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Sample records for functional foods ii

  1. Postlaunch Monitoring of Functional Foods - Methodology development (II)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong N de; Buurma-Rethans EJM; Fransen HP; Ocke MC; CVG

    2005-01-01

    Despite the availability of numerous cohort and monitoring studies in different populations in the Netherlands, the available information on functional food and/or supplement use on the whole from these studies is rather limited. Unfortunately, food intake data are vital for Post Launch Monitoring

  2. Effects of light, food availability and temperature stress on the function of photosystem II and photosystem I of coral symbionts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mia O Hoogenboom

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Reef corals are heterotrophic coelenterates that achieve high productivity through their photosynthetic dinoflagellate symbionts. Excessive seawater temperature destabilises this symbiosis and causes corals to "bleach," lowering their photosynthetic capacity. Bleaching poses a serious threat to the persistence of coral reefs on a global scale. Despite expanding research on the causes of bleaching, the mechanisms remain a subject of debate. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: This study determined how light and food availability modulate the effects of temperature stress on photosynthesis in two reef coral species. We quantified the activities of Photosystem II, Photosystem I and whole chain electron transport under combinations of normal and stressful growth temperatures, moderate and high light levels and the presence or absence of feeding of the coral hosts. Our results show that PS1 function is comparatively robust against temperature stress in both species, whereas PS2 and whole chain electron transport are susceptible to temperature stress. In the symbiotic dinoflagellates of Stylophora pistillata the contents of chlorophyll and major photosynthetic complexes were primarily affected by food availability. In Turbinaria reniformis growth temperature was the dominant influence on the contents of the photosynthetic complexes. In both species feeding the host significantly protected photosynthetic function from high temperature stress. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our findings support the photoinhibition model of coral bleaching and demonstrate that PS1 is not a major site for thermal damage during bleaching events. Feeding mitigates bleaching in two scleractinian corals, so that reef responses to temperature stresses will likely be influenced by the coinciding availabilities of prey for the host.

  3. Functional foods in pediatrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van den Driessche, M; Veereman-Wauters, G

    2002-01-01

    The philosophy that food can be health promoting beyond its nutritional value is gaining acceptance. Known disease preventive aspects of nutrition have led to a new science, the 'functional food science'. Functional foods, first introduced in Japan, have no universally accepted definition but can be described as foods or food ingredients that may provide health benefits and prevent diseases. Currently, there is a growing interest in these products. However, not all regulatory issues have been settled yet. Five categories of foods can be classified as functional foods: dietary fibers, vitamins and minerals, bioactive substances, fatty acids and pro-, pre- and symbiotics. The latter are currently the main focus of research. Functional foods can be applied in pediatrics: during pregnancy, nutrition is 'functional' since it has prenatal influences on the intra-uterine development of the baby, after birth, 'functional' human milk supports adequate growth of infants and pro- and prebiotics can modulate the flora composition and as such confer certain health advantages. Functional foods have also been studied in pediatric diseases. The severity of necrotising enterocolitis (NEC), diarrhea, irritable bowel syndrome, intestinal allergy and lactose intolerance may be reduced by using functional foods. Functional foods have proven to be valuable contributors to the improvement of health and the prevention of diseases in pediatric populations.

  4. Functional food acceptance in the food chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krutulyte, Rasa

    This thesis analyses consumer acceptance of functional foods and food manufacturers' decision to develop functional foods. The thesis sets up four key research questions: (1) How consumers accept functional foods enriched with omega-3? (2) How the intention of purchasing carrier ingredient...... combinations is explained by general attitudes to functional foods, consumers' health concerns, and the perceived fit of a particular carrier ingredient combination? (3) How food manufacturers decide to develop functional foods? (4) What are the determinants and drivers of food manufacturers' decision...... to develop functional foods? Research question 1 The health benefit of a functional food product is in fact limited if it is not eaten regularly and thus is not part of the healthy diet. For that reason it is highly relevant to look at the dietary change research when studying functional food acceptance...

  5. Functional Foods for Women's Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindeman, Alice K.

    2002-01-01

    Describes functional foods for women's health (foods or food ingredients that provide health benefits beyond basic nutrition), explaining that both whole and modified foods can be included as functional foods. The paper discusses the history, regulation, and promotion of functional foods; consumer interest in functional foods; how to incorporate…

  6. Functional Foods for Women's Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindeman, Alice K.

    2002-01-01

    Describes functional foods for women's health (foods or food ingredients that provide health benefits beyond basic nutrition), explaining that both whole and modified foods can be included as functional foods. The paper discusses the history, regulation, and promotion of functional foods; consumer interest in functional foods; how to incorporate…

  7. Marine functional food

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luten, J.B.

    2009-01-01

    This book reviews the research on seafood and health, the use and quality aspects of marine lipids and seafood proteins as ingredients in functional foods and consumer acceptance of (marine) functional food. The first chapter covers novel merging areas where seafood may prevent disease and improve h

  8. Functional Food Science in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contor, L

    2001-08-01

    The goal of the Functional Food Science in Europe (FUFOSE) concerted action was to reach consensus on scientific concepts of functional foods in Europe by using the science base that supports evidence that specific nutrients positively affect physiological functions. The outcome proposes "a working definition" of functional foods: foods can be regarded as functional if they can be satisfactorily demonstrated to affect beneficially one or more target functions in the body, beyond adequate nutritional effects, in a way relevant to an improved state of health and well-being and/or reduction of risk of disease. Functional foods must remain foods and they must achieve their effects in amounts normally consumed in a diet. Evidence from human studies, based on markers relating to biological response or on intermediate endpoint markers of disease, could provide a sound scientific basis for messages and claims about the functional food products. Two types of claims are proposed that relate directly to these two categories of markers: Enhanced function claims (type A) and reduced risk of disease claims (type B). A new EU Concerted Action will start with, and build upon, the principles defined within FUFOSE. This project PASSCLAIM will (i) produce a consensus on principles for the scientific substantiation of health-related claims for food and food components, (ii) select common criteria for how markers should be identified, validated and used in well-designed studies to explore the links between diet and health and (iii) to evaluate critically the existing schemes which assess the scientific substantiation of claims.

  9. Functional foods in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech-Larsen, Tino; Scholderer, Joachim

    2007-01-01

    The fact that the European markets for functional foods generally are less developed, compared to the US and the Japanese markets, has often been attributed to a restrictive and inconsistent health claim legislation in and between the European countries. With the European Parliament's second...... reading of the main principles of the harmonized regulation COM/2003/0424, this situation is about to change. This article reviews the regulatory aspects, the results of consumer research and the marketing strategies regarding the use of health claims for functional foods in Europe, and it comments...

  10. Microencapsulation and functional bioactive foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Food, the essential unit of human nutrition has been both wholesome and safe through human history ensuring the continuity of the human race. Functionalized foods are the rediscovery of the need to provide all nutrients through foods without adulteration. The functional components of foods include...

  11. Protein Functionality in Food Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Panpan

    2010-01-01

    The structure,shape,color,smell and taste of food were decided by protein functionality.The utilization of protein will improve by changing the protein functionality.Protein functionality is also advantage to maintain and utilize the nutrition of food.This paper summarized the nature,classification,factors and prospect of protein functionality.It ccn provide a theoretical basis for application of protein in food industry.

  12. Dansk skepsis mod "functional foods"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech-Larsen, Tino

    2000-01-01

    MAPP Centret har undersøgt danske, finske og amerikanske forbrugeres holdninger til functional foods og til genmodificerede fødevarer. Undersøgelsen er baseret på personlige interviews med 1500 danske, finske og nordamerikanske forbrugere. På trods af den store udbredelse af functional foods i USA......, viste undersøgelsen, at finnerne faktisk var mere positive over for functional foods end amerikanerne. De danske forbrugere var klart de mest skeptiske....

  13. Functional microorganisms for functional food quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobbetti, M; Cagno, R Di; De Angelis, M

    2010-09-01

    Functional microorganisms and health benefits represent a binomial with great potential for fermented functional foods. The health benefits of fermented functional foods are expressed either directly through the interactions of ingested live microorganisms with the host (probiotic effect) or indirectly as the result of the ingestion of microbial metabolites synthesized during fermentation (biogenic effect). Since the importance of high viability for probiotic effect, two major options are currently pursued for improving it--to enhance bacterial stress response and to use alternative products for incorporating probiotics (e.g., ice cream, cheeses, cereals, fruit juices, vegetables, and soy beans). Further, it seems that quorum sensing signal molecules released by probiotics may interact with human epithelial cells from intestine thus modulating several physiological functions. Under optimal processing conditions, functional microorganisms contribute to food functionality through their enzyme portfolio and the release of metabolites. Overproduction of free amino acids and vitamins are two classical examples. Besides, bioactive compounds (e.g., peptides, γ-amino butyric acid, and conjugated linoleic acid) may be released during food processing above the physiological threshold and they may exert various in vivo health benefits. Functional microorganisms are even more used in novel strategies for decreasing phenomenon of food intolerance (e.g., gluten intolerance) and allergy. By a critical approach, this review will aim at showing the potential of functional microorganisms for the quality of functional foods.

  14. Functional foods: an ecologic perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marriott, B M

    2000-06-01

    A functional food is defined as any food or food ingredient that may provide a health benefit beyond that conferred by the nutrients the food contains. As nutrition scientists move into this arena, they must build on the wealth of information that already exists in plant biology. In particular, the evolutionary and physiologic bases for the production of secondary plant chemicals in plants must be considered in order to plan meaningful experiments for testing the functionality of these chemical compounds for humans. One problem that may arise is that in using the term functional food, the meaning may be lost in the continued proliferation of related terms used in product marketing. The new National Institutes of Health Office of Dietary Supplements addressed some of these issues as it developed the operating definitions described in this report.

  15. Consumer acceptance of functional foods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frewer, Lynn J.; Scholderer, Joachim; Lambert, Nigel

    2003-01-01

    In the past, it has been assumed that consumers would accept novel foods if there is a concrete and tangible consumer benefit associated with them, which implies that those functional foods would quickly be accepted. However, there is evidence that individuals are likely to differ in the extent...

  16. Is coffee a functional food?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dórea, José G; da Costa, Teresa Helena M

    2005-06-01

    Definitions of functional food vary but are essentially based on foods' ability to enhance the quality of life, or physical and mental performance, of regular consumers. The worldwide use of coffee for social engagement, leisure, enhancement of work performance and well-being is widely recognised. Depending on the quantities consumed, it can affect the intake of some minerals (K, Mg, Mn, Cr), niacin and antioxidant substances. Epidemiological and experimental studies have shown positive effects of regular coffee-drinking on various aspects of health, such as psychoactive responses (alertness, mood change), neurological (infant hyperactivity, Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases) and metabolic disorders (diabetes, gallstones, liver cirrhosis), and gonad and liver function. Despite this, most reviews do not mention coffee as fulfilling the criteria for a functional food. Unlike other functional foods that act on a defined population with a special effect, the wide use of coffee-drinking impacts a broad demographic (from children to the elderly), with a wide spectrum of health benefits. The present paper discusses coffee-drinking and health benefits that support the concept of coffee as a functional food.

  17. Consumer acceptance of functional foods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frewer, Lynn J.; Scholderer, Joachim; Lambert, Nigel

    2003-01-01

    In the past, it has been assumed that consumers would accept novel foods if there is a concrete and tangible consumer benefit associated with them, which implies that those functional foods would quickly be accepted. However, there is evidence that individuals are likely to differ in the extent...... and concerns associated with processing technologies, emerging scientific innovations and their own health status may enable the development of information strategies that are relevant to wider groups of individuals in the population, and deliver real health benefits to people suffering from illnesses relating...

  18. Multiple functions of photosystem II

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rensen, van J.J.S.; Curwiel, V.B.

    2000-01-01

    The most important function of photosystem II (PSII) is its action as a water-plastoquinone oxido-reductase. At the expense of light energy, water is split, and oxygen and plastoquinol are formed. In addition to this most important activity, PSII has additional functions, especially in the

  19. Separation and preconcentration of Cd(II), Cu(II), Ni(II), and Pb(II) in water and food samples using Amberlite XAD-2 functionalized with 3-(2-nitrophenyl)-1H-1,2,4-triazole-5(4H)-thione and determination by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Bommana Naresh; Ramana, D K Venkata; Harinath, Yapati; Seshaiah, Kalluru; Wang, M C

    2011-10-26

    A separation and preconcentration procedure was developed for the determination of trace amounts of Cd(II), Cu(II), Ni(II), and Pb(II) in water and food samples using Amberlite XAD-2 fuctionalized with a new chelating ligand, 3-(2-nitrophenyl)-1H-1,2,4-triazole-5(4H)-thione (Amberlite XAD-2-NPTT). The chelating resin was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and used as a solid sorbent for enrichment of analytes from samples. The sorbed elements were subsequently eluted with 10 mL of 1.0 M HNO(3), and the eluates were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry. The influences of the analytical parameters including pH, amount of adsorbent, eluent type and volume, flow rate of the sample solution, volume of the sample solution, and effect of matrix on the preconcentration of metal ions have been studied. The optimum pH for the sorption of four metal ions was about 6.0. The limits of detection were found to be 0.22, 0.18, 0.20, and 0.16 μg L(-1) for Cd(II), Cu(II), Ni(II), and Pb(II), respectively, with a preconcentration factor 60. The proposed method was applied successfully for the determination of metal ions in water and food samples.

  20. Apiaceae seeds as functional food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aćimović Milica G.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this review was to point to a great importance of plants from Apiaceae family as a functional food. Caraway (Carum carvi L., anise (Pimpinella anisum L., coriander (Coriandrum sativum L., dill (Anethum graveolens L., fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill. and cumin (Cuminum cyminum L. are plants from the above-mentioned family whose seeds are widely used in folk medicine, pharmaceutical industry, as spices, flavoring agents and as dietary supplements. These plants are rich in essential oil, which is a mixture of volatile compounds that give it a characteristic aroma. Their antioxidant and antimicrobial activities have been proven and because of these activities they have great potential to be used as natural food conservatives. These plants also have hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic activities as well as anticancer properties. They are used as food supplements in everyday nutrition and as natural health products for the prevention and treatment of many disorders such as inflammations, hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia and others. Apart from this, these plants have real application in foods such as pastries, meat and dairy products, pickles and salads as well as spice blends like curry powder, garam masala and others.

  1. Promises and problems of functional foods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Katan, M.B.; Roos, de N.M.

    2004-01-01

    Functional foods are branded foods, which claim, explicitly or implicitly, to improve health or well being. We review typical functional foods and their ingredients, efficacy, and safety. We also review regulations for health claims for foods worldwide. These regulations often allow manufacturers to

  2. Promises and problems of functional foods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Katan, MB; De Roos, NM

    2004-01-01

    "Functional" foods are branded foods, which claim, explicitly or implicitly, to improve health or well being. We review typical functional foods and their ingredients, efficacy, and safety. We also review regulations for health claims for foods worldwide. These regulations often allow manufacturers

  3. Promises and problems of functional foods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Katan, MB; De Roos, NM

    2004-01-01

    "Functional" foods are branded foods, which claim, explicitly or implicitly, to improve health or well being. We review typical functional foods and their ingredients, efficacy, and safety. We also review regulations for health claims for foods worldwide. These regulations often allow manufacturers

  4. Functional components and medicinal properties of food: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Christian Izuchukwu ABUAJAH; Ogbonna, Augustine Chima; Osuji, Chijioke Maduka

    2014-01-01

    Research has proved a relationship between functional components of food, health and well-being. Thus, functional components of food can be effectively applied in the treatment and prevention of diseases. They act simultaneously at different or identical target sites with the potential to impart physiological benefits and promotion of wellbeing including reducing the risk of cancer, cardiovascular disease, osteoporosis, inflammation, type II diabetes, and other chronic degenerative diseases, ...

  5. Theory of function spaces II

    CERN Document Server

    Triebel, Hans

    1992-01-01

    Theory of Function Spaces II deals with the theory of function spaces of type Bspq and Fspq as it stands at the present. These two scales of spaces cover many well-known function spaces such as Hölder-Zygmund spaces, (fractional) Sobolev spaces, Besov spaces, inhomogeneous Hardy spaces, spaces of BMO-type and local approximation spaces which are closely connected with Morrey-Campanato spaces. Theory of Function Spaces II is self-contained, although it may be considered an update of the author’s earlier book of the same title. The book’s 7 chapters start with a historical survey of the subject, and then analyze the theory of function spaces in Rn and in domains, applications to (exotic) pseudo-differential operators, and function spaces on Riemannian manifolds. ------ Reviews The first chapter deserves special attention. This chapter is both an outstanding historical survey of function spaces treated in the book and a remarkable survey of rather different techniques developed in the last 50 years. It is s...

  6. Functional foods: salient features and clinical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riezzo, Giuseppe; Chiloiro, Marisa; Russo, Francesco

    2005-09-01

    The term "functional food" refers to foods or ingredients of foods providing an additional physiological benefit beyond their basic nutritional needs. Health benefits are best obtained through a varied diet containing fruits, vegetables, grains, legumes and seeds. However, fortified foods and dietary supplements have been marketed and food industry have made functional food one of their current leading trends. Recently, the number of functional foods that have a potential benefit on health has hugely grown and scientific evidence is supporting the role of functional foods in prevention and treatment of several diseases. Cancer, diabetes, heart disease and hypertension are the most important diseases that can be treated or prevented by functional foods; other diseases are osteoporosis, abnormal bowel motility, and arthritis. It has been estimated that 80% of cancer in USA have a nutrition/diet component suggesting a great impact of functional food and foods components on incidence and treatment of cancer. Numerous factors complicate the evaluation of scientific evidence such as the complexity of food substance, effect on food, metabolic changes associated to dietary changes, the lack of biological markers of disease development. This paper reviews the scientific evidence supporting this area regarding only those foods and ingredients in which a clear experimental and clinical evidence exists for their chemopreventive and therapeutic effects.

  7. Removal of Zn(II) and Pb (II) ions Using Rice Husk in Food Industrial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael Horsfall

    Removal of Zn(II) and Pb (II) ions Using Rice Husk in Food Industrial Wastewater. *ASRARI, ELHAM; TAVALLALI ... Payame Noor University (PNU), Shiraz, 711955 -1368, Iran ... need to reconsider consumption patterns and the way resources ...

  8. Functional foods : verbindende schakel tussen food en farma?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stijnen, D.; Dagevos, H.

    2001-01-01

    Argumenten voor het met vereende krachten betreden van de markt voor functional foods. De resultaten van een gezamenlijke studie door ATO en het LEI zijn vastgelegd in het rapport: "De wereld van functional foods: op het raakvlak van twee ketens". In twee artikelen wordt dit rapport behandeld

  9. Functional foods : verbindende schakel tussen food en farma?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stijnen, D.; Dagevos, H.

    2001-01-01

    Argumenten voor het met vereende krachten betreden van de markt voor functional foods. De resultaten van een gezamenlijke studie door ATO en het LEI zijn vastgelegd in het rapport: "De wereld van functional foods: op het raakvlak van twee ketens". In twee artikelen wordt dit rapport behandeld

  10. Functional foods: the case for closer evaluation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, Nynke de; Klungel, Olaf H; Verhagen, Hans; Wolfs, Marion C J; Ocké, Marga C; Leufkens, Hubert G M

    2007-01-01

    Current regulations focus on the mandatory safety evaluation of functional foods before they come to market, but Nynke de Jong and colleagues argue that the effects of such foods should also be evaluated after they have been launched

  11. European consumers' acceptance of functional foods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G.

    2010-01-01

    Consumer acceptance of functional foods is analyzed from the perspective of consumer quality perception of food products. Four major dimensions of food quality are identified: taste and other sensory characteristics, healthiness, convenience, and naturalness. Functional foods provide, from...... the consumer perspective, synergies between healthiness and convenience, but may, in the consumer mind, lead to trade-offs between healthiness on the one side and taste and naturalness on the other side. This may explain the reluctance of European consumers to accept functional food products....

  12. European consumers' acceptance of functional foods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G.

    2010-01-01

    Consumer acceptance of functional foods is analyzed from the perspective of consumer quality perception of food products. Four major dimensions of food quality are identified: taste and other sensory characteristics, healthiness, convenience, and naturalness. Functional foods provide, from...... the consumer perspective, synergies between healthiness and convenience, but may, in the consumer mind, lead to trade-offs between healthiness on the one side and taste and naturalness on the other side. This may explain the reluctance of European consumers to accept functional food products....

  13. Anthocyanins as Functional Food Colors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motohashi, Noboru; Sakagami, Hiroshi

    Anthocyanins, a proanthocyanidin-type of flavonoid, contain an abundance of functional phytochemicals and occur in fruits such as cranberry, blueberry, orange, apple and in vegetables such as tomato, sweet pepper, spinach, and radishes. Functional and essential diets have been ingested in daily life since the primitive era of history. When anthocyanins are coupled with some water-soluble sugar molecules, their color becomes red, yellow, violet, or blue. It is very intriguing that anthocyanins provide the colorful variety of pigments for pansies, petunias, plums, and other diverse flowers. Chlorophyll in various fruits and vegetables is the main green phyto-component, while anthocyanins are probably the most important visible plant pigments in the natural kingdom having specific colors. Anthocyanins have been clinically used in many folklore medicines worldwide. Anthocyanins could provide health benefits for age-related diseases as well as other diseases. Anthocyanins have higher antioxidant capacity against oxidative stress induced by excess reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as superoxide radicals, hydrogen peroxide, and thus the human body might be protected from oxidative injury by anthocyanins. On the basis of these facts, we review the synthesis of plant flavonoids and their ability to scavenge oxidants, inhibit or activate enzymes, and the safety of proanthocyanidins and anthocyanidins present in common foods.

  14. Anaphylaxis to hyperallergenic functional foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ameratunga Rohan

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Food allergy can cause life threatening reactions. Currently, patients with severe food allergy are advised to avoid foods which provoke allergic reactions. This has become increasingly difficult as food proteins are being added to a broader range of consumer products. Patients and methods Here we describe our investigations into the allergenicity of a new drink when two cow's milk allergic children suffered anaphylaxis after consuming Wh2ole®. Results Our studies have shown that in comparison with cow's milk, Wh2ole® contains at least three times the concentration of β-lactoglobulin. β-lactoglobulin is one of the dominant allergens in bovine milk. Conclusions These studies have shown that modern technology allows the creation of "hyperallergenic" foods. These products have the potential to cause severe reactions in milk allergic persons. Avoiding inadvertent exposure is the shared responsibility of allergic consumers, regulatory authorities and the food industry.

  15. The perceived healthiness of functional foods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech-Larsen, Tino; Grunert, Klaus G.

    2003-01-01

    Functional foods presumably enable the consumer to lead a healthier life without changing eating habits. Whether consumers accept this proposition or not is potentially influenced by their perceptions of the healthiness of the processing methods, enrichment components, food-types, and health claims...... foods, whereas the use of different health claims, processing methods, enrichments, product types, and especially the interactions between the two latter, are important determinants of consumers' perceptions of the healthiness of functional foods. Udgivelsesdato: FEB...... used in the production and marketing of functional foods. Because consumers may perceive functional enrichment as interfering with nature, cultural values pertaining to man's manipulation of nature may also influence consumer acceptance of functional foods. The purpose of the study described here...

  16. The perceived healthiness of functional foods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech-Larsen, Tino; Grunert, Klaus G.

    2003-01-01

    Functional foods presumably enable the consumer to lead a healthier life without changing eating habits. Whether consumers accept this proposition or not is potentially influenced by their perceptions of the healthiness of the processing methods, enrichment components, food-types, and health claims...... used in the production and marketing of functional foods. Because consumers may perceive functional enrichment as interfering with nature, cultural values pertaining to man's manipulation of nature may also influence consumer acceptance of functional foods. The purpose of the study described here...... is to clarify to which extent Danish, Finnish and American consumers' perceptions of the healthiness of functional foods are explained by the factors mentioned above. The general results indicate that values pertaining to man's manipulation of nature is only modestly related to the acceptance of functional...

  17. Functional Foods Baseline and Requirements Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, M. R.; Bermudez-Aguirre, L. D.; Douglas, G.

    2015-01-01

    Current spaceflight foods were evaluated to determine if their nutrient profile supports positioning as a functional food and if the stability of the bioactive compound within the food matrix over an extended shelf-life correlated with the expected storage duration during the mission. Specifically, the research aims were: Aim A. To determine the amount of each nutrient in representative spaceflight foods immediately after processing and at predetermined storage time to establish the current nutritional state. Aim B. To identify the requirements to develop foods that stabilize these nutrients such that required concentrations are maintained in the space food system throughout long duration missions (up to five years). Aim C. To coordinate collaborations with health and performance groups that may require functional foods as a countermeasure.

  18. The Struggle over Functional Foods: Justice and the Social Meaning of Functional Foods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korthals, M.

    2002-01-01

    The social and scientific debate over functional foods has two focal points: one is the issue of the reliability and trustworthiness of the claims connected with functional foods. You don't have to be a suspicious person to be skeptical vis-à-vis the rather exorbitant claims of most functional foods

  19. FERMENTED MILK AS A FUNCTIONAL FOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Rogelj

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Certain foods have been associated with health benefits for many years; fermented milks and yoghurt are typical examples. The health properties of these dairy products were a part of folklore until the concept of probiotics emerged, and the study of fermented milks and yoghurt containing probiotic bacteria has become more systematic. Functional foods have thus developed as a food, or food ingredient, with positive effects on host health and/or well-being beyond their nutritional value, and fermented milk with probiotic bacteria has again become the prominent representative of this new category of food. Milk alone is much more than the sum of its nutrients. It contains an array of bioactivities: modulating digestive and gastrointestinal functions, haemodynamics, controlling probiotic microbial growth, and immunoregulation. When fermented milk is enriched with probiotic bacteria and prebiotics it meets all the requirements of functional food. The possible positive effects of enriched fermented milk on host health will be reviewed.

  20. Danish consumers' attitudes towards functional foods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Jacob

    have been enriched with a substance already present in the conventional product. With regard to price, the analyses show that some segments are willing to pay more for functional foods if they think there is a health effect. The marketing of functional foods should emphasise the convenience of getting......1. "Functional foods" is a relatively new term used to describe food products which have been enriched with natural substances/components with a specific physiological preventive and/or health-promoting effect. As yet, there are few actual functional foods in the Danish market, but in Japan...... segments with a preference for the various enriched products. Two relatively large segments (25% and 20% of respondents respectively) had a higher value perception for the enriched than for the conventional product, especially as regards the calcium and vitamin D-enriched dairy product and the fibre...

  1. Functional components and medicinal properties of food: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abuajah, Christian Izuchukwu; Ogbonna, Augustine Chima; Osuji, Chijioke Maduka

    2015-05-01

    Research has proved a relationship between functional components of food, health and well-being. Thus, functional components of food can be effectively applied in the treatment and prevention of diseases. They act simultaneously at different or identical target sites with the potential to impart physiological benefits and promotion of wellbeing including reducing the risk of cancer, cardiovascular disease, osteoporosis, inflammation, type II diabetes, and other chronic degenerative diseases, lowering of blood cholesterol, neutralization of reactive oxygen species and charged radicals, anticarcinogenic effect, low-glycaemic response, etc. Previously, it was thought that functional ingredients such as non-starchy carbohydrates including soluble and insoluble dietary fibres, fucoidan; antioxidants including polyphenols, carotenoids, tocopherols, tocotrienols, phytosterols, isoflavones, organosulphur compounds; plant sterols and soy phytoestrogens occur only in plant foods (whole grains, fruits, and vegetables) as phytochemicals. However, probiotics, prebiotics, conjugated linolenic acid, long-chain omega-3, -6 and -9-polyunsaturated fatty acids, and bioactive peptides have proved that functional components are equally available in animal products such as milk, fermented milk products and cold-water fish. The way a food is processed affects its functional components. Many processing techniques have been found to lower the concentration of functional components in food. Conversely, other techniques were found to increase them. Hence, in a time when the role of a healthy diet in preventing non-communicable diseases is well accepted, the borderline between food and medicine is becoming very thin.

  2. Functional Properties of Microorganisms in Fermented Foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyoti Prakash Tamang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Fermented foods have unique functional properties imparting some health benefits to consumers due to presence of functional microorganisms, which possess probiotics properties, antimicrobial, antioxidant, peptide production, etc. Health benefits of some global fermented foods are synthesis of nutrients, prevention of cardiovascular disease, prevention of cancer, gastrointestinal disorders, allergic reactions, diabetes, among others. The present paper is aimed to review the information on some functional properties of the microorganisms associated with fermented foods and beverages, and their health-promoting benefits to consumers.

  3. Functional Food in Traditional Persian Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zare, Roghayeh; Hosseinkhani, Ayda

    2016-05-01

    During the last decades, there have been great advancements in the field of preventive medicine. Research has demonstrated that nutrition plays a crucial role in the prevention of chronic diseases. The concept of functional food was first introduced in Japan during the 1980s. It proposes to consider food not only vital to survive, but also a mean for mental and physical well-being, contributing to the prevention and reduction of risk factors for diseases. However, there is evidence that the concept was believed by ancient physicians as well. One of the traditional systems of medicines is traditional Persian medicine (TPM). Rhazes said; "as long as a disease could be treated with food, medicine should be avoided". We carried out a review of Avicenna's Canon of medicine and Rhazes books for the definition of food and drug and similar concepts of functional food. We listed the identified concepts along with their examples. The classification of food and their therapeutic use were explained in Canon of medicine. Rhazes has a book called 'Manafe al-Aghziyeh', in which he writes about the medicinal benefits of different nutrition. Five concepts (food, drug, medicinal food, nutritional medicine and antidote or poison) were noted in these books. There are many recommendations on food for the prevention and treatment of diseases in TPM books, which can be the basis for novel research studies.

  4. Modifying bitterness in functional food systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudette, Nicole J; Pickering, Gary J

    2013-01-01

    The functional foods sector represents a significant and growing portion of the food industry, yet formulation of these products often involves the use of ingredients that elicit less than desirable oral sensations, including bitterness. Promising new functional ingredients, including polyphenolics, may be more widely and readily employed in the creation of novel functional foods if their aversive bitter taste can be significantly reduced. A number of approaches are used by the industry to improve the taste properties and thus the acceptance of conventional foods that elicit excessive bitterness. This article reviews the most commonly employed techniques, including the use of bitter-modifying additives, which may prove useful for successfully introducing new functional ingredients into this rapidly growing sector.

  5. Branding strategies for internationalizing functional food companies

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Objective of the Study This study investigates the interrelations between the internationalization characteristics and branding strategies of the Finnish functional food companies. The aim is to identify and analyze what are the potential branding strategy alternatives for the Finnish functional food companies and how they are selected during the internationalization process. Furthermore, the objective is to build a framework explaining the determination of branding strategi...

  6. Can Functional Food and Organic Food be Supporting Concepts in Europe?

    OpenAIRE

    Bügel, Susanne; Almer, Kamille; Zalecka, A.; Ploeger, A.; Huber, Machteld; Kahl, J.

    2013-01-01

    Poster IUNS 20st International Congress of Nutrition. Functional and organic food belong to fast growing segments of the European food market. The question is whether organic food can also be a functional food. The conclusion is that functional food and organic food are competing rather than supporting concepts in Europe.

  7. Intellectual property and regulation of functional foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrović Slobodan D.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Today, there exist scientific evidences that functional foods have favorable physiological and psychological effects as well as additional functions in relation to health, apart from the basic nutritional effects, thus offering the potential of enhance health or reduced the risk of diseases. Since interest in this category of foods has increased, new products have appeared as well as the need to introduce and set up standards and guidelines for the development and promotion of such foods. Technological development in this area and involvement of great multinationals in research investment and development of new products have reinforced the importance of the intellectual property rights, especially of patent protections and trademarks.

  8. The Struggle over Functional Foods: Justice and the Social Meaning of Functional Foods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korthals, M.

    2002-01-01

    The social and scientific debate over functional foods has two focal points: one is the issue of the reliability and trustworthiness of the claims connected with functional foods. You don't have to be a suspicious person to be skeptical vis-à-vis the rather exorbitant claims of most functional

  9. Nutraceuticals and Functional Foods: The Foods for the Future World.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gul, Khalid; Singh, A K; Jabeen, Rifat

    2016-12-09

    The health and wellness of human beings is largely dictated by the consumption of nutritious foods. Various studies have linked foods as helpful in combating a number of degenerative diseases; as such, a lot of research on functional attributes linked directly to the health benefits of various plant and animal foods have been witnessed in recent years. Although vast number of naturally occurring health-enhancing substances are of plant origin, there are a number of physiologically active components in animal products as well that deserve attention for their potential role in optimal health. Consumption of biologically active ingredients in fruits and vegetables has been linked to help combat diseases such as cancer, cardiovascular diseases, obesity, and gastrointestinal tract disorders. Lot of research is required to substantiate the potential health benefits of those foods for which the diet-health relationships are not sufficiently validated, and create a strong scientific knowledge base for proper application of naturally present foods in combating various diseases and disorders.

  10. Functional genomics for food fermentation processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smid, E J; Hugenholtz, J

    2010-01-01

    This review describes recent scientific and technological drivers of food fermentation research. In addition, a number of practical implications of the results of this development will be highlighted. The first part of the manuscript elaborates on the message that genome sequence information gives us an unprecedented view on the biodiversity of microbes in food fermentation. This information can be made applicable for tailoring relevant characteristics of food products through fermentation. The second part deals with the integration of genome sequence data into metabolic models and the use of these models for a number of topics that are relevant for food fermentation processes. The final part will be about metagenomics approaches to reveal the complexity and understand the functionality of undefined complex microbial consortia used in a diverse range of food fermentation processes.

  11. Are functional foods redefining nutritional requirements?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Peter J; Varady, Krista A

    2008-02-01

    Functional foods are increasing in popularity owing to their ability to confer health and physiological benefits. Nevertheless, the notion that functional foods improve health when providing nutrients at levels above and beyond existing recommended intakes is inconsistent with the definition of requirement. This disparity highlights the need for an alternative definition of nutrient requirement. The present objective is to examine distinctions between optimization of health, as defined by what we currently deem as required intakes, versus adding physiological benefit using bioactive agents found in functional foods. Presently, requirement is defined as the lowest amount of intake of a nutrient that will maintain a defined level of nourishment for a specific indicator of adequacy. In contrast, functional foods are described as ingredients that are not necessary for body function, yet provide added physiological benefit that confer better overall health. Plant sterols are one example of such an ingredient. Plant sterols lower plasma cholesterol concentrations, and may thus be considered essential nutrients in physiological situations where circulating cholesterol concentrations are high. Similarly, intakes of omega-3 fats beyond existing requirement may confer additional health benefits such as hypolipidemic and anti-diabetic effects. These examples underscore the inconsistencies between what is defined as a nutrient requirement versus what is identified as a health benefit of a functional food. Such discrepancies emphasize the need for a more all-encompassing definition of a nutrient requirement; that is, one that moves beyond the prevention of overt deficiency to encompass improved health and disease risk reduction.

  12. Functional Food in Traditional Persian Medicine

    OpenAIRE

    Zare, Roghayeh; Hosseinkhani, Ayda

    2016-01-01

    Background: During the last decades, there have been great advancements in the field of preventive medicine. Research has demonstrated that nutrition plays a crucial role in the prevention of chronic diseases. The concept of functional food was first introduced in Japan during the 1980s. It proposes to consider food not only vital to survive, but also a mean for mental and physical well-being, contributing to the prevention and reduction of risk factors for diseases. However, there is evidenc...

  13. Food and functional dyspepsia: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncanson, K R; Talley, N J; Walker, M M; Burrows, T L

    2017-09-15

    Functional dyspepsia (FD) is a debilitating functional gastrointestinal disorder characterised by early satiety, post-prandial fullness or epigastric pain related to meals, which affects up to 20% of western populations. A high dietary fat intake has been linked to FD and duodenal eosinophilia has been noted in FD. We hypothesised that an allergen such as wheat is a risk factor for FD and that withdrawal will improve symptoms of FD. We aimed to investigate the relationship between food and functional dyspepsia. Sixteen out of 6451 studies identified in a database search of six databases met the inclusion criteria of studies examining the effect of nutrients, foods and food components in adults with FD or FD symptoms. Wheat-containing foods were implicated in FD symptom induction in six studies, four of which were not specifically investigating gluten and two that were gluten-specific, with the implementation of a gluten-free diet demonstrating a reduction in symptoms. Dietary fat was associated with FD in all three studies that specifically measured this association. Specific foods reported as inducing symptoms were high in either natural food chemicals, high in fermentable carbohydrates or high in wheat/gluten. Caffeine was associated with FD in four studies, although any association with alcohol was uncertain. Wheat and dietary fats may play key roles in the generation of FD symptoms and reduction or withdrawal eased symptoms. Randomised trials investigating the roles of gluten, FODMAPs (fermentable oligosaccharide, disaccharide, monosaccharide and polyols) and high fat ingestion and naturally occurring food chemicals in the generation of functional dyspepsia symptoms are warranted and further investigation of the mechanisms is now required. © 2017 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  14. Functional Food and Organic Food are Competing Rather than Supporting Concepts in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Bügel

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available A review of recent literature pertaining to organic and functional food was conducted according its conceptual background. Functional and organic food both belong to fast growing segments of the European food market. Both are food according to the European food regulations, but organic food is further regulated by the European regulation for organic agriculture and food production. This regulation restricts the number of food additives and limits substantial changes in the food. This may cause problems in changing the food based on single constituents or attributes when applying the concept of functional food to organic food production. Claims of the influence of the food positively on health can only be accepted as true when the claims have been tested and then validated by the EU-Commission. Whereas functional food focuses on product comparison based on specific constituents or attributes, organic food as a whole has no placebo for comparison and effects on environment and society are not part of the health claim regulation. Therefore it seems rather difficult to establish the health claims of organic foods. Consumers buy organic food out of an emotional attitude and associate the food with naturalness. In contrast, the decision for buying functional food is related to rationality and consumers associate functional food with a more technological approach. For this reason, the authors conclude that the concept of functional food seems not to support organic food production in Europe.

  15. Inductance and hypergeometric functions. II

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsson, Per W.

    2000-01-01

    A previously obtained integral for the self-inductance of a solenoid is further transformed. The resulting formula involves double Kampé de Fériet functions which are analytic continuations rather than power series.......A previously obtained integral for the self-inductance of a solenoid is further transformed. The resulting formula involves double Kampé de Fériet functions which are analytic continuations rather than power series....

  16. Biosensors for functional food safety and analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavecchia, Teresa; Tibuzzi, Arianna; Giardi, Maria Teresa

    2010-01-01

    The importance of safety and functionality analysis of foodstuffs and raw materials is supported by national legislations and European Union (EU) directives concerning not only the amount of residues of pollutants and pathogens but also the activity and content of food additives and the health claims stated on their labels. In addition, consumers' awareness of the impact of functional foods' on their well-being and their desire for daily healthcare without the intake pharmaceuticals has immensely in recent years. Within this picture, the availability of fast, reliable, low cost control systems to measure the content and the quality of food additives and nutrients with health claims becomes mandatory, to be used by producers, consumers and the governmental bodies in charge of the legal supervision of such matters. This review aims at describing the most important methods and tools used for food analysis, starting with the classical methods (e.g., gas-chromatography GC, high performance liquid chromatography HPLC) and moving to the use of biosensors-novel biological material-based equipments. Four types of bio-sensors, among others, the novel photosynthetic proteins-based devices which are more promising and common in food analysis applications, are reviewed. A particular highlight on biosensors for the emerging market of functional foods is given and the most widely applied functional components are reviewed with a comprehensive analysis of papers published in the last three years; this report discusses recent trends for sensitive, fast, repeatable and cheap measurements, focused on the detection of vitamins, folate (folic acid), zinc (Zn), iron (Fe), calcium (Ca), fatty acids (in particular Omega 3), phytosterols and phytochemicals. A final market overview emphasizes some practical aspects ofbiosensor applications.

  17. Development of the DHQ II and C-DHQ II Nutrient & Food Group Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    The nutrient and food group database, created for analyzing the DHQ II, is based on a compilation of national 24-hour dietary recall data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES) conducted in 2001-02, 2003-04, and 2005-06.

  18. Quantal Density Functional Theory II

    CERN Document Server

    Sahni, Viraht

    2009-01-01

    Discusses approximation methods and applications of Quantal Density Functional Theory (QDFT), a local effective-potential-energy theory of electronic structure. This book describes approximations methods based on the incorporation of different electron correlations, as well as a many-body perturbation theory within the context of QDFT

  19. Functional food science and behaviour and psychological functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellisle, F; Blundell, J E; Dye, L; Fantino, M; Fern, E; Fletcher, R J; Lambert, J; Roberfroid, M; Specter, S; Westenhöfer, J; Westerterp-Plantenga, M S

    1998-08-01

    The impact of ingesting various foods on psychological and behavioural functions is a topic of both interest and concern to the general public. In this article, the scientific literature concerning demonstrated cause-and-effect relationships is reviewed, beginning with methodological considerations specific to the quantification of particular behaviours and psychological events. The essential function of food is to satisfy hunger and the need for essential nutrients. The contributions of macronutrients to appetite and satiety are described, as well as their impact on metabolism and energy balance. Functional properties of macronutrient substitutes (high-intensity sweeteners, fat replacers) and flavour enhancers are examined in relation to their contribution to hunger, satiety, and energy balance. The effects of foods and individual nutrients on the performance of diverse psychomotor tasks are studied with consideration given to the various validated quantitative tools used to assess behaviour. The effects of food components on activation, sedation, and affective states such as dysphoria are also reviewed, with special attention given to brain function and neuroactive substances such as serotonin and the endorphins. The case of hyperactivity in children is given special emphasis with reference to the potential influence of sugar and food additives. Safety issues related to food constituents and additives are discussed. Finally, a set of criteria is proposed for the evaluation and elaboration of studies in the behavioural and psychological fields, along with suggestions for future research.

  20. Position of the academy of nutrition and dietetics: functional foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowe, Kristi M; Francis, Coni

    2013-08-01

    It is the position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics to recognize that although all foods provide some level of physiological function, the term functional foods is defined as whole foods along with fortified, enriched, or enhanced foods that have a potentially beneficial effect on health when consumed as part of a varied diet on a regular basis at effective levels based on significant standards of evidence. The Academy supports Food and Drug Administration-approved health claims on food labels when based on rigorous scientific substantiation. All food is essentially functional at some level as it provides energy and nutrients needed to sustain life. However, there is growing evidence that some food components, not considered nutrients in the traditional sense, may provide positive health benefits. Foods containing these food components are called functional foods. Functional food research holds many promises for improving the quality of life for consumers; however, to achieve such outcomes, scientific research must effectively establish the bioavailability and efficacy of these compounds at levels that are physiologically achievable under typical dietary patterns. This Position Paper reviews the complexities of defining functional foods; categories of foods marketed as functional; regulation of functional foods; the scientific substantiation of and advancement of functional food research; as well as a message to registered dietitians and dietetic technicians, registered, on how to remain current in their knowledge of functional food research and the translation of this information to consumers. Copyright © 2013 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Honey Like Component of Functional Food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gratia Ioana Dezmirean

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Honey has been used since ancient times as part of traditional medicine. Several aspects of this use indicate that it also has functions such as antibacterial, antioxidant, antitumor, anti-inflammatory, antibrowning, and antiviral based on the components. Biological activities of honey, and other bee products (propolis, bee bread and royal jelly are mainly attributed to the phenolic compounds such as flavonoids. Flavonoids have been reported to exhibit a wide range of biological activities, including antibacterial, antiviral, anti-inflammatory, antiallergic, and vasodilators actions. In addition, flavonoids inhibit lipid peroxidation, platelet aggregation, capillary permeability and fragility, and the activity of enzyme systems including cyclo-oxygenase and lipoxygenase. The present study demonstrates that honey phenolic compounds are partially responsible for honey antioxidant activity, displaying the relevance of honey as both healthy foodstuff and source of antioxidant. Functional foods are an emerging field in food science due to their increasing popularity with health-conscious consumers.

  2. ABOUT FOOD ADDITIVES AS IMPORTANT PART OF FUNCTIONAL FOOD

    OpenAIRE

    Umida Khodjaeva; Tatiana Bojňanská; Vladimír Vietoris; Oksana Sytar

    2013-01-01

    The main characteristics and classification of food additives, which are common in the food production, have been described in the present review. The ways of food additives classification, source of nature, main antioxidants, food colouring, flavours, flavor enhancers, bulking agents, stabilizers, sweeteners which were collected from literature based on structural and biochemical characteristics with description of source and possible effects on human, organisms and environment have been pre...

  3. Yacon (Smallanthus sonchifolius): a functional food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, Grethel Teresa Choque; Tamashiro, Wirla Maria da Silva Cunha; Maróstica Junior, Mário Roberto; Pastore, Glaucia Maria

    2013-09-01

    Yacon (Smallanthus sonchifolius) is an Andean tuberous root that is regarded as a functional food given that it contains fructooligosaccharides (FOS), inulin and phenolic compounds. The consumption of FOS and inulin improves the growth of bifidobacteria in the colon, enhances mineral absorption and gastrointestinal metabolism and plays a role in the regulation of serum cholesterol. Furthermore, the literature reports that the consumption of these prebiotics promotes a positive modulation of the immune system, improving resistance to infections and allergic reactions. Certain studies have demonstrated the potential of yacon as an alternative food source for those patients with conditions that require dietary changes. This review intends to describe the potential of yacon as a prebiotic and its cultivation and industrial processing for human consumption.

  4. Position of the American Dietetic Association: functional foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasler, Clare M; Brown, Amy C

    2009-04-01

    All foods are functional at some physiological level, but it is the position of the American Dietetic Association (ADA) that functional foods that include whole foods and fortified, enriched, or enhanced foods have a potentially beneficial effect on health when consumed as part of a varied diet on a regular basis, at effective levels. ADA supports research to further define the health benefits and risks of individual functional foods and their physiologically active components. Health claims on food products, including functional foods, should be based on the significant scientific agreement standard of evidence and ADA supports label claims based on such strong scientific substantiation. Food and nutrition professionals will continue to work with the food industry, allied health professionals, the government, the scientific community, and the media to ensure that the public has accurate information regarding functional foods and thus should continue to educate themselves on this emerging area of food and nutrition science. Knowledge of the role of physiologically active food components, from plant, animal, and microbial food sources, has changed the role of diet in health. Functional foods have evolved as food and nutrition science has advanced beyond the treatment of deficiency syndromes to reduction of disease risk and health promotion. This position paper reviews the definition of functional foods, their regulation, and the scientific evidence supporting this evolving area of food and nutrition. Foods can no longer be evaluated only in terms of macronutrient and micronutrient content alone. Analyzing the content of other physiologically active components and evaluating their role in health promotion will be necessary. The availability of health-promoting functional foods in the US diet has the potential to help ensure a healthier population. However, each functional food should be evaluated on the basis of scientific evidence to ensure appropriate integration

  5. Consumption of functional foods in Europe: a systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Asli E. Özen; María del Mar Bibiloni; Antoni Pons; Josep A Tur

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To assess differences in functional foods consumption between European countries. Design: Systematic review. The literature search was conducted in Medlars Online International Literature (MEDLINE), via PubMed© and Scopus. Twenty two studies were identified to examine the differences in functional food consumption between European countries. Results: Figures on consumers of functional foods reveal differences across European countries. Functional foods are popular in most of Europe...

  6. Nanotechnology in food science: Functionality, applicability, and safety assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaojia He; Huey-Min Hwang

    2016-01-01

    Rapid development of nanotechnology is expected to transform many areas of food science and food industry with increasing investment and market share. In this article, current applications of nanotechnology in food systems are briefly reviewed. Functionality and applicability of food-related nanotechnology are highlighted in order to provide a comprehensive view on the development and safety assessment of nanotechnology in the food industry. While food nanotechnology offers great potential be...

  7. Inulin-type fructans: functional food ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberfroid, Marcel B

    2007-11-01

    A food (ingredient) is regarded as functional if it is satisfactorily demonstrated to affect beneficially 1 or more target functions in the body beyond adequate nutritional effects. The term inulin-type fructans covers all beta(2inulin (DP 2-60, DP(av) = 12), oligofructose (DP 2-8, DP(av) = 4), and inulin HP (DP 10-60, DP(av) = 25) as well as Synergy 1, a specific combination of oligofructose and inulin HP. Inulin-type fructans resist digestion and function as dietary fiber improving bowel habits. But, unlike most dietary fibers, their colonic fermentation is selective, thus causing significant changes in the composition of the gut microflora with increased and reduced numbers of potentially health-promoting bacteria and potentially harmful species, respectively. Both oligofructose and inulin act in this way and thus are prebiotic: they also induce changes in the colonic epithelium and in miscellaneous colonic functions. In particular, the claim "inulin-type fructans enhance calcium and magnesium absorption" is scientifically substantiated, and the most active product is oligofructose-enriched inulin (Synergy 1). A series of studies furthermore demonstrate that inulin-type fructans modulate the secretion of gastrointestinal peptides involved in appetite regulation as well as lipid metabolism. Moreover, a large number of animal studies and preliminary human data show that inulin-type fructans reduce the risk of colon carcinogenesis and improve the management of inflammatory bowel diseases. Inulin-type fructans are thus functional food ingredients that are eligible for enhanced function claims, but, as more human data become available, risk reduction claims will become scientifically substantiated.

  8. Role and health benefits of different functional food components

    OpenAIRE

    Guiné, Raquel; Lima, Maria; Barroca, Maria

    2009-01-01

    Functional food components are potentially beneficial components found naturally in foods or added to them as functional ingredients, and include carotenoids, dietary fiber, fatty acids, flavonoids, isothiocyanates, phenolic acids, plant stanols and sterols, polyols, prebiotics and probiotics, phytoestrogens, soy protein, vitamins and minerals. At present, professionals are recognizing that some functional components of foods have a ma...

  9. Functional links and robustness in food webs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allesina, Stefano; Bodini, Antonio; Pascual, Mercedes

    2009-06-27

    The robustness of ecosystems to species losses is a central question in ecology, given the current pace of extinctions and the many species threatened by human impacts, including habitat destruction and climate change. Robustness from the perspective of secondary extinctions has been addressed in the context of food webs to consider the complex network of species interactions that underlie responses to perturbations. In-silico removal experiments have examined the structural properties of food webs that enhance or hamper the robustness of ecosystems to species losses, with a focus on the role of hubs, the most connected species. Here we take a different approach and focus on the role of the connections themselves. We show that trophic links can be divided into functional and redundant based on their contribution to robustness. The analysis of empirical webs shows that hubs are not necessarily the most important species as they may hold many redundant links. Furthermore, the fraction of functional connections is high and constant across systems regardless of size and interconnectedness. The main consequence of this scaling pattern is that ecosystem robustness can be considerably reduced by species extinctions even when these do not result in any secondary extinctions. This introduces the possibility of tipping points in the collapse of ecosystems.

  10. Peanuts as functional food: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arya, Shalini S; Salve, Akshata R; Chauhan, S

    2016-01-01

    Peanut is an important crop grown worldwide. Commercially it is used mainly for oil production but apart from oil, the by-products of peanut contains many other functional compounds like proteins, fibers, polyphenols, antioxidants, vitamins and minerals which can be added as a functional ingredient into many processed foods. Recently it has also revealed that peanuts are excellent source of compounds like resveratrol, phenolic acids, flavonoids and phytosterols that block the absorption of cholesterol from diet. It is also a good source of Co-enzyme Q10 and contains all the 20 amino acids with highest amount of arginine. These bioactive compounds have been recognized for having disease preventive properties and are thought to promote longevity. The processing methods like roasting and boiling have shown increase in the concentration of these bioactive compounds. In the present paper an overview on peanut bioactive constituents and their health benefits are presented.

  11. A valuation method on physiological functionality of food materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-10-15

    This reports is about valuation method on physiological functionality of food materials. It includes ten reports: maintenance condition of functional foods in Korea by Kim, Byeong Tae, management plan and classification of functional foods by Jung, Myeong Seop, measurement method vitality of functional foods for preventing diabetes, measurement way of aging delayed activation by Lee, Jae Yong, improvement on effectiveness of anti hypertension by functional foods by Park, Jeon Hong, and practice case for the method of test on anti gastritis antiulcer by Lee, Eun Bang.

  12. 76 FR 43690 - Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Class II Special Controls Guidance...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-21

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration (Formerly 2007D-0309) Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Class II Special Controls Guidance Document: Electrocardiograph Electrodes; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Food and...

  13. Prebiotics and probiotics: are they functional foods?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberfroid, M B

    2000-06-01

    A probiotic is a viable microbial dietary supplement that beneficially affects the host through its effects in the intestinal tract. Probiotics are widely used to prepare fermented dairy products such as yogurt or freeze-dried cultures. In the future, they may also be found in fermented vegetables and meats. Several health-related effects associated with the intake of probiotics, including alleviation of lactose intolerance and immune enhancement, have been reported in human studies. Some evidence suggests a role for probiotics in reducing the risk of rotavirus-induced diarrhea and colon cancer. Prebiotics are nondigestible food ingredients that benefit the host by selectively stimulating the growth or activity of one or a limited number of bacteria in the colon. Work with prebiotics has been limited, and only studies involving the inulin-type fructans have generated sufficient data for thorough evaluation regarding their possible use as functional food ingredients. At present, claims about reduction of disease risk are only tentative and further research is needed. Among the claims are constipation relief, suppression of diarrhea, and reduction of the risks of osteoporosis, atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease associated with dyslipidemia and insulin resistance, obesity, and possibly type 2 diabetes. The combination of probiotics and prebiotics in a synbiotic has not been studied. This combination might improve the survival of the bacteria crossing the upper part of the gastrointestinal tract, thereby enhancing their effects in the large bowel. In addition, their effects might be additive or even synergistic.

  14. Probiotics - the versatile functional food ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syngai, Gareth Gordon; Gopi, Ragupathi; Bharali, Rupjyoti; Dey, Sudip; Lakshmanan, G M Alagu; Ahmed, Giasuddin

    2016-02-01

    Probiotics are live microbes which when administered in adequate amounts as functional food ingredients confer a health benefit on the host. Their versatility is in terms of their usage which ranges from the humans to the ruminants, pigs and poultry, and also in aquaculture practices. In this review, the microorganisms frequently used as probiotics in human and animal welfare has been described, and also highlighted are the necessary criteria required to be fulfilled for their use in humans on the one hand and on the other as microbial feed additives in animal husbandry. Further elaborated in this article are the sources from where probiotics can be derived, the possible mechanisms by which they act, and their future potential role as antioxidants is also discussed.

  15. Functional Foods in Macedonia: Consumers’ Perspective and Public Health Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Spiroski

    2013-12-01

    Conclusion: On average, Macedonian consumers have a positive attitude and high expectations of functional foods. Public health policies still lag when compared to comprehensive approach of the food industry in market placement of these products.

  16. Plant Food Residues as a Source of Nutraceuticals and Functional Foods

    OpenAIRE

    Theodoros Varzakas; George Zakynthinos; Francis Verpoort

    2016-01-01

    This chapter describes the use of different plant and vegetable food residues as nutraceuticals and functional foods. Different nutraceuticals are mentioned and explained. Their uses are well addressed along with their disease management and their action as nutraceutical delivery vehicles.

  17. Effect of Zn(II) deposition in soil on mulberry-silk worm food chain ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of Zn(II) deposition in soil on mulberry-silk worm food chain. ... African Journal of Biotechnology ... The present study was conducted to evaluate the entrance of Zn(II) into the food chain of Bombyx mori (silk worm) from mulberry plants ...

  18. The Relation between Attitudes toward Functional Foods and Satisfaction with Food-Related Life

    OpenAIRE

    Schnettler, B.; Adasme-Berríos , C.; K. G. Grunert; Márquez , M.P.; Lobos , G.; Salinas-Oñate, N.; Orellana, L; Sepúlveda, J

    2016-01-01

    Purpose – To assess the effect of attitudes towards functional foods (FF) on university students’ satisfaction with food-related life and to distinguish student typologies, considering that the attitudes towards FF are not homogeneous among consumers. Design/methodology - A survey was applied to 372 university students (mean age=20.4 years, SD=2.4) in southern Chile. The questionnaire included the Attitudes towards Functional Foods (AFF) questionnaire and the Satisfaction with Food-related Li...

  19. Consumer Market for Functional Foods in South Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia Dutra de Barcellos

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims at investigating the consumer market for functional foods (FF in Porto Alegre, South Brazil. Functional food is any healthy food claimed to have a health-promoting or disease-preventing property beyond the basic function of supplying nutrients. Health has been named as the most significant trend and innovation driver in the global food and drinks market. Brazil is one of the leading countries in food production and consumption, and the market for functional foods have been growing 10% per year, three times more than the market for conventional foods. Although this food category is considered mature in some developed markets (such as in Japan, in the Nordic countries and in the U.S, it is still unknown for many consumers, especially those located in developing countries. On the other hand, functional foods has been attracting the attention of multinationals and local food industries in Brazil, since innovation can significantly impact on their competitive advantages. Therefore, in this study, first we are going to identify the availability of functional food products in the local retail market, through observation techniques. Our aim is to confront consumers’ needs with local food companies’ market supply. Secondly, we investigate consumers’ motivations, attitudes and intention to buy functional foods, since the market demands a better understanding of this trend. A survey with 450 consumers was conducted and provided quantitative insights. Results indicate that the market for functional foods in Rio Grande do Sul is incipient, but it is developing fast. There are few local functional food products in the market, but those are attractive to consumers and indicate promising opportunities. The survey shows that interviewed consumers presented positive attitudes towards functional foods and enough purchasing power to buy it. Dieticians, nutritionists and other health professionals have high credibility and could help inform

  20. Nutrition by design: a review of biotechnology in functional food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Reynolds

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Medical institutions in industrial and developing countries are increasingly turning to functional foods as intervention in chronic disease. Advances in genetic engineering have provided methods of purposefully designing functional foods and bioactive compound-producing organisms. This literature review examines the recent history of biotechnological applications in functional food, the state of bioagricultural engineering for high-value compound production, and the challenges that developers face in promulgatingfunctional foods from biotechnological sources. Based on the literature reviewed, it is predicted that adding biotechnologically-produced compounds will be more successful in producing novel functional foods. Conclusion: Current functional food application is frequently hampered by a dearth of foods suitable to the purpose. The concurrent advent of biotechnology means that producers and clinicians are not constrained by limited and precarious natural development. Biotechnology has already produced altered dietary staples that can safely induce real health benefits, but the social approval of genetically modified foodstuffs is inconsistent at best. Modifying microalgae to produce micro and macronutrients, for harvest and incorporation into functional food products, provides the ideal specificity and reliability for bioactive compound use. However, its application in biomedical science is impeded by technical difficulty. It remains to be seen if microorganism engineering willbe able to meet the needs of its many stakeholders, including the functional food community. Nonetheless,the prospect of a flourishing functional food market, and the healthier population it will bring about, certainly makes it worth a try.

  1. Improved Functional Characteristics of Whey Protein Hydrolysates in Food Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Jeewanthi, Renda Kankanamge Chaturika; Lee, Na-Kyoung; Paik, Hyun-Dong

    2015-01-01

    This review focuses on the enhanced functional characteristics of enzymatic hydrolysates of whey proteins (WPHs) in food applications compared to intact whey proteins (WPs). WPs are applied in foods as whey protein concentrates (WPCs), whey protein isolates (WPIs), and WPHs. WPs are byproducts of cheese production, used in a wide range of food applications due to their nutritional validity, functional activities, and cost effectiveness. Enzymatic hydrolysis yields improved functional and nutr...

  2. Occurrence and function of yeasts in Asian indigenous fermented foods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aidoo, K.E.; Nout, M.J.R.; Sarkar, P.K.

    2006-01-01

    In the Asian region, indigenous fermented foods are important in daily life. In many of these foods, yeasts are predominant and functional during the fermentation. The diversity of foods in which yeasts predominate ranges from leavened bread-like products such as nan and idli, to alcoholic beverages

  3. Occurrence and function of yeasts in Asian indigenous fermented foods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aidoo, K.E.; Nout, M.J.R.; Sarkar, P.K.

    2006-01-01

    In the Asian region, indigenous fermented foods are important in daily life. In many of these foods, yeasts are predominant and functional during the fermentation. The diversity of foods in which yeasts predominate ranges from leavened bread-like products such as nan and idli, to alcoholic beverages

  4. Food insecurity and cognitive function in Puerto Rican adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Food insecurity is associated with nutrient inadequacy and a variety of unfavorable health outcomes. However, little is known about whether food security is associated with lower cognitive function in the elderly. We investigated the prevalence of food insecurity in a representative sample of 1358 P...

  5. Consumption of functional foods in Europe: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asli E. Özen

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess differences in functional foods consumption between European countries. Design: Systematic review. The literature search was conducted in Medlars Online International Literature (MEDLINE, via PubMed© and Scopus. Twenty two studies were identified to examine the differences in functional food consumption between European countries. Results: Figures on consumers of functional foods reveal differences across European countries. Functional foods are popular in most of European countries like Finland, Sweden, the Netherlands, Poland, Spain and Cyprus, but not so in other countries like Denmark, Italy and Belgium. A high percentage of adolescents in the European Mediterranean countries (Spain and Cyprus, but not Italy consume functional foods. Evaluation of functional foods consumption according to gender is difficult, because results differ from one study to another. Conclusions: Functional foods have become very popular in Europe in recent years, but still huge differences exist between Europeans on consumption of functional foods. Further research is needed to find out the reasons behind these differences and to understand consumers' needs for functional foods.

  6. Genetically modified food - one of the ways of the functional food production?

    OpenAIRE

    Kamil Pícha

    2004-01-01

    In current time emerge the informations about using of genetic modification as a mean to gain a positive benefit of food, it means for production of functional food. The problem can be already the consumer's confidence that the concrete food will really have the promised effect. Its attitude can be further influenced also by the information on the package about use of GMO.

  7. Utilization of functional food components from pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dry beans, peas, and lentils (pulses) are a principle source of protein in many parts of the world and have long been known to be healthy foods. Their use in traditional ethnic foods is well established; however, unlike grains, meat, dairy products, and other vegetables, they are not universally pre...

  8. Cereal based functional food of Indian subcontinent: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Arpita; Raychaudhuri, Utpal; Chakraborty, Runu

    2012-12-01

    Due to constant health awareness and readily available information on usefulness of different diet and their direct link with health, the demand of functional food is increasing day by day. The concept of functional foods includes foods or food ingredients that exert a beneficial effect on host health and/or reduce the risk of chronic disease beyond basic nutritional functions. Increasing awareness of consumer health and interest in functional foods to achieve a healthy lifestyle has resulted in the need for food products with versatile health-benefiting properties. Cereal- and cereal component-based food products offer opportunities to include probiotics, prebiotics, and fibers in the human diet. Various growth studies using probiotic Lactic acid bacteria on cereal-based substrates and utilization of whole grain or components as high-fiber foods in developing novel food products lend support to the idea that cereal-based media may well be good probiotic carriers. It is essential that science and traditional knowledge should go together to find mutually beneficial results. In the Indian subcontinent, making use of fermented food and beverages using local food crops and other biological resources are very common. But the nature of the products and the base material vary from region to region.

  9. Scientific substantiation of functional food health claims in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yuexin

    2008-06-01

    This article provides an overview of the procedures involved in scientific substantiation of functional food health claims in China. The definition of a functional food is discussed, in addition to the factors that led to its modification in 2005. The framework of administration includes the regulation of functional foods, steps involved in submission of dossiers, the safety control system for raw materials and products, and technical procedures for testing and evaluation. Scientific evidence required for a claim includes evidence from product tests in addition to evidence resulting from complete scientific literature searches relative to the food material or component in question. Currently, the 4 main rules for functional food assessment in China include 1) functional assessment procedures; 2) standard toxicological assessment; 3) regulations on nutrient supplements; and 4) standard analytical methods for functional components. The current situation for functional foods in China is analyzed, including a discussion of the distribution of the 27 currently allowed functional food health claims. The effectiveness of functional foods and health claims for improving health relies largely on the motivation and education of the public to be able to make good choices.

  10. Functional food science and food for specified health use policy in Japan: state of the art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arai, Soichi; Yasuoka, Akihito; Abe, Keiko

    2008-02-01

    The science and policy of functional foods are a matter of global concern and this review provides up-to-date information about the Japanese 'food for specified health use' policy based on functional food science. A great many studies on nonnutritive but physiologically functional food components have provided more precise evidence regarding the structure-function relationships that underlie the approval of food for specified health use products. Functional foods, defined as those that have the potential to reduce the risk of lifestyle-related diseases and associated abnormal modalities, have garnered global interest since the 1980s when the systematic research had humble beginnings as a national project in Japan. In 1991, the project led to the launch of the national food for specified health use policy; 703 food for specified health use products with 11 categories of health claims have been approved up to the present (31 August 2007). The development of this policy has been supported basically by nutritional epidemiology, food chemistry and biochemistry, physiology and clinical medicine, and even the genomics on food and nutrition. This review also highlights the current academia-industry collaboration in Japan.

  11. Changes of the rice distribution and the functions of the food control system in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    MISHIMA, Tokuzo

    1992-01-01

    Japan's Food Control System was established in 1942 during World War II in order to cope with the shortage of food. The system has been maintained in order to secure a stable supply of rice, a staple food and key crop in the country. The functions and roles of this system change gradually according to fluctuations in the rice market. Since the establishment of the 'voluntary rice-marketing system' in 1969, Japan's marketed rice has been classified into the following three types: (1) Governmen...

  12. 75 FR 54637 - Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Class II Special Controls Guidance...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-08

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Class II Special Controls Guidance Document for Certain Percutaneous Transluminal Coronary Angioplasty (PTCA) Catheters; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY:...

  13. 77 FR 16123 - Draft Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Class II Special Controls...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-19

    ... March 19, 2012 Part II Department of Health and Human Services Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 866 Draft Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Class II Special Controls... SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Draft Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration...

  14. Position of the American Dietetic Association: phytochemicals and functional foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-04-01

    Never before has the focus on the health benefits of commonly available foods been so strong. The philosophy that food can be health promoting beyond its nutritional value is gaining acceptance within the public arena and among the scientific community as mounting research links diet/food components to disease prevention and treatment. Dietitians are uniquely qualified and positioned to translate the available sound scientific evidence into practical dietary applications for the consumer and to provide the food industry and the government with valuable insight and expertise for future research, product development, and regulation of phytochemicals and functional foods. Increasing the availability of healthful foods, including functional foods, in the American diet is critical to ensuring a healthier population. As the nutrition experts, dietetics professionals must be the leaders in this new, exciting, and meaningful field as it evolves.

  15. Concepts and strategy of functional food science: the European perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberfroid, M B

    2000-06-01

    Recent knowledge supports the hypothesis that, beyond meeting nutrition needs, diet may modulate various functions in the body and play detrimental or beneficial roles in some diseases. Concepts in nutrition are expanding from emphasis on survival, hunger satisfaction, and preventing adverse effects to emphasizing the use of foods to promote a state of well-being and better health and to help reduce the risk of disease. In many countries, especially Japan and the United States, research on functional foods is addressing the physiologic effects and health benefits of foods and food components, with the aim of authorizing specific health claims. The positive effects of a functional food can be either maintaining a state of well-being and health or reducing the risk of pathologic consequences. Among the most promising targets for functional food science are gastrointestinal functions, redox and antioxidant systems, and metabolism of macronutrients. Ongoing research into functional foods will allow the establishment of health claims that can be translated into messages for consumers that will refer to either enhanced function or reduction of disease risk. Only a rigorous scientific approach that produces highly significant results will guarantee the success of this new discipline of nutrition. This presents a challenge for the scientific community, health authorities, and the food industry.

  16. Functional food science in Japan: state of the art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arai, S

    2000-01-01

    In 1984, a new science related to functional food was initiated by a National Project team under the auspices of the Japan Ministry of Education and Science. It was followed by a great many academic and industrial studies to occupy a central position in the field of food and nutritional sciences. In 1993, the Ministry of Health and Welfare established a policy of "Foods for Specified Health Uses" (FOSHU) by which health claims of some selected functional foods are legally permitted. Up to now (November 22. 1999), 167 FOSHU products have been born. Since the time (1984) when the concept of functional food" was proposed, it seems that the science in Japan has been progressing along, among others, a unique path of development. The uniqueness is seen in the development of functional foods by minimizing undesirable as well as maximizing desirable food factors. Hypoallergenic foods, developed from their materials by removing allergens, offer a good example. Another characteristic may be found in the field of sensory science which aims at elucidating a molecular logic of the senses of taste and smell in reference to their effects on physiological systems in the body. The paper discusses some characteristics of functional food science in Japan, with special emphasis on these topics.

  17. Functional food consumption in Germany: A lifestyle segmentation study

    OpenAIRE

    Franz, Annabell; Nowak, Beate

    2010-01-01

    Due to increasing health consciousness among consumers, there is an ever‐growing demand for food and beverages with health‐improving components. Not only ‘light’ and low fat products are in demand, but increasingly so‐called well‐being products and food which can prevent certain diseases. The German market for functional food is still growing. But who are the German functional food consumers? In an online‐survey referring to the Food‐ Related Lifestyle by BRUNSØ and GRUNERT (1995) we tried to...

  18. LEADING TRENDS IN THE EUROPEAN FUNCTIONAL FOOD MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Kozonova

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Functional foods market is changing rapidly. Now the market has the highest growth. In the European Union food producers try to fit virtually every product under the "functional" definition. In this article we will review major trends in the EU functional foods market and try to analyze them. It is well known that foods fortified with nutritional and disease-preventing qualities are invigorating the world food industry. Health-conscious consumers are driving the demand for products that aim to promote better health, increase longevity and prevent the onset of chronic diseases. With a fast-emerging middle class, more disposable income, and a greater number of working/more educated women in emerging markets, the worldwide potential for functional foods/beverages is unprecedented. Milk formula, energy drinks, probiotic yogurt, juice drinks, sports drinks, cereal, and biscuits were among the top-performing functional global health and wellness food categories in 2014. There is a breakout of the year's top trends driving the market for functional foods and beverages. A review of recent deal drivers, the fastest-growing products and innovation trends can help businesses identify the most promising entry points to this market.

  19. Marine biotechnology advances towards applications in new functional foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Ana C; Rodrigues, Dina; Rocha-Santos, Teresa A P; Gomes, Ana M P; Duarte, Armando C

    2012-01-01

    The marine ecosystem is still an untapped reservoir of biologically active compounds, which have considerable potential to supply food ingredients towards development of new functional foods. With the goal of increasing the availability and chemical diversity of functional marine ingredients, much research has been developed using biotechnological tools to discover and produce new compounds. This review summarizes the advances in biotechnological tools for production of functional ingredients, including enzymes, for the food industry. Tools involving biotechnological processes (bioreactors, fermentations, bioprocessing) and those involving genetic research designated as molecular biotechnology are discussed highlighting how they can be used in the controlled manipulation and utilization of marine organisms as sources of food ingredients, as well as discussing the most relevant shortcomings towards applications in new functional foods.

  20. The role of functional foods, nutraceuticals, and food supplements in intestinal health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cencic, Avrelija; Chingwaru, Walter

    2010-06-01

    New eating habits, actual trends in production and consumption have a health, environmental and social impact. The European Union is fighting diseases characteristic of a modern age, such as obesity, osteoporosis, cancer, diabetes, allergies and dental problems. Developed countries are also faced with problems relating to aging populations, high energy foods, and unbalanced diets. The potential of nutraceuticals/functional foods/food supplements in mitigating health problems, especially in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, is discussed. Certain members of gut microflora (e.g., probiotic/protective strains) play a role in the host health due to its involvement in nutritional, immunologic and physiological functions. The potential mechanisms by which nutraceuticals/functional foods/food supplements may alter a host's health are also highlighted in this paper. The establishment of novel functional cell models of the GI and analytical tools that allow tests in controlled experiments are highly desired for gut research.

  1. Functional group diversity increases with modularity in complex food webs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoya, D; Yallop, M L; Memmott, J

    2015-06-10

    Biodiversity increases the ability of ecosystems to provide multiple functions. Most studies report a positive relationship between species richness and the number of ecosystem functions. However, it is not known whether the number of functional groups is related to the structure of the underlying species interaction network. Here we present food web data from 115 salt marsh islands and show that network structure is associated with the number of functional groups present. Functional group diversity is heterogeneously distributed across spatial scales, with some islands hosting more functional groups than others. Functional groups form modules within the community so that food webs with more modular architectures have more functional group diversity. Further, in communities with different interaction types, modularity can be seen as the multifunctional equivalent of trophic complementarity. Collectively, these findings reveal spatial heterogeneity in the number of functional groups that emerges from patterns in the structure of the food web.

  2. Preparation and evaluation of functional foods in adjuvant arthritis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Okbi, S. Y.; Mohamed, D. A.

    2012-07-01

    Adjuvant arthritis is an animal model that closely resembles rheumatoid arthritis in humans. It is a successful working model used to study new anti-inflammatory agents. In previous studies (animal and clinical) we have shown that evening primrose oil, fish oil and the methanol extract of date fruits and fenugreek seeds have anti-inflammatory activity and that the methanol extract of dates has an antioxidant effect. Based on these studies, the aim of the present study was to prepare 7 functional foods containing such bioactive fractions separately or in combination and to evaluate them in adjuvant arthritis in rats, study the stability of bioactive ingredients and evaluate their sensory properties. The studied biochemical parameters were erythrocyte sedimentation rate, erythrocyte superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and plasma copper, zinc and interlukin 2. Nutritional parameters, including body weight gain, food intake and food efficiency ratio were monitored during the feeding of the functional foods. The bioactive ingredients assessed were total phenolic contents and fatty acids. The results showed improvement in the biochemical parameters, body weight gain and food efficiency ratio of arthritic rats fed on the functional foods with different degrees. All the prepared functional foods were sensory accepted. The active ingredients showed stability during storage. In conclusion, all the tested functional foods showed promising antiinflammatory activity and were determined to be acceptable through sensory evaluation which means that their potential beneficial use as dietary supplements in rheumatoid arthritis patients may be recommended. (Author) 42 refs.

  3. Fermented food in the context of a healthy diet: how to produce novel functional foods?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leroy, Frédéric; De Vuyst, Luc

    2014-11-01

    This review presents an overview of recent studies on the production of functional fermented foods, of both traditional and innovative natures, and the mapping of the functional compounds involved. The functional aspects of fermented foods are mostly related to the concept of probiotic bacteria or the targeted microbial generation of functional molecules, such as bioactive peptides, during food fermentation. Apart from conventional yoghurt and fermented milks, several fermented nondairy foods are globally gaining in interest, in particular from soy or cereal origin, sometimes novel but often originating from ethnic (Asian) diets. In addition, a range of functional nonmicrobial compounds may be added to the fermented food matrix. Overall, a wide variety of potential health benefits is being claimed, yet often poorly supported by mechanistic insights and rarely demonstrated with clinical trials or even animal models. Although functional foods offer considerable market potential, several issues still need to be addressed. As most of the studies on functional fermented foods are of a rather descriptive and preliminary nature, there is a clear need for mechanistic studies and well controlled in-vivo experiments.

  4. Functional MRI of food-induced brain responses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smeets, P.A.M.

    2006-01-01

    The ultimate goal of this research was to find central biomarkers of satiety, i.e., physiological measures in the brain that relate to subjectively rated appetite, actual food intake, or both. This thesis describes the changes in brain activity in response to food stimuli as measured by functional

  5. The "young" consumer perception of Functional Foods in Italy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giudice, Del T.; Nebbia, S.; Pascucci, S.

    2012-01-01

    We analysed the role of acceptance of functional foods (FFs) focusing on the preferences expressed by three distinct groups of young Italian consumers. FFs represent an innovation both in terms of technology and marketing for Italian food companies, and the segment of young consumers would appear es

  6. Functional MRI of food-induced brain responses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smeets, P.A.M.

    2006-01-01

    The ultimate goal of this research was to find central biomarkers of satiety, i.e., physiological measures in the brain that relate to subjectively rated appetite, actual food intake, or both. This thesis describes the changes in brain activity in response to food stimuli as measured by functional M

  7. Functional MRI of food-induced brain responses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smeets, P.A.M.

    2006-01-01

    The ultimate goal of this research was to find central biomarkers of satiety, i.e., physiological measures in the brain that relate to subjectively rated appetite, actual food intake, or both. This thesis describes the changes in brain activity in response to food stimuli as measured by functional M

  8. Quality function deployment in the food industry: a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Costa, A.I.A.; Dekker, M.; Jongen, W.M.F.

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents a detailed literature review on the topic of the application of quality function deployment (QFD) in the food industry. This review is extended with a thorough description of the methodologies involved in the practice of QFD within food companies, exemplified with the help of a c

  9. FUNCTIONAL FOODS OR PHYTOCHEMICALS, CLASSIFICATION AND IMPORTANCE

    OpenAIRE

    Chasquibol S., Nancy; Departamento de Química Analítica, Facultad de Química e Ingeniería Química Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos. Lima, Perú.; Lengua C., Laura; Departamento de Química Analítica, Facultad de Química e Ingeniería Química Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos; Delmás, Inés; Departamento de Química Analítica, Facultad de Química e Ingeniería Química Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos; Rivera C., Dolores; Departamento de Química Analítica, Facultad de Química e Ingeniería Química Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos.Lima, Perú; Bazán, Dora; Departamento de Química Analítica, Facultad de Química e Ingeniería Química Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos; Aguirre M., Rosa; Departamento de Química Analítica, Facultad de Química e Ingeniería Química Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos. Lima, Perú; Bravo A., Martha; Departamento de Química Analítica, Facultad de Química e Ingeniería Química Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos

    2014-01-01

    We described the benefits of funtional or phytochemicals foods in disease prevention and health promotion. This article is a contribution for the development of this new research area. Los alimentos funcionales o fitoquímicos tienen diversos beneficios en la prevención de enfermedades y contribuyen a reducir ciertas enfermedades crónicas. Se presenta el siguiente articulo como conttibución para el desarrollo de esta nueva área de investigación.

  10. The relation between attitudes toward functional foods and satisfaction with food-related life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schnettler, Berta; Adasme-Berríos, Cristian; Grunert, Klaus G;

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to assess the effect of attitudes towards functional foods (AFF) on university students’ satisfaction with food-related life (SWFL) and to distinguish student typologies, considering that the AFF are not homogeneous among consumers. Design/methodology/approach...

  11. Development of a locally sustainable functional food based on mutandabota, a traditional food in southern Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mpofu, A.; Linnemann, A.R.; Sybesma, W.; Kort, R.; Nout, M.J.R.; Smid, E.J.

    2014-01-01

    A probiotic dairy product was developed on the basis of a traditional dish called mutandabota to enable resource-poor populations in southern Africa to benefit from a functional food. Mutandabota is widely consumed in rural southern Africa, making it an ideal food matrix to carry probiotics. First,

  12. Plant Food Residues as a Source of Nutraceuticals and Functional Foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theodoros Varzakas

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This chapter describes the use of different plant and vegetable food residues as nutraceuticals and functional foods. Different nutraceuticals are mentioned and explained. Their uses are well addressed along with their disease management and their action as nutraceutical delivery vehicles.

  13. Novel approaches in food-processing technology: new technologies for preserving foods and modifying function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knorr, D

    1999-10-01

    Recent advances in emerging food-processing technologies, such as high hydrostatic pressure or high-intensity electric field pulses, allow targeted and sophisticated modification and preservation of foods. We are beginning to understand the mechanisms involved in pressure inactivation of bacterial spores and have been collecting considerable amounts of kinetic data regarding inactivation mechanisms of enzymes and vegetative microorganisms. We are also gaining more insight into the permeabilization of plant membranes and related biosynthetic responses, making progress in food structure engineering and food modification for function, and have been initiating process developments for gentle processing of delicate biomaterials based on pressure-assisted phase transitions of water.

  14. Concepts in functional foods: the case of inulin and oligofructose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberfroid, M B

    1999-07-01

    Recent advances in biosciences support the hypothesis that diet modulates various body functions. Diet may maintain well-being and reduce the risk of some diseases. Such discoveries have led to the concept of "functional food" and the development of the new discipline, i.e., "functional food science." A practical and simple definition of a "functional food" is a food for which a claim has been authorized. The food components to be discussed as potential "functional food ingredients" are the inulin-type fructans, i.e., chicory inulin and oligofuctose. The targets for their effects are the colonic microflora, the gastrointestinal physiology, the immune functions, the bioavailability of minerals, the metabolism of lipids and colonic carcinogenesis. Potential health benefits include reduction of risk of colonic diseases, noninsulin-dependent diabetes, obesity, osteoporosis and cancer. The documentation of such benefits requires scientific evidence that must be evaluated in terms of "health claims." Previous assessments have concluded that, in terms of "functional claims," strong evidence exists for a prebiotic effect and improved bowel habit. The evidence for calcium bioavailability is promising, and positive modulation of triglyceride metabolism is undergoing preliminary evaluation. Scientific research still must be done to support any "disease risk reduction claim," but sound hypotheses do already exist for designing the relevant human nutrition trials.

  15. Functional foods as potential therapeutic options for metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, L; Poudyal, H; Panchal, S K

    2015-11-01

    Obesity as part of metabolic syndrome is a major lifestyle disorder throughout the world. Current drug treatments for obesity produce small and usually unsustainable decreases in body weight with the risk of major adverse effects. Surgery has been the only treatment producing successful long-term weight loss. As a different but complementary approach, lifestyle modification including the use of functional foods could produce a reliable decrease in obesity with decreased comorbidities. Functional foods may include fruits such as berries, vegetables, fibre-enriched grains and beverages such as tea and coffee. Although health improvements continue to be reported for these functional foods in rodent studies, further evidence showing the translation of these results into humans is required. Thus, the concept that these fruits and vegetables will act as functional foods in humans to reduce obesity and thereby improve health remains intuitive and possible rather than proven.

  16. Enzyme technology for precision functional food ingredient processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Anne S.

    2010-01-01

    modification of potato starch processing residues. Such targeted enzyme-catalyzed reactions provide new invention opportunities for designing functional foods with significant health benefits. The provision of well-defined naturally structured compounds can, moreover, assist in obtaining the much...

  17. Nutritional and functional properties of a complementary food based ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nutritional and functional properties of a complementary food based on Kenyan ... Analytical Chemists (AOAC) were used to determine the proximate chemical ... spectrophotometry was used to determine the mineral element composition.

  18. The opinion of Dutch dietitians about functional foods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, N.; Hoendervangers, C.T.; Bleeker, J.K.; Ocke, M.C.

    2004-01-01

    Objective To obtain information about Dutch dietitian's attitudes, perceived knowledge, training preferences, counselling procedures, opinions about post-launch monitoring, and personal consumption of functional foods. Design A self-administered, 62-item, postal survey in 2002. Subjects Five hundred

  19. Nudge to nobesity II: Menu positions influence food orders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eran Dayan

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available ``Very small but cumulated decreases in food intake may be sufficient to have significant effects, even erasing obesity over a period of years'' (Rozin et al., 2011. In two studies, one a lab study and the other a real-world study, we examine the effect of manipulating the position of different foods on a restaurant menu. Items placed at the beginning or the end of the list of their category options were up to twice as popular as when they were placed in the center of the list. Given this effect, placing healthier menu items at the top or bottom of item lists and less healthy ones in their center (e.g., sugared drinks vs. calorie-free drinks should result in some increase in favor of healthier food choices.

  20. Nanotechnology in food science: Functionality, applicability, and safety assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaojia He

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Rapid development of nanotechnology is expected to transform many areas of food science and food industry with increasing investment and market share. In this article, current applications of nanotechnology in food systems are briefly reviewed. Functionality and applicability of food-related nanotechnology are highlighted in order to provide a comprehensive view on the development and safety assessment of nanotechnology in the food industry. While food nanotechnology offers great potential benefits, there are emerging concerns arising from its novel physicochemical properties. Therefore, the safety concerns and regulatory policies on its manufacturing, processing, packaging, and consumption are briefly addressed. At the end of this article, the perspectives of nanotechnology in active and intelligent packaging applications are highlighted.

  1. Hydrogels from biopolymer hybrid for biomedical, food, and functional food applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hybrid hydrogels from biopolymers have been applied for various indications across a wide range of biomedical, pharmaceutical, and functional food industries. In particular, hybrid hydrogels synthesized from two biopolymers have attracted increasing attention. The inclusion of a second biopolymer st...

  2. Prebiotics as functional food ingredients preventing diet-related diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florowska, A; Krygier, K; Florowski, T; Dłużewska, E

    2016-05-18

    This paper reviews the potential of prebiotic-containing foods in the prevention or postponement of certain diet-related diseases, such as cardiovascular diseases with hypercholesterolemia, osteoporosis, diabetes, gastrointestinal infections and gut inflammation. Also the data on prebiotics as food ingredients and their impact on food product quality are presented. Prebiotics are short chain carbohydrates that are resistant to the digestion process in the upper part of the digestive system, are not absorbed in any segment of the gastrointestinal system, and finally are selectively fermented by specific genera of colonic bacteria. The mechanisms of the beneficial impacts of prebiotics on human health are very difficult to specify directly, because their health-promoting functions are related to fermentation by intestinal microflora. The impact of prebiotics on diet-related diseases in many ways also depends on the products of their fermentation. Prebiotics as functional food ingredients also have an impact on the quality of food products, due to their textural and gelling properties. Prebiotics as food additives can be very valuable in the creation of functional food aimed at preventing or postponing many diet-related diseases. They additionally have beneficial technological properties which improve the quality of food products.

  3. Applications and functions of food-grade phosphates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampila, Lucina E

    2013-10-01

    Food-grade phosphates are used in the production of foods to function as buffers, sequestrants, acidulants, bases, flavors, cryoprotectants, gel accelerants, dispersants, nutrients, precipitants, and as free-flow (anticaking) or ion-exchange agents. The actions of phosphates affect the chemical leavening of cakes, cookies, pancakes, muffins, and doughnuts; the even melt of processed cheese; the structure of a frankfurter; the bind and hydration of delicatessen meats; the fluidity of evaporated milk; the distinctive flavor of cola beverages; the free flow of spice blends; the mineral content of isotonic beverages; and the light color of par-fried potato strips. In the United States, food-grade phosphates are generally recognized as safe, but use levels have been defined for some foods by the Code of Federal Regulations, specifically Titles 9 and 21 for foods regulated by the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) and the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA), respectively. Standards for food purity are defined nationally and internationally in sources such as the Food Chemicals Codex and the Joint Food and Agriculture Organization and World Health Organization (FAO/WHO) Expert Committee on Food Additives.

  4. Food labels as boundary objects: how consumers make sense of organic and functional foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eden, Sally

    2011-03-01

    This paper considers how consumers make sense of food labeling, drawing on a qualitative, empirical study in England. I look in detail at two examples of labeling: 1) food certified as produced by organic methods and 2) functional food claimed to be beneficial for human health, especially probiotic and cholesterol-lowering products. I use the concept of "boundary objects" to demonstrate how such labels are intended to work between the worlds of food producers and food consumers and to show how information is not merely transferred as a "knowledge fix" to consumer ignorance. Rather, consumers drew on a binary of "raw" and "processed" food and familiarity with marketing in today's consumer culture to make sense of such labeling.

  5. 75 FR 70271 - Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Class II Special Controls Guidance...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-17

    ... wound therapy into class II (special controls) under section 513(f)(2) of the Federal Food, Drug, and... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Class II Special Controls Guidance Document: Non-Powered Suction Apparatus Device Intended for...

  6. 76 FR 20992 - Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Class II Special Controls Guidance...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-14

    ... into class II (special controls) under section 513(f)(2) of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Class II Special Controls Guidance Document: Low Level Laser System for Aesthetic Use;...

  7. Occurrence and function of yeasts in Asian indigenous fermented foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aidoo, Kofi E; Nout, M J Rob; Sarkar, Prabir K

    2006-01-01

    In the Asian region, indigenous fermented foods are important in daily life. In many of these foods, yeasts are predominant and functional during the fermentation. The diversity of foods in which yeasts predominate ranges from leavened bread-like products such as nan and idli, to alcoholic beverages such as rice and palm wines, and condiments such as papads and soy sauce. Although several products are obtained by natural fermentation, the use of traditional starter cultures is widespread. This minireview focuses on the diversity and functionality of yeasts in these products, and on opportunities for research and development.

  8. Development of functional foods for radiation workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jo, Sung Kee; Yu, Young Beob; Park, Hae Ran; Byun, Myung Woo; Yang, Jae Seung; Kim, Sung Ho; Yee, Sung Tae

    2000-03-01

    In searching modulators of immunity and hematopoiesis among natural products, being used as foods, six herbs exhibited lymphocyte proliferation in vitro, and six exhibited augmentation of hematopoietic cell growth. The combined treatments showed synergistic effects of lymphocyte proliferation and of hematopoietic cell growth. On the other hand, we found four effective oriental medicinal prescriptions, used as energy tonic or blood-building decoctions, for survival and regeneration of hematopoietic cells and for protection of stem cells of intestinal crypt in irradiated mice. On the basis of these results, extracts from combinations of herbs were made in expectation of higher effects in the three respects. In immuno modulation activity by the two combinations of herbs was confirmed in mice. In culture of bone narrow cells, growth improvement of non-adherent precursor and induction of cytokine expression by herb mixture extracts were observed. In evaluation of fractions, polysaccharide fraction showed modulation of immunity and hematopoiesis, and methanol fraction showed stem cell protection from radiation. On the basis of the results, we made two provisional products by addition of polysaccharide fraction to the water extract. In further research, the active components would be identified and the fractional foods would be developed for overcoming of declined immunity and radiation damage. For security of sanitation by irradiation, the stability in activity of irradiated resources was confirmed. (author)

  9. Functional Salad Dressing as an Excipient Food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibel Karakaya

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to develop salad dressing as an excipient food that can be used to enhance beneficial effects of salads when co-ingested together. The compounds that include bioactive constituents different from other salad dressings are germinated seed and sprouts of lentils and cowpeas, and caseinomacropeptide isolated from whey. The proximate composition, total phenols and total flavonoids of salad dressing were determined. Its beneficial effects on health (antioxidant activity, antidiabetic activity, bile acid binding capacity, and angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitory activity were determined using in vitro methods.
Energy value of salad dressing is 111 kcal/100 g and 11.41% of the energy value of the salad dressing is provided by protein. Total phenol content is 79 mg CE/100 g. Salad dressing displayed higher antioxidant activity against DPPH radical (130 mM Trolox/100 g than that of ORAC value (72 mM Trolox/100 g. Salad dressing inhibited ACE by approximately 37%. Expected glycemic index of salad dressing was 74.0 and belongs to high glycemic index foods. Contrary to, salad dressing inhibited α-glucosidase and α-amylase with the IC50 values 1.77 mg protein/mL and 2.40 mg protein/mL, respectively. Relative to cholestyramine, bile acid binding capacity of salad dressing is 39.85%.

  10. Newer Approaches to Identify Potential Untoward Effects in Functional Foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marone, Palma Ann; Birkenbach, Victoria L; Hayes, A Wallace

    2016-01-01

    Globalization has greatly accelerated the numbers and variety of food and beverage products available worldwide. The exchange among greater numbers of countries, manufacturers, and products in the United States and worldwide has necessitated enhanced quality measures for nutritional products for larger populations increasingly reliant on functionality. These functional foods, those that provide benefit beyond basic nutrition, are increasingly being used for their potential to alleviate food insufficiency while enhancing quality and longevity of life. In the United States alone, a steady import increase of greater than 15% per year or 24 million shipments, over 70% products of which are food related, is regulated under the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). This unparalleled growth has resulted in the need for faster, cheaper, and better safety and efficacy screening methods in the form of harmonized guidelines and recommendations for product standardization. In an effort to meet this need, the in vitro toxicology testing market has similarly grown with an anticipatory 15% increase between 2010 and 2015 of US$1.3 to US$2.7 billion. Although traditionally occupying a small fraction of the market behind pharmaceuticals and cosmetic/household products, the scope of functional food testing, including additives/supplements, ingredients, residues, contact/processing, and contaminants, is potentially expansive. Similarly, as functional food testing has progressed, so has the need to identify potential adverse factors that threaten the safety and quality of these products.

  11. The relation between attitudes toward functional foods and satisfaction with food-related life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schnettler, Berta; Adasme-Berríos, Cristian; Grunert, Klaus G

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to assess the effect of attitudes towards functional foods (AFF) on university students’ satisfaction with food-related life (SWFL) and to distinguish student typologies, considering that the AFF are not homogeneous among consumers. Design....../methodology/approach A survey was applied to 372 university students (mean age=20.4 years, SD=2.4) in Southern Chile. The questionnaire included the AFF questionnaire and the SWFL scale, questions about consumption and knowledge about functional food (FF) and socio-demographic characteristics. Findings Using confirmatory...

  12. Breast cancer incidence in food- vs non-food-producing areas in Norway: possible beneficial effects of World War II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robsahm, Trude Eid; Tretli, S

    2002-02-01

    It has been suggested that World War II influenced breast cancer risk among Norwegian women by affecting adolescent growth. Diet changed substantially during the war, and the reduction in energy intake was assumed to be larger in non-food-producing than in food-producing municipalities. In the present study, we have looked at the influence of residential history in areas with and without food production on the incidence of breast cancer in a population-based cohort study consisting of 597,906 women aged between 30 and 64 years. The study included 7311 cases of breast cancer, diagnosed between 1964 and 1992. The risk estimates were calculated using a Poisson regression model. The results suggest that residential history may influence the risk of breast cancer, where the suggested advantageous effect of World War II seems to be larger in non-food-producing than in food-producing areas. Breast cancer incidence was observed to decline for the post-war cohorts, which is discussed in relation to diet. Copyright 2002 The Cancer Research Campaign

  13. Food webs: reconciling the structure and function of biodiversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Ross M; Brose, Ulrich; Dunne, Jennifer A; Hall, Robert O; Hladyz, Sally; Kitching, Roger L; Martinez, Neo D; Rantala, Heidi; Romanuk, Tamara N; Stouffer, Daniel B; Tylianakis, Jason M

    2012-12-01

    The global biodiversity crisis concerns not only unprecedented loss of species within communities, but also related consequences for ecosystem function. Community ecology focuses on patterns of species richness and community composition, whereas ecosystem ecology focuses on fluxes of energy and materials. Food webs provide a quantitative framework to combine these approaches and unify the study of biodiversity and ecosystem function. We summarise the progression of food-web ecology and the challenges in using the food-web approach. We identify five areas of research where these advances can continue, and be applied to global challenges. Finally, we describe what data are needed in the next generation of food-web studies to reconcile the structure and function of biodiversity.

  14. Functional herbal food ingredients used in type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perera, Pathirage Kamal; Li, Yunman

    2012-01-01

    From many reports it is clear that diabetes will be one of the major diseases in the coming years. As a result there is a rapidly increasing interest in searching new medicines, or even better searching prophylactic methods. Based on a large number of chemical and pharmacological research work, numerous bioactive compounds have been found in functional herbal food ingredients for diabetes. The present paper reviews functional herbal food ingredients with regards to their anti-diabetic active principles and pharmacological test results, which are commonly used in Asian culinary system and medical system and have demonstrated clinical or/and experimental anti-diabetic effectiveness. Our idea of reviewing this article is to give more attention to these functional food ingredients as targets medicinal foods in order to prevent or slow down the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  15. A Functional Food : “ Şifalı Top ”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sıdıka Nur Kıyak

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available With the development of awareness of healthy eating, consumers are waiting to provide from food in terms of nutrition as well as health benefits. As a result of these expectations of consumers to new products, functional foods have been one of the fastest developing sectors in the food industry. The aim of this study is to develop a new functional food which has high nutrition values and healthy. For this purpose, broccoli, cauliflower and celery vegetables which are not preferred to consume by children in daily life is used to develop a functional product in that children want to consume fondly. Also grinding of stale bread is used in this product to prevent waste of bread. This new product given the shape of tiny ball by rolling was named as “Şifalı Top” and served with chocolate and strawberry sauce.

  16. Functional foods as carriers for SYNBIO®, a probiotic bacteria combination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coman, Maria Magdalena; Cecchini, Cinzia; Verdenelli, Maria Cristina; Silvi, Stefania; Orpianesi, Carla; Cresci, Alberto

    2012-07-16

    The popularity of functional foods continues to increase as consumers desire flavorful foods that will fulfil their health needs. Among these foods, probiotics may exert positive effects on the composition of gut microbiota and overall health. However, in order to be beneficial, the bacterial cultures have to remain live and active at the time of consumption. The aim of this study was to develop new probiotic food products, such as seasoned cheeses, salami, chocolate and ice-cream with a final probiotic concentration of approximately 10⁹CFU/daily dose of Lactobacillus rhamnosus IMC 501® and Lactobacillus paracasei IMC 502® mixed 1:1 (SYNBIO®). The survival and viability of probiotics were determined during the foods shelf-life. The values of viable probiotic bacteria of all dairy and non-dairy foods were between 10⁷ and 10⁹CFU/g of food at the end of the shelf-life and for some of them the values were maintained even after the expiry date. Based on the results of the current study, all the dairy ("Caciotta" cheese, "Pecorino" cheese, "Büscion" Swiss cheese and "Fiordilatte" ice-cream) and non-dairy ("Ciauscolo" salami, Larded salami, Swiss small salami, milk chocolate, dark chocolate, organic jam and chocolate mousse) food products studied would be excellent vehicles to deliver the probiotic health effects because of the high viability of probiotics during the shelf-life of foods and in some cases even after their expiry date.

  17. Fragile Nucleosomes Influence Pol II Promoter Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradhan, Suman K; Xue, Yong; Carey, Michael F

    2015-11-05

    In this issue of Molecular Cell, Kubik et al. (2015) describe how the RSC chromatin remodeling complex collaborates with two DNA sequence motifs and sequence-specific general regulatory factors to assemble fragile nucleosomes at highly transcribed yeast Pol II promoters, and they distinguish these from promoters bearing stable nucleosomes.

  18. When is dietary fiber considered a functional food?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prosky, L

    2000-01-01

    Before answering the question of when dietary fiber can be considered a functional food we must first decide what can be called a dietary fiber. The generally accepted definition of dietary fiber is that of Trowell that dietary fiber consists of the remnants of edible plant cells polysaccharides, lignin, and associated substances resistant to (hydrolysis) digestion by the alimentary enzymes of humans. In Japan the food tables list the dietary fiber content of animal as well as plant tissues, while many countries accept saccharides of less than DP-10 as dietary fiber (inulin, oligofructose, Fibersol-2, polydextrose, fructooligosaccharides, galactooligosaccharides etc.). These shorter chain oligosaccharides do not precipitate as dietary fiber in the standard Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC) method, which is accepted by the US Food & Drug Administration, the US Department of Agriculture and the Food & Agriculture Organization of the World Health Organization for nutrition labeling purposes. In the United Kingdom the term dietary fiber has been replaced in nutrition labeling by nonstarch polysaccharides. Therefore the American Association of Cereal Chemists (AACC) commissioned an ad hoc committee of scientists to evaluate continuing validity of the currently used definition, and if appropriate, to modify and update that definition. Obtaining scientific input from the community of analysts, health professionals, and dietary fiber researchers was considered a high priority. To this end three meetings were held in the space of six months to assure input from all persons knowledgeable in the field with the answer expected sometime before 2000. Dietary fiber can be considered a functional food when it imparts a special function to that food aside from the normal expected function and similarly when the dietary fiber is used as an additive to foods. For example, dietary fiber contributes to colonic health, bifidobacterial or lactobacillus stimulation in the

  19. 76 FR 48870 - Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Class II Special Controls Guidance...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-09

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Class II Special Controls Guidance Document: Herpes Simplex Virus Types 1 and 2 Serological Assays; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Food and...

  20. 76 FR 22906 - Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Class II Special Controls Guidance...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-25

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Class II Special Controls Guidance Document: Topical Oxygen Chamber for Extremities; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA)...

  1. 75 FR 59726 - Draft Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Class II Special Controls...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-28

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Draft Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Class II Special Controls Guidance Document: Herpes Simplex Virus Types 1 and 2 Serological Assays; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Food...

  2. 76 FR 43332 - Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Class II Special Controls Guidance...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-20

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Class II Special Controls Guidance Document: Focused Ultrasound Stimulator System for Aesthetic Use; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Food and...

  3. 76 FR 29251 - Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Class II Special Controls; Guidance...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-20

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Class II Special Controls; Guidance Document: Topical Oxygen Chamber for Extremities; Availability; Correction AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice; correction. SUMMARY: The Food and...

  4. 75 FR 68364 - Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Class II Special Controls Guidance...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-05

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Class II Special Controls Guidance Document: Full-Field Digital Mammography System; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ] ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA)...

  5. 76 FR 16425 - Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Class II Special Controls Guidance...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-23

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Class II Special Controls Guidance Document: Ovarian Adnexal Mass Assessment Score Test System; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Food and...

  6. Origin and concept of medicine food homology and its application in modern functional foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Yan; Jiang, Jian-Guo

    2013-12-01

    The viewpoints of "medicine food homology" (MFH) conform to today's food requirements of returning to a natural and green healthy life. This paper aims to introduce the concept of MFH and its origin and evolution, and analyze the relationship between food and Chinese medicine. In this review, more than 80 MFH materials approved by China's Ministry of Health are listed and their effective ingredients are summarized in detail. Their treatment mechanism in TCM and western medicine are summarized too. Moreover, some new MFH resources that have been gradually developed are also introduced. MFH materials are a treasure house of functional factors for current functional foods. Innovative ideas for the development of MFH resources in current functional foods are prospected and discussed, such as taking advantage of Chinese diet theory, building a database for MFH varieties and developing new methods and technologies. At present, modern research for the development of MFH functional foods is still in its primary stage, there is still much work required in the popularization of the MFH concept and the development of new products. Knowledge and technological innovations in this area should be accelerated in the future to promote the modernization of MFH.

  7. Flax and flaxseed oil: an ancient medicine & modern functional food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Ankit; Sharma, Vivek; Upadhyay, Neelam; Gill, Sandeep; Sihag, Manvesh

    2014-09-01

    Flaxseed is emerging as an important functional food ingredient because of its rich contents of α-linolenic acid (ALA, omega-3 fatty acid), lignans, and fiber. Flaxseed oil, fibers and flax lignans have potential health benefits such as in reduction of cardiovascular disease, atherosclerosis, diabetes, cancer, arthritis, osteoporosis, autoimmune and neurological disorders. Flax protein helps in the prevention and treatment of heart disease and in supporting the immune system. As a functional food ingredient, flax or flaxseed oil has been incorporated into baked foods, juices, milk and dairy products, muffins, dry pasta products, macaroni and meat products. The present review focuses on the evidences of the potential health benefits of flaxseed through human and animals' recent studies and commercial use in various food products.

  8. [Probiotics and prebiotics as a bioactive component of functional food].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapka-Skrzypczak, Lucyna; Niedźwiecka, Joanna; Wojtyła, Andrzej; Kruszewski, Marcin

    2012-01-01

    The results of food science investigations have confirmed the relationship between the type of eaten food and health. Simultaneously, consumers are paying more and more attention to the kind of food they eat, as their awareness concerning the influence of proper food on health is increasing. On that base the conception of functional food has been created. This kind of food, besides being a source of essential macro- and micronutrients, exerts an additional positive influence on health. Probiotics and prebiotics containing products are a good example of functional food. These products provide not only essential nutrients but also microorganisms and polysaccharides, which are indigestible in the human alimentary tract, but exert a positive effect on human health. It may be a therapeutic or prophylactic effect due to specific affliction or may improve health in general. The paper - based on available literature - shows a positive influence of probiotics and prebiotics on human health, especially in the immunomodulation effect, an advantageous effect on the digestive system, antitumor activity and a possible therapeutic and prophylactic effect on cardiovascular diseases and obesity.

  9. Hydrogels from Biopolymer Hybrid for Biomedical, Food, and Functional Food Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert C. Spiro

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid hydrogels from biopolymers have been applied for various indications across a wide range of biomedical, pharmaceutical, and functional food industries. In particular, hybrid hydrogels synthesized from two biopolymers have attracted increasing attention. The inclusion of a second biopolymer strengthens the stability of resultant hydrogels and enriches its functionalities by bringing in new functional groups or optimizing the micro-environmental conditions for certain biological and biochemical processes. This article presents approaches that have been used by our groups to synthesize biopolymer hybrid hydrogels for effective uses for immunotherapy, tissue regeneration, food and functional food applications. The research has achieved some challenging results, such as stabilizing physical structure, increasing mucoadhesiveness, and the creation of an artificial extracellular matrix to aid in guiding tissue differentiation.

  10. Nanotechnology Applications in Functional Foods; Opportunities and Challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Harjinder

    2016-01-01

    Increasing knowledge on the link between diet and human health has generated a lot of interest in the development of functional foods. However, several challenges, including discovering of beneficial compounds, establishing optimal intake levels, and developing adequate food delivering matrix and product formulations, need to be addressed. A number of new processes and materials derived from nanotechnology have the potential to provide new solutions in many of these fronts. Nanotechnology is ...

  11. The Serbian functional food market: Does regulation make a difference?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojanović Žaklina

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on empirical analysis of the Serbian functional food market and its comparison with those in other Western Balkan countries (WBC. The purpose is to examine whether the existence of regulation, as an institutional precondition, makes a difference on the operating of the functional food market. This market is a new, fast developing segment, based on health claims made for food. Consumers in Serbia cannot verify health claims either before or after the purchase/consumption, since the property rights on information are extremely weak. Additionally, with successful innovation the free-rider problem usually occurs. Thus, strong institutional support is necessary to ensure regular market functioning. In order to identify the effects of regulation and some other factors with crucial influence on the differences between Serbian and other WBC functional food markets, pooled cross sectional analysis is conducted. The fixed-group effects model is estimated based on data of product categories observed across WBC. Differences in the current level of WBC market development could be explained by the existence of legal regulation, competition, and other factors. All results implicate the necessity of regulatory supervision as well as closer cooperation between government, the private sector, consumer groups, academics, and the research community in further functional food market development in Serbia.

  12. Exploration of functional food consumption in older adults in relation to food matrices, bioactive ingredients, and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vella, Meagan N; Stratton, Laura M; Sheeshka, Judy; Duncan, Alison M

    2013-01-01

    The functional food industry is expanding, yet research into consumer perceptions of functional foods is limited. Older adults could benefit from functional foods due to age-related food and health issues. This research gathered information about functional foods from community-dwelling older adults (n = 200) who completed a researcher-administered questionnaire about consumption, food matrices, bioactive ingredients, and health areas addressed through functional foods. Overall prevalence of functional food consumption was found to be 93.0%. Commonly consumed foods included yogurt with probiotics (56.0%), eggs with omega-3 fatty acids (37.0%), and bread with fiber (35.5%). Functional food matrices primarily consumed were yogurt (51.5%), bread (44.0%), and cereal (40.0%). The primary functional food bioactive consumed was dietary fiber (79.5%). Most participants (86.2%) indicated that they consume functional foods to improve health, and the major areas specified were osteoporosis/bone health (67.5%), heart disease (61.0%), and arthritis (55.0%). These results inform health professionals regarding the potential of functional foods to support health among older adults.

  13. Exotic berries as a functional food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasekan, Ola

    2014-11-01

    Berries and berry extracts are known to possess properties (i.e., phenolic acids, flavonoids, and anthocyanins) that make them important in disease prevention. Observational studies have shown that many berries may hold promise for public health. However, the long-term impact of berries intake on specific populations and their functionality claims has not been fully tested. In addition, although several biological effects which are based on epidemiological studies have been explained scientifically, the mechanism of their actions is not fully understood. Therefore, this review set out to address the issue of berries intake and their potential functionality. In addition, a glimpse of what the future may hold for the berries was highlighted. Many of the potential health benefits of berries have been associated with their specific chemical and biological properties including their ability to modulate enzymes as well as interact, and bind to proteins. General inspection of the literature suggests that berries, such as cranberries and goji, are efficacious in the treatment of urinary tract infection and seasonal influenza, respectively. Recent study on wild blueberries has shown that they possess protective effect against cardiovascular disease. In addition, other berries have been reported to possess the ability to inhibit cervical cells (HeLa cells), modulate postprandial glucose and insulin responses. However, there is a need to address the issue of safety, efficacy, and interactions of berries intake with other dietary components. Also, more research studies should be focused on the influence of biotechnology on the functionality of berries. http://links.lww.com/COCN/A8.

  14. Strategies of functional food for cancer prevention in human beings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Ya-Wen; Yang, Jia-Zheng; Pu, Xiao-Ying; Du, Juan; Yang, Tao; Yang, Shu-Ming; Zhu, Wei-Hua

    2013-01-01

    Functional food for prevention of chronic diseases is one of this century's key global challenges. Cancer is not only the first or second leading cause of death in China and other countries across the world, but also has diet as one of the most important modifiable risk factors. Major dietary factors now known to promote cancer development are polished grain foods and low intake of fresh vegetables, with general importance for an unhealthy lifestyle and obesity. The strategies of cancer prevention in human being are increased consumption of functional foods like whole grains (brown rice, barley, and buckwheat) and by-products, as well some vegetables (bitter melon, garlic, onions, broccoli, and cabbage) and mushrooms (boletes and Tricholoma matsutake). In addition some beverages (green tea and coffee) may be protective. Southwest China (especially Yunnan Province) is a geographical area where functional crop production is closely related to the origins of human evolution with implications for anticancer influence.

  15. Consumer demand for personalized nutrition and functional food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roosen, Jutta; Bruhn, Maike; Mecking, Rebecca-Ariane; Drescher, Larissa S

    2008-12-01

    New developments in nutrigenetic research and the European regulation 1924/2006 on health claims have spurred interest in developing and marketing functional food designed for personalized nutrition. Personalized nutrition uses genetic information regarding a person's health risk profile. Specifically adapted nutrition recommendations are claimed to help reducing disease risk. An internet survey was conducted in December 2007 using a sample of 452 randomly selected adults in Germany. The survey instrument assesses if consumers would be willing to participate in genetic risk profiling, if they are interested in personalized nutrition advice and if they desire functional food products adapted to their individual nutrigenetic profile. In addition, we estimate the acceptance of functional food products designed to reduce the risk of cardio-vascular diseases. Consumers have a positive attitude towards the testing of their genetic profile to be used in nutrient advice. About 45 % of the sample would agree to such a test and like to obtain a personalized advice on nutrition. Similarly, more than 40 % of the sample showed a positive willingness to buy the proposed functional food products. Given these results, the concept of personalized nutrition seems promising. However, several challenges remain regarding targeted nutrition advice and food marketing.

  16. Differential analysis of matrix convex functions II

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Frank; Tomiyama, Jun

    2009-01-01

    We continue the analysis in [F. Hansen, and J. Tomiyama, Differential analysis of matrix convex functions. Linear Algebra Appl., 420:102--116, 2007] of matrix convex functions of a fixed order defined in a real interval by differential methods as opposed to the characterization in terms of divide...

  17. Influence of gender, age and motives underlying food choice on perceived healthiness and willingness to try functional foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ares, Gastón; Gámbaro, Adriana

    2007-07-01

    The aims of the present study were to study the effect of different carriers and enrichments on the perceived healthiness and willingness to try functional foods; and to evaluate the effect of age, gender and motives underlying food choice. Participants had to evaluate different functional food concepts and had to answer a food choice questionnaire. Results showed that carrier products had the largest effect on consumers' perception of healthiness and willingness to try of the evaluated functional foods concepts. The highest positive relative utilities were achieved when the enrichment was a functional ingredient inherent in the product. Furthermore, gender, age and motives underlying food choice affected the preference patterns for the evaluated functional foods concepts, but it depended on the carrier and enrichment considered, suggesting that functional foods might not be accepted by all the consumers and that they could be tailored for certain groups.

  18. Process-Structure-Function Relations of Pectin in Food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiaens, Stefanie; Van Buggenhout, Sandy; Houben, Ken; Jamsazzadeh Kermani, Zahra; Moelants, Katlijn R N; Ngouémazong, Eugénie D; Van Loey, Ann; Hendrickx, Marc E G

    2016-01-01

    Pectin, a complex polysaccharide rich in galacturonic acid, has been identified as a critical structural component of plant cell walls. The functionality of this intricate macromolecule in fruit- and vegetable-based-derived products and ingredients is strongly determined by the nanostructure of its most abundant polymer, homogalacturonan. During food processing, pectic homogalacturonan is susceptible to various enzymatic as well as nonenzymatic conversion reactions modifying its structural and, hence, its functional properties. Consequently, a profound understanding of the various process-structure-function relations of pectin aids food scientists to tailor the functional properties of plant-based derived products and ingredients. This review describes the current knowledge on process-structure-function relations of pectin in foods with special focus on pectin's functionality with regard to textural attributes of solid plant-based foods and rheological properties of particulated fruit- and vegetable-derived products. In this context, both pectin research performed via traditional, ex situ physicochemical analyses of fractionated walls and isolated polymers and pectin investigation through in situ pectin localization are considered.

  19. Functional food science and the cardiovascular system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornstra, G; Barth, C A; Galli, C; Mensink, R P; Mutanen, M; Riemersma, R A; Roberfroid, M; Salminen, K; Vansant, G; Verschuren, P M

    1998-08-01

    Cardiovascular disease has a multifactorial aetiology, as is illustrated by the existence of numerous risk indicators, many of which can be influenced by dietary means. It should be recalled, however, that only after a cause-and-effect relationship has been established between the disease and a given risk indicator (called a risk factor in that case), can modifying this factor be expected to affect disease morbidity and mortality. In this paper, effects of diet on cardiovascular risk are reviewed, with special emphasis on modification of the plasma lipoprotein profile and of hypertension. In addition, dietary influences on arterial thrombotic processes, immunological interactions, insulin resistance and hyperhomocysteinaemia are discussed. Dietary lipids are able to affect lipoprotein metabolism in a significant way, thereby modifying the risk of cardiovascular disease. However, more research is required concerning the possible interactions between the various dietary fatty acids, and between fatty acids and dietary cholesterol. In addition, more studies are needed with respect to the possible importance of the postprandial state. Although in the aetiology of hypertension the genetic component is definitely stronger than environmental factors, some benefit in terms of the development and coronary complications of atherosclerosis in hypertensive patients can be expected from fatty acids such as alpha-linolenic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid. This particularly holds for those subjects where the hypertensive mechanism involves the formation of thromboxane A2 and/or alpha 1-adrenergic activities. However, large-scale trials are required to test this contention. Certain aspects of blood platelet function, blood coagulability, and fibrinolytic activity are associated with cardiovascular risk, but causality has been insufficiently proven. Nonetheless, well-designed intervention studies should be initiated to further evaluate such promising dietary

  20. Luminosity function of optically-selected type II QSOs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    For a sample of 411 type II QSOs with redshifts less then 0.3,we use the Balmer decrements to do the reddening correction of the [O III] luminosities and then derive the intrinsic [O III] luminosity function.We find that the host reddening correction of the [O III] 5007 luminosity for type II QSOs cannot be neglected.The median Balmer decrement of Hα/Hβ=4.0 corresponds to an extinction of 0.94 mag for the [O III] 5007 line,which is consistent with the result derived from the median Hβ/Hγ.Comparing the intrinsic luminosity function of type II QSOs with that of type I QSOs,we find that the upper limit of the type II QSO’s fraction in the total QSOs is 80% for type II QSOs with z < 0.3 and 8.6≤log(L[O III]/L)≤9.4.

  1. Functional food availability, a limitation to peoples’ health on Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Ndungu

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Background:All foods are imported to markets in smaller islands in the Caribbean. Before export of foods to these destinations, the foods are subjected to several preservative procedures like irradiation, pesticide spray and prolonged refrigeration etc., to last the extended transport periods. This reduces availability of protective elements and the nutrient contents of the foods to scanty levels,especially to common people with low and middle incomes. Hence the majority of people in these categories on the small islands become vulnerable to ill health. Aims and Objectives: To assess 1. Food availability 2. Normal transport period for foods to reach from the suppliers, and 3. Current level of prevalence of non-infective chronic diseases in the area. Methods: Data were collected from two sources. One set of data was collected from the three supermarkets on the island to obtain information on source, transport time and nature of foods imported; and the second from 200 randomly selected responses of diseased persons for information on the age, gender and cause of death. Results: All the foods were imported and the time taken for the food (including protective foods to reach the island was about 3 weeks. The major causes of death were malignancy (30%, diabetes and its complications (25%, cardio vascular diseases (19.5%, STD / HIV (8.5% and other causes (17.0%. A review of prevalence of chronic diseases like hypertension, diabetes, heart diseases, arthritis and associated functional limitations, in the region reveals that their prevalence is proportionately high on the island compared to nearby developed mainland Functional Foods in Health and Disease 2011; 7:222-231 regions. Body mass index of ≥25 was reported to be as high as 58.3%. The health care facilitiesavailable are seen to be limited and public health activity to prevent or manage the prevailing chronic health issues, appeared to be meager. Conclusion: There is a need to address the

  2. Willingness to purchase functional foods according to their benefits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schnettler, Berta; Miranda, Horacio; Lobos, Germán

    2015-01-01

    people in southern Chile. The questionnaire measured willingness to buy FFs with 18 different benefits, knowledge about FFs, socio-demographic characteristics and satisfaction with life and with food-related life. Findings – Two dimensions were found for benefits sought in FFs: disease prevention.......5 per cent) showed greater disposition to buy FFs which improve bodily functions. The types differ according to the size of family, presence and age of children at home, ethnic origin, education, socio-economic status, knowledge about FFs and satisfaction with life and food-related life. Research....../value – This study provides information on the willingness to buy FFs and relates it to ethnic origin and satisfaction with food-related life. People from ethnic minorities are less inclined to buy FFs. People who are more inclined to buy FFs are more satisfied with their life and their food-related life...

  3. The role of rabbit meat as functional food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalle Zotte, Antonella; Szendro, Zsolt

    2011-07-01

    Increasing consumer knowledge of the link between diet and health has raised the awareness and demand for functional food ingredients. Meat and its derivatives may be considered functional foods to the extent that they contain numerous compounds thought to be functional. This review will attempt to outline the excellent nutritional and dietetic properties of rabbit meat and offer an overview of the studies performed on the strategies adopted to improve the functional value of rabbit meat. Dietary manipulation has been seen to be very effective in increasing the levels of essential FA, EPA, DHA, CLA, branched chain FA, vitamin E, and selenium in rabbit meat. Dietary fortification with vitamin E or natural products such as oregano essential oil, chia seed oil, and Spirulina platensis microalga seem promising in improving the oxidative stability of rabbit meat while also adding functional ingredients.

  4. Diabetes mellitus type 2 and functional foods of plant origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathak, Manju

    2014-01-01

    Diabetes is the common, exponentially growing, serious human health problem existing globally. Risk factors like genetic predisposition, lack of balanced diet, inappropriate and lethargic lifestyle, overweight, obesity, stress including emotional and oxidative and lack of probiotics in gut are found to be the causing factors either in isolation or in synergy predisposing Diabetes. High blood sugar is a common symptom in all types of diabetes mellitus and the physiological cause of diabetes is lack of hormone Insulin or resistance in function faced by insulin. Low levels of Insulin causes decreased utilization of glucose by body cells, increased mobilization of fats from fat storage cells and depletion of proteins in the tissues of the body, keeping the body in crisis. The functional foods help achieving optimal physiological metabolism and cellular functions helping the body to come out of these crises. The mechanism of the functional foods is envisaged to act via optimizing vitamins, minerals, essential amino acids, prebiotics and probiotics. This paper reviews role of functional foods of plant origin in the regulation of blood sugar in type 2 diabetes mellitus and also discusses some vital patents in this area. The article aims at creating awareness about key food ingredients in order to prevent most acute effects of diabetes mellitus and to greatly delay the chronic effects as well.

  5. Consumer Acceptance of Functional Foods in Ho Chi Minh City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duy Tung BUI

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to identify and evaluate the underlying factors affecting consumer acceptance of functional foods. The contribution of this study is to better understand customer willingness to buy such products in Ho Chi Minh City by shedding light on how socio-demographic, cognitive and attitudinal determinants affect consumer's choices of foods. We conducted a survey using 217 respondents from Ho Chi Minh City. Next, we develop a binary-probit model to quantify the impact of each factor on consumer acceptance. The results show that having a sick relative, beliefs in health benefits positively affect acceptance level. Other than that, old people in Ho Chi Minh City tend to reject the use of functional foods. However, when they are provided with enough knowledge, they are the most intensive buyers of these products. Implications and further researches are also discussed.

  6. Nutraceuticals and functional foods in the management of hyperlipidemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Gu; Wang, Hong; Zhang, Xu; Yang, Shang-Tian

    2014-01-01

    Hyperlipidemia is one of the major risk factor for the development of cardiovascular disease. Hypolipidemic nutraceuticals and functional foods help improve serum lipid profiles as reducing total cholesterol, triglyceride, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, while elevating high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. The effectiveness of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid, phytosterols, dietary fiber, and tea catechin in management of hyperlipidemia has been clearly demonstrated in epidemiological and interventional trials. Studies on mechanism reveal that they act as inhibitor or activator of critical enzyme, agonist or inhibitor of transcription factor, competitor of transporter, and sequestrant of bile acid to modulate lipid homeostasis. Hypolipidemic effects are also claimed in dietary proteins, many polyphenols, other phytochemicals, raw extract, or even whole food. This review attempts to give an overview of lipid homeostasis and summarize recent findings of hypolipidemic nutraceuticals and functional foods according to their active ingredients, focusing on the efficacy and underlying mechanisms.

  7. Evaluation of food, nutrition and functional substances, in the selected food materials for space agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomita-Yokotani, Kaori; Kimura, Yasuko; Yamashita, Masamichi; Kimura, Shunta; Sato, Seigo; Katoh, Hiroshi

    2016-07-01

    We have been studying the evaluation of food, nutrition and functional substances, in the selected organic materials for useful life-support systems in closed bio-ecosystems for space agriculture on Mars in the future. We have already proposed several species as food materials; cyanobacterium, Nostoc sp. HK-01 and the Japanese cherry tree. Nostoc sp. HK-01 is a terrestrial cyanobacterium which has high tolerances to several space environments. In addition to its high tolerances to serious environments, HK-01 has a high protein content. Total protein per 100 g of the dried colony of Nostoc sp. HK-01 was approximately 50 g. Woody plant materials also have several properties which can be utilized in our habitation environment and as food. We have already found abilities to produce important functional substances for humans in the selected trees. Here, we show the extended results of our experiments.

  8. Assessing convergence processes at the intersection of the food and pharmaceutical industries in functional food innovation using different perspectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bornkessel, S.

    2016-01-01

    Assessing convergence processes at the intersection of the food and pharmaceutical industries in functional food innovation using different perspectives  Sabine Bornkessel The worldwide growing functional food market (e.g. Menrad, 2

  9. Assessing convergence processes at the intersection of the food and pharmaceutical industries in functional food innovation using different perspectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bornkessel, S.

    2016-01-01

    Assessing convergence processes at the intersection of the food and pharmaceutical industries in functional food innovation using different perspectives  Sabine Bornkessel The worldwide growing functional food market (e.g. Menrad, 2

  10. Prediction of positive food effect: Bioavailability enhancement of BCS class II drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raman, Siddarth; Polli, James E

    2016-06-15

    High-throughput screening methods have increased the number of poorly water-soluble, highly permeable drug candidates. Many of these candidates have increased bioavailability when administered with food (i.e., exhibit a positive food effect). Food is known to impact drug bioavailability through a variety of mechanisms, including drug solubilization and prolonged gastric residence time. In vitro dissolution media that aim to mimic in vivo gastrointestinal (GI) conditions have been developed to lessen the need for fed human bioequivalence studies. The objective of this work was to develop an in vitro lipolysis model to predict positive food effect of three BCS Class II drugs (i.e., danazol, amiodarone and ivermectin) in previously developed lipolysis media. This in vitro lipolysis model was comparatively benchmarked against FeSSIF and FaSSIF media that were modified for an in vitro lipolysis approach, as FeSSIF and FaSSIF are widely used in in vitro dissolution studies. The in vitro lipolysis model accurately predicted the in vivo positive food effect for three model BCS class II drugs. The in vitro lipolysis model has potential use as a screening test of drug candidates in early development to assess positive food effect.

  11. [Probiotics as functional food products: manufacture and approaches to evaluating of the effectiveness].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markova, Iu M; Sheveleva, S A

    2014-01-01

    This review concerns the issues of foodfortifications and the creation of functional foods (FF) and food supplements based on probiotics and covers an issue of approaches to the regulation of probiotic food products in various countries. The status of functional foods, optimizing GIT functions, as a separate category of FF is emphasized. Considering the strain-specificity effect of probiotics, the minimum criteria used for probiotics in food products are: 1) the need to identify a probiotics at genus, species, and strain levels, using the high-resolution techniques, 2) the viability and the presence of a sufficient amount of the probiotic in product at the end of shelf life, 3) the proof of functional characteristics inherent to probiotic strains, in the controlled experiments. The recommended by FA O/WHO three-stage evaluation procedure offunctional efficiency of FF includes: Phase I--safety assessment in in vitro and in vivo experiments, Phase II--Evaluation in the Double-Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled trial (DBRPC) and Phase III--Post-approval monitoring. It is noted that along with the ability to obtain statistically significant results of the evaluation, there are practical difficulties of conducting DBRPC (duration, costs, difficulties in selection of target biomarkers and populations). The promising approach for assessing the functional efficacy of FF is the concept of nutrigenomics. It examines the link between the human diet and the characteristics of his genome to determine the influence of food on the expression of genes and, ultimately, to human health. Nutrigenomic approaches are promising to assess the impact of probiotics in healthy people. The focusing on the nutrigenomic response of intestinal microbial community and its individual populations (in this regard the lactobacilli can be very informative) was proposed.

  12. Dairy and functional foods research in the Agricultural Research Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Dairy and Functional Foods Research Unit is the only group in the Agricultural Research Service that is dedicated to solving critical problems in milk utilization and fruit and vegetable byproducts from specialty crops. The many areas of investigation include development of specialty cheese, c...

  13. Research at the Dairy and Functional Foods Research Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dr. Peggy Tomasula is Research Leader of the Dairy and Functional Foods Research Unit (DFFRU), ARS, USDA, Wyndmoor, PA, a group that includes 11 Research Scientists, 4 of whom are Lead Scientists (LS), 13 support scientists, and 3 Retired Collaborators. The mission of the DFFRU is to solve critical ...

  14. The food, GI tract functionality and human health cluster

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mattila-Sandholm, T.; Blaut, M.; Daly, C.; Vuyst, de L.; Dore, J.; Gibson, G.; Goossens, H.; Knorr, D.; Lucas, J.; Lahteenmaki, L.; Mercenier, A.M.E.; Saarela, M.; Shanahan, F.; Vos, de W.M.

    2002-01-01

    The Food, GI-tract Functionality and Human Health (PROEUHEALTH) Cluster brings together eight complementary, multicentre interdisciplinary research projects. All have the common aim of improving the health and quality of life of European comsumers. The collaboration involves 64 different research gr

  15. Postlaunch Monitoring of Functional Foods - Methodology development (I)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong N de; Ocke MC; CVG

    2004-01-01

    Already for some years, the development of a Postlaunch Monitoring system for functional foods is on the research agenda of several stakeholders involved, e.g. the industries, the government, and research institutes. Up till now, proposals for such a system have been highly hypothetical and only li

  16. Functional Foods as Differentiated Products: the Italian Yogurt Market

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonanno, A.

    2013-01-01

    In spite of the growing consumers' interest for functional foods, the knowledge regarding the demand for these products and their profitability is limited. Adapting the LA/AIDS (Linear Approximated–Almost Ideal Demand System) model by means of Pinkse, Slade and Brett's distance metric method (2002),

  17. FOOD SAFETY SYSTEMS’ FUNCTIONING IN POLISH NETWORKS OF GROCERY STORES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paweł NOWICKI

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This article shows the way how the food safety systems are functioning in Polish networks of grocery stores. The study was conducted in the fourth quarter of 2012 in the south‐eastern Poland. There were chosen three organizations that meet certain conditions: medium size Polish grocery network without participation of foreign capital and up to 30 retail locations within the group. Studies based on a case study model. The research found that regular and unannounced inspections carried out to each store's, impact on increasing safety of food offered and the verification of GHP requirements on the headquarters level has a significant impact on the safety of food offered as well as on the knowledge and behavior of employees. In addition it was found that the verification and analysis of food safety management system is an effective tool for improving food safety. It was also shown that in most cases there is no formal crisis management system for the food protection in the surveyed companies and employees are only informed of what to do in case of an emergency.

  18. Nanotechnology Applications in Functional Foods; Opportunities and Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Harjinder

    2016-03-01

    Increasing knowledge on the link between diet and human health has generated a lot of interest in the development of functional foods. However, several challenges, including discovering of beneficial compounds, establishing optimal intake levels, and developing adequate food delivering matrix and product formulations, need to be addressed. A number of new processes and materials derived from nanotechnology have the potential to provide new solutions in many of these fronts. Nanotechnology is concerned with the manipulation of materials at the atomic and molecular scales to create structures that are less than 100 nm in size in one dimension. By carefully choosing the molecular components, it seems possible to design particles with different surface properties. Several food-based nanodelivery vehicles, such as protein-polysaccharide coacervates, multiple emulsions, liposomes and cochleates have been developed on a laboratory scale, but there have been very limited applications in real food systems. There are also public concerns about potential negative effects of nanotechnology-based delivery systems on human health. This paper provides an overview of the new opportunities and challenges for nanotechnology-based systems in future functional food development.

  19. Nanotechnology Applications in Functional Foods; Opportunities and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Harjinder

    2016-01-01

    Increasing knowledge on the link between diet and human health has generated a lot of interest in the development of functional foods. However, several challenges, including discovering of beneficial compounds, establishing optimal intake levels, and developing adequate food delivering matrix and product formulations, need to be addressed. A number of new processes and materials derived from nanotechnology have the potential to provide new solutions in many of these fronts. Nanotechnology is concerned with the manipulation of materials at the atomic and molecular scales to create structures that are less than 100 nm in size in one dimension. By carefully choosing the molecular components, it seems possible to design particles with different surface properties. Several food-based nanodelivery vehicles, such as protein-polysaccharide coacervates, multiple emulsions, liposomes and cochleates have been developed on a laboratory scale, but there have been very limited applications in real food systems. There are also public concerns about potential negative effects of nanotechnology-based delivery systems on human health. This paper provides an overview of the new opportunities and challenges for nanotechnology-based systems in future functional food development. PMID:27069899

  20. Safety issues of botanicals and botanical preparations in functional foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroes, R; Walker, R

    2004-05-20

    Although botanicals have played a role in the marketing of health products for ages, there is an increased interest today due to their perceived health benefits. Not only do consumers increasingly take charge of their health, but the scientific information and understanding of the beneficial health effects of bioactive substances in food, functional foods and food supplements have improved. Increasing use of these products has also led to concerns about their actual safety. Recorded cases of intoxications have triggered such concerns. The safety assessment of these substances is complicated by, amongst others, the variability of composition. Furthermore, consumption of such functional products is expected to produce physiological effects, which may lead to low margins of safety as the margin between exposure of such products and the safe level of intake are likely to be small. The safety assessment of botanicals and botanical preparations in food and food supplement should at least involve: the characterisation and quality of the material, its quality control; the intended use and consequent exposure; history of use and exposure; product comparison(s); toxicological information gathering; Risk characterisation/safety assessment. As a guidance tool, a decision tree approach is proposed to assist in determining the extent of data requirements based on the nature of the such product. This guidance tool in safety assessment was developed by an expert group of the International Life Sciences Institute (ILSI), European Branch, and is currently in press. In this paper a summarised version of this tool is presented.

  1. A Review of Class I and Class II Pet Food Recalls Involving Chemical Contaminants from 1996 to 2008

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Commercial pet food in USA is generally safe, but adulteration does occur. Adulterated food has to be recalled to protect pets and public health. All stakeholders, including food firms, distributors, and government agencies such as the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) participate in food recall. The objective of this review is to describe the pet food recall procedure from start to finish, and to review class I and II pet food recalls from 1996 to 2008, with a specific focus on those due to...

  2. 76 FR 28688 - Draft Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Class II Special Controls...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-18

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 866 Draft Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Class II Special Controls Guidance Document: In Vitro Diagnostic Devices for Bacillus Species Detection AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice of...

  3. 75 FR 69089 - Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Class II Special Controls Guidance...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-10

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Class II Special Controls Guidance Document: Tissue Adhesive With Adjunct Wound Closure Device Intended for the Topical Approximation of Skin; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS....

  4. 76 FR 6622 - Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Class II Special Controls Guidance...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-07

    ... (special controls) under section 513(f)(2) of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (the FD&C Act) (21 U... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Class II Special Controls Guidance Document: Contact Cooling System for Aesthetic Use;...

  5. 76 FR 64228 - Draft Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Class II Special Controls...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-17

    .... 76, No. 200 / Monday, October 17, 2011 / Notices#0;#0; ] DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Draft Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Class II Special Controls Guidance Document: External Pacemaker Pulse Generator; Availability AGENCY: Food and...

  6. Improved Functional Characteristics of Whey Protein Hydrolysates in Food Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeewanthi, Renda Kankanamge Chaturika; Lee, Na-Kyoung; Paik, Hyun-Dong

    2015-01-01

    This review focuses on the enhanced functional characteristics of enzymatic hydrolysates of whey proteins (WPHs) in food applications compared to intact whey proteins (WPs). WPs are applied in foods as whey protein concentrates (WPCs), whey protein isolates (WPIs), and WPHs. WPs are byproducts of cheese production, used in a wide range of food applications due to their nutritional validity, functional activities, and cost effectiveness. Enzymatic hydrolysis yields improved functional and nutritional benefits in contrast to heat denaturation or native applications. WPHs improve solubility over a wide range of pH, create viscosity through water binding, and promote cohesion, adhesion, and elasticity. WPHs form stronger but more flexible edible films than WPC or WPI. WPHs enhance emulsification, bind fat, and facilitate whipping, compared to intact WPs. Extensive hydrolyzed WPHs with proper heat applications are the best emulsifiers and addition of polysaccharides improves the emulsification ability of WPHs. Also, WPHs improve the sensorial properties like color, flavor, and texture but impart a bitter taste in case where extensive hydrolysis (degree of hydrolysis greater than 8%). It is important to consider the type of enzyme, hydrolysis conditions, and WPHs production method based on the nature of food application.

  7. A food waste utilization study for removing lead(II) from drinks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan Ince, Olcay; Ince, Muharrem; Yonten, Vahap; Goksu, Ali

    2017-01-01

    This is the first study about removal of lead (Pb(II)) from energy drinks. In this paper, food waste, namely eggshell (hydroxyapatite) utilization, was used to remove Pb(II) from mineral water and energy drinks. Mineral water and energy drinks were chosen for removal of lead since the latter is severely hazardous to human health even in small amounts. Response Surface Methodology (RSM) was performed to optimize the application process by practice of the quadratic model united with the Central Composite Design (CCD) and quadratic combined program was utilized to study the most effective parameters on aforementioned liquids. Through the application of variance analysis (ANOVA) factors critical to removing of lead were identified for each experimental design response. Maximum adsorption capacity of eggshell was achieved as 923mgg(-1) for Pb(II). The obtained optimum conditions were applied to drinks. Results showed that used adsorbent was quite effective in removing Pb(II) from drinks.

  8. Bioactive compounds in seaweed; functional food applications and legislation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holdt, Susan Løvstad; Kraan, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    Seaweed is more than the wrap that keeps rice together in sushi. Seaweed biomass is already used for a wide range of other products in food, including stabilising agents. Biorefineries with seaweed as feedstock are attracting worldwide interest and include low-volume, high value-added products an...... of uses to enhance comparisons. In addition, scientific experiments performed on seaweed used as animal feed are presented, and EU, US and Japanese legislation on functional foods is reviewed.......Seaweed is more than the wrap that keeps rice together in sushi. Seaweed biomass is already used for a wide range of other products in food, including stabilising agents. Biorefineries with seaweed as feedstock are attracting worldwide interest and include low-volume, high value-added products...

  9. Fenugreek: Potential Applications as a Functional Food and Nutraceutical

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasim Khorshidian

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Fenugreek (Trigonella  foenum graecum, native to southern Europe and Asia, is an annual herb with white flowers and hard, yellowish brown and angular seeds, known from ancient times, for nutritional value beside of its medicinal effects. Fenugreek seeds are rich source of gum, fiber, alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins and volatile content. Due to its high content of fiber, fenugreek could be used as food stabilizer, adhesive and emulsifying agent to change food texture for some special purposes. Some evidence suggests that fenugreek may also be regarded as antidiabetic, anticarcinogenic, antioxidant, antibacterial agent, antianorexia agent, and gastric stimulant, as well as remedy for hypocholesterolemia and hypoglycemia. The present article is aimed to review the potential applications of fenugreek as a functional food and nutraceutical agent.

  10. Global change in the trophic functioning of marine food webs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maureaud, Aurore; Gascuel, Didier; Colléter, Mathieu

    2017-01-01

    The development of fisheries in the oceans, and other human drivers such as climate warming, have led to changes in species abundance, assemblages, trophic interactions, and ultimately in the functioning of marine food webs. Here, using a trophodynamic approach and global databases of catches...... and life history traits of marine species, we tested the hypothesis that anthropogenic ecological impacts may have led to changes in the global parameters defining the transfers of biomass within the food web. First, we developed two indicators to assess such changes: the Time Cumulated Indicator (TCI......) measuring the residence time of biomass within the food web, and the Efficiency Cumulated Indicator (ECI) quantifying the fraction of secondary production reaching the top of the trophic chain. Then, we assessed, at the large marine ecosystem scale, the worldwide change of these two indicators over the 1950...

  11. Functional foods and urban agriculture: two responses to climate change-related food insecurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Jane M; Donati, Kelly J; Pike, Lucy L; Hattersley, Libby

    2009-01-01

    Affluent diets have negative effects on the health of the population and the environment. Moreover, the ability of industrialised agricultural ecosystems to continue to supply these diets is threatened by the anticipated consequences of climate change. By challenging the ongoing supply the diets of affluent countries, climate change provides a population and environmental health opportunity. This paper contrasts two strategies for dealing with climate change-related food insecurity. Functional foods are being positioned as one response because they are considered a hyper-efficient mechanism for supplying essential micronutrients. An alternative response is civic and urban agriculture. Rather than emphasising increased economic or nutritional efficiencies, civic agriculture presents a holistic approach to food security that is more directly connected to the economic, environmental and social factors that affect diet and health.

  12. Minimally Processed Functional Foods: Technological and Operational Pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, Svetlana

    2016-10-01

    This paper offers a concise review of technical and operational concepts underpinning commercialization of minimally processed functional foods (FFs), foods with fresh-like qualities commanding premium prices. The growing number of permitted nutritional content/health claims, many of which relate to well-being, coupled with emerging extraction and food processing technologies offers new exciting opportunities for small and medium size enterprises (SMEs) specializing in fresh produce to play an active role in the health market. Supporting SMEs, governments could benefit from savings in healthcare costs and value creation in the economy. Consumers could benefit from novel FF formats such as refrigerated RTE (ready-to-eat) meals, a variety of fresh-like meat-, fish-, and egg-based products, fresh-cut fruits and vegetables, cereal-based fermented foods and beverages. To preserve these valuable commodities, mild biological (enzymatic treatment, fermentation and, bio-preservation) and engineering solutions are needed. The latter include nonthermal techniques such as high-pressure treatment, cook-chill, sous-vide, mirco-encapsulation, vacuum impregnation and others. "De-constructive" culinary techniques such as 3D food printing and molecular gastronomy as well as developments in nutrigenomics and digital technologies facilitate novel product formats, personalization and access to niche markets. In the operational sense, moving from nourishment to health improvement demands a shift from defensive market-oriented to offensive market-developing strategies including collaborative networks with research organizations.

  13. Global change in the trophic functioning of marine food webs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gascuel, Didier; Colléter, Mathieu; Palomares, Maria L. D.; Du Pontavice, Hubert; Pauly, Daniel; Cheung, William W. L.

    2017-01-01

    The development of fisheries in the oceans, and other human drivers such as climate warming, have led to changes in species abundance, assemblages, trophic interactions, and ultimately in the functioning of marine food webs. Here, using a trophodynamic approach and global databases of catches and life history traits of marine species, we tested the hypothesis that anthropogenic ecological impacts may have led to changes in the global parameters defining the transfers of biomass within the food web. First, we developed two indicators to assess such changes: the Time Cumulated Indicator (TCI) measuring the residence time of biomass within the food web, and the Efficiency Cumulated Indicator (ECI) quantifying the fraction of secondary production reaching the top of the trophic chain. Then, we assessed, at the large marine ecosystem scale, the worldwide change of these two indicators over the 1950–2010 time-periods. Global trends were identified and cluster analyses were used to characterize the variability of trends between ecosystems. Results showed that the most common pattern over the study period is a global decrease in TCI, while the ECI indicator tends to increase. Thus, changes in species assemblages would induce faster and apparently more efficient biomass transfers in marine food webs. Results also suggested that the main driver of change over that period had been the large increase in fishing pressure. The largest changes occurred in ecosystems where ‘fishing down the marine food web’ are most intensive. PMID:28800358

  14. Therapeutic evaluation of grain based functional food formulation in a geriatric animal model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teradal, Deepa; Joshi, Neena; Aladakatti, Ravindranath H

    2017-08-01

    This study investigates the effect of wholesome grain based functional food formulation, on clinical and biochemical parameters in 24-30 months old Wistar albino geriatric rats, corresponding to human age 60-75 years. Animals were randomly divided into five, groups. Experimental diets were compared to the basal rat diet (Group I). Four food, formulation were-wheat based (Group II), finger millet based (Group III), wheat based, diet + fenugreek seed powder (Group IV), finger millet based diet + fenugreek powder, (Group V). These five types of diets were fed to the experimental rats for 6 weeks. Hematological and biochemical parameters were evaluated. The results showed that, feed intake was influenced by the type of feed. Diets supplemented with, fenugreek (Group IV) caused a significant increase in serum hemoglobin. The total serum protein values were significantly highest in Group III. Total serum albumin was found to be lower in Group I and highest in Group II. The concentration of BUN was highest in Group I and the lowest in control diet. Serum cholesterol and glucose were significantly reduced in Group IV. Several hematological and serum mineral values were influenced by the type of diet. The type of diet did not influence the organs weight. A moderate hypoglycemic and hypercholesterolemic effect was observed in composite mix fed rats. This study clearly justifies the recommendation to use wholesome grain based functional foods for geriatric population.

  15. The meaning of functional trait composition of food webs for ecosystem functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gravel, Dominique; Albouy, Camille; Thuiller, Wilfried

    2016-05-19

    There is a growing interest in using trait-based approaches to characterize the functional structure of animal communities. Quantitative methods have been derived mostly for plant ecology, but it is now common to characterize the functional composition of various systems such as soils, coral reefs, pelagic food webs or terrestrial vertebrate communities. With the ever-increasing availability of distribution and trait data, a quantitative method to represent the different roles of animals in a community promise to find generalities that will facilitate cross-system comparisons. There is, however, currently no theory relating the functional composition of food webs to their dynamics and properties. The intuitive interpretation that more functional diversity leads to higher resource exploitation and better ecosystem functioning was brought from plant ecology and does not apply readily to food webs. Here we appraise whether there are interpretable metrics to describe the functional composition of food webs that could foster a better understanding of their structure and functioning. We first distinguish the various roles that traits have on food web topology, resource extraction (bottom-up effects), trophic regulation (top-down effects), and the ability to keep energy and materials within the community. We then discuss positive effects of functional trait diversity on food webs, such as niche construction and bottom-up effects. We follow with a discussion on the negative effects of functional diversity, such as enhanced competition (both exploitation and apparent) and top-down control. Our review reveals that most of our current understanding of the impact of functional trait diversity on food web properties and functioning comes from an over-simplistic representation of network structure with well-defined levels. We, therefore, conclude with propositions for new research avenues for both theoreticians and empiricists.

  16. Spent yeast as natural source of functional food additives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakowska, Rita; Sadowska, Anna; Dybkowska, Ewa; Świderski, Franciszek

    Spent yeasts are by-products arising from beer and wine production which over many years have been chiefly used as feed additives for livestock. They contain many valuable and bioactive substances which has thereby generated much interest in their exploitation. Up till now, the main products obtained from beer-brewing yeasts are β-glucans and yeast extracts. Other like foodstuffs include dried brewer’s yeast, where this is dried and the bitterness removed to be fit for human consumption as well as mannan-oligosaccharides hitherto used in the feed industry. β-glucans constitute the building blocks of yeast cell walls and can thus be used in human nutrition as dietary supplements or serving as food additives in functional foods. β-glucans products obtained via post-fermentation of beer also exhibit a high and multi-faceted biological activity where they improve the blood’s lipid profile, enhance immunological status and have both prebiotic and anti-oxidant properties. Yeast extracts are currently being used more and more to enhance flavour in foodstuffs, particularly for meat and its products. Depending on how autolysis is carried out, it is possible to design extracts of various meat flavours characteristic of specific meats. Many different flavour profiles can be created which may be additionally increased in combination with vegetable extracts. Within the food market, yeast extracts can appear in various guises such as liquids, pastes or powders. They all contain significant amounts of glutamic acid, 5’-GMP and 5’-IMP nucleotides together with various amino acids and peptides that act synergistically for enhancing the flavour of foodstuff products. Recent studies have demonstrated additional benefits of yeast extracts as valuable sources of amino acids and peptides which can be used in functional foods and dietary supplements. These products possess GRAS status (Generally Recognised As Safe) which thereby also adds further as to why they should be used

  17. Functional foods for dyslipidaemia and cardiovascular risk prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirtori, Cesare R; Galli, Claudio; Anderson, James W; Sirtori, Elena; Arnoldi, Anna

    2009-12-01

    A food can be regarded as 'functional' if it can demonstrate a beneficial efficacy on one or more target functions in the body in a convincing way. Beyond adequate nutritional qualities, functional foods should either improve the state of health and wellbeing and/or reduce the risk of disease. Functional foods that are marketed with claims of heart disease reduction focus primarily on the major risk factors, i.e. cholesterol, diabetes and hypertension. Some of the most innovative products are designed to be enriched with 'protective' ingredients, believed to reduce risk. They may contain, for example, soluble fibre (from oat and psyllium), useful both for lowering cholesterol and blood pressure, or fructans, effective in diabetes. Phytosterols and stanols lower LDL-cholesterol in a dose-dependent manner. Soya protein is more hypocholesterolaemic in subjects with very high initial cholesterol and recent data indicate also favourable activities in the metabolic syndrome. n-3 Fatty acids appear to exert significant hypotriacylglycerolaemic effects, possibly partly responsible for their preventive activity. Dark chocolate is gaining much attention for its multifunctional activities, useful both for the prevention of dyslipidaemia as well as hypertension. Finally, consensus opinions about tea and coffee have not emerged yet, and the benefits of vitamin E, garlic, fenugreek and policosanols in the management of dyslipidaemia and prevention of arterial disease are still controversial.

  18. [Inulin and derivates as key ingredients in functional foods].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madrigal, Lorena; Sangronis, Elba

    2007-12-01

    Inulin is a non-digestible carbohydrate that is contained in many vegetables, fruits and cereals. It is industrially produced from the chicory's root (Cichorium intybus) and it is widely used as ingredient in functional foods. Inulin and its derivate compounds (oligofructose, fructooligosaccharides) are usually called fructans, as they are basically based on linear fructose chains. This review presents a description of inulin and its most common derivate compounds: chemical structure, natural sources, physic-chemical properties, technological functionality, industrial manufacturing, analytical method for determination and health benefits: prebiotic, dietary fiber, low caloric value, hypoglycemic action, enhancement of calcium and magnesium bioavailability. Potential benefits: lipid parameters regulation, reduction of colon cancer risk and others, improvement of immune response, intestinal disorders protection. From technological point of view, these compounds exhibit a variety of properties: thickener, emulsifier, gel forming, sugar and fat substitute, humectant, freezing point depression. Inulin and derivates are been used in pharmaceutical, chemical and processing industry as technological additives and excipients. They are also been used for animal feeding. They are been considered as "bioactive" compounds to be proposed as future packaging material. Fructans are proposed to be classified as "functional fiber", according to recent concepts based on physiological effects on individuals. This review of inulin and its derivates was useful to show the broad boundaries of these compounds in the food industry and why they may be considered as key ingredients in the expanding functional food market.

  19. Food Derived Bioactive Peptides and Intestinal Barrier Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Martínez-Augustin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A wide range of food-derived bioactive peptides have been shown to exert health-promoting actions and are therefore considered functional foods or nutraceuticals. Some of these actions are related to the maintenance, reinforcement or repairment of the intestinal barrier function (IBF whose role is to selectively allow the absorption of water, nutrients and ions while preventing the influx of microorganisms from the intestinal lumen. Alterations in the IBF have been related to many disorders, such as inflammatory bowel disease or metabolic syndrome. Components of IBF are the intestinal epithelium, the mucus layer, secretory immunoglobulin A and cells of the innate and adaptive immune systems. Here we review the effects of food derived bioactive peptides on these IBF components. In vitro and in vivo effects, both in healthy and disease states, have been reviewed. Although limited, the available information indicates a potential for food-derived peptides to modify IBF and to contribute to disease treatment, but further research is needed to better isolate responsible peptides, and to help define their mode of action.

  20. Germinated grains: a superior whole grain functional food?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Kristina; Stojanovska, Lily; Vasiljevic, Todor; Mathai, Michael

    2013-06-01

    Grains are global dietary staples that when consumed in whole grain form, offer considerable health benefits compared with milled grain foods, including reduced body weight gain and reduced cardiovascular and diabetes risks. Dietary patterns, functional foods, and other lifestyle factors play a fundamental role in the development and management of epidemic lifestyle diseases that share risks of developing adverse metabolic outcomes, including hyperglycaemia, hypertension, dyslipidaemia, oxidative stress, and inflammation. Whole grains provide energy, nutrients, fibres, and bioactive compounds that may synergistically contribute to their protective effects. Despite their benefits, the intake of grains appears to be lower than recommended in many countries. Of emerging interest is the application of germination processes, which may significantly enhance the nutritional and bioactive content of grains, as well as improve palatability. Enhancing grain foods in a natural way using germination techniques may therefore offer a practical, natural, dietary intervention to increase the health benefits and acceptability of whole grains, with potentially widespread effects across populations in attenuating adverse lifestyle disease outcomes. Continuing to build on the growing body of in-vitro studies requires substantiation with extended in-vivo trials so that we may further develop our understanding of the potential of germinated grains as a functional food.

  1. A conceptual model of food quality management functions based on a techno-managerial approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luning, P.A.; Marcelis, W.J.

    2007-01-01

    In agribusiness and food industry quality management problems are commonly approached by applying control systems and procedures. However, assuming predictable food systems and people following procedures seems too straightforward. This paper introduces a model of food quality management functions t

  2. A conceptual model of food quality management functions based on a techno-managerial approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luning, P.A.; Marcelis, W.J.

    2007-01-01

    In agribusiness and food industry quality management problems are commonly approached by applying control systems and procedures. However, assuming predictable food systems and people following procedures seems too straightforward. This paper introduces a model of food quality management functions

  3. DIETARY FOOD FORTIFIED WITH OROTIC ACID AND LIVER FUNCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yohanes Buang

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The effects of dietary food fortified with orotic acid (1.0% on liver function were studied in rats. The rats fed withorotic acid promoted liver triglyceride content markedly, that was 5-fold higher than that of the control. The livermalondialdehyde (MDA content increased by 10%, but the gluthation peroxidase (GSH-Px activity decreased by 50%.The serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST and alanine aminotransferase (ALT activities increased by 25% and 30%,respectively. Therefore, the decreased GSH-Px activity was associated with the promotions of AST, ALT, and the liverMDA levels. In conclusion: dietary orotic acid promotes lipid peroxidation but reduces the rate of the antioxidantenzyme. Therefore, dietary food fortified with orotic acid attenuates the liver function.

  4. Immunoglobulin A in Bovine Milk: A Potential Functional Food?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cakebread, Julie A; Humphrey, Rex; Hodgkinson, Alison J

    2015-08-26

    Immunoglobulin A (IgA) is an anti-inflammatory antibody that plays a critical role in mucosal immunity. It is found in large quantities in human milk, but there are lower amounts in bovine milk. In humans, IgA plays a significant role in providing protection from environmental pathogens at mucosal surfaces and is a key component for the establishment and maintenance of intestinal homeostasis via innate and adaptive immune mechanisms. To date, many of the dairy-based functional foods are derived from bovine colostrum, targeting the benefits of IgG. IgA has a higher pathogenic binding capacity and greater stability against proteolytic degradation when ingested compared with IgG. This provides IgA-based products greater potential in the functional food market that has yet to be realized.

  5. Regulatory issues related to functional foods and natural health products in Canada: possible implications for manufacturers of conjugated linoleic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, Kelley C

    2004-06-01

    The Canadian Food and Drugs Act and Regulations, through its definitions of food and drug, currently restricts health-related claims for foods, food ingredients, and natural health products (NHPs). Over the past few decades, scientific research has led to a large body of information that demonstrates the benefits for health of many food and NHP ingredients. Health Canada recognized the constraints of the current regulatory environment and started to develop regulations related to the allowance of health claims for functional foods and NHPs, including those foods and NHPs that would contain conjugated linoleic acid isomers. Health Canada has 3 initiatives under way in the area of health claims for foods: 1) to adopt the generic health claims of the United States within a Canadian context, 2) to develop scientific standards of evidence and a guidance document for supporting the validity of product-specific claims, and 3) to develop an overall regulatory framework for functional foods. In 2000, Health Canada announced approval for the use of 5 generic diet-related health claims: sodium and hypertension, calcium and osteoporosis, saturated and trans fat and cholesterol and coronary artery disease, fruits and vegetables and cancer, and sugar alcohols and dental caries. Under a separate initiative, Natural Health Products Regulations were published in the Canada Gazette Part II on June 18, 2003. The NHP Regulations came into force on January 1, 2004, with a transition period ranging from 2 y (for site licensing) to 6 y (for product licensing, for products already issued a drug identification number).

  6. A risk-based classification scheme for genetically modified foods. II: Graded testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Eunice; Krewski, Daniel

    2008-12-01

    This paper presents a graded approach to the testing of crop-derived genetically modified (GM) foods based on concern levels in a proposed risk-based classification scheme (RBCS) and currently available testing methods. A graded approach offers the potential for more efficient use of testing resources by focusing less on lower concern GM foods, and more on higher concern foods. In this proposed approach to graded testing, products that are classified as Level I would have met baseline testing requirements that are comparable to what is widely applied to premarket assessment of GM foods at present. In most cases, Level I products would require no further testing, or very limited confirmatory analyses. For products classified as Level II or higher, additional testing would be required, depending on the type of the substance, prior dietary history, estimated exposure level, prior knowledge of toxicity of the substance, and the nature of the concern related to unintended changes in the modified food. Level III testing applies only to the assessment of toxic and antinutritional effects from intended changes and is tailored to the nature of the substance in question. Since appropriate test methods are not currently available for all effects of concern, future research to strengthen the testing of GM foods is discussed.

  7. Design management of functional foods for quality of life improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butnariu, Monica; Caunii, Angela

    2013-01-01

    The paper examines the benefit of bread enriched with antioxidants on oxidative stress, and on the quantities of hydrosoluble antioxidants in a group of human subjects. The home-management of functional foods strategy seeks to improve prompt and effective basic nutrition using additional attributes that are directly positively beneficial for health and well-being. The purpose of this clinical study was to test the tolerance and benefits of multicomponent functional foods enriched with antioxidant compounds obtained from plant extracts on healthy adult volunteers. A detailed protocol was created to formalize and standardize the procedures for data collection, e.g. filling out standardized forms and functional diet questionnaires. For the research method, Group A was given the special diet enriched with multicomponent antioxidant foods and Group B (control). The data were analysed using the quantitative methods. They showed significant increase of hydrosoluble antioxidants in group A compared to control, from 220.61+/-27.92 - 313.56+/-37.09 micrograms/mL (p=0.05), compared to 280.47+/-32.1 - 238.27+/-44.93 micrograms/mL (p=0.45). Also, oxidative stress values showed a decrease in the diet group compared to control that reached statistical significance. Oxidative stress decreased in the diet group to 244 +/- 89 compared to 308+/-108 UFORT in the control group. The responses of the prevention of chronic diseases to a functional foods strategy depend on how they are absorbed and utilized in the body. An anti-oxidant diet with natural bioactive components could become an interesting solution for degenerative disorders in which oxidative stress is increased.

  8. Cultural, socioeconomic and nutritional determinants of functional food consumption patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullie, P; Guelinckx, I; Clarys, P; Degrave, E; Hulens, M; Vansant, G

    2009-11-01

    The aim of our research was to describe cultural, socioeconomic and nutritional determinants associated with functional food consumption. Cross-sectional design in 5000 military men. Using mailed questionnaires, the functional food consumption frequency was recorded. Margarines fortified with phytosterols or phytostanols were used on a daily basis by 26.3% of the responders. Only 4.7% took a daily portion of probiotics, whereas 14.0% consumed one or more portions of nuts a week. One man out of three consumed one cup of tea daily, whereas 10.2% consumed one glass of red wine daily. Three or more portions of fruit a day were consumed by 19.1%, and two or more portions of vegetables a day by 26.6%. Only 12.3% consumed a portion of fatty fish weekly. After adjustment for age, body mass index, physical activity, use of vitamin supplements, smoking, marital status, cultural background, educational and income level, the daily consumption of fortified margarines increased with age. The consumption of fermented dairy products increased with physical activity and with the use of vitamin supplements. The consumption of fortified margarines, nuts, tea and fatty fish was strongly influenced by cultural background, with higher consumptions for Flemish-speaking men compared with French-speaking persons. Daily consumption of red wine was higher in French-speaking men and in higher educated men. Finally, functional food consumption was associated with a healthy dietary pattern. Age, physical activity, level of education, use of vitamin supplements and cultural background are predictors of functional food consumption patterns.

  9. Interactions of gut microbiota with functional food components and nutraceuticals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laparra, J M; Sanz, Y

    2010-03-01

    The human gut is populated by an array of bacterial species, which develop important metabolic and immune functions, with a marked effect on the nutritional and health status of the host. Dietary component also play beneficial roles beyond basic nutrition, leading to the development of the functional food concept and nutraceuticals. Prebiotics, polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and phytochemicals are the most well characterized dietary bioactive compounds. The beneficial effects of prebiotics mainly relay on their influence on the gut microbiota composition and their ability to generate fermentation products (short-chain fatty acids) with diverse biological roles. PUFAs include the omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids, whose balance may influence diverse aspects of immunity and metabolism. Moreover, interactions between PUFAs and components of the gut microbiota may also influence their biological roles. Phytochemicals are bioactive non-nutrient plant compounds, which have raised interest because of their potential effects as antioxidants, antiestrogenics, anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory, and anticarcinogenics. However, the bioavailability and effects of polyphenols greatly depend on their transformation by components of the gut microbiota. Phytochemicals and their metabolic products may also inhibit pathogenic bacteria while stimulate the growth of beneficial bacteria, exerting prebiotic-like effects. Therefore, the intestinal microbiota is both a target for nutritional intervention and a factor influencing the biological activity of other food compounds acquired orally. This review focuses on the reciprocal interactions between the gut microbiota and functional food components, and the consequences of these interactions on human health. 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Functional redundancy and food web functioning in linuron-exposed ecosystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Laender, F., E-mail: frederik.delaender@ugent.be [Laboratory of Environmental Toxicity and Aquatic Ecology, Ghent University, Plateaustraat 22, 9000 Ghent (Belgium); Van den Brink, P.J., E-mail: Paul.vandenBrink@wur.nl [Department of Aquatic Ecology and Water Quality Management, Wageningen University, PO Box 47, 6700 AA Wageningen (Netherlands); Janssen, C.R., E-mail: colin.janssen@ugent.be [Laboratory of Environmental Toxicity and Aquatic Ecology, Ghent University, Plateaustraat 22, 9000 Ghent (Belgium)

    2011-10-15

    An extensive data set describing effects of the herbicide linuron on macrophyte-dominated microcosms was analysed with a food web model to assess effects on ecosystem functioning. We showed that sensitive phytoplankton and periphyton groups in the diets of heterotrophs were gradually replaced by more tolerant phytoplankton species as linuron concentrations increased. This diet shift - showing redundancy among phytoplankton species - allowed heterotrophs to maintain their functions in the contaminated microcosms. On an ecosystem level, total gross primary production was up to hundred times lower in the treated microcosms but the uptake of dissolved organic carbon by bacteria and mixotrophs was less sensitive. Food web efficiency was not consistently lower in the treated microcosms. We conclude that linuron predominantly affected the macrophytes but did not alter the overall functioning of the surrounding planktonic food web. Therefore, a risk assessment that protects macrophyte growth also protects the functioning of macrophyte-dominated microcosms. - Highlights: > Food web modelling reveals the functional response of species and ecosystem to linuron. > Primary production was more sensitive to linuron than bacterial production. > Linuron replaced sensitive phytoplankton by tolerant phytoplankton in heterotrophs' diets. > Linuron did not change the functioning of heterotrophs. - Food web modelling reveals functional redundancy of the planktonic community in microcosms treated with linuron.

  11. Calculus of Elementary Functions, Part II. Student Text. Revised Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herriot, Sarah T.; And Others

    This course is intended for students who have a thorough knowledge of college preparatory mathematics, including algebra, axiomatic geometry, trigonometry, and analytic geometry. This text, Part II, contains material designed to follow Part I. Chapters included in this text are: (6) Derivatives of Exponential and Related Functions; (7) Area and…

  12. Functional metagenomics to decipher food-microbe-host crosstalk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larraufie, Pierre; de Wouters, Tomas; Potocki-Veronese, Gabrielle; Blottière, Hervé M; Doré, Joël

    2015-02-01

    The recent developments of metagenomics permit an extremely high-resolution molecular scan of the intestinal microbiota giving new insights and opening perspectives for clinical applications. Beyond the unprecedented vision of the intestinal microbiota given by large-scale quantitative metagenomics studies, such as the EU MetaHIT project, functional metagenomics tools allow the exploration of fine interactions between food constituents, microbiota and host, leading to the identification of signals and intimate mechanisms of crosstalk, especially between bacteria and human cells. Cloning of large genome fragments, either from complex intestinal communities or from selected bacteria, allows the screening of these biological resources for bioactivity towards complex plant polymers or functional food such as prebiotics. This permitted identification of novel carbohydrate-active enzyme families involved in dietary fibre and host glycan breakdown, and highlighted unsuspected bacterial players at the top of the intestinal microbial food chain. Similarly, exposure of fractions from genomic and metagenomic clones onto human cells engineered with reporter systems to track modulation of immune response, cell proliferation or cell metabolism has allowed the identification of bioactive clones modulating key cell signalling pathways or the induction of specific genes. This opens the possibility to decipher mechanisms by which commensal bacteria or candidate probiotics can modulate the activity of cells in the intestinal epithelium or even in distal organs such as the liver, adipose tissue or the brain. Hence, in spite of our inability to culture many of the dominant microbes of the human intestine, functional metagenomics open a new window for the exploration of food-microbe-host crosstalk.

  13. Development of Functional Foods for Body Protection Using Radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jo, S. K.; Jung, U. H.; Park, H. R.

    2007-07-15

    We have previously developed two herbal compositions(HemoHIM, HemoTonic) that protects immune/hematopoietic system and self-renewal tissues against radiation and enhances immune/hematopoietic functions. In this study, we tried to expand its usability by verifying its protective activity against various harmful stimuli as well as radiation. HemoHIM was shown to be highly effective in reducing immune/hematopoietic damage, particularly, normalizing the Th1/Th2 imbalance, which seemed to be a result of increased production of IL-12p70 by APC and enhanced NK cell activity. Also HemoHIM was shown to have protective activities against UV-induced skin damage, immune system damage by an anticancer drug (CP), immune depression by old age and stress, and inflammation. Finally it was confirmed in a human study that HemoHIM improves the immune cell functions and cytokine production. Based on these results, HemoHIM has been approved as a health functional food for immunomodulation by Korea FDA and succeeded in its industrialization. Meanwhile, to develop functional foods for the reduction of chronic radiation damage (carcinogenesis), we have screened natural products for inhibitory activities against carcinogenesis-related factors, and developed two anti-carcinogenic compositions. Also 6 single compounds were isolated and identified from radioprotective natural products and elucidated some synergistic protection by several single compounds and established a basis for the development of advanced technology for radioprotection. Also, to obtain the applicability of radiation technology for the safe sanitatation and distribution of functional food materials, we verified the toxicological safety, stability of activity and active components of irradiated medicinal herbs

  14. Preparation and evaluation of functional foods in adjuvant arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Okbi, S. Y.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Adjuvant arthritis is an animal model that closely resembles rheumatoid arthritis in humans. It is a successful working model used to study new anti-inflammatory agents. In previous studies (animal and clinical we have shown that evening primrose oil, fish oil and the methanol extract of date fruits and fenugreek seeds have anti-inflammatory activity and that the methanol extract of dates has an antioxidant effect. Based on these studies, the aim of the present study was to prepare 7 functional foods containing such bioactive fractions separately or in combination and to evaluate them in adjuvant arthritis in rats, study the stability of bioactive ingredients and evaluate their sensory properties. The studied biochemical parameters were erythrocyte sedimentation rate, erythrocyte superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and plasma copper, zinc and interlukin 2. Nutritional parameters, including body weight gain, food intake and food efficiency ratio were monitored during the feeding of the functional foods. The bioactive ingredients assessed were total phenolic contents and fatty acids. The results showed improvement in the biochemical parameters, body weight gain and food efficiency ratio of arthritic rats fed on the functional foods with different degrees. All the prepared functional foods were sensory accepted. The active ingredients showed stability during storage. In conclusion, all the tested functional foods showed promising antiinflammatory activity and were determined to be acceptable through sensory evaluation which means that their potential beneficial use as dietary supplements in rheumatoid arthritis patients may be recommended.

    La artritis adyuvante es un modelo utilizado en animales y se caracteriza por ser muy parecida a la artritis reumatoide en humanos. Se trata de un modelo de trabajo utilizado con éxito para estudiar nuevos agentes anti-inflamatorios. En estudios previos (animales y clínica hemos demostrado que

  15. Functional genomics of lactic acid bacteria: from food to health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douillard, François P; de Vos, Willem M

    2014-08-29

    Genome analysis using next generation sequencing technologies has revolutionized the characterization of lactic acid bacteria and complete genomes of all major groups are now available. Comparative genomics has provided new insights into the natural and laboratory evolution of lactic acid bacteria and their environmental interactions. Moreover, functional genomics approaches have been used to understand the response of lactic acid bacteria to their environment. The results have been instrumental in understanding the adaptation of lactic acid bacteria in artisanal and industrial food fermentations as well as their interactions with the human host. Collectively, this has led to a detailed analysis of genes involved in colonization, persistence, interaction and signaling towards to the human host and its health. Finally, massive parallel genome re-sequencing has provided new opportunities in applied genomics, specifically in the characterization of novel non-GMO strains that have potential to be used in the food industry. Here, we provide an overview of the state of the art of these functional genomics approaches and their impact in understanding, applying and designing lactic acid bacteria for food and health.

  16. Is tomato a healthy and/or functional food?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inmaculada Navarro-González

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a literature review about the presence of bioactive compounds in tomato and tomato based food, and these compounds function to promote health in the human organism. Several scientific studies show that tomato and tomato based products have several molecules, some of them with antioxidant activity, that protect lipids, lipoproteins, DNA, etc. against free radicals. This function could be one of the causes of the apparent link between consumption and protection of degenerative and chronic diseases such as cancer, cardiovascular disease, Parkinson’s disease, etc. More recent studies have proposed different biochemical mechanisms in which tomato components can exert this beneficial role on health. In addition, several studies seem to show that the greatest benefit of this food is due to the synergistic effect between all its compounds. Some epidemiological studies associate that regular intake has several beneficial effects on health. Due to the association between bioactive compounds, daily tomato consumption and its effect on human health, the aim of the current literature review is summarize the compounds in this food and its possible actions on health.

  17. Pomegranate as a functional food and nutraceutical source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johanningsmeier, Suzanne D; Harris, G Keith

    2011-01-01

    Pomegranate, a fruit native to the Middle East, has gained widespread popularity as a functional food and nutraceutical source. The health effects of the whole fruit, as well as its juices and extracts, have been studied in relation to a variety of chronic diseases. Promising results against cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and prostate cancer have been reported from human clinical trials. The in vitro antioxidant activity of pomegranate has been attributed to its high polyphenolic content, specifically punicalagins, punicalins, gallagic acid, and ellagic acid. These compounds are metabolized during digestion to ellagic acid and urolithins, suggesting that the bioactive compounds that provide in vivo antioxidant activity may not be the same as those present in the whole food. Anthocyanins and the unique fatty acid profile of the seed oil may also play a role in pomegranate's health effects. A more complete characterization of pomegranate components and their physiological fate may provide mechanistic insight into the potential health benefits observed in clinical trials.

  18. Biguanide related compounds in traditional antidiabetic functional foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perla, Venu; Jayanty, Sastry S

    2013-06-01

    Biguanides such as metformin are widely used worldwide for the treatment of type-2 diabetes. The identification of guanidine and related compounds in French lilac plant (Galega officinalis L.) led to the development of biguanides. Despite of their plant origin, biguanides have not been reported in plants. The objective of this study was to quantify biguanide related compounds (BRCs) in experimentally or clinically substantiated antidiabetic functional plant foods and potatoes. The corrected results of the Voges-Proskauer (V-P) assay suggest that the highest amounts of BRCs are present in green curry leaves (Murraya koenigii (L.) Sprengel) followed by fenugreek seeds (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.), green bitter gourd (Momordica charantia Descourt.), and potato (Solanum tuberosum L.). Whereas, garlic (Allium sativum L.), and sweet potato (Ipomea batatas (L.) Lam.) contain negligible amounts of BRCs. In addition, the possible biosynthetic routes of biguanide in these plant foods are discussed.

  19. Biotechnological applications of functional metagenomics in the food and pharmaceutical industries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura M Coughlan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Microorganisms are found throughout nature, thriving in a vast range of environmental conditions. The majority of them are unculturable or difficult to culture by traditional methods. Metagenomics enables the study of all microorganisms, regardless of whether they can be cultured or not, through the analysis of genomic data obtained directly from an environmental sample, providing knowledge of the species present and allowing the extraction of information regarding the functionality of microbial communities in their natural habitat. Function-based screenings, following the cloning and expression of metagenomic DNA in a heterologous host, can be applied to the discovery of novel proteins of industrial interest encoded by the genes of previously inaccessible microorganisms. Functional metagenomics has considerable potential in the food and pharmaceutical industries, where it can, for instance, aid (i the identification of enzymes with desirable technological properties, capable of catalysing novel reactions or replacing existing chemically synthesized catalysts which may be difficult or expensive to produce, and able to work under a wide range of environmental conditions encountered in food and pharmaceutical processing cycles including extreme conditions of temperature, pH, osmolarity, etc; (ii the discovery of novel bioactives including antimicrobials active against microorganisms of concern both in food and medical settings; (iii the investigation of industrial and societal issues such as antibiotic resistance development. This review article summarizes the state-of-the-art functional metagenomic methods available and discusses the potential of functional metagenomic approaches to mine as yet unexplored environments to discover novel genes with biotechnological application in the food and pharmaceutical industries.

  20. Biotechnological applications of functional metagenomics in the food and pharmaceutical industries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coughlan, Laura M; Cotter, Paul D; Hill, Colin; Alvarez-Ordóñez, Avelino

    2015-01-01

    Microorganisms are found throughout nature, thriving in a vast range of environmental conditions. The majority of them are unculturable or difficult to culture by traditional methods. Metagenomics enables the study of all microorganisms, regardless of whether they can be cultured or not, through the analysis of genomic data obtained directly from an environmental sample, providing knowledge of the species present, and allowing the extraction of information regarding the functionality of microbial communities in their natural habitat. Function-based screenings, following the cloning and expression of metagenomic DNA in a heterologous host, can be applied to the discovery of novel proteins of industrial interest encoded by the genes of previously inaccessible microorganisms. Functional metagenomics has considerable potential in the food and pharmaceutical industries, where it can, for instance, aid (i) the identification of enzymes with desirable technological properties, capable of catalyzing novel reactions or replacing existing chemically synthesized catalysts which may be difficult or expensive to produce, and able to work under a wide range of environmental conditions encountered in food and pharmaceutical processing cycles including extreme conditions of temperature, pH, osmolarity, etc; (ii) the discovery of novel bioactives including antimicrobials active against microorganisms of concern both in food and medical settings; (iii) the investigation of industrial and societal issues such as antibiotic resistance development. This review article summarizes the state-of-the-art functional metagenomic methods available and discusses the potential of functional metagenomic approaches to mine as yet unexplored environments to discover novel genes with biotechnological application in the food and pharmaceutical industries.

  1. Functional orthopedic magnetic appliance (FOMA) II--modus operandi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vardimon, A D; Stutzmann, J J; Graber, T M; Voss, L R; Petrovic, A G

    1989-05-01

    A new functional appliance (FA) to correct Class II dentoskeletal malocclusions is introduced. The functional orthopedic magnetic appliance (FOMA) II uses upper and lower attracting magnetic means (Nd2Fe14B) to constrain the lower jaw in an advanced sagittal posture. In vitro, a special gauge transducer measured the magnetic attractive path and forces. In vivo, 13 prepubertal female Macaca fascicularis monkeys received facial implants and were treated for 4 months with the following appliances: conventional FA (four subjects), FOMA II (five subjects), a combined FOMA II + FA (two subjects), and sham (control) appliance (two subjects). The in vitro results showed the following: vertico-sagitally displaced upper and lower magnets attracted ultimately along an oblique line with a terminal horizonal slide to become fully superimposed; the functional performance improved when the magnetic interface acted as a magnetic inclined plane; and the magnetic force was able to guide and constrain the mandible toward the constructive protrusive closure position (CPCP) (1.2 mm, F = 570 gm) from levels below the habitual rest position (3 mm, F = 219 gm) and the electromyographic (EMG) relaxed position (8.5 mm, F = 45 gm). The in vivo results demonstrated the following: functional performance increased in FOMA II (22%) and in the combined FOMA II + FA (28%) over the conventional FA; mandibular length increased significantly in the treated animals (means = 2.83 +/- 0.70 mm) over the control animals (means = 0.43 +/- 0.08 mm); incisor proclination was lower in magnetic appliances (means = 4.57 +/- 1.76 degrees) than in the conventional FA (means = 8.75 +/- 1.85 degrees); mandibular elongation and condylar posterior inclination resulted from posterosuperior endochondral growth (increased cell proliferation and/or hyperplasia of functional chondroblasts) and by bony remodeling of the condylar neck (apposition posterior border, resorption anterior border), respectively; virtually no

  2. Recent trends in functional food science and the industry in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arai, Soichi; Morinaga, Yasushi; Yoshikawa, Toshikazu; Ichiishi, Eiichiro; Kiso, Yoshinobu; Yamazaki, Masatoshi; Morotomi, Masami; Shimizu, Makoto; Kuwata, Tamotsu; Kaminogawa, Shuichi

    2002-10-01

    International recognition of functional foods has resulted in the recent global development of this field, which originated in Japan. The national policy on functional foods, in terms of "foods for specified health use", also has been developing and has motivated the food industry to produce a variety of new food items. In Japan as well as in many other countries, academic and industrial scientists have been working in collaboration for the analysis and practical applications of functional food science. Emphasis has been placed on the study of antioxidant and anticarcinogenic food factors as well as pre- and probiotics. This review pinpoints recent trends in the science and industry in this field.

  3. A review of class I and class II pet food recalls involving chemical contaminants from 1996 to 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumbeiha, Wilson; Morrison, Jamie

    2011-03-01

    Commercial pet food in USA is generally safe, but adulteration does occur. Adulterated food has to be recalled to protect pets and public health. All stakeholders, including food firms, distributors, and government agencies such as the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) participate in food recall. The objective of this review is to describe the pet food recall procedure from start to finish, and to review class I and II pet food recalls from 1996 to 2008, with a specific focus on those due to chemical contaminants/adulterants. Information was requested from the FDA by Freedom of Information Act. Only those recalls backed by the FDA scientific review were considered. The legal framework for food recalls in the Code of Federal Regulations, Title 21, Chapter 1, Part 7 and in the Food and Drug Administration Amendments Act of 2007, Title X was reviewed. From 1996 to 2008, there were a total of 22 class I and II pet food recalls. Of these, only six (27%) were due to chemical adulterants. The adulterants were aflatoxins, cholecalciferol, methionine, and melamine, and cyanuric acid. The causes of adulteration included inadequate testing of raw materials for toxins, use of wrong or faulty mixing equipment, and misformulation of raw materials. Overall, pet food manufactured in the USA is safe. Even with shortcomings in the recall process, the incidence of illness associated with pet food adulteration is low. Added changes can only make the system better in the future to safeguard pet and public safety. © American College of Medical Toxicology 2010

  4. An ecological analysis of food outlet density and prevalence of type II diabetes in South Carolina counties

    OpenAIRE

    AlHasan, Dana M.; Eberth, Jan Marie

    2016-01-01

    Background Studies suggest that the built environment with high numbers of fast food restaurants and convenience stores and low numbers of super stores and grocery stores are related to obesity, type II diabetes mellitus, and other chronic diseases. Since few studies assess these relationships at the county level, we aim to examine fast food restaurant density, convenience store density, super store density, and grocery store density and prevalence of type II diabetes among counties in South ...

  5. Determination of Orange II in food samples after cloud point extraction using mixed micelles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourreza, N; Zareian, M

    2009-06-15

    In this paper, a cloud point extraction method for the determination of trace amounts of Orange II by spectrophotometry is described. The method is based on the extraction of Orange II from aqueous solution using mixed micelles of non-ionic surfactant, Triton X-100 and cationic surfactant cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) in acidic media. The extracted surfactant rich phase is diluted with water and its absorbance is measured at 484 nm by a spectrophotometer. The effects of surfactant, acid and salt concentration, incubation time and temperature were investigated. The calibration graph was linear in the range of 2.1-420 ng mL(-1) of Orange II in the initial solution with r=0.9991 (n=12). Detection limit based on three times the standard deviation of the blank (3S(b)) was 0.67 ng mL(-1) and the relative standard deviation (RSD) for 35 and 105 ng mL(-1) of Orange II was 1.20% and 1.49% (n=10), respectively. The method was applied to the determination of Orange II in different food samples.

  6. Egg and Egg-Derived Foods: Effects on Human Health and Use as Functional Foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose M. Miranda

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Eggs are sources of protein, fats and micronutrients that play an important role in basic nutrition. However, eggs are traditionally associated with adverse factors in human health, mainly due to their cholesterol content. Nowadays, however, it is known that the response of cholesterol in human serum levels to dietary cholesterol consumption depends on several factors, such as ethnicity, genetic makeup, hormonal factors and the nutritional status of the consumer. Additionally, in recent decades, there has been an increasing demand for functional foods, which is expected to continue to increase in the future, owing to their capacity to decrease the risks of some diseases and socio-demographic factors such as the increase in life expectancy. This work offers a brief overview of the advantages and disadvantages of egg consumption and the potential market of functional eggs, and it explores the possibilities of the development of functional eggs by technological methods.

  7. Development of Functional Foods and Advanced Technology for Radioprotection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jo, Sung Kee; Byun, Myung Woo; Kim, Jin Kyu (and others)

    2003-05-15

    We have previously developed two medicinal herb mixtures that protects immune/hematopoietic system and self-renewal tissues against irradiation and enhances immune/hematopoietic functions. In this study, we have developed two pilot products by adding the effective fractions to the hot water extract of the herb mixtures and investigated their efficacy. In irradiated mice, pilot products protected hematopoietic stem cells, promoted the regeneration and activation of immune cells, normalized the unbalanced immune reaction, and inhibited the growth of cancer cells. Polysaccharide was active fraction and mechanisms were elucidated. The products also protected the stem cells in self-renewal tissues. DNA/membrane damages, apoptotic cell signals, chromosome/DNA alterations, and oxidation of protein/lipid were inhibited by pilot products, and their radical scavenging activities were observed. Five active components were isolated and identified. Pilot products also inhibited the cancer development by 30% in irradiated mice. In clinical investigation, pilot products inhibited the side-effects of cancer therapy including immune/hematopoietic depression. Therefore, the pilot products may be used as functional foods for overcoming of immune/hematopoietic depression and self-renewal tissue damages induced by irradiation, as well as for the immune/hematopoietic enhancement. Also we have screened food materials for inhibition of radiation-induced chronic damage (carcinogenesis), and selected effective 4 materials and elicited two mixture preparations with enhanced activity, and confirmed their inhibitory activities in cancer initiation model systems. To obtain the applicability of radiation technology for the safe sanitation and distribution of functional food materials, we verified the toxicological safety, stability of activity and active components of irradiated medicinal herbs. Also, screening of new radioprotective materials and basic biological research for the enhancement of

  8. Invited review: Fermented milk as antihypertensive functional food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltrán-Barrientos, L M; Hernández-Mendoza, A; Torres-Llanez, M J; González-Córdova, A F; Vallejo-Córdoba, B

    2016-06-01

    Over the past decade, interest has risen in fermented dairy foods that promote health and could prevent diseases such as hypertension. This biological effect has mainly been attributed to bioactive peptides encrypted within dairy proteins that can be released during fermentation with specific lactic acid bacteria or during gastrointestinal digestion. The most studied bioactive peptides derived from dairy proteins are antihypertensive peptides; however, a need exists to review the different studies dealing with the evaluation of antihypertensive fermented milk before a health claim may be associated with the product. Thus, the objective of this overview was to present available information related to the evaluation of fermented milk containing antihypertensive peptides by in vitro and in vivo studies, which are required before a fermented functional dairy product may be introduced to the market. Although commercial fermented milks with antihypertensive effects exist, these are scarce and most are based on Lactobacillus helveticus. Thus, a great opportunity is available for the development of functional dairy products with new lactic acid bacteria that support heart health through blood pressure- and heart rate-lowering effects. Hence, the consumer may be willing to pay a premium for foods with important functional benefits. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Functional Foods Programs Serve as a Vehicle to Provide Nutrition Education to Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cirignano, Sherri M.

    2011-01-01

    An increase in consumer interest in functional foods provides an opportunity for FCS educators to use this topic in Extension programming to promote current nutrition recommendations. The Functional Foods for Life Educational Programs (FFL) are a curriculum of six evidence-based mini-seminars that highlight specific functional foods that have the…

  10. Positioning functional foods in an ecological approach to the prevention of overweight and obesity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wieringa, N.F.; van der Windt, H.J.; Zuiker, R.R.M.; Dijkhuizen, L.; Verkerk, M.A.; Vonk, R.J.; Swart, J.A.A.

    2008-01-01

    To contribute to the social debate about the role of functional foods in the prevention of overweight and obesity using an ecological model to study the positioning of functional foods and their social implications. Positioning was conceptualized as the relative attention given to functional foods

  11. Functional Foods Programs Serve as a Vehicle to Provide Nutrition Education to Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cirignano, Sherri M.

    2011-01-01

    An increase in consumer interest in functional foods provides an opportunity for FCS educators to use this topic in Extension programming to promote current nutrition recommendations. The Functional Foods for Life Educational Programs (FFL) are a curriculum of six evidence-based mini-seminars that highlight specific functional foods that have the…

  12. 77 FR 37058 - Draft Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Class II Special Controls...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-20

    ...] [FR Doc No: 2012-15025] DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration [Docket No. FDA 2012-D-0304] Draft Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Class II Special Controls Guidance Document: Implanted Blood Access Devices for Hemodialysis; Availability...

  13. Structural and functional characteristics of plant proteinase inhibitor-II (PI-II) family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehman, Shazia; Aziz, Ejaz; Akhtar, Wasim; Ilyas, Muhammad; Mahmood, Tariq

    2017-02-09

    Plant proteinase inhibitor-II (PI-II) proteins are one of the promising defensive proteins that helped the plants to resist against different kinds of unfavorable conditions. Different roles for PI-II have been suggested such as regulation of endogenous proteases, modulation of plant growth and developmental processes and mediating stress responses. The basic knowledge on genetic and molecular diversity of these proteins has provided significant insight into their gene structure and evolutionary relationships in various members of this family. Phylogenetic comparisons of these family genes in different plants suggested that the high rate of retention of gene duplication and inhibitory domain multiplication may have resulted in the expansion and functional diversification of these proteins. Currently, a large number of transgenic plants expressing PI-II genes are being developed for enhancing the defensive capabilities against insects, bacteria and pathogenic fungi. Much emphasis is yet to be given to exploit this ever expanding repertoire of genes for improving abiotic stress resistance in transgenic crops. This review presents an overview about the current knowledge on PI-II family genes, their multifunctional role in plant defense and physiology with their potential applications in biotechnology.

  14. Safety impact--the risk/benefits of functional foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascal, Gérard

    2009-12-01

    It is amazing to see how much the approach of the food risk analysis evolved in the recent years. For half a century and the birth of the risk assessment methodology in the food domain, only no appreciable health risk was considered acceptable by the manager. This is the vocabulary used in the case of a voluntary, deliberated human action, as the use of food additives (definition of ADI). In the case of risks not resulting from such an action, as that of the presence of contaminants, the risk assessor allocates provisional tolerable daily, weekly or monthly intake that are the basis for regulation. This vocabulary is in agreement with the objective which consists in approaching closer possible of the zero risk which is the wish of a majority of the consumers. Some years ago, the risk managers insisted to obtain from the assessors as often as possible a quantitative risk evaluation. More recently even, the managers would like to decide on the basis of a balance of risk and benefit acceptable for management purposes. Finally, they hope that general principles and tools will be available for conducting a quantitative risk-benefit analysis for foods and food ingredients. What is possible in the case of functional foods (FF)? Based on the definition of FF proposed in the programme FUFOSE, one has to distinguish between different situations in order to assess the risk: that of a micro-, that of a macro-component or that of a whole food. These situations have been clearly described in the document resulting from FOSIE. The standardized methodology relevant to assess micro-components is not well adapted to the assessment of whole food. Concepts of substantial equivalence and of history of safe use could be useful tools in this case. However, quantitative risk assessment remains a very difficult exercise. If a process for the assessment of health benefit of FF has been proposed as an outcome of the PASSCLAIM action, the quantification of this benefit needs adequate tools

  15. Functional food awareness and perceptions in relation to information sources in older adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background The functional food industry has experienced innovative and economic expansion, yet research into consumer perceptions of functional foods and their associated health claims is limited. Among consumers, older adults could benefit from functional foods due to age-related issues pertaining to food and health. The purpose of this research was to identify the need for information related to functional foods among older adults (≥60 years old) and to assess awareness and perceptions of health claims on functional food packages. Methods Community-dwelling older adults (n = 200) completed a researcher administered questionnaire designed to collect information about functional foods including current consumption, motivating factors for consumption, perceived need for information, sources of information for functional foods and awareness of health claims. Results Prevalence of functional food consumption among participants was 93.0%. Increased awareness and knowledge was the most commonly reported factor that would promote functional food consumption (85.5%) and 63.5% of participants wanted more information about functional foods with preferred sources being newspapers/magazines/books (68.5%) and food labels (66.1%). Participants were predominately (93.5%) aware of health claims on functional foods and those with more education were more likely to report being aware of health claims (p = 0.045). Conclusions Although functional food consumption among older adults in this sample is high, there is a need for further information regarding functional foods. These results inform stakeholders regarding the potential for information to influence functional food acceptance among older adult consumers. PMID:24886306

  16. Functional food awareness and perceptions in relation to information sources in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vella, Meagan N; Stratton, Laura M; Sheeshka, Judy; Duncan, Alison M

    2014-05-17

    The functional food industry has experienced innovative and economic expansion, yet research into consumer perceptions of functional foods and their associated health claims is limited. Among consumers, older adults could benefit from functional foods due to age-related issues pertaining to food and health. The purpose of this research was to identify the need for information related to functional foods among older adults (≥60 years old) and to assess awareness and perceptions of health claims on functional food packages. Community-dwelling older adults (n = 200) completed a researcher administered questionnaire designed to collect information about functional foods including current consumption, motivating factors for consumption, perceived need for information, sources of information for functional foods and awareness of health claims. Prevalence of functional food consumption among participants was 93.0%. Increased awareness and knowledge was the most commonly reported factor that would promote functional food consumption (85.5%) and 63.5% of participants wanted more information about functional foods with preferred sources being newspapers/magazines/books (68.5%) and food labels (66.1%). Participants were predominately (93.5%) aware of health claims on functional foods and those with more education were more likely to report being aware of health claims (p = 0.045). Although functional food consumption among older adults in this sample is high, there is a need for further information regarding functional foods. These results inform stakeholders regarding the potential for information to influence functional food acceptance among older adult consumers.

  17. Executive Function and Food Approach Behavior in Middle Childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karoline eGroppe

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Executive function (EF has long been considered to be a unitary, domain-general cognitive ability. However, recent research suggests differentiating ‘hot’ affective and ‘cool’ cognitive aspects of EF. Yet, findings regarding this two-factor construct are still inconsistent. In particular, the development of this factor structure remains unclear and data on school-aged children is lacking. Furthermore, studies linking EF and overweight or obesity suggest that EF contributes to the regulation of eating behavior. So far, however, the links between EF and eating behavior have rarely been investigated in children and non-clinical populations.First, we examined whether EF can be divided into hot and cool factors or whether they actually correspond to a unitary construct in middle childhood. Second, we examined how hot and cool EF are associated with different eating styles that put children at risk of becoming overweight during development. Hot and cool EF were assessed experimentally in a non-clinical population of 1,657 elementary-school children (aged 6-11 years. The ‘food approach’ behavior was rated mainly via parent questionnaires.Findings indicate that hot EF is distinguishable from cool EF. However, only cool EF seems to represent a coherent functional entity, whereas hot EF does not seem to be a homogenous construct. This was true for a younger and an older subgroup of children. Furthermore, different EF components were correlated with eating styles, such as responsiveness to food, desire to drink, and restrained eating in girls but not in boys. This shows that lower levels of EF are not only seen in clinical populations of obese patients but are already associated with food approach styles in a normal population of elementary school-aged girls. Although the direction of effect still has to be clarified, results point to the possibility that EF constitutes a risk factor for eating styles contributing to the development of

  18. Executive function and food approach behavior in middle childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groppe, Karoline; Elsner, Birgit

    2014-01-01

    Executive function (EF) has long been considered to be a unitary, domain-general cognitive ability. However, recent research suggests differentiating "hot" affective and "cool" cognitive aspects of EF. Yet, findings regarding this two-factor construct are still inconsistent. In particular, the development of this factor structure remains unclear and data on school-aged children is lacking. Furthermore, studies linking EF and overweight or obesity suggest that EF contributes to the regulation of eating behavior. So far, however, the links between EF and eating behavior have rarely been investigated in children and non-clinical populations. First, we examined whether EF can be divided into hot and cool factors or whether they actually correspond to a unitary construct in middle childhood. Second, we examined how hot and cool EF are associated with different eating styles that put children at risk of becoming overweight during development. Hot and cool EF were assessed experimentally in a non-clinical population of 1657 elementary-school children (aged 6-11 years). The "food approach" behavior was rated mainly via parent questionnaires. Findings indicate that hot EF is distinguishable from cool EF. However, only cool EF seems to represent a coherent functional entity, whereas hot EF does not seem to be a homogenous construct. This was true for a younger and an older subgroup of children. Furthermore, different EF components were correlated with eating styles, such as responsiveness to food, desire to drink, and restrained eating in girls but not in boys. This shows that lower levels of EF are not only seen in clinical populations of obese patients but are already associated with food approach styles in a normal population of elementary school-aged girls. Although the direction of effect still has to be clarified, results point to the possibility that EF constitutes a risk factor for eating styles contributing to the development of overweight in the long-term.

  19. Utilizing food effects to overcome challenges in delivery of lipophilic bioactives: structural design of medical and functional foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClements, David Julian

    2013-12-01

    The oral bioavailability of many lipophilic bioactives, such as pharmaceuticals and nutraceuticals, is relatively low due to their poor solubility, permeability and/or chemical stability within the human gastrointestinal tract (GIT). The oral bioavailability of lipophilic bioactives can be improved by designing food matrices that control their release, solubilization, transport and absorption within the GIT. This article discusses the challenges associated with delivering lipophilic bioactive components, the impact of food composition and structure on oral bioavailability and the design of functional and medical foods for improving the oral bioavailability of lipophilic bioactives. Food-based delivery systems can be used to improve the oral bioavailability of lipophilic bioactives. There are a number of potential advantages to delivering lipophilic bioactives using functional or medical foods: greater compliance than conventional delivery forms; increased bioavailability and efficacy; and reduced variability in biological effects. However, food matrices are structurally complex multicomponent materials and research is still needed to identify optimum structures and compositions for particular bioactives.

  20. Natural antioxidants in functional foods: from food safety to health benefits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nieto, Susana

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Oxygen is essential for metabolism but it may be highly damaging for both organisms and foods unless properly controlled. Among uncontrolled detrimental processes lipid oxidation (or oxidative rancidity is one of the most relevant. Oxidative rancidity of foods is initiated by reactive oxygen species (ROS. ROS are also formed in living organisms as consequence of metabolic activity with potentially sided effects, though a certain physiological level of ROS is crucial for the regulation of cell functions. Oxidative stress is defined as a disturbance in the pro-oxidant/anti-oxidant balance and antioxidants of synthetic or natural origin may have an important role in the maintenance of this balance. Synthetic antioxidants are widely used in the food industry, however concerns about their safety have changed the interest to natural antioxidants which are presumed to be safe. Natural antioxidants such as tocopherols, ascorbic acid, rosemary extracts, lycopene and some flavonoids are now available to be added to foods in replacement of synthetic products. These antioxidants may reinforce the activity of the endogenous antioxidant systems providing extra protection against oxidative stress. Food preserved with added natural antioxidants can be considered as functional foods because these products can provide better health conditions to consumer.El oxígeno es un metabolito esencial para la vida. Sin embargo puede ser altamente dañino para el organismo y para los alimentos que consumimos si su actividad no es controlada. Uno de los efectos mas deteriorativos del oxígeno es la oxidación de los lípidos o rancidez oxidativa. Este es un proceso que en los alimentos es iniciado por las llamadas especies reactivas del oxígeno (ROS, las que también se pueden formar en los organismos vivos como consecuencia de la actividad metabólica de estos, con efectos graves para estos organismos. Ciertos procesos metabólicos requieren de la participación de los ROS

  1. Evaluation of the anti-inflammatory actions of various functional food materials including glucosamine on synovial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamagishi, Yoshie; Someya, Akimasa; Imai, Kensuke; Nagao, Junji; Nagaoka, Isao

    2017-08-01

    The anti-inflammatory actions of glucosamine (GlcN) on arthritic disorders involve the suppression of inflammatory mediator production from synovial cells. GlcN has also been reported to inhibit the activation of the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway. The present study aimed to determine the cooperative and anti‑inflammatory actions of functional food materials and evaluated the production of interleukin (IL)‑8 and phosphorylation of p38 MAPK in IL-1β-activated synovial cells, incubated with the combination of GlcN and various functional food materials containing L‑methionine (Met), undenatured type II collagen (UC‑II), chondroitin sulfate (CS), methylsulfonylmethane (MSM) and agaro-oligosaccharide (AO). The results indicated that Met, UC‑II, CS, MSM and AO slightly or moderately suppressed the IL-1β-stimulated IL‑8 production by human synovial MH7A cells. The same compounds further decreased the IL‑8 level lowered by GlcN. Similarly, they slightly suppressed the phosphorylation level of p38 MAPK and further reduced the phosphorylation level lowered by GlcN. These observations suggest a possibility that these functional food materials exert an anti‑inflammatory action (inhibition of IL‑8 production) in combination with GlcN by cooperatively suppressing the p38 MAPK signaling (phosphorylation).

  2. What determines ingredient awareness of consumers? A study on ten functional food ingredients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bornkessel, S.; Bröring, S.; Omta, S.W.F.; Trijp, van J.C.M.

    2014-01-01

    Given the importance of consumer awareness of functional food ingredients for healthy food choices, the aim of this study is to explore consumers’ ingredient awareness and the determinants which influence the awareness about functional food ingredients. A sample of 200 German consumers was interview

  3. Infant food applications of complex carbohydrates: Structure, synthesis, and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, Dorothy L; Craft, Kelly M; Townsend, Steven D

    2017-01-02

    Professional health bodies such as the World Health Organization (WHO), the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP), and the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) recommend breast milk as the sole source of food during the first year of life. This position recognizes human milk as being uniquely suited for infant nutrition. Nonetheless, most neonates in the West are fed alternatives by 6 months of age. Although inferior to human milk in most aspects, infant formulas are able to promote effective growth and development. However, while breast-fed infants feature a microbiota dominated by bifidobacteria, the bacterial flora of formula-fed infants is usually heterogeneous with comparatively lower levels of bifidobacteria. Thus, the objective of any infant food manufacturer is to prepare a product that results in a formula-fed infant developing a breast-fed infant-like microbiota. The goal of this focused review is to discuss the structure, synthesis, and function of carbohydrate additives that play a role in governing the composition of the infant microbiome and have other health benefits.

  4. Dietary supplements and functional foods: 2 sides of a coin?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halsted, Charles H

    2003-04-01

    Dietary supplements are used by more than one-half of the adult US population. In contrast to pharmaceuticals, dietary supplements may be sold in the United States with little regulation other than listing of ingredients and the potential health benefits. By contrast, herbal products in Germany are carefully regulated by the same standards as drugs, and efforts are under way to standardize their regulation in the entire European Union. Most herbal users do not inform their physicians that they are taking these supplements, and most physicians do not inquire. Although some herbal products have clinically proven benefits, it is increasingly apparent that many contain potentially toxic substances, particularly in relation to interactions with drugs. Hence, it is essential that practicing physicians develop a working knowledge of herbals-specifically, about claims for their usage and potential or proven efficacies and toxicities-and that they incorporate such knowledge into the evaluation and management of their patients. By contrast, functional foods-integral components of the diet that are understood to contribute added health benefits-are the subject of intense and widespread research in food and nutritional science. Examples include many polyphenolic substances, carotenoids, soy isoflavones, fish oils, and components of nuts that possess antioxidant and other properties that decrease the risk of vascular diseases and cancer. Practicing physicians are advised to stay abreast of these emerging findings in order to best advise their patients on the value of health-promoting diets in disease prevention.

  5. Inulin and Oligofructosis: a review about functional properties, prebiotic effects and importance for food industry

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Celia de Oliveira Hauly; Janaína Andréa Moscatto

    2002-01-01

    Nowadays consumers are more conscious about the relation between food and health. Therefore food industry has been looking for food that has a lot of benefits besides good flavor and appearance. Inulin and oligofructose are fructose polimers, vastly found in plants as storage carbohydrates. They present important functional for the food industry. Both inulin and oligofructose have been used as fiber bulk in food products. Differently from other fibers, they do not add flavor, allowing the foo...

  6. Functional Food Market Development in Serbia: Motivations and Barriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Žaklina Stojanović

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present main findings obtained from the empirical analysis of the functional food market in Serbia. The analysis is based on the in-depth interviews with relevant processors and retailers present on the market. The following set of topics are considered: (1 motivations (driving forces and barriers to offer products with nutrition and health (N&H claim and (2 perception of consumer demand toward N&H claimed products. Differences between Serbia and other Western Balkan Countries (WBC are explored by using nonparametric techniques based on the independent samples. Results support overall conclusion that this market segment in Serbia is underdeveloped and rather producer than consumer driven compared to more developed WBC markets.

  7. The role of whey in functional dairy food production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljubica Tratnik

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Modern life style also enhances a need for creation of better dairyproducts, in comparison with traditional ones, possessing functionalcharacteristics. Whey is consisted primarily of lactose, proteins of high nutritive value, important minerals and imunoactive compounds, as well as vitamins of B group. It can be used for fermented probiotic drinks and albumin cheese production. Using new methods of pressure membrane filtration and demineralisation the economic manufacture of whey, as a valuable source of nutrients, is enabled. The aim of this paper is to give an overview on the possibilities of sweet whey, especially whey protein concentrates, use in functional dairy products manufacture from cow’s and goat’s milk. The paper is based on the published scientific research performed in the Laboratory for Technology of Milk and Dairy Products of the Faculty of Food Technology and Biotechnology University of Zagreb.

  8. Chemopreventive functional food through selenium biofortification of cauliflower plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca Oancea

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to develop a biotechnological approach for production of cauliflower as safe functional food, with an optimal content of chemopreventive compounds, by a protective biofortification, through selenium application together with betaine and spraying adjuvants. In the control and treated cauliflower plants we determined the amount of total selenium, glucosinolates (sulforaphane and SAH (S-Adenosyl-homocysteine. We also assayed the chemopreventive effects of compounds formed in the treated cruciferous plants through in vitro tests, using human colorectal tumor cell line (CaCo2. Extracts of plants treated with selenium applied together with betaine and spraying adjuvant were significantly more active on reduction of tumoral cell viability than the extract of control plants. Cauliflower plants, obtained after our treatments for protective biofortification, were used to feed rabbits, for 10 days. The ingestion of biofortified cauliflower did not modify the hematological and biochemical parameters on the laboratory animals.

  9. Functional Values and Characteristics of Food Brand Name Based on the Relation between Language and Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haitao Lu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available For commodities, labeling is a mark enabling food producers or manufacturers to differ their goods from others in a same classification. As a kind of labeling, food brand is various in form and its name is the focus of this study. With market economic system, Chinese food industry is facing much severer market competitions, so studying on languages of food brand name has significant guidance to the sustainable development of food brand. This study investigates characteristics of food brand name whose functional values are analyzed and discussed in the view of culture, leading to the indication of main problems and naming principles of food brand name.

  10. Dynamic Behaviors of a Nonautonomous Discrete Predator-Prey System Incorporating a Prey Refuge and Holling Type II Functional Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yumin Wu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A nonautonomous discrete predator-prey system incorporating a prey refuge and Holling type II functional response is studied in this paper. A set of sufficient conditions which guarantee the persistence and global stability of the system are obtained, respectively. Our results show that if refuge is large enough then predator species will be driven to extinction due to the lack of enough food. Two examples together with their numerical simulations show the feasibility of the main results.

  11. Functional foods: health claim-food product compatibility and the impact of health claim framing on consumer evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Kleef, Ellen; van Trijp, Hans C M; Luning, Pieternel

    2005-06-01

    Two studies are reported, which aim to strengthen the scientific underpinning of strategic decisions regarding functional food development, as to (1) which health benefits to claim, (2) with which product (category), and (3) in which communication format. The first exploratory study is a secondary analysis of 10 different health claims systematically combined with 10 different food carriers to evaluate their combined suitability for functional food positioning. The results show that consumers tend to prefer functional food concepts that primarily communicate disease-related health benefits in carriers with a healthy image or health positioning history. Study 2 examines health claim format and systematically varies the way in which specific health benefits are being communicated to the consumer. Two physiologically oriented claims (heart disease and osteoporosis) and two psychologically oriented food claims (stress and lack of energy) are expressed in enhanced function format versus disease risk reduction format. Also, it includes the individual difference variable of 'regulatory focus' and the health status of the respondent to explore how these factors impact health claim evaluation. The results show that consumer evaluations primarily differ to the extent that health claims are personally relevant in addressing an experienced disease state. Framing is important, but its effect differs by health benefit. No strong effects for consumers' regulatory focus were found. Underlying mechanisms of these effects and their implications for the development of functional foods are discussed.

  12. Animal diversity and ecosystem functioning in dynamic food webs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Florian D.; Brose, Ulrich; Rall, Björn C.; Guill, Christian

    2016-10-01

    Species diversity is changing globally and locally, but the complexity of ecological communities hampers a general understanding of the consequences of animal species loss on ecosystem functioning. High animal diversity increases complementarity of herbivores but also increases feeding rates within the consumer guild. Depending on the balance of these counteracting mechanisms, species-rich animal communities may put plants under top-down control or may release them from grazing pressure. Using a dynamic food-web model with body-mass constraints, we simulate ecosystem functions of 20,000 communities of varying animal diversity. We show that diverse animal communities accumulate more biomass and are more exploitative on plants, despite their higher rates of intra-guild predation. However, they do not reduce plant biomass because the communities are composed of larger, and thus energetically more efficient, plant and animal species. This plasticity of community body-size structure reconciles the debate on the consequences of animal species loss for primary productivity.

  13. Development of a locally sustainable functional food based on mutandabota, a traditional food in southern Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mpofu, Augustine; Linnemann, Anita R; Sybesma, Wilbert; Kort, Remco; Nout, M J R; Smid, Eddy J

    2014-05-01

    A probiotic dairy product was developed on the basis of a traditional dish called mutandabota to enable resource-poor populations in southern Africa to benefit from a functional food. Mutandabota is widely consumed in rural southern Africa, making it an ideal food matrix to carry probiotics. First, a process to produce probiotic mutandabota was designed. Raw cow milk was boiled and subsequently cooled to ambient temperature (25°C). Next, dry pulp from the fruit of the baobab tree (Adansonia digitata L.) was added to the milk at a concentration of 4% (wt/vol). This mixture was inoculated with the probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus yoba and left to ferment for 24h, while the growth of the bacterial culture was monitored. Final ingredients were then added to produce probiotic mutandabota that had 14% (wt/vol) baobab fruit pulp and 7% (wt/vol) sugar in cow milk. The pH of probiotic mutandabota was pH 3.5, which ensures that the product is microbiologically safe. The viable plate count of L. rhamnosus yoba increased from 5.8 ± 0.3 log cfu/mL at the point of inoculation to 8.8 ± 0.4 log cfu/mL at the moment of consumption, thereby meeting the criterion to have a viable count of the probiotic bacterium in excess of 6 log cfu/mL of a product. Baobab fruit pulp at 4% promoted growth of L. rhamnosus yoba with a maximal specific growth rate (μmax) of 0.6 ± 0.2/h at 30°C. The developed technology, though specific for this particular product, has potential to be applied for the delivery of probiotics through a variety of indigenous foods in different regions of the world. Upon consumption, probiotic mutandabota is expected to improve the population's intestinal health, which is especially relevant for vulnerable target groups such as children and elderly people. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Conceptual model of consumer’s willingness to eat functional foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babicz-Zielinska, Ewa; Jezewska-Zychowicz, Maria

    The functional foods constitute the important segment of the food market. Among factors that determine the intentions to eat functional foods, the psychological factors play very important roles. Motives, attitudes and personality are key factors. The relationships between socio-demographic characteristics, attitudes and willingness to purchase functional foods were not fully confirmed. Consumers’ beliefs about health benefits from eaten foods seem to be a strong determinant of a choice of functional foods. The objective of this study was to determine relations between familiarity, attitudes, and beliefs in benefits and risks about functional foods and develop some conceptual models of willingness to eat. The sample of Polish consumers counted 1002 subjects at age 15+. The foods enriched with vitamins or minerals, and cholesterol-lowering margarine or drinks were considered. The questionnaire focused on familiarity with foods, attitudes, beliefs about benefits and risks of their consumption was constructed. The Pearson’s correlations and linear regression equations were calculated. The strongest relations appeared between attitudes, high health value and high benefits, (r = 0.722 and 0.712 for enriched foods, and 0.664 and 0.693 for cholesterol-lowering foods), and between high health value and high benefits (0.814 for enriched foods and 0.758 for cholesterol-lowering foods). The conceptual models based on linear regression of relations between attitudes and all other variables, considering or not the familiarity with the foods, were developed. The positive attitudes and declared consumption are more important for enriched foods. The beliefs on high health value and high benefits play the most important role in the purchase. The interrelations between different variables may be described by new linear regression models, with the beliefs in high benefits, positive attitudes and familiarity being most significant predictors. Health expectations and trust to

  15. Amino-functionalized core-shell magnetic mesoporous composite microspheres for Pb(II) and Cd(II) removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yulin; Liang, Song; Wang, Juntao; Yu, Shuili; Wang, Yilong

    2013-04-01

    Amino-functionalized Fe3O4@mesoporous SiO2 core-shell composite microspheres NH2-MS in created in multiple synthesis steps have been investigated for Pb(II) and Cd(II) adsorption. The microspheres were characterized by transmission electron microscope (TEM), scanning electron microscope (SEM), N2 adsorption-desorption, zeta potential measurements and vibrating sample magnetometer. Batch adsorption tests indicated that NH2-MS exhibited higher adsorption affinity toward Pb(II) and Cd(II) than MS did. The Langmuir model could fit the adsorption isotherm very well with maximum adsorption capacity of 128.21 and 51.81 mg/g for Pb(II) and Cd(II), respectively, implying that adsorption processes involved monolayer adsorption. Pb(II) and Cd(II) adsorption could be well described by the pseudo second-order kinetics model, and was found to be strongly dependent on pH and humic acid. The Pb(II)- and Cd(II)-loaded microspheres were effectively desorbed using 0.01 mol/L HCl or EDTA solution. NH2-MS have promise for use as adsorbents in the removal of Pb(II) and Cd(II) in wastewater treatment processes.

  16. Gazing into the crystal ball: future considerations for ensuring sustained growth of the functional food and nutraceutical marketplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinangeli, Christopher P F; Jones, Peter J H

    2013-06-01

    Over the last decade the concept of functional foods and nutraceuticals (FFN) has gained support from various stakeholders including the food industry, scientific and academic community, government institutions or regulators, producers and consumers. However, as one begins to evaluate the global FFN industry, several issues emerge including (i) a lack of consensus across jurisdictions for acknowledging safe and efficacious FFN, (ii) challenges regarding the classification of novel food-derived bioactives as FFN or drugs, and (iii) a disconnect between nutrient requirements and dosages of FFN required to facilitate health benefits. The objectives of the present review are to discuss the role of existing stakeholders within the FFN marketplace and identify performance indicators for growth within the FFN sector. In addition, the following report provides feasible resolutions to present and future challenges facing the global FFN industry to ensure sustained long-term growth.

  17. Functional Foods and Nutraceuticals in the Primary Prevention of Cardiovascular Diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Alissa, Eman M.; Gordon A Ferns

    2012-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is now the leading cause of death globally and is a growing health concern. Dietary factors are important in the pathogenesis of CVD and may to a large degree determine CVD risk, but have been less extensively investigated. Functional foods are those that are thought to have physiological benefits and/or reduce the risk of chronic disease beyond their basic nutritional functions. The food industry has started to market products labelled as “functional foods.” Alth...

  18. Loss-of-function variants of the filaggrin gene are associated with clinical reactivity to foods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ginkel, C. D.; Flokstra-de Blok, B. M. J.; Kollen, B. J.; Kukler, J.; Koppelman, G. H.; Dubois, A. E. J.

    The aim of this study was to assess the genetic association of Filaggrin loss-of-function (FLG LOF) genetic variants with food allergy, and to investigate the added value of this test in diagnosing food allergy. Clinical reactivity to foods was diagnosed by the gold standard, the double-blind,

  19. Response to consumer demand for reduced-fat foods; multi-functional fat replacers

    Science.gov (United States)

    The excessive dietary fat intake can result in health problems such as obesity and heart-related diseases, resulting in increased consumer demand for reduced fat foods. A number of food ingredients with fat-like functions have been developed as fat alternatives in the food industry. Especially, so...

  20. Functional Foods Examined: The Health Claims Being Made for Food Products and the Need for Regulation

    OpenAIRE

    1996-01-01

    This report examines food products which claim, or imply, that they possess a health or\\ud nutritional benefit to the consumer. These include the recently-promoted ‘functional’ foods —\\ud such as those with added bacterial cultures, fish oils or soluble polysaccharides supposedly of\\ud benefit to the eater — as well as foods which have for some time been promoting themselves as\\ud having the benefit of added nutrients or being a rich source of certain nutrients.\\ud That a food product should ...

  1. The Functional Foods Dossier: Building Solid Health Claims. How to prepare the scientific dossier for health claims of European functional food. Practical Industrial guide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    dr. Korver, O.; Kühn, M.C.; Richardson, D.P.

    2004-01-01

    This practical book explains to the industry manager all the special aspects related to the preparation of the scientific dossier for health claims of European functional foods (science, legislation, communication, product development).

  2. Yellow Mealworm Protein for Food Purposes - Extraction and Functional Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xue; Vázquez-Gutiérrez, José Luis; Johansson, Daniel P; Landberg, Rikard; Langton, Maud

    2016-01-01

    A protocol for extraction of yellow mealworm larvae proteins was established, conditions were evaluated and the resulting protein extract was characterised. The freeze-dried yellow mealworm larvae contained around 33% fat, 51% crude protein and 43% true protein on a dry matter basis. The true protein content of the protein extract was about 75%, with an extraction rate of 70% under optimised extraction conditions using 0.25 M NaOH, a NaOH solution:ethanol defatted worm ratio of 15:1 mL/g, 40°C for 1 h and extraction twice. The protein extract was a good source of essential amino acids. The lowest protein solubility in distilled water solution was found between pH 4 and 5, and increased with either increasing or decreasing pH. Lower solubility was observed in 0.5 M NaCl solution compared with distilled water. The rheological tests indicated that temperature, sample concentration, addition of salt and enzyme, incubation time and pH alterations influenced the elastic modulus of yellow mealworm protein extract (YMPE). These results demonstrate that the functional properties of YMPE can be modified for different food applications.

  3. Strawberry as a functional food: an evidence-based review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Arpita; Nguyen, Angel; Betts, Nancy M; Lyons, Timothy J

    2014-01-01

    Emerging research provides substantial evidence to classify strawberries as a functional food with several preventive and therapeutic health benefits. Strawberries, a rich source of phytochemicals (ellagic acid, anthocyanins, quercetin, and catechin) and vitamins (ascorbic acid and folic acid), have been highly ranked among dietary sources of polyphenols and antioxidant capacity. It should however be noted that these bioactive factors can be significantly affected by differences in strawberry cultivars, agricultural practices, storage, and processing methods: freezing versus dry heat has been associated with maximum retention of strawberry bioactives in several studies. Nutritional epidemiology shows inverse association between strawberry consumption and incidence of hypertension or serum C-reactive protein; controlled feeding studies have identified the ability of strawberries to attenuate high-fat diet induced postprandial oxidative stress and inflammation, or postprandial hyperglycemia, or hyperlipidemia in subjects with cardiovascular risk factors. Mechanistic studies have elucidated specific biochemical pathways that might confer these protective effects of strawberries: upregulation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) activity, downregulation of NF-kB activity and subsequent inflammation, or inhibitions of carbohydrate digestive enzymes. These health effects may be attributed to the synergistic effects of nutrients and phytochemicals in strawberries. Further studies are needed to define the optimal dose and duration of strawberry intake in affecting levels of biomarkers or pathways related to chronic diseases.

  4. Yellow Mealworm Protein for Food Purposes - Extraction and Functional Properties.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue Zhao

    Full Text Available A protocol for extraction of yellow mealworm larvae proteins was established, conditions were evaluated and the resulting protein extract was characterised. The freeze-dried yellow mealworm larvae contained around 33% fat, 51% crude protein and 43% true protein on a dry matter basis. The true protein content of the protein extract was about 75%, with an extraction rate of 70% under optimised extraction conditions using 0.25 M NaOH, a NaOH solution:ethanol defatted worm ratio of 15:1 mL/g, 40°C for 1 h and extraction twice. The protein extract was a good source of essential amino acids. The lowest protein solubility in distilled water solution was found between pH 4 and 5, and increased with either increasing or decreasing pH. Lower solubility was observed in 0.5 M NaCl solution compared with distilled water. The rheological tests indicated that temperature, sample concentration, addition of salt and enzyme, incubation time and pH alterations influenced the elastic modulus of yellow mealworm protein extract (YMPE. These results demonstrate that the functional properties of YMPE can be modified for different food applications.

  5. Development of functional food products in relation to obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Choudhary

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract:The development of new eating habits, as well as actual trends in production and consumption,has a health, environmental and social impact. The entire world is fighting diseases characteristic of the modern age such as obesity, osteoporosis, cancer, diabetes, allergies, and dental problems. With a global increase in the prevalence of obesity, both nutrition and exercise play key roles in its prevention and treatment. Natural product (nutraceutical interventions are currently being investigated on a large-scale basis as potential treatments for obesity and weight management. With advancing nutritional sciences, several nutrients such as; low-glycemic-indexcarbohydrates, 5-hydroxytryptophan, green tea extract, and chromium have been shown topromote weight loss. The first two nutrients decrease appetite, green tea increases the 24 hrenergy expenditure, and chromium promotes the composition of the weight lost to be fat rather than lean tissue. These have been assembled, in efficacious doses, into a new functional food product and described in this review. Each component has already been shown to promote weight loss independently in clinical trials.

  6. Level of Competence of Food & Beverage Services NC II Passers: Basis for Strengthening the Training Program in Western Visayas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymund B. Moreno

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to assess the level of competence of Food and Beverage Services NC II certified passers in Western Visayas as part of ensuring that what industry wants (stated as a competency standards comes back in outcomes of training (represented by a credential issued to a learner. Moreover, the result of the study serves as the basis for designing a proposed training plan in strengthening the Food and Beverage Services NC II Training Program in Western Visayas. The study surveyed 50 Food and Beverage Services Certified NC II Passers and 8 supervisors assigned in different hotel establishments in Western Visayas using the survey questionnaire based from TESDA’s training regulations for Food and Beverage Services NC II to collect relevant data from the population of the study. The data was analyzed using frequency count, means, standard deviation, ranks and SPSS software for statistical analysis. Results of the study based on the data culled from the respondents’ collated scores showed that NC II passers are fully aware of the competencies required by the industry in their workplace. T –tests indicated that there are significant differences among the responses of participants NC II passers and their respective supervisors. The obtained p value of 0 .008, 0 .006 and 0 .000 for t- test paired differences was less than 0 .05 alpha levels on basic, common and core competencies. Study also showed that there is a varying degree of responses on the perceived level of competence of Food and Beverage Services NC II passers in Western Visayas in all competencies as rated by the NC II passers’ themselves compared to the ratings of their respective supervisors. Thus, this study supported to the thesis that on the perceived level of competence based on the core competencies, both respondents are in agreement in the importance of executive bodies of national systems that work in the field of competencies standardization and/or certification

  7. Structure/Function/Dynamics of Photosystem II Plastoquinone Binding Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambreva, Maya D.; Russo, Daniela; Polticelli, Fabio; Scognamiglio, Viviana; Antonacci, Amina; Zobnina, Veranika; Campi, Gaetano; Rea, Giuseppina

    2014-01-01

    Photosystem II (PSII) continuously attracts the attention of researchers aiming to unravel the riddle of its functioning and efficiency fundamental for all life on Earth. Besides, an increasing number of biotechnological applications have been envisaged exploiting and mimicking the unique properties of this macromolecular pigment-protein complex. The PSII organization and working principles have inspired the design of electrochemical water splitting schemes and charge separating triads in energy storage systems as well as biochips and sensors for environmental, agricultural and industrial screening of toxic compounds. An intriguing opportunity is the development of sensor devices, exploiting native or manipulated PSII complexes or ad hoc synthesized polypeptides mimicking the PSII reaction centre proteins as bio-sensing elements. This review offers a concise overview of the recent improvements in the understanding of structure and function of PSII donor side, with focus on the interactions of the plastoquinone cofactors with the surrounding environment and operational features. Furthermore, studies focused on photosynthetic proteins structure/function/dynamics and computational analyses aimed at rational design of high-quality bio-recognition elements in biosensor devices are discussed. PMID:24678671

  8. Functional Implications of Photosystem II Crystal Formation in Photosynthetic Membranes*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tietz, Stefanie; Puthiyaveetil, Sujith; Enlow, Heather M.; Yarbrough, Robert; Wood, Magnus; Semchonok, Dmitry A.; Lowry, Troy; Li, Zhirong; Jahns, Peter; Boekema, Egbert J.; Lenhert, Steven; Niyogi, Krishna K.; Kirchhoff, Helmut

    2015-01-01

    The structural organization of proteins in biological membranes can affect their function. Photosynthetic thylakoid membranes in chloroplasts have the remarkable ability to change their supramolecular organization between disordered and semicrystalline states. Although the change to the semicrystalline state is known to be triggered by abiotic factors, the functional significance of this protein organization has not yet been understood. Taking advantage of an Arabidopsis thaliana fatty acid desaturase mutant (fad5) that constitutively forms semicrystalline arrays, we systematically test the functional implications of protein crystals in photosynthetic membranes. Here, we show that the change into an ordered state facilitates molecular diffusion of photosynthetic components in crowded thylakoid membranes. The increased mobility of small lipophilic molecules like plastoquinone and xanthophylls has implications for diffusion-dependent electron transport and photoprotective energy-dependent quenching. The mobility of the large photosystem II supercomplexes, however, is impaired, leading to retarded repair of damaged proteins. Our results demonstrate that supramolecular changes into more ordered states have differing impacts on photosynthesis that favor either diffusion-dependent electron transport and photoprotection or protein repair processes, thus fine-tuning the photosynthetic energy conversion. PMID:25897076

  9. Functional Implications of Photosystem II Crystal Formation in Photosynthetic Membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tietz, Stefanie; Puthiyaveetil, Sujith; Enlow, Heather M; Yarbrough, Robert; Wood, Magnus; Semchonok, Dmitry A; Lowry, Troy; Li, Zhirong; Jahns, Peter; Boekema, Egbert J; Lenhert, Steven; Niyogi, Krishna K; Kirchhoff, Helmut

    2015-05-29

    The structural organization of proteins in biological membranes can affect their function. Photosynthetic thylakoid membranes in chloroplasts have the remarkable ability to change their supramolecular organization between disordered and semicrystalline states. Although the change to the semicrystalline state is known to be triggered by abiotic factors, the functional significance of this protein organization has not yet been understood. Taking advantage of an Arabidopsis thaliana fatty acid desaturase mutant (fad5) that constitutively forms semicrystalline arrays, we systematically test the functional implications of protein crystals in photosynthetic membranes. Here, we show that the change into an ordered state facilitates molecular diffusion of photosynthetic components in crowded thylakoid membranes. The increased mobility of small lipophilic molecules like plastoquinone and xanthophylls has implications for diffusion-dependent electron transport and photoprotective energy-dependent quenching. The mobility of the large photosystem II supercomplexes, however, is impaired, leading to retarded repair of damaged proteins. Our results demonstrate that supramolecular changes into more ordered states have differing impacts on photosynthesis that favor either diffusion-dependent electron transport and photoprotection or protein repair processes, thus fine-tuning the photosynthetic energy conversion.

  10. Functional foods: regulation and innovations in the EU

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moors, E.H.M.

    2012-01-01

    Worldwide consumers are becoming more interested in the relation between food and health. In order to harmonize regulation on foods throughout the EU, the Regulation EC1924/2006 on nutrition and health claims came into force, as a first specific set of EU legal rules dealing with nutrition and

  11. Functional assessment of feet of patients with type II diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinicius Saura Cardoso

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the incidence of functional changes and risk of developing ulcers in type II diabetic patients seen in Primary Healthcare Units (Unidades Básicas de Saúde- UBS. Methods: A cross-sectional, quantitative and descriptive study comprising 80patients with type II diabetes mellitus (DM aged between 41 to 85 years and attended inthe UBS in the city of Parnaíba-PI. Volunteers responded to the identification form and theMichigan Neuropathy Screening Instrument (MNSI, followed by an evaluation of the lowerlimbs, as follows: achilles and patellar reflex, palpation of arterial pulses (dorsalis pedis and posterior tibial, tactile sensitivity (Monofilament 10g and vibration sensitivity (128Hz tuning fork; identification of the presence of changes such as ingrown toenails, calluses,claw toes and hair loss. Finally, using the information acquired from the assessment, subjects were classified according to the risk of developing wounds. Results: The sample consisted of 76 diabetic patients, with average age of 63.8 ± 10.4 years, 63 (82.8% were female, mean diagnostic time 8.8 ± 7.2 years, average body mass index (BMI 28.2 ± 5.4 kg/m2, with 15.7% of the sample being smokers. The myotatic reflexes and arterial pulses were reduced. Tactile sensitivity was identified in 81.5% and 13.1% did not feel the vibration of the tuning fork. The most dominant changes identified were calluses, 76.3% (n = 58. Risk level 2 of developing ulcers stood out, 52.6% (n = 40. Conclusion: Functional changes were detected in the sample and a classification of risk 2 for developing wounds was found in more than 50% of the assessed patients. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.5020/18061230.2013.p563

  12. Kr II and Xe II axial velocity distribution functions in a cross-field ion source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lejeune, A.; Bourgeois, G.; Mazouffre, S.

    2012-07-01

    Laser induced fluorescence measurements were carried out in a cross-field ion source to examine the behaviour of the axial ion velocity distribution functions (VDFs) in the expanding plasma. In the present paper, we focus on the axial VDFs of Kr II and Xe II ions. We examine the contourplots in a 1D-phase space (x,vx) representation in front of the exhaust channel and along the centerline of the ion source. The main ion beam, whose momentum corresponds to the ions that are accelerated through the whole potential drop, is observed. A secondary structure reveals the ions coming from the opposite side of the channel. We show that the formation of the neutralized ion flow is governed by the annular geometry. The assumption of a collisionless shock or a double layer due to supersonic beam interaction is not necessary. A non-negligible fraction of slow ions originates in local ionization or charge-exchange collision events between ions of the expanding plasma and atoms of the background residual gas. Slow ions that are produced near the centerline in the vicinity of the exit plane are accelerated toward the source body with a negative velocity leading to a high sputtering of front face. On the contrary, the ions that are produced in the vicinity of the channel exit plane are partially accelerated by the extended electric field.

  13. Application of mesoporous SBA-15 silica functionalized with 4-amino-2-mercaptopyrimidine for the adsorption of Cu(II), Zn(II), Cd(II), Ni(II), and Pb(II) from water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorgetto, Alexandre de Oliveira; Pereira, Silvana Pontes; Silva, Rafael Innocenti Vieira da; Saeki, Margarida Juri; Martines, Marco Antonio Utrera; Pedrosa, Valber de Albuquerque; Castro, Gustavo Rocha de

    2015-01-01

    This work reports the sol-gel synthesis of a SBA-15 silica, and its functionalization with 4-amino-2-mercaptopyrimidine to perform adsorption of metal species from aqueous media. The functionalization of the material was confirmed by FTIR and superficial area measurements. The final material was tested through batch experiments to uncover its adsorptive properties towards the adsorption of Cu(II), Cd(II), Zn(II), Pb(II) and Ni(II). Contact time and pH conditions were investigated, and the material presented slow adsorption kinetics, which was best described by the pseudo-second order model. In addition, at pH 5 - 6, the adsorption of the metal ions was favored. Under optimized conditions, the material had its maximum adsorption capacities determined for all metal species studied, and the obtained values were 13.0 µmol g(-1) for Zn(II), 12.3 µmol g(-1) for Cu(II), 3.45 µmol g(-1) for Ni(II), 2.45 µmol g(-1) for Pb(II) and 0.60 µmol g(-1) for Cd(II). The capacity differences between each metal ion were discussed in terms of their ionic radii and Person's soft/hard acids/bases concept.

  14. β-casein as a functional food component

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sulewska, Anna Maria

    Milk is a complex mixture of various components which include proteins, carbohydrates, lipids and minerals. Milk proteins can be divided into two classes: whey proteins (20%) and caseins (80% of total milk protein). As thermal treatment is a traditional method of food preservation, interactions...... which can improve stability and safety of food. Traditional methods of food preservation and sterilization require high temperature, which may result in undesirable changes such as change of color or texture. Development of novel food processing methods, which allow to create new milk-based products...... with novel textures, is highly valuable to the dairy industry. Understanding interactions that undergo during food processing is necessary for proper design of process. For example control of aggregation is required to achieve desired texture of the final product....

  15. Functional food productions: release the potential of bioactive compounds through food processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epidemiological studies of bioactive compounds from plant-based foods have consistently pointed to undisputed benefits of consumption of plant-based foods on human health particularly regarding cardiovascular diseases and cancers. However, in order to attain the dosage required from these studies, p...

  16. Scavenger receptor AI/II truncation, lung function and COPD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, M; Nordestgaard, B G; Tybjaerg-Hansen, A

    2011-01-01

    The scavenger receptor A-I/II (SRA-I/II) on alveolar macrophages is involved in recognition and clearance of modified lipids and inhaled particulates. A rare variant of the SRA-I/II gene, Arg293X, truncates the distal collagen-like domain, which is essential for ligand recognition. We tested whet...

  17. Production of poultry meat and eggs as functional food: Challenges and opportunities

    OpenAIRE

    Perić L.; Rodić V.; Milošević N.

    2011-01-01

    In the last decades people became highly aware of the connection between food and health, especially in developed countries of Europe and USA. Food can only be considered functional if together with its basic nutritional impact it has beneficial effects on human health. It must improve general conditions and/or decrease the risk of the disease. Functional foods should be enhanced with added ingredients not normally found in the product, providing health ben...

  18. Fermented Brown Rice Flour as Functional Food Ingredient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilowefah, Muna; Chinma, Chiemela; Bakar, Jamilah; Ghazali, Hasanah M.; Muhammad, Kharidah; Makeri, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    As fermentation could reduce the negative effects of bran on final cereal products, the utilization of whole-cereal flour is recommended, such as brown rice flour as a functional food ingredient. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the effect of fermented brown rice flour on white rice flour, white rice batter and its steamed bread qualities. Brown rice batter was fermented using commercial baker’s yeast (Eagle brand) according to the optimum conditions for moderate acidity (pH 5.5) to obtain fermented brown rice flour (FBRF). The FBRF was added to white rice flour at 0%, 10%, 20%, 30%, 40% and 50% levels to prepare steamed rice bread. Based on the sensory evaluation test, steamed rice bread containing 40% FBRF had the highest overall acceptability score. Thus, pasting properties of the composite rice flour, rheological properties of its batter, volume and texture properties of its steamed bread were determined. The results showed that peak viscosity of the rice flour containing 40% FBRF was significantly increased, whereas its breakdown, final viscosity and setback significantly decreased. Viscous, elastic and complex moduli of the batter having 40% FBRF were also significantly reduced. However, volume, specific volume, chewiness, resilience and cohesiveness of its steamed bread were significantly increased, while hardness and springiness significantly reduced in comparison to the control. These results established the effectiveness of yeast fermentation in reducing the detrimental effects of bran on the sensory properties of steamed white rice bread and encourage the usage of brown rice flour to enhance the quality of rice products. PMID:28234309

  19. Demographic and lifestyle characteristics of functional food consumers and dietary supplement users.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, N. de; Ocké, M.C.; Branderhorst, H.A.C.; Friele, R.

    2003-01-01

    Functional foods and/or supplements may be used in the context of a healthy lifestyle or as a means to compensate for an unhealthy lifestyle. Adverse long-term and/or cumulative effects of functional food or supplement intake are of public health concern; it is therefore important to identify functi

  20. Functional food monitoring as part of the new Dutch dietary monitoring system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rompelberg CJM; Jager M; Bakker MI; Buurma-Rethans EJM; Ocke MC; CVG

    2006-01-01

    Good data on functional food consumption necessary for an adequate Dutch nutrition policy are lacking. This lack may be overcome in future by including functional food monitoring in the new dietary monitoring system in the Netherlands. One specific form of monitoring could be an Internet-based quest

  1. Functional food monitoring as part of the new Dutch dietary monitoring system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rompelberg CJM; Jager M; Bakker MI; Buurma-Rethans EJM; Ocke MC; CVG

    2006-01-01

    Good data on functional food consumption necessary for an adequate Dutch nutrition policy are lacking. This lack may be overcome in future by including functional food monitoring in the new dietary monitoring system in the Netherlands. One specific form of monitoring could be an Internet-based quest

  2. Demographic and lifestyle characteristics of functional food consumers and dietary supplement users.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, N. de; Ocké, M.C.; Branderhorst, H.A.C.; Friele, R.

    2003-01-01

    Functional foods and/or supplements may be used in the context of a healthy lifestyle or as a means to compensate for an unhealthy lifestyle. Adverse long-term and/or cumulative effects of functional food or supplement intake are of public health concern; it is therefore important to identify functi

  3. Workshop Postlaunch Monitoring 'Functional Foods', waar ligt de rol van sector VCV?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong N de; Ocke MC; CVG

    2003-01-01

    In December 2002 the RIVM's Nutrition and Consumer Safety Division held a workshop aimed at defining its position and future tasks in a Post-launch Monitoring (PLM) system for functional foods, which is yet to be developed. Here, (unexpected) effects of the use of functional foods after marketing an

  4. Functional food monitoring as part of the new Dutch dietary monitoring system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rompelberg CJM; Jager M; Bakker MI; Buurma-Rethans EJM; Ocke MC; CVG

    2006-01-01

    Good data on functional food consumption necessary for an adequate Dutch nutrition policy are lacking. This lack may be overcome in future by including functional food monitoring in the new dietary monitoring system in the Netherlands. One specific form of monitoring could be an Internet-based

  5. Consumption of organic and functional food. A matter of well-being and health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goetzke, Beate; Nitzko, Sina; Spiller, Achim

    2014-06-01

    Health is an important motivation for the consumption of both organic and functional foods. The aim of this study was to clarify to what extent the consumption of organic and functional foods are characterized by a healthier lifestyle and a higher level of well-being. Moreover, the influence of social desirability on the respondents' response behavior was of interest and was also analyzed. Well-being and health was measured in a sample of 555 German consumers at two levels: the cognitive-emotional and the behavioral level. The results show that although health is an important aspect for both functional food and organic food consumption, these two forms of consumption were influenced by different understandings of health: organic food consumption is influenced by an overall holistic healthy lifestyle including a healthy diet and sport, while functional food consumption is characterized by small "adjustments" to lifestyle to enhance health and to increase psychological well-being. An overlap between the consumption of organic and functional food was also observed. This study provides information which enables a better characterization of the consumption of functional food and organic food in terms of well-being and health. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Peroxidases in food industry : crosslinking of proteins and polysaccharides to impart novel functional properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boeriu, C.G.

    2008-01-01

    Covalent attachment of proteins to carbohydrates can significantly change the functional properties of the polymers, which may be useful industrially. To produce novel functional polymers,for food applications, we explored the enzymatic crosslinking of proteins and polysaccharides. Heterologous conj

  7. Interactions of phenolic compounds with globular proteins and their effects on food-related functional properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prigent, S.V.E.

    2005-01-01

    In order to modulate the functional properties of food proteins, the interactions between globular proteins and the monomeric phenolic, caffeoylquinic acid (CQA, chlorogenic acid), and the oligomeric phenolics, procyanidins, were characterized and investigated for their effect on protein functional

  8. nutritional status, functional ability and food habits of institutionalised ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hi-tech

    2004-05-05

    May 5, 2004 ... children, food preparation and looking after animals. This helps in freeing younger .... the non-institutionalised males was overweight or obese. .... of activities that required heavy physical exercises .... Chichester, UK, 1991.

  9. Computer vision system approach in colour measurements of foods: Part II. validation of methodology with real foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatih TARLAK

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The colour of food is one of the most important factors affecting consumers’ purchasing decision. Although there are many colour spaces, the most widely used colour space in the food industry is L*a*b* colour space. Conventionally, the colour of foods is analysed with a colorimeter that measures small and non-representative areas of the food and the measurements usually vary depending on the point where the measurement is taken. This leads to the development of alternative colour analysis techniques. In this work, a simple and alternative method to measure the colour of foods known as “computer vision system” is presented and justified. With the aid of the computer vision system, foods that are homogenous and uniform in colour and shape could be classified with regard to their colours in a fast, inexpensive and simple way. This system could also be used to distinguish the defectives from the non-defectives. Quality parameters of meat and dairy products could be monitored without any physical contact, which causes contamination during sampling.

  10. Functional properties of whey protein and its application in nanocomposite materials and functional foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Helen

    Whey is a byproduct of cheese making; whey proteins are globular proteins which can be modified and polymerized to add functional benefits, these benefits can be both nutritional and structural in foods. Modified proteins can be used in non-foods, being of particular interest in polymer films and coatings. Food packaging materials, including plastics, can linings, interior coatings of paper containers, and beverage cap sealing materials, are generally made of synthetic petroleum based compounds. These synthetic materials may pose a potential human health risk due to presence of certain chemicals such as Bisphenol A (BPA). They also add to environmental pollution, being difficult to degrade. Protein-based materials do not have the same issues as synthetics and so can be used as alternatives in many packaging types. As proteins are generally hydrophilic they must be modified structurally and their performance enhanced by the addition of waterproofing agents. Polymerization of whey proteins results in a network, adding both strength and flexibility. The most interesting of the food-safe waterproofing agents are the (large aspect ratio) nanoclays. Nanoclays are relatively inexpensive, widely available and have low environmental impact. The clay surface can be modified to make it organophilic and so compatible with organic polymers. The objective of this study is the use of polymerized whey protein (PWP), with reinforcing nanoclays, to produce flexible surface coatings which limit the transfer of contents while maintaining food safety. Four smectite and kaolin type clays, one treated and three natural were assessed for strengthening qualities and the potential waterproofing and plasticizing benefits of other additives were also analyzed. The nutritional benefits of whey proteins can also be used to enhance the protein content of various foodstuffs. Drinkable yogurt is a popular beverage in the US and other countries and is considered a functional food, especially when

  11. A study of consumers' perceptions and prediction of consumption patterns for generic health functional foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Nam E; Kim, Ju Hyeon; Lee, Yeon Kyoung; Lee, Hye Young

    2011-01-01

    The Korea Food and Drug Administration (KFDA) revised the Health Functional Food Act in 2008 and extended the form of health functional foods to general food types. Therefore, this study was performed to investigate consumers' perceptions of the expanded form of health functional food and to predict consumption patterns. For this study, 1,006 male and female adults aged 19 years and older were selected nationwide by multi-stage stratified random sampling and were surveyed in 1:1 interviews. The questionnaire survey was conducted by Korea Gallup. The subjects consisted of 497 (49.4%) males and 509 (50.6%) females. About 57.9% of the subjects recognized the KFDA's permission procedures for health functional foods. Regarding the health functional foods that the subjects had consumed, red ginseng products were the highest (45.3%), followed by nutritional supplements (34.9%), ginseng products (27.9%), lactobacillus-containing products (21.0%), aloe products (20.3%), and Japanese apricot extract products (18.4%). Opinions on expanding the form of health functional foods to general food types scored 4.7 points on a 7-point scale, showing positive responses. In terms of the effects of medicine-type health functional foods versus generic health functional foods, the highest response was 'same effects if the same ingredients are contained' at a rate of 34.7%. For intake frequency by food type, the response of 'daily consistent intake' was 31.7% for capsules, tablets, and pills, and 21.7% for extracts. For general food types, 'daily consistent intake' was 44.5% for rice and 22.8% for beverages, which were higher rates than those for medicine types. From the above results, consumers had positive opinions of the expansion of health functional foods to generic forms but are not expected to maintain accurate intake frequencies or amounts. Thus, continuous promotion and education are needed for proper intake of generic health functional foods. PMID:21994526

  12. Functional foods: health claim-food product compatibility and the impact of health claim framing on consumer evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleef, van E.; Trijp, van H.C.M.; Luning, P.A.

    2005-01-01

    Two studies are reported, which aim to strengthen the scientific underpinning of strategic decisions regarding functional food development, as to (1) which health benefits to claim, (2) with which product (category), and (3) in which communication format. The first exploratory study is a secondary a

  13. The role of consumer acceptance in the food innovation process: young consumer perception of functional food in Italy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giudice, Del T.; Pascucci, S.

    2010-01-01

    This paper analysed the factors influencing the acceptance of functional foods (FFs) of three distinct groups of young Italian consumers. We implemented an ordered probit model based on data collected in a field survey carried out in southern Italy in 2008. The results showed that different sources

  14. Consumer Acceptance of Functional Foods and Their Ingredients: Positioning Options for Innovations at the Borderline Between Foods and Drugs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bornkessel, S.; Bröring, S.; Omta, S.W.F.

    2011-01-01

    Consumer acceptance is pivotal for the market success of new functional food products. Thereby, the acceptance is mainly influenced by three factors: consumer characteristics, purchasing situation and products characteristics. The study at hand analyses these influence factors using the example of j

  15. Use of functional foods among Swedish consumers is related to health-consciousness and perceived effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landström, Eva; Hursti, Ulla-Kaisa Koivisto; Becker, Wulf; Magnusson, Maria

    2007-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to survey attitudes to and use of functional foods and to investigate which demographic variables and attitudes to diet and health predict consumption of functional foods among Swedish consumers. A questionnaire was developed and sent to 2000 randomly selected Swedish citizens aged between 17 and 75 years. A total of 972 (48%) responded, 53% were female and 44% male. Mean age was 45 years. The results revealed that 84% of respondents were familiar with the concept of functional foods; 83% had consumed/purchased at least one of the seven functional food products presented in the questionnaire. Of those who had consumed a functional food, 25% had perceived effect of it. Positive correlations were seen between consumers perceiving a personal reward from eating functional foods, having an interest in natural products and an interest in general health. Consumption/purchase of functional foods was related to beliefs in the effects of the products, having consumed nutraceuticals or dietary supplements, having a diet-related problem personally or in the family, and a high level of education. The characteristic Swedish functional food consumer has a high level of education, is health-conscious and interested in healthy foods and believes in the health effect of functional foods. Thus, factors other than demographics better explain consumption of FF. However, the study population may represent a more health-conscious segment of the Swedish population in general. Additional studies are therefore required to elucidate the attitudes and use of FF in different consumer groups.

  16. Cu(I)/Cu(II) templated functional pseudorotaxanes and rotaxanes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Subrata Saha; Pradyut Ghosh

    2012-11-01

    Threaded complexes like pseudorotaxanes, rotaxanes based on Cu(I)/Cu(II) ions have shown to be promising for the construction of mechanically interlocked molecular-level architectures. In this short review, we focus on the synthetic strategies developed to construct pseudorotaxanes and rotaxanes using Cu(I)/Cu(II) ions as template. Further, brief discussions on chemical and mechanical properties associated with some of the selected to Cu(I)/Cu(II) based pseudorotaxanes and rotaxanes are presented.

  17. Relation of reward from food intake and anticipated food intake to obesity: a functional magnetic resonance imaging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stice, Eric; Spoor, Sonja; Bohon, Cara; Veldhuizen, Marga G; Small, Dana M

    2008-11-01

    The authors tested the hypothesis that obese individuals experience greater reward from food consumption (consummatory food reward) and anticipated consumption (anticipatory food reward) than lean individuals using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) with 33 adolescent girls (mean age = 15.7, SD = 0.9). Obese relative to lean adolescent girls showed greater activation bilaterally in the gustatory cortex (anterior and mid insula, frontal operculum) and in somatosensory regions (parietal operculum and Rolandic operculum) in response to anticipated intake of chocolate milkshake (vs. a tasteless solution) and to actual consumption of milkshake (vs. a tasteless solution); these brain regions encode the sensory and hedonic aspects of food. However, obese relative to lean adolescent girls also showed decreased activation in the caudate nucleus in response to consumption of milkshake versus a tasteless solution, potentially because they have reduced dopamine receptor availability. Results suggest that individuals who show greater activation in the gustatory cortex and somatosensory regions in response to anticipation and consumption of food, but who show weaker activation in the striatum during food intake, may be at risk for overeating and consequent weight gain.

  18. Functional food. Product development, marketing and consumer acceptance--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siró, István; Kápolna, Emese; Kápolna, Beáta; Lugasi, Andrea

    2008-11-01

    It was mainly the advances in understanding the relationship between nutrition and health that resulted in the development of the concept of functional foods, which means a practical and new approach to achieve optimal health status by promoting the state of well-being and possibly reducing the risk of disease. Functional foods are found virtually in all food categories, however products are not homogeneously scattered over all segments of the growing market. The development and commerce of these products is rather complex, expensive and risky, as special requirements should be answered. Besides potential technological obstacles, legislative aspects, as well as consumer demands need to be taken into consideration when developing functional food. In particular, consumer acceptance has been recognized as a key factor to successfully negotiate market opportunities. This paper offers a brief overview of the current functional food market situation in USA, Japan and some European countries completed with some comments on functional food future potential. It explores the main challenges of such product development focusing on the different factors determining the acceptance of functional food. Furthermore it discusses some prominent types of these food products currently on the market.

  19. The universal cut function and type II metrics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozameh, Carlos [FaMaF, University of Cordoba, Cordoba (Argentina); Newman, E T [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15260 (United States); Santiago-Santiago, J G [Facultad de Ciencias Fisico Matematicas de la Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, Apartado Postal 1152, 72001, Puebla, Pue. (Mexico); Silva-Ortigoza, Gilberto [Facultad de Ciencias Fisico Matematicas de la Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, Apartado Postal 1152, 72001, Puebla, Pue. (Mexico)

    2007-04-21

    In analogy with classical electromagnetic theory, where one determines the total charge and both electric and magnetic multipole moments of a source from certain surface integrals of the asymptotic (or far) fields, it has been known for many years-from the work of Hermann Bondi-that the energy and momentum of gravitational sources could be determined by similar integrals of the asymptotic Weyl tensor. Recently, we observed that there were certain overlooked structures, defined at future null infinity, that allowed one to determine (or define) further properties of both electromagnetic and gravitating sources. These structures, families of complex 'slices' or 'cuts' of Penrose's I{sup +}, are referred to as universal cut functions. In particular, one can define from these structures a (complex) centre of mass (and centre of charge) and its equations of motion-with rather surprising consequences. It appears as if these asymptotic structures contain, in their imaginary part, a well-defined total spin-angular momentum of the source. We apply these ideas to the type II algebraically special metrics, both twisting and twist free.

  20. Method development and HPLC analysis of retail foods and beverages for copper chlorophyll (E141[i]) and chlorophyllin (E141[ii]) food colouring materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scotter, Michael J; Castle, Laurence; Roberts, Dominic

    2005-12-01

    An analytical method using high performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array and fluorescence detection has been developed and applied to the determination of the food colour additives copper chlorophylls and copper chlorophyllins (E141[i] and [ii]) in foods and beverages. The analytical procedures from previously reported methods have been refined to cover a range of food colour formulations and retail foods. The method was single-laboratory validated. Recoveries of the polar copper chlorophyllins from spiked samples (at 14.5 mg/kg in all but one case) were in the range 79-109%, except for jelly sweets (49%). Recoveries of relatively non-polar copper chlorophylls were in the range 77-107% (except for 'made' jelly at 50%). The %RSD for recoveries was generally below 12%. Quantitative estimates of the total copper chlorophyll/chlorophyllin content of a small range of food commodities are reported, based on the use of trisodium copper chlorophyllin as a surrogate standard. The majority of E141-containing foods and colour formulations analysed exhibited a multiplicity of components due to the various extraction and purification processes that are used to obtain these colour additives. This was confounded by the presence of overwhelming amounts of native chlorophylls in certain samples (e.g. mint sauce). Food commodities containing significant amounts of emulsifiers (i.e. ice cream), gelatine or fats were problematic during extraction hence further development of extraction regimes is desirable for such products. All of the samples analysed with added E141, had estimated total copper chlorophyllin contents of below 15 mg/kg (range 0.7-13.0).

  1. Dietary fats, teas, dairy, and nuts: potential functional foods for weight control?

    Science.gov (United States)

    St-Onge, Marie-Pierre

    2005-01-01

    Functional foods are similar to conventional foods in appearance, but they have benefits that extend beyond their basic nutritional properties. For example, functional foods have been studied for the prevention of osteoporosis, cancer, and cardiovascular disease. They have yet to be related to the prevention of obesity, although obesity is one of the major health problems today. The inclusion of foods or the replacement of habitual foods with others that may enhance energy expenditure (EE) or improve satiety may be a practical way to maintain a stable body weight or assist in achieving weight loss; such foods may act as functional foods in body weight control. Some foods that might be classified as functional foods for weight control because of their effects on EE and appetite-including medium-chain triacylglycerols, diacylglycerols, tea, milk, and nuts-are reviewed here. Only human studies reporting EE, appetite, or body weight are discussed. When studies of whole food items are unavailable, studies of nutraceuticals, the capsular equivalents of functional foods, are reviewed. To date, dietary fats seem to be most promising and have been the most extensively studied for their effects on body weight control. However, the weight loss observed is small and should be considered mostly as a measure to prevent weight gain. Carefully conducted clinical studies are needed to firmly ascertain the effect of tea, milk, and nuts on body weight maintenance, to assess their potential to assist in weight-loss efforts, and to ascertain dose-response relations and mechanisms of action for the 4 food types examined.

  2. Plant food allergens--structural and functional aspects of allergenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breiteneder, Heimo; Clare Mills, E N

    2005-09-01

    The three dominating plant food allergen groups belong to the prolamin and cupin superfamilies and to the family 10 of pathogenesis-related proteins. The prolamin superfamily comprises allergenic 2S albumins, nonspecific lipid transfer proteins and cereal alpha-amylase/trypsin inhibitors. These allergens have related structures and are stable to thermal processing and proteolysis. The cupin superfamily comprises the allergenic 7S and 11S globulin storage proteins from peanuts, soybean and tree nuts which are heat stable and can form immunogenicity enhancing aggregates. The Bet v 1 family of allergens includes tree pollinosis-associated food allergens with low stability which induce the symptoms of the oral allergy syndrome.

  3. Predator-dependent functional response in wolves: from food limitation to surplus killing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Barbara; Sand, Håkan; Wabakken, Petter; Liberg, Olof; Andreassen, Harry Peter

    2015-01-01

    The functional response of a predator describes the change in per capita kill rate to changes in prey density. This response can be influenced by predator densities, giving a predator-dependent functional response. In social carnivores which defend a territory, kill rates also depend on the individual energetic requirements of group members and their contribution to the kill rate. This study aims to provide empirical data for the functional response of wolves Canis lupus to the highly managed moose Alces alces population in Scandinavia. We explored prey and predator dependence, and how the functional response relates to the energetic requirements of wolf packs. Winter kill rates of GPS-collared wolves and densities of cervids were estimated for a total of 22 study periods in 15 wolf territories. The adult wolves were identified as the individuals responsible for providing kills to the wolf pack, while pups could be described as inept hunters. The predator-dependent, asymptotic functional response models (i.e. Hassell-Varley type II and Crowley-Martin) performed best among a set of 23 competing linear, asymptotic and sigmoid models. Small wolf packs acquired >3 times as much moose biomass as required to sustain their field metabolic rate (FMR), even at relatively low moose abundances. Large packs (6-9 wolves) acquired less biomass than required in territories with low moose abundance. We suggest the surplus killing by small packs is a result of an optimal foraging strategy to consume only the most nutritious parts of easy accessible prey while avoiding the risk of being detected by humans. Food limitation may have a stabilizing effect on pack size in wolves, as supported by the observed negative relationship between body weight of pups and pack size. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Animal Ecology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of British Ecological Society.

  4. Functional properties of the oxygen evolving complex of photosystem II.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliet, van P.H.

    1996-01-01

    This Thesis presents the results of a study by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and measurements of oxygen evolution of the Oxygen Evolving Complex of Photosystem 11 (PS-II) in PS-II enriched membranes from spinach.The experimental part of this Thesis is preceded by a general introduction (Chap

  5. Functional Foods Enriched with Marine Microalga Nannochloropsis oculata as a Source of ω-3 Fatty Acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivasan Babuskin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The demand for functional food incorporated with ω-3 fatty acids is increasing over the years due to their added health benefits, such as reducing the risk of cardiovascular diseases, type II diabetes, ocular diseases, arthritis, etc. This study mainly aims to develop functional cookies and pasta enriched with ω-3 fatty acids. Nannochloropsis oculata was used because of its relatively high growth rate, high lipid content, resistance to mixing and contamination together with high nutritional values. The effect of the incorporation of Nannochloropsis oculata biomass on colour, firmness, fatty acid profile and sensory characteristics of cookies and pasta were evaluated. The colour values were found to be stable for two months of storage and the firmness increased with the addition of microalgal biomass. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA levels (eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids of 98 mg per 100 g and 63 mg per 100 g were observed in cookies and pasta, respectively, enriched with 1 % of Nannochloropsis oculata biomass. Sensory evaluation showed that the addition of up to 2 and 3 % of microalgal biomass was positively evaluated and accepted for cookies and pasta, respectively. This study confirms that the cookies and pasta enriched with Nannochloropsis oculata biomass might be used as a potential source of ω-3 fatty acids.

  6. Cd(ii)-MOF-IM: post-synthesis functionalization of a Cd(ii)-MOF as a triphase transfer catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jian-Cheng; Ma, Jian-Ping; Liu, Qi-Kui; Hu, Yu-Hong; Dong, Yu-Bin

    2016-05-19

    A robust and porous Cd(ii)-MOF based on a bent imidazole-bridged ligand was synthesized and post-synthetically functionalized with linear alkyl chains to afford imidazolium salt (IM)-type triphase transfer catalysts for organic transformations. The imidazolium salt decorated Cd(ii)-MOF-IM exhibits typical solid phase transfer catalytic behavior for the azidation and thiolation of bromoalkane between aqueous/organic phases. Moreover, they can be easily recovered and reused under the PTC conditions. Cd(ii)-MOF-IM herein created a versatile family of solid phase transfer catalysts for promoting a broad scope of reactions carried out in a biphasic mixture of two immiscible solvents.

  7. Gastrointestinal-active oligosaccharides from human milk and functional foods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albrecht, S.A.

    2011-01-01

    Keywords: human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs), galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS), konjac glucomannan (KGM), breast milk, baby feces, gastrointestinal metabolization, blood-group specific conjugates, CE-LIF-MSn   Oligosaccharides, as present in human milk or supplemented to food, are renowned for

  8. Functional food microstructures for macronutrient release and delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norton, J E; Gonzalez Espinosa, Y; Watson, R L; Spyropoulos, F; Norton, I T

    2015-03-01

    There is a need to understand the role of fat, protein and carbohydrate in human health, and also how foods containing and/or structured using these macronutrients can be designed so that they can have a positive impact on health. This may include a reduction in fat, salt or sugar, the protection and targeted release of micronutrients or active ingredients from/to particular parts of the digestive system, improvement of gastrointestinal health or satiety enhancing properties. Such foods can be designed with various macro- and microstructures that will impact on macronutrient release and delivery. These include simple and double emulsions, the use of Pickering particles and shells, nanoparticles, liposomes, gelled networks, fluid gels and gel particles, foams, self-assembled structures, and encapsulated systems. In order to design foods that deliver these benefits understanding of how these structures behave in the gastrointestinal tract is also required, which should involve utilising both in vitro and in vivo studies. This review aims to draw together research in these areas, by focusing on the current state of the art, but also exciting possibilities for future research and food development.

  9. Health claims on functional foods: the Japanese regulations and an international comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Toshio

    2003-12-01

    The Japanese scientific academic community defined 'functional food' early in the 1980s. That is, functional foods are those that have three functions. The primary function is nutrition. The secondary function is a sensory function or sensory satisfaction. The third is the tertiary function, which is physiological. The Japanese Ministry of Health, Labour, and Welfare (MHLW) set up 'Foods for Specified Health Use' (FOSHU) in 1991 as a regulatory system to approve the statements made on food labels concerning the effect of the food on the human body. Food products applying for approval by FOSHU are scientifically evaluated in terms of their effectiveness and safety by the Council of Pharmaceutical Affairs and Food Hygiene under the MHLW. The regulatory range of FOSHU was broadened in 2001 to accept the forms of capsules and tablets in addition to those of conventional foods. FOSHU increased the total to about 330 items in January 2003. The MHLW enacted a new regulatory system, 'Foods with Health Claims', in April 2001, which consists of the existing FOSHU system and the newly established 'Foods with Nutrient Function Claims' (FNFC). Under the FNFC, twelve vitamins (vitamins A, B1, B2, B6, B12, C, E, D, biotin, pantothenic acid, folic acid, and niacin) and two minerals (Ca and Fe) are standardized. Examples of claims regarding these substances are as follows: 'Calcium is a nutrient which is necessary to form bones and teeth'; 'Vitamin D is a nutrient which promotes calcium absorption in the gut intestine and aids in the formation of bones.' The upper and lower levels of the daily consumption of these nutrients are also determined. The labelling of functional foods should always be based on scientific evidence and be in harmony with international standards. The nutrient-function claim was adopted in the guidelines for nutrition claims by the Codex Alimentarius in 1997. The claims of the Japanese FNFC are equivalent to the nutrient function claims standardized by the

  10. Diurnal rhythmicity in biological processes involved in bioavailability of functional food factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsurusaki, Takashi; Sakakibara, Hiroyuki; Aoshima, Yoshiki; Yamazaki, Shunsuke; Sakono, Masanobu; Shimoi, Kayoko

    2013-05-01

    In the past few decades, many types of functional factors have been identified in dietary foods; for example, flavonoids are major groups widely distributed in the plant kingdom. However, the absorption rates of the functional food factors are usually low, and many of these are difficult to be absorbed in the intact forms because of metabolization by biological processes during absorption. To gain adequate beneficial effects, it is therefore mandatory to know whether functional food factors are absorbed in sufficient quantity, and then reach target organs while maintaining beneficial effects. These are the reasons why the bioavailability of functional food factors has been well investigated using rodent models. Recently, many of the biological processes have been reported to follow diurnal rhythms recurring every 24 h. Therefore, absorption and metabolism of functional food factors influenced by the biological processes may vary with time of day. Consequently, the evaluation of the bioavailability of functional food factors using rodent models should take into consideration the timing of consumption. In this review, we provide a perspective overview of the diurnal rhythm of biological processes involved in the bioavailability of functional food factors, particularly flavonoids.

  11. FOOD PROCESSING TECHNOLOGY AS A MEDIATOR OF FUNCTIONALITY. STRUCTURE-PROPERTY-PROCESS RELATIONSHIPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ester Betoret

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available During the last years, the food industry has been facing technical and economic changes both in society and in the food processing practices, paying high attention to food products that meet the consumers´ demands. In this direction, the study areas in food process and products have evolved mainly from safety to other topics such as quality, environment or health. The improvement of the food products is now directed towards ensuring nutritional and specific functional benefits. Regarding the processes evolution, they are directed to ensure the quality and safety of environmentally friendly food products produced optimizing the use of resources, minimally affecting or even enhancing their nutritional and beneficial characteristics. The product structure both in its raw form and after processing plays an important role maintaining, enhancing and delivering the bioactive compounds in the appropriate target within the organism. The aim of this review is to make an overview on some synergistic technologies that can constitute a technological process to develop functional foods, enhancing the technological and/or nutritional functionality of the food products in which they are applied. More concretely, the effect of homogenization, vacuum impregnation and drying operations on bioactive compounds have been reviewed, focusing on the structure changes produced and its relationship on the product functionality, as well as on the parameters and the strategies used to quantify and increase the achieved functionality.

  12. Iminodiacetic acid functionalized cation exchange resin for adsorptive removal of Cr(VI), Cd(II), Ni(II) and Pb(II) from their aqueous solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, R K; Jain, S K; Khatri, P K

    2011-01-30

    Iminodiacetic acid functionality has been introduced on styrene-divinyl benzene co-polymeric beads and characterized by FT-IR in order to develop weak acid based cation exchange resin. This resin was evaluated for the removal of different heavy metal ions namely Cd(II), Cr(VI), Ni(II) and Pb(II) from their aqueous solutions. The results showed greater affinity of resin towards Cr(VI) for which 99.7% removal achieved in optimal conditions following the order Ni(II)>Pb(II)>Cd(II) with 65%, 59% and 28% removal. Experiments were also directed towards kinetic studies of adsorption and found to follow first order reversible kinetic model with the overall rate constants 0.3250, 0.2393, 0.4290 and 0.2968 for Cr(VI), Ni(II), Pb(II) and Cd(II) removal respectively. Detailed studies of Cr(VI) removal has been carried out to see the effect of pH, resin dose and metal ion concentration on adsorption and concluded that complexation enhanced the chromium removal efficacy of resin drastically, which is strongly pH dependent. The findings were also supported by the comparison of FT-IR spectra of neat resin with the chromium-adsorbed resin.

  13. Food and symptom generation in functional gastrointestinal disorders: physiological aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farré, Ricard; Tack, Jan

    2013-05-01

    The response of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) to ingestion of food is a complex and closely controlled process, which allows optimization of propulsion, digestion, absorption of nutrients, and removal of indigestible remnants. This review summarizes current knowledge on the mechanisms that control the response of the GIT to food intake. During the cephalic phase, triggered by cortical food-related influences, the GIT prepares for receiving nutrients. The gastric phase is dominated by the mechanical effect of the meal volume. Accumulation of food in the stomach activates tension-sensitive mechanoreceptors, which in turn stimulate gastric accommodation and gastric acid secretion through the intrinsic and vago-vagal reflex pathways. After meal ingestion, the tightly controlled process of gastric emptying starts, with arrival of nutrients in the duodenum triggering negative feedback on emptying and stimulating secretion of digestive enzymes through the neural (mainly vago-vagal reflex, but also intrinsic) and endocrine (release of peptides from entero-endocrine cells) pathways. Several types of specialized receptors detect the presence of all main categories of nutrients. In addition, the gastrointestinal mucosa expresses receptors of the T1R and T2R families (taste receptors) and several members of the transient receptor potential channel family, all of which are putatively involved in the detection of specific tastants in the lumen. Activation of nutrient and taste sensors also activates the extrinsic and intrinsic neural, as well as entero-endocrine, pathways. During passage through the small bowel, nutrients are progressively extracted, and electrolyte-rich liquid intestinal content with non-digestible residue is delivered to the colon. The colon provides absorption of the water and electrolytes, storage of non-digestible remnants of food, aboral propulsion of contents, and finally evacuation through defecation.

  14. Overview of the dairy and food processing research conducted at the Dairy and Functional Foods Research Unit, ERRC, and research to develop sustainable food processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    The DFFRU is dedicated to solving critical problems in the utilization of milk and specialty crop byproducts by developing high-quality, value-added functional foods and consumer products. The presentation will give an overview of the research projects that will benefit human health and well-being. ...

  15. Food intolerance, diet composition, and eating patterns in functional dyspepsia patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Roberta Villas Boas; Lorena, Sônia Letícia Silva; Almeida, Jazon Romilson de Souza; Mesquita, Maria Aparecida

    2010-01-01

    The aims of this study are to investigate dietary factors, food intolerance, and the body mass index data, as an indicator of nutritional status, in functional dyspepsia patients. Forty-one functional dyspepsia patients and 30 healthy volunteers answered a standardized questionnaire to identify eating habits and food intolerance, and then completed a 7-day alimentary diary. There was no significant difference in daily total caloric intake between patients and controls. Patients associated their symptoms with the ingestion of several foods, but in general maintained their regular intake, with the exception of a small reduction in the proportion of fat in comparison with controls (median 28 vs. 34%; P = 0.001). No patient was underweight. In conclusion, our results suggest that food intolerance has no remarkable influence on food pattern and nutritional status in most functional dyspepsia patients. Further studies are necessary to clarify the role of fat in the generation of dyspeptic symptoms.

  16. Biomarker and dietary validation of a Canadian food frequency questionnaire to measure eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acid intakes from whole food, functional food, and nutraceutical sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Ashley C; Hogg, Ryan C; Kishi, Diane M; Stark, Ken D

    2012-07-01

    Canadian dietary sources of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) include marine and non-marine whole foods, functional foods, and nutraceuticals. In the present study, these sources were incorporated into a nutrient-specific, semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and the ability to measure the EPA and DHA intakes of Canadian adults was assessed. Specifically, the EPA and DHA intakes estimated by FFQ of 78 men and women, 20 to 60 years of age, were compared with EPA and DHA measurements from 3-day food records and measures of EPA and DHA in fasting whole blood. Mean (±standard deviation) and median intakes of EPA+DHA were 0.34±0.34 and 0.21 g/day by FFQ and 0.47±0.71 and 0.13 g/day by food record, with no significant differences between mean intakes (P=0.93). The FFQ provided higher estimates than the food record at low intakes of EPA and DHA and lower estimates at high intakes based on Bland-Altman plots. The FFQ was moderately correlated with food record (r=0.31 to 0.49) and with blood biomarker measures of EPA and DHA (r=0.31 to 0.51). Agreement analysis revealed that 42% of participants were classified in the same and 77% into same or adjacent quartile when EPA and DHA intake was assessed by food record and by FFQ. Similar quartile agreement was found for EPA and DHA intakes by FFQ with blood biomarker EPA and DHA. The range of the validity coefficients, calculated using the method of triads, was 0.43 to 0.71 for FFQ measurement of EPA+DHA. The FFQ is an adequate tool for estimating usual EPA and DHA intakes and ranking Canadian adults by their intakes. Copyright © 2012 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Impact of microbial distributions on food safety II. Quantifying impacts on public health and sampling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongenburger, I.; Bassett, J.; Jackson, T.; Gorris, L.G.M.; Jewell, K.; Zwietering, M.H.

    2012-01-01

    The distributions of microorganisms in foods impact the likelihood that a foodstuff will cause illness and therefore also impact the consequential public health burden. As part of food safety management systems, food is sampled and microbiologically tested. The effectiveness of the sampling programm

  18. Food and Nutrition. Volume II. Units VI-VIII: Fruit, Fats, Vegetables, Legumes, Grains, Meats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honse, Elizabeth Linsenbardt

    These instructional materials are intended as a guide for the instructor of a secondary home economics course in food and nutrition. Topics covered in the three units are time, energy, and resource management; selection, care, preparation, and storage of food (seven lessons on dairy foods; fats and oils; cereals and breads; fruits and vegetables;…

  19. Suitability of Different Food Grade Materials for the Encapsulation of Some Functional Foods Well Reported for Their Advantages and Susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wani, Touseef Ahmed; Shah, Adil Gani; Wani, Sajad Mohd; Wani, Idrees Ahmed; Masoodi, Farooq Ahmad; Nissar, Nazia; Shagoo, Mudasir Ahmad

    2016-11-17

    Functional foods find a very important place in the modern era, where different types of cancer, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, etc. are on a high. Irrespective of the abundance of bioactive components in different fruits and vegetables, their low solubility in aqueous solution, vulnerability to destruction in different environmental and gastrointestinal conditions and a low intestinal absorption becomes a concern. Because it is quite difficult to commercialize non food materials for the food encapsulation purposes due to their safety concerns in the human body, scientists in the recent times have come up with the idea of encapsulating the different bioactive components in different food grade materials that are able to safeguard these bioactive components against the different environmental and gastrointestinal conditions and ensure their safe and targeted delivery at their absorption sites. Different food grade encapsulation materials including various oligosaccharides, polysaccharides (starch, cyclodextrins, alginates, chitosan, gum arabic, and carboxymethyl cellulose) and proteins and their suitability for encapsulating various bioactive components like flavonoids (catechins, rutin, curcumin, hesperetin, and vanillin), nonflavonoids (resveratrol), carotenoids (β-carotene, lycopene, and lutein), and fatty acids (fish oil, flaxseed oil, and olive oil) of high medical and nutritional value are reviewed here.

  20. Cross-industry Collaborations in the Convergence Area of Functional Foods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bornkessel, S.; Broring, Stefanie; Omta, S.W.F.

    2016-01-01

    Convergence processes are based on the activity of distinct industry sectors showing crossindustry
    collaborations. The aim of this paper is to analyze cross-industry collaborations between
    the food and pharmaceutical sectors in the convergence area of functional foods. Selected
    companies

  1. Functional foods and cardiometabolic diseases : International Task Force for Prevention of Cardiometabolic Diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Assman, G.; Buono, P.; Valle, Della E.; Farinaro, E.; Ferns, G.; Krogh, V.; Kromhout, D.

    2014-01-01

    Mounting evidence supports the hypothesis that functional foods containing physiologically-active components may be healthful. Longitudinal cohort studies have shown that some food classes and dietary patterns are beneficial in primary prevention, and this has led to the identification of putative f

  2. Consumer versus expert hazard identification: A mental models study of a functional food ingredient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hagemann, Kit; Scholderer, Joachim

    Objectives: The consumer part of the EU project NOFORISK compares laypeople and experts' understanding of benefits and risks associated with the functional food ingredient Phytosterol. The Council of the European Union has recently authorised the marketing of Phytosterol-enriched rye bread...... as a novel food under Regulation (EC) No 258/97....

  3. Development of probiotic mutandabota, a locally sustainable functional food incorporating Lactobacillus rhamnosus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mpofu, A.

    2015-01-01

    Development of probiotic mutandabota, a locally sustainable functional food incorporating Lactobacillus rhamnosus Mutandabota or umlondo is an indigenous food that is consumed in Southern Africa on a daily basis. The product is made by mixing raw cow’s or goat’s milk

  4. Cross-industry Collaborations in the Convergence Area of Functional Foods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bornkessel, S.; Broring, Stefanie; Omta, S.W.F.

    2016-01-01

    Convergence processes are based on the activity of distinct industry sectors showing crossindustry
    collaborations. The aim of this paper is to analyze cross-industry collaborations between
    the food and pharmaceutical sectors in the convergence area of functional foods. Selected
    companies

  5. Development of probiotic mutandabota, a locally sustainable functional food incorporating Lactobacillus rhamnosus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mpofu, A.

    2015-01-01

    Development of probiotic mutandabota, a locally sustainable functional food incorporating Lactobacillus rhamnosus Mutandabota or umlondo is an indigenous food that is consumed in Southern Africa on a daily basis. The product is made by mixing raw cow’s or goat’s milk wit

  6. Development of probiotic mutandabota, a locally sustainable functional food incorporating Lactobacillus rhamnosus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mpofu, A.

    2015-01-01

    Development of probiotic mutandabota, a locally sustainable functional food incorporating Lactobacillus rhamnosus Mutandabota or umlondo is an indigenous food that is consumed in Southern Africa on a daily basis. The product is made by mixing raw cow’s or goat’s milk wit

  7. Allanblackia Oil: Phytochemistry and Use as a Functional Food

    OpenAIRE

    Crockett, Sara L.

    2015-01-01

    The consumption and commercial exploitation of Allanblackia (Clusiaceae) seed oils is of current interest. The favorable physicochemical characteristics of Allanblackia oil (solid at room temperature; high stearic acid content) lend food products that contain it (i.e., vegetable-based dairy products, ice cream, spreads) health advantages over others that contain higher levels of lauric, myristic, and/or palmitic acids, which can increase blood cholesterol levels. Such considerations are impo...

  8. Functional MRI of Challenging Food Choices: Forced Choice between Equally Liked High- and Low-Calorie Foods in the Absence of Hunger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charbonnier, Lisette; van der Laan, Laura N; Viergever, Max A; Smeets, Paul A M

    2015-01-01

    We are continuously exposed to food and during the day we make many food choices. These choices play an important role in the regulation of food intake and thereby in weight management. Therefore, it is important to obtain more insight into the mechanisms that underlie these choices. While several food choice functional MRI (fMRI) studies have been conducted, the effect of energy content on neural responses during food choice has, to our knowledge, not been investigated before. Our objective was to examine brain responses during food choices between equally liked high- and low-calorie foods in the absence of hunger. During a 10-min fMRI scan 19 normal weight volunteers performed a forced-choice task. Food pairs were matched on individual liking but differed in perceived and actual caloric content (high-low). Food choice compared with non-food choice elicited stronger unilateral activation in the left insula, superior temporal sulcus, posterior cingulate gyrus and (pre)cuneus. This suggests that the food stimuli were more salient despite subject's low motivation to eat. The right superior temporal sulcus (STS) was the only region that exhibited greater activation for high versus low calorie food choices between foods matched on liking. Together with previous studies, this suggests that STS activation during food evaluation and choice may reflect the food's biological relevance independent of food preference. This novel finding warrants further research into the effects of hunger state and weight status on STS, which may provide a marker of biological relevance.

  9. Functional MRI of Challenging Food Choices: Forced Choice between Equally Liked High- and Low-Calorie Foods in the Absence of Hunger.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisette Charbonnier

    Full Text Available We are continuously exposed to food and during the day we make many food choices. These choices play an important role in the regulation of food intake and thereby in weight management. Therefore, it is important to obtain more insight into the mechanisms that underlie these choices. While several food choice functional MRI (fMRI studies have been conducted, the effect of energy content on neural responses during food choice has, to our knowledge, not been investigated before. Our objective was to examine brain responses during food choices between equally liked high- and low-calorie foods in the absence of hunger. During a 10-min fMRI scan 19 normal weight volunteers performed a forced-choice task. Food pairs were matched on individual liking but differed in perceived and actual caloric content (high-low. Food choice compared with non-food choice elicited stronger unilateral activation in the left insula, superior temporal sulcus, posterior cingulate gyrus and (precuneus. This suggests that the food stimuli were more salient despite subject's low motivation to eat. The right superior temporal sulcus (STS was the only region that exhibited greater activation for high versus low calorie food choices between foods matched on liking. Together with previous studies, this suggests that STS activation during food evaluation and choice may reflect the food's biological relevance independent of food preference. This novel finding warrants further research into the effects of hunger state and weight status on STS, which may provide a marker of biological relevance.

  10. The functional performance of the Argus II retinal prosthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stronks, H Christiaan; Dagnelie, Gislin

    2014-01-01

    Visual prostheses are devices to treat profound vision loss by stimulating nerve cells anywhere along the visual pathway, typically with electrical pulses. The Argus II implant, developed by Second Sight Medical Products (SSMP, Sylmar, CA, USA), targets the retina and features 60 electrodes that electrically stimulate the surviving retinal neurons. Of the approximately 20 research groups that are actively developing visual prostheses, SSMP has the longest track record. The Argus II was the first visual prosthesis to become commercially available: it received the European conformity mark in 2011 and FDA approval was granted in early 2013 for humanitarian use in the USA. Meanwhile, the Argus II safety/benefit study has been extended for research purposes, and is still ongoing. In this review, we will discuss the performance of the Argus II in restoring sight to the blind, and we will shed light on its expected developments in the coming years.

  11. The functional performance of the Argus II retinal prosthesis

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Visual prostheses are devices to treat profound vision loss by stimulating secondary nerve cells anywhere along the visual pathway, typically with electrical pulses. The Argus® II implant, developed by Second Sight Medical Products (SSMP, Sylmar, CA, USA), targets the retina and features 60 electrodes that electrically stimulate the surviving retinal neurons. Of the approximately 20 research groups that are actively developing visual prostheses, SSMP has the longest track record. The Argus II...

  12. A mainstay of functional food science in Japan--history, present status, and future outlook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arai, S; Osawa, T; Ohigashi, H; Yoshikawa, M; Kaminogawa, S; Watanabe, M; Ogawa, T; Okubo, K; Watanabe, S; Nishino, H; Shinohara, K; Esashi, T; Hirahara, T

    2001-01-01

    The development of food science in the near future probably depends on the advance in functional food science, the concept of which was proposed first in Japan nearly 15 years ago. The new science has been internationally distributed and accepted as conceptually being beyond nutrition. In Japan, however, it traced a unique path of progress in the form of a product-driven rather than concept-driven science. Actually, a number of substances and products with potential for disease risk reduction rather than simply for health maintenance have been investigated for their body-modulating functions. Some of them have been applied in practice to the industrialization of functional foods in terms of "foods for specified health uses" legally defined by new legislation. A variety of sophisticated methods have been introduced as well, including the so-called "XYZ" evaluation system, database construction for assessment of the function, and even the DNA microarray technique. The Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry, and Fisheries (MAFF) and the Ministry of Health and Welfare (MHW) also commenced their scientific as well as political activity, with its spread to industries which almost simultaneously began to vigorously investigate functional food products for enlargement of the food market. With all of this as a background, the Japan Liaison of the International Union of Food Science and Technology (IUFoST) hold a function food science symposium on behalf of related scientific bodies including the Japan Section of the International Life Science Institute (ILSI). This paper is an overview compiled from 12 presentations made in the symposium, with the aim of internationally publicizing the activity of functional food science in Japan.

  13. Functional health literacy and healthy eating: Understanding the brazilian food guide recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Auristela Magalhães Coelho

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the relationship between the functional health literacy of Unified Heath System users and the understanding of food servings in the pocket version of the Brazilian Food Guide. Methods: Functional health literacy was assessed by the Brief Test of functional health literacy. Two dialogue rounds were conducted with patients with adequate functional health literacy (Group 1 and inadequate functional health literacy (Group 2. The dialogues were recorded and analyzed according to the discourse of the collective subject. Results: Most (58.0% users had inadequate functional health literacy. Five core areas were identified: understands serving sizes; does not understand serving sizes; serving sizes are confusing; unfamiliar/uncommon foods; small letters. Group 2 had more trouble understanding. Conclusion: Difficulty understanding hinders health promotion. Individuals need to have access to educational materials that are easier to understand and developed taking their functional health literacy into account.

  14. Cholecystokinin rapidly stimulates CrkII function in vivo in rat pancreatic acini. Formation of CrkII-protein complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreolotti, Alberto G; Bragado, Maria J; Tapia, Jose A; Jensen, Robert T; Garcia-Marin, Luis J

    2003-12-01

    Crk belongs to a family of adapter proteins whose structure allows interaction with tyrosine-phosphorylated proteins and is therefore an important modulator of downstream signals, representing a convergence of the actions of numerous stimuli. Recently, it was demonstrated that cholecystokinin (CCK) induced tyrosine phosphorylation of proteins related to fiber stress formation in rat pancreatic acini. Here, we investigated whether CCK receptor activation signals through CrkII and forms complexes with tyrosine-phosphorylated proteins in rat pancreatic acini. We demonstrated that CCK promoted the transient formation of CrkII-paxillin and CrkII-p130Cas complexes with maximal effect at 1 min. Additionally, CCK decreased the electrophoretic mobility of CrkII. This decrease was time- and concentration-dependent and inversely related with its function. Carbachol and bombesin also decreased CrkII electrophoretic mobility, whereas epidermal growth factor, vasoactive intestinal peptide, secretin or pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide had no effect. CCK-induced CrkII electrophoretic shift was dependent on the Src family of tyrosine kinases and occurred in the intact animal, suggesting a physiological role of CrkII mediating CCK actions in the exocrine pancreas in vivo.

  15. Determination of total iron in food samples after flow injection preconcentration on polyurethane foam functionalized with N,N-bis(salicylidene)-1,3-propanediamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Azeem, S M; Bader, N R; Kuss, H M; El-Shahat, M F

    2013-06-01

    A highly selective flow injection sorption system was developed for the fast determination of total iron in food samples. Iron (III) was reduced to iron (II) by ascorbic acid and preconcentrated on a mini-column packed with polyurethane foam (PUF) functionalized with N,N-bis(salicylidene)-1,3-propanediamine (SPDA). The retained Fe (II) was eluted with hydrochloric acid and subsequently reacted to 2,4,6-tri(2'-pyridyl)-1,3,5-triazine (TPTZ) then measured at 593 nm. The procedure has resulted preconcentration factor 36, sample frequency 20 h(-1) and detection limit 18 μg L(-1). The precision (RSD) was found to be 5.7% and 3.1% at concentration levels 0.1 and 5.0 μg mL(-1) iron (II), respectively. Finally, the method was successfully applied to determination of total iron in reference material and food samples.

  16. Food consumption of adults in Germany: results of the German National Nutrition Survey II based on diet history interviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heuer, Thorsten; Krems, Carolin; Moon, Kilson; Brombach, Christine; Hoffmann, Ingrid

    2015-05-28

    The second German National Nutrition Survey (NVS II) aimed to evaluate food consumption and other aspects of nutritional behaviour of a representative sample of the German population, using a modular design with three different dietary assessment methods. To assess usual food consumption, 15,371 German speaking subjects 14-80 years of age completed a diet history interview between November 2005 and November 2006. With reference to the guidelines of the German Nutrition Society (DGE), NVS II observed that the German population did not eat enough foods of plant origin, especially vegetables and consumed too much of meat and meat products. While generally similar food consumption is observed in other European countries, consumption of bread, fruit juices/nectars and beer is higher in Germany. On average, men consumed two times more meat and soft drinks as well as six times more beer than women did, whereas the consumption of vegetables, fruit as well as herbal/fruit tea was higher in women. Older participants showed a lower consumption of meat, fruit juice/nectars, soft drinks and spirits as well as a higher consumption of fish, vegetables, fruit, and herbal/fruit tea than adolescents and younger adults did. There are also differences in food consumption with regard to socio-economic status (SES). Persons with higher SES consumed more vegetables, fruit, fish, water, coffee/tea and wine, while persons with lower SES consumed more meat and meat products, soft drinks and beer. In general, the food consumption of women, the elderly and the higher SES group tends to be closer to the official dietary guidelines in Germany.

  17. Deciphering the consumer behaviour facets of functional foods: A literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Navdeep; Singh, Devinder Pal

    2017-05-01

    This paper presents a systematic literature review of studies investigating various facets of consumer behaviour towards functional foods. It focuses on published international research on functional food attitude and behaviour from across the world. Research papers (n = 112) that were identified were coded in terms of study type, variables studied, product type, participant profile, research methodology and analysis details, as well as results and implications for future research. Results provide a systematic overview of the context in which behaviour towards functional foods have been examined in the past and provide a synthesis of findings in four categories of determinants, namely (1) Personal Factors, (2) Psychological Factors, (3) Cultural & Social Factors, and (4) Factors relating to the functional food product. A reference model for the relationships between these factors and behaviour of consumers is derived. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Pinto Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L. as a Functional Food: Implications on Human Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicki Schlegel

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Most foods are considered functional in terms of providing nutrients and energy to sustain daily life, but dietary systems that are capable of preventing or remediating a stressed or diseased state are classified as functional foods. Dry beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L. contain high levels of chemically diverse components (phenols, resistance starch, vitamins, fructooligosaccharides that have shown to protect against such conditions as oxidative stress, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, metabolic syndrome, and many types of cancer, thereby positioning this legume as an excellent functional food. Moreover, the United States has a rich dry bean history and is currently a top producer of dry beans in the world with pinto beans accounting for the vast majority. Despite these attributes, dry bean consumption in the US remains relatively low. Therefore, the objective of this manuscript is to review dry beans as an important US agricultural crop and as functional food for the present age with an emphasis on pinto beans.

  19. A Review of Fermented Foods with Beneficial Effects on Brain and Cognitive Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Binna; Hong, Veronica Minsu; Yang, Jeongwon; Hyun, Heejung; Im, Jooyeon Jamie; Hwang, Jaeuk; Yoon, Sujung; Kim, Jieun E.

    2016-01-01

    Around the world, fermentation of foods has been adopted over many generations, primarily due to their commercial significance with enriched flavors and high-profile nutrients. The increasing application of fermented foods is further promoted by recent evidence on their health benefits, beyond the traditionally recognized effects on the digestive system. With recent advances in the understanding of gut-brain interactions, there have also been reports suggesting the fermented food’s efficacy, particularly for cognitive function improvements. These results are strengthened by the proposed biological effects of fermented foods, including neuroprotection against neurotoxicity and reactive oxygen species. This paper reviews the beneficial health effects of fermented foods with particular emphasis on cognitive enhancement and neuroprotective effects. With an extensive review of fermented foods and their potential cognitive benefits, this paper may promote commercially feasible applications of fermented foods as natural remedies to cognitive problems. PMID:28078251

  20. Functionalities and input methods for recording food intake: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusin, Miroslav; Arsand, Eirik; Hartvigsen, Gunnar

    2013-08-01

    Increasing healthcare costs related to lifestyle-related chronic diseases require new solutions. Research on self-management tools is expanding and many new tools are emerging. Recording food intake is a key functionality in many of these tools. Nutrition monitoring is a relevant method to gain an overview of factors influencing health. However, keeping a food diary often constitutes a challenge for a patient, and developing a user-friendly and useful electronic food diary is not straightforward. To gain insight into the existing approaches to recording food intake, and to analyze current functionalities and input methods. We searched digital libraries, vendor markets and social networks focusing on nutrition. Selection criteria were publications written in English, and patient-oriented tools that offered recording of food intake or nutrition. The system properties that we searched for were types of data, types of terminal, target population, and types of reports and sharing functionalities. We summarized the properties based on their frequency in the reviewed sample. 31 publications met the selection criteria. The majority of the identified food recording systems (67%) facilitated entry of food type and the consumed quantity of food; 16% of the systems were able to record more than one type of data. The three most frequent target populations were people with obesity, diabetes and overweight. Mobile phones were used as terminals in 35% of the cases, personal computers (PCs) in 29%, and personal digital assistants in 23%. Only 10% supported both PCs and mobile phones. Data sharing was provided by 71% and reports by 51% of the systems. We searched for apps in Google Play and the Apple Store and tested 45 mobile applications that stored food intake data, of which 62% supported recording of types of food, 24% recording of carbohydrate intake and 15% recording of calorie intake. The majority of the mobile applications offered some kind of reports and data sharing

  1. Folk to functional: An explorative overview of rice-based fermented foods and beverages in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mousumi Ray

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Fermented foods share an integral part of age-old wisdom from ancient Indian civilization. Over the generations, this pioneering practice of food fermentation has expanded and improved to preserve and fortify the available food resources, particularly to meet the hidden hunger. India, being the second largest producer of rice, has a great history of traditional rice-based fermented foods with different tastes and textures linked with cultural diversity and mostly prepared by rural women following village art techniques. Some of them have been scientifically investigated and it has been revealed that microflora in natural or starter culture plays imperative roles to bio-embolden the rice with varieties of health promoting macronutrients and micronutrients, phytochemicals, and other functional components during fermentation. In this review, some explorative information on traditional rice-based foods and beverages has been assembled to illustrate the global interest in Indian food heritage and their functional aspects. The review also deals with the preparation of raw materials, traditional processing, composition, and ethno-medicinal importance of each food to encourage entrepreneurs to develop large-scale production to meet the growing market demand of functional foods.

  2. The proposal of vinegar farm with the character of functional foods.

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    The work is focused on the development of a new functional food . The functional food in addition to nutrient sources must clearly contribute to the health improvement thanks to another ingredient which must be of natural origin. I chose vinegar as the basic component in my work. The vinegar can be made in a vinegar manufacturer through classical oxidation technique of diluted ethanol solution by acetic bacteria on the large contact surface with air alcohol analysis . Diluted ethanol may well...

  3. Effect of Addition of Cereal Based Beta-glucan on Technological and Functional Properties of Foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nihal Şimşekli

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays usage of dietary fibers in foods has been increasing duo to revealing of health benefits. Beta-glucans found especially in oats and barley, are polysaccharide and source of water-soluble dietary fiber. Positive effects of beta-glucans like healing coronary-heart disease, lowering blood cholesterol level, balancing blood sugar level and preventing obesity, made beta-glucans widespread functional food components for producing various foods. In addition to beneficial physiological effects of beta-glucans, they texturize, gelatinize, emulsify and stabilize the foods. They increase viscosity, replace fat and enhance rheological properties in cereal, meat and dairy products. They are also used to produce packing material depending on their mechanical properties and molecular weights. In this review, effects of addition of cereal based beta-glucans on technological and functional properties of various foods are revealed based on previous studies.

  4. In silico genotoxicity of coumarins: application of the Phenol-Explorer food database to functional food science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guardado Yordi, E; Matos, M J; Pérez Martínez, A; Tornes, A C; Santana, L; Molina, E; Uriarte, E

    2017-08-01

    Coumarins are a group of phytochemicals that may be beneficial or harmful to health depending on their type and dosage and the matrix that contains them. Some of these compounds have been proven to display pro-oxidant and clastogenic activities. Therefore, in the current work, we have studied the coumarins that are present in food sources extracted from the Phenol-Explorer database in order to predict their clastogenic activity and identify the structure-activity relationships and genotoxic structural alerts using alternative methods in the field of computational toxicology. It was necessary to compile information on the type and amount of coumarins in different food sources through the analysis of databases of food composition available online. A virtual screening using a clastogenic model and different software, such as MODESLAB, ChemDraw and STATISTIC, was performed. As a result, a table of food composition was prepared and qualitative information from this data was extracted. The virtual screening showed that the esterified substituents inactivate molecules, while the methoxyl and hydroxyl substituents contribute to their activity and constitute, together with the basic structures of the studied subclasses, clastogenic structural alerts. Chemical subclasses of simple coumarins and furocoumarins were classified as active (xanthotoxin, isopimpinellin, esculin, scopoletin, scopolin and bergapten). In silico genotoxicity was mainly predicted for coumarins found in beer, sherry, dried parsley, fresh parsley and raw celery stalks. The results obtained can be interesting for the future design of functional foods and dietary supplements. These studies constitute a reference for the genotoxic chemoinformatic analysis of bioactive compounds present in databases of food composition.

  5. The relation of executive functioning to CVLT-II learning, memory, and process indexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Benjamin David; Alosco, Michael; Bauer, Lyndsey; Tremont, Geoffrey

    2012-01-01

    Previous research has found that executive functioning plays a role in memory performance. This study sought to determine the amount of variance accounted for in the California Verbal Learning Test-Second Edition (CVLT-II) by a global executive-functioning factor score. Archival data were extracted from 285 outpatients in a mixed neurologic sample. Measures used included: CVLT-II, Wisconsin Card-Sorting Test (Perseverative Errors), Trail-Making Test-Part B, Controlled Oral Word Association Test, Animal Naming, and Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Third Edition Similarities. Executive data were reduced to a single executive-functioning factor score for each individual. Regression was used to determine the amount of variance accounted for by executive functioning in CVLT-II performance. Executive functioning accounted for minimal variance (0%-10%) in the following CVLT-II indexes: Total Learning (Trials 1-5), Semantic Clustering, Repetitions, Intrusions, and False Positives. However, executive functioning accounted for substantial variance (24%-31%) in CVLT-II performance for both Short- and Long-Delay Recall indexes and most discriminability indexes. CVLT-II indexes that would intuitively be associated with executive functioning accounted for a smaller-than-expected amount of variance. Additionally, level of executive functioning was related to level of CVLT-II performance. These results suggest that clinicians should consider executive deficits when interpreting mild-to-moderate memory impairments in recall and discriminability functions but that executive abilities have little effect on other aspects of memory.

  6. Axon extension in the fast and slow lanes: substratum-dependent engagement of myosin II functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ketschek, Andrea R; Jones, Steven L; Gallo, Gianluca

    2007-09-01

    Axon extension involves the coordinated regulation of the neuronal cytoskeleton. Actin filaments drive protrusion of filopodia and lamellipodia while microtubules invade the growth cone, thereby providing structural support for the nascent axon. Furthermore, in order for axons to extend the growth cone must attach to the substratum. Previous work indicates that myosin II activity inhibits the advance of microtubules into the periphery of growth cones, and myosin II has also been implicated in mediating integrin-dependent cell attachment. However, it is not clear how the functions of myosin II in regulating substratum attachment and microtubule advance are integrated during axon extension. We report that inhibition of myosin II function decreases the rate of axon extension on laminin, but surprisingly promotes extension rate on polylysine. The differential effects of myosin II inhibition on axon extension rate are attributable to myosin II having the primary function of mediating substratum attachment on laminin, but not on polylysine. Conversely, on polylysine the primary function of myosin II is to inhibit microtubule advance into growth cones. Thus, the substratum determines the role of myosin II in axon extension by controlling the functions of myosin II that contribute to extension.

  7. Advances in Microalgae-Derived Phytosterols for Functional Food and Pharmaceutical Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Xuan; Su, Peng; Zhang, Wei

    2015-07-09

    Microalgae contain a variety of bioactive lipids with potential applications in aquaculture feed, biofuel, food and pharmaceutical industries. While microalgae-derived polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) and their roles in promoting human health have been extensively studied, other lipid types from this resource, such as phytosterols, have been poorly explored. Phytosterols have been used as additives in many food products such as spread, dairy products and salad dressing. This review focuses on the recent advances in microalgae-derived phytosterols with functional bioactivities and their potential applications in functional food and pharmaceutical industries. It highlights the importance of microalgae-derived lipids other than PUFA for the development of an advanced microalgae industry.

  8. Huitlacoche (corn smut), caused by the phytopathogenic fungus Ustilago maydis, as a functional food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juárez-Montiel, Margarita; Ruiloba de León, Sandra; Chávez-Camarillo, Griselda; Hernández-Rodríguez, César; Villa-Tanaca, Lourdes

    2011-01-01

    In recent years the need has arisen to study and develop (or re-discover) foods that have nutritional characteristics as well as specific functions, such as improving health and/or reducing the risk of disease. For this reason knowledge of the nutritional value of food is important to promote greater consumer acceptance. In Mexico huitlacoche (also, cuitlacoche) has traditionally been prized as a delicacy since the time of the Aztecs and is currently being studied as a potential functional food and as a producer of natural bioactive substances that are used in fortifying foods. To present an updated review about the properties of the huitlacoche (corn smut) as functional food. A bibliographic search was performed and data were discussed. The data of the works reviewed here show that huitlacoche contains many compounds that confer to it unique organoleptic and nutraceutical characteristics. The content of bioactive substances in huitlacoche supports the proposal that this is a good functional food as well as producer of compounds to enrich other foods. Copyright © 2010 Revista Iberoamericana de Micología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  9. Analysis of Consumer Attitudes and Consumers’ Willingness to Pay for Functional Foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorgelina Di Pasquale

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to analyze consumer behaviour in relation to functional foods by a direct survey. To this end, the proposal is an analysis of the reasons for choosing to consume this type of food or not, accompanied by a supplementary investigation, mostly to assess the relationship between consumption patterns and willingness to pay (WTP for the most common categories of functional foods, such as milk fortified with CLA (conjugated linoleic acid. Our research shows that a proportion of the population is unaware of the existence of functional foods and their properties. Moreover, it shows that when the concept of functional foods is explained to consumers, this creates a greater willingness to pay for such food, which is strongly linked to type of product carrier but not greatly to income. So the knowledge and transparency of information appear to be decisive variables in the process of choice, with significant implications in terms of policies for classification, labelling of food and public health.

  10. Distribution of U-235 and U-238 in food(II)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Yong Woo; Lee, Jeong Min; Oh, Hyun Kyun; Han, Man Joong [KORTIC, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-02-15

    To accomplish the objective of this work, analyses of uranium concentration in 100 food samples (fruit and vegetables) were carried out. The surveillance results on uranium isotope concentrations in food of Korea will be used as a basis of estimating the annual effective dose to the public by uranium and a baseline data to establish a national recommend value for the protection from radiation of food.

  11. Approach to novel functional foods for stress control 4. Regulation of serotonin transporter by food factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Mikiko; Haito, Sakiko; Furumoto, Mari; Kawai, Yoshichika; Terao, Junji; Miyamoto, Ken-ichi

    2005-11-01

    Serotonin transporters (SERTs) are pre-synaptic proteins specialized for the clearance of serotonin following vesicular release at central nervous system (CNS) and enteric nervous system synapses. SERTs are high affinity targets in vivo for antidepressants such as serotonin selective reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). These include 'medical' psychopharmacological agents such as analgesics and antihistamines, a plant extract called St John's Wort (Hypericum). Osteoclasts are the primary cells responsible for bone resorption. They arise by the differentiation of osteoclast precursors of the monocyte/macrophage lineage. The expression of SERTs was increased in RANKL-induced osteoclast-like cells. Using RANKL stimulation of RAW264.7 cells as a model system for osteoclast differentiation, we studied the direct effects of food factor on serotonin uptake. The SSRIs (fluoxetine and fluvoxamine) inhibited markedly (approximately 95%) in serotonin transport in differentiated osteoclast cells. The major components of St. John's Wort, hyperforin and hypericine were significantly decreased in serotonin transport activity. Thus, a new in vitro model using RANKL-induced osteoclast-like cells may be useful to analyze the regulation of SERT by food factors and SSRIs.

  12. Consolidation of Military Pay and Personnel Functions (Copper). Volume II

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-05-01

    as in any system, the commander and staff must perform their roles in providing information in a timely and accurate manner. a. Concepts pertaining to...feminine genders . Exceptions to this use of the words "he" or "his" will be so noted. 8. RECOMMENDED CHANGES AND COMMENTS. Users of this manual are...II-lO-Aq3 S NO CAH TR TION NCL IN 0’ SECTION 2 co P ? PAGE YES YES II-10-A43 MAKE CORRECTIONS LOG IN OTL SEPARATE DOCUMENTS Orl, OTL DOCUMENTS ORIG

  13. The advantages of deep ocean water for the development of functional fermentation food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chun-Lin

    2015-03-01

    Deep ocean water (DOW) is obtained from 600 m below the sea surface. In recent years, DOW has been applied in the development of fermentation biotechnologies and functional foods. DOW is rich in trace minerals, comprises multiple physiological and health functions, and is able to promote microbe growth; therefore, the application of DOW directly benefits the development of the fermentation industry and functional foods. This study integrated the current health functions and applications of DOW with the latest results from studies related to fermentation biotechnology. Subsequently, the influence of applying DOW in fermented functional food development and the effects in health function improvements were summarized. According to the previous studies, the main reasons for the increased effect of fermented functional foods through the application of DOW are increased generation of functional metabolite contents in the microbes, intrinsic health functions of DOW, and the microbial use of mechanisms of converting the absorbed inorganic ions into highly bioavailable organic ions for the human body. These combined advantages not only enhance the health functions of fermentation products but also provide fermentation products with the intrinsic health functions of DOW.

  14. Nitrilotriacetic acid functionalized Adansonia digitata biosorbent: Preparation, characterization and sorption of Pb (II and Cu (II pollutants from aqueous solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adewale Adewuyi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Nitrilotriacetic acid functionalized Adansonia digitata (NFAD biosorbent has been synthesized using a simple and novel method. NFAD was characterized by X-ray Diffraction analysis technique (XRD, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET surface area analyzer, Fourier Transform Infrared spectrometer (FTIR, particle size dispersion, zeta potential, elemental analysis (CHNS/O analyzer, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA, differential thermal analysis (DTA, derivative thermogravimetric analysis (DTG and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS. The ability of NFAD as biosorbent was evaluated for the removal of Pb (II and Cu (II ions from aqueous solutions. The particle distribution of NFAD was found to be monomodal while SEM revealed the surface to be heterogeneous. The adsorption capacity of NFAD toward Pb (II ions was 54.417 mg/g while that of Cu (II ions was found to be 9.349 mg/g. The adsorption of these metals was found to be monolayer, second-order-kinetic, and controlled by both intra-particle diffusion and liquid film diffusion. The results of this study were compared better than some reported biosorbents in the literature. The current study has revealed NFAD to be an effective biosorbent for the removal of Pb (II and Cu (II from aqueous solution.

  15. Nitrilotriacetic acid functionalized Adansonia digitata biosorbent: Preparation, characterization and sorption of Pb (II) and Cu (II) pollutants from aqueous solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adewuyi, Adewale; Pereira, Fabiano Vargas

    2016-11-01

    Nitrilotriacetic acid functionalized Adansonia digitata (NFAD) biosorbent has been synthesized using a simple and novel method. NFAD was characterized by X-ray Diffraction analysis technique (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area analyzer, Fourier Transform Infrared spectrometer (FTIR), particle size dispersion, zeta potential, elemental analysis (CHNS/O analyzer), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), differential thermal analysis (DTA), derivative thermogravimetric analysis (DTG) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). The ability of NFAD as biosorbent was evaluated for the removal of Pb (II) and Cu (II) ions from aqueous solutions. The particle distribution of NFAD was found to be monomodal while SEM revealed the surface to be heterogeneous. The adsorption capacity of NFAD toward Pb (II) ions was 54.417 mg/g while that of Cu (II) ions was found to be 9.349 mg/g. The adsorption of these metals was found to be monolayer, second-order-kinetic, and controlled by both intra-particle diffusion and liquid film diffusion. The results of this study were compared better than some reported biosorbents in the literature. The current study has revealed NFAD to be an effective biosorbent for the removal of Pb (II) and Cu (II) from aqueous solution.

  16. Divergent composition but similar function of soil food webs of individual plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bezemer, T M; Fountain, M T; Barea, J M

    2010-01-01

    Soils are extremely rich in biodiversity, and soil organisms play pivotal roles in supporting terrestrial life, but the role that individual plants and plant communities play in influencing the diversity and functioning of soil food webs remains highly debated. Plants, as primary producers...... and providers of resources to the soil food web, are of vital importance for the composition, structure, and functioning of soil communities. However, whether natural soil food webs that are completely open to immigration and emigration differ underneath individual plants remains unknown. In a biodiversity......, and functioning of the complete soil food webs of 58 individual plants, belonging to two of the plant species, Lotus corniculatus (Fabaceae) and Plantago lanceolata (Plantaginaceae). We isolated and identified more than 150 taxa/groups of soil organisms. The soil community composition and structure of the entire...

  17. Calculus of Elementary Functions, Part II. Teacher's Commentary. Revised Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herriot, Sarah T.; And Others

    This course is intended for students who have a thorough knowledge of college preparatory mathematics, including algebra, axiomatic geometry, trigonometry, and analytic geometry. This teacher's guide is for Part II of the course. It is designed to follow Part I of the text. The guide contains background information, suggested instructional…

  18. Buckwheat as a Functional Food and Its Effects on Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giménez-Bastida, Juan Antonio; Zieliński, Henryk

    2015-09-16

    Buckwheat (BW) is a gluten-free pseudocereal that belongs to the Polygonaceae family. BW grain is a highly nutritional food component that has been shown to provide a wide range of beneficial effects. Health benefits attributed to BW include plasma cholesterol level reduction, neuroprotection, anticancer, anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic effects, and improvement of hypertension conditions. In addition, BW has been reported to possess prebiotic and antioxidant activities. In vitro and animal studies suggest that BW's bioactive compounds, such as D-chiro-inositol (DCI), BW proteins (BWP), and BW flavonoids (mainly rutin and quercetin) may be partially responsible for the observed effects. The purpose of this paper is to review the recent research regarding the health benefits of BW, in vitro and in vivo, focusing on the specific role of its bioactive compounds and on the mechanisms by which these effects are exerted.

  19. Development Of Functional Foods Sea Weeds Algae Untouched Potential And Alternative Resource - A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habtamu Admassu

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Let food be thy medicine and medicine be thy food by Hippocrates was obscured with the advent of modern drug therapy and nutrition science until to twentieth century. The combination of consumer desires advances in food technology and new evidence-based correlation between nutrition to disease and disease prevention has created an unprecedented opportunity to concentrate on public health issues through diet and lifestyle. There is widespread interest these days to make a choice of functional foods from natural products that might promote health through specific bio-active compounds. Considering the diversity of biochemicals and capable of exerting functional bioactivities a growing trend is developing across globe to use seaweeds in functional food development. Compounds isolated from seaweeds have various functional biological activities antibacterial activity antioxidant potential anti-inflammatory properties anti-e coagulant activity anti-viral activity and antifungal and apoptotic activity. Therefore this review focuses on several bioactive chemicals in seaweeds and their biological activities for which they are responsible as a functional food ingredient.

  20. Independent functional connectivity networks underpin food and monetary reward sensitivity in excess weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdejo-Román, Juan; Fornito, Alex; Soriano-Mas, Carles; Vilar-López, Raquel; Verdejo-García, Antonio

    2017-02-01

    Overvaluation of palatable food is a primary driver of obesity, and is associated with brain regions of the reward system. However, it remains unclear if this network is specialized in food reward, or generally involved in reward processing. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to characterize functional connectivity during processing of food and monetary rewards. Thirty-nine adults with excess weight and 37 adults with normal weight performed the Willingness to Pay for Food task and the Monetary Incentive Delay task in the fMRI scanner. A data-driven graph approach was applied to compare whole-brain, task-related functional connectivity between groups. Excess weight was associated with decreased functional connectivity during the processing of food rewards in a network involving primarily frontal and striatal areas, and increased functional connectivity during the processing of monetary rewards in a network involving principally frontal and parietal areas. These two networks were topologically and anatomically distinct, and were independently associated with BMI. The processing of food and monetary rewards involve segregated neural networks, and both are altered in individuals with excess weight.

  1. Suitability of polystyrene as a functional barrier layer in coloured food contact materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genualdi, Susan; Addo Ntim, Susana; Begley, Timothy

    2015-01-01

    Functional barriers in food contact materials (FCMs) are used to prevent or reduce migration from inner layers in multilayer structures to food. The effectiveness of functional barrier layers was investigated in coloured polystyrene (PS) bowls due to their intended condition of use with hot liquids such as soups or stew. Migration experiments were performed over a 10-day period using USFDA-recommended food simulants (10% ethanol, 50% ethanol, corn oil and Miglyol) along with several other food oils. At the end of the 10 days, solvent dyes had migrated from the PS bowls at 12, 1 and 31,000 ng cm(-)(2) into coconut oil, palm kernel oil and Miglyol respectively, and in coconut oil and Miglyol the colour change was visible to the human eye. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) images revealed that the functional barrier was no longer intact for the bowls exposed to coconut oil, palm kernel oil, Miglyol, 10% ethanol, 50% ethanol and goat's milk. Additional tests showed that 1-dodecanol, a lauryl alcohol derived from palm kernel oil and coconut oil, was present in the PS bowls at an average concentration of 11 mg kg(-1). This compound is likely to have been used as a dispersing agent for the solvent dye and aided the migration of the solvent dye from the PS bowl into the food simulant. The solvent dye was not found in the 10% ethanol, 50% ethanol and goat's milk food simulants above their respective limits of detection, which is likely to be due to its insolubility in aqueous solutions. A disrupted barrier layer is of concern because if there are unregulated materials in the inner layers of the laminate, they may migrate to food, and therefore be considered unapproved food additives resulting in the food being deemed adulterated under the Federal Food Drug and Cosmetic Act.

  2. Innovative analytical tools to characterize prebiotic carbohydrates of functional food interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corradini, Claudio; Lantano, Claudia; Cavazza, Antonella

    2013-05-01

    Functional foods are one of the most interesting areas of research and innovation in the food industry. A functional food or functional ingredient is considered to be any food or food component that provides health benefits beyond basic nutrition. Recently, consumers have shown interest in natural bioactive compounds as functional ingredients in the diet owing to their various beneficial effects for health. Water-soluble fibers and nondigestible oligosaccharides and polysaccharides can be defined as functional food ingredients. Fructooligosaccharides (FOS) and inulin are resistant to direct metabolism by the host and reach the caecocolon, where they are used by selected groups of beneficial bacteria. Furthermore, they are able to improve physical and structural properties of food, such as hydration, oil-holding capacity, viscosity, texture, sensory characteristics, and shelf-life. This article reviews major innovative analytical developments to screen and identify FOS, inulins, and the most employed nonstarch carbohydrates added or naturally present in functional food formulations. High-performance anion-exchange chromatography with pulsed electrochemical detection (HPAEC-PED) is one of the most employed analytical techniques for the characterization of those molecules. Mass spectrometry is also of great help, in particularly matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS), which is able to provide extensive information regarding the molecular weight and length profiles of oligosaccharides and polysaccharides. Moreover, MALDI-TOF-MS in combination with HPAEC-PED has been shown to be of great value for the complementary information it can provide. Some other techniques, such as NMR spectroscopy, are also discussed, with relevant examples of recent applications. A number of articles have appeared in the literature in recent years regarding the analysis of inulin, FOS, and other carbohydrates of interest in the field and

  3. Knowledge, perceptions and preferences of elderly regarding protein-enriched functional food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Zanden, Lotte D T; van Kleef, Ellen; de Wijk, René A; van Trijp, Hans C M

    2014-09-01

    Promoting protein consumption in the elderly population may contribute to improving the quality of their later years in life. Our study aimed to explore knowledge, perceptions and preferences of elderly consumers regarding protein-enriched food. We conducted three focus groups with independently living (ID) elderly (N = 24, Mage = 67 years) and three with elderly living in a residential home (RH) (N = 18, Mage = 83 years). Both the ID and RH elderly were predominantly sceptical about functional food in general. Confusion, distrust and a perceived lack of personal relevance were main perceived barriers to purchasing and consuming these products, although a majority of the participants did report occasionally consuming at least one type of functional food. For the ID elderly, medical advice was an important facilitator that could overcome barriers to purchasing and consuming protein-enriched food, indicating the importance of personal relevance for this group. For the RH elderly, in contrast, sensory appeal of protein-enriched foods was a facilitator. Carrier preferences were similar for the two groups; the elderly preferred protein-enriched foods based on healthy products that they consumed frequently. Future studies should explore ways to deal with the confusion and distrust regarding functional food within the heterogeneous population of elderly.

  4. Understanding heterogeneity among elderly consumers: an evaluation of segmentation approaches in the functional food market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Zanden, Lotte D T; van Kleef, Ellen; de Wijk, René A; van Trijp, Hans C M

    2014-06-01

    It is beneficial for both the public health community and the food industry to meet nutritional needs of elderly consumers through product formats that they want. The heterogeneity of the elderly market poses a challenge, however, and calls for market segmentation. Although many researchers have proposed ways to segment the elderly consumer population, the elderly food market has received surprisingly little attention in this respect. Therefore, the present paper reviewed eight potential segmentation bases on their appropriateness in the context of functional foods aimed at the elderly: cognitive age, life course, time perspective, demographics, general food beliefs, food choice motives, product attributes and benefits sought, and past purchase. Each of the segmentation bases had strengths as well as weaknesses regarding seven evaluation criteria. Given that both product design and communication are useful tools to increase the appeal of functional foods, we argue that elderly consumers in this market may best be segmented using a preference-based segmentation base that is predictive of behaviour (for example, attributes and benefits sought), combined with a characteristics-based segmentation base that describes consumer characteristics (for example, demographics). In the end, the effectiveness of (combinations of) segmentation bases for elderly consumers in the functional food market remains an empirical matter. We hope that the present review stimulates further empirical research that substantiates the ideas presented in this paper.

  5. Development of functional foods for radiation workers - Search for the active components and studies on the mechanism of the hematopoiesis improvement foods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yee, Sung Tae; Ha, Mee Hye; Jeong, Young Ran [Sunchon National University, Sunchon (Korea)

    2000-04-01

    In this experiments, we established long-termed culture methods of bone marrow stromal cells for proliferation and differentiation of stem cells. And we selected some extracts which support maximal proliferation of stromal cells with this method. We conformed the synergic effects of herbal mixture extracts for stromal cell growth. The proliferation of stromal cells was increased rather by the addition of mixture extracts than by addition of single strain extract. In the previous and cooperative experiments, we selected complex extracts (Him-I, Him-II) which increased the number of nonadherent mononuclear cells. Different cytokine expression patterns were observed stromal cells cultured in the presence or absence of mixture extracts which support differentiation of nonadherent cells. Some fractions of Him-I and Him-II increased the proliferation of bone marrow cells irradiated {gamma}-ray(4Gray). Stimulation of macrophage cell line with herval extracts with the treatments of recombinant interferon-{gamma} resulted in increased nitric oxide synthesis in a dose-dependent manners. Altered patterns of cytokine mRNA expression were observed in the stromals cells cultured with extracts of herbal plant. In regarding of the results, isolation and development of new and effective systems to screen for active hematopoietic component needs to be proceeded. Such studies on the hematopoietic modulation and mechanism of herbal plants would further lead to new avenues for the development of functional foods which effect such as radiation damages or leukemia. 20 refs., 23 figs. (Author)

  6. Credit with Education: A Promising Title II Microfinance Strategy--Supporting Integrated Food Security and Nutrition Programs To Improve Health and Well-Being of Women and Children). Food and Nutrition Technical Assistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunford, Christopher; Denman, Vicki

    This paper introduces the reader to microfinance integrated with health and nutrition education as a promising strategy for Title II practitioners. The paper provides an overview of how microfinance, particularly village banking, can contribute to the food-security objectives of Title II. It describes a variant of village banking, called…

  7. Functional characterisation of a putative rhamnogalacturonan II specific xylosyltransferase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egelund, Jack; Damager, Iben; Faber, Kirsten; Olsen, Carl-Erik; Ulvskov, Peter; Petersen, Bent Larsen

    2008-09-22

    An Arabidopsis thaliana gene, At1g56550, was expressed in Pichia pastoris and the recombinant protein was shown to catalyse transfer of D-xylose from UDP-alpha-D-xylose onto methyl alpha-L-fucoside. The product formed was shown by 1D and 2D 1H NMR spectroscopy to be Me alpha-D-Xyl-(1,3)-alpha-L-Fuc, which is identical to the proposed target structure in the A-chain of rhamnogalacturonan II. Chemically synthesized methyl L-fucosides derivatized by methyl groups on either the 2-, 3- or 4 position were tested as acceptor substrates but only methyl 4-O-methyl-alpha-L-fucopyranoside acted as an acceptor, although to a lesser extent than methyl alpha-L-fucoside. At1g56550 is suggested to encode a rhamnogalacturonan II specific xylosyltransferase.

  8. Allanblackia Oil: Phytochemistry and Use as a Functional Food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara L. Crockett

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The consumption and commercial exploitation of Allanblackia (Clusiaceae seed oils is of current interest. The favorable physicochemical characteristics of Allanblackia oil (solid at room temperature; high stearic acid content lend food products that contain it (i.e., vegetable-based dairy products, ice cream, spreads health advantages over others that contain higher levels of lauric, myristic, and/or palmitic acids, which can increase blood cholesterol levels. Such considerations are important for individuals prone to cardiovascular disease or with hypercholesterolemia. Domestication projects of several Allanblackia species in tropical Africa are underway, but wildcrafting of fruits to meet the seed demand still occurs. Proper species authentication is important, since only authenticated oil can be deemed safe for human consumption. The chemical constituency of Allanblackia seed oils, and potential roles of these phytochemicals in preventive strategies (e.g., as part of a healthy diet and as pharmacological agents used to treat chronic disease were examined in this review. The primary and secondary metabolite constituency of the seed oils of nearly all Allanblackia species is still poorly known. The presence, identity, and quantity of potentially bioactive secondary metabolites in the seed oils, and pharmacological testing of isolated compounds were identified as important directions for future research.

  9. Allanblackia Oil: Phytochemistry and Use as a Functional Food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crockett, Sara L

    2015-09-15

    The consumption and commercial exploitation of Allanblackia (Clusiaceae) seed oils is of current interest. The favorable physicochemical characteristics of Allanblackia oil (solid at room temperature; high stearic acid content) lend food products that contain it (i.e., vegetable-based dairy products, ice cream, spreads) health advantages over others that contain higher levels of lauric, myristic, and/or palmitic acids, which can increase blood cholesterol levels. Such considerations are important for individuals prone to cardiovascular disease or with hypercholesterolemia. Domestication projects of several Allanblackia species in tropical Africa are underway, but wildcrafting of fruits to meet the seed demand still occurs. Proper species authentication is important, since only authenticated oil can be deemed safe for human consumption. The chemical constituency of Allanblackia seed oils, and potential roles of these phytochemicals in preventive strategies (e.g., as part of a healthy diet) and as pharmacological agents used to treat chronic disease were examined in this review. The primary and secondary metabolite constituency of the seed oils of nearly all Allanblackia species is still poorly known. The presence, identity, and quantity of potentially bioactive secondary metabolites in the seed oils, and pharmacological testing of isolated compounds were identified as important directions for future research.

  10. Curcuma longa and Curcuma mangga leaves exhibit functional food property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yunbao; Nair, Muraleedharan G

    2012-11-15

    Although leaves of Curcuma mangga and Curcuma longa are used in food preparations, the bioactive components in it are not known. In this study, antioxidant, antiinflammatory and anticancer activities of leave extracts and its isolates were investigated using established bioassay procedures in our laboratory. The leaf extracts of both plants gave similar bioassay and chromatographic profiles. The methanolic and water extracts of C. mangga (CMM and CMW) and C. longa (CLM and CLW), at 100 μg/mL, inhibited lipid peroxidation (LPO) by 78%, 63%, 81% and 43%, cyclooxygenase enzymes COX-1 by 55%, 33%, 43% and 24% and COX-2 by 65%, 55%, 77% and 69%, respectively. At same concentration, CMM, CMW, CLM and CLW showed growth inhibition of human tumour cell lines by 0-46%. Therefore, a bioassay-guided isolation of water and methanolic extracts of C. longa was carried out and afforded nine isolates. At 25 μg/mL, these compounds inhibited LPO by 11-87%, COX-1 and -2 enzymes by 0-35% and 0-82% and growth of human tumour cells by 0-36%, respectively.

  11. Aloe vera as a functional ingredient in foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez Rodríguez, Elena; Darias Martín, Jacinto; Díaz Romero, Carlos

    2010-04-01

    The main scientific discoveries on Aloe vera published mainly in the last three decades are presented in this work. After describing Aloe from a botanical point of view, the papers related with the chemical composition of different parts of the leaf of Aloe, particularly those in which the gel is described and are presented in a synthetic manner. The chemical analyses reveal that Aloe gel contains mannose polymers with some glucose and other sugars, among which the most important is Acemannan. Besides these, other components such as glycoproteins, enzymes, amino acids, vitamins, and minerals are described. Different factors also affecting the chemical composition of the gel, such as species and variety, climatic and soil conditions, cultivation methods, processing and preservation, are enumerated and discussed. On the other hand, the main therapeutic applications have been revised and the possible damaging effects of Aloe are also commented upon. A special emphasis is placed on the biologically active compounds or groups of compounds responsible for the therapeutic applications and which are their action mechanisms. The paper concludes that more research is needed to confirm the therapeutic and beneficial effects and to definitively clarify the myth surrounding Aloe vera. A general view on the problem of the commercialization and establishment of the quality and safety of Aloe products in the food industry has been offered here. The main points and European regulations that need to be considered regarding the quality control of prepared Aloe products are presented in this paper.

  12. Ruthenium(II)-Catalyzed C-C Arylations and Alkylations: Decarbamoylative C-C Functionalizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moselage, Marc; Li, Jie; Kramm, Frederik; Ackermann, Lutz

    2017-04-05

    Ruthenium(II)biscarboxylate catalysis enabled selective C-C functionalizations by means of decarbamoylative C-C arylations. The versatility of the ruthenium(II) catalysis was reflected by widely applicable C-C arylations and C-C alkylations of aryl amides, as well as acids with modifiable pyrazoles, through facile organometallic C-C activation.

  13. Adverse Food Reaction and Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders: Role of the Dietetic Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasqui, Francesca; Poli, Carolina; Colecchia, Antonio; Marasco, Giovanni; Festi, Davide

    2015-09-01

    Bloating, abdominal discomfort or pain, disturbed bowel habits are very common symptoms, frequently reported by the patients soon after food ingestion. These symptoms may occur in different clinical conditions, such as functional bowel disorders, food adverse reactions, gluten-related syndromes, which frequently are interrelated. Consequently, in clinical practice, it is necessary to perform a correct diagnosis in order to identify, for the single patient, the most appropriate therapeutic strategy, which may include not only specific drugs, but also, and mainly, life style changes (healthy nutritional behavior and constant physical activity). The aim of this review is to provide to the general physician, according to the available evidence, the most appropriate diagnostic work-ups for recognizing the different clinical scenarios (i.e. food allergy and intolerance, functional bowel diseases, gluten-related syndromes), to identify their clinical interrelationships and to suggest the most appropriate management. In fact, as far as food intolerances are concerned, it is well known that the number of patients who believe that their symptoms are related to food intolerance is increasing and consequently they restrict their diet, possibly causing nutritional deficiencies. Furthermore, there is an increasing use of unconventional diagnostic tests for food intolerance which lack accurate scientific evidence; the application of their results may induce misdiagnosis and unhealthy therapeutic choices. Consequently the recognition of food intolerance has to be performed on the basis of reliable tests within an agreed diagnostic workup.

  14. FREEZING AND THAWING TIME PREDICTION METHODS OF FOODS II: NUMARICAL METHODS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yahya TÜLEK

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available Freezing is one of the excellent methods for the preservation of foods. If freezing and thawing processes and frozen storage method are carried out correctly, the original characteristics of the foods can remain almost unchanged over an extended periods of time. It is very important to determine the freezing and thawing time period of the foods, as they strongly influence the both quality of food material and process productivity and the economy. For developing a simple and effectively usable mathematical model, less amount of process parameters and physical properties should be enrolled in calculations. But it is a difficult to have all of these in one prediction method. For this reason, various freezing and thawing time prediction methods were proposed in literature and research studies have been going on.

  15. Correction of an adult Class II division 2 individual using fixed functional appliance: A noncompliance approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shrinivas Basavaraddi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This case report describes the application of fixed functional appliance in the treatment of an adult female having Class II division 2 malocclusion with retroclination of upper incisors. Fixed functional appliance was used to correct the overjet after the uprighting of upper incisors. Fixed functional appliance was fitted on a rigid rectangular arch wire. Application of fixed functional appliance achieved a good Class I molar relationship along with Class I canine relationship with normal overjet and overbite. Fixed functional appliance is effective in the treatment of Class II malocclusions, even in adult patients, and can serve as an alternate choice of treatment instead of orthognathic surgery. This is a case; wherein, fixed functional appliance was successfully used to relieve deep bite and overjet that was ensued after leveling and aligning. We demonstrate that fixed functional appliance can act as a “noncompliant corrector” and use of Class II elastics can be avoided.

  16. Correction of an adult Class II division 2 individual using fixed functional appliance: A noncompliance approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basavaraddi, Shrinivas; Gandedkar, Narayan H; Belludi, Anup; Patil, Anand

    2016-01-01

    This case report describes the application of fixed functional appliance in the treatment of an adult female having Class II division 2 malocclusion with retroclination of upper incisors. Fixed functional appliance was used to correct the overjet after the uprighting of upper incisors. Fixed functional appliance was fitted on a rigid rectangular arch wire. Application of fixed functional appliance achieved a good Class I molar relationship along with Class I canine relationship with normal overjet and overbite. Fixed functional appliance is effective in the treatment of Class II malocclusions, even in adult patients, and can serve as an alternate choice of treatment instead of orthognathic surgery. This is a case; wherein, fixed functional appliance was successfully used to relieve deep bite and overjet that was ensued after leveling and aligning. We demonstrate that fixed functional appliance can act as a "noncompliant corrector" and use of Class II elastics can be avoided.

  17. Inulin and Oligofructosis: a review about functional properties, prebiotic effects and importance for food industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Celia de Oliveira Hauly

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays consumers are more conscious about the relation between food and health. Therefore food industry has been looking for food that has a lot of benefits besides good flavor and appearance. Inulin and oligofructose are fructose polimers, vastly found in plants as storage carbohydrates. They present important functional for the food industry. Both inulin and oligofructose have been used as fiber bulk in food products. Differently from other fibers, they do not add flavor, allowing the food to be improved without changing its viscosity. Inulin and oligofructose have similar nutritional properties. Inulin is more indicated for obtaining products with a low fat content such as ice cream, cake and soup, while oligofructose is indicated for yogurt with a low caloric value and in order to mask the residual flavor from high intensity sweeteners used in food preparation. Research has shown that inulin and oligofructose have prebiotic effects because they are not digestible and they can develop bifidogenic effects, improving the intestinal microflora. The simultaneous use of inulin and oligofructose with probiotic agents in food is recommended for symbiotic effects.

  18. A model of freezing foods with liquid nitrogen using special functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez Vega, Martín.

    2014-05-01

    A food freezing model is analyzed analytically. The model is based on the heat diffusion equation in the case of cylindrical shaped food frozen by liquid nitrogen; and assuming that the thermal conductivity of the cylindrical food is radially modulated. The model is solved using the Laplace transform method, the Bromwich theorem, and the residue theorem. The temperature profile in the cylindrical food is presented as an infinite series of special functions. All the required computations are performed with computer algebra software, specifically Maple. Using the numeric values of the thermal and geometric parameters for the cylindrical food, as well as the thermal parameters of the liquid nitrogen freezing system, the temporal evolution of the temperature in different regions in the interior of the cylindrical food is presented both analytically and graphically. The duration of the liquid nitrogen freezing process to achieve the specified effect on the cylindrical food is computed. The analytical results are expected to be of importance in food engineering and cooking engineering. As a future research line, the formulation and solution of freezing models with thermal memory is proposed.

  19. Prenatal cocaine exposure impairs cognitive function of progeny via insulin growth factor II epigenetic regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Qian; Hou, Jing; Chen, Bo; Shao, Xue; Zhu, Ruiming; Bu, Qian; Gu, Hui; Li, Yan; Zhang, Baolai; Du, Changman; Fu, Dengqi; Kong, Jueying; Luo, Li; Long, Hailei; Li, Hongyu; Deng, Yi; Zhao, Yinglan; Cen, Xiaobo

    2015-10-01

    Studies have showed that prenatal cocaine exposure (PCOC) can impair cognitive function and social behavior of the offspring; however, the mechanism underlying such effect is poorly understood. Insulin-like growth factor II (Igf-II), an imprinted gene, has a critical role in memory consolidation and enhancement. We hypothesized that epigenetic regulation of hippocampal Igf-II may attribute to the cognitive deficits of PCOC offspring. We used Morris water maze and open-field task to test the cognitive function in PCOC offspring. The epigenetic alteration involved in hippocampal Igf-II expression deficit in PCOC offspring was studied by determining Igf-II methylation status, DNA methyltransferases (DNMT) expressions and L-methionine level. Moreover, IGF-II rescue experiments were performed and the downstream signalings were investigated in PCOC offspring. In behavioral tests, we observed impaired spatial learning and memory and increased anxiety in PCOC offspring; moreover, hippocampal IGF-II mRNA and protein expressions were significantly decreased. Hippocampal methylation of cytosine-phospho-guanine (CpG) dinucleotides in differentially methylated region (DMR) 2 of Igf-II was elevated in PCOC offspring, which may be driven by the upregulation of L-methionine and DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) 1. Importantly, intra-hippocampal injection of recombinant IGF-II reactivated the repressed calcium calmodulin kinase II α (CaMKIIα) and reversed cognitive deficits in PCOC offspring. Collectively, our findings suggest that cocaine exposure during pregnancy impairs cognitive function of offspring through epigenetic modification of Igf-II gene. Enhancing IGF-II signaling may represent a novel therapeutical strategy for cocaine-induced cognitive impairment.

  20. Executive Function and Food Approach Behavior in Middle Childhood

    OpenAIRE

    Karoline eGroppe; Birgit eElsner

    2014-01-01

    Executive function (EF) has long been considered to be a unitary, domain-general cognitive ability. However, recent research suggests differentiating ‘hot’ affective and ‘cool’ cognitive aspects of EF. Yet, findings regarding this two-factor construct are still inconsistent. In particular, the development of this factor structure remains unclear and data on school-aged children is lacking. Furthermore, studies linking EF and overweight or obesity suggest that EF contributes to the regulation ...

  1. Rats' urinary metabolomes reveal the potential roles of functional foods and exercise in obesity management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farag, Mohamed A; Ammar, N M; Kholeif, T E; Metwally, N S; El-Sheikh, N M; Wessjohann, Ludger A; Abdel-Hamid, A Z

    2017-03-22

    The complexity of the metabolic changes in obese individuals still presents a challenge for the understanding of obesity-related metabolic disruptions and for obesity management. In this study, a gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) based metabolomics approach targeting urine metabolism has been applied to assess the potential roles of functional foods and exercise for obesity management in rats. Male albino rats diagnosed as obese via histopathology and biochemical assays were administered functional foods in common use for obesity management including pomegranate, grapefruit, and red cabbage juice extracts in parallel with swimming exercise. Urine samples were collected from these rats, and likewise from healthy control animals, for metabolite analysis using (GC-MS) coupled to multivariate data analysis. The results revealed a significant elevation in oxalate and phosphate levels in obese rat urine concurrent with lower lactate levels as compared to the control group. Furthermore, and to pinpoint the bioactive agents in the administered functional foods, ultra performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) coupled to high resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometry (TOF-MS) was employed for secondary metabolite profiling. The different phenolic classes found in the examined functional foods, viz. ellagitannins in pomegranate, flavanones in grapefruit and flavonols in red cabbage, are likely to mediate their anti-obesity effects. The results indicate that these functional foods and exercise were quite effective in reverting obesity-related metabolic disruptions back to normal status, as revealed by orthogonal partial least squares-discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA).

  2. Functional foods and nutraceuticals in the primary prevention of cardiovascular diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alissa, Eman M; Ferns, Gordon A

    2012-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is now the leading cause of death globally and is a growing health concern. Dietary factors are important in the pathogenesis of CVD and may to a large degree determine CVD risk, but have been less extensively investigated. Functional foods are those that are thought to have physiological benefits and/or reduce the risk of chronic disease beyond their basic nutritional functions. The food industry has started to market products labelled as "functional foods." Although many review articles have focused on individual dietary variables as determinants of CVD that can be modified to reduce the risk of CVD, the aim of this current paper was to examine the impact of functional foods in relation to the development and progression of CVD. Epidemiologic studies have demonstrated the association between certain dietary patterns and cardiovascular health. Research into the cardio-protective potential of their dietary components might support the development of functional foods and nutraceuticals. This paper will also compare the effect of individual bioactive dietary compounds with the effect of some dietary patterns in terms of their cardiovascular protection.

  3. Functional Foods and Nutraceuticals in the Primary Prevention of Cardiovascular Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eman M. Alissa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular disease (CVD is now the leading cause of death globally and is a growing health concern. Dietary factors are important in the pathogenesis of CVD and may to a large degree determine CVD risk, but have been less extensively investigated. Functional foods are those that are thought to have physiological benefits and/or reduce the risk of chronic disease beyond their basic nutritional functions. The food industry has started to market products labelled as “functional foods.” Although many review articles have focused on individual dietary variables as determinants of CVD that can be modified to reduce the risk of CVD, the aim of this current paper was to examine the impact of functional foods in relation to the development and progression of CVD. Epidemiologic studies have demonstrated the association between certain dietary patterns and cardiovascular health. Research into the cardio-protective potential of their dietary components might support the development of functional foods and nutraceuticals. This paper will also compare the effect of individual bioactive dietary compounds with the effect of some dietary patterns in terms of their cardiovascular protection.

  4. Influence of nutritional knowledge on perceived healthiness and willingness to try functional foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ares, Gastón; Giménez, Ana; Gámbaro, Adriana

    2008-11-01

    In order to assess the influence of nutritional knowledge on perceived healthiness and willingness to try functional foods, 104 consumers filled out a Nutritional Knowledge Questionnaire and answered a conjoint task. Participants had to evaluate 16 concepts consisting of combinations of carrier products (yogurt, milk desserts, pan bread and mayonnaise) and nutritional modifications (regular product, low-fat, enriched with antioxidants, and enriched with fibre). Three groups of consumers were identified with different level of nutritional knowledge. Highly significant differences were found in the healthiness evaluations of the clusters, which mainly depended on nutritional knowledge related to the links of diet and diseases. Highly significant differences in willingness to try functional foods were also found between the clusters. Whereas consumers with the lowest nutritional knowledge were not interested in consuming functional foods, the addition of fibre or antioxidants to healthy products increased the willingness of consumers with the highest level of nutritional knowledge to try the evaluated functional foods. These results suggested that lack of nutritional knowledge might limit the acceptance of functional foods and thus the use of health claims might be necessary to assure that consumers are aware of their health benefits.

  5. The Role of Consumer Acceptance in the Food Innovation Process: Young Consumer Perception of Functional Foods in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Del Giudice

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper analysed the factors influencing the acceptance of functional foods (FFs of three distinct groups of young Italian consumers. We implemented an ordered probit model based on data collected in a field survey carried out in southern Italy in 2008. The results showed that different sources of information and knowledge (e.g. the internet, newspapers and universities, judgements and motivations (e.g. taste and health effects credibility are key elements in the acceptance of FFs. This implies the need to identify highly differentiated communication and marketing strategies for both public agencies and private firms in order to promote FF consumption.

  6. Utilization of Food Processing By-products as Dietary, Functional, and Novel Fiber: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Satish Kumar; Bansal, Sangita; Mangal, Manisha; Dixit, Anil Kumar; Gupta, Ram K; Mangal, A K

    2016-07-26

    Fast growing food processing industry in most countries across the world, generates huge quantity of by-products, including pomace, hull, husk, pods, peel, shells, seeds, stems, stalks, bran, washings, pulp refuse, press cakes, etc., which have less use and create considerable environmental pollution. With growing interest in health promoting functional foods, the demand of natural bioactives has increased and exploration for new sources is on the way. Many of the food processing industrial by-products are rich sources of dietary, functional, and novel fibers. These by-products can be directly (or after certain modifications for isolation or purification of fiber) used for the manufacture of various foods, i.e. bread, buns, cake, pasta, noodles, biscuit, ice creams, yogurts, cheese, beverages, milk shakes, instant breakfasts, ice tea, juices, sports drinks, wine, powdered drink, fermented milk products, meat products and meat analogues, synthetic meat, etc. A comprehensive literature survey has been carried on this topic to give an overview in the field dietary fiber from food by-products. In this article, the developments in the definition of fiber, fiber classification, potential sources of dietary fibers in food processing by-products, their uses, functional properties, caloric content, energy values and the labelling regulations have been discussed.

  7. Food choice as a key management strategy for functional gastrointestinal symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Peter R; Shepherd, Susan J

    2012-05-01

    Recognition of food components that induce functional gut symptoms in patient's functional bowel disorders (FBD) has been challenging. Food directly or indirectly provides considerable afferent input into the enteric nervous system. There is an altered relationship between the afferent input and perception/efferent response in FBD. Defining the nature of food-related stimuli may provide a means of minimizing such an input and gut symptoms. Using this premise, reducing the intake of FODMAPs (fermentable oligo-, di-, and mono-saccharides and polyols)--poorly absorbed short-chain carbohydrates that, by virtue of their small molecular size and rapid fermentability, will distend the intestinal lumen with liquid and gas--improves symptoms in the majority of patients. Well-developed methodologies to deliver the diet via dietician-led education are available. Another abundant source of afferent input is natural and added food chemicals (such as salicylates, amines, and glutamates). Studies are needed to assess the efficacy of the low food chemical dietary approach. A recent placebo-controlled trial of FODMAP-poor gluten provided the first valid evidence that non-celiac gluten intolerance might actually exist, but its prevalence and underlying mechanisms require elucidation. Food choice via the low FODMAP and potentially other dietary strategies is now a realistic and efficacious therapeutic approach for functional gut symptoms.

  8. New Sports Nutritious Food for Health Improvement and Antioxidant Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhilei Zheng

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The research aimed to explore the influence of new sports nutritious food (Hydrogen Water on exercise-induced oxidative stress injury and athletic ability of power organic skeletal muscle that is susceptible to oxidation attacks and in vivo basis and possible mechanism of hydrogen water in the process of selective oxidation. This study randomly divided 80 healthy male SD rats into 8 groups of quiet control group (EC, group A, exercise control group (EE, group B, hydrogen water injection before exercise group (EH, group C and joint hydrogen water injections before and after exercise group (EM, group D, with 10 rats in each group. The rest groups conducted adaptive low intensive treadmill running for 1 time every day before a week of the experiment except EC (group A. EH (group C conducted intraperitoneal injection of hydrogen water with 10 mL/kg before 1 min of exercise before formal experiment. EM (group D conducted intraperitoneal injection of hydrogen water immediately in 1 min before and after exercise. EE (group B conducted intraperitoneal injection with same volume normal saline. EE, EH and EM group conducted a one-time heavy intensive exhausted treadmill running by using Marra project. Group B, C, D conducted quantitative treadmill running, detected 3-NT, 8-OHdG value of skeletal muscle after 3 h of exercise in group A, B, C, D using Elisa method and measured MDA, SOD, GSH, T-AOC and level of O2-, H2O2 and •OH using chemical colorimetry. The results showed that hydrogen water can significantly prolong the duration of exercise to exhaustion of rats, which had significant anti-fatigue effect; and can significantly inhibit the aggravation of motility of O2-, H2O2 and •OH, remove in vivo cytotoxic substances •OH effectively, improve SOD and GSH, enhance T-AOC, improve minicirculation and reduce the damage of cells; joint hydrogen water injections before and after exercise had synergistic effect for the prevention and control of exercise

  9. Applications of Fitzpatrick functions for solving optimization problems II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nashed, Z.; Raykov, I.

    2015-10-01

    This paper is a continuation of the paper [8] and presents more applications of Fitzpatrick functions for solving optimization problems. The main purpose of the present work is to introduce some new properties of Fitzpatrick functions useful for solving optimization problems, using also their already presented specific properties, as the maximal monotonicity, proper, convex and lower semi-continuity.

  10. Correlation functions in conformal Toda field theory II

    CERN Document Server

    Fateev, V A

    2009-01-01

    This is the second part of the paper 0709.3806v2. Here we show that three-point correlation function with one semi-degenerate field in Toda field theory as well as four-point correlation function with one completely degenerate and one semi-degenerate field can be represented by the finite dimensional integrals.

  11. Plant-based Paste Fermented by Lactic Acid Bacteria and Yeast: Functional Analysis and Possibility of Application to Functional Foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuwaki, Shinsuke; Nakajima, Nobuyoshi; Tanaka, Hidehiko; Ishihara, Kohji

    2012-01-01

    A plant-based paste fermented by lactic acid bacteria and yeast (fermented paste) was made from various plant materials. The paste was made of fermented food by applying traditional food-preservation techniques, that is, fermentation and sugaring. The fermented paste contained major nutrients (carbohydrates, proteins, and lipids), 18 kinds of amino acids, and vitamins (vitamin A, B1, B2, B6, B12, E, K, niacin, biotin, pantothenic acid, and folic acid). It contained five kinds of organic acids, and a large amount of dietary fiber and plant phytochemicals. Sucrose from brown sugar, used as a material, was completely resolved into glucose and fructose. Some physiological functions of the fermented paste were examined in vitro. It was demonstrated that the paste possessed antioxidant, antihypertensive, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, anti-allergy and anti-tyrosinase activities in vitro. It was thought that the fermented paste would be a helpful functional food with various nutrients to help prevent lifestyle diseases.

  12. Sociodemographic Factors Differentiating the Consumer and the Motivations for Functional Food Consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, Artur; Annunziata, Azzurra; Vecchio, Riccardo

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the (1) role of gender, age, and education in the evaluation of multidimensional criteria of the purchase of functional products, which were (a) quality and organoleptic attributes, (b) attributes of packaging and labeling, (c) healthful properties, (d) functional components, (e) base product (carrier) and (2) most important motives for the purchase and consumption of functional food among consumers of different sociodemographic profiles. The data were collected in direct interviews. The sample (n = 200) consisted of 137 women and 63 men age 18-60 years. The research tool was a questionnaire divided into 4 sections. The first one included quality attributes. The second one included healthful properties, functional components, and carriers. The third one concerned the motives for purchasing functional food and included the consequences and values. In the fourth section the participants were asked about gender, age, and education. Gender, age, and education differentiated the criteria influencing the decision to purchase functional food. Women, older people (35-60 years), and those with university education attach the greatest importance to naturalness, nutritional value, freshness, food safety, and quality guarantee. Clear differences between men and women appear in the field of functional components, which are significantly more important for women than for men. Gender, age, and education essentially differentiate the preferences for base product (carrier). Young men prefer meat products in the role of functional carriers. In turn, women and older men prefer cereal products as basic functional carriers. Young consumers are more open to high-technology food processing. Motivations are differentiated by age and gender. Young men, as opposed to women and older men, attach less importance to functional and psychological consequences: improvement of health, healthy eating, conscious choice, and health promotion. Women and older

  13. Enhanced removal of Hg(II) from acidic aqueous solution using thiol-functionalized biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Liyuan; Wang, Qingwei; Li, Qingzhu; Yang, Zhihui; Wang, Yunyan

    2010-01-01

    Spent grain, the low-cost and abundant biomass produced in the brewing industry, was functionalized with thiol groups to be used as an adsorbent for Hg(II) removal from acidic aqueous solution. The adsorbents were characterized by the energy-dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Optimum pH for Hg(II) adsorption onto the thiol-functionalized spent grain (TFSG) was 2.0. The equilibrium and kinetics of the adsorption of Hg(II) onto TFSG from acidic aqueous solution were investigated. From the Langmuir isotherm model the maximum adsorption capacity of TFSG for Hg(II) was found to be 221.73 mg g(-1), which was higher than that of most various adsorbents reported in literature. Moreover, the adsorption of Hg(II) onto TFSG followed pseudo-second-order kinetic model.

  14. Encapsulation of vegetable oils as source of omega-3 fatty acids for enriched functional foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz Ruiz, Jorge Carlos; Ortiz Vazquez, Elizabeth De La Luz; Segura Campos, Maira Rubi

    2017-05-03

    Polyunsaturated omega-3 fatty acids (PUFAs), a functional component present in vegetable oils, are generally recognized as being beneficial to health. Omega-3 PUFAs are rich in double bonds and unsaturated in nature; this attribute makes them highly susceptible to lipid oxidation and unfit for incorporation into long shelf life foods. The microencapsulation of oils in a polymeric matrix (mainly polysaccharides) offers the possibility of controlled release of the lipophilic functional ingredient and can be useful for the supplementation of foods with PUFAs. The present paper provides a literature review of different vegetable sources of omega-3 fatty acids, the functional effects of omega-3 fatty acids, different microencapsulation methods that can possibly be used for the encapsulation of oils, the properties of vegetable oil microcapsules, the effect of encapsulation on oxidation stability and fatty acid composition of vegetable oils, and the incorporation of long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in foods.

  15. Green tea: a novel functional food for the oral health of older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaur, Sumit; Agnihotri, Rupali

    2014-04-01

    Functional foods are foods with positive health effects that extend beyond their nutritional value. They affect the function of the body and help in the management of specific health conditions. Green tea, a time-honoured Chinese herb, might be regarded as a functional food because of its inherent anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial and antimutagenic properties. They are attributed to its reservoir of polyphenols, particularly the catechin, epigallocatechin-3-gallate. Owing to these beneficial actions, this traditional beverage was used in the management of chronic systemic diseases including cancer. Recently, it has been emphasized that the host immuno-inflammatory reactions destroy the oral tissues to a greater extent than the microbial activity alone. Green tea with its wide spectrum of activities could be a healthy alternative for controlling these damaging reactions seen in oral diseases, specifically, chronic periodontitis, dental caries and oral cancer, which are a common occurrence in the elderly population.

  16. Functional food supplements to ameliorate the secondary complications in high fructose fed diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gite, S S; Yadav, S A; Nilegaonkar, S S; Agte, V V

    2017-05-24

    Functional foods are the most natural and safest source of health ingredients, providing health benefits beyond basic nutrition, and hence can be used as supplements for the prevention of secondary complications in diabetes. Persistent diabetes may cause glycation of various tissue proteins such as of those in lens, kidney, blood, and brain, which may further lead to the development of pathological conditions such as cataract and cardiovascular diseases. This study on adult rats was designed to assess if the functional food supplements A and B (proprietary blends of antioxidant rich plant materials) can reduce secondary complications such as cataract, dyslipidemia, and oxidative stress under severe diabetic conditions. After nine weeks of intervention of the supplements, it was found that the % HbA1c levels in the formulation group B significantly (p functional foods in the effective management of secondary complications associated with severe diabetic conditions.

  17. Rose hip (Rosa canina L: A functional food perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cui Fan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Rose hip (Rosa canina L. is the pseudo-fruit of the rose plant, which is widely known as a valuable source of polyphenols and vitamin C. Both in vivo and in vitro studies have demonstrated that this fruit exhibits anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and antiobesogenic activities. The health benefits of Rose hip (RH have been attributed to its wide range of bioactive compounds including the anti-inflammatory galactolipid: (2S-1,2-di-O-[(9Z,12Z,15Z-octadeca-9,12,15-trienoyl]-3-O-β-D galactopyranosyl glycerol (GOPO, vitamin C, phenolics, lycopene, lutein, zeaxanthin, and other carotenoids. As cyclooxygenase inhibitors, RH compounds may reduce the risk of cancer, heart disease, and various inflammatory conditions. The aim of this review is to present an overview of the functional, medical, and physiological properties of RH.

  18. Essential fatty acids as functional components of foods- a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Narinder; Chugh, Vishal; Gupta, Anil K

    2014-10-01

    During the recent decades, awareness towards the role of essential fatty acids in human health and disease prevention has been unremittingly increasing among people. Fish, fish oils and some vegetable oils are rich sources of essential fatty acids. Many studies have positively correlated essential fatty acids with reduction of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, infant development, cancer prevention, optimal brain and vision functioning, arthritis, hypertension, diabetes mellitus and neurological/neuropsychiatric disorders. Beneficial effects may be mediated through several different mechanisms, including alteration in cell membrane composition, gene expression or eicosanoid production. However, the mechanisms whereby essential fatty acids affect gene expression are complex and involve multiple processes. Further understanding of the molecular aspects of essential fatty acids will be the key to devising novel approaches to the treatment and prevention of many diseases.

  19. Resistance of functional Lactobacillus plantarum strains against food stress conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrando, Verónica; Quiberoni, Andrea; Reinhemer, Jorge; Suárez, Viviana

    2015-06-01

    The survival of three Lactobacillus plantarum strains (Lp 790, Lp 813 and Lp 998) with functional properties was studied taking into account their resistance to thermal, osmotic and oxidative stress factors. Stress treatments applied were: 52 °C-15 min (Phosphate Buffer pH 7, thermal shock), H2O2 0.1% (p/v) - 30 min (oxidative shock) and NaCl aqueous solution at 17, 25 and 30% (p/v) (room temperature - 1 h, osmotic shock). The osmotic stress was also evaluated on cell growth in MRS broth added of 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10% (p/v) of NaCl, during 20 h at 30 °C. The cell thermal adaptation was performed in MRS broth, selecting 45 °C for 30 min as final conditions for all strains. Two strains (Lp 813 and Lp 998) showed, in general, similar behaviour against the three stress factors, being clearly more resistant than Lp 790. An evident difference in growth kinetics in presence of NaCl was observed between Lp 998 and Lp 813, Lp998 showing a higher optical density (OD570nm) than Lp 813 at the end of the assay. Selected thermal adaptation improved by 2 log orders the thermal resistance of both strains, but cell growth in presence of NaCl was enhanced only in Lp 813. Oxidative resistance was not affected with this thermal pre-treatment. These results demonstrate the relevance of cell technological resistance when selecting presumptive "probiotic" cultures, since different stress factors might considerably affect viability or/and performance of the strains. The incidence of stress conditions on functional properties of the strains used in this work are currently under research in our group.

  20. Functional Implications of Photosystem II Crystal Formation in Photosynthetic Membranes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tietz, Stefanie; Puthiyaveetil, Sujith; Enlow, Heather M; Yarbrough, Robert; Wood, Magnus; Semchonok, Dmitry A; Lowry, Troy; Li, Zhirong; Jahns, Peter; Boekema, Egbert J; Lenhert, Steven; Niyogi, Krishna K; Kirchhoff, Helmut

    2015-01-01

    The structural organization of proteins in biological membranes can affect their function. Photosynthetic thylakoid membranes in chloroplasts have the remarkable ability to change their supramolecular organization between disordered and semicrystalline states. Although the change to the semicrystall

  1. Choice of foods: Allocation of time and money, household production and market services ­ Part II

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonke, Jens

    1993-01-01

    means reduced expenses on most kinds of foodstuffs, possibly due to obtaining quantity discounts. 7. Ownership of household appliances and hiring domestic help decreases the probability of eating out. 8. Singles spend money on meals away from home more frequently than couples, whereas the spending...... on fast food and fast lunch/breakfast does not vary between singles and couples. 9. Gender is not a significant factor in relation to the purchase of convenient foodstuffs.......; this is supported by the fact that the relative expense on preparation food indeed falls with increasing income. 3. More children in the household generally mean less per-unit expenditure on both convenient and non-convenient food. This may be explained by economies of scale and by buying cheaper products...

  2. Distribution of Th-230 and Th-228 in foods(II)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Hee Dong; Kim, Wan; Lim, S. K.; Lee, S. A.; Choi, M. S.; Zheng, Y. C. [Kyungpook National Univ., Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Do Sung [Daegu Univ., Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-02-15

    Natural radioisotopes contained in foods can enter the human body by ingestion and contribute to internal doses to the population. It is necessary to measure the concentration of natural radioisotopes especially thorium in Korean foods and estimate the internal doses. In this study, we have established the thorium measuring process based on the thorium extraction chemical process and alpha spectroscopic method. The concentration of Th-228, Th-230 and Th-232 in Korean vegetables (potato, sweet potato, radish, cabbage, hot pepper, garlic, onion and pumpkin) and fruits(apple, persimmon, orange, pear, grape) are measured and their internal doses are estimated.

  3. Soil invertebrate/micro-invertebrate interactions: disproportionate effects of species on food web structure and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, J C; DeRuiter, P C; Hunt, H W

    1993-06-01

    The preservation of biodiversity requires an appreciation of food web structure and an understanding of how disturbance alters their structure and function. Theoretical and empirical studies of food webs demonstrate that food webs possess a regular structure. Food chain length appears limited to three to four transfers, and, complexity and diversity are constrained. When ecosystem energetics are considered, species within food webs are seen to form interactive assemblages that process matter at different rates and respond to disturbance differently. Disturbance may affect the diversity of a system, or, may influence the relative importance of one species assemblage over another. Moreover, predicting the impact of disturbance on a system is difficult as species that comprise and process a small fraction of the system's biomass may control a disproportionate fraction of the system's biomass and diversity. Seven food webs at four sites were used in a modeling exercise to demonstrate this point. Field studies involving the role of mycorrhizal fungi yielded results consistent with the modeling studies as the types of plant species present, the level of production and the diversity of production were related to the levels of mycorrhizal fungi in the soils following disturbance. The results indicate that all species are important to ecosystem structure and function and that the monitoring of ecosystems and conservation efforts should expand their emphasis to the preservation of ecosystem integrity as well as that of individual species.

  4. The role of food in the functional gastrointestinal disorders: introduction to a manuscript series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chey, William D

    2013-05-01

    Functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs) are characterized by the presence of chronic or recurrent symptoms that are felt to originate from the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, which cannot be attributed to an identifiable structural or biochemical cause. Food is associated with symptom onset or exacerbation in a significant proportion of FGID patients. Despite this, the role of food in the pathogenesis of the FGIDs has remained poorly understood. For this reason, diet has largely played an adjunctive rather than a primary role in the management of FGID patients. In recent years, there has been a rapid expansion in our understanding of the role of food in GI function and sensation and how food relates to GI symptoms in FGID patients. In a series of evidence-based manuscripts produced by the Rome Foundation Working Group on the role of food in FGIDs, comprehensive reviews of the physiological changes associated with nutrient intake, and the respective roles of carbohydrates, fiber, protein, and fats are provided. The series concludes with a manuscript that provides guidance on proper clinical trial design when considering the role of food in FGIDs.

  5. Polymorphisms of mouse apolipoprotein A-II alter its physical and functional nature.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy J Sontag

    Full Text Available ApoA-II is the second most abundant protein on HDL making up ∼ 20% of the total protein but its functions have still only been partially characterized. Recent methodological improvements have allowed for the recombinant expression and characterization of human apoA-II which shares only 55% sequence homology with murine apoA-II. Here we describe the purification of the two most common polymorphic variants of apoA-II found in inbred mouse strains, differing at 3 amino acid sites. C57BL/6 mice having variant apoA-II(a have lower plasma HDL levels than FVB/N mice that have variant apoA-II(b. Characterization of the helical structure of these two variants reveals a more alpha-helical structure for the FVB/N apoA-II. These changes do not alter the lipid or HDL binding of the two apoA-II variants, but significantly increase the ability of the FVB/N variant to promote both ABCA1 and ABCG1 mediated cellular cholesterol efflux. These differences may be differentially altering plasma HDL apoA-II levels. In vivo, neither C57 nor FVB apoA-II protein levels are affected by the absence of apoE, while an apoE/apoA-I double deficiency results in a 50% decrease of plasma FVB apoA-II but results in undetectable levels of C57 apoA-II in the plasma. FVB apoA-II is able to form an HDL particle in the absence of apoE or apoA-I.

  6. The adsorption properties of Pb(II) and Cd(II) on functionalized graphene prepared by electrolysis method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng Xiaojiao; Lue Lili; Li Hongwei [Key Laboratory of Polyoxometalates Science of Ministry of Education, College of Chemistry, Northeast Normal University, Changchun 130024 (China); Luo Fang, E-mail: luof746@nenu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Polyoxometalates Science of Ministry of Education, College of Chemistry, Northeast Normal University, Changchun 130024 (China)

    2010-11-15

    The functionalized graphene (GNS{sup PF6}) was fabricated by simple and fast method of electrolysis with potassium hexafluorophosphate solution as electrolyte under the static potential of 15 V. The characterization results of transmission electron microscopy, atom force microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, X-ray powder diffraction, Raman spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis indicate that graphite rod was completely exfoliated to graphene layer containing 30 wt.% PF{sub 6}{sup -} with the average thickness ca. 1.0 nm. Our sample of GNS{sup PF6} was developed for the removal of Pb(II) or Cd(II) ions from water, and the determined adsorption capacities are 406.6 mg/g (pH = 5.1) for Pb(II) and 73.42 mg/g (pH = 6.2) for Cd(II), which is much higher than that by our previous sample of GNS{sup C8P} and carbon nanotube. The adsorption processes reach equilibrium in just 40 min and the adsorption isotherms are described well by Langmuir and Freundlich classical isotherms models.

  7. The adsorption properties of Pb(II) and Cd(II) on functionalized graphene prepared by electrolysis method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Xiaojiao; Lü, Lili; Li, Hongwei; Luo, Fang

    2010-11-15

    The functionalized graphene (GNS(PF6)) was fabricated by simple and fast method of electrolysis with potassium hexafluorophosphate solution as electrolyte under the static potential of 15 V. The characterization results of transmission electron microscopy, atom force microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, X-ray powder diffraction, Raman spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis indicate that graphite rod was completely exfoliated to graphene layer containing 30 wt.% PF(6)- with the average thickness ca. 1.0 nm. Our sample of GNS(PF6) was developed for the removal of Pb(II) or Cd(II) ions from water, and the determined adsorption capacities are 406.6 mg/g (pH=5.1) for Pb(II) and 73.42 mg/g (pH=6.2) for Cd(II), which is much higher than that by our previous sample of GNS(C8P) and carbon nanotube. The adsorption processes reach equilibrium in just 40 min and the adsorption isotherms are described well by Langmuir and Freundlich classical isotherms models.

  8. Functionalization of conducting polymer with novel Co(II) complex: Electroanalysis of ascorbic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohan, Swati [School of Materials Science and Technology, Institute of Technology, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221005 (India); Prakash, Rajiv, E-mail: rajivprakash12@yahoo.com [School of Materials Science and Technology, Institute of Technology, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221005 (India)

    2010-06-15

    We report for the first time the functionalization of a conducting polymer with a metal complex in order to develop a new type of catalytic material exhibiting better electronic communication through their delocalized {pi} electrons. The Co(II) complex having hydroxyl group as functional moiety is chemically coupled with carboxyl group of polyanthranilic acid which itself is a self doped conducting polymer. The covalent linkage between Co(II) and -OH group is confirmed using UV-vis, FT-IR and NMR spectroscopic techniques. The Co(II) complex functionalized polymer does exhibit excellent redox behavior and stability with mixed properties of Co(II) complex and {pi}-conjugated polymer. The material possesses potential benefits in sensors/biosensor applications and it is demonstrated for the electroanalysis of ascorbic acid at a level of nano molar concentration.

  9. Non-random food-web assembly at habitat edges increases connectivity and functional redundancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peralta, Guadalupe; Frost, Carol M; Didham, Raphael K; Rand, Tatyana A; Tylianakis, Jason M

    2017-04-01

    Habitat fragmentation dramatically alters the spatial configuration of landscapes, with the creation of artificial edges affecting community structure and dynamics. Despite this, it is not known how the different food webs in adjacent habitats assemble at their boundaries. Here we demonstrate that the composition and structure of herbivore-parasitoid food webs across edges between native and plantation forests are not randomly assembled from those of the adjacent communities. Rather, elevated proportions of abundant, interaction-generalist parasitoid species at habitat edges allowed considerable interaction rewiring, which led to higher linkage density and less modular networks, with higher parasitoid functional redundancy. This was despite high overlap in host composition between edges and interiors. We also provide testable hypotheses for how food webs may assemble between habitats with lower species overlap. In an increasingly fragmented world, non-random assembly of food webs at edges may increasingly affect community dynamics at the landscape level.

  10. Cloud point extraction, preconcentration and spectrophotometric determination of trace amount of manganese(II) in water and food samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouda, Ayman A.

    2014-10-01

    A new cloud point extraction (CPE) process using the nonionic surfactant Triton X-114 to extract manganese(II) from aqueous solution was investigated. The method is based on the complexation reaction of manganese(II) with 1,2,5,8-tetrahydroxyanthracene-9,10-dione (quinalizarin) in the presence of borate buffer at pH 8.5 and micelle-mediated extraction of the complex. The enriched analyte in the surfactant-rich phase was determined by spectrophotometry at 528 nm. The optimal extraction and reaction conditions (e.g. pH, reagent and surfactant concentrations, temperature and centrifugation times) were evaluated and optimized. Under the optimized experimental conditions, the analytical characteristics of the method (e.g., limit of detection (LOD), linear range, preconcentration and improvement factors) were obtained. The proposed CPE method showed linear calibration within the range 5.0-200 ng mL-1 of manganese(II) and the limit of detection of the method was 0.8 ng mL-1 with an preconcentration factor of ∼50 when 25 mL of sample solution was preconcentrated to 0.5 mL. The relative standard deviation (RSD) and relative error were found to be 1.35% and 1.42%, respectively (CMn(II) = 150 ng mL-1, n = 6) for pure standard solutions. The interference effect of some cations and anions was also studied. In the presence of foreign ions, no significant interference was observed. The method was applied to the determination of manganese(II) in water and food samples with a recovery for the spiked samples in the range of 95.87-102.5%.

  11. Cloud point extraction, preconcentration and spectrophotometric determination of trace amount of manganese(II) in water and food samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouda, Ayman A

    2014-10-15

    A new cloud point extraction (CPE) process using the nonionic surfactant Triton X-114 to extract manganese(II) from aqueous solution was investigated. The method is based on the complexation reaction of manganese(II) with 1,2,5,8-tetrahydroxyanthracene-9,10-dione (quinalizarin) in the presence of borate buffer at pH 8.5 and micelle-mediated extraction of the complex. The enriched analyte in the surfactant-rich phase was determined by spectrophotometry at 528nm. The optimal extraction and reaction conditions (e.g. pH, reagent and surfactant concentrations, temperature and centrifugation times) were evaluated and optimized. Under the optimized experimental conditions, the analytical characteristics of the method (e.g., limit of detection (LOD), linear range, preconcentration and improvement factors) were obtained. The proposed CPE method showed linear calibration within the range 5.0-200ngmL(-1) of manganese(II) and the limit of detection of the method was 0.8ngmL(-1) with an preconcentration factor of ∼50 when 25mL of sample solution was preconcentrated to 0.5mL. The relative standard deviation (RSD) and relative error were found to be 1.35% and 1.42%, respectively (CMn(II)=150ngmL(-1), n=6) for pure standard solutions. The interference effect of some cations and anions was also studied. In the presence of foreign ions, no significant interference was observed. The method was applied to the determination of manganese(II) in water and food samples with a recovery for the spiked samples in the range of 95.87-102.5%.

  12. A three-prong strategy to develop functional food using protein isolates recovered from chicken processing by-products with isoelectric solubilization/precipitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahergorabi, Reza; Sivanandan, Litha; Beamer, Sarah K; Matak, Kristen E; Jaczynski, Jacek

    2012-09-01

    Skin-on bone-in chicken drumsticks were processed with isoelectric solubilization/precipitation to recover muscle proteins. The drumsticks were used as a model for dark chicken meat processing by-products. The main objective of this study was conversion of dark chicken meat processing by-products to restructured functional food product. An attempt was made to develop functional food product that would resemble respective product made from boneless skinless chicken breast meat. A three-prong strategy to address diet-driven cardiovascular disease (CVD)with a functional food was used in this study. The strategy included addition of three ingredients with well-documented cardiovascular benefits: (i) ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid-rich oil (flaxseed-algae, 9:1); (ii) soluble fiber; and (iii) salt substitute. Titanium dioxide, potato starch, polyphosphate, and transglutaminase were also added. The batters were formulated and cooked resulting in heat-set gels. Color (L*a*b*), texture (torsion test, Kramer shear test, and texture profile analysis), thermal denaturation (differential scanning calorimetry), and gelation (dynamic rheology) of chicken drumstick gels and chicken breast gels were determined and compared. Chicken drumstick gels generally had comparable color and texture properties to the gels made from chicken breast meat. The endothermic transition (thermal denaturation) of myosin was more pronounced and gelation properties were better for the drumstick gels. This study demonstrated a feasibility to develop functional food made of muscle proteins recovered with isoelectric solubilization/precipitation from low-value dark chicken meat processing by-products. The functional food developed in this study was enriched with CVD-beneficial nutrients and had comparable instrumental quality attributes to respective products made of chicken breast meat. Although the results of this study point towards the potential for a novel, marketable functional food product, sensory

  13. Presentation of a general algorithm for effect-assessment on secondary poisoning. II Terrestrial food chains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Romijn CAFM; Luttik R; Slooff W; Canton JH

    1991-01-01

    In an earlier report, a simple algorithm for effect-assessment on secondary poisoning of birds and mammals was presented. This algorithm (MAR = NOEC/BCF) was drawn up by analyzing an aquatic food chain. In the present study it was tested whether this algorithm can be used equally well for effect-a

  14. Molecular determinants of angiotensin II type 1 receptor functional selectivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aplin, Mark; Bonde, Marie Mi; Hansen, Jakob Lerche

    2008-01-01

    -independent recruitment of beta-arrestin-scaffolded signalling complexes that activate protein kinase pathways. Different states of receptor activation with preference for individual downstream pathways (functional selectivity) have been demonstrated in mutational studies of the AT(1) receptor and by pharmacological...... that selective blockade of G protein actions and simultaneous activation of G protein-independent signalling will prove to be a feasible strategy for improved cardiovascular therapy. The pharmacological perspectives of functional selectivity by receptors, such as the AT(1) receptor, urge the elucidation...

  15. The influence of lifestyle on health behavior and preference for functional foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szakály, Zoltán; Szente, Viktória; Kövér, György; Polereczki, Zsolt; Szigeti, Orsolya

    2012-02-01

    The main objective of this survey is to reveal the relationship between lifestyle, health behavior, and the consumption of functional foods on the basis of Grunert's food-related lifestyle model. In order to achieve this objective, a nationwide representative questionnaire-based survey was launched with 1000 participants in Hungary. The results indicate that a Hungarian consumer makes rational decisions, he or she seeks bargains, and he wants to know whether or not he gets good value for his money. Further on, various lifestyle segments are defined by the authors: the rational, uninvolved, conservative, careless, and adventurous consumer segments. Among these, consumers with a rational approach provide the primary target group for the functional food market, where health consciousness and moderate price sensitivity can be observed together. Adventurous food consumers stand out because they search for novelty; this makes them an equally important target group. Conservative consumers are another, one characterized by positive health behavior. According to the findings of the research, there is a significant relationship between lifestyle, health behavior, and the preference for functional food products.

  16. Children's Executive Function and High-Calorie, Low-Nutrient Food Intake: Mediating Effects of Child-Perceived Adult Fast Food Intake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tate, Eleanor B.; Unger, Jennifer B.; Chou, Chih-Ping; Spruijt-Metz, Donna; Pentz, Mary Ann; Riggs, Nathaniel R.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This study tested the relationships among child executive function (EF), child-perceived parent fast food intake, and child self-reported subsequent consumption of high-calorie, low-nutrient (HCLN) food. Design: One year and 6-month longitudinal observation from a larger randomized controlled trial. Setting. Southern California…

  17. Universality of the Distribution Functions of Random Matrix Theory. II

    OpenAIRE

    Tracy, Craig A.; Widom, Harold

    1999-01-01

    This paper is a brief review of recent developments in random matrix theory. Two aspects are emphasized: the underlying role of integrable systems and the occurrence of the distribution functions of random matrix theory in diverse areas of mathematics and physics.

  18. Subharmonic functions and electric fields in ball layers. II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. P. Gnatiuk

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In this sequel to cite{GK} we study a special case $BL(frac{1}{r},r$, $r>1$. Alsothe explicit representation of a subharmonic extension for a subharmonic function $u(x$ near a removable point is obtained. Moreover, the diverse Nevanlinna characteristics are compared.

  19. Correction of an adult Class II division 2 individual using fixed functional appliance: A noncompliance approach

    OpenAIRE

    Shrinivas Basavaraddi; Gandedkar, Narayan H; Anup Belludi; Anand Patil

    2016-01-01

    This case report describes the application of fixed functional appliance in the treatment of an adult female having Class II division 2 malocclusion with retroclination of upper incisors. Fixed functional appliance was used to correct the overjet after the uprighting of upper incisors. Fixed functional appliance was fitted on a rigid rectangular arch wire. Application of fixed functional appliance achieved a good Class I molar relationship along with Class I canine relationship with normal ov...

  20. Effect of Zn(II) deposition in soil on mulberry-silk worm food chain

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-03-15

    Mar 15, 2010 ... The pollution of aquatic ecosystems caused by heavy metals from industrial ... Effect of synthetic effluent pH on Zn(II) deposition in soil. In this regard the ... present study will be helpful in evaluating ecological transportation of ...

  1. An Experimental Evaluation of Hyperactivity and Food Additives. 1977-Phase II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harley, J. Preston; And Others

    Phase II of a study on the effectiveness of B. Feingold's recommended diet for hyperactive children involved the nine children (mean age 9 years) who had shown the "best" response to diet manipulation in Phase I. Each child served as his own control and was challenged with specified amounts of placebo and artificial color containing food…

  2. Advances in Microalgae-Derived Phytosterols for Functional Food and Pharmaceutical Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuan Luo

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Microalgae contain a variety of bioactive lipids with potential applications in aquaculture feed, biofuel, food and pharmaceutical industries. While microalgae-derived polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA and their roles in promoting human health have been extensively studied, other lipid types from this resource, such as phytosterols, have been poorly explored. Phytosterols have been used as additives in many food products such as spread, dairy products and salad dressing. This review focuses on the recent advances in microalgae-derived phytosterols with functional bioactivities and their potential applications in functional food and pharmaceutical industries. It highlights the importance of microalgae-derived lipids other than PUFA for the development of an advanced microalgae industry.

  3. Advances in Microalgae-Derived Phytosterols for Functional Food and Pharmaceutical Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Xuan; Su, Peng; Zhang, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Microalgae contain a variety of bioactive lipids with potential applications in aquaculture feed, biofuel, food and pharmaceutical industries. While microalgae-derived polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) and their roles in promoting human health have been extensively studied, other lipid types from this resource, such as phytosterols, have been poorly explored. Phytosterols have been used as additives in many food products such as spread, dairy products and salad dressing. This review focuses on the recent advances in microalgae-derived phytosterols with functional bioactivities and their potential applications in functional food and pharmaceutical industries. It highlights the importance of microalgae-derived lipids other than PUFA for the development of an advanced microalgae industry. PMID:26184233

  4. Evaluation of functional potentiality of selected commonly consumed foods of Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazma Shaheen

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Rising tide of chronic nutrition related non-communicable diseases yoked with extant under nutrition problems makes it imperative to carry out scientific research towards the discovery of functional foods. Although the emergence of these diseases are believed to be related to a constellation of dietary, socio-economic and lifestyle related risk factors, central to the pathogenesis of these diseases (or disease states are free radicals, oxidative stress, and inflammatory processes typically accompanied by pain. Therefore, functional whole foods with physiologically active antioxidants, anti-inflammatory, and analgesic compounds seem to be the most promising option to deal with the pathogenesis of existing and emerging chronic diseases burden of Bangladesh. Methods: Edible portions of 70 commonly consumed Bangladeshi foods – including one cereal, five legumes, fourteen vegetables, four tea varieties, five oil seeds, twenty spices, and twenty one fruits – were evaluated for total phenol content (TPC by Folin-Ciocalteau assay. To evaluate functional potentiality, in vitro antioxidant capacity (AC of selected food items were evaluated by DPPH (2,2-diphenyl- 1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging assays, in vitro anti-inflammatory potential by observing the production of pro-inflammatory cytokine TNF-α using J774A.1 cells stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS, in vivo anti-inflammatory potential by measuring carrageenan induced rat paw edema reduction, and in vivo analgesic potential by acetic acid induced writhing test in mice. Results: Spices, oilseeds, and teas showed high concentration of TPC among the analyzed foods, while spices and teas exhibited notable AC. Green tea showed highest concentrations of TPC (2349 mg Gallic Acid Equivalent / g and AC (2432 µmole Trolox Equivalent/g. Fourteen food items showed potential in vitro anti-inflammatory activity with confirmatory dose response effect shown by 8 items. In vivo, black sesame

  5. Immunophilins and their function in photosystem II assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheng Luan

    2012-11-27

    In the past funding period, the following lines of experiments have been conducted: to identify the partner proteins for FKBP20-2; to identify the mechanism of CYP38 function; studies on other FKBPs in the thylakoid lumen; to identify the partner proteins for FKBP20-2 using yeast two hybrid and transgenic lines expressing HA-FKBP20-2; to identify the partner protein of CYP38; studies on other FKBPs in the chloroplast.

  6. Traveling wavefronts in nonlocal diffusive predator-prey system with Holling type II functional response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuang Li

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This article concerns the existence of traveling wavefronts for a nonlocal diffusive predator-prey system with functional response of Holling type II. We first establish the existence principle for the system with a general functional response by using a fixed point theorem and upper-lower solution technique. We apply this result to a predator-prey model with Holling type II functional response. We deduce the existence of traveling wavefronts that connect the zero equilibrium and the positive equilibrium.

  7. Functional genomics for food microbiology: Molecular mechanisms of weak organic acid preservative adaptation in yeast

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Brul; W. Kallemeijn; G. Smits

    2008-01-01

    The recent era of genomics has offered tremendous possibilities to biology. This concise review describes the possibilities of applying (functional) genomics studies to the field of microbial food stability. In doing so, the studies on weak-organic-acid stress response in yeast are discussed by way

  8. Quality Function Deployment (QFD) - Can it be used to develop food products?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benner, M.; Linnemann, A.R.; Jongen, W.M.F.; Folstar, P.

    2003-01-01

    Publications on the use of Quality Function Deployment (QFD) for the development of food products state that the method is potentially a useful tool. The use of QFD would enlarge the chance of success, produce higher quality products and decrease the cost and the development time. However, a scrutin

  9. Exercise and micronutrient enriched foods for functional improvement in frail elderly? A randomized controlled trail

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chin a Paw, J.M.M.; Jong, de N.; Schouten, E.G.; Hiddink, G.J.; Kok, F.J.

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To examine the effects of an exercise program and an enriched food regimen on physical functioning of frail elderly persons. Design: A 17-week randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Setting: Community. Participants: One hundred fifty-seven independently living frail elderly (mean age, 78.7

  10. Interaction between food components, intestinal microbiota and intestinal mucosa as a function of intestinal health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Venema, K.; Sandt, H. van de

    2003-01-01

    Interaction between food components, intestinal microbiota and intestinal mucosa was studied as a function of intestinal health. A microbiota was found to be important for the onset and progression of inflammatory diseases. Studies revealed a prominent effect of micro-organisms on the gene expressio

  11. Quality Function Deployment (QFD)-can it be used to develop food products?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benner, M.; Linnemann, A.R.; Jongen, W.M.F.; Folstar, P.

    2003-01-01

    Publications on the use of Quality Function Deployment (QFD) for the development of food products state that the method is potentially a useful tool. The use of QFD would enlarge the chance of success, produce higher quality products and decrease the cost and the development time. However, a scrutin

  12. The impact of nonlinear functional responses on the long-term evolution of food web structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drossel, Barbara; McKane, Alan J; Quince, Christopher

    2004-08-21

    We investigate the long-term web structure emerging in evolutionary food web models when different types of functional responses are used. We find that large and complex webs with several trophic layers arise only if the population dynamics is such that it allows predators to focus on their best prey species. This can be achieved using modified Lotka-Volterra or Holling/Beddington functional responses with effective couplings that depend on the predator's efficiency at exploiting the prey, or a ratio-dependent functional response with adaptive foraging. In contrast, if standard Lotka-Volterra or Holling/Beddington functional responses are used, long-term evolution generates webs with almost all species being basal, and with additionally many links between these species. Interestingly, in all cases studied, a large proportion of weak links result naturally from the evolution of the food webs.

  13. OF FOOD COSTS IN TOURIST SPORT SERVICES GOAL LINEAR FUNCTION AND MINIMIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragan Vukasović

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available During these days many experts talk about sport nutrition, about correlation bet- ween adequate food and length of life sportsman and at the end from the economic point of view we have minimization of food costs in services of sport tourism. By linear pro- gramming function. Today we have very simple tests for food selection which is adequate or not adequate for sportsman. Results of test give opportunity for making menu which is ideal for every spor- tsman personally. These tests are result of today progress and development of scientist. Results are finished promptly and menu is recommended at the and of nutrition test. There will be always scientist who will talk about advantages of modern life, cha- racteristics of modern people and their adequate food. But we can not forget that we are biological the same as people who lived century ago . Today we have different life and in tourist sport services we must take care about food cost that way so we can not spoiled the food quality

  14. Karst geomorphology: From hydrological functioning to palaeoenvironmental reconstructions. Part II

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Waele, Jo; Gutierrez, Francisco; Audra, Philippe

    2015-10-01

    In January 2015, the first part of the special issue on karst, entitled "Karst geomorphology: From hydrological functioning to palaeoenvironmental reconstructions" was published (Geomorphology, Vol. 229). This second part of the special issue comprises seven research papers covering a broad geographical canvas including Japan, Slovenia, France, Spain, Croatia, and Poland-Ukraine. Both issues mainly emanate from the contributions presented in the Karst session of the 8th International Conference of Geomorphology (International Association of Geomorphologists), held in Paris in August 2013, enriched with some invited papers.

  15. Functional soy food based on flaxseed and quinoa and enriched with iron and Vitamin B12

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina Braga

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available A diet rich in food derived from vegetables reduces the risk of developing chronic and degenerative diseases and provides the essential nutrients for human consumption. Besides soybean, other foods of vegetal origin have been studied and incorporated in healthy formulations, such as quinoa and linseed. Current assay comprises a sensorial analysis of a product of vegetable origin, a soy product, based on quinoa and flaxseed, considered to be functional food, for its organoleptic characteristics acceptable by a sample group of 80 individuals. Several tests were conducted to reach an adequate formulation for the product, characterized by 11.1 g of protein content, 9.6 g of dietary fiber and low levels of lipids, since it had only 1.4 g. The resulting product revealed adequate microbiological conditions when subjected to microbiological analysis (coliforms at 45ºC; coliforms at 35ºC and Staphylococcus aureus. According to scores in the sensory analysis, it may be assumed that the product was accepted by the sample group. The favorable results indicate the possibility of consumers adhering to a processed diet rich in food derived from vegetables, with functional properties, to replace animal-derived food which is rich in saturated fats and low in fiber.

  16. Stability in a Simple Food Chain System with Michaelis-Menten Functional Response and Nonlocal Delays

    OpenAIRE

    Wenzhen Gan; Canrong Tian; Qunying Zhang; Zhigui Lin

    2013-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the asymptotical behavior of solutions to the reaction-diffusion system under homogeneous Neumann boundary condition. By taking food ingestion and species' moving into account, the model is further coupled with Michaelis-Menten type functional response and nonlocal delay. Sufficient conditions are derived for the global stability of the positive steady state and the semitrivial steady state of the proposed problem by using the Lyapunov functional. Our results show...

  17. Tin(II)-functionalization of the archetypal {P8W48} polyoxotungstate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izarova, N V; Klaß, L; de Oliveira, P; Mbomekalle, I-M; Peters, V; Haarmann, F; Kögerler, P

    2015-11-28

    The synthesis of [K(4.5) ⊂ (ClSn(II))8P8W48O184](17.5-), featuring Sn(II) ions in trigonal-pyramidal SnO2Cl environment coordinating to the two inner rims of the wheel-shaped {P8W48}-type polyoxotungstate(vi) archetype, showcases how high chloride ligand concentrations as well as the control of the polyanion solubility via electrolytes and evaporation rates are essential to prevent numerous competing reactions that can hamper the Sn(ii) functionalization of polyoxometalates.

  18. Functional design criteria for project W-252, phase II liquid effluent treatment and disposal. Revision 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hatch, C.E.

    1995-05-01

    This document is the Functional Design Criteria for Project W-252. Project W-252 provides the scope to provide BAT/AKART (best available technology...) to 200 Liquid Effluent Phase II streams (B-Plant). This revision (Rev. 2) incorporates a major descoping of the project. The descoping was done to reflect a combination of budget cutting measures allowed by a less stringent regulatory posture toward the Phase II streams

  19. Functional foods for the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases: cholesterol and beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudkowska, Iwona; Jones, Peter J H

    2007-05-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a major cause of death and disability in many developed countries. The purpose of this literature review is to establish a recommendation for the intake of functional food ingredients in a healthy diet--such as plant sterols (PSs) in low-fat and functional matrices, fatty acid composition and other nutrients of tree nuts and flavonoids in dark chocolate--for the prevention and treatment of CVD. These three specific functional foods are explored in this review, since there is a higher potential for their increased consumption by the population to prevent CVD. First, PS have been added to various nontraditional matrices, such as low-fat products and functional oils, which have shown cholesterol-lowering effects in most clinical trials. Secondly, a growing number of clinical studies indicate that the beneficial effect of tree nuts may not only be due to their fatty acid composition but to other key nutrients, which may provide supplementary health benefits, such as endothelial cell function, as well as decreasing total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). Lastly, flavonoids in dark chocolate may protect LDL-C particles from undergoing oxidative modification. However, some gaps in our knowledge need to be filled before firm recommendations can be made for habitual dark chocolate consumption. Overall, these functional foods should be considered as an addition to current lipid-lowering recommendations for improving CVD risk.

  20. Functional foods: benefits, concerns and challenges-a position paper from the american council on science and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasler, Clare M

    2002-12-01

    Functional foods can be considered to be those whole, fortified, enriched or enhanced foods that provide health benefits beyond the provision of essential nutrients (e.g., vitamins and minerals), when they are consumed at efficacious levels as part of a varied diet on a regular basis. Linking the consumption of functional foods or food ingredients with health claims should be based on sound scientific evidence, with the "gold standard" being replicated, randomized, placebo-controlled, intervention trials in human subjects. However, not all foods on the market today that are claimed to be functional foods are supported by enough solid data to merit such claims. This review categorizes a variety of functional foods according to the type of evidence supporting their functionality, the strength of that evidence and the recommended intakes. Functional foods represent one of the most intensively investigated and widely promoted areas in the food and nutrition sciences today. However, it must be emphasized that these foods and ingredients are not magic bullets or panaceas for poor health habits. Diet is only one aspect of a comprehensive approach to good health.

  1. Relationship between personality disorder functioning styles and the emotional states in bipolar I and II disorders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiashu Yao

    Full Text Available Bipolar disorder types I (BD I and II (BD II behave differently in clinical manifestations, normal personality traits, responses to pharmacotherapies, biochemical backgrounds and neuroimaging activations. How the varied emotional states of BD I and II are related to the comorbid personality disorders remains to be settled.We therefore administered the Plutchick - van Praag Depression Inventory (PVP, the Mood Disorder Questionnaire (MDQ, the Hypomanic Checklist-32 (HCL-32, and the Parker Personality Measure (PERM in 37 patients with BD I, 34 BD II, and in 76 healthy volunteers.Compared to the healthy volunteers, patients with BD I and II scored higher on some PERM styles, PVP, MDQ and HCL-32 scales. In BD I, the PERM Borderline style predicted the PVP scale; and Antisocial predicted HCL-32. In BD II, Borderline, Dependent, Paranoid (- and Schizoid (- predicted PVP; Borderline predicted MDQ; Passive-Aggressive and Schizoid (- predicted HCL-32. In controls, Borderline and Narcissistic (- predicted PVP; Borderline and Dependent (- predicted MDQ.Besides confirming the different predictability of the 11 functioning styles of personality disorder to BD I and II, we found that the prediction was more common in BD II, which might underlie its higher risk of suicide and poorer treatment outcome.

  2. Bone morphogenetic protein receptor II regulates pulmonary artery endothelial cell barrier function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Victoria J; Ciuclan, Loredana I; Holmes, Alan M; Rodman, David M; Walker, Christoph; Budd, David C

    2011-01-06

    Mutations in bone morphogenetic protein receptor II (BMPR-II) underlie most heritable cases of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). However, less than half the individuals who harbor mutations develop the disease. Interestingly, heterozygous null BMPR-II mice fail to develop PAH unless an additional inflammatory insult is applied, suggesting that BMPR-II plays a fundamental role in dampening inflammatory signals in the pulmonary vasculature. Using static- and flow-based in vitro systems, we demonstrate that BMPR-II maintains the barrier function of the pulmonary artery endothelial monolayer suppressing leukocyte transmigration. Similar findings were also observed in vivo using a murine model with loss of endothelial BMPR-II expression. In vitro, the enhanced transmigration of leukocytes after tumor necrosis factor α or transforming growth factor β1 stimulation was CXCR2 dependent. Our data define how loss of BMPR-II in the endothelial layer of the pulmonary vasculature could lead to a heightened susceptibility to inflammation by promoting the extravasation of leukocytes into the pulmonary artery wall. We speculate that this may be a key mechanism involved in the initiation of the disease in heritable PAH that results from defects in BMPR-II expression.

  3. Relationship between personality disorder functioning styles and the emotional states in bipolar I and II disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Jiashu; Xu, You; Qin, Yanhua; Liu, Jing; Shen, Yuedi; Wang, Wei; Chen, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Bipolar disorder types I (BD I) and II (BD II) behave differently in clinical manifestations, normal personality traits, responses to pharmacotherapies, biochemical backgrounds and neuroimaging activations. How the varied emotional states of BD I and II are related to the comorbid personality disorders remains to be settled. We therefore administered the Plutchick - van Praag Depression Inventory (PVP), the Mood Disorder Questionnaire (MDQ), the Hypomanic Checklist-32 (HCL-32), and the Parker Personality Measure (PERM) in 37 patients with BD I, 34 BD II, and in 76 healthy volunteers. Compared to the healthy volunteers, patients with BD I and II scored higher on some PERM styles, PVP, MDQ and HCL-32 scales. In BD I, the PERM Borderline style predicted the PVP scale; and Antisocial predicted HCL-32. In BD II, Borderline, Dependent, Paranoid (-) and Schizoid (-) predicted PVP; Borderline predicted MDQ; Passive-Aggressive and Schizoid (-) predicted HCL-32. In controls, Borderline and Narcissistic (-) predicted PVP; Borderline and Dependent (-) predicted MDQ. Besides confirming the different predictability of the 11 functioning styles of personality disorder to BD I and II, we found that the prediction was more common in BD II, which might underlie its higher risk of suicide and poorer treatment outcome.

  4. The Compound in Functional Food%功能性食品中的化合物

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹红

    2005-01-01

    The main factor why the customers have more and more interest in the functional food is that these products can increase their strength and energy in order to respond the pressure of modern life style, counteract the damage resulted by the unhealthy food habit, control the weight (in many industrial countries the weights of nearly 50% of the population exceed the standard), avoid the occurrence of degeneration diseases (for example, it results in the heart disease, apoplexy, cancer and diabetes of 2/3 death rate), make up the influence resulted by lacking exercises and reserve the youth.

  5. Dynamical behavior of a three species food chain model with Beddington-DeAngelis functional response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naji, Raid Kamel [Department of Mathematics, College of Science, University of Baghdad (Iraq)]. E-mail: rknaji@yahoo.com; Balasim, Alla Tariq [Department of Mathematics, College of Science, University of Baghdad (Iraq)]. E-mail: alkhazrejy@yahoo.com

    2007-06-15

    A three species food chain model with Beddington-DeAngelis functional response is investigated. The local stability analysis is carried out and global behavior is simulated numerically for a biologically feasible choice of parameters. The persistence conditions of a food chain model are established. The bifurcation diagrams are obtained for different parameters of the model after intensive numerical simulations. The results of simulations show that the model could exhibit chaotic dynamics for realistic and biologically feasible parametric values. Finally, the effect of immigration within prey species is investigated. It is observed that adding small amount of constant immigration to prey species stabilize the system.

  6. Assessment of the efficacy of functional food ingredients-introducing the concept "kinetics of biomarkers".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhagen, Hans; Coolen, Stefan; Duchateau, Guus; Hamer, Mark; Kyle, Janet; Rechner, Andreas

    2004-07-13

    Functional foods are "foods and beverages with claimed health benefits based on scientific evidence". Health claims need to be substantiated scientifically. The future of functional foods will heavily rely on proven efficacy in well-controlled intervention studies with human volunteers. In order to have the maximum output of human trials, improvements are needed with respect to study design and optimization of study protocols. Efficacy at realistic intake levels needs to be established in studies with humans via the use of suitable biomarkers, unless the endpoint can be measured directly. The human body is able to deal with chemical entities irrespective of their origin, and the pharmaceutical terms "absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion" have their equivalent when biomarkers are concerned. Whereas only "diurnal variation" or "circadian rhythm" is sometimes considered, little attention is paid to "kinetics of biomarkers". "Kinetics of biomarkers" comprises "formation, distribution, metabolism and excretion". However, this is at present neither an established science nor common practice in nutrition research on functional foods. As a consequence, sampling times and matrices, for example, are chosen on the basis of historical practice and convenience (for volunteers and scientists) but not on the basis of in depth insight. The concept of kinetics of biomarkers is illustrated by a variety of readily comprehensible examples, such as malaria, cholesterol, polyphenols, glutathione-S-transferase alpha, F2-isoprostanes, interleukin-6, and plasma triacylglycerides.

  7. Gauge-independent Wigner functions. II. Inclusion of radiation reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javanainen, J.; Varró, S.; Serimaa, O. T.

    1987-04-01

    We investigate the effects of quantized radiation reaction fields on the motion of a charged particle using the gauge-independent Wigner operator (GIWO) and gauge-independent Wigner function (GIWF) introduced earlier [Phys. Rev. A 33, 2913 (1986)]. To complement the equation of motion of the GIWO, the Heisenberg equations of motion of the quantized electromagnetic fields are solved within the Markov approximation. After considering the operator orderings and orders of magnitude of the radiation reaction terms, we eliminate the quantum fields from the evolution equation of the GIWO, and obtain for the GIWF a closed equation containing relaxation terms. As an example of the formalism we derive a Fokker-Planck equation (FPE) for the GIWF of a particle in a constant magnetic field. To the order ħ 0 the classical radiation damping ensues, and the first quantum correction proportional to ħ emerges as diffusion. The diffusion operator turns out to be indefinite and the FPE consequently defies our attempts at a complete analysis, but we demonstrate that at least the coherent states constructed from the Landau levels exhibit a manifestly physical time evolution under the FPE. We point out that the GIWF calculated with quantized electromagnetic fields is divergent even if the fields are in the vacuum state, and suggest that the GIWF should be associated with the particle state by ignoring the quantized fields altogether.

  8. Child and parent perceived food-induced gastrointestinal symptoms and quality of life in children with functional gastrointestinal disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Michelle J; Moore, Carolyn E; Tsai, Cynthia M; Shulman, Robert J; Chumpitazi, Bruno P

    2014-03-01

    It is unknown whether children with functional gastrointestinal (GI) disorders identify specific foods that exacerbate their GI symptoms. The objectives of this study were to determine the perceived role of food on GI symptoms and to determine the impact of food-induced symptoms on quality of life (QOL) in children with functional GI disorders. Between August and November 2010, 25 children ages 11 to 17 years old with functional GI disorders and a parent completed a food symptom association questionnaire and validated questionnaires assessing FGID symptoms and QOL. In addition, children completed a 24-hour food recall, participated in focus groups to identify problematic foods and any coping strategies, and discussed how their QOL was affected. Statistical analyses were conducted using χ2, t test, Mann-Whitney U test, Wilcoxon signed rank, and Spearman's ρ. Children identified a median of 11 (range=2 to 25) foods as exacerbating a GI symptom, with the most commonly identified foods being spicy foods, cow's milk, and pizza. Several coping strategies were identified, including consuming smaller portions, modifying foods, and avoiding a median of 8 (range=1 to 20) foods. Children reported that food-induced symptoms interfered with school performance, sports, and social activities. Although the parent's assessment of their child's QOL negatively correlated with the number of perceived symptom-inducing foods in their child, this relationship was not found in the children. Findings suggest that specific foods are perceived to exacerbate GI symptoms in children with functional GI disorders. In addition, despite use of several coping strategies, food-induced symptoms can adversely impact children's QOL in several important areas.

  9. [Fiber, food intolerances, FODMAPs, gluten and functional gastrointestinal disorders--update 2014].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiß, O

    2014-11-01

    The controversial effects of dietary fiber on symptoms in functional gastrointestinal disorders are summarized. Studies concerning adverse reaction to foods are mentioned and the possible role of food allergy and food intolerances, especially pseudoallergic reactions to biogenes amines, in symptom provocation is discussed. The known effects of lactose deficiency and fructose malabsorption are reviewed. The FODMAP concept (fermentable oligo-, di-, monosaccharides and polyols) is presented in more detail and recent studies on pathophysiological effects of FODMAP constituents and of therapeutic effects of a low FODMAP diet on symptoms in patients with irritable bowel syndrome are discussed. Finally, studies on the new disorder non-celiac gluten sensitivity (NCGS) are summarized and the state of the discussion whether wheat intolerance is due to gluten or the grains is given. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  10. Exploitation of fermented shrimp-shells hydrolysate as functional food: assessment of antioxidant, hypocholesterolemic and prebiotic activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halder, Suman Kumar; Adak, Atanu; Maity, Chiranjit; Jana, Arijit; Das, Arpan; Paul, Tanmay; Ghosh, Kuntal; Das Mohapatra, Pradeep Kumar; Pati, Bikas Ranjan; Mondal, Keshab Chandra

    2013-11-01

    In the present study the bioactivities of chitooligosaccharides of fermented shrimp-shell hydrolysate (SSH) in respect to hypocholesterolemic, antioxidant and prebiotic activity were tested in male albino rat. Rats were treated with four different diets, viz., (i) cholesterol-rich (5%) basal diet (ChB), (ii) ChB+10% chitin, (iii) ChB+10% SSH and (iv) control group (without cholesterol). After 4 weeks of treatment, body mass index, liver weight, serum total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol in groups (ii) and (iii) were decreased significantly than group (i). SSH supplementation significantly resists oxidative stress by reducing the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and by increasing catalase, superoxide dismutase and free radical scavenging activity. The colonization of Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium population in small and large intestine were more in group (iii) than other groups. Reduction of Clostridium perfringens population and non-significant changes of E. coli was also noted in SSH supplement group. Histological study revealed that the villus height and villus:crypt of the small intestine were increased significantly in SSH supplemented group (iii) without any diarrheal symptoms. The results demonstrated that the shrimp-shells hydrolysate has hypocholesterolemic effect, can resist lipid peroxidation and can influence the growth of health beneficial microbes, hence can be used as functional food for hypercholesterolemic patients.

  11. POTENCY ASSAY OF COCOYAM (Xanthosoma sagittifolium (L. Schott. TUBER AS AN ANTIULCER FUNCTIONAL FOOD ON MICE (Mus musculus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Triyani Yuliastuti

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Cocoyam (Xanthosoma sagittifolium (L. Schott. tuber is usually consumed as carbohydrates source. Because of highly mineral and fiber contents, it is potential to develop as a functional food source. The mineral contents are potassium, phosphor, magnesium, iron, copper and sodium. Some minerals are well known able to neutralize pH of the gastric fluid. It is necessary to study cocoyam activity on the ulcer gastric. The aims of this study were to determine anti-ulcerogenic activity of cocoyam tuber by observing macroscopic stomach mucous structure on mice and measuring the gastric fluid pH. Twenty male mice aged 2-3 months were used in this study. They were classified in to 4 different treatment groups. Group I was control mice without gastric ulcer, group II, III, and IV were mice with gastric ulcer by using aspirin treatment. Group II,III, and IV were treated with different treatments then for 7 days. Group II was treated by aquadest (negative control group, group III by sucralfat (positive control group, and group IV by cocoyam tuber. In the last treatment day, mice were fasted for 24 hours and then sacrified to pick stomach up. Gastric fluid was collected and the pH was measured then. Stomach mucous structure was observed macroscopically. Data in the gastric fluid pH was analyzed by using one-way ANOVA (Analysis of Variance and continued HSD (Honest Significant Difference-Tukey test in 5% significance degree. Degree of stomach mucous structure damage was analyzed descriptively and then it was scored based on number and diameter size of ulcers. Data on the ulcer score were analyzed by using Kruskal-Wallis test. The results showed that there was a significant difference (p0,05 between cocoyam tuber group and aquadest group. Nevertheless, mice in the cocoyam tuber group had lower ulcer score than mice in the aquadest group. Therefore cocoyam tuber is safe consumed by the gastric ulcer mice. Cocoyam tuber is potential to develop as a functional

  12. Synthesis, spectroscopic and thermal studies of Mg(II), Ca(II), Sr(II) and Ba(II) diclofenac sodium complexes as anti-inflammatory drug and their protective effects on renal functions impairment and oxidative stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Megharbel, Samy M.; Hamza, Reham Z.; Refat, Moamen S.

    2015-01-01

    The main task of our present study is the preparation of newly complexes of Mg(II), Ca(II), Sr(II) and Ba(II) with diclofenac which succeeded to great extent in alleviating the side effects of diclofenac alone and ameliorating the kidney function parameters and antioxidant capacities with respect to diclofenac treated group alone. The Mg(II), Ca(II), Sr(II) and Ba(II) with diclofenac have been synthesized and characterized using infrared, electronic and 1H NMR spectral, thermogravimetric and conductivity measurements. The diclofenac ligand has been found to act as bidentate chelating agent. Diclofenac complexes coordinate through the oxygen's of the carboxyl group. The molar ratio chelation is 1:2 (M2+-dic) with general formula [M(dic)2(H2O)2]ṡnH2O. Antibacterial screening of the alkaline earth metal complexes against Escherichia coli (Gram - ve), Bacillus subtilis (Gram + ve) and anti-fungal (Asperagillus oryzae, Asperagillus niger, Asperagillus flavus) were investigated. The kidney functions in male albino rats were ameliorated upon treatment with metal complexes of dic, which are represented by decreasing the levels of urea and uric acid to be located within normal values. The other looks bright spot in this article is the assessment of antioxidant defense system including SOD, CAT and MDA with the help of Sr2+, Mg2+ and Ca2+-dic complexes. The hormones related to kidney functions and stresses have been greatly ameliorated in groups treated with dic complexes in comparable with dic treated group.

  13. Synthesis, spectroscopic and thermal studies of Mg(II), Ca(II), Sr(II) and Ba(II) diclofenac sodium complexes as anti-inflammatory drug and their protective effects on renal functions impairment and oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Megharbel, Samy M; Hamza, Reham Z; Refat, Moamen S

    2015-01-25

    The main task of our present study is the preparation of newly complexes of Mg(II), Ca(II), Sr(II) and Ba(II) with diclofenac which succeeded to great extent in alleviating the side effects of diclofenac alone and ameliorating the kidney function parameters and antioxidant capacities with respect to diclofenac treated group alone. The Mg(II), Ca(II), Sr(II) and Ba(II) with diclofenac have been synthesized and characterized using infrared, electronic and (1)H NMR spectral, thermogravimetric and conductivity measurements. The diclofenac ligand has been found to act as bidentate chelating agent. Diclofenac complexes coordinate through the oxygen's of the carboxyl group. The molar ratio chelation is 1:2 (M(2+)-dic) with general formula [M(dic)2(H2O)2]⋅nH2O. Antibacterial screening of the alkaline earth metal complexes against Escherichia coli (Gram-ve), Bacillus subtilis (Gram+ve) and anti-fungal (Asperagillus oryzae, Asperagillus niger, Asperagillus flavus) were investigated. The kidney functions in male albino rats were ameliorated upon treatment with metal complexes of dic, which are represented by decreasing the levels of urea and uric acid to be located within normal values. The other looks bright spot in this article is the assessment of antioxidant defense system including SOD, CAT and MDA with the help of Sr(2+), Mg(2+) and Ca(2+)-dic complexes. The hormones related to kidney functions and stresses have been greatly ameliorated in groups treated with dic complexes in comparable with dic treated group.

  14. Surface-to-food pesticide transfer as a function of moisture and fat content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vonderheide, Anne P; Bernard, Craig E; Hieber, Thomas E; Kauffman, Peter E; Morgan, Jeffrey N; Melnyk, Lisa Jo

    2009-01-01

    Transfer of pesticides from household surfaces to foods may result in excess dietary exposure in children (i.e., beyond that inherent in foods due to agricultural application). In this study, transfer was evaluated as a function of the moisture and fat content of various foods. Surfaces chosen for investigation were those commonly found in homes and included Formica, ceramic tile, plastic, carpet, and upholstery fabric. Each surface type was sprayed with an aqueous emulsion of organophosphates, fipronil, and synthetic pyrethroids. In the first phase of the study, multiple foods (apples, watermelon, wheat crackers, graham crackers, white bread, flour tortillas, bologna, fat-free bologna, sugar cookies, ham, Fruit Roll-ups, pancakes, and processed American cheese) were categorized with respect to moisture and fat content. All were evaluated for potential removal of applied pesticides from a Formica surface. In the second phase of the study, representative foods from each classification were investigated for their potential for pesticide transfer with an additional four surfaces: ceramic tile, plastic, upholstery, and carpet. Moisture content, not fat, was found to be a determining factor in most transfers. For nearly all surfaces, more efficient transfer occurred with increased hardness (Formica and ceramic tile). Comparatively, the polymer composition of the plastic delivered overall lower transfer efficiencies, presumably due to an attraction between it and the organic pesticides of interest.

  15. A longitudinal study of emotional adjustment, quality of life and adaptive function in attenuated MPS II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Elsa G; Rudser, Kyle; Ahmed, Alia; Steiner, Robert D; Delaney, Kathleen A; Yund, Brianna; King, Kelly; Kunin-Batson, Alicia; Eisengart, Julie; Whitley, Chester B

    2016-06-01

    The behavioral, adaptive and quality of life characteristics of attenuated mucopolysaccharidosis type II (MPS II) have not been well studied. Understanding changes over time in the attenuated phenotype may assist in helping achieve better outcomes in long-term function. This longitudinal study investigates these outcomes in relation to age, somatic disease burden, and IQ. Specifically, somatic disease burden is a major challenge for these patients, even with treatment with enzyme replacement therapy. 15 patients, 10 between ages 6 and MPS II patients have increasing somatic disease burden and poor physical quality of life as they develop as well as decreasing self-esteem and sense of adequacy. Psychosocial quality of life, adaptive skills, and attention improve. Recognition of and intervention around these issues will be beneficial to MPS II attenuated patients who have the resources to use such assistance to improve their long-term outcomes.

  16. Functional recombinant MHC class II molecules and high-throughput peptide-binding assays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Justesen, Sune; Harndahl, Mikkel; Lamberth, Kasper

    2009-01-01

    of peptide-binding assay were developed including a homogeneous, non-radioactive, high-throughput (HTS) binding assay. Binding isotherms were generated allowing the affinities of interaction to be determined. The affinities of the best binders were found to be in the low nanomolar range. Recombinant MHC...... in the generation of MHC-II molecules as reagents to study and manipulate specific T helper cell responses. Methods to generate functional MHC-II molecules recombinantly, and measure their interaction with peptides, would be highly desirable; however, no consensus methodology has yet emerged. RESULTS: We generated....... CONCLUSION: We have successfully developed versatile MHC-II resources, which may assist in the generation of MHC class II -wide reagents, data, and tools....

  17. What are the ideal properties for functional food peptides with antihypertensive effect? A computational peptidology approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Peng; Yang, Chao; Ren, Yanrong; Wang, Congcong; Tian, Feifei

    2013-12-01

    Peptides with antihypertensive potency have long been attractive to the medical and food communities. However, serving as food additives, rather than therapeutic agents, peptides should have a good taste. In the present study, we explore the intrinsic relationship between the angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibition and bitterness of short peptides in the framework of computational peptidology, attempting to find out the appropriate properties for functional food peptides with satisfactory bioactivities. As might be expected, quantitative structure-activity relationship modeling reveals a significant positive correlation between the ACE inhibition and bitterness of dipeptides, but this correlation is quite modest for tripeptides and, particularly, tetrapeptides. Moreover, quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics analysis of the structural basis and energetic profile involved in ACE-peptide complexes unravels that peptides of up to 4 amino acids long are sufficient to have efficient binding to ACE, and more additional residues do not bring with substantial enhance in their ACE-binding affinity and, thus, antihypertensive capability. All of above, it is coming together to suggest that the tripeptides and tetrapeptides could be considered as ideal candidates for seeking potential functional food additives with both high antihypertensive activity and low bitterness.

  18. The search for compounds that stimulate thermogenesis in obesity management: from pharmaceuticals to functional food ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dulloo, A G

    2011-10-01

    The concept of managing obesity through the stimulation of thermogenesis is currently a focus of considerable attention by the pharmaceutical, nutraceutical and functional food industries. This paper first reviews the landmark discoveries that have fuelled the search for thermogenic anti-obesity products that range from single-target drugs to multi-target functional foods. It subsequently analyses the thermogenic and fat-oxidizing potentials of a wide array of bioactive food ingredients which are categorized under methylxanthines, polyphenols, capsaicinoids/capsinoids, minerals, proteins/amino acids, carbohydrates/sugars and fats/fatty acids. The main outcome of this analysis is that the compounds or combination of compounds with thermogenic and fat-oxidizing potentials are those that possess both sympathomimetic stimulatory activity and acetyl-coA carboxylase inhibitory property, and are capable of targeting both skeletal muscle and brown adipose tissue. The thermogenic potentials of products so far tested in humans range from marginal to modest, i.e. 2-5% above daily energy expenditure. With an increasing number of bioactive food ingredients awaiting screening in humans, there is hope that this thermogenic potential could be safely increased to 10-15% above daily energy expenditure - which would have clinically significant impact on weight management, particularly in the prevention of obesity and in improving the long-term prognosis of post-slimming weight maintenance. © 2011 The Author. obesity reviews © 2011 International Association for the Study of Obesity.

  19. Reduced serotonin reuptake transporter (SERT) function causes insulin resistance and hepatic steatosis independent of food intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaoning; Margolis, Kara J; Gershon, Michael D; Schwartz, Gary J; Sze, Ji Y

    2012-01-01

    Serotonin reuptake transporter (SERT) is a key regulator of serotonin neurotransmission and a major target of antidepressants. Antidepressants, such as selectively serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), that block SERT function are known to affect food intake and body weight. Here, we provide genetic evidence that food intake and metabolism are regulated by separable mechanisms of SERT function. SERT-deficient mice ate less during both normal diet and high fat diet feeding. The reduced food intake was accompanied with markedly elevated plasma leptin levels. Despite reduced food intake, SERT-deficient mice exhibited glucose intolerance and insulin resistance, and progressively developed obesity and hepatic steatosis. Several lines of evidence indicate that the metabolic deficits of SERT-deficient mice are attributable to reduced insulin-sensitivity in peripheral tissues. First, SERT-deficient mice exhibited beta-cell hyperplasia and islet-mass expansion. Second, biochemical analyses revealed constitutively elevated JNK activity and diminished insulin-induced AKT activation in the liver of SERT-deficient mice. SERT-deficient mice exhibited hyper-JNK activity and hyperinsulinemia prior to the development of obesity. Third, enhancing AKT signaling by PTEN deficiency corrected glucose tolerance in SERT-deficient mice. These findings have potential implications for designing selective SERT drugs for weight control and the treatment of metabolic syndromes.

  20. Reduced serotonin reuptake transporter (SERT function causes insulin resistance and hepatic steatosis independent of food intake.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoning Chen

    Full Text Available Serotonin reuptake transporter (SERT is a key regulator of serotonin neurotransmission and a major target of antidepressants. Antidepressants, such as selectively serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs, that block SERT function are known to affect food intake and body weight. Here, we provide genetic evidence that food intake and metabolism are regulated by separable mechanisms of SERT function. SERT-deficient mice ate less during both normal diet and high fat diet feeding. The reduced food intake was accompanied with markedly elevated plasma leptin levels. Despite reduced food intake, SERT-deficient mice exhibited glucose intolerance and insulin resistance, and progressively developed obesity and hepatic steatosis. Several lines of evidence indicate that the metabolic deficits of SERT-deficient mice are attributable to reduced insulin-sensitivity in peripheral tissues. First, SERT-deficient mice exhibited beta-cell hyperplasia and islet-mass expansion. Second, biochemical analyses revealed constitutively elevated JNK activity and diminished insulin-induced AKT activation in the liver of SERT-deficient mice. SERT-deficient mice exhibited hyper-JNK activity and hyperinsulinemia prior to the development of obesity. Third, enhancing AKT signaling by PTEN deficiency corrected glucose tolerance in SERT-deficient mice. These findings have potential implications for designing selective SERT drugs for weight control and the treatment of metabolic syndromes.

  1. Delivery of Functionality in Complex Food Systems: Physically Inspired Approaches from Nanoscale to Microscale, Wageningen 18-21 October 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Linden, Erik; Ubbink, Job; Duchateau, Guus

    2010-12-01

    The Wageningen Delivery of Functionality symposium covered all aspects involved with food structural design to arrive at high-quality foods which meet demanding customer expectations and regulatory requirements. The symposium integrated aspects from the structural organization of foods at molecular and supramolecular scales to dedicated techniques required to describe and visualize such structures, the gastro-intestinal events and how to model these in a laboratory setting, and finally the impact those food structures and ingredients have on the consumer's physiology and on the human perception. As an interdisciplinary platform, bringing together more than 160 researchers from academia and industry, the symposium meanwhile fulfills an important role in the food science community.

  2. The joint moderating effect of health consciousness and healthy lifestyle on consumers' willingness to use functional foods in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mei-Fang

    2011-08-01

    Functional foods marketed as promoting health or reducing the risk of disease open a promising avenue for consumers to pursue a healthier life. Despite the stable growth in functional foods in Taiwan, at present little is known about whether or not consumers with varying degrees of health consciousness and different healthy lifestyles will have dissimilar attitudes toward functional foods and will vary in their willingness to use them. Regression analysis of this empirical study verifies that consumers' attitudes toward functional foods do have an impact on their willingness to use such foods. Moreover, moderated regression analysis (MRA) reveals that the joint moderator of health consciousness and healthy lifestyle indeed exerts an impact on consumers' willingness to consume functional foods. Finally, one-way ANOVA tests show that there are some differences between the consumers of the "Healthy Life Attentive" group and those of the "Healthy Life Inattentive" one both in attitudes toward and in willingness to consume functional foods. The empirical results and findings from this study would be valuable for the marketers in the functional food industry to formulate marketing communication strategies and facilitate this industry's development.

  3. Plant-based Paste Fermented by Lactic Acid Bacteria and Yeast: Functional Analysis and Possibility of Application to Functional Foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuwaki, Shinsuke; Nakajima, Nobuyoshi; Tanaka, Hidehiko; Ishihara, Kohji

    2012-01-01

    A plant-based paste fermented by lactic acid bacteria and yeast (fermented paste) was made from various plant materials. The paste was made of fermented food by applying traditional food-preservation techniques, that is, fermentation and sugaring. The fermented paste contained major nutrients (carbohydrates, proteins, and lipids), 18 kinds of amino acids, and vitamins (vitamin A, B1, B2, B6, B12, E, K, niacin, biotin, pantothenic acid, and folic acid). It contained five kinds of organic acids, and a large amount of dietary fiber and plant phytochemicals. Sucrose from brown sugar, used as a material, was completely resolved into glucose and fructose. Some physiological functions of the fermented paste were examined in vitro. It was demonstrated that the paste possessed antioxidant, antihypertensive, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, anti-allergy and anti-tyrosinase activities in vitro. It was thought that the fermented paste would be a helpful functional food with various nutrients to help prevent lifestyle diseases. PMID:25114554

  4. [Functional analysis of transforming growth factor-beta type II dominant negative receptor].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takarada, M

    1996-06-01

    The transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) is a multifunctional homodimeric protein with an apparent molecular weight of 25 KDa. TGF-beta transduces signals by forming heteromeric complexes of their type-I (T beta R-I) and type-II (T beta R-II) serin/threonine kinase receptors. TGF-beta binds first to T beta R-II receptor, and then the ligand in this complex is recognized by T beta R-I, resulting in formation of a heteromeric receptor complex composed of T beta R-I and T beta R-II. Once received, T beta R-I becomes phosphorylated in the GS domain by the associated constitutively active T beta R-II and transmits the downstream signal. It has been reported that formation of the heteromeric complex is indispensible at least in epithelial cells for growth inhibition and extracellular matrix production induced by TGF-beta. In this study, the functional role of T beta R-II for the TGF-beta-induced signals in osteoblastic cells was investigated by using a dominant negative type of T beta R-II mutant receptors (T beta RIIDNR). ROS 17/2.8 and MG 63 cells were found to express T beta R-I, T beta R-II, and T beta R-III, and their cell growth was inhibited by TGF-beta, whereas alkaline phosphatase activity was stimulated. Cells that were stably transfected with the T beta RIIDNR plasmid showed decreased response to TGF-beta during growth and alkaline phosphatase activity. These results indicate that the intracellular serine/threonine kinase domain of T beta R-II is essential for signal transduction of the TGF-beta-induced alkaline phosphatase activity as well as growth inhibition.

  5. Modulation of Protein Quality Control Systems as Novel Mechanisms Underlying Functionality of Food Phytochemicals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kohta Ohnishi

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Phytochemicals are secondary metabolites of plants that are produced for their defense against environmental stresses, such as polyphenols, which are considered to play a major role in protection against ultraviolet (UV light-induced oxidative damage, as well as anti-fungal and anti-microbial activities. In addition, there is a great body of evidence showing that phytochemicals exhibit a wide array of physiological activities in humans. Accumulated data show that the bioavailability of most, if not all, phytochemicals is quite poor and their substantial biotransformation after ingestion has also been noted. Thus, they are characterized as non-nutritive xenobiotics in animals, and the question of why phytochemicals, which are produced for plant self-defense, have beneficial effects in humans is quite intriguing. Meanwhile, stress-induced denaturing of cellular proteins greatly affects their tertiary structure and critically disrupts their biological functions, occasionally leading to aggregation for the onset of some pathology. Many recent studies have indicated that protein quality control (PQC systems play key roles in counteracting ‘proteo-stress’, which is comprised of several processes, including protein refolding by heat shock proteins (HSPs and degradation of abnormal proteins by the ubiquitin-proteasome system as well as autophagy.Functional Foods in Health and Disease 2013; 3(10:400-415 Page 401 of 415 Objective: Phytochemicals are xenobiotics, thus their biochemical interactions with animal proteins are considered to occur in a non-specific manner, which raises the possibility that some phytochemicals cause proteo-stress for activating PQC systems. Because their status is thought to be a critical determinant of homeostasis, the physiological functions of phytochemicals may be partially mediated through those unique systems. The present study was thus undertaken to address this possibility. Methods and Results: We focused

  6. Danish consumers' attitudes to the functional and environmental characteristics of food packaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech-Larsen, Tino

    1996-01-01

    are associated with personal values more often than the functional consequences. This implies that many consumers are personally involved in the environmental consequences of packaging. The conjoint study investigated the relative importance of different packaging attributes and other product attributes......Executive summary The purpose of the studies presented in the paper is to research different aspects of Danish consumers' views about the functional and environmental consequences of packaging, as well as to study cognitive barriers that can prevent consumer attitudes to environmental consequences...... of food packaging to influence the buying of food products. The results of these studies will be employed to consider whether and how to influence Danish consumers to buy products with environmental sustainable packaging. As the project concerns both consumers' attitudes to packaging on the abstract...

  7. Marine bioactives as functional food ingredients: potential to reduce the incidence of chronic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lordan, Sinéad; Ross, R Paul; Stanton, Catherine

    2011-01-01

    The marine environment represents a relatively untapped source of functional ingredients that can be applied to various aspects of food processing, storage, and fortification. Moreover, numerous marine-based compounds have been identified as having diverse biological activities, with some reported to interfere with the pathogenesis of diseases. Bioactive peptides isolated from fish protein hydrolysates as well as algal fucans, galactans and alginates have been shown to possess anticoagulant, anticancer and hypocholesterolemic activities. Additionally, fish oils and marine bacteria are excellent sources of omega-3 fatty acids, while crustaceans and seaweeds contain powerful antioxidants such as carotenoids and phenolic compounds. On the basis of their bioactive properties, this review focuses on the potential use of marine-derived compounds as functional food ingredients for health maintenance and the prevention of chronic diseases.

  8. Marine Bioactives as Functional Food Ingredients: Potential to Reduce the Incidence of Chronic Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Stanton

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The marine environment represents a relatively untapped source of functional ingredients that can be applied to various aspects of food processing, storage, and fortification. Moreover, numerous marine-based compounds have been identified as having diverse biological activities, with some reported to interfere with the pathogenesis of diseases. Bioactive peptides isolated from fish protein hydrolysates as well as algal fucans, galactans and alginates have been shown to possess anticoagulant, anticancer and hypocholesterolemic activities. Additionally, fish oils and marine bacteria are excellent sources of omega-3 fatty acids, while crustaceans and seaweeds contain powerful antioxidants such as carotenoids and phenolic compounds. On the basis of their bioactive properties, this review focuses on the potential use of marine-derived compounds as functional food ingredients for health maintenance and the prevention of chronic diseases.

  9. Evaluation of functional substances in the selected food materials for space agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomita-Yokotani, Kaori; Kimura, Yasuko; Yamashita, Masamichi; Kimura, Shunta; Sato, Seigo; Katoh, Hiroshi; Abe, Yusuke; Ajioka, Reiko

    We have been studying the useful life-support system in closed bio-ecosystem for space agriculture. We have already proposed the several species as food material, such as Nostoc sp. HK-01 and Prunnus sp., cyanobacterium and Japanese cherry tree, respectively. The cyanobacterium, Nostoc sp Hk-01, has high tolerances to several space environment. Furthermore, the woody plant materials have useful utilization elements in our habitation environment. The studies of woody plants under a space-environment in the vegetable kingdom have a high contribution to the study of various and exotic environmental responses, too. We have already found that they can produce the important functional substances for human. Here, we will show the evaluation of functional substances in the selected food materials under the possible conditions for space agriculture after cooking.

  10. Marine Bioactives as Functional Food Ingredients: Potential to Reduce the Incidence of Chronic Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lordan, Sinéad; Ross, R. Paul; Stanton, Catherine

    2011-01-01

    The marine environment represents a relatively untapped source of functional ingredients that can be applied to various aspects of food processing, storage, and fortification. Moreover, numerous marine-based compounds have been identified as having diverse biological activities, with some reported to interfere with the pathogenesis of diseases. Bioactive peptides isolated from fish protein hydrolysates as well as algal fucans, galactans and alginates have been shown to possess anticoagulant, anticancer and hypocholesterolemic activities. Additionally, fish oils and marine bacteria are excellent sources of omega-3 fatty acids, while crustaceans and seaweeds contain powerful antioxidants such as carotenoids and phenolic compounds. On the basis of their bioactive properties, this review focuses on the potential use of marine-derived compounds as functional food ingredients for health maintenance and the prevention of chronic diseases. PMID:21747748

  11. Nutritional Proteomics: Investigating molecular mechanisms underlying the health beneficial effect of functional foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuke Kawashima

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTObjective: We introduce a new technical and conceptual term “nutritional proteomics” by identifying and quantifying the proteins and their changes in a certain organ or tissue dependent on the food intake by utilizing a mass spectrometry-based proteomics technique.Purpose: Food intake is essentially important for every life on earth to sustain the physical as well as mental functions. The outcome of food intake will be manifested in the health state and its dysfunction. The molecular information about the protein expression change caused by diets will assist us to understand the significance of functional foods. We wish to develop nutritional proteomics to promote a new area in functional food studies for a better understanding of the role of functional foods in health and disease.Methods: We chose two classes of food ingredients to show the feasibility of nutritional proteomics, omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids both of which are involved in the inflammation/anti-inflammation axis. Each class of the polyunsaturated fatty acids was mixed in mouse chow respectively. The liver tissue of mice fed with omega-3 diet or omega-3 diet was analyzed by the state-of-the-art shotgun proteomics using nano-HPLC-ESI-MS/MS. The data were analyzed by the number of differentially expressed proteins that were guaranteed by 1% false discovery rate for protein identification and by the statistical significance of variance evaluated by p-value in two-tailed distribution analysis better than 0.05 (n=4. The differential pattern of protein expression was characterized with Gene Ontology designation.Results: The data analysis of the shotgun nutritional proteomics identified 2,810 proteins that are validated with 1% FDR. Among these 2,810 proteins, 125 were characterized with statistical significance of variance (p<0.05; n=4 between the omega-3 diet and the omega-6 diet by twotailed distribution analysis. The results

  12. Development and Provision of Functional Foods to Promote Health on Long-Duration Space Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermudez-Aguirre, D.; Cooper, M. R.; Douglas, G.; Smith, S.

    2016-01-01

    During long-duration NASA space missions, such as proposed missions to Mars, astronauts may experience negative physiological effects such as bone loss. Functional foods such as high-lycopene, high-flavonoids and high-omega-3 products and fruits and vegetables may mitigate the negative effects of spaceflight on physiological factors including the bone health of crewmembers. Previous studies showed that current ISS provisions provide high-lycopene and high-omega-3 food items but the variety is limited, which could promote menu fatigue. Bioactive compounds can degrade like other chemical compounds and lose functionality. The native concentrations and stability of bioactive compounds have never been determined in spaceflight foods, and adequate information is not available for commercial products for the storage durations required for space exploration (5 years). The purpose of this task is to develop new spaceflight foods that are high in omega-3 fatty acids, lycopene, or flavonoids, identify commercial products with these bioactive compounds that meet spaceflight requirements, and define the stability of these nutrients in storage to enable purposeful functional food incorporation into the space food system. The impact of storage temperature on the stability of lutein, lycopene, beta-carotene, omega-3 fatty acids, phenolics, anthocyanins and sterols is being studied in 12 ISS menu items stored at three different temperatures (4, 21, 35 degree C) over 2 years. Additionally, nutrient and quality stability are being assessed on a larger food set stored at 21 degree C over 2 years that contains twelve newly developed foods, 10 commercial products repackaged to spaceflight requirements, and another 5 current ISS menu items expected to be good sources of omega-3 fatty acids, lycopene, or flavonoids. All items were shipped overnight to the Linus Pauling Institute at Oregon State University (Corvalis, OR) after processing and 1-year of storage and analyzed for bioactive

  13. Multilocus genetic characterization of two ant vectors (Group II "Dirty 22" species) known to contaminate food and food products and spread foodborne pathogens

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sulaiman, Irshad M; Anderson, Mickey; Oi, David H; Simpson, Steven; Kerdahi, Khalil

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Food and Drug Administration utilizes the presence of filth and extraneous materials as one of the criteria for implementing regulatory actions and assessing adulteration of food products of public health importance...

  14. Children’s Executive Function and High Calorie, Low Nutrient Food Intake: Mediating Effects of Child-Perceived Adult Fast Food Intake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tate, Eleanor B.; Unger, Jennifer B.; Chou, Chih-Ping; Spruijt-Metz, Donna; Pentz, Mary Ann; Riggs, Nathaniel R.

    2017-01-01

    Objective This study tested the relationships among child executive function (EF), child-perceived parent fast food intake, and child self-reported subsequent consumption of high-calorie, low nutrient (HCLN) food. Design One year and 6-month longitudinal observation from larger randomized control trial Setting Southern California elementary schools Subjects Fourth and fifth grade children (n = 1,005) participating in the Pathways to Health obesity prevention program Results Child EF problems were associated with higher concurrent HCLN intake (B = 0.29, SE = 0.10, p fast food intake (indirect effect = 0.17, 95% CI = 0.11/0.25, p fast food intake (indirect effect = 0.05, 95% CI = 0.02/0.10, p perception of parent concurrent fast food intake, contributing to their own unhealthy food intake. However, EF problems may not directly affect HCLN intake across time, except when problems are associated with child perception of more frequent parent consumption of convenience foods. Future research is needed to investigate the possibility that helping children perceive and understand role models’ convenience food consumption may improve child dietary consumption patterns. PMID:25194147

  15. Promoting functional foods as acceptable alternatives to doping: potential for information-based social marketing approach

    OpenAIRE

    Petróczi Andrea; Naughton Declan P; James Ricky

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Substances with performance enhancing properties appear on a continuum, ranging from prohibited performance enhancing drugs (PED) through dietary supplements to functional foods (FF). Anti-doping messages designed to dissuade athletes from using PEDs have been typically based on moralising sport competition and/or employing scare campaigns with focus on the negative consequences. Campaigns offering comparable and acceptable alternatives are nonexistent, nor are athletes he...

  16. Role of Bioactive Food Components in Diabetes Prevention: Effects on Beta-Cell Function and Preservation

    OpenAIRE

    Yoon Sin Oh; Hee-Sook Jun

    2014-01-01

    Bioactive compounds found in fruits and vegetables can have anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-carcinogenic effects and can be protective against various diseases and metabolic disorders. These beneficial effects make them good candidates for the development of new functional foods with potential protective and preventive properties for type 1 and type 2 diabetes. This review summarizes the most relevant results concerning the effects of various bioactive compounds such as flavonoids, ...

  17. Dynamics of a three species food chain model with Crowley-Martin type functional response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Upadhyay, Ranjit Kumar [Department of Applied Mathematics, Indian School of Mines University, Dhanbad, Jharkhand 826 004 (India)], E-mail: ranjit_ism@yahoo.com; Naji, Raid Kamel [Department of Mathematics, College of Science, University of Baghdad (Iraq)], E-mail: rknaji@gmail.com

    2009-11-15

    In this paper, a three species food chain model, consisting of a hybrid type of prey-dependent and predator-dependent functional responses, is investigated analytically as well as numerically. The local and global stability analysis is carried out. The persistence conditions are established. Bifurcation diagrams are obtained for biologically feasible parameters. The results show that the system exhibits rich complexity features such as stable, periodic and chaotic dynamics.

  18. Hyperfiltration as an energy conservation technique in the food industry. Phase II. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-04-01

    The continued investigation of various membranes and applications of hyperfiltration in the food industry is reported. Tomato juice was the main emphasis of the study since the potential energy savings for the preconcentration of tomato juice is estimated to be about 23 million liters of oil. There were numerous attempts to produce dynamically formed membranes for concentrating tomato juice. Unfortunately a consistent, reliable membrane was not developed. The thin film composite membrane demonstrated good potential in long term testing of hot tomato juice. The membrane gave consistent results and the flux was able to be restored after cleaning. Hot water from a jar washer and evaporator condensate were investigated for recovery potential. Both show very good potential and the positive results indicate a long term test for approximately 6 months is warranted. Since only feasibility tests were performed, the membrane stability over time needs additional investigation. In addition to tomato juice, several other streams were investigated for concentration potential: orange juice, grape juice, fish stickwater. The concentration of byproducts normally discharged from the plant was also investigated. Primarily short term feasibility tests were performed.

  19. Executive functions and consumption of fruits/ vegetables and high saturated fat foods in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limbers, Christine A; Young, Danielle

    2015-05-01

    Executive functions play a critical role in regulating eating behaviors and have been shown to be associated with overeating which over time can result in overweight and obesity. There has been a paucity of research examining the associations among healthy dietary behaviors and executive functions utilizing behavioral rating scales of executive functioning. The objective of the present cross-sectional study was to evaluate the associations among fruit and vegetable consumption, intake of foods high in saturated fat, and executive functions using the Behavioral Rating Inventory of Executive Functioning-Adult Version. A total of 240 university students completed the Behavioral Rating Inventory of Executive Functioning-Adult Version, the 26-Item Eating Attitudes Test, and the Diet subscale of the Summary of Diabetes Self-Care Activities Questionnaire. Multiple linear regression analysis was conducted with two separate models in which fruit and vegetable consumption and saturated fat intake were the outcomes. Demographic variables, body mass index, and eating styles were controlled for in the analysis. Better initiation skills were associated with greater intake of fruits and vegetables in the last 7 days (standardized beta = -0.17; p fruit and vegetable consumption are distinct from those that predict avoidance of foods high in saturated fat. Future research should investigate whether continued skill enhancement in initiation and inhibition following standard behavioral interventions improves long-term maintenance of weight loss.

  20. MERCURY(II) ADSORPTION FROM WASTEWATERS USING A THIOL FUNCTIONAL ADSORBENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    The removal of mercury(II) from wastewaters (coal-fired utility plant scrubber solutions) using a thiol functional organoceramic composite (SOL-AD-IV) is investigated. A simulant is employed as a surrogate to demonstrate the removal of mercury from real waste solutions. Equilibri...

  1. WISC-IV and WIAT-II Profiles in Children with High-Functioning Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayes, Susan Dickerson; Calhoun, Susan L.

    2008-01-01

    Children with high-functioning autism earned above normal scores on the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fourth Edition (WISC-IV) Perceptual Reasoning and Verbal Comprehension Indexes and below normal scores on the Working Memory and Processing Speed Indexes and Wechsler Individual Achievement Test-Second Edition (WIAT-II) Written…

  2. Functional defecation disorders in children: comparing the Rome II with the Rome III criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgers, Rosa; Levin, Alon D; Di Lorenzo, Carlo; Dijkgraaf, Marcel G W; Benninga, Marc A

    2012-10-01

    To evaluate the prevalence of pediatric functional defecation disorders (FDD) using the Rome III criteria and to compare these data with those obtained using Rome II criteria. A chart review was performed in patients referred to a tertiary outpatient clinic with symptoms of constipation and/or fecal incontinence. All patients received a standardized bowel questionnaire and physical examination, including rectal examination. The prevalence of pediatric FDD according to both Rome criteria sets was assessed. Patients with FDD (n = 336; 61% boys, mean age 6.3 ± 3.5 SD) were studied: 39% had a defecation frequency ≤ 2/wk, 75% had fecal incontinence, 75% displayed retentive posturing, 60% had pain during defecation, 49% passed large diameter stools, and 49% had a palpable rectal fecal mass. According to the Rome III criteria, 87% had functional constipation (FC) compared with only 34% fulfilling criteria for either FC or functional fecal retention based on the Rome II definitions (P criteria for functional nonretentive fecal incontinence according to both the Rome II and Rome III criteria. The pediatric Rome III criteria for FC are less restrictive than the Rome II criteria. The Rome III criteria are an important step forward in the definition and recognition of FDD in children. Copyright © 2012 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Optimizing the Structure of Tetracyanoplatinate (II): A Comparison of Relativistic Density Functional Theory Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dohn, Asmus Ougaard; Møller, Klaus Braagaard; Sauer, Stephan P. A.

    2013-01-01

    The geometry of tetracyanoplatinate(II) (TCP) has been optimized with density functional theory (DFT) calculations in order to compare different computational strategies. Two approximate scalar relativistic methods, i.e. the scalar zeroth-order regular approximation (ZORA) and non-relativistic ca...

  4. Is Lactate an undervalued functional component of lactic acid bacteria-fermented food products?

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    Graciela eGarrote

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Although it has been traditionally regarded as an intermediate of carbon metabolism and major component of fermented dairy products contributing to organoleptic and antimicrobial properties of food, there is evidence gathered in recent years that lactate has bioactive properties that may be responsible of broader properties of functional foods. Lactate can regulate critical functions of several key players of the immune system such as macrophages and dendritic cells, being able to modulate inflammatory activation of epithelial cells as well. Intraluminal levels of lactate derived from fermentative metabolism of lactobacilli have been shown to modulate inflammatory environment in intestinal mucosa. The molecular mechanisms responsible to these functions, including histone deacetylase dependent-modulation of gene expression and signalling through G-protein coupled receptors have started to be described. Since lactate is a major fermentation product of several bacterial families with probiotic properties, we here propose that it may contribute to some of the properties attributed to these microorganisms and in a larger view, to the properties of food products fermented by lactic acid bacteria.

  5. Consumer understanding and use of health claims: the case of functional foods.

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    Annunziata, Azzurra; Mariani, Angela; Vecchio, Riccardo

    2014-01-01

    As widely acknowledged functional foods (FFs) may contribute to improve human health due to the presence of specific components useful for their protective action against several diseases. However it is essential that consumers are able to comprehend and assess the properties of FFs health claims play a central role in helping consumers to select among food alternatives, beyond providing protection against unsupported or misleading statements about foods properties. At the same time health claims are the main marketing tool that the food industry could use to differentiate FFs from other products. Clearly, massive investments in research and development are necessary to enter the FF market segment, together with the possibility to protect innovation through patents. Current paper aims to examine factors influencing consumer understanding and use of food health claims on FFs, as well as providing several indications for developers, marketers and policy makers. After a brief review of the literature the results of a quantitative survey conducted online on 650 Italian consumers are presented. Results show that consumer use and understanding of health claims on FFs depend on different variables such as socio-demographic characteristics, knowledge and confidence with nutrition information but also wording and variables related specifically to the product. Furthermore, different segments with a diverse degree of use and understanding of health claims have been identified. Therefore, to boost market growth, more efforts are needed by policy makers and marketers to provide better information on nutrition and health aspects of FF using an approach capable to ensure truthful, significant and clear information. Finally some recent patents related to the FFs market with specific regard to components and/or functionality investigated in the current paper are reviewed.

  6. Functional foods for weight management: Dietary Fiber – a systematic review

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    Mona Boaz

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTIt has been estimated that more than 1.5 billion adults are overweight or obese worldwide [1], rendering obesity a global epidemic [2]. Obesity is associated with significant morbidity, including type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, osteoarthritis and some cancers [3]. Thus, obesity is clearly a medical issue, its costs impacting heavily on health care systems in both developed and developing nations [4]. The combined impact of transmissible and chronic disease in the third world is particularly devastating to the very health care systems with fewest resources [5].Because obesity has been identified as a major health issue, treating obesity is an important goal. However, weight loss management has proven notoriously difficult. It is well documented that reduced energy intake and increased energy expenditure may reduce body weight in the short term, but obesity relapse is the long term is anticipated [6]. In a study of overweight or obese US adults who weighed ≥ 10% less than their maximum body weight the year prior to the survey (n=1310, 33.5% regained > 5% during that year [7].Despite its somewhat unimpressive success rate, "lifestyle" weight management remains the first line intervention for obesity treatment [8]. Lifestyle weight management can be defined as interventions based on energy restriction (weight loss diet; increased energy output (exercise; and/or behavioral change (cognitive or behavior therapy. Functional foods have been explored as a tool for enhancing lifestyle weight management.Functional foods evaluated for their efficacy as obesity interventions can be divided into two broad categories: 1 foods which suppress appetite and increase satiety; and 2 foods which enhance thermogenesis. The present review will focus on those foods thought to act by increasing satiety and suppressing appetite.Key words: Obesity, weight loss, systematic review, dietary fiber

  7. Implications of domestic food practices for the presence of bioactive components in meats with special reference to meat-based functional foods.

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    Jiménez-Colmenero, Francisco; Cofrades, Susana; Herrero, Ana M; Ruiz-Capillas, Claudia

    2017-06-14

    Although an essential component of the diet, the consumption of meat is in question. Meat is a major source of beneficial compounds but it also contains other substances with negative health implications. Functional foods, which are leading trends in the food industry, constitute an excellent opportunity for the meat sector to improve healthier meat options. Most studies on meat-based functional foods have focused mainly on the application of different strategies (animal production practices and meat transformation systems) to improve (increase/reduce) the presence of bioactive (healthy/unhealthy) compounds; these have led to the development of numerous products, many of them by the meat industry. However, like other foods, after purchase meats undergo certain processes before they are consumed, and these affect their composition. Although domestic handling practices can significantly alter the make-up of the marketed product in terms of healthy/unhealthy compounds, there are very few studies on their consequences. This paper provides an overview of the influence of different domestic practices (from shopping to eating) habitually followed by consumers on the presence of, and consequently on the levels of exposure to, (healthy and unhealthy) food components associated with the consumption of meats, with special reference to meat-based functional foods.

  8. Cu(II) coordination chemistry of patellamide derivatives: possible biological functions of cyclic pseudopeptides.

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    Comba, Peter; Dovalil, Nina; Gahan, Lawrence R; Haberhauer, Gebhard; Hanson, Graeme R; Noble, Christopher J; Seibold, Björn; Vadivelu, Prabha

    2012-02-27

    Two synthetic derivatives of the naturally occurring cyclic pseudooctapeptides patellamide  A-F and ascidiacyclamide, that is, H(4)pat(2), H(4)pat(3), as well as their Cu(II) complexes are described. These cyclic peptide derivatives differ from the naturally occurring macrocycles by the variation of the incorporated heterocyclic donor groups and the configuration of the amino acids connecting the heterocycles. The exchange of the oxazoline and thiazole groups by dimethylimidazoles or methyloxazoles leads to more rigid macrocycles, and the changes in the configuration of the side chains leads to significant differences in the folding of the cyclic peptides. These variations allow a detailed study of the various possible structural changes on the chemistry of the Cu(II) complexes formed. The coordination of Cu(II) with these macrocyclic species was monitored by high-resolution electrospray mass spectrometry (ESI-MS), spectrophotometric (UV/Vis) and circular dichroic (CD) titrations, and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations and molecular mechanics (MM) simulations have been used to model the structures of the Cu(II) complexes and provide a detailed understanding of their geometric preferences and conformational flexibility. This is related to the Cu(II) coordination chemistry and the reactivity of the dinuclear Cu(II) complexes towards CO(2) fixation. The variation observed between the natural and various synthetic peptide systems enables conclusions about structure-reactivity correlations, and our results also provide information on why nature might have chosen oxazolines and thiazoles as incorporated heterocycles.

  9. Overlapping and non-overlapping functions of condensins I and II in neural stem cell divisions.

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    Kenji Nishide

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available During development of the cerebral cortex, neural stem cells (NSCs divide symmetrically to proliferate and asymmetrically to generate neurons. Although faithful segregation of mitotic chromosomes is critical for NSC divisions, its fundamental mechanism remains unclear. A class of evolutionarily conserved protein complexes, known as condensins, is thought to be central to chromosome assembly and segregation among eukaryotes. Here we report the first comprehensive genetic study of mammalian condensins, demonstrating that two different types of condensin complexes (condensins I and II are both essential for NSC divisions and survival in mice. Simultaneous depletion of both condensins leads to severe defects in chromosome assembly and segregation, which in turn cause DNA damage and trigger p53-induced apoptosis. Individual depletions of condensins I and II lead to slower loss of NSCs compared to simultaneous depletion, but they display distinct mitotic defects: chromosome missegregation was observed more prominently in NSCs depleted of condensin II, whereas mitotic delays were detectable only in condensin I-depleted NSCs. Remarkably, NSCs depleted of condensin II display hyperclustering of pericentric heterochromatin and nucleoli, indicating that condensin II, but not condensin I, plays a critical role in establishing interphase nuclear architecture. Intriguingly, these defects are taken over to postmitotic neurons. Our results demonstrate that condensins I and II have overlapping and non-overlapping functions in NSCs, and also provide evolutionary insight into intricate balancing acts of the two condensin complexes.

  10. Rome II versus Rome III classification of functional gastrointestinal disorders in pediatric chronic abdominal pain.

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    Baber, Kari F; Anderson, Julia; Puzanovova, Martina; Walker, Lynn S

    2008-09-01

    The updated Rome III criteria for pediatric functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs) include new FGID categories and changes to the Rome II criteria for various FGIDs. To our knowledge, the implications of these revisions for patient classification have not been identified. The purpose of this study was to compare classification results using Rome II versus Rome III criteria for FGIDs associated with chronic abdominal pain. Participants were 368 pediatric patients whose subspecialty evaluations for chronic abdominal pain yielded no evidence of organic disease. The children's gastrointestinal symptoms were assessed with the parent-report version of the Questionnaire on Pediatric Gastrointestinal Symptoms (QPGS). More patients met the criteria for a pediatric pain-related FGID according to the Rome III criteria (86.6%) than the Rome II criteria (68.0%). In comparison with the results from the Rome II criteria, the Rome III criteria classified a greater percentage of children as meeting criteria for Abdominal Migraine (23.1% vs 5.7%) and Functional Abdominal Pain (11.4% vs 2.7%). Irritable Bowel Syndrome was the most common diagnosis according to both Rome II (44.0%) and Rome III (45.1%). Changes to the Rome criteria make the Rome III criteria more inclusive, allowing classification of 86.6% of pediatric patients with medically unexplained chronic abdominal pain.

  11. Functionality of in vitro reconstituted group II intron RmInt1-derived ribonucleoprotein particles

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    María Dolores Molina-Sánchez

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The functional unit of mobile group II introns is a ribonucleoprotein particle (RNP consisting of the intron-encoded protein (IEP and the excised intron RNA. The IEP has reverse transcriptase activity but also promotes RNA splicing, and the RNA-protein complex triggers site-specific DNA insertion by reverse splicing, in a process called retrohoming. In vitro reconstituted ribonucleoprotein complexes from the Lactococcus lactis group II intron Ll.LtrB, which produce a double strand break, have recently been studied as a means of developing group II intron-based gene targeting methods for higher organisms. The Sinorhizobium meliloti group II intron RmInt1 is an efficient mobile retroelement, the dispersal of which appears to be linked to transient single-stranded DNA during replication. The RmInt1IEP lacks the endonuclease domain (En and cannot cut the bottom strand to generate the 3’ end to initiate reverse transcription. We used an Escherichia coli expression system to produce soluble and active RmInt1 IEP and reconstituted RNPs with purified components in vitro. The RNPs generated were functional and reverse-spliced into a single-stranded DNA target. This work constitutes the starting point for the use of group II introns lacking DNA endonuclease domain-derived RNPs for highly specific gene targeting methods.

  12. (Prorenin receptor triggers distinct angiotensin II-independent extracellular matrix remodeling and deterioration of cardiac function.

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    Anne-Mari Moilanen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Activation of the renin-angiotensin-system (RAS plays a key pathophysiological role in heart failure in patients with hypertension and myocardial infarction. However, the function of (prorenin receptor ((PRR is not yet solved. We determined here the direct functional and structural effects of (PRR in the heart. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: (PRR was overexpressed by using adenovirus-mediated gene delivery in normal adult rat hearts up to 2 weeks. (PRR gene delivery into the anterior wall of the left ventricle decreased ejection fraction (P<0.01, fractional shortening (P<0.01, and intraventricular septum diastolic and systolic thickness, associated with approximately 2-fold increase in left ventricular (PRR protein levels at 2 weeks. To test whether the worsening of cardiac function and structure by (PRR gene overexpression was mediated by angiotensin II (Ang II, we infused an AT(1 receptor blocker losartan via osmotic minipumps. Remarkably, cardiac function deteriorated in losartan-treated (PRR overexpressing animals as well. Intramyocardial (PRR gene delivery also resulted in Ang II-independent activation of extracellular-signal-regulated kinase1/2 phosphorylation and myocardial fibrosis, and the expression of transforming growth factor-β1 and connective tissue growth factor genes. In contrast, activation of heat shock protein 27 phosphorylation and apoptotic cell death by (PRR gene delivery was Ang II-dependent. Finally, (PRR overexpression significantly increased direct protein-protein interaction between (PRR and promyelocytic zinc-finger protein. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results indicate for the first time that (PRR triggers distinct Ang II-independent myocardial fibrosis and deterioration of cardiac function in normal adult heart and identify (PRR as a novel therapeutic target to optimize RAS blockade in failing hearts.

  13. Pulmonary function testing in HTLV-I and HTLV-II infected humans: a cohort study

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    Garratty George

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background HTLV-I infection has been linked to lung pathology and HTLV-II has been associated with an increased incidence of pneumonia and acute bronchitis. However it is unknown whether HTLV-I or -II infection alters pulmonary function. Methods We performed pulmonary function testing on HTLV-I, HTLV-II and HTLV seronegative subjects from the HTLV outcomes study (HOST, including vital capacity (VC, forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1, and diffusing lung capacity for carbon monoxide (DLCO corrected for hemoglobin and lung volume. Multivariable analysis adjusted for differences in age, gender, race/ethnicity, height and smoking history. Results Mean (standard deviation pulmonary function values among the 257 subjects were as follows: FVC = 3.74 (0.89 L, FEV1 = 2.93 (0.67 L, DLCOcorr = 23.82 (5.89 ml/min/mmHg, alveolar ventilation (VA = 5.25 (1.20 L and DLCOcorr/VA = 4.54 (0.87 ml/min/mmHg/L. There were no differences in FVC, FEV1 and DLCOcorr/VA by HTLV status. For DLCOcorr, HTLV-I and HTLV-II subjects had slightly lower values than seronegatives, but neither difference was statistically significant after adjustment for confounding. Conclusions There was no difference in measured pulmonary function and diffusing capacity in generally healthy HTLV-I and HTLV-II subjects compared to seronegatives. These results suggest that previously described HTLV-associated abnormalities in bronchoalveolar cells and fluid may not affect pulmonary function.

  14. Hypersensitivity to certain food and food ingredients in the function of age and employment of customers on a cruise ship

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    Vuksanović Nikola D.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the last few decades there has been a tendency to use the word 'allergy' to describe all kinds of unexpected reactions to certain foods and food ingredients. The recent literature is plentiful and discusses food allergens and people who are hypersensitive to certain foods. The literature suggests the prevalence of food allergy to specific allergens to be changing with age. The aim of this empirical research was to examine the hypersensitivity to certain foods in relation to age and employment of the population consisting of customers on cruise ships. The study included 404 tourists on a cruise ship who voluntarily filled food sensitivity questionnaires and submitted them to the ship staff. These questionnaires were used to analyze the allergy trends and their connection to age and employment. The procedures of descriptive statistics and Chi-square test were used to process the obtained data. The results of the research suggested that there was a statistically significant relationship between the persons who were hypersensitive to certain foods relative to employment and age.

  15. Inhibition of central angiotensin II enhances memory function and reduces oxidative stress status in rat hippocampus.

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    Bild, Walther; Hritcu, Lucian; Stefanescu, Cristinel; Ciobica, Alin

    2013-06-03

    While it is now well established that the independent brain renin-angiotensin system (RAS) has some important central functions besides the vascular ones, the relevance of its main bioactive peptide angiotensin II (Ang II) on the memory processes, as well as on oxidative stress status is not completely understood. The purpose of the present work was to evaluate the effects of central Ang II administration, as well as the effects of Ang II inhibition with either AT1 and AT 2 receptor specific blockers (losartan and PD-123177, respectively) or an angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor (captopril). These effects were studied on the short-term memory (assessed through Y-maze) or long-term memory (as determined in passive avoidance) and on the oxidative stress status of the hippocampus. Our results demonstrate memory deficits induced by the administration of Ang II, as showed by the significant decrease of the spontaneous alternation in Y-maze (p=0.015) and latency-time in passive avoidance task (p=0.001) when compared to saline. On the other side, the administration of all the aforementioned Ang II blockers significantly improved the spontaneous alternation in Y-maze task, while losartan also increased the latency time as compared to saline in step-through passive avoidance (p=0.042). Also, increased oxidative stress status was induced in the hippocampus by the administration of Ang II, as demonstrated by increased levels of lipid peroxidation markers (malondialdehyde-MDA concentration) (p0.0001) vs. saline. Moreover, significant correlations were found between all of the memory related behavioral parameters and the main oxidative stress markers from the hippocampus, which is known for its implication in the processes of memory and also where RAS components are well expressed. This could be relevant for the complex interactions between Ang II, behavioral processes and neuronal oxidative stress, and could generate important therapeutic approaches. Copyright

  16. The biochemical and functional food properties of the bowman-birk inhibitor.

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    Losso, Jack N

    2008-01-01

    The Bowman-Birk inhibitor (BBI) is a small water-soluble protein present in soybean and almost all monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous seeds. The molecular size of BBI ranges from 1,513 Da to about 20,000 Da. BBI is to seeds what alpha(1)-antitrypsin is to humans. Soy-based food products rich in BBI include soybean grits, soymilk, oilcake, soybean isolate, and soybean protein concentrate. BBI is stable within the pH range encountered in most foods, can withstand boiling water temperature for 10 min, resistant to the pH range and proteolytic enzymes of the gastrointestinal tract, bioavailable, and not allergenic. BBI reduces the proteolytic activities of trypsin, chymotrypsin, elastase, cathepsin G, and chymase, serine protease-dependent matrix metalloproteinases, urokinase protein activator, mitogen activated protein kinase, and PI3 kinase, and upregulates connexin 43 (Cx43) expression. Several studies have demonstrated the efficacy of BBI against tumor cells in vitro, animal models, and human phase IIa clinical trials. FDA considers BBI as a drug. In 1999, FDA allowed a health claim on food labels stating that a daily diet containing 25 grams of soy protein, also low in saturated fat and cholesterol, may reduce the risk of heart disease [corrected] This review highlights the biochemical and functional food properties of the Bowman-Birk inhibitor.

  17. Functional Screening of Antibiotic Resistance Genes from a Representative Metagenomic Library of Food Fermenting Microbiota

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    Chiara Devirgiliis

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Lactic acid bacteria (LAB represent the predominant microbiota in fermented foods. Foodborne LAB have received increasing attention as potential reservoir of antibiotic resistance (AR determinants, which may be horizontally transferred to opportunistic pathogens. We have previously reported isolation of AR LAB from the raw ingredients of a fermented cheese, while AR genes could be detected in the final, marketed product only by PCR amplification, thus pointing at the need for more sensitive microbial isolation techniques. We turned therefore to construction of a metagenomic library containing microbial DNA extracted directly from the food matrix. To maximize yield and purity and to ensure that genomic complexity of the library was representative of the original bacterial population, we defined a suitable protocol for total DNA extraction from cheese which can also be applied to other lipid-rich foods. Functional library screening on different antibiotics allowed recovery of ampicillin and kanamycin resistant clones originating from Streptococcus salivarius subsp. thermophilus and Lactobacillus helveticus genomes. We report molecular characterization of the cloned inserts, which were fully sequenced and shown to confer AR phenotype to recipient bacteria. We also show that metagenomics can be applied to food microbiota to identify underrepresented species carrying specific genes of interest.

  18. Food patterns associated with blood lipids are predictive of coronary heart disease: the Whitehall II study.

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    McNaughton, Sarah A; Mishra, Gita D; Brunner, Eric J

    2009-08-01

    Analysis of the epidemiological effects of overall dietary patterns offers an alternative approach to the investigation of the role of diet in CHD. We analysed the role of blood lipid-related dietary patterns using a two-step method to confirm the prospective association of dietary pattern with incident CHD. Analysis is based on 7314 participants of the Whitehall II study. Dietary intake was measured using a 127-item FFQ. Reduced rank regression (RRR) was used to derive dietary pattern scores using baseline serum total and HDL-cholesterol, and TAG levels as dependent variables. Cox proportional hazard regression was used to confirm the association between dietary patterns and incident CHD (n 243) over 15 years of follow-up. Increased CHD risk (hazard ratio (HR) for top quartile: 2.01 (95% CI 1.41, 2.85) adjusted for age, sex, ethnicity and energy misreporting) was observed with a diet characterised by high consumption of white bread, fried potatoes, sugar in tea and coffee, burgers and sausages, soft drinks, and low consumption of French dressing and vegetables. The diet-CHD relationship was attenuated after adjustment for employment grade and health behaviours (HR for top quartile: 1.81; 95% CI 1.26, 2.62), and further adjustment for blood pressure and BMI (HR for top quartile: 1.57; 95% CI 1.08, 2.27). Dietary patterns are associated with serum lipids and predict CHD risk after adjustment for confounders. RRR identifies dietary patterns using prior knowledge and focuses on the pathways through which diet may influence disease. The present study adds to the evidence that diet is an important risk factor for CHD.

  19. Nuclear angiotensin II type 2 (AT2) receptors are functionally linked to nitric oxide production.

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    Gwathmey, Tanya M; Shaltout, Hossam A; Pendergrass, Karl D; Pirro, Nancy T; Figueroa, Jorge P; Rose, James C; Diz, Debra I; Chappell, Mark C

    2009-06-01

    Expression of nuclear angiotensin II type 1 (AT(1)) receptors in rat kidney provides further support for the concept of an intracellular renin-angiotensin system. Thus we examined the cellular distribution of renal ANG II receptors in sheep to determine the existence and functional roles of intracellular ANG receptors in higher order species. Receptor binding was performed using the nonselective ANG II antagonist (125)I-[Sar(1),Thr(8)]-ANG II ((125)I-sarthran) with the AT(1) antagonist losartan (LOS) or the AT(2) antagonist PD123319 (PD) in isolated nuclei (NUC) and plasma membrane (PM) fractions obtained by differential centrifugation or density gradient separation. In both fetal and adult sheep kidney, PD competed for the majority of cortical NUC (> or =70%) and PM (> or =80%) sites while LOS competition predominated in medullary NUC (> or =75%) and PM (> or =70%). Immunodetection with an AT(2) antibody revealed a single approximately 42-kDa band in both NUC and PM extracts, suggesting a mature molecular form of the NUC receptor. Autoradiography for receptor subtypes localized AT(2) in the tubulointerstitium, AT(1) in the medulla and vasa recta, and both AT(1) and AT(2) in glomeruli. Loading of NUC with the fluorescent nitric oxide (NO) detector DAF showed increased NO production with ANG II (1 nM), which was abolished by PD and N-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester, but not LOS. Our studies demonstrate ANG II receptor subtypes are differentially expressed in ovine kidney, while nuclear AT(2) receptors are functionally linked to NO production. These findings provide further evidence of a functional intracellular renin-angiotensin system within the kidney, which may represent a therapeutic target for the regulation of blood pressure.

  20. Application of Function Powder to Food Processing%粉体的功能与应用——食品

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    论述了小麦制粉、颗粒化食品、液体食品胶囊化、功能性食品的原理及意义,从而表明了粉体技术与食品的密切关系。粉体技术的发展为食品的多样化、功能化开辟了广阔前景。%In this paper,the principle and meaning of wheat processing,particulate food,capsulation liquid food,functional food,are presented.The intimate relationship between the powder technology and the food,is reviewed.The development of powder technology exploites a broad foreground to diversification food and function food.