

    2015-09-01

    Gene duplications result in paralogs that may be maintained due to the gain of novel functions (neo-functionalization) or the partitioning of ancestral function (sub-functionalization). Plant genomes are especially prone to duplication; paralogs are particularly widespread in the floral MADS box transcription factors that control organ identity through the ABC model of flower development. C class genes establish stamen and carpel identity and control floral meristem determinacy, and are largely conserved across the angiosperm phylogeny. Originally, an additional D class had been identified as controlling ovule identity; yet subsequent studies indicated that both C and D lineage genes more commonly control ovule development redundantly. The ranunculid Thalictrum thalictroides has two orthologs of the Arabidopsis thaliana C class gene AGAMOUS (AG), ThtAG1 and ThtAG2 (Thalictrum thalictroides AGAMOUS1/2). We previously showed that ThtAG1 exhibits typical C class function; here we examine the role of its paralog, ThtAG2. Our phylogenetic analysis shows that ThtAG2 falls within the C lineage, together with ThtAG1, and is consistent with previous findings of a Ranunculales-specific duplication in this clade. However, ThtAG2 is not expressed in stamens, but rather solely in carpels and ovules. This female-specific expression pattern is consistent with D lineage genes, and with other C lineage genes known to be involved in ovule identity. Given the divergent expression of ThtAG2, we tested the hypothesis that it has acquired ovule identity function. Molecular evolution analyses showed evidence of positive selection on ThtAG2-a pattern that supports divergence of function by sub-functionalization. Down-regulation of ThtAG2 by virus-induced gene silencing resulted in homeotic conversions of ovules into carpel-like structures. Taken together, our results suggest that, although ThtAG2 falls within the C lineage, it has diverged to acquire "D function" as an ovule identity gene

  5. Plant functional group composition modifies the effects of precipitation change on grassland ecosystem function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fry, Ellen L; Manning, Pete; Allen, David G P; Hurst, Alex; Everwand, Georg; Rimmler, Martin; Power, Sally A

    2013-01-01

    Temperate grassland ecosystems face a future of precipitation change, which can alter community composition and ecosystem functions through reduced soil moisture and waterlogging. There is evidence that functionally diverse plant communities contain a wider range of water use and resource capture strategies, resulting in greater resistance of ecosystem function to precipitation change. To investigate this interaction between composition and precipitation change we performed a field experiment for three years in successional grassland in southern England. This consisted of two treatments. The first, precipitation change, simulated end of century predictions, and consisted of a summer drought phase alongside winter rainfall addition. The second, functional group identity, divided the plant community into three groups based on their functional traits- broadly described as perennials, caespitose grasses and annuals- and removed these groups in a factorial design. Ecosystem functions related to C, N and water cycling were measured regularly. Effects of functional groupidentity were apparent, with the dominant trend being that process rates were higher under control conditions where a range of perennial species were present. E.g. litter decomposition rates were significantly higher in plots containing several perennial species, the group with the highest average leaf N content. Process rates were also very strongly affected by the precipitation change treatmentwhen perennial plant species were dominant, but not where the community contained a high abundance of annual species and caespitose grasses. This contrasting response could be attributable to differing rooting patterns (shallower structures under annual plants, and deeper roots under perennials) and faster nutrient uptake in annuals compared to perennials. Our results indicate that precipitation change will have a smaller effect on key process rates in grasslandscontaining a range of perennial and annual species

  6. Plant functional group composition modifies the effects of precipitation change on grassland ecosystem function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellen L Fry

    Full Text Available Temperate grassland ecosystems face a future of precipitation change, which can alter community composition and ecosystem functions through reduced soil moisture and waterlogging. There is evidence that functionally diverse plant communities contain a wider range of water use and resource capture strategies, resulting in greater resistance of ecosystem function to precipitation change. To investigate this interaction between composition and precipitation change we performed a field experiment for three years in successional grassland in southern England. This consisted of two treatments. The first, precipitation change, simulated end of century predictions, and consisted of a summer drought phase alongside winter rainfall addition. The second, functional group identity, divided the plant community into three groups based on their functional traits- broadly described as perennials, caespitose grasses and annuals- and removed these groups in a factorial design. Ecosystem functions related to C, N and water cycling were measured regularly. Effects of functional groupidentity were apparent, with the dominant trend being that process rates were higher under control conditions where a range of perennial species were present. E.g. litter decomposition rates were significantly higher in plots containing several perennial species, the group with the highest average leaf N content. Process rates were also very strongly affected by the precipitation change treatmentwhen perennial plant species were dominant, but not where the community contained a high abundance of annual species and caespitose grasses. This contrasting response could be attributable to differing rooting patterns (shallower structures under annual plants, and deeper roots under perennials and faster nutrient uptake in annuals compared to perennials. Our results indicate that precipitation change will have a smaller effect on key process rates in grasslandscontaining a range of perennial

  7. Executive Function, Identity, and Career Decision-Making in College Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilyn Welsh

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the relationship among executive function, identity, and career decision-making as self-reported by 82 college students. Participants were administered measures of executive function, identity status, career decision-making, and an index of verbal intelligence. After controlling for intelligence, self-reported difficulties with the metacognitive component of executive function were related to lower levels of identity achievement and higher levels of moratorium and diffusion. Difficulties with behavioral regulation were associated with higher levels of moratorium and foreclosure. Hierarchical multiple regressions with backward elimination indicated that individual differences in career certainty was best explained by metacognitive control and identity achievement. In contrast, variation in career uncertainty was predicted by verbal intelligence, behavior regulation, and low and high scores on identity achievement and diffusion, respectively. These preliminary results fill a gap in the current literature on career decision-making, suggesting the importance of executive function skills to this milestone process in the lives of emerging adults.

  8. Mexican-origin Early Adolescents' Ethnic Socialization, Ethnic Identity, and Psychosocial Functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J; O'Donnell, Megan; Knight, George P; Roosa, Mark W; Berkel, Cady; Nair, Rajni

    2014-02-01

    The current study examined how parental ethnic socialization informed adolescents' ethnic identity development and, in turn, youths' psychosocial functioning (i.e., mental health, social competence, academic efficacy, externalizing behaviors) among 749 Mexican-origin families. In addition, school ethnic composition was examined as a moderator of these associations. Findings indicated that mothers' and fathers' ethnic socialization were significant longitudinal predictors of adolescents' ethnic identity, although fathers' ethnic socialization interacted significantly with youths' school ethnic composition in 5(th) grade to influence ethnic identity in 7(th) grade. Furthermore, adolescents' ethnic identity was significantly associated with increased academic self-efficacy and social competence, and decreased depressive symptoms and externalizing behaviors. Findings support theoretical predictions regarding the central role parents play in Mexican-origin adolescents' normative developmental processes and adjustment and, importantly, underscore the need to consider variability that is introduced into these processes by features of the social context such as school ethnic composition.

  9. Functional renormalization group methods in quantum chromodynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braun, J.

    2006-12-18

    We apply functional Renormalization Group methods to Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD). First we calculate the mass shift for the pion in a finite volume in the framework of the quark-meson model. In particular, we investigate the importance of quark effects. As in lattice gauge theory, we find that the choice of quark boundary conditions has a noticeable effect on the pion mass shift in small volumes. A comparison of our results to chiral perturbation theory and lattice QCD suggests that lattice QCD has not yet reached volume sizes for which chiral perturbation theory can be applied to extrapolate lattice results for low-energy observables. Phase transitions in QCD at finite temperature and density are currently very actively researched. We study the chiral phase transition at finite temperature with two approaches. First, we compute the phase transition temperature in infinite and in finite volume with the quark-meson model. Though qualitatively correct, our results suggest that the model does not describe the dynamics of QCD near the finite-temperature phase boundary accurately. Second, we study the approach to chiral symmetry breaking in terms of quarks and gluons. We compute the running QCD coupling for all temperatures and scales. We use this result to determine quantitatively the phase boundary in the plane of temperature and number of quark flavors and find good agreement with lattice results. (orig.)

  10. Understanding academic attitudes and achievement in mexican-origin youths: ethnic identity, other-group orientation, and fatalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzmán, Michele R; Santiago-Rivera, Azara L; Hasse, Richard F

    2005-02-01

    This study tested the relationships among ethnic identity, other-group orientation, fatalism, and 2 dependent variables: attitude toward education and school, and grade point average (GPA). Mexican-origin adolescents (N = 222) completed the Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure (J. S. Phinney, 1992), the fatalism scale of the Multiphasic Assessment of Cultural Constructs-Short Form (I. Cuellar, B. Arnold, & G. Gonzalez, 1995), and the attitude scale of the Learning and Study Strategies Inventory-High School (C. E. Weinstein & D. R. Palmer, 1990a). Other-group orientation was positively related to attitude and GPA, and a negative relationship between fatalism and attitude was demonstrated. No relationship emerged between ethnic identity and the dependent variables.

  11. Biased evaluations of in-group and out-group spectator behavior at sporting events: the importance of team identification and threats to social identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wann, Daniel L; Grieve, Frederick G

    2005-10-01

    Previous researchers have demonstrated that sport fans often exhibit in-group bias by reporting more positive evaluations of fellow in-group fans than of rival out-group fans. The authors designed the present investigation to extend previous research by replicating past efforts in a field setting and to advance our understanding of the impact of social identity threat. The present authors hypothesized that, in addition to the base-level in-group bias effect, the bias effect would be most pronounced in situations involving a threat to one's social identity. The authors believed that fans of a losing team and fans of a home team would experience threats to their identity and, consequently, exhibit particularly high levels of in-group favoritism. Further, because past researchers had shown that one's level of group identification plays a vital role in social perception, the present authors predicted an interaction in which the greatest amount of bias would be exhibited by highly identified fans rooting for a home team that had lost. Data gathered from spectators (N = 148) at 2 North American college basketball games confirmed the authors' expectations, with the exception that the supporters of the winning team reported higher levels of bias. The authors discussed the factors underlying the unexpected game outcome effect and the use of in-group bias as a coping strategy.

  12. Identity statuses and psychosocial functioning in Turkish youth: a person-centered approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morsunbul, Umit; Crocetti, Elisabetta; Cok, Figen; Meeus, Wim

    2016-02-01

    In the present study, we tested whether the five identity statuses of the original Meeus-Crocetti model could be extracted in a Turkish sample. Their three-factor model of identity was used to examine identity formation. Participants were 1201 (59.6% females) youth aged between 12 and 24 years (Mage = 17.53 years, SDage = 3.25). Findings revealed that the five identity statuses extracted in previous studies (Crocetti, Rubini, Luyckx, & Meeus, 2008; Crocetti, Schwartz, Fermani, Klimstra, & Meeus, 2012) also emerged in a sample of Turkish adolescents and emerging adults. Findings indicated that gender and age affected the distribution of the individuals among the five identity statuses. Furthermore, individuals in the five identity statuses represented distinct profiles according to personality and self characteristics, problem behaviors and well-being, and interpersonal and group relationships. Finally, the status × age interactions indicated that the searching moratorium status became more problematic with age. Implications and suggestions for future research are also discussed.

  13. A Cross-Cultural Approach to the Negotiation of Individual and Group Identities: Parliamentary Debates and Editorial Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Miranda

    2012-01-01

    This article draws on interactional pragmatics and a cross-cultural approach (UK, France, Spain) to investigate the negotiation of individual and group identities in two different speech events, parliamentary debates and editorial meetings. The cross-cultural examination of the use of linguistic resources for signalling "social role,…

  14. Plant species richness, identity and productivity differentially influence key groups of microbes in grassland soils of contrasting fertility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Deyn, G.B.; Quirk, H.; Bardgett, R.D.

    2011-01-01

    The abundance of microbes in soil is thought to be strongly influenced by plant productivity rather than by plant species richness per se. However, whether this holds true for different microbial groups and under different soil conditions is unresolved. We tested how plant species richness, identity

  15. Plant species richness, identity and productivity differentially influence key groups of microbes in grassland soils of contrasting fertility.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deyn, de G.B.; Quirk, H.; Bardgett, R.D.

    2011-01-01

    The abundance of microbes in soil is thought to be strongly influenced by plant productivity rather than by plant species richness per se. However, whether this holds true for different microbial groups and under different soil conditions is unresolved. We tested how plant species richness, identity

  16. Suicidal Ideation and Attempt among Adolescents Reporting "Unsure" Sexual Identity or Heterosexual Identity Plus Same-Sex Attraction or Behavior: Forgotten Groups?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yue; Montoro, Richard; Igartua, Karine; Thombs, Brett D.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To compare risk of suicide ideation and attempts in adolescents with 1) gay, lesbian, or bisexual (GLB) identity, 2) "unsure" identity, or 3) heterosexual identity with same-sex attraction/fantasy or behavior, to heterosexual identity without same-sex attraction/fantasy or behavior. Method: A total of 1,856 students 14 years…

  17. Parental Identity and Its Relation to Parenting and Psychological Functioning in Middle Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadjukoff, Päivi; Pulkkinen, Lea; Lyyra, Anna-Liisa; Kokko, Katja

    2016-01-01

    SYNOPSIS Objective. This article focuses on identity as a parent in relation to parenting and psychological functioning in middle age. Design. Drawn from the Jyväskylä Longitudinal Study of Personality and Social Development, 162 participants (53% females) with children (age 36), represented the Finnish age-cohort born in 1959. Parental identity was assessed at ages 36, 42, and 50. Results. In both women and men, parental identity achievement increased from age 36 to 42 and remained stable to 50. The level of parental identity achievement was higher in women than in men. Achievement was typical for women and foreclosure for men. Participants’ education, occupational status, and number of offspring were not related to parental identity status. As expected, parental identity achievement was associated with authoritative (indicated by higher nurturance and parental knowledge about the child’s activities) parenting style. No significant associations emerged between parental identity foreclosure and restrictiveness as an indicator of authoritarian parenting style. The diffused men outscored others in parental stress. Achieved parental identity was related to generativity in both genders and to higher psychological and social well-being in men. Conclusions. At present, many parenting programs are targeted to young parents. This study highlighted the importance of a later parenting phase at around age 40, when for many, the children are approaching puberty. Therefore, parenting programs and support should also be designed for middle-aged parents. Specifically men may need additional support for their active consideration and engagement in the fathering role. © Päivi Fadjukoff, Lea Pulkkinen, Anna-Liisa Lyyra, and Katja Kokko This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-No Derivatives License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/), which permits non-commercial re-use, distribution, and

  18. Dynamics of Microbial Functional Groups in Rhizosphere of Spring Barley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlad Stoian

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Plant rhizosphere is the portion of soil which is in direct contact with the plant roots. From the microbiological point of view, this area is characterized by strong dynamic of functional groups with high specificity towards the substrate available. Spring barley is a crop with high requirements to the composition of the microflora in the rhizosphere, disturbances produced by agronomic inputs affecting the stability of rhizospheric contact interfaces and ultimately the plant growth. Analysis of changes within the microbial community was carried out with the purpose of defining the disruptive impact of mineral inputs and potential of zeolite to reduce these disruptions. Microbial functional groups were analyzed on the basis of the CO2 export under the specific conditions of soil inoculation on specific substrates over a time period of incubation. Microresp detection plates allow evaluation of a large number of samples under identical conditions of inoculation and the establishment of dynamics of the entire microbial community. The dynamics of the entire microbial communities (basal respiration is stimulated to increase in case of unilateral application of zeolite and zeolite as a buffer for urea fertilization. General growth trend of microbial communities follows proportional the associated application of zeolite with urea, the most powerful non-symbiotic nitrogen fixation processes being stimulated by this combination of fertilizers. Simultaneously, an increase in the dynamics of denitrifiers was observed, also the decomposition of lignin and cellulose and biological crust formation due to the proliferation of cyanobacteria. Rhizosphere of barley plants is characterized by the presence of actinomycetes as dominant in functional microbial community of all experimental variants analyzed with a high capacity for biological degradation and raised mineralization of organic matter.

  19. The social identity perspective - Intergroup relations, self-conception, and small groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hogg, M.A; Abrams, D.; Otten, S.; Hinkle, S

    The historical development, metatheoretical background, and current state of the social identity perspective in social psychology are described. Although originally, an analysis mainly of intergroup relations between large-scale social categories, and more recently an analysis with a strong social

  20. The social identity perspective - Intergroup relations, self-conception, and small groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hogg, MA; Abrams, D; Otten, S; Hinkle, S

    2004-01-01

    The historical development, metatheoretical background, and current state of the social identity perspective in social psychology are described. Although originally, an analysis mainly of intergroup relations between large-scale social categories, and more recently an analysis with a strong social c

  1. Chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) consolation: third-party identity as a window on possible function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Teresa; de Waal, Frans B M

    2010-08-01

    Consolation, that is, postconflict affiliative contact by a bystander toward a recipient of aggression, has acquired an important role in the debate about empathy in great apes because it has been proposed that the reassuring behavior aimed at distressed parties reflects empathetic arousal. However, the function of this behavior is not fully understood. The present study tests specific predictions about the identity of bystanders on the basis of a database of 1102 agonistic interactions and their corresponding postconflict periods in two outdoor-housed groups of captive chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). We found that recipients of aggression were more likely to be contacted by their own "friends" than by "friends" of the aggressor and that frequent targets of aggression were not more likely to offer consolation than were nontargets of aggression. These findings support the stress reduction hypothesis rather than two proposed alternatives, that is, the opponent relationship repair hypothesis and the self-protection hypothesis. Our results provide further support for relationship quality as a fundamental underlying factor explaining variation in the occurrence of consolation.

  2. Achieving Harmony among Different Social Identities within the Self-Concept: The Consequences of Internalising a Group-Based Philosophy of Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner-Zwinkels, Felicity M; Postmes, Tom; van Zomeren, Martijn

    2015-01-01

    It can be hard for individuals to manage multiple group identities within their self-concept (e.g., being a Christian and a woman). We examine how the inter-identity fit between potentially conflicting identities can become more harmonious through a self-defining group philosophy for life. Specifically, we test the hypothesis that holistic group identities (based in group philosophies for life that prescribe the behavior of their members in any situation, such as religion) become more strongly related to other identities in the self-concept (e.g., gender) when they are strongly self-defining (i.e., devotedly applied to daily life). In three studies we investigated the inter-identity fit between individuals' (highly holistic) religious identity and (less holistic) gender identity. Results provided converging support for our hypothesis across diverging methods (explicit questionnaires, more implicit associations, and a novel network analysis of group traits). We discuss the importance of understanding how some (i.e., holistic and self-defining) group identities may harmonize otherwise less harmonious group identities within one's self-concept.

  3. Voice identity recognition: functional division of the right STS and its behavioral relevance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schall, Sonja; Kiebel, Stefan J; Maess, Burkhard; von Kriegstein, Katharina

    2015-02-01

    The human voice is the primary carrier of speech but also a fingerprint for person identity. Previous neuroimaging studies have revealed that speech and identity recognition is accomplished by partially different neural pathways, despite the perceptual unity of the vocal sound. Importantly, the right STS has been implicated in voice processing, with different contributions of its posterior and anterior parts. However, the time point at which vocal and speech processing diverge is currently unknown. Also, the exact role of the right STS during voice processing is so far unclear because its behavioral relevance has not yet been established. Here, we used the high temporal resolution of magnetoencephalography and a speech task control to pinpoint transient behavioral correlates: we found, at 200 msec after stimulus onset, that activity in right anterior STS predicted behavioral voice recognition performance. At the same time point, the posterior right STS showed increased activity during voice identity recognition in contrast to speech recognition whereas the left mid STS showed the reverse pattern. In contrast to the highly speech-sensitive left STS, the current results highlight the right STS as a key area for voice identity recognition and show that its anatomical-functional division emerges around 200 msec after stimulus onset. We suggest that this time point marks the speech-independent processing of vocal sounds in the posterior STS and their successful mapping to vocal identities in the anterior STS.

  4. Functional group diversity increases with modularity in complex food webs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoya, D; Yallop, M L; Memmott, J

    2015-06-10

    Biodiversity increases the ability of ecosystems to provide multiple functions. Most studies report a positive relationship between species richness and the number of ecosystem functions. However, it is not known whether the number of functional groups is related to the structure of the underlying species interaction network. Here we present food web data from 115 salt marsh islands and show that network structure is associated with the number of functional groups present. Functional group diversity is heterogeneously distributed across spatial scales, with some islands hosting more functional groups than others. Functional groups form modules within the community so that food webs with more modular architectures have more functional group diversity. Further, in communities with different interaction types, modularity can be seen as the multifunctional equivalent of trophic complementarity. Collectively, these findings reveal spatial heterogeneity in the number of functional groups that emerges from patterns in the structure of the food web.

  5. Identity theory, functionalism and intentionality: three modes of psychological explanation used in psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warme, G E

    1985-12-01

    It is argued that there are three modes of psychological explanation that are available and in wide use, but that the three are often unwittingly confounded. These are, identity theory, functionalism and intentionality. Identity theory explains by viewing psychological events as direct products of design, that is, manifestations of brain events. The stance of functionalism is to study psychological events and those past and current stimuli that evoke them. In other words, functionalism studies the way in which psychological events are programmed. Intentionality approaches psychic events as a product of both conscious and unconscious purposes, beliefs, wishes, reasons and meanings, and concludes that it is of considerable worth to treat persons as intentional systems. It is claimed that the demarcation between these explanatory modes is crucial in psychiatric, and especially psychotherapeutic practice and research.

  6. Functional identity and functional structure change through succession in a rocky intertidal marine herbivore assemblage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilera, Moisés A; Navarrete, Sergio A

    2012-01-01

    Despite the great interest in characterizing the functional structure and resilience of functional groups in natural communities, few studies have examined in which way the roles and relationships of coexisting species change during community succession, a fundamental and natural process that follows the release of new resources in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. Variation in algal traits that characterize different phases and stages of community succession on rocky shores are likely to influence the magnitude, direction of effects, and the level of redundancy and complementarity in the diverse assemblage of herbivores. Two separate field experiments were conducted to quantify per capita and population effects and the functional relationship (i.e., redundancy or complementarity) of four herbivore species found in central Chile during early and late algal succession. The first experiment examined grazer effects on the colonization and establishment of early-succession algal species. The second experiment examined effects on the late-successional, dominant corticated alga Mazzaella laminarioides. Complementary laboratory experiments with all species and under natural environmental conditions allowed us to further characterize the collective effects of these species. We found that, during early community succession, all herbivore species had similar effects on the ephemeral algae, ulvoids, but only during the phase of colonization. Once these algae were established, only a subset of the species was able to control their abundance. During late succession, only the keyhole limpet Fissurella crassa could control corticated Mazzaella. The functional relationships among these species changed dramatically from redundant effects on ephemeral algae during early colonization, to a more complementary role on established early-successional algae, to a dominant (i.e., keystone) effect on late succession. This study highlights that functional relationship within consumer

  7. The Interrelations of ICT and Professional Identity: Studying Group Formations in the Context of Higher Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horn, Line Helverskov

    2016-01-01

    Technology adoption and application of professionals. Educational practices of higher education are equally affected. New educational programmes emerge and course titles, pedagogies, and curricula are adapted to reflect technological changes. Thus, ICT has become a significant aspect of the content...... and statistics. When studying professional identity in the context of higher education, actors include but is not limited to students, educators, graduates, experienced professionals, but equally tools (including ICTs), curricula, professional legislation and employment statistics. The number or nature...

  8. Genesis and identity of «ACN de JP»’s foundational group (1904-1909

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Sánchez Garrido

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this essay is to study the genesis of the historical «Asociación Católico-Nacional de Jóvenes Propagandistas» (later, «ACN de P» from its previous gestation and preparation in the congregation of «Luises» in Madrid, between 1904 and 1909. So the article focuses on its action throughout the organ of expression –Hojas Sueltas– and others public meetings. Likewise, this essay has brought to light the identity of all the members of the foundational group of the ACN de JP, because the complete names and biographic notes of these cofounder members was unknown. Finally, the text points out some considerations about the ideological identity of the group.

  9. The effects of religious socialization and religious identity on psychosocial functioning in Korean American adolescents from immigrant families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seol, Kyoung Ok; Lee, Richard M

    2012-06-01

    This study examined religious identity as a mediator and moderator between religious socialization by parents, peers, and religious mentors and psychosocial functioning (i.e., social competence, internalizing and externalizing behavior problems) among 155 Korean American adolescents. Religious socialization by parents and peers were positively associated with adolescents' religious identity and social competence. Religious identity fully mediated the relationship between religious socialization by parents and social competence, and partially mediated the relationship between religious socialization by peers and social competence. A competing model with religious identity as a moderator found adolescents with low religious identity showed significantly more externalizing behavior problems when they received more religious socialization from parents.

  10. Older adolescents' motivations for social network site use: the influence of gender, group identity, and collective self-esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Valerie

    2009-04-01

    This study assessed motives for social network site (SNS) use, group belonging, collective self-esteem, and gender effects among older adolescents. Communication with peer group members was the most important motivation for SNS use. Participants high in positive collective self-esteem were strongly motivated to communicate with peer group via SNS. Females were more likely to report high positive collective self-esteem, greater overall use, and SNS use to communicate with peers. Females also posted higher means for group-in-self, passing time, and entertainment. Negative collective self-esteem correlated with social compensation, suggesting that those who felt negatively about their social group used SNS as an alternative to communicating with other group members. Males were more likely than females to report negative collective self-esteem and SNS use for social compensation and social identity gratifications.

  11. Abandon the coat Experiential group about clinical psychologist’s identity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Caterina Branca

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This research was driven by the fundamental idea that one of the main methodological competencies of a psychologist is to be able to think one’s emotions (especially those formed within a relationship and to use them to build theories on the relationship itself. In this context, the project aims to explore the role identity of the trainee psychologist, that is to say the mental representations (fantasies, subconscious associations, myths of those who have just finished their university journey and are about to embark upon the world of work in the field of applied clinical psychology.

  12. Rejected and excluded forevermore, but even more devoted: irrevocable ostracism intensifies loyalty to the group among identity-fused persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, Angel; Morales, J Francisco; Hart, Sonia; Vázquez, Alexandra; Swann, William B

    2011-12-01

    When people are ostrasized (i.e., rejected and excluded) by either an outgroup or an ingroup, they may either withdraw or engage in compensatory activities designed to reaffirm their social identity as a group member. The authors proposed here that individual differences in identity fusion (an index of familial orientation toward the group) would moderate the tendency for people to display such compensatory activity. Consistent with this reasoning, the results of four experiments showed that irrevocable ostracism increased endorsement of extreme, pro-group actions (fighting and dying for the ingroup) among fused persons but not among nonfused persons. This effect emerged when an outgroup ostracized fused individuals due either to their nationality (Experiment 1) or their personal preferences (Experiment 2). Similarly, ostracism by the ingroup amplified the tendency for fused persons to both endorse extreme pro-group actions, refuse to leave the group (Experiment 3), and donate money to an ingroup member (Experiment 4). Finally, compensatory activities emerged even when ostracism was based on being "too good" for the group, suggesting that a desire for self-enhancement does not mediate such activities (Experiment 4).

  13. Fermionic functional integrals and the renormalization group

    CERN Document Server

    Feldman, Joel; Trubowitz, Eugene

    2002-01-01

    This book, written by well-known experts in the field, offers a concise summary of one of the latest and most significant developments in the theoretical analysis of quantum field theory. The renormalization group is the name given to a technique for analyzing the qualitative behavior of a class of physical systems by iterating a map on the vector space of interactions for the class. In a typical nonrigorous application of this technique, one assumes, based on one's physical intuition, that only a certain finite dimensional subspace (usually of dimension three or less) is important. The material in this book concerns a technique for justifying this approximation in a broad class of fermionic models used in condensed matter and high energy physics. This volume is based on the Aisenstadt Lectures given by Joel Feldman at the Centre de Recherches Mathematiques (Montreal, Canada). It is suitable for graduate students and research mathematicians interested in mathematical physics. Included are many problems and so...

  14. Identity and attitudinal reactions to perceptions of inter-group interactions among ethnic migrants: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasinskaja-Lahti, Inga; Mähönen, Tuuli Anna; Liebkind, Karmela

    2012-06-01

    This 1-year follow-up study investigated the direct and indirect effects of past, anticipated, and actual experiences of inter-group interactions on the development of national identity and attitudes towards the national majority among ethnic re-migrants (N= 141) from Russia to Finland. According to the results, the quality of past inter-group contact in the pre-migration stage (T(1)) did not directly affect national identification and out-group attitudes in the post-migration stage (T(2)). Instead, the effect of contact quality at T(1) on national identification and out-group attitudes at T(2) was indirect via perceived discrimination and out-group rejection at T(2). In addition, there were two indirect pathways from out-group attitudes at T(1) to national identification and out-group attitudes at T(2), via pleasant contact experiences (further associated with positive out-group attitudes) and via perceived discrimination (further associated with negative attitudes and lower national identification) in the post-migration stage. Anticipated discrimination only had a direct effect on out-group attitudes in the post-migration stage. The results highlight the role of past and anticipated inter-group relations in the formation of post-migration inter-group interactions, which, in turn, are decisive for the formation of national identification and out-group attitudes of re-migrants.

  15. STM investigation of carbon nanotubes completely covered with functional groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koos, Antal A.; Horvath, Zsolt Endre; Osvath, Zoltan; Tapaszto, Levente; Niesz, Krisztián; Konya, Zoltan; Kiricsi, Imre; Grobert, Nicole; Ruehle, Manfred; Biro, Laszlo P.

    2003-04-01

    The functionalization of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) is important both for composite - to improve load transfer between CNTs and matrix - and nanoelectronic applications - to interlink individual nanotubes in a network. Oposite to earlier results, complete coverage of CNT surface with functional groups was achieved. The distribution of functional groups on the nanotube surface was investigated using STM and TEM. The influence of functional groups on the electron density of states of the nanotubes was studied with scanning tunneling spectroscopy (STS).

  16. On the Stability of Jensen's Functional Equation on Groups

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Valeriĭ A Faĭziev; Prasanna K Sahoo

    2007-02-01

    In this paper we establish the stability of Jensen’s functional equation on some classes of groups. We prove that Jensen equation is stable on noncommutative groups such as metabelian groups and (2,), where is an arbitrary commutative field with characteristic different from two. We also prove that any group can be embedded into some group such that the Jensen functional equation is stable on .

  17. Three applications of functional analysis with group dynamic cognitive behavioral group therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharwächter, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Case illustrations from group dynamic cognitive behavioral group therapy are presented to demonstrate three applications of functional analysis and the resulting cognitive behavioral interventions. The principles of group dynamic cognitive behavioral group therapy are explained. A functional analysis is applied first to the problem behavior of an individual group member. A clinical case illustrates how the group members help to change this individual group member's behavior from a learning theory perspective. Next, the circular interactional problem behavior between two group members is reduced to the individual functional analysis of each of the two member's problem behaviors. It is then illustrated how the two group member's problem behaviors, as well as feedback from others, contribute toward helping to change each others behavior. The paper concludes that functional analysis and ensuing behavioral interventions can be also applied to group as a whole behavior.

  18. FUNCTIONAL HEMISPHERIC SPECIALIZATION FOR TWO LEVELS OF LINGUISTIC INFORMATION PROCESSING: VISUAL IDENTITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANA MARÍA MARTÍNEZ

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To continue deepening in the lateralitation of tasks of physical identity (PI with alphabetical content andof categorization of verbal stimuli of concrete and abstract content.Method: we Use 48 adults, with understood ages between 18 and 24 years. All the fellows carried out Tests of SpeedManual, it Forces Motorboat Manual, Attention and Perception, Verbal Intellectual Quotient and Questionnaires ofAnxiety and of Lateral Preference; and two experiments. The dependent variable were cheats of reaction (TR andaccuracy of the answer: successes, errors for confusion of visual field and of identity of stimulus, and omissions. Theywere carried out two experiments of presentation lateralized, one with stimuli of different same physical identity, andthe other one with stimuli of identity categorial with two conditions: Abstract and I sum up.Results: Our results are in the line of the current conception of functional asymmetry of» grade phenomenon» and notof» everything or anything.» In tasks of IF he/she was an advantage of the left visual field. right hemisphere (LVF -RH on the field visual right. left hemisphere (RVF - LH in analysis visoespaciales of alphabetical stimuli, with anadvantage in the resolution of simple tasks of physical identity (IF. In tasks of categorization of verbal content theparticipation of the two hemispheres settles down in these tasks, so much in the times of reaction (TR like in theaccuracy of the answer. A proportional relationship was observed among TR and alone under some conditions of theaccuracy of the answer for concrete stimuli (CS as abstract stimuli (AE. He/she was also correlation between TR andaccuracy of the answer in verbal categorization tasks of presentation lateralitation with tasks of manual speed, of forcemotorboat, and of perception and attention, of verbal intelligence and of anxiety.

  19. The importance of species identity and interactions for multifunctionality depends on how ecosystem functions are valued.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slade, Eleanor M; Kirwan, Laura; Bell, Thomas; Philipson, Christopher D; Lewis, Owen T; Roslin, Tomas

    2017-10-01

    Studies investigating how biodiversity affects ecosystem functioning increasingly focus on multiple functions measured simultaneously ("multifunctionality"). However, few such studies assess the role of species interactions, particularly under alternative environmental scenarios, despite interactions being key to ecosystem functioning. Here we address five questions of central importance to ecosystem multifunctionality using a terrestrial animal system. (1) Does the contribution of individual species differ for different ecosystem functions? (2) Do inter-species interactions affect the delivery of single functions and multiple functions? (3) Does the community composition that maximizes individual functions also maximize multifunctionality? (4) Is the functional role of individual species, and the effect of interspecific interactions, modified by changing environmental conditions? (5) How do these roles and interactions change under varying scenarios where ecosystem services are weighted to reflect different societal preferences? We manipulated species' relative abundance in dung beetle communities and measured 16 functions contributing to dung decomposition, plant productivity, nutrient recycling, reduction of greenhouse gases, and microbial activity. Using the multivariate diversity-interactions framework, we assessed how changes in species identity, composition, and interspecific interactions affected these functions in combination with an environmental driver (increased precipitation). This allowed us to identify key species and interactions across multiple functions. We then developed a desirability function approach to examine how individual species and species mixtures contribute to a desired state of overall ecosystem functioning. Species contributed unequally to individual functions, and to multifunctionality, and individual functions were maximized by different community compositions. Moreover, the species and interactions important for maintaining

  20. Social identity, peer group rejection, and young children's reactive, displaced, and proactive aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesdale, Drew; Duffy, Amanda

    2011-11-01

    The effects of peer group rejection on 7- and 9-year-old children's (N= 192) reactive, displaced, and proactive aggression were examined in a group simulation study. Children were assigned membership in a pretend social group for a drawing competition and were then rejected or accepted by their group. Their direct and indirect aggressive intentions towards either the ingroup or outgroup were assessed. Analysis of their aggressive intentions revealed enhanced indirect aggression but less direct aggression. Peer group rejection, in comparison with acceptance, instigated reactive aggression towards the ingroup, and displaced reactive aggression towards the outgroup. Accepted children displayed proactive aggression towards the outgroup but not the ingroup. The implications of the findings for peer group rejection and aggression research are discussed.

  1. An Identity-Based Group Key Agreement Proto col for Low-Power Mobile Devices

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TENG Jikai; WU Chuankun

    2016-01-01

    In wireless mobile networks, group mem-bers join and leave the group frequently, a dynamic group key agreement protocol is required to provide a group of users with a shared secret key to achieve cryptographic goal. Most of previous group key agreement protocols for wireless mobile networks are static and employ traditional PKI. This paper presents an ID-based dynamic authen-ticated group key agreement protocol for wireless mobile networks. In Setup and Join algorithms, the protocol re-quires two rounds and each low-power node transmits con-stant size of messages. Furthermore, in Leave algorithm, only one round is required and none of low-power nodes is required to transmit any message, which improves the effi-ciency of the entire protocol. The protocol’s AKE-security with forward secrecy is proved under Decisional bilinear in-verse Diffie-Hellman (DBIDH) assumption. It is addition-ally proved to be contributory.

  2. The Community Narration (CN) Approach: Understanding a Group's Identity and Cognitive Constructs through Personal and Community Narratives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Bradley D; Jason, Leonard A

    2011-05-01

    Community program evaluations, visioning and assessments must always endeavor to attain useful information in the most sensitive way. Most community-based organizations form, grow and continue on their own without the help of outside experts. Participatory approaches should respect the historical evolution of these groups and understand the positive factors that underlie their organizational beliefs. A group's mission, values and identity should inform any community program evaluation, consulting project, and the design of any research study. Narrative methods have been used with mutual-help groups and many other organizations to good effect. Such methods have great potential to avoid hierarchical and unidirectional forms of evaluation, encouraging the group's collective psychology and identity-based constructs to emerge. We developed a participatory, narrative technique called Community Narration (CN), which is described here. The technique utilizes personal stories and community narratives as an entry into the evaluation process or other work involved in understanding an organization. The community's participants were able to use the technique successfully, found it enriching, and the constructs obtained have led to many discussions and member-guided research related to the organization.

  3. Predicting psychological ripple effects: the role of cultural identity, in-group/out-group identification, and attributions of blame in crisis communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anagondahalli, Deepa; Turner, Monique Mitchell

    2012-04-01

    Incidents of intentional food contamination can produce ripple effects in consumers such as reduced trust and increased anxiety. In their postcrisis communication, food companies often direct the blame at the perpetrator in an effort to mitigate potential losses and regain consumer trust. The attempt to placate consumers may, in itself, potentially create psychological ripple effects in message readers. This study examined the interacting influence of two message characteristics: identity of the perpetrator of the crime (in-group/out-group membership), and the attribution of blame (reason why the perpetrator committed the crime), with message receiver characteristic (cultural identity) on psychological ripple effects such as blame, trust, anxiety, and future purchase intention. Results indicated that although group membership of the perpetrator was not significant in predicting outcomes for the organization, the attribution communicated in the message was. American message receivers blamed the organization more and trusted it less when personal dispositional attributions were made about the perpetrator. Asian message receivers blamed the organization more and trusted it less when situational attributions were made about the perpetrator. Lowered trust in the company and increased anxiety correlated with lower purchase intent for both American and Asian message receivers. Implications for crisis message design are discussed.

  4. Functional identity is the main driver of diversity effects in young tree communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobner, Cornelia M; Paquette, Alain; Gravel, Dominique; Reich, Peter B; Williams, Laura J; Messier, Christian

    2016-06-01

    Two main effects are proposed to explain biodiversity-ecosystem functioning relationships: niche complementarity and selection effects. Both can be functionally defined using the functional diversity (FD) and functional identity (FI) of the community respectively. Herein, we present results from the first tree diversity experiment that separated the effect of selection from that of complementarity by varying community composition in high-density plots along a gradient of FD, independent of species richness and testing for the effects of FD and community weighted means of traits (a proxy for FI) on stem biomass increment (a proxy for productivity). After 4 years of growth, most mixtures did not differ in productivity from the averages of their respective monocultures, but some did overyield significantly. Those positive diversity effects resulted mostly from selection effects, primarily driven by fast-growing deciduous species and associated traits. Net diversity effect did not increase with time over 4 years.

  5. Identidad social de un grupo de altos ingresos económicos. Social identity of a group of high income

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Dujarric Bermúdez

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available La investigación indaga la existencia de una relación entre los ingresos económicos y la identidad, para lo cual se trabajó con un grupo de altos ingresos de la provincia de La Habana. Desde el Enfoque de Identidades Sociales se intenta comprender la configuración subjetiva de este grupo, así como su proyección ante la situación actual del país. Utilizamos un enfoque mixto, procesando la información a partir del Statistical Packetfor Social Sciencies (SPSS y el análisis de contenido. Los resultados obtenidos evidencian que los ingresos modelan una identidad social y constituyen un referente sobre cómo se está moviendo la subjetividad de este grupo social, así como de su proyección ante la situación actual del país. The research investigates the existence of a relationship between economic income and social identity, for which we worked with a group of high incomes in the province of Havana. From the Social Identity Perspective we try to understand the subjectivity of this group and its projection to the current situation. We worked with a mixed methodology and processed the information using the Statistical Packet for Social Sciencies (SPSS and the content analysis. The results show that incomes shape an identity and give some hints about the movement ofthis group social subjectivity, in this period of reforms.

  6. The secret of the invisible man. The function of the visibility of behavior in identity and change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandujano, Fernando

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available This article is about the many functions that the visibility of an individual's behaviour has for their identity, and for the efficiency of their processes. The analysis addresses three concerns: first, the issue of the visibility-invisibility of behaviour; second, individual and social perception of that visibility-invisibility; and lastly, the impact of that perception on identity and change.

  7. Burn-Out among Israeli Arab School Principals as a Function of Professional Identity and Interpersonal Relationships with Teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lya, Kremer-Hayon; Faraj, Hani; Wubbels, Theo

    2002-01-01

    Study of burnout among Israeli Arab school principals as a function of professional identity and interpersonal relationships with teachers. Finds, for example, a low extent of burnout, a high extent of professional identity, and a negative correlation between burnout and the positive elements of interpersonal relationships. (Contains 30…

  8. Predicting organizational citizenship behavior from the functional analysis and role identity perspectives: further evidence in Spanish employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dávila, Ma Celeste; Finkelstein, Marcia A

    2010-05-01

    Organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) is a prosocial activity with similarities to volunteerism. The purpose of this work is to contribute new evidence about the relevance to OCB of two models of sustained volunteerism, functional analysis and role identity theory. A total of 983 Spanish employees at49 organizations completed surveys measuring amount of OCB, motives for engaging in citizenship behavior, and the degree to which respondents developed an organizational citizen role identity. The results showed that both motives and role identity were significant predictors of OCB, with motive partially mediating the role identity-OCB relationship. The findings suggest that similar mechanisms are involved in sustaining volunteerism and OCB.

  9. Group delay functions and its applications in speech technology

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Hema A Murthy; B Yegnanarayana

    2011-10-01

    Traditionally, the information in speech signals is represented in terms of features derived from short-time Fourier analysis. In this analysis the features extracted from the magnitude of the Fourier transform (FT) are considered, ignoring the phase component. Although the significance of the FT phase was highlighted in several studies over the recent three decades, the features of the FT phase were not exploited fully due to difficulty in computing the phase and also in processing the phase function. The information in the short-time FT phase function can be extracted by processing the derivative of the FT phase, i.e., the group delay function. In this paper, the properties of the group delay functions are reviewed, highlighting the importance of the FT phase for representing information in the speech signal. Methods to process the group delay function are discussed to capture the characteristics of the vocal-tract system in the form of formants or through a modified group delay function. Applications of group delay functions for speech processing are discussed in some detail. They include segmentation of speech into syllable boundaries, exploiting the additive and high resolution properties of the group delay functions. The effectiveness of segmentation of speech, and the features derived from the modified group delay are demonstrated in applications such as language identification, speech recognition and speaker recognition. The paper thus demonstrates the need to exploit the potential of the group delay functions for development of speech systems.

  10. Self-defining future projections: exploring the identity function of thinking about the future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Argembeau, Arnaud; Lardi, Claudia; Van der Linden, Martial

    2012-01-01

    The act of projecting oneself into meaningful future events may significantly contribute to a person's sense of self and identity. Yet if the role of memories, in particular self-defining memories (SDMs), in grounding the self is now well established, the identity function of anticipated future events has received comparatively little attention. This article introduces the construct of self-defining future projection (SDFP) to address this issue. Two studies show that people can readily identify significant future events that they frequently think about and that convey core information about who they are as individuals. Furthermore, a person's particular style of constructing SDMs is similarly manifested in SDFPs, suggesting that both types of events can be used to ground the self. Notably, people who display a stronger tendency to extract meaning from their past experiences also reflect more about the potential implications of imagined future events. The results further demonstrate that SDMs and SDFPs both give rise to a strong sense of personal continuity over time and are meaningfully related to self-esteem. Together these findings lend support to the idea that a person's sense of self and identity is in part nourished by the anticipation of significant future events.

  11. The language barrier?: context, identity, and support for political goals in minority ethnolinguistic groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livingstone, Andrew G; Manstead, Antony S R; Spears, Russell; Bowen, Dafydd

    2011-12-01

    In two studies, we tested the hypothesis that not having a potentially group-defining attribute (e.g., in-group language) can affect social identification and support for group goals (e.g., national autonomy). Focusing on the Welsh minority in the UK, Study 1 provided evidence that Welsh language fluency predicted Welsh identification and support for national autonomy, and that identification accounted for the language-autonomy association. Study 2 extended this by (1) examining British and English as well as Welsh identification; and (2) quasi-manipulating the surrounding context (Welsh speaking vs. non-Welsh speaking). As predicted, low Welsh language fluency predicted stronger British and English identification, but only where language was criterial (Welsh-speaking regions). British identification, in turn, predicted lower support for national autonomy. Implications and prospects for future research are discussed. ©2010 The British Psychological Society.

  12. Cultural Ways of Constructing Knowledge: The Role of Identities in Online Group Discussions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Öztok, Murat

    2016-01-01

    Learning scientists and the CSCL community have argued that knowledge construction is a process of collective thinking; a process that is simultaneously personal and social that requires group cognition. However, while CSCL researchers have investigated situated knowledge in the process of collective thinking, little work has been done to fully…

  13. Cultural Ways of Constructing Knowledge: The Role of Identities in Online Group Discussions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Öztok, Murat

    2016-01-01

    Learning scientists and the CSCL community have argued that knowledge construction is a process of collective thinking; a process that is simultaneously personal and social that requires group cognition. However, while CSCL researchers have investigated situated knowledge in the process of collective thinking, little work has been done to fully…

  14. Integrating Identities: Facilitating a Support Group for LGBTQ Students on a Christian College Campus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vespone, Brianna M.

    2016-01-01

    College can be a challenging time for young adults, as many are experiencing life on their own for the first time, adjusting to new lifestyles, new social groups, and new ways to express themselves. For lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ) college students, the challenges are increased as they face harassment, discrimination, and…

  15. Constructing Our Identities through a Writing Support Group: Bridging from Doctoral Students to Teacher Educator Researchers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Shelley; McGlynn-Stewart, Monica; Ghafouri, Farveh

    2014-01-01

    We are recent graduates of a graduate faculty of education in a research-based university in Canada. Our aspirations to become successful teacher educators and to write our dissertations brought us together to form a writing support group. During the 2010-2011 academic year, we conducted a self-study to better understand how the support group…

  16. Integrating Identities: Facilitating a Support Group for LGBTQ Students on a Christian College Campus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vespone, Brianna M.

    2016-01-01

    College can be a challenging time for young adults, as many are experiencing life on their own for the first time, adjusting to new lifestyles, new social groups, and new ways to express themselves. For lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ) college students, the challenges are increased as they face harassment, discrimination, and…

  17. Power, Identity, and Organizational Structure as Reflected in Schools for Minority Groups: A Case Study of Jewish Schools in Paris, Brussels, and Geneva

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Zehavit

    2006-01-01

    This article compares the linkages between organizational structure, power relations, and group identities within the private schools operated by the francophone Jewish communities of Brussels, Paris, and Geneva. A school's organizational structure and balance of power reflect its identity and its conceptual world. That is, its organizational…

  18. Zeta Functions Of Discrete Groups Acting On Trees

    OpenAIRE

    Clair, Bryan; Mokhtari-Sharghi, Shahriar

    1999-01-01

    This paper generalizes Bass' work on zeta functions for uniform tree lattices. Using the theory of von Neumann algebras, machinery is developed to define the zeta function of a discrete group of automorphisms of a bounded degree tree. The main theorems relate the zeta function to determinants of operators defined on edges or vertices of the tree. A zeta function associated to a non-uniform tree lattice with appropriate Hilbert representation is defined. Zeta functions are defined for infinite...

  19. Influence of functional groups on charge transport in molecular junctions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mowbray, Duncan; Jones, Glenn; Thygesen, Kristian Sommer

    2008-01-01

    Using density functional theory (DFT), we analyze the influence of five classes of functional groups, as exemplified by NO2, OCH3, CH3, CCl3, and I, on the transport properties of a 1,4-benzenedithiolate (BDT) and 1,4-benzenediamine (BDA) molecular junction with gold electrodes. Our analysis...... demonstrates how ideas from functional group chemistry may be used to engineer a molecule's transport properties, as was shown experimentally and using a semiempirical model for BDA [Nano Lett. 7, 502 (2007)]. In particular, we show that the qualitative change in conductance due to a given functional group can...

  20. Radar and Sonar Ambiguity Functions and Group Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-08-01

    Rice, On contractions of semisimple Lie groups, Trans. Amer. Math. Soc., 289 (1985), 185-202. [16] J. B. Fraleigh , A First course in Abstract Algebra...will be 6 identical to the transmitted waveform, delayed of course , if the object were not moving. Finally we assume the object to be travelling at a...e,(t) = V/is(at + b) (2.5) 8 where b is related io the delay of the first transmitted photon and 1+0 (2.6) 1-0 where J - £. Note that now the time

  1. Some thoughts on the diffusion of psychoanalysis: the group dimension, ethics and the sense of identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namer, Albert

    2011-12-01

    In this paper the author questions some of the ways in which psychoanalysis is passed on to the wider public, one of which is sometimes evocative of the sales promotion of a consumer product in contemporary society. This methodology does not give sufficiently deep prior thought to the eventual consequences of side effects. The detailed exposition of clinical cases, for example, raises sensitive ethical issues, even when anonymity is preserved. Although it is true that making information about Freud's theories more widely available may indeed encourage people to think about training as psychoanalysts, it is noticeable that this process is sometimes considered to be a form of training in itself. Some participants feel that acquiring a psychoanalytical vocabulary and reading clinical reports form a sufficient basis for practising thereafter as psychotherapists, both in institutional contexts and in private practice. The absence of group work on the part of the organizers might explain why closer study is not made of the methodologies of transmission and the different levels that it involves. This is sometimes due to the absence of a common object, formed within and by the group, and to the emergence of manic defences in the group.

  2. Replicating Small Group Research Using the Functional Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cragan, John F.; Wright, David W.

    A replication study tested functional theory utilizing untrained full-fledged groups. One hundred forty undergraduate students who were enrolled in a small group communication course at a large midwestern university participated in small group discussions analyzing a plagiarism case used in an original study by R. Y. Hirokawa. Results indicated…

  3. Synthesis, characterization and electrical study of new bis-fused tetrathiafulvalenecontains functional groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meriam Boumedjout

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available New series of bis-fused tetrathiafulvalene contains functional groups was newly synthesized. The synthesis was carried out by using routes involving cross coupling, reduction, oxidation, and Wittig-type reactions. The identity of these new donors is confirmed by NMR1H, mass spectrometry, and elemental analysis. We have used the cyclic voltammetry in order to determine the character donors-π of these molecules and to verify the reversibility of the redox process involved. Molecular orbital diagram has been calculated using density-functional calculations. Charge transfer complexes with tetraflurotetracyano-quinodimethane (TCNQF4 were prepared by chemical redox reactions.

  4. Functional renormalization group approach to the Kraichnan model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagani, Carlo

    2015-09-01

    We study the anomalous scaling of the structure functions of a scalar field advected by a random Gaussian velocity field, the Kraichnan model, by means of functional renormalization group techniques. We analyze the symmetries of the model and derive the leading correction to the structure functions considering the renormalization of composite operators and applying the operator product expansion.

  5. ‘It’s not enough to migrate. You have to deserve to be an immigrant!’: Narratives as weapons of struggling for the true/best immigrant group identity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zehra KADERLI

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Based on the case of Bulgarian-Turkish immigrants who live in Turkey, the aim of this study is to contribute to the understanding of the meaning and the functions of the narratives in the special contextual conditions of the migration experience. This contextual and functional approach shows us that narratives in the present life of Turkish immigrants who migrated Turkey from Bulgaria, have a quite vital function as a form of expression and an experiencing realm of sub-immigrant group identities which do not have any forms of expression or concrete borders observable from the outside and which emerge only in narrative domain in parallel to contextual conditions. In this study, it has been examined how the immigrants construct and represent their sub-immigrant group identities in parallel to the situational context in the narrative events they come together, considering the contextual conditions of the immigration process which uncovers the meaning and the functions of narratives today.

  6. FGO: A novel ontology for identification of ligand functional group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varadwaj, Pritish Kumar; Lahiri, Tapobrata

    2007-01-01

    Small molecules play crucial role in the modulation of biological functions by interacting with specific macromolecules. Hence small molecule interactions are captured by a variety of experimental methods to estimate and propose correlations between molecular structures to their biological activities. The tremendous expanse in publicly available small molecules is also driving new efforts to better understand interactions involving small molecules particularly in area of drug docking and pharmacogenomics. We have studied and designed a functional group identification system with the associated ontology for it. The functional group identification system can detect the functional group components from given ligand structure with specific coordinate information. Functional group ontology (FGO) proposed by us is a structured classification of chemical functional group which acts as an important source of prior knowledge that may be automatically integrated to support identification, categorization and predictive data analysis tasks. We have used a new annotation method which can be used to construct the original structure from given ontological expression using exact coordinate information. Here, we also discuss about ontology-driven similarity measure of functional groups and uses of such novel ontology for pharmacophore searching and de-novo ligand designing. PMID:18288335

  7. Functional group and substructure searching as a tool in metabolomics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaaki Kotera

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A direct link between the names and structures of compounds and the functional groups contained within them is important, not only because biochemists frequently rely on literature that uses a free-text format to describe functional groups, but also because metabolic models depend upon the connections between enzymes and substrates being known and appropriately stored in databases. METHODOLOGY: We have developed a database named "Biochemical Substructure Search Catalogue" (BiSSCat, which contains 489 functional groups, >200,000 compounds and >1,000,000 different computationally constructed substructures, to allow identification of chemical compounds of biological interest. CONCLUSIONS: This database and its associated web-based search program (http://bisscat.org/ can be used to find compounds containing selected combinations of substructures and functional groups. It can be used to determine possible additional substrates for known enzymes and for putative enzymes found in genome projects. Its applications to enzyme inhibitor design are also discussed.

  8. Are erectile functions affected by AB0 blood group?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erdal Benli

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate whether there is a relationship between erectile dysfunction (ED, thought to be a vascular disease, and AB0 blood group. Material and Method: The study included 350 people abiding by the study criteria who applied to our clinic from April 2012-April 2015. The patients were divided into two groups including those with ED (Group 1 and those without (Group 2. Age, blood group, IIEF-5 score and presence of additional diseases were recorded. Erectile functions were analyzed according to blood group. Results: There was no difference between the mean age of 111 patients with ED and that of 239 patients without ED included in the study (p = 0.284. There was no difference between patients in the two groups in terms of smoking, alcohol use, hypertension and diabetes (p > 0.05. Among patients in the ED group, the mean IIEF-5 score according to blood group was 19.8 ± 5.04 in the 0 blood group, 16.5 ± 5.2 in the A blood group, 17.2 ± 5.3 in the B blood group and 13.3 ± 3.02 in the AB blood group. The IIEF-5 scores of individuals in the 0 blood group were significantly high compared to individuals in other blood groups (p = 0.004. Logistic regression analysis found that compared to the 0 blood group, the erectile dysfunction risk was 3.9 times greater for the A blood group, 3.5 times greater for the B blood group and 4.7 times greater for the AB blood group (p = 0.001 (Table 3. Conclusion: The risk of erectile dysfunction was significantly increased for individuals in the A, B and AB blood groups compared to individuals in the 0 blood group.

  9. The moral ties that bind . . . Even to out-groups: the interactive effect of moral identity and the binding moral foundations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Isaac H; Aquino, Karl; Koleva, Spassena; Graham, Jesse

    2014-08-01

    Throughout history, principles such as obedience, loyalty, and purity have been instrumental in binding people together and helping them thrive as groups, tribes, and nations. However, these same principles have also led to in-group favoritism, war, and even genocide. Does adhering to the binding moral foundations that underlie such principles unavoidably lead to the derogation of out-group members? We demonstrated that for people with a strong moral identity, the answer is "no," because they are more likely than those with a weak moral identity to extend moral concern to people belonging to a perceived out-group. Across three studies, strongly endorsing the binding moral foundations indeed predicted support for the torture of out-group members (Studies 1a and 1b) and withholding of necessary help from out-group members (Study 2), but this relationship was attenuated among participants who also had a strong moral identity.

  10. A functional genetic analysis in flour beetles (Tenebrionidae) reveals an antennal identity specification mechanism active during metamorphosis in Holometabola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Frank W; Angelini, David R; Jockusch, Elizabeth L

    2014-05-01

    The antenna was the first arthropod ventral appendage to evolve non-leg identity. Models of antennal evolution have been based on comparisons of antennal and leg identity specification mechanisms in Drosophila melanogaster, a species in which appendages develop from highly derived imaginal discs during the larval period. We test for conservation of the Drosophila antennal identity specification mechanism at metamorphosis in Tribolium castaneum and three other flour beetle species (Tribolium confusum, Tribolium brevicornis and Latheticus oryzae) in the family Tenebrionidae. In Drosophila, loss of function of four transcription factors-homothorax, extradenticle, Distal-less, and spineless-causes large-scale transformations of the antenna to leg identity. Distal-less and spineless function similarly during metamorphosis in T. castaneum. RNA interference (RNAi) targeting homothorax (hth) or extradenticle (exd) caused transformation of the proximal antenna to distal leg identity in flour beetles, but did not affect the identity of the distal antenna. This differs from the functional domain of these genes in early instar Drosophila, where they are required for identity specification throughout the antenna, but matches their functional domain in late instar Drosophila. The similarities between antennal identity specification at metamorphosis in flour beetles and in late larval Drosophila likely reflect the conservation of an ancestral metamorphic developmental mechanism. There were two notable differences in hth/exd loss of function phenotypes between flies and beetles. Flour beetles retained all of their primary segments in both the antenna and legs, whereas flies undergo reduction and fusion of primary segments. This difference in ground state appendage morphology casts doubt on interpretations of developmental ground states as evolutionary atavisms. Additionally, adult Tribolium eyes were transformed to elytron-like structures; we provide a developmental hypothesis for

  11. Effects of aggressive behaviour and group size on collective escape in an emergency: a test between a social identity model and deindividuation theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kugihara, N

    2001-12-01

    This study models escape behaviour in emergency situations and compares the ability of deindividuation and social identity-based explanations in particular to account for responses. According to deindividuation theory, the larger the group, the higher the degree of anonymity and the stronger antisocial responses such as competitiveness will be. Moreover, the competition for escape should be more severe, and the escape rate lowered, in a large group, regardless of whether participants have an aggressive option. A social identity model predicts that when group members have an option of aggressive behaviour, the salience of the aggressive norm in a larger group will be stronger than that in a smaller group. In contrast, when participants only have concessive option, the salience of the non-aggressive norm in a large group is expected to be stronger than that in a small group. The results of Study 1 supported the social identity model. Study 2 tested how participants responded to their norm. The social identity model suggests a more conscious and socially regulated process whereas deindividuation theory implies an unconscious or unregulated process. The results showed that what directly affects norm formation is the density of stimulus, that is, the amount of aggression received from others and of others' escape activity divided by group size. The results suggest the conscious process of the norm formation and support the social identity model.

  12. Functional Grouping in Residential Homes for People with Intellectual Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansell, Jim; Beadle-Brown, Julie; Macdonald, Susan; Ashman, Bev

    2003-01-01

    The effects of functional grouping of 303 people with intellectual disabilities on care practices in English group homes were investigated. Residents who were non-ambulant were rated as receiving care with less interpersonal warmth and residents with severe challenging behavior were rated as receiving care with less interpersonal warmth and…

  13. Protein functional-group 3D motif and its applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Representing and recognizing protein active sites sequence motif (1D motif) and structural motif (3D motif) is an important topic for predicting and designing protein function. Prevalent methods for extracting and searching 3D motif always consider residue as the minimal unit, which have limited sensitivity. Here we present a new spatial representation of protein active sites, called "functional-group 3D motif ", based on the fact that the functional groups inside a residue contribute mostly to its function. Relevant algorithm and computer program are developed, which could be widely used in the function prediction and the study of structural-function relationship of proteins. As a test, we defined a functional-group 3D motif of the catalytic triad and oxyanion hole with the structure of porcine trypsin (PDB code: 1mct) as the template. With our motif-searching program, we successfully found similar sub-structures in trypsins, subtilisins and a/b hydrolases, which show distinct folds but share similar catalytic mechanism. Moreover, this motif can be used to elucidate the structural basis of other proteins with variant catalytic triads by comparing it to those proteins. Finally, we scanned this motif against a non-redundant protein structure database to find its matches, and the results demonstrated the potential application of functional group 3D motif in function prediction. Above all, compared with the other 3D-motif representations on residues, the functional group 3D motif achieves better representation of protein active region, which is more sensitive for protein function prediction.

  14. On the construction of double group molecular symmetry functions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visscher, L

    1996-01-01

    A new procedure for constructing double group symmetry functions is presented. Using this method integrals over Hermitian operators can become real quantities, even though the integrand and the functions themselves are complex. This is especially of interest to 4-component relativistic methods that

  15. Some Properties of Quasiconvex Functions on the Heisenberg Group

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ming-bao Sun; Xiao-ping Yang

    2005-01-01

    For the Heisenberg group, we introduce the concept of h-quasiconvex functions. We prove that the notions of h-quasiconvex functions and h-convex set are equivalent and that h-quasiconvex functions are locally bounded from above, and furthermore derive that h-convex functions are locally bounded, therefore it is locally Lipschitz continuous by using recent results by Danielli-Garofalo-Nhieu. Finally we give estimates of the L∞norm of the first derivatives of h-quasiconvex functions.

  16. The secret of the invisible man. The function of the visibility of behavior in identity and change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Mandujano

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available This article is about the many functions that the visibility of an individual's behaviour has for their identity, and for the efficiency of their processes. The analysis addresses three concerns: first, the issue of the visibility-invisibility of behaviour; second, individual and social perception of that visibility-invisibility; and lastly, the impact of that perception on identity and change.

  17. Stochastic chaos induced by diffusion processes with identical spectral density but different probability density functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Youming; Zheng, Fan

    2016-12-01

    Stochastic chaos induced by diffusion processes, with identical spectral density but different probability density functions (PDFs), is investigated in selected lightly damped Hamiltonian systems. The threshold amplitude of diffusion processes for the onset of chaos is derived by using the stochastic Melnikov method together with a mean-square criterion. Two quasi-Hamiltonian systems, namely, a damped single pendulum and damped Duffing oscillator perturbed by stochastic excitations, are used as illustrative examples. Four different cases of stochastic processes are taking as the driving excitations. It is shown that in such two systems the spectral density of diffusion processes completely determines the threshold amplitude for chaos, regardless of the shape of their PDFs, Gaussian or otherwise. Furthermore, the mean top Lyapunov exponent is employed to verify analytical results. The results obtained by numerical simulations are in accordance with the analytical results. This demonstrates that the stochastic Melnikov method is effective in predicting the onset of chaos in the quasi-Hamiltonian systems.

  18. Stochastic chaos induced by diffusion processes with identical spectral density but different probability density functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Youming; Zheng, Fan

    2016-12-01

    Stochastic chaos induced by diffusion processes, with identical spectral density but different probability density functions (PDFs), is investigated in selected lightly damped Hamiltonian systems. The threshold amplitude of diffusion processes for the onset of chaos is derived by using the stochastic Melnikov method together with a mean-square criterion. Two quasi-Hamiltonian systems, namely, a damped single pendulum and damped Duffing oscillator perturbed by stochastic excitations, are used as illustrative examples. Four different cases of stochastic processes are taking as the driving excitations. It is shown that in such two systems the spectral density of diffusion processes completely determines the threshold amplitude for chaos, regardless of the shape of their PDFs, Gaussian or otherwise. Furthermore, the mean top Lyapunov exponent is employed to verify analytical results. The results obtained by numerical simulations are in accordance with the analytical results. This demonstrates that the stochastic Melnikov method is effective in predicting the onset of chaos in the quasi-Hamiltonian systems.

  19. Formation and Functions of Alter Personalities in Dissociative Identity Disorder: A Theoretical and Clinical Elaboration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Dissociative identity disorder [DID] is a chronic complex psychiatric condition related to cumulative psychological traumatization in childhood. It is characterized by a marked disturbance of identity due to the presence of distinct personality states and repetitive dissociative amnesias which interfere with the continuity of the affected persons autobiography. These personality states [alter personalities] recurrently take control of or influence the individual undermining one’s sense of self and agency. Although working with alter personalities is the hallmark of psychotherapy in DID, a detailed and specific clinical and theoretical psychopathology of alter personalities do not exist yet. Hence, the present paper addresses the formation and functions of alter personalitiesin DID. The hypotheses, proposals, andassumptions developed in this paper have been derived from experiences inintensive treatment of a very large number of patients with DID over more than two decades. The authors propose that the reconciliation between diverse perspectives about one’s internal world and external reality carried by various personalities is necessary for successful treatment of DID. The hallmark of dealing with alter and host personalities constitutes of the elimination of misperceptions of themabout each other personality state and even about themselves.This requires an analysis of the missions and functions of alter personalities which are usually different thanthe perceived conceptualizations.This recognition usually increases the therapeutic alliance and even consent between the therapist, and alter and host personalities and decreases the duration of treatment. The present paper is a preliminary one on this subject and may serve as a basis both for further theoretical elaborations as well as for development of hypotheses in empirical research devoted to understanding operations of human mind when exposed to stress in particular as well as the

  20. Background field functional renormalization group for absorbing state phase transitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchhold, Michael; Diehl, Sebastian

    2016-07-01

    We present a functional renormalization group approach for the active to inactive phase transition in directed percolation-type systems, in which the transition is approached from the active, finite density phase. By expanding the effective potential for the density field around its minimum, we obtain a background field action functional, which serves as a starting point for the functional renormalization group approach. Due to the presence of the background field, the corresponding nonperturbative flow equations yield remarkably good estimates for the critical exponents of the directed percolation universality class, even in low dimensions.

  1. Predictors of Strength of In-Group Identity in Northern Ireland: Impact of Past Sectarian Conflict, Relative Deprivation, and Church Attendance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goeke-Morey, Marcie C; Taylor, Laura K; Merrilees, Christine E; Cummings, E Mark

    2015-07-01

    Social identity in Northern Ireland is multifaceted, with historical, religious, political, social, economic, and psychological underpinnings. Understanding the factors that influence the strength of identity with the Protestant or Catholic community, the two predominate social groups in Northern Ireland, has implications for individual well-being as well as for the continuation of tension and violence in this setting of protracted intergroup conflict. This study examined predictors of the strength of in-group identity in 692 women (mean age 37 years) in post-accord Northern Ireland. For Catholics, strength of in-group identity was positively linked to past negative impact of sectarian conflict and more frequent current church attendance, whereas for Protestants, strength of in-group identity was related to greater status satisfaction regarding access to jobs, standard of living, and political power compared to Catholics; that is, those who felt less relative deprivation. The discussion considers the differences in the factors underlying stronger identity for Protestants and Catholics in this context.

  2. Optical behaviour of functional groups of graphene oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanam, Pavan K.; Sankaran, K.

    2016-10-01

    Optical properties of graphene oxide (GO) dispersed in aqueous medium with aging and pH variations were investigated along with concurrent changes of oxygen functional groups of GO. Freshly prepared GO exhibit strong excitation wavelength dependent luminescence, which gets gradually nullified with aging due to the drastic reduction in fraction of polar hydroxyl groups. Fourier transform infrared studies indicated that functional groups of GO undergo spontaneous modification with aging in aqueous medium, resulting in suppression of epoxide groups and enriched adsorption of water molecules. When the pH of GO dispersed in aqueous medium was varied, unique transformations of functional groups take place causing major disruption to the sp2 hybridised carbon domains of GO. Concurrent changes in luminescence of GO infer that the broad emission from freshly prepared GO has large contribution from disorder induced localised states due to hydroxyl, epoxide, carboxyl groups and changes in relative fractions of these groups with aging and pH variations of GO dispersions strongly influence the intensity as well as emission wavelength region of GO. Especially emission features of GO are strongly influenced by the presence, fraction and transformations of epoxide and hydroxyl groups of GO.

  3. Correlation functions of twist fields from Ward identities in the massive Dirac theory

    CERN Document Server

    Doyon, Benjamin

    2011-01-01

    We derive non-linear differential equations for correlation functions of U(1) twist fields in the two-dimensional massive Dirac theory. Primary U(1) twist fields correspond to exponential fields in the sine-Gordon model at the free-fermion point, and it is well-known that their vacuum two-point functions are determined by integrable differential equations. We extend part of this result to more general quantum states (pure or mixed) and to certain descendents, showing that some two-point functions are determined by the sinh-Gordon differential equations whenever there is translation and parity invariance, and the density matrix is the exponential of a bilinear expression in fermions. We use methods involving Ward identities associated to the copy-rotation symmetry in a model with two independent, anti-commuting copies. Such methods were used in the context of the thermally perturbed Ising quantum field theory model. We show that they are applicable to the Dirac theory as well, and we suggest that they are like...

  4. Correlation functions of twist fields from Ward identities in the massive Dirac theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyon, Benjamin; Silk, James

    2011-07-01

    We derive non-linear differential equations for correlation functions of U(1) twist fields in the two-dimensional massive Dirac theory. Primary U(1) twist fields correspond to exponential fields in the sine-Gordon model at the free-fermion point, and it is well-known that their vacuum two-point functions are determined by integrable differential equations. We extend part of this result to more general quantum states (pure or mixed) and to certain descendents, showing that some two-point functions are determined by the sinh-Gordon differential equations whenever there is translation and parity invariance, and the density matrix is the exponential of a bilinear expression in fermions. We use methods involving Ward identities associated to the copy-rotation symmetry in a model with two independent, anti-commuting copies. Such methods were used in the context of the thermally perturbed Ising quantum field theory model. We show that they are applicable to the Dirac theory as well, and we suggest that they are likely to have a much wider applicability to free fermion models in general. Finally, we note that our form-factor study of descendents twist fields combined with a CFT analysis provides a new way of evaluating vacuum expectation values of primary U(1) twist fields: by deriving and solving a recursion relation.

  5. Correlation functions of twist fields from Ward identities in the massive Dirac theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doyon, Benjamin [Department of Mathematics, King' s College London, Strand WC2R 2LS (United Kingdom); Silk, James [Department of Mathematical Sciences, Durham University, Science Laboratories, South Road, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom)

    2011-07-22

    We derive non-linear differential equations for correlation functions of U(1) twist fields in the two-dimensional massive Dirac theory. Primary U(1) twist fields correspond to exponential fields in the sine-Gordon model at the free-fermion point, and it is well-known that their vacuum two-point functions are determined by integrable differential equations. We extend part of this result to more general quantum states (pure or mixed) and to certain descendents, showing that some two-point functions are determined by the sinh-Gordon differential equations whenever there is translation and parity invariance, and the density matrix is the exponential of a bilinear expression in fermions. We use methods involving Ward identities associated to the copy-rotation symmetry in a model with two independent, anti-commuting copies. Such methods were used in the context of the thermally perturbed Ising quantum field theory model. We show that they are applicable to the Dirac theory as well, and we suggest that they are likely to have a much wider applicability to free fermion models in general. Finally, we note that our form-factor study of descendents twist fields combined with a CFT analysis provides a new way of evaluating vacuum expectation values of primary U(1) twist fields: by deriving and solving a recursion relation.

  6. Harvesting influences functional identity and diversity over time in forests of the northeastern U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    M.T. Curzon; A.W. D' Amato; S. Fraver; B.J. Palik; A. Bottero; J.R. Foster; K.E. Gleason

    2017-01-01

    Concern over global environmental change and associated uncertainty has given rise to greater emphasis on fostering resilience through forest management. We examined the impact of standard silvicultural systems (including clearcutting, shelterwood, and selection) compared with unharvested controls on tree functional identity and functional diversity in three forest...

  7. Pairs and Groups of Genetically Related Long-Period Comets and Probable Identity of the Mysterious Lick Object of 1921

    CERN Document Server

    Sekanina, Zdenek

    2015-01-01

    We present the history of investigation of the dynamical properties of pairs and groups of genetically related long-period comets (other than the Kreutz sungrazing system). Members of a comet pair or group move in nearly identical orbits and their origin as fragments of a common parent comet is unquestionable. The only variable is the time of perihelion passage, which differs from member to member considerably due primarily to an orbital-momentum increment acquired during breakup. Meter-per-second separation velocities account for gaps of years or tens of years, thanks to the orbital periods of many millennia. The physical properties of individual members may not at all be alike, as illustrated by the trio of C/1988 A1, C/1996 Q1, and C/2015 F3. We exploit orbital similarity to examine whether the celebrated and as yet unidentified object, discovered from the Lick Observatory near the Sun at sunset on 1921 August 7, happened to be a member of such a pair and to track down the long-period comet to which it cou...

  8. The Mechanism of Group Identity in Collective Action%群体认同在集群行为中的作用机制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    殷融; 张菲菲

    2015-01-01

    Group identity has a direct positive effect on individuals’ willingness of participating collective action, and also it moderates the relationships of group efficiency and group-based emotions to action tendencies. Many special types of group identity such as politicized identity, common identity and dual identity could affect collective action in wide range. From the perspective of dynamic researches, undertaking collective action can strengthen protestors’ identification for ingroup. And strong group identity will exert a sustained impact on protestors’ behaviors. Further research should explore the complex work mechanism of group identity on the basis of the differences of collective action in contexts, behavior patterns and development stages.%在集群行为背景下,群体认同对个体的集群行为意愿既具有直接的动员作用,同时也可以调节群体情绪和群体效能变量与人们行为意愿间的关系。政治认同、共同认同与双重认同等特殊形式的群体认同对集群行为的发生具有不同的影响。从动态性研究的角度看,参与集群行为会强化个体对内群体的认同感,而强烈的群体认同则会对参与者的行动产生持续影响。今后的研究应根据集群行为的不同触发情境、不同形式及不同发展阶段对群体认同的复杂工作机制进行探讨。

  9. Surface functional groups and redox property of modified activated carbons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Xianglan; Deng Shengfu; Liu Qiong; Zhang Yan; Cheng Lei

    2011-01-01

    A series of activated carbons (ACs) were prepared using HNO3, H2O2 and steam as activation agents with the aim to introduce functional groups to carbon surface in the ACs preparation process. The effects of concentration of activation agent, activation time on the surface functional groups and redox property of ACs were characterized by Temperature Program Desorption (TPD) and Cyclic Voitammetry (CV). Results showed that lactone groups of ACs activated by HNO3 increase with activation time, and the carboxyl groups increase with the concentration of HNO3. Carbonyl/quinine groups of ACs activated by H2O2 increase with the activation time and the concentration of H2O2, although the acidic groups decrease with the concentration of H2O2. The redox property reflected by CV at 0 and 0.5 V is different with any kinds of oxygen functional groups characterized by TPD, but it is consistent with the SO2 catalytic oxidization/oxidation properties indicated by TPR.

  10. Cluster synchronization in networks of identical oscillators with α -function pulse coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bolun; Engelbrecht, Jan R.; Mirollo, Renato

    2017-02-01

    We study a network of N identical leaky integrate-and-fire model neurons coupled by α -function pulses, weighted by a coupling parameter K . Studies of the dynamics of this system have mostly focused on the stability of the fully synchronized and the fully asynchronous splay states, which naturally depends on the sign of K , i.e., excitation vs inhibition. We find that there is also a rich set of attractors consisting of clusters of fully synchronized oscillators, such as fixed (N -1 ,1 ) states, which have synchronized clusters of sizes N -1 and 1, as well as splay states of clusters with equal sizes greater than 1. Additionally, we find limit cycles that clarify the stability of previously observed quasiperiodic behavior. Our framework exploits the neutrality of the dynamics for K =0 which allows us to implement a dimensional reduction strategy that simplifies the dynamics to a continuous flow on a codimension 3 subspace with the sign of K determining the flow direction. This reduction framework naturally incorporates a hierarchy of partially synchronized subspaces in which the new attracting states lie. Using high-precision numerical simulations, we describe completely the sequence of bifurcations and the stability of all fixed points and limit cycles for N =2 -4 . The set of possible attracting states can be used to distinguish different classes of neuron models. For instance from our previous work [Chaos 24, 013114 (2014), 10.1063/1.4858458] we know that of the types of partially synchronized states discussed here, only the (N -1 ,1 ) states can be stable in systems of identical coupled sinusoidal (i.e., Kuramoto type) oscillators, such as θ -neuron models. Upon introducing a small variation in individual neuron parameters, the attracting fixed points we discuss here generalize to equivalent fixed points in which neurons need not fire coincidently.

  11. Identity development, intelligence structure, and interests: a cross-sectional study in a group of Italian adolescents during the decision-making process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pellerone M

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Monica Pellerone,1 Alessia Passanisi,1 Mario Filippo Paolo Bellomo2 1Faculty of Human and Social Science, “Kore” University of Enna, Enna, 2Credito Emiliano Bank, Piazza Armerina, Italy Background: Forming one’s identity is thought to be the key developmental task of adolescence, but profound changes in personality traits also occur in this period. The negotiation of complex social settings, the creation of an integrated identity, and career choice are major tasks of adolescence. The adolescent, having to make choices for his or her future, has not only to consider his or her own aspirations and interests but also to possess a capacity for exploration and commitment; in fact, career commitments can be considered as a fit between the study or career that is chosen and personal values, skills, and preferences. Methods: The objective of the study reported here was to investigate the role of identity on profile of interests; the relation between identity and decisional style; the correlation between identity, aptitudes, interests, and school performance; and the predictive variables to school success. The research involved 417 Italian students who live in Enna, a small city located in Sicily, Italy, aged 16–19 years (197 males and 220 females in the fourth year (mean =17.2, standard deviation =0.52 and the fifth year (mean =18.2, standard deviation =0.64 of senior secondary school. The research lasted for one school year; the general group of participants consisted of 470 students, and although all participants agreed to be part of the research, there was a dropout rate of 11.28%. They completed the Ego Identity Process Questionnaire to measure their identity development, the Intelligence Structure Test to investigate aptitudes, the Self-Directed Search to value interests, and General Decision Making Style questionnaire to describe their individual decisional style. Results: The data showed that high-school performance was positively

  12. Symmetric polynomials, quantum Jacobi-Trudi identities and \\tau-functions

    CERN Document Server

    Harnad, J

    2013-01-01

    An element [\\Phi] of the Grassmannian of n-dimensional subspaces of the Hardy space H^2, extended over the field C(x_1,..., x_n), may be associated to any polynomial basis {\\phi} for C(x). The Pl\\"ucker coordinates S^\\phi_{\\lambda,n}(x_1,..., x_n) of \\Phi, labelled by partitions \\lambda, provide an analog of Jacobi's bi-alternant formula, defining a generalization of Schur polynomials. Applying the recursion relations satisfied by the polynomial system to the analog of the complete symmetric functions generates a doubly infinite matrix of symmetric polynomials that determine an element [H] of the Grasmannian. This is shown to coincide with [\\Phi], implying a set of {\\it quantum Jacobi-Trudi identities} that generalize a result obtained by Sergeev and Veselov for the case of orthogonal polynomials. The symmetric polynomials S^\\phi_{\\lambda,n}(x_1,..., x_n) are shown to be KP (Kadomtsev-Petviashvili) tau-functions in terms of the monomial sums in the parameters x_a, viewed as KP flow variables. A fermionic oper...

  13. From infinite to two dimensions through the functional renormalization group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taranto, C; Andergassen, S; Bauer, J; Held, K; Katanin, A; Metzner, W; Rohringer, G; Toschi, A

    2014-05-16

    We present a novel scheme for an unbiased, nonperturbative treatment of strongly correlated fermions. The proposed approach combines two of the most successful many-body methods, the dynamical mean field theory and the functional renormalization group. Physically, this allows for a systematic inclusion of nonlocal correlations via the functional renormalization group flow equations, after the local correlations are taken into account nonperturbatively by the dynamical mean field theory. To demonstrate the feasibility of the approach, we present numerical results for the two-dimensional Hubbard model at half filling.

  14. Ideal Class Groups and Subgroups of Real Quadratic Function Fields

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    In this paper, we study the real quadratic function fields K=k(D), given a necessary and sufficient condition for the ideal class group H(K) of any real quadratic function field K to have a cyclic subgroup of order n, and obtained eight series of such fields. The ideal class numbers h(OK) of K in the series all have a factor n.

  15. PROBLEMS OF TEAM FUNCTIONING AS SPECIAL TYPE OF SOCIAL GROUP

    OpenAIRE

    M. V. VASILYEV

    2016-01-01

    In the article the analysis of different concepts of "team" from the point of view of sociology, which today can be divided into two large groups. The first affects his symptoms and descriptions, and the second structure of the definition. Summarizing them all, the author highlighted that currently the "team" can only be called an effectively functioning social group. Despite the fact that "command" is a kind of small social group, described the differences between these concepts. The article...

  16. Dominance Weighted Social Choice Functions for Group Recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia ROSSI

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In travel domains, decision support systems provide support to tourists in the planning of their vacation. In particular, when the number of possible Points of Interest (POI to visit is large, the system should help tourists providing recommendations on the POI that could be more interesting for them. Since traveling is, usually, an activity that involves small groups of people, the system should take simultaneously into account the preferences of each group's member. At the same time, it also should model possible intra-group relationships, which can have an impact in the group decision-making process. In this paper, we model this problem as a multi-agent aggregation of preferences by using weighted social choice functions, whereas such weights are automatically evaluated by analyzing the interactions of the group's members on Online Social Networks.

  17. "I don't like passing as a straight woman": queer negotiations of identity and social group membership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeffer, Carla A

    2014-07-01

    For decades, sociological theory has documented how our lives are simultaneously produced through and against normative structures of sex, gender, and sexuality. These normative structures are often believed to operate along presumably "natural," biological, and essentialized binaries of male/female, man/woman, and heterosexual/ homosexual. However, as the lives and experiences of transgender people and their families become increasingly socially visible, these normative structuring binaries are called into stark question as they fail to adequately articulate and encompass these social actors' identities and social group memberships. Utilizing in-depth interviews with 50 women from the United States, Canada, and Australia, who detail 61 unique relationships with transgender men, this study considers how the experiences of these queer social actors hold the potential to rattle the very foundations upon which normative binaries rest, highlighting the increasingly blurry intersections, tensions, and overlaps between sex, gender, and sexual orientation in the 21st century. This work also considers the potential for these normative disruptions to engender opportunities for social collaboration, solidarity, and transformation.

  18. Identity development, intelligence structure, and interests: a cross-sectional study in a group of Italian adolescents during the decision-making process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellerone, Monica; Passanisi, Alessia; Bellomo, Mario Filippo Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Forming one's identity is thought to be the key developmental task of adolescence, but profound changes in personality traits also occur in this period. The negotiation of complex social settings, the creation of an integrated identity, and career choice are major tasks of adolescence. The adolescent, having to make choices for his or her future, has not only to consider his or her own aspirations and interests but also to possess a capacity for exploration and commitment; in fact, career commitments can be considered as a fit between the study or career that is chosen and personal values, skills, and preferences. The objective of the study reported here was to investigate the role of identity on profile of interests; the relation between identity and decisional style; the correlation between identity, aptitudes, interests, and school performance; and the predictive variables to school success. The research involved 417 Italian students who live in Enna, a small city located in Sicily, Italy, aged 16-19 years (197 males and 220 females) in the fourth year (mean =17.2, standard deviation =0.52) and the fifth year (mean =18.2, standard deviation =0.64) of senior secondary school. The research lasted for one school year; the general group of participants consisted of 470 students, and although all participants agreed to be part of the research, there was a dropout rate of 11.28%. They completed the Ego Identity Process Questionnaire to measure their identity development, the Intelligence Structure Test to investigate aptitudes, the Self-Directed Search to value interests, and General Decision Making Style questionnaire to describe their individual decisional style. The data showed that high-school performance was positively associated with rational decision-making style and identity diffusion predicted the use of avoidant style. Interests were related to identity exploration; the differentiation of preferences was related to identity commitment; investigative

  19. Testing for difference between two groups of functional neuroimaging experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Finn Årup; Chen, Andrew C. N.; Hansen, Lars Kai

    2004-01-01

    We describe a meta-analytic method that tests for the difference between two groups of functional neuroimaging experiments. We use kernel density estimation in three-dimensional brain space to convert points representing focal brain activations into a voxel-based representation. We find the maximum...

  20. Young Children's Understanding of Multiple Object Identity: Appearance, Pretense and Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abelev, Maxim; Markman, Ellen

    2006-01-01

    Evidence from theory-of-mind tasks suggests that young children have substantial difficulty thinking about multiple object identity and multiple versions of reality. On the other hand, evidence from children's understanding of pretense indicates that children have little trouble understanding dual object identity and counterfactual scenarios that…

  1. Plant diversity and functional groups affect Si and Ca pools in aboveground biomass of grassland systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaller, Jörg; Roscher, Christiane; Hillebrand, Helmut; Weigelt, Alexandra; Oelmann, Yvonne; Wilcke, Wolfgang; Ebeling, Anne; Weisser, Wolfgang W

    2016-09-01

    Plant diversity is an important driver of nitrogen and phosphorus stocks in aboveground plant biomass of grassland ecosystems, but plant diversity effects on other elements also important for plant growth are less understood. We tested whether plant species richness, functional group richness or the presence/absence of particular plant functional groups influences the Si and Ca concentrations (mmol g(-1)) and stocks (mmol m(-2)) in aboveground plant biomass in a large grassland biodiversity experiment (Jena Experiment). In the experiment including 60 temperate grassland species, plant diversity was manipulated as sown species richness (1, 2, 4, 8, 16) and richness and identity of plant functional groups (1-4; grasses, small herbs, tall herbs, legumes). We found positive species richness effects on Si as well as Ca stocks that were attributable to increased biomass production. The presence of particular functional groups was the most important factor explaining variation in aboveground Si and Ca stocks (mmol m(-2)). Grass presence increased the Si stocks by 140 % and legume presence increased the Ca stock by 230 %. Both the presence of specific plant functional groups and species diversity altered Si and Ca stocks, whereas Si and Ca concentration were affected mostly by the presence of specific plant functional groups. However, we found a negative effect of species diversity on Si and Ca accumulation, by calculating the deviation between mixtures and mixture biomass proportions, but in monoculture concentrations. These changes may in turn affect ecosystem processes such as plant litter decomposition and nutrient cycling in grasslands.

  2. The function of wisdom dimensions in ego-identity development among Chinese university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bang, Hyeyoung; Zhou, Yuchun

    2014-12-01

    This study investigates the relationship between wisdom and ego-identity among university students in China. Using Marcia's ego-identity statuses and Ardelt's wisdom dimensions as the theoretical and conceptual framework, the study investigates 356 university students in China. After exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses, four factors from wisdom and five factors from ego-identity were retrieved. A structural equation model was then conducted to analyse the relationships. The findings were: (1) among wisdom dimensions, cognitive, and reflective wisdom, especially perspective-taking best predicted achievement, (2) all three dimensions of wisdom predicted moratorium, but reflective wisdom was the most pronounced predictor, (3) all three dimensions of wisdom predicted diffusion, but resentment items from reflective wisdom were the most pronounced predictors, and (4) gender was a significant predictor of ego-identity achievement and diffusion. These findings suggest that efforts to build reflective wisdom might contribute to healthier ego-identity formation.

  3. Formation of functional groups on graphite during oxygen plasma treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cvelbar, Uros [Plasma Laboratory, Jozef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, Ljubljana SI-1000 (Slovenia)]. E-mail: uros.cvelbar@guest.arnes.si; Markoli, Bostjan [Faculty of Natural Sciences and Engineering, University of Ljubljana, Askerceva 12, Ljubljana SI-1000 (Slovenia); Poberaj, Igor [Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, University of Ljubljana, Jadranska 19, Ljubljana SI-1000 (Slovenia); Zalar, Anton [Plasma Laboratory, Jozef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, Ljubljana SI-1000 (Slovenia); Kosec, Ladislav [Faculty of Natural Sciences and Engineering, University of Ljubljana, Askerceva 12, Ljubljana SI-1000 (Slovenia); Spaic, Savo [Faculty of Natural Sciences and Engineering, University of Ljubljana, Askerceva 12, Ljubljana SI-1000 (Slovenia)

    2006-12-15

    Improved sample wettability was obtained by oxygen plasma functionalization of pyrolytic graphite. The samples were exposed to highly dissociated oxygen plasma with the density of 1 x 10{sup 16} m{sup -3}, the electron temperature of about 5.5 eV and the density of neutral oxygen atoms of 8 x 10{sup 21} m{sup -3} for 20 s. The surface wettability was measured by a contact angle of water drop. The contact angle dropped from original 112{sup o} down to about 1{sup o}. The functional groups were detected by XPS analyses. The survey spectrum showed a substantial increase of oxygen concentration on the surface, while high-resolution analyses showed additional oxygen was bonded onto the graphite surface in the form of C-O polar functional group responsible for the increase of the surface energy.

  4. Direct quantification of negatively charged functional groups on membrane surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Tiraferri, Alberto

    2012-02-01

    Surface charge plays an important role in membrane-based separations of particulates, macromolecules, and dissolved ionic species. In this study, we present two experimental methods to determine the concentration of negatively charged functional groups at the surface of dense polymeric membranes. Both techniques consist of associating the membrane surface moieties with chemical probes, followed by quantification of the bound probes. Uranyl acetate and toluidine blue O dye, which interact with the membrane functional groups via complexation and electrostatic interaction, respectively, were used as probes. The amount of associated probes was quantified using liquid scintillation counting for uranium atoms and visible light spectroscopy for the toluidine blue dye. The techniques were validated using self-assembled monolayers of alkanethiols with known amounts of charged moieties. The surface density of negatively charged functional groups of hand-cast thin-film composite polyamide membranes, as well as commercial cellulose triacetate and polyamide membranes, was quantified under various conditions. Using both techniques, we measured a negatively charged functional group density of 20-30nm -2 for the hand-cast thin-film composite membranes. The ionization behavior of the membrane functional groups, determined from measurements with toluidine blue at varying pH, was consistent with published data for thin-film composite polyamide membranes. Similarly, the measured charge densities on commercial membranes were in general agreement with previous investigations. The relative simplicity of the two methods makes them a useful tool for quantifying the surface charge concentration of a variety of surfaces, including separation membranes. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

  5. Linking functional group richness and ecosystem functions of dung beetles: an experimental quantification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milotić, Tanja; Quidé, Stijn; Van Loo, Thomas; Hoffmann, Maurice

    2017-01-01

    Dung beetles form an insect group that fulfils important functions in terrestrial ecosystems throughout the world. These include nutrient cycling through dung removal, soil bioturbation, plant growth, secondary seed dispersal and parasite control. We conducted field experiments at two sites in the northern hemisphere temperate region in which dung removal and secondary seed dispersal were assessed. Dung beetles were classified in three functional groups, depending on their size and dung manipulation method: dwellers, large and small tunnelers. Other soil inhabiting fauna were included as a fourth functional group. Dung removal and seed dispersal by each individual functional group and combinations thereof were estimated in exclusion experiments using different dung types. Dwellers were the most diverse and abundant group, but tunnelers were dominant in terms of biomass. All dung beetle functional groups had a clear preference for fresh dung. The ecosystem services in dung removal and secondary seed dispersal provided by dung beetles were significant and differed between functional groups. Although in absolute numbers more dwellers were found, large tunnelers were disproportionally important for dung burial and seed removal. In the absence of dung beetles, other soil inhabiting fauna, such as earthworms, partly took over the dung decomposing role of dung beetles while most dung was processed when all native functional groups were present. Our results, therefore, emphasize the need to conserve functionally complete dung ecosystems to maintain full ecosystem functioning.

  6. Functional gene group analysis identifies synaptic gene groups as risk factor for schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lips, E S; Cornelisse, L N; Toonen, R F; Min, J L; Hultman, C M; Holmans, P A; O'Donovan, M C; Purcell, S M; Smit, A B; Verhage, M; Sullivan, P F; Visscher, P M; Posthuma, D

    2012-10-01

    Schizophrenia is a highly heritable disorder with a polygenic pattern of inheritance and a population prevalence of ~1%. Previous studies have implicated synaptic dysfunction in schizophrenia. We tested the accumulated association of genetic variants in expert-curated synaptic gene groups with schizophrenia in 4673 cases and 4965 healthy controls, using functional gene group analysis. Identifying groups of genes with similar cellular function rather than genes in isolation may have clinical implications for finding additional drug targets. We found that a group of 1026 synaptic genes was significantly associated with the risk of schizophrenia (P=7.6 × 10(-11)) and more strongly associated than 100 randomly drawn, matched control groups of genetic variants (P<0.01). Subsequent analysis of synaptic subgroups suggested that the strongest association signals are derived from three synaptic gene groups: intracellular signal transduction (P=2.0 × 10(-4)), excitability (P=9.0 × 10(-4)) and cell adhesion and trans-synaptic signaling (P=2.4 × 10(-3)). These results are consistent with a role of synaptic dysfunction in schizophrenia and imply that impaired intracellular signal transduction in synapses, synaptic excitability and cell adhesion and trans-synaptic signaling play a role in the pathology of schizophrenia.

  7. Evolution of Functional Groups during Pyrolysis Oil Upgrading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stankovikj, Filip [Department; Tran, Chi-Cong [Department; Kaliaguine, Serge [Department; Olarte, Mariefel V. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99354, United States; Garcia-Perez, Manuel [Department

    2017-07-14

    In this paper, we examine the evolution of functional groups (carbonyl, carboxyl, phenol, and hydroxyl) during stabilization at 100–200 °C of two typical wood derived pyrolysis oils from BTG and Amaron in a batch reactor over Ru/C catalyst for 4h. An aqueous and an oily phase were obtained. The content of functional groups in both phases were analyzed by GC/MS, 31P-NMR, 1H-NMR, elemental analysis, KF titration, carbonyl groups by Faix, Folin – Ciocalteu method and UV-Fluorescence. The consumption of hydrogen was between 0.007 and 0.016 g/g oil, and 0.001-0.020 g of CH4/g of oil, 0.005-0.016 g of CO2/g oil and 0.03-0.10 g H2O/g oil were formed. The content of carbonyl, hydroxyl, and carboxyl groups in the volatile GC-MS detectable fraction decreased (80, 65, and ~70% respectively), while their behavior in the total oil and hence in the non-volatile fraction was more complex. The carbonyl groups initially decreased having minimum at ~125-150°C and then increased, while the hydroxyl groups had reversed trend. This might be explained by initial hydrogenation of the carbonyl groups to form hydroxyls, followed by continued dehydration reactions at higher temperatures that may increase their content. The 31P-NMR was on the limit of its sensitivity for the carboxylic groups to precisely detect changes in the non-volatile fraction, however the more precise titration method showed that the concentration of carboxylic groups in the non-volatile fraction remains constant with increased stabilization temperature. The UV-Fluorescence results show that repolymerization increases with temperature. ATR-FTIR method coupled with deconvolution of the region between 1490 and 1850 cm-1 showed to be a good tool for following the changes in carbonyl groups and phenols of the stabilized pyrolysis oils. The deconvolution of the IR bands around 1050 and 1260 cm-1 correlated very well with the changes in the 31P-NMR silent O groups (likely ethers). Most of the H2O formation could be

  8. Random matrix theory, the exceptional Lie groups and L-functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keating, J P [School of Mathematics, University of Bristol, Bristol BS8 1TW, UK (United Kingdom); Linden, N [School of Mathematics, University of Bristol, Bristol BS8 1TW, UK (United Kingdom); Rudnick, Z [Raymond and Beverly Sackler School of Mathematical Sciences, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978 (Israel)

    2003-03-28

    There has recently been interest in relating properties of matrices drawn at random from the classical compact groups to statistical characteristics of number-theoretical L-functions. One example is the relationship conjectured to hold between the value distributions of the characteristic polynomials of such matrices and value distributions within families of L-functions. These connections are extended here to non-classical groups. We focus on an explicit example: the exceptional Lie group G{sub 2}. The value distributions for characteristic polynomials associated with the 7- and 14-dimensional representations of G{sub 2}, defined with respect to the uniform invariant (Haar) measure, are calculated using two of the Macdonald constant term identities. A one-parameter family of L-functions over a finite field is described whose value distribution in the limit as the size of the finite field grows is related to that of the characteristic polynomials associated with the seven-dimensional representation of G{sub 2}. The random matrix calculations extend to all exceptional Lie groups.

  9. Groups as units of functional analysis, individuals as proximate mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, David Sloan

    2014-06-01

    Whenever selection operates at a given level of a multitier hierarchy, units at that level should become the object of functional analysis, and units at lower levels should be studied as proximate mechanisms. This intuition already exists for the study of genes in individuals, when individuals are the unit of selection. It is only beginning to be applied for the study of individuals in groups, when groups are the unit of selection. Smaldino's target article is an important step in this direction with an emphasis on human cultural evolution, but the same algorithm applies to all multilevel evolutionary processes.

  10. The Fusion of Identity in History and Narrative:The Construction of Group Identity in Paul Ricoeur’s Biblical Narrative%历史与叙事的同一性融合--保罗•利科“圣经叙事学”中的群体身份建构

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于文思

    2015-01-01

    This paper seeks to examine the impact of Paul Ricoeur’s theory of Biblical Narrative on the construction of Jewish national identity. On the basis of this, the author explores the significance of collective human experience in Ricouer’s philosophy. Ricoeur analyzes narrative similarities across Old Testament narratives and explains how human beings construct a collective narrative identity. Besides, through studying the narrative structure, function and identity of Old Testament, Ricoeur presents us how the value of human continuity and historicity has shaped the group identity. This essay focuses on Ricouer’s triple imitation theory and phenomenology, to explore his analysis of the temporal existence of human beings. Ricoeur uses “narrative theology” to analyze, trying to show Ricoeur takes similar forms of narrative expression to show how collective identity depends on the continuation of narrative form for its existence. The paper shows how texts like the Old Testament are iflled with imaginative and historical narratives, whose main purpose is to negotiate the conlfict between time and existence, to reveal the temporal and special existence of human beings, and point to the limits of human possibilities.

  11. Computing the effective action with the functional renormalization group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Codello, Alessandro [CP3-Origins and the Danish IAS University of Southern Denmark, Odense (Denmark); Percacci, Roberto [SISSA, Trieste (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Trieste, Trieste (Italy); Rachwal, Leslaw [Fudan University, Department of Physics, Center for Field Theory and Particle Physics, Shanghai (China); Tonero, Alberto [ICTP-SAIFR and IFT, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2016-04-15

    The ''exact'' or ''functional'' renormalization group equation describes the renormalization group flow of the effective average action Γ{sub k}. The ordinary effective action Γ{sub 0} can be obtained by integrating the flow equation from an ultraviolet scale k = Λ down to k = 0. We give several examples of such calculations at one-loop, both in renormalizable and in effective field theories. We reproduce the four-point scattering amplitude in the case of a real scalar field theory with quartic potential and in the case of the pion chiral Lagrangian. In the case of gauge theories, we reproduce the vacuum polarization of QED and of Yang-Mills theory. We also compute the two-point functions for scalars and gravitons in the effective field theory of scalar fields minimally coupled to gravity. (orig.)

  12. Oxygen functional groups in graphitic carbon nitride for enhanced photocatalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shizhen; Li, Degang; Sun, Hongqi; Ang, Ha Ming; Tadé, Moses O; Wang, Shaobin

    2016-04-15

    Metal-free semiconductors offer a new opportunity for environmental photocatalysis toward a potential breakthrough in high photo efficiency with complete prevention of metal leaching. In this study, graphitic carbon nitride (GCN) modified by oxygen functional groups was synthesized by a hydrothermal treatment of pristine GCN at different temperatures with H2O2. Insights into the emerging characteristics of the modified GCN in photocatalysis were obtained by determining the optical properties, band structure, electrochemical activity and pollutant degradation efficiency. It was found that the introduction of GCN with oxygen functional groups can enhance light absorption and accelerate electron transfer so as to improve the photocatalytic reaction efficiency. The photoinduced reactive radicals and the associated photodegradation were investigated by in situ electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR). The reactive radicals, O2(-) and OH, were responsible for organic degradation.

  13. Model parameters for representative wetland plant functional groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Amber S.; Kiniry, James R.; Mushet, David M.; Smith, Loren M.; McMurry, Scott T.; Attebury, Kelly; Lang, Megan; McCarty, Gregory W.; Shaffer, Jill A.; Effland, William R.; Johnson, Mari-Vaughn V.

    2017-01-01

    Wetlands provide a wide variety of ecosystem services including water quality remediation, biodiversity refugia, groundwater recharge, and floodwater storage. Realistic estimation of ecosystem service benefits associated with wetlands requires reasonable simulation of the hydrology of each site and realistic simulation of the upland and wetland plant growth cycles. Objectives of this study were to quantify leaf area index (LAI), light extinction coefficient (k), and plant nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and potassium (K) concentrations in natural stands of representative plant species for some major plant functional groups in the United States. Functional groups in this study were based on these parameters and plant growth types to enable process-based modeling. We collected data at four locations representing some of the main wetland regions of the United States. At each site, we collected on-the-ground measurements of fraction of light intercepted, LAI, and dry matter within the 2013–2015 growing seasons. Maximum LAI and k variables showed noticeable variations among sites and years, while overall averages and functional group averages give useful estimates for multisite simulation modeling. Variation within each species gives an indication of what can be expected in such natural ecosystems. For P and K, the concentrations from highest to lowest were spikerush (Eleocharis macrostachya), reed canary grass (Phalaris arundinacea), smartweed (Polygonum spp.), cattail (Typha spp.), and hardstem bulrush (Schoenoplectus acutus). Spikerush had the highest N concentration, followed by smartweed, bulrush, reed canary grass, and then cattail. These parameters will be useful for the actual wetland species measured and for the wetland plant functional groups they represent. These parameters and the associated process-based models offer promise as valuable tools for evaluating environmental benefits of wetlands and for evaluating impacts of various agronomic practices in

  14. Renormalization Scheme Dependence and the Renormalization Group Beta Function

    OpenAIRE

    Chishtie, F. A.; McKeon, D. G. C.

    2016-01-01

    The renormalization that relates a coupling "a" associated with a distinct renormalization group beta function in a given theory is considered. Dimensional regularization and mass independent renormalization schemes are used in this discussion. It is shown how the renormalization $a^*=a+x_2a^2$ is related to a change in the mass scale $\\mu$ that is induced by renormalization. It is argued that the infrared fixed point is to be a determined in a renormalization scheme in which the series expan...

  15. The Observational Mass Function of Loose Galaxy Groups

    CERN Document Server

    Girardi, M

    2000-01-01

    We analyze the three catalogs of nearby loose groups identified by Garcia (1993). She used a percolation and a hierarchical method, and proposed a third group catalog defined as a combination of the two. Each catalog contains almost 500 groups. In agreement with previous works on earlier catalogs, we find that groups can be described as collapsing systems. Their sampled size is much larger than their expected virialized region. We compute the virial masses and correct them by taking into account the young dynamical status. We estimate group masses, M, for two cosmological models, a flat one with Omega_0=1 and an open one with Omega_0=0.2. For each of the three catalogs we calculate the mass function, MF. The number density of groups with M>9x10^{12}\\msun, which is the adopted limit of sample completeness, ranges within 1.3-1.9x10^{-3}h^3/Mpc^3 for Omega_0=1, and it is about a factor of 15% lower for Omega_0=0.2. The MFs of the hierarchical and combined catalogs have essentially the same shape, while the MF of...

  16. Properties of graphene inks stabilized by different functional groups

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei Di; Li Hongwei; Bower, Chris; Andrew, Piers; Ryhaenen, Tapani [Nokia Research Centre, Broers Building, 21 JJ Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0FA (United Kingdom); Han Dongxue; Zhang Qixian; Niu Li; Yang Huafeng, E-mail: di.wei@nokia.com, E-mail: lniu@ciac.jl.cn [State Key Laboratory of Electroanalytical Chemistry, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun City 130022, Jilin Province (China)

    2011-06-17

    Different graphene inks have been synthesized by chemical methods. These uniform dispersions were stabilized by various functional groups such as room temperature ionic liquid, polyaniline, polyelectrolyte (poly[2,5-bis(3-sulfonatopropoxy)-1,4-ethynylphenylene-alt-1, 4-ethynylphenylene] sodium salt) and poly(styrenesulfonate) (PSS). The dispersions can be easily cast into high-quality, free-standing films but with very different physiochemical properties such as surface tension and adhesion. SEM and AFM methods have been applied to have a detailed study of the properties of the inks. It is found that graphenes modified by p-type polyaniline show the highest surface tension. Diverse surface adhesive properties to the substrate are also found with various functional groups. The different viscoelasticities of graphene inks were related to the microscopic structure of their coating layer and subsequently related to the configuration, chemistry and molecular dimensions of the modifying molecules to establish the property-structure relationship. Modifications of graphene inks made from chemical reduction cannot only enable cost-effective processing for printable electronics but also extend the applications into, for example, self-assembly of graphene via bottom-up nano-architecture and surface energy engineering of the graphenes. To fabricate useful devices, understanding the surface properties of graphene inks is very important. It is the first paper of this kind to study the surface tension and adhesion of graphene influenced by different functional groups.

  17. Online racial discrimination and the protective function of ethnic identity and self-esteem for African American adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tynes, Brendesha M; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J; Rose, Chad A; Lin, Johnny; Anderson, Carolyn J

    2012-03-01

    A growing body of literature has shown that being victimized online is associated with poor mental health. Little is known about the factors that protect youth from the negative outcomes that may result from these victimization experiences, particularly those related to race. Using a risk and resilience framework, this study examined the protective function of ethnic identity and self-esteem among African Americans who experience online racial discrimination. For the sample of 125 adolescents, hierarchical regression results revealed that higher levels of ethnic identity and self-esteem significantly moderated the negative impact of online racial discrimination on anxiety levels. These findings show that ethnic identity and self-esteem can buffer the negative mental health outcomes associated with online racial discrimination, at least with respect to adolescents' anxiety. Findings from the current study have significant implications for adolescent adjustment given the increased time youth spend doing online activities.

  18. Exploring Identity-By-Descent Segments and Putative Functions Using Different Foundation Parents in Maize

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xun; Li, Yongxiang; Fu, Junjie; Li, Xin; Li, Chunhui; Zhang, Dengfeng; Shi, Yunsu; Song, Yanchun; Li, Yu; Wang, Tianyu

    2016-01-01

    Maize foundation parents (FPs) play no-alternative roles in hybrid breeding because they were widely used in the development of new lines and hybrids. The combination of different identity-by-descent (IBD) segments and genes could account for the formation patterns of different FPs, and knowledge of these IBD regions would provide an extensive foundation for the development of new candidate FP lines in future maize breeding. In this paper, a panel of 304 elite lines derived from FPs, i.e., B73, 207, Mo17, and Huangzaosi (HZS), was collected and analyzed using 43,252 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers. Most IBD segments specific to particular FP groups were identified, including 116 IBD segments in B73, 105 in Mo17, 111 in 207, and 190 in HZS. In these regions, 423 quantitative trait nucleotides (QTNs) associated with 15 agronomic traits and 804 candidate genes were identified. Some known adaptation-related genes, e.g., dwarf8 and vgt1 in HZS, zcn8 and epc in Mo17, and ZmCCT in 207, were validated as being tightly linked to particular IBD segments. In addition, numerous new candidate genes were also identified. For example, GRMZM2G154278 in HZS, which belongs to the cell cycle control family, was closely linked to a QTN of the ear height/plant height (EH/PH) trait; GRMZM2G051943 in 207, which encodes an endochitinase precursor (EP) chitinase, was closely linked to a QTN for kernel density; and GRMZM2G170586 in Mo17 was closely linked to a QTN for ear diameter. Complex correlations among these genes were also found. Many IBD segments and genes were included in the formation of FP lines, and complex regulatory networks exist among them. These results provide new insights on the genetic basis of complex traits and provide new candidate IBD regions or genes for the improvement of special traits in maize production. PMID:27997600

  19. Keldysh functional renormalization group for electronic properties of graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fräßdorf, Christian; Mosig, Johannes E. M.

    2017-03-01

    We construct a nonperturbative nonequilibrium theory for graphene electrons interacting via the instantaneous Coulomb interaction by combining the functional renormalization group method with the nonequilibrium Keldysh formalism. The Coulomb interaction is partially bosonized in the forward scattering channel resulting in a coupled Fermi-Bose theory. Quantum kinetic equations for the Dirac fermions and the Hubbard-Stratonovich boson are derived in Keldysh basis, together with the exact flow equation for the effective action and the hierarchy of one-particle irreducible vertex functions, taking into account a possible nonzero expectation value of the bosonic field. Eventually, the system of equations is solved approximately under thermal equilibrium conditions at finite temperature, providing results for the renormalized Fermi velocity and the static dielectric function, which extends the zero-temperature results of Bauer et al., Phys. Rev. B 92, 121409 (2015), 10.1103/PhysRevB.92.121409.

  20. Zebrafish Sox7 and Sox18 function together to control arterial-venous identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pendeville, Hélène; Winandy, Marie; Manfroid, Isabelle; Nivelles, Olivier; Motte, Patrick; Pasque, Vincent; Peers, Bernard; Struman, Ingrid; Martial, Joseph A; Voz, Marianne L

    2008-05-15

    Sox7 and Sox18 are members of the F-subgroup of Sox transcription factors family and are mostly expressed in endothelial compartments. In humans, dominant mutations in Sox18 are the underlying cause of the severe hypotrichosis-lymphedema-telangiectasia disorder characterized by vascular defects. However little is known about which vasculogenic processes Sox7 and Sox18 regulate in vivo. We cloned the orthologs of Sox7 and Sox18 in zebrafish, analysed their expression pattern and performed functional analyses. Both genes are expressed in the lateral plate mesoderm during somitogenesis. At later stages, Sox18 is expressed in all axial vessels whereas Sox7 expression is mainly restricted to the dorsal aorta. Knockdown of Sox7 or Sox18 alone failed to reveal any phenotype. In contrast, blocking the two genes simultaneously led to embryos displaying dysmorphogenesis of the proximal aorta and arteriovenous shunts, all of which can account for the lack of circulation observed in the trunk and tail. Gene expression analyses performed with general endothelial markers on double morphants revealed that Sox7 and Sox18 are dispensable for the initial specification and positioning of the major trunk vessels. However, morphants display ectopic expression of the venous Flt4 marker in the dorsal aorta and a concomitant reduction of the artery-specific markers EphrinB2a and Gridlock. The striking similarities between the phenotype of Sox7/Sox18 morphants and Gridlock mutants strongly suggest that Sox7 and Sox18 control arterial-venous identity by regulating Gridlock expression.

  1. Effective leadership in salient groups: revisiting leader-member exchange theory from the perspective of the social identity theory of leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogg, Michael A; Martin, Robin; Epitropaki, Olga; Mankad, Aditi; Svensson, Alicia; Weeden, Karen

    2005-07-01

    Two studies compared leader-member exchange (LMX) theory and the social identity theory of leadership. Study 1 surveyed 439 employees of organizations in Wales, measuring work group salience, leader-member relations, and perceived leadership effectiveness. Study 2 surveyed 128 members of organizations in India, measuring identification not salience and also individualism/collectivism. Both studies provided good support for social identity predictions. Depersonalized leader-member relations were associated with greater leadership effectiveness among high-than low-salient groups (Study 1) and among high than low identifiers (Study 2). Personalized leadership effectiveness was less affected by salience (Study 1) and unaffected by identification (Study 2). Low-salience groups preferred personalized leadership more than did high-salience groups (Study 1). Low identifiers showed no preference but high identifiers preferred depersonalized leadership (Study 2). In Study 2, collectivists did not prefer depersonalized as opposed to personalized leadership, whereas individualists did, probably because collectivists focus more on the relational self.

  2. Social status and the pursuit of positive social identity: Systematic domains of intergroup differentiation and discrimination for high- and low- status groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldmeadow, Julian A; Fiske, Susan T

    2010-07-01

    Research on intergroup discrimination has focused on the cognitive and motivational mechanisms involved, but the role of stereotype content has been neglected. Drawing on social identity theory and stereotype content research, the current studies investigated the role of stereotype content in intergroup differentiation and discrimination. Across two studies, students from high- and low-status groups differentiated themselves positively on stereotypes of competence and warmth respectively, and in allocations of resources in domains relevant to competence (academics, research) and warmth (sports, community outreach). Furthermore, there was evidence that discrimination by high- and low-status groups was driven by their respective stereotypes of competence and warmth. It is argued that stereotypes of competence and warmth, derived from status and power relations between groups, define the domains in which groups pursue positively distinct identities.

  3. Functional group diversity of bee pollinators increases crop yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoehn, Patrick; Tscharntke, Teja; Tylianakis, Jason M; Steffan-Dewenter, Ingolf

    2008-10-01

    Niche complementarity is a commonly invoked mechanism underlying the positive relationship between biodiversity and ecosystem functioning, but little empirical evidence exists for complementarity among pollinator species. This study related differences in three functional traits of pollinating bees (flower height preference, daily time of flower visitation and within-flower behaviour) to the seed set of the obligate cross-pollinated pumpkin Cucurbita moschata Duch. ex Poir. across a land-use intensity gradient from tropical rainforest and agroforests to grassland in Indonesia. Bee richness and abundance changed with habitat variables and we used this natural variation to test whether complementary resource use by the diverse pollinator community enhanced final yield. We found that pollinator diversity, but not abundance, was positively related to seed set of pumpkins. Bees showed species-specific spatial and temporal variation in flower visitation traits and within-flower behaviour, allowing for classification into functional guilds. Diversity of functional groups explained even more of the variance in seed set (r2=45%) than did species richness (r2=32%) highlighting the role of functional complementarity. Even though we do not provide experimental, but rather correlative evidence, we can link spatial and temporal complementarity in highly diverse pollinator communities to pollination success in the field, leading to enhanced crop yield without any managed honeybees.

  4. Characterization of Sea Lettuce Surface Functional Groups by Potentiometric Titrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebling, A. M.; Schijf, J.

    2008-12-01

    In pursuit of our ultimate goal to better understand the prodigious capacity of the marine macroalga Ulva lactuca (sea lettuce) for adsorbing a broad range of dissolved trace metals from seawater, we performed an initial characterization of its surface functional groups. Specifically, the number of distinct functional groups as well as their individual bulk concentrations and acid dissociation constants (pKas) were determined by potentiometric titrations in NaCl solutions of various ionic strengths (I = 0.01-5.0 M), under inert nitrogen atmosphere at 25°C. Depending on the ionic strength, Ulva samples were manually titrated down to pH 2 or 3 with 1 N HCl and then up to pH 10 with 1 N NaOH in steps of 0.1-0.2 units, continuously monitoring pH with a glass combination electrode. Titrations of a dehydrated Ulva standard reference material (BCR-279) were compared with fresh Ulva tissue cultured in our laboratory. A titration in filtered natural seawater was also compared with one in an NaCl solution of equal ionic strength. Equilibrium constants for the ionization of water in NaCl solutions as a function of ionic strength were obtained from the literature. Fits to the titration data ([H]T vs. pH) were performed with the FITEQL4.0 computer code using non-electrostatic 3-, 4-, and 5-site models, either by fixing ionic strength at its experimental value or by allowing it to be extrapolated to zero, while considering all functional group pKas and bulk concentrations as adjustable parameters. Since pKas and bulk concentrations were found to be strongly correlated, the latter were also fixed in some cases to further constrain the pKas. Whereas these calculations are currently ongoing, preliminary results point to three, possibly four, functional groups with pKas of about 4.1, 6.3, and 9.5 at I = 0. Bulk concentrations of the three groups are very similar, about 5-6×10-4 mol/g based on dry weight, which suggests that all are homogeneously distributed over the surface and

  5. Functional Renormalisation Group analysis of Tensorial Group Field Theories on $\\mathbb{R}^d$

    CERN Document Server

    Geloun, Joseph Ben; Oriti, Daniele

    2016-01-01

    Rank-d Tensorial Group Field Theories are quantum field theories defined on a group manifold $G^{\\times d}$, which represent a non-local generalization of standard QFT, and a candidate formalism for quantum gravity, since, when endowed with appropriate data, they can be interpreted as defining a field theoretic description of the fundamental building blocks of quantum spacetime. Their renormalisation analysis is crucial both for establishing their consistency as quantum field theories, and for studying the emergence of continuum spacetime and geometry from them. In this paper, we study the renormalisation group flow of two simple classes of TGFTs, defined for the group $G=\\mathbb{R}$ for arbitrary rank, both without and with gauge invariance conditions, by means of functional renormalisation group techniques. The issue of IR divergences is tackled by the definition of a proper thermodynamic limit for TGFTs. We map the phase diagram of such models, in a simple truncation, and identify both UV and IR fixed poin...

  6. [Functional feeding groups of macroinvertebrates in Gaira river, Colombia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Barrios, Javier; Ospina-Tórres, Rodulfo; Turizo-Correa, Rodrigo

    2011-12-01

    Tropical rivers are frequently described on their biodiversity but few studies have considered the ecological value of this richness in their food webs. We determined the trophic structure of aquatic macroinvertebrate communities (expressed in the richness and abundance of taxa and biomass proportions of different functional feeding groups) at the level of the river, stretch and microhabitats (functional units - UFs). We evaluated the spatial and temporal variation of these descriptors during wet and dry events, and selected three sites associated with different altitudinal belts. We reported 109 taxa, with 11167 individuals who contributed 107.11g of biomass. Density of macroinvertebrates was favored with increasing height, and biomass showed the opposite pattern (K-W = 10.1, d.f. = 1, p shredders (Macrobrachium, 73%), present only in the lower reaches, followed by shredder Leptonema with 15%, located mostly in the upper reaches and predatory stoneflies of the genus Anacroneuria to 6.56%, which dominated in the middle stretch of stream. Excluding Macrobrachium from the analysis, there was dominance of Anacroneuria in the lower reaches. Between rainfall and drought events, biomass of functional feeding groups was higher in rain (W = 10.1, d.f. = 1, p < 0.05), favoring the growth of decapods, but the abundance was much higher during drought events.

  7. Organized thiol functional groups in mesoporous core shell colloids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marchena, Martin H. [Gerencia Quimica, Centro Atomico Constituyentes, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica (CNEA), Avda. Gral. Paz 1499, B1650KNA Buenos Aires (Argentina); Granada, Mara [Centro Atomico Bariloche-CNEA, 8400 San Carlos de Bariloche (Argentina); Instituto Balseiro-Centro Atomico Bariloche-CNEA, San Carlos de Bariloche 8400 (Argentina); Bordoni, Andrea V. [Gerencia Quimica, Centro Atomico Constituyentes, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica (CNEA), Avda. Gral. Paz 1499, B1650KNA Buenos Aires (Argentina); Joselevich, Maria [Asociacion Civil Expedicion Ciencia, Cabrera 4948, C1414BGP Buenos Aires (Argentina); Troiani, Horacio [Centro Atomico Bariloche-CNEA, 8400 San Carlos de Bariloche (Argentina); Instituto Balseiro-Centro Atomico Bariloche-CNEA, San Carlos de Bariloche 8400 (Argentina); Williams, Federico J. [DQIAQyF-INQUIMAE FCEN, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Ciudad Universitaria, Pabellon II, C1428EHA Buenos Aires (Argentina); Wolosiuk, Alejandro, E-mail: wolosiuk@cnea.gov.ar [Gerencia Quimica, Centro Atomico Constituyentes, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica (CNEA), Avda. Gral. Paz 1499, B1650KNA Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2012-03-15

    The co-condensation in situ of tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) and mercaptopropyltrimethoxysilane (MPTMS) using cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) as a template results in the synthesis of multilayered mesoporous structured SiO{sub 2} colloids with 'onion-like' chemical environments. Thiol groups were anchored to an inner selected SiO{sub 2} porous layer in a bilayered core shell particle producing different chemical regions inside the colloidal layered structure. X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) shows a preferential anchoring of the -SH groups in the double layer shell system, while porosimetry and simple chemical modifications confirm that pores are accessible. We can envision the synthesis of interesting colloidal objects with defined chemical environments with highly controlled properties. - Graphical abstract: Mesoporous core shell SiO{sub 2} colloids with organized thiol groups. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Double shell mesoporous silica colloids templated with CTAB. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Sequential deposition of mesoporous SiO{sub 2} layers with different chemistries. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer XPS shows the selective functionalization of mesoporous layers with thiol groups.

  8. Computing the effective action with the functional renormalization group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Codello, Alessandro; Percacci, Roberto; Rachwał, Lesław

    2016-01-01

    The “exact” or “functional” renormalization group equation describes the renormalization group flow of the effective average action Γ k. The ordinary effective action Γ 0 can be obtained by integrating the flow equation from an ultraviolet scale k= Λ down to k= 0. We give several examples of such...... of QED and of Yang–Mills theory. We also compute the two-point functions for scalars and gravitons in the effective field theory of scalar fields minimally coupled to gravity.......The “exact” or “functional” renormalization group equation describes the renormalization group flow of the effective average action Γ k. The ordinary effective action Γ 0 can be obtained by integrating the flow equation from an ultraviolet scale k= Λ down to k= 0. We give several examples...... of such calculations at one-loop, both in renormalizable and in effective field theories. We reproduce the four-point scattering amplitude in the case of a real scalar field theory with quartic potential and in the case of the pion chiral Lagrangian. In the case of gauge theories, we reproduce the vacuum polarization...

  9. Increase in functional groups for POSS by introducing branched phenylglycidylether

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付强; 胡立江; 孙德智

    2004-01-01

    In the selected experimental conditions, firstly, the branched products with functional groups, N-(2-hydroxylpropylphenylether) (3-aminopropyl) triethoxysilane (APES-PGE, containing one hydroxyl group) and N- [ di (2-hydroxylpropylphenylether) ] (3-aminopropyl) triethoxysilane ( APES-PGE2, containing two hydroxyl groups), were synthesized by reacting 1 mole of (3-aminopropyl)triethoxysilane (APES) with 2 mole of phenylglycidylether (PGE). Then the hydrolytic condensation of APES-PGE and APES-PGE2 was performed by dissolving 1 g of the corresponding silane in 1.5 ml tetrahydrofuran (THF), adding water and eventually a catalyst ( molar ratios: [ H2O ]/Si = 3, [ NaOH ]/Si = 0.05 ), and heating at 50 ℃ for 24 h, allowing continuous evaporation of volatiles. The final products with branches containing hydroxyl groups were polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxanes (POSS). The products from two reactions were characterized by standard spectroscopic techniques,gel partition chromatography (GPC), Fourier-transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and matrix-assisted ultraviolet laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UV-MALDI-TOF MS). Additionally, a narrow mass distribution of multifunctionalized POSS was shown by UV-MALDI-TOF MS and assignments of the MS peaks.

  10. National Identity and Group Narcissism as Predictors of Intergroup Attitudes toward Undocumented Latino Immigrants in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Patricia A.; Coursey, Lauren E.; Kenworthy, Jared B.

    2013-01-01

    The debate surrounding immigration reform to address undocumented Latino immigrants in the United States has been emotionally charged and polarizing. This study's goal was to better understand some of the psychological predictors of attitudes toward undocumented Latino immigrants in the United States, namely, collective identity as an…

  11. National Identity and Group Narcissism as Predictors of Intergroup Attitudes toward Undocumented Latino Immigrants in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Patricia A.; Coursey, Lauren E.; Kenworthy, Jared B.

    2013-01-01

    The debate surrounding immigration reform to address undocumented Latino immigrants in the United States has been emotionally charged and polarizing. This study's goal was to better understand some of the psychological predictors of attitudes toward undocumented Latino immigrants in the United States, namely, collective identity as an…

  12. Functional renormalization group studies of nuclear and neutron matter

    CERN Document Server

    Drews, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    Functional renormalization group (FRG) methods applied to calculations of isospin-symmetric and asymmetric nuclear matter as well as neutron matter are reviewed. The approach is based on a chiral Lagrangian expressed in terms of nucleon and meson degrees of freedom as appropriate for the hadronic phase of QCD with spontaneously broken chiral symmetry. Fluctuations beyond mean-field approximation are treated solving Wetterich's FRG flow equations. Nuclear thermodynamics and the nuclear liquid-gas phase transition are investigated in detail, both in symmetric matter and as a function of the proton fraction in asymmetric matter. The equations of state at zero temperature of symmetric nuclear matter and pure neutron matter are found to be in good agreement with advanced ab-initio many-body computations. Contacts with perturbative many-body approaches (in-medium chiral perturbation theory) are discussed. As an interesting test case, the density dependence of the pion mass in the medium is investigated. The questio...

  13. PROBLEMS OF TEAM FUNCTIONING AS SPECIAL TYPE OF SOCIAL GROUP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. VASILYEV

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the article the analysis of different concepts of "team" from the point of view of sociology, which today can be divided into two large groups. The first affects his symptoms and descriptions, and the second structure of the definition. Summarizing them all, the author highlighted that currently the "team" can only be called an effectively functioning social group. Despite the fact that "command" is a kind of small social group, described the differences between these concepts. The article examines the question about correlation of concepts "team" and "team". A comparison of their characteristics reveals that they are extremely close to each other. Identified problems in the functioning of the team as a special type of social group. The features of leadership in the team, in particular, the possibility and feasibility of a divided leadership. Divided leadership implies that at different stages of achieving the team purpose leadership position is given to those team members who are most competent in solving a particular task, but the final decisions are made by joint efforts of the group. The presence of a clearly defined leader in the team is imperative. On the other hand, many teams are able to function effectively using only one type of influence ‒ vertical, when a mutual influence on each other have a leader and his associate, boss and employee. The presence of horizontal influence that occurs in the process of interaction between team members (excluding leader among themselves, it is necessary to perform tasks that require synchronous operation of several (or all team members. In the end, formulated the following conclusion: the presence of vertical interactions is a necessary condition for the existence of the team.

  14. Local Group velocity versus gravity the coherence function

    CERN Document Server

    Chodorowski, M; Chodorowski, Michal; Ciecielag, Pawel

    2002-01-01

    In maximum-likelihood analyses of the Local Group (LG) acceleration, the object describing nonlinear effects is the coherence function (CF), i.e. the cross-correlation coefficient of the Fourier modes of the velocity and gravity fields. We study the CF both analytically, using perturbation theory, and numerically, using a hydrodynamic code. The dependence of the function on Omega_m and the shape of the power spectrum is very weak. The only cosmological parameter that the CF is strongly sensitive to is the normalization sigma_8 of the underlying density field. Perturbative approximation for the function turns out to be accurate as long as sigma_8 is smaller than about 0.3. For higher normalizations we provide an analytical fit for the CF as a function of sigma_8 and the wavevector. The characteristic decoherence scale which our formula predicts is an order of magnitude smaller than that determined by Strauss et al. This implies that present likelihood constraints on cosmological parameters from analyses of the...

  15. How does a servant leader fuel the service fire? A multilevel model of servant leadership, individual self identity, group competition climate, and customer service performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhijun; Zhu, Jing; Zhou, Mingjian

    2015-03-01

    Building on a social identity framework, our cross-level process model explains how a manager's servant leadership affects frontline employees' service performance, measured as service quality, customer-focused citizenship behavior, and customer-oriented prosocial behavior. Among a sample of 238 hairstylists in 30 salons and 470 of their customers, we found that hair stylists' self-identity embedded in the group, namely, self-efficacy and group identification, partially mediated the positive effect of salon managers' servant leadership on stylists' service performance as rated by the customers, after taking into account the positive influence of transformational leadership. Moreover, group competition climate strengthened the positive relationship between self-efficacy and service performance. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

  16. 多身份追踪中基于表情特征的分组效应%Expression-based grouping in multiple identity tracking

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷寰宇; 魏柳青; 吕创; 张学民; 闫晓倩

    2016-01-01

    The multiple-object tracking (MOT) task, proposed by Pylyshyn and Storm (1988), requires participants to simultaneously track the positions of several visual objects as they move among identical distractors. Yantis (1992) found that participants used perceptual grouping strategy when tracking multiple moving objects, indicating that moving objects with different identities could facilitate using of grouping strategy to help tracking. In this present study, we used facial expressions of emotions as object identities to investigate grouping strategies during multiple-identity tracking (MIT). With facial expressions of emotion playing an important role in daily life, understanding whether or not the processing of emotions would affect visual objects tracking is a topic of both theoretical and practical importance, compared with studies using physical properties as object identities. There are two experiments in the present study, where the only difference between the two experiments was that there was no eyebrows in the schematic faces used in the second experiment, in order to investigate whether eyebrows affected facial expression processing. We recruited 29 (11 males) and 16 (7 males) undergraduates from the universities in Beijing in Experiment1 and Experiment2, respectively. All the participants gave their consent form and filled in the Self-rating Depression Scale and State-Trait-Anxiety Inventory prior to the experiments. In each trial, eight objects appeared on the screen as blank squares, and four of eight occurred with red frames outside for 1.5 seconds to indicate targets. After that, all the objects turned into expression pictures and started to move randomly and independently for 5 to 6 seconds, and then turned back into blank objects after stopped. The participants' tasks were first to select four targets and then to report the facial expression of each of the four targets they selected. There are three conditions: (1) grouping (Target Grouping, TG); (2

  17. Evaluation of group electronegativities and hardness (softness) of group 14 elements and containing functional groups through density functional theory and correlation with NMR spectra data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vivas-Reyes, R.; Aria, A. [Universidad de Cartagena, Cartagena (Colombia). Facultad de Ciencias Naturales y Exactas. Grupo de Quimica Cuantica y Computacional]. E-mail: rvivasr@unicartagena.edu.co

    2008-07-01

    Quantum Chemical calculations for group 14 elements of Periodic Table (C, Si, Ge, Sn, Pb) and their functional groups have been carried out using Density Functional Theory (DFT) based reactivity descriptors such as group electronegativities, hardness and softness. DFT calculations were performed for a large series of tetra coordinated Sn compounds of the CH{sub 3}SnRR'X type, where X is a halogen and R and R' are alkyl, halogenated alkyl, alkoxy, or alkyl thio groups. The results were interpreted in terms of calculated electronegativity and hardness of the SnRR'X groups, applying a methodology previously developed by Geerlings and coworkers (J. Phys. Chem. 1993, 97, 1826). These calculations allowed to see the regularities concerning the influence of the nature of organic groups RR' and inorganic group X on electronegativities and hardness of the SnRR'X groups; in this case, it was found a very good correlation between the electronegativity of the fragment and experimental {sup 119}Sn chemical shifts, a property that sensitively reflects the change in the valence electronic structure of molecules. This work was complemented with the study of some compounds of the EX and ER types, where E= C, Si, Ge, Sn and R= CH{sub 3}, H, which was performed to study the influence that the central atom has on the electronegativity and hardness of molecules, or whether these properties are mainly affected for the type of ligand bound to the central atom. All these calculations were performed using the B3PW91 functional together with the 6-3 1 1 + + G basis set level for H, C, Si, Ge, F, Cl and Br atoms and the 3-21G for Sn and I atoms. (author)

  18. QuatIdent: a web server for identifying protein quaternary structural attribute by fusing functional domain and sequential evolution information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Hong-Bin; Chou, Kuo-Chen

    2009-03-01

    Many proteins exist in vivo as oligomers with various different quaternary structural attributes rather than as single individual chains. They are the structural bases of various marvelous biological functions such as cooperative effects, allosteric mechanism, and ion-channel gating. Therefore, with the avalanche of protein sequences generated in the postgenomic era, it is very important for both basic research and drug discovery to identify their quaternary structural attributes in a timely manner. In view of this, a powerful ensemble identifier, called QuatIdent, is developed by fusing the functional domain and sequential evolution information. QuatIdent is a 2-layer predictor. The 1st layer is for identifying a query protein as belonging to which one of the following 10 main quaternary structural attributes: (1) monomer, (2) dimer, (3) trimer, (4) tetramer, (5) pentamer, (6) hexamer, (7) heptamer, (8) octamer, (9) decamer, and (10) dodecamer. If the result thus obtained turns out to be anything but monomer, the process will be automatically continued to further identify it as belonging to a homo-oligomer or hetero-oligomer. The overall success rate by QuatIdent for the 1st layer identification was 71.1% and that for the 2nd layer ranged from 84 to 96%. These rates were derived by the jackknife cross-validation tests on the stringent benchmark data sets where none of proteins has > or =60% pairwise sequence identity to any other in a same subset. QuatIdent is freely accessible to the public as a web server via the site at http://www.csbio.sjtu.edu.cn/bioinf/Quaternary/ , by which one can get the desired 2-level results for a query protein sequence in around 25 seconds. The longer the sequence is, the more time that is needed.

  19. Control of Block Copolymer Morphology through End-functional Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Gyuha; Park, Moon Jeong

    2014-03-01

    Recently, poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO)-containing polymer electrolytes have attracted significant attention to be applied for lithium batteries. As the realization of high mechanical strength from the polymer electrolyte becomes of critical importance in high-energy lithium batteries, much effort has been devoted to developing PEO-based block copolymers comprising mechanically robust polymer chains. Interest in this topic has been further stimulated by multiple observations of significant electrolytic conductivity enhancement imparted by microphase separation of block copolymers. In the present study, we report an intriguing methodology for modulating the morphology of poly(styrene-ethylene oxide) (PS-PEO) block copolymers with a single ionic group tethered at the chain end of PEO. Unique intra- and inter-chain interactions deduced from the end functional group afforded enriched nanostructures, i.e. disorder, lamellae, hexagonal cylinder, and gyroid, with significant differences in conductivities depending on lithium salt concentration. In particular, a gyorid morphology with a twofold-enhanced lithium ion transport efficiency was found for the end-functionalized PS-PEO block copolymer, attributed to the structural advantages of the gyroid having co-continuous ionic channels.

  20. Functional group based Ligand binding affinity scoring function at atomic environmental level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varadwaj, Pritish Kumar; Lahiri, Tapobrata

    2009-01-01

    Use of knowledge based scoring function (KBSF) for virtual screening and molecular docking has become an established method for drug discovery. Lack of a precise and reliable free energy function that describes several interactions including water-mediated atomic interaction between amino-acid residues and ligand makes distance based statistical measure as the only alternative. Till now all the distance based scoring functions in KBSF arena use atom singularity concept, which neglects the environmental effect of the atom under consideration. We have developed a novel knowledge-based statistical energy function for protein-ligand complexes which takes atomic environment in to account hence functional group as a singular entity. The proposed knowledge based scoring function is fast, simple to construct, easy to use and moreover it tackle the existing problem of handling molecular orientation in active site pocket. We have designed and used Functional group based Ligand retrieval (FBLR) system which can identify and detect the orientation of functional groups in ligand. This decoy searching was used to build the above KBSF to quantify the activity and affinity of high resolution protein-ligand complexes. We have proposed the probable use of these decoys in molecular build-up as a de-novo drug designing approach. We have also discussed the possible use of the said KSBF in pharmacophore fragment detection and pseudo center based fragment alignment procedure. PMID:19255647

  1. Mexican-origin adolescent mothers' stressors and psychosocial functioning: examining ethnic identity affirmation and familism as moderators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J; Updegraff, Kimberly A; Gonzales-Backen, Melinda A

    2011-02-01

    Mexican-origin adolescent mothers are at increased risk for poor psychosocial functioning as a result of various stressors with which they must contend; however, existing theory suggests that cultural strengths may help mitigate the negative effects of stress. As such, the current study examined the associations between cultural and economic stressors and Mexican-origin adolescent mothers' (N = 207; M age = 16.23 years, SD = 1.0) internalizing and externalizing behaviors, as well as the degree to which ethnic identity affirmation and familism values moderated these links. Adolescent mothers who reported higher levels of discrimination, acculturative stress, and economic stress also reported higher depressive symptoms and greater involvement in risky behaviors. Importantly, ethnic identity affirmation minimized the negative associations between cultural stressors and adolescents' involvement in risky behaviors, with the associations being weakest among adolescents with high levels of ethnic identity. Familism appeared to serve a protective function under conditions of low levels of discrimination, but not under conditions of high levels of discrimination. Findings are discussed with special attention to the developmental and cultural contexts in which these adolescent mothers' lives are embedded, and implications for future research and practice are presented.

  2. Water Desalination through Zeolitic Imidazolate Framework Membranes: Significant Role of Functional Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Krishna M; Zhang, Kang; Jiang, Jianwen

    2015-12-08

    A molecular simulation study is reported for water desalination through five zeolitic imidazolate framework (ZIF) membranes, namely ZIF-25, -71, -93, -96, and -97. The five ZIFs possess identical rho-topology but differ in functional groups. The rejection of salt (NaCl) is found to be around 97% in ZIF-25, and 100% in the other four ZIFs. The permeance ranges from 27 to 710 kg/(m(2)·h·bar), about one∼two orders of magnitude higher compared with commercial reverse osmosis membranes. Due to a larger aperture size da, ZIF-25, -71, and -96 exhibit a much higher water flux than ZIF-93 and -97; however, the flux in ZIF-25, -71, and -96 is governed by the polarity of functional group rather than da. With the hydrophobic CH3 group, ZIF-25 has the highest flux despite the smallest da among ZIF-25, -71, and -96. The lifetime of hydrogen bonding in ZIF-25 is shorter than that in ZIF-71 and -96. Furthermore, water molecules undergo a fast flushing motion in ZIF-25, but frequent jumping in ZIF-96 and particularly in ZIF-97. An Arrhenius-type relationship is found between water flux in ZIF-25 and temperature, and the activation energy is predicted to be 6.5 kJ/mol. This simulation study provides a microscopic insight into water desalination in a series of ZIFs, reveals the key factors (aperture size and polarity of functional group) governing water flux, and suggests that ZIF-25 might be an interesting reverse osmosis membrane for high-performance water desalination.

  3. Functional renormalization group studies of nuclear and neutron matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drews, Matthias; Weise, Wolfram

    2017-03-01

    Functional renormalization group (FRG) methods applied to calculations of isospin-symmetric and asymmetric nuclear matter as well as neutron matter are reviewed. The approach is based on a chiral Lagrangian expressed in terms of nucleon and meson degrees of freedom as appropriate for the hadronic phase of QCD with spontaneously broken chiral symmetry. Fluctuations beyond mean-field approximation are treated solving Wetterich's FRG flow equations. Nuclear thermodynamics and the nuclear liquid-gas phase transition are investigated in detail, both in symmetric matter and as a function of the proton fraction in asymmetric matter. The equations of state at zero temperature of symmetric nuclear matter and pure neutron matter are found to be in good agreement with advanced ab-initio many-body computations. Contacts with perturbative many-body approaches (in-medium chiral perturbation theory) are discussed. As an interesting test case, the density dependence of the pion mass in the medium is investigated. The question of chiral symmetry restoration in nuclear and neutron matter is addressed. A stabilization of the phase with spontaneously broken chiral symmetry is found to persist up to high baryon densities once fluctuations beyond mean-field are included. Neutron star matter including beta equilibrium is discussed under the aspect of the constraints imposed by the existence of two-solar-mass neutron stars.

  4. Functional renormalisation group equations for supersymmetric field theories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Synatschke-Czerwonka, Franziska

    2011-01-11

    This work is organised as follows: In chapter 2 the basic facts of quantum field theory are collected and the functional renormalisation group equations are derived. Chapter 3 gives a short introduction to the main concepts of supersymmetry that are used in the subsequent chapters. In chapter 4 the functional RG is employed for a study of supersymmetric quantum mechanics, a supersymmetric model which are studied intensively in the literature. A lot of results have previously been obtained with different methods and we compare these to the ones from the FRG. We investigate the N=1 Wess-Zumino model in two dimensions in chapter 5. This model shows spontaneous supersymmetry breaking and an interesting fixed-point structure. Chapter 6 deals with the three dimensional N=1 Wess-Zumino model. Here we discuss the zero temperature case as well as the behaviour at finite temperature. Moreover, this model shows spontaneous supersymmetry breaking, too. In chapter 7 the two-dimensional N=(2,2) Wess-Zumino model is investigated. For the superpotential a non-renormalisation theorem holds and thus guarantees that the model is finite. This allows for a direct comparison with results from lattice simulations. (orig.)

  5. Blower door tests of a group of identical flats in a new student accommodation in the Arctic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kotol, Martin; Rode, Carsten; Vahala, Jan

    A new student accommodation for engineering students “Apisseq” was built in the town of Sisimiut, Greenland in 2010. Its purpose is not only to provide accommodation for students. Thanks to its complex monitoring system it enables researchers to evaluate the building’s energy performance and indoor...... air quality (IAQ) as well as performance of some single components. In summer 2012 a blower door test was performed on all 37 living units out of which 33 are identical single room flats and 4 are larger double room flats. The purpose was to evaluate the air tightness of the envelope and to find out...

  6. Observations of Adolescent Peer Group Interactions as a Function of Within- and Between-Group Centrality Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Wendy E.; Dumas, Tara M.; Mahdy, Jasmine C.; Wolfe, David A.

    2012-01-01

    Observations of adolescent (n = 258; M age = 15.45) peer group triads (n = 86) were analyzed to identify conversation and interaction styles as a function of within-group and between-group centrality status. Group members' discussions about hypothetical dilemmas were coded for agreements, disagreements, commands, and opinions. Interactions during…

  7. Identities as organizational practices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oshima, Sae; Asmuß, Birte

    Identity has been widely acknowledged as playing a central role in various organizational processes, yet there is still a need to better understand the dynamics and functions of identity work in modern organizations. The present paper is centered within this concern, and examines identity as inte......) reveal the intersubjective, multimodal and embodied nature of identity work; 2) demonstrate identity work as organizational practices, used in order to accomplish specific actions; and 3) pose a question on the view on identity as a layered/leveled phenomenon.......Identity has been widely acknowledged as playing a central role in various organizational processes, yet there is still a need to better understand the dynamics and functions of identity work in modern organizations. The present paper is centered within this concern, and examines identity...

  8. Influence of the Cultural Identity Factors on the Process of Self-Categorization of the Russian-Speaking Groups in Chisinau and Tiraspol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A V Zaitzev

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the impact of cultural identity in the process of self-categorization with the Russian-speaking community in the Russian-speaking groups in Chisinau and Tiraspol. The main theoretical approach of the study of Russian-speaking groups is the concept of cross-border Russian language space. Analysis of the factors is conducted in the following areas: scope of the usage of the Russian language, identification with Russian culture and willingness to impart the traditions of Russian culture and language to children.

  9. Gender-, Race-, and Income-Based Stereotype Threat: The Effects of Multiple Stigmatized Aspects of Identity on Math Performance and Working Memory Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tine, Michele; Gotlieb, Rebecca

    2013-01-01

    This study compared the relative impact of gender-, race-, and income-based stereotype threat and examined if individuals with multiple stigmatized aspects of identity experience a larger stereotype threat effect on math performance and working memory function than people with one stigmatized aspect of identity. Seventy-one college students of the…

  10. Gender-, Race-, and Income-Based Stereotype Threat: The Effects of Multiple Stigmatized Aspects of Identity on Math Performance and Working Memory Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tine, Michele; Gotlieb, Rebecca

    2013-01-01

    This study compared the relative impact of gender-, race-, and income-based stereotype threat and examined if individuals with multiple stigmatized aspects of identity experience a larger stereotype threat effect on math performance and working memory function than people with one stigmatized aspect of identity. Seventy-one college students of the…

  11. Functional movement screen scores in a group of running athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loudon, Janice K; Parkerson-Mitchell, Amy J; Hildebrand, Laurie D; Teague, Connie

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the mean values of the functional movement screen (FMS) in a group of long-distance runners. The secondary aims were to investigate whether the FMS performance differed between sexes and between young and older runners. Forty-three runners, 16 women (mean age = 33.5 years, height = 165.2 cm, weight = 56.3 kg, and body mass index [BMI] = 20.6) and 27 men (mean age = 39.3 years, height = 177.6 cm, weight = 75.8 kg, and BMI = 24.2) performed the FMS. All the runners were injury-free and ran >30 km·wk. Independent t-tests were performed on the composite scores to examine the differences between men and women and also between young (40 years). Contingency tables (2 × 2) were developed for each of the 7 screening tests to further look at the differences in groups for each single test. The χ values were calculated to determine significant differences. Statistical significance was set at p ≤ 0.05. There was no significant difference in the composite score between women and men. There were significant differences between the sexes in the push-up and straight leg test scores, with the women scoring better on each test. A significant difference was found in the composite scores between younger and older runners (p score differences were found for the squat, hurdle step, and in-line lunge tests with the younger runners scoring better. This study provided mean values for the FMS in a cohort of long-distance runners. These values can be used as a reference for comparing FMST scores in other runners who are screened with this tool.

  12. Meson spectral functions at finite temperature and isospin density with the functional renormalization group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ziyue; Zhuang, Pengfei

    2017-07-01

    The pion superfluid and the corresponding Goldstone and soft modes are investigated in a two-flavor quark-meson model with a functional renormalization group. By solving the flow equations for the effective potential and the meson two-point functions at finite temperature and isospin density, the critical temperature for the superfluid increases sizeably in comparison with solving the flow equation for the potential only. The spectral function for the soft mode shows clearly a transition from meson gas to quark gas with increasing temperature and a crossover from Bose-Einstein condensation to Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer pairing of quarks with increasing isospin density.

  13. Intergroup structure and identity management among ethnic minority and majority groups : The interactive effects of perceived stability, legitimacy, and permeability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verkuyten, Maykel; Reijerse, Arjan

    2008-01-01

    This paper is an examination, in a natural setting, of the interactive effects of perceived stability, legitimacy, and group permeability on group identification, stereotypes, and group feelings among Turkish-Dutch and ethnically Dutch participants. The findings strongly support predictions derived

  14. ULTRAPETALA1 and LEAFY pathways function independently in specifying identity and determinacy at the Arabidopsis floral meristem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelhorn, Julia; Moreau, Fanny; Fletcher, Jennifer C; Carles, Cristel C

    2014-11-01

    The morphological variability of the flower in angiosperms, combined with its relatively simple structure, makes it an excellent model to study cell specification and the establishment of morphogenetic patterns. Flowers are the products of floral meristems, which are determinate structures that generate four different types of floral organs before terminating. The precise organization of the flower in whorls, each defined by the identity and number of organs it contains, is controlled by a multi-layered network involving numerous transcriptional regulators. In particular, the AGAMOUS (AG) MADS domain-containing transcription factor plays a major role in controlling floral determinacy in Arabidopsis thaliana in addition to specifying reproductive organ identity. This study aims to characterize the genetic interactions between the ULTRAPETALA1 (ULT1) and LEAFY (LFY) transcriptional regulators during flower morphogenesis, with a focus on AG regulation. Genetic and molecular approaches were used to address the question of redundancy and reciprocal interdependency for the establishment of flower meristem initiation, identity and termination. In particular, the effects of loss of both ULT1 and LFY function were determined by analysing flower developmental phenotypes of double-mutant plants. The dependency of each factor on the other for activating developmental genes was also investigated in gain-of-function experiments. The ULT1 and LFY pathways, while both activating AG expression in the centre of the flower meristem, functioned independently in floral meristem determinacy. Ectopic transcriptional activation by ULT1 of AG and AP3, another gene encoding a MADS domain-containing flower architect, did not depend on LFY function. Similarly, LFY did not require ULT1 function to ectopically determine floral fate. The results indicate that the ULT1 and LFY pathways act separately in regulating identity and determinacy at the floral meristem. In particular, they independently

  15. Attitudes to cosmetic surgery among ethnic minority groups in Britain: cultural mistrust, adherence to traditional cultural values, and ethnic identity salience as protective factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swami, Viren; Hendrikse, Sinead

    2013-01-01

    Previous work has suggested that ethnic minority women have more negative attitudes to cosmetic surgery than British Whites, but reasons for this are not fully understood. To overcome this dearth in the literature, the present study asked 250 British Asian and 250 African Caribbean university students to complete measures of attitudes to cosmetic surgery, cultural mistrust, adherence to traditional cultural values, ethnic identity salience, self-esteem, and demographics. Preliminary analyses showed that there were significant between-group differences only on cultural mistrust and self-esteem, although effect sizes were small (d values = .21-.37). Further analyses showed that more negative attitudes to cosmetic surgery were associated with greater cultural mistrust, stronger adherence to traditional values, and stronger ethnic identity salience, although these relationships were weaker for African Caribbean women than for British Asians. These results are discussed in relation to perceptions of cosmetic surgery among ethnic minority women.

  16. High-performance functional Renormalization Group calculations for interacting fermions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichtenstein, J.; Sánchez de la Peña, D.; Rohe, D.; Di Napoli, E.; Honerkamp, C.; Maier, S. A.

    2017-04-01

    We derive a novel computational scheme for functional Renormalization Group (fRG) calculations for interacting fermions on 2D lattices. The scheme is based on the exchange parametrization fRG for the two-fermion interaction, with additional insertions of truncated partitions of unity. These insertions decouple the fermionic propagators from the exchange propagators and lead to a separation of the underlying equations. We demonstrate that this separation is numerically advantageous and may pave the way for refined, large-scale computational investigations even in the case of complex multiband systems. Furthermore, on the basis of speedup data gained from our implementation, it is shown that this new variant facilitates efficient calculations on a large number of multi-core CPUs. We apply the scheme to the t ,t‧ Hubbard model on a square lattice to analyze the convergence of the results with the bond length of the truncation of the partition of unity. In most parameter areas, a fast convergence can be observed. Finally, we compare to previous results in order to relate our approach to other fRG studies.

  17. Diversity, mobility, and structural and functional evolution of group II introns carrying an unusual 3' extension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tourasse Nicolas J

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Group II introns are widespread genetic elements endowed with a dual functionality. They are catalytic RNAs (ribozymes that are able of self-splicing and they are also mobile retroelements that can invade genomic DNA. The group II intron RNA secondary structure is typically made up of six domains. However, a number of unusual group II introns carrying a unique extension of 53-56 nucleotides at the 3' end have been identified previously in bacteria of the Bacillus cereus group. Methods In the present study, we conducted combined sequence comparisons and phylogenetic analyses of introns, host gene, plasmid and chromosome of host strains in order to gain insights into mobility, dispersal, and evolution of the unusual introns and their extension. We also performed in vitro mutational and kinetic experiments to investigate possible functional features related to the extension. Results We report the identification of novel copies of group II introns carrying a 3' extension including the first two copies in bacteria not belonging to the B. cereus group, Bacillus pseudofirmus OF4 and Bacillus sp. 2_A_57_CT2, an uncharacterized species phylogenetically close to B. firmus. Interestingly, the B. pseudofirmus intron has a longer extension of 70 bases. From sequence comparisons and phylogenetic analyses, several possible separate events of mobility involving the atypical introns could be identified, including both retrohoming and retrotransposition events. In addition, identical extensions were found in introns that otherwise exhibit little sequence conservation in the rest of their structures, with the exception of the conserved and catalytically critical domains V and VI, suggesting either separate acquisition of the extra segment by different group II introns or a strong selection pressure acting on the extension. Furthermore, we show by in vitro splicing experiments that the 3' extension affects the splicing properties differently in

  18. A conceptual basis to encode and detect organic functional groups in XML.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankar, Punnaivanam; Krief, Alain; Vijayasarathi, Durairaj

    2013-06-01

    A conceptual basis to define and detect organic functional groups is developed. The basic model of a functional group is termed as a primary functional group and is characterized by a group center composed of one or more group center atoms bonded to terminal atoms and skeletal carbon atoms. The generic group center patterns are identified from the structures of known functional groups. Accordingly, a chemical ontology 'Font' is developed to organize the existing functional groups as well as the new ones to be defined by the chemists. The basic model is extended to accommodate various combinations of primary functional groups as functional group assemblies. A concept of skeletal group is proposed to define the characteristic groups composed of only carbon atoms to be regarded as equivalent to functional groups. The combination of primary functional groups with skeletal groups is categorized as skeletal group assembly. In order to make the model suitable for reaction modeling purpose, a Graphical User Interface (GUI) is developed to define the functional groups and to encode in XML format appropriate to detect them in chemical structures. The system is capable of detecting multiple instances of primary functional groups as well as the overlapping poly-functional groups as the respective assemblies. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Multiple Approaches to the Identity of Ethnic Groups in the Southwest Border%西南边疆民族认同的多元化选择

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐则平

    2015-01-01

    The national identity is one of the core items in ethnological research.Because of the special effects and ethnic characteristics of the region,there are multiple approaches to the identity of different ethnic groups in the southwest border,mainly in accordance with the local language context or the national language context.The selection of national identity under the local language context will reflect the roots and the conscious perceptions of the ethnic groups themselves,as well as the care and pursuit of the interests of their own groups;however,the selection of national identity under the national language context is related to the recognition of the constitutional system of the country,and the identity and loyalty to the whole nation.The fundamental interests of the selection of the national language context or that of the local context should be the same,without any contra-diction and problem.However,once one side is overemphasized while the other is overlooked,national problems will come out.Therefore,how to maintain national identity under the national language context,how to care for national identity under the local language context,and how to create a harmonious multi -ethnic identity in the country is of theoretical and practical significance.%民族认同是民族学研究的核心内容之一。由于特殊的区域效应和民族特点,西南边疆各民族在认同方面存在多元化选择,主要是地方语境下的选择和国家语境下的选择。地方语境下的选择反映本民族的归属和自觉认知,以及对本民族利益的关照和追求;国家语境下的民族认同是对国家宪政制度的认可,是对国家的归属和效忠。国家语境选择和地方语境选择在根本利益上应该是一致的,不存在任何矛盾与问题,但如果过份强调一方的选择而忽视另一方的选择,就会产生民族问题。如何维护国家语境下的民族认同,关照地方语境下的民族认同,

  20. Feeling like a group after a natural disaster: Common ingroup identity and relations with outgroup victims among majority and minority young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vezzali, Loris; Cadamuro, Alessia; Versari, Annalisa; Giovannini, Dino; Trifiletti, Elena

    2015-09-01

    We conducted a field study to test whether the common ingroup identity model (Gaertner & Dovidio, 2000, reducing intergroup bias: The common ingroup identity model. Philadelphia, PA: Psychology Press) could be a useful tool to improve intergroup relations in the aftermath of a natural disaster. Participants were majority (Italian) and minority (immigrant) elementary school children (N = 517) living in the area struck by powerful earthquakes in May 2012. Results revealed that, among majority children, the perceived external threat represented by the earthquake was associated with greater perceptions of belonging to a common ingroup including both ingroup and outgroup. In turn, heightened one-group perceptions were associated with greater willingness to meet and help outgroup victims, both directly and indirectly via more positive outgroup attitudes. Among immigrant children, perceived disaster threat was not associated with any of the dependent variables; one-group perceptions were positively associated with outgroup attitudes, helping and contact intentions towards outgroup victims. Thus, one-group perceptions after a natural disaster may promote more positive and supporting relations between the majority and the minority group. We discuss the theoretical and practical implications of the findings.

  1. Formation of selfbound states in a one-dimensional nuclear model—a renormalization group based density functional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemler, Sandra; Pospiech, Martin; Braun, Jens

    2017-01-01

    In nuclear physics, density functional theory (DFT) provides the basis for state-of-the art studies of ground-state properties of heavy nuclei. However, the direct relation of the density functional underlying these calculations and the microscopic nuclear forces is not yet fully understood. We present a combination of DFT and renormalization group (RG) techniques which allows to study selfbound many-body systems from microscopic interactions. We discuss its application with the aid of systems of identical fermions interacting via a long-range attractive and short-range repulsive two-body force in one dimension. We compute ground-state energies, intrinsic densities, and density correlation functions of these systems and compare our results to those obtained from other methods. In particular, we show how energies of excited states as well as the absolute square of the ground-state wave function can be extracted from the correlation functions within our approach. The relation between many-body perturbation theory and our DFT-RG approach is discussed and illustrated with the aid of the calculation of the second-order energy correction for a system of N identical fermions interacting via a general two-body interaction. Moreover, we discuss the control of spuriously emerging fermion self-interactions in DFT studies within our framework. In general, our approach may help to guide the development of energy functionals for future quantitative DFT studies of heavy nuclei from microscopic interactions.

  2. The Observational Mass Function of Loose Galaxy Groups

    OpenAIRE

    Girardi, M.; Giuricin, G.; ;

    2000-01-01

    We analyze the three catalogs of nearby loose groups identified by Garcia (1993). She used a percolation and a hierarchical method, and proposed a third group catalog defined as a combination of the two. Each catalog contains almost 500 groups. In agreement with previous works on earlier catalogs, we find that groups can be described as collapsing systems. Their sampled size is much larger than their expected virialized region. We compute the virial masses and correct them by taking into acco...

  3. Perceptions of learning as a function of seminar group factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jaarsma, A. Debbie C.; de Grave, Willem S.; Muijtjens, Arno M. M.; Scherpbier, Albert J. J. A.; van Beukelen, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Small-group learning is advocated for enhancing higher-order thinking and the development of skills and attitudes. Teacher performance, group interaction and the quality of assignments have been shown to affect small-group learning in hybrid and problem-based curricula. This study aimed to examine

  4. Plant species and functional group combinations affect green roof ecosystem functions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy Lundholm

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Green roofs perform ecosystem services such as summer roof temperature reduction and stormwater capture that directly contribute to lower building energy use and potential economic savings. These services are in turn related to ecosystem functions performed by the vegetation layer such as radiation reflection and transpiration, but little work has examined the role of plant species composition and diversity in improving these functions. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used a replicated modular extensive (shallow growing- medium green roof system planted with monocultures or mixtures containing one, three or five life-forms, to quantify two ecosystem services: summer roof cooling and water capture. We also measured the related ecosystem properties/processes of albedo, evapotranspiration, and the mean and temporal variability of aboveground biomass over four months. Mixtures containing three or five life-form groups, simultaneously optimized several green roof ecosystem functions, outperforming monocultures and single life-form groups, but there was much variation in performance depending on which life-forms were present in the three life-form mixtures. Some mixtures outperformed the best monocultures for water capture, evapotranspiration, and an index combining both water capture and temperature reductions. Combinations of tall forbs, grasses and succulents simultaneously optimized a range of ecosystem performance measures, thus the main benefit of including all three groups was not to maximize any single process but to perform a variety of functions well. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Ecosystem services from green roofs can be improved by planting certain life-form groups in combination, directly contributing to climate change mitigation and adaptation strategies. The strong performance by certain mixtures of life-forms, especially tall forbs, grasses and succulents, warrants further investigation into niche complementarity or

  5. Diversity of deaf identities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bat-Chava, Y

    2000-12-01

    Social Identity Theory (Tajfel, 1981) posits that members of minority groups achieve positive social identity by (a) attempting to gain access to the mainstream through individual mobility or (b) working with other group members to bring about social change. Some people may use a combination of both strategies. Through the use of cluster analysis, the existence of three identities associated with these strategies was discerned in a sample of 267 deaf adults: culturally hearing identity, culturally deaf identity, and bicultural identity, each comprising about a third of the sample. A subset of 56 people were interviewed in depth; excerpts are presented to illustrate the identity types. Qualified support was found for the prediction that people with culturally deaf and bicultural identities would have higher self-esteem.

  6. GROUP DYNAMICS AND TEAM FUNCTIONING IN ORGANIZATIONAL CONTEXT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raluca ZOLTAN

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In all kind of organization many activities are done by groups and teams. But how are they formed? What factors influence their existence and development? How members of groups and teams are selected? Which are the consequences in organizational context? In order to answer these questions, in the present paper we describe and analyze the main approaches regarding the formation of work groups and work teams (sociometric approach and group dynamics approach, the main factors that affects group dynamics and the FIRO model for evaluation the team members’ needs.

  7. Students' Perceptions of Classroom Group Work as a Function of Group Member Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Scott A.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this assessment was to examine whether differences exist between students who self-select their classroom work group members and students who are randomly assigned to their classroom work groups in terms of their use of organizational citizenship behaviors with their work group members; their commitment to, trust in, and relational…

  8. Longitudinal trajectories of bicultural identity integration in recently immigrated Hispanic adolescents: Links with mental health and family functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Seth J; Unger, Jennifer B; Baezconde-Garbanati, Lourdes; Benet-Martínez, Verónica; Meca, Alan; Zamboanga, Byron L; Lorenzo-Blanco, Elma I; Des Rosiers, Sabrina E; Oshri, Assaf; Sabet, Raha F; Soto, Daniel W; Pattarroyo, Monica; Huang, Shi; Villamar, Juan A; Lizzi, Karina M; Szapocznik, José

    2015-12-01

    This study examined, in a sample of recently immigrated Hispanic adolescents in Miami and Los Angeles, the extent to which bicultural identity integration (BII; involving the ability to synthesise one's heritage and receiving cultural streams and to identify as a member of both cultures) is best understood as a developmental construct that changes over time or as an individual-difference construct that is largely stable over time. We were also interested in the extent to which these trajectories predicted mental health and family functioning. Recent-immigrant 9th graders (N = 302) were assessed 6 times from 9th to 12th grade. Latent class growth analyses using the first 5 timepoints identified 2 trajectory classes-one with lower BII scores over time and another with higher BII scores over time. Higher heritage and US identity at baseline predicted membership in the higher BII class. At the 6th study timepoint, lower BII adolescents reported significantly poorer self-esteem, optimism, prosocial behaviour and family relationships compared with their higher BII counterparts. These findings are discussed in terms of further research on the over-time trajectory of biculturalism, and on the need to develop interventions to promote BII as a way of facilitating well-being and positive family functioning.

  9. Signal function drives phenotypic and genetic diversity: the effects of signalling individual identity, quality or behavioural strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tibbetts, Elizabeth A; Mullen, Sean P; Dale, James

    2017-07-05

    Animal coloration is influenced by selection pressures associated with communication. During communication, signallers display traits that inform receivers and modify receiver behaviour in ways that benefit signallers. Here, we discuss how selection on signallers to convey different kinds of information influences animal phenotypes and genotypes. Specifically, we address the phenotypic and genetic consequences of communicating three different kinds of information: individual identity, behavioural strategy and quality. Previous work has shown signals that convey different kinds of information differ in terms of the (i) type of selection acting on signallers (e.g. directional, stabilizing, or negative frequency dependent), and (ii) developmental basis of signals (i.e. heritability, genetic architecture). These differences result in signals that convey different information having consistently different phenotypic properties, including the amount, modality and continuity of intraspecific variation. Understanding how communication influences animal phenotypes may allow researchers to quickly identify putative functions of colour variation prior to experimentation. Signals that convey different information will also have divergent evolutionary consequences. For example, signalling individual identity can increase genetic diversity, signalling quality may decrease diversity, and signalling strategy can constrain adaptation and contribute to speciation. Considering recent advances in genomic resources, our framework highlights new opportunities to resolve the evolutionary consequences of selection on communication across diverse taxa and signal types.This article is part of the themed issue 'Animal coloration: production, perception, function and application'. © 2017 The Author(s).

  10. Functional renormalization group study of fluctuation effects in fermionic superfluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eberlein, Andreas

    2013-03-22

    This thesis is concerned with ground state properties of two-dimensional fermionic superfluids. In such systems, fluctuation effects are particularly strong and lead for example to a renormalization of the order parameter and to infrared singularities. In the first part of this thesis, the fermionic two-particle vertex is analysed and the fermionic renormalization group is used to derive flow equations for a decomposition of the vertex in charge, magnetic and pairing channels. In the second part, the channel-decomposition scheme is applied to various model systems. In the superfluid state, the fermionic two-particle vertex develops rich and singular dependences on momentum and frequency. After simplifying its structure by exploiting symmetries, a parametrization of the vertex in terms of boson-exchange interactions in the particle-hole and particle-particle channels is formulated, which provides an efficient description of the singular momentum and frequency dependences. Based on this decomposition of the vertex, flow equations for the effective interactions are derived on one- and two-loop level, extending existing channel-decomposition schemes to (i) the description of symmetry breaking in the Cooper channel and (ii) the inclusion of those two-loop renormalization contributions to the vertex that are neglected in the Katanin scheme. In the second part, the superfluid ground state of various model systems is studied using the channel-decomposition scheme for the vertex and the flow equations. A reduced model with interactions in the pairing and forward scattering channels is solved exactly, yielding insights into the singularity structure of the vertex. For the attractive Hubbard model at weak coupling, the momentum and frequency dependence of the two-particle vertex and the frequency dependence of the self-energy are determined on one- and two-loop level. Results for the suppression of the superfluid gap by fluctuations are in good agreement with the literature

  11. Some Identities on Analogue Apostol-Bernoulli Function%高阶Apostol-Bernoulli函数的—些恒等式

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王念良; 李复活

    2011-01-01

    Apostol-Bernoulli函数及其推广形式是研究某些特殊函数的基础。在特殊函数理论研究中占有极其重要的地位。研究了高阶Apostol-Bernoulli函数的性质,利用高阶Apostol-BemouUi函数的指数生成函数与高阶Apostol-Euler函数的指数生成函数的关系,给出了Apostol-Bernoulli函数的两个表述式及一个推论。%The Apostol-BemouUi. function and its generalization is the base of the studies of some special functions, and play a key role in such studies In this study, the properties of analogue Apostol-BemouUi function were investigated, by the exponential generating functions of Apostol-Bernoulli and Euler functions, two identities on anologue Apostol-Bemoulli function and a corrollary are obtained.

  12. Accurate localized resolution of identity approach for linear-scaling hybrid density functionals and for many-body perturbation theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihrig, Arvid Conrad; Wieferink, Jürgen; Zhang, Igor Ying; Ropo, Matti; Ren, Xinguo; Rinke, Patrick; Scheffler, Matthias; Blum, Volker

    2015-09-01

    A key component in calculations of exchange and correlation energies is the Coulomb operator, which requires the evaluation of two-electron integrals. For localized basis sets, these four-center integrals are most efficiently evaluated with the resolution of identity (RI) technique, which expands basis-function products in an auxiliary basis. In this work we show the practical applicability of a localized RI-variant (‘RI-LVL’), which expands products of basis functions only in the subset of those auxiliary basis functions which are located at the same atoms as the basis functions. We demonstrate the accuracy of RI-LVL for Hartree-Fock calculations, for the PBE0 hybrid density functional, as well as for RPA and MP2 perturbation theory. Molecular test sets used include the S22 set of weakly interacting molecules, the G3 test set, as well as the G2-1 and BH76 test sets, and heavy elements including titanium dioxide, copper and gold clusters. Our RI-LVL implementation paves the way for linear-scaling RI-based hybrid functional calculations for large systems and for all-electron many-body perturbation theory with significantly reduced computational and memory cost.

  13. Pizza and pop and the student identity: the role of referent group norms in healthy and unhealthy eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louis, Winnifred; Davies, Sarah; Smith, Joanne; Terry, Deborah

    2007-02-01

    Using the Theory of Planned Behavior (I. Ajzen, 1985, 1991) and referent group (student) norms and identification (D. J. Terry & M. A. Hogg, 1996), the authors longitudinally predicted healthy eating intentions and behavior in a sample of 137 university students. Specifically, attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived control predicted intentions at Time 1, which predicted self-reported behavior at Time 2. There was also a link between intentions and observed behavior at Time 2. Beyond the planned behavior variables, referent group norms for university students' eating behavior interacted with participants' identification as students to predict healthy eating intentions. The authors discussed implications for researcher's conceptualization of normative influence and for interventions into this group's eating behavior.

  14. Beyond egoism and group identity: empathy toward the other and awareness of others in a social dilemma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oceja, Luis; Jiménez, Isabel

    2007-11-01

    In three experiments, participants were faced with a social dilemma in which they could benefit themselves, the group, or other group members as individuals. The results showed that participants who felt high empathy toward a certain individual allocated more resources to the target of empathy, but without reducing the collective good. Then, we adapted the measure of empathy developed by Batson and colleagues (Batson, Ahmad, et al., 1999; Batson, Batson, et al., 1995) to the Spanish context. The results of Experiment 3 supported the existence of a new process: awareness of other individuals present in the social dilemma. It is proposed that this process is independent of those typically studied in research of this field: self-interest, group identification, and the empathy for a specific individual.

  15. Social Identity: Clarifying its Dimensions across Cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maritza R. Salazar

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Social identity has been linked to a number of work-relevant constructs. Specifically, researchers have investigated the role of social identity in cross-function teams, its impact on team performance and willingness to engage in OCBs, just to name a few. Furthermore, this construct has been cited as one of the most relevant constructs when understanding inter-group relations (Sohrabi, Gholipour, & Amiri, 2011. Given the theoretical and empirical importance of this construct, this paper reviews the construct of social identity and theorizes about how this construct may differ across cultures. First, we review social identity dimensions and propose how they may have different meanings and be perceived differently across cultures. Next, we delineate ways to pursue the measurement of social identity when conducting cross-cultural research. We conclude by providing insight for future research that compares social identity across cultures.

  16. The Problems of Research on Group Identity of New Generation of Migrant Workers%新生代农民工群体特征研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    迟帅; 金银

    2012-01-01

    自2010年中央一号文件首次提出“新生代农民工”说法,新生代农民工开始成为社会各界关注的对象,通过梳理相关文献大致可勾画出新生代农民工所谓“四高”、“一低”、“一薄弱”的社会印象和群体特征。相对其他群体来说,新生代农民工受教育水平并不高,对于农民身份认同相对减弱,城市社区认同较高。对于新生代农民工群体特征的研究应该区分农民工的人口学特征与社会特征,并充分认识到新生代农民工群体的异质性,对其定义和特征把握要注意从与周围群体和代际关系中共同考虑。%Since 2010, the No.1 document of central government named "the new generation of migrant workers" for the first time. The new generation of migrant workers draws on public attention. As to the concept, this paper gives the proper reflection of the deviations in the series of researches and its prevention, and sketches out the social impression of the new generation of migrant workers and group identity, such as higher levels of education, higher career expectations, higher level of consumption, higher level of social security; low work tolerance; weak provincialism. Compared to other groups, the new generation of migrant workers is not highly educated. Their peasant identity was weakened and urban community identity was strengthened. Finally, the demographic and social characteristics of the group identity of the new generation of migrant workers should be distinguished and the heterogeneity should be fully paid attention to. And we should consider the characteristics from the surrounding community and intergenerational relationship together.

  17. Identity Politics, Justice and the Schooling of Muslim Girls: Navigating the Tensions between Multiculturalism, Group Rights and Feminism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keddie, Amanda

    2014-01-01

    This article focuses on the concerns expressed by three female Muslim educators who are support staff at an English comprehensive school. Consistent with the debates associated with multiculturalism, group rights and feminism, the article illuminates spaces of gender constraint and possibility within the discourses shaping these women's lives and…

  18. Identity Politics, Justice and the Schooling of Muslim Girls: Navigating the Tensions between Multiculturalism, Group Rights and Feminism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keddie, Amanda

    2014-01-01

    This article focuses on the concerns expressed by three female Muslim educators who are support staff at an English comprehensive school. Consistent with the debates associated with multiculturalism, group rights and feminism, the article illuminates spaces of gender constraint and possibility within the discourses shaping these women's lives…

  19. Identity Politics, Justice and the Schooling of Muslim Girls: Navigating the Tensions between Multiculturalism, Group Rights and Feminism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keddie, Amanda

    2014-01-01

    This article focuses on the concerns expressed by three female Muslim educators who are support staff at an English comprehensive school. Consistent with the debates associated with multiculturalism, group rights and feminism, the article illuminates spaces of gender constraint and possibility within the discourses shaping these women's lives and…

  20. Facilitating identity formation, group membership, and learning in science classrooms: What can be learned from out-of-field teaching in an urban school?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olitsky, Stacy

    2007-03-01

    This paper explores both the obstacles and the possibilities for students developing identities associated with science by engaging in solidarity-building classroom interactions. Data come from ethnographic research conducted in a diverse eighth-grade urban magnet school classroom in which the teacher taught out of field for part of the year. Contrary to expectations, more students participated and reported enjoying science when the teacher was out of field. Analysis of classroom interactions indicated that while in field, the teacher primarily engaged in front stage performances that hid her struggles with the material and accentuated students' views of science as an elite status group. The types of solidarity that developed among students often did not involve science language and sometimes involved students rejecting peers' claims to membership. However, when out of field, the teacher allowed students into her backstage, where her struggles and learning processes were more explicit. These practices lessened the social distance between teacher and students, and reduced the risks of using science language, thereby encouraging solidarity and group membership. This study provides insights into some of the ways that teachers, particularly those in urban settings characterized by diversity, might be more successful at facilitating identity formation and learning in science.

  1. Understanding help-seeking amongst university students: The role of group identity, stigma and exposure to suicide and help-seeking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle eKearns

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Despite a high prevalence of suicide ideation and mental health issues amongst university students, the stigma of help-seeking remains a barrier to those who are in real need of professional support. Social identity theory states that help received from an ingroup source is more welcome and less threatening to one’s identity than that from a source perceived as outgroup. Therefore, we hypothesized that students' stigma towards seeking help from their university mental health service would differ based on the strength of their identification with the university.Method: An online survey including measures of stigma of suicide, group identification, experience with help-seeking and exposure to suicide was administered to Irish university students (N = 493.Results: Group identification was a significant predictor of help-seeking attitudes after controlling for already known predictors. Contrary to our expectations, those who identified more strongly with their university demonstrated a higher stigma of seeking help from their university mental health service.Conclusions: Results are discussed in relation to self-categorization theory and the concept of normative fit. Practical implications for mental health service provision in universities are also addressed, specifically the need for a range of different mental health services both on and off-campus.

  2. Psychobiological characteristics of dissociative identity disorder : A symptom provocation study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reinders, A. A. T. Simone; Nijenhuis, Ellert R. S.; Quak, Jacqueline; Korf, Jakob; Haaksma, Jaap; Paans, Anne M. J.; Willemsen, Antoon T. M.; den Boer, Johan A.

    2006-01-01

    Background: Dissociative identity disorder (DID) patients function as two or more identities or dissociative identity states (DIS), categorized as 'neutral identity states' (NIS) and 'traumatic identity states' (TIS). NIS inhibit access to traumatic memories thereby enabling daily life functioning.

  3. Psychobiological characteristics of dissociative identity disorder : A symptom provocation study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reinders, A. A. T. Simone; Nijenhuis, Ellert R. S.; Quak, Jacqueline; Korf, Jakob; Haaksma, Jaap; Paans, Anne M. J.; Willemsen, Antoon T. M.; den Boer, Johan A.

    2006-01-01

    Background: Dissociative identity disorder (DID) patients function as two or more identities or dissociative identity states (DIS), categorized as 'neutral identity states' (NIS) and 'traumatic identity states' (TIS). NIS inhibit access to traumatic memories thereby enabling daily life functioning.

  4. The co-construction of adolescent narrative identity: narrative processing as a function of adolescent age, gender, and maternal scaffolding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, Kate C; Mansfield, Cade D

    2012-03-01

    The current study aimed to situate the development of adolescent narrative identity in the context of past-event conversations between adolescents and their mothers, extending work on conversational contexts in early childhood to adolescence. We examined a cross-section of 63 adolescents with 2 goals: (1) to examine how adolescent age and gender interacted with mothers' scaffolding behaviors and how those interactions were associated with adolescents' narrative processes of meaning-making, vulnerability, and resolution; (2) to examine mothers' behaviors in conversation and how the interactions between those behaviors and event type (important, sad, and happy themes) were associated with those narrative processes. We found that maternal behavior in the conversation was related to adolescent narrative processes, yet this link varied as a function of characteristics of the adolescent and type of event discussed. Overall results suggest that those with potentially less practice at narrating the self in elaborative ways--younger adolescents and boys--receive more supportive scaffolding, and that for those with likely more practice with elaborative narration--girls and older adolescents--mothers engage in more negation behavior. The role of these scaffolding behaviors in adolescent narrative identity development is discussed.

  5. Cope, Conform, or Resist? Functions of a Black American Identity at a Predominantly White University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Yasser Arafat; Suddler, Carl

    2014-01-01

    This study organized five black American undergraduate students into a participatory action research (PAR) team to examine Cross and Strauss' (1998) and Cross, Smith, and Payne's (2002) functions of blackness theory (i.e., bonding, code switching, and individualism) within a sample of black American students, frontline staff (i.e.,…

  6. The preparation of new functionalized [2.2]paracyclophane derivatives with N-containing functional groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henning Hopf

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The two isomeric bis(isocyanates 4,12- and 4,16-di-isocyanato[2.2]paracyclophane, 16 and 28, have been prepared from their corresponding diacids by simple routes. The two isomers are versatile intermediates for the preparation of various cyclophanes bearing substituents with nitrogen-containing functional groups, e.g., the pseudo-ortho diamine 8, the bis secondary amine 23, and the crownophanes 18 and 19. Several of these new cyclophane derivatives (18, 19, 22, 26, 28 have been characterized by X-ray structural analysis.

  7. Identity crisis of Th17 cells: many forms, many functions, many questions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundrud, Mark S; Trivigno, Catherine

    2013-11-15

    Th17 cells are a subset of CD4(+) effector T cells characterized by expression of the IL-17-family cytokines, IL-17A and IL-17F. Since their discovery nearly a decade ago, Th17 cells have been implicated in the regulation of dozens of immune-mediated inflammatory diseases and cancer. However, attempts to clarify the development and function of Th17 cells in human health and disease have generated as many questions as answers. On one hand, cytokine expression in Th17 cells appears to be remarkably dynamic and is subject to extensive regulation (both positive and negative) in tissue microenvironments. On the other hand, accumulating evidence suggests that the human Th17 subset is a heterogeneous population composed of several distinct pro- and anti-inflammatory subsets. Clearly, Th17 cells as originally conceived no longer neatly fit the long-standing paradigm of stable and irrepressible effector T cell function. Here we review current concepts surrounding human Th17 cells, with an emphasis on their plasticity, heterogeneity, and their many, tissue-specific functions. In spite of the challenges ahead, a comprehensive understanding of Th17 cells and their relationship to human disease is key to ongoing efforts to develop safer and more selective anti-inflammatory medicines.

  8. XPS of nitrogen-containing functional groups on activated carbon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, R.J.J.; Bekkum, van H.

    1995-01-01

    XPS is used to study the binding energy of the Cls, Nls and Ols photoelectrons of surface groups on several nitrogen-containing activated carbons. Specific binding energies are assigned to amide (399.9 eV). lactam and imidc (399.7 eV). pyridine (398.7 eV), pyrrole (400.7 eV), alkylamine. secondary a

  9. Adsorbent Selection by Functional Group Interaction Screening for Peptide Recovery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijntje, Renze; Bosch, Hans; Haan, de Andre B.; Bussman, Paul

    2005-01-01

    In order to selectively adsorb small peptides from complex aqueous feeds, selective adsorbents are required. The goal is to first find adsorbents with capacity for triglycine, as triglycine contains all groups common to small peptides. Selectivity studies will follow. Adsorbent selection was based o

  10. Toward human resource management in inter-professional health practice: linking organizational culture, group identity and individual autonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tataw, David

    2012-01-01

    The literature on team and inter-professional care practice describes numerous barriers to the institutionalization of inter-professional healthcare. Responses to slow institutionalization of inter-professional healthcare practice have failed to describe change variables and to identify change agents relevant to inter-professional healthcare practice. The purpose of this paper is to (1) describe individual and organizational level barriers to collaborative practice in healthcare; (2) identify change variables relevant to the institutionalization of inter-professional practice at individual and organizational levels of analysis; and (3) identify human resource professionals as change agents and describe how the strategic use of the human resource function could transform individual and organizational level change variables and therefore facilitate the healthcare system's shift toward inter-professional practice. A proposed program of institutionalization includes the following components: a strategic plan to align human resource functions with organizational level inter-professional healthcare strategies, activities to enhance professional competencies and the organizational position of human resource personnel, activities to integrate inter-professional healthcare practices into the daily routines of institutional and individual providers, activities to stand up health provider champions as permanent leaders of inter-professional teams with human resource professionals as consultants and activities to bring all key players to the table including health providers. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Molecular electronegativity in density functional theory (II) --Direct calculation of group electronegativity and the atomic charges in a group

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨忠志; 沈尔忠

    1996-01-01

    On the basis of a more precise expression of the atomic effective electronegativity deduced from the density functional theory and electronegativity equalization principle, a new scheme for calculating the group electronegativity and the atomic charges in a group is proposed and programed, and various parameters of electronegativity and hardness are given for some common atoms. Through calculation, analysis and comparison of more than one hundred groups, it is shown that the results from this scheme are reasonable and may be extended.

  12. Identity Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Peter J.

    2006-01-01

    This research examines two mechanisms by which persons' identities change over time. First, on the basis of identity control theory (ICT), I hypothesize that while identities influence the way in which a role is played out, discrepancies between the meanings of the identity standard and the meanings of the role performance will result in change.…

  13. Effects of Oxygen-Containing Functional Groups on Supercapacitor Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerisit, Sebastien N.; Schwenzer, Birgit; Vijayakumar, M.

    2014-07-03

    Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of the interface between graphene and the ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium trifluoromethanesulfonate (BMIM OTf) were carried out to gain molecular-level insights into the performance of graphene-based supercapacitors and, in particular, determine the effects of the presence of oxygen-containing defects at the graphene surface on their integral capacitance. The MD simulations predict that increasing the surface coverage of hydroxyl groups negatively affects the integral capacitance, whereas the effect of the presence of epoxy groups is much less significant. The calculated variations in capacitance are found to be directly correlated to the interfacial structure. Indeed, hydrogen bonding between hydroxyl groups and SO3 anion moieties prevents BMIM+ and OTf- molecules from interacting favorably in the dense interfacial layer and restrains the orientation and mobility of OTf- ions, thereby reducing the permittivity of the ionic liquid at the interface. The results of the molecular simulations can facilitate the rational design of electrode materials for supercapacitors.

  14. Quantum groups and functional relations for lower rank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nirov, Kh. S.; Razumov, A. V.

    2017-02-01

    A detailed construction of the universal integrability objects related to the integrable systems associated with the quantum loop algebra Uq(L(sl2)) is given. The full proof of the functional relations in the form independent of the representation of the quantum loop algebra on the quantum space is presented. The case of the general gradation and general twisting is treated. The specialization of the universal functional relations to the case when the quantum space is the state space of a discrete spin chain is described. This is a digression of the corresponding consideration for the case of the quantum loop algebra Uq(L(sl3)) with an extension to the higher spin case.

  15. FGO: A novel ontology for identification of ligand functional group

    OpenAIRE

    Varadwaj, Pritish Kumar; Lahiri, Tapobrata

    2007-01-01

    Small molecules play crucial role in the modulation of biological functions by interacting with specific macromolecules. Hence small molecule interactions are captured by a variety of experimental methods to estimate and propose correlations between molecular structures to their biological activities. The tremendous expanse in publicly available small molecules is also driving new efforts to better understand interactions involving small molecules particularly in area of drug docking and phar...

  16. Position statement: Gender dysphoria in childhood and adolescence. Working Group on Gender Identity and Sexual Development of the Spanish Society of Endocrinology and Nutrition (GIDSEEN).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteva de Antonio, Isabel; Asenjo Araque, Nuria; Hurtado Murillo, Felipe; Fernández Rodríguez, María; Vidal Hagemeijer, Ángela; Moreno-Pérez, Oscar; Lucio Pérez, María Jesús; López Siguero, Juan Pedro

    2015-10-01

    Gender dysphoria (GD) in childhood and adolescence is a complex condition where early detection and comprehensive treatment are essential to improve quality of life, decrease mental comorbidity, and improve GD. In this position statement, the Working Group on Gender Identity and Sexual Development of the Spanish Society of Endocrinology and Nutrition (GIDSEEN), consisting of specialists in Endocrinology, Psychology, Psychiatry, Pediatrics and Sociology, sets out recommendations for evaluation and treatment of GD in children and adolescents. Interdisciplinary management of GD should be carried out at specialized units (UTIGs), considering that any clinical intervention should follow the principles of scientific rigor, experience, ethical and deontological principles, and the necessary caution in front of chronic, aggressive, and irreversible treatments. Copyright © 2015 SEEN. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  17. [Evaluation of Fluo-Card Milleri to Identify the Isolates of Streptococcus milleri Group: Comparative Identication with Referral Fluorogenic Phenotypic Dierentiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakasone; Furugen; Higa; Yamane

    1998-11-25

    Clinical isolates which belong to the "Streptococcus milleri" group were identied by the referral uorogenic phenotypic tests described by Whiley et al. [J. Clin. Microbiol., 28: 1497-1501 (1990)] and a rapid, commercially available test kits; Fluo-Card Milleri (KEY Scientific Products, Round Rock, Tex., U.S.A.) to the species level. Of 218 clinical isolates included, 196 (89.9%) were correctly identied by the Fluo-Card Milleri when compared with the reference identications. Ten isolates (4.6%) of S. constellatus resulted in the "unidentied" due to the negative interpretations for all the three enzymatic reactions. A total of twelve isolates (5.5%); five of S. anginosus, five of S. constellatus, and two of S. intermedius, were misidentied. The levels of agreement were 95.7% for S. anginosus, 91.3% for S. intermedius, and 92.6% for S. constellatus when the unidentied results were excluded.

  18. Changing the Ties That Bind? The Emerging Roles and Identities of General Practitioners and Managers in the New Clinical Commissioning Groups in the English NHS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Segar

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The English National Health Service (NHS is undergoing significant reorganization following the 2012 Health and Social Care Act. Key to these changes is the shift of responsibility for commissioning services from Primary Care Trusts (PCTs to general practitioners (GPs working together in Clinical Commissioning Groups (CCGs. This article is based on an empirical study that examined the development of emerging CCGs in eight case studies across England between September 2011 and June 2012. The findings are based on interviews with GPs and managers, observations of meetings, and reading of related documents. Scott’s notion that institutions are constituted by three pillars—the regulative, normative, and cognitive–cultural—is explored here. This approach helps to understand the changing roles and identities of doctors and managers implicated by the present reforms. This article notes the far reaching changes in the regulative pillar and questions how these changes will affect the normative and cultural–cognitive pillars.

  19. Function group approach to unconstrained Hamiltonian Yang-Mills theory

    CERN Document Server

    Salmela, A

    2004-01-01

    Starting from the temporal gauge Hamiltonian for classical pure Yang-Mills theory with the gauge group SU(2) a canonical transformation is initiated by parametrising the Gauss law generators with three new canonical variables. The construction of the remaining variables of the new set proceeds through a number of intermediate variables in several steps, which are suggested by the Poisson bracket relations and the gauge transformation properties of these variables. The unconstrained Hamiltonian is obtained from the original one by expressing it in the new variables and then setting the Gauss law generators to zero. This Hamiltonian turns out to be local and it decomposes into a finite Laurent series in powers of the coupling constant.

  20. Application technology on human general function as a group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Numano, Masayoshi; Matsuoka, Takeshi; Tanaka, Kunihiko; Fukuto, Junji; Mitomo, Nobuo; Miyazaki; Keiko; Matsukura, Hiroshi; Niwa, Yasuyuki; Ando, Hirotomo [Ship Research Inst., Tokyo (Japan)

    2000-02-01

    An operation assistant system for two operators as an object of plant model simulated on PWR was made experimentally, effectiveness on applying 3D-VR spatial indication and repulsive feedback input apparatus to plant operation assistance was investigated. By adopting a transmission type HMD, combination use with the conventional type operation monitoring system was made possible, and then it could be thought to become possible that human error was found by oneself by adding intuitive indication and feedback to judgement and operation used by a system assisting with logic understanding. And, by sharing these informations in a group, it was also found that correction of not only selfish but also other operator's error was made possible. (G.K.)

  1. Duffy blood group antigens: structure, serological properties and function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Łukasik

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Duffy (Fy blood group antigens are located on seven-transmembrane glycoprotein expressed on erythrocytes and endothelial cells, which acts as atypical chemokine receptor (ACKR1 and malarial receptor. The biological role of the Duffy glycoprotein has not been explained yet. It is suggested that Duffy protein modulate the intensity of the inflammatory response. The Duffy blood group system consists of two major antigens, Fya and Fyb, encoded by two codominant alleles designated FY*A and FY*B which differ by a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP at position 125G>A of the FY gene that results in Gly42Asp amino acid change in the Fya and Fyb antigens, respectively. The presence of antigen Fya and/or Fyb on the erythrocytes determine three Duffy-positive phenotypes: Fy(a+b-, Fy(a-b+ and Fy(a+b+, identified in Caucasian population. The Duffy-negative phenotype Fy(a-b-, frequent in Africans, but very rare in Caucasians, is defined by the homozygous state of FY*B-33 alleles. The FY*B-33 allele is associated with a SNP -33T>C in the promoter region of the FY gene, which suppresses erythroid expression of this gene without affecting its expression in other tissues. The FY*X allele, found in Caucasians, is correlated with weak expression of Fyb antigen. Fyx antigen differs from the native Fyb by the Arg89Cys and Ala100Thr amino acid substitutions due to SNPs: 265C>T and 298G>A in FY*B allele. The frequency of the FY alleles shows marked geographic disparities, the FY*B-33 allele is predominant in Africans, the FY*B in Caucasians, while the FY*A allele is dominant in Asians and it is the most prevalent allele globally. Tytuł główny Tak

  2. Influence of substituents and functional groups on the surface composition of ionic liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolbeck, Claudia; Niedermaier, Inga; Deyko, Alexey; Lovelock, Kevin R J; Taccardi, Nicola; Wei, Wei; Wasserscheid, Peter; Maier, Florian; Steinrück, Hans-Peter

    2014-04-01

    We have performed a systematic study addressing the surface behavior of a variety of functionalized and non-functionalized ionic liquids (ILs). From angle-resolved X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, detailed conclusions on the surface enrichment of the functional groups and the molecular orientation of the cations and anions is derived. The systems include imidazolium-based ILs methylated at the C2 position, a phenyl-functionalized IL, an alkoxysilane-functionalized IL, halo-functionalized ILs, thioether-functionalized ILs, and amine-functionalized ILs. The results are compared with the results for corresponding non-functionalized ILs where available. Generally, enrichment of the functional group at the surface is only observed for systems that have very weak interaction between the functional group and the ionic head groups.

  3. Hard Identity and Soft Identity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Rachik

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Often collective identities are classified depending on their contents and rarely depending on their forms. Differentiation between soft identity and hard identity is applied to diverse collective identities: religious, political, national, tribal ones, etc. This classification is made following the principal dimensions of collective identities: type of classification (univocal and exclusive or relative and contextual, the absence or presence of conflictsof loyalty, selective or totalitarian, objective or subjective conception, among others. The different characteristics analysed contribute to outlining an increasingly frequent type of identity: the authoritarian identity.

  4. The Supermalt identity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech-Larsen, Tino; Esbjerg, Lars; Grunert, Klaus G.

    2007-01-01

    -Caribbean informants. The food and beverage consumption of informants reflects their mixed cultural identity. The brand identity Supermalt appears to be malleable, with ample room for consumer co-construction. Perceptions of brand identity differ markedly among informants, who are all able to construct Supermalt...... on consumers' self-identities. The second part explored the role of food and beverage products in the construction of self-identities. The final part focused on the construction of brand identity for Supermalt. Findings - The article provides information on the self-identities constructed by Afro...... aiming to develop strong brands with a limited marketing budget. Based on the Supermalt case, suggestions are made regarding branding in relation to ethnic minorities. Originality/value - This article provides a study of a brand that has become strong within a narrowly defined group of consumers....

  5. Analytic, group-theoretic wave functions for confined, correlated N-body systems with general two-body interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, M.; Watson, D. K.; Loeser, J. G.

    2006-08-01

    In this paper, we develop an analytic N-body wave function for identical particles under quantum confinement with a general two-body interaction. A systematic approach to correlation is developed by combining three theoretical methods: dimensional perturbation theory, the FG method of Wilson et. al., and the group theory of the symmetric group. Analytic results are achieved for a completely general interaction potential. Unlike conventional perturbation methods which are applicable only for weakly interacting systems, this analytic approach is applicable to both weakly and strongly interacting systems. This method directly accounts for each two-body interaction, rather than an average interaction so even lowest-order results include beyond-mean-field effects. One major advantage is that N appears as a parameter in the analytical expressions for the energy so results for different N are easy to obtain.

  6. Does Identity Incompatibility Lead to Disidentification? Internal Motivation to Be a Group Member Acts As Buffer for Sojourners from Independent Cultures, Whereas External Motivation Acts As Buffer for Sojourners from Interdependent Cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matschke, Christina; Fehr, Jennifer

    2017-01-01

    Most individuals possess more than one relevant social identity, but these social identities can be more or less incompatible. Research has demonstrated that incompatibility between an established social identity and a potential new social identity impedes the integration into the new group. We argue that incompatibility is a strong risk factor for disidentification, i.e., a negative self-defining relation to a relevant group. The current research investigates the impact of incompatibilities on disidentification in the acculturation context. We propose that incompatibility between one’s cultural identities increases the disidentification with the receiving society. It has, however, been shown that the motivation to be a group member serves as a buffer against negative integration experiences. Moreover, research from the intercultural domain has shown that intrinsic and extrinsic motivation has specific effects for members of cultures that differ in self-construal. In a European sample of High school exchange students (Study 1, N = 378), it was found that incompatibility was positively related to disidentification, but only for less (but not more) intrinsically motivated newcomers. In an Asian sample of international university students (Study 2, N = 74), it was found that incompatibility was also positively related to disidentification, but only for less (but not more) extrinsically motivated newcomers. Thus, the findings demonstrate that the effect of incompatibility between social identities on disidentification can be buffered by motivation. The results suggest that, depending on cultural self-construal, individuals have different resources to buffer the negative effect of incompatibility on the social identity. PMID:28326055

  7. Metallicity Distribution Functions of Four Local Group dwarf galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Ross, Teresa L; Saha, Abhijit; Anthony-Twarog, Barbara J

    2015-01-01

    We present stellar metallicities in Leo I, Leo II, IC 1613, and Phoenix dwarf galaxies derived from medium (F390M) and broad (F555W, F814W) band photometry using the Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) instrument aboard the Hubble Space Telescope. We measured metallicity distribution functions (MDFs) in two ways, 1) matching stars to isochrones in color-color diagrams, and 2) solving for the best linear combination of synthetic populations to match the observed color-color diagram. The synthetic technique reduces the effect of photometric scatter, and produces MDFs 30-50 % narrower than the MDFs produced from individually matched stars. We fit the synthetic and individual MDFs to analytical chemical evolution models (CEM) to quantify the enrichment and the effect of gas flows within the galaxies. Additionally, we measure stellar metallicity gradients in Leo I and II. For IC 1613 and Phoenix our data do not have the radial extent to confirm a metallicity gradient for either galaxy. We find the MDF of Leo I (dwarf spher...

  8. METALLICITY DISTRIBUTION FUNCTIONS OF FOUR LOCAL GROUP DWARF GALAXIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ross, Teresa L.; Holtzman, Jon [Department of Astronomy, New Mexico State University, P.O. Box 30001, MSC 4500, Las Cruces, NM 88003-8001 (United States); Saha, Abhijit [NOAO, 950 Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85726-6732 (United States); Anthony-Twarog, Barbara J., E-mail: rosst@nmsu.edu, E-mail: holtz@nmsu.edu, E-mail: bjat@ku.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Kansas, Lawrence, KS 66045-7582 (United States)

    2015-06-15

    We present stellar metallicities in Leo I, Leo II, IC 1613, and Phoenix dwarf galaxies derived from medium (F390M) and broad (F555W, F814W) band photometry using the Wide Field Camera 3 instrument on board the Hubble Space Telescope. We measured metallicity distribution functions (MDFs) in two ways, (1) matching stars to isochrones in color–color diagrams and (2) solving for the best linear combination of synthetic populations to match the observed color–color diagram. The synthetic technique reduces the effect of photometric scatter and produces MDFs 30%–50% narrower than the MDFs produced from individually matched stars. We fit the synthetic and individual MDFs to analytical chemical evolution models (CEMs) to quantify the enrichment and the effect of gas flows within the galaxies. Additionally, we measure stellar metallicity gradients in Leo I and II. For IC 1613 and Phoenix our data do not have the radial extent to confirm a metallicity gradient for either galaxy. We find the MDF of Leo I (dwarf spheroidal) to be very peaked with a steep metal-rich cutoff and an extended metal-poor tail, while Leo II (dwarf spheroidal), Phoenix (dwarf transition), and IC 1613 (dwarf irregular) have wider, less peaked MDFs than Leo I. A simple CEM is not the best fit for any of our galaxies; therefore we also fit the “Best Accretion Model” of Lynden-Bell. For Leo II, IC 1613, and Phoenix we find similar accretion parameters for the CEM even though they all have different effective yields, masses, star formation histories, and morphologies. We suggest that the dynamical history of a galaxy is reflected in the MDF, where broad MDFs are seen in galaxies that have chemically evolved in relative isolation and narrowly peaked MDFs are seen in galaxies that have experienced more complicated dynamical interactions concurrent with their chemical evolution.

  9. Quantitative evaluation of interaction force between functional groups in protein and polymer brush surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakata, Sho; Inoue, Yuuki; Ishihara, Kazuhiko

    2014-03-18

    To understand interactions between polymer surfaces and different functional groups in proteins, interaction forces were quantitatively evaluated by force-versus-distance curve measurements using atomic force microscopy with a functional-group-functionalized cantilever. Various polymer brush surfaces were systematically prepared by surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization as well-defined model surfaces to understand protein adsorption behavior. The polymer brush layers consisted of phosphorylcholine groups (zwitterionic/hydrophilic), trimethylammonium groups (cationic/hydrophilic), sulfonate groups (anionic/hydrophilic), hydroxyl groups (nonionic/hydrophilic), and n-butyl groups (nonionic/hydrophobic) in their side chains. The interaction forces between these polymer brush surfaces and different functional groups (carboxyl groups, amino groups, and methyl groups, which are typical functional groups existing in proteins) were quantitatively evaluated by force-versus-distance curve measurements using atomic force microscopy with a functional-group-functionalized cantilever. Furthermore, the amount of adsorbed protein on the polymer brush surfaces was quantified by surface plasmon resonance using albumin with a negative net charge and lysozyme with a positive net charge under physiological conditions. The amount of proteins adsorbed on the polymer brush surfaces corresponded to the interaction forces generated between the functional groups on the cantilever and the polymer brush surfaces. The weakest interaction force and least amount of protein adsorbed were observed in the case of the polymer brush surface with phosphorylcholine groups in the side chain. On the other hand, positive and negative surfaces generated strong forces against the oppositely charged functional groups. In addition, they showed significant adsorption with albumin and lysozyme, respectively. These results indicated that the interaction force at the functional group level might be

  10. Red electroluminescence of ruthenium sensitizer functionalized by sulfonate anchoring groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahroosvand, Hashem; Abbasi, Parisa; Mohajerani, Ezeddin; Janghouri, Mohammad

    2014-06-28

    We have synthesized five novel Ru(ii) phenanthroline complexes with an additional aryl sulfonate ligating substituent at the 5-position [Ru(L)(bpy)2](BF4)2 (1), [Ru(L)(bpy)(SCN)2] (2), [Ru(L)3](BF4)2 (3), [Ru(L)2(bpy)](BF4)2 (4) and [Ru(L)(BPhen)(SCN)2] (5) (where L = 6-one-[1,10]phenanthroline-5-ylamino)-3-hydroxynaphthalene 1-sulfonic, bpy = 2,2'-bipyridine, BPhen = 4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline), as both photosensitizers for oxide semiconductor solar cells (DSSCs) and light emitting diodes (LEDs). The absorption and emission maxima of these complexes red shifted upon extending the conjugation of the phenanthroline ligand. Ru phenanthroline complexes exhibit broad metal to ligand charge transfer-centered electroluminescence (EL) with a maximum near 580 nm. Our results indicated that a particular structure (2) can be considered as both DSSC and OLED devices. The efficiency of the LED performance can be tuned by using a range of ligands. Device (2) has a luminance of 550 cd m(-2) and maximum efficiency of 0.9 cd A(-1) at 18 V, which are the highest values among the five devices. The turn-on voltage of this device is approximately 5 V. The role of auxiliary ligands in the photophysical properties of Ru complexes was investigated by DFT calculation. We have also studied photovoltaic properties of dye-sensitized nanocrystalline semiconductor solar cells based on Ru phenanthroline complexes and an iodine redox electrolyte. A solar energy to electricity conversion efficiency (η) of 0.67% was obtained for Ru complex (2) under standard AM 1.5 irradiation with a short-circuit photocurrent density (Jsc) of 2.46 mA cm(-2), an open-circuit photovoltage (Voc) of 0.6 V, and a fill factor (ff) of 40%, which are all among the highest values for ruthenium sulfonated anchoring groups reported so far. Monochromatic incident photon to current conversion efficiency was 23% at 475 nm. Photovoltaic studies clearly indicated dyes with two SCN substituents yielded a higher Jsc for the

  11. A Generalized Logistic Regression Procedure to Detect Differential Item Functioning among Multiple Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magis, David; Raiche, Gilles; Beland, Sebastien; Gerard, Paul

    2011-01-01

    We present an extension of the logistic regression procedure to identify dichotomous differential item functioning (DIF) in the presence of more than two groups of respondents. Starting from the usual framework of a single focal group, we propose a general approach to estimate the item response functions in each group and to test for the presence…

  12. Functional groups grafted nonwoven fabrics for blood filtration-The effects of functional groups and wettability on the adhesion of leukocyte and platelet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang Chao [State Key Lab of Metal Matrix Composites, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 800 Dongchuan Road, Shanghai 200240 (China); Cao Ye [Institute of Blood Transfusion, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Chengdu 610081 (China); Sun Kang, E-mail: ksun@sjtu.edu.cn [State Key Lab of Metal Matrix Composites, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 800 Dongchuan Road, Shanghai 200240 (China); Liu Jiaxin; Wang Hong [Institute of Blood Transfusion, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Chengdu 610081 (China)

    2011-01-15

    In this work, the effects of grafted functional groups and surface wettability on the adhesion of leukocyte and platelet were investigated by the method of blood filtration. The filter materials, poly(butylene terephthalate) nonwoven fabrics bearing different functional groups including hydroxyl (OH), carboxyl (COOH), sulfonic acid group (SO{sub 3}H) and zwitterionic sulfobetaine group ({sup +}N((CH{sub 3}){sub 2})(CH{sub 2}){sub 3}SO{sub 3}{sup Circled-Minus }) with controllable wettability were prepared by UV radiation grafting vinyl monomers with these functional groups. Our results emphasized that both surface functional groups and surface wettability had significant effects on the adhesion of leukocyte and platelet. In the case of filter materials with the same wettability, leukocytes adhering to filter materials decreased in the order: the surface bearing OH only > the surface bearing both OH and COOH > the surface bearing sulfobetaine group > the surface bearing SO{sub 3}H, while platelets adhering to filter materials decreased as the following order: the surface bearing SO{sub 3}H > the surface bearing both OH and COOH > the surface bearing OH only > the surface bearing sulfobetaine group. As the wettability of filter materials increased, both leukocyte and platelet adhesion to filter materials declined, except that leukocyte adhesion to the surface bearing OH only remained unchanged.

  13. Impact of plant species evenness, dominant species identity and spatial arrangement on the structure and functioning of soil microbial communities in a model grassland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massaccesi, L; Bardgett, R D; Agnelli, A; Ostle, N; Wilby, A; Orwin, K H

    2015-03-01

    Plant communities, through species richness and composition, strongly influence soil microorganisms and the ecosystem processes they drive. To test the effects of other plant community attributes, such as the identity of dominant plant species, evenness, and spatial arrangement, we set up a model mesocosm experiment that manipulated these three attributes in a full factorial design, using three grassland plant species (Anthoxanthum odoratum, Plantago lanceolata, and Lotus corniculatus). The impact of the three community attributes on the soil microbial community structure and functioning was evaluated after two growing seasons by ester-linked phospholipid fatty-acids analysis, substrate-induced respiration, basal respiration, and nitrogen mineralization and nitrification rates. Our results suggested that the dominant species identity had the most prevalent influence of the three community attributes, with significant effects on most of the measured aspects of microbial biomass, composition and functioning. Evenness had no effects on microbial community structure, but independently influenced basal respiration. Its effects on nitrogen cycling depended on the identity of the dominant plant species, indicating that interactions among species and their effects on functioning can vary with their relative abundance. Systems with an aggregated spatial arrangement had a different microbial community composition and a higher microbial biomass compared to those with a random spatial arrangement, but rarely differed in their functioning. Overall, it appears that dominant species identity was the main driver of soil microorganisms and functioning in these model grassland communities, but that other plant community attributes such as evenness and spatial arrangement can also be important.

  14. 粤语及其社会族群认同感%Cantonese and Its Self-identity of the Social Groups

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    文雅

    2014-01-01

    粤语和操粤语的社会族群的认同感相互促进,相互联系,粤语的特点和广东人的社会生活正体现了粤语及其社会族群认同感之间的联系。它们之间的相互联系和促进又带来了有利的影响,例如使粤语得到保护和传播、促进了人际关系的维护、加强了操粤语群体的自豪感和增进了操粤语群体间的活动,同时也存在不利影响,例如影响经济和文化的发展、有碍于社会的和谐。总之,对语言及其族群的认同都需在包容的基础上更好地”扬弃”。%Cantonese is a dialect in China. It has a long history and becomes pride of the local people in Guangdong. The Cantonese group, most of whom are local people, has the strongest self-identity which is developing with their interaction. The relationship between Cantonese and its social group is reflected by the features of Cantonese and their social life. The interaction brings beneficial influences. For example, it promotes the protection and transmission of Cantonese, maintains the interpersonal relationship, strengthens the sense of pride of the Cantonese and enhances the activities among them. However, there are also unfavorable effects. It impacts the development of the economy and culture as well as the harmony of the society. In a word, the promotion and surrender on the self-identity of language and its group should be on the basis of toleration.

  15. Plant functional group composition and large-scale species richness in European agricultural landscapes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liira, J.; Schmidt, T.; Aavik, T.; Arens, P.F.P.; Augenstein, I.; Bailey, D.; Billeter, R.; Bukacek, R.; Burel, F.; Blust, de G.; Cock, de R.; Dirksen, J.; Edwards, P.J.; Hamersky, R.; Herzog, F.; Klotz, S.; Kuhn, I.; Coeur, Le D.; Miklova, P.; Roubalova, M.; Schweiger, O.; Smulders, M.J.M.; Wingerden, van W.K.R.E.; Bugter, R.J.F.; Zobel, M.

    2008-01-01

    Question: Which are the plant functional groups responding most clearly to agricultural disturbances? Which are the relative roles of habitat availability, landscape configuration and agricultural land use intensity in affecting the functional composition and diversity of vascular plants in agricult

  16. Developing the group mind through functional subgrouping: linking systems-centered training (SCT) and interpersonal neurobiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gantt, Susan P; Agazarian, Yvonne M

    2010-10-01

    This article introduces the systems-centered concept of the "group mind" by linking systems-centered thinking and interpersonal neurobiology, building on Siegel's definition of mind as the process of regulating the flow of energy and information. Functional subgrouping, the systems-centered group method for resolving conflicts, discriminates and integrates the flow of energy and information within and between group members, subgroups, and the group-as-a-whole, thus potentiating survival, development, and transformation. This article uses the interpersonal neurobiological framework to discuss functional subgrouping as a tool for developing the group mind: considering how functional subgrouping facilitates emotional regulation, creates a secure relational context, and potentiates neural integration.

  17. A CRM domain protein functions dually in group I and group II intron splicing in land plant chloroplasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asakura, Yukari; Barkan, Alice

    2007-12-01

    The CRM domain is a recently recognized RNA binding domain found in three group II intron splicing factors in chloroplasts, in a bacterial protein that associates with ribosome precursors, and in a family of uncharacterized proteins in plants. To elucidate the functional repertoire of proteins with CRM domains, we studied CFM2 (for CRM Family Member 2), which harbors four CRM domains. RNA coimmunoprecipitation assays showed that CFM2 in maize (Zea mays) chloroplasts is associated with the group I intron in pre-trnL-UAA and group II introns in the ndhA and ycf3 pre-mRNAs. T-DNA insertions in the Arabidopsis thaliana ortholog condition a defective-seed phenotype (strong allele) or chlorophyll-deficient seedlings with impaired splicing of the trnL group I intron and the ndhA, ycf3-int1, and clpP-int2 group II introns (weak alleles). CFM2 and two previously described CRM proteins are bound simultaneously to the ndhA and ycf3-int1 introns and act in a nonredundant fashion to promote their splicing. With these findings, CRM domain proteins are implicated in the activities of three classes of catalytic RNA: group I introns, group II introns, and 23S rRNA.

  18. Effect of various functional groups on biodiesel synthesis from soybean oils by acidic ionic liquids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ming Ming Fan; Jing Jie Zhou; Qiu Ju Han; Ping Bo Zhang

    2012-01-01

    Preparation of biodiesel from soybean oils catalyzed by five acidic ionic liquids with three cationic functional groups was investigated.The improvement of the catalytic activities was affected by various functional groups including pyridine group,N-methylimidazole group,triethylamine group.Among them [C4SO3Hpy]HSO4 with pyridine group showed better catalytic activity with the biodiesel yield of 94.5%,and still yielded more than 90% after six successive uses.The possible mechanism was also discussed by two reaction paths in detail.

  19. Building functional groups of marine benthic macroinvertebrates on the basis of general community assembly mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandridis, Nikolaos; Bacher, Cédric; Desroy, Nicolas; Jean, Fred

    2017-03-01

    The accurate reproduction of the spatial and temporal dynamics of marine benthic biodiversity requires the development of mechanistic models, based on the processes that shape macroinvertebrate communities. The modelled entities should, accordingly, be able to adequately represent the many functional roles that are performed by benthic organisms. With this goal in mind, we applied the emergent group hypothesis (EGH), which assumes functional equivalence within and functional divergence between groups of species. The first step of the grouping involved the selection of 14 biological traits that describe the role of benthic macroinvertebrates in 7 important community assembly mechanisms. A matrix of trait values for the 240 species that occurred in the Rance estuary (Brittany, France) in 1995 formed the basis for a hierarchical classification that generated 20 functional groups, each with its own trait values. The functional groups were first evaluated based on their ability to represent observed patterns of biodiversity. The two main assumptions of the EGH were then tested, by assessing the preservation of niche attributes among the groups and the neutrality of functional differences within them. The generally positive results give us confidence in the ability of the grouping to recreate functional diversity in the Rance estuary. A first look at the emergent groups provides insights into the potential role of community assembly mechanisms in shaping biodiversity patterns. Our next steps include the derivation of general rules of interaction and their incorporation, along with the functional groups, into mechanistic models of benthic biodiversity.

  20. Formation of Selfbound States in a One-Dimensional Nuclear Model -- A Renormalization Group based Density Functional Study

    CERN Document Server

    Kemler, Sandra; Braun, Jens

    2016-01-01

    In nuclear physics, Density Functional Theory (DFT) provides the basis for state-of-the art studies of ground-state properties of heavy nuclei. However, the direct relation of the density functional underlying these calculations and the microscopic nuclear forces is not yet fully understood. We present a combination of DFT and Renormalization Group (RG) techniques which allows to study selfbound many-body systems from microscopic interactions. We discuss its application with the aid of systems of identical fermions interacting via a long-range attractive and short-range repulsive two-body force in one dimension. We compute ground-state energies, intrinsic densities, and density correlation functions of these systems and compare our results to those obtained from other methods. In particular, we show how energies of excited states as well as the absolute square of the ground-state wave function can be extracted from the correlation functions within our approach. The relation between many-body perturbation theo...

  1. Facile Synthesis of Benzaldehyde-Functionalized Ionic Liquids and Their Flexible Functional Group Transformations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Huang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Three benzaldehyde-functionalized ionic liquids were readily synthesized by quaternization of N-alkylimidazole with benzaldehyde-functionalized alkyl bromides under microwave irradiation in good yield. These aldehyde-functionalized ionic liquids could easily be oxidized in the presence of H2O2/KOH or be reduced by NaBH4 leading to the formation of the corresponding carboxyl-functionalized ionic liquids or benzylic alcohol-functionalized ionic liquids. In addition, the condensations of these functionalized ones with hydrazine hydrate and with aniline under reductive amination conditions were demonstrated.

  2. Social Identity Simulation System (SISTEM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-31

    number of people G = identity group (e.g. gender, ethnicity, etc.) D = identity (e.g. male/ female , White/Black/Spanish/… etc.) R = real resources for an...actions as part of a collective. The collective actions are driven by social identity entrepreneurs (SIDs) (Haslam & Reicher, 2007; Lal, 1997). These...social identity entrepreneurs only advocate a collective action on behalf of the group when they perceive benefits of advocating being greater than

  3. Chinese Migrant Adolescents' Perceived Discrimination and Psychological Well-Being: The Moderating Roles of Group Identity and the Type of School.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xia Liu

    Full Text Available Perceived discrimination can be harmful to migrant adolescents in China. However, little is known about the processes through which discrimination may be linked to decreased well-being in Chinese migrant adolescents. This study examined the relationship between perceived discrimination and three indices of psychological well-being (self-esteem, life satisfaction, collective self-esteem in 798 Chinese migrant adolescents (49.4% from public schools. Group identity affirmation and belonging (GIAB was examined as a protective factor that was expected to alleviate the negative effects of perceived discrimination on well-being, and the type of school was investigated as a potential moderator of the associations of interest. The results indicate that perceived discrimination was negatively linked to the three indices of psychological well-being and that the negative effects of perceived discrimination on psychological well-being were particularly salient for migrant adolescents attending public schools. Additionally, GIAB emerged as a protective buffer against perceived discrimination's negative effects on collective well-being.

  4. Chinese Migrant Adolescents’ Perceived Discrimination and Psychological Well-Being: The Moderating Roles of Group Identity and the Type of School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xia; Zhao, Jingxin

    2016-01-01

    Perceived discrimination can be harmful to migrant adolescents in China. However, little is known about the processes through which discrimination may be linked to decreased well-being in Chinese migrant adolescents. This study examined the relationship between perceived discrimination and three indices of psychological well-being (self-esteem, life satisfaction, collective self-esteem) in 798 Chinese migrant adolescents (49.4% from public schools). Group identity affirmation and belonging (GIAB) was examined as a protective factor that was expected to alleviate the negative effects of perceived discrimination on well-being, and the type of school was investigated as a potential moderator of the associations of interest. The results indicate that perceived discrimination was negatively linked to the three indices of psychological well-being and that the negative effects of perceived discrimination on psychological well-being were particularly salient for migrant adolescents attending public schools. Additionally, GIAB emerged as a protective buffer against perceived discrimination’s negative effects on collective well-being. PMID:26731529

  5. The intermediate function: From the figure of the trainee in the community to the medical record as a biographical document for recomposition of identity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Sandri

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This work originates from a reflection on trainees connecting and mediation potentials held inside a community structure. These potentials are characterized by the trainees role which is temporary and by a temporary sense of belonging. These potentials may enable the trainee to become a functional component in the healing process and assume different roles left open by operators, families and services, so as to strengthen the working net. Our reflection indicates that the biographical reconstruction of a patient activates a recovery process of his family narrative history and also a deeper consciousness of his mental suffering during his life, which involves the team, patient and his family. The deeper consciousness enables a redefinition of individual projects that are coherent with the history and needs of the patient. A medical record may therefore become a biographical document, where different narratives converge, including the delirious one and that which is broken up by the patient who participates in a possible healing process, where the patient continuously regains possession of a coherent version of his identity and history, through his surrounding environment.Keywords: Community psychotherapy; Network working group; Medical record as a biographical document

  6. Plant-soil feedbacks: role of plant functional group and plant traits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cortois, R.; Schröder-Georgi, T.; Weigelt, A.; van der Putten, W.H.; De Deyn, G.B.

    2016-01-01

    Plant-soil feedback (PSF), plant trait and functional group concepts advanced our understanding of plant community dynamics, but how they are interlinked is poorly known. To test how plant functional groups (FGs: graminoids, small herbs, tall herbs, legumes) and plant traits relate to PSF, we grew 4

  7. Subgroups of ideal class groups of real quadratic algebraic function fields

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG; Kunpeng(王鲲鹏); ZHANG; Xianke(张贤科)

    2003-01-01

    Necessary and sufficient condition on real quadratic algebraic function fields K is given for theirideal class groups H(K) to contain cyclic subgroups of order n. And eight series of such real quadratic functionfields K are obtained whose ideal class groups contain cyclic subgroups of order n. In particular, the ideal classnumbers of these function fields are divisible by n.

  8. Synthesis of porous carbon fibers with strong anion exchange functional groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Weihua; Hu, Jingtian; Han, Zheshen; Wang, Zixing; Zheng, Zhen; Langer, James; Economy, James

    2015-06-18

    Hybrid porous carbon fibers with strong anion-exchangeable functional groups (HACAX) were synthesized by alkylation of pyrolyzed polyacrylonitrile. HACAX exhibits generic stable positively charged functional groups. This expands the applications of porous carbon media for interacting with anions without adjusting pH, such as Cr(vi) adsorption at natural pH.

  9. Identity paradoxes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đurić Jelena

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The article considers paradoxical nature of identity that emerges from: 1 the very concept of identity whose abstract generality unites various and even opposite features; 2 the processual nature of reality that is easier to express in the poetical metaphors or abstract principles than in unambiguous conceptual networks; 3 the oppose relationship between being and knowledge, mind and matter, subject and object, self and personality. Entangled in the labyrinth which evade efforts to be conceptually defined, the modern thinking of identity moves towards abandoning the idea of “self” on behalf of the “ego” and towards the misapprehension of identity as being identical. This corresponds to the “time of the lost spirit” stretched between the simultaneous need to find an identity and to give it up.

  10. Medical Identity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Musaeus, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To examine philosophical stances underpinning medical identity and assess the conceptual relationship between physician, medical practice and culture. Argument: Medical identity is about the ideals and moral positions that physicians take when justifying themselves. Medical identity...... hedonistic versus sentimentalist approaches to medical identity. The sociocultural philosophical analysis of medical identity can shed light on what it means conceptually for a physician to harbor beliefs associated with him/her being taken to be an autonomous professional. It is important because it touches...... on the meaning of being a compassionate, good and skilled physician, making its relevance to person-centered medicine self-evident. Conclusion: Medical identity should be analyzed with reference to literature, philosophy and medical practice in order for the physician to exercise a reflective position...

  11. Fish functional groups in a tropical wetland of the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Córdova-Tapia

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The characterization of species' functional traits is a major step in the understanding and description of communities in natural habitats. The classification of species into functional groups is a useful tool to identify redundancy and uniqueness. We studied the fish community of a pristine freshwater wetland in the Sian Ka'an Biosphere Reserve by analysing two multidimensional functions: food acquisition and locomotion. We investigated changes in the functional group structure between habitats (permanent and temporary pools and seasons (dry and wet. Six functional groups with different ecological characteristics were detected, two of which had high functional redundancy and three of them were represented by single species with unique ecological functions. In permanent pools during the dry season, functional group richness and diversity were lower, while evenness was higher. During the wet season, all functional groups were detected and similar functional group structure was found between habitats. These results suggest an effect of environmental filtering during the dry season and niche complementarity during the wet season.

  12. Identity Management

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — Provides information for identity management services on the creation, modification and eventual deletion of accounts and entitlements based on user relationships on...

  13. Biogeographical boundaries, functional group structure and diversity of Rocky Shore communities along the Argentinean coast.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evie A Wieters

    Full Text Available We investigate the extent to which functional structure and spatial variability of intertidal communities coincide with major biogeographical boundaries, areas where extensive compositional changes in the biota are observed over a limited geographic extension. We then investigate whether spatial variation in the biomass of functional groups, over geographic (10's km and local (10's m scales, could be associated to species diversity within and among these groups. Functional community structure expressed as abundance (density, cover and biomass and composition of major functional groups was quantified through field surveys at 20 rocky intertidal shores spanning six degrees of latitude along the southwest Atlantic coast of Argentina and extending across the boundaries between the Argentinean and Magellanic Provinces. Patterns of abundance of individual functional groups were not uniformly matched with biogeographical regions. Only ephemeral algae showed an abrupt geographical discontinuity coincident with changes in biogeographic boundaries, and this was limited to the mid intertidal zone. We identified 3-4 main 'groups' of sites in terms of the total and relative abundance of the major functional groups, but these did not coincide with biogeographical boundaries, nor did they follow latitudinal arrangement. Thus, processes that determine the functional structure of these intertidal communities are insensitive to biogeographical boundaries. Over both geographical and local spatial scales, and for most functional groups and tidal levels, increases in species richness within the functional group was significantly associated to increased total biomass and reduced spatial variability of the group. These results suggest that species belonging to the same functional group are sufficiently uncorrelated over space (i.e. metres and site-to-site to stabilize patterns of biomass variability and, in this manner, provide a buffer, or "insurance", against

  14. Biogeographical boundaries, functional group structure and diversity of Rocky Shore communities along the Argentinean coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieters, Evie A; McQuaid, Christopher; Palomo, Gabriela; Pappalardo, Paula; Navarrete, Sergio A

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the extent to which functional structure and spatial variability of intertidal communities coincide with major biogeographical boundaries, areas where extensive compositional changes in the biota are observed over a limited geographic extension. We then investigate whether spatial variation in the biomass of functional groups, over geographic (10's km) and local (10's m) scales, could be associated to species diversity within and among these groups. Functional community structure expressed as abundance (density, cover and biomass) and composition of major functional groups was quantified through field surveys at 20 rocky intertidal shores spanning six degrees of latitude along the southwest Atlantic coast of Argentina and extending across the boundaries between the Argentinean and Magellanic Provinces. Patterns of abundance of individual functional groups were not uniformly matched with biogeographical regions. Only ephemeral algae showed an abrupt geographical discontinuity coincident with changes in biogeographic boundaries, and this was limited to the mid intertidal zone. We identified 3-4 main 'groups' of sites in terms of the total and relative abundance of the major functional groups, but these did not coincide with biogeographical boundaries, nor did they follow latitudinal arrangement. Thus, processes that determine the functional structure of these intertidal communities are insensitive to biogeographical boundaries. Over both geographical and local spatial scales, and for most functional groups and tidal levels, increases in species richness within the functional group was significantly associated to increased total biomass and reduced spatial variability of the group. These results suggest that species belonging to the same functional group are sufficiently uncorrelated over space (i.e. metres and site-to-site ) to stabilize patterns of biomass variability and, in this manner, provide a buffer, or "insurance", against spatial variability

  15. Defining planktonic protist functional groups on mechanisms for energy and nutrient acquisition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mitra, Aditee; Flynn, Kevin J.; Tillmann, Urban

    2016-01-01

    Arranging organisms into functional groups aids ecological research by grouping organisms (irrespective of phylogenetic origin) that interact with environmental factors in similar ways. Planktonic protists traditionally have been split between photoautotrophic “phytoplankton” and phagotrophic...... for phototrophy, and (iv) non-constitutive mixotrophs (NCMs) that acquire their phototrophic capacity by ingesting specific (SNCM) or general non-specific (GNCM) prey. For the first time, we incorporate these functional groups within a foodweb structure and show, using model outputs, that there is scope...

  16. Remarks on the star product of functions on finite and compact groups

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aniello, P. [Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche dell' Universita di Napoli ' Federico II' and Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN) - Sezione di Napoli, Complesso Universitario di Monte S. Angelo, via Cintia, 80126 Napoli (Italy); Facolta di Scienze Biotecnologiche, Universita di Napoli ' Federico II' , Napoli (Italy)], E-mail: aniello@na.infn.it; Ibort, A. [Departamento de Matematicas, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, 28911 Leganes, Madrid (Spain); Man' ko, V.I. [P.N. Lebedev Physical Institute, Leninskii Prospect 53, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); Marmo, G. [Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche dell' Universita di Napoli ' Federico II' and Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN) - Sezione di Napoli, Complesso Universitario di Monte S. Angelo, via Cintia, 80126 Napoli (Italy)

    2009-01-19

    We show that the characters {chi}(g{sub 1}g{sub 2}g{sub 3}{sup -1}) of irreducible unitary representations of finite groups and compact Lie groups provide kernels of star-product on complex valued functions f(g) of the group elements g. Examples of permutation groups of two and three elements as well as SU(2) group are considered. The k-deformed star products of the functions of finite and compact Lie groups are presented. The explicit form of the quantizers and dequantizers as well as the duality symmetry of the considered star products of the functions on the finite and compact Lie groups are discussed.

  17. Functional group based Ligand binding affinity scoring function at atomic environmental level

    OpenAIRE

    Varadwaj, Pritish Kumar; Lahiri, Tapobrata

    2009-01-01

    Use of knowledge based scoring function (KBSF) for virtual screening and molecular docking has become an established method for drug discovery. Lack of a precise and reliable free energy function that describes several interactions including water-mediated atomic interaction between amino-acid residues and ligand makes distance based statistical measure as the only alternative. Till now all the distance based scoring functions in KBSF arena use atom singularity concept, which neglects the env...

  18. The Effectiveness of Transactional Analysis Group-counseling on the Improvement of Couples’ Family Functioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghorban Ali Yahyaee

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aims of the Study: Family functioning is among the most important factors ensuring the mental health of family members. Disorder or disturbance in family functioning would cause many psychological problems for family members. Current study intended to examine the effectiveness of transactional analysis group counseling on the improvement of couple's family functioning. Materials & Methods: The design of the study is as semi experimental research with pretest and posttest with follow up and control group. Statistical population consists all couples referring to the psychological and counseling centers of Rasht city in 2012. Samples were selected at first by available sampling method and after completing family assessment  device, and obtaining score for enter to research, were placement using random sampling method in two experimental and control groups (N = 8 couples per group. The experimental group participated in 12 sessions of group counseling based on transactional analysis and control group received no intervention. The gathered data were analyzed using covariance analysis. Results: The results show that there are significant differences between the pre-test and post test scores of the experimental group. This difference is significant at the level of 0.05. Therefore it seems that transactional group therapy improved the dimensions of family functioning in couples. Conclusions: The results indicated that transactional analysis group counseling can improve the family functioning and use this approach to working with couples is recommended.

  19. Does Everyone Have a Musical Identity?: Reflections on "Musical Identities"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gracyk, Theodore

    2004-01-01

    The book, "Musical Identities" (Raymond MacDonald, David Hargreaves, Dorothy Miell, eds.; Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, 2002) consists of 11 essays on the psychology of music. The editors divided the essays into two groups: those on developing musical identities ("identities in music" involving recognizable social and cultural…

  20. Girls make sense: girls, celebrities and identities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duits, L.; van Romondt Vis, P.

    2009-01-01

    Combining intertextual, audience and feminist perspectives, this article investigates how young girls make meaning from celebrities. Based on focus group interviews with Dutch girls aged 12—13, it argues that girls' talk about celebrities functions as an identity tool in the reflexive project of the

  1. Bridging Identities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deaux, Kay; Burke, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Sociology and psychology are no strangers in the theoretical world of self and identity. Early works by William James (1890), a psychologist, and George Herbert Mead (1934), a sociologist, are often taken as a starting point by investigators in both fields. In more recent years, with the development of a number of identity theories in both fields,…

  2. Brand Identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawlor, John

    1998-01-01

    Instead of differentiating themselves by building "brand identities," colleges and universities often focus on competing with price. As a result, fewer and fewer institutions base their identities on value, the combination of quality and price. Methods of building two concepts to influence customers' brand image and brand loyalty are…

  3. Brand Identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawlor, John

    1998-01-01

    Instead of differentiating themselves by building "brand identities," colleges and universities often focus on competing with price. As a result, fewer and fewer institutions base their identities on value, the combination of quality and price. Methods of building two concepts to influence customers' brand image and brand loyalty are…

  4. Organizational Identity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hatch, Mary Jo; Schultz, Majken

    This text presents the classic works on organizational identity alongside more current thinking on the issues. Ranging from theoretical contributions to empirical studies, the readings in this volume address the key issues of organizational identity, and show how these issues have developed through...

  5. Asymptotics for Certain Harmonic Functions and the Martin Compactification on the Quaternionic Heisenberg Group

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing Wen LUAN; Fu Liu ZHU

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we make the asymptotic estimates of the heat kernel for the quaternionic Heisenberg group in various cases. We also use these results to deduce the asymptotic estimates of certain harmonic functions on the quaternionic Heisenberg group. Moreover a Martin compactification of the quaternionic Heisenberg group is constructed, and we prove that the Martin boundary of this group is homeomorphic to the unit ball in the quaternionic field.

  6. A novel functional renormalization group framework for gauge theories and gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Codello, Alessandro

    2010-07-01

    In this thesis we develop further the functional renormalization group (RG) approach to quantum field theory (QFT) based on the effective average action (EAA) and on the exact flow equation that it satisfies. The EAA is a generalization of the standard effective action that interpolates smoothly between the bare action for k{yields}{infinity} and the standard effective action for k{yields}0. In this way, the problem of performing the functional integral is converted into the problem of integrating the exact flow of the EAA from the UV to the IR. The EAA formalism deals naturally with several different aspects of a QFT. One aspect is related to the discovery of non-Gaussian fixed points of the RG flow that can be used to construct continuum limits. In particular, the EAA framework is a useful setting to search for Asymptotically Safe theories, i.e. theories valid up to arbitrarily high energies. A second aspect in which the EAA reveals its usefulness are non-perturbative calculations. In fact, the exact flow that it satisfies is a valuable starting point for devising new approximation schemes. In the first part of this thesis we review and extend the formalism, in particular we derive the exact RG flow equation for the EAA and the related hierarchy of coupled flow equations for the proper-vertices. We show how standard perturbation theory emerges as a particular way to iteratively solve the flow equation, if the starting point is the bare action. Next, we explore both technical and conceptual issues by means of three different applications of the formalism, to QED, to general non-linear sigma models (NL{sigma}M) and to matter fields on curved spacetimes. In the main part of this thesis we construct the EAA for non-abelian gauge theories and for quantum Einstein gravity (QEG), using the background field method to implement the coarse-graining procedure in a gauge invariant way. We propose a new truncation scheme where the EAA is expanded in powers of the curvature or

  7. Variation of phytoplankton functional groups modulated by hydraulic controls in Hongze Lake, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Chang; Pei, Haiyan; Hu, Wenrong; Hao, Daping; Doblin, Martina A; Ren, Ying; Wei, Jielin; Feng, Yawei

    2015-11-01

    Hongze Lake is a large, shallow, polymictic, eutrophic lake in the eastern China. Phytoplankton functional groups in this lake were investigated from March 2011 to February 2013, and a comparison was made between the eastern, western, and northern regions. The lake shows strong fluctuations in water level caused by monsoon rains and regular hydraulic controls. By application of the phytoplankton functional group approach, this study aims to investigate the spatial and temporal dynamics and analyze their influencing factors. Altogether, 18 functional groups of phytoplankton were identified, encompassing 187 species. In order to seek the best variable describing the phytoplankton functional group distribution, 14 of the groups were analyzed in detail using redundancy analysis. Due to the turbid condition of the lake, the dominant functional groups were those tolerant of low light. The predominant functional groups in the annual succession were D (Cyclotella spp. and Synedra acus), T (Planctonema lauterbornii), P (Fragilaria crotonensis), X1 (Chlorella vulgaris and Chlorella pyrenoidosa), C (Cyclotella meneghiniana and Cyclotella ocellata), and Y (Cryptomonas erosa). An opposite relationship between water level and the biomass of predominant groups was observed in the present study. Water level fluctuations, caused by monsoonal climate and artificial drawdown, were significant factors influencing phytoplankton succession in Hongze Lake, since they alter the hydrological conditions and influence light and nutrient availability. The clearly demonstrated factors, which significantly influence phytoplankton dynamics in Hongze Lake, will help government manage the large shallow lakes with frequent water level fluctuations.

  8. Identity Assemblages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horn, Line Helverskov

    2017-01-01

    , and theoretical foundation of the dissertation. Philosophically, the research rests on the central ANT concepts of symmetry, associations, and enactment with an inherent value of multiplicity. The philosophical position implies that the study of identity must be understood as the study of practices. This, in turn......Research in identity in general and professional identity specifically has seen an immense increase in recent years (Bauman 2004, Lawler 2014). Due to societal and technological developments, notions of what constitutes ‘the professional’ are subject to change. Thus, this dissertation rests...... on an understanding of professional identity as a moving concept that must be understood through its spatial and temporal contexts (Scanlon 2011). Accepting this position necessitates a reconsideration of the role that formal education plays in the development of professional identity of students. Researchers within...

  9. Group Theory of Wannier Functions Providing the Basis for a Deeper Understanding of Magnetism and Superconductivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekkehard Krüger

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the group theory of optimally-localized and symmetry-adapted Wannier functions in a crystal of any given space group G or magnetic group M. Provided that the calculated band structure of the considered material is given and that the symmetry of the Bloch functions at all of the points of symmetry in the Brillouin zone is known, the paper details whether or not the Bloch functions of particular energy bands can be unitarily transformed into optimally-localized Wannier functions symmetry-adapted to the space group G, to the magnetic group M or to a subgroup of G or M. In this context, the paper considers usual, as well as spin-dependent Wannier functions, the latter representing the most general definition of Wannier functions. The presented group theory is a review of the theory published by one of the authors (Ekkehard Krüger in several former papers and is independent of any physical model of magnetism or superconductivity. However, it is suggested to interpret the special symmetry of the optimally-localized Wannier functions in the framework of a nonadiabatic extension of the Heisenberg model, the nonadiabatic Heisenberg model. On the basis of the symmetry of the Wannier functions, this model of strongly-correlated localized electrons makes clear predictions of whether or not the system can possess superconducting or magnetic eigenstates.

  10. Making Meaning with Friends: Exploring the Function, Direction and Tone of Small Group Discussions of Literature in Elementary School Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Katie

    2016-01-01

    The merits of decentralized small groups has been questioned in literature and by practicing teachers; thus this study shows the academic and identity work children do as they attempt to make meaning in these spaces. This study explores the affordances and drawbacks of decentralized small group discussion contexts in a multiage (3rd/4th) grade…

  11. On Functional and Holographic Renormalization Group Methods in Stochastic Theory of Turbulence

    CERN Document Server

    Ogarkov, S L

    2016-01-01

    A nonlocal quantum-field model is constructed for the system of hydrodynamic equations for incompressible viscous fluid (the stochastic Navier--Stokes (NS) equation and the continuity equation). This model is studied by the following two mutually parallel methods: the Wilson--Polchinski functional renormalization group method (FRG), which is based on the exact functional equation for the generating functional of amputated connected Green's functions (ACGF), and the Heemskerk--Polchinski holographic renormalization group method (HRG), which is based on the functional Hamilton--Jacobi (HJ) equation for the holographic boundary action. Both functional equations are equivalent to infinite hierarchies of integro-differential equations (coupled in the FRG case) for the corresponding families of Green's functions (GF). The RG-flow equations can be derived explicitly for two-particle functions. Because the HRG-flow equation is closed (contains only a two-particle GF), the explicit analytic solutions are obtained for ...

  12. The use of discontinuities and functional groups to assess relative resilience in complex systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, C.R.; Gunderson, Lance; Johnson, A.R.

    2005-01-01

    It is evident when the resilience of a system has been exceeded and the system qualitatively changed. However, it is not clear how to measure resilience in a system prior to the demonstration that the capacity for resilient response has been exceeded. We argue that self-organizing human and natural systems are structured by a relatively small set of processes operating across scales in time and space. These structuring processes should generate a discontinuous distribution of structures and frequencies, where discontinuities mark the transition from one scale to another. Resilience is not driven by the identity of elements of a system, but rather by the functions those elements provide, and their distribution within and across scales. A self-organizing system that is resilient should maintain patterns of function within and across scales despite the turnover of specific elements (for example, species, cities). However, the loss of functions, or a decrease in functional representation at certain scales will decrease system resilience. It follows that some distributions of function should be more resilient than others. We propose that the determination of discontinuities, and the quantification of function both within and across scales, produce relative measures of resilience in ecological and other systems. We describe a set of methods to assess the relative resilience of a system based upon the determination of discontinuities and the quantification of the distribution of functions in relation to those discontinuities. ?? 2005 Springer Science+Business Media, Inc.

  13. Shades of American Identity: Implicit Relations between Ethnic and National Identities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devos, Thierry; Mohamed, Hafsa

    2015-01-01

    The issue of ethnic diversity and national identity in an immigrant nation such as the USA is a recurrent topic of debate. We review and integrate research examining the extent to which the American identity is implicitly granted or denied to members of different ethnic groups. Consistently, European Americans are implicitly conceived of as being more American than African, Asian, Latino, and even Native Americans. This implicit American = White effect emerges when explicit knowledge or perceptions point in the opposite direction. The propensity to deny the American identity to members of ethnic minorities is particularly pronounced when targets (individuals or groups) are construed through the lenses of ethnic identities. Implicit ethnic–national associations fluctuate as a function of perceivers’ ethnic identity and political orientation, but also contextual or situational factors. The tendency to equate being American with being White accounts for the strength of national identification (among European Americans) and behavioral responses including hiring recommendations and voting intentions. The robust propensity to deny the American identity to ethnic minority groups reflects an exclusionary national identity. PMID:27011765

  14. Species identities, not functional groups, explain the effects of earthworms on litter carbon-derived soil respiration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soil respiration is frequently measured as a surrogate for biological activities and is important in soil carbon cycling. The heterotrophic component of soil respiration is primarily driven by microbial decomposition of leaf litter and soil organic matter, and is partially controlled by resource ava...

  15. Charge transfer, chemical potentials, and the nature of functional groups: answers from quantum chemical topology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pendás, A Martín; Francisco, E; Blanco, M A

    2007-01-01

    We analyze the response of a quantum group within a molecule to charge transfer by using the interacting quantum atoms approach (IQA), an energy partitioning scheme within the quantum theory of atoms in molecules (QTAM). It is shown that this response lies at the core of the concept of the functional group. The manipulation of fractional electron populations is carried out by using distribution functions for the electron number within the quantum basins. Several test systems are studied to show that similar chemical potential groups are characterized by similar energetic behavior upon interaction with other groups. The origin of the empirical additivity rules for group energies in simple hydrocarbons is also investigated. It turns out to rest on the independent saturation of both the self-energies and the interaction energies of the groups as the size of the chain increases. We also show that our results are compatible with the standard group energies of the QTAM.

  16. Pregnant and Parenting Adolescents: A Study of Ethnic Identity, Emotional and Behavioral Functioning, Child Characteristics, and Social Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sieger, Karin; Renk, Kimberly

    2007-01-01

    This study examined relationships among the ethnic identity, behavior problems, self-esteem, and social support of 166 ethnically diverse pregnant and parenting adolescents, the majority of whom were African American and Hispanic American, and their infants. Results indicated that pregnant and parenting adolescent females were experiencing…

  17. Pregnant and Parenting Adolescents: A Study of Ethnic Identity, Emotional and Behavioral Functioning, Child Characteristics, and Social Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sieger, Karin; Renk, Kimberly

    2007-01-01

    This study examined relationships among the ethnic identity, behavior problems, self-esteem, and social support of 166 ethnically diverse pregnant and parenting adolescents, the majority of whom were African American and Hispanic American, and their infants. Results indicated that pregnant and parenting adolescent females were experiencing…

  18. Altered self-identity and autobiographical memory in epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allebone, James; Rayner, Genevieve; Siveges, Benjamin; Wilson, Sarah J

    2015-12-01

    Research suggests that individuals with chronic epilepsy display differences in their self-identity. The mechanisms by which self-identity is altered, however, are not well understood. Neural networks supporting autobiographical memory retrieval in the mesial temporal (MT) lobe are thought to be fundamental to self-identity processes. Thus, we examined differences in self-identity and autobiographical memory in patients with either MT or non-mesial temporal (NMT) foci with early or late age of habitual seizure onset. Participants included 102 adults: 51 healthy individuals and 51 patients with drug-resistant focal seizures (19 MT, 32 NMT). We used the Ego Identity Process Questionnaire to profile the identity development of participants, and examined how this related to memory function assessed using the Autobiographical Memory Test. Patients and controls had strikingly different self-identity profiles, with early onset MT patients showing the least identity development compared to controls and other patient groups. In contrast, late-onset NMT patients showed the highest level of identity development of the patient groups and closely resembled healthy controls (p < 0.05 for all comparisons). For all MT patients, poor autobiographical memory retrieval was correlated with altered self-identity (p < 0.001). No associations between autobiographical memory and self-identity were evident in the NMT group. Self-identity in epilepsy may be modulated by the extent to which seizure foci impinge on the autobiographical memory network and the timing of seizure onset. Early disruption to MT regions of the autobiographical memory network may constitute a neurocognitive mechanism by which self-identity is altered in chronic focal epilepsy. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 International League Against Epilepsy.

  19. Effect of Strong Acid Functional Groups on Electrode Rise Potential in Capacitive Mixing by Double Layer Expansion

    KAUST Repository

    Hatzell, Marta C.

    2014-12-02

    © 2014 American Chemical Society. The amount of salinity-gradient energy that can be obtained through capacitive mixing based on double layer expansion depends on the extent the electric double layer (EDL) is altered in a low salt concentration (LC) electrolyte (e.g., river water). We show that the electrode-rise potential, which is a measure of the EDL perturbation process, was significantly (P = 10-5) correlated to the concentration of strong acid surface functional groups using five types of activated carbon. Electrodes with the lowest concentration of strong acids (0.05 mmol g-1) had a positive rise potential of 59 ± 4 mV in the LC solution, whereas the carbon with the highest concentration (0.36 mmol g-1) had a negative rise potential (-31 ± 5 mV). Chemical oxidation of a carbon (YP50) using nitric acid decreased the electrode rise potential from 46 ± 2 mV (unaltered) to -6 ± 0.5 mV (oxidized), producing a whole cell potential (53 ± 1.7 mV) that was 4.4 times larger than that obtained with identical electrode materials (from 12 ± 1 mV). Changes in the EDL were linked to the behavior of specific ions in a LC solution using molecular dynamics and metadynamics simulations. The EDL expanded in the LC solution when a carbon surface (pristine graphene) lacked strong acid functional groups, producing a positive-rise potential at the electrode. In contrast, the EDL was compressed for an oxidized surface (graphene oxide), producing a negative-rise electrode potential. These results established the linkage between rise potentials and specific surface functional groups (strong acids) and demonstrated on a molecular scale changes in the EDL using oxidized or pristine carbons.

  20. Bridging Identities through Identity Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantwell, Allison M.; Martiny, Sarah E.

    2010-01-01

    As indicated by Deaux and Burke (this volume), sociology and psychology have shared a tradition of discourse allowing social psychologists to build upon each other's ideas. A conversation between social identity theory and identity theory was initiated fifteen years ago and addressed the similarities and differences between these theories. This…

  1. Group-ICA model order highlights patterns of functional brain connectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed eAbou Elseoud

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Resting-state networks (RSNs can be reliably and reproducibly detected using independent component analysis (ICA at both individual subject and group levels. Altering ICA dimensionality (model order estimation can have a significant impact on the spatial characteristics of the RSNs as well as their parcellation into sub-networks. Recent evidence from several neuroimaging studies suggests that the human brain has a modular hierarchical organization which resembles the hierarchy depicted by different ICA model orders. We hypothesized that functional connectivity between-group differences measured with ICA might be affected by model order selection. We investigated differences in functional connectivity using so-called dual-regression as a function of ICA model order in a group of unmedicated seasonal affective disorder (SAD patients compared to normal healthy controls. The results showed that the detected disease-related differences in functional connectivity alter as a function of ICA model order. The volume of between-group differences altered significantly as a function of ICA model order reaching maximum at model order 70 (which seems to be an optimal point that conveys the largest between-group difference then stabilized afterwards. Our results show that fine-grained RSNs enable better detection of detailed disease-related functional connectivity changes. However, high model orders show an increased risk of false positives that needs to be overcome. Our findings suggest that multilevel ICA exploration of functional connectivity enables optimization of sensitivity to brain disorders.

  2. Glucose Driven Changes in Beta Cell Identity Are Important for Function and Possibly Autoimmune Vulnerability during the Progression of Type 1 Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weir, Gordon C.; Bonner-Weir, Susan

    2017-01-01

    This commentary explores the hypothesis that when autoimmunity leads to a fall of beta cell mass during the progression of type 1 diabetes (T1D), rising glucose levels cause major changes in beta cell identity. This then leads to profound changes in secretory function and less well-understood changes in beta cell susceptibility to autoimmune destruction, which may influence of rate of progression of beta cell killing. PMID:28174593

  3. Electronic identity

    CERN Document Server

    de Andrade, Norberto Nuno Gomes; Argles, David

    2014-01-01

    With the increasing availability of electronic services, security and a reliable means by which identity is verified is essential.Written by Norberto Andrade the first chapter of this book provides an overview of the main legal and regulatory aspects regarding electronic identity in Europe and assesses the importance of electronic identity for administration (public), business (private) and, above all, citizens. It also highlights the role of eID as a key enabler of the economy.In the second chapter Lisha Chen-Wilson, David Argles, Michele Schiano di Zenise and Gary Wills discuss the user-cent

  4. Species, functional groups, and habitat preferences of birds in five agroforestry classes in Tabasco, Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wal, van der J.C.; Peña-Álvarez, B.; Arriaga-Weiss, S.L.; Hernández-Daumás, S.

    2012-01-01

    We studied species, functional groups, and habitat preferences of birds in five classes of agroforestry systems: agroforests, animal agroforestry, linear agroforestry, sequential agroforestry, and crops under tree cover in Tabasco, Mexico. Sampling sites were >2 km from natural forest fragments.

  5. Species, functional groups, and habitat preferences of birds in five agroforestry classes in Tabasco, Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wal, van der J.C.; Peña-Álvarez, B.; Arriaga-Weiss, S.L.; Hernández-Daumás, S.

    2012-01-01

    We studied species, functional groups, and habitat preferences of birds in five classes of agroforestry systems: agroforests, animal agroforestry, linear agroforestry, sequential agroforestry, and crops under tree cover in Tabasco, Mexico. Sampling sites were >2 km from natural forest fragments.

  6. Functional Group Compositions of Carbonaceous Materials of Hayabusa-Returned Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yabuta, H.; Uesugi, M.; Naraoka, H.; Ito, M.; Kilcoyne, D.; Sandford, S. A.; Kitajima, F.; Mita, H.; Takano, Y.; Yada, T.; Karouji, Y.; Ishibashi, Y.; Okada, T.; Abe, M.

    2014-09-01

    We have analyzed the functional group compositions of the carbonaceous materials of Hayabusa-returned samples by STXM-XANES, in order to identify whether the materials are terrestrial or extraterrestrial.

  7. Ion-selective electrodes in organic elemental and functional group analysis: a review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selig, W.

    1977-11-08

    The literature on the use of ion-selective electrodes in organic elemental and functional group analysis is surveyed in some detail. The survey is complete through Chemical Abstracts, Vol. 83 (1975). 40 figures, 52 tables, 236 references.

  8. Biomembrane disruption by silica-core nanoparticles: effect of surface functional group measured using a tethered bilayer lipid membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ying; Zhang, Zhen; Zhang, Quanxuan; Baker, Gregory L; Worden, R Mark

    2014-01-01

    Engineered nanomaterials (ENM) have desirable properties that make them well suited for many commercial applications. However, a limited understanding of how ENM's properties influence their molecular interactions with biomembranes hampers efforts to design ENM that are both safe and effective. This paper describes the use of a tethered bilayer lipid membrane (tBLM) to characterize biomembrane disruption by functionalized silica-core nanoparticles. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy was used to measure the time trajectory of tBLM resistance following nanoparticle exposure. Statistical analysis of parameters from an exponential resistance decay model was then used to quantify and analyze differences between the impedance profiles of nanoparticles that were unfunctionalized, amine-functionalized, or carboxyl-functionalized. All of the nanoparticles triggered a decrease in membrane resistance, indicating nanoparticle-induced disruption of the tBLM. Hierarchical clustering allowed the potency of nanoparticles for reducing tBLM resistance to be ranked in the order amine>carboxyl~bare silica. Dynamic light scattering analysis revealed that tBLM exposure triggered minor coalescence for bare and amine-functionalized silica nanoparticles but not for carboxyl-functionalized silica nanoparticles. These results indicate that the tBLM method can reproducibly characterize ENM-induced biomembrane disruption and can distinguish the BLM-disruption patterns of nanoparticles that are identical except for their surface functional groups. The method provides insight into mechanisms of molecular interaction involving biomembranes and is suitable for miniaturization and automation for high-throughput applications to help assess the health risk of nanomaterial exposure or identify ENM having a desired mode of interaction with biomembranes. © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Functional group composition of ambient and source organic aerosols determined by tandem mass spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Dron

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The functional group composition of various organic aerosols (OA is being investigated using a recently developed analytical approach based on atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation-tandem mass spectrometry (APCI-MS/MS. The determinations of the three functional groups' contents are performed quantitatively by neutral loss (carboxylic and carbonyl groups and precursor ion (nitro groups scanning modes of a tandem mass spectrometer. Major organic aerosol sources are studied: vehicular emission and wood combustion for primary aerosol sources; and a secondary organic aerosol (SOA produced through photo-oxidation of o-xylene. The results reveal significant differences in the functional group contents of these source aerosols. The laboratory generated SOA is dominated by carbonyls while carboxylics are preponderate in the wood combustion particles. On the other hand, vehicular emissions are characterised by a strong nitro content. The total amount of the three functional groups accounted for 1.7% (vehicular to 13.5% (o-xylene photo-oxidation of the organic carbon. The diagnostic functional group ratios are then used to tentatively differentiate sources of particles collected in an urban background environment located in an Alpine valley (Chamonix, France during a strong winter pollution event. The three functional groups under study account for a total functionalisation rate of 2.2 to 3.8% of the organic carbon in this ambient aerosol, which is also dominated by carboxylic moieties. In this particular case study of a deep alpine valley during winter, we show that the nitro- and carbonyl-to-carboxylic diagnostic ratios can be a useful tool to distinguish the sources. In these conditions, the total OA concentrations are highly dominated by wood combustion OA. This result is confirmed by an organic markers source apportionment approach which assesses a wood burning organic carbon contribution of about 60%. Finally, examples of functional group mass

  10. [Effect of obesity on pulmonary function in asthmatic children of different age groups].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiao-Wen; Huang, Ying; Wang, Jian; Zhang, Xue-Li; Liang, Fan-Mei; Luo, Rong

    2017-05-01

    To study the effect of obesity on pulmonary function in newly diagnosed asthmatic children of different age groups. Two hundred and ninety-four children with newly diagnosed asthma were classified into preschool-age (obese, overweight, and normal-weight subgroups based on their body mass index (BMI). All the children underwent pulmonary function tests, including large airway function tests [forced vital capacity (FVC%) and forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1%)] and small airway function tests [maximal expiratory flow at 25% of vital capacity (MEF25%), maximal expiratory flow at 50% of vital capacity (MEF50%), and maximal expiratory flow at 75% of vital capacity (MEF75%)]. The school-age group showed lower FEV1%, MEF25%, and MEF50% than the preschool-age group (Pchildren in the school-age group had lower FEV1%, MEF25%, and MEF50% compared with their counterparts in the preschool-age group (Pchildren in the school-age group showed lower FVC% and MEF50% than those in the preschool-age group. However, all the pulmonary function parameters showed no significant differences between the obese children in the preschool-age and school-age groups. In the preschool-age group, FVC%, FEV1%, and MEF75% of the obese children were lower than those of the normal-weight children. In the school-age group, only FVC% and FEV1% showed differences between the obese and normal-weight children (Pobesity on the pulmonary function varies with age in children with asthma, and the effect is more obvious in those of preschool age.

  11. Functional groups of marine ciliated protozoa and their relationships to water quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yong; Xu, Henglong; Hu, Xiaozhong; Warren, Alan; Song, Weibo

    2013-08-01

    Ciliated protozoa (ciliates) play important ecological roles in coastal waters, especially regarding their interaction with environmental parameters. In order to increase our knowledge and understanding on the functional structure of ciliate communities and their relationships to environmental conditions in marine ecosystems, a 12-month study was carried out in a semi-enclosed bay in northern China. Samples were collected biweekly at five sampling stations with differing levels of pollution/eutrophication, giving a total of 120 samples. Thirteen functional groups of ciliates (A-M) were defined based on their specific spatio-temporal distribution and relationships to physico-chemical parameters. Six of these groups (H-M) were the primary contributors to the ciliate communities in the polluted/eutrophic areas, whereas the other seven groups (A-G) dominated the communities in less polluted areas. Six groups (A, D, G, H, I and K) dominated during the warm seasons (summer and autumn), with the other seven (B, C, E, F, J, L and M) dominating in the cold seasons (spring and winter). Of these, groups B (mainly aloricate ciliates), I (aloricate ciliates) and L (mainly loricate tintinnids) were the primary contributors to the communities. It was also shown that aloricate ciliates and tintinnids represented different roles in structuring and functioning of the communities. The results suggest that the ciliate communities may be constructed by several functional groups in response to the environmental conditions. Thus, we conclude that these functional groups might be potentially useful bioindicators for bioassessment and conservation in marine habitats.

  12. The electrokinetic characterization of gold nanoparticles, functionalized with cationic functional groups, and its' interaction with DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazarus, Geraldine Genevive; Revaprasadu, Neerish; López-Viota, Julián; Singh, Moganavelli

    2014-09-01

    Gold nanoparticles have attracted strong biomedical interest for drug delivery due to their low toxic nature, surface plasmon resonance and capability of increasing the stability of the payload. However, gene transfection represents another important biological application. Considering that cellular barriers keep enclosed their secret to deliver genes using nanoparticles, an important step can be achieved by studying the functionalization of nanoparticles with DNA. In the present contribution the synthesis of nanoparticles consisting of a gold core coated with one or more layers of amino acid (l-lysine), and cationic polyelectrolytes (poly-ethyleneimine and poly-l-lysine) is reported. All nanoparticles were subjected to dynamic light scattering, electrophoretic mobility measurements, UV-vis optical spectrophotometry analysis and transmission electron microscopy imaging. In addition, the adsorption of DNA plasmid (pSGS) with linear and supercoiled configurations was studied for those gold nanoparticles under the most suitable surface modifications. Preliminary results showed that the gold nanoparticles functionalized with poly-ethyleneimine and poly-l-lysine, respectively, and bound to linear DNA configurations, present in absolute value a higher electrophoretic mobility irrespective of the pH of the media, compared to the supercoiled and nicked configuration. The findings from this study suggest that poly-ethyleneimine and poly-l-lysine functionalized gold nanoparticles are biocompatible and may be promising in the chemical design and future optimization of nanostructures for biomedical applications such as gene and drug delivery.

  13. Esperanto & cultural identity

    OpenAIRE

    Lehrmann, Ask; Christensen, Julie Hellesøe; Dzieza, Malgorzata; Hansen, Nathalie Gylling

    2007-01-01

    The topic of this project is the relationship between culture, cultural identity and language, and their relationship to the ambiguous concept of neutrality. Taking a case study of Esperanto, an artificial language designed with the specific intention of being a completely neutral and nationless language, we will explore how languages relate to the world. By comparing the thoughts on culture and group identity of various authors, we will then try to explore the concept of neutrality – for can...

  14. A Study of Intervention of Narrative Group Counseling on College Students' Self-identity%叙事取向团体辅导对大学生自我认同的干预研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵君; 李焰; 李祚

    2012-01-01

    自我认同的发展与大学生心理健康水平及其今后的社会适应关系密切。本研究用叙事取向团体辅导对大学生自我认同进行干预。结果发现,叙事治疗强调的好奇、尊重、珍惜的态度,为被试创设了安全、温暖、支持的团体氛围;外化和解构使被试与问题拉开距离,探讨问题的影响力;寻找并丰厚特殊意义事件,让被试看到自身的正向力量和资源;局外见证人团队,进一步巩固被试身上的正向力量。结论:叙事取向团体辅导是促进大学生自我认同发展的有效途径。%Self-identity is the core of the personality development of youth, which affects the lifelong developrment of individuals. Self-identity formation is an important indicator of mental health. The development of self-identity has a close relationship with college students' mental health and the adaption to the society. However, the state of self-identity of college students is not optimistic. It is necessary to look for an effective approach to improve it. In the past, the research focused on the theories about self-identity. For example, the structrues and the factors of self-identity, the relationship between self identity and personality, the relationship between self-identity and mental health. But intervention research on it was rare. The core of narrative therapy is to focus on the positive aspects of the clients' experiences and to transfer the pessimistic self-identity to positive self-identity. Also, the group couseling is popular in mental health education in universities and it is effective to promote the college students' personality. This research used narrative group counseling as an intervention approach to explore the feasibility and effectiveness of narrative-oriented group counseling for college students to improve the level of self-identity, and to find the efficacy factor of the process, also provide reference for the scholastic mental

  15. Linguistic identity matching

    CERN Document Server

    Lisbach, Bertrand

    2013-01-01

    Regulation, risk awareness and technological advances are increasingly drawing identity search functionality into business, security and data management processes, as well as fraud investigations and counter-terrorist measures.Over the years, a number of techniques have been developed for searching identity data, traditionally focusing on logical algorithms. These techniques often failed to take into account the complexities of language and culture that provide the rich variations  seen in names used around the world. A new paradigm has now emerged for understanding the way that identity data

  16. Characteristics of Interactional Management Functions in Group Oral by Japanese Learners of English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negishi, Junko

    2010-01-01

    This study attempted to investigate the characteristics of interaction dynamics in a group oral interaction carried out by Japanese learners of English. The relationship between the participants' language development and interactional management functions (IMFs) was also explored. Oral performance tests in a paired or a small group have recently…

  17. The impact of attitude functions on luxury brand consumption: An age-based group comparison

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schade, Michael; Hegner, Sabrina; Horstmann, Florian; Brinkmann, Nora

    2016-01-01

    The main purpose of this study is to understand the consumption of luxury brands in different age groups. Attitude functions (social-adjustive, value-expressive, hedonic, utilitarian) explain luxury brand consumption among three age groups. A total of 297 respondents between the age of 16 and 59 par

  18. Inequalities of Hadamard Type for r-Convex Functions in Carnot Groups

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ming-bao Sun; Xiao-ping Yang

    2004-01-01

    For a Carnot group G,we establish the relationship between extended mean values and r-convex functions which is introduced in this paper,which is a class of inequalities of Hadamard type for r-convex function on G.

  19. New method of the functional renormalization group approach for Yang-Mills fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavrov, P. M.; Shapiro, I. L.

    2014-12-01

    We propose a new formulation of the functional renormalization group (FRG) approach, based on the use of regulator functions as composite operators. In this case one can provide (in contrast with standard approach) on-shell gauge-invariance for the effective average action.

  20. Loop expansion of the average effective action in the functional renormalization group approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavrov, Peter M.; Merzlikin, Boris S.

    2015-10-01

    We formulate a perturbation expansion for the effective action in a new approach to the functional renormalization group method based on the concept of composite fields for regulator functions being their most essential ingredients. We demonstrate explicitly the principal difference between the properties of effective actions in these two approaches existing already on the one-loop level in a simple gauge model.

  1. Loop expansion of average effective action in functional renormalization group approach

    CERN Document Server

    Lavrov, Peter M

    2015-01-01

    We formulate a perturbation expansion for the effective action in new approach to the functional renormalization group (FRG) method based on concept of composite fields for regulator functions being therein most essential ingredients. We demonstrate explicitly the principal difference between properties of effective actions in these two approaches existing already on the one-loop level in a simple gauge model.

  2. Stabilization and strengthening effects of functional groups in two-dimensional titanium carbide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Z. H.; Zhang, Q. F.; Legut, D.; Si, C.; Germann, T. C.; Lookman, T.; Du, S. Y.; Francisco, J. S.; Zhang, R. F.

    2016-09-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) materials have attracted considerable interest due to their remarkable properties and potential applications for nanoelectronics, electrodes, energy storage devices, among others. However, many well-studied 2D materials lack appreciable conductivity and tunable mechanical strength, limiting their applications in flexible devices. Newly developed MXenes open up the opportunity to design novel flexible conductive electronic materials. Here, using density functional theory (DFT), we investigate systematically the effects of several functional groups on the stabilization, mechanical properties, and electronic structures of a representative MXene. It is found that oxygen possesses the largest adsorption energy as compared to other functional groups, indicating its good thermodynamic stabilization. In comparison with bare and other functionalized titanium carbides, the oxygen functionalized one exhibits the most superior ideal strength; however, the premature softening of the long-wave phonon modes might limit the intrinsic strength for T i3C2O2 . Furthermore, the introduction of functional groups can induce a strong anisotropy under tensile loading. By analyzing the deformation paths and the electronic instability under various loadings, we demonstrate that the unique strengthening by oxygen functional groups is attributed to a significant charge transfer from inner bonds to outer surface ones after functionalization. Our results shed a novel view into exploring a variety of MXenes for their potential applications in flexible electronic and energy storage devices.

  3. Plant parameters for plant functional groups of western rangelands to enable process-based simulation modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regional environmental assessments with process-based models require realistic estimates of plant parameters for the primary plant functional groups in the region. “Functional group” in this context is an operational term, based on similarities in plant type and in plant parameter values. Likewise...

  4. An Early Requirement for nkx2.5 Ensures First and Second Heart Field Ventricular Identity and Cardiac Function into Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Vanessa; Colombo, Sophie; Targoff, Kimara L.

    2015-01-01

    Temporally controlled mechanisms that define the unique features of ventricular and atrial cardiomyocyte identity are essential for the construction of a coordinated, morphologically intact heart. We have previously demonstrated an important role for nkx genes in maintaining ventricular identity, however, the specific timing of nkx2.5 function in distinct cardiomyocyte populations has yet to be elucidated. Here, we show that heat-shock induction of a novel transgenic line, Tg(hsp70l:nkx2.5-EGFP), during the initial stages of cardiomyocyte differentiation leads to rescue of chamber shape and identity in nkx2.5−/− embryos as chambers emerge. Intriguingly, our findings link an early role of this essential cardiac transcription factor with a later function. Moreover, these data reveal that nkx2.5 is also required in the second heart field as the heart tube forms, reflecting the temporal delay in differentiation of this population. Thus, our results support a model in which nkx genes induce downstream targets that are necessary to maintain chamber-specific identity in both early- and late-differentiating cardiomyocytes at discrete stages in cardiac morphogenesis. Furthermore, we show that overexpression of nkx2.5 during first and second heart field development not only rescues the mutant phenotype, but also is sufficient for proper function of the adult heart. Taken together, these results shed new light on the stage-dependent mechanisms that sculpt chamber-specific cardiomyocytes and, therefore, have the potential to improve in vitro generation of ventricular cells to treat myocardial infarction and congenital heart disease. PMID:25536398

  5. Sub-grouping and sub-functionalization of the RIFIN multi-copy protein family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonnhammer Erik L

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Parasitic protozoans possess many multicopy gene families which have central roles in parasite survival and virulence. The number and variability of members of these gene families often make it difficult to predict possible functions of the encoded proteins. The families of extra-cellular proteins that are exposed to a host immune response have been driven via immune selection to become antigenically variant, and thereby avoid immune recognition while maintaining protein function to establish a chronic infection. Results We have combined phylogenetic and function shift analyses to study the evolution of the RIFIN proteins, which are antigenically variant and are encoded by the largest multicopy gene family in Plasmodium falciparum. We show that this family can be subdivided into two major groups that we named A- and B-RIFIN proteins. This suggested sub-grouping is supported by a recently published study that showed that, despite the presence of the Plasmodium export (PEXEL motif in all RIFIN variants, proteins from each group have different cellular localizations during the intraerythrocytic life cycle of the parasite. In the present study we show that function shift analysis, a novel technique to predict functional divergence between sub-groups of a protein family, indicates that RIFINs have undergone neo- or sub-functionalization. Conclusion These results question the general trend of clustering large antigenically variant protein groups into homogenous families. Assigning functions to protein families requires their subdivision into meaningful groups such as we have shown for the RIFIN protein family. Using phylogenetic and function shift analysis methods, we identify new directions for the investigation of this broad and complex group of proteins.

  6. Response of rotifer functional groups to changing trophic state and crustacean community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina MANCA

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Information based on taxon-based indices is species-specific while information gained from function-based research can give a comprehensive view of ecosystem processes. We applied the guild-ratio, an index based on the proportion of functional groups of rotifers (i.e. microphagous and raptorial species, on a long-term data set of Lago Maggiore. By applying seasonal trend decomposition based on smoothing techniques and non-metrical multidimensional scaling, we assessed the response of rotifer functional groups to changes in trophic state and climate. While the taxon-based indices showed smooth changes, the function-based index showed a dramatic shift from a raptorial to a microphagous dominance, with a back-shift to raptorial dominance starting in 2000. The seasonal peak of microphagous and raptorial dry weight was clearly separated in the pre-eutrophication period. When mesotrophic conditions prevailed both peaks overlapped, only to be separated again with re-oligotrophication. We attributed these alterations of rotifer functional groups to changes in competition with crustacean zooplankton and to decreased phytoplankton algal abundance and size while altered seasonality in functional groups could be related to inter-group competition for food. We hypothesise that the effects of trophic state (i.e. altered phytoplankton and climate (i.e. altered cladoceran community were transferred across trophic levels to rotifer functional groups. Our study highlights that functional groups are valid instruments for illustrating unifying principles in ecology through a better understanding of ecosystem processes and the interrelationship between trophic levels.

  7. Group devaluation and group identification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leach, C.W.; Rodriguez Mosquera, P.M.; Vliek, M.L.W.; Hirt, E.

    2010-01-01

    In three studies, we showed that increased in-group identification after (perceived or actual) group devaluation is an assertion of a (preexisting) positive social identity that counters the negative social identity implied in societal devaluation. Two studies with real-world groups used order manip

  8. Individual diet variation in a marine fish assemblage: Optimal Foraging Theory, Niche Variation Hypothesis and functional identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cachera, M.; Ernande, B.; Villanueva, M. C.; Lefebvre, S.

    2017-02-01

    Individual diet variation (i.e. diet variation among individuals) impacts intra- and inter-specific interactions. Investigating its sources and relationship with species trophic niche organization is important for understanding community structure and dynamics. Individual diet variation may increase with intra-specific phenotypic (or "individual state") variation and habitat variability, according to Optimal Foraging Theory (OFT), and with species trophic niche width, according to the Niche Variation Hypothesis (NVH). OFT proposes "proximate sources" of individual diet variation such as variations in habitat or size whereas NVH relies on "ultimate sources" related to the competitive balance between intra- and inter-specific competitions. The latter implies as a corollary that species trophic niche overlap, taken as inter-specific competition measure, decreases as species niche width and individual niche variation increase. We tested the complementary predictions of OFT and NVH in a marine fish assemblage using stomach content data and associated trophic niche metrics. The NVH predictions were tested between species of the assemblage and decomposed into a between- and a within-functional group component to assess the potential influence of species' ecological function. For most species, individual diet variation and niche overlap were consistently larger than expected. Individual diet variation increased with intra-specific variability in individual state and habitat, as expected from OFT. It also increased with species niche width but in compliance with the null expectation, thus not supporting the NVH. In contrast, species niche overlap increased significantly less than null expectation with both species niche width and individual diet variation, supporting NVH corollary. The between- and within-functional group components of the NVH relationships were consistent with those between species at the assemblage level. Changing the number of prey categories used to

  9. A method for the separation of hybrids of chromatographically identical oligomeric proteins. Use of 3,4,5,6-tetrahydrophthaloyl groups as a reversible "chromatographic handle".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbons, I; Schachman, H K

    1976-01-13

    Hybridization experiments with variants of an oligomeric protein often provide important information regarding subunit structure, function, and interactions. In some systems, however, the variants are so similar electrophoretically and chromatographically that purification of individual hybrids is not feasible. Therefore a method was developed for preparing hybrids by using 3,4,5,6-tetrahydrophthalic anhydride as a reversible acylating agent for protein amino groups. The technique involved acylating about 30% of the amino groups at pH 8 to give a derivative with a markedly altered net charge, formation of the hybrid set with unmodified and modified species, separation of the individual components by ion-exchange chromatography, and finally removal of the tetrahydrophthaloyl groups from the desired hybrid by incubation for about 1 day at pH 6 and room temperature. Experiments with model compounds and two enzymes showed that the anhydride was sepcific for amino groups. The extent of modification of proteins was measured by the spectral change at 250 nm, the loss of free amino groups, and the change in electrophoretic mobility of the polypeptide chains in polyacrylamide gels containing 8 M urea. Deacylation of modified, inactive aldolase and the catalytic subunit of aspartate transcarbamylase led to the restoration of the enzyme activity and electrophoretic mobility of the unmodified proteins. Both intra- and inter-subunit hybrids of aspartate transcarbamylase were prepared and isolated by using the tetrahydrophthaloyl groups as a reversible "chromatographic handle". Prior to deacylation the inter-subunit hybrid containing one acylated and one native catalytic subunit (and negative regulatory sub-units) exhibited no homotropic cooperativity and after deacylation the characteristic allosteric properties of the enzyme were regained. Similarly the ligand-promoted conformational changes associated with the allosteric transition were resotred upon deacylation of the intra

  10. Identity, identity politics, and neoliberalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wrenn Mary

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available With the intensification of neoliberalism, it is useful to examine how some individuals might cope with the irrationality of the system. Neoliberalism cloaks the execution of the corporate agenda behind rhetorical manipulation that advocates for limited government. The corollary absence of government involvement on behalf of the citizenry writ large disarms the means of social redress for the individual. Democracy funded and fueled by corporate power thereby disenfranchises the individual, provoking some to search for empowerment through identity politics. The argument set forth suggests that individuals construct, reinforce, or escalate allegiance to identities as a coping mechanism, some of which manifest in violent identity politics.

  11. Application of Angular Momentum Theory to Constructing Basis Functions of Irreducible Representations of Icosahedral Group

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI An-yong

    2004-01-01

    A new method based on angular momentum theory was proposed to construct the basis functions of the irreducible representations(IRs) of point groups. The transformation coefficients, i. e. , coefficients S, are the components of the eigenvectors of some Hermitian matrices, and can be made as real numbers for all pure rotation point groups. The general formula for coefficient S was deduced, and applied to constructing the basis functions of single-valued irreducible representations of icosahedral group from the spherical harmonics with angular momentum j≤7.

  12. In the search of identity: the Romanian journalistic discourse and the function of Europeanization of the public sphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela GOUDENHOOFT

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper represents an introduction in the ongoing research on the search of identity of the journalistic discourse, identity able to contribute to the development of national public sphere and to its Europeanization. I presented some of the ideas and theories on modern and postmodern communication and public sphere trying to see how they create place to European issues and what status they have in contemporary journalistic discourse. Media interaction with national public spheres and the role of media in their transnationalization process is a complex one. In research of representations about EU and about major European themes and issues, which media create or transmit is important to emphasyse the role these representations play both in public discourse and in the comprehension process. This is an ongoing research and I have chosen only one example of representations, that of personalization, the antopomorphism of Europe image, the analogy with a human body, with its strengths and weaknesses, but also a body able to act in distress under the influence of diseases with significant effects on our lives. Romanian media is looking for its own identity linked to the European communication flow while European issues hardly make their way to our public space where the actors are aware of the lack of popularity of this topics, a deficit explained almost by their technicality and by the lack of a genuine European public.

  13. Clickable SBA-15 to screen functional groups for adsorption of antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jinsuo; Zhang, Xueying; Xu, Shutao; Liu, Jian; Tan, Feng; Li, Xinyong; Qu, Zhenping; Zhang, Yaobin; Quan, Xie

    2014-03-01

    Pharmaceutical antibiotics, as emerging contaminants, are usually composed of several functional groups that endow them with the ability to interact with adsorbents through different interactions. This makes the preparation of adsorbents tedious and time-consuming to screen appropriate functionalized materials. Herein, we describe the synthesis of clickable SBA-15 and demonstrate its feasibility as a screening material for the adsorption of antibiotics based on similar adsorption trends on materials with similar functional groups obtained by a click reaction and cocondensation/grafting methods.

  14. Identity Development and Identity Formation: A Theoretical Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Atak

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Basic function of adolescence -one of the human life periods when physical and mental changes are experienced most heavily- is suggested to be identity development. Recent developmental psychology studies hypothesized that identity development starts during adolescence but intensifies during transi-tion to adulthood. This study addresses identity concept, in detail, from a theoretical point of view and in the scope of empirical studies. Literature offers quite different explanations and models as well as a few basic theories in this framework. The number of studies on identity subject is higher than the number of studies on other psycho-social study subjects. This study presents the theories offering basic explanations about identity (such as the works of Erikson, Marcia, Berzonsky, Waterman and the theories referring to identity (such as the works of Blos, Arnett, Kegan. Theories related to identity are addressed under the titles of identity exploration, identity status and identity styles. Almost all of the identity studies conducted in Turkey focused on identity status. In this context, new theories and tendencies may be taken into consideration in the studies to be made in Turkey on identity development.

  15. Classifying proteins into functional groups based on all-versus-all BLAST of 10 million proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolker, Natali; Higdon, Roger; Broomall, William; Stanberry, Larissa; Welch, Dean; Lu, Wei; Haynes, Winston; Barga, Roger; Kolker, Eugene

    2011-01-01

    To address the monumental challenge of assigning function to millions of sequenced proteins, we completed the first of a kind all-versus-all sequence alignments using BLAST for 9.9 million proteins in the UniRef100 database. Microsoft Windows Azure produced over 3 billion filtered records in 6 days using 475 eight-core virtual machines. Protein classification into functional groups was then performed using Hive and custom jars implemented on top of Apache Hadoop utilizing the MapReduce paradigm. First, using the Clusters of Orthologous Genes (COG) database, a length normalized bit score (LNBS) was determined to be the best similarity measure for classification of proteins. LNBS achieved sensitivity and specificity of 98% each. Second, out of 5.1 million bacterial proteins, about two-thirds were assigned to significantly extended COG groups, encompassing 30 times more assigned proteins. Third, the remaining proteins were classified into protein functional groups using an innovative implementation of a single-linkage algorithm on an in-house Hadoop compute cluster. This implementation significantly reduces the run time for nonindexed queries and optimizes efficient clustering on a large scale. The performance was also verified on Amazon Elastic MapReduce. This clustering assigned nearly 2 million proteins to approximately half a million different functional groups. A similar approach was applied to classify 2.8 million eukaryotic sequences resulting in over 1 million proteins being assign to existing KOG groups and the remainder clustered into 100,000 functional groups.

  16. Interrogating Surface Functional Group Heterogeneity of Activated Thermoplastics Using Super-Resolution Fluorescence Microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ONeil, Colleen E; Jackson, Joshua M; Shim, Sang-Hee; Soper, Steven A

    2016-04-01

    We present a novel approach for characterizing surfaces utilizing super-resolution fluorescence microscopy with subdiffraction limit spatial resolution. Thermoplastic surfaces were activated by UV/O3 or O2 plasma treatment under various conditions to generate pendant surface-confined carboxylic acids (-COOH). These surface functional groups were then labeled with a photoswitchable dye and interrogated using single-molecule, localization-based, super-resolution fluorescence microscopy to elucidate the surface heterogeneity of these functional groups across the activated surface. Data indicated nonuniform distributions of these functional groups for both COC and PMMA thermoplastics with the degree of heterogeneity being dose dependent. In addition, COC demonstrated relative higher surface density of functional groups compared to PMMA for both UV/O3 and O2 plasma treatment. The spatial distribution of -COOH groups secured from super-resolution imaging were used to simulate nonuniform patterns of electroosmotic flow in thermoplastic nanochannels. Simulations were compared to single-particle tracking of fluorescent nanoparticles within thermoplastic nanoslits to demonstrate the effects of surface functional group heterogeneity on the electrokinetic transport process.

  17. Arrival order among native plant functional groups does not affect invasibility of constructed dune communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, T J; French, K; Jolley, D

    2013-10-01

    Different arrival order scenarios of native functional groups to a site may influence both resource use during development and final community structure. Arrival order may then indirectly influence community resistance to invasion. We present a mesocosm experiment of constructed coastal dune communities that monitored biotic and abiotic responses to different arrival orders of native functional groups. Constructed communities were compared with unplanted mesocosms. We then simulated a single invasion event by bitou (Chrysanthemoides monilifera ssp. rotundata), a dominant exotic shrub of coastal communities. We evaluated the hypothesis that plantings with simultaneous representation of grass, herb and shrub functional groups at the beginning of the experiment would more completely sequester resources and limit invasion than staggered plantings. Staggered plantings in turn would offer greater resource use and invasion resistance than unplanted mesocosms. Contrary to our expectations, there were few effects of arrival order on abiotic variables for the duration of the experiment and arrival order was unimportant in final community invasibility. All planted mesocosms supported significantly more invader germinants and significantly less invader abundance than unplanted mesocosms. Native functional group plantings may have a nurse effect during the invader germination and establishment phase and a competitive function during the invader juvenile and adult phase. Arrival order per se did not affect resource use and community invasibility in our mesocosm experiment. While grass, herb and shrub functional group plantings will not prevent invasion success in restored communities, they may limit final invader biomass.

  18. Capillary-wave models and the effective-average-action scheme of functional renormalization group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakubczyk, P

    2011-08-01

    We reexamine the functional renormalization-group theory of wetting transitions. As a starting point of the analysis we apply an exact equation describing renormalization group flow of the generating functional for irreducible vertex functions. We show how the standard nonlinear renormalization group theory of wetting transitions can be recovered by a very simple truncation of the exact flow equation. The derivation makes all the involved approximations transparent and demonstrates the applicability of the approach in any spatial dimension d≥2. Exploiting the nonuniqueness of the renormalization-group cutoff scheme, we find, however, that the capillary parameter ω is a scheme-dependent quantity below d=3. For d=3 the parameter ω is perfectly robust against scheme variation.

  19. Promoting Professional Identity: A Within Group Comparison of Wiki-Based and Traditional Assignments on School Counselling Students' Learning, Sense of Community and Computer Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rockinson-Szapkiw, Amanda J.; Pritchard, Tracey; McComb-Beverage, Shanna; Schellenberg, Rita

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare traditional and non-traditional instructional practices used in a counsellor education programme to determine their effect on pre-service school counsellors' learning and sense of community, thus leading to enhanced professional identity. Traditional and non-traditional assignments were examined: (a) a…

  20. In-Group and Role Identity Influences on the Initiation and Maintenance of Students' Voluntary Attendance at Peer Study Sessions for Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Katherine M.; O'Connor, Erin L.; Hamilton, Kyra

    2011-01-01

    Background: Although class attendance is linked to academic performance, questions remain about what determines students' decisions to attend or miss class. Aims: In addition to the constructs of a common decision-making model, the theory of planned behaviour, the present study examined the influence of student role identity and university student…

  1. The more (and the more compatible) the merrier : Multiple group memberships and identity compatibility as predictors of adjustment after life transitions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iyer, Aarti; Jetten, Jolanda; Tsivrikos, Dimitrios; Postmes, Tom; Haslam, S. Alexander

    2009-01-01

    Two longitudinal studies considered the role of social identity factors in predicting wellbeing after students' transition to university. The transition (assessed before starting university and after 2 months at university) had a detrimental effect on well-being, but identification as a university

  2. In-Group and Role Identity Influences on the Initiation and Maintenance of Students' Voluntary Attendance at Peer Study Sessions for Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Katherine M.; O'Connor, Erin L.; Hamilton, Kyra

    2011-01-01

    Background: Although class attendance is linked to academic performance, questions remain about what determines students' decisions to attend or miss class. Aims: In addition to the constructs of a common decision-making model, the theory of planned behaviour, the present study examined the influence of student role identity and university student…

  3. The more (and the more compatible) the merrier : Multiple group memberships and identity compatibility as predictors of adjustment after life transitions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iyer, Aarti; Jetten, Jolanda; Tsivrikos, Dimitrios; Postmes, Tom; Haslam, S. Alexander

    2009-01-01

    Two longitudinal studies considered the role of social identity factors in predicting wellbeing after students' transition to university. The transition (assessed before starting university and after 2 months at university) had a detrimental effect on well-being, but identification as a university s

  4. The more (and the more compatible) the merrier : Multiple group memberships and identity compatibility as predictors of adjustment after life transitions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iyer, Aarti; Jetten, Jolanda; Tsivrikos, Dimitrios; Postmes, Tom; Haslam, S. Alexander

    2009-01-01

    Two longitudinal studies considered the role of social identity factors in predicting wellbeing after students' transition to university. The transition (assessed before starting university and after 2 months at university) had a detrimental effect on well-being, but identification as a university s

  5. Ascription and identity. Differences between first- and second-generation Moroccans in the way ascription influences religious, national and ethnic group identification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Heelsum, A.; Koomen, M.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the impact of ascription on the process of identity formation of first- and second-generation Moroccans in Western Europe. We look at the general discursive context and levels of perceived acceptance amongst Moroccan migrants, and see how these factors influence three r

  6. Glioma cell line proliferation controlled by different chemical functional groups in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Su-Ju XU; Fu-Zhai CUI; Xiao-Long YU; Xiang-Dong KONG

    2013-01-01

    Glioma cell line C6 cultured on silicon surfaces modified by different chemical functional groups, including mercapto (-SH), carboxyl (-COOH), amino (-NH2), hydroxyl (-OH) and methyl (-CH3) groups, was studied here to investigate the influence of surface chemistry on the cell proliferation, adhesion and apoptosis. AFM confirmed the similar characteristic of different functional groups occupation. The adhering C6 exhibited morphological changes in response to different chemical functional groups. The C6 adhered to -COOH, -NH2, -OH and -CH3 surfaces and flattened morphology, while those on -SH surface exhibited the smallest contact area with mostly rounded morphology, which led to the death of cancer cells. The results of MTT assay showed that the -COOH and -NH2 groups promoted ceil proliferation, while the -SH significantly inhibited the proliferation. Compared with other chemical functional groups, the -SH group exhibited its unique effect on the fate of cancer cells, which might provide means for the design of biomaterials to prevent and treat glioma.

  7. Correlation functions in isotropic and anisotropic turbulence the role of the symmetry group

    CERN Document Server

    Arad, I; Procaccia, I; Arad, Itai; L'vov, Victor S.; Procaccia, Itamar

    1998-01-01

    The theory of fully developed turbulence is usually considered in an idealized homogeneous and isotropic state. Real turbulent flows exhibit the effects of anisotropic forcing. The analysis of correlation functions and structure functions in isotropic and anisotropic situations is facilitated and made rational when performed in terms of the irreducible representations of the relevant symmetry group which is the group of all rotations SO(3). In this paper we firstly consider the needed general theory and explain why we expect different (universal) scaling exponents in the different sectors of the symmetry group. We exemplify the theory context of isotropic turbulence (for third order tensorial structure functions) and in weakly anisotropic turbulence (for the second order structure function). The utility of the resulting expressions for the analysis of experimental data is demonstrated in the context of high Reynolds number measurements of turbulence in the atmosphere.

  8. Tensor renormalization group: Local magnetizations, correlation functions, and phase diagrams of systems with quenched randomness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güven, Can; Hinczewski, Michael; Berker, A. Nihat

    2011-03-01

    The tensor renormalization-group method, developed by Levin and Nave, brings systematic improvability to the position-space renormalization-group method and yields essentially exact results for phase diagrams and entire thermodynamic functions. The method, previously used on systems with no quenched randomness, is extended in this study to systems with quenched randomness. Local magnetizations and correlation functions as a function of spin separation are calculated as tensor products subject to renormalization-group transformation. Phase diagrams are extracted from the long-distance behavior of the correlation functions. The approach is illustrated with the quenched bond-diluted Ising model on the triangular lattice. An accurate phase diagram is obtained in temperature and bond-dilution probability for the entire temperature range down to the percolation threshold at zero temperature. This research was supported by the Alexander von Humboldt Foundation, the Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey (TÜBITAK), and the Academy of Sciences of Turkey.

  9. Tensor renormalization group: local magnetizations, correlation functions, and phase diagrams of systems with quenched randomness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güven, Can; Hinczewski, Michael; Berker, A Nihat

    2010-11-01

    The tensor renormalization-group method, developed by Levin and Nave, brings systematic improvability to the position-space renormalization-group method and yields essentially exact results for phase diagrams and entire thermodynamic functions. The method, previously used on systems with no quenched randomness, is extended in this study to systems with quenched randomness. Local magnetizations and correlation functions as a function of spin separation are calculated as tensor products subject to renormalization-group transformation. Phase diagrams are extracted from the long-distance behavior of the correlation functions. The approach is illustrated with the quenched bond-diluted Ising model on the triangular lattice. An accurate phase diagram is obtained in temperature and bond-dilution probability for the entire temperature range down to the percolation threshold at zero temperature.

  10. Functional FX-bar Projections of the (Romanian Verbal Group and Sub-Groups on the Syntactic-Semantic Interface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neculai Curteanu

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to investigate the syntactic / semantic substructures (called subgroups of the Romanian verbal group (VG [12], or verbal complex [25], starting with the achievements in the literature, and melted into the device of direct and inverse functional projection within FX-bar theory [7]. The paper examines several problems and their solutions for the syntactic-semantic theories of VG, as discussed in some fundamental papers, and we offer our explanation on the involved syntactic phenomena, the emphasis falling on the VG substructures (verbal subgroups, VSGs, VSG boundaries and composition within VG, direct and inverse FX-bar projections of VG, VG parsing, lexical semantics and intensional~/ extensional logic representations of the Romanian (verbal or nominal predicate.

  11. Energies of the adsorption of functional groups to calcium carbonate polymorphs: the importance of -OH and -COOH groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okhrimenko, D V; Nissenbaum, J; Andersson, M P; Olsson, M H M; Stipp, S L S

    2013-09-01

    The adsorption behavior of calcium carbonate is an important factor in many processes in nature, industry, and biological systems. We determined and compared the adsorption energies for a series of small molecules of different sizes and polarities (i.e., water, several alcohols, and acetic acid) on three synthetic CaCO3 polymorphs (calcite, aragonite, and vaterite). We measured isosteric heats of adsorption from vapor adsorption isotherms for 273 < T < 293 K, and we used XRD and SEM to confirm that samples did not change phase during the experiments. Density functional calculations and molecular dynamics simulations complemented the experimental results and aided interpretation. Alcohols with molecular mass greater than that of methanol bind more strongly to the calcium carbonate polymorphs than water and acetic acid. The adsorption energies for the alcohols are typical of chemisorption and indicate alcohol displacement of water from calcium carbonate surfaces. This explains why organisms favor biomolecules that contain alcohol functional groups (-OH) to control which polymorph they use, the crystal face and orientation, and the particle shape and size in biomineralization processes. This new insight is also very useful in understanding organic molecule adsorption mechanisms in soils, sediments, and rocks, which is important for predicting the behavior of mineral-fluid interactions when the challenge is to remediate contaminated groundwater aquifers or to produce oil and gas from reservoirs.

  12. In-Medium Spectral Functions of Vector- and Axial-Vector Mesons from the Functional Renormalization Group

    CERN Document Server

    Jung, Christopher; Tripolt, Ralf-Arno; von Smekal, Lorenz; Wambach, Jochen

    2016-01-01

    In this work we present first results on vector and axial-vector meson spectral functions as obtained by applying the non-perturbative functional renormalization group approach to an effective low-energy theory motivated by the gauged linear sigma model. By using a recently proposed analytic continuation method, we study the in-medium behavior of the spectral functions of the $\\rho$ and $a_1$ mesons in different regimes of the phase diagram. In particular, we demonstrate explicitly how these spectral functions degenerate at high temperatures as well as at large chemical potentials, as a consequence of the restoration of chiral symmetry. In addition, we also compute the momentum dependence of the $\\rho$ and $a_1$ spectral functions and discuss the various time-like and space-like processes that can occur.

  13. Tuning of electronic properties and dynamical stability of graphene oxide with different functional groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabhi, Shweta D.; Jha, Prafulla K.

    2017-09-01

    The structural, electronic and vibrational properties of graphene oxide (GO) with varying proportion of epoxy and hydroxyl functional groups have been studied using density functional theory. The functional groups and oxygen density have an obvious influence on the electronic and vibrational properties. The dependence of band gap on associated functional groups and oxygen density shows a possibility of tuning the band gap of graphene by varying the functional groups as well as oxidation level. The absorption of high oxygen content in graphene leads to the gap opening and resulting in a transition from semimetal to semiconductor. Phonon dispersion curves show no imaginary frequency or no softening of any phonon mode throughout the Brillouin zone which confirms the dynamical stability of all considered GO models. Different groups and different oxygen density result into the varying characteristics of phonon modes. The computed results show good agreement with the experimental observations. Our results present interesting possibilities for engineering the electronic properties of graphene and GO and impact the fabrication of new electronics.

  14. The dual roles of functional groups in the photoluminescence of graphene quantum dots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shujun; Cole, Ivan S; Zhao, Dongyuan; Li, Qin

    2016-04-14

    The photoluminescent properties of graphene nanoparticle (named graphene quantum dots) have attracted significant research attention in recent years owing to their profound application potential. However, the photoluminescence (PL) origin of this class of nanocarbons is still unclear. In this paper, combining direct experimental evidence enabled by a facile size-tunable oxygenated graphene quantum dots (GQDs) synthesis method and theoretical calculations, the roles of the aromatic core, functional groups and disordered structures (i.e. defects and sp(3) carbon) in the PL of oxygenated GQDs are elucidated in detail. In particular, we found that the functional groups on GQDs play dual roles in the overall emission: (1) they enable π* → n and σ* → n transitions, resulting in a molecular type of PL, spectrally invariable with change of particle size or excitation energy; (2) similar to defects and sp(3) carbon, functional groups also induce structural deformation to the aromatic core, leading to mid-gap states or, in other words, energy traps, causing π* → mid-gap states → π transitions. Therefore, functional groups contribute to both the blue edge and the red shoulder of GQDs' PL spectra. The new insights on the role of functional groups in PL of fluorescent nanocarbons will enable better designs of this new class of materials.

  15. Effects of chemical functional groups on elemental mercury adsorption on carbonaceous surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jing; Cheney, Marcos A; Wu, Fan; Li, Meng

    2011-02-15

    A systematic theoretical study using density functional theory is performed to provide molecular-level understanding of the effects of chemical functional groups on mercury adsorption on carbonaceous surfaces. The zigzag and armchair edges were used in modeling the carbonaceous surfaces to simulate different adsorption sites. The edge atoms on the upper side of the models are unsaturated to simulate active sites. All calculations (optimizations, energies, and frequencies) were made at B3PW91 density functional theory level, using RCEP60VDZ basis set for mercury and 6-31G(d) pople basis set for other atoms. The results indicate that the embedding of halogen atom can increase the activity of its neighboring site which in turn increases the adsorption capacity of the carbonaceous surface for Hg(0). The adsorption belongs to chemisorptions, which is in good agreement with the experimental results. For the effects of oxygen functional groups, lactone, carbonyl and semiquinone favor Hg(0) adsorption because they increase the neighboring site's activity for mercury adsorption. On the contrary, phenol and carboxyl functional groups show a physisorption of Hg(0), and reduce Hg capture. This result can explain the seemingly conflicting experimental results reported in the literature concerning the influence of oxygen functional groups on mercury adsorption on carbonaceous surface.

  16. The Supermalt identity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech-Larsen, Tino; Esbjerg, Lars; Grunert, Klaus G.

    2007-01-01

    aiming to develop strong brands with a limited marketing budget. Based on the Supermalt case, suggestions are made regarding branding in relation to ethnic minorities. Originality/value - This article provides a study of a brand that has become strong within a narrowly defined group of consumers.......Purpose - The objective of this article is to conduct a case study of the Supermalt brand of malt beer, which has become the preferred beverage of Afro-Caribbean consumers in Brixton on a very limited marketing budget. Design/methodology/approach - The article uses the concepts of personal identity...... and brand identity in a qualitative study to explore how Brixtonbased Afro-Caribbean consumers construct their self-identities and the brand identity of Supermalt. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 14 Afro-Caribbean consumers. Each interview was divided into three parts. The first part focused...

  17. Functional group composition of ambient and source organic aerosols determined by tandem mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dron, J.; El Haddad, I.; Temime-Roussel, B.; Wortham, H.; Marchand, N. [Univ Aix Marseille, CNRS, Lab Chim Provence, Equipe Instrumentat and React Atmospher, UMR 6264, F-13331 Marseille 3 (France); Jaffrezo, J.L. [Univ Grenoble 1, CNRS, UMR 5183, Lab Glaciol and Geophys Environm, F-38402 St Martin Dheres (France)

    2010-07-01

    The functional group composition of various organic aerosols (OA) is investigated using a recently developed analytical approach based on atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation-tandem mass spectrometry (APCIMS/MS). The determinations of three functional groups contents are performed quantitatively by neutral loss (carboxylic and carbonyl groups, R-COOH and R-CO-R' respectively) and precursor ion (nitro groups, R-NO{sub 2}) scanning modes of a tandem mass spectrometer. Major organic aerosol sources are studied: vehicular emission and wood combustion for primary aerosol sources; and a secondary organic aerosol (SOA) produced through photooxidation of o-xylene. The results reveal significant differences in the functional group contents of these source aerosols. The laboratory generated SOA is dominated by carbonyls while carboxylics are preponderate in the wood combustion particles. On the other hand, vehicular emissions are characterised by a strong nitro content. The total amount of the three functional groups accounts for 1.7% (vehicular) to 13.5% (o-xylene photooxidation) of the organic carbon. Diagnostic functional group ratios are then used to tentatively discriminate sources of particles collected in an urban background environment located in an Alpine valley (Chamonix, France) during a strong winter pollution event. The three functional groups under study account for a total functionalization rate of 2.2 to 3.8% of the organic carbon in this ambient aerosol, which is also dominated by carboxylic moieties. In this particular case study of a deep alpine valley during winter, we show that the nitro- and carbonyl-to-carboxylic diagnostic ratios can be a useful tool to discriminate sources. In these conditions, the total OA concentrations are highly dominated by wood combustion OA. This result is confirmed by an organic markers source apportionment approach which assess a wood burning organic carbon contribution of about 60%. Finally, examples of functional

  18. Challenging Identities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Identity is a keyword in a number of academic fields as well as in public debate and in politics. During the last decades, references to identity have proliferated, yet there is no simple definition available that corresponds to the use of the notion in all contexts. The significance of the notio...... Christian Lammers, Saxo-Instituttet - Arkæologi, Etnologi, Historie og Græsk og Latin; Gert Sørensen, Institut for Engelsk, Germansk og Romansk ; Anne Ring Petersen, Institut for Kunst- og Kulturvidenskab...

  19. Carboxyl group (-CO2 H) functionalized coordination polymer nanoparticles as efficient platforms for drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novio, Fernando; Lorenzo, Julia; Nador, Fabiana; Wnuk, Karolina; Ruiz-Molina, Daniel

    2014-11-17

    Functionalization of nanoparticles can significantly influence their properties and potential applications. Although researchers can now functionalize metal, metal oxide, and organic polymer nanoparticles with a high degree of precision, controlled surface functionalization of nanoscale coordination polymer particles (CPPs) has remained a significant challenge. The lack of methodology is perhaps one of the greatest roadblocks to the advancement of CPPs into high added-value drug delivery applications. Here, we report having achieved this goal through a stepwise formation and functionalization protocol. We fabricated robust nanoparticles with enhanced thermal and colloidal stabilities by incorporation of carboxyl groups and these surface carboxyl groups could be subsequently functionalized through well-known peptide coupling reactions. The set of chemistries that we employed as proof-of-concept enabled a plethora of new functional improvements for the application of CPPs as drug delivery carriers, including enhanced colloidal stabilities and the incorporation of additional functional groups such as polyethylene glycol (PEG) or fluorescent dyes that enabled tracking of their cellular uptake. Finally, we ascertained the cytotoxicity of the new CPP nanoparticles loaded with camptothecin to human breast adenocarcinoma (MCF-7). Efflux measurements show that the encapsulation of camptothecin enhances the potency of the drug 6.5-fold and increases the drug retention within the cell.

  20. Development of “Functional Groups in Molecules” Models For Fundamental Science Curriculum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kowit KITTIWUTTHISAKDI

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to teach quantum concepts to primary school students, new molecular models have been developed to better visualize a few typical molecules. Both computer and physical molecular models particularly those displaying functional groups were created from Atoms in Molecules (AIM theory. The surface of each model was calculated from 0.01 atomic unit (au electron density surface of the molecule. MORPHY was used to calculate an inter-atomic surface (IAS, and several software programs such as Gaussian, VMD, Points2Polys, and Vizx3D were utilized to create three dimensional models. Different functional groups were colored, and connections between the functional groups were shown by IAS. The final physical molecular models were prepared by a rapid prototype machine at Thailand National Metal and Materials Technology Center (MTEC.