WorldWideScience

Sample records for functional food components

  1. Physiological responses to taste signals of functional food components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narukawa, Masataka

    2018-02-01

    The functions of food have three categories: nutrition, palatability, and bioregulation. As the onset of lifestyle-related diseases has increased, many people have shown interest in functional foods that are beneficial to bioregulation. We believe that functional foods should be highly palatable for increased acceptance from consumers. In order to design functional foods with a high palatability, we have investigated about the palatability, especially in relation to the taste of food. In this review, we discuss (1) the identification of taste receptors that respond to functional food components; (2) an analysis of the peripheral taste transduction system; and (3) the investigation of the relationship between physiological functions and taste signals.

  2. Utilization of functional food components from pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dry beans, peas, and lentils (pulses) are a principle source of protein in many parts of the world and have long been known to be healthy foods. Their use in traditional ethnic foods is well established; however, unlike grains, meat, dairy products, and other vegetables, they are not universally pre...

  3. Functional components and medicinal properties of food: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abuajah, Christian Izuchukwu; Ogbonna, Augustine Chima; Osuji, Chijioke Maduka

    2015-05-01

    Research has proved a relationship between functional components of food, health and well-being. Thus, functional components of food can be effectively applied in the treatment and prevention of diseases. They act simultaneously at different or identical target sites with the potential to impart physiological benefits and promotion of wellbeing including reducing the risk of cancer, cardiovascular disease, osteoporosis, inflammation, type II diabetes, and other chronic degenerative diseases, lowering of blood cholesterol, neutralization of reactive oxygen species and charged radicals, anticarcinogenic effect, low-glycaemic response, etc. Previously, it was thought that functional ingredients such as non-starchy carbohydrates including soluble and insoluble dietary fibres, fucoidan; antioxidants including polyphenols, carotenoids, tocopherols, tocotrienols, phytosterols, isoflavones, organosulphur compounds; plant sterols and soy phytoestrogens occur only in plant foods (whole grains, fruits, and vegetables) as phytochemicals. However, probiotics, prebiotics, conjugated linolenic acid, long-chain omega-3, -6 and -9-polyunsaturated fatty acids, and bioactive peptides have proved that functional components are equally available in animal products such as milk, fermented milk products and cold-water fish. The way a food is processed affects its functional components. Many processing techniques have been found to lower the concentration of functional components in food. Conversely, other techniques were found to increase them. Hence, in a time when the role of a healthy diet in preventing non-communicable diseases is well accepted, the borderline between food and medicine is becoming very thin.

  4. Influence of functional food components on gut health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Murphy L Y; Ling, K H; El-Nezami, Hani; Wang, M F

    2018-01-30

    Intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) lining the gastrointestinal tract establish a barrier between external environments and the internal milieu. An intact intestinal barrier maintains gut health and overall good health of the body by preventing from tissue injury, pathogen infection and disease development. When the intestinal barrier function is compromised, bacterial translocation can occur. Our gut microbiota also plays a fundamentally important role in health, for example, by maintaining intestinal barrier integrity, metabolism and modulating the immune system, etc. Any disruption of gut microbiota composition (also termed dysbiosis) can lead to various pathological conditions. In short, intestinal barrier and gut microbiota are two crucial factors affecting gut health. The gastrointestinal tract is a complex environment exposed to many dietary components and commensal bacteria. Dietary components are increasingly recognized to play various beneficial roles beyond basic nutrition, resulting in the development of the functional food concepts. Various dietary modifiers, including the consumption of live bacteria (probiotics) and ingestible food constituents such as prebiotics, as well as polyphenols or synbiotics (combinations of probiotics and prebiotics) are the most well characterized dietary bioactive compounds and have been demonstrated to beneficially impact the gut health and the overall well-being of the host. In this review we depict the roles of intestinal epithelium and gut microbiota in mucosal defence responses and the influence of certain functional food components on the modulation of gut health, with a particular focus on probiotics, prebiotics and polyphenols.

  5. β-casein as a functional food component

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sulewska, Anna Maria

    Milk is a complex mixture of various components which include proteins, carbohydrates, lipids and minerals. Milk proteins can be divided into two classes: whey proteins (20%) and caseins (80% of total milk protein). As thermal treatment is a traditional method of food preservation, interactions...... with novel textures, is highly valuable to the dairy industry. Understanding interactions that undergo during food processing is necessary for proper design of process. For example control of aggregation is required to achieve desired texture of the final product....... which can improve stability and safety of food. Traditional methods of food preservation and sterilization require high temperature, which may result in undesirable changes such as change of color or texture. Development of novel food processing methods, which allow to create new milk-based products...

  6. Is Lactate an undervalued functional component of lactic acid bacteria-fermented food products?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graciela eGarrote

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Although it has been traditionally regarded as an intermediate of carbon metabolism and major component of fermented dairy products contributing to organoleptic and antimicrobial properties of food, there is evidence gathered in recent years that lactate has bioactive properties that may be responsible of broader properties of functional foods. Lactate can regulate critical functions of several key players of the immune system such as macrophages and dendritic cells, being able to modulate inflammatory activation of epithelial cells as well. Intraluminal levels of lactate derived from fermentative metabolism of lactobacilli have been shown to modulate inflammatory environment in intestinal mucosa. The molecular mechanisms responsible to these functions, including histone deacetylase dependent-modulation of gene expression and signalling through G-protein coupled receptors have started to be described. Since lactate is a major fermentation product of several bacterial families with probiotic properties, we here propose that it may contribute to some of the properties attributed to these microorganisms and in a larger view, to the properties of food products fermented by lactic acid bacteria.

  7. Encapsulation for preservation of functionality and targeted delivery of bioactive food components

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vos, Paul; Faas, Marijke M.; Spasojevic, Milica; Sikkema, Jan

    There has been a tremendous increase in the number of food products containing bioactive components with a health promoting or disease preventing effect. Bioactive food components can be divided into bioactive molecules and bioactive living cells (probiotics). Both bioactive molecules and bioactive

  8. Food Components and Supplements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parlesak, Alexandr

    2012-01-01

    The major part of food consists of chemical compounds that can be used for energy production, biological synthesis, or maintenance of metabolic processes by the host. These components are defined as nutrients, and can be categorized into macronutrients (proteins, carbohydrates, triglycerides......, and alcohol), minerals, and micronutrients. The latter category comprises 13 vitamins and a hand full of trace elements. Many micronutrients are used as food supplements and are ingested at doses exceeding the amounts that can be consumed along with food by a factor of 10–100. Both macro- and micronutrients...... can interact with enzyme systems related to xenobiotic metabolism either by regulation of their expression or direct interference with their enzymatic activity. During food consumption, we consume a wide range of xenobiotics along with the consumable food, either as an original part of the food (e...

  9. A Critical Review of Bioactive Food Components, and of their Functional Mechanisms, Biological Effects and Health Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Gregorio, Rosa; Simal-Gandara, Jesus

    2017-01-01

    Eating behaviours are closely related to some medical conditions potentially leading to death such as cancer, cardiovascular disease and diabetes. Healthy eating practices, maintaining a normal weight, and regular physical activity could prevent up to 80% of coronary heart disease, 90% of type-2 diabetes and onethird of all cancers [1]. Over the last two decades, the food industry has invested much effort in research and development of healthier, more nutritious foods. These foods are frequently designated "functional" when they contain nutritional components required for healthy living or "nutraceuticals" when intended to treat or prevent disease or disorders through a variety of bioactive (e.g., antioxidant, antimicrobial, immunomodulatory, hypocholesterolaemic) functions that are performed by functional enzymes, probiotics, prebiotics, fibres, phytosterols, peptides, proteins, isoflavones, saponins or phytic acid, among other substances. Some agricultural and industrial residues have proven to be excellent choices as raw materials for producing bioactive compounds and have been proposed as potentially safe natural sources of antimicrobials and/or antioxidants for the food industry. Functional food ingredients containing bioactive compounds could be used as plant extracts by pharmaceutical and food industries. Bioactive food components influence health outcomes. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  10. Food Components and Supplements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parlesak, Alexandr

    2012-01-01

    acting as carcinogens) to health-protective effects (e.g., flavonoids ameliorating detrimental effects of mitochondrial oxidative stress). In particular, secondary plant metabolites along with vitamins, specific types of macronutrients and live bacteria (probiotics) as well as substances promoting.......g., secondary plant metabolites such as flavonoids), or as contaminants that enter the food chain at different stages or during the food production process. For these components, a wide spectrum of biological effects was observed that ranges from health-threatening impacts (e.g., polycyclic aromatic amines....... The supplements and contaminants can compete directly with drug oxidation, induce or suppress the expression of xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes, change the bioavailability of drugs, and, in the case of live bacteria, bring in their own xenobiotic metabolism, including cytochrome P450 (CYP) activity. In numerous...

  11. Cereal bran fractionation: processing techniques for the recovery of functional components and their applications to the food industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soukoulis, Christos; Aprea, Eugenio

    2012-04-01

    Bran is the outer part of cereal grains that is separated during the cereals de-hulling and milling processes. It was considered in the past a by-product of cereal industry employed mainly as animal feed. Cereal bran, being particularly rich in different functional biopolymers, bio-active compounds and essential fatty acids, attracted the interest of pharmaceutical and food industry. Furthermore, the peculiar techno-functional properties of brans together with their particular physiological and nutritional aspects have led to a great interest in their incorporation as main or secondary components in different groups of food products including bakery and confectionery products, breakfast cereals and extruded foodstuffs, emulsions and functional dairy products and pasta products. In the first part of the present work the main fractionation processes, bran fractions properties and their physicochemical and technological properties are briefly reviewed. In the second part, relevant applications, with emphasis on patents, in food industry are reviewed as well.

  12. Implications of domestic food practices for the presence of bioactive components in meats with special reference to meat-based functional foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Colmenero, Francisco; Cofrades, Susana; Herrero, Ana M; Ruiz-Capillas, Claudia

    2017-06-14

    Although an essential component of the diet, the consumption of meat is in question. Meat is a major source of beneficial compounds but it also contains other substances with negative health implications. Functional foods, which are leading trends in the food industry, constitute an excellent opportunity for the meat sector to improve healthier meat options. Most studies on meat-based functional foods have focused mainly on the application of different strategies (animal production practices and meat transformation systems) to improve (increase/reduce) the presence of bioactive (healthy/unhealthy) compounds; these have led to the development of numerous products, many of them by the meat industry. However, like other foods, after purchase meats undergo certain processes before they are consumed, and these affect their composition. Although domestic handling practices can significantly alter the make-up of the marketed product in terms of healthy/unhealthy compounds, there are very few studies on their consequences. This paper provides an overview of the influence of different domestic practices (from shopping to eating) habitually followed by consumers on the presence of, and consequently on the levels of exposure to, (healthy and unhealthy) food components associated with the consumption of meats, with special reference to meat-based functional foods.

  13. Food components with anticaries activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazzani, Gabriella; Daglia, Maria; Papetti, Adele

    2012-04-01

    Caries is the most common oral infectious disease in the world. Its development is influenced also by diet components that interfere with pathogen mutans group Streptococci (MGS) activity. A very active research to identify functional foods and their components that are generally recognised as safe has been ongoing, with the aim of developing alternative approaches, to the use of synthetic chlorhexidine, and at the reduction or prevention of caries. Until now convincing evidence exists only for green tea as a functional food for oral health, partly owing to its high content of catechins, especially epigallocatechin-gallate. A number of other foods showed potential anticaries activity. Some other foods able to act against MGS growth and/or their virulence factors in in vitro tests are: apple, red grape seeds, red wine (proanthocyanidins), nutmeg (macelignan), ajowan caraway (nafthalen-derivative), coffee (trigonelline, nicotinic and chlorogenic acids, melanoidins), barley coffee (melanoidins), chicory and mushroom (quinic acid). In vivo anticaries activity has been shown by cranberry (procyanidins), glycyrrhiza root (glycyrrhizol-A), myrtus ethanolic extract, garlic aqueous extract, cocoa extracts (procyanidins), and propolis (apigenin, tt-farnesol). Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Active components in food supplements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siemelink M; Jansen EHJM; Piersma AH; Opperhuizen A; LEO

    2000-01-01

    The growing food supplement market, where supplements are both more diverse and more easily available (e.g. through Internet) formed the backdrop to the inventory of the active components in food supplements. The safety of an increased intake of food components via supplements was also at issue

  15. Remembering components of food in Drosophila

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaurav eDas

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Remembering features of past feeding experience can refine foraging and food choice. Insects can learn to associate sensory cues with components of food, such as sugars, amino acids, water, salt, alcohol, toxins and pathogens. In the fruit fly Drosophila some food components activate unique subsets of dopaminergic neurons that innervate distinct functional zones on the mushroom bodies. This architecture suggests that the overall dopaminergic neuron population could provide a potential cellular substrate through which the fly might learn to value a variety of food components. In addition, such an arrangement predicts that individual component memories reside in unique locations. Dopaminergic neurons are also critical for food memory consolidation and deprivation-state dependent motivational control of the expression of food-relevant memories. Here we review our current knowledge of how nutrient-specific memories are formed, consolidated and specifically retrieved in insects, with a particular emphasis on Drosophila.

  16. Microencapsulation and functional bioactive foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Food, the essential unit of human nutrition has been both wholesome and safe through human history ensuring the continuity of the human race. Functionalized foods are the rediscovery of the need to provide all nutrients through foods without adulteration. The functional components of foods include...

  17. Metal binding by food components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tang, Ning

    for zinc binding by the investigated amino acids, peptides and proteins. The thiol group or imidazole group containing amino acids, peptides and proteins which exhibited strong zinc binding ability were further selected for interacting with zinc salts in relation to zinc absorption. The interactions...... between the above selected food components and zinc citrate or zinc phytate will lead to the enhanced solubility of zinc citrate or zinc phytate. The main driving force for this observed solubility enhancement is the complex formation between zinc and investigated food components as revealed by isothermal...... titration calorimetry and quantum mechanical calculations. This is due to the zinc binding affinity of the relatively softer ligands (investigated food components) will become much stronger than citrate or phytate when they present together in aqueous solution. This mechanism indicates these food components...

  18. Development of functional foods for radiation workers - Search for the active components and studies on the mechanism of the hematopoiesis improvement foods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yee, Sung Tae; Ha, Mee Hye; Jeong, Young Ran [Sunchon National University, Sunchon (Korea)

    2000-04-01

    In this experiments, we established long-termed culture methods of bone marrow stromal cells for proliferation and differentiation of stem cells. And we selected some extracts which support maximal proliferation of stromal cells with this method. We conformed the synergic effects of herbal mixture extracts for stromal cell growth. The proliferation of stromal cells was increased rather by the addition of mixture extracts than by addition of single strain extract. In the previous and cooperative experiments, we selected complex extracts (Him-I, Him-II) which increased the number of nonadherent mononuclear cells. Different cytokine expression patterns were observed stromal cells cultured in the presence or absence of mixture extracts which support differentiation of nonadherent cells. Some fractions of Him-I and Him-II increased the proliferation of bone marrow cells irradiated {gamma}-ray(4Gray). Stimulation of macrophage cell line with herval extracts with the treatments of recombinant interferon-{gamma} resulted in increased nitric oxide synthesis in a dose-dependent manners. Altered patterns of cytokine mRNA expression were observed in the stromals cells cultured with extracts of herbal plant. In regarding of the results, isolation and development of new and effective systems to screen for active hematopoietic component needs to be proceeded. Such studies on the hematopoietic modulation and mechanism of herbal plants would further lead to new avenues for the development of functional foods which effect such as radiation damages or leukemia. 20 refs., 23 figs. (Author)

  19. Functional Foods for Women's Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindeman, Alice K.

    2002-01-01

    Describes functional foods for women's health (foods or food ingredients that provide health benefits beyond basic nutrition), explaining that both whole and modified foods can be included as functional foods. The paper discusses the history, regulation, and promotion of functional foods; consumer interest in functional foods; how to incorporate…

  20. In vitro evaluation of whole faba bean and its seed coat as a potential source of functional food components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çalışkantürk Karataş, Selen; Günay, Demet; Sayar, Sedat

    2017-09-01

    In vitro studies were conducted to evaluate the particular nutritional benefits of whole faba bean seed (WFB) and fava bean seed coat (FBSC). Total dietary fiber contents of WFB and FBSC were 27.5% and 82.3%, respectively. FBSC were contained much higher total phenolic substances, condensed tannins, and total antioxidant activity than WFB. Bile acid (BA)-binding capacities of in vitro digested samples and nutritionally important products produced by in vitro fermentation of digestion residues were also studied. The BA-binding capacities of WFB and FBSC were 1.94 and 37.50μmol/100mg, respectively. Total BA bound by FBSC was even higher than the positive standard cholestyramine. Lignin and other constituents of the Klason residue were found to influence BA-binding properties. Moreover, the extent of the in vitro fermentation process showed that, fermentability of FBSC residue was significantly lower than that of WFB residue. Overall, faba bean, especially its seed coat, has great potential as a functional food. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Functional food acceptance in the food chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krutulyte, Rasa

    This thesis analyses consumer acceptance of functional foods and food manufacturers' decision to develop functional foods. The thesis sets up four key research questions: (1) How consumers accept functional foods enriched with omega-3? (2) How the intention of purchasing carrier ingredient...... another central issue of the paper. Results revealed that the general attitudes towards functional foods are related to the purchase intention with regard to functional foods described by their carrier/ingredient combinations. Consumers' attitudes towards specific carrier ingredient combinations define...... influence food manufacturers' decision making with regards to production of functional foods. Internal factors such as organisational characteristics, innovation characteristics, and external factors such as functional food ingredient suppliers' marketing efforts, collaboration between suppliers and food...

  2. Functional foods in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech-Larsen, Tino; Scholderer, Joachim

    2007-01-01

    reading of the main principles of the harmonized regulation COM/2003/0424, this situation is about to change. This article reviews the regulatory aspects, the results of consumer research and the marketing strategies regarding the use of health claims for functional foods in Europe, and it comments......The fact that the European markets for functional foods generally are less developed, compared to the US and the Japanese markets, has often been attributed to a restrictive and inconsistent health claim legislation in and between the European countries. With the European Parliament's second...... on the lack of correspondence between the new regulation and the marketing experiences and research as regard consumer reactions to health claims....

  3. [Germinated or fermented legumes: food or ingredients of functional food].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davila, Marbelly A; Sangronis, Elba; Granito, Marisela

    2003-12-01

    Epidemiological research has shown a positive association between certain diseases and dietary intake of food components found in fruits, grains, legumes, fish oil among others. Food that may provide a health benefit beyond the traditional nutrients that it contains, are named functional food. In addition to the varied nutrients, legumes contain compounds such as polyphenols, soluble fiber, alpha-galactosides and isoflavones which confer propierties of functional foods. Do to the cuse of flatus production in some people, long cooking periods, or anti-nutritional factors, legume consumption levels are limited. In this review, germination and fermentation processes will be presented as alternatives that are able to reduce or inactivate anti-nutritional factors, preserve and even improve the content of the isoflavones, or better the potencial of the legumes as functional food or as ingredients for the formulation of functional foods.

  4. Functional Generalized Structured Component Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suk, Hye Won; Hwang, Heungsun

    2016-12-01

    An extension of Generalized Structured Component Analysis (GSCA), called Functional GSCA, is proposed to analyze functional data that are considered to arise from an underlying smooth curve varying over time or other continua. GSCA has been geared for the analysis of multivariate data. Accordingly, it cannot deal with functional data that often involve different measurement occasions across participants and a large number of measurement occasions that exceed the number of participants. Functional GSCA addresses these issues by integrating GSCA with spline basis function expansions that represent infinite-dimensional curves onto a finite-dimensional space. For parameter estimation, functional GSCA minimizes a penalized least squares criterion by using an alternating penalized least squares estimation algorithm. The usefulness of functional GSCA is illustrated with gait data.

  5. Different components of conditioned food aversion memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikitin, Vladimir P; Solntseva, Svetlana V; Kozyrev, Sergey A; Nikitin, Pavel V; Shevelkin, Alexey V

    2016-07-01

    Memory reconsolidation processes and protein kinase Mzeta (PKMzeta) activity in memory maintenance and reorganization are poorly understood. Therefore, we examined memory reconsolidation and PKMzeta activity during the maintenance and reorganization of a conditioned food aversion memory among snails. These processes were specifically evaluated after administration of a serotonin receptor antagonist (methiothepin), NMDA glutamate receptor antagonist (MK-801), protein synthesis inhibitor (cycloheximide; CYH), or PKMzeta inhibitor (zeta inhibitory peptide; ZIP) either 2 or 10 days after aversion training. Two days post-training, injections of MK-801 or CYH, combined with a conditioned stimulus reminder, caused amnesia development, and a second training 11 days after this induction did not lead to long-term memory formation. Interestingly, MK-801 or CYH injections and the reminder 10 days after training did not affect memory retrieval. Methiothepin and the reminder, or ZIP without the reminder, at 2 and 10 days after training led to memory impairment, while a second training 11 days after amnesia induction resulted in memory formation. These results suggest that the maintenance of a conditioned food aversion involves two different components with variable dynamics. One component could be characterized by memory strengthening over time and involve N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors and protein synthesis reconsolidation at early, but not late, training stages. The other memory component could involve serotonin-dependent reconsolidation and Mzeta-like kinase activity at both early and late stages after learning. Deficiencies within these two components led to various forms of memory impairment, which differed in terms of the formation of a conditioned food aversion during the second training. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. The perceived healthiness of functional foods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech-Larsen, Tino; Grunert, Klaus G.

    2003-01-01

    Functional foods presumably enable the consumer to lead a healthier life without changing eating habits. Whether consumers accept this proposition or not is potentially influenced by their perceptions of the healthiness of the processing methods, enrichment components, food-types, and health claims...... used in the production and marketing of functional foods. Because consumers may perceive functional enrichment as interfering with nature, cultural values pertaining to man's manipulation of nature may also influence consumer acceptance of functional foods. The purpose of the study described here...... is to clarify to which extent Danish, Finnish and American consumers' perceptions of the healthiness of functional foods are explained by the factors mentioned above. The general results indicate that values pertaining to man's manipulation of nature is only modestly related to the acceptance of functional...

  7. Dansk skepsis mod "functional foods"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech-Larsen, Tino

    2000-01-01

    MAPP Centret har undersøgt danske, finske og amerikanske forbrugeres holdninger til functional foods og til genmodificerede fødevarer. Undersøgelsen er baseret på personlige interviews med 1500 danske, finske og nordamerikanske forbrugere. På trods af den store udbredelse af functional foods i USA......, viste undersøgelsen, at finnerne faktisk var mere positive over for functional foods end amerikanerne. De danske forbrugere var klart de mest skeptiske....

  8. Interpretable functional principal component analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Zhenhua; Wang, Liangliang; Cao, Jiguo

    2016-09-01

    Functional principal component analysis (FPCA) is a popular approach to explore major sources of variation in a sample of random curves. These major sources of variation are represented by functional principal components (FPCs). The intervals where the values of FPCs are significant are interpreted as where sample curves have major variations. However, these intervals are often hard for naïve users to identify, because of the vague definition of "significant values". In this article, we develop a novel penalty-based method to derive FPCs that are only nonzero precisely in the intervals where the values of FPCs are significant, whence the derived FPCs possess better interpretability than the FPCs derived from existing methods. To compute the proposed FPCs, we devise an efficient algorithm based on projection deflation techniques. We show that the proposed interpretable FPCs are strongly consistent and asymptotically normal under mild conditions. Simulation studies confirm that with a competitive performance in explaining variations of sample curves, the proposed FPCs are more interpretable than the traditional counterparts. This advantage is demonstrated by analyzing two real datasets, namely, electroencephalography data and Canadian weather data. © 2015, The International Biometric Society.

  9. Impressions of functional food consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saher, Marieke; Arvola, Anne; Lindeman, Marjaana; Lähteenmäki, Liisa

    2004-02-01

    Functional foods provide a new way of expressing healthiness in food choices. The objective of this study was to apply an indirect measure to explore what kind of impressions people form of users of functional foods. Respondents (n=350) received one of eight versions of a shopping list and rated the buyer of the foods on 66 bipolar attributes on 7-point scales. The shopping lists had either healthy or neutral background items, conventional or functional target items and the buyer was described either as a 40-year-old woman or man. The attribute ratings revealed three factors: disciplined, innovative and gentle. Buyers with healthy background items were perceived as more disciplined than those having neutral items on the list, users of functional foods were rated as more disciplined than users of conventional target items only when the background list consisted of neutral items. Buyers of functional foods were regarded as more innovative and less gentle, but gender affected the ratings on gentle dimension. The impressions of functional food users clearly differ from those formed of users of conventional foods with a healthy image. The shopping list method performed well as an indirect method, but further studies are required to test its feasibility in measuring other food-related impressions.

  10. Functional microorganisms for functional food quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobbetti, M; Cagno, R Di; De Angelis, M

    2010-09-01

    Functional microorganisms and health benefits represent a binomial with great potential for fermented functional foods. The health benefits of fermented functional foods are expressed either directly through the interactions of ingested live microorganisms with the host (probiotic effect) or indirectly as the result of the ingestion of microbial metabolites synthesized during fermentation (biogenic effect). Since the importance of high viability for probiotic effect, two major options are currently pursued for improving it--to enhance bacterial stress response and to use alternative products for incorporating probiotics (e.g., ice cream, cheeses, cereals, fruit juices, vegetables, and soy beans). Further, it seems that quorum sensing signal molecules released by probiotics may interact with human epithelial cells from intestine thus modulating several physiological functions. Under optimal processing conditions, functional microorganisms contribute to food functionality through their enzyme portfolio and the release of metabolites. Overproduction of free amino acids and vitamins are two classical examples. Besides, bioactive compounds (e.g., peptides, γ-amino butyric acid, and conjugated linoleic acid) may be released during food processing above the physiological threshold and they may exert various in vivo health benefits. Functional microorganisms are even more used in novel strategies for decreasing phenomenon of food intolerance (e.g., gluten intolerance) and allergy. By a critical approach, this review will aim at showing the potential of functional microorganisms for the quality of functional foods.

  11. Position of the American Dietetic Association: functional foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasler, Clare M; Brown, Amy C

    2009-04-01

    All foods are functional at some physiological level, but it is the position of the American Dietetic Association (ADA) that functional foods that include whole foods and fortified, enriched, or enhanced foods have a potentially beneficial effect on health when consumed as part of a varied diet on a regular basis, at effective levels. ADA supports research to further define the health benefits and risks of individual functional foods and their physiologically active components. Health claims on food products, including functional foods, should be based on the significant scientific agreement standard of evidence and ADA supports label claims based on such strong scientific substantiation. Food and nutrition professionals will continue to work with the food industry, allied health professionals, the government, the scientific community, and the media to ensure that the public has accurate information regarding functional foods and thus should continue to educate themselves on this emerging area of food and nutrition science. Knowledge of the role of physiologically active food components, from plant, animal, and microbial food sources, has changed the role of diet in health. Functional foods have evolved as food and nutrition science has advanced beyond the treatment of deficiency syndromes to reduction of disease risk and health promotion. This position paper reviews the definition of functional foods, their regulation, and the scientific evidence supporting this evolving area of food and nutrition. Foods can no longer be evaluated only in terms of macronutrient and micronutrient content alone. Analyzing the content of other physiologically active components and evaluating their role in health promotion will be necessary. The availability of health-promoting functional foods in the US diet has the potential to help ensure a healthier population. However, each functional food should be evaluated on the basis of scientific evidence to ensure appropriate integration

  12. Powder Metallurgy Reconditioning of Food and Processing Equipment Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nafikov, M. Z.; Aipov, R. S.; Konnov, A. Yu.

    2017-12-01

    A powder metallurgy method is developed to recondition the worn surfaces of food and processing equipment components. A combined additive is composed to minimize the powder losses in sintering. A technique is constructed to determine the powder consumption as a function of the required metallic coating thickness. A rapid method is developed to determine the porosity of the coating. The proposed technology is used to fabricate a wear-resistant defectless metallic coating with favorable residual stresses, and the adhesive strength of this coating is equal to the strength of the base metal.

  13. Consumer acceptance of functional foods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frewer, Lynn J.; Scholderer, Joachim; Lambert, Nigel

    2003-01-01

    In the past, it has been assumed that consumers would accept novel foods if there is a concrete and tangible consumer benefit associated with them, which implies that those functional foods would quickly be accepted. However, there is evidence that individuals are likely to differ in the extent...... to which they are likely to buy products with particular functional properties. Various cross-cultural and demographic differences in acceptance found in the literature are reviewed, as well as barriers to dietary change. In conclusion, it is argued that understanding consumer's risk perceptions...

  14. Undesired Plant-Derived Components in Food

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dusemund, Birgit; Rietjens, Ivonne M.C.M.; Abraham, Klaus; Cartus, Alexander; Schrenk, Dieter

    2017-01-01

    Among the various chemical compounds, the class of natural plant-derived substances in the modern food chain is generating increasing concern. Adverse effects encountered may be various and pose risks of acute, subchronic, or chronic toxicity. The underlying mechanisms of toxicity may be

  15. Modified planar functions and their components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anbar Meidl, Nurdagül; Meidl, Wilfried Meidl

    2017-01-01

    functions in odd characteristic as a vectorial bent function. We finally point out that though these components behave somewhat different than the multivariate bent4 functions, they are bent or semibent functions shifted by a certain quadratic term, a property which they share with their multivariate......Zhou ([20]) introduced modified planar functions in order to describe (2n; 2n; 2n; 1) relative difference sets R as a graph of a function on the finite field F2n, and pointed out that projections of R are difference sets that can be described by negabent or bent4 functions, which are Boolean...... functions given in multivariate form. One of the objectives of this paper is to contribute to the understanding of these component functions of modified planar functions. Moreover, we obtain a description of modified planar functions by their components which is similar to that of the classical planar...

  16. Food and functional dyspepsia: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncanson, K R; Talley, N J; Walker, M M; Burrows, T L

    2018-06-01

    Functional dyspepsia (FD) is a debilitating functional gastrointestinal disorder characterised by early satiety, post-prandial fullness or epigastric pain related to meals, which affects up to 20% of western populations. A high dietary fat intake has been linked to FD and duodenal eosinophilia has been noted in FD. We hypothesised that an allergen such as wheat is a risk factor for FD and that withdrawal will improve symptoms of FD. We aimed to investigate the relationship between food and functional dyspepsia. Sixteen out of 6451 studies identified in a database search of six databases met the inclusion criteria of studies examining the effect of nutrients, foods and food components in adults with FD or FD symptoms. Wheat-containing foods were implicated in FD symptom induction in six studies, four of which were not specifically investigating gluten and two that were gluten-specific, with the implementation of a gluten-free diet demonstrating a reduction in symptoms. Dietary fat was associated with FD in all three studies that specifically measured this association. Specific foods reported as inducing symptoms were high in either natural food chemicals, high in fermentable carbohydrates or high in wheat/gluten. Caffeine was associated with FD in four studies, although any association with alcohol was uncertain. Wheat and dietary fats may play key roles in the generation of FD symptoms and reduction or withdrawal eased symptoms. Randomised trials investigating the roles of gluten, FODMAPs (fermentable oligosaccharide, disaccharide, monosaccharide and polyols) and high fat ingestion and naturally occurring food chemicals in the generation of functional dyspepsia symptoms are warranted and further investigation of the mechanisms is now required. © 2017 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  17. Promises and problems of functional foods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Katan, MB; De Roos, NM

    2004-01-01

    "Functional" foods are branded foods, which claim, explicitly or implicitly, to improve health or well being. We review typical functional foods and their ingredients, efficacy, and safety. We also review regulations for health claims for foods worldwide. These regulations often allow manufacturers

  18. Promises and problems of functional foods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Katan, M.B.; Roos, de N.M.

    2004-01-01

    Functional foods are branded foods, which claim, explicitly or implicitly, to improve health or well being. We review typical functional foods and their ingredients, efficacy, and safety. We also review regulations for health claims for foods worldwide. These regulations often allow manufacturers to

  19. Recent research and development of functional food in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun Hwang, Lucy

    2007-08-01

    As the living standard rises, people are more concerned with the health benefits of foods. Functional foods are, therefore, receiving increasing attention worldwide. The functional food market in Taiwan reached 1.78 billion US dollars in 2005. Only those which have been certified by the Department of Health can claim their health benefits. Until January 2007, only 88 functional foods have received the certificates. In addition to the product development in the food industry, research institutes and universities are also actively engaged in the technology development and basic research of functional foods. Many raw materials harvested in Taiwan, including edible plants, herbs, medicinal mushrooms, and sea foods, are investigated for their health benefits, bioactive components and suitable processing technologies.

  20. Cereal based functional food of Indian subcontinent: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Arpita; Raychaudhuri, Utpal; Chakraborty, Runu

    2012-12-01

    Due to constant health awareness and readily available information on usefulness of different diet and their direct link with health, the demand of functional food is increasing day by day. The concept of functional foods includes foods or food ingredients that exert a beneficial effect on host health and/or reduce the risk of chronic disease beyond basic nutritional functions. Increasing awareness of consumer health and interest in functional foods to achieve a healthy lifestyle has resulted in the need for food products with versatile health-benefiting properties. Cereal- and cereal component-based food products offer opportunities to include probiotics, prebiotics, and fibers in the human diet. Various growth studies using probiotic Lactic acid bacteria on cereal-based substrates and utilization of whole grain or components as high-fiber foods in developing novel food products lend support to the idea that cereal-based media may well be good probiotic carriers. It is essential that science and traditional knowledge should go together to find mutually beneficial results. In the Indian subcontinent, making use of fermented food and beverages using local food crops and other biological resources are very common. But the nature of the products and the base material vary from region to region.

  1. Multilevel sparse functional principal component analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di, Chongzhi; Crainiceanu, Ciprian M; Jank, Wolfgang S

    2014-01-29

    We consider analysis of sparsely sampled multilevel functional data, where the basic observational unit is a function and data have a natural hierarchy of basic units. An example is when functions are recorded at multiple visits for each subject. Multilevel functional principal component analysis (MFPCA; Di et al. 2009) was proposed for such data when functions are densely recorded. Here we consider the case when functions are sparsely sampled and may contain only a few observations per function. We exploit the multilevel structure of covariance operators and achieve data reduction by principal component decompositions at both between and within subject levels. We address inherent methodological differences in the sparse sampling context to: 1) estimate the covariance operators; 2) estimate the functional principal component scores; 3) predict the underlying curves. Through simulations the proposed method is able to discover dominating modes of variations and reconstruct underlying curves well even in sparse settings. Our approach is illustrated by two applications, the Sleep Heart Health Study and eBay auctions.

  2. Functional foods, nutriceuticals and health | Gernah | Nigerian Food ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal Home > Vol 28, No 2 (2010) >. Log in or Register to get access ... This work reviewed the types, uses and effects of functional foods and nutriceuticals on human health (advantages and disadvantages). The different types of functional ...

  3. Functional foods : verbindende schakel tussen food en farma?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stijnen, D.; Dagevos, H.

    2001-01-01

    Argumenten voor het met vereende krachten betreden van de markt voor functional foods. De resultaten van een gezamenlijke studie door ATO en het LEI zijn vastgelegd in het rapport: "De wereld van functional foods: op het raakvlak van twee ketens". In twee artikelen wordt dit rapport behandeld

  4. Recent advances in component resolved diagnosis in food allergy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magnus P. Borres

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Due to the high prevalence of food allergic diseases globally there are increasing demands in clinical practice for managing IgE-mediated conditions. During the last decade, component resolved diagnostics has been introduced into the field of clinical allergology, providing information that cannot be obtained from extract-based tests. Component resolved data facilitate more precise diagnosis of allergic diseases and identify sensitizations attributable to cross-reactivity. Furthermore it assists risk assessment in clinical practice as sensitization to some allergenic molecules is related to persistence of clinical symptoms and systemic rather than local reactions. The information may also aid the clinician in prescription of oral immunotherapy (OIT in patients with severe symptoms, and in giving advice on food allergen avoidance or on the need to perform food challenges. The use of allergen components is rapidly evolving and increases our possibility to treat food allergic patients with a more individual approach. Using molecular allergology, we can already now better diagnose, prognose and grade the food allergy. In summary, daily routine molecular allergy diagnostics offers a number of benefits that give us a higher diagnostic precision and allow for better management of the patient.

  5. Functional Foods in fad diets: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Abigail Navaro

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fad diets can be defined as any diet making claims that are unrealistic and not supported by evidence-based data. Having been developed since the early 19th century, fad diets promise drastic weight loss and/or other unsubstantiated health claims, often omitting entire food groups. Their popularity with the public makes them an important topic for nutritionists and clinicians, especially in the framework of the obesity epidemic. Additionally, it is conceivable that components of fad diets can indeed facilitate weight loss, even if the diet overall is without merit. The grapefruit diet, the cabbage soup diet, and the human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG diet are among the most popular fad diets and are reviewed within this study not only in terms of the diet plan itself, but also in terms of possible and known weight loss and health benefits provided by the foods on which the diets are based. Bioflavonoids in grapefruit, including naringin, hesperidin, and bergamottin, may benefit glucose homeostasis. Cabbage contains lutein, zeaxanthin, kaempferol, quercetin, and apigenin, which have anti-inflammatory properties and improve both glucose homeostasis and fat metabolism. The hCG diet is frequently supplemented with non-hCG preparations, which often contains African mango, which has been shown to enhance weight loss by an unspecified mechanism; astragalus root, which has antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma receptor agonistic properties; arginine, which stimulates lipolysis; glutamine, which has been shown to enhance weight loss, perhaps by altering the gut microbiome; carnitine, which appears to facilitate weight loss; B12, which improves insulin resistance; and niacin, which improves the dyslipidemia associated with overweight/obesity. Presently, high quality clinical trials suggest that fad diets reduce weight in the short term due to drastic caloric restriction rather than functional food

  6. Modulation of Metabolic Detoxification Pathways Using Foods and Food-Derived Components: A Scientific Review with Clinical Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romilly E. Hodges

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Research into human biotransformation and elimination systems continues to evolve. Various clinical and in vivo studies have been undertaken to evaluate the effects of foods and food-derived components on the activity of detoxification pathways, including phase I cytochrome P450 enzymes, phase II conjugation enzymes, Nrf2 signaling, and metallothionein. This review summarizes the research in this area to date, highlighting the potential for foods and nutrients to support and/or modulate detoxification functions. Clinical applications to alter detoxification pathway activity and improve patient outcomes are considered, drawing on the growing understanding of the relationship between detoxification functions and different disease states, genetic polymorphisms, and drug-nutrient interactions. Some caution is recommended, however, due to the limitations of current research as well as indications that many nutrients exert biphasic, dose-dependent effects and that genetic polymorphisms may alter outcomes. A whole-foods approach may, therefore, be prudent.

  7. Anaphylaxis to hyperallergenic functional foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ameratunga Rohan

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Food allergy can cause life threatening reactions. Currently, patients with severe food allergy are advised to avoid foods which provoke allergic reactions. This has become increasingly difficult as food proteins are being added to a broader range of consumer products. Patients and methods Here we describe our investigations into the allergenicity of a new drink when two cow's milk allergic children suffered anaphylaxis after consuming Wh2ole®. Results Our studies have shown that in comparison with cow's milk, Wh2ole® contains at least three times the concentration of β-lactoglobulin. β-lactoglobulin is one of the dominant allergens in bovine milk. Conclusions These studies have shown that modern technology allows the creation of "hyperallergenic" foods. These products have the potential to cause severe reactions in milk allergic persons. Avoiding inadvertent exposure is the shared responsibility of allergic consumers, regulatory authorities and the food industry.

  8. A novel procedure for the assessment of the antioxidant capacity of food components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimura, Toshihiro; Harashima, Mai; Kurogi, Katsuhisa; Suiko, Masahito; Liu, Ming-Cheh; Sakakibara, Yoichi

    2016-08-15

    Carbonylation, an oxidative modification of the amino group of arginine and lysine residues caused by reactive oxygen species, has emerged as a new type of oxidative damage. Protein carbonylation has been shown to exert adverse effects on various protein functions. Recently, the role of food components in the attenuation of oxidative stress has been the focus of many studies. Most of these studies focused on the chemical properties of food components. However, it is also important to determine their effects on protein functions via post-translational modifications. In this study, we developed a novel procedure for evaluating the antioxidant capacity of food components. Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced protein carbonylation in HL-60 cells was quantitatively analyzed by using fluorescent dyes (Cy5-hydrazide dye and IC3-OSu dye), followed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and fluorescence determination. Among a panel of food components tested, quinic acid, kaempferol, saponin, squalene, trigonelline, and mangiferin were shown to be capable of suppressing protein carbonylation in HL-60 cells. Our results demonstrated that this fluorescence labeling/SDS-PAGE procedure allows for the detection of oxidative stress-induced protein carbonylation with high sensitivity and quantitative accuracy. This method should be useful for the screening of new antioxidant food components as well as the analysis of their suppression mechanism. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Effectiveness of Bioactive Food Components in Experimental Colon Carcinogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emília Hijová

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was the evaluation of possible protective effects of selected bioactive food components in experimental N,N-dimethylhydrazine (DMH-induced colon carcinogenesis. Wistar albino rats (n = 92 were fed a high fat diet or conventional laboratory diet. Two weeks after the beginning of the trial, DMH injections were given to six groups of rats at the dose of 20 mg/kg b.w. twice weekly. The activity of bacterial enzymes in faeces and serum bile acid concentrations were determined. High fat diet, DMH injections, and their combination significantly increased the activies of β-galactosidase, β-glucuronidase, and α-glucosidase (p p < 0.001, as well as the bile acid concentration compared to the group at the highest risk. The protective effects of selected bioactive food components in experimentally induced colon carcinogenesis allow for their possible use in cancer prevention or treatment.

  10. Commercialization opportunities of oleogels for functional foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oleogels (or organogels) have been recognized as very promising candidates as trans fat and saturated fat replacements. Not only can the oleogel technology remove harmful fats in foods, but it also can produce a variety of functional foods when functional ingredients such as omega-3 oil, phytosterol...

  11. Functional foods as a way of strengthening food security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. G. Stukalo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The solution of the problem of food security in the region plays an important role in providing the population with the necessary food. The article describes ways to achieve food security. Different opinions are presented on the causes of the problem of food security, in particular the spread of genetically modified organisms, as well as low incomes of the population, the volatility of food prices and insignificant reproduction opportunities. The analysis of production and consumption of various food products in the Russian Federation (RF in recent years has been carried out. Dynamics of consumption of the main types of food in the Voronezh region is also presented. An analysis has been made of the production and consumption of various food products in the Russian Federation (RF in recent years. Dynamics of consumption of the main types of food in the Voronezh region is also presented. A solution to the problem of food security with flour culinary products using non-traditional plant raw materials, also used as functional food products, was proposed. Examples are given of improving the quality of food products and increasing the content of dietary fiber and other useful nutrients, thanks to the use of secondary raw materials, bugs and processed products of plant origin. The food security of the region has only conditional territorial localization, since the economic relations that arise between the subjects of the food sector cover all subjects of the regional economy without exception. A special role in these relations in the conditions that have developed up to now is played by organizations related to the sphere of food production, as well as organizations that supply them with the most scarce and significant resources, i.e. organization of education, research and development. That is why, we believe that the main emphasis in the study of food security should be made on the specifics of the functioning of industrial organizations occupying a

  12. A Natural Component-Based Oxygen Indicator with In-Pack Activation for Intelligent Food Packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Won, Keehoon; Jang, Nan Young; Jeon, Junsu

    2016-12-28

    Intelligent food packaging can provide consumers with reliable and correct information on the quality and safety of packaged foods. One of the key constituents in intelligent packaging is a colorimetric oxygen indicator, which is widely used to detect oxygen gas involved in food spoilage by means of a color change. Traditional oxygen indicators consisting of redox dyes and strong reducing agents have two major problems: they must be manufactured and stored under anaerobic conditions because air depletes the reductant, and their components are synthetic and toxic. To address both of these serious problems, we have developed a natural component-based oxygen indicator characterized by in-pack activation. The conventional oxygen indicator composed of synthetic and artificial components was redesigned using naturally occurring compounds (laccase, guaiacol, and cysteine). These natural components were physically separated into two compartments by a fragile barrier. Only when the barrier was broken were all of the components mixed and the function as an oxygen indicator was begun (i.e., in-pack activation). Depending on the component concentrations, the natural component-based oxygen indicator exhibited different response times and color differences. The rate of the color change was proportional to the oxygen concentration. This novel colorimetric oxygen indicator will contribute greatly to intelligent packaging for healthier and safer foods.

  13. Functional Foods Baseline and Requirements Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, M. R.; Bermudez-Aguirre, L. D.; Douglas, G.

    2015-01-01

    Current spaceflight foods were evaluated to determine if their nutrient profile supports positioning as a functional food and if the stability of the bioactive compound within the food matrix over an extended shelf-life correlated with the expected storage duration during the mission. Specifically, the research aims were: Aim A. To determine the amount of each nutrient in representative spaceflight foods immediately after processing and at predetermined storage time to establish the current nutritional state. Aim B. To identify the requirements to develop foods that stabilize these nutrients such that required concentrations are maintained in the space food system throughout long duration missions (up to five years). Aim C. To coordinate collaborations with health and performance groups that may require functional foods as a countermeasure.

  14. [Life style diseases and functional foods].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, Tsuyoshi; Kawada, Teruo

    2016-03-01

    In Japan the onset of lifestyle-related diseases has increased, the people interests in "food and health", and the movement of the food industry is actively to respond to it. Healthy life expectancy is essential for mitigation of social medical expenses and improvement of the personal QOL in the super-aged society. Daily diet becomes the nucleus of healthy life expectancy. Historically, the concept of "functional food" system was born in the mid-1980s in ahead of our country in the world. Administration as a response to it to allow on that review, "food for specified health uses" was born. Furthermore, foods with a prevention function of lifestyle-related diseases, such as "Foods with Function Claims" system have been developing from 2015. In this paper, we want to further describe these circumstances, the current situation and the outlook.

  15. FERMENTED MILK AS A FUNCTIONAL FOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Rogelj

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Certain foods have been associated with health benefits for many years; fermented milks and yoghurt are typical examples. The health properties of these dairy products were a part of folklore until the concept of probiotics emerged, and the study of fermented milks and yoghurt containing probiotic bacteria has become more systematic. Functional foods have thus developed as a food, or food ingredient, with positive effects on host health and/or well-being beyond their nutritional value, and fermented milk with probiotic bacteria has again become the prominent representative of this new category of food. Milk alone is much more than the sum of its nutrients. It contains an array of bioactivities: modulating digestive and gastrointestinal functions, haemodynamics, controlling probiotic microbial growth, and immunoregulation. When fermented milk is enriched with probiotic bacteria and prebiotics it meets all the requirements of functional food. The possible positive effects of enriched fermented milk on host health will be reviewed.

  16. Application of principal component analysis (PCA) as a sensory assessment tool for fermented food products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Debasree; Chattopadhyay, Parimal

    2012-06-01

    The objective of the work was to use the method of quantitative descriptive analysis (QDA) to describe the sensory attributes of the fermented food products prepared with the incorporation of lactic cultures. Panellists were selected and trained to evaluate various attributes specially color and appearance, body texture, flavor, overall acceptability and acidity of the fermented food products like cow milk curd and soymilk curd, idli, sauerkraut and probiotic ice cream. Principal component analysis (PCA) identified the six significant principal components that accounted for more than 90% of the variance in the sensory attribute data. Overall product quality was modelled as a function of principal components using multiple least squares regression (R (2) = 0.8). The result from PCA was statistically analyzed by analysis of variance (ANOVA). These findings demonstrate the utility of quantitative descriptive analysis for identifying and measuring the fermented food product attributes that are important for consumer acceptability.

  17. Functional Properties of Microorganisms in Fermented Foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyoti Prakash Tamang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Fermented foods have unique functional properties imparting some health benefits to consumers due to presence of functional microorganisms, which possess probiotics properties, antimicrobial, antioxidant, peptide production, etc. Health benefits of some global fermented foods are synthesis of nutrients, prevention of cardiovascular disease, prevention of cancer, gastrointestinal disorders, allergic reactions, diabetes, among others. The present paper is aimed to review the information on some functional properties of the microorganisms associated with fermented foods and beverages, and their health-promoting benefits to consumers.

  18. Methods for integrating a functional component into a microfluidic device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Blake; Domeier, Linda; Woo, Noble; Shepodd, Timothy; Renzi, Ronald F.

    2014-08-19

    Injection molding is used to form microfluidic devices with integrated functional components. One or more functional components are placed in a mold cavity, which is then closed. Molten thermoplastic resin is injected into the mold and then cooled, thereby forming a solid substrate including the functional component(s). The solid substrate including the functional component(s) is then bonded to a second substrate, which may include microchannels or other features.

  19. Characterization of the interaction between two food aroma components, alpha-pinene and ethyl butyrate, and ethylene-vinyl alcohol copolymer (EVOH) packaging films as a function of environmental humidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Carballo, Gracia; Cava, David; Lagarón, Jose M; Catalá, Ramón; Gavara, Rafael

    2005-09-07

    The ethylene-vinyl alcohol copolymers (EVOHs) are well-known high oxygen barrier materials that are being used successfully in the design of packaging structures for oxygen-sensitive food or pharmaceutical products. Recently, there has been increasing interest in using EVOH materials to provide a high barrier to organic compounds as a means to reduce food aroma scalping. However, the barrier function of this family of materials diminishes significantly in humid environments, and it is supposed that so does the organic vapor barrier. In this work, a new sorption-based method to characterize the interaction between food aroma and polymer films for packaging as a function of relative humidity is presented and is used to determine the barrier to ethyl butyrate and alpha-pinene of EVOH at 23 degrees C. The results show that although EVOH is an excellent barrier to food aroma when dry, a property that even improves at low relative humidity (RH), the solubility and diffusivity of the compounds tested increase dramatically with humidity at medium to high water activities. However, even in the worst case (100% RH), EVOH outperforms low-density polyethylene (LDPE) as a barrier to organic vapors at least 500,000-fold.

  20. Phenolic Compounds as Nutraceuticals or Functional Food Ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caleja, Cristina; Ribeiro, Andreia; Barreiro, Maria Filomena; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2017-01-01

    Nowadays, the functional foods represent one the most promising, interesting and innovative areas in the food industry. Various components are being added to foods in order to render them functional. One example of these components are plant naturally occurring phenolic compounds, which are associated with a high antioxidant capacity and thus with benefits in relation to human health. However, despite the huge number of scientific studies and patents on this topic and their natural presence in foods, namely in the ones from plant origin, there are still few marketable products enriched with these compounds. The commercialization of this type of functional products needs to go through various regulations, proving that they are safe and present the ascribed health benefits, conquering the target audience. In this review the growing interest of industry and consumers' appetence for functional foods and nutraceuticals is highlighted, focusing especially on phenolic compounds. Although several published works show the multitude of bioactive properties of these compounds, ensuring their use as bioactive ingredients in food, they present inherent stability issues needing to be solved. However, considerable research is presently ongoing to overcome this problem, making viable the development of new products to be launched in the market. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  1. Functional Food in Traditional Persian Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zare, Roghayeh; Hosseinkhani, Ayda

    2016-05-01

    During the last decades, there have been great advancements in the field of preventive medicine. Research has demonstrated that nutrition plays a crucial role in the prevention of chronic diseases. The concept of functional food was first introduced in Japan during the 1980s. It proposes to consider food not only vital to survive, but also a mean for mental and physical well-being, contributing to the prevention and reduction of risk factors for diseases. However, there is evidence that the concept was believed by ancient physicians as well. One of the traditional systems of medicines is traditional Persian medicine (TPM). Rhazes said; "as long as a disease could be treated with food, medicine should be avoided". We carried out a review of Avicenna's Canon of medicine and Rhazes books for the definition of food and drug and similar concepts of functional food. We listed the identified concepts along with their examples. The classification of food and their therapeutic use were explained in Canon of medicine. Rhazes has a book called 'Manafe al-Aghziyeh', in which he writes about the medicinal benefits of different nutrition. Five concepts (food, drug, medicinal food, nutritional medicine and antidote or poison) were noted in these books. There are many recommendations on food for the prevention and treatment of diseases in TPM books, which can be the basis for novel research studies.

  2. Functional Food in Traditional Persian Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zare, Roghayeh; Hosseinkhani, Ayda

    2016-01-01

    Background: During the last decades, there have been great advancements in the field of preventive medicine. Research has demonstrated that nutrition plays a crucial role in the prevention of chronic diseases. The concept of functional food was first introduced in Japan during the 1980s. It proposes to consider food not only vital to survive, but also a mean for mental and physical well-being, contributing to the prevention and reduction of risk factors for diseases. However, there is evidence that the concept was believed by ancient physicians as well. One of the traditional systems of medicines is traditional Persian medicine (TPM). Rhazes said; “as long as a disease could be treated with food, medicine should be avoided” Methods: We carried out a review of Avicenna’s Canon of medicine and Rhazes books for the definition of food and drug and similar concepts of functional food. We listed the identified concepts along with their examples. Results: The classification of food and their therapeutic use were explained in Canon of medicine. Rhazes has a book called ‘Manafe al-Aghziyeh’, in which he writes about the medicinal benefits of different nutrition. Five concepts (food, drug, medicinal food, nutritional medicine and antidote or poison) were noted in these books. Conclusion: There are many recommendations on food for the prevention and treatment of diseases in TPM books, which can be the basis for novel research studies. PMID:27840499

  3. Modulation of Immune Functions by Foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuichi Kaminogawa

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Evidence is rapidly accumulating as to the beneficial effects of foods. However, it is not always clear whether the information is based on data evaluated impartially in a scientific fashion. Human research into whether foods modulate immune functions in either intervention studies or randomized controlled trials can be classified into three categories according to the physical state of subjects enrolled for investigation: (i studies examining the effect of foods in healthy individuals; (ii studies analyzing the effect of foods on patients with hypersensitivity; and (iii studies checking the effect of foods on immunocompromized subjects, including patients who had undergone surgical resection of cancer and newborns. The systematization of reported studies has made it reasonable to conclude that foods are able to modulate immune functions manifesting as either innate immunity (phagocytic activity, NK cell activity or acquired immunity (T cell response, antibody production. Moreover, improvement of immune functions by foods can normalize the physical state of allergic patients or cancer patients, and may reduce the risk of diseases in healthy individuals. Therefore, it is valuable to assess the immune-modulating abilities of foods by measuring at least one parameter of either innate or acquired immunity.

  4. Which functional unit to identify sustainable foods?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masset, Gabriel; Vieux, Florent; Darmon, Nicole

    2015-09-01

    In life-cycle assessment, the functional unit defines the unit for calculation of environmental indicators. The objective of the present study was to assess the influence of two functional units, 100 g and 100 kcal (420 kJ), on the associations between three dimensions for identifying sustainable foods, namely environmental impact (via greenhouse gas emissions (GHGE)), nutritional quality (using two distinct nutrient profiling systems) and price. GHGE and price data were collected for individual foods, and were each expressed per 100 g and per 100 kcal. Two nutrient profiling models, SAIN,LIM and UK Ofcom, were used to assess foods' nutritional quality. Spearman correlations were used to assess associations between variables. Sustainable foods were identified as those having more favourable values for all three dimensions. The French Individual and National Dietary Survey (INCA2), 2006-2007. Three hundred and seventy-three foods highly consumed in INCA2, covering 65 % of total energy intake of adult participants. When GHGE and price were expressed per 100 g, low-GHGE foods had a lower price and higher SAIN,LIM and Ofcom scores (r=0·59, -0·34 and -0·43, respectively), suggesting a compatibility between the three dimensions; 101 and 100 sustainable foods were identified with SAIN,LIM and Ofcom, respectively. When GHGE and price were expressed per 100 kcal, low-GHGE foods had a lower price but also lower SAIN,LIM and Ofcom scores (r=0·67, 0·51 and 0·47, respectively), suggesting that more environment-friendly foods were less expensive but also less healthy; thirty-four sustainable foods were identified with both SAIN,LIM and Ofcom. The choice of functional unit strongly influenced the compatibility between the sustainability dimensions and the identification of sustainable foods.

  5. 77 FR 23751 - Certain Food Waste Disposers and Components and Packaging Thereof; Institution of Investigation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-20

    ... States after importation of certain food waste disposers and components and packaging thereof by reason... States after importation of certain food waste disposers and components and packaging thereof by reason... importation of certain food waste disposers and components and packaging thereof that infringe the claim of U...

  6. Can Functional Food and Organic Food be Supporting Concepts in Europe?

    OpenAIRE

    Bügel, Susanne; Almer, Kamille; Zalecka, A.; Ploeger, A.; Huber, Machteld; Kahl, J.

    2013-01-01

    Poster IUNS 20st International Congress of Nutrition. Functional and organic food belong to fast growing segments of the European food market. The question is whether organic food can also be a functional food. The conclusion is that functional food and organic food are competing rather than supporting concepts in Europe.

  7. The Struggle over Functional Foods: Justice and the Social Meaning of Functional Foods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korthals, M.

    2002-01-01

    The social and scientific debate over functional foods has two focal points: one is the issue of the reliability and trustworthiness of the claims connected with functional foods. You don't have to be a suspicious person to be skeptical vis-à-vis the rather exorbitant claims of most functional

  8. Are functional foods redefining nutritional requirements?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Peter J; Varady, Krista A

    2008-02-01

    Functional foods are increasing in popularity owing to their ability to confer health and physiological benefits. Nevertheless, the notion that functional foods improve health when providing nutrients at levels above and beyond existing recommended intakes is inconsistent with the definition of requirement. This disparity highlights the need for an alternative definition of nutrient requirement. The present objective is to examine distinctions between optimization of health, as defined by what we currently deem as required intakes, versus adding physiological benefit using bioactive agents found in functional foods. Presently, requirement is defined as the lowest amount of intake of a nutrient that will maintain a defined level of nourishment for a specific indicator of adequacy. In contrast, functional foods are described as ingredients that are not necessary for body function, yet provide added physiological benefit that confer better overall health. Plant sterols are one example of such an ingredient. Plant sterols lower plasma cholesterol concentrations, and may thus be considered essential nutrients in physiological situations where circulating cholesterol concentrations are high. Similarly, intakes of omega-3 fats beyond existing requirement may confer additional health benefits such as hypolipidemic and anti-diabetic effects. These examples underscore the inconsistencies between what is defined as a nutrient requirement versus what is identified as a health benefit of a functional food. Such discrepancies emphasize the need for a more all-encompassing definition of a nutrient requirement; that is, one that moves beyond the prevention of overt deficiency to encompass improved health and disease risk reduction.

  9. Migration of components from cork stoppers to food: challenges in determining inorganic elements in food simulants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corona, T; Iglesias, M; Anticó, E

    2014-06-18

    The inorganic elements potentially migrating from cork to a food simulant [a hydroalcoholic solution containing 12 and 20% (v/v) ethanol] have been determined by means of inductively coupled plasma (ICP) with atomic emission and mass spectrometric detection. The experimental instrumental conditions were evaluated in depth, taking into account spectroscopic and nonspectroscopic interference caused by the presence of ethanol and other components in the sample. We report concentrations ranging from 4 μg kg(-1) for Cd to 28000 μg kg(-1) for Al in the food simulant (concentrations given in kilograms of cork). The values found for Ba, Mn, Fe, Cu, and Zn have been compared with the guideline values stated in EU Regulation 10/2011. In all cases, cork met the general safety criteria applicable to food contact material. Finally, we have proposed water as an alternative to the hydroalcoholic solution to simplify quantification of the tested elements using ICP techniques.

  10. Functional Food and Organic Food are Competing Rather than Supporting Concepts in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Susanne Bügel; Angelika Ploeger; Aneta Załęcka; Johannes Kahl; Machteld Huber

    2012-01-01

    A review of recent literature pertaining to organic and functional food was conducted according its conceptual background. Functional and organic food both belong to fast growing segments of the European food market. Both are food according to the European food regulations, but organic food is further regulated by the European regulation for organic agriculture and food production. This regulation restricts the number of food additives and limits substantial changes in the food. This may caus...

  11. Functional Foods and Lifestyle Approaches for Diabetes Prevention and Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Alkhatib

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Functional foods contain biologically active ingredients associated with physiological health benefits for preventing and managing chronic diseases, such as type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. A regular consumption of functional foods may be associated with enhanced anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, insulin sensitivity, and anti-cholesterol functions, which are considered integral to prevent and manage T2DM. Components of the Mediterranean diet (MD—such as fruits, vegetables, oily fish, olive oil, and tree nuts—serve as a model for functional foods based on their natural contents of nutraceuticals, including polyphenols, terpenoids, flavonoids, alkaloids, sterols, pigments, and unsaturated fatty acids. Polyphenols within MD and polyphenol-rich herbs—such as coffee, green tea, black tea, and yerba maté—have shown clinically-meaningful benefits on metabolic and microvascular activities, cholesterol and fasting glucose lowering, and anti-inflammation and anti-oxidation in high-risk and T2DM patients. However, combining exercise with functional food consumption can trigger and augment several metabolic and cardiovascular protective benefits, but it is under-investigated in people with T2DM and bariatric surgery patients. Detecting functional food benefits can now rely on an “omics” biological profiling of individuals’ molecular, genetics, transcriptomics, proteomics, and metabolomics, but is under-investigated in multi-component interventions. A personalized approach for preventing and managing T2DM should consider biological and behavioral models, and embed nutrition education as part of lifestyle diabetes prevention studies. Functional foods may provide additional benefits in such an approach.

  12. Functional Food in Traditional Persian Medicine

    OpenAIRE

    Zare, Roghayeh; Hosseinkhani, Ayda

    2016-01-01

    Background: During the last decades, there have been great advancements in the field of preventive medicine. Research has demonstrated that nutrition plays a crucial role in the prevention of chronic diseases. The concept of functional food was first introduced in Japan during the 1980s. It proposes to consider food not only vital to survive, but also a mean for mental and physical well-being, contributing to the prevention and reduction of risk factors for diseases. However, there is evidenc...

  13. Functional Dehydrated Foods for Health Preservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. M. S. C. Morais

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The market of functional foods has experienced a huge growth in the last decades due to the increased consumers’ awareness in a healthy lifestyle. Dried fruits constitute good snacks, in alternative to salty or sweet ones, and food ingredients due to their taste and nutritional/health benefits. Bioactive molecules are interesting sources to develop functional foods, as they play a major role in improving the health status and minimizing disease risks. The bioactive compounds most widely discussed in literature are presented in this review, for example, polyphenols, phytosterols, and prebiotics. Different technologies to dry bioproducts for producing functional foods or ingredients are presented. New drying techniques for the preservation of bioactive compounds are proposed, focusing more specifically on dielectric drying. A discussion on the techniques that can be used to optimize drying processes is performed. An overview on dehydrated plant based foods with probiotics is provided. The microorganisms used, impregnation procedures, drying methods, and evaluated parameters are presented and discussed. The principal bioactive compounds responsible for nutritional and health benefits of plant derived dried food products—fruits and vegetables, fruits and vegetables by-products, grains, nuts, and algae—are presented. Phytochemical losses occurring during pretreatments and/or drying processes are also discussed.

  14. A finite element method based microwave heat transfer modeling of frozen multi-component foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitchai, Krishnamoorthy

    Microwave heating is fast and convenient, but is highly non-uniform. Non-uniform heating in microwave cooking affects not only food quality but also food safety. Most food industries develop microwavable food products based on "cook-and-look" approach. This approach is time-consuming, labor intensive and expensive and may not result in optimal food product design that assures food safety and quality. Design of microwavable food can be realized through a simulation model which describes the physical mechanisms of microwave heating in mathematical expressions. The objective of this study was to develop a microwave heat transfer model to predict spatial and temporal profiles of various heterogeneous foods such as multi-component meal (chicken nuggets and mashed potato), multi-component and multi-layered meal (lasagna), and multi-layered food with active packages (pizza) during microwave heating. A microwave heat transfer model was developed by solving electromagnetic and heat transfer equations using finite element method in commercially available COMSOL Multiphysics v4.4 software. The microwave heat transfer model included detailed geometry of the cavity, phase change, and rotation of the food on the turntable. The predicted spatial surface temperature patterns and temporal profiles were validated against the experimental temperature profiles obtained using a thermal imaging camera and fiber-optic sensors. The predicted spatial surface temperature profile of different multi-component foods was in good agreement with the corresponding experimental profiles in terms of hot and cold spot patterns. The root mean square error values of temporal profiles ranged from 5.8 °C to 26.2 °C in chicken nuggets as compared 4.3 °C to 4.7 °C in mashed potatoes. In frozen lasagna, root mean square error values at six locations ranged from 6.6 °C to 20.0 °C for 6 min of heating. A microwave heat transfer model was developed to include susceptor assisted microwave heating of a

  15. Soilless cultivation system for functional food crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahamad Sahali Mardi; Shyful Azizi Abdul Rahman; Ahmad Nazrul Abd Wahid; Abdul Razak Ruslan; Hazlina Abdullah

    2007-01-01

    This soilless cultivation system is based on the fertigation system and cultivation technologies using Functional Plant Cultivation System (FPCS). EBARA Japan has been studying on the cultivation conditions in order to enhance the function of decease risk reduction in plants. Through the research and development activities, EBARA found the possibilities on the enhancement of functions. Quality and quantity of the products in term of bioactive compounds present in the plants may be affected by unforeseen environmental conditions, such as temperature, strong light and UV radiation. The main objective to develop this system is, to support? Functional Food Industry? as newly emerging field in agriculture business. To success the system, needs comprehensive applying agriculture biotechnologies, health biotechnologies and also information technologies, in agriculture. By this system, production of valuable bioactive compounds is an advantage, because the market size of functional food is increasing more and more in the future. (Author)

  16. Food components and the Immune System: from tonic agents to allergens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Caetano Faria

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The intestinal mucosa is the major site of contact with antigens, and it lodges the largest lymphoid tissue in the body. In physiological conditions, microbiota and dietary antigens are the natural sources of stimulation for the gut associated lymphoid tissues (GALT and for the immune system as a whole. Germ free models have provided some insights on the immunological role of gut antigens. However, most of the GALT is not located in the large intestine, where gut microbiota is prominent. It is concentrated in the small intestine where protein absorption takes place. In this review, we will address the involvement of food components in the development and the function of the immune system. Studies in mice have already shown that dietary proteins are critical elements for the developmental shift of the immature neonatal immune profile into a fully developed immune system. The immunological effects of other food components (such as vitamins and lipids will also be addressed. Most of the cells in the GALT are activated and local proinflammatory mediators are abundant. Regulatory elements are known to provide a delicate yet robust balance that keeps the gut homeostasis at check. Usually antigenic contact in the gut induces two major immune responses, oral tolerance and production of secretory IgA. However, under pathological conditions mucosal homeostasis is disturbed resulting in inflammatory reactions such as food hypersensitivity. Food allergy development depends on many factors such as genetic predisposition, biochemical features of allergens and a growing array of environmental elements. Neuroimmune interactions are also implicated in food allergy and they are examples of the high complexity of the phenomenon. Recent findings on the gut circuits triggered by food components will be reviewed to show that, far beyond their role as nutrients, they are critical players in the operation of immune system in health and disease.

  17. European consumers' acceptance of functional foods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G.

    2010-01-01

    the consumer perspective, synergies between healthiness and convenience, but may, in the consumer mind, lead to trade-offs between healthiness on the one side and taste and naturalness on the other side. This may explain the reluctance of European consumers to accept functional food products....

  18. Electrostatic separation for functional food ingredient production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, J.

    2016-01-01

    Summary

    Dry fractionation is a promising alternative to wet extraction processes for production of food ingredients, since it uses hardly any water, consumes less energy and retains the native functionality of the ingredients. It combines milling and dry separation to

  19. Dieticians' intentions to recommend functional foods: The mediating role of consumption frequency of functional foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Myeong Hwa; Lee, Jiyeon; Song, Mi Jung

    2010-02-01

    This study explored the conceptual framework of dieticians' intentions to recommend functional food and the mediating role of consumption frequency. A web-based survey was designed using a self-administered questionnaire. A sample of Korean dieticians (N=233) responded to the questionnaire that included response efficacy, risk perception, consumption frequency, and recommendation intention for functional foods. A structural equation model was constructed to analyze the data. We found that response efficacy was positively related to frequency of consumption of functional foods and to recommendation intention. Consumption frequency also positively influenced recommendation intention. Risk perception had no direct influence on recommendation intention; however, the relationship was mediated completely by consumption frequency. Dieticians' consumption frequency and response efficacy were the crucial factors in recommending functional foods. Dieticians may perceive risks arising from the use of functional foods in general, but the perceived risks do not affect ratings describing dieticians' intentions to recommend them. The results also indicated that when dieticians more frequently consume functional foods, the expression of an intention to recommend functional foods may be controlled by the salience of past behaviors rather than by attitudes.

  20. Healthier meat products as functional foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decker, Eric A; Park, Yeonhwa

    2010-09-01

    A promising approach to improving health care would be to produce a healthier food supply as a preventive health care strategy. The food supply could be improved by producing functional foods that have nutritional profiles that are healthier than conventional products. However, production of functional foods is not always easily accomplished since they must also taste good, be convenient and reasonably priced so that consumers will regularly purchase and use the products. Meats have great potential for delivering important nutrients such as fatty acids, minerals, dietary fiber, antioxidants and bioactive peptides into the diet. However, to produce successful products with these ingredients, technologies must be developed to increase their stability and decrease their flavor impact on muscle foods. In addition, many regulatory hurdles must be overcome for the commercial production of meats with added nutrients. These include redefinition of standard of identities and policies that allow front of the package nutritional claims. Without these regulatory changes, production of healthier meat products won't become a reality since these products would not have a competitive advantage over unfortified meats.

  1. Functional Food and Organic Food are Competing Rather than Supporting Concepts in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Bügel

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available A review of recent literature pertaining to organic and functional food was conducted according its conceptual background. Functional and organic food both belong to fast growing segments of the European food market. Both are food according to the European food regulations, but organic food is further regulated by the European regulation for organic agriculture and food production. This regulation restricts the number of food additives and limits substantial changes in the food. This may cause problems in changing the food based on single constituents or attributes when applying the concept of functional food to organic food production. Claims of the influence of the food positively on health can only be accepted as true when the claims have been tested and then validated by the EU-Commission. Whereas functional food focuses on product comparison based on specific constituents or attributes, organic food as a whole has no placebo for comparison and effects on environment and society are not part of the health claim regulation. Therefore it seems rather difficult to establish the health claims of organic foods. Consumers buy organic food out of an emotional attitude and associate the food with naturalness. In contrast, the decision for buying functional food is related to rationality and consumers associate functional food with a more technological approach. For this reason, the authors conclude that the concept of functional food seems not to support organic food production in Europe.

  2. Functional Food and Cardiovascular Disease Prevention and Treatment: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asgary, Sedigheh; Rastqar, Ali; Keshvari, Mahtab

    2018-03-12

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is now the leading cause of death globally and is a growing health concern. Lifestyle factors, including nutrition, play an important role in the etiology and treatment of CVD. Functional foods based on their basic nutritional functions can decrease the risk of many chronic diseases and have some physiological benefits. They contain physiologically active components either from plant or animal sources, marketed with the claim of their ability to reduce heart disease risk, focusing primarily on established risk factors, which are hyperlipidemia, diabetes, metabolic syndrome, obesity/overweight, elevated lipoprotein A level, small dense low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and elevated inflammatory marker levels. Functional foods are suspected to exert their cardioprotective effects mainly through blood lipid profile level and improve hypertension control, endothelial function, platelet aggregation, and antioxidant actions. Clinical and epidemiological observations indicate that vegetable and fruit fiber, nuts and seeds, sea foods, coffee, tea, and dark chocolate have cardioprotective potential in humans, as well whole-grain products containing intact grain kernels rich in fiber and trace nutrients. They are nutritionally more important because they contain phytoprotective substances that might work synergistically to reduce cardiovascular risk. This review will focus on the reciprocal interaction between functional foods and the potential link to cardiovascular health and the possible mechanisms of action.

  3. Process management using component thermal-hydraulic function classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morman, J.A.; Wei, T.Y.C.; Reifman, J.

    1999-07-27

    A process management expert system where following malfunctioning of a component, such as a pump, for determining system realignment procedures such as for by-passing the malfunctioning component with on-line speeds to maintain operation of the process at full or partial capacity or to provide safe shut down of the system while isolating the malfunctioning component. The expert system uses thermal-hydraulic function classes at the component level for analyzing unanticipated as well as anticipated component malfunctions to provide recommended sequences of operator actions. Each component is classified according to its thermal-hydraulic function, and the generic and component-specific characteristics for that function. Using the diagnosis of the malfunctioning component and its thermal hydraulic class, the expert system analysis is carried out using generic thermal-hydraulic first principles. One aspect of the invention employs a qualitative physics-based forward search directed primarily downstream from the malfunctioning component in combination with a subsequent backward search directed primarily upstream from the serviced component. Generic classes of components are defined in the knowledge base according to the three thermal-hydraulic functions of mass, momentum and energy transfer and are used to determine possible realignment of component configurations in response to thermal-hydraulic function imbalance caused by the malfunctioning component. Each realignment to a new configuration produces the accompanying sequence of recommended operator actions. All possible new configurations are examined and a prioritized list of acceptable solutions is produced. 5 figs.

  4. Process management using component thermal-hydraulic function classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morman, James A.; Wei, Thomas Y. C.; Reifman, Jaques

    1999-01-01

    A process management expert system where following malfunctioning of a component, such as a pump, for determining system realignment procedures such as for by-passing the malfunctioning component with on-line speeds to maintain operation of the process at full or partial capacity or to provide safe shut down of the system while isolating the malfunctioning component. The expert system uses thermal-hydraulic function classes at the component level for analyzing unanticipated as well as anticipated component malfunctions to provide recommended sequences of operator actions. Each component is classified according to its thermal-hydraulic function, and the generic and component-specific characteristics for that function. Using the diagnosis of the malfunctioning component and its thermal hydraulic class, the expert system analysis is carried out using generic thermal-hydraulic first principles. One aspect of the invention employs a qualitative physics-based forward search directed primarily downstream from the malfunctioning component in combination with a subsequent backward search directed primarily upstream from the serviced component. Generic classes of components are defined in the knowledge base according to the three thermal-hydraulic functions of mass, momentum and energy transfer and are used to determine possible realignment of component configurations in response to thermal-hydraulic function imbalance caused by the malfunctioning component. Each realignment to a new configuration produces the accompanying sequence of recommended operator actions. All possible new configurations are examined and a prioritized list of acceptable solutions is produced.

  5. Food Derived Bioactive Peptides and Intestinal Barrier Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Martínez-Augustin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A wide range of food-derived bioactive peptides have been shown to exert health-promoting actions and are therefore considered functional foods or nutraceuticals. Some of these actions are related to the maintenance, reinforcement or repairment of the intestinal barrier function (IBF whose role is to selectively allow the absorption of water, nutrients and ions while preventing the influx of microorganisms from the intestinal lumen. Alterations in the IBF have been related to many disorders, such as inflammatory bowel disease or metabolic syndrome. Components of IBF are the intestinal epithelium, the mucus layer, secretory immunoglobulin A and cells of the innate and adaptive immune systems. Here we review the effects of food derived bioactive peptides on these IBF components. In vitro and in vivo effects, both in healthy and disease states, have been reviewed. Although limited, the available information indicates a potential for food-derived peptides to modify IBF and to contribute to disease treatment, but further research is needed to better isolate responsible peptides, and to help define their mode of action.

  6. Dieticians' intentions to recommend functional foods: The mediating role of consumption frequency of functional foods

    OpenAIRE

    Cha, Myeong Hwa; Lee, Jiyeon; Song, Mi Jung

    2010-01-01

    This study explored the conceptual framework of dieticians' intentions to recommend functional food and the mediating role of consumption frequency. A web-based survey was designed using a self-administered questionnaire. A sample of Korean dieticians (N=233) responded to the questionnaire that included response efficacy, risk perception, consumption frequency, and recommendation intention for functional foods. A structural equation model was constructed to analyze the data. We found that res...

  7. Lactic acid bacteria in dairy food: surface characterization and interactions with food matrix components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgain, J; Scher, J; Francius, G; Borges, F; Corgneau, M; Revol-Junelles, A M; Cailliez-Grimal, C; Gaiani, C

    2014-11-01

    This review gives an overview of the importance of interactions occurring in dairy matrices between Lactic Acid Bacteria and milk components. Dairy products are important sources of biological active compounds of particular relevance to human health. These compounds include immunoglobulins, whey proteins and peptides, polar lipids, and lactic acid bacteria including probiotics. A better understanding of interactions between bioactive components and their delivery matrix may successfully improve their transport to their target site of action. Pioneering research on probiotic lactic acid bacteria has mainly focused on their host effects. However, very little is known about their interaction with dairy ingredients. Such knowledge could contribute to designing new and more efficient dairy food, and to better understand relationships between milk constituents. The purpose of this review is first to provide an overview of the current knowledge about the biomolecules produced on bacterial surface and the composition of the dairy matter. In order to understand how bacteria interact with dairy molecules, adhesion mechanisms are subsequently reviewed with a special focus on the environmental conditions affecting bacterial adhesion. Methods dedicated to investigate the bacterial surface and to decipher interactions between bacteria and abiotic dairy components are also detailed. Finally, relevant industrial implications of these interactions are presented and discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Nanotechnology Applications in Functional Foods; Opportunities and Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Harjinder

    2016-03-01

    Increasing knowledge on the link between diet and human health has generated a lot of interest in the development of functional foods. However, several challenges, including discovering of beneficial compounds, establishing optimal intake levels, and developing adequate food delivering matrix and product formulations, need to be addressed. A number of new processes and materials derived from nanotechnology have the potential to provide new solutions in many of these fronts. Nanotechnology is concerned with the manipulation of materials at the atomic and molecular scales to create structures that are less than 100 nm in size in one dimension. By carefully choosing the molecular components, it seems possible to design particles with different surface properties. Several food-based nanodelivery vehicles, such as protein-polysaccharide coacervates, multiple emulsions, liposomes and cochleates have been developed on a laboratory scale, but there have been very limited applications in real food systems. There are also public concerns about potential negative effects of nanotechnology-based delivery systems on human health. This paper provides an overview of the new opportunities and challenges for nanotechnology-based systems in future functional food development.

  9. Utilizing food effects to overcome challenges in delivery of lipophilic bioactives: structural design of medical and functional foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClements, David Julian

    2013-12-01

    The oral bioavailability of many lipophilic bioactives, such as pharmaceuticals and nutraceuticals, is relatively low due to their poor solubility, permeability and/or chemical stability within the human gastrointestinal tract (GIT). The oral bioavailability of lipophilic bioactives can be improved by designing food matrices that control their release, solubilization, transport and absorption within the GIT. This article discusses the challenges associated with delivering lipophilic bioactive components, the impact of food composition and structure on oral bioavailability and the design of functional and medical foods for improving the oral bioavailability of lipophilic bioactives. Food-based delivery systems can be used to improve the oral bioavailability of lipophilic bioactives. There are a number of potential advantages to delivering lipophilic bioactives using functional or medical foods: greater compliance than conventional delivery forms; increased bioavailability and efficacy; and reduced variability in biological effects. However, food matrices are structurally complex multicomponent materials and research is still needed to identify optimum structures and compositions for particular bioactives.

  10. ABOUT FOOD ADDITIVES AS IMPORTANT PART OF FUNCTIONAL FOOD

    OpenAIRE

    Umida Khodjaeva; Tatiana Bojňanská; Vladimír Vietoris; Oksana Sytar

    2013-01-01

    The main characteristics and classification of food additives, which are common in the food production, have been described in the present review. The ways of food additives classification, source of nature, main antioxidants, food colouring, flavours, flavor enhancers, bulking agents, stabilizers, sweeteners which were collected from literature based on structural and biochemical characteristics with description of source and possible effects on human, organisms and environment have been pre...

  11. ABOUT FOOD ADDITIVES AS IMPORTANT PART OF FUNCTIONAL FOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umida Khodjaeva

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The main characteristics and classification of food additives, which are common in the food production, have been described in the present review. The ways of food additives classification, source of nature, main antioxidants, food colouring, flavours, flavor enhancers, bulking agents, stabilizers, sweeteners which were collected from literature based on structural and biochemical characteristics with description of source and possible effects on human, organisms and environment have been presented.

  12. Umami taste components and their sources in Asian foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajeb, P; Jinap, S

    2015-01-01

    Umami, the fifth basic taste, is the inimitable taste of Asian foods. Several traditional and locally prepared foods and condiments of Asia are rich in umami. In this part of world, umami is found in fermented animal-based products such as fermented and dried seafood, and plant-based products from beans and grains, dry and fresh mushrooms, and tea. In Southeast Asia, the most preferred seasonings containing umami are fish and seafood sauces, and also soybean sauces. In the East Asian region, soybean sauces are the main source of umami substance in the routine cooking. In Japan, the material used to obtain umami in dashi, the stock added to almost every Japanese soups and boiled dishes, is konbu or dried bonito. This review introduces foods and seasonings containing naturally high amount of umami substances of both animal and plant sources from different countries in Asia.

  13. Structured emulsion-based delivery systems: controlling the digestion and release of lipophilic food components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClements, David Julian; Li, Yan

    2010-09-15

    There is a need for edible delivery systems to encapsulate, protect and release bioactive and functional lipophilic constituents within the food and pharmaceutical industries. These delivery systems could be used for a number of purposes: controlling lipid bioavailability; targeting the delivery of bioactive components within the gastrointestinal tract; and designing food matrices that delay lipid digestion and induce satiety. Emulsion technology is particularly suited for the design and fabrication of delivery systems for lipids. In this article we provide an overview of a number of emulsion-based technologies that can be used as edible delivery systems by the food and other industries, including conventional emulsions, nanoemulsions, multilayer emulsions, solid lipid particles, and filled hydrogel particles. Each of these delivery systems can be produced from food-grade (GRAS) ingredients (e.g., lipids, proteins, polysaccharides, surfactants, and minerals) using relatively simple processing operations (e.g., mixing, homogenizing, and thermal processing). The structure, preparation, and utilization of each type of delivery system for controlling lipid digestion are discussed. This knowledge can be used to select the most appropriate emulsion-based delivery system for specific applications, such as encapsulation, controlled digestion, and targeted release. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Development of damage functions for high-rise building components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kustu, O.; Miller, D.D.; Brokken, S.T.

    1982-10-01

    The component approach for predicting the effects that ground motion from underground nuclear explosions will have on structures involves predicting the damage to each structural and nonstructural component of a building on the basis of the expected local deformation that most affects the damage to the component. This study was conducted to provide the basic data necessary to evaluate the component approach. Available published laboratory test data for various high-rise building components were collected. These data were analyzed statistically to determine damage threshold values and their variabilities, which in turn were used to derive component damage functions. The portion of construction costs attributable to various building components was determined statistically. This information was needed because component damage functions define damage as a percentage of the replacement values of the component, and, in order to calculate the overall building damage factor, the relative cost of each component must be estimated. The feasibility of the component approach to damage prediction is demonstrated. It is recommended that further experimental research directed towards developing an adequate data base of component damage thresholds for all significant building components should be encouraged. Parallel to this effort, detailed damage data from specific buildings damaged in earthquakes should be collected to verify the theoretical procedure

  15. Development of functional foods for radiation workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jo, Sung Kee; Yu, Young Beob; Park, Hae Ran; Byun, Myung Woo; Yang, Jae Seung; Kim, Sung Ho; Yee, Sung Tae

    2000-03-01

    In searching modulators of immunity and hematopoiesis among natural products, being used as foods, six herbs exhibited lymphocyte proliferation in vitro, and six exhibited augmentation of hematopoietic cell growth. The combined treatments showed synergistic effects of lymphocyte proliferation and of hematopoietic cell growth. On the other hand, we found four effective oriental medicinal prescriptions, used as energy tonic or blood-building decoctions, for survival and regeneration of hematopoietic cells and for protection of stem cells of intestinal crypt in irradiated mice. On the basis of these results, extracts from combinations of herbs were made in expectation of higher effects in the three respects. In immuno modulation activity by the two combinations of herbs was confirmed in mice. In culture of bone narrow cells, growth improvement of non-adherent precursor and induction of cytokine expression by herb mixture extracts were observed. In evaluation of fractions, polysaccharide fraction showed modulation of immunity and hematopoiesis, and methanol fraction showed stem cell protection from radiation. On the basis of the results, we made two provisional products by addition of polysaccharide fraction to the water extract. In further research, the active components would be identified and the fractional foods would be developed for overcoming of declined immunity and radiation damage. For security of sanitation by irradiation, the stability in activity of irradiated resources was confirmed. (author)

  16. Functional foods and cardiometabolic diseases : International Task Force for Prevention of Cardiometabolic Diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Assman, G.; Buono, P.; Valle, Della E.; Farinaro, E.; Ferns, G.; Krogh, V.; Kromhout, D.

    2014-01-01

    Mounting evidence supports the hypothesis that functional foods containing physiologically-active components may be healthful. Longitudinal cohort studies have shown that some food classes and dietary patterns are beneficial in primary prevention, and this has led to the identification of putative

  17. Assessing the effect of oil price on world food prices: Application of principal component analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esmaeili, Abdoulkarim; Shokoohi, Zainab

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to investigate the co-movement of food prices and the macroeconomic index, especially the oil price, by principal component analysis to further understand the influence of the macroeconomic index on food prices. We examined the food prices of seven major products: eggs, meat, milk, oilseeds, rice, sugar and wheat. The macroeconomic variables studied were crude oil prices, consumer price indexes, food production indexes and GDP around the world between 1961 and 2005. We use the Scree test and the proportion of variance method for determining the optimal number of common factors. The correlation coefficient between the extracted principal component and the macroeconomic index varies between 0.87 for the world GDP and 0.36 for the consumer price index. We find the food production index has the greatest influence on the macroeconomic index and that the oil price index has an influence on the food production index. Consequently, crude oil prices have an indirect effect on food prices. - Research Highlights: →We investigate the co-movement of food prices and the macroeconomic index. →The crude oil price has indirect effect on the world GDP via its impacts on food production index. →The food production index is the source of causation for CPI and GDP is affected by CPI. →The results confirm an indirect effect among oil price, food price principal component.

  18. A valuation method on physiological functionality of food materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-10-15

    This reports is about valuation method on physiological functionality of food materials. It includes ten reports: maintenance condition of functional foods in Korea by Kim, Byeong Tae, management plan and classification of functional foods by Jung, Myeong Seop, measurement method vitality of functional foods for preventing diabetes, measurement way of aging delayed activation by Lee, Jae Yong, improvement on effectiveness of anti hypertension by functional foods by Park, Jeon Hong, and practice case for the method of test on anti gastritis antiulcer by Lee, Eun Bang.

  19. A valuation method on physiological functionality of food materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-10-01

    This reports is about valuation method on physiological functionality of food materials. It includes ten reports: maintenance condition of functional foods in Korea by Kim, Byeong Tae, management plan and classification of functional foods by Jung, Myeong Seop, measurement method vitality of functional foods for preventing diabetes, measurement way of aging delayed activation by Lee, Jae Yong, improvement on effectiveness of anti hypertension by functional foods by Park, Jeon Hong, and practice case for the method of test on anti gastritis antiulcer by Lee, Eun Bang.

  20. Food additives and food components in total diets in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dokkum, W. van; Vos, R.H. de; Cloughley, F.A.; Hulshof, K.F.A.M.; Dukel, F.; Wijsman, J.A.

    1982-01-01

    During a period of 2 years, every 2 months 126 different food items forming a 'market basket' were purchased, prepared and divided into twelve food commodity groups. The 'market basket' was based on a study of the dietary pattern of 16- to 18-year-old male adolescents. In the (homogenized) food

  1. Development of Functional Foods and Advanced Technology for Radioprotection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jo, Sung Kee; Byun, Myung Woo; Kim, Jin Kyu

    2003-05-01

    We have previously developed two medicinal herb mixtures that protects immune/hematopoietic system and self-renewal tissues against irradiation and enhances immune/hematopoietic functions. In this study, we have developed two pilot products by adding the effective fractions to the hot water extract of the herb mixtures and investigated their efficacy. In irradiated mice, pilot products protected hematopoietic stem cells, promoted the regeneration and activation of immune cells, normalized the unbalanced immune reaction, and inhibited the growth of cancer cells. Polysaccharide was active fraction and mechanisms were elucidated. The products also protected the stem cells in self-renewal tissues. DNA/membrane damages, apoptotic cell signals, chromosome/DNA alterations, and oxidation of protein/lipid were inhibited by pilot products, and their radical scavenging activities were observed. Five active components were isolated and identified. Pilot products also inhibited the cancer development by 30% in irradiated mice. In clinical investigation, pilot products inhibited the side-effects of cancer therapy including immune/hematopoietic depression. Therefore, the pilot products may be used as functional foods for overcoming of immune/hematopoietic depression and self-renewal tissue damages induced by irradiation, as well as for the immune/hematopoietic enhancement. Also we have screened food materials for inhibition of radiation-induced chronic damage (carcinogenesis), and selected effective 4 materials and elicited two mixture preparations with enhanced activity, and confirmed their inhibitory activities in cancer initiation model systems. To obtain the applicability of radiation technology for the safe sanitation and distribution of functional food materials, we verified the toxicological safety, stability of activity and active components of irradiated medicinal herbs. Also, screening of new radioprotective materials and basic biological research for the enhancement of

  2. 78 FR 1881 - Certain Food Waste Disposers and Components and Packaging Thereof; Notice of the Commission's...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-09

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 337-TA-838] Certain Food Waste Disposers and Components and Packaging Thereof; Notice of the Commission's Determination Not To Review Initial Determinations Granting Complainant's Motions To Partially Terminate the Investigation and To Withdraw the...

  3. Is tomato a healthy and/or functional food?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inmaculada Navarro-González

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a literature review about the presence of bioactive compounds in tomato and tomato based food, and these compounds function to promote health in the human organism. Several scientific studies show that tomato and tomato based products have several molecules, some of them with antioxidant activity, that protect lipids, lipoproteins, DNA, etc. against free radicals. This function could be one of the causes of the apparent link between consumption and protection of degenerative and chronic diseases such as cancer, cardiovascular disease, Parkinson’s disease, etc. More recent studies have proposed different biochemical mechanisms in which tomato components can exert this beneficial role on health. In addition, several studies seem to show that the greatest benefit of this food is due to the synergistic effect between all its compounds. Some epidemiological studies associate that regular intake has several beneficial effects on health. Due to the association between bioactive compounds, daily tomato consumption and its effect on human health, the aim of the current literature review is summarize the compounds in this food and its possible actions on health.

  4. Influencing Factors of Catering and Food Service Industry Based on Principal Component Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Zi Tang

    2014-01-01

    Scientific analysis of influencing factors is of great importance for the healthy development of catering and food service industry. This study attempts to present a set of critical indicators for evaluating the contribution of influencing factors to catering and food service industry in the particular context of Harbin City, Northeast China. Ten indicators that correlate closely with catering and food service industry were identified and performed by the principal component analysis method u...

  5. The role of working memory sub-components in food choice and dieting success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitelock, Victoria; Nouwen, Arie; van den Akker, Olga; Higgs, Suzanne

    2018-05-01

    Evidence suggests a role for self-reported working memory (WM) in self-reported food intake, but it is not known which WM sub-components are involved. It is also important to consider how individual differences in dietary restraint and disinhibition influence WM and the impact of this on food choice. The current study assessed the relationship between WM sub-components and food choice, using computerised measures of WM sub-components and a direct assessment of food intake. The role of dieting success (measured by restraint and disinhibition) as a distal predictor of food choice that influences food choices via WM, and the role of WM more generally in dieting success were investigated. Female undergraduate students (N = 117, mean age: 18.9 years, mean BMI: 21.6 kg/m 2 ) completed computer tasks assessing three components of WM (updating, phonological loop and visuospatial sketchpad) and a snack food taste-test. Greater visuospatial WM span was associated with a higher (lower) percentage of food intake that was low (high) energy dense. It was also found that unsuccessful dieters (high restraint, high disinhibition) had poorer visuospatial WM span and consumed a lower (higher) percentage of low (high) energy dense food. Visuospatial WM span significantly mediated the relationship between dieting success and percentage of low energy dense food intake. Further, dietary restraint was associated with poorer updating ability, irrespective of disinhibition. These findings suggest that better visuospatial WM is associated with a greater (reduced) preference for low (high) energy dense foods, and that deficits in visuospatial WM may undermine dieting attempts. Future work should assess whether the ability to deal with food cravings mediates the relationship between visuospatial WM and dieting success and investigate how WM may influence the mechanisms underlying behavioural control. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The functional and biological properties of whey proteins: prospects for the development of functional foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. J. T. KORHONEN

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Advances in processing technologies and the accumulation of scientific data on the functional and biological properties of whey components have contributed to the growing commercial valuation of cheese whey over the last decade. New membrane separation and chromatographic techniques have made it possible to fractionate and enrich various components of whey more efficiently than before. The specific properties of these components can now be examined in greater detail and new applications developed accordingly. The utilisation of cheese whey is evolving into a new industry producing a multitude of purified ingredients for numerous purposes. The most significant areas of R&D related to whey proteins include functional foods, the rheological properties of foodstuffs, and biopharmaceuticals.

  7. 78 FR 52429 - Indirect Food Additives: Adhesives and Components of Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-23

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 175 Indirect Food Additives: Adhesives and Components of Coatings CFR Correction In Title 21 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Parts 170 to 199, revised as of April 1, 2013, on page 196, in Sec. 175.320, in paragraph (c), in...

  8. Functional Principal Components Analysis of Shanghai Stock Exchange 50 Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiliang Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this paper is to explore the principle components of Shanghai stock exchange 50 index by means of functional principal component analysis (FPCA. Functional data analysis (FDA deals with random variables (or process with realizations in the smooth functional space. One of the most popular FDA techniques is functional principal component analysis, which was introduced for the statistical analysis of a set of financial time series from an explorative point of view. FPCA is the functional analogue of the well-known dimension reduction technique in the multivariate statistical analysis, searching for linear transformations of the random vector with the maximal variance. In this paper, we studied the monthly return volatility of Shanghai stock exchange 50 index (SSE50. Using FPCA to reduce dimension to a finite level, we extracted the most significant components of the data and some relevant statistical features of such related datasets. The calculated results show that regarding the samples as random functions is rational. Compared with the ordinary principle component analysis, FPCA can solve the problem of different dimensions in the samples. And FPCA is a convenient approach to extract the main variance factors.

  9. Development of Functional Foods for Body Protection Using Radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jo, S. K.; Jung, U. H.; Park, H. R.

    2007-07-15

    We have previously developed two herbal compositions(HemoHIM, HemoTonic) that protects immune/hematopoietic system and self-renewal tissues against radiation and enhances immune/hematopoietic functions. In this study, we tried to expand its usability by verifying its protective activity against various harmful stimuli as well as radiation. HemoHIM was shown to be highly effective in reducing immune/hematopoietic damage, particularly, normalizing the Th1/Th2 imbalance, which seemed to be a result of increased production of IL-12p70 by APC and enhanced NK cell activity. Also HemoHIM was shown to have protective activities against UV-induced skin damage, immune system damage by an anticancer drug (CP), immune depression by old age and stress, and inflammation. Finally it was confirmed in a human study that HemoHIM improves the immune cell functions and cytokine production. Based on these results, HemoHIM has been approved as a health functional food for immunomodulation by Korea FDA and succeeded in its industrialization. Meanwhile, to develop functional foods for the reduction of chronic radiation damage (carcinogenesis), we have screened natural products for inhibitory activities against carcinogenesis-related factors, and developed two anti-carcinogenic compositions. Also 6 single compounds were isolated and identified from radioprotective natural products and elucidated some synergistic protection by several single compounds and established a basis for the development of advanced technology for radioprotection. Also, to obtain the applicability of radiation technology for the safe sanitatation and distribution of functional food materials, we verified the toxicological safety, stability of activity and active components of irradiated medicinal herbs

  10. Development of Functional Foods for Body Protection Using Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jo, S. K.; Jung, U. H.; Park, H. R.

    2007-07-01

    We have previously developed two herbal compositions(HemoHIM, HemoTonic) that protects immune/hematopoietic system and self-renewal tissues against radiation and enhances immune/hematopoietic functions. In this study, we tried to expand its usability by verifying its protective activity against various harmful stimuli as well as radiation. HemoHIM was shown to be highly effective in reducing immune/hematopoietic damage, particularly, normalizing the Th1/Th2 imbalance, which seemed to be a result of increased production of IL-12p70 by APC and enhanced NK cell activity. Also HemoHIM was shown to have protective activities against UV-induced skin damage, immune system damage by an anticancer drug (CP), immune depression by old age and stress, and inflammation. Finally it was confirmed in a human study that HemoHIM improves the immune cell functions and cytokine production. Based on these results, HemoHIM has been approved as a health functional food for immunomodulation by Korea FDA and succeeded in its industrialization. Meanwhile, to develop functional foods for the reduction of chronic radiation damage (carcinogenesis), we have screened natural products for inhibitory activities against carcinogenesis-related factors, and developed two anti-carcinogenic compositions. Also 6 single compounds were isolated and identified from radioprotective natural products and elucidated some synergistic protection by several single compounds and established a basis for the development of advanced technology for radioprotection. Also, to obtain the applicability of radiation technology for the safe sanitatation and distribution of functional food materials, we verified the toxicological safety, stability of activity and active components of irradiated medicinal herbs

  11. Immunomodulation by Food: Allergy Mitigation by Dietary Components

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wichers, H.J.; Mes, J.J.

    2011-01-01

    Proper and well-balanced immune functioning is of pivotal importance to health and well-being. In the past decades, there has been an apparent decrease in the prevalence of classical infectious diseases, with a concomitant increase in immune-related disorders, including allergies. Causally, a

  12. System diagnostics using qualitative analysis and component functional classification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reifman, J.; Wei, T.Y.C.

    1993-01-01

    A method for detecting and identifying faulty component candidates during off-normal operations of nuclear power plants involves the qualitative analysis of macroscopic imbalances in the conservation equations of mass, energy and momentum in thermal-hydraulic control volumes associated with one or more plant components and the functional classification of components. The qualitative analysis of mass and energy is performed through the associated equations of state, while imbalances in momentum are obtained by tracking mass flow rates which are incorporated into a first knowledge base. The plant components are functionally classified, according to their type, as sources or sinks of mass, energy and momentum, depending upon which of the three balance equations is most strongly affected by a faulty component which is incorporated into a second knowledge base. Information describing the connections among the components of the system forms a third knowledge base. The method is particularly adapted for use in a diagnostic expert system to detect and identify faulty component candidates in the presence of component failures and is not limited to use in a nuclear power plant, but may be used with virtually any type of thermal-hydraulic operating system. 5 figures

  13. NAD+ Is a Food Component That Promotes Exit from Dauer Diapause in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mykola Mylenko

    Full Text Available The free-living soil nematode Caenorhabditis elegans adapts its development to the availability of food. When food is scarce and population density is high, worms enter a developmentally arrested non-feeding diapause stage specialized for long-term survival called the dauer larva. When food becomes available, they exit from the dauer stage, resume growth and reproduction. It has been postulated that compound(s present in food, referred to as the "food signal", promote exit from the dauer stage. In this study, we have identified NAD+ as a component of bacterial extract that promotes dauer exit. NAD+, when dissolved in alkaline medium, causes opening of the mouth and ingestion of food. We also show that to initiate exit from the dauer stage in response to NAD+ worms require production of serotonin. Thus, C. elegans can use redox cofactors produced by dietary organisms to sense food.

  14. Consumer Market for Functional Foods in South Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia Dutra de Barcellos

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims at investigating the consumer market for functional foods (FF in Porto Alegre, South Brazil. Functional food is any healthy food claimed to have a health-promoting or disease-preventing property beyond the basic function of supplying nutrients. Health has been named as the most significant trend and innovation driver in the global food and drinks market. Brazil is one of the leading countries in food production and consumption, and the market for functional foods have been growing 10% per year, three times more than the market for conventional foods. Although this food category is considered mature in some developed markets (such as in Japan, in the Nordic countries and in the U.S, it is still unknown for many consumers, especially those located in developing countries. On the other hand, functional foods has been attracting the attention of multinationals and local food industries in Brazil, since innovation can significantly impact on their competitive advantages. Therefore, in this study, first we are going to identify the availability of functional food products in the local retail market, through observation techniques. Our aim is to confront consumers’ needs with local food companies’ market supply. Secondly, we investigate consumers’ motivations, attitudes and intention to buy functional foods, since the market demands a better understanding of this trend. A survey with 450 consumers was conducted and provided quantitative insights. Results indicate that the market for functional foods in Rio Grande do Sul is incipient, but it is developing fast. There are few local functional food products in the market, but those are attractive to consumers and indicate promising opportunities. The survey shows that interviewed consumers presented positive attitudes towards functional foods and enough purchasing power to buy it. Dieticians, nutritionists and other health professionals have high credibility and could help inform

  15. Selecting the Number of Principal Components in Functional Data

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Yehua

    2013-12-01

    Functional principal component analysis (FPCA) has become the most widely used dimension reduction tool for functional data analysis. We consider functional data measured at random, subject-specific time points, contaminated with measurement error, allowing for both sparse and dense functional data, and propose novel information criteria to select the number of principal component in such data. We propose a Bayesian information criterion based on marginal modeling that can consistently select the number of principal components for both sparse and dense functional data. For dense functional data, we also develop an Akaike information criterion based on the expected Kullback-Leibler information under a Gaussian assumption. In connecting with the time series literature, we also consider a class of information criteria proposed for factor analysis of multivariate time series and show that they are still consistent for dense functional data, if a prescribed undersmoothing scheme is undertaken in the FPCA algorithm. We perform intensive simulation studies and show that the proposed information criteria vastly outperform existing methods for this type of data. Surprisingly, our empirical evidence shows that our information criteria proposed for dense functional data also perform well for sparse functional data. An empirical example using colon carcinogenesis data is also provided to illustrate the results. Supplementary materials for this article are available online. © 2013 American Statistical Association.

  16. Drosophila Learn Opposing Components of a Compound Food Stimulus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Gaurav; Klappenbach, Martín; Vrontou, Eleftheria; Perisse, Emmanuel; Clark, Christopher M.; Burke, Christopher J.; Waddell, Scott

    2014-01-01

    Summary Dopaminergic neurons provide value signals in mammals and insects [1–3]. During Drosophila olfactory learning, distinct subsets of dopaminergic neurons appear to assign either positive or negative value to odor representations in mushroom body neurons [4–9]. However, it is not known how flies evaluate substances that have mixed valence. Here we show that flies form short-lived aversive olfactory memories when trained with odors and sugars that are contaminated with the common insect repellent DEET. This DEET-aversive learning required the MB-MP1 dopaminergic neurons that are also required for shock learning [7]. Moreover, differential conditioning with DEET versus shock suggests that formation of these distinct aversive olfactory memories relies on a common negatively reinforcing dopaminergic mechanism. Surprisingly, as time passed after training, the behavior of DEET-sugar-trained flies reversed from conditioned odor avoidance into odor approach. In addition, flies that were compromised for reward learning exhibited a more robust and longer-lived aversive-DEET memory. These data demonstrate that flies independently process the DEET and sugar components to form parallel aversive and appetitive olfactory memories, with distinct kinetics, that compete to guide learned behavior. PMID:25042590

  17. The proposal of vinegar farm with the character of functional foods.

    OpenAIRE

    HRDINOVÁ, Vendula

    2014-01-01

    The work is focused on the development of a new functional food . The functional food in addition to nutrient sources must clearly contribute to the health improvement thanks to another ingredient which must be of natural origin. I chose vinegar as the basic component in my work. The vinegar can be made in a vinegar manufacturer through classical oxidation technique of diluted ethanol solution by acetic bacteria on the large contact surface with air alcohol analysis . Diluted ethanol may well...

  18. Nutrition by design: a review of biotechnology in functional food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Reynolds

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Medical institutions in industrial and developing countries are increasingly turning to functional foods as intervention in chronic disease. Advances in genetic engineering have provided methods of purposefully designing functional foods and bioactive compound-producing organisms. This literature review examines the recent history of biotechnological applications in functional food, the state of bioagricultural engineering for high-value compound production, and the challenges that developers face in promulgatingfunctional foods from biotechnological sources. Based on the literature reviewed, it is predicted that adding biotechnologically-produced compounds will be more successful in producing novel functional foods. Conclusion: Current functional food application is frequently hampered by a dearth of foods suitable to the purpose. The concurrent advent of biotechnology means that producers and clinicians are not constrained by limited and precarious natural development. Biotechnology has already produced altered dietary staples that can safely induce real health benefits, but the social approval of genetically modified foodstuffs is inconsistent at best. Modifying microalgae to produce micro and macronutrients, for harvest and incorporation into functional food products, provides the ideal specificity and reliability for bioactive compound use. However, its application in biomedical science is impeded by technical difficulty. It remains to be seen if microorganism engineering willbe able to meet the needs of its many stakeholders, including the functional food community. Nonetheless,the prospect of a flourishing functional food market, and the healthier population it will bring about, certainly makes it worth a try.

  19. Specification of optical components using Wigner distribution function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Jiancheng; Li Haibo; Xu Qiao; Chai Liqun; Fan Changjiang

    2010-01-01

    In order to characterize and specify small-scale local wavefront deformation of optical component, a method based on Wigner distribution function has been proposed, which can describe wavefront deformation in spatial and spatial frequency domain. The relationship between Wigner distribution function and power spectral density is analyzed and thus the specification of small-scale local wavefront deformation is obtained by Wigner distribution function. Simulation and experiment demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method. The proposed method can not only identify whether the optical component meets the requirement of inertial confinement fusion (ICF), but also determine t he location where small-scale wavefront deformation is unqualified. Thus it provides an effective guide to the revision of unqualified optical components. (authors)

  20. Food insecurity and cognitive function in Puerto Rican adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Food insecurity is associated with nutrient inadequacy and a variety of unfavorable health outcomes. However, little is known about whether food security is associated with lower cognitive function in the elderly. We investigated the prevalence of food insecurity in a representative sample of 1358 P...

  1. Authorization for the functioning of installations for food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-09-01

    The conditions for the functioning of nuclear installations destinated to food irradiation are established according to the decree n 0 72718 of August, 29, 1973. These conditions are applied to any nuclear installations that uses food irradiation aiming to research or production of food in industrial scale. (E.G.) [pt

  2. Occurrence and function of yeasts in Asian indigenous fermented foods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aidoo, K.E.; Nout, M.J.R.; Sarkar, P.K.

    2006-01-01

    In the Asian region, indigenous fermented foods are important in daily life. In many of these foods, yeasts are predominant and functional during the fermentation. The diversity of foods in which yeasts predominate ranges from leavened bread-like products such as nan and idli, to alcoholic beverages

  3. Suitability of Different Food Grade Materials for the Encapsulation of Some Functional Foods Well Reported for Their Advantages and Susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wani, Touseef Ahmed; Shah, Adil Gani; Wani, Sajad Mohd; Wani, Idrees Ahmed; Masoodi, Farooq Ahmad; Nissar, Nazia; Shagoo, Mudasir Ahmad

    2016-11-17

    Functional foods find a very important place in the modern era, where different types of cancer, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, etc. are on a high. Irrespective of the abundance of bioactive components in different fruits and vegetables, their low solubility in aqueous solution, vulnerability to destruction in different environmental and gastrointestinal conditions and a low intestinal absorption becomes a concern. Because it is quite difficult to commercialize non food materials for the food encapsulation purposes due to their safety concerns in the human body, scientists in the recent times have come up with the idea of encapsulating the different bioactive components in different food grade materials that are able to safeguard these bioactive components against the different environmental and gastrointestinal conditions and ensure their safe and targeted delivery at their absorption sites. Different food grade encapsulation materials including various oligosaccharides, polysaccharides (starch, cyclodextrins, alginates, chitosan, gum arabic, and carboxymethyl cellulose) and proteins and their suitability for encapsulating various bioactive components like flavonoids (catechins, rutin, curcumin, hesperetin, and vanillin), nonflavonoids (resveratrol), carotenoids (β-carotene, lycopene, and lutein), and fatty acids (fish oil, flaxseed oil, and olive oil) of high medical and nutritional value are reviewed here.

  4. Longitudinal functional principal component modelling via Stochastic Approximation Monte Carlo

    KAUST Repository

    Martinez, Josue G.

    2010-06-01

    The authors consider the analysis of hierarchical longitudinal functional data based upon a functional principal components approach. In contrast to standard frequentist approaches to selecting the number of principal components, the authors do model averaging using a Bayesian formulation. A relatively straightforward reversible jump Markov Chain Monte Carlo formulation has poor mixing properties and in simulated data often becomes trapped at the wrong number of principal components. In order to overcome this, the authors show how to apply Stochastic Approximation Monte Carlo (SAMC) to this problem, a method that has the potential to explore the entire space and does not become trapped in local extrema. The combination of reversible jump methods and SAMC in hierarchical longitudinal functional data is simplified by a polar coordinate representation of the principal components. The approach is easy to implement and does well in simulated data in determining the distribution of the number of principal components, and in terms of its frequentist estimation properties. Empirical applications are also presented.

  5. Safety functions and component classification for BWR, PWR and PTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    The Safety Guide forms part of the IAEA programme, referred to as the NUSS programme (Nuclear Safety Standards), for establishing Codes of Practice and Safety Guides relating to thermal neutron power plants. The present Safety Guide has the following chapters: safety functions, ranking of safety functions, assignment of safety class requirements. Design requirements for structural integrity of boundaries of fluid-retaining components are also discussed

  6. Extracting functional components of neural dynamics with Independent Component Analysis and inverse Current Source Density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lęski, Szymon; Kublik, Ewa; Swiejkowski, Daniel A; Wróbel, Andrzej; Wójcik, Daniel K

    2010-12-01

    Local field potentials have good temporal resolution but are blurred due to the slow spatial decay of the electric field. For simultaneous recordings on regular grids one can reconstruct efficiently the current sources (CSD) using the inverse Current Source Density method (iCSD). It is possible to decompose the resultant spatiotemporal information about the current dynamics into functional components using Independent Component Analysis (ICA). We show on test data modeling recordings of evoked potentials on a grid of 4 × 5 × 7 points that meaningful results are obtained with spatial ICA decomposition of reconstructed CSD. The components obtained through decomposition of CSD are better defined and allow easier physiological interpretation than the results of similar analysis of corresponding evoked potentials in the thalamus. We show that spatiotemporal ICA decompositions can perform better for certain types of sources but it does not seem to be the case for the experimental data studied. Having found the appropriate approach to decomposing neural dynamics into functional components we use the technique to study the somatosensory evoked potentials recorded on a grid spanning a large part of the forebrain. We discuss two example components associated with the first waves of activation of the somatosensory thalamus. We show that the proposed method brings up new, more detailed information on the time and spatial location of specific activity conveyed through various parts of the somatosensory thalamus in the rat.

  7. Food for fish, food for thought: managing the invisible components of streams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sally Duncan

    2001-01-01

    Over the years, scientists have published many results from studies about the importance of habitat such as woody debris for supporting fish populations. They also have learned much about the ways in which land management activities can enhance or degrade such habitat. They know much less, however, about the food half of this foo-and-shelter equation.In the...

  8. Nutritional status, functional ability and food habits of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Questionnaires were used to collect information on types of foods, amount and frequency of consumption and functional abilities of the elderly. Amount of food consumed was ... The most common functional disability was urinary incontinence (36%) while feeding (5%) was the least common. The most affected by urinary ...

  9. Developing knowledge level scale of functional foods: Validity and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of the study was to develop a scale to determine the knowledge levels of University students on functional foods and to investigate the validity and reliability of the scale. The research was conducted on 417 (209 girls and 208 boys) undergraduate students in Selcuk University regarding functional foods.

  10. Clinical Components of Borderline Personality Disorder and Personality Functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrer, Marc; Andión, Óscar; Calvo, Natalia; Hörz, Susanne; Fischer-Kern, Melitta; Kapusta, Nestor D; Schneider, Gudrun; Clarkin, John F; Doering, Stephan

    2018-01-01

    Impairment in personality functioning (PF) represents a salient criterion of the DSM-5 alternative diagnostic model for personality disorders (AMPD). The main goal of this study is to analyze the relationship of the borderline personality disorder (BPD) clinical components derived from the DSM-5 categorical diagnostic model (affective dysregulation, behavioral dysregulation, and disturbed relatedness) with personality organization (PO), i.e., PF, assessed by the Structured Interview of Personality Organization (STIPO). STIPO and the Structured Clinical Interviews for DSM-IV (SCID-I and -II) were administered to 206 BPD patients. The relationship between PO and BPD components were studied using Spearman correlations and independent linear regression analyses. Significant positive correlations were observed between STIPO scores and several DSM-5 BPD criteria and comorbid psychiatric disorders. STIPO dimensions mainly correlated with disturbed relatedness and, to a lesser extent, affective dysregulation components. Each BPD clinical component was associated with specific STIPO dimensions. Both diagnostic models, DSM-5 BPD criteria and PO, are not only related but complementary concepts. The results of this study particularly recommend STIPO for the assessment of relational functioning, which is a major domain of the Personality Functioning Scale Levels of the DSM-5 AMPD. © 2018 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. Executive Function and Food Approach Behavior in Middle Childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karoline eGroppe

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Executive function (EF has long been considered to be a unitary, domain-general cognitive ability. However, recent research suggests differentiating ‘hot’ affective and ‘cool’ cognitive aspects of EF. Yet, findings regarding this two-factor construct are still inconsistent. In particular, the development of this factor structure remains unclear and data on school-aged children is lacking. Furthermore, studies linking EF and overweight or obesity suggest that EF contributes to the regulation of eating behavior. So far, however, the links between EF and eating behavior have rarely been investigated in children and non-clinical populations.First, we examined whether EF can be divided into hot and cool factors or whether they actually correspond to a unitary construct in middle childhood. Second, we examined how hot and cool EF are associated with different eating styles that put children at risk of becoming overweight during development. Hot and cool EF were assessed experimentally in a non-clinical population of 1,657 elementary-school children (aged 6-11 years. The ‘food approach’ behavior was rated mainly via parent questionnaires.Findings indicate that hot EF is distinguishable from cool EF. However, only cool EF seems to represent a coherent functional entity, whereas hot EF does not seem to be a homogenous construct. This was true for a younger and an older subgroup of children. Furthermore, different EF components were correlated with eating styles, such as responsiveness to food, desire to drink, and restrained eating in girls but not in boys. This shows that lower levels of EF are not only seen in clinical populations of obese patients but are already associated with food approach styles in a normal population of elementary school-aged girls. Although the direction of effect still has to be clarified, results point to the possibility that EF constitutes a risk factor for eating styles contributing to the development of

  12. Exchange of rotor components in functioning bacterial flagellar motor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukuoka, Hajime; Inoue, Yuichi; Terasawa, Shun; Takahashi, Hiroto; Ishijima, Akihiko

    2010-01-01

    The bacterial flagellar motor is a rotary motor driven by the electrochemical potential of a coupling ion. The interaction between a rotor and stator units is thought to generate torque. The overall structure of flagellar motor has been thought to be static, however, it was recently proved that stators are exchanged in a rotating motor. Understanding the dynamics of rotor components in functioning motor is important for the clarifying of working mechanism of bacterial flagellar motor. In this study, we focused on the dynamics and the turnover of rotor components in a functioning flagellar motor. Expression systems for GFP-FliN, FliM-GFP, and GFP-FliG were constructed, and each GFP-fusion was functionally incorporated into the flagellar motor. To investigate whether the rotor components are exchanged in a rotating motor, we performed fluorescence recovery after photobleaching experiments using total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy. After photobleaching, in a tethered cell producing GFP-FliN or FliM-GFP, the recovery of fluorescence at the rotational center was observed. However, in a cell producing GFP-FliG, no recovery of fluorescence was observed. The transition phase of fluorescence intensity after full or partially photobleaching allowed the turnover of FliN subunits to be calculated as 0.0007 s -1 , meaning that FliN would be exchanged in tens of minutes. These novel findings indicate that a bacterial flagellar motor is not a static structure even in functioning state. This is the first report for the exchange of rotor components in a functioning bacterial flagellar motor.

  13. Innovation strategies for functional foods and supplements. Challenges of the positioning between foods and drugs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bröring, S.

    2010-01-01

    Functional benefits delivering more than a nutritional value to consumers present an opportunity for above average returns and, thus, have triggered numerous innovations from food as well as pharmaceutical companies. This development of functional foods and supplements has led to a new

  14. Modeling complex and multi-component food systems in molecular dynamics simulations on the example of chocolate conching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greiner, Maximilian; Sonnleitner, Bettina; Mailänder, Markus; Briesen, Heiko

    2014-02-01

    Additional benefits of foods are an increasing factor in the consumer's purchase. To produce foods with the properties the consumer demands, understanding the micro- and nanostructure is becoming more important in food research today. We present molecular dynamics (MD) simulations as a tool to study complex and multi-component food systems on the example of chocolate conching. The process of conching is chosen because of the interesting challenges it provides: the components (fats, emulsifiers and carbohydrates) contain diverse functional groups, are naturally fluctuating in their chemical composition, and have a high number of internal degrees of freedom. Further, slow diffusion in the non-aqueous medium is expected. All of these challenges are typical to food systems in general. Simulation results show the suitability of present force fields to correctly model the liquid and crystal density of cocoa butter and sucrose, respectively. Amphiphilic properties of emulsifiers are observed by micelle formation in water. For non-aqueous media, pulling simulations reveal high energy barriers for motion in the viscous cocoa butter. The work for detachment of an emulsifier from the sucrose crystal is calculated and matched with detachment of the head and tail groups separately. Hydrogen bonding is shown to be the dominant interaction between the emulsifier and the crystal surface. Thus, MD simulations are suited to model the interaction between the emulsifier and sugar crystal interface in non-aqueous media, revealing detailed information about the structuring and interactions on a molecular level. With interaction parameters being available for a wide variety of chemical groups, MD simulations are a valuable tool to understand complex and multi-component food systems in general. MD simulations provide a substantial benefit to researchers to verify their hypothesis in dynamic simulations with an atomistic resolution. Rapid rise of computational resources successively

  15. Pinto Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L. as a Functional Food: Implications on Human Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicki Schlegel

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Most foods are considered functional in terms of providing nutrients and energy to sustain daily life, but dietary systems that are capable of preventing or remediating a stressed or diseased state are classified as functional foods. Dry beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L. contain high levels of chemically diverse components (phenols, resistance starch, vitamins, fructooligosaccharides that have shown to protect against such conditions as oxidative stress, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, metabolic syndrome, and many types of cancer, thereby positioning this legume as an excellent functional food. Moreover, the United States has a rich dry bean history and is currently a top producer of dry beans in the world with pinto beans accounting for the vast majority. Despite these attributes, dry bean consumption in the US remains relatively low. Therefore, the objective of this manuscript is to review dry beans as an important US agricultural crop and as functional food for the present age with an emphasis on pinto beans.

  16. Development of plasma facing components with functionally gradient layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morimoto, M.; Kudough, F. [Mitsubishi Atomic Power Industries, Inc., Yokohama (Japan); Onozuka, M.; Tsunoda, H.; Toyoda, M. [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd., Yokohama (Japan)

    1994-11-01

    The use of functionally graded layers (FGLs) for plasma facing components (PFCs), owing to moderate or piecewise transition in material properties from low-Z surface materials to metal substrates, can provide reduction in thermal stresses, and also provide high thermal load resistance to PFCs. This article deals with the comparison of high heat flux testing and thermal stress analysis results on PFCs. Thermal stress analyses confirmed the thermal loading test results.

  17. Search for a bosonic component in the neutrino wave function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tornow, W.

    2010-01-01

    Recently, Dolgov and Smirnov speculated that neutrinos may not obey the principle named after their inventor, the Pauli Principle. The neutrino wave function may contain a bosonic component. In principle, two-neutrino double-beta (2ν2β) decay data could be used to check on the conjecture that neutrinos violate the Pauli Principle. Recent 2ν2β data on 100 Mo to both the ground state and excited states in 100 Ru will be used to illustrate the procedure.

  18. IR-360 nuclear power plant safety functions and component classification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yousefpour, F., E-mail: fyousefpour@snira.co [Management of Nuclear Power Plant Construction Company (MASNA) (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shokri, F.; Soltani, H. [Management of Nuclear Power Plant Construction Company (MASNA) (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2010-10-15

    The IR-360 nuclear power plant as a 2-loop PWR of 360 MWe power generation capacity is under design in MASNA Company. For design of the IR-360 structures, systems and components (SSCs), the codes and standards and their design requirements must be determined. It is a prerequisite to classify the IR-360 safety functions and safety grade of structures, systems and components correctly for selecting and adopting the suitable design codes and standards. This paper refers to the IAEA nuclear safety codes and standards as well as USNRC standard system to determine the IR-360 safety functions and to formulate the principles of the IR-360 component classification in accordance with the safety philosophy and feature of the IR-360. By implementation of defined classification procedures for the IR-360 SSCs, the appropriate design codes and standards are specified. The requirements of specific codes and standards are used in design process of IR-360 SSCs by design engineers of MASNA Company. In this paper, individual determination of the IR-360 safety functions and definition of the classification procedures and roles are presented. Implementation of this work which is described with example ensures the safety and reliability of the IR-360 nuclear power plant.

  19. IR-360 nuclear power plant safety functions and component classification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yousefpour, F.; Shokri, F.; Soltani, H.

    2010-01-01

    The IR-360 nuclear power plant as a 2-loop PWR of 360 MWe power generation capacity is under design in MASNA Company. For design of the IR-360 structures, systems and components (SSCs), the codes and standards and their design requirements must be determined. It is a prerequisite to classify the IR-360 safety functions and safety grade of structures, systems and components correctly for selecting and adopting the suitable design codes and standards. This paper refers to the IAEA nuclear safety codes and standards as well as USNRC standard system to determine the IR-360 safety functions and to formulate the principles of the IR-360 component classification in accordance with the safety philosophy and feature of the IR-360. By implementation of defined classification procedures for the IR-360 SSCs, the appropriate design codes and standards are specified. The requirements of specific codes and standards are used in design process of IR-360 SSCs by design engineers of MASNA Company. In this paper, individual determination of the IR-360 safety functions and definition of the classification procedures and roles are presented. Implementation of this work which is described with example ensures the safety and reliability of the IR-360 nuclear power plant.

  20. Membrane processes in production of functional whey components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lutfiye Yilmaz-Ersan

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, whey has been recognised as a major source of nutritional and functional ingredients for the food industry. Commercial whey products include various powders, whey protein concentrates and isolates, and fractionated proteins, such as a-lactalbumin and b-lactoglobulin. The increased interest in separation and fractionation of whey proteins arises from the differences in their functional, biological and nutritional properties. In response to concerns about environmental aspects, research has been focused on membrane filtration technology, which provides exciting new opportunities for large-scale protein and lactose fractionation. Membrane separation is such technique in which particles are separated according to their molecular size. The types of membrane processing techniques are ultrafiltration, microfiltration, reverse osmosis, pervaporation, electrodialysis and nanofiltration. A higher purification of whey proteins is possible by combining membrane separation with ion-exchange. This paper provides an overview of types and applications of membrane separation techniques

  1. Preparation and evaluation of functional foods in adjuvant arthritis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Okbi, S. Y.; Mohamed, D. A.

    2012-07-01

    Adjuvant arthritis is an animal model that closely resembles rheumatoid arthritis in humans. It is a successful working model used to study new anti-inflammatory agents. In previous studies (animal and clinical) we have shown that evening primrose oil, fish oil and the methanol extract of date fruits and fenugreek seeds have anti-inflammatory activity and that the methanol extract of dates has an antioxidant effect. Based on these studies, the aim of the present study was to prepare 7 functional foods containing such bioactive fractions separately or in combination and to evaluate them in adjuvant arthritis in rats, study the stability of bioactive ingredients and evaluate their sensory properties. The studied biochemical parameters were erythrocyte sedimentation rate, erythrocyte superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and plasma copper, zinc and interlukin 2. Nutritional parameters, including body weight gain, food intake and food efficiency ratio were monitored during the feeding of the functional foods. The bioactive ingredients assessed were total phenolic contents and fatty acids. The results showed improvement in the biochemical parameters, body weight gain and food efficiency ratio of arthritic rats fed on the functional foods with different degrees. All the prepared functional foods were sensory accepted. The active ingredients showed stability during storage. In conclusion, all the tested functional foods showed promising antiinflammatory activity and were determined to be acceptable through sensory evaluation which means that their potential beneficial use as dietary supplements in rheumatoid arthritis patients may be recommended. (Author) 42 refs.

  2. Biomagnification of persistent chlorinated and brominated contaminants in food web components of the Yellow Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byun, Gyo-Hyuk; Moon, Hyo-Bang; Choi, Jung-Hwa; Hwang, Jeomshik; Kang, Chang-Keun

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • PCBs, OCPs, and PBDEs were analyzed for 32 marine species in the Yellow Sea. • Their bioaccumulation potentials were assessed in combination with stable isotopes. • Pelagic and benthic food-chain components were separated by their δ 13 C values. • Pelagic food chain was a major bioaccumulation pathway for selected PCBs and OCPs. • The other compounds displayed low bioaccumulation potentials through food chains. -- Abstract: Concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were measured in 32 species inhabiting the Yellow Sea to assess their bioaccumulation potentials. The concentrations in these samples were lower than those reported for other countries or locations. Relatively high levels of BDE 209 in biota suggest an ongoing source of deca-BDE technical mixing within the Yellow Sea. The accumulation profiles of PCBs were uniform between species, but the concentrations of OCPs and PBDEs varied widely. Pelagic and benthic food-chain components were separated by their δ 13 C values. Significant positive correlations between δ 15 N and PCB 153, PCB 138, p,p′-DDE, oxy-chlordane, and trans-nonachlordane were found only for pelagic consumers, indicating that the pelagic food chain is an important bioaccumulation pathway for selected PCB and OCP compounds. The other compounds did not show any biomagnification through benthic and pelagic food chains, suggesting the lower bioaccumulation potentials of these contaminants

  3. 77 FR 50716 - Certain Food Waste Disposers and Components and Packaging Thereof; Notice of Commission...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-22

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 337-TA-838] Certain Food Waste Disposers and Components and Packaging Thereof; Notice of Commission Determination Not to Review an Initial Determination Granting Complainant's Motions To Amend the Notice of Investigation and Complaint AGENCY: U.S...

  4. Food and feed components for gut health-promoting adhesion of E. coli Salmonella enterica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Becker, P.M.; Galletti, S.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A host runs less risk of contracting a gastrointestinal infection when enteropathogenic bacteria adhere to dietary fibers instead of to epithelial cell receptors. The aim of this study was to test the binding capacity of food and feed components for intestinal bacteria from various hosts

  5. Non-dairy probiotic food products: An emerging group of functional foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Min; Bunt, Craig R; Mason, Susan L; Hussain, Malik A

    2018-04-09

    The functional food sector has shown tremendous growth in recent years with the application of probiotic bacteria as "food additives". The utilization of probiotic bacteria in food presents many challenges related to their growth, survival, viability, stability and functionality in food processing, storage and consumption as well as changes of sensory characteristics of probiotic foods. Although dairy foods are currently the most common food carrier to deliver probiotics, an increasing number of non-dairy food matrices exhibit potential for delivery of probiotics. This review provides more recent insight into the emergence of non-dairy probiotics products, the interactions between probiotics and different food matrices and the challenges in developing such products. Some of the technical issues are also reviewed and discussed. These issues include the efficacy of probiotic bacteria in non-chilled, low pH or high water activity foods; the potential loss of bacterial viability, additionally unwanted fermentation and changes of the sensory characteristics of food products which may result in poor microbiological quality and low acceptability to consumers.

  6. Functional foods in pet nutrition: Focus on dogs and cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Cerbo, Alessandro; Morales-Medina, Julio Cesar; Palmieri, Beniamino; Pezzuto, Federica; Cocco, Raffaella; Flores, Gonzalo; Iannitti, Tommaso

    2017-06-01

    Functional foods provide health benefits if they are consumed on a regular basis as part of a varied diet. In this review, we discuss the availability and role of functional foods in pet nutrition with a focus on dogs and cats. Indeed, functional foods modify gastrointestinal physiology, promote changes in biochemical parameters, improve brain functions and may reduce or minimize the risk of developing specific pathologies. This evidence derives largely from clinical studies while only limited evidence is available from studies in dogs and cats. Therefore, functional food consumption should be further investigated in pet nutrition to understand how dietary interventions can be used for disease prevention and treatment. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  7. Regulations on health/functional foods in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ji Yeon; Kim, Dai Byung; Lee, Hyong Joo

    2006-01-01

    The term 'health/functional food' (HFF) refers to food supplements containing nutrients or other substances (in a concentrated form) that have a nutritional or physiological effect whose purpose is to supplement the normal diet. The Korean Health/Functional Food Act that came into effect in 2004 requires these products to be marketed in measured doses, such as in pills, tablets, capsules, and liquids. HFFs are of two types: generic and product-specific. There are 37 ingredients listed in the act for generic HFFs, and if an HFF contains a new active ingredient that is not included in the generic 37 products, it is considered a product-specific HFF. The standardization, safety, and efficacy of a new active ingredient are reviewed by the Korean Food and Drug Administration in order to receive approval as a product-specific HFF. Conforming with international standards and protecting public health requires constant upgrading of the Health/Functional Food Act

  8. [Introduction of Functional Foods--Types, Manufacturing Methods and Quality Assurance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budai, Kinga Anna; Hankó, Balázs; AntalL, István; Zelkó, Romána

    2015-01-01

    Because of the beneficial effects to health functional foods are important elements of health promotion. The positive effect of the functional components should be based on scientific evidence-based. In addition to the traditional food processing technology new technologies have appeared, e.g. microencapsulation, edible coatings and orodispersible films, nano-technology, vacuum impregnation. In the present study, probiotics and the structure, the production and the impact of prebiotic functional cereals are discussed in more detail. In addition to their numerous advantages in connection with the safe application, several questions arise because of inadequate quality control measures prior to coming onto the market.

  9. The significance and possibility of functional food production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrijević-Branković Suzana I.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Abundant knowledge of the significance of food quality for all human living functions as well as growing human population and the occurrence of world "hidden hunger", directed food producers toward new production processes of and new product development that must satisfy the specific needs of different categories of consumers. The differences are reflected in sex age, religious affiliation, activity, health, social status etc. "Organic", "natural, minimal processing, functional (and often called "therapeutical" food nowadays represents the key interest of nutritionists, physicians and food producers. Such food should have a beneficial influence on human health, besides satisfying the nutritive and energetic necessities, by protective, prophylactic and healing performance. This paper discusses facts about the influence of food on human health, problems of malnutrition in developing and developed countries, presents states of food production in the world and in Yugoslavia, legislation and regulations on nourishment and food production, the disadvantages of former concepts of development of this production and possible directions of future trends with a particular review on functional food production.

  10. Application of damage functions to CTR component fluence limit predictions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simons, R.L.; Doran, D.G.

    1975-01-01

    Material behavior observed under irradiation conditions in test reactors is not always directly applicable to the design of reactor components such as CTR first wall because of differences in the damage effectiveness of test reactor and service spectra. The interpolation and, under some conditions, extrapolation of material property change data from test conditions to different neutron spectra in service conditions can be accomplished using semi-empirical damage functions. The derivation and application of damage functions to CTR conditions is reviewed. Since limited amounts of data are available for applications to CTR design spectra, considerable attention is placed on the effectiveness of various available and proposed neutron sources in determining a damage function and subsequent fluence limit prediction. Neutron sources included in this study were EBR-II, HIFR, LAMPF (Be and Cu targets), high energy deuterons incident on Be (D-Be), and 14 MeV neutrons (D-T)

  11. Fermented food in the context of a healthy diet: how to produce novel functional foods?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leroy, Frédéric; De Vuyst, Luc

    2014-11-01

    This review presents an overview of recent studies on the production of functional fermented foods, of both traditional and innovative natures, and the mapping of the functional compounds involved. The functional aspects of fermented foods are mostly related to the concept of probiotic bacteria or the targeted microbial generation of functional molecules, such as bioactive peptides, during food fermentation. Apart from conventional yoghurt and fermented milks, several fermented nondairy foods are globally gaining in interest, in particular from soy or cereal origin, sometimes novel but often originating from ethnic (Asian) diets. In addition, a range of functional nonmicrobial compounds may be added to the fermented food matrix. Overall, a wide variety of potential health benefits is being claimed, yet often poorly supported by mechanistic insights and rarely demonstrated with clinical trials or even animal models. Although functional foods offer considerable market potential, several issues still need to be addressed. As most of the studies on functional fermented foods are of a rather descriptive and preliminary nature, there is a clear need for mechanistic studies and well controlled in-vivo experiments.

  12. nutritional status, functional ability and food habits of institutionalised

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hi-tech

    2004-05-05

    May 5, 2004 ... Objective: To determine nutritional status, food habits and functional abilities of the institutionalised ... with special family work such as caring for young children, food ... The ability to get around in one' s environment is a basic ...

  13. Quality function deployment in the food industry: a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Costa, A.I.A.; Dekker, M.; Jongen, W.M.F.

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents a detailed literature review on the topic of the application of quality function deployment (QFD) in the food industry. This review is extended with a thorough description of the methodologies involved in the practice of QFD within food companies, exemplified with the help of a

  14. Functional MRI of food-induced brain responses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smeets, P.A.M.

    2006-01-01

    The ultimate goal of this research was to find central biomarkers of satiety, i.e., physiological measures in the brain that relate to subjectively rated appetite, actual food intake, or both. This thesis describes the changes in brain activity in response to food stimuli as measured by functional

  15. The "young" consumer perception of Functional Foods in Italy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giudice, Del T.; Nebbia, S.; Pascucci, S.

    2012-01-01

    We analysed the role of acceptance of functional foods (FFs) focusing on the preferences expressed by three distinct groups of young Italian consumers. FFs represent an innovation both in terms of technology and marketing for Italian food companies, and the segment of young consumers would appear

  16. Search for the active components and studies on the mechanism of the hematopoiesis improvement foods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yee, Sung Tae; Ha, Mee Hye; Jeong, Young Ran [Sunchon National University, Chonan (Korea)

    1999-04-01

    In this experiments, we established long-termed culture methods of bone marrow stromal cells for proliferation and differentiation of stem cells. And we selected some extracts which support maximal proliferation of stromal cells with this method. We conformed the synergic effects of herval mixture extracts for stromal cell growth. The proliferation of stromal cells was increased rather by the addition of mixture extracts than by addition of single strain extract. In the previous and cooperative experiments, we selected complex extracts which increased the number of nonadherent mononuclear cells. Different cytokine expression patterns were observed stromal cells cultured in the presence or absence of mixture extracts which support differentiation of nonadherent cells. Stimulation of macrophage cell line with herval extracts with the treatments of recombinant interferon-{gamma} resulted in increased nitric oxide synthesis in a dose-dependent manners. In addition, these extracts induced the same effects on the peritoneal macrophages. Altered patterns of cytokine mRNA expression - IL-1{beta}, IL-6, LT and iNOS-were observed in the stromals cells cultured with extracts of herbal plant. In regarding of the results, isolation and development of new and effective systems to screen for active hematopoietic component needs to be proceeded. Such studies on the hematopoietic modulation and mechanism of herbal plants would further lead to new avenues for the development of functional foods which effect such as radiation damages or leukemia. (author). 20 refs., 13 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Much Ado about Nothing?- The Influence of Functional Food on Profitability of German Food Industry.

    OpenAIRE

    Wittkopp, Antje

    2002-01-01

    Product innovation is a competitive strategy in food industry. Successful product development management is a key determinant of a firm?s performance. In recent years functional foods, which are innovative food products that provide health benefits beyond basic nutrition, have become increasingly important in Germany. Using the structure-conductperformance approach it can be argued that product innovation raises barriers to entry and thus improve profitability. This study examines the effect ...

  18. Consumers' behaviours and attitudes toward healthy food products: The case of organic and functional foods

    OpenAIRE

    Annunziata, Azzurra; Pascale, Paola

    2009-01-01

    Over the last decade consumers’ health consciousness is becoming an important factor driving the agrofood market. Healthier food products have entered the global markets with force in the past years and rapidly gained market share. Consequently, the food industry has reacted to this trend by developing a growing variety of new products with health-related claims and images, including organic and functional foods that are selected by consumers for their health-promoting properties. Currently, ...

  19. Antimicrobial activities of commercial essential oils and their components against food-borne pathogens and food spoilage bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mith, Hasika; Duré, Rémi; Delcenserie, Véronique; Zhiri, Abdesselam; Daube, Georges; Clinquart, Antoine

    2014-01-01

    This study was undertaken to determine the in vitro antimicrobial activities of 15 commercial essential oils and their main components in order to pre-select candidates for potential application in highly perishable food preservation. The antibacterial effects against food-borne pathogenic bacteria (Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella Typhimurium, and enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7) and food spoilage bacteria (Brochothrix thermosphacta and Pseudomonas fluorescens) were tested using paper disk diffusion method, followed by determination of minimum inhibitory (MIC) and bactericidal (MBC) concentrations. Most of the tested essential oils exhibited antimicrobial activity against all tested bacteria, except galangal oil. The essential oils of cinnamon, oregano, and thyme showed strong antimicrobial activities with MIC ≥ 0.125 μL/mL and MBC ≥ 0.25 μL/mL. Among tested bacteria, P. fluorescens was the most resistant to selected essential oils with MICs and MBCs of 1 μL/mL. The results suggest that the activity of the essential oils of cinnamon, oregano, thyme, and clove can be attributed to the existence mostly of cinnamaldehyde, carvacrol, thymol, and eugenol, which appear to possess similar activities against all the tested bacteria. These materials could be served as an important natural alternative to prevent bacterial growth in food products. PMID:25473498

  20. Enzyme technology for precision functional food ingredient processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Anne S.

    2010-01-01

    modification of potato starch processing residues. Such targeted enzyme-catalyzed reactions provide new invention opportunities for designing functional foods with significant health benefits. The provision of well-defined naturally structured compounds can, moreover, assist in obtaining the much...

  1. Genomics, proteomics, and metabolomics in nutraceuticals and functional foods

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bagchi, Debasis; Lau, Francis; Bagchi, Manashi

    2010-01-01

    .... This has brought a corresponding shift in research focus and in public awareness. Understanding the relevance of the scientific principles in determining the safety and effectiveness of functional foods and nutraceuticals is increasingly important...

  2. Analysis on the Industrial Design of Food Package and the Component of Hazardous Substance in the Packaging Material

    OpenAIRE

    Wei-Wen Huang

    2015-01-01

    Transferring the hazardous chemicals contained in food packaging materials into food would threaten the health of consumers, therefore, the related laws and regulations and the detection method of hazardous substance have been established at home and abroad to ensure the safety to use the food packaging material. According to the analysis on the hazardous component in the food packaging, a set of detection methods for hazardous substance in the food packaging was established in the paper and ...

  3. Critical components of odors in evaluating the performance of food waste composting plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mao, I-F.; Tsai, C.-J.; Shen, S.-H.; Lin, T.-F.; Chen, W.-K.; Chen, M.-L.

    2006-01-01

    The current Taiwan government policy toward food waste management encourages composting for resource recovery. This study used olfactometry, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and gas detector tubes to evaluate the ambient air at three of the largest food waste composting plants in Taiwan. Ambient air inside the plants, at exhaust outlets and plant boundaries was examined to determine the comprehensive odor performance, critical components, and odor elimination efficiencies of various odor control engineering. Analytical results identified 29 compounds, including ammonia, amines, acetic acid, and multiple volatile organic compounds (VOCs) (hydrocarbons, ketones, esters, terpenes and S-compounds) in the odor from food waste composting plants. Concentrations of six components - ammonia, amines, dimethyl sulfide, acetic acid, ethyl benzene and p-Cymene - exceeded human olfactory thresholds. Ammonia, amines, dimethyl sulfide and acetic acid accounted for most odors compared to numerous VOCs. The results also show that the biotrickling filter was better at eliminating the concentrations of odor, NH 3 , amines, S-compounds and VOCs than the chemical scrubber and biofilters. All levels measured by olfactometry at the boundaries of food waste composting plants (range, 74-115 Odor Concentration (OC)) exceeded Taiwan's EPA standard of 50 OC. This study indicated that the malodor problem continued to be a significant problem for food waste recovery

  4. Critical components of odors in evaluating the performance of food waste composting plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mao, I-F. [Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, National Yang-Ming University, No. 155, Sec.2, Li-Nong St., Beitou, Taipei, Taiwan (China)]. E-mail: ifmao@ym.edu.tw; Tsai, C.-J. [Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, National Yang-Ming University, No. 155, Sec.2, Li-Nong St., Beitou, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Shen, S.-H. [Department of Environment Management, Jin Wen Institute of Technology, No. 99, An-Chung Rd., Hsin-Tien City, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Lin, T.-F. [Institute of Environmental Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, No. 1, Ta-Hsueh Rd., Tainan, Taiwan (China); Chen, W.-K. [Department of Environment Management, Jin Wen Institute of Technology, No. 99, An-Chung Rd., Hsin-Tien City, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Chen, M.-L. [Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, National Yang-Ming University, No. 155, Sec.2, Li-Nong St., Beitou, Taipei, Taiwan (China)]. E-mail: mlchen@ym.edu.tw

    2006-11-01

    The current Taiwan government policy toward food waste management encourages composting for resource recovery. This study used olfactometry, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and gas detector tubes to evaluate the ambient air at three of the largest food waste composting plants in Taiwan. Ambient air inside the plants, at exhaust outlets and plant boundaries was examined to determine the comprehensive odor performance, critical components, and odor elimination efficiencies of various odor control engineering. Analytical results identified 29 compounds, including ammonia, amines, acetic acid, and multiple volatile organic compounds (VOCs) (hydrocarbons, ketones, esters, terpenes and S-compounds) in the odor from food waste composting plants. Concentrations of six components - ammonia, amines, dimethyl sulfide, acetic acid, ethyl benzene and p-Cymene - exceeded human olfactory thresholds. Ammonia, amines, dimethyl sulfide and acetic acid accounted for most odors compared to numerous VOCs. The results also show that the biotrickling filter was better at eliminating the concentrations of odor, NH{sub 3}, amines, S-compounds and VOCs than the chemical scrubber and biofilters. All levels measured by olfactometry at the boundaries of food waste composting plants (range, 74-115 Odor Concentration (OC)) exceeded Taiwan's EPA standard of 50 OC. This study indicated that the malodor problem continued to be a significant problem for food waste recovery.

  5. Search for a bosonic component in the neutrino wave function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tornow, W. [Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory (TUNL) and Duke University Department of Physics, P.O. Box 90308, Durham, NC 27708-0308 (United States)

    2010-11-01

    Recently, Dolgov and Smirnov speculated that neutrinos may not obey the principle named after their inventor, the Pauli Principle. The neutrino wave function may contain a bosonic component. In principle, two-neutrino double-beta (2{nu}2{beta}) decay data could be used to check on the conjecture that neutrinos violate the Pauli Principle. Recent 2{nu}2{beta} data on {sup 100}Mo to both the ground state and excited states in {sup 100}Ru will be used to illustrate the procedure.

  6. The relation between attitudes toward functional foods and satisfaction with food-related life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schnettler, Berta; Adasme-Berríos, Cristian; Grunert, Klaus G

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to assess the effect of attitudes towards functional foods (AFF) on university students’ satisfaction with food-related life (SWFL) and to distinguish student typologies, considering that the AFF are not homogeneous among consumers. Design/methodology/approach...

  7. Development of a locally sustainable functional food based on mutandabota, a traditional food in southern Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mpofu, A.; Linnemann, A.R.; Sybesma, W.; Kort, R.; Nout, M.J.R.; Smid, E.J.

    2014-01-01

    A probiotic dairy product was developed on the basis of a traditional dish called mutandabota to enable resource-poor populations in southern Africa to benefit from a functional food. Mutandabota is widely consumed in rural southern Africa, making it an ideal food matrix to carry probiotics. First,

  8. Folk to functional: An explorative overview of rice-based fermented foods and beverages in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mousumi Ray

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Fermented foods share an integral part of age-old wisdom from ancient Indian civilization. Over the generations, this pioneering practice of food fermentation has expanded and improved to preserve and fortify the available food resources, particularly to meet the hidden hunger. India, being the second largest producer of rice, has a great history of traditional rice-based fermented foods with different tastes and textures linked with cultural diversity and mostly prepared by rural women following village art techniques. Some of them have been scientifically investigated and it has been revealed that microflora in natural or starter culture plays imperative roles to bio-embolden the rice with varieties of health promoting macronutrients and micronutrients, phytochemicals, and other functional components during fermentation. In this review, some explorative information on traditional rice-based foods and beverages has been assembled to illustrate the global interest in Indian food heritage and their functional aspects. The review also deals with the preparation of raw materials, traditional processing, composition, and ethno-medicinal importance of each food to encourage entrepreneurs to develop large-scale production to meet the growing market demand of functional foods.

  9. A Unified Approach to Functional Principal Component Analysis and Functional Multiple-Set Canonical Correlation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Ji Yeh; Hwang, Heungsun; Yamamoto, Michio; Jung, Kwanghee; Woodward, Todd S

    2017-06-01

    Functional principal component analysis (FPCA) and functional multiple-set canonical correlation analysis (FMCCA) are data reduction techniques for functional data that are collected in the form of smooth curves or functions over a continuum such as time or space. In FPCA, low-dimensional components are extracted from a single functional dataset such that they explain the most variance of the dataset, whereas in FMCCA, low-dimensional components are obtained from each of multiple functional datasets in such a way that the associations among the components are maximized across the different sets. In this paper, we propose a unified approach to FPCA and FMCCA. The proposed approach subsumes both techniques as special cases. Furthermore, it permits a compromise between the techniques, such that components are obtained from each set of functional data to maximize their associations across different datasets, while accounting for the variance of the data well. We propose a single optimization criterion for the proposed approach, and develop an alternating regularized least squares algorithm to minimize the criterion in combination with basis function approximations to functions. We conduct a simulation study to investigate the performance of the proposed approach based on synthetic data. We also apply the approach for the analysis of multiple-subject functional magnetic resonance imaging data to obtain low-dimensional components of blood-oxygen level-dependent signal changes of the brain over time, which are highly correlated across the subjects as well as representative of the data. The extracted components are used to identify networks of neural activity that are commonly activated across the subjects while carrying out a working memory task.

  10. Prebiotics as functional food ingredients preventing diet-related diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florowska, A; Krygier, K; Florowski, T; Dłużewska, E

    2016-05-18

    This paper reviews the potential of prebiotic-containing foods in the prevention or postponement of certain diet-related diseases, such as cardiovascular diseases with hypercholesterolemia, osteoporosis, diabetes, gastrointestinal infections and gut inflammation. Also the data on prebiotics as food ingredients and their impact on food product quality are presented. Prebiotics are short chain carbohydrates that are resistant to the digestion process in the upper part of the digestive system, are not absorbed in any segment of the gastrointestinal system, and finally are selectively fermented by specific genera of colonic bacteria. The mechanisms of the beneficial impacts of prebiotics on human health are very difficult to specify directly, because their health-promoting functions are related to fermentation by intestinal microflora. The impact of prebiotics on diet-related diseases in many ways also depends on the products of their fermentation. Prebiotics as functional food ingredients also have an impact on the quality of food products, due to their textural and gelling properties. Prebiotics as food additives can be very valuable in the creation of functional food aimed at preventing or postponing many diet-related diseases. They additionally have beneficial technological properties which improve the quality of food products.

  11. Nanotechnology in food science: Functionality, applicability, and safety assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaojia He

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Rapid development of nanotechnology is expected to transform many areas of food science and food industry with increasing investment and market share. In this article, current applications of nanotechnology in food systems are briefly reviewed. Functionality and applicability of food-related nanotechnology are highlighted in order to provide a comprehensive view on the development and safety assessment of nanotechnology in the food industry. While food nanotechnology offers great potential benefits, there are emerging concerns arising from its novel physicochemical properties. Therefore, the safety concerns and regulatory policies on its manufacturing, processing, packaging, and consumption are briefly addressed. At the end of this article, the perspectives of nanotechnology in active and intelligent packaging applications are highlighted.

  12. Nanotechnology in food science: Functionality, applicability, and safety assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xiaojia; Hwang, Huey-Min

    2016-10-01

    Rapid development of nanotechnology is expected to transform many areas of food science and food industry with increasing investment and market share. In this article, current applications of nanotechnology in food systems are briefly reviewed. Functionality and applicability of food-related nanotechnology are highlighted in order to provide a comprehensive view on the development and safety assessment of nanotechnology in the food industry. While food nanotechnology offers great potential benefits, there are emerging concerns arising from its novel physicochemical properties. Therefore, the safety concerns and regulatory policies on its manufacturing, processing, packaging, and consumption are briefly addressed. At the end of this article, the perspectives of nanotechnology in active and intelligent packaging applications are highlighted. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Functional Salad Dressing as an Excipient Food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibel Karakaya

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to develop salad dressing as an excipient food that can be used to enhance beneficial effects of salads when co-ingested together. The compounds that include bioactive constituents different from other salad dressings are germinated seed and sprouts of lentils and cowpeas, and caseinomacropeptide isolated from whey. The proximate composition, total phenols and total flavonoids of salad dressing were determined. Its beneficial effects on health (antioxidant activity, antidiabetic activity, bile acid binding capacity, and angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitory activity were determined using in vitro methods.
Energy value of salad dressing is 111 kcal/100 g and 11.41% of the energy value of the salad dressing is provided by protein. Total phenol content is 79 mg CE/100 g. Salad dressing displayed higher antioxidant activity against DPPH radical (130 mM Trolox/100 g than that of ORAC value (72 mM Trolox/100 g. Salad dressing inhibited ACE by approximately 37%. Expected glycemic index of salad dressing was 74.0 and belongs to high glycemic index foods. Contrary to, salad dressing inhibited α-glucosidase and α-amylase with the IC50 values 1.77 mg protein/mL and 2.40 mg protein/mL, respectively. Relative to cholestyramine, bile acid binding capacity of salad dressing is 39.85%.

  14. Bioactive Components in The Meat and Their Functional Properties: A Literature Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khothibul Umam Al Awwaly

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Consumer awareness in meat and meat products is generally recognized as a good source of food, with high biological value protein, B group vitamins, minerals and minor elements like several other bioactive compounds that are beneficial to the human body. But in many cases, a processing error is affecting the bioactive compounds of functional foods and consumer impression are relatively negative to some levels of substances in meat such as fat, cholesterol, saturated fatty acids, salt and other substances, which however also involves a diseases of western society such as cardiovascular diseases, respiratory, carcinogenesis, obesity, impaired immune system and accelerate the aging process. Hence there is a need for adequate information related to favorable nutritional value of meat that has not been widely disclosed. Bioactive components in the meat can be anserin, karnosin and bioactive peptides. The generation of bioactive components in the meat in the form of bioactive peptides can be done in three ways: (1 aging or storage of meat, (2 meat fermentation, and (3 the enzyme treatment. Functional properties of bioactive components in meat varies greatly as an antioxidant, antihypertensive, antimicrobial, anticancer and immunomodulatory.

  15. Newer Approaches to Identify Potential Untoward Effects in Functional Foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marone, Palma Ann; Birkenbach, Victoria L; Hayes, A Wallace

    2016-01-01

    Globalization has greatly accelerated the numbers and variety of food and beverage products available worldwide. The exchange among greater numbers of countries, manufacturers, and products in the United States and worldwide has necessitated enhanced quality measures for nutritional products for larger populations increasingly reliant on functionality. These functional foods, those that provide benefit beyond basic nutrition, are increasingly being used for their potential to alleviate food insufficiency while enhancing quality and longevity of life. In the United States alone, a steady import increase of greater than 15% per year or 24 million shipments, over 70% products of which are food related, is regulated under the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). This unparalleled growth has resulted in the need for faster, cheaper, and better safety and efficacy screening methods in the form of harmonized guidelines and recommendations for product standardization. In an effort to meet this need, the in vitro toxicology testing market has similarly grown with an anticipatory 15% increase between 2010 and 2015 of US$1.3 to US$2.7 billion. Although traditionally occupying a small fraction of the market behind pharmaceuticals and cosmetic/household products, the scope of functional food testing, including additives/supplements, ingredients, residues, contact/processing, and contaminants, is potentially expansive. Similarly, as functional food testing has progressed, so has the need to identify potential adverse factors that threaten the safety and quality of these products. © The Author(s) 2015.

  16. Novel approaches in food-processing technology: new technologies for preserving foods and modifying function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knorr, D

    1999-10-01

    Recent advances in emerging food-processing technologies, such as high hydrostatic pressure or high-intensity electric field pulses, allow targeted and sophisticated modification and preservation of foods. We are beginning to understand the mechanisms involved in pressure inactivation of bacterial spores and have been collecting considerable amounts of kinetic data regarding inactivation mechanisms of enzymes and vegetative microorganisms. We are also gaining more insight into the permeabilization of plant membranes and related biosynthetic responses, making progress in food structure engineering and food modification for function, and have been initiating process developments for gentle processing of delicate biomaterials based on pressure-assisted phase transitions of water.

  17. The composition, functional components, and physical characteristics of grain from staygreen and senescent sorghum lines grown under variable water availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    The inclusion of sorghum into human food and feed is limited by its low digestibility compared to corn, which has been linked to the higher total kafirin levels in sorghum grain. Water stress after pollination reduced grain filling, affects the grain composition, functional components and grain phys...

  18. Simple functional-differential equations for the bound-state wave-function components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamuntavicius, G.P.

    1986-01-01

    The author presents a new method of a direct derivation of differential equations for the wave-function components of identical-particles systems. The method generates in a simple manner all the possible variants of these equations. In some cases they are the differential equations of Faddeev or Yakubovskii. It is shown that the case of the bound states allows to formulate very simple equations for the components which are equivalent to the Schroedinger equation for the complete wave function. The components with a minimal antisymmetry are defined and the corresponding equations are derived. (Auth.)

  19. Supercritical Fluid Chromatography/Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy Of Food Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvey, Elizabeth M.; Page, Samuel W.; Taylor, Larry T.

    1989-12-01

    Supercritical fluid (SF) technologies are being investigated extensively for applications in food processing. The number of SF-related patents issued testifies to the level of interest. Among the properties of materials at temperatures and pressures above their critical points (supercritical fluids) is density-dependent solvating power. Supercritical CO2 is of particular interest to the food industry because of its low critical temperature (31.3°C) and low toxicity. Many of the components in food matrices react or degrade at elevated temperatures and may be adversely affected by high temperature extractions. Likewise, these components may not be amenable to GC analyses. Our SF research has been in the development of methods employing supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) and extraction (SFE) coupled to a Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectrometer to investigate food composition. The effects of processing techniques on the isomeric fatty acid content of edible oils and the analysis of lipid oxidation products using SFC/FT-IR with a flow-cell interface are described.

  20. 77 FR 17093 - Certain Food Waste Disposers and Components and Packaging Thereof: Notice of Receipt of Complaint...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-23

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [DN 2886] Certain Food Waste Disposers and Components and Packaging.... International Trade Commission has received a complaint entitled Certain Food Waste Disposers and Components and Packaging Thereof, DN 2886; the Commission is soliciting comments on any public interest issues raised by...

  1. Grape seed oil: a potential functional food?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Branco SHINAGAWA

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Grape seed oil (GSO is not often consumed in Brazil and little is known of its nutritional value. Around the world there are already studies that point to the high levels of minority bioactive compounds and their relation to health benefits. The main constituent of GSO is linoleic fatty acid, some works are controversial and there is no consensus in literature regarding their effect on the animal organism. Thus, this study aimed to present a review of GSO and show the potential health effects of its major components, not only linoleic acid, but also γ-tocotrienol and β-sitosterol, and finally, their influence on lipid-modulating, anti and pro oxidative parameters.

  2. Sociodemographic Factors Differentiating the Consumer and the Motivations for Functional Food Consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, Artur; Annunziata, Azzurra; Vecchio, Riccardo

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the (1) role of gender, age, and education in the evaluation of multidimensional criteria of the purchase of functional products, which were (a) quality and organoleptic attributes, (b) attributes of packaging and labeling, (c) healthful properties, (d) functional components, (e) base product (carrier) and (2) most important motives for the purchase and consumption of functional food among consumers of different sociodemographic profiles. The data were collected in direct interviews. The sample (n = 200) consisted of 137 women and 63 men age 18-60 years. The research tool was a questionnaire divided into 4 sections. The first one included quality attributes. The second one included healthful properties, functional components, and carriers. The third one concerned the motives for purchasing functional food and included the consequences and values. In the fourth section the participants were asked about gender, age, and education. Gender, age, and education differentiated the criteria influencing the decision to purchase functional food. Women, older people (35-60 years), and those with university education attach the greatest importance to naturalness, nutritional value, freshness, food safety, and quality guarantee. Clear differences between men and women appear in the field of functional components, which are significantly more important for women than for men. Gender, age, and education essentially differentiate the preferences for base product (carrier). Young men prefer meat products in the role of functional carriers. In turn, women and older men prefer cereal products as basic functional carriers. Young consumers are more open to high-technology food processing. Motivations are differentiated by age and gender. Young men, as opposed to women and older men, attach less importance to functional and psychological consequences: improvement of health, healthy eating, conscious choice, and health promotion. Women and older

  3. Sequential Proton Loss Electron Transfer in Deactivation of Iron(IV) Binding Protein by Tyrosine Based Food Components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Ning; Skibsted, Leif H

    2017-08-02

    The iron(IV) binding protein ferrylmyoglobin, MbFe(IV)═O, was found to be reduced by tyrosine based food components in aqueous solution through a sequential proton loss electron transfer reaction mechanism without binding to the protein as confirmed by isothermal titration calorimetry. Dopamine and epinephrine are the most efficient food components reducing ferrylmyoglobin to oxymyoglobin, MbFe(II)O 2 , and metmyoglobin, MbFe(III), as revealed by multivariate curve resolution alternating least-squares with second order rate constants of 33.6 ± 2.3 L/mol/s (ΔH ⧧ of 19 ± 5 kJ/mol, ΔS ⧧ of -136 ± 18 J/mol K) and 228.9 ± 13.3 L/mol/s (ΔH ⧧ of 110 ± 7 kJ/mol, ΔS ⧧ of 131 ± 25 J/mol K), respectively, at pH 7.4 and 25 °C. The other tyrosine based food components were found to reduce ferrylmyoglobin to metmyoglobin with similar reduction rates at pH 7.4 and 25 °C. These reduction reactions were enhanced by protonation of ferrylmyoglobin and facilitated proton transfer at acidic conditions. Enthalpy-entropy compensation effects were observed for the activation parameters (ΔH ⧧ and ΔS ⧧ ), indicating the common reaction mechanism. Moreover, principal component analysis combined with heat map were performed to understand the relationship between density functional theory calculated molecular descriptors and kinetic data, which was further modeled by partial least squares for quantitative structure-activity relationship analysis. In addition, a three tyrosine residue containing protein, lysozyme, was also found to be able to reduce ferrylmyoglobin with a second order rate constant of 66 ± 28 L/mol/s as determined by a competitive kinetic method.

  4. A functional food product for the management of weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Stacey J; Goodrick, G Ken

    2002-03-01

    More than half of Americans have a body mass index of 25 kg/m2 or more, which classifies them as overweight or obese. Overweight or obesity is strongly associated with comorbidities such as type 2 diabetes mellitus, hypertension, heart disease, gall bladder disease, and sleep apnea. Clearly, this is a national health concern, and although about 30 to 40% of the obese claim that they are trying to lose weight or maintain weight after weight loss, current therapies appear to have little effect. None of the current popular diets are working, and there is room for innovation. With the advancing science of nutrition, several nutrients - low-glycemic-index carbohydrates, 5-hydroxytryptophan, green tea extract, and chromium - have been identified that may promote weight loss. The first two nutrients decrease appetite, green tea increases the 24-h energy expenditure, and chromium promotes the composition of the weight lost to be fat rather than lean tissue. These have been assembled in efficacious doses into a new functional food product and described in this review. The product is undergoing clinical testing; each component has already been shown to promote weight loss in clinical trials.

  5. Development of functional food products in relation to obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Choudhary

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract:The development of new eating habits, as well as actual trends in production and consumption,has a health, environmental and social impact. The entire world is fighting diseases characteristic of the modern age such as obesity, osteoporosis, cancer, diabetes, allergies, and dental problems. With a global increase in the prevalence of obesity, both nutrition and exercise play key roles in its prevention and treatment. Natural product (nutraceutical interventions are currently being investigated on a large-scale basis as potential treatments for obesity and weight management. With advancing nutritional sciences, several nutrients such as; low-glycemic-indexcarbohydrates, 5-hydroxytryptophan, green tea extract, and chromium have been shown topromote weight loss. The first two nutrients decrease appetite, green tea increases the 24 hrenergy expenditure, and chromium promotes the composition of the weight lost to be fat rather than lean tissue. These have been assembled, in efficacious doses, into a new functional food product and described in this review. Each component has already been shown to promote weight loss independently in clinical trials.

  6. Tailoring Functional Chitosan-based Composites for Food Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Cláudia; Coimbra, Manuel A; Ferreira, Paula

    2018-03-08

    Chitosan-based functional materials are emerging for food applications. The covalent bonding of molecular entities demonstrates to enhance resistance to the typical acidity of food assigning mechanical and moisture/gas barrier properties. Moreover, the grafting to chitosan of some functional molecules, like phenolic compounds or essential oils, gives antioxidant, antimicrobial, among others properties to chitosan. The addition of nanofillers to chitosan and other biopolymers improves the already mentioned required properties for food applications and can attribute electrical conductivity and magnetic properties for active and intelligent packaging. Electrical conductivity is a required property for the processing of food at low temperature using electric fields or for sensors application. © 2018 The Chemical Society of Japan & Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Algae as nutritional and functional food sources: revisiting our understanding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Mark L; Potin, Philippe; Craigie, James S; Raven, John A; Merchant, Sabeeha S; Helliwell, Katherine E; Smith, Alison G; Camire, Mary Ellen; Brawley, Susan H

    2017-01-01

    Global demand for macroalgal and microalgal foods is growing, and algae are increasingly being consumed for functional benefits beyond the traditional considerations of nutrition and health. There is substantial evidence for the health benefits of algal-derived food products, but there remain considerable challenges in quantifying these benefits, as well as possible adverse effects. First, there is a limited understanding of nutritional composition across algal species, geographical regions, and seasons, all of which can substantially affect their dietary value. The second issue is quantifying which fractions of algal foods are bioavailable to humans, and which factors influence how food constituents are released, ranging from food preparation through genetic differentiation in the gut microbiome. Third is understanding how algal nutritional and functional constituents interact in human metabolism. Superimposed considerations are the effects of harvesting, storage, and food processing techniques that can dramatically influence the potential nutritive value of algal-derived foods. We highlight this rapidly advancing area of algal science with a particular focus on the key research required to assess better the health benefits of an alga or algal product. There are rich opportunities for phycologists in this emerging field, requiring exciting new experimental and collaborative approaches.

  8. Algae as nutritional and functional food sources: revisiting our understanding

    OpenAIRE

    Wells, Mark L.; Potin, Philippe; Craigie, James S.; Raven, John A.; Merchant, Sabeeha S.; Helliwell, Katherine E.; Smith, Alison G.; Camire, Mary Ellen; Brawley, Susan H.

    2016-01-01

    Global demand for macroalgal and microalgal foods is growing, and algae are increasingly being consumed for functional benefits beyond the traditional considerations of nutrition and health. There is substantial evidence for the health benefits of algal-derived food products, but there remain considerable challenges in quantifying these benefits, as well as possible adverse effects. First, there is a limited understanding of nutritional composition across algal species, geographical regions, ...

  9. Innovative analytical tools to characterize prebiotic carbohydrates of functional food interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corradini, Claudio; Lantano, Claudia; Cavazza, Antonella

    2013-05-01

    Functional foods are one of the most interesting areas of research and innovation in the food industry. A functional food or functional ingredient is considered to be any food or food component that provides health benefits beyond basic nutrition. Recently, consumers have shown interest in natural bioactive compounds as functional ingredients in the diet owing to their various beneficial effects for health. Water-soluble fibers and nondigestible oligosaccharides and polysaccharides can be defined as functional food ingredients. Fructooligosaccharides (FOS) and inulin are resistant to direct metabolism by the host and reach the caecocolon, where they are used by selected groups of beneficial bacteria. Furthermore, they are able to improve physical and structural properties of food, such as hydration, oil-holding capacity, viscosity, texture, sensory characteristics, and shelf-life. This article reviews major innovative analytical developments to screen and identify FOS, inulins, and the most employed nonstarch carbohydrates added or naturally present in functional food formulations. High-performance anion-exchange chromatography with pulsed electrochemical detection (HPAEC-PED) is one of the most employed analytical techniques for the characterization of those molecules. Mass spectrometry is also of great help, in particularly matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS), which is able to provide extensive information regarding the molecular weight and length profiles of oligosaccharides and polysaccharides. Moreover, MALDI-TOF-MS in combination with HPAEC-PED has been shown to be of great value for the complementary information it can provide. Some other techniques, such as NMR spectroscopy, are also discussed, with relevant examples of recent applications. A number of articles have appeared in the literature in recent years regarding the analysis of inulin, FOS, and other carbohydrates of interest in the field and

  10. Ecological-network models link diversity, structure and function in the plankton food-web

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Alelio, Domenico; Libralato, Simone; Wyatt, Timothy; Ribera D'Alcalà, Maurizio

    2016-02-01

    A planktonic food-web model including sixty-three functional nodes (representing auto- mixo- and heterotrophs) was developed to integrate most trophic diversity present in the plankton. The model was implemented in two variants - which we named ‘green’ and ‘blue’ - characterized by opposite amounts of phytoplankton biomass and representing, respectively, bloom and non-bloom states of the system. Taxonomically disaggregated food-webs described herein allowed to shed light on how components of the plankton community changed their trophic behavior in the two different conditions, and modified the overall functioning of the plankton food web. The green and blue food-webs showed distinct organizations in terms of trophic roles of the nodes and carbon fluxes between them. Such re-organization stemmed from switches in selective grazing by both metazoan and protozoan consumers. Switches in food-web structure resulted in relatively small differences in the efficiency of material transfer towards higher trophic levels. For instance, from green to blue states, a seven-fold decrease in phytoplankton biomass translated into only a two-fold decrease in potential planktivorous fish biomass. By linking diversity, structure and function in the plankton food-web, we discuss the role of internal mechanisms, relying on species-specific functionalities, in driving the ‘adaptive’ responses of plankton communities to perturbations.

  11. Origin and concept of medicine food homology and its application in modern functional foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Yan; Jiang, Jian-Guo

    2013-12-01

    The viewpoints of "medicine food homology" (MFH) conform to today's food requirements of returning to a natural and green healthy life. This paper aims to introduce the concept of MFH and its origin and evolution, and analyze the relationship between food and Chinese medicine. In this review, more than 80 MFH materials approved by China's Ministry of Health are listed and their effective ingredients are summarized in detail. Their treatment mechanism in TCM and western medicine are summarized too. Moreover, some new MFH resources that have been gradually developed are also introduced. MFH materials are a treasure house of functional factors for current functional foods. Innovative ideas for the development of MFH resources in current functional foods are prospected and discussed, such as taking advantage of Chinese diet theory, building a database for MFH varieties and developing new methods and technologies. At present, modern research for the development of MFH functional foods is still in its primary stage, there is still much work required in the popularization of the MFH concept and the development of new products. Knowledge and technological innovations in this area should be accelerated in the future to promote the modernization of MFH.

  12. Encapsulation of vegetable oils as source of omega-3 fatty acids for enriched functional foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz Ruiz, Jorge Carlos; Ortiz Vazquez, Elizabeth De La Luz; Segura Campos, Maira Rubi

    2017-05-03

    Polyunsaturated omega-3 fatty acids (PUFAs), a functional component present in vegetable oils, are generally recognized as being beneficial to health. Omega-3 PUFAs are rich in double bonds and unsaturated in nature; this attribute makes them highly susceptible to lipid oxidation and unfit for incorporation into long shelf life foods. The microencapsulation of oils in a polymeric matrix (mainly polysaccharides) offers the possibility of controlled release of the lipophilic functional ingredient and can be useful for the supplementation of foods with PUFAs. The present paper provides a literature review of different vegetable sources of omega-3 fatty acids, the functional effects of omega-3 fatty acids, different microencapsulation methods that can possibly be used for the encapsulation of oils, the properties of vegetable oil microcapsules, the effect of encapsulation on oxidation stability and fatty acid composition of vegetable oils, and the incorporation of long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in foods.

  13. Hydrogels from Biopolymer Hybrid for Biomedical, Food, and Functional Food Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert C. Spiro

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid hydrogels from biopolymers have been applied for various indications across a wide range of biomedical, pharmaceutical, and functional food industries. In particular, hybrid hydrogels synthesized from two biopolymers have attracted increasing attention. The inclusion of a second biopolymer strengthens the stability of resultant hydrogels and enriches its functionalities by bringing in new functional groups or optimizing the micro-environmental conditions for certain biological and biochemical processes. This article presents approaches that have been used by our groups to synthesize biopolymer hybrid hydrogels for effective uses for immunotherapy, tissue regeneration, food and functional food applications. The research has achieved some challenging results, such as stabilizing physical structure, increasing mucoadhesiveness, and the creation of an artificial extracellular matrix to aid in guiding tissue differentiation.

  14. Effect of solar radiation on the functional components of mulberry (Morus alba L.) leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiyama, Mari; Katsube, Takuya; Koyama, Akio; Itamura, Hiroyuki

    2016-08-01

    The functional components of mulberry leaves have attracted the attention of the health food industry, and increasing their concentrations is an industry goal. This study investigated the effects of solar radiation, which may influence the production of flavonol and 1-deoxynojirimycin (DNJ) functional components in mulberry leaves, by comparing a greenhouse (poor solar radiation) and outdoor (rich solar radiation) setting. The level of flavonol in leaves cultivated in the greenhouse was markedly decreased when compared with those cultivated outdoors. In contrast, the DNJ content in greenhouse-cultivated plants was increased only slightly when compared with those cultivated outdoors. Interestingly, the flavonol content was markedly increased in the upper leaves of mulberry trees that were transferred from a greenhouse to the outdoors compared with those cultivated only in the outdoors. Solar radiation conditions influence the synthesis of flavonol and DNJ, the functional components of mulberry leaves. Under high solar radiation, the flavonol level becomes very high but the DNJ level becomes slightly lower, suggesting that the impact of solar radiation is great on flavonol but small on DNJ synthesis. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. Microalgae as healthy ingredients for functional food: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matos, J; Cardoso, C; Bandarra, N M; Afonso, C

    2017-08-01

    Microalgae are very interesting and valuable natural sources of highly valuable bioactive compounds, such as vitamins, essential amino acids, polyunsaturated fatty acids, minerals, carotenoids, enzymes and fibre. Due to their potential, microalgae have become some of the most promising and innovative sources of new food and functional products. Moreover, microalgae can be used as functional ingredients to enhance the nutritional value of foods and, thus, to favourably affect human health by improving the well-being and quality of life, but also by curtailing disease and illness risks. This review provides an overview of the current knowledge of the health benefits associated with the consumption of microalgae, bioactive compounds, functional ingredients, and health foods.

  16. Exploration of functional food consumption in older adults in relation to food matrices, bioactive ingredients, and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vella, Meagan N; Stratton, Laura M; Sheeshka, Judy; Duncan, Alison M

    2013-01-01

    The functional food industry is expanding, yet research into consumer perceptions of functional foods is limited. Older adults could benefit from functional foods due to age-related food and health issues. This research gathered information about functional foods from community-dwelling older adults (n = 200) who completed a researcher-administered questionnaire about consumption, food matrices, bioactive ingredients, and health areas addressed through functional foods. Overall prevalence of functional food consumption was found to be 93.0%. Commonly consumed foods included yogurt with probiotics (56.0%), eggs with omega-3 fatty acids (37.0%), and bread with fiber (35.5%). Functional food matrices primarily consumed were yogurt (51.5%), bread (44.0%), and cereal (40.0%). The primary functional food bioactive consumed was dietary fiber (79.5%). Most participants (86.2%) indicated that they consume functional foods to improve health, and the major areas specified were osteoporosis/bone health (67.5%), heart disease (61.0%), and arthritis (55.0%). These results inform health professionals regarding the potential of functional foods to support health among older adults.

  17. Functional Foods and Nutraceuticals in the Primary Prevention of Cardiovascular Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eman M. Alissa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular disease (CVD is now the leading cause of death globally and is a growing health concern. Dietary factors are important in the pathogenesis of CVD and may to a large degree determine CVD risk, but have been less extensively investigated. Functional foods are those that are thought to have physiological benefits and/or reduce the risk of chronic disease beyond their basic nutritional functions. The food industry has started to market products labelled as “functional foods.” Although many review articles have focused on individual dietary variables as determinants of CVD that can be modified to reduce the risk of CVD, the aim of this current paper was to examine the impact of functional foods in relation to the development and progression of CVD. Epidemiologic studies have demonstrated the association between certain dietary patterns and cardiovascular health. Research into the cardio-protective potential of their dietary components might support the development of functional foods and nutraceuticals. This paper will also compare the effect of individual bioactive dietary compounds with the effect of some dietary patterns in terms of their cardiovascular protection.

  18. Foods and nutritional components of diets of black bear in Rocky Mountain National Park, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, R.A.; Bender, L.C.

    2009-01-01

    We used scat analysis to determine diets and relative nutritional values of diets for black bears (Ursus americanus Pallas, 1780) in Rocky Mountain National Park, Colorado, from 2003 to 2006, and compared foods consumed and nutritional components to identify important sources of fecal gross energy (GE), crude fat (CF), and fecal nitrogen (FN) in annual and seasonal diets. Patterns of use of food classes followed typical seasonal patterns for bears, although use of animal matter was among the highest reported (>49% annually). Use of animal matter increased after spring, although crude protein levels in bear diets were always >25%. GE was typically lowest for grasses and other herbaceous plants and highest for ants and ungulates; FN was strongly positively related to most animal sources, but negatively correlated with vegetative matter; and CF showed the strongest positive relationship with ungulates and berries, with the latter likely influenced by the presence of seeds. Compared with historic data (1984-1991), contemporary diets included substantially greater prevalence of anthropogenic foods, which likely contributed to increases in size, condition, and productivity of the contemporary bear population. Management strategies are needed to increase quantity and quality of natural foods while minimizing dependence on anthropogenic sources.

  19. The role of rabbit meat as functional food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalle Zotte, Antonella; Szendro, Zsolt

    2011-07-01

    Increasing consumer knowledge of the link between diet and health has raised the awareness and demand for functional food ingredients. Meat and its derivatives may be considered functional foods to the extent that they contain numerous compounds thought to be functional. This review will attempt to outline the excellent nutritional and dietetic properties of rabbit meat and offer an overview of the studies performed on the strategies adopted to improve the functional value of rabbit meat. Dietary manipulation has been seen to be very effective in increasing the levels of essential FA, EPA, DHA, CLA, branched chain FA, vitamin E, and selenium in rabbit meat. Dietary fortification with vitamin E or natural products such as oregano essential oil, chia seed oil, and Spirulina platensis microalga seem promising in improving the oxidative stability of rabbit meat while also adding functional ingredients. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Materiality matters: Blurred boundaries and the domestication of functional foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiner, Kate; Will, Catherine

    2015-06-01

    Previous scholarship on novel foods, including functional foods, has suggested that they are difficult to categorise for both regulators and users. It is argued that they blur the boundary between 'food' and 'drug' and that uncertainties about the products create 'experimental' or 'restless' approaches to consumption. We investigate these uncertainties drawing on data about the use of functional foods containing phytosterols, which are licensed for sale in the EU for people wishing to reduce their cholesterol. We start from an interest in the products as material objects and their incorporation into everyday practices. We consider the scripts encoded in the physical form of the products through their regulation, production and packaging and find that these scripts shape but do not determine their use. The domestication of phytosterols involves bundling the products together with other objects (pills, supplements, foodstuffs). Considering their incorporation into different systems of objects offers new understandings of the products as foods or drugs. In their accounts of their practices, consumers appear to be relatively untroubled by uncertainties about the character of the products. We conclude that attending to materials and practices offers a productive way to open up and interrogate the idea of categorical uncertainties surrounding new food products.

  1. Presence of CP4-EPSPS Component in Roundup Ready Soybean-Derived Food Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Honghong; Zhang, Yu; Zhu, Changqing; Xiao, Xiao; Zhou, Xinghu; Xu, Sheng; Shen, Wenbiao; Huang, Ming

    2012-01-01

    With the widespread use of Roundup Ready soya (event 40-3-2) (RRS), the traceability of transgenic components, especially protein residues, in different soya-related foodstuffs has become an important issue. In this report, transgenic components in commercial soya (including RRS) protein concentrates were firstly detected by using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and western blot. The results illustrated the different degradation patterns of the cp4-epsps gene and corresponding protein in RRS-derived protein concentrates. Furthermore, western blot was applied to investigate the single factor of food processing and the matrix on the disintegration of CP4-EPSPS protein in RRS powder and soya-derived foodstuffs, and trace the degradation patterns during the food production chain. Our results suggested that the exogenous full length of CP4-EPSPS protein in RRS powder was distinctively sensitive to various heat treatments, including heat, microwave and autoclave (especially), and only one degradation fragment (23.4 kD) of CP4-EPSPS protein was apparently observed when autoclaving was applied. By tracing the protein degradation during RRS-related products, including tofu, tou-kan, and bean curd sheets, however, four degradation fragments (42.9, 38.2, 32.2 and 23.4 kD) were displayed, suggesting that both boiling and bittern adding procedures might have extensive effects on CP4-EPSPS protein degradation. Our results thus confirmed that the distinctive residues of the CP4-EPSPS component could be traced in RRS-related foodstuffs. PMID:22408431

  2. Food choice as a key management strategy for functional gastrointestinal symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Peter R; Shepherd, Susan J

    2012-05-01

    Recognition of food components that induce functional gut symptoms in patient's functional bowel disorders (FBD) has been challenging. Food directly or indirectly provides considerable afferent input into the enteric nervous system. There is an altered relationship between the afferent input and perception/efferent response in FBD. Defining the nature of food-related stimuli may provide a means of minimizing such an input and gut symptoms. Using this premise, reducing the intake of FODMAPs (fermentable oligo-, di-, and mono-saccharides and polyols)--poorly absorbed short-chain carbohydrates that, by virtue of their small molecular size and rapid fermentability, will distend the intestinal lumen with liquid and gas--improves symptoms in the majority of patients. Well-developed methodologies to deliver the diet via dietician-led education are available. Another abundant source of afferent input is natural and added food chemicals (such as salicylates, amines, and glutamates). Studies are needed to assess the efficacy of the low food chemical dietary approach. A recent placebo-controlled trial of FODMAP-poor gluten provided the first valid evidence that non-celiac gluten intolerance might actually exist, but its prevalence and underlying mechanisms require elucidation. Food choice via the low FODMAP and potentially other dietary strategies is now a realistic and efficacious therapeutic approach for functional gut symptoms.

  3. Functional food availability, a limitation to peoples’ health on Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Ndungu

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Background:All foods are imported to markets in smaller islands in the Caribbean. Before export of foods to these destinations, the foods are subjected to several preservative procedures like irradiation, pesticide spray and prolonged refrigeration etc., to last the extended transport periods. This reduces availability of protective elements and the nutrient contents of the foods to scanty levels,especially to common people with low and middle incomes. Hence the majority of people in these categories on the small islands become vulnerable to ill health. Aims and Objectives: To assess 1. Food availability 2. Normal transport period for foods to reach from the suppliers, and 3. Current level of prevalence of non-infective chronic diseases in the area. Methods: Data were collected from two sources. One set of data was collected from the three supermarkets on the island to obtain information on source, transport time and nature of foods imported; and the second from 200 randomly selected responses of diseased persons for information on the age, gender and cause of death. Results: All the foods were imported and the time taken for the food (including protective foods to reach the island was about 3 weeks. The major causes of death were malignancy (30%, diabetes and its complications (25%, cardio vascular diseases (19.5%, STD / HIV (8.5% and other causes (17.0%. A review of prevalence of chronic diseases like hypertension, diabetes, heart diseases, arthritis and associated functional limitations, in the region reveals that their prevalence is proportionately high on the island compared to nearby developed mainland Functional Foods in Health and Disease 2011; 7:222-231 regions. Body mass index of ≥25 was reported to be as high as 58.3%. The health care facilitiesavailable are seen to be limited and public health activity to prevent or manage the prevailing chronic health issues, appeared to be meager. Conclusion: There is a need to address the

  4. Influence of gender, age and motives underlying food choice on perceived healthiness and willingness to try functional foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ares, Gastón; Gámbaro, Adriana

    2007-07-01

    The aims of the present study were to study the effect of different carriers and enrichments on the perceived healthiness and willingness to try functional foods; and to evaluate the effect of age, gender and motives underlying food choice. Participants had to evaluate different functional food concepts and had to answer a food choice questionnaire. Results showed that carrier products had the largest effect on consumers' perception of healthiness and willingness to try of the evaluated functional foods concepts. The highest positive relative utilities were achieved when the enrichment was a functional ingredient inherent in the product. Furthermore, gender, age and motives underlying food choice affected the preference patterns for the evaluated functional foods concepts, but it depended on the carrier and enrichment considered, suggesting that functional foods might not be accepted by all the consumers and that they could be tailored for certain groups.

  5. Motivational Impact of Palatable Food Correlates With Functional Brain Responses to Food Images in Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Chad D; Duraccio, Kara M; Carbine, Kaylie A; Barnett, Kimberly A; Kirwan, C Brock

    2017-06-01

    To examine associations between motivational impact of palatable foods and neural activity in brain regions involved in inhibitory control among adolescents. Thirty-four adolescents aged 14-20 years underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging while viewing images of high- and low-energy foods. Participants completed the Power of Food Scale (PFS). Whole-brain analyses of variance tested for neural activation differences and correlations between brain activation and PFS scores were tested. We found an interaction between food type (high energy vs. low energy) and PFS scores in the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and right inferior parietal lobule. We also found that PFS scores correlated negatively with activation to high-energy foods in prefrontal cortical and parietal regions. These findings suggest that individuals with high motivation for high-energy foods also demonstrate lower neural activation in inhibition-related brain regions when viewing images of high-energy foods, indicating that they may have difficulty inhibiting consumption impulses. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Pediatric Psychology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  6. Black rice as a functional food in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rarastoeti Pratiwi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available There are many local black rice cultivars in Indonesia, yet only a few of these are formally describedin the literature.It has been reportedthat black rice has many phytochemicalvariants which may contribute to its use as a functional food, including nutraceuticals andsecondary metabolites such as anthocyanin, oryzanol,and more.The purpose of this article wasto review literature describing black rice cultivars from Indonesia, with a particular focuson its potential use as a functional food.Our literature search revealed several articles that describe black rice in relation to its nutraceuticalproperties and its role in reducing non-communicable diseases. Other studies describe the diversity of local pigmented rice and its potentialfor lowering the risk of hyperlipidemia,hyperglycemia,and for cancer prevention. Black rice has been described as a functional food in several countries;however,there is great diversity among cultivars and further research on Indonesian varieties will determine whether local variants are candidates as well for the development of functional foods.

  7. Nutritional and functional properties of a complementary food based ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to determine the nutritional and functional properties of Amaranthus cruentus grain grown in Kenya for preparation of a ready-to-eat product that can be recommended as infant complementary food. Amaranth grains were subjected to steeping and steam pre-gelatinization to produce a ...

  8. Functional Foods as Differentiated Products: the Italian Yogurt Market

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonanno, A.

    2013-01-01

    In spite of the growing consumers' interest for functional foods, the knowledge regarding the demand for these products and their profitability is limited. Adapting the LA/AIDS (Linear Approximated–Almost Ideal Demand System) model by means of Pinkse, Slade and Brett's distance metric method (2002),

  9. The food, GI tract functionality and human health cluster

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mattila-Sandholm, T.; Blaut, M.; Daly, C.; Vuyst, de L.; Dore, J.; Gibson, G.; Goossens, H.; Knorr, D.; Lucas, J.; Lahteenmaki, L.; Mercenier, A.M.E.; Saarela, M.; Shanahan, F.; Vos, de W.M.

    2002-01-01

    The Food, GI-tract Functionality and Human Health (PROEUHEALTH) Cluster brings together eight complementary, multicentre interdisciplinary research projects. All have the common aim of improving the health and quality of life of European comsumers. The collaboration involves 64 different research

  10. Research at the Dairy and Functional Foods Research Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dr. Peggy Tomasula is Research Leader of the Dairy and Functional Foods Research Unit (DFFRU), ARS, USDA, Wyndmoor, PA, a group that includes 11 Research Scientists, 4 of whom are Lead Scientists (LS), 13 support scientists, and 3 Retired Collaborators. The mission of the DFFRU is to solve critical ...

  11. Dairy and functional foods research in the Agricultural Research Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Dairy and Functional Foods Research Unit is the only group in the Agricultural Research Service that is dedicated to solving critical problems in milk utilization and fruit and vegetable byproducts from specialty crops. The many areas of investigation include development of specialty cheese, c...

  12. Minimally Processed Functional Foods: Technological and Operational Pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, Svetlana

    2016-10-01

    This paper offers a concise review of technical and operational concepts underpinning commercialization of minimally processed functional foods (FFs), foods with fresh-like qualities commanding premium prices. The growing number of permitted nutritional content/health claims, many of which relate to well-being, coupled with emerging extraction and food processing technologies offers new exciting opportunities for small and medium size enterprises (SMEs) specializing in fresh produce to play an active role in the health market. Supporting SMEs, governments could benefit from savings in healthcare costs and value creation in the economy. Consumers could benefit from novel FF formats such as refrigerated RTE (ready-to-eat) meals, a variety of fresh-like meat-, fish-, and egg-based products, fresh-cut fruits and vegetables, cereal-based fermented foods and beverages. To preserve these valuable commodities, mild biological (enzymatic treatment, fermentation and, bio-preservation) and engineering solutions are needed. The latter include nonthermal techniques such as high-pressure treatment, cook-chill, sous-vide, mirco-encapsulation, vacuum impregnation and others. "De-constructive" culinary techniques such as 3D food printing and molecular gastronomy as well as developments in nutrigenomics and digital technologies facilitate novel product formats, personalization and access to niche markets. In the operational sense, moving from nourishment to health improvement demands a shift from defensive market-oriented to offensive market-developing strategies including collaborative networks with research organizations. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  13. FOOD SAFETY SYSTEMS’ FUNCTIONING IN POLISH NETWORKS OF GROCERY STORES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paweł NOWICKI

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This article shows the way how the food safety systems are functioning in Polish networks of grocery stores. The study was conducted in the fourth quarter of 2012 in the south‐eastern Poland. There were chosen three organizations that meet certain conditions: medium size Polish grocery network without participation of foreign capital and up to 30 retail locations within the group. Studies based on a case study model. The research found that regular and unannounced inspections carried out to each store's, impact on increasing safety of food offered and the verification of GHP requirements on the headquarters level has a significant impact on the safety of food offered as well as on the knowledge and behavior of employees. In addition it was found that the verification and analysis of food safety management system is an effective tool for improving food safety. It was also shown that in most cases there is no formal crisis management system for the food protection in the surveyed companies and employees are only informed of what to do in case of an emergency.

  14. Safety issues of botanicals and botanical preparations in functional foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kroes, R.; Walker, R.

    2004-01-01

    Although botanicals have played a role in the marketing of health products for ages, there is an increased interest today due to their perceived health benefits. Not only do consumers increasingly take charge of their health, but the scientific information and understanding of the beneficial health effects of bioactive substances in food, functional foods and food supplements have improved. Increasing use of these products has also led to concerns about their actual safety. Recorded cases of intoxications have triggered such concerns. The safety assessment of these substances is complicated by, amongst others, the variability of composition. Furthermore, consumption of such functional products is expected to produce physiological effects, which may lead to low margins of safety as the margin between exposure of such products and the safe level of intake are likely to be small. The safety assessment of botanicals and botanical preparations in food and food supplement should at least involve: - the characterisation and quality of the material, its quality control; - the intended use and consequent exposure; - history of use and exposure; - product comparison(s); - toxicological information gathering; - Risk characterisation/safety assessment; As a guidance tool, a decision tree approach is proposed to assist in determining the extent of data requirements based on the nature of the such product. This guidance tool in safety assessment was developed by an expert group of the International Life Sciences Institute (ILSI), European Branch, and is currently in press. In this paper a summarised version of this tool is presented

  15. Plant and Fungal Food Components with Potential Activity on the Development of Microbial Oral Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Daglia

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the content in macronutrients, free sugars, polyphenols, and inorganic ions, known to exert any positive or negative action on microbial oral disease such as caries and gingivitis, of seven food/beverages (red chicory, mushroom, raspberry, green and black tea, cranberry juice, dark beer. Tea leaves resulted the richest material in all the detected ions, anyway tea beverages resulted the richest just in fluoride. The highest content in zinc was in chicory, raspberry and mushroom. Raspberry is the richest food in strontium and boron, beer in selenium, raspberry and mushroom in copper. Beer, cranberry juice and, especially green and black tea are very rich in polyphenols, confirming these beverages as important sources of such healthy substances. The fractionation, carried out on the basis of the molecular mass (MM, of the water soluble components occurring in raspberry, chicory, and mushroom extracts (which in microbiological assays revealed the highest potential action against oral pathogens, showed that both the high and low MM fractions are active, with the low MM fractions displaying the highest potential action for all the fractionated extracts. Our findings show that more compounds that can play a different active role occur in these foods.

  16. Estrogen Receptor Binding Affinity of Food Contact Material Components Estimated by QSAR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosnovcová, Jitka; Rucki, Marián; Bendová, Hana

    2016-09-01

    The presented work characterized components of food contact materials (FCM) with potential to bind to estrogen receptor (ER) and cause adverse effects in the human organism. The QSAR Toolbox, software application designed to identify and fill toxicological data gaps for chemical hazard assessment, was used. Estrogen receptors are much less of a lock-and-key interaction than highly specific ones. The ER is nonspecific enough to permit binding with a diverse array of chemical structures. There are three primary ER binding subpockets, each with different requirements for hydrogen bonding. More than 900 compounds approved as of FCM components were evaluated for their potential to bind on ER. All evaluated chemicals were subcategorized to five groups with respect to the binding potential to ER: very strong, strong, moderate, weak binder, and no binder to ER. In total 46 compounds were characterized as potential disturbers of estrogen receptor. Among the group of selected chemicals, compounds with high and even very high affinity to the ER binding subpockets were found. These compounds may act as gene activators and cause adverse effects in the organism, particularly during pregnancy and breast-feeding. It should be considered to carry out further in vitro or in vivo tests to confirm their potential to disturb the regulation of physiological processes in humans by abnormal ER signaling and subsequently remove these chemicals from the list of approved food contact materials. Copyright© by the National Institute of Public Health, Prague 2016

  17. Therapeutic Role of Functional Components in Alliums for Preventive Chronic Disease in Human Being

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yawen Zeng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Functional components in alliums have long been maintained to play a key role in modifying the major risk factors for chronic disease. To obtain a better understanding of alliums for chronic disease prevention, we conducted a systematic review for risk factors and prevention strategies for chronic disease of functional components in alliums, based on a comprehensive English literature search that was conducted using various electronic search databases, especially the PubMed, ISI Web of Science, and CNKI for the period 2007–2016. Allium genus especially garlic, onion, and Chinese chive is rich in organosulfur compounds, quercetin, flavonoids, saponins, and others, which have anticancer, preventive cardiovascular and heart diseases, anti-inflammation, antiobesity, antidiabetes, antioxidants, antimicrobial activity, neuroprotective and immunological effects, and so on. These results support Allium genus; garlic and onion especially may be the promising dietotherapeutic vegetables and organopolysulfides as well as quercetin mechanism in the treatment of chronic diseases. This review may be used as scientific basis for the development of functional food, nutraceuticals, and alternative drugs to improve the chronic diseases.

  18. Willingness to purchase functional foods according to their benefits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schnettler, Berta; Miranda, Horacio; Lobos, Germán

    2015-01-01

    people in southern Chile. The questionnaire measured willingness to buy FFs with 18 different benefits, knowledge about FFs, socio-demographic characteristics and satisfaction with life and with food-related life. Findings – Two dimensions were found for benefits sought in FFs: disease prevention.......5 per cent) showed greater disposition to buy FFs which improve bodily functions. The types differ according to the size of family, presence and age of children at home, ethnic origin, education, socio-economic status, knowledge about FFs and satisfaction with life and food-related life. Research...

  19. Improved Functional Characteristics of Whey Protein Hydrolysates in Food Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeewanthi, Renda Kankanamge Chaturika; Lee, Na-Kyoung; Paik, Hyun-Dong

    2015-01-01

    This review focuses on the enhanced functional characteristics of enzymatic hydrolysates of whey proteins (WPHs) in food applications compared to intact whey proteins (WPs). WPs are applied in foods as whey protein concentrates (WPCs), whey protein isolates (WPIs), and WPHs. WPs are byproducts of cheese production, used in a wide range of food applications due to their nutritional validity, functional activities, and cost effectiveness. Enzymatic hydrolysis yields improved functional and nutritional benefits in contrast to heat denaturation or native applications. WPHs improve solubility over a wide range of pH, create viscosity through water binding, and promote cohesion, adhesion, and elasticity. WPHs form stronger but more flexible edible films than WPC or WPI. WPHs enhance emulsification, bind fat, and facilitate whipping, compared to intact WPs. Extensive hydrolyzed WPHs with proper heat applications are the best emulsifiers and addition of polysaccharides improves the emulsification ability of WPHs. Also, WPHs improve the sensorial properties like color, flavor, and texture but impart a bitter taste in case where extensive hydrolysis (degree of hydrolysis greater than 8%). It is important to consider the type of enzyme, hydrolysis conditions, and WPHs production method based on the nature of food application. PMID:26761849

  20. The meaning of functional trait composition of food webs for ecosystem functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gravel, Dominique; Albouy, Camille; Thuiller, Wilfried

    2016-05-19

    There is a growing interest in using trait-based approaches to characterize the functional structure of animal communities. Quantitative methods have been derived mostly for plant ecology, but it is now common to characterize the functional composition of various systems such as soils, coral reefs, pelagic food webs or terrestrial vertebrate communities. With the ever-increasing availability of distribution and trait data, a quantitative method to represent the different roles of animals in a community promise to find generalities that will facilitate cross-system comparisons. There is, however, currently no theory relating the functional composition of food webs to their dynamics and properties. The intuitive interpretation that more functional diversity leads to higher resource exploitation and better ecosystem functioning was brought from plant ecology and does not apply readily to food webs. Here we appraise whether there are interpretable metrics to describe the functional composition of food webs that could foster a better understanding of their structure and functioning. We first distinguish the various roles that traits have on food web topology, resource extraction (bottom-up effects), trophic regulation (top-down effects), and the ability to keep energy and materials within the community. We then discuss positive effects of functional trait diversity on food webs, such as niche construction and bottom-up effects. We follow with a discussion on the negative effects of functional diversity, such as enhanced competition (both exploitation and apparent) and top-down control. Our review reveals that most of our current understanding of the impact of functional trait diversity on food web properties and functioning comes from an over-simplistic representation of network structure with well-defined levels. We, therefore, conclude with propositions for new research avenues for both theoreticians and empiricists. © 2016 The Author(s).

  1. Functional network connectivity underlying food processing: disturbed salience and visual processing in overweight and obese adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kullmann, Stephanie; Pape, Anna-Antonia; Heni, Martin; Ketterer, Caroline; Schick, Fritz; Häring, Hans-Ulrich; Fritsche, Andreas; Preissl, Hubert; Veit, Ralf

    2013-05-01

    In order to adequately explore the neurobiological basis of eating behavior of humans and their changes with body weight, interactions between brain areas or networks need to be investigated. In the current functional magnetic resonance imaging study, we examined the modulating effects of stimulus category (food vs. nonfood), caloric content of food, and body weight on the time course and functional connectivity of 5 brain networks by means of independent component analysis in healthy lean and overweight/obese adults. These functional networks included motor sensory, default-mode, extrastriate visual, temporal visual association, and salience networks. We found an extensive modulation elicited by food stimuli in the 2 visual and salience networks, with a dissociable pattern in the time course and functional connectivity between lean and overweight/obese subjects. Specifically, only in lean subjects, the temporal visual association network was modulated by the stimulus category and the salience network by caloric content, whereas overweight and obese subjects showed a generalized augmented response in the salience network. Furthermore, overweight/obese subjects showed changes in functional connectivity in networks important for object recognition, motivational salience, and executive control. These alterations could potentially lead to top-down deficiencies driving the overconsumption of food in the obese population.

  2. Presence of CP4-EPSPS Component in Roundup Ready Soybean-Derived Food Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Honghong Wu

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available With the widespread use of Roundup Ready soya (event 40-3-2 (RRS, the traceability of transgenic components, especially protein residues, in different soya-related foodstuffs has become an important issue. In this report, transgenic components in commercial soya (including RRS protein concentrates were firstly detected by using polymerase chain reaction (PCR and western blot. The results illustrated the different degradation patterns of the cp4-epsps gene and corresponding protein in RRS-derived protein concentrates. Furthermore, western blot was applied to investigate the single factor of food processing and the matrix on the disintegration of CP4-EPSPS protein in RRS powder and soya-derived foodstuffs, and trace the degradation patterns during the food production chain. Our results suggested that the exogenous full length of CP4-EPSPS protein in RRS powder was distinctively sensitive to various heat treatments, including heat, microwave and autoclave (especially, and only one degradation fragment (23.4 kD of CP4-EPSPS protein was apparently observed when autoclaving was applied. By tracing the protein degradation during RRS-related products, including tofu, tou-kan, and bean curd sheets, however, four degradation fragments (42.9, 38.2, 32.2 and 23.4 kD were displayed, suggesting that both boiling and bittern adding procedures might have extensive effects on CP4-EPSPS protein degradation. Our results thus confirmed that the distinctive residues of the CP4-EPSPS component could be traced in RRS-related foodstuffs.

  3. Global change in the trophic functioning of marine food webs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maureaud, Aurore; Gascuel, Didier; Colléter, Mathieu

    2017-01-01

    and life history traits of marine species, we tested the hypothesis that anthropogenic ecological impacts may have led to changes in the global parameters defining the transfers of biomass within the food web. First, we developed two indicators to assess such changes: the Time Cumulated Indicator (TCI......The development of fisheries in the oceans, and other human drivers such as climate warming, have led to changes in species abundance, assemblages, trophic interactions, and ultimately in the functioning of marine food webs. Here, using a trophodynamic approach and global databases of catches......) measuring the residence time of biomass within the food web, and the Efficiency Cumulated Indicator (ECI) quantifying the fraction of secondary production reaching the top of the trophic chain. Then, we assessed, at the large marine ecosystem scale, the worldwide change of these two indicators over the 1950...

  4. Fenugreek: Potential Applications as a Functional Food and Nutraceutical

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasim Khorshidian

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Fenugreek (Trigonella  foenum graecum, native to southern Europe and Asia, is an annual herb with white flowers and hard, yellowish brown and angular seeds, known from ancient times, for nutritional value beside of its medicinal effects. Fenugreek seeds are rich source of gum, fiber, alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins and volatile content. Due to its high content of fiber, fenugreek could be used as food stabilizer, adhesive and emulsifying agent to change food texture for some special purposes. Some evidence suggests that fenugreek may also be regarded as antidiabetic, anticarcinogenic, antioxidant, antibacterial agent, antianorexia agent, and gastric stimulant, as well as remedy for hypocholesterolemia and hypoglycemia. The present article is aimed to review the potential applications of fenugreek as a functional food and nutraceutical agent.

  5. Longitudinal functional principal component modelling via Stochastic Approximation Monte Carlo

    KAUST Repository

    Martinez, Josue G.; Liang, Faming; Zhou, Lan; Carroll, Raymond J.

    2010-01-01

    model averaging using a Bayesian formulation. A relatively straightforward reversible jump Markov Chain Monte Carlo formulation has poor mixing properties and in simulated data often becomes trapped at the wrong number of principal components. In order

  6. Autoshaping as a function of prior food presentations1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downing, Kevin; Neuringer, Allen

    1976-01-01

    Young chickens were given 1, 10, 100, or 1000 presentations of grain in a hopper. Subsequently, the key was illuminated before each presentation of grain to study autoshaping of the key-peck response. The number of keylight-grain pairings before a bird first pecked the lighted key was found to be a U-shaped function of the number of prior food-only presentations, with pecks occurring significantly sooner after 100 food-only trials than after any of the other values. Two of five chicks at the 100-trial value pecked on the first illumination of the key. Experiment II showed further that when a series of food-only trials (no keylight) preceded keylight-only trials (no food) 30% of the chicks pecked the illuminated key. Experiment III extended the generality of first-trial pecking to pigeons. After preliminary training with food-only, two of five pigeons pecked on the first illumination of a key. The results suggest a close relationship between autoshaping and pseudo-conditioning. PMID:16811961

  7. Autoshaping as a function of prior food presentations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downing, K; Neuringer, A

    1976-11-01

    Young chickens were given 1, 10, 100, or 1000 presentations of grain in a hopper. Subsequently, the key was illuminated before each presentation of grain to study autoshaping of the key-peck response. The number of keylight-grain pairings before a bird first pecked the lighted key was found to be a U-shaped function of the number of prior food-only presentations, with pecks occurring significantly sooner after 100 food-only trials than after any of the other values. Two of five chicks at the 100-trial value pecked on the first illumination of the key. Experiment II showed further that when a series of food-only trials (no keylight) preceded keylight-only trials (no food) 30% of the chicks pecked the illuminated key. Experiment III extended the generality of first-trial pecking to pigeons. After preliminary training with food-only, two of five pigeons pecked on the first illumination of a key. The results suggest a close relationship between autoshaping and pseudo-conditioning.

  8. Global change in the trophic functioning of marine food webs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurore Maureaud

    Full Text Available The development of fisheries in the oceans, and other human drivers such as climate warming, have led to changes in species abundance, assemblages, trophic interactions, and ultimately in the functioning of marine food webs. Here, using a trophodynamic approach and global databases of catches and life history traits of marine species, we tested the hypothesis that anthropogenic ecological impacts may have led to changes in the global parameters defining the transfers of biomass within the food web. First, we developed two indicators to assess such changes: the Time Cumulated Indicator (TCI measuring the residence time of biomass within the food web, and the Efficiency Cumulated Indicator (ECI quantifying the fraction of secondary production reaching the top of the trophic chain. Then, we assessed, at the large marine ecosystem scale, the worldwide change of these two indicators over the 1950-2010 time-periods. Global trends were identified and cluster analyses were used to characterize the variability of trends between ecosystems. Results showed that the most common pattern over the study period is a global decrease in TCI, while the ECI indicator tends to increase. Thus, changes in species assemblages would induce faster and apparently more efficient biomass transfers in marine food webs. Results also suggested that the main driver of change over that period had been the large increase in fishing pressure. The largest changes occurred in ecosystems where 'fishing down the marine food web' are most intensive.

  9. Functional foods for dyslipidaemia and cardiovascular risk prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirtori, Cesare R; Galli, Claudio; Anderson, James W; Sirtori, Elena; Arnoldi, Anna

    2009-12-01

    A food can be regarded as 'functional' if it can demonstrate a beneficial efficacy on one or more target functions in the body in a convincing way. Beyond adequate nutritional qualities, functional foods should either improve the state of health and wellbeing and/or reduce the risk of disease. Functional foods that are marketed with claims of heart disease reduction focus primarily on the major risk factors, i.e. cholesterol, diabetes and hypertension. Some of the most innovative products are designed to be enriched with 'protective' ingredients, believed to reduce risk. They may contain, for example, soluble fibre (from oat and psyllium), useful both for lowering cholesterol and blood pressure, or fructans, effective in diabetes. Phytosterols and stanols lower LDL-cholesterol in a dose-dependent manner. Soya protein is more hypocholesterolaemic in subjects with very high initial cholesterol and recent data indicate also favourable activities in the metabolic syndrome. n-3 Fatty acids appear to exert significant hypotriacylglycerolaemic effects, possibly partly responsible for their preventive activity. Dark chocolate is gaining much attention for its multifunctional activities, useful both for the prevention of dyslipidaemia as well as hypertension. Finally, consensus opinions about tea and coffee have not emerged yet, and the benefits of vitamin E, garlic, fenugreek and policosanols in the management of dyslipidaemia and prevention of arterial disease are still controversial.

  10. Spent yeast as natural source of functional food additives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakowska, Rita; Sadowska, Anna; Dybkowska, Ewa; Świderski, Franciszek

    Spent yeasts are by-products arising from beer and wine production which over many years have been chiefly used as feed additives for livestock. They contain many valuable and bioactive substances which has thereby generated much interest in their exploitation. Up till now, the main products obtained from beer-brewing yeasts are β-glucans and yeast extracts. Other like foodstuffs include dried brewer’s yeast, where this is dried and the bitterness removed to be fit for human consumption as well as mannan-oligosaccharides hitherto used in the feed industry. β-glucans constitute the building blocks of yeast cell walls and can thus be used in human nutrition as dietary supplements or serving as food additives in functional foods. β-glucans products obtained via post-fermentation of beer also exhibit a high and multi-faceted biological activity where they improve the blood’s lipid profile, enhance immunological status and have both prebiotic and anti-oxidant properties. Yeast extracts are currently being used more and more to enhance flavour in foodstuffs, particularly for meat and its products. Depending on how autolysis is carried out, it is possible to design extracts of various meat flavours characteristic of specific meats. Many different flavour profiles can be created which may be additionally increased in combination with vegetable extracts. Within the food market, yeast extracts can appear in various guises such as liquids, pastes or powders. They all contain significant amounts of glutamic acid, 5’-GMP and 5’-IMP nucleotides together with various amino acids and peptides that act synergistically for enhancing the flavour of foodstuff products. Recent studies have demonstrated additional benefits of yeast extracts as valuable sources of amino acids and peptides which can be used in functional foods and dietary supplements. These products possess GRAS status (Generally Recognised As Safe) which thereby also adds further as to why they should be used

  11. Assembling Components using SysML with Non-Functional Requirements

    OpenAIRE

    Chouali , Samir; Hammad , Ahmed; Mountassir , Hassan

    2013-01-01

    International audience; Non-functional requirements of component based systems are important as their functional requirements, therefore they must be considered in components assembly. These properties are beforehand specified with SysML requirement diagram. We specify component based system architecture with SysML block definition diagram, and component behaviors with sequence diagrams. We propose to specify formally component interfaces with interface automata, obtained from requirement and...

  12. Selecting the Number of Principal Components in Functional Data

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Yehua; Wang, Naisyin; Carroll, Raymond J.

    2013-01-01

    functional data also perform well for sparse functional data. An empirical example using colon carcinogenesis data is also provided to illustrate the results. Supplementary materials for this article are available online. © 2013 American Statistical

  13. The Dynamics of the Innovation System for Functional Foods in South Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    de Barcellos, Marcia Dutra; Pozzo, Daniele; Ferreira, Gabriela Cardozo; Lionello, Rafael Laitano

    2011-01-01

    This study aims at identifying the dynamics of the innovation system for functional foods (FF) in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Functional food is any healthy food claimed to have a health-promoting or disease-preventing property beyond the basic function of supplying nutrients. Health has been named as the most significant trend and innovation driver in the global food and drinks market. Brazil is one of the leading countries in food production and consumption, and the market for functional foo...

  14. Hepatoprotective effects of kombucha tea: identification of functional strains and quantification of functional components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yong; Ji, Baoping; Wu, Wei; Wang, Ruojun; Yang, Zhiwei; Zhang, Di; Tian, Wenli

    2014-01-30

    Kombucha tea (KT), a traditional health beverage containing potential hepatoprotective agents, is fermented from sugared tea by a symbiotic culture of yeast and bacteria for 8 days. However, the functional strains that produce components for the hepatoprotective property of KT remain unclear. Multiple strains are involved in traditional KT production. Therefore, KT has not been standardized or produced commercially. This study aimed to identify the functional strains and quantify the functional components with hepatoprotective effects in kombucha tea. Gluconacetobacter sp. A4 was one of the microorganisms in KT in which the D-saccharic acid-1,4-lactone (DSL) produced by G. sp. A4 was significantly higher than that produced by original tea fungus at 8 days of fermentation. Traditional KT (TKT, tea broth fermented by mixed tea fungus), modified KT (MKT, fermented by single G. sp. A4), and DSL significantly inhibited the acetaminophen-induced increase of alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, triglyceride and malondialdehyde, as well as facilitating the reduction of total antioxidant capacity in mice. Furthermore, MKT and TKT are both similar to DSL in terms of protection against acetaminophen-induced liver injury in mice. These results suggested a positive relationship between DSL content and the hepatoprotective effect of TKT, MKT and DSL groups. G. sp. A4 was concluded to be a potential functional strain and DSL might be the key functional component for the hepatoprotective property in KT. The stronger capability of G. sp. A4 in producing DSL makes it a better choice for the commercial production of KT. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. Functional foods and urban agriculture: two responses to climate change-related food insecurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Jane M; Donati, Kelly J; Pike, Lucy L; Hattersley, Libby

    2009-01-01

    Affluent diets have negative effects on the health of the population and the environment. Moreover, the ability of industrialised agricultural ecosystems to continue to supply these diets is threatened by the anticipated consequences of climate change. By challenging the ongoing supply the diets of affluent countries, climate change provides a population and environmental health opportunity. This paper contrasts two strategies for dealing with climate change-related food insecurity. Functional foods are being positioned as one response because they are considered a hyper-efficient mechanism for supplying essential micronutrients. An alternative response is civic and urban agriculture. Rather than emphasising increased economic or nutritional efficiencies, civic agriculture presents a holistic approach to food security that is more directly connected to the economic, environmental and social factors that affect diet and health.

  16. Functional redundancy and food web functioning in linuron-exposed ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Laender, F.; Van den Brink, P.J.; Janssen, C.R.

    2011-01-01

    An extensive data set describing effects of the herbicide linuron on macrophyte-dominated microcosms was analysed with a food web model to assess effects on ecosystem functioning. We showed that sensitive phytoplankton and periphyton groups in the diets of heterotrophs were gradually replaced by more tolerant phytoplankton species as linuron concentrations increased. This diet shift - showing redundancy among phytoplankton species - allowed heterotrophs to maintain their functions in the contaminated microcosms. On an ecosystem level, total gross primary production was up to hundred times lower in the treated microcosms but the uptake of dissolved organic carbon by bacteria and mixotrophs was less sensitive. Food web efficiency was not consistently lower in the treated microcosms. We conclude that linuron predominantly affected the macrophytes but did not alter the overall functioning of the surrounding planktonic food web. Therefore, a risk assessment that protects macrophyte growth also protects the functioning of macrophyte-dominated microcosms. - Highlights: → Food web modelling reveals the functional response of species and ecosystem to linuron. → Primary production was more sensitive to linuron than bacterial production. → Linuron replaced sensitive phytoplankton by tolerant phytoplankton in heterotrophs' diets. → Linuron did not change the functioning of heterotrophs. - Food web modelling reveals functional redundancy of the planktonic community in microcosms treated with linuron.

  17. Functional redundancy and food web functioning in linuron-exposed ecosystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Laender, F., E-mail: frederik.delaender@ugent.be [Laboratory of Environmental Toxicity and Aquatic Ecology, Ghent University, Plateaustraat 22, 9000 Ghent (Belgium); Van den Brink, P.J., E-mail: Paul.vandenBrink@wur.nl [Department of Aquatic Ecology and Water Quality Management, Wageningen University, PO Box 47, 6700 AA Wageningen (Netherlands); Janssen, C.R., E-mail: colin.janssen@ugent.be [Laboratory of Environmental Toxicity and Aquatic Ecology, Ghent University, Plateaustraat 22, 9000 Ghent (Belgium)

    2011-10-15

    An extensive data set describing effects of the herbicide linuron on macrophyte-dominated microcosms was analysed with a food web model to assess effects on ecosystem functioning. We showed that sensitive phytoplankton and periphyton groups in the diets of heterotrophs were gradually replaced by more tolerant phytoplankton species as linuron concentrations increased. This diet shift - showing redundancy among phytoplankton species - allowed heterotrophs to maintain their functions in the contaminated microcosms. On an ecosystem level, total gross primary production was up to hundred times lower in the treated microcosms but the uptake of dissolved organic carbon by bacteria and mixotrophs was less sensitive. Food web efficiency was not consistently lower in the treated microcosms. We conclude that linuron predominantly affected the macrophytes but did not alter the overall functioning of the surrounding planktonic food web. Therefore, a risk assessment that protects macrophyte growth also protects the functioning of macrophyte-dominated microcosms. - Highlights: > Food web modelling reveals the functional response of species and ecosystem to linuron. > Primary production was more sensitive to linuron than bacterial production. > Linuron replaced sensitive phytoplankton by tolerant phytoplankton in heterotrophs' diets. > Linuron did not change the functioning of heterotrophs. - Food web modelling reveals functional redundancy of the planktonic community in microcosms treated with linuron.

  18. Cultural, socioeconomic and nutritional determinants of functional food consumption patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullie, P; Guelinckx, I; Clarys, P; Degrave, E; Hulens, M; Vansant, G

    2009-11-01

    The aim of our research was to describe cultural, socioeconomic and nutritional determinants associated with functional food consumption. Cross-sectional design in 5000 military men. Using mailed questionnaires, the functional food consumption frequency was recorded. Margarines fortified with phytosterols or phytostanols were used on a daily basis by 26.3% of the responders. Only 4.7% took a daily portion of probiotics, whereas 14.0% consumed one or more portions of nuts a week. One man out of three consumed one cup of tea daily, whereas 10.2% consumed one glass of red wine daily. Three or more portions of fruit a day were consumed by 19.1%, and two or more portions of vegetables a day by 26.6%. Only 12.3% consumed a portion of fatty fish weekly. After adjustment for age, body mass index, physical activity, use of vitamin supplements, smoking, marital status, cultural background, educational and income level, the daily consumption of fortified margarines increased with age. The consumption of fermented dairy products increased with physical activity and with the use of vitamin supplements. The consumption of fortified margarines, nuts, tea and fatty fish was strongly influenced by cultural background, with higher consumptions for Flemish-speaking men compared with French-speaking persons. Daily consumption of red wine was higher in French-speaking men and in higher educated men. Finally, functional food consumption was associated with a healthy dietary pattern. Age, physical activity, level of education, use of vitamin supplements and cultural background are predictors of functional food consumption patterns.

  19. Technologies for enhancement of bioactive components and potential health benefits of cereal and cereal-based foods: Research advances and application challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, Ahmed S M; Wang, Peng; Wang, Na; Yang, Shu; Xiao, Zhigang

    2017-08-28

    Cereal grains are a major source of human food and their production has steadily been increased during the last several decades to meet the demand of our increasing world population. The modernized society and the expansion of the cereal food industry created a need for highly efficient processing technologies, especially flour production. Earlier scientific research efforts have led to the invention of the modern steel roller mill, and the refined flour of wheat has become a basic component in most of cereal-based foods such as breads and pastries because of the unique functionality of wheat protein. On the other hand, epidemiological studies have found that consumption of whole cereal grains was health beneficial. The health benefit of whole cereal grain is attributed to the combined effects of micronutrients, phytochemicals, and dietary fibre, which are mainly located in the outer bran layer and the germ. However, the removal of bran and germ from cereal grains during polishing and milling results in refined flour and food products with lower bioactive compounds and dietary fibre contents than those from whole grain. Also, the level of bioactive compounds in cereal food is influenced by other food preparation procedures such as baking, cooking, extrusion, and puffing. Therefore, food scientists and nutritionists are searching for strategies and processing technologies to enhance the content and bioavailability of nutrients, bioactive compounds, and dietary fibre of cereal foods. The objective of this article was to review the research advances on technologies for the enhancement of bioactive compounds and dietary fibre contents of cereal and cereal-based foods. Bioactivities or biological effects of enhanced cereal and cereal-based foods are presented. Challenges facing the application of the proposed technologies in the food industry are also discussed.

  20. Functional foods and cardiometabolic diseases* International Task Force for Prevention of Cardiometabolic Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assmann, G; Buono, P; Daniele, A; Della Valle, E; Farinaro, E; Ferns, G; Krogh, V; Kromhout, D; Masana, L; Merino, J; Misciagna, G; Panico, S; Riccardi, G; Rivellese, A A; Rozza, F; Salvatore, F; Salvatore, V; Stranges, S; Trevisan, M; Trimarco, B; Vetrani, C

    2014-12-01

    Mounting evidence supports the hypothesis that functional foods containing physiologically-active components may be healthful. Longitudinal cohort studies have shown that some food classes and dietary patterns are beneficial in primary prevention, and this has led to the identification of putative functional foods. This field, however, is at its very beginning, and additional research is necessary to substantiate the potential health benefit of foods for which the diet-health relationships are not yet scientifically validated. It appears essential, however, that before health claims are made for particular foods, in vivo randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled trials of clinical end-points are necessary to establish clinical efficacy. Since there is need for research work aimed at devising personalized diet based on genetic make-up, it seems more than reasonable the latter be modeled, at present, on the Mediterranean diet, given the large body of evidence of its healthful effects. The Mediterranean diet is a nutritional model whose origins go back to the traditional dietadopted in European countries bordering the Mediterranean sea, namely central and southern Italy, Greece and Spain; these populations have a lower incidence of cardiovascular diseases than the North American ones, whose diet is characterized by high intake of animal fat. The meeting in Naples and this document both aim to focus on the changes in time in these two different models of dietary habits and their fall out on public health.

  1. Biodiversity and ecosystem functioning in evolving food webs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allhoff, K T; Drossel, B

    2016-05-19

    We use computer simulations in order to study the interplay between biodiversity and ecosystem functioning (BEF) during both the formation and the ongoing evolution of large food webs. A species in our model is characterized by its own body mass, its preferred prey body mass and the width of its potential prey body mass spectrum. On an ecological time scale, population dynamics determines which species are viable and which ones go extinct. On an evolutionary time scale, new species emerge as modifications of existing ones. The network structure thus emerges and evolves in a self-organized manner. We analyse the relation between functional diversity and five community level measures of ecosystem functioning. These are the metabolic loss of the predator community, the total biomasses of the basal and the predator community, and the consumption rates on the basal community and within the predator community. Clear BEF relations are observed during the initial build-up of the networks, or when parameters are varied, causing bottom-up or top-down effects. However, ecosystem functioning measures fluctuate only very little during long-term evolution under constant environmental conditions, despite changes in functional diversity. This result supports the hypothesis that trophic cascades are weaker in more complex food webs. © 2016 The Author(s).

  2. Functional metagenomics to decipher food-microbe-host crosstalk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larraufie, Pierre; de Wouters, Tomas; Potocki-Veronese, Gabrielle; Blottière, Hervé M; Doré, Joël

    2015-02-01

    The recent developments of metagenomics permit an extremely high-resolution molecular scan of the intestinal microbiota giving new insights and opening perspectives for clinical applications. Beyond the unprecedented vision of the intestinal microbiota given by large-scale quantitative metagenomics studies, such as the EU MetaHIT project, functional metagenomics tools allow the exploration of fine interactions between food constituents, microbiota and host, leading to the identification of signals and intimate mechanisms of crosstalk, especially between bacteria and human cells. Cloning of large genome fragments, either from complex intestinal communities or from selected bacteria, allows the screening of these biological resources for bioactivity towards complex plant polymers or functional food such as prebiotics. This permitted identification of novel carbohydrate-active enzyme families involved in dietary fibre and host glycan breakdown, and highlighted unsuspected bacterial players at the top of the intestinal microbial food chain. Similarly, exposure of fractions from genomic and metagenomic clones onto human cells engineered with reporter systems to track modulation of immune response, cell proliferation or cell metabolism has allowed the identification of bioactive clones modulating key cell signalling pathways or the induction of specific genes. This opens the possibility to decipher mechanisms by which commensal bacteria or candidate probiotics can modulate the activity of cells in the intestinal epithelium or even in distal organs such as the liver, adipose tissue or the brain. Hence, in spite of our inability to culture many of the dominant microbes of the human intestine, functional metagenomics open a new window for the exploration of food-microbe-host crosstalk.

  3. Functional food ingredients against colorectal cancer. An example project integrating functional genomics, nutrition and health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stierum, R.; Burgemeister, R.; Helvoort, van A.; Peijnenburg, A.; Schütze, K.; Seidelin, M.; Vang, O.; Ommen, van B.

    2001-01-01

    Functional Food Ingredients Against Colorectal Cancer is one of the first European Union funded Research Projects at the cross-road of functional genomics [comprising transcriptomics, the measurement of the expression of all messengers RNA (mRNAs) and proteomics, the measurement of expression/state

  4. Identification of the Beer Component Hordenine as Food-Derived Dopamine D2 Receptor Agonist by Virtual Screening a 3D Compound Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommer, Thomas; Hübner, Harald; El Kerdawy, Ahmed; Gmeiner, Peter; Pischetsrieder, Monika; Clark, Timothy

    2017-03-01

    The dopamine D2 receptor (D2R) is involved in food reward and compulsive food intake. The present study developed a virtual screening (VS) method to identify food components, which may modulate D2R signalling. In contrast to their common applications in drug discovery, VS methods are rarely applied for the discovery of bioactive food compounds. Here, databases were created that exclusively contain substances occurring in food and natural sources (about 13,000 different compounds in total) as the basis for combined pharmacophore searching, hit-list clustering and molecular docking into D2R homology models. From 17 compounds finally tested in radioligand assays to determine their binding affinities, seven were classified as hits (hit rate = 41%). Functional properties of the five most active compounds were further examined in β-arrestin recruitment and cAMP inhibition experiments. D2R-promoted G-protein activation was observed for hordenine, a constituent of barley and beer, with approximately identical ligand efficacy as dopamine (76%) and a Ki value of 13 μM. Moreover, hordenine antagonised D2-mediated β-arrestin recruitment indicating functional selectivity. Application of our databases provides new perspectives for the discovery of bioactive food constituents using VS methods. Based on its presence in beer, we suggest that hordenine significantly contributes to mood-elevating effects of beer.

  5. Preparation and evaluation of functional foods in adjuvant arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Okbi, S. Y.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Adjuvant arthritis is an animal model that closely resembles rheumatoid arthritis in humans. It is a successful working model used to study new anti-inflammatory agents. In previous studies (animal and clinical we have shown that evening primrose oil, fish oil and the methanol extract of date fruits and fenugreek seeds have anti-inflammatory activity and that the methanol extract of dates has an antioxidant effect. Based on these studies, the aim of the present study was to prepare 7 functional foods containing such bioactive fractions separately or in combination and to evaluate them in adjuvant arthritis in rats, study the stability of bioactive ingredients and evaluate their sensory properties. The studied biochemical parameters were erythrocyte sedimentation rate, erythrocyte superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and plasma copper, zinc and interlukin 2. Nutritional parameters, including body weight gain, food intake and food efficiency ratio were monitored during the feeding of the functional foods. The bioactive ingredients assessed were total phenolic contents and fatty acids. The results showed improvement in the biochemical parameters, body weight gain and food efficiency ratio of arthritic rats fed on the functional foods with different degrees. All the prepared functional foods were sensory accepted. The active ingredients showed stability during storage. In conclusion, all the tested functional foods showed promising antiinflammatory activity and were determined to be acceptable through sensory evaluation which means that their potential beneficial use as dietary supplements in rheumatoid arthritis patients may be recommended.

    La artritis adyuvante es un modelo utilizado en animales y se caracteriza por ser muy parecida a la artritis reumatoide en humanos. Se trata de un modelo de trabajo utilizado con éxito para estudiar nuevos agentes anti-inflamatorios. En estudios previos (animales y clínica hemos demostrado que

  6. Functional principal component analysis of glomerular filtration rate curves after kidney transplant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Jianghu J; Wang, Liangliang; Gill, Jagbir; Cao, Jiguo

    2017-01-01

    This article is motivated by some longitudinal clinical data of kidney transplant recipients, where kidney function progression is recorded as the estimated glomerular filtration rates at multiple time points post kidney transplantation. We propose to use the functional principal component analysis method to explore the major source of variations of glomerular filtration rate curves. We find that the estimated functional principal component scores can be used to cluster glomerular filtration rate curves. Ordering functional principal component scores can detect abnormal glomerular filtration rate curves. Finally, functional principal component analysis can effectively estimate missing glomerular filtration rate values and predict future glomerular filtration rate values.

  7. [Psychological commitment: adaptive functions, paradoxes, modalities and components].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brault-Labbé, Anne

    2017-12-01

    The process of psychological commitment, its adaptive functions and some of the difficulties that go along with it are specific. A description of the multimodal model of commitment provides an illustration of how motivational, affective, cognitive and behavioural mechanisms can be combined. These lead to different ways of entering into the commitment, with differing consequences on how the individual functions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Recovering four-component solutions by the inverse transformation of the infinite-order two-component wave functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barysz, Maria; Mentel, Lukasz; Leszczynski, Jerzy

    2009-01-01

    The two-component Hamiltonian of the infinite-order two-component (IOTC) theory is obtained by a unitary block-diagonalizing transformation of the Dirac-Hamiltonian. Once the IOTC spin orbitals are calculated, they can be back transformed into four-component solutions. The transformed four component solutions are then used to evaluate different moments of the electron density distribution. This formally exact method may, however, suffer from certain approximations involved in its numerical implementation. As shown by the present study, with sufficiently large basis set of Gaussian functions, the Dirac values of these moments are fully recovered in spite of using the approximate identity resolution into eigenvectors of the p 2 operator.

  9. Ecstasy exposure & gender: examining components of verbal memory functioning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenessa S Price

    Full Text Available Studies have demonstrated verbal memory deficits associated with past year ecstasy use, although specific underlying components of these deficits are less understood. Further, prior research suggests potential gender differences in ecstasy-induced serotonergic changes. Therefore, the current study investigated whether gender moderated the relationship between ecstasy exposure and components of verbal memory after controlling for polydrug use and confounding variables.Data were collected from 65 polydrug users with a wide range of ecstasy exposure (ages 18-35; 48 ecstasy and 17 marijuana users; 0-2310 ecstasy tablets. Participants completed a verbal learning and memory task, psychological questionnaires, and a drug use interview.Increased past year ecstasy exposure predicted poorer short and long delayed free and cued recalls, retention, and recall discrimination. Male ecstasy users were more susceptible to dose-dependent deficits in retention than female users.Past year ecstasy consumption was associated with verbal memory retrieval, retention, and discrimination deficits in a dose-dependent manner in a sample of healthy young adult polydrug users. Male ecstasy users were at particular risk for deficits in retention following a long delay. Gender difference may be reflective of different patterns of polydrug use as well as increased hippocampal sensitivity. Future research examining neuronal correlates of verbal memory deficits in ecstasy users are needed.

  10. Ecstasy exposure & gender: examining components of verbal memory functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Jenessa S; Shear, Paula; Lisdahl, Krista M

    2014-01-01

    Studies have demonstrated verbal memory deficits associated with past year ecstasy use, although specific underlying components of these deficits are less understood. Further, prior research suggests potential gender differences in ecstasy-induced serotonergic changes. Therefore, the current study investigated whether gender moderated the relationship between ecstasy exposure and components of verbal memory after controlling for polydrug use and confounding variables. Data were collected from 65 polydrug users with a wide range of ecstasy exposure (ages 18-35; 48 ecstasy and 17 marijuana users; 0-2310 ecstasy tablets). Participants completed a verbal learning and memory task, psychological questionnaires, and a drug use interview. Increased past year ecstasy exposure predicted poorer short and long delayed free and cued recalls, retention, and recall discrimination. Male ecstasy users were more susceptible to dose-dependent deficits in retention than female users. Past year ecstasy consumption was associated with verbal memory retrieval, retention, and discrimination deficits in a dose-dependent manner in a sample of healthy young adult polydrug users. Male ecstasy users were at particular risk for deficits in retention following a long delay. Gender difference may be reflective of different patterns of polydrug use as well as increased hippocampal sensitivity. Future research examining neuronal correlates of verbal memory deficits in ecstasy users are needed.

  11. Food-derived carbohydrates--structural complexity and functional diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tharanathan, Rudrapatnam N

    2002-01-01

    Carbohydrates are biomolecules abundantly available in nature. They are found in bewildering types ranging from simple sugars through oligo- and polysaccharides to glycoconjugates and saccharide complexes, each exhibiting characteristic bio-physiological and/or nutritional functions both in in vivo and in vitro systems. For example, their presence or inclusion in food dictates the texture (body) and gives desirable customer appeal (satisfaction), or their inclusion in the diet offers beneficial effects of great therapeutic value. Thus, carbohydrates are integrally involved in a multitude of biological functions such as regulation of the immune system, cellular signaling (communication), cell malignancy, antiinfection responses, host-pathogen interactions, etc. If starch is considered the major energy storage carbohydrate, the gums/mucilages and other non-starch carbohydrates are of structural significance. The most investigated properties of starch are its gelatinization and melting behavior, especially during food processing. This has led to the development of the food polymer science approach, which has enabled a new interpretive and experimental frame work for the study of the plasticizing influence of simple molecules such as water, sugars, etc. on food systems that are kinetically constrained. Starch, although considered fully digestible, has been challenged, and starch is found to be partly indigestible in the GI tract of humans. This fraction of starch-resisting digestion in vivo is known as resistant starch (RS). The latter, due to its excellent fermentative capacity in the gut, especially yielding butyric acid is considered a new tool for the creation of fiber-rich foods, which are of nutraceutical importance. By a careful control of the processing conditions the content of RS, a man-made fiber, can be increased to as high as 30%. Arabinoxylans are the major endospermic cell wall polysaccharides of cereals. In wheat they are found complexed with ferulic

  12. Effect of substrate on periphyton communities and relationships among food web components in shallow hypertrophic lake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Mieczan

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available We studied the role of natural (common reed and artificial substrata (bamboo in structuring the abundance and taxonomic composition of periphyton assemblages. Investigations were conducted in a shallow, hypertrophic lake situated in the area of Polesie Lubelskie (Eastern Poland. Periphyton communities (algae, ciliates, small metazoa and chironomids on both types of substratum were sampled monthly, from May to November of 2007. Water samples for chemical analysis were collected together with biological samples. We selected the group of ten environmental variables which are the most important in determining the habitat conditions in highly eutrophic lakes: temperature, Secchi disc visibility, conductivity, dissolved oxygen, periphytic chlorophyll-a, N-NO3, N-NH4, TP, P-PO4 and total organic carbon (TOC. The abundances of periphytic algae, ciliates, metazoa and chironomids were significantly affected by season and substrate. On natural substrata, in all studied months, periphyton communities showed higher abundances. The results of PCA analysis confirmed the distinction between periphyton communities on natural and artificial substrata. The Monte Carlo permutation test showed that the periphyton communities on common reed were the most significantly affected by temperature, N-NO3, Secchi disc visibility and TOC. The communities on artificial substrata were significantly influenced by temperature, P-PO4 and TOC. On natural substrata biomass of periphytic algae was significantly negatively correlated with abundances of all groups of potential grazers (ciliates, metazoa, chironomids. On artificial substrata the relations between components of periphytic food web were stronger; correlation coefficients between algae, protists and chironomids were significant at P<0.01. The results of analysis indicate that periphytic algae can play an important role as food source for higher trophic levels. These interactions are less significant on natural (reed

  13. Invited review: Fermented milk as antihypertensive functional food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltrán-Barrientos, L M; Hernández-Mendoza, A; Torres-Llanez, M J; González-Córdova, A F; Vallejo-Córdoba, B

    2016-06-01

    Over the past decade, interest has risen in fermented dairy foods that promote health and could prevent diseases such as hypertension. This biological effect has mainly been attributed to bioactive peptides encrypted within dairy proteins that can be released during fermentation with specific lactic acid bacteria or during gastrointestinal digestion. The most studied bioactive peptides derived from dairy proteins are antihypertensive peptides; however, a need exists to review the different studies dealing with the evaluation of antihypertensive fermented milk before a health claim may be associated with the product. Thus, the objective of this overview was to present available information related to the evaluation of fermented milk containing antihypertensive peptides by in vitro and in vivo studies, which are required before a fermented functional dairy product may be introduced to the market. Although commercial fermented milks with antihypertensive effects exist, these are scarce and most are based on Lactobacillus helveticus. Thus, a great opportunity is available for the development of functional dairy products with new lactic acid bacteria that support heart health through blood pressure- and heart rate-lowering effects. Hence, the consumer may be willing to pay a premium for foods with important functional benefits. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Fermented Brown Rice Flour as Functional Food Ingredient

    OpenAIRE

    Ilowefah, Muna; Chinma, Chiemela; Bakar, Jamilah; Ghazali, Hasanah; Muhammad, Kharidah; Makeri, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    As fermentation could reduce the negative effects of bran on final cereal products, the utilization of whole-cereal flour is recommended, such as brown rice flour as a functional food ingredient. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the effect of fermented brown rice flour on white rice flour, white rice batter and its steamed bread qualities. Brown rice batter was fermented using commercial baker?s yeast (Eagle brand) according to the optimum conditions for moderate acidity (pH 5.5) to...

  15. Egg and Egg-Derived Foods: Effects on Human Health and Use as Functional Foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Jose M.; Anton, Xaquin; Redondo-Valbuena, Celia; Roca-Saavedra, Paula; Rodriguez, Jose A.; Lamas, Alexandre; Franco, Carlos M.; Cepeda, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    Eggs are sources of protein, fats and micronutrients that play an important role in basic nutrition. However, eggs are traditionally associated with adverse factors in human health, mainly due to their cholesterol content. Nowadays, however, it is known that the response of cholesterol in human serum levels to dietary cholesterol consumption depends on several factors, such as ethnicity, genetic makeup, hormonal factors and the nutritional status of the consumer. Additionally, in recent decades, there has been an increasing demand for functional foods, which is expected to continue to increase in the future, owing to their capacity to decrease the risks of some diseases and socio-demographic factors such as the increase in life expectancy. This work offers a brief overview of the advantages and disadvantages of egg consumption and the potential market of functional eggs, and it explores the possibilities of the development of functional eggs by technological methods. PMID:25608941

  16. Functional Foods Programs Serve as a Vehicle to Provide Nutrition Education to Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cirignano, Sherri M.

    2011-01-01

    An increase in consumer interest in functional foods provides an opportunity for FCS educators to use this topic in Extension programming to promote current nutrition recommendations. The Functional Foods for Life Educational Programs (FFL) are a curriculum of six evidence-based mini-seminars that highlight specific functional foods that have the…

  17. Positioning functional foods in an ecological approach to the prevention of overweight and obesity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wieringa, N.F.; van der Windt, H.J.; Zuiker, R.R.M.; Dijkhuizen, L.; Verkerk, M.A.; Vonk, R.J.; Swart, J.A.A.

    2008-01-01

    To contribute to the social debate about the role of functional foods in the prevention of overweight and obesity using an ecological model to study the positioning of functional foods and their social implications. Positioning was conceptualized as the relative attention given to functional foods

  18. FORMATION OF BACTERIAL AND ZOOPLANKTON COMPONENT OF NATURAL FOOD BASE UNDER EFFECT OF TRADITIONAL ORGANIC FERTILIZERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Krazhan

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Characterization of bacteria and zooplankton in rearing ponds using traditional fertilizers: cattle manure and bird droppings in modern conditions for fish farming. Methodology. Material collection and processing were carried out according to conventional hydrochemical and hydrobiological methods. Findings. We consider forming of bacteria and zooplankton component of natural food base of Irkliiv herbivorous fish nursery rearing ponds under the influenced of traditional organic fertilizers such as bird droppings (0,12 t/ha and cattle manure (2,0 t/ha. Each pond was planted by ongrowing Nyvka carp larvae (40,0 thousand ind./ha with silver carp (1,0 thousand ind./ha and grass carp larvae (1,0 thousand ind./ha. Qualitative and quantitative development of bacteria and zooplankton in fish-breeding ponds was investigated. The results show that in the development of the studied invertebrate groups of zooplankton in production ponds had no significant differences, except for rotifers, which group prevailed by the biomass to 3,6 times in the pond with the introduction of humus. Originality. The parameters of bacteria and zooplankton by the application of traditional organic fertilizers at present fish farming are studied. Practical value. These quantitative indicators of bacteria and zooplankton of fish-rearing ponds with water supply from Kremenchug reservoir, the application of cattle manure and bird droppings could be offered as an optimum data at present fish production stage.

  19. PLA and two components silicon rubber blends aiming for frozen foods packaging applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Utai Meekum

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Designing of PLA and two components silicone rubber blends was studies. Frozen food packaging application is the main ultimate aim. The statistical method using 23 DOE was conducted. The standard testing methods, in particular impact testing at sub-zero temperature, were performed. The preliminary blend formula comprised 1.0 phr of silane and polyester polyols, respectively, was initially resolved. Then, the optimize the silicone portion in the blends was determined. Blending formula using 8.0 phr of silicone with respect to PLA matrix gave rise to the overall satisfactory properties. 3. TETA was used as the silicone curing agent and reactively blended onto the ingredients. TETA at 0.4 phr, with respect to the silicone, enhanced the mechanical properties, especially flexibility and toughness, of the PLA/silicone blend. Exceeding the optimal TETA loading would cause the chain scission and also the dilution effects. Hence, marginal inferior properties of the blends were be experienced. The preliminary biodegradability investigation found that the PLA/silicone blend initially triggered at the second week. Its degradation rate was likely to be faster than neat PLA. Keywords: PLA/silicone blends, Mechanical properties, Sub-zero impact strength

  20. PLA and two components silicon rubber blends aiming for frozen foods packaging applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meekum, Utai; Khiansanoi, Apichart

    2018-03-01

    Designing of PLA and two components silicone rubber blends was studies. Frozen food packaging application is the main ultimate aim. The statistical method using 23 DOE was conducted. The standard testing methods, in particular impact testing at sub-zero temperature, were performed. The preliminary blend formula comprised 1.0 phr of silane and polyester polyols, respectively, was initially resolved. Then, the optimize the silicone portion in the blends was determined. Blending formula using 8.0 phr of silicone with respect to PLA matrix gave rise to the overall satisfactory properties. 3. TETA was used as the silicone curing agent and reactively blended onto the ingredients. TETA at 0.4 phr, with respect to the silicone, enhanced the mechanical properties, especially flexibility and toughness, of the PLA/silicone blend. Exceeding the optimal TETA loading would cause the chain scission and also the dilution effects. Hence, marginal inferior properties of the blends were be experienced. The preliminary biodegradability investigation found that the PLA/silicone blend initially triggered at the second week. Its degradation rate was likely to be faster than neat PLA.

  1. Assessing Executive Function components in 9 years old children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Reyes

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Executive Function (EF is a multidimensional construct. It includes a set of abilities that allows to execute actions with a purpose, aimed to a goal, in an efficient way. The objective of this work is to explore some of the cognitive abilities that constitute a common factor for EF in 9 years-old children. The chosen instruments: Batería de Evaluación Neuropsicológica de la Función Ejecutiva en niños (ENFEN (Battery of Neuropsychological Assessment for Executive Function in Children, along with the Backward Digits Subtestfrom the WISC-III, were administered to 101 children from private schools of Buenos Aires State, Argentina. The ENFEN consists on EF tasks, including Phonological and Semantic Fluency, Trail Making Test versions for children (gray and colored sets, Interference Task, and Planning disc movements according to a model. An initial confirmatory factor analysis didn’t show significant fit indexes, being the Inhibitory control the variable with the lower and non significant factorial weight. A second model excluding the Inhibitory control measure was conducted, and it showed excellent fit indexes. Therefore, it can be concluded that at this age, some of the cognitive abilities included on the EF are: Phonological and Semantic Fluency, Sustained and Selective attention, Planning and Working memory; which is not the case for Inhibitory Control (measured by the Interference Task in the ENFEN.

  2. Radiation chemistry - extravaganza or an integral component of radiation processing of food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simic, M.G.; DeGraff, E.

    1983-01-01

    The role of radiation chemistry in radiation processing of foods is discussed in detail. A few examples demonstrating the relevance of the radiation chemistry of model systems to food-irradiation technology are given. The importance of irradiation parameters such as dose, dose rate, temperature, atmosphere, physical state and additives in achieving acceptable and high quality of irradiated foods are emphasized. A few examples of radiation-induced free radical reactions in model compounds relevant to foods are also discussed. (author)

  3. Functional food awareness and perceptions in relation to information sources in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vella, Meagan N; Stratton, Laura M; Sheeshka, Judy; Duncan, Alison M

    2014-05-17

    The functional food industry has experienced innovative and economic expansion, yet research into consumer perceptions of functional foods and their associated health claims is limited. Among consumers, older adults could benefit from functional foods due to age-related issues pertaining to food and health. The purpose of this research was to identify the need for information related to functional foods among older adults (≥60 years old) and to assess awareness and perceptions of health claims on functional food packages. Community-dwelling older adults (n = 200) completed a researcher administered questionnaire designed to collect information about functional foods including current consumption, motivating factors for consumption, perceived need for information, sources of information for functional foods and awareness of health claims. Prevalence of functional food consumption among participants was 93.0%. Increased awareness and knowledge was the most commonly reported factor that would promote functional food consumption (85.5%) and 63.5% of participants wanted more information about functional foods with preferred sources being newspapers/magazines/books (68.5%) and food labels (66.1%). Participants were predominately (93.5%) aware of health claims on functional foods and those with more education were more likely to report being aware of health claims (p = 0.045). Although functional food consumption among older adults in this sample is high, there is a need for further information regarding functional foods. These results inform stakeholders regarding the potential for information to influence functional food acceptance among older adult consumers.

  4. Functional food awareness and perceptions in relation to information sources in older adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background The functional food industry has experienced innovative and economic expansion, yet research into consumer perceptions of functional foods and their associated health claims is limited. Among consumers, older adults could benefit from functional foods due to age-related issues pertaining to food and health. The purpose of this research was to identify the need for information related to functional foods among older adults (≥60 years old) and to assess awareness and perceptions of health claims on functional food packages. Methods Community-dwelling older adults (n = 200) completed a researcher administered questionnaire designed to collect information about functional foods including current consumption, motivating factors for consumption, perceived need for information, sources of information for functional foods and awareness of health claims. Results Prevalence of functional food consumption among participants was 93.0%. Increased awareness and knowledge was the most commonly reported factor that would promote functional food consumption (85.5%) and 63.5% of participants wanted more information about functional foods with preferred sources being newspapers/magazines/books (68.5%) and food labels (66.1%). Participants were predominately (93.5%) aware of health claims on functional foods and those with more education were more likely to report being aware of health claims (p = 0.045). Conclusions Although functional food consumption among older adults in this sample is high, there is a need for further information regarding functional foods. These results inform stakeholders regarding the potential for information to influence functional food acceptance among older adult consumers. PMID:24886306

  5. Enzyme technology for precision functional food ingredient processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Anne S

    2010-03-01

    A number of naturally occurring dietary substances may exert physiological benefits. The production of enhanced levels or particularly tailored versions of such candidate functional compounds can be targeted by enzymatic catalysis. The recent literature contains examples of enhancing bioavailability of iron via enzyme-catalyzed degradation of phytate in wheat bran, increasing diacyl-glycerol and conjugated linoleic acid levels by lipase action, enhancing the absorption of the citrus flavonoid hesperetin via rhamnosidase treatment, and obtaining solubilized dietary fiber via enzymatic modification of potato starch processing residues. Such targeted enzyme-catalyzed reactions provide new invention opportunities for designing functional foods with significant health benefits. The provision of well-defined naturally structured compounds can, moreover, assist in obtaining the much-needed improved understanding of the physiological benefits of complex natural substances.

  6. Microalgae, a Potential Natural Functional Food Source – a Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Villarruel-López Angélica

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Microalgae are a group of microorganisms used in aquaculture. The number of studies regarding their use as a functional food has recently increased due to their nutritional and bioactive compounds such as polysaccharides, fatty acids, bioactive peptides, and pigments. Specific microalgal glucans (polysaccharides can activate the immune system or exert antioxidant and hypocholesterolemic effects. The importance of algal lipids is based on their polyunsaturated fatty acids, their anti-inflammatory effects, their modulation of lipid pathways, and their neuroprotective action. Microalgae peptides can bind or inhibit specific receptors in cardiovascular diseases and cancer, while carotenoids can act as potent antioxidants. The beneficial biological activity will depend on the specific microalga and its chemical constituents. Therefore, knowledge of the composition of microalgae would aid in identifying, selecting, and studying their functional effects.

  7. ACCEPTANCE OF FUNCTIONAL FOOD AMONG CHILEAN CONSUMERS: APPLE LEATHER.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Vliet, Maya; Adasme-Berrios, Cristian; Schnettler, Berta

    2015-10-01

    the aim of this study is to measure acceptance of a specific functional food: apple (fruit) leather, based on organoleptic characteristics and to identify consumer types and preferences for natural additives which increase the product's functionality and meet current nutritional needs. a sample of 800 consumers provided an evaluation of apple leather in terms of acceptance (liking). A sensorial panel was carried out using a 9-point hedonic scale. Cluster analysis was used to identify different acceptance-based consumer types. In addition, a conjoint analysis was carried out to determine preference for different additives. the cluster analysis resulted in four groups with significant differences in the average likings obtained from the sensory panel. Results indicate that the sweetness of the tested apple leather was evaluated best among all groups and, on average, color was rated as the worst attribute. However, overall likings differ significantly between groups. Results from the conjoint analysis indicate that, in general, consumers prefer natural additives included in the product which enhance functionality. although there is a "global acceptance" of the product, there are significant differences between groups. The results of the conjoint analysis indicate that, in general, consumers prefer the aggregation of natural additives which increase the product's functionality. Apple leather with natural additives, such as anticariogenics and antioxidants, can be considered a functional substitute of unhealthy snacks and/or sweets. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  8. Reliability analysis and component functional allocations for the ESF multi-loop controller design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hur, Seop; Kim, D.H.; Choi, J.K.; Park, J.C.; Seong, S.H.; Lee, D.Y.

    2006-01-01

    This paper deals with the reliability analysis and component functional allocations to ensure the enhanced system reliability and availability. In the Engineered Safety Features, functionally dependent components are controlled by a multi-loop controller. The system reliability of the Engineered Safety Features-Component Control System, especially, the multi-loop controller which is changed comparing to the conventional controllers is an important factor for the Probability Safety Assessment in the nuclear field. To evaluate the multi-loop controller's failure rate of the k-out-of-m redundant system, the binomial process is used. In addition, the component functional allocation is performed to tolerate a single multi-loop controller failure without the loss of vital operation within the constraints of the piping and component configuration, and ensure that mechanically redundant components remain functional. (author)

  9. Approach to novel functional foods for stress control 4. Regulation of serotonin transporter by food factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Mikiko; Haito, Sakiko; Furumoto, Mari; Kawai, Yoshichika; Terao, Junji; Miyamoto, Ken-ichi

    2005-11-01

    Serotonin transporters (SERTs) are pre-synaptic proteins specialized for the clearance of serotonin following vesicular release at central nervous system (CNS) and enteric nervous system synapses. SERTs are high affinity targets in vivo for antidepressants such as serotonin selective reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). These include 'medical' psychopharmacological agents such as analgesics and antihistamines, a plant extract called St John's Wort (Hypericum). Osteoclasts are the primary cells responsible for bone resorption. They arise by the differentiation of osteoclast precursors of the monocyte/macrophage lineage. The expression of SERTs was increased in RANKL-induced osteoclast-like cells. Using RANKL stimulation of RAW264.7 cells as a model system for osteoclast differentiation, we studied the direct effects of food factor on serotonin uptake. The SSRIs (fluoxetine and fluvoxamine) inhibited markedly (approximately 95%) in serotonin transport in differentiated osteoclast cells. The major components of St. John's Wort, hyperforin and hypericine were significantly decreased in serotonin transport activity. Thus, a new in vitro model using RANKL-induced osteoclast-like cells may be useful to analyze the regulation of SERT by food factors and SSRIs.

  10. Infinite-component conformal fields. Spectral representation of the two-point function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaikov, R.P.; Tcholakov, V.

    1975-01-01

    The infinite-component conformal fields (with respect to the stability subgroup) are considered. The spectral representation of the conformally invariant two-point function is obtained. This function is nonvanishing as/lso for one ''fundamental'' and one infinite-component field

  11. Health Effects of Bioactive Components in Plant Foods; Results and Opinion of the EU-COST926 Action

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verkerk, R.; Piskula, M.; Bovy, Arnaud; Dekker, M.

    2014-01-01

    This paper reviews the main results of EU-action: “COST 926: Impact of new technologies on the health benefits and safety of bioactive plant compounds”. The bioavailability and the effects on gene expression of various bioactive components in plant foods are described in relation with their

  12. Phenetic distances in the Drosophila melanogaster-subgroup species and oviposition-site preference for food components

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, M.; Boerema, A.

    1981-01-01

    Oviposition-site preferences (O.S.P.) have been investigated in females of six sibling species of the Drosophila melanogaster subgroup. O.S.P. were determined for standard food components and yeast genotypes. Females of all species showed a strong preference for complete medium and avoidance of pure

  13. Sequential Proton Loss Electron Transfer in Deactivation of Iron(IV) Binding Protein by Tyrosine Based Food Components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tang, Ning; Skibsted, Leif Horsfelt

    2017-01-01

    The iron(IV) binding protein ferrylmyoglobin, MbFe(IV)=O, was found to be reduced by tyrosine based food components in aqueous solution through a sequential proton loss electron transfer reaction mechanism without binding to the protein as confirmed by isothermal titration calorimetry. Dopamine a...

  14. 78 FR 21128 - Molecular Diagnostic Instruments With Combined Functions; Draft Guidance for Industry and Food...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-09

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration [Docket No. FDA-2013-D-0258] Molecular Diagnostic Instruments With Combined Functions; Draft Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Food...

  15. Effects of Applied Nitrogen Amounts on the Functional Components of Mulberry (Morus alba L.) Leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiyama, Mari; Takahashi, Makoto; Katsube, Takuya; Koyama, Akio; Itamura, Hiroyuki

    2016-09-21

    This study investigated the effects of applied nitrogen amounts on specific functional components in mulberry (Morus alba L.) leaves. The relationships between mineral elements and the functional components in mulberry leaves were examined using mulberry trees cultivated in different soil conditions in four cultured fields. Then, the relationships between the nitrogen levels and the leaf functional components were studied by culturing mulberry in plastic pots and experimental fields. In the common cultured fields, total nitrogen was negatively correlated with the chlorogenic acid content (R(2) = -0.48) and positively correlated with the 1-deoxynojirimycin content (R(2) = 0.60). Additionally, differences in nitrogen fertilizer application levels affected each functional component in mulberry leaves. For instance, with increased nitrogen levels, the chlorogenic acid and flavonol contents significantly decreased, but the 1-deoxynojirimycin content significantly increased. Selection of the optimal nitrogen application level is necessary to obtain the desired functional components from mulberry leaves.

  16. Effects of gamma-radiation on some components of food and agricultural products (pyridoxine, folic acid, methionine)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gehlehtseanu, I.

    1974-01-01

    the effects of gamma radiation on individual components of food and agricultural products (Pyridoxine, folic acid, methionine) were investigated. Some of the studies have provided support for the hypothesis that the structural changes occurring in separately irradiated components of a foodstuff are greater than those taking place in the same components when present in the foodstuff. Results of irradiating pyridoxine and pyridoxal in an aqueous medium; of folic acid in aqueous solutions and in solid state; and of methionine in aqueous solutions and solid state, are given. (E.T.)

  17. [Determination of the Plant Origin of Licorice Oil Extract, a Natural Food Additive, by Principal Component Analysis Based on Chemical Components].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tada, Atsuko; Ishizuki, Kyoko; Sugimoto, Naoki; Yoshimatsu, Kayo; Kawahara, Nobuo; Suematsu, Takako; Arifuku, Kazunori; Fukai, Toshio; Tamura, Yukiyoshi; Ohtsuki, Takashi; Tahara, Maiko; Yamazaki, Takeshi; Akiyama, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    "Licorice oil extract" (LOE) (antioxidant agent) is described in the notice of Japanese food additive regulations as a material obtained from the roots and/or rhizomes of Glycyrrhiza uralensis, G. inflata or G. glabra. In this study, we aimed to identify the original Glycyrrhiza species of eight food additive products using LC/MS. Glabridin, a characteristic compound in G. glabra, was specifically detected in seven products, and licochalcone A, a characteristic compound in G. inflata, was detected in one product. In addition, Principal Component Analysis (PCA) (a kind of multivariate analysis) using the data of LC/MS or (1)H-NMR analysis was performed. The data of thirty-one samples, including LOE products used as food additives, ethanol extracts of various Glycyrrhiza species and commercially available Glycyrrhiza species-derived products were assessed. Based on the PCA results, the majority of LOE products was confirmed to be derived from G. glabra. This study suggests that PCA using (1)H-NMR analysis data is a simple and useful method to identify the plant species of origin of natural food additive products.

  18. The contribution of three components of nutrition knowledge to socio-economic differences in food purchasing choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinnon, Loretta; Giskes, Katrina; Turrell, Gavin

    2014-08-01

    To assess socio-economic differences in three components of nutrition knowledge, i.e. knowledge of (i) the relationship between diet and disease, (ii) the nutrient content of foods and (iii) dietary guideline recommendations; furthermore, to determine if socio-economic differences in nutrition knowledge contribute to inequalities in food purchasing choices. The cross-sectional study considered household food purchasing, nutrition knowledge, socio-economic and demographic information. Household food purchasing choices were summarised by three indices, based on self-reported purchasing of sixteen groceries, nineteen fruits and twenty-one vegetables. Socio-economic position (SEP) was measured by household income and education. Associations between SEP, nutrition knowledge and food purchasing were examined using general linear models adjusted for age, gender, household type and household size. Brisbane, Australia in 2000. Main household food shoppers (n 1003, response rate 66·4 %), located in fifty small areas (Census Collectors Districts). Shoppers in households of low SEP made food purchasing choices that were less consistent with dietary guideline recommendations: they were more likely to purchase grocery foods comparatively higher in salt, sugar and fat, and lower in fibre, and they purchased a narrower range of fruits and vegetables. Those of higher SEP had greater nutrition knowledge and this factor attenuated most associations between SEP and food purchasing choices. Among nutrition knowledge factors, knowledge of the relationship between diet and disease made the greatest and most consistent contribution to explaining socio-economic differences in food purchasing. Addressing inequalities in nutrition knowledge is likely to reduce socio-economic differences in compliance with dietary guidelines. Improving knowledge of the relationship between diet and disease appears to be a particularly relevant focus for health promotion aimed to reduce socio

  19. A Food Transfer Program without a Formal Education Component Modifies Complementary Feeding Practices in Poor Rural Mexican Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Luzuriaga, María J; Unar-Munguía, Mishel; Rodríguez-Ramírez, Sonia; Rivera, Juan A; González de Cosío, Teresa

    2016-01-01

    Inadequate complementary feeding partially explains micronutrient deficiencies in the first 2 y of life. To prevent malnutrition, the Mexican government implemented the Programa de Apoyo Alimentario (PAL), which transferred either food baskets containing micronutrient-fortified milk and animal food products or cash to beneficiary families along with educational sessions. This study evaluated the impact of PAL on 2 indicators of complementary feeding: minimum dietary diversity and consumption of iron-rich or iron-fortified foods in children aged 6-23 mo. A secondary analysis of the original PAL evaluation design was conducted through a randomized community trial implemented with 3 intervention groups (food basket with education, food basket without education, and cash transfer with education) and a control. The impact of PAL after 14 mo of exposure was estimated in 2 cross-sectional groups of children aged 6-23 mo at baseline and at follow-up in a panel of 145 communities by using difference-in-difference models. Only children who lived in households and communities that were similar between treatment groups at baseline were included in the analysis. These children were identified by using a propensity score. Of the 3 intervention groups, when compared with the control, only the food basket without education group component increased the consumption of iron-rich or iron-fortified foods by 31.2 percentage points (PP) (P diversity by 21.6 PP (P effective than cash transfers. The fact that the 2 food basket groups differed in the observed impact does not allow for more convincing conclusions to be made about the education component of the program. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01304888. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  20. Essential Nutrition and Food Systems Components for School Curricula: Views from Experts in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadegholvad, Sanaz; Yeatman, Heather; Omidvar, Nasrin; Parrish, Anne-Maree; Worsley, Anthony

    2017-07-01

    This study aimed to investigate food experts' views on important nutrition and food systems knowledge issues for education purposes at schools in Iran. In 2012, semi-structured, face-to-face or telephone interviews were conducted with twenty-eight acknowledged Iranian experts in food and nutrition fields. Participants were selected from four major provinces in Iran (Tehran, Isfahan, Fars and Gilan). Open-ended interview questions were used to identify nutrition and food systems knowledge issues, which experts considered as important to be included in school education programs. Qualitative interviews were analyzed thematically using NVivo. A framework of knowledge that would assist Iranian students and school-leavers to make informed decisions in food-related areas was developed, comprising five major clusters and several sub-clusters. Major knowledge clusters included nutrition basics; food production; every day food-related practices; prevalent nutritional health problems in Iran and improvement of students' ethical attitudes in the food domain. These findings provide a guide to curriculum developers and policy makers to assess current education curricula in order to optimize students' knowledge of nutrition and food systems.

  1. What determines ingredient awareness of consumers? A study on ten functional food ingredients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bornkessel, S.; Bröring, S.; Omta, S.W.F.; Trijp, van J.C.M.

    2014-01-01

    Given the importance of consumer awareness of functional food ingredients for healthy food choices, the aim of this study is to explore consumers’ ingredient awareness and the determinants which influence the awareness about functional food ingredients. A sample of 200 German consumers was

  2. Nanoemulsion-based delivery systems to improve functionality of lipophilic components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ISABEL eODRIOZOLA-SERRANO

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of active lipophilic substances such as antimicrobials and health-related compounds in the food industry still is a challenge due to their poor water-solubility and instability in food formulations. Nano-sized structures such as nanoemulsions of oil-in-water are regarded as useful tools with a great potential in the food sector to incorporate food ingredients. Reducing the size of the active compounds incorporated within a solution would increase the surface area per mass unit of nanoemulsions thus enhancing solubility and stability in foods. In addition, the ability of the active lipids to penetrate across biological membranes is also enhanced, thus boosting their biological functionality. An overview of the most significant studies reporting data about the potential benefits of active lipid nanoemulsions over conventional emulsions is presented.

  3. Oral processing characteristics of solid savoury meal components, and relationship with food composition, sensory attributes and expected satiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forde, C G; van Kuijk, N; Thaler, T; de Graaf, C; Martin, N

    2013-01-01

    The modern food supply is often dominated by a large variety of energy dense, softly textured foods that can be eaten quickly. Previous studies suggest that particular oral processing characteristics such as large bite size and lack of chewing activity contribute to the low satiating efficiency of these foods. To better design meals that promote greater feelings of satiation, we need an accurate picture of the oral processing characteristics of a range of solid food items that could be used to replace softer textures during a normal hot meal. The primary aim of this study was to establish an accurate picture of the oral processing characteristics of a set of solid savoury meal components. The secondary aim was to determine the associations between oral processing characteristics, food composition, sensory properties, and expected satiation. In a within subjects design, 15 subjects consumed 50 g of 35 different savoury food items over 5 sessions. The 35 foods represented various staples, vegetables and protein rich foods such a meat and fish. Subjects were video-recorded during consumption and measures included observed number of bites, number of chews, number of swallows and derived measures such as chewing rate, eating rate, bite size, and oral exposure time. Subjects rated expected satiation for a standard 200 g portion of each food using a 100mm and the sensory differences between foods were quantified using descriptive analysis with a trained sensory panel. Statistical analysis focussed on the oral processing characteristics and associations between nutritional, sensory and expected satiation parameters of each food. Average number of chews for 50 g of food varied from 27 for mashed potatoes to 488 for tortilla chips. Oral exposure time was highly correlated with the total number of chews, and varied from 27 s for canned tomatoes to 350 s for tortilla chips. Chewing rate was relatively constant with an overall average chewing rate of approximately 1 chew

  4. Functional Food Market Development in Serbia: Motivations and Barriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Žaklina Stojanović

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present main findings obtained from the empirical analysis of the functional food market in Serbia. The analysis is based on the in-depth interviews with relevant processors and retailers present on the market. The following set of topics are considered: (1 motivations (driving forces and barriers to offer products with nutrition and health (N&H claim and (2 perception of consumer demand toward N&H claimed products. Differences between Serbia and other Western Balkan Countries (WBC are explored by using nonparametric techniques based on the independent samples. Results support overall conclusion that this market segment in Serbia is underdeveloped and rather producer than consumer driven compared to more developed WBC markets.

  5. The role of whey in functional dairy food production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljubica Tratnik

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Modern life style also enhances a need for creation of better dairyproducts, in comparison with traditional ones, possessing functionalcharacteristics. Whey is consisted primarily of lactose, proteins of high nutritive value, important minerals and imunoactive compounds, as well as vitamins of B group. It can be used for fermented probiotic drinks and albumin cheese production. Using new methods of pressure membrane filtration and demineralisation the economic manufacture of whey, as a valuable source of nutrients, is enabled. The aim of this paper is to give an overview on the possibilities of sweet whey, especially whey protein concentrates, use in functional dairy products manufacture from cow’s and goat’s milk. The paper is based on the published scientific research performed in the Laboratory for Technology of Milk and Dairy Products of the Faculty of Food Technology and Biotechnology University of Zagreb.

  6. Natural antioxidants in functional foods: from food safety to health benefits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nieto, Susana

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Oxygen is essential for metabolism but it may be highly damaging for both organisms and foods unless properly controlled. Among uncontrolled detrimental processes lipid oxidation (or oxidative rancidity is one of the most relevant. Oxidative rancidity of foods is initiated by reactive oxygen species (ROS. ROS are also formed in living organisms as consequence of metabolic activity with potentially sided effects, though a certain physiological level of ROS is crucial for the regulation of cell functions. Oxidative stress is defined as a disturbance in the pro-oxidant/anti-oxidant balance and antioxidants of synthetic or natural origin may have an important role in the maintenance of this balance. Synthetic antioxidants are widely used in the food industry, however concerns about their safety have changed the interest to natural antioxidants which are presumed to be safe. Natural antioxidants such as tocopherols, ascorbic acid, rosemary extracts, lycopene and some flavonoids are now available to be added to foods in replacement of synthetic products. These antioxidants may reinforce the activity of the endogenous antioxidant systems providing extra protection against oxidative stress. Food preserved with added natural antioxidants can be considered as functional foods because these products can provide better health conditions to consumer.El oxígeno es un metabolito esencial para la vida. Sin embargo puede ser altamente dañino para el organismo y para los alimentos que consumimos si su actividad no es controlada. Uno de los efectos mas deteriorativos del oxígeno es la oxidación de los lípidos o rancidez oxidativa. Este es un proceso que en los alimentos es iniciado por las llamadas especies reactivas del oxígeno (ROS, las que también se pueden formar en los organismos vivos como consecuencia de la actividad metabólica de estos, con efectos graves para estos organismos. Ciertos procesos metabólicos requieren de la participación de los ROS

  7. The Exploitation of the Traditional Component in Restructuring Modern Food Offer in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Bobe

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Food and eating habits, together with adjacent agricultural activities have had and an important role in the development of modern society and the individual itself. Besides its nutritional role, food has become a main socio-cultural determinant, food consumption patterns being influenced, on one hand, by psycho-sensory and quality characteristics of the food product and, on the other hand, by the physiological state of the consumer and its main determinants: traditions, religion and culture. These elements, together with economic considerations have a significant share in shaping the modern eating habits. In this context, the present paper aims to identify and analyze the main capitalization methods of the food’s traditional potential in reshaping the modern food offer, starting with a literature review and continuing with an exploratory analyze of the traditional food sector in Romania. Considering the main directions outlined by literature, this article tries to identify a set of specific features of the traditional food sector in Romania both in terms of producer and consumer perspectives. In this regard, an interview and an exploratory based questionnaire study were conducted. Having as a starting point the wide variety of Romanian food resources, this study aims to highlight how culinary customs have been modeled throughout history in order to establish eating patterns as an assessment method based on the impact of technological progress on the future alimentation.

  8. Determination of radiation-induced hydrocarbons in processed food and complex lipid matrices. A new solid phase extraction (SPE) method for detection of irradiated components in food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartmann, M.; Ammon, J.; Berg, H.

    1997-01-01

    Detection of irradiated components in processed food with complex lipid matrices can be affected by two problems. First, the processed food may contain only a small amount of the irradiated component, and the radiation-induced hydrocarbons may be diluted throughout the lipid matrix of the whole food. Second, in complex lipid matrices, the detection of prior irradiation is often disturbed by fat-associated compounds. In these cases, common solid phase extraction (SPE) Florisil clean-up alone is inadequate in the detection of prior irradiation. Subsequent SPE argentation chromatography of the Florisil eluate allows the measurement of small amounts of irradiated lipid-containing ingredients in processed food as well as the detection of prior irradiation in complex lipid matrices such as paprika and chilli. SPE argetation chromatography is the first method available for the selective enrichment of radiation-specific hydrocarbons from even complex lipid matrices, thus enabling the detection of irradiation does as low as 0.025 kGy. Furthermore, by using radiation-induced hydrocarbons in the detection of prior irradiation of paprika and chilli powder, a second independent method, the first being measurement of thermoluminescence, is available for the analysis of these matrices. Such analysis could be achieved by using this highly sensitive, cheap and easy to perform combined SPE Florisil/argentation chromatography method, without the need for sophisticated techniques like SFE-GC/MS or LC-GC/MS, so that highly sensitive detection of prior irradiation colud be performed in almost every laboratory

  9. Zinc Bioavailability from Phytate-Rich Foods and Zinc Supplements. Modeling the Effects of Food Components with Oxygen, Nitrogen, and Sulfur Donor Ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Ning; Skibsted, Leif H

    2017-10-04

    Aqueous solubility of zinc phytate (K sp = (2.6 ± 0.2) × 10 -47 mol 7 /L 7 ), essential for zinc bioavailability from plant foods, was found to decrease with increasing temperature corresponding to ΔH dis of -301 ± 22 kJ/mol and ΔS dis of -1901 ± 72 J/(mol K). Binding of zinc to phytate was found to be exothermic for the stronger binding site and endothermic for the weaker binding site. The solubility of the slightly soluble zinc citrate and insoluble zinc phytate was found to be considerably enhanced by the food components with oxygen donor, nitrogen donor, and sulfur donor ligands. The driving force for the enhanced solubility is mainly due to the complex formation between zinc and the investigated food components rather than ligand exchange and ternary complex formation as revealed by quantum mechanical calculations and isothermal titration calorimetry. Histidine and citrate are promising ligands for improving zinc absorption from phytate-rich foods.

  10. Hygienic, sanitary, physical, and functional conditions of Brazilian public school food services

    OpenAIRE

    Almeida,Kênia Machado de; André,Maria Cláudia Porfirio; Campos,Maria Raquel Hidalgo; Díaz,Mário Ernesto Piscoya

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To verify the physical, functional, hygienic, and sanitary conditions of the food services of municipal schools located in the Brazilian Midwest region. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study of 296 school food services conducted from February to June 2012. The food services were assessed by a semi-structured check list divided into the following sections: physical conditions, available equipment, food handlers' conduct, and food service cleaning processes and procedures. Th...

  11. Technological aspects of functional food-related carbohydrates.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voragen, A.G.J.

    1998-01-01

    Carbohydrates in food occur as natural constituents or are added as ingredients or additives. The most important endogenous carbohydrates in food are starch, depolymerized starch, sucrose, lactose, glucose, fructose and sorbitol (digestible) and carbohydrates such as raffinose, stachyose, resistant

  12. Curcuma longa and Curcuma mangga leaves exhibit functional food property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yunbao; Nair, Muraleedharan G

    2012-11-15

    Although leaves of Curcuma mangga and Curcuma longa are used in food preparations, the bioactive components in it are not known. In this study, antioxidant, antiinflammatory and anticancer activities of leave extracts and its isolates were investigated using established bioassay procedures in our laboratory. The leaf extracts of both plants gave similar bioassay and chromatographic profiles. The methanolic and water extracts of C. mangga (CMM and CMW) and C. longa (CLM and CLW), at 100 μg/mL, inhibited lipid peroxidation (LPO) by 78%, 63%, 81% and 43%, cyclooxygenase enzymes COX-1 by 55%, 33%, 43% and 24% and COX-2 by 65%, 55%, 77% and 69%, respectively. At same concentration, CMM, CMW, CLM and CLW showed growth inhibition of human tumour cell lines by 0-46%. Therefore, a bioassay-guided isolation of water and methanolic extracts of C. longa was carried out and afforded nine isolates. At 25 μg/mL, these compounds inhibited LPO by 11-87%, COX-1 and -2 enzymes by 0-35% and 0-82% and growth of human tumour cells by 0-36%, respectively. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Functional food red yeast rice (RYR) for metabolic syndrome amelioration: a review on pros and cons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Seema

    2016-05-01

    Red yeast rice (RYR), the fermentation product of mold Monascus purpureus has been an integral part of Oriental food and traditional Chinese medicine, long before the discovery of their medicinal roles. With the identification of bioactive components as polyketide pigments (statins), and unsaturated fatty acids, RYR has gained a nutraceutical status. Hypercholesterolemic effect of this fermented compound has been validated and monacolin K has been recognized as the pivotal component in cholesterol alleviation. Functional similarity with commercial drug lovastatin sans the side effects has catapulted its popularity in other parts of the world as well. Apart from the hypotensive role, ameliorative benefits of RYR as anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic, anticancer and osteogenic agent have emerged, fueling intense research on it. Mechanistic studies have revealed their interaction with functional agents like coenzyme Q10, astaxanthin, vitamin D, folic acid, policosanol, and berberine. On the other hand, concurrence of mycotoxin citrinin and variable content of statin has marred its integration in mainstream medication. In this disputable scenario, evaluation of the scopes and lacunae to overcome seems to contribute to an eminent area of healthcare. Red yeast rice (RYR), the rice-based fermentation product of mold Monascus purpureus is a functional food. Its bioactive component monacolin K acts like synthetic drug lovastatin, without the severe side effects of the latter. RYR has been validated to lower cholesterol, control high blood pressure; confer anti-flammation, hypoglycaemic, anticancer and osteogenic properties. However, dose inconsistency and co-occurrence of toxin citrinin hampers its dietary supplementation prospect. Further research might facilitate development of RYR as a nutraceutical.

  14. The molecular mechanism of the cholesterol-lowering effect of dill and kale: The influence of the food matrix components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danesi, Francesca; Govoni, Marco; D'Antuono, Luigi Filippo; Bordoni, Alessandra

    2016-07-01

    Foods are complex matrices containing many different compounds, all of which contribute to the overall effect of the food itself, although they have different mechanisms of action. While evaluating the effect of bioactive compounds, it is important to consider that the use of a single compound can hide the effects of the other molecules that can act synergistically or antagonistically in the same food. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the influence of food matrix components by comparing two edible plants (dill and kale) with cholesterol-lowering potential and similar contents of their most representative bioactive, quercetin. The molecular effects of the extracts were evaluated in HepG2 cells by measuring the expression of sterol-regulatory element-binding proteins (SREBPs), 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase (HMGCR) and low density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) at the mRNA and protein level. The results reported here show that both extracts reduced the cellular cholesterol level with a similar trend and magnitude. It is conceivable that the slightly different results are due to the diverse composition of minor bioactive compounds, indicating that only by considering food as a whole is it possible to understand the complex relationship between food, nutrition, and health in a foodomics vision. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Novel concepts on functional foods and nutrigenomics in healthy aging and chronic diseases: a review of fermented papaya preparation research progress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Marotta

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available AbstractFunctional foods are an emerging research field corresponding with genomical, epidemiological and clinical studies integrated with the food industry in accordance with the consumer demands. Consequently, the features of the functional foods are being discussed by various researchers and related institutions, and a common view has been pointed out about the availability and the nature of the components of functional foods. Recently, the outcomes of functional foods are being assessed by the help of all the available scientific tools. Genomic medicine is one of the most promising areas of research to reveal the benefits of functional foods and the bioactive ingredients. Nutrigenomics aims at studying the genetic and epigenetic interactions with a nutrient or the functional component in order to lead to a phenotype change and therefore to the cell metabolism, differentiation or even apoptosis. Papaya and its fermentation product arespecific products derived from the technologically advanced and controlled environmentalfriendly bio-fermentation process. Functional Foods in Health and Disease 2012, 2(5:120-136 It has been well known for a long time that the natural anti-oxidant properties of papaya, mainly depending on vitamins A and C in addition to certain amino acids, were consistent both in the fruit and derived from the papain enzyme which is no longer present in the fermented product. In this article, functional foods in genomic medicine are discussed in review of the fermented papaya preparation research progress. Clinical evidences about fermented papaya as a functional food are reported as supported by various research protocols and experimental models. The benefits of fermented papaya preparation are also discussed in nutrigenomic basis and it is reported to have an important antioxidant and transcriptomic potential which deserves further investigation. As a conclusion, fermented papaya preparation represents a Functional Food

  16. Functional effects of Japanese style fermented soy sauce (shoyu) and its components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kataoka, Shigehiro

    2005-09-01

    The functional effects of Japanese style fermented soy sauce (shoyu) have been studied. Soy sauce promotes digestion, because the consumption of a cup of clear soup containing soy sauce enhances gastric juice secretion in humans. Soy sauce possesses antimicrobial activity against bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus, Shigella flexneri, Vibrio cholera, Salmonella enteritidis, nonpathogenic Escherichia coli and pathogenic E. coli O157:H7. Soy sauce also contains an antihypertensive component. An angiotensin I-converting enzyme inhibitor having antihypertensive effects was found in soy sauce. The active compound was identified as nicotianamine, which comes from soybeans. Soy sauce exhibits anticarcinogenic effects. Giving diets containing soy sauce to mice inhibit benzo[a]pyrene (BP)-induced forestomach neoplasia. The anticarcinogenic compounds in soy sauce were identified. The flavor components of Japanese style fermented soy sauce, such as 4-hydroxy-2(or 5)-ethyl-5(or 2)-methyl-3(2H)-furanone (HEMF), which is a characteristic flavor component of Japanese style fermented soy sauce and 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone (HDMF) and 4-hydroxy-5-methyl-3(2H)-furanone (HMF) exhibit antioxidant activities and anticarcinogenic effects on BP-induced mice forestomach neoplasia when fed following carcinogen exposure. The feeding of a diet containing 10% soy sauce to male C3H mice for 13 months also reduces the frequency and multiplicity of spontaneous liver tumors. HDMF and HEMF also exhibit anticataract effects in the spontaneous cataract rat (ICR/f rat). Fermented soy sauce contains three tartaric isoflavone derivatives called shoyuflavones. These shoyuflavones were shown to have inhibitory activities against histidine decarboxylase, which produces histamine, a mediator of inflammation, allergy and gastric acid secretion. Soy sauce also exhibits antiplatelet activity. beta-Carbolines were isolated from soy sauce as the active compounds. Soybeans and wheat, which are the

  17. The Psycho-sensorial Value of the Food Products – a Provocative Component in Purchase Decision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Bobe

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The psycho-sensorial value is a specific, complex and determinant concept of the food products that is reflected by means of psycho-sensorial properties such as: shape, size, aspect, colour, taste, smell, fragrance, bouquet, density, clarity. The assessment of these properties by the consumers is decisive for the acceptance or the rejection of foods and classifies the products into savoury, or non-savoury, attractive, indifferent, or unattractive. The psycho-sensorial features of food products allow us to make quick assessments of their qualities, but with a high degree of subjectivity among the common consumers and big individual variations, assessments that are highly influenced by the hedonic value of food products. The sensory analysis of foods is part of the modern analytical methods: when correctly and scientifically applied, it allows a real assessment of the quality of these products, evaluation which could not be obtained only by assessing physicochemical and microbiological methods. However, the scientific methods for sensorial assessment have a higher degree of objectivity and are used successfully in industry and trade, in evaluating the qualitative level of foods by authorised and qualified people. Otherwise, the design of the psycho-sensorial value of food products involves tests and sensorial analyses and has as main objective the establishment of concordances among the consumers’ demands and the level of the sensorial characteristics of the products. The present paper aims at underlining the necessity to design the psycho-sensorial value of processed foods, as well as the importance of educating and informing the consumers for a better capacity to get oriented on the market, and implicitly, for a right purchase decision.

  18. Order in large and chaos in small components of nuclear wave functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soloviev, V.G.

    1992-06-01

    An investigation of the order and chaos of the nuclear excited states has shown that there is order in the large and chaos in the small quasiparticle or phonon components of the nuclear wave functions. The order-to-chaos transition is treated as a transition from the large to the small components of the nuclear wave function. The analysis has shown that relatively large many-quasiparticle components of the wave function at an excitation energy (4-8)MeV may exist. The large many-quasiparticle components of the wave functions of the neutron resonances are responsible for enhanced E1-, M1- and E2-transition probabilities from neutron resonance to levels lying (1-2)MeV below them. (author)

  19. Time-dependent density functional theory for multi-component systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiecheng Li; Peiqing Tong

    1985-10-01

    The Runge-Gross version of Hohenberg-Kohn-Sham's density functional theory is generalized to multi-component systems, both for arbitrary time-dependent pure states and for arbitrary time-dependent ensembles. (author)

  20. Effects of nicotine on homeostatic and hedonic components of food intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stojakovic, Andrea; Espinosa, Enma P; Farhad, Osman T; Lutfy, Kabirullah

    2017-10-01

    Chronic tobacco use leads to nicotine addiction that is characterized by exaggerated urges to use the drug despite the accompanying negative health and socioeconomic burdens. Interestingly, nicotine users are found to be leaner than the general population. Review of the existing literature revealed that nicotine affects energy homeostasis and food consumption via altering the activity of neurons containing orexigenic and anorexigenic peptides in the brain. Hypothalamus is one of the critical brain areas that regulates energy balance via the action of these neuropeptides. The equilibrium between these two groups of peptides can be shifted by nicotine leading to decreased food intake and weight loss. The aim of this article is to review the existing literature on the effect of nicotine on food intake and energy homeostasis and report on the changes that nicotine brings about in the level of these peptides and their receptors that may explain changes in food intake and body weight induced by nicotine. Furthermore, we review the effect of nicotine on the hedonic aspect of food intake. Finally, we discuss the involvement of different subtypes of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in the regulatory action of nicotine on food intake and energy homeostasis. © 2017 Society for Endocrinology.

  1. Studies on functional foods in Japan--state of the art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arai, S

    1996-01-01

    This paper pinpoints the "tertiary" function of foods which, different from the conventional "primary" and "secondary" functions that are related to nutrition and preference, respectively, is understood to be directly involved in the modulation of our physiological systems such as the immune, endocrine, nerve, circulatory, and digestive systems. Insights into this newly defined function are particularly important in that the intake of some physiologically functional constituents of foods could be effective in preventing diseases that may be caused by disorders in these physiological systems. Technologically, it has become feasible to design and produce physiologically functional foods (simply, functional foods) that are expected to satisfy in whole or in part a today's demand for disease prevention by eating. Such public expectations are reflected in the activation and development of systematic, large-scale studies on foods as seen in "Grant-in-Aid" research sponsored by the Ministry of Education, Science, and Culture. Meanwhile, the Ministry of Health and Welfare has initiated a policy of officially approving functional foods in terms of "foods for specified health uses" as defined by new legislation. Up to now (October 1995), 58 items have thus been approved. The first was a hypoallergenic rice product approved as of June 1, 1993. Here I discuss details of studies on rice-based functional foods. Other basic and applied studies directed toward the tertiary function, with future perspectives for functional foods, are also discussed.

  2. Conceptual model of consumer’s willingness to eat functional foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babicz-Zielinska, Ewa; Jezewska-Zychowicz, Maria

    The functional foods constitute the important segment of the food market. Among factors that determine the intentions to eat functional foods, the psychological factors play very important roles. Motives, attitudes and personality are key factors. The relationships between socio-demographic characteristics, attitudes and willingness to purchase functional foods were not fully confirmed. Consumers’ beliefs about health benefits from eaten foods seem to be a strong determinant of a choice of functional foods. The objective of this study was to determine relations between familiarity, attitudes, and beliefs in benefits and risks about functional foods and develop some conceptual models of willingness to eat. The sample of Polish consumers counted 1002 subjects at age 15+. The foods enriched with vitamins or minerals, and cholesterol-lowering margarine or drinks were considered. The questionnaire focused on familiarity with foods, attitudes, beliefs about benefits and risks of their consumption was constructed. The Pearson’s correlations and linear regression equations were calculated. The strongest relations appeared between attitudes, high health value and high benefits, (r = 0.722 and 0.712 for enriched foods, and 0.664 and 0.693 for cholesterol-lowering foods), and between high health value and high benefits (0.814 for enriched foods and 0.758 for cholesterol-lowering foods). The conceptual models based on linear regression of relations between attitudes and all other variables, considering or not the familiarity with the foods, were developed. The positive attitudes and declared consumption are more important for enriched foods. The beliefs on high health value and high benefits play the most important role in the purchase. The interrelations between different variables may be described by new linear regression models, with the beliefs in high benefits, positive attitudes and familiarity being most significant predictors. Health expectations and trust to

  3. Consumer-Behavioural Intention Towards The Consumption Of Functional Food In Malaysia: Their Profiles And Behaviours

    OpenAIRE

    Hayatul Safrah Salleh; Azila Mohd Noor; Nik Hazimah Nik Mat; Yusnita Yusof; Wan Norhayati Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    Unhealthy eating behaviour has been linked to the risks of many chronic diseases all around the world. Functional foods and its association with health benefits and reducing the risk of diseases open a promising avenue for consumers to pursue a healthier life as well as extending their life expectancy. This provides a great market opportunity for functional foods to be developed. Consequently, it has generated considerable consumer interest in functional food consumption. This study describes...

  4. Development of a locally sustainable functional food based on mutandabota, a traditional food in southern Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mpofu, Augustine; Linnemann, Anita R; Sybesma, Wilbert; Kort, Remco; Nout, M J R; Smid, Eddy J

    2014-05-01

    A probiotic dairy product was developed on the basis of a traditional dish called mutandabota to enable resource-poor populations in southern Africa to benefit from a functional food. Mutandabota is widely consumed in rural southern Africa, making it an ideal food matrix to carry probiotics. First, a process to produce probiotic mutandabota was designed. Raw cow milk was boiled and subsequently cooled to ambient temperature (25°C). Next, dry pulp from the fruit of the baobab tree (Adansonia digitata L.) was added to the milk at a concentration of 4% (wt/vol). This mixture was inoculated with the probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus yoba and left to ferment for 24h, while the growth of the bacterial culture was monitored. Final ingredients were then added to produce probiotic mutandabota that had 14% (wt/vol) baobab fruit pulp and 7% (wt/vol) sugar in cow milk. The pH of probiotic mutandabota was pH 3.5, which ensures that the product is microbiologically safe. The viable plate count of L. rhamnosus yoba increased from 5.8 ± 0.3 log cfu/mL at the point of inoculation to 8.8 ± 0.4 log cfu/mL at the moment of consumption, thereby meeting the criterion to have a viable count of the probiotic bacterium in excess of 6 log cfu/mL of a product. Baobab fruit pulp at 4% promoted growth of L. rhamnosus yoba with a maximal specific growth rate (μmax) of 0.6 ± 0.2/h at 30°C. The developed technology, though specific for this particular product, has potential to be applied for the delivery of probiotics through a variety of indigenous foods in different regions of the world. Upon consumption, probiotic mutandabota is expected to improve the population's intestinal health, which is especially relevant for vulnerable target groups such as children and elderly people. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Acceptance of functional foods in Denmark, Finland and the US: A cross-cultural study of consumer values and preferences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech-Larsen, Tino; Poulsen, Jacob; Grunert, Klaus G.

    1999-01-01

    Functional foods is a relatively new concept, which covers food products that are enriched with various kinds of (naturally occur-ring) components/substances (eg vitamins, minerals or probiotic cultures) or modified in a way so that the product provides an additional physio-lo-gical benefit...... that some consumers seem to approve of such manipu-lations whereas others don't. One possible explanation is differ-ences in con-sumers' values, especially the values pertaining to the relationship between man and nature. The aim of the study presented in this paper is, by means of conjoint analysis......, to study consumer acceptance of functional foods in Denmark, Finland and the United States and to investi-gate to which extent acceptance can be explained by consumer values. The three countries are selected due to differences in the importance attached to the value dimensions 'harmony' and 'mastery...

  6. Development and hygiene of functional foods with immunomodulation activity using radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jo, Sung Kee; Yu, Young Beob; Park, Hae Ran; Byun, Myung Woo; Yang, Jae Seung; Kim, Sung Ho; Yee, Sung Tae

    1999-04-01

    In searching modulators of immunity and hemopoiesis among natural products, being used as foods, 6 herbs exhibited lymphocyte proliferation in vitro, and 6 exhibited augmentation of hematopoietic cell growth. The combined treatments showed synergistic effects of lymphocyte proliferation and of hematopoietic cell growth. On the other hand, we found 4 effective Oriental medicinal prescriptions, used as energy tonic or blood-building decoctions, for survival and regeneration of hematopoietic cells and for protection of stem cells of intestinal crypt in irradiated mice. On the basis of these results, extracts from combinations of herbs were made in expectation of higher effects in the three respects. The immunomodulation activity by the herb combination was confirmed in mice. In culture of bone marrow cells, the changes of cytokine expression patterns by herb mixture extracts were observed. In the further studies, we would to evaluate the effects of the herb combinations, to identify the active component, to confirm toxicological safety, and to prepare the provisional products for foods. And then, the functional foods with immunomodulation activity would be developed, and would be applied to overcoming the declined immunity and hemopoiesis caused by various factors

  7. Development and hygiene of functional foods with immunomodulation activity using radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jo, Sung Kee; Yu, Young Beob; Park, Hae Ran; Byun, Myung Woo; Yang, Jae Seung [Korea Atomic Energy Research Insitiute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sung Ho [Chonnam Univ., Kwangju (Korea, Republic of); Yee, Sung Tae [Sunchon Univ., Sunchon (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-04-01

    In searching modulators of immunity and hemopoiesis among natural products, being used as foods, 6 herbs exhibited lymphocyte proliferation in vitro, and 6 exhibited augmentation of hematopoietic cell growth. The combined treatments showed synergistic effects of lymphocyte proliferation and of hematopoietic cell growth. On the other hand, we found 4 effective Oriental medicinal prescriptions, used as energy tonic or blood-building decoctions, for survival and regeneration of hematopoietic cells and for protection of stem cells of intestinal crypt in irradiated mice. On the basis of these results, extracts from combinations of herbs were made in expectation of higher effects in the three respects. The immunomodulation activity by the herb combination was confirmed in mice. In culture of bone marrow cells, the changes of cytokine expression patterns by herb mixture extracts were observed. In the further studies, we would to evaluate the effects of the herb combinations, to identify the active component, to confirm toxicological safety, and to prepare the provisional products for foods. And then, the functional foods with immunomodulation activity would be developed, and would be applied to overcoming the declined immunity and hemopoiesis caused by various factors.

  8. Yellow Mealworm Protein for Food Purposes - Extraction and Functional Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xue; Vázquez-Gutiérrez, José Luis; Johansson, Daniel P.; Landberg, Rikard; Langton, Maud

    2016-01-01

    A protocol for extraction of yellow mealworm larvae proteins was established, conditions were evaluated and the resulting protein extract was characterised. The freeze-dried yellow mealworm larvae contained around 33% fat, 51% crude protein and 43% true protein on a dry matter basis. The true protein content of the protein extract was about 75%, with an extraction rate of 70% under optimised extraction conditions using 0.25 M NaOH, a NaOH solution:ethanol defatted worm ratio of 15:1 mL/g, 40°C for 1 h and extraction twice. The protein extract was a good source of essential amino acids. The lowest protein solubility in distilled water solution was found between pH 4 and 5, and increased with either increasing or decreasing pH. Lower solubility was observed in 0.5 M NaCl solution compared with distilled water. The rheological tests indicated that temperature, sample concentration, addition of salt and enzyme, incubation time and pH alterations influenced the elastic modulus of yellow mealworm protein extract (YMPE). These results demonstrate that the functional properties of YMPE can be modified for different food applications. PMID:26840533

  9. Yellow Mealworm Protein for Food Purposes - Extraction and Functional Properties.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue Zhao

    Full Text Available A protocol for extraction of yellow mealworm larvae proteins was established, conditions were evaluated and the resulting protein extract was characterised. The freeze-dried yellow mealworm larvae contained around 33% fat, 51% crude protein and 43% true protein on a dry matter basis. The true protein content of the protein extract was about 75%, with an extraction rate of 70% under optimised extraction conditions using 0.25 M NaOH, a NaOH solution:ethanol defatted worm ratio of 15:1 mL/g, 40°C for 1 h and extraction twice. The protein extract was a good source of essential amino acids. The lowest protein solubility in distilled water solution was found between pH 4 and 5, and increased with either increasing or decreasing pH. Lower solubility was observed in 0.5 M NaCl solution compared with distilled water. The rheological tests indicated that temperature, sample concentration, addition of salt and enzyme, incubation time and pH alterations influenced the elastic modulus of yellow mealworm protein extract (YMPE. These results demonstrate that the functional properties of YMPE can be modified for different food applications.

  10. Functional foods and dietary supplements for the management of dyslipidaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Paola M; Hegele, Robert A

    2017-05-01

    Dyslipidaemia is characterized by increased blood levels of total or LDL cholesterol and triglycerides, or decreased HDL cholesterol levels, and is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Dyslipidaemia has a high worldwide prevalence, and many patients are turning to alternatives to pharmacotherapy to manage their lipid levels. Lifestyle modification should be emphasized in all patients to reduce cardiovascular risk and can be initiated before pharmacotherapy in primary prevention of cardiovascular disease. Many functional foods and natural health products have been investigated for potential lipid-lowering properties. Those with good evidence for a biochemical effect on plasma lipid levels include soy protein, green tea, plant sterols, probiotic yogurt, marine-derived omega-3 fatty acids and red yeast rice. Other products such as seaweed, berberine, hawthorn and garlic might confer some limited benefit in certain patient groups. Although none of these products can reduce lipid levels to the same extent as statins, most are safe to use in addition to other lifestyle modifications and pharmacotherapy. Natural health products marketed at individuals with dyslipidaemia, such as policosanol, guggulsterone and resveratrol, have minimal definitive evidence of a biochemical benefit. Additional research is required in this field, which should include large, high-quality randomized controlled trials with long follow-up periods to investigate associations with cardiovascular end points.

  11. Food additives, contaminants and other minor components: effects on human gut microbiota-a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roca-Saavedra, Paula; Mendez-Vilabrille, Veronica; Miranda, Jose Manuel; Nebot, Carolina; Cardelle-Cobas, Alejandra; Franco, Carlos M; Cepeda, Alberto

    2018-02-01

    Gut bacteria play an important role in several metabolic processes and human diseases, such as obesity and accompanying co-morbidities, such as fatty liver disease, insulin resistance/diabetes, and cardiovascular events. Among other factors, dietary patterns, probiotics, prebiotics, synbiotics, antibiotics, and non-dietary factors, such as stress, age, exercise, and climatic conditions, can dramatically impact the human gut microbiota equilibrium and diversity. However, the effect of minor food constituents, including food additives and trace contaminants, on human gut microbiota has received less attention. Consequently, the present review aimed to provide an objective perspective of the current knowledge regarding the impacts of minor food constituents on human gut microbiota and consequently, on human health.

  12. Developing the algorithm for assessing the competitive abilities of functional foods in marketing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilova Liudmila

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A thorough analysis of competitive factors of functional foods has made it possible to develop an algorithm for assessing the competitive factors of functional food products, with respect to their essential consumer features — quality, safety and functionality. Questionnaires filled in by experts and the published results of surveys of consumers from different countries were used to help select the essential consumer features in functional foods. A “desirability of consumer features” model triangle, based on functional bread and bakery products, was constructed with the use of the Harrington function.

  13. Understanding recovery: changes in the relationships of the International Classification of Functioning (ICF) components over time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, A M; Perruccio, A V; Ibrahim, S; Hogg-Johnson, S; Wong, R; Badley, E M

    2012-12-01

    The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health framework describes human functioning through body structure and function, activity and participation in the context of a person's social and physical environment. This work tested the temporal relationships of these components. Our hypotheses were: 1) there would be associations among physical impairment, activity limitations and participation restrictions within time; 2) prior status of a component would be associated with future status; 3) prior status of one component would influence status of a second component (e.g. prior activity limitations would be associated with current participation restrictions); and, 4) the magnitude of the within time relationships of the components would vary over time. Participants from Canada with primary hip or knee joint replacement (n = 931), an intervention with predictable improvement in pain and disability, completed standardized outcome measures pre-surgery and five times in the first year post-surgery. These included physical impairment (pain), activity limitations and participation restrictions. ICF component relationships were evaluated cross-sectionally and longitudinally using path analysis adjusting for age, sex, BMI, hip vs. knee, low back pain and mood. All component scores improved significantly over time. The path coefficients supported the hypotheses in that both within and across time, physical impairment was associated with activity limitation and activity limitation was associated with participation restriction; prior status and change in a component were associated with current status in another component; and, the magnitude of the path coefficients varied over time with stronger associations among components to three months post surgery than later in recovery with the exception of the association between impairment and participation restrictions which was of similar magnitude at all times. This work enhances understanding of the

  14. Components of a Mediterranean diet and their impact on cognitive functions in aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian eHuhn

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Adhering to the Mediterranean diet (MeDi is known to be beneficial with regard to age-associated diseases including cardiovascular diseases and type 2 diabetes. Recent studies also suggest an impact on cognition and brain structure, and increasing effort is made to track effects down to single nutrients.Aims: To review whether two MeDi components, i.e. long-chain omega-3 fatty acids (LC-n3-FA derived from sea-fish, and plant polyphenols including resveratrol (RSV, exert positive effects on brain health in aging. Content: We summarized health benefits associated with the MeDi and evaluated available studies on the effect of (1 fish-consumption and LC-n3-FA supplementation as well as (2 diet-derived or supplementary polyphenols such as RSV, on cognitive performance and brain structure in animal models and human studies. Also, we discussed possible underlying mechanisms.Conclusion: A majority of available studies suggest that consumption of LC-n3-FA with fish or fishoil-supplements exerts positive effects on brain health and cognition in older humans. However, more large-scale randomized controlled trials are needed to draw definite recommendations. Considering polyphenols and RSV, only a few controlled studies are available to date, yet the evidence based on animal research and first interventional human trials is promising and warrants further investigation. In addition, the concept of food synergy within the MeDi encourages future trials that evaluate the impact of comprehensive lifestyle patterns to help maintaining cognitive functions into old age.

  15. Attentional and physiological processing of food images in functional dyspepsia patients: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, In-Seon; Preissl, Hubert; Giel, Katrin; Schag, Kathrin; Enck, Paul

    2018-01-23

    The food-related behavior of functional dyspepsia has been attracting more interest of late. This pilot study aims to provide evidence of the physiological, emotional, and attentional aspects of food processing in functional dyspepsia patients. The study was performed in 15 functional dyspepsia patients and 17 healthy controls after a standard breakfast. We measured autonomic nervous system activity using skin conductance response and heart rate variability, emotional response using facial electromyography, and visual attention using eyetracking during the visual stimuli of food/non-food images. In comparison to healthy controls, functional dyspepsia patients showed a greater craving for food, a decreased intake of food, more dyspeptic symptoms, lower pleasantness rating of food images (particularly of high fat), decreased low frequency/high frequency ratio of heart rate variability, and suppressed total processing time of food images. There were no significant differences of skin conductance response and facial electromyography data between groups. The results suggest that high level cognitive functions rather than autonomic and emotional mechanisms are more liable to function differently in functional dyspepsia patients. Abnormal dietary behavior, reduced subjective rating of pleasantness and visual attention to food should be considered as important pathophysiological characteristics in functional dyspepsia.

  16. Quantifying functional connectivity in multi-subject fMRI data using component models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Kristoffer Hougaard; Churchill, Nathan William; Mørup, Morten

    2017-01-01

    of functional connectivity, evaluated on both simulated and experimental resting-state fMRI data. It was demonstrated that highly flexible subject-specific component subspaces, as well as very constrained average models, are poor predictors of whole-brain functional connectivity, whereas the best...

  17. Functional foods: regulation and innovations in the EU

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moors, E.H.M.

    2012-01-01

    Worldwide consumers are becoming more interested in the relation between food and health. In order to harmonize regulation on foods throughout the EU, the Regulation EC1924/2006 on nutrition and health claims came into force, as a first specific set of EU legal rules dealing with nutrition and

  18. Rotifer fecundity in relation to components of microbial food web in a eurotrophic reservoir

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Devetter, Miloslav; Seďa, Jaromír

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 504, - (2003), s. 167-175 ISSN 0018-8158. [Reservoir Limnology and Water Quality /4./. České Budějovice, 12.08.2002-16.08.2002] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6017912 Keywords : rotifers * microbial food web Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.720, year: 2003

  19. Minor components in food plants--Note I. Flavonol glycosides from Ullucus tuberosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dini, A; Rastrelli, L; Saturnino, P; Schettino, O

    1991-12-01

    This work deals with the isolation and characterization in Ullucus tuberosus of flavonoids, a class of natural products influencing potentially the taste and nutritional value of the plant food. The three flavonoids, rutin, narcissin and kaempferol 3-O-(2",6"-di-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosil)-beta-D-glucopyranoside, isolated, are devoid of taste, but appear to possess health promoting effects.

  20. 78 FR 41840 - Indirect Food Additives: Adhesives and Components of Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-12

    ... want to foreclose access to a safe material whose use may be necessary in the future, reasoning that if... decision to approve the petition will be made available for inspection at the Center for Food Safety and... available for public disclosure before making the documents available for inspection. VI. Environmental...

  1. Mucosal Immune Regulation in Intestinal Disease. The role of bacterial products, food components and drugs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bol-Schoenmakers, M.

    2009-01-01

    The challenge of the mucosal gut associated immune system is to remain unresponsive to food products and commensal microbiota, while mounting an appropriate immune response towards pathogens. This implicates the necessity of tight immune regulation within the gut associated lymphoid tissue (GALT).

  2. Composition-Based Prediction of Temperature-Dependent Thermophysical Food Properties: Reevaluating Component Groups and Prediction Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phinney, David Martin; Frelka, John C; Heldman, Dennis Ray

    2017-01-01

    Prediction of temperature-dependent thermophysical properties (thermal conductivity, density, specific heat, and thermal diffusivity) is an important component of process design for food manufacturing. Current models for prediction of thermophysical properties of foods are based on the composition, specifically, fat, carbohydrate, protein, fiber, water, and ash contents, all of which change with temperature. The objectives of this investigation were to reevaluate and improve the prediction expressions for thermophysical properties. Previously published data were analyzed over the temperature range from 10 to 150 °C. These data were analyzed to create a series of relationships between the thermophysical properties and temperature for each food component, as well as to identify the dependence of the thermophysical properties on more specific structural properties of the fats, carbohydrates, and proteins. Results from this investigation revealed that the relationships between the thermophysical properties of the major constituents of foods and temperature can be statistically described by linear expressions, in contrast to the current polynomial models. Links between variability in thermophysical properties and structural properties were observed. Relationships for several thermophysical properties based on more specific constituents have been identified. Distinctions between simple sugars (fructose, glucose, and lactose) and complex carbohydrates (starch, pectin, and cellulose) have been proposed. The relationships between the thermophysical properties and proteins revealed a potential correlation with the molecular weight of the protein. The significance of relating variability in constituent thermophysical properties with structural properties--such as molecular mass--could significantly improve composition-based prediction models and, consequently, the effectiveness of process design. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  3. Development and assessment of healthy properties of meat and meat products designed as functional foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olmedilla-Alonso, Begoña; Jiménez-Colmenero, Francisco; Sánchez-Muniz, Francisco J

    2013-12-01

    This review deals with the two major aspects to be considered in the context of meat-based functional foods and human health. One involves the different strategies used to improve (increase or reduce) the presence of bioactive (healthy and unhealthy) compounds in meat and meat products in order to develop potential meat-based functional foods; these strategies are basically concerned with animal production practices, meat processing and storage, distribution and consumption conditions. Since the link between the consumption of those foods and their potentially beneficial effects (improving health and/or reducing the risk of several chronic diseases) needs to be demonstrated scientifically, the second aspect considered is related to intervention studies to examine the functional capacity of meat-based potentially functional foods in humans, discussing how the functionality of a food can be assessed in terms of its effects on health in relation to both target body functions and risk factors. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. A multi-dimensional functional principal components analysis of EEG data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasenstab, Kyle; Scheffler, Aaron; Telesca, Donatello; Sugar, Catherine A; Jeste, Shafali; DiStefano, Charlotte; Şentürk, Damla

    2017-09-01

    The electroencephalography (EEG) data created in event-related potential (ERP) experiments have a complex high-dimensional structure. Each stimulus presentation, or trial, generates an ERP waveform which is an instance of functional data. The experiments are made up of sequences of multiple trials, resulting in longitudinal functional data and moreover, responses are recorded at multiple electrodes on the scalp, adding an electrode dimension. Traditional EEG analyses involve multiple simplifications of this structure to increase the signal-to-noise ratio, effectively collapsing the functional and longitudinal components by identifying key features of the ERPs and averaging them across trials. Motivated by an implicit learning paradigm used in autism research in which the functional, longitudinal, and electrode components all have critical interpretations, we propose a multidimensional functional principal components analysis (MD-FPCA) technique which does not collapse any of the dimensions of the ERP data. The proposed decomposition is based on separation of the total variation into subject and subunit level variation which are further decomposed in a two-stage functional principal components analysis. The proposed methodology is shown to be useful for modeling longitudinal trends in the ERP functions, leading to novel insights into the learning patterns of children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and their typically developing peers as well as comparisons between the two groups. Finite sample properties of MD-FPCA are further studied via extensive simulations. © 2017, The International Biometric Society.

  5. Fermented Brown Rice Flour as Functional Food Ingredient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilowefah, Muna; Chinma, Chiemela; Bakar, Jamilah; Ghazali, Hasanah M; Muhammad, Kharidah; Makeri, Mohammad

    2014-02-12

    As fermentation could reduce the negative effects of bran on final cereal products, the utilization of whole-cereal flour is recommended, such as brown rice flour as a functional food ingredient. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the effect of fermented brown rice flour on white rice flour, white rice batter and its steamed bread qualities. Brown rice batter was fermented using commercial baker's yeast (Eagle brand) according to the optimum conditions for moderate acidity (pH 5.5) to obtain fermented brown rice flour (FBRF). The FBRF was added to white rice flour at 0%, 10%, 20%, 30%, 40% and 50% levels to prepare steamed rice bread. Based on the sensory evaluation test, steamed rice bread containing 40% FBRF had the highest overall acceptability score. Thus, pasting properties of the composite rice flour, rheological properties of its batter, volume and texture properties of its steamed bread were determined. The results showed that peak viscosity of the rice flour containing 40% FBRF was significantly increased, whereas its breakdown, final viscosity and setback significantly decreased. Viscous, elastic and complex moduli of the batter having 40% FBRF were also significantly reduced. However, volume, specific volume, chewiness, resilience and cohesiveness of its steamed bread were significantly increased, while hardness and springiness significantly reduced in comparison to the control. These results established the effectiveness of yeast fermentation in reducing the detrimental effects of bran on the sensory properties of steamed white rice bread and encourage the usage of brown rice flour to enhance the quality of rice products.

  6. Impact of Base Functional Component Types on Software Functional Size based Effort Estimation

    OpenAIRE

    Gencel, Cigdem; Buglione, Luigi

    2008-01-01

    Software effort estimation is still a significant challenge for software management. Although Functional Size Measurement (FSM) methods have been standardized and have become widely used by the software organizations, the relationship between functional size and development effort still needs further investigation. Most of the studies focus on the project cost drivers and consider total software functional size as the primary input to estimation models. In this study, we investigate whether u...

  7. Functional food productions: release the potential of bioactive compounds through food processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epidemiological studies of bioactive compounds from plant-based foods have consistently pointed to undisputed benefits of consumption of plant-based foods on human health particularly regarding cardiovascular diseases and cancers. However, in order to attain the dosage required from these studies, p...

  8. Chromatographic Evaluation and Characterization of Components of Gentian Root Extract Used as Food Additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amakura, Yoshiaki; Yoshimura, Morio; Morimoto, Sara; Yoshida, Takashi; Tada, Atsuko; Ito, Yusai; Yamazaki, Takeshi; Sugimoto, Naoki; Akiyama, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    Gentian root extract is used as a bitter food additive in Japan. We investigated the constituents of this extract to acquire the chemical data needed for standardized specifications. Fourteen known compounds were isolated in addition to a mixture of gentisin and isogentisin: anofinic acid, 2-methoxyanofinic acid, furan-2-carboxylic acid, 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furfural, 2,3-dihydroxybenzoic acid, isovitexin, gentiopicroside, loganic acid, sweroside, vanillic acid, gentisin 7-O-primeveroside, isogentisin 3-O-primeveroside, 6'-O-glucosylgentiopicroside, and swertiajaposide D. Moreover, a new compound, loganic acid 7-(2'-hydroxy-3'-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl)benzoate (1), was also isolated. HPLC was used to analyze gentiopicroside and amarogentin, defined as the main constituents of gentian root extract in the List of Existing Food Additives in Japan.

  9. Industry and Consumers Awareness for Effective Management of Functional Animal-based Foods in South Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Wi, Seo-Hyun; Park, Jung-Min; Wee, Sung-Hwan; Park, Jae-Woo; Kim, Jin-Man

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, manufacturers of animal-based foods with health claims have encountered difficulties in the labeling of their products because of a lack of regulation on defining the functionality of animal-based foods. Therefore, this study was conducted to establish the basic requirements for the development of a definition for functional animal-based foods by investigating consumer and industry awareness. Survey data were collected from 114 industry representatives and 1,100 consumers. Th...

  10. Functional properties of whey protein and its application in nanocomposite materials and functional foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Helen

    Whey is a byproduct of cheese making; whey proteins are globular proteins which can be modified and polymerized to add functional benefits, these benefits can be both nutritional and structural in foods. Modified proteins can be used in non-foods, being of particular interest in polymer films and coatings. Food packaging materials, including plastics, can linings, interior coatings of paper containers, and beverage cap sealing materials, are generally made of synthetic petroleum based compounds. These synthetic materials may pose a potential human health risk due to presence of certain chemicals such as Bisphenol A (BPA). They also add to environmental pollution, being difficult to degrade. Protein-based materials do not have the same issues as synthetics and so can be used as alternatives in many packaging types. As proteins are generally hydrophilic they must be modified structurally and their performance enhanced by the addition of waterproofing agents. Polymerization of whey proteins results in a network, adding both strength and flexibility. The most interesting of the food-safe waterproofing agents are the (large aspect ratio) nanoclays. Nanoclays are relatively inexpensive, widely available and have low environmental impact. The clay surface can be modified to make it organophilic and so compatible with organic polymers. The objective of this study is the use of polymerized whey protein (PWP), with reinforcing nanoclays, to produce flexible surface coatings which limit the transfer of contents while maintaining food safety. Four smectite and kaolin type clays, one treated and three natural were assessed for strengthening qualities and the potential waterproofing and plasticizing benefits of other additives were also analyzed. The nutritional benefits of whey proteins can also be used to enhance the protein content of various foodstuffs. Drinkable yogurt is a popular beverage in the US and other countries and is considered a functional food, especially when

  11. Sensory Characteristics and Volatile Components of Dry Dog Foods Manufactured with Sorghum Fractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donfrancesco, Brizio Di; Koppel, Kadri

    2017-06-17

    Descriptive sensory analysis and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) with a modified headspace solid-phase microextraction (SPME) method was performed on three extruded dry dog food diets manufactured with different fractions of red sorghum and a control diet containing corn, brewer's rice, and wheat as a grain source in order to determine the effect of sorghum fractions on dry dog food sensory properties. The aroma compounds and flavor profiles of samples were similar with small differences, such as higher toasted aroma notes, and musty and dusty flavor in the mill-feed sample. A total of 37 compounds were tentatively identified and semi-quantified. Aldehydes were the major group present in the samples. The total volatile concentration was low, reflecting the mild aroma of the samples. Partial least squares regression was performed to identify correlations between sensory characteristics and detected aroma compounds. Possible relationships, such as hexanal and oxidized oil, and broth aromatics were identified. Volatile compounds were also associated with earthy, musty, and meaty aromas and flavor notes. This study showed that extruded dry dog foods manufactured with different red sorghum fractions had similar aroma, flavor, and volatile profiles.

  12. Functional food monitoring as part of the new Dutch dietary monitoring system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rompelberg CJM; Jager M; Bakker MI; Buurma-Rethans EJM; Ocke MC; CVG

    2006-01-01

    Good data on functional food consumption necessary for an adequate Dutch nutrition policy are lacking. This lack may be overcome in future by including functional food monitoring in the new dietary monitoring system in the Netherlands. One specific form of monitoring could be an Internet-based

  13. Consumption of organic and functional food. A matter of well-being and health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goetzke, Beate; Nitzko, Sina; Spiller, Achim

    2014-06-01

    Health is an important motivation for the consumption of both organic and functional foods. The aim of this study was to clarify to what extent the consumption of organic and functional foods are characterized by a healthier lifestyle and a higher level of well-being. Moreover, the influence of social desirability on the respondents' response behavior was of interest and was also analyzed. Well-being and health was measured in a sample of 555 German consumers at two levels: the cognitive-emotional and the behavioral level. The results show that although health is an important aspect for both functional food and organic food consumption, these two forms of consumption were influenced by different understandings of health: organic food consumption is influenced by an overall holistic healthy lifestyle including a healthy diet and sport, while functional food consumption is characterized by small "adjustments" to lifestyle to enhance health and to increase psychological well-being. An overlap between the consumption of organic and functional food was also observed. This study provides information which enables a better characterization of the consumption of functional food and organic food in terms of well-being and health. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Worlds apart. Consumer acceptance of functional foods and beverages in Germany and China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegrist, Michael; Shi, Jing; Giusto, Alice; Hartmann, Christina

    2015-09-01

    This study examined consumers' willingness to buy functional foods. Data were collected from an Internet survey in Germany (n = 502) and China (n = 443). The results showed that consumers in China were much more willing to buy functional foods, compared with their German counterparts. A substantial segment of the German consumers indicated lower willingness to buy functional foods, compared with the same foods without additional health benefits. The findings further showed that in both countries, the participants with higher health motivation and more trust in the food industry reported higher willingness to buy functional foods than the participants with lower health motivation and less trust in the industry. Food neophobia had a negative impact on acceptance of functional foods in the Chinese sample. No such association was observed for the German sample. The results suggest that cultural factors play a significant role in the acceptance of functional foods; therefore, caution should be exercised in generalizing research findings from Western countries to others. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. PROMISING ACCESSIONS OF CHAENOMELES AND THEIR USE IN THE FUNCTIONAL FOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Sorokopudov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A complex analysis is crucial for obtaining new resistant varieties and developing recommendations for the use of the fruit of Chaenomeles. The task of this study was to assess the productivity and quality of the fruit of the selected forms of Chaenomeles in Central Russia, with the determination of the possibility of a no-waste technology for fruit processing, and the appropriateness of using functional food in the composition of products. The studies were conducted in 2012-2016. In the Botanical Gardens of the National Research University "BelGU" (Belgorod, in the FGBNU VSTISP and GBS N.V. Tsitsina. As materials for the study, 6 selective forms of Chaenomeles, obtained from free pollination of the ‘Calif’ variety, used as a control, were used. The study was carried out according to the generally accepted methodology of varietal studies, along with using the authors' methodical development. A sufficiently high nutritional and biological value of the chelating of the Chaenomeles fruit has been observed. At the same time, the minerals, carbohydrates and vitamins from entire fruits exceed the content of ones squeezed from the pulp. The obtained results of the studies allow us to conclude that it is advisable to organize a non-waste technology for the processing of fruit of Chaenomeles, which can serve as one of the components for the enrichment of food products. Thus, a comprehensive assessment of the biological properties and productivity of breeding forms of Chaenomeles has been made showing that they exceeded the parent variety in stability are regarded as promising intense-vitamin fruit culture, that can be used for various processing methods, as part of functional and therapeutic product-prophylactic nutrition, especially in obtaining natural low-calorie foods.

  16. Functional Connectivity Parcellation of the Human Thalamus by Independent Component Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Sheng; Li, Chiang-Shan R

    2017-11-01

    As a key structure to relay and integrate information, the thalamus supports multiple cognitive and affective functions through the connectivity between its subnuclei and cortical and subcortical regions. Although extant studies have largely described thalamic regional functions in anatomical terms, evidence accumulates to suggest a more complex picture of subareal activities and connectivities of the thalamus. In this study, we aimed to parcellate the thalamus and examine whole-brain connectivity of its functional clusters. With resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging data from 96 adults, we used independent component analysis (ICA) to parcellate the thalamus into 10 components. On the basis of the independence assumption, ICA helps to identify how subclusters overlap spatially. Whole brain functional connectivity of each subdivision was computed for independent component's time course (ICtc), which is a unique time series to represent an IC. For comparison, we computed seed-region-based functional connectivity using the averaged time course across all voxels within a thalamic subdivision. The results showed that, at p analysis, ICtc analysis revealed patterns of connectivity that were more distinguished between thalamic clusters. ICtc analysis demonstrated thalamic connectivity to the primary motor cortex, which has eluded the analysis as well as previous studies based on averaged time series, and clarified thalamic connectivity to the hippocampus, caudate nucleus, and precuneus. The new findings elucidate functional organization of the thalamus and suggest that ICA clustering in combination with ICtc rather than seed-region analysis better distinguishes whole-brain connectivities among functional clusters of a brain region.

  17. European regulations on nutraceuticals, dietary supplements and functional foods: A framework based on safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coppens, Patrick; Fernandes da Silva, Miguel; Pettman, Simon

    2006-01-01

    This article describes the legislation that is relevant in the marketing of functional foods in the European Union (EU), how this legislation was developed as well as some practical consequences for manufacturers, marketers and consumers. It also addresses some concrete examples of how the EU's safety requirements for food products have impacted a range of product categories. In the late nineties, research into functional ingredients was showing promising prospects for the use of such ingredients in foodstuffs. Due mainly to safety concerns, these new scientific developments were accompanied by an urgent call for legislation. The European Commission 2000 White Paper on Food Safety announced some 80 proposals for new and improved legislation in this field. Among others, it foresaw the establishment of a General Food Law Regulation, laying down the principles of food law and the creation of an independent Food Authority endowed with the task of giving scientific advice on issues based upon scientific risk assessment with clearly separated responsibilities for risk assessment, risk management and risk communication. Since then, more than 90% of the White Paper proposals have been implemented. However, there is not, as such, a regulatory framework for 'functional foods' or 'nutraceuticals' in EU Food Law. The rules to be applied are numerous and depend on the nature of the foodstuff. The rules of the general food law Regulation are applicable to all foods. In addition, legislation on dietetic foods, on food supplements or on novel foods may also be applicable to functional foods depending on the nature of the product and on their use. Finally, the two proposals on nutrition and health claims and on the addition of vitamins and minerals and other substances to foods, which are currently in the legislative process, will also be an important factor in the future marketing of 'nutraceuticals' in Europe. The cornerstone of EU legislation on food products, including

  18. On the relationship between executive functions of working memory and components derived from fluid intelligence measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Xuezhu; Schweizer, Karl; Wang, Tengfei; Chu, Pei; Gong, Qin

    2017-10-01

    The aim of the current study is to provide new insights into the relationship between executive functions and intelligence measures in considering the item-position effect observed in intelligence items. Raven's Advanced Progressive Matrices (APM) and Horn's LPS reasoning test were used to assess fluid intelligence which served as criterion in investigating the relationship between intelligence and executive functions. A battery of six experimental tasks measured the updating, shifting, and inhibition processes of executive functions. Data were collected from 205 university students. Fluid intelligence showed substantial correlations with the updating and inhibition processes and no correlation with the shifting process without considering the item-position effect. Next, the fixed-link model was applied to APM and LPS data separately to decompose them into an ability component and an item-position component. The results of relating the components to executive functions showed that the updating and shifting processes mainly contributed to the item-position component whereas the inhibition process was mainly associated with the ability component of each fluid intelligence test. These findings suggest that improvements in the efficiency of updating and shifting processes are likely to occur during the course of completing intelligence measures and inhibition is important for intelligence in general. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Nutritional approach for designing meat-based functional food products with nuts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olmedilla-Alonso, B; Granado-Lorencio, F; Herrero-Barbudo, C; Blanco-Navarro, I

    2006-01-01

    Meat and meat products are essential components of diets in developed countries and despite the convincing evidence that relate them to an increased risk for CVD, a growing consumption of meat products is foreseen. Epidemiological studies show that regular consumption of nuts, in general, and walnuts in particular, correlates inversely with myocardial infarction and ischaemic vascular disease. We assess the nutritional basis for and technological approach to the development of functional meat-based products potentially relevant in cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk reduction. Using the available strategies in the meat industry (reformulation processes) and a food-based approach, we address the design and development of restructured beef steak with added walnuts, potentially functional for CVD risk reduction. Its adequacy as a vehicle for active nutrients is confirmed by a pharmacokinetic pilot study in humans using gamma-tocopherol as an exposure biomarker in chylomicrons during the post-prandial state. Effect and potential "functionality" is being assessed by a dietary intervention study in subjects at risk and markers and indicators related to CVD are being evaluated. Within the conceptual framework of evidence-based medicine, development of meat-based functional products may become a useful approach for specific applications, with a potential market and health benefits of great importance at a population level.

  20. Functionality of system components: Conservation of protein function in protein feature space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lars Juhl; Ussery, David; Brunak, Søren

    2003-01-01

    well on organisms other than the one on which it was trained. We evaluate the performance of such a method, ProtFun, which relies on protein features as its sole input, and show that the method gives similar performance for most eukaryotes and performs much better than anticipated on archaea......Many protein features useful for prediction of protein function can be predicted from sequence, including posttranslational modifications, subcellular localization, and physical/chemical properties. We show here that such protein features are more conserved among orthologs than paralogs, indicating...... they are crucial for protein function and thus subject to selective pressure. This means that a function prediction method based on sequence-derived features may be able to discriminate between proteins with different function even when they have highly similar structure. Also, such a method is likely to perform...

  1. Functional limitation and chronic diseases are associated with food insecurity among U.S. adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venci, Brittany J; Lee, Seung-Yeon

    2018-03-01

    This study examined associations of functional limitation due to any health problems and six chronic diseases (arthritis, diabetes, coronary heart disease, heart attack, hypertension, and stroke) with food security among U.S. adults. The 2011 National Health Interview Survey data for 30,010 adults (≥18 years) were used. Adults were categorized into food secure, low food secure, or very low food secure. Multivariable logistic regressions were used to estimate adjusted odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for having functional limitation and chronic diseases while adjusting for sociodemographic and lifestyle factors. The prevalence of functional limitation and the chronic diseases were higher in low-food-secure and very low-food-secure than food-secure adults. The adjusted ORs were significant in both low food secure and very low food secure, respectively, for functional limitation (OR: 1.87; 95% CI: 1.63, 2.14), (OR: 2.20; 95% CI: 1.91, 2.52), inflammatory diseases or joint/muscular pain (OR: 1.42; 95% CI: 1.21, 1.68), (OR: 1.74; 95% CI: 1.49, 2.04), diabetes (OR: 1.26; 95% CI: 1.06, 1.51), (OR: 1.23; 95% CI: 1.02, 1.48), and hypertension (OR: 1.18; 95% CI: 1.04, 1.35), (OR: 1.42; 95% CI: 1.22, 1.65) when compared with food-secure adults. Findings indicate that food insecurity is associated with functional limitation and chronic diseases, whereas directionality is unknown. Besides the traditional food assistance program for food-insecure populations, interventions to prevent or manage chronic diseases may be necessary to help them reduce the risk of the diseases and manage their conditions. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Food Consumption Patterns Of The Ozyorsk Population In 1948-1966, Important For Estimating Peroral Component Of Internal Exposure Doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mokrov, Y.; Martyushov, V.Z.; Stukalov, Pavel M.; Ivanov, I.A.; Beregich, D.A.; Anspaugh, L.R.; Napier, Bruce A.

    2008-01-01

    Results of reconstruction of food consumption patterns are presented for the residents of Ozyorsk for the period of 1948-1966. The reconstruction was performed on the basis analysis of the archive data. The given period of time is characterized by maximum releases into the atmosphere from the Mayak PA sources, and, therefore, it is considered to be the most significant period for calculating peroral component contribution to effective exposure doses to the population. The paper describes main foodstuff suppliers (regions) and their economic indices, as well as delivery rates and consumption rates for most important foodstuffs (primarily whole milk).

  3. Assessing prescription drug abuse using functional principal component analysis (FPCA) of wastewater data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvatore, Stefania; Røislien, Jo; Baz-Lomba, Jose A; Bramness, Jørgen G

    2017-03-01

    Wastewater-based epidemiology is an alternative method for estimating the collective drug use in a community. We applied functional data analysis, a statistical framework developed for analysing curve data, to investigate weekly temporal patterns in wastewater measurements of three prescription drugs with known abuse potential: methadone, oxazepam and methylphenidate, comparing them to positive and negative control drugs. Sewage samples were collected in February 2014 from a wastewater treatment plant in Oslo, Norway. The weekly pattern of each drug was extracted by fitting of generalized additive models, using trigonometric functions to model the cyclic behaviour. From the weekly component, the main temporal features were then extracted using functional principal component analysis. Results are presented through the functional principal components (FPCs) and corresponding FPC scores. Clinically, the most important weekly feature of the wastewater-based epidemiology data was the second FPC, representing the difference between average midweek level and a peak during the weekend, representing possible recreational use of a drug in the weekend. Estimated scores on this FPC indicated recreational use of methylphenidate, with a high weekend peak, but not for methadone and oxazepam. The functional principal component analysis uncovered clinically important temporal features of the weekly patterns of the use of prescription drugs detected from wastewater analysis. This may be used as a post-marketing surveillance method to monitor prescription drugs with abuse potential. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. A new methodology based on functional principal component analysis to study postural stability post-stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Sánchez, M Luz; Belda-Lois, Juan-Manuel; Mena-Del Horno, Silvia; Viosca-Herrero, Enrique; Igual-Camacho, Celedonia; Gisbert-Morant, Beatriz

    2018-05-05

    A major goal in stroke rehabilitation is the establishment of more effective physical therapy techniques to recover postural stability. Functional Principal Component Analysis provides greater insight into recovery trends. However, when missing values exist, obtaining functional data presents some difficulties. The purpose of this study was to reveal an alternative technique for obtaining the Functional Principal Components without requiring the conversion to functional data beforehand and to investigate this methodology to determine the effect of specific physical therapy techniques in balance recovery trends in elderly subjects with hemiplegia post-stroke. A randomized controlled pilot trial was developed. Thirty inpatients post-stroke were included. Control and target groups were treated with the same conventional physical therapy protocol based on functional criteria, but specific techniques were added to the target group depending on the subjects' functional level. Postural stability during standing was quantified by posturography. The assessments were performed once a month from the moment the participants were able to stand up to six months post-stroke. The target group showed a significant improvement in postural control recovery trend six months after stroke that was not present in the control group. Some of the assessed parameters revealed significant differences between treatment groups (P Functional Principal Component Analysis to be performed when data is scarce. Moreover, it allowed the dynamics of recovery of two different treatment groups to be determined, showing that the techniques added in the target group increased postural stability compared to the base protocol. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Hygienic, sanitary, physical, and functional conditions of Brazilian public school food services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kênia Machado de Almeida

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To verify the physical, functional, hygienic, and sanitary conditions of the food services of municipal schools located in the Brazilian Midwest region. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study of 296 school food services conducted from February to June 2012. The food services were assessed by a semi-structured check list divided into the following sections: physical conditions, available equipment, food handlers' conduct, and food service cleaning processes and procedures. The study variables were classified as compliant or noncompliant with the regulations passed by the National Sanitary Surveillance Agency. RESULTS: Noncompliances were found in all study food services, especially with respect to food service conditions, and the wiring and plumbing in the food preparation area. In this section, 62.7 to 95.9% of the food services did not comply with nine out of the thirteen study items. The main problems were: poorly cleaned external areas, deteriorated walls, floors, ceilings, roofs, drains, and roof gutters; and unscreened doors and windows, allowing the entrance of insects; among others. The main noncompliance regarding processes and procedures was the uncontrolled temperature of the ready-to-eat foods. CONCLUSION: The conditions of the study food services are unsatisfactory for the production of safe meals, possibly compromising meal quality, food safety, and the effectiveness of the School Food Program.

  6. Pie waste - A component of food waste and a renewable substrate for producing ethanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magyar, Margaret; da Costa Sousa, Leonardo; Jayanthi, Singaram; Balan, Venkatesh

    2017-04-01

    Sugar-rich food waste is a sustainable feedstock that can be converted into ethanol without an expensive thermochemical pretreatment that is commonly used in first and second generation processes. In this manuscript we have outlined the pie waste conversion to ethanol through a two-step process, namely, enzyme hydrolysis using commercial enzyme products mixtures and microbial fermentation using yeast. Optimized enzyme cocktail was found to be 45% alpha amylase, 45% gamma amylase, and 10% pectinase at 2.5mg enzyme protein/g glucan produced a hydrolysate with high glucose concentration. All three solid loadings (20%, 30%, and 40%) produced sugar-rich hydrolysates and ethanol with little to no enzyme or yeast inhibition. Enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation process mass balance was carried out using pie waste on a 1000g dry weight basis that produced 329g ethanol at 20% solids loading. This process clearly demonstrate how food waste could be efficiently converted to ethanol that could be used for making biodiesel by reacting with waste cooking oil. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Utilization of non-conventional systems for conversion of biomass to food components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karel, M.; Nakhost, Z.

    1989-01-01

    Described here is work accomplished in investigating the potential use of micro-algae in yielding useful macronutrients for closed ecological life support systems in space habitats. Analysis of the chemical composition of the blue-green alga Synechoccus 6311 was done in the present work, and was compared to values found in previous work on the green algae Scenedesmus obliquus. Similar values were obtained for proteins, and lower values for nucleic acids and lipids. A second part of the work involved fabrication of food products containing various levels of incorporated algae (S. obliquus) proteins and/or lipids. Protein isolate was incorporated into a variety of food products such as bran muffins, fettuccine (spinach noodle imitation), and chocolate chip cookies. In the sensory analysis, the greenish color of the bran muffins and cookies was not found to be objectionable. The mild spinachy flavor was less detectable in chocolate chip cookies than in bran muffins. The color and taste of the algae noodles were found to be pleasant and compared well with commercially available spinach noodles.

  8. Role of PPAR-gamma in inflammation. Prospects for therapeutic intervention by food components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, Harry

    2009-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) is a ligand-dependent transcription factor and a member of the nuclear receptor superfamily. Acting as sensors of hormones, vitamins, endogenous metabolites and xenobiotic compounds, the nuclear receptors control the expression of a very large number of genes. PPARγ has been known for some time to regulate adipocyte differentiation, fatty acid storage and glucose metabolism, and is a target of anti-diabetic drugs. More recently, PPARγ has been recognized as playing a fundamentally important role in the immune response through its ability to inhibit the expression of inflammatory cytokines and to direct the differentiation of immune cells towards anti-inflammatory phenotypes. A feature of PPARγ is the structural diversity of its ligands, which encompass endogenous metabolites, dietary compounds and synthetic drugs. The high and increasing incidence of inflammatory and allergic disease, coupled with encouraging results from recent clinical trials, suggest that natural PPARγ agonists found in foods may be beneficial to human health by acting as anti-inflammatory molecules. PPARγ is therefore not only a target of the pharmaceutical industry, but also of great potential interest to the food industry, since it is activated by several natural dietary constituents. The prospects for dietary intervention in inflammatory disease have improved somewhat over the last few years, and are reviewed here.

  9. Functional Components of Cognitive Impairment in Multiple Sclerosis: A Cross-Sectional Investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordi A. Matias-Guiu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundCognitive impairment is frequent and disabling in multiple sclerosis (MS. Changes in information processing speed constitute the most important cognitive deficit in MS. However, given the clinical and topographical variability of the disease, cognitive impairment may vary greatly and appear in other forms in addition to slower information processing speed. Our aim was to determine the frequency of cognitive impairment, the principal cognitive domains, and components involved in MS and to identify factors associated with presence of cognitive impairment in these patients in a large series of patients.MethodsCross-sectional study of 311 patients with MS [236 with relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS, 52 with secondary progressive MS (SPMS, and 23 with primary progressive MS (PPMS]. Patients’ cognitive function was assessed with a comprehensive neuropsychological assessment protocol. Patients displaying deficits in 2 or more cognitive domains were considered to have cognitive impairment associated with MS. We conducted a principal component analysis to detect different cognitive patterns by identifying clusters of tests highly correlated to one another.ResultsCognitive impairment was detected in 41.5% of the sample, and it was more frequent in patients with SPMS and PPMS (P = 0.002. Expanded Disability Status Scale scores and education were independent predictors of cognitive impairment. Principal component analysis identified seven clusters: attention and basic executive function (including information processing speed, planning and high-level executive function, verbal memory and language, executive and visuospatial performance time, fatigue-depression, visuospatial function, and basic attention and verbal/visual working memory. Mean scoring of components 2 (high-order executive functioning and 3 (verbal memory-language was higher in patients with RRMS than in those with PPMS (component 2 and SPMS (component 3.ConclusionMS is linked to

  10. Regulatory networks and connected components of the neutral space. A look at functional islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boldhaus, G.; Klemm, K.

    2010-09-01

    The functioning of a living cell is largely determined by the structure of its regulatory network, comprising non-linear interactions between regulatory genes. An important factor for the stability and evolvability of such regulatory systems is neutrality - typically a large number of alternative network structures give rise to the necessary dynamics. Here we study the discretized regulatory dynamics of the yeast cell cycle [Li et al., PNAS, 2004] and the set of networks capable of reproducing it, which we call functional. Among these, the empirical yeast wildtype network is close to optimal with respect to sparse wiring. Under point mutations, which establish or delete single interactions, the neutral space of functional networks is fragmented into ≈ 4.7 × 108 components. One of the smaller ones contains the wildtype network. On average, functional networks reachable from the wildtype by mutations are sparser, have higher noise resilience and fewer fixed point attractors as compared with networks outside of this wildtype component.

  11. Functional food. Product development, marketing and consumer acceptance--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siró, István; Kápolna, Emese; Kápolna, Beáta; Lugasi, Andrea

    2008-11-01

    It was mainly the advances in understanding the relationship between nutrition and health that resulted in the development of the concept of functional foods, which means a practical and new approach to achieve optimal health status by promoting the state of well-being and possibly reducing the risk of disease. Functional foods are found virtually in all food categories, however products are not homogeneously scattered over all segments of the growing market. The development and commerce of these products is rather complex, expensive and risky, as special requirements should be answered. Besides potential technological obstacles, legislative aspects, as well as consumer demands need to be taken into consideration when developing functional food. In particular, consumer acceptance has been recognized as a key factor to successfully negotiate market opportunities. This paper offers a brief overview of the current functional food market situation in USA, Japan and some European countries completed with some comments on functional food future potential. It explores the main challenges of such product development focusing on the different factors determining the acceptance of functional food. Furthermore it discusses some prominent types of these food products currently on the market.

  12. On The Effectiveness Of And Preference For Punishment And Extinction Components Of Function-Based Interventions

    OpenAIRE

    Hanley, Gregory P; Piazza, Cathleen C; Fisher, Wayne W; Maglieri, Kristen A

    2005-01-01

    The current study describes an assessment sequence that may be used to identify individualized, effective, and preferred interventions for severe problem behavior in lieu of relying on a restricted set of treatment options that are assumed to be in the best interest of consumers. The relative effectiveness of functional communication training (FCT) with and without a punishment component was evaluated with 2 children for whom functional analyses demonstrated behavioral maintenance via social ...

  13. Contribution to the understanding of how principal component analysis-derived dietary patterns emerge from habitual data on food consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwedhelm, Carolina; Iqbal, Khalid; Knüppel, Sven; Schwingshackl, Lukas; Boeing, Heiner

    2018-02-01

    Principal component analysis (PCA) is a widely used exploratory method in epidemiology to derive dietary patterns from habitual diet. Such dietary patterns seem to originate from intakes on multiple days and eating occasions. Therefore, analyzing food intake of study populations with different levels of food consumption can provide additional insights as to how habitual dietary patterns are formed. We analyzed the food intake data of German adults in terms of the relations among food groups from three 24-h dietary recalls (24hDRs) on the habitual, single-day, and main-meal levels, and investigated the contribution of each level to the formation of PCA-derived habitual dietary patterns. Three 24hDRs were collected in 2010-2012 from 816 adults for an European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-Potsdam subcohort study. We identified PCA-derived habitual dietary patterns and compared cross-sectional food consumption data in terms of correlation (Spearman), consistency (intraclass correlation coefficient), and frequency of consumption across all days and main meals. Contribution to the formation of the dietary patterns was obtained through Spearman correlation of the dietary pattern scores. Among the meals, breakfast appeared to be the most consistent eating occasion within individuals. Dinner showed the strongest correlations with "Prudent" (Spearman correlation = 0.60), "Western" (Spearman correlation = 0.59), and "Traditional" (Spearman correlation = 0.60) dietary patterns identified on the habitual level, and lunch showed the strongest correlations with the "Cereals and legumes" (Spearman correlation = 0.60) habitual dietary pattern. Higher meal consistency was related to lower contributions to the formation of PCA-derived habitual dietary patterns. Absolute amounts of food consumption did not strongly conform to the habitual dietary patterns by meals, suggesting that these patterns are formed by complex combinations of variable food

  14. Consumer Acceptance of Functional Foods and Their Ingredients: Positioning Options for Innovations at the Borderline Between Foods and Drugs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bornkessel, S.; Bröring, S.; Omta, S.W.F.

    2011-01-01

    Consumer acceptance is pivotal for the market success of new functional food products. Thereby, the acceptance is mainly influenced by three factors: consumer characteristics, purchasing situation and products characteristics. The study at hand analyses these influence factors using the example of

  15. Functional foods: health claim-food product compatibility and the impact of health claim framing on consumer evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleef, van E.; Trijp, van H.C.M.; Luning, P.A.

    2005-01-01

    Two studies are reported, which aim to strengthen the scientific underpinning of strategic decisions regarding functional food development, as to (1) which health benefits to claim, (2) with which product (category), and (3) in which communication format. The first exploratory study is a secondary

  16. The orexin component of fasting triggers memory processes underlying conditioned food selection in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferry, Barbara; Duchamp-Viret, Patricia

    2014-03-14

    To test the selectivity of the orexin A (OXA) system in olfactory sensitivity, the present study compared the effects of fasting and of central infusion of OXA on the memory processes underlying odor-malaise association during the conditioned odor aversion (COA) paradigm. Animals implanted with a cannula in the left ventricle received ICV infusion of OXA or artificial cerebrospinal fluid (ACSF) 1 h before COA acquisition. An additional group of intact rats were food-deprived for 24 h before acquisition. Results showed that the increased olfactory sensitivity induced by fasting and by OXA infusion was accompanied by enhanced COA performance. The present results suggest that fasting-induced central OXA release influenced COA learning by increasing not only olfactory sensitivity, but also the memory processes underlying the odor-malaise association.

  17. A Layered Searchable Encryption Scheme with Functional Components Independent of Encryption Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Guangchun; Qin, Ke

    2014-01-01

    Searchable encryption technique enables the users to securely store and search their documents over the remote semitrusted server, which is especially suitable for protecting sensitive data in the cloud. However, various settings (based on symmetric or asymmetric encryption) and functionalities (ranked keyword query, range query, phrase query, etc.) are often realized by different methods with different searchable structures that are generally not compatible with each other, which limits the scope of application and hinders the functional extensions. We prove that asymmetric searchable structure could be converted to symmetric structure, and functions could be modeled separately apart from the core searchable structure. Based on this observation, we propose a layered searchable encryption (LSE) scheme, which provides compatibility, flexibility, and security for various settings and functionalities. In this scheme, the outputs of the core searchable component based on either symmetric or asymmetric setting are converted to some uniform mappings, which are then transmitted to loosely coupled functional components to further filter the results. In such a way, all functional components could directly support both symmetric and asymmetric settings. Based on LSE, we propose two representative and novel constructions for ranked keyword query (previously only available in symmetric scheme) and range query (previously only available in asymmetric scheme). PMID:24719565

  18. Methodological considerations for characterizing potential antioxidant actions of bioactive components in plant foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aruoma, Okezie I

    2003-01-01

    The study of free radicals and antioxidants in biology is producing medical revolution that promises a new age of health and disease management. From prevention of the oxidative reactions in foods, pharmaceuticals and cosmetics to the role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in chronic degenerative diseases including cancer, autoimmune, inflammatory, cardiovascular and neurodegenerative (e.g. Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis, Downs syndrome) and aging challenges continue to emerge from difficulties associated with methods used in evaluating antioxidant actions in vivo. Our interest presently is focused on development of neurodegeneration models based on the integrity of neuronal cells in the central nervous system and how they are protected by antioxidants when challenged by neurotoxins as well as Fenton chemistry models based on the profile of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) for the assessment of antioxidant actions in vivo. Use continues to be made of several in vitro analytical tools to characterise the antioxidant propensity of bioactive compounds in plant foods and supplements. For example, the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), total oxidant scavenging capacity (TOSC), the deoxyribose assay, assays involving oxidative DNA damage, assays involving reactive nitrogen intermediates (e.g. ONOO(-)), Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) and the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay. There is need to agree governance on in vitro antioxidant methods based on an understanding of the mechanisms involved. Because some of the assays are done in non-physiological pH values, it is impossible to extrapolate the results to physiological environment. The consensus of opinion is that a mix of these tools should be used in assessing the antioxidant activities in vitro. The proof of bio-efficacy must emanate from application of reliable in vivo models where markers of baseline oxidative

  19. Site-selective three-component reaction for dual-functionalization of peptides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munch, Henrik Kofoed; Rasmussen, Jakob Ewald; Popa, Gina

    2013-01-01

    A site-selective dual-functionalization of peptides is presented, involving readily available maleimides as well as N-hydroxylamines. The modification proceeds through a three component 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition, forming a stable product. This was exemplified by the one-pot attachment of two...

  20. Implementation of a VLSI Level Zero Processing system utilizing the functional component approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jianfei; Horner, Ward P.; Grebowsky, Gerald J.; Chesney, James R.

    1991-01-01

    A high rate Level Zero Processing system is currently being prototyped at NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). Based on state-of-the-art VLSI technology and the functional component approach, the new system promises capabilities of handling multiple Virtual Channels and Applications with a combined data rate of up to 20 Megabits per second (Mbps) at low cost.

  1. Characterizing functional connectivity during rest in multiple sclerosis patients versus healthy volunteers using independent component analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palacio Garcia, L.; Andrzejak, R.; Prchkovska, V.; Rodrigues, P.

    2016-07-01

    It is commonly thought that our brain is not active when it does not receive any external input. However, during rest, there are still certain distant regions of the brain that are functionally correlated between them: the so-called resting-state networks. This functional connectivity of the brain is disrupted in many neurological diseases. In particular, it has been shown that one of the most studied resting-state networks (the default-mode network) is affected in multiple sclerosis, which is the most common disabling neurological condition affecting the central nervous system of young adults. In this work, I focus on the study of the differences in the resting-state networks between multiple sclerosis patients and healthy volunteers. In order to study the effects of multiple sclerosis on the functional connectivity of the brain, a numerical method known as independent component analysis (ICA) is applied. This technique divides the resting-state fMRI data into independent components. Nonetheless, noise, which could be due to head motion or physiological artifacts, may corrupt the data by indicating a false activation. Therefore, I create a web user interface that allows the user to manually classify all the independent components for a given subject. Eventually, the components classified as noise should be removed from the functional data in order to prevent them from taking part in any further analysis. (Author)

  2. A search for the Δ- wave-function component in light nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, C.L.; Zumbro, J.D.; Boudrie, R.L.

    1996-01-01

    We have studied the (π + , π ± p) reactions on 3 He, 4 He, 6 Li, and 7 Li at incident energy 500 MeV in quasi-free kinematics. A signature attributable to pre-existing Δ components of the ground state wave function is observed

  3. High Throughput Integrated Technologies for Multimaterial Functional Micro Components (EU FP7 HINMICO 2013-2016)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Azcarate, Sabino; Esmoris, Joseba; Dimov, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the HINMICO project is the development and optimization of manufacturing processes for the production of high-added value high quality multi-material micro-components, with the possibility of additional, functionalities, through more integrated, efficient and cost-effective proce...

  4. Foundations of mathematics and literacy: The role of executive functioning components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purpura, David J; Schmitt, Sara A; Ganley, Colleen M

    2017-01-01

    The current study investigated the relations between the three cognitive processes that comprise executive functioning (EF)-response inhibition, working memory, and cognitive flexibility-and individual components of mathematics and literacy skills in preschool children. Participants were 125 preschool children ranging in age from 3.12 to 5.26years (M=4.17years, SD=0.58). Approximately 53.2% were female, and the sample was predominantly Caucasian (69.8%). Results suggest that the components of EF may be differentially related to the specific components of early mathematics and literacy. For mathematics, response inhibition was broadly related to most components. Working memory was related to more advanced mathematics skills that involve comparison or combination of numbers and quantities. Cognitive flexibility was related to more conceptual or abstract mathematics skills. For early literacy, response inhibition and cognitive flexibility were related to print knowledge, and working memory was related only to phonological awareness. None of the EF components was related to vocabulary. These findings provide initial evidence for better understanding the ways in which EF components and academic skills are related and measured. Furthermore, the findings provide a foundation for further study of the components of each domain using a broader and more diverse array of measures. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Executive Cognitive Function and Food Intake in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riggs, Nathaniel R.; Spruijt-Metz, Donna; Sakuma, Kari-Lyn; Chou, Chih-Ping; Pentz, Mary Ann

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The current study investigated relations among neurocognitive skills important for behavioral regulation, and the intake of fruit, vegetables, and snack food in children. Design: Participants completed surveys at a single time point. Setting: Assessments took place during school. Participants: Participants were 107 fourth-grade children…

  6. Gastrointestinal-active oligosaccharides from human milk and functional foods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albrecht, S.A.

    2011-01-01

    Keywords: human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs), galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS), konjac glucomannan (KGM), breast milk, baby feces, gastrointestinal metabolization, blood-group specific conjugates, CE-LIF-MSn

    Oligosaccharides, as present in human milk or supplemented to food, are

  7. Microrheology: new methods to approach the functional properties of food

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nicolas, Y.; Paques, M.; Ende, van den D.; Dhont, J.K.G.; Polanen, van R.C.; Knaebel, A.; Steyer, A.; Munch, J.P.; Blijdenstein, T.B.J.; Aken, van G.A.

    2003-01-01

    Three configurations have been developed to improve the understanding of structural element interactions in food material during deformation. The three configurations combine an inverted confocal scanning laser microscope (CSLM) and a cell that can apply to the sample a specific deformation:

  8. Vocal learning in the functionally referential food grunts of chimpanzees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Stuart K; Townsend, Simon W; Schel, Anne M; Wilke, Claudia; Wallace, Emma K; Cheng, Leveda; West, Victoria; Slocombe, Katie E

    2015-02-16

    One standout feature of human language is our ability to reference external objects and events with socially learned symbols, or words. Exploring the phylogenetic origins of this capacity is therefore key to a comprehensive understanding of the evolution of language. While non-human primates can produce vocalizations that refer to external objects in the environment, it is generally accepted that their acoustic structure is fixed and a product of arousal states. Indeed, it has been argued that the apparent lack of flexible control over the structure of referential vocalizations represents a key discontinuity with language. Here, we demonstrate vocal learning in the acoustic structure of referential food grunts in captive chimpanzees. We found that, following the integration of two groups of adult chimpanzees, the acoustic structure of referential food grunts produced for a specific food converged over 3 years. Acoustic convergence arose independently of preference for the food, and social network analyses indicated this only occurred after strong affiliative relationships were established between the original subgroups. We argue that these data represent the first evidence of non-human animals actively modifying and socially learning the structure of a meaningful referential vocalization from conspecifics. Our findings indicate that primate referential call structure is not simply determined by arousal and that the socially learned nature of referential words in humans likely has ancient evolutionary origins. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Exploring functional data analysis and wavelet principal component analysis on ecstasy (MDMA wastewater data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefania Salvatore

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Wastewater-based epidemiology (WBE is a novel approach in drug use epidemiology which aims to monitor the extent of use of various drugs in a community. In this study, we investigate functional principal component analysis (FPCA as a tool for analysing WBE data and compare it to traditional principal component analysis (PCA and to wavelet principal component analysis (WPCA which is more flexible temporally. Methods We analysed temporal wastewater data from 42 European cities collected daily over one week in March 2013. The main temporal features of ecstasy (MDMA were extracted using FPCA using both Fourier and B-spline basis functions with three different smoothing parameters, along with PCA and WPCA with different mother wavelets and shrinkage rules. The stability of FPCA was explored through bootstrapping and analysis of sensitivity to missing data. Results The first three principal components (PCs, functional principal components (FPCs and wavelet principal components (WPCs explained 87.5-99.6 % of the temporal variation between cities, depending on the choice of basis and smoothing. The extracted temporal features from PCA, FPCA and WPCA were consistent. FPCA using Fourier basis and common-optimal smoothing was the most stable and least sensitive to missing data. Conclusion FPCA is a flexible and analytically tractable method for analysing temporal changes in wastewater data, and is robust to missing data. WPCA did not reveal any rapid temporal changes in the data not captured by FPCA. Overall the results suggest FPCA with Fourier basis functions and common-optimal smoothing parameter as the most accurate approach when analysing WBE data.

  10. Diurnal rhythmicity in biological processes involved in bioavailability of functional food factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsurusaki, Takashi; Sakakibara, Hiroyuki; Aoshima, Yoshiki; Yamazaki, Shunsuke; Sakono, Masanobu; Shimoi, Kayoko

    2013-05-01

    In the past few decades, many types of functional factors have been identified in dietary foods; for example, flavonoids are major groups widely distributed in the plant kingdom. However, the absorption rates of the functional food factors are usually low, and many of these are difficult to be absorbed in the intact forms because of metabolization by biological processes during absorption. To gain adequate beneficial effects, it is therefore mandatory to know whether functional food factors are absorbed in sufficient quantity, and then reach target organs while maintaining beneficial effects. These are the reasons why the bioavailability of functional food factors has been well investigated using rodent models. Recently, many of the biological processes have been reported to follow diurnal rhythms recurring every 24 h. Therefore, absorption and metabolism of functional food factors influenced by the biological processes may vary with time of day. Consequently, the evaluation of the bioavailability of functional food factors using rodent models should take into consideration the timing of consumption. In this review, we provide a perspective overview of the diurnal rhythm of biological processes involved in the bioavailability of functional food factors, particularly flavonoids.

  11. Food and symptom generation in functional gastrointestinal disorders: physiological aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farré, Ricard; Tack, Jan

    2013-05-01

    The response of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) to ingestion of food is a complex and closely controlled process, which allows optimization of propulsion, digestion, absorption of nutrients, and removal of indigestible remnants. This review summarizes current knowledge on the mechanisms that control the response of the GIT to food intake. During the cephalic phase, triggered by cortical food-related influences, the GIT prepares for receiving nutrients. The gastric phase is dominated by the mechanical effect of the meal volume. Accumulation of food in the stomach activates tension-sensitive mechanoreceptors, which in turn stimulate gastric accommodation and gastric acid secretion through the intrinsic and vago-vagal reflex pathways. After meal ingestion, the tightly controlled process of gastric emptying starts, with arrival of nutrients in the duodenum triggering negative feedback on emptying and stimulating secretion of digestive enzymes through the neural (mainly vago-vagal reflex, but also intrinsic) and endocrine (release of peptides from entero-endocrine cells) pathways. Several types of specialized receptors detect the presence of all main categories of nutrients. In addition, the gastrointestinal mucosa expresses receptors of the T1R and T2R families (taste receptors) and several members of the transient receptor potential channel family, all of which are putatively involved in the detection of specific tastants in the lumen. Activation of nutrient and taste sensors also activates the extrinsic and intrinsic neural, as well as entero-endocrine, pathways. During passage through the small bowel, nutrients are progressively extracted, and electrolyte-rich liquid intestinal content with non-digestible residue is delivered to the colon. The colon provides absorption of the water and electrolytes, storage of non-digestible remnants of food, aboral propulsion of contents, and finally evacuation through defecation.

  12. FOOD PROCESSING TECHNOLOGY AS A MEDIATOR OF FUNCTIONALITY. STRUCTURE-PROPERTY-PROCESS RELATIONSHIPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ester Betoret

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available During the last years, the food industry has been facing technical and economic changes both in society and in the food processing practices, paying high attention to food products that meet the consumers´ demands. In this direction, the study areas in food process and products have evolved mainly from safety to other topics such as quality, environment or health. The improvement of the food products is now directed towards ensuring nutritional and specific functional benefits. Regarding the processes evolution, they are directed to ensure the quality and safety of environmentally friendly food products produced optimizing the use of resources, minimally affecting or even enhancing their nutritional and beneficial characteristics. The product structure both in its raw form and after processing plays an important role maintaining, enhancing and delivering the bioactive compounds in the appropriate target within the organism. The aim of this review is to make an overview on some synergistic technologies that can constitute a technological process to develop functional foods, enhancing the technological and/or nutritional functionality of the food products in which they are applied. More concretely, the effect of homogenization, vacuum impregnation and drying operations on bioactive compounds have been reviewed, focusing on the structure changes produced and its relationship on the product functionality, as well as on the parameters and the strategies used to quantify and increase the achieved functionality.

  13. Probiotics and novel digestion models for functional food ingredients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pal, Karoly; Kiss, Attila [Eszterhazy Karoly College, Eger (Hungary). EgerFood Regional Knowledge Center (EgerFood-RKC); Szarvas, Jozsef [Eszterhazy Karoly College, Eger (Hungary). Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology; Naar, Zoltan [Eszterhazy Karoly College, Eger (Hungary). Department of Botany

    2009-07-01

    Complete text of publication follows. A number of factors compromise the health of modern people: stressful lifestyle, unbalanced nourishment, excessive consumption of refined foods with a big measure, admission of different chemical agents into the human body. These factors harm directly or indirectly the intestinal activity, that forms a considerable part of the immune system, including the production of essential substances that have beneficial effects on the human body. The role of the so-called prebiotics (e.g. inulin, various oligosaccharides, raffinose, resistant starch etc.) is to prevent and reduce the damage of useful microbes, which are termed as probiotics. These substances selectively facilitate the propagation of probiotic bacteria (e.g. Bifidobacterium bifidum, Bifidobacterium longum, Enterococcus faecium, Lactobacillus acidophilus), therefore increase the rate of the synthesis of vitamin B and of beneficial short chain fatty acids, improve the absorption of minerals, decrease the level of cholesterol, triglycerides, insulin, glucose, ammonia and uric acid and improve the functioning of the immune system. The majority of the examination results about prebiotics are based on clinical dietary and animal experiments. In contrast to this we simulated the process of digestion and the effect of prebiotics on probiotic and non-probiotic bacteria selected by us in an artificial digestion model, the Atlas Potassium reactor system. The instrument enabled the control of pH, temperature, dosage of digestion enzymes and juices (saliva, gastric juice, bile and duodenal juice) and anaerobity in the course of the experiment. In our experiments we investigated different bakery products and biscuits containing various prebiotic ingredients, e.g. inulin and other fructo oligosaccharides. In the digestion model the different bakery products and biscuits got through the simulated oral cavity (pH=6.8), stomach (pH=2-3) and intestine (pH=6.5-7) and might be modified in the

  14. Precise response function for the magnetic component of gravitational waves in scalar-tensor gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corda, Christian

    2011-01-01

    The important issue of the magnetic component of gravitational waves (GWs) has been considered in various papers in the literature. From such analyses, it has been found that such a magnetic component becomes particularly important in the high-frequency portion of the frequency range of ground based interferometers for GWs which arises from standard general theory of relativity (GTR). Recently, such a magnetic component has been extended to GWs arising from scalar-tensor gravity (STG) too. After a review of some important issues on GWs in STG, in this paper we reanalyze the magnetic component in the framework of STG from a different point of view, by correcting an error in a previous paper and by releasing a more precise response function. In this way, we also show that if one neglects the magnetic contribution considering only the low-frequency approximation of the electric contribution, an important part of the signal could be, in principle, lost. The determination of a more precise response function for the magnetic contribution is important also in the framework of the possibility of distinguishing other gravitational theories from GTR. At the conclusion of this paper, an expansion of the main results is also shown in order to recall the presence of the magnetic component in GTR too.

  15. Cross-industry Collaborations in the Convergence Area of Functional Foods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bornkessel, S.; Broring, Stefanie; Omta, S.W.F.

    2016-01-01

    Convergence processes are based on the activity of distinct industry sectors showing crossindustry
    collaborations. The aim of this paper is to analyze cross-industry collaborations between
    the food and pharmaceutical sectors in the convergence area of functional foods. Selected
    companies

  16. Development of probiotic mutandabota, a locally sustainable functional food incorporating Lactobacillus rhamnosus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mpofu, A.

    2015-01-01

    Development of probiotic mutandabota, a locally sustainable functional food incorporating Lactobacillus rhamnosus

    Mutandabota or umlondo is an indigenous food that is consumed in Southern Africa on a daily basis. The product is made by

  17. Improving internal communication between marketing and technology functions for successful new food product development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Lina; Grunert, Klaus G; Søndergaard, Helle Alsted

    2014-01-01

    In order to increase the new product development (NPD) success for novel food products, it is crucial to understand how information can be optimally disseminated within companies. This systematic literature review concentrates on factors influencing internal communication between market......, and knowledge management, food companies can enhance internal communication between market and technology functions during the NPD process....

  18. Overview of the dairy and food processing research conducted at the Dairy and Functional Foods Research Unit, ERRC, and research to develop sustainable food processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    The DFFRU is dedicated to solving critical problems in the utilization of milk and specialty crop byproducts by developing high-quality, value-added functional foods and consumer products. The presentation will give an overview of the research projects that will benefit human health and well-being. ...

  19. Functional health literacy and healthy eating: Understanding the brazilian food guide recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Auristela Magalhães Coelho

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the relationship between the functional health literacy of Unified Heath System users and the understanding of food servings in the pocket version of the Brazilian Food Guide. Methods: Functional health literacy was assessed by the Brief Test of functional health literacy. Two dialogue rounds were conducted with patients with adequate functional health literacy (Group 1 and inadequate functional health literacy (Group 2. The dialogues were recorded and analyzed according to the discourse of the collective subject. Results: Most (58.0% users had inadequate functional health literacy. Five core areas were identified: understands serving sizes; does not understand serving sizes; serving sizes are confusing; unfamiliar/uncommon foods; small letters. Group 2 had more trouble understanding. Conclusion: Difficulty understanding hinders health promotion. Individuals need to have access to educational materials that are easier to understand and developed taking their functional health literacy into account.

  20. Coevolution between human's anticancer activities and functional foods from crop origin center in the world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Ya-Wen; Du, Juan; Pu, Xiao-Ying; Yang, Jia-Zhen; Yang, Tao; Yang, Shu-Ming; Yang, Xiao-Meng

    2015-01-01

    Cancer is the leading cause of death around the world. Anticancer activities from many functional food sources have been reported in years, but correlation between cancer prevalence and types of food with anticancer activities from crop origin center in the world as well as food source with human migration are unclear. Hunger from food shortage is the cause of early human evolution from Africa to Asia and later into Eurasia. The richest functional foods are found in crop origin centers, housing about 70% in the world populations. Crop origin centers have lower cancer incidence and mortality in the world, especially Central Asia, Middle East, Southwest China, India and Ethiopia. Asia and Africa with the richest anticancer crops is not only the most important evolution base of humans and origin center of anticancer functional crop, but also is the lowest mortality and incidence of cancers in the world. Cancer prevention of early human migrations was associated with functional foods from crop origin centers, especially Asia with four centers and one subcenter of crop origin, accounting for 58% of the world population. These results reveal that coevolution between human's anticancer activities associated with functional foods for crop origin centers, especially in Asia and Africa.

  1. Deciphering the consumer behaviour facets of functional foods: A literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Navdeep; Singh, Devinder Pal

    2017-05-01

    This paper presents a systematic literature review of studies investigating various facets of consumer behaviour towards functional foods. It focuses on published international research on functional food attitude and behaviour from across the world. Research papers (n = 112) that were identified were coded in terms of study type, variables studied, product type, participant profile, research methodology and analysis details, as well as results and implications for future research. Results provide a systematic overview of the context in which behaviour towards functional foods have been examined in the past and provide a synthesis of findings in four categories of determinants, namely (1) Personal Factors, (2) Psychological Factors, (3) Cultural & Social Factors, and (4) Factors relating to the functional food product. A reference model for the relationships between these factors and behaviour of consumers is derived. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Applications of peanut skins as a functional food ingredient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peanut skins are a low-value byproduct of the peanut industry, with hundreds of thousands of tons being produced annually. Following their removal during the preparation of common peanut products, peanut skins are either discarded or used as a minor component of animal feed. Recent studies have fo...

  3. On Attribute Thresholding and Data Mapping Functions in a Supervised Connected Component Segmentation Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoff Fourie

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Search-centric, sample supervised image segmentation has been demonstrated as a viable general approach applicable within the context of remote sensing image analysis. Such an approach casts the controlling parameters of image processing—generating segments—as a multidimensional search problem resolvable via efficient search methods. In this work, this general approach is analyzed in the context of connected component segmentation. A specific formulation of connected component labeling, based on quasi-flat zones, allows for the addition of arbitrary segment attributes to contribute to the nature of the output. This is in addition to core tunable parameters controlling the basic nature of connected components. Additional tunable constituents may also be introduced into such a framework, allowing flexibility in the definition of connected component connectivity, either directly via defining connectivity differently or via additional processes such as data mapping functions. The relative merits of these two additional constituents, namely the addition of tunable attributes and data mapping functions, are contrasted in a general remote sensing image analysis setting. Interestingly, tunable attributes in such a context, conjectured to be safely useful in general settings, were found detrimental under cross-validated conditions. This is in addition to this constituent’s requiring substantially greater computing time. Casting connectivity definitions as a searchable component, here via the utilization of data mapping functions, proved more beneficial and robust in this context. The results suggest that further investigations into such a general framework could benefit more from focusing on the aspects of data mapping and modifiable connectivity as opposed to the utility of thresholding various geometric and spectral attributes.

  4. Reward for food odors: an fMRI study of liking and wanting as a function of metabolic state and BMI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Tao; Soussignan, Robert; Schaal, Benoist; Royet, Jean-Pierre

    2015-04-01

    Brain reward systems mediate liking and wanting for food reward. Here, we explore the differential involvement of the following structures for these two components: the ventral and dorsal striatopallidal area, orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), anterior insula and anterior cingulate. Twelve healthy female participants were asked to rate pleasantness (liking of food and non-food odors) and the desire to eat (wanting of odor-evoked food) during event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). The subjective ratings and fMRI were performed in hunger and satiety states. Activations of regions of interest were compared as a function of task (liking vs wanting), odor category (food vs non-food) and metabolic state (hunger vs satiety). We found that the nucleus accumbens and ventral pallidum were differentially involved in liking or wanting during the hunger state, which suggests a reciprocal inhibitory influence between these structures. Neural activation of OFC subregions was correlated with either liking or wanting ratings, suggesting an OFC role in reward processing magnitude. Finally, during the hunger state, participants with a high body mass index exhibited less activation in neural structures underlying food reward processing. Our results suggest that food liking and wanting are two separable psychological constructs and may be functionally segregated within the cortico-striatopallidal circuit. © The Author (2014). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Loudness of complex sounds as a function of the standard stimulus and the number of components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Florentine, Mary; Buus, Søren; Bonding, Per

    1978-01-01

    The purpose of this study was twofold: to determine if the measured loudness level of a signal depends on the standard stimulus used and to measure loudness as a function of the number of components in a wide-band signal. The stimuli were a pure tone, tone complexes with frequency separations...... of 231 and 1592 Hz, and noise bands with widths of 220 and 1592 Hz. The center frequency was 1 kHz and the loudness level was approximately 65 phons. Loudness matches between all combinations of stimuli showed that the measured loudness of the sounds did not depend on the standard stimulus used...... and the measured loudness level of a wide-band sound increased as a function of the number of components. Individual observers were consistent in their loudness estimations; the greatest source of variability was among subjects. Additional measurements indicated that the rate at which loudness increased beyond...

  6. Estimation of residual MSW heating value as a function of waste component recycling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magrinho, Alexandre; Semiao, Viriato

    2008-01-01

    Recycling of packaging wastes may be compatible with incineration within integrated waste management systems. To study this, a mathematical model is presented to calculate the fraction composition of residual municipal solid waste (MSW) only as a function of the MSW fraction composition at source and recycling fractions of the different waste materials. The application of the model to the Lisbon region yielded results showing that the residual waste fraction composition depends both on the packaging wastes fraction at source and on the ratio between that fraction and the fraction of the same material, packaging and non-packaging, at source. This behaviour determines the variation of the residual waste LHV. For 100% of paper packaging recycling, LHV reduces 4.2% whereas this reduction is of 14.4% for 100% of packaging plastics recycling. For 100% of food waste recovery, LHV increases 36.8% due to the moisture fraction reduction of the residual waste. Additionally the results evidence that the negative impact of recycling paper and plastic packaging on the LHV may be compensated by recycling food waste and glass and metal packaging. This makes packaging materials recycling and food waste recovery compatible strategies with incineration within integrated waste management systems

  7. Functional MRI of Challenging Food Choices: Forced Choice between Equally Liked High- and Low-Calorie Foods in the Absence of Hunger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charbonnier, Lisette; van der Laan, Laura N; Viergever, Max A; Smeets, Paul A M

    2015-01-01

    We are continuously exposed to food and during the day we make many food choices. These choices play an important role in the regulation of food intake and thereby in weight management. Therefore, it is important to obtain more insight into the mechanisms that underlie these choices. While several food choice functional MRI (fMRI) studies have been conducted, the effect of energy content on neural responses during food choice has, to our knowledge, not been investigated before. Our objective was to examine brain responses during food choices between equally liked high- and low-calorie foods in the absence of hunger. During a 10-min fMRI scan 19 normal weight volunteers performed a forced-choice task. Food pairs were matched on individual liking but differed in perceived and actual caloric content (high-low). Food choice compared with non-food choice elicited stronger unilateral activation in the left insula, superior temporal sulcus, posterior cingulate gyrus and (pre)cuneus. This suggests that the food stimuli were more salient despite subject's low motivation to eat. The right superior temporal sulcus (STS) was the only region that exhibited greater activation for high versus low calorie food choices between foods matched on liking. Together with previous studies, this suggests that STS activation during food evaluation and choice may reflect the food's biological relevance independent of food preference. This novel finding warrants further research into the effects of hunger state and weight status on STS, which may provide a marker of biological relevance.

  8. Functional MRI of Challenging Food Choices: Forced Choice between Equally Liked High- and Low-Calorie Foods in the Absence of Hunger.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisette Charbonnier

    Full Text Available We are continuously exposed to food and during the day we make many food choices. These choices play an important role in the regulation of food intake and thereby in weight management. Therefore, it is important to obtain more insight into the mechanisms that underlie these choices. While several food choice functional MRI (fMRI studies have been conducted, the effect of energy content on neural responses during food choice has, to our knowledge, not been investigated before. Our objective was to examine brain responses during food choices between equally liked high- and low-calorie foods in the absence of hunger. During a 10-min fMRI scan 19 normal weight volunteers performed a forced-choice task. Food pairs were matched on individual liking but differed in perceived and actual caloric content (high-low. Food choice compared with non-food choice elicited stronger unilateral activation in the left insula, superior temporal sulcus, posterior cingulate gyrus and (precuneus. This suggests that the food stimuli were more salient despite subject's low motivation to eat. The right superior temporal sulcus (STS was the only region that exhibited greater activation for high versus low calorie food choices between foods matched on liking. Together with previous studies, this suggests that STS activation during food evaluation and choice may reflect the food's biological relevance independent of food preference. This novel finding warrants further research into the effects of hunger state and weight status on STS, which may provide a marker of biological relevance.

  9. Reliability and risk functions for structural components taking into account inspection results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rackwitz, R.; Schall, G.

    1989-01-01

    The method of outcrossings has been shown to be efficient when calculating the failure probability of metallic structural components under ergodic Gaussian loading. Using Paris/Erdogan's crack growth law it is possible to develop a semi-analytical calculation model for both the reliability and the risk function. For numerical studies an approximate method of asymptotic nature is proposed. The same methodology also enables to incorporate inspection observations. (orig.) [de

  10. Optimisation of a machine learning algorithm in human locomotion using principal component and discriminant function analyses

    OpenAIRE

    Bisele, M; Bencsik, M; Lewis, MGC; Barnett, CT

    2017-01-01

    Assessment methods in human locomotion often involve the description of normalised graphical profiles and/or the extraction of discrete variables. Whilst useful, these approaches may not represent the full complexity of gait data. Multivariate statistical methods, such as Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Discriminant Function Analysis (DFA), have been adopted since they have the potential to overcome these data handling issues. The aim of the current study was to develop and optimise a ...

  11. Multiple functions of a multi-component mating pheromone in sea lamprey Petromyzon marinus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, N.S.; Yun, S.-S.; Buchinger, T.J.; Li, W.

    2012-01-01

    The role of the C24 sulphate in the mating pheromone component, 7α,12α,24-trihydroxy-5α-cholan-3-one 24-sulphate (3kPZS), to specifically induce upstream movement in ovulated female sea lampreys Petromyzon marinus was investigated. 7α,12α-dihydroxy-5α-cholan-3-one 24-oic acid (3kACA), a structurally similar bile acid released by spermiated males, but lacking the C24 sulphate ester, was tested in bioassays at concentrations between 10−11 and 10−14 molar (M). 3kACA did not induce upstream movement in females or additional reproductive behaviours. In contrast, spermiated male washings induced upstream movement, prolonged retention on a nest and induced an array of nesting behaviours. Differential extraction and elution by solid-phase extraction resins showed that components other than 3kPZS + 3kACA are necessary to retain females on nests and induce nest cleaning behaviours. All pheromone components, including components in addition to 3kPZS + 3kACA that retain females and induce nest cleaning behaviours were released from the anterior region of the males, as had been reported for 3kPZS. It is concluded that the sea lamprey male mating pheromone has multiple functions and is composed of multiple components.

  12. The advantages of deep ocean water for the development of functional fermentation food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chun-Lin

    2015-03-01

    Deep ocean water (DOW) is obtained from 600 m below the sea surface. In recent years, DOW has been applied in the development of fermentation biotechnologies and functional foods. DOW is rich in trace minerals, comprises multiple physiological and health functions, and is able to promote microbe growth; therefore, the application of DOW directly benefits the development of the fermentation industry and functional foods. This study integrated the current health functions and applications of DOW with the latest results from studies related to fermentation biotechnology. Subsequently, the influence of applying DOW in fermented functional food development and the effects in health function improvements were summarized. According to the previous studies, the main reasons for the increased effect of fermented functional foods through the application of DOW are increased generation of functional metabolite contents in the microbes, intrinsic health functions of DOW, and the microbial use of mechanisms of converting the absorbed inorganic ions into highly bioavailable organic ions for the human body. These combined advantages not only enhance the health functions of fermentation products but also provide fermentation products with the intrinsic health functions of DOW.

  13. Advances in Microalgae-Derived Phytosterols for Functional Food and Pharmaceutical Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Xuan; Su, Peng; Zhang, Wei

    2015-07-09

    Microalgae contain a variety of bioactive lipids with potential applications in aquaculture feed, biofuel, food and pharmaceutical industries. While microalgae-derived polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) and their roles in promoting human health have been extensively studied, other lipid types from this resource, such as phytosterols, have been poorly explored. Phytosterols have been used as additives in many food products such as spread, dairy products and salad dressing. This review focuses on the recent advances in microalgae-derived phytosterols with functional bioactivities and their potential applications in functional food and pharmaceutical industries. It highlights the importance of microalgae-derived lipids other than PUFA for the development of an advanced microalgae industry.

  14. On Using Ilities of Non-Functional Properties for Subsystems and Components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Y. Lee

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The use of ilities for systems engineering of subsystems and components is investigated. Prior work on ilities has emphasized or restricted their application to system level, non-functional properties. The premise of this work is that ilities can be applied with benefit, and in some cases out of necessity, to lower levels of systems as well. The veracity of this premise is established by providing examples that demonstrate how some ilities are passed and used as a non-functional property of electrical and structural subsystems in aircraft. It is further demonstrated that flowing ilities down to the subsystem level is not only a useful practice for systems engineers, it can also be an essential step to ensure that customer needs are actually met by the system under design or service. Systems engineers often lack the detailed knowledge of the subsystems or components required to translate ilities into functional requirements. Thus, the system ilities are passed down and translated from non-functional to functional requirements by subject matter experts. We first discuss the definition, characteristics and scope of ilities. Then, we formulate the application of ilities at a subsystem level. Next, we show aircraft engineering examples for ilities applications. The application process is formalized with diagrams, and ilities’ relation to system architecture engineering is discussed. The work concludes with a summary and suggestions for future work.

  15. Effect of water chemistry on the planktonic communities and relationships among food web components across a freshwater ecotone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mieczan T.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Most ecological research on the food web has been focused more on the pelagic zone than on the transitional zone - ecotones between lentic and lotic habitats. The specific goals of this study were to determine whether the contact zone of waters differs in hydrochemical and biological terms from the waters of the canal and the open water zone, and to evaluate the influence of particular macro-habitats on the interactions between components of the planktonic food web. The distribution of samples in ordination space led us to conclude that the studied habitats are distributed along the rising gradient of total organic carbon and nutrients. Assemblages of all investigated groups showed a strong compositional gradient correlated with conductivity and total phosphorus, while a second strong gradient in species composition was explained by nitrate nitrogen and/or phosphate concentrations. The analysis of trophic relationships in the system bacteriaciliates- crustaceans reveals a clear differentiation and strength of mutual relations between the analyzed zones. The highest number of significant correlations was determined in the contact zone. It can also be a place of very efficient matter and energy flow in freshwater ecosystems.

  16. Analysis of Consumer Attitudes and Consumers’ Willingness to Pay for Functional Foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorgelina Di Pasquale

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to analyze consumer behaviour in relation to functional foods by a direct survey. To this end, the proposal is an analysis of the reasons for choosing to consume this type of food or not, accompanied by a supplementary investigation, mostly to assess the relationship between consumption patterns and willingness to pay (WTP for the most common categories of functional foods, such as milk fortified with CLA (conjugated linoleic acid. Our research shows that a proportion of the population is unaware of the existence of functional foods and their properties. Moreover, it shows that when the concept of functional foods is explained to consumers, this creates a greater willingness to pay for such food, which is strongly linked to type of product carrier but not greatly to income. So the knowledge and transparency of information appear to be decisive variables in the process of choice, with significant implications in terms of policies for classification, labelling of food and public health.

  17. Interactions Between Flavonoid-Rich Extracts and Sodium Caseinate Modulate Protein Functionality and Flavonoid Bioaccessibility in Model Food Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elegbede, Jennifer L; Li, Min; Jones, Owen G; Campanella, Osvaldo H; Ferruzzi, Mario G

    2018-05-01

    With growing interest in formulating new food products with added protein and flavonoid-rich ingredients for health benefits, direct interactions between these ingredient classes becomes critical in so much as they may impact protein functionality, product quality, and flavonoids bioavailability. In this study, sodium caseinate (SCN)-based model products (foams and emulsions) were formulated with grape seed extract (GSE, rich in galloylated flavonoids) and green tea extract (GTE, rich in nongalloylated flavonoids), respectively, to assess changes in functional properties of SCN and impacts on flavonoid bioaccessibility. Experiments with pure flavonoids suggested that galloylated flavonoids reduced air-water interfacial tension of 0.01% SCN dispersions more significantly than nongalloylated flavonoids at high concentrations (>50 μg/mL). This observation was supported by changes in stability of 5% SCN foam, which showed that foam stability was increased at high levels of GSE (≥50 μg/mL, P < 0.05) but was not affected by GTE. However, flavonoid extracts had modest effects on SCN emulsion. In addition, galloylated flavonoids had higher bioaccessibility in both SCN foam and emulsion. These results suggest that SCN-flavonoid binding interactions can modulate protein functionality leading to difference in performance and flavonoid bioaccessibility of protein-based products. As information on the beneficial health effects of flavonoids expands, it is likely that usage of these ingredients in consumer foods will increase. However, the necessary levels to provide such benefits may exceed those that begin to impact functionality of the macronutrients such as proteins. Flavonoid inclusion within protein matrices may modulate protein functionality in a food system and modify critical consumer traits or delivery of these beneficial plant-derived components. The product matrices utilized in this study offer relevant model systems to evaluate how fortification with flavonoid

  18. Bioactive compounds in seaweed; functional food applications and legislation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holdt, Susan Løvstad; Kraan, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    Seaweed is more than the wrap that keeps rice together in sushi. Seaweed biomass is already used for a wide range of other products in food, including stabilising agents. Biorefineries with seaweed as feedstock are attracting worldwide interest and include low-volume, high value-added products...... and vice versa. Scientific research on bioactive compounds in seaweed usually takes place on just a few species and compounds. This paper reviews worldwide research on bioactive compounds, mainly of nine genera or species of seaweed, which are also available in European temperate Atlantic waters, i...... described in this review. This applies either to the choice of high value-added bioactive products to be exploited in an available species or to the choice of seaweed species when a bioactive compound is desired. Data are presented in tables with species, effect and test organism (if present) with examples...

  19. In silico genotoxicity of coumarins: application of the Phenol-Explorer food database to functional food science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guardado Yordi, E; Matos, M J; Pérez Martínez, A; Tornes, A C; Santana, L; Molina, E; Uriarte, E

    2017-08-01

    Coumarins are a group of phytochemicals that may be beneficial or harmful to health depending on their type and dosage and the matrix that contains them. Some of these compounds have been proven to display pro-oxidant and clastogenic activities. Therefore, in the current work, we have studied the coumarins that are present in food sources extracted from the Phenol-Explorer database in order to predict their clastogenic activity and identify the structure-activity relationships and genotoxic structural alerts using alternative methods in the field of computational toxicology. It was necessary to compile information on the type and amount of coumarins in different food sources through the analysis of databases of food composition available online. A virtual screening using a clastogenic model and different software, such as MODESLAB, ChemDraw and STATISTIC, was performed. As a result, a table of food composition was prepared and qualitative information from this data was extracted. The virtual screening showed that the esterified substituents inactivate molecules, while the methoxyl and hydroxyl substituents contribute to their activity and constitute, together with the basic structures of the studied subclasses, clastogenic structural alerts. Chemical subclasses of simple coumarins and furocoumarins were classified as active (xanthotoxin, isopimpinellin, esculin, scopoletin, scopolin and bergapten). In silico genotoxicity was mainly predicted for coumarins found in beer, sherry, dried parsley, fresh parsley and raw celery stalks. The results obtained can be interesting for the future design of functional foods and dietary supplements. These studies constitute a reference for the genotoxic chemoinformatic analysis of bioactive compounds present in databases of food composition.

  20. Obese adults have visual attention bias for food cue images: evidence for altered reward system function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellanos, E H; Charboneau, E; Dietrich, M S; Park, S; Bradley, B P; Mogg, K; Cowan, R L

    2009-09-01

    The major aim of this study was to investigate whether the motivational salience of food cues (as reflected by their attention-grabbing properties) differs between obese and normal-weight subjects in a manner consistent with altered reward system function in obesity. A total of 18 obese and 18 normal-weight, otherwise healthy, adult women between the ages of 18 and 35 participated in an eye-tracking paradigm in combination with a visual probe task. Eye movements and reaction time to food and non-food images were recorded during both fasted and fed conditions in a counterbalanced design. Eating behavior and hunger level were assessed by self-report measures. Obese individuals had higher scores than normal-weight individuals on self-report measures of responsiveness to external food cues and vulnerability to disruptions in control of eating behavior. Both obese and normal-weight individuals demonstrated increased gaze duration for food compared to non-food images in the fasted condition. In the fed condition, however, despite reduced hunger in both groups, obese individuals maintained the increased attention to food images, whereas normal-weight individuals had similar gaze duration for food and non-food images. Additionally, obese individuals had preferential orienting toward food images at the onset of each image. Obese and normal-weight individuals did not differ in reaction time measures in the fasted or fed condition. Food cue incentive salience is elevated equally in normal-weight and obese individuals during fasting. Obese individuals retain incentive salience for food cues despite feeding and decreased self-report of hunger. Sensitization to food cues in the environment and their dysregulation in obese individuals may play a role in the development and/or maintenance of obesity.

  1. Task-evoked brain functional magnetic susceptibility mapping by independent component analysis (χICA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zikuan; Calhoun, Vince D

    2016-03-01

    Conventionally, independent component analysis (ICA) is performed on an fMRI magnitude dataset to analyze brain functional mapping (AICA). By solving the inverse problem of fMRI, we can reconstruct the brain magnetic susceptibility (χ) functional states. Upon the reconstructed χ dataspace, we propose an ICA-based brain functional χ mapping method (χICA) to extract task-evoked brain functional map. A complex division algorithm is applied to a timeseries of fMRI phase images to extract temporal phase changes (relative to an OFF-state snapshot). A computed inverse MRI (CIMRI) model is used to reconstruct a 4D brain χ response dataset. χICA is implemented by applying a spatial InfoMax ICA algorithm to the reconstructed 4D χ dataspace. With finger-tapping experiments on a 7T system, the χICA-extracted χ-depicted functional map is similar to the SPM-inferred functional χ map by a spatial correlation of 0.67 ± 0.05. In comparison, the AICA-extracted magnitude-depicted map is correlated with the SPM magnitude map by 0.81 ± 0.05. The understanding of the inferiority of χICA to AICA for task-evoked functional map is an ongoing research topic. For task-evoked brain functional mapping, we compare the data-driven ICA method with the task-correlated SPM method. In particular, we compare χICA with AICA for extracting task-correlated timecourses and functional maps. χICA can extract a χ-depicted task-evoked brain functional map from a reconstructed χ dataspace without the knowledge about brain hemodynamic responses. The χICA-extracted brain functional χ map reveals a bidirectional BOLD response pattern that is unavailable (or different) from AICA. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Preseason Functional Movement Screen Component Tests Predict Severe Contact Injuries in Professional Rugby Union Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tee, Jason C; Klingbiel, Jannie F G; Collins, Robert; Lambert, Mike I; Coopoo, Yoga

    2016-11-01

    Tee, JC, Klingbiel, JFG, Collins, R, Lambert, MI, and Coopoo, Y. Preseason Functional Movement Screen component tests predict severe contact injuries in professional rugby union players. J Strength Cond Res 30(11): 3194-3203, 2016-Rugby union is a collision sport with a relatively high risk of injury. The ability of the Functional Movement Screen (FMS) or its component tests to predict the occurrence of severe (≥28 days) injuries in professional players was assessed. Ninety FMS test observations from 62 players across 4 different time periods were compared with severe injuries sustained during 6 months after FMS testing. Mean composite FMS scores were significantly lower in players who sustained severe injury (injured 13.2 ± 1.5 vs. noninjured 14.5 ± 1.4, Effect Size = 0.83, large) because of differences in in-line lunge (ILL) and active straight leg raise scores (ASLR). Receiver-operated characteristic curves and 2 × 2 contingency tables were used to determine that ASLR (cut-off 2/3) was the injury predictor with the greatest sensitivity (0.96, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.79-1.0). Adding the ILL in combination with ASLR (ILL + ASLR) improved the specificity of the injury prediction model (ASLR specificity = 0.29, 95% CI = 0.18-0.43 vs. ASLR + ILL specificity = 0.53, 95% CI = 0.39-0.66, p ≤ 0.05). Further analysis was performed to determine whether FMS tests could predict contact and noncontact injuries. The FMS composite score and various combinations of component tests (deep squat [DS] + ILL, ILL + ASLR, and DS + ILL + ASLR) were all significant predictors of contact injury. The FMS composite score also predicted noncontact injury, but no component test or combination thereof produced a similar result. These findings indicate that low scores on various FMS component tests are risk factors for injury in professional rugby players.

  3. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF BEHAVIOURS RELATED TO FUNCTIONAL FOODS AMONG SELECTED YOUNG CONSUMERS IN POLAND AND GERMANY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Zegan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Nutrition is one of the key factors infl uencing human health. Consuming foods that either naturally contain or have been enriched with bioactive substances may aid the organism’s proper development and functioning and, most importantly, be a vital element in the prophylaxis of many non-communicable diseases as well as improve general sense of well-being. The aim of the study was to compare behaviours related to functional foods among a selected group of young people. The survey was conducted among 153 purposively selected young consumers from Poland and Germany in March/April 2015. An original survey questionnaire was employed. IBM SPSS Statistics ver. 23 software was used for statistical analysis (chi-squared test p < 0.05. The term “functional foods” was largely unknown among the respondents. A defi nite majority of the survey participants reported having bought and consumed products that, in fact, belong to this group of foods. The main source of information on the topic of functional foods was the Internet. While buying these products, respondents from both countries chiefl y took into account the price, the quality and the list of ingredients. The results point to the need to popularize information about functional foods using trustworthy sources, in order to foster nutritional awareness. Consumer knowledge is the basis for the positive perception and acceptance of health-promoting foods and for making rational dietary choices. 

  4. Independent functional connectivity networks underpin food and monetary reward sensitivity in excess weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdejo-Román, Juan; Fornito, Alex; Soriano-Mas, Carles; Vilar-López, Raquel; Verdejo-García, Antonio

    2017-02-01

    Overvaluation of palatable food is a primary driver of obesity, and is associated with brain regions of the reward system. However, it remains unclear if this network is specialized in food reward, or generally involved in reward processing. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to characterize functional connectivity during processing of food and monetary rewards. Thirty-nine adults with excess weight and 37 adults with normal weight performed the Willingness to Pay for Food task and the Monetary Incentive Delay task in the fMRI scanner. A data-driven graph approach was applied to compare whole-brain, task-related functional connectivity between groups. Excess weight was associated with decreased functional connectivity during the processing of food rewards in a network involving primarily frontal and striatal areas, and increased functional connectivity during the processing of monetary rewards in a network involving principally frontal and parietal areas. These two networks were topologically and anatomically distinct, and were independently associated with BMI. The processing of food and monetary rewards involve segregated neural networks, and both are altered in individuals with excess weight. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Development Of Functional Foods Sea Weeds Algae Untouched Potential And Alternative Resource - A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habtamu Admassu

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Let food be thy medicine and medicine be thy food by Hippocrates was obscured with the advent of modern drug therapy and nutrition science until to twentieth century. The combination of consumer desires advances in food technology and new evidence-based correlation between nutrition to disease and disease prevention has created an unprecedented opportunity to concentrate on public health issues through diet and lifestyle. There is widespread interest these days to make a choice of functional foods from natural products that might promote health through specific bio-active compounds. Considering the diversity of biochemicals and capable of exerting functional bioactivities a growing trend is developing across globe to use seaweeds in functional food development. Compounds isolated from seaweeds have various functional biological activities antibacterial activity antioxidant potential anti-inflammatory properties anti-e coagulant activity anti-viral activity and antifungal and apoptotic activity. Therefore this review focuses on several bioactive chemicals in seaweeds and their biological activities for which they are responsible as a functional food ingredient.

  6. Suitability of polystyrene as a functional barrier layer in coloured food contact materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genualdi, Susan; Addo Ntim, Susana; Begley, Timothy

    2015-01-01

    Functional barriers in food contact materials (FCMs) are used to prevent or reduce migration from inner layers in multilayer structures to food. The effectiveness of functional barrier layers was investigated in coloured polystyrene (PS) bowls due to their intended condition of use with hot liquids such as soups or stew. Migration experiments were performed over a 10-day period using USFDA-recommended food simulants (10% ethanol, 50% ethanol, corn oil and Miglyol) along with several other food oils. At the end of the 10 days, solvent dyes had migrated from the PS bowls at 12, 1 and 31,000 ng cm(-)(2) into coconut oil, palm kernel oil and Miglyol respectively, and in coconut oil and Miglyol the colour change was visible to the human eye. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) images revealed that the functional barrier was no longer intact for the bowls exposed to coconut oil, palm kernel oil, Miglyol, 10% ethanol, 50% ethanol and goat's milk. Additional tests showed that 1-dodecanol, a lauryl alcohol derived from palm kernel oil and coconut oil, was present in the PS bowls at an average concentration of 11 mg kg(-1). This compound is likely to have been used as a dispersing agent for the solvent dye and aided the migration of the solvent dye from the PS bowl into the food simulant. The solvent dye was not found in the 10% ethanol, 50% ethanol and goat's milk food simulants above their respective limits of detection, which is likely to be due to its insolubility in aqueous solutions. A disrupted barrier layer is of concern because if there are unregulated materials in the inner layers of the laminate, they may migrate to food, and therefore be considered unapproved food additives resulting in the food being deemed adulterated under the Federal Food Drug and Cosmetic Act.

  7. Practical use of herb mixture preparations as functional foods for hemato-immunomodulation and cancer therapy assistance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jo, Sung Kee; Jung, U Hee; Park, Hae Ran and others

    2006-01-15

    This research project was intended to verify biological efficacy and to develop optimal manufacturing process of a novel herbal preparation (HemoHIM), and finally to practicalize it as a functional food for hemato-immunomodulation and cancer therapy assistance. HemoHIM alleviated the suppression of immune and hematopoietic functions in irradiated or anticancer drug(cyclophosphamide)-treated mice, enhanced the anticancer immune activity, and reduced the biological damage by oxidative stress. From these results, the optical application condition of HemoHIM was established. Then, the biologically active components, polysaccharide fraction for immune and hematopoiesis, and 5 antioxidant compounds, were isolated and identified. Based on these results, the standards for the active component contents were established and the optimal manufacturing process was developed. The contents of heavy metals and pesticides were analyzed by US FDA and the pilot product was shown to contain no heavy metals and pesticides. Also the pilot product showed no biological toxicity in the animal toxicity test including the long-term administration, teratogenicity, and local toxicity test. These results confirmed the safety of HemoHIM as a food. Finally, the human efficacy was evaluated. In result, the pilot product alleviated the suppression of immune cell numbers in cancer patients who received the radiation or chemotherapy, and enhanced the immune cell numbers and functions in the immune-depressed sub-healthy volunteers. Based on these results, KAERI and Kolmar Korea, Co. founded the joint venture company, SunBioTech Co. and two herbal preparation products (HemoHIM and HemoTonic) were partially commercialized. This herbal preparation is expected to be applied as a heath functional food for immune and hematopoiesis modulation, and also as a general medicine for the alleviation of immune and hematopoiesis suppression during cancer treatments in the future through further study.

  8. Practical use of herb mixture preparations as functional foods for hemato-immunomodulation and cancer therapy assistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jo, Sung Kee; Jung, U Hee; Park, Hae Ran and others

    2006-01-01

    This research project was intended to verify biological efficacy and to develop optimal manufacturing process of a novel herbal preparation (HemoHIM), and finally to practicalize it as a functional food for hemato-immunomodulation and cancer therapy assistance. HemoHIM alleviated the suppression of immune and hematopoietic functions in irradiated or anticancer drug(cyclophosphamide)-treated mice, enhanced the anticancer immune activity, and reduced the biological damage by oxidative stress. From these results, the optical application condition of HemoHIM was established. Then, the biologically active components, polysaccharide fraction for immune and hematopoiesis, and 5 antioxidant compounds, were isolated and identified. Based on these results, the standards for the active component contents were established and the optimal manufacturing process was developed. The contents of heavy metals and pesticides were analyzed by US FDA and the pilot product was shown to contain no heavy metals and pesticides. Also the pilot product showed no biological toxicity in the animal toxicity test including the long-term administration, teratogenicity, and local toxicity test. These results confirmed the safety of HemoHIM as a food. Finally, the human efficacy was evaluated. In result, the pilot product alleviated the suppression of immune cell numbers in cancer patients who received the radiation or chemotherapy, and enhanced the immune cell numbers and functions in the immune-depressed sub-healthy volunteers. Based on these results, KAERI and Kolmar Korea, Co. founded the joint venture company, SunBioTech Co. and two herbal preparation products (HemoHIM and HemoTonic) were partially commercialized. This herbal preparation is expected to be applied as a heath functional food for immune and hematopoiesis modulation, and also as a general medicine for the alleviation of immune and hematopoiesis suppression during cancer treatments in the future through further study.

  9. Understanding heterogeneity among elderly consumers: an evaluation of segmentation approaches in the functional food market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Zanden, Lotte D T; van Kleef, Ellen; de Wijk, René A; van Trijp, Hans C M

    2014-06-01

    It is beneficial for both the public health community and the food industry to meet nutritional needs of elderly consumers through product formats that they want. The heterogeneity of the elderly market poses a challenge, however, and calls for market segmentation. Although many researchers have proposed ways to segment the elderly consumer population, the elderly food market has received surprisingly little attention in this respect. Therefore, the present paper reviewed eight potential segmentation bases on their appropriateness in the context of functional foods aimed at the elderly: cognitive age, life course, time perspective, demographics, general food beliefs, food choice motives, product attributes and benefits sought, and past purchase. Each of the segmentation bases had strengths as well as weaknesses regarding seven evaluation criteria. Given that both product design and communication are useful tools to increase the appeal of functional foods, we argue that elderly consumers in this market may best be segmented using a preference-based segmentation base that is predictive of behaviour (for example, attributes and benefits sought), combined with a characteristics-based segmentation base that describes consumer characteristics (for example, demographics). In the end, the effectiveness of (combinations of) segmentation bases for elderly consumers in the functional food market remains an empirical matter. We hope that the present review stimulates further empirical research that substantiates the ideas presented in this paper.

  10. Knowledge, perceptions and preferences of elderly regarding protein-enriched functional food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Zanden, Lotte D T; van Kleef, Ellen; de Wijk, René A; van Trijp, Hans C M

    2014-09-01

    Promoting protein consumption in the elderly population may contribute to improving the quality of their later years in life. Our study aimed to explore knowledge, perceptions and preferences of elderly consumers regarding protein-enriched food. We conducted three focus groups with independently living (ID) elderly (N = 24, Mage = 67 years) and three with elderly living in a residential home (RH) (N = 18, Mage = 83 years). Both the ID and RH elderly were predominantly sceptical about functional food in general. Confusion, distrust and a perceived lack of personal relevance were main perceived barriers to purchasing and consuming these products, although a majority of the participants did report occasionally consuming at least one type of functional food. For the ID elderly, medical advice was an important facilitator that could overcome barriers to purchasing and consuming protein-enriched food, indicating the importance of personal relevance for this group. For the RH elderly, in contrast, sensory appeal of protein-enriched foods was a facilitator. Carrier preferences were similar for the two groups; the elderly preferred protein-enriched foods based on healthy products that they consumed frequently. Future studies should explore ways to deal with the confusion and distrust regarding functional food within the heterogeneous population of elderly. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Comparing the functional components, SOD-like activities, antimutagenicity, and nutrient compositions of Phellinus igniarius and Phellinus linteus mushrooms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nae-Cherng Yang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Many species of the genus Phellinus possess beneficial properties, including antioxidant, immune-enhancing, and antimutagenic effects. Phenolic compounds and polysaccharides are two kinds of bioactive compounds; however, few studies have compared the differences between Phellinus igniarius and Phellinus linteus in their functional components, functional activities, and nutrient compositions. Herein, the proximate compositions and microelements of the fruiting body of P. igniarius and P. linteus were determined. The fruiting body of P. igniarius and P. linteus were extracted by boiling water [water extract of P. igniarius (WEPI and P. linteus (WEPL]. The contents of total phenolics and polysaccharides, as well as superoxide dismutase (SOD-like and antimutagenic activities of WEPI and WEPL, were compared. We found that WEPI was rich in phenolics and polysaccharides and had higher SOD-like activity than WEPL. Nutrient compositions were mainly different in minerals, whereas anitmutagenicity was similar. All of these results suggested that P. igniarius has greater potential for the development of antioxidant and immunomodulating food products than P. linteus.

  12. Research into the functional components and antioxidant activities of North China rice wine (Ji Mo Lao Jiu)

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Shuai; Mao, Xiangzhao; Liu, Pei; Lin, Hong; Du, Zuyuan; Lv, Ning; Han, Jichen; Qiu, Cuifang

    2013-01-01

    Over the last decade, considerable experimental evidence has supported the view that grape wine and South China rice wine are rich in diverse nutrients and have powerful antioxidant activity. However, little research has been carried out for North China rice wine, of which Ji Mo Lao Jiu (JMLJ) is the outstanding representative. In this study, the functional components and antioxidant activity of JMLJ were investigated. Twenty-eight free amino acids were found in JMLJ, much more than that previously reported in other Chinese rice wines (16–21). Functional oligosaccharides (5290.222 mg/L), total phenols (722.431 ± 10.970 mg/L), and mineral elements (9) were rich in JMLJ. When compared with synthetic antioxidants, such as butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), JMLJ showed effective 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging and reducing capacity. The results of this study lay the foundation for promoting the utilization of JMLJ and the development of North China rice wine in the food industry. PMID:24804035

  13. Research into the functional components and antioxidant activities of North China rice wine (Ji Mo Lao Jiu).

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Shuai; Mao, Xiangzhao; Liu, Pei; Lin, Hong; Du, Zuyuan; Lv, Ning; Han, Jichen; Qiu, Cuifang

    2013-07-01

    Over the last decade, considerable experimental evidence has supported the view that grape wine and South China rice wine are rich in diverse nutrients and have powerful antioxidant activity. However, little research has been carried out for North China rice wine, of which Ji Mo Lao Jiu (JMLJ) is the outstanding representative. In this study, the functional components and antioxidant activity of JMLJ were investigated. Twenty-eight free amino acids were found in JMLJ, much more than that previously reported in other Chinese rice wines (16-21). Functional oligosaccharides (5290.222 mg/L), total phenols (722.431 ± 10.970 mg/L), and mineral elements (9) were rich in JMLJ. When compared with synthetic antioxidants, such as butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), JMLJ showed effective 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging and reducing capacity. The results of this study lay the foundation for promoting the utilization of JMLJ and the development of North China rice wine in the food industry.

  14. Characterization of Type Ia Supernova Light Curves Using Principal Component Analysis of Sparse Functional Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Shiyuan; Wang, Lifan; Huang, Jianhua Z.

    2018-04-01

    With growing data from ongoing and future supernova surveys, it is possible to empirically quantify the shapes of SNIa light curves in more detail, and to quantitatively relate the shape parameters with the intrinsic properties of SNIa. Building such relationships is critical in controlling systematic errors associated with supernova cosmology. Based on a collection of well-observed SNIa samples accumulated in the past years, we construct an empirical SNIa light curve model using a statistical method called the functional principal component analysis (FPCA) for sparse and irregularly sampled functional data. Using this method, the entire light curve of an SNIa is represented by a linear combination of principal component functions, and the SNIa is represented by a few numbers called “principal component scores.” These scores are used to establish relations between light curve shapes and physical quantities such as intrinsic color, interstellar dust reddening, spectral line strength, and spectral classes. These relations allow for descriptions of some critical physical quantities based purely on light curve shape parameters. Our study shows that some important spectral feature information is being encoded in the broad band light curves; for instance, we find that the light curve shapes are correlated with the velocity and velocity gradient of the Si II λ6355 line. This is important for supernova surveys (e.g., LSST and WFIRST). Moreover, the FPCA light curve model is used to construct the entire light curve shape, which in turn is used in a functional linear form to adjust intrinsic luminosity when fitting distance models.

  15. Sequential fitting-and-separating reflectance components for analytical bidirectional reflectance distribution function estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yu; Yu, Chanki; Lee, Sang Wook

    2018-01-10

    We present a sequential fitting-and-separating algorithm for surface reflectance components that separates individual dominant reflectance components and simultaneously estimates the corresponding bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) parameters from the separated reflectance values. We tackle the estimation of a Lafortune BRDF model, which combines a nonLambertian diffuse reflection and multiple specular reflectance components with a different specular lobe. Our proposed method infers the appropriate number of BRDF lobes and their parameters by separating and estimating each of the reflectance components using an interval analysis-based branch-and-bound method in conjunction with iterative K-ordered scale estimation. The focus of this paper is the estimation of the Lafortune BRDF model. Nevertheless, our proposed method can be applied to other analytical BRDF models such as the Cook-Torrance and Ward models. Experiments were carried out to validate the proposed method using isotropic materials from the Mitsubishi Electric Research Laboratories-Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MERL-MIT) BRDF database, and the results show that our method is superior to a conventional minimization algorithm.

  16. Structured adsorbents for isolation of functional food ingredients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodriguez Illera, M.

    2014-01-01

    Separation and purification of functional ingredients from raw or waste streams are often done via processes that include a chromatographic step using a packed bed of resin particles that have affinity for the ingredients to be separated. A column packed with these particles presents numerous

  17. Nutritional and functional properties of a complementary food based ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Faculty of Agriculture

    2012-04-02

    Apr 2, 2012 ... The effect of processing on the functional and nutritional properties of amaranth grain was analyzed. Two blends were prepared from raw and processed amaranth grains. Standard procedures of Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC) were used to determine the proximate chemical composition ...

  18. Allanblackia Oil: Phytochemistry and Use as a Functional Food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara L. Crockett

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The consumption and commercial exploitation of Allanblackia (Clusiaceae seed oils is of current interest. The favorable physicochemical characteristics of Allanblackia oil (solid at room temperature; high stearic acid content lend food products that contain it (i.e., vegetable-based dairy products, ice cream, spreads health advantages over others that contain higher levels of lauric, myristic, and/or palmitic acids, which can increase blood cholesterol levels. Such considerations are important for individuals prone to cardiovascular disease or with hypercholesterolemia. Domestication projects of several Allanblackia species in tropical Africa are underway, but wildcrafting of fruits to meet the seed demand still occurs. Proper species authentication is important, since only authenticated oil can be deemed safe for human consumption. The chemical constituency of Allanblackia seed oils, and potential roles of these phytochemicals in preventive strategies (e.g., as part of a healthy diet and as pharmacological agents used to treat chronic disease were examined in this review. The primary and secondary metabolite constituency of the seed oils of nearly all Allanblackia species is still poorly known. The presence, identity, and quantity of potentially bioactive secondary metabolites in the seed oils, and pharmacological testing of isolated compounds were identified as important directions for future research.

  19. Food Insecurity and Perceived Diet Quality Among Low-Income Older Americans with Functional Limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yunhee; Hickman, Haley

    2018-05-01

    To evaluate how functional limitations are associated with food insecurity and perceived diet quality in low-income older Americans. Nationwide repeated cross-sectional surveys regarding health and nutritional status. The National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys, 2007-2008, 2009-2010, and 2011-2012. Individuals aged ≥65 years with household incomes ≤130% of the federal poverty level (n = 1,323). Dependent variables included dichotomous indicators of food insecurity and poor-quality diet, measured with the household food security survey module and respondents' own ratings, respectively. Independent variable was presence of limitations in physical functioning. Weighted logistic regressions with nested controls and interaction terms. Functional limitations in low-income older adults were associated with 1.69 times higher odds of food insecurity (P food insecurity; 3.07 for poor-quality diet; P functional limitations are exposed to significant nutritional risk. Resources should be directed to facilitating their physical access to healthful foods. Copyright © 2017 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Association between inflammatory components and physical function in the health, aging, and body composition study: a principal component analysis approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hsu, F.C.; Kritchevsky, S.B.; Liu, Y.-J.; Kanaya, A.; Newman, A.B.; Perry, S.E.; Visser, M.; Pahor, M.; Harris, T.B.; Nicklas, B.J.

    2009-01-01

    Background. In older adults, studies demonstrate an inverse relationship between physical function and individual inflammatory biomarkers. Given that the inflammatory response is a complex system, a combination of biomarkers may increase the strength and consistency of these associations. This study

  1. Brakes, brake control and driver assistance systems function, regulation and components

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    Braking systems have been continuously developed and improved throughout the last years. Major milestones were the introduction of antilock braking system (ABS) and electronic stability program. This reference book provides a detailed description of braking components and how they interact in electronic braking systems. Contents Motor vehicle safety.- Basic principles of vehicle dynamics.- Car braking systems.- Car braking-system components.- Wheel brakes.- Antilock breaking systems.- Traction control system.- Electronic stability program.- Automatic brake functions.- Hydraulic modulator.- Sensors for brake control.- Sensotronic brake control.- Active steering.- Occupant protection systems.- Driver assistance systems.- Adaptive cruise control.- Parking systems.- Instrumentation.- Orientation methods.- Navigation systems.- Workshop technology. The target groups Motor-vehicle technicians in education and vocational training Master-mechanics and technicians in garage-workshops Teachers and lecturers in vocation...

  2. Caliciviruses differ in their functional requirements for eIF4F components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chaudhry, Y.; Nayak, A.; Bordeleau, M-E.

    2006-01-01

    proteins can interact directly with the initiation factors eIF4E and eIF3. Translation initiation on feline calicivirus (FCV) RNA requires eIF4E because it is inhibited by recombinant 4E-BP1. However, to date, there have been no functional studies carried out with respect to norovirus translation...... translation require the RNA helicase component of the eIF4F complex, namely eIF4A, because translation was sensitive (albeit to different degrees) to a dominant negative form and to a small molecule inhibitor of eIF4A (hippuristanol). These results suggest that calicivirus RNAs differ with respect...... to their requirements for the components of the eIF4F translation initiation complex....

  3. Evaluation of functional scintigraphy of gastric emptying by the principal component method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haeussler, M.; Eilles, C.; Reiners, C.; Moll, E.; Boerner, W.

    1980-10-01

    Gastric emptying of a standard semifluid test-meal, labeled with /sup 99/sup(m)Tc-DTPA, was studied by functional scintigraphy in 88 subjects (normals, patients with duodenal and gastric ulcer before and after selective proximal vagotomy with and without pyloroplasty). Gastric emptying curves were analysed by the method of principal components. Patients after selective proximal vagotomy with pyloroplasty showed an rapid initial emptying, whereas this was a rare finding in patients after selective proximal vagotomy without pyloroplasty. The method of principal components is well suited for mathematical analysis of gastric emptying; nevertheless the results are difficult to interpret. The method has advantages when looking at larger collectives and allows a separation into groups with different gastric emptying.

  4. Divergent composition but similar function of soil food webs of individual plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bezemer, T M; Fountain, M T; Barea, J M

    2010-01-01

    food webs were influenced both by the species identity of the plant individual and the surrounding plant community. Unexpectedly, plant identity had the strongest effects on decomposing soil organisms, widely believed to be generalist feeders. In contrast, quantitative food web modeling showed...... that the composition of the plant community influenced nitrogen mineralization under individual plants, but that plant species identity did not affect nitrogen or carbon mineralization or food web stability. Hence, the composition and structure of entire soil food webs vary at the scale of individual plants...... and are strongly influenced by the species identity of the plant. However, the ecosystem functions these food webs provide are determined by the identity of the entire plant community....

  5. Appropriate Processing And Food Functional Properties Of Maize ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Starch, fat and fibre contents were the major contributing factors in the differences in functional properties exhibited by the two types of flours. DF products would produce more sticky and pasty products than those of nDF. (Af. J. of Science and Technology: 2002 3(1): 126-131). http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/ajst.v3i1.15297.

  6. Fast foods--are they a risk factor for functional gastrointestinal disorders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shau, Jian-Ping; Chen, Po-Hon; Chan, Chan-Fai; Hsu, Yung-Cheng; Wu, Tzee-Chung; James, Frank E; Pan, Wen-Han

    2016-01-01

    Fast-food consumption has greatly increased in Taiwan. Frequent fast food intake is associated with both allergy and obesity. The aim of this study was to describe fast food habit changes, and to assess the relationship between fast food intake and the risk of functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs) among Taiwanese adolescents. This analysis used data from the Nutrition and Health Survey in Taiwan (NAHSIT) of high school students conducted in 2011. A total of 2,042 adolescents (12-19 years) completed the questionnaire. The survey included the Rome III criteria for FGIDs, translated into Chinese for adolescents. Respondents with previously diagnosed chronic organic gastrointestinal diseases were excluded from the study. In total, 2,034 children were enrolled. 545 subjects (26.8%) had history of at least one FGID. 88.1% of the subjects reported fast foods consumption. A significantly higher prevalence of FGIDs was noted in adolescents with a history of fast foods consumption, compared with those reported not to have ingested fast foods in the past 30 days (27.6% vs 20.6%, p=0.024). An increased risk of FGIDs in children and adolescents was associated with fast food intake (OR 1.8, 95% CI: 1.78-1.83). FGIDs were common among Taiwanese adolescents. Fast-food consumption may contribute to a positive association with the development of functional gastrointestinal disorders. Lower fiber intake and more frozen desserts in the diet may be complicit in FGIDs. The findings have public health relevance in regard to the global increase in fast food consumption.

  7. Effects of whey protein and its two major protein components on satiety and food intake in normal-weight women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chungchunlam, Sylvia M S; Henare, Sharon J; Ganesh, Siva; Moughan, Paul J

    2017-06-01

    Protein is the most satiating macronutrient and is source dependent, with whey protein thought to be particularly satiating. The purported satiating effect of whey protein may be due to the unique mixture of proteins in whey or to the major constituent individual proteins (β-lactoglobulin and α-lactalbumin). The objective of the study was to compare the effects of isoenergetic (~2100kJ, ~500kcal) preload meals enriched (~50g protein) with either whey protein isolate (WP), β-lactoglobulin (BL) isolate or α-lactalbumin (AL) isolate, on food intake at an ad libitum test meal 120min later and subjective ratings of appetite (hunger, desire to eat, prospective food consumption and fullness) using visual analogue scales (VAS). Twenty adult normal-weight women (mean age 24.2±0.8years; mean BMI 22.7±0.4kg/m 2 ) participated in the study which used a single-blind completely randomised block design, where each subject consumed each of the three preload meals. Energy intake at the ad libitum test meal and total energy intakes (preload+test meal) did not differ between the three preload meals (p>0.05). There were no significant differences observed for the VAS scores and net incremental area under the curve (net iAUC) during the 120min following consumption of the three preload meals for subjective ratings of appetite (p>0.05). The findings show that the satiating effect of whey protein was similar to that of BL or AL individually and suggest that the major whey protein components BL and AL do not mediate the satiating effect of whey protein. The present human trial was registered with the Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (www.anzctr.org.au) as ACTRN12615000344594. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Improving the nutritive characteristics of corn flakes enriched with functional components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Košutić Milenko B.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the effects of simultaneous addition of sunflower (3, 6 or 9 g/100 g of sample and dry residue of wild oregano (0.5 or 1 g/100 g of sample on the essential amino acids pattern and antioxidant potential of flake products. The accepted experimental design plan was 34. Data point that Score and PDCAAS values in flake products increase with increasing share of sunflower. Maximum value of phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity were experienced of TPC 2.84 mg/g, DPPH 0.75 mg/ml, FRAP 1.57 mg/g with the product having maximum shares of sunflower and dry residue of wild oregano. Tukey’s HSD test showed statistically significant differences between most of the mean values of amino acids content and antioxidant activity in the observed corn flakes. The response surface method has been applied for evaluation of amino acid content and antioxidative potential of corn flakes. Sunflower in flake products positively contributed to the protein nutritive value and dry residues of wild oregano elevated antioxidant potential of flake products and also contributed to the food waste valorisation in the food industry. Corn flakes are new products with improved essential amino acid pattern, antioxidant activity and functional properties due to added dry residue of wild oregano and sunflower. [Project of the Serbian Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development, Grant no. III 46005 and Grant no. TR 31027

  9. Quantifying Individual Brain Connectivity with Functional Principal Component Analysis for Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Alexander; Zhao, Jianyang; Carmichael, Owen; Müller, Hans-Georg

    2016-09-01

    In typical functional connectivity studies, connections between voxels or regions in the brain are represented as edges in a network. Networks for different subjects are constructed at a given graph density and are summarized by some network measure such as path length. Examining these summary measures for many density values yields samples of connectivity curves, one for each individual. This has led to the adoption of basic tools of functional data analysis, most commonly to compare control and disease groups through the average curves in each group. Such group differences, however, neglect the variability in the sample of connectivity curves. In this article, the use of functional principal component analysis (FPCA) is demonstrated to enrich functional connectivity studies by providing increased power and flexibility for statistical inference. Specifically, individual connectivity curves are related to individual characteristics such as age and measures of cognitive function, thus providing a tool to relate brain connectivity with these variables at the individual level. This individual level analysis opens a new perspective that goes beyond previous group level comparisons. Using a large data set of resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging scans, relationships between connectivity and two measures of cognitive function-episodic memory and executive function-were investigated. The group-based approach was implemented by dichotomizing the continuous cognitive variable and testing for group differences, resulting in no statistically significant findings. To demonstrate the new approach, FPCA was implemented, followed by linear regression models with cognitive scores as responses, identifying significant associations of connectivity in the right middle temporal region with both cognitive scores.

  10. Backward elastic p3He-scattering and high momentum components of 3He wave function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uzikov, Yu.N.

    1998-01-01

    It is shown that owing to a dominance of np-pair transfer mechanism of backward elastic p 3 He-scattering for incident proton kinetic energies T p > 1 GeV the cross section of this process is defined mainly by the values of the Faddeev component of the wave function of 3 He nucleus, φ 23 (q 23 , p 1 ), at high relative momenta q 23 > 0.6 GeV/c of the NN-pair in the 1 S 0 -state and at low spectator momenta p 1 ∼ 0 - 0.2 GeV/c

  11. The hadronic component of the photon structure function F2γ(Q2, x)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gotsman, E.

    1988-01-01

    The quality of the high Q 2 data presently available in photon-photon scattering, is not sufficient to allow for a unique determination of the QCD parameter Λ (as it is strongly correlated with the hadronic component of the photon). The authors show that a combination of the QPM point-like cross section and a hadronic cross section given by a simple power expansion in energy, provides a good description of the experimental photon structure function and photon-photon total cross section

  12. The Food Web of Potter Cove (Antarctica): complexity, structure and function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marina, Tomás I.; Salinas, Vanesa; Cordone, Georgina; Campana, Gabriela; Moreira, Eugenia; Deregibus, Dolores; Torre, Luciana; Sahade, Ricardo; Tatián, Marcos; Barrera Oro, Esteban; De Troch, Marleen; Doyle, Santiago; Quartino, María Liliana; Saravia, Leonardo A.; Momo, Fernando R.

    2018-01-01

    Knowledge of the food web structure and complexity are central to better understand ecosystem functioning. A food-web approach includes both species and energy flows among them, providing a natural framework for characterizing species' ecological roles and the mechanisms through which biodiversity influences ecosystem dynamics. Here we present for the first time a high-resolution food web for a marine ecosystem at Potter Cove (northern Antarctic Peninsula). Eleven food web properties were analyzed in order to document network complexity, structure and topology. We found a low linkage density (3.4), connectance (0.04) and omnivory percentage (45), as well as a short path length (1.8) and a low clustering coefficient (0.08). Furthermore, relating the structure of the food web to its dynamics, an exponential degree distribution (in- and out-links) was found. This suggests that the Potter Cove food web may be vulnerable if the most connected species became locally extinct. For two of the three more connected functional groups, competition overlap graphs imply high trophic interaction between demersal fish and niche specialization according to feeding strategies in amphipods. On the other hand, the prey overlap graph shows also that multiple energy pathways of carbon flux exist across benthic and pelagic habitats in the Potter Cove ecosystem. Although alternative food sources might add robustness to the web, network properties (low linkage density, connectance and omnivory) suggest fragility and potential trophic cascade effects.

  13. Effects of the Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Stress Management on Executive Function Components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos-Ruiz, Ana; Robles-Ortega, Humbelina; Pérez-García, Miguel; Peralta-Ramírez, María Isabel

    2017-02-13

    This study aims to determine whether it is possible to modify executive function in stressed individuals by means of cognitive-behavioral therapy for stress management. Thirty-one people with high levels of perceived stress were recruited into the study (treatment group = 18; wait-list group = 13). The treatment group received 14 weeks of stress management program. Psychological and executive function variables were evaluated in both groups pre and post-intervention. The treatment group showed improved psychological variables of perceived stress (t = 5.492; p = .001), vulnerability to stress (t = 4.061; p = .001) and superstitious thinking (t = 2.961; p = .009). Likewise, the results showed statistically significant differences in personality variables related to executive function, positive urgency (t = 3.585; p = .002) and sensitivity to reward (t = -2.201; p = .042), which improved after the therapy. These variables showed a moderate to high effect size (oscillates between 1.30 for perceived stress and .566 for sensitivity to reward). The cognitive-behavioral therapy for stress management may be an appropriate strategy for improving personality construct components related to executive function, however effects of the therapy are not showed on performance on the tests of executive function applied, as presented studies previous.

  14. A model of freezing foods with liquid nitrogen using special functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez Vega, Martín.

    2014-05-01

    A food freezing model is analyzed analytically. The model is based on the heat diffusion equation in the case of cylindrical shaped food frozen by liquid nitrogen; and assuming that the thermal conductivity of the cylindrical food is radially modulated. The model is solved using the Laplace transform method, the Bromwich theorem, and the residue theorem. The temperature profile in the cylindrical food is presented as an infinite series of special functions. All the required computations are performed with computer algebra software, specifically Maple. Using the numeric values of the thermal and geometric parameters for the cylindrical food, as well as the thermal parameters of the liquid nitrogen freezing system, the temporal evolution of the temperature in different regions in the interior of the cylindrical food is presented both analytically and graphically. The duration of the liquid nitrogen freezing process to achieve the specified effect on the cylindrical food is computed. The analytical results are expected to be of importance in food engineering and cooking engineering. As a future research line, the formulation and solution of freezing models with thermal memory is proposed.

  15. Inulin and Oligofructosis: a review about functional properties, prebiotic effects and importance for food industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Celia de Oliveira Hauly

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays consumers are more conscious about the relation between food and health. Therefore food industry has been looking for food that has a lot of benefits besides good flavor and appearance. Inulin and oligofructose are fructose polimers, vastly found in plants as storage carbohydrates. They present important functional for the food industry. Both inulin and oligofructose have been used as fiber bulk in food products. Differently from other fibers, they do not add flavor, allowing the food to be improved without changing its viscosity. Inulin and oligofructose have similar nutritional properties. Inulin is more indicated for obtaining products with a low fat content such as ice cream, cake and soup, while oligofructose is indicated for yogurt with a low caloric value and in order to mask the residual flavor from high intensity sweeteners used in food preparation. Research has shown that inulin and oligofructose have prebiotic effects because they are not digestible and they can develop bifidogenic effects, improving the intestinal microflora. The simultaneous use of inulin and oligofructose with probiotic agents in food is recommended for symbiotic effects.

  16. Utilization of Food Processing By-products as Dietary, Functional, and Novel Fiber: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Satish Kumar; Bansal, Sangita; Mangal, Manisha; Dixit, Anil Kumar; Gupta, Ram K; Mangal, A K

    2016-07-26

    Fast growing food processing industry in most countries across the world, generates huge quantity of by-products, including pomace, hull, husk, pods, peel, shells, seeds, stems, stalks, bran, washings, pulp refuse, press cakes, etc., which have less use and create considerable environmental pollution. With growing interest in health promoting functional foods, the demand of natural bioactives has increased and exploration for new sources is on the way. Many of the food processing industrial by-products are rich sources of dietary, functional, and novel fibers. These by-products can be directly (or after certain modifications for isolation or purification of fiber) used for the manufacture of various foods, i.e. bread, buns, cake, pasta, noodles, biscuit, ice creams, yogurts, cheese, beverages, milk shakes, instant breakfasts, ice tea, juices, sports drinks, wine, powdered drink, fermented milk products, meat products and meat analogues, synthetic meat, etc. A comprehensive literature survey has been carried on this topic to give an overview in the field dietary fiber from food by-products. In this article, the developments in the definition of fiber, fiber classification, potential sources of dietary fibers in food processing by-products, their uses, functional properties, caloric content, energy values and the labelling regulations have been discussed.

  17. On the effectiveness of and preference for punishment and extinction components of function-based interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanley, Gregory P; Piazza, Cathleen C; Fisher, Wayne W; Maglieri, Kristen A

    2005-01-01

    The current study describes an assessment sequence that may be used to identify individualized, effective, and preferred interventions for severe problem behavior in lieu of relying on a restricted set of treatment options that are assumed to be in the best interest of consumers. The relative effectiveness of functional communication training (FCT) with and without a punishment component was evaluated with 2 children for whom functional analyses demonstrated behavioral maintenance via social positive reinforcement. The results showed that FCT plus punishment was more effective than FCT in reducing problem behavior. Subsequently, participants' relative preference for each treatment was evaluated in a concurrent-chains arrangement, and both participants demonstrated a dear preference for FCT with punishment. These findings suggest that the treatment-selection process may be guided by person-centered and evidence-based values.

  18. Principal Components Analysis on the spectral Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Function of ceramic colour standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrero, A; Campos, J; Rabal, A M; Pons, A; Hernanz, M L; Corróns, A

    2011-09-26

    The Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Function (BRDF) is essential to characterize an object's reflectance properties. This function depends both on the various illumination-observation geometries as well as on the wavelength. As a result, the comprehensive interpretation of the data becomes rather complex. In this work we assess the use of the multivariable analysis technique of Principal Components Analysis (PCA) applied to the experimental BRDF data of a ceramic colour standard. It will be shown that the result may be linked to the various reflection processes occurring on the surface, assuming that the incoming spectral distribution is affected by each one of these processes in a specific manner. Moreover, this procedure facilitates the task of interpolating a series of BRDF measurements obtained for a particular sample. © 2011 Optical Society of America

  19. Rose hip (Rosa canina L: A functional food perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cui Fan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Rose hip (Rosa canina L. is the pseudo-fruit of the rose plant, which is widely known as a valuable source of polyphenols and vitamin C. Both in vivo and in vitro studies have demonstrated that this fruit exhibits anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and antiobesogenic activities. The health benefits of Rose hip (RH have been attributed to its wide range of bioactive compounds including the anti-inflammatory galactolipid: (2S-1,2-di-O-[(9Z,12Z,15Z-octadeca-9,12,15-trienoyl]-3-O-β-D galactopyranosyl glycerol (GOPO, vitamin C, phenolics, lycopene, lutein, zeaxanthin, and other carotenoids. As cyclooxygenase inhibitors, RH compounds may reduce the risk of cancer, heart disease, and various inflammatory conditions. The aim of this review is to present an overview of the functional, medical, and physiological properties of RH.

  20. Resistance of functional Lactobacillus plantarum strains against food stress conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrando, Verónica; Quiberoni, Andrea; Reinhemer, Jorge; Suárez, Viviana

    2015-06-01

    The survival of three Lactobacillus plantarum strains (Lp 790, Lp 813 and Lp 998) with functional properties was studied taking into account their resistance to thermal, osmotic and oxidative stress factors. Stress treatments applied were: 52 °C-15 min (Phosphate Buffer pH 7, thermal shock), H2O2 0.1% (p/v) - 30 min (oxidative shock) and NaCl aqueous solution at 17, 25 and 30% (p/v) (room temperature - 1 h, osmotic shock). The osmotic stress was also evaluated on cell growth in MRS broth added of 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10% (p/v) of NaCl, during 20 h at 30 °C. The cell thermal adaptation was performed in MRS broth, selecting 45 °C for 30 min as final conditions for all strains. Two strains (Lp 813 and Lp 998) showed, in general, similar behaviour against the three stress factors, being clearly more resistant than Lp 790. An evident difference in growth kinetics in presence of NaCl was observed between Lp 998 and Lp 813, Lp998 showing a higher optical density (OD570nm) than Lp 813 at the end of the assay. Selected thermal adaptation improved by 2 log orders the thermal resistance of both strains, but cell growth in presence of NaCl was enhanced only in Lp 813. Oxidative resistance was not affected with this thermal pre-treatment. These results demonstrate the relevance of cell technological resistance when selecting presumptive "probiotic" cultures, since different stress factors might considerably affect viability or/and performance of the strains. The incidence of stress conditions on functional properties of the strains used in this work are currently under research in our group. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Improved application of independent component analysis to functional magnetic resonance imaging study via linear projection techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Zhiying; Chen, Kewei; Wu, Xia; Reiman, Eric; Peng, Danling; Yao, Li

    2009-02-01

    Spatial Independent component analysis (sICA) has been widely used to analyze functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data. The well accepted implicit assumption is the spatially statistical independency of intrinsic sources identified by sICA, making the sICA applications difficult for data in which there exist interdependent sources and confounding factors. This interdependency can arise, for instance, from fMRI studies investigating two tasks in a single session. In this study, we introduced a linear projection approach and considered its utilization as a tool to separate task-related components from two-task fMRI data. The robustness and feasibility of the method are substantiated through simulation on computer data and fMRI real rest data. Both simulated and real two-task fMRI experiments demonstrated that sICA in combination with the projection method succeeded in separating spatially dependent components and had better detection power than pure model-based method when estimating activation induced by each task as well as both tasks.

  2. Developing A Method of Learning English Speaking Skills Based on the Language Functions Used in the Food and Beverage Service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denok Lestari

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This research is aimed to analyse language functions in  English, specifically those which are used in the context of Food and Beverage Service. The findings of the analysis related to the language functions are then applied in a teaching method which is designed to improve the students’ abilities in speaking English. There are two novelties in this research. The first one is  the theory of language functions which is reconstructed in accordance with the Food and Beverage Service context. Those language functions are: permisive (to soften utterances, to avoid repetition, and  to adjust intonation; interactive (to greet, to have small talks, and farewell; informative (to introduce, to show, to state, to explain, to ask, to agree, to reject, and to confirm; persuasive (to offer, to promise, to suggest, and to persuade; directive (to tell, to order, and to request; indicative (to praise, to complain, to thank, and to apologize. The second  novelty which is more practical is the design  of the ASRI method which consists of four basic components, namely: Aims (the purpose in communicating; Sequence (the operational procedure in handling guests in the restaurant; Role play (the simmulation activities in language learning; and Interaction (the interactive communications between participants. The method of ASRI with the application of the language functions in its ABCD procedure, namely Acquire, Brainstorm, Chance and Develop is proven to be effective in improving the students’ abilities in speaking English, specifically in the context of  Food and Beverage Service.

  3. Functional food supplements to ameliorate the secondary complications in high fructose fed diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gite, S S; Yadav, S A; Nilegaonkar, S S; Agte, V V

    2017-05-24

    Functional foods are the most natural and safest source of health ingredients, providing health benefits beyond basic nutrition, and hence can be used as supplements for the prevention of secondary complications in diabetes. Persistent diabetes may cause glycation of various tissue proteins such as of those in lens, kidney, blood, and brain, which may further lead to the development of pathological conditions such as cataract and cardiovascular diseases. This study on adult rats was designed to assess if the functional food supplements A and B (proprietary blends of antioxidant rich plant materials) can reduce secondary complications such as cataract, dyslipidemia, and oxidative stress under severe diabetic conditions. After nine weeks of intervention of the supplements, it was found that the % HbA1c levels in the formulation group B significantly (p functional foods in the effective management of secondary complications associated with severe diabetic conditions.

  4. Linking functional response and bioenergetics to estimate juvenile salmon growth in a reservoir food web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haskell, Craig A.; Beauchamp, David A.; Bollens, Stephen M.

    2017-01-01

    Juvenile salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) use of reservoir food webs is understudied. We examined the feeding behavior of subyearling Chinook salmon (O. tshawytscha) and its relation to growth by estimating the functional response of juvenile salmon to changes in the density of Daphnia, an important component of reservoir food webs. We then estimated salmon growth across a broad range of water temperatures and daily rations of two primary prey, Daphnia and juvenile American shad (Alosa sapidissima) using a bioenergetics model. Laboratory feeding experiments yielded a Type-II functional response curve: C = 29.858 P *(4.271 + P)-1 indicating that salmon consumption (C) of Daphnia was not affected until Daphnia densities (P) were < 30 · L-1. Past field studies documented Daphnia densities in lower Columbia River reservoirs of < 3 · L-1 in July but as high as 40 · L-1 in August. Bioenergetics modeling indicated that subyearlings could not achieve positive growth above 22°C regardless of prey type or consumption rate. When feeding on Daphnia, subyearlings could not achieve positive growth above 20°C (water temperatures they commonly encounter in the lower Columbia River during summer). At 16–18°C, subyearlings had to consume about 27,000 Daphnia · day-1 to achieve positive growth. However, when feeding on juvenile American shad, subyearlings had to consume 20 shad · day-1 at 16–18°C, or at least 25 shad · day-1 at 20°C to achieve positive growth. Using empirical consumption rates and water temperatures from summer 2013, subyearlings exhibited negative growth during July (-0.23 to -0.29 g · d-1) and August (-0.05 to -0.07 g · d-1). By switching prey from Daphnia to juvenile shad which have a higher energy density, subyearlings can partially compensate for the effects of higher water temperatures they experience in the lower Columbia River during summer. However, achieving positive growth as piscivores requires subyearlings to feed at

  5. Inhibition of human polymorphonuclear leukocyte function by components of human colostrum and mature milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickering, L K; Cleary, T G; Caprioli, R M

    1983-04-01

    To compare the effect of human colostrum (days 1 to 3 postpartum) and mature milk (days 170 +/- 24 postpartum) on the function of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNL), Ficoll-Hypaque-separated PMNL from the blood of 60 healthy volunteers were incubated with whole colostrum, colostral lipid, and colostral aqueous phase from 30 mothers, or with mature whole milk and its separated components from 30 mothers, and tested for resting and zymosan-stimulated oxidative metabolism, functional activity, and the presence of Fc receptors. Stimulated oxygen consumption, quantitative nitroblue tetrazolium dye reduction, [1-(14)C]glucose utilization, and Fc receptors were significantly (P cells or cells exposed to the aqueous phase of colostrum. In contrast, PMNL exposed to whole mature milk or to its lipid or aqueous phase caused no significant decrease in any of these parameters when compared to nonexposed cells. In assays of phagocytosis, colostral PMNL or blood PMNL exposed to colostral lipid had a significant (P < 0.001) decrease in their ability to ingest [methyl-(3)H]thymidine-labeled Staphylococcus aureus when compared to non-lipid-exposed PMNL. Blood PMNL exposed to lipid from mature milk had no decrease in ability to ingest S. aureus. Analysis of total lipid and total and individual fatty acid content revealed a uniform increase in all components in mature milk when compared to colostrum. Lipid or lipid-soluble material present in human colostrum but not mature milk causes inhibition of phagocytosis and respiratory burst-related activities of PMNL.

  6. Model validation and calibration based on component functions of model output

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Danqing; Lu, Zhenzhou; Wang, Yanping; Cheng, Lei

    2015-01-01

    The target in this work is to validate the component functions of model output between physical observation and computational model with the area metric. Based on the theory of high dimensional model representations (HDMR) of independent input variables, conditional expectations are component functions of model output, and the conditional expectations reflect partial information of model output. Therefore, the model validation of conditional expectations tells the discrepancy between the partial information of the computational model output and that of the observations. Then a calibration of the conditional expectations is carried out to reduce the value of model validation metric. After that, a recalculation of the model validation metric of model output is taken with the calibrated model parameters, and the result shows that a reduction of the discrepancy in the conditional expectations can help decrease the difference in model output. At last, several examples are employed to demonstrate the rationality and necessity of the methodology in case of both single validation site and multiple validation sites. - Highlights: • A validation metric of conditional expectations of model output is proposed. • HDRM explains the relationship of conditional expectations and model output. • An improved approach of parameter calibration updates the computational models. • Validation and calibration process are applied at single site and multiple sites. • Validation and calibration process show a superiority than existing methods

  7. Functional Principal Component Analysis and Randomized Sparse Clustering Algorithm for Medical Image Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Nan; Jiang, Junhai; Guo, Shicheng; Xiong, Momiao

    2015-01-01

    Due to the advancement in sensor technology, the growing large medical image data have the ability to visualize the anatomical changes in biological tissues. As a consequence, the medical images have the potential to enhance the diagnosis of disease, the prediction of clinical outcomes and the characterization of disease progression. But in the meantime, the growing data dimensions pose great methodological and computational challenges for the representation and selection of features in image cluster analysis. To address these challenges, we first extend the functional principal component analysis (FPCA) from one dimension to two dimensions to fully capture the space variation of image the signals. The image signals contain a large number of redundant features which provide no additional information for clustering analysis. The widely used methods for removing the irrelevant features are sparse clustering algorithms using a lasso-type penalty to select the features. However, the accuracy of clustering using a lasso-type penalty depends on the selection of the penalty parameters and the threshold value. In practice, they are difficult to determine. Recently, randomized algorithms have received a great deal of attentions in big data analysis. This paper presents a randomized algorithm for accurate feature selection in image clustering analysis. The proposed method is applied to both the liver and kidney cancer histology image data from the TCGA database. The results demonstrate that the randomized feature selection method coupled with functional principal component analysis substantially outperforms the current sparse clustering algorithms in image cluster analysis. PMID:26196383

  8. Application of DNA Hybridization Biosensor as a Screening Method for the Detection of Genetically Modified Food Components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian Filipiak

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available An electrochemical biosensor for the detection of genetically modified food components is presented. The biosensor was based on 21-mer single-stranded oligonucleotide (ssDNA probe specific to either 35S promoter or nos terminator, which are frequently present in transgenic DNA cassettes. ssDNA probe was covalently attached by 5’-phosphate end to amino group of cysteamine self-assembled monolayer (SAM on gold electrode surface with the use of activating reagents – water soluble 1-ethyl-3(3’- dimethylaminopropyl-carbodiimide (EDC and N-hydroxy-sulfosuccinimide (NHS. The hybridization reaction on the electrode surface was detected via methylene blue (MB presenting higher affinity to ssDNA probe than to DNA duplex. The electrode modification procedure was optimized using 19-mer oligoG and oligoC nucleotides. The biosensor enabled distinction between DNA samples isolated from soybean RoundupReady® (RR soybean and non-genetically modified soybean. The frequent introduction of investigated DNA sequences in other genetically modified organisms (GMOs give a broad perspectives for analytical application of the biosensor.

  9. Constructing a working taxonomy of functional Ada software components for real-time embedded system applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Robert

    1986-01-01

    A major impediment to a systematic attack on Ada software reusability is the lack of an effective taxonomy for software component functions. The scope of all possible applications of Ada software is considered too great to allow the practical development of a working taxonomy. Instead, for the purposes herein, the scope of Ada software application is limited to device and subsystem control in real-time embedded systems. A functional approach is taken in constructing the taxonomy tree for identified Ada domain. The use of modular software functions as a starting point fits well with the object oriented programming philosophy of Ada. Examples of the types of functions represented within the working taxonomy are real time kernels, interrupt service routines, synchronization and message passing, data conversion, digital filtering and signal conditioning, and device control. The constructed taxonomy is proposed as a framework from which a need analysis can be performed to reveal voids in current Ada real-time embedded programming efforts for Space Station.

  10. Site-Specific Incorporation of Functional Components into RNA by an Unnatural Base Pair Transcription System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rie Kawai

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Toward the expansion of the genetic alphabet, an unnatural base pair between 7-(2-thienylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (Ds and pyrrole-2-carbaldehyde (Pa functions as a third base pair in replication and transcription, and provides a useful tool for the site-specific, enzymatic incorporation of functional components into nucleic acids. We have synthesized several modified-Pa substrates, such as alkylamino-, biotin-, TAMRA-, FAM-, and digoxigenin-linked PaTPs, and examined their transcription by T7 RNA polymerase using Ds-containing DNA templates with various sequences. The Pa substrates modified with relatively small functional groups, such as alkylamino and biotin, were efficiently incorporated into RNA transcripts at the internal positions, except for those less than 10 bases from the 3′-terminus. We found that the efficient incorporation into a position close to the 3′-terminus of a transcript depended on the natural base contexts neighboring the unnatural base, and that pyrimidine-Ds-pyrimidine sequences in templates were generally favorable, relative to purine-Ds-purine sequences. The unnatural base pair transcription system provides a method for the site-specific functionalization of large RNA molecules.

  11. Component Functional Allocations of the ESF Multi-loop Controller for the KNICS ESF-CCS Design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hur, Seop; Choi, Jong Kyun; Kim, Dong Hoon; Kim, Ho; Kim, Seong Tae

    2006-01-01

    The safety related components in nuclear power plants are traditionally controlled by single-loop controllers. Traditional single-loop controller systems utilize dedicated processors for each component but that components independence is compromised through a sharing of power supplies, auxiliary logic modules and auxiliary I/O cards. In the new design of the ESF-CCS, the multi-loop controllers with data networks are widely used. Since components are assigned to ESF-CCS functional groups in a manner consistent with their process relationship, the effects of the failures are predictable and manageable. Therefore, the key issues for the design of multi-loop controller is to allocate the components to the each multi-loop controller through plant and function analysis and grouping. This paper deals with an ESF component functional allocation which is performed through allocation criteria and a fault analysis

  12. Preliminary validation and principal components analysis of the Control of Eating Questionnaire (CoEQ) for the experience of food craving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, M; Finlayson, G; Hill, A; Blundell, J

    2015-12-01

    The Control of Eating Questionnaire (CoEQ) comprises 21-items that are designed to assess the severity and type of food cravings an individual experiences over the previous 7 days. The CoEQ has been used in clinical trials as a multi-dimensional measure of appetite, craving and mood regulation however its underlying component structure has yet to be determined. The current paper has two aims; (1) to examine the psychometric properties, and internal consistency of the CoEQ; and (2) to provide a preliminary examination of the underlying components by exploring their construct and predictive validity. Data were pooled from four studies in which a total 215 adults (80% women; Age=29.7 ± 10.3; BMI=26.5 ± 5.2) had completed the CoEQ alongside measures of psychometric eating behaviour traits, ad libitum food intake, and body composition. A principal components analysis (PCA) and parallel analysis was conducted to examine the underlying structure of the questionnaire. The resulting subscales were tested for internal consistency (Cronbach's α=0.66-0.88). PCA revealed four components that explained 54.5% of the variance. The components were identified as: Craving Control, Positive Mood, Craving for Sweet, and Craving for Savoury. Associations between the underlying CoEQ subscales and measures of body composition and eating behaviour traits confirmed construct validity of the subscales. The associations between the subscales and snack food selection and intake of palatable snack foods supported the CoEQ's predictive validity. The CoEQ has good psychometric properties with a clear component structure and acceptable internal consistency. This preliminary validation supports the CoEQ as a measure of the experience of food cravings.

  13. The role of food in the functional gastrointestinal disorders: introduction to a manuscript series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chey, William D

    2013-05-01

    Functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs) are characterized by the presence of chronic or recurrent symptoms that are felt to originate from the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, which cannot be attributed to an identifiable structural or biochemical cause. Food is associated with symptom onset or exacerbation in a significant proportion of FGID patients. Despite this, the role of food in the pathogenesis of the FGIDs has remained poorly understood. For this reason, diet has largely played an adjunctive rather than a primary role in the management of FGID patients. In recent years, there has been a rapid expansion in our understanding of the role of food in GI function and sensation and how food relates to GI symptoms in FGID patients. In a series of evidence-based manuscripts produced by the Rome Foundation Working Group on the role of food in FGIDs, comprehensive reviews of the physiological changes associated with nutrient intake, and the respective roles of carbohydrates, fiber, protein, and fats are provided. The series concludes with a manuscript that provides guidance on proper clinical trial design when considering the role of food in FGIDs.

  14. Effects of the modern food environment on striatal function, cognition and regulation of ingestive behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Mary V; Small, Dana M

    2016-06-01

    Emerging evidence from human and animal studies suggest that consumption of palatable foods rich in fat and/or carbohydrates may produce deleterious influences on brain function independently of body weight or metabolic disease. Here we consider two mechanisms by which diet can impact striatal circuits to amplify food cue reactivity and impair inhibitory control. First, we review findings demonstrating that the energetic properties of foods regulate nucleus accumbens food cue reactivity, a demonstrated predictor of weight gain susceptibility, which is then sensitized by chronic consumption of an energy dense diet. Second, we consider evidence for diet-induced adaptations in dorsal striatal dopamine signaling that is associated with impaired inhibitory control and negative outcome learning.

  15. Abundance and biomass responses of microbial food web components to hydrology and environmental gradients within a floodplain of the River Danube.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palijan, Goran

    2012-07-01

    This study investigated the relationships of time-dependent hydrological variability and selected microbial food web components. Samples were collected monthly from the Kopački Rit floodplain in Croatia, over a period of 19 months, for analysis of bacterioplankton abundance, cell size and biomass; abundance of heterotrophic nanoflagellates and nanophytoplankton; and concentration of chlorophyll a. Similar hydrological variability at different times of the year enabled partition of seasonal effects from hydrological changes on microbial community properties. The results suggested that, unlike some other studies investigating sites with different connectivity, bacterioplankton abundance, and phytoplankton abundance and biomass increased during lentic conditions. At increasing water level, nanophytoplankton showed lower sensitivity to disturbance in comparison with total phytoplankton biomass: this could prolong autotrophic conditions within the floodplain. Bacterioplankton biomass, unlike phytoplankton, was not impacted by hydrology. The bacterial biomass less affected by hydrological changes can be an important additional food component for the floodplain food web. The results also suggested a mechanism controlling bacterial cell size independent of hydrology, as bacterial cell size was significantly decreased as nanoflagellate abundance increased. Hydrology, regardless of seasonal sucession, has the potential to structure microbial food webs, supporting microbial development during lentic conditions. Conversely, other components appear unaffected by hydrology or may be more strongly controlled by biotic interactions. This research, therefore, adds to understanding on microbial food web interactions in the context of flood and flow pulses in river-floodplain ecosystems.

  16. [Probiotics as functional food products: manufacture and approaches to evaluating of the effectiveness].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markova, Iu M; Sheveleva, S A

    2014-01-01

    This review concerns the issues of foodfortifications and the creation of functional foods (FF) and food supplements based on probiotics and covers an issue of approaches to the regulation of probiotic food products in various countries. The status of functional foods, optimizing GIT functions, as a separate category of FF is emphasized. Considering the strain-specificity effect of probiotics, the minimum criteria used for probiotics in food products are: 1) the need to identify a probiotics at genus, species, and strain levels, using the high-resolution techniques, 2) the viability and the presence of a sufficient amount of the probiotic in product at the end of shelf life, 3) the proof of functional characteristics inherent to probiotic strains, in the controlled experiments. The recommended by FA O/WHO three-stage evaluation procedure offunctional efficiency of FF includes: Phase I--safety assessment in in vitro and in vivo experiments, Phase II--Evaluation in the Double-Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled trial (DBRPC) and Phase III--Post-approval monitoring. It is noted that along with the ability to obtain statistically significant results of the evaluation, there are practical difficulties of conducting DBRPC (duration, costs, difficulties in selection of target biomarkers and populations). The promising approach for assessing the functional efficacy of FF is the concept of nutrigenomics. It examines the link between the human diet and the characteristics of his genome to determine the influence of food on the expression of genes and, ultimately, to human health. Nutrigenomic approaches are promising to assess the impact of probiotics in healthy people. The focusing on the nutrigenomic response of intestinal microbial community and its individual populations (in this regard the lactobacilli can be very informative) was proposed.

  17. Variability in syringe components and its impact on functionality of delivery systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathore, Nitin; Pranay, Pratik; Eu, Bruce; Ji, Wenchang; Walls, Ed

    2011-01-01

    drug out of the syringe and into the site of administration. Complete understanding of the spring force, syringe barrel dimensions, needle size, and drug product properties is essential for robust device design. It is equally important to estimate the extent of variability that exists in these components and the resulting impact it could have on the performance of the device. In this work, we studied the impact of variability in syringe and device components on the delivery forces associated with syringe injection. More specifically, the effect of barrel size, needle size, autoinjector spring force, and frictional forces has been evaluated. An analytical model based on underlying physics is developed that can be used to predict the functionality of the autoinjector.

  18. Beneficial Effects of Ethanolic and Hexanic Rice Bran Extract on Mitochondrial Function in PC12 Cells and the Search for Bioactive Components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Hagl

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Mitochondria are involved in the aging processes that ultimately lead to neurodegeneration and the development of Alzheimer’s disease (AD. A healthy lifestyle, including a diet rich in antioxidants and polyphenols, represents one strategy to protect the brain and to prevent neurodegeneration. We recently reported that a stabilized hexanic rice bran extract (RBE rich in vitamin E and polyphenols (but unsuitable for human consumption has beneficial effects on mitochondrial function in vitro and in vivo (doi:10.1016/j.phrs.2013.06.008, 10.3233/JAD-132084. To enable the use of RBE as food additive, a stabilized ethanolic extract has been produced. Here, we compare the vitamin E profiles of both extracts and their effects on mitochondrial function (ATP concentrations, mitochondrial membrane potential, mitochondrial respiration and mitochondrial biogenesis in PC12 cells. We found that vitamin E contents and the effects of both RBE on mitochondrial function were similar. Furthermore, we aimed to identify components responsible for the mitochondria-protective effects of RBE, but could not achieve a conclusive result. α-Tocotrienol and possibly also γ-tocotrienol, α-tocopherol and δ-tocopherol might be involved, but hitherto unknown components of RBE or a synergistic effect of various components might also play a role in mediating RBE’s beneficial effects on mitochondrial function.

  19. MODERN TRENDS IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE FUNCTIONAL FOOD INDUSTRY IN RUSSIA AND ABROAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey B. Lisitsyn

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Modern technologies of food production that often lead to losses in the main nutrients of processed raw materials, incorporation into  food recipes of large amounts of ingredients, which are sometimes  not scientifically substantiated, lead to a necessity to find a new way  for increasing the nutritional value of modern products and making  them healthier. Functional foods are one of the ways to solve this  problem, which have long been of great interest to Russian and  international scientific society. The paper presents the information  about the history of creation and trends in the development of the  functional food industry in Russia and abroad, as well as the  materials about the modern directions of designing meat-based  functional foods, innovative methods for their production and problems arising in the process of their designing.

  20. The influence of lifestyle on health behavior and preference for functional foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szakály, Zoltán; Szente, Viktória; Kövér, György; Polereczki, Zsolt; Szigeti, Orsolya

    2012-02-01

    The main objective of this survey is to reveal the relationship between lifestyle, health behavior, and the consumption of functional foods on the basis of Grunert's food-related lifestyle model. In order to achieve this objective, a nationwide representative questionnaire-based survey was launched with 1000 participants in Hungary. The results indicate that a Hungarian consumer makes rational decisions, he or she seeks bargains, and he wants to know whether or not he gets good value for his money. Further on, various lifestyle segments are defined by the authors: the rational, uninvolved, conservative, careless, and adventurous consumer segments. Among these, consumers with a rational approach provide the primary target group for the functional food market, where health consciousness and moderate price sensitivity can be observed together. Adventurous food consumers stand out because they search for novelty; this makes them an equally important target group. Conservative consumers are another, one characterized by positive health behavior. According to the findings of the research, there is a significant relationship between lifestyle, health behavior, and the preference for functional food products. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Warming alters energetic structure and function but not resilience of soil food webs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Benjamin; Barnes, Andrew D.; Thakur, Madhav P.; Brose, Ulrich; Ciobanu, Marcel; Reich, Peter B.; Rich, Roy L.; Rosenbaum, Benjamin; Stefanski, Artur; Eisenhauer, Nico

    2017-12-01

    Climate warming is predicted to alter the structure, stability, and functioning of food webs1-5. Yet, despite the importance of soil food webs for energy and nutrient turnover in terrestrial ecosystems, the effects of warming on these food webs—particularly in combination with other global change drivers—are largely unknown. Here, we present results from two complementary field experiments that test the interactive effects of warming with forest canopy disturbance and drought on energy flux in boreal-temperate ecotonal forest soil food webs. The first experiment applied a simultaneous above- and belowground warming treatment (ambient, +1.7 °C, +3.4 °C) to closed-canopy and recently clear-cut forest, simulating common forest disturbance6. The second experiment crossed warming with a summer drought treatment (-40% rainfall) in the clear-cut habitats. We show that warming reduces energy flux to microbes, while forest canopy disturbance and drought facilitates warming-induced increases in energy flux to higher trophic levels and exacerbates the reduction in energy flux to microbes, respectively. Contrary to expectations, we find no change in whole-network resilience to perturbations, but significant losses in ecosystem functioning. Warming thus interacts with forest disturbance and drought, shaping the energetic structure of soil food webs and threatening the provisioning of multiple ecosystem functions in boreal-temperate ecotonal forests.

  2. Stress-based fatigue assessment of major component in NPP using modified Green's function approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ko, Han Ok; Jhung, Myung Jo; Choi, Jae Boong

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, the modified GFA which can consider temperature-dependent material properties is proposed by using a neural network (NN) and weight factor. To verify the modified GFA, thermal stresses by the proposed method are compared with those by FEM. Finally, pros and cons of the new method as well as technical findings from the assessment are discussed to show applicability of them. In this paper, the modified GFA considering temperature-dependent material properties is proposed by using NN and weight factor. To verify the proposed method, thermal stresses by the modified Green's function are compared with those by FEM and the results between two methods show a good agreement. Finally, it is anticipated that more precise fatigue evaluation is performed by using the proposed method. Recently, 434 nuclear reactors are being operated in the world. Among them, about 40% reactors are being operated beyond their design life or will be approaching their life. During the long term operation, various degradation mechanisms are occurred. Fatigue damage caused by alternating operational stresses in terms of temperature or pressure change is the one of important damage mechanisms in the nuclear power plants (NPPs). Although components important to safety were designed to withstand the fatigue damage, cumulative usage factor (CUF) at some locations can exceed the design limit beyond the design life. So, it is necessary to monitor the fatigue damage of major components during the long term operation. Researches on fatigue monitoring system (FMS) have been widely performed. In USA, the FatiguePro was developed by EPRI and was applied to the CE, WEC, B and W and GE type reactors. In Korea, the Kori unit 1 which started commercial operation in 1978 is being operated beyond its design life. At the stage of the license renewal, various plans for degradation mechanisms were established and reviewed. And, in case of fatigue damage, to monitor the fatigue damage of major components

  3. Influence of selected dietary components on the functioning of the human nervous system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendołowicz, Agnieszka; Stefańska, Ewa; Ostrowska, Lucyna

    The diet is directly connected not only with the physical status but also with the functioning of the brain and the mental status. The potentially beneficial nutrients with a protective effect on the nervous system function include amino acids (tryptophan, phenylalanine, tyrosine, taurine), glucose and vitamins C, E, D and beta-carotene, B group vitamins (vitamin B12, vitamin B6, vitamin B4, vitamin B1) and minerals (selenium, zinc, magnesium, sodium, iron, copper, manganese, iodine). The presence of antioxidants in the diet protects against oxidative damage to nervous system cells. Biochemical data indicate that polyunsaturated fatty acids such as arachidonic acid (AA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and gamma-linolenic acid (GLA) as structural components of the nervous system play a key role in its function. The nutrition of the entire body also influences the production of neurotransmitters in the brain. A diet without an appropriate supply of protein, mineral nutrients or vitamins may result in a failure to form appropriately balanced numbers of neurotransmitters, which, as a result, may lead to neurotransmission dysfunction. This is the reason why proper nutrition is based on vegetables, fruits, whole-grain cereal products supplemented with products providing full-value protein (dairy products, fish, lean meat) and high-quality fat products (vegetable oils, fish fats).

  4. Molecular characterization and function of tenomodulin, a marker of tendons and ligaments that integrate musculoskeletal components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chisa Shukunami, DDS, PhD

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Tendons and ligaments are dense fibrous bands of connective tissue that integrate musculoskeletal components in vertebrates. Tendons connect skeletal muscles to the bone and function as mechanical force transmitters, whereas ligaments bind adjacent bones together to stabilize joints and restrict unwanted joint movement. Fibroblasts residing in tendons and ligaments are called tenocytes and ligamentocytes, respectively. Tenomodulin (Tnmd is a type II transmembrane glycoprotein that is expressed at high levels in tenocytes and ligamentocytes, and is also present in periodontal ligament cells and tendon stem/progenitor cells. Tnmd is related to chondromodulin-1 (Chm1, a cartilage-derived angiogenesis inhibitor, and both Tnmd and Chm1 are expressed in the CD31− avascular mesenchyme. The conserved C-terminal hydrophobic domain of these proteins, which is characterized by the eight Cys residues to form four disulfide bonds, may have an anti-angiogenic function. This review highlights the molecular characterization and function of Tnmd, a specific marker of tendons and ligaments.

  5. Genetic and environmental components of female depression as a function of the severity of the disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusby, James S M; Tasker, Fiona; Cherkas, Lynn

    2016-10-01

    Both clinical care and genome-wide studies need to account for levels of severity in the etiology of depression. The purpose of the study is to estimate the genetic and environmental components of female depression as a function of the severity of the disorder. A genetic and environmental model analysis of depression incidence was made using the IOP Depression Severity Measure (IDSM). Details of lifetime depression incidence were obtained by questionnaire from twins on the DTR registry. Data from 1449 matched female twin pairs in the age range 19-85 years in four ordinal categories of increasing severity were employed in the analysis. Estimates of additive and dominance genetic components of 27% and 25% were found when all three levels of depression were included, and near zero and 33% when the recurrent/severe level was excluded. Shared environmental effects were not significant in either case, but the estimate for random environmental effects was greater when the severe level was excluded. These results suggest that the incidence of severe depression is associated with homozygotic alleles and the less severe with heterozygotic alleles. This is in accord with the finding that the hereditary component of severe depression is relatively high and that milder forms are more dependent on life-time environmental factors. Such conclusions have clinical implications for the diagnosis and treatment of the disorder by practicing psychiatrists. They also lead to the importance of focusing future genome-wide and linkage studies on those females with severe levels of depression if progress in identifying genetic risk loci is to be made.

  6. Advances in Microalgae-Derived Phytosterols for Functional Food and Pharmaceutical Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Xuan; Su, Peng; Zhang, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Microalgae contain a variety of bioactive lipids with potential applications in aquaculture feed, biofuel, food and pharmaceutical industries. While microalgae-derived polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) and their roles in promoting human health have been extensively studied, other lipid types from this resource, such as phytosterols, have been poorly explored. Phytosterols have been used as additives in many food products such as spread, dairy products and salad dressing. This review focuses on the recent advances in microalgae-derived phytosterols with functional bioactivities and their potential applications in functional food and pharmaceutical industries. It highlights the importance of microalgae-derived lipids other than PUFA for the development of an advanced microalgae industry. PMID:26184233

  7. Four-component relativistic density functional theory calculations of NMR shielding tensors for paramagnetic systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komorovsky, Stanislav; Repisky, Michal; Ruud, Kenneth; Malkina, Olga L; Malkin, Vladimir G

    2013-12-27

    A four-component relativistic method for the calculation of NMR shielding constants of paramagnetic doublet systems has been developed and implemented in the ReSpect program package. The method uses a Kramer unrestricted noncollinear formulation of density functional theory (DFT), providing the best DFT framework for property calculations of open-shell species. The evaluation of paramagnetic nuclear magnetic resonance (pNMR) tensors reduces to the calculation of electronic g tensors, hyperfine coupling tensors, and NMR shielding tensors. For all properties, modern four-component formulations were adopted. The use of both restricted kinetically and magnetically balanced basis sets along with gauge-including atomic orbitals ensures rapid basis-set convergence. These approaches are exact in the framework of the Dirac-Coulomb Hamiltonian, thus providing useful reference data for more approximate methods. Benchmark calculations on Ru(III) complexes demonstrate good performance of the method in reproducing experimental data and also its applicability to chemically relevant medium-sized systems. Decomposition of the temperature-dependent part of the pNMR tensor into the traditional contact and pseudocontact terms is proposed.

  8. Determination of arterial input function in dynamic susceptibility contrast MRI using group independent component analysis technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, S.; Liu, H.-L.; Yang Yihong; Hsu, Y.-Y.; Chuang, K.-S.

    2006-01-01

    Quantification of cerebral blood flow (CBF) with dynamic susceptibility contrast (DSC) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) requires the determination of the arterial input function (AIF). The segmentation of surrounding tissue by manual selection is error-prone due to the partial volume artifacts. Independent component analysis (ICA) has the advantage in automatically decomposing the signals into interpretable components. Recently group ICA technique has been applied to fMRI study and showed reduced variance caused by motion artifact and noise. In this work, we investigated the feasibility and efficacy of the use of group ICA technique to extract the AIF. Both simulated and in vivo data were analyzed in this study. The simulation data of eight phantoms were generated using randomized lesion locations and time activity curves. The clinical data were obtained from spin-echo EPI MR scans performed in seven normal subjects. Group ICA technique was applied to analyze data through concatenating across seven subjects. The AIFs were calculated from the weighted average of the signals in the region selected by ICA. Preliminary results of this study showed that group ICA technique could not extract accurate AIF information from regions around the vessel. The mismatched location of vessels within the group reduced the benefits of group study

  9. Optical components based on two-photon absorption process in functionalized polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, S.; Barsella, A.; Taupier, G.; Stortz, V.; Fort, A.; Dorkenoo, K.D.

    2006-01-01

    We report on the fabrication of basic elements needed in optical circuits in a photopolymerizable resin, using a two-photon absorption (TPA) process to perform a selective polymerization. By taking advantage of the high spatial selectivity of the TPA approach, we can control the value of the local index of refraction in the material and realize permanent optical pathways in the bulk of photopolymerizable matrices. The computer-controlled design of such pathways allows creating optical circuits. As an example of application, optical fibers separated by millimetric distances and placed in arbitrary positions have been connected with moderate losses. Moreover, active components, such as electro-optical Mach-Zehnder interferometers, can be fabricated using photopolymers functionalized with non-linear optical chromophores, in order to be integrated in micro-optical circuits

  10. The Fanconi anaemia components UBE2T and FANCM are functionally linked to nucleotide excision repair.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian R Kelsall

    Full Text Available The many proteins that function in the Fanconi anaemia (FA monoubiquitylation pathway initiate replicative DNA crosslink repair. However, it is not clear whether individual FA genes participate in DNA repair pathways other than homologous recombination and translesion bypass. Here we show that avian DT40 cell knockouts of two integral FA genes--UBE2T and FANCM are unexpectedly sensitive to UV-induced DNA damage. Comprehensive genetic dissection experiments indicate that both of these FA genes collaborate to promote nucleotide excision repair rather than translesion bypass to protect cells form UV genotoxicity. Furthermore, UBE2T deficiency impacts on the efficient removal of the UV-induced photolesion cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer. Therefore, this work reveals that the FA pathway shares two components with nucleotide excision repair, intimating not only crosstalk between the two major repair pathways, but also potentially identifying a UBE2T-mediated ubiquitin-signalling response pathway that contributes to nucleotide excision repair.

  11. Sheet-bulk metal forming – forming of functional components from sheet metals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merklein Marion

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper gives an overview on the application of sheet-bulk metal forming operations in both scientific and industrial environment. Beginning with the need for an innovative forming technology, the definition of this new process class is introduced. The rising challenges of the application of bulk metal forming operations on sheet metals are presented and the demand on a holistic investigation of this topic is motivated. With the help of examples from established production processes, the latest state of technology and the lack on fundamental knowledge is shown. Furthermore, perspectives regarding new research topics within sheet-bulk metal forming are presented. These focus on processing strategies to improve the quality of functional components by the application of process-adapted semi-finished products as well as the local adaption of the tribological system.

  12. A two component model describing nucleon structure functions in the low-x region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bugaev, E.V. [Institute for Nuclear Research of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 7a, 60th October Anniversary prospect, Moscow 117312 (Russian Federation); Mangazeev, B.V. [Irkutsk State University, 1, Karl Marx Street, Irkutsk 664003 (Russian Federation)

    2009-12-15

    A two component model describing the electromagnetic nucleon structure functions in the low-x region, based on generalized vector dominance and color dipole approaches is briefly described. The model operates with the mesons of rho-family having the mass spectrum of the form m{sub n}{sup 2}=m{sub r}ho{sup 2}(1+2n) and takes into account the nondiagonal transitions in meson-nucleon scattering. The special cut-off factors are introduced in the model, to exclude the gamma-qq-bar-V transitions in the case of narrow qq-bar-pairs. For the color dipole part of the model the well known FKS-parameterization is used.

  13. Functional remediation components: A conceptual method of evaluating the effects of remediation on risks to ecological receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Joanna; Gochfeld, Michael; Bunn, Amoret; Downs, Janelle; Jeitner, Christian; Pittfield, Taryn; Salisbury, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    Governmental agencies, regulators, health professionals, tribal leaders, and the public are faced with understanding and evaluating the effects of cleanup activities on species, populations, and ecosystems. While engineers and managers understand the processes involved in different remediation types such as capping, pump and treat, and natural attenuation, there is often a disconnect between (1) how ecologists view the influence of different types of remediation, (2) how the public perceives them, and (3) how engineers understand them. The overall goal of the present investigation was to define the components of remediation types (= functional remediation). Objectives were to (1) define and describe functional components of remediation, regardless of the remediation type, (2) provide examples of each functional remediation component, and (3) explore potential effects of functional remediation components in the post-cleanup phase that may involve continued monitoring and assessment. Functional remediation components include types, numbers, and intensity of people, trucks, heavy equipment, pipes, and drill holes, among others. Several components may be involved in each remediation type, and each results in ecological effects, ranging from trampling of plants, to spreading invasive species, to disturbing rare species, and to creating fragmented habitats. In some cases remediation may exert a greater effect on ecological receptors than leaving the limited contamination in place. A goal of this conceptualization is to break down functional components of remediation such that managers, regulators, and the public might assess the effects of timing, extent, and duration of different remediation options on ecological systems.

  14. Evaluation of functional potentiality of selected commonly consumed foods of Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazma Shaheen

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Rising tide of chronic nutrition related non-communicable diseases yoked with extant under nutrition problems makes it imperative to carry out scientific research towards the discovery of functional foods. Although the emergence of these diseases are believed to be related to a constellation of dietary, socio-economic and lifestyle related risk factors, central to the pathogenesis of these diseases (or disease states are free radicals, oxidative stress, and inflammatory processes typically accompanied by pain. Therefore, functional whole foods with physiologically active antioxidants, anti-inflammatory, and analgesic compounds seem to be the most promising option to deal with the pathogenesis of existing and emerging chronic diseases burden of Bangladesh. Methods: Edible portions of 70 commonly consumed Bangladeshi foods – including one cereal, five legumes, fourteen vegetables, four tea varieties, five oil seeds, twenty spices, and twenty one fruits – were evaluated for total phenol content (TPC by Folin-Ciocalteau assay. To evaluate functional potentiality, in vitro antioxidant capacity (AC of selected food items were evaluated by DPPH (2,2-diphenyl- 1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging assays, in vitro anti-inflammatory potential by observing the production of pro-inflammatory cytokine TNF-α using J774A.1 cells stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS, in vivo anti-inflammatory potential by measuring carrageenan induced rat paw edema reduction, and in vivo analgesic potential by acetic acid induced writhing test in mice. Results: Spices, oilseeds, and teas showed high concentration of TPC among the analyzed foods, while spices and teas exhibited notable AC. Green tea showed highest concentrations of TPC (2349 mg Gallic Acid Equivalent / g and AC (2432 µmole Trolox Equivalent/g. Fourteen food items showed potential in vitro anti-inflammatory activity with confirmatory dose response effect shown by 8 items. In vivo, black sesame

  15. Food supplementation and testosterone interact to influence reproductive behavior and immune function in Sceloporus graciosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Mayté; French, Susannah S; Demas, Gregory E; Martins, Emília P

    2010-02-01

    The energetic resources in an organism's environment are essential for executing a wide range of life-history functions, including immunity and reproduction. Most energetic budgets, however, are limited, which can lead to trade-offs among competing functions. Increasing reproductive effort tends to decrease immunity in many cases, and increasing total energy via supplemental feedings can eliminate this effect. Testosterone (T), an important regulator of reproduction, and food availability are thus both potential factors regulating life-history processes, yet they are often tested in isolation of each other. In this study, we considered the effect of both food availability and elevated T on immune function and reproductive behavior in sagebrush lizards, Sceloporus graciosus, to assess how T and energy availability affect these trade-offs. We experimentally manipulated diet (via supplemental feedings) and T (via dermal patches) in males from a natural population. We determined innate immune response by calculating the bacterial killing capability of collected plasma exposed to Escherichia coli ex vivo. We measured reproductive behavior by counting the number of courtship displays produced in a 20-min sampling period. We observed an interactive effect of food availability and T-patch on immune function, with food supplementation increasing immunity in T-patch lizards. Additionally, T increased courtship displays in control food lizards. Lizards with supplemental food had higher circulating T than controls. Collectively, this study shows that the energetic state of the animal plays a critical role in modulating the interactions among T, behavior and immunity in sagebrush lizards and likely other species. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Children's Executive Function and High-Calorie, Low-Nutrient Food Intake: Mediating Effects of Child-Perceived Adult Fast Food Intake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tate, Eleanor B.; Unger, Jennifer B.; Chou, Chih-Ping; Spruijt-Metz, Donna; Pentz, Mary Ann; Riggs, Nathaniel R.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This study tested the relationships among child executive function (EF), child-perceived parent fast food intake, and child self-reported subsequent consumption of high-calorie, low-nutrient (HCLN) food. Design: One year and 6-month longitudinal observation from a larger randomized controlled trial. Setting. Southern California…

  17. Consumer versus expert hazard identification: A mental models study of a functional food ingredient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hagemann, Kit; Scholderer, Joachim

    Objectives: The consumer part of the EU project NOFORISK compares laypeople and experts' understanding of benefits and risks associated with the functional food ingredient Phytosterol. The Council of the European Union has recently authorised the marketing of Phytosterol-enriched rye bread...

  18. Functional genomics for food microbiology: Molecular mechanisms of weak organic acid preservative adaptation in yeast

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brul, S.; Kallemeijn, W.; Smits, G.

    2008-01-01

    The recent era of genomics has offered tremendous possibilities to biology. This concise review describes the possibilities of applying (functional) genomics studies to the field of microbial food stability. In doing so, the studies on weak-organic-acid stress response in yeast are discussed by way

  19. Quality Function Deployment (QFD)-can it be used to develop food products?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benner, M.; Linnemann, A.R.; Jongen, W.M.F.; Folstar, P.

    2003-01-01

    Publications on the use of Quality Function Deployment (QFD) for the development of food products state that the method is potentially a useful tool. The use of QFD would enlarge the chance of success, produce higher quality products and decrease the cost and the development time. However, a

  20. Quality Function Deployment (QFD) - Can it be used to develop food products?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benner, M.; Linnemann, A.R.; Jongen, W.M.F.; Folstar, P.

    2003-01-01

    Publications on the use of Quality Function Deployment (QFD) for the development of food products state that the method is potentially a useful tool. The use of QFD would enlarge the chance of success, produce higher quality products and decrease the cost and the development time. However, a

  1. Delivery of Functionality in Complex Food Systems: Physically Inspired Approaches from Nanoscale to Microscale, Wageningen 18-21 October 2009

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Linden, van der E.; Ubbink, J.; Duchateau, G.

    2010-01-01

    The Wageningen Delivery of Functionality symposium covered all aspects involved with food structural design to arrive at high-quality foods which meet demanding customer expectations and regulatory requirements. The symposium integrated aspects from the structural organization of foods at molecular

  2. Functional foods for the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases: cholesterol and beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudkowska, Iwona; Jones, Peter J H

    2007-05-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a major cause of death and disability in many developed countries. The purpose of this literature review is to establish a recommendation for the intake of functional food ingredients in a healthy diet--such as plant sterols (PSs) in low-fat and functional matrices, fatty acid composition and other nutrients of tree nuts and flavonoids in dark chocolate--for the prevention and treatment of CVD. These three specific functional foods are explored in this review, since there is a higher potential for their increased consumption by the population to prevent CVD. First, PS have been added to various nontraditional matrices, such as low-fat products and functional oils, which have shown cholesterol-lowering effects in most clinical trials. Secondly, a growing number of clinical studies indicate that the beneficial effect of tree nuts may not only be due to their fatty acid composition but to other key nutrients, which may provide supplementary health benefits, such as endothelial cell function, as well as decreasing total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). Lastly, flavonoids in dark chocolate may protect LDL-C particles from undergoing oxidative modification. However, some gaps in our knowledge need to be filled before firm recommendations can be made for habitual dark chocolate consumption. Overall, these functional foods should be considered as an addition to current lipid-lowering recommendations for improving CVD risk.

  3. Comprehensive proteomic analysis of human milk-derived extracellular vesicles unveils a novel functional proteome distinct from other milk components

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Herwijnen, Martijn J C; Zonneveld, Marijke I; Goerdayal, Soenita; Nolte-'t Hoen, Esther N M; Garssen, Johan; Stahl, Bernd; Altelaar, A F Maarten; Redegeld, Frank A; Wauben, Marca H M

    2016-01-01

    Breast milk contains several macromolecular components with distinctive functions, whereby milk fat globules and casein micelles mainly provide nutrition to the newborn, while whey contains molecules that can stimulate the newborn's developing immune system and gastrointestinal tract. Although

  4. Overweight consumers' salient beliefs on omega-3-enriched functional foods in Australia's Illawarra region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patch, Craig S; Tapsell, Linda C; Williams, Peter G

    2005-01-01

    To determine consumer salient beliefs toward functional foods enriched with omega-3 fatty acids. Focus group interviews with adult consumers using the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) as a theoretical framework. Community-based residents living in the Illawarra region of New South Wales, Australia. Forty-two overweight participants (29 female, 13 male) aged 30 to 80 years recruited by advertisement and attending 1 of 6 focus groups, which were recorded and transcribed verbatim. Content analysis was carried out, and subcategories were developed to capture the emerging themes according to the TPB model. Most participants were aware of a range of potential benefits of omega-3 fatty acids, but they had reservations about the ability of omega-3-enriched foods to deliver a health benefit. They were concerned about whether these foods were labeled clearly and about the possibility of overdosing. Family and friends were viewed as important in introducing participants to novel foods on the market. Participants regarded dietitians as a credible source and were least trusting of food companies and scientists. Overall, participants reported that cost was a major barrier, and that they would not necessarily trade taste for health benefits. Adding omega-3 fatty acids to foods regarded as less healthful was viewed more as a gimmick rather than a real health benefit. The consumer attitudes and purchase intentions identified in this study will be helpful to educators as they plan messages and strategies to guide dietary choices related to products enriched with omega-3 fatty acids.

  5. Functional soy food based on flaxseed and quinoa and enriched with iron and Vitamin B12

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina Braga

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available A diet rich in food derived from vegetables reduces the risk of developing chronic and degenerative diseases and provides the essential nutrients for human consumption. Besides soybean, other foods of vegetal origin have been studied and incorporated in healthy formulations, such as quinoa and linseed. Current assay comprises a sensorial analysis of a product of vegetable origin, a soy product, based on quinoa and flaxseed, considered to be functional food, for its organoleptic characteristics acceptable by a sample group of 80 individuals. Several tests were conducted to reach an adequate formulation for the product, characterized by 11.1 g of protein content, 9.6 g of dietary fiber and low levels of lipids, since it had only 1.4 g. The resulting product revealed adequate microbiological conditions when subjected to microbiological analysis (coliforms at 45ºC; coliforms at 35ºC and Staphylococcus aureus. According to scores in the sensory analysis, it may be assumed that the product was accepted by the sample group. The favorable results indicate the possibility of consumers adhering to a processed diet rich in food derived from vegetables, with functional properties, to replace animal-derived food which is rich in saturated fats and low in fiber.

  6. Integration of a functionally graded W/Cu transition for divertor components of fusion facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pintsuk, G.

    2004-01-01

    One of the most difficult topics in the design and development of future fusion devices, e.g. ITER (Latin for ''the way'') is the field of plasma facing components for the divertor. In steady-state mode these will be exposed to heat fluxes up to 20 MW/m 2 . The favored design-option is a component made out of tungsten and copper-alloys. Since these materials differ in their thermal expansion coefficient and their elastic modulus a temperature gradient within the component, caused by thermal loads, results in stresses at the interface. An alternative design-option for divertor-components deals with the insertion of a functionally graded material (FGM) between tungsten and copper. This establishes a continuous change of material properties and therefore minimize the stresses and optimize the thermal behavior of the component. Low pressure plasma-spraying and direct laser-sintering are introduced as possible production-methods of graded W/Cu-composites. Based on preliminary investigations both are used for fabricating W/Cu-composite materials with different mixing ratios. Thermo-mechanical and thermo-physical material properties will be determined on these composites and extrapolated to all mixing ratios. For laser-sintering these are limited to Cu-contents of ∝20 to 100 Vol%. Therefore the plasma-spraying process is favored. In finite-element-analyses the graded material and its material properties will be implemented into a 2-D simulation-model of a divertor component. The composition and the design of the graded W/Cu-composite will be optimized. Best results are obtained by high contents of tungsten within the graded layer, which are still improved by a macro-brush design with dimensions of 4.5 x 4.5 mm 2 . This results in a transfer of critical stresses from the mechanical bonded interface between the plasma facing and the graded material to the diffusion bonded interface between the graded material and copper. The joining of tungsten, a plasma-sprayed graded W

  7. Attribution of emotions to body postures: an independent component analysis study of functional connectivity in autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libero, Lauren E; Stevens, Carl E; Kana, Rajesh K

    2014-10-01

    The ability to interpret others' body language is a vital skill that helps us infer their thoughts and emotions. However, individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have been found to have difficulty in understanding the meaning of people's body language, perhaps leading to an overarching deficit in processing emotions. The current fMRI study investigates the functional connectivity underlying emotion and action judgment in the context of processing body language in high-functioning adolescents and young adults with autism, using an independent components analysis (ICA) of the fMRI time series. While there were no reliable group differences in brain activity, the ICA revealed significant involvement of occipital and parietal regions in processing body actions; and inferior frontal gyrus, superior medial prefrontal cortex, and occipital cortex in body expressions of emotions. In a between-group analysis, participants with autism, relative to typical controls, demonstrated significantly reduced temporal coherence in left ventral premotor cortex and right superior parietal lobule while processing emotions. Participants with ASD, on the other hand, showed increased temporal coherence in left fusiform gyrus while inferring emotions from body postures. Finally, a positive predictive relationship was found between empathizing ability and the brain areas underlying emotion processing in ASD participants. These results underscore the differential role of frontal and parietal brain regions in processing emotional body language in autism. Copyright © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Elaboration of functionally graded materials for plasma facing components of the thermonuclear machines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Autissier, Emmanuel

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a Functionally Graded Material (FGM) W/Cu to replace the compliance layer (Cu-OFHC) in the plasma facing components of thermonuclear fusion reactor like ITER. The peculiarity of this work is to elaborate these materials without exceeding the melting temperature of copper in order to control its microstructure. The co-sintering is the most attractive solution to achieve this goal. The first phase of this study has been to decrease the sintering temperature of the tungsten to achieve this co-sintering. The elaboration of a Functionally Graded Materials being delicate, thermomechanical calculations were performed in order to determine the number and chemical composition in order to increase the lifespan of Plasma Facing Components. Spark Plasma Sintering conditions were optimized in order to achieve maximum density of W x Cu 1-x composites. The effect of copper content and density of the W x Cu 1-x composites on thermal and mechanical properties was investigated. The SPS conditions were applied for W/CuCrZr assemblies with a compliance layer composed of several interlayers. The importance of time for the integrity of assemblies thereof has been highlighted. The study of the dwell time during W/CuCrZr assembly leads to identify a parameter to characterize the integrity of the interface regardless of the composition and the nature of the layer of compliance. Moreover, the phenomena associated with the formation of the interface assembly have been identified. The interface W/W x Cu 1-x is formed by the extrusion of the copper layer of the W x Cu 1-x inside the tungsten porosities. The W y Cu 1-y /CuCrZr interface is formed by copper migration of CuCrZr layer inside the W y Cu 1-y layer. Finally optimization assembly conditions showed that the mechanical stresses due to the densification of the Functionally Graded Materials can be limited by sintering the FGM before the assembly. (author)

  9. Hortaliças como alimentos funcionais Vegetable crops as functional food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia G B de Carvalho

    2006-12-01

    in association with a more sedentary lifestyle, are responsible for an increase in diet-related diseases such as obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular problems, hypertension, osteoporosis, and cancer. It is believed that the ingestion of fruits and vegetables helps in the prevention of these diseases. Vegetables are an important component of the diet, usually in association with protein- and starch-rich foods. They are responsible not only for adding variety of color and texture to meals, but also for providing important nutrients. Vegetables are low fat and low calorie foods, with relatively small amounts of protein, but they are rich in carbohydrates and fibers and add significant amounts of micronutrients to the human diet. They are also a source of functional substances, which might benefit one or more physiological functions in the body, besides adequate nutritional effects. Functional elements might play a role in improving health and well-being, as well as reducing the risk of the onset of diet-related diseases. The development of vegetable cultivars with greater amounts of these substances is one of the main goals of modern breeding programs. Many of these programs, working on different vegetables, are currently underway in Brazil and other countries, aiming to improve the amount and variety of carotenoids present in the diet. In the present paper, the main aspects of vegetable crops as functional foods are discussed. The most important achievements of tomato and carrot breeding programs in Brazil aiming to improve the amount and types of functional compounds are also presented.

  10. Snack food as a modulator of human resting-state functional connectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendez-Torrijos, Andrea; Kreitz, Silke; Ivan, Claudiu; Konerth, Laura; Rösch, Julie; Pischetsrieder, Monika; Moll, Gunther; Kratz, Oliver; Dörfler, Arnd; Horndasch, Stefanie; Hess, Andreas

    2018-04-04

    To elucidate the mechanisms of how snack foods may induce non-homeostatic food intake, we used resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), as resting state networks can individually adapt to experience after short time exposures. In addition, we used graph theoretical analysis together with machine learning techniques (support vector machine) to identifying biomarkers that can categorize between high-caloric (potato chips) vs. low-caloric (zucchini) food stimulation. Seventeen healthy human subjects with body mass index (BMI) 19 to 27 underwent 2 different fMRI sessions where an initial resting state scan was acquired, followed by visual presentation of different images of potato chips and zucchini. There was then a 5-minute pause to ingest food (day 1=potato chips, day 3=zucchini), followed by a second resting state scan. fMRI data were further analyzed using graph theory analysis and support vector machine techniques. Potato chips vs. zucchini stimulation led to significant connectivity changes. The support vector machine was able to accurately categorize the 2 types of food stimuli with 100% accuracy. Visual, auditory, and somatosensory structures, as well as thalamus, insula, and basal ganglia were found to be important for food classification. After potato chips consumption, the BMI was associated with the path length and degree in nucleus accumbens, middle temporal gyrus, and thalamus. The results suggest that high vs. low caloric food stimulation in healthy individuals can induce significant changes in resting state networks. These changes can be detected using graph theory measures in conjunction with support vector machine. Additionally, we found that the BMI affects the response of the nucleus accumbens when high caloric food is consumed.

  11. Food Management System--Daily Production Reports: General Description and Users Guide. Project SIMU-School: Dallas Component.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronshey, Raymond W.; Dunklau, M. William

    This booklet describes the Daily Production Reports subsystem of the School Food Management System, a computer program package developed as one part of a family of educational management systems. The Daily Production Reports system produces two major types of reports on a daily basis. Business Analysis Reports display all food service costs, as…

  12. Formative assessment in the development of an obesity prevention component for the Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program in Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study conducted formative research (surveys, focus groups); to assess the nutrition education needs of clients in the Texas Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program prior to curriculum revision. Current participants in the Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program from 3 Texas cities (...

  13. Nitric Oxide and Histamine Signal Attempts to Swallow: A Component of Learning that Food Is Inedible in "Aplysia"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katzoff, Ayelet; Miller, Nimrod; Susswein, Abraham J.

    2010-01-01

    Memory that food is inedible in "Aplysia" arises from training requiring three contingent events. Nitric oxide (NO) and histamine are released by a neuron responding to one of these events, attempts to swallow food. Since NO release during training is necessary for subsequent memory and NO substitutes for attempts to swallow, it was suggested that…

  14. Water footprint components required to address the water-energy-food nexus, with the recent Urban Water Atlas for Europe as an example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanham, Davy

    2017-04-01

    The first part of this presentation analyses which water footprint (WF) components are necessary in WF accounting to provide relevant information to address the Sustainable Development Goals (SDG's) water security (SDG 6), food security (SDG 2) and energy security (SDG 7) in a nexus setting. It is strongly based on the publication Vanham (2016) http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoser.2015.08.003. First, the nexus links between (1) the planetary boundary freshwater resources (green and blue water resources) and (2) food, energy and blue water security are discussed. Second, it is shown which water uses are mostly represented in WF accounting. General water management and WF studies only account for the water uses agriculture, industry and domestic water. Important water uses are however mostly not identified as separate entities or even included, i.e. green and blue water resources for aquaculture, wild foods, biofuels, hydroelectric cooling, hydropower, recreation/tourism, forestry (for energy and other biomass uses) and navigation. Third, therefore a list of essential separate components to be included within WF accounting is presented. The latter would be more coherent with the water-food-energy-ecosystem nexus. The second part of the presentation gives a brief overview of the recently published Urban Water Atlas for Europe. It shows for a selected city which WF components are represented and which not. As such, it also identifies research gaps.

  15. Effects of milk components and food additives on survival of three bifidobacteria strains in fermented milk under simulated gastrointestinal tract conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Ziarno

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: In the dairy industry, probiotic strains of Bifidobacterium are introduced into the composition of traditional starter cultures intended for the production of fermented foods, or sometimes are the sole microflora responsible for the fermentation process. In order to be able to reach the intestines alive and fulfil their beneficial role, probiotic strains must be able to withstand the acidity of the gastric juices and bile present in the duodenum. Objective: The paper reports effects of selected fermented milk components on the viability of three strains of bifidobacteria in fermented milk during subsequent incubation under conditions representing model digestive juices. Design: The viability of the bifidobacterial cells was examined after a 3-h incubation of fermented milk under simulated gastric juice conditions and then after 5-h incubation under simulated duodenum juice conditions. The Bifidobacterium strains tested differed in their sensitivity to the simulated conditions of the gastrointestinal juices. Results: Bifidobacterial cell viability in simulated intestinal juices was dependent on the strain used in our experiments, and product components acted protectively towards bifidobacterial cells and its dose. Conclusions: Bifidobacterial cells introduced into the human gastrointestinal tract as food ingredients have a good chance of survival during intestinal transit and to reach the large intestine thanks to the protective properties of the food components and depending on the strain and composition of the food.

  16. Multiple amino acid sequence alignment nitrogenase component 1: insights into phylogenetics and structure-function relationships.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James B Howard

    Full Text Available Amino acid residues critical for a protein's structure-function are retained by natural selection and these residues are identified by the level of variance in co-aligned homologous protein sequences. The relevant residues in the nitrogen fixation Component 1 α- and β-subunits were identified by the alignment of 95 protein sequences. Proteins were included from species encompassing multiple microbial phyla and diverse ecological niches as well as the nitrogen fixation genotypes, anf, nif, and vnf, which encode proteins associated with cofactors differing at one metal site. After adjusting for differences in sequence length, insertions, and deletions, the remaining >85% of the sequence co-aligned the subunits from the three genotypes. Six Groups, designated Anf, Vnf , and Nif I-IV, were assigned based upon genetic origin, sequence adjustments, and conserved residues. Both subunits subdivided into the same groups. Invariant and single variant residues were identified and were defined as "core" for nitrogenase function. Three species in Group Nif-III, Candidatus Desulforudis audaxviator, Desulfotomaculum kuznetsovii, and Thermodesulfatator indicus, were found to have a seleno-cysteine that replaces one cysteinyl ligand of the 8Fe:7S, P-cluster. Subsets of invariant residues, limited to individual groups, were identified; these unique residues help identify the gene of origin (anf, nif, or vnf yet should not be considered diagnostic of the metal content of associated cofactors. Fourteen of the 19 residues that compose the cofactor pocket are invariant or single variant; the other five residues are highly variable but do not correlate with the putative metal content of the cofactor. The variable residues are clustered on one side of the cofactor, away from other functional centers in the three dimensional structure. Many of the invariant and single variant residues were not previously recognized as potentially critical and their identification

  17. LINE retrotransposon RNA is an essential structural and functional epigenetic component of a core neocentromeric chromatin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderly C Chueh

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We have previously identified and characterized the phenomenon of ectopic human centromeres, known as neocentromeres. Human neocentromeres form epigenetically at euchromatic chromosomal sites and are structurally and functionally similar to normal human centromeres. Recent studies have indicated that neocentromere formation provides a major mechanism for centromere repositioning, karyotype evolution, and speciation. Using a marker chromosome mardel(10 containing a neocentromere formed at the normal chromosomal 10q25 region, we have previously mapped a 330-kb CENP-A-binding domain and described an increased prevalence of L1 retrotransposons in the underlying DNA sequences of the CENP-A-binding clusters. Here, we investigated the potential role of the L1 retrotransposons in the regulation of neocentromere activity. Determination of the transcriptional activity of a panel of full-length L1s (FL-L1s across a 6-Mb region spanning the 10q25 neocentromere chromatin identified one of the FL-L1 retrotransposons, designated FL-L1b and residing centrally within the CENP-A-binding clusters, to be transcriptionally active. We demonstrated the direct incorporation of the FL-L1b RNA transcripts into the CENP-A-associated chromatin. RNAi-mediated knockdown of the FL-L1b RNA transcripts led to a reduction in CENP-A binding and an impaired mitotic function of the 10q25 neocentromere. These results indicate that LINE retrotransposon RNA is a previously undescribed essential structural and functional component of the neocentromeric chromatin and that retrotransposable elements may serve as a critical epigenetic determinant in the chromatin remodelling events leading to neocentromere formation.

  18. Molecular components and functions of the endocannabinoid system in mouse prefrontal cortex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathieu Lafourcade

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Cannabinoids have deleterious effects on prefrontal cortex (PFC-mediated functions and multiple evidences link the endogenous cannabinoid (endocannabinoid system, cannabis use and schizophrenia, a disease in which PFC functions are altered. Nonetheless, the molecular composition and the physiological functions of the endocannabinoid system in the PFC are unknown.Here, using electron microscopy we found that key proteins involved in endocannabinoid signaling are expressed in layers v/vi of the mouse prelimbic area of the PFC: presynaptic cannabinoid CB1 receptors (CB1R faced postsynaptic mGluR5 while diacylglycerol lipase alpha (DGL-alpha, the enzyme generating the endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoyl-glycerol (2-AG was expressed in the same dendritic processes as mGluR5. Activation of presynaptic CB1R strongly inhibited evoked excitatory post-synaptic currents. Prolonged synaptic stimulation at 10Hz induced a profound long-term depression (LTD of layers V/VI excitatory inputs. The endocannabinoid -LTD was presynaptically expressed and depended on the activation of postsynaptic mGluR5, phospholipase C and a rise in postsynaptic Ca(2+ as predicted from the localization of the different components of the endocannabinoid system. Blocking the degradation of 2-AG (with URB 602 but not of anandamide (with URB 597 converted subthreshold tetanus to LTD-inducing ones. Moreover, inhibiting the synthesis of 2-AG with Tetrahydrolipstatin, blocked endocannabinoid-mediated LTD. All together, our data show that 2-AG mediates LTD at these synapses.Our data show that the endocannabinoid -retrograde signaling plays a prominent role in long-term synaptic plasticity at the excitatory synapses of the PFC. Alterations of endocannabinoid -mediated synaptic plasticity may participate to the etiology of PFC-related pathologies.

  19. Utilization of non-conventional systems for conversion of biomass to food components: Potential for utilization of algae in engineered foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karel, M.; Kamarei, A. R.; Nakhost, Z.

    1985-01-01

    The major nutritional components of the green algae (Scenedesmus obliquus) grown in a Constant Cell density Apparatus were determined. Suitable methodology to prepare proteins from which three major undesirable components of these cells (i.e., cell walls, nucleic acids, and pigments) were either removed or substantially reduced was developed. Results showed that processing of green algae to protein isolate enhances its potential nutritional and organoleptic acceptability as a diet component in a Controlled Ecological Life Support System.

  20. Dynamical behavior of a three species food chain model with Beddington-DeAngelis functional response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naji, Raid Kamel; Balasim, Alla Tariq

    2007-01-01

    A three species food chain model with Beddington-DeAngelis functional response is investigated. The local stability analysis is carried out and global behavior is simulated numerically for a biologically feasible choice of parameters. The persistence conditions of a food chain model are established. The bifurcation diagrams are obtained for different parameters of the model after intensive numerical simulations. The results of simulations show that the model could exhibit chaotic dynamics for realistic and biologically feasible parametric values. Finally, the effect of immigration within prey species is investigated. It is observed that adding small amount of constant immigration to prey species stabilize the system