WorldWideScience

Sample records for functional food components

  1. Honey Like Component of Functional Food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gratia Ioana Dezmirean

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Honey has been used since ancient times as part of traditional medicine. Several aspects of this use indicate that it also has functions such as antibacterial, antioxidant, antitumor, anti-inflammatory, antibrowning, and antiviral based on the components. Biological activities of honey, and other bee products (propolis, bee bread and royal jelly are mainly attributed to the phenolic compounds such as flavonoids. Flavonoids have been reported to exhibit a wide range of biological activities, including antibacterial, antiviral, anti-inflammatory, antiallergic, and vasodilators actions. In addition, flavonoids inhibit lipid peroxidation, platelet aggregation, capillary permeability and fragility, and the activity of enzyme systems including cyclo-oxygenase and lipoxygenase. The present study demonstrates that honey phenolic compounds are partially responsible for honey antioxidant activity, displaying the relevance of honey as both healthy foodstuff and source of antioxidant. Functional foods are an emerging field in food science due to their increasing popularity with health-conscious consumers.

  2. Role and health benefits of different functional food components

    OpenAIRE

    Guiné, Raquel; Lima, Maria; Barroca, Maria

    2009-01-01

    Functional food components are potentially beneficial components found naturally in foods or added to them as functional ingredients, and include carotenoids, dietary fiber, fatty acids, flavonoids, isothiocyanates, phenolic acids, plant stanols and sterols, polyols, prebiotics and probiotics, phytoestrogens, soy protein, vitamins and minerals. At present, professionals are recognizing that some functional components of foods have a ma...

  3. Utilization of functional food components from pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dry beans, peas, and lentils (pulses) are a principle source of protein in many parts of the world and have long been known to be healthy foods. Their use in traditional ethnic foods is well established; however, unlike grains, meat, dairy products, and other vegetables, they are not universally pre...

  4. Functional components and medicinal properties of food: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Christian Izuchukwu ABUAJAH; Ogbonna, Augustine Chima; Osuji, Chijioke Maduka

    2014-01-01

    Research has proved a relationship between functional components of food, health and well-being. Thus, functional components of food can be effectively applied in the treatment and prevention of diseases. They act simultaneously at different or identical target sites with the potential to impart physiological benefits and promotion of wellbeing including reducing the risk of cancer, cardiovascular disease, osteoporosis, inflammation, type II diabetes, and other chronic degenerative diseases, ...

  5. Functional components and medicinal properties of food: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abuajah, Christian Izuchukwu; Ogbonna, Augustine Chima; Osuji, Chijioke Maduka

    2015-05-01

    Research has proved a relationship between functional components of food, health and well-being. Thus, functional components of food can be effectively applied in the treatment and prevention of diseases. They act simultaneously at different or identical target sites with the potential to impart physiological benefits and promotion of wellbeing including reducing the risk of cancer, cardiovascular disease, osteoporosis, inflammation, type II diabetes, and other chronic degenerative diseases, lowering of blood cholesterol, neutralization of reactive oxygen species and charged radicals, anticarcinogenic effect, low-glycaemic response, etc. Previously, it was thought that functional ingredients such as non-starchy carbohydrates including soluble and insoluble dietary fibres, fucoidan; antioxidants including polyphenols, carotenoids, tocopherols, tocotrienols, phytosterols, isoflavones, organosulphur compounds; plant sterols and soy phytoestrogens occur only in plant foods (whole grains, fruits, and vegetables) as phytochemicals. However, probiotics, prebiotics, conjugated linolenic acid, long-chain omega-3, -6 and -9-polyunsaturated fatty acids, and bioactive peptides have proved that functional components are equally available in animal products such as milk, fermented milk products and cold-water fish. The way a food is processed affects its functional components. Many processing techniques have been found to lower the concentration of functional components in food. Conversely, other techniques were found to increase them. Hence, in a time when the role of a healthy diet in preventing non-communicable diseases is well accepted, the borderline between food and medicine is becoming very thin.

  6. Interactions of gut microbiota with functional food components and nutraceuticals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laparra, J M; Sanz, Y

    2010-03-01

    The human gut is populated by an array of bacterial species, which develop important metabolic and immune functions, with a marked effect on the nutritional and health status of the host. Dietary component also play beneficial roles beyond basic nutrition, leading to the development of the functional food concept and nutraceuticals. Prebiotics, polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and phytochemicals are the most well characterized dietary bioactive compounds. The beneficial effects of prebiotics mainly relay on their influence on the gut microbiota composition and their ability to generate fermentation products (short-chain fatty acids) with diverse biological roles. PUFAs include the omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids, whose balance may influence diverse aspects of immunity and metabolism. Moreover, interactions between PUFAs and components of the gut microbiota may also influence their biological roles. Phytochemicals are bioactive non-nutrient plant compounds, which have raised interest because of their potential effects as antioxidants, antiestrogenics, anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory, and anticarcinogenics. However, the bioavailability and effects of polyphenols greatly depend on their transformation by components of the gut microbiota. Phytochemicals and their metabolic products may also inhibit pathogenic bacteria while stimulate the growth of beneficial bacteria, exerting prebiotic-like effects. Therefore, the intestinal microbiota is both a target for nutritional intervention and a factor influencing the biological activity of other food compounds acquired orally. This review focuses on the reciprocal interactions between the gut microbiota and functional food components, and the consequences of these interactions on human health. 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. β-casein as a functional food component

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sulewska, Anna Maria

    Milk is a complex mixture of various components which include proteins, carbohydrates, lipids and minerals. Milk proteins can be divided into two classes: whey proteins (20%) and caseins (80% of total milk protein). As thermal treatment is a traditional method of food preservation, interactions...... which can improve stability and safety of food. Traditional methods of food preservation and sterilization require high temperature, which may result in undesirable changes such as change of color or texture. Development of novel food processing methods, which allow to create new milk-based products...... with novel textures, is highly valuable to the dairy industry. Understanding interactions that undergo during food processing is necessary for proper design of process. For example control of aggregation is required to achieve desired texture of the final product....

  8. [Probiotics and prebiotics as a bioactive component of functional food].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapka-Skrzypczak, Lucyna; Niedźwiecka, Joanna; Wojtyła, Andrzej; Kruszewski, Marcin

    2012-01-01

    The results of food science investigations have confirmed the relationship between the type of eaten food and health. Simultaneously, consumers are paying more and more attention to the kind of food they eat, as their awareness concerning the influence of proper food on health is increasing. On that base the conception of functional food has been created. This kind of food, besides being a source of essential macro- and micronutrients, exerts an additional positive influence on health. Probiotics and prebiotics containing products are a good example of functional food. These products provide not only essential nutrients but also microorganisms and polysaccharides, which are indigestible in the human alimentary tract, but exert a positive effect on human health. It may be a therapeutic or prophylactic effect due to specific affliction or may improve health in general. The paper - based on available literature - shows a positive influence of probiotics and prebiotics on human health, especially in the immunomodulation effect, an advantageous effect on the digestive system, antitumor activity and a possible therapeutic and prophylactic effect on cardiovascular diseases and obesity.

  9. Essential fatty acids as functional components of foods- a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Narinder; Chugh, Vishal; Gupta, Anil K

    2014-10-01

    During the recent decades, awareness towards the role of essential fatty acids in human health and disease prevention has been unremittingly increasing among people. Fish, fish oils and some vegetable oils are rich sources of essential fatty acids. Many studies have positively correlated essential fatty acids with reduction of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, infant development, cancer prevention, optimal brain and vision functioning, arthritis, hypertension, diabetes mellitus and neurological/neuropsychiatric disorders. Beneficial effects may be mediated through several different mechanisms, including alteration in cell membrane composition, gene expression or eicosanoid production. However, the mechanisms whereby essential fatty acids affect gene expression are complex and involve multiple processes. Further understanding of the molecular aspects of essential fatty acids will be the key to devising novel approaches to the treatment and prevention of many diseases.

  10. Food Components and Supplements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parlesak, Alexandr

    2012-01-01

    The major part of food consists of chemical compounds that can be used for energy production, biological synthesis, or maintenance of metabolic processes by the host. These components are defined as nutrients, and can be categorized into macronutrients (proteins, carbohydrates, triglycerides.......g., secondary plant metabolites such as flavonoids), or as contaminants that enter the food chain at different stages or during the food production process. For these components, a wide spectrum of biological effects was observed that ranges from health-threatening impacts (e.g., polycyclic aromatic amines...... the growth of these bacteria (prebiotics) are added to food to achieve health effects exceeding its pure nutritional function. Several of these effects are mediated by enzyme systems involved in xenobiotic and drug metabolism, and in some cases this might lead to undesired interactions with medication...

  11. Food Components and Supplements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parlesak, Alexandr

    2012-01-01

    .g., secondary plant metabolites such as flavonoids), or as contaminants that enter the food chain at different stages or during the food production process. For these components, a wide spectrum of biological effects was observed that ranges from health-threatening impacts (e.g., polycyclic aromatic amines...... the growth of these bacteria (prebiotics) are added to food to achieve health effects exceeding its pure nutritional function. Several of these effects are mediated by enzyme systems involved in xenobiotic and drug metabolism, and in some cases this might lead to undesired interactions with medication...... cases, nutrients, food contaminants, and secondary plant metabolites can themselves become substrates for xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes, resulting in health-promoting or health-threatening products. This chapter focuses on how important components of our daily nutrition and supplements can interfere...

  12. Interaction between food components, intestinal microbiota and intestinal mucosa as a function of intestinal health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Venema, K.; Sandt, H. van de

    2003-01-01

    Interaction between food components, intestinal microbiota and intestinal mucosa was studied as a function of intestinal health. A microbiota was found to be important for the onset and progression of inflammatory diseases. Studies revealed a prominent effect of micro-organisms on the gene expressio

  13. Encapsulation for preservation of functionality and targeted delivery of bioactive food components

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vos, Paul; Faas, Marijke M.; Spasojevic, Milica; Sikkema, Jan

    There has been a tremendous increase in the number of food products containing bioactive components with a health promoting or disease preventing effect. Bioactive food components can be divided into bioactive molecules and bioactive living cells (probiotics). Both bioactive molecules and bioactive

  14. Encapsulation for preservation of functionality and targeted delivery of bioactive food components

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vos, Paul; Faas, Marijke M.; Spasojevic, Milica; Sikkema, Jan

    2010-01-01

    There has been a tremendous increase in the number of food products containing bioactive components with a health promoting or disease preventing effect. Bioactive food components can be divided into bioactive molecules and bioactive living cells (probiotics). Both bioactive molecules and bioactive

  15. Is Lactate an undervalued functional component of lactic acid bacteria-fermented food products?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graciela eGarrote

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Although it has been traditionally regarded as an intermediate of carbon metabolism and major component of fermented dairy products contributing to organoleptic and antimicrobial properties of food, there is evidence gathered in recent years that lactate has bioactive properties that may be responsible of broader properties of functional foods. Lactate can regulate critical functions of several key players of the immune system such as macrophages and dendritic cells, being able to modulate inflammatory activation of epithelial cells as well. Intraluminal levels of lactate derived from fermentative metabolism of lactobacilli have been shown to modulate inflammatory environment in intestinal mucosa. The molecular mechanisms responsible to these functions, including histone deacetylase dependent-modulation of gene expression and signalling through G-protein coupled receptors have started to be described. Since lactate is a major fermentation product of several bacterial families with probiotic properties, we here propose that it may contribute to some of the properties attributed to these microorganisms and in a larger view, to the properties of food products fermented by lactic acid bacteria.

  16. High-value components and bioactives from sea cucumbers for functional foods--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordbar, Sara; Anwar, Farooq; Saari, Nazamid

    2011-01-01

    Sea cucumbers, belonging to the class Holothuroidea, are marine invertebrates, habitually found in the benthic areas and deep seas across the world. They have high commercial value coupled with increasing global production and trade. Sea cucumbers, informally named as bêche-de-mer, or gamat, have long been used for food and folk medicine in the communities of Asia and Middle East. Nutritionally, sea cucumbers have an impressive profile of valuable nutrients such as Vitamin A, Vitamin B1 (thiamine), Vitamin B2 (riboflavin), Vitamin B3 (niacin), and minerals, especially calcium, magnesium, iron and zinc. A number of unique biological and pharmacological activities including anti-angiogenic, anticancer, anticoagulant, anti-hypertension, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antioxidant, antithrombotic, antitumor and wound healing have been ascribed to various species of sea cucumbers. Therapeutic properties and medicinal benefits of sea cucumbers can be linked to the presence of a wide array of bioactives especially triterpene glycosides (saponins), chondroitin sulfates, glycosaminoglycan (GAGs), sulfated polysaccharides, sterols (glycosides and sulfates), phenolics, cerberosides, lectins, peptides, glycoprotein, glycosphingolipids and essential fatty acids. This review is mainly designed to cover the high-value components and bioactives as well as the multiple biological and therapeutic properties of sea cucumbers with regard to exploring their potential uses for functional foods and nutraceuticals.

  17. Food Components and Supplements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parlesak, Alexandr

    2012-01-01

    The major part of food consists of chemical compounds that can be used for energy production, biological synthesis, or maintenance of metabolic processes by the host. These components are defined as nutrients, and can be categorized into macronutrients (proteins, carbohydrates, triglycerides......, and alcohol), minerals, and micronutrients. The latter category comprises 13 vitamins and a hand full of trace elements. Many micronutrients are used as food supplements and are ingested at doses exceeding the amounts that can be consumed along with food by a factor of 10–100. Both macro- and micronutrients....... The supplements and contaminants can compete directly with drug oxidation, induce or suppress the expression of xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes, change the bioavailability of drugs, and, in the case of live bacteria, bring in their own xenobiotic metabolism, including cytochrome P450 (CYP) activity. In numerous...

  18. A Critical Review of Bioactive Food Components, and of their Functional Mechanisms, Biological Effects and Health Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Gregorio, Rosa; Simal-Gandara, Jesus

    2017-01-01

    Eating behaviours are closely related to some medical conditions potentially leading to death such as cancer, cardiovascular disease and diabetes. Healthy eating practices, maintaining a normal weight, and regular physical activity could prevent up to 80% of coronary heart disease, 90% of type-2 diabetes and onethird of all cancers [1]. Over the last two decades, the food industry has invested much effort in research and development of healthier, more nutritious foods. These foods are frequently designated "functional" when they contain nutritional components required for healthy living or "nutraceuticals" when intended to treat or prevent disease or disorders through a variety of bioactive (e.g., antioxidant, antimicrobial, immunomodulatory, hypocholesterolaemic) functions that are performed by functional enzymes, probiotics, prebiotics, fibres, phytosterols, peptides, proteins, isoflavones, saponins or phytic acid, among other substances. Some agricultural and industrial residues have proven to be excellent choices as raw materials for producing bioactive compounds and have been proposed as potentially safe natural sources of antimicrobials and/or antioxidants for the food industry. Functional food ingredients containing bioactive compounds could be used as plant extracts by pharmaceutical and food industries. Bioactive food components influence health outcomes. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  19. Role of Bioactive Food Components in Diabetes Prevention: Effects on Beta-Cell Function and Preservation

    OpenAIRE

    Yoon Sin Oh; Hee-Sook Jun

    2014-01-01

    Bioactive compounds found in fruits and vegetables can have anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-carcinogenic effects and can be protective against various diseases and metabolic disorders. These beneficial effects make them good candidates for the development of new functional foods with potential protective and preventive properties for type 1 and type 2 diabetes. This review summarizes the most relevant results concerning the effects of various bioactive compounds such as flavonoids, ...

  20. Cereal bran fractionation: processing techniques for the recovery of functional components and their applications to the food industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soukoulis, Christos; Aprea, Eugenio

    2012-04-01

    Bran is the outer part of cereal grains that is separated during the cereals de-hulling and milling processes. It was considered in the past a by-product of cereal industry employed mainly as animal feed. Cereal bran, being particularly rich in different functional biopolymers, bio-active compounds and essential fatty acids, attracted the interest of pharmaceutical and food industry. Furthermore, the peculiar techno-functional properties of brans together with their particular physiological and nutritional aspects have led to a great interest in their incorporation as main or secondary components in different groups of food products including bakery and confectionery products, breakfast cereals and extruded foodstuffs, emulsions and functional dairy products and pasta products. In the first part of the present work the main fractionation processes, bran fractions properties and their physicochemical and technological properties are briefly reviewed. In the second part, relevant applications, with emphasis on patents, in food industry are reviewed as well.

  1. Implications of domestic food practices for the presence of bioactive components in meats with special reference to meat-based functional foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Colmenero, Francisco; Cofrades, Susana; Herrero, Ana M; Ruiz-Capillas, Claudia

    2017-06-14

    Although an essential component of the diet, the consumption of meat is in question. Meat is a major source of beneficial compounds but it also contains other substances with negative health implications. Functional foods, which are leading trends in the food industry, constitute an excellent opportunity for the meat sector to improve healthier meat options. Most studies on meat-based functional foods have focused mainly on the application of different strategies (animal production practices and meat transformation systems) to improve (increase/reduce) the presence of bioactive (healthy/unhealthy) compounds; these have led to the development of numerous products, many of them by the meat industry. However, like other foods, after purchase meats undergo certain processes before they are consumed, and these affect their composition. Although domestic handling practices can significantly alter the make-up of the marketed product in terms of healthy/unhealthy compounds, there are very few studies on their consequences. This paper provides an overview of the influence of different domestic practices (from shopping to eating) habitually followed by consumers on the presence of, and consequently on the levels of exposure to, (healthy and unhealthy) food components associated with the consumption of meats, with special reference to meat-based functional foods.

  2. Active components in food supplements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siemelink M; Jansen EHJM; Piersma AH; Opperhuizen A; LEO

    2000-01-01

    The growing food supplement market, where supplements are both more diverse and more easily available (e.g. through Internet) formed the backdrop to the inventory of the active components in food supplements. The safety of an increased intake of food components via supplements was also at issue her

  3. Food components with anticaries activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazzani, Gabriella; Daglia, Maria; Papetti, Adele

    2012-04-01

    Caries is the most common oral infectious disease in the world. Its development is influenced also by diet components that interfere with pathogen mutans group Streptococci (MGS) activity. A very active research to identify functional foods and their components that are generally recognised as safe has been ongoing, with the aim of developing alternative approaches, to the use of synthetic chlorhexidine, and at the reduction or prevention of caries. Until now convincing evidence exists only for green tea as a functional food for oral health, partly owing to its high content of catechins, especially epigallocatechin-gallate. A number of other foods showed potential anticaries activity. Some other foods able to act against MGS growth and/or their virulence factors in in vitro tests are: apple, red grape seeds, red wine (proanthocyanidins), nutmeg (macelignan), ajowan caraway (nafthalen-derivative), coffee (trigonelline, nicotinic and chlorogenic acids, melanoidins), barley coffee (melanoidins), chicory and mushroom (quinic acid). In vivo anticaries activity has been shown by cranberry (procyanidins), glycyrrhiza root (glycyrrhizol-A), myrtus ethanolic extract, garlic aqueous extract, cocoa extracts (procyanidins), and propolis (apigenin, tt-farnesol). Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Role of bioactive food components in diabetes prevention: effects on Beta-cell function and preservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Yoon Sin; Jun, Hee-Sook

    2014-01-01

    Bioactive compounds found in fruits and vegetables can have anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-carcinogenic effects and can be protective against various diseases and metabolic disorders. These beneficial effects make them good candidates for the development of new functional foods with potential protective and preventive properties for type 1 and type 2 diabetes. This review summarizes the most relevant results concerning the effects of various bioactive compounds such as flavonoids, vitamins, and carotenoids on several aspects of beta-cell functionality. Studies using animal models with induced diabetes and diabetic patients support the hypothesis that bioactive compounds could ameliorate diabetic phenotypes. Published data suggest that there might be direct effects of bioactive compounds on enhancing insulin secretion and preventing beta-cell apoptosis, and some compounds might modulate beta-cell proliferation. Further research is needed to establish any clinical effects of these compounds.

  5. Remembering components of food in Drosophila

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaurav eDas

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Remembering features of past feeding experience can refine foraging and food choice. Insects can learn to associate sensory cues with components of food, such as sugars, amino acids, water, salt, alcohol, toxins and pathogens. In the fruit fly Drosophila some food components activate unique subsets of dopaminergic neurons that innervate distinct functional zones on the mushroom bodies. This architecture suggests that the overall dopaminergic neuron population could provide a potential cellular substrate through which the fly might learn to value a variety of food components. In addition, such an arrangement predicts that individual component memories reside in unique locations. Dopaminergic neurons are also critical for food memory consolidation and deprivation-state dependent motivational control of the expression of food-relevant memories. Here we review our current knowledge of how nutrient-specific memories are formed, consolidated and specifically retrieved in insects, with a particular emphasis on Drosophila.

  6. 军用功能性食品功效成分的研究进展%Research Progress of Functional Components in Military Functional Foods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王红育

    2011-01-01

    军用功能食品的研制与开发逐步走向系列化、营养化、功能化、标准化,并且高新技术在此方面的应用越来越多。本文通过介绍军用功能性食品的研究现状和发展范围,分析了其抗疲劳、抗辐射、抗缺氧、抗应激等保健功能成分及其军用食品的研究现状,旨在对提高军用功能性食品的发展提供建议。%The research and development of military functional foods is gradually moving towards serialization,nutritionalization,functionalization and standardization.Today,high-tech applications are increasing in this field.In this paper,the current research situation and development range of military functional foods are introduced.Meanwhile,recent advances in the study of the anti-fatigue,anti-radioactive,anti-hypoxia and anti-stress functions of functional components in military functional foods are also reviewed.This article also presents an illustration for the development trend of military functional foods with the aim of offering an important guidance for the future development of military functional foods.

  7. Microencapsulation and functional bioactive foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Food, the essential unit of human nutrition has been both wholesome and safe through human history ensuring the continuity of the human race. Functionalized foods are the rediscovery of the need to provide all nutrients through foods without adulteration. The functional components of foods include...

  8. Application of High-Pressure Treatment to Enhancement of Functional Components in Agricultural Products and Development of Sterilized Foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohara, Eri; Kawamura, Mariko; Ogino, Miyuki; Hoshino, Eri; Kobayashi, Atsushi; Hoshino, Jun; Yamazaki, Akira; Nishiumi, Tadayuki

    2015-01-01

    addition, energy consumption in the high-pressure treatment is less than that in the heat treatment. For the reasons mentioned above, the high-pressure treatment has thus been regarded as suitable for future food processing, and much attention has been paid to the researches of high-pressure treatment again. Then, we reviewed the previous researches in which little interest had been taken because of imperfectness of non-heat sterilization. Surprisingly, we discovered some novel findings about the effect of high-pressure treatment, that is, pressure history on the subsequent event. Then, we decided to present two theses on the themes, "Application of High-pressure Treatment to Enhancement of Functional Components in Agricultural Products" and "Application of High-pressure Treatment to Development of Sterilized Foods".

  9. Role of multi-component functional foods in the complex treatment of patients with advanced breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drăgan, Simona; Nicola, Teodora; Ilina, R; Ursoniu, S; Kimar, A; Nimade, S; Nicola, T

    2007-01-01

    Cancer increases free radicals and that certain diets can influence oxidative stress. There is little evidence about the functional effect of multi-component functional foods on oxidative stress in breast cancer. 34 female patients with histologically confirmed breast cancer, stages IIIB and IV were enrolled in a randomised controlled trial. All patients filled out the Quality of Life questionnaire FACT-B version 4, translated in Romanian and validated, obtained from Evanston North-Western Health Care, Illinois, USA. Seventeen patients, mean age 57.84 +/- 11.2, were put on a special diet consisting of 15 ml/day balsamic vinegar from apples and honey, with seabuckthorn berry rich in carotenoids, rosemary, sage and basil extracts, to be used in salads and vegetable soups, 150 g/day whole wheat bread with 2.5% of the nutraceutic mixture VITAPAN, 15 ml/day grape seed extract rich in polyphenols (gr. 1). Seventeen patients served as control (gr. 2). Parameters of the metabolic syndrome were measured: serum lipids, IR-HOMA insulin resistance index. Oxidative stress was measured by the FORT (free oxygen radical) test. Total hydro- and liposoluble antioxidants (ACW, ACL) in serum were measured by chemo-luminometry. All investigations were done at entry and after 3 months. Student's t test was applied to compare the means within group and between the 2 groups. The Physical well being subscale score of the QOL FACT-B version 4 questionnaire showed a significant difference between the 2 groups (p = 0.001). Also, functional well being subscale (p = 0.004), FACT-G (p = 0.003) and FACT-B (p = 0.002) showed significant differences on comparison. Breast Cancer Score (Additional Concerns) had a borderline significant difference (p = 0.057). Social/Family Well being subscale and Emotional well being subscale scores showed no significant difference. At inclusion, radical activity > 310 FORT units, relevant for increased oxidative stress were present in 95.1% cases. After 3 months

  10. Development of functional foods for radiation workers - Search for the active components and studies on the mechanism of the hematopoiesis improvement foods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yee, Sung Tae; Ha, Mee Hye; Jeong, Young Ran [Sunchon National University, Sunchon (Korea)

    2000-04-01

    In this experiments, we established long-termed culture methods of bone marrow stromal cells for proliferation and differentiation of stem cells. And we selected some extracts which support maximal proliferation of stromal cells with this method. We conformed the synergic effects of herbal mixture extracts for stromal cell growth. The proliferation of stromal cells was increased rather by the addition of mixture extracts than by addition of single strain extract. In the previous and cooperative experiments, we selected complex extracts (Him-I, Him-II) which increased the number of nonadherent mononuclear cells. Different cytokine expression patterns were observed stromal cells cultured in the presence or absence of mixture extracts which support differentiation of nonadherent cells. Some fractions of Him-I and Him-II increased the proliferation of bone marrow cells irradiated {gamma}-ray(4Gray). Stimulation of macrophage cell line with herval extracts with the treatments of recombinant interferon-{gamma} resulted in increased nitric oxide synthesis in a dose-dependent manners. Altered patterns of cytokine mRNA expression were observed in the stromals cells cultured with extracts of herbal plant. In regarding of the results, isolation and development of new and effective systems to screen for active hematopoietic component needs to be proceeded. Such studies on the hematopoietic modulation and mechanism of herbal plants would further lead to new avenues for the development of functional foods which effect such as radiation damages or leukemia. 20 refs., 23 figs. (Author)

  11. Functional foods in pediatrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van den Driessche, M; Veereman-Wauters, G

    2002-01-01

    The philosophy that food can be health promoting beyond its nutritional value is gaining acceptance. Known disease preventive aspects of nutrition have led to a new science, the 'functional food science'. Functional foods, first introduced in Japan, have no universally accepted definition but can be described as foods or food ingredients that may provide health benefits and prevent diseases. Currently, there is a growing interest in these products. However, not all regulatory issues have been settled yet. Five categories of foods can be classified as functional foods: dietary fibers, vitamins and minerals, bioactive substances, fatty acids and pro-, pre- and symbiotics. The latter are currently the main focus of research. Functional foods can be applied in pediatrics: during pregnancy, nutrition is 'functional' since it has prenatal influences on the intra-uterine development of the baby, after birth, 'functional' human milk supports adequate growth of infants and pro- and prebiotics can modulate the flora composition and as such confer certain health advantages. Functional foods have also been studied in pediatric diseases. The severity of necrotising enterocolitis (NEC), diarrhea, irritable bowel syndrome, intestinal allergy and lactose intolerance may be reduced by using functional foods. Functional foods have proven to be valuable contributors to the improvement of health and the prevention of diseases in pediatric populations.

  12. Evaluation of Safety of Iron-Fortified Soybean Sprouts, a Potential Component of Functional Food, in Rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kujawska, Małgorzata; Ewertowska, Małgorzata; Ignatowicz, Ewa; Adamska, Teresa; Szaefer, Hanna; Zielińska-Dawidziak, Magdalena; Piasecka-Kwiatkowska, Dorota; Jodynis-Liebert, Jadwiga

    2016-03-01

    Ferritin-iron is currently considered as one of the most promising iron forms to prevent iron deficiency anaemia. We found that the cultivation of soybean seeds in a solution of ferrous sulfate results in material with extremely high iron content - 560.6 mg Fe/100 g of dry matter, while ferritin iron content was 420.5 mg/100 g dry matter. To assess the potential adverse effects of a preparation containing such a high concentration of iron, male and female Wistar rats were exposed via diet to 10, 30, 60 g soybean sprouts powder/kg feed for 90 days. There were no differences in final body weight and mean food consumption between controls and rats administered sprouts. No statistically significant differences in haematology and clinical chemistry parameters were found between controls and treated rats. Microscopic examination of 22 tissues did not reveal any pathology due to soybean sprouts intake. Long term administration of the test material did not cause oxidative damage to DNA and protein in the liver as evidenced by the unchanged basal levels of DNA damage as well as carbonyl groups content. Lipid peroxidation was slightly increased only in females. The activity of several antioxidant enzymes: superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione S-transferase was increased, which substantially enhanced the antioxidant status in the liver from the rats treated with soybean sprouts. Hence, the material tested can be recommended as a component of food supplements for individuals with iron deficiency anaemia and inflammatory bowel diseases.

  13. Functional food acceptance in the food chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krutulyte, Rasa

    This thesis analyses consumer acceptance of functional foods and food manufacturers' decision to develop functional foods. The thesis sets up four key research questions: (1) How consumers accept functional foods enriched with omega-3? (2) How the intention of purchasing carrier ingredient...... combinations is explained by general attitudes to functional foods, consumers' health concerns, and the perceived fit of a particular carrier ingredient combination? (3) How food manufacturers decide to develop functional foods? (4) What are the determinants and drivers of food manufacturers' decision...... to develop functional foods? Research question 1 The health benefit of a functional food product is in fact limited if it is not eaten regularly and thus is not part of the healthy diet. For that reason it is highly relevant to look at the dietary change research when studying functional food acceptance...

  14. Functional Foods for Women's Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindeman, Alice K.

    2002-01-01

    Describes functional foods for women's health (foods or food ingredients that provide health benefits beyond basic nutrition), explaining that both whole and modified foods can be included as functional foods. The paper discusses the history, regulation, and promotion of functional foods; consumer interest in functional foods; how to incorporate…

  15. Functional Foods for Women's Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindeman, Alice K.

    2002-01-01

    Describes functional foods for women's health (foods or food ingredients that provide health benefits beyond basic nutrition), explaining that both whole and modified foods can be included as functional foods. The paper discusses the history, regulation, and promotion of functional foods; consumer interest in functional foods; how to incorporate…

  16. 茶叶功能成分与新型食品开发%The Functional Components of Tea and the Exploitation of New Type Food

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张建勇; 江和源; 崔宏春; 江用文; 王斌; 黄永东

    2011-01-01

    茶叶功能成分包括茶多酚、茶多糖、茶氨酸、茶色素、茶皂素、咖啡碱等主要功能成分.以及茶蛋白、维生素、微量元素、芳香物质、γ-氨基丁酸、酶类、脂肪等次要功能成分、广泛应用于食品、医药、日用、化工等领域.文章综述了茶叶功能成分在新型食品领域的开发现状,并对其存在问题和应用前景进行了分析和展望,以期为茶叶功能成分的开发利用提供参考.%The primary functional components of tea include tea polyphenol, tea polysaccharides, theanine, tea pigments, tea saponin and caffeine, and the subordinate functional components of tea include tea protein, vitamin,microelement, aroma, γ-aminobutyric acid, enzyme and fat. These functional components were used for the domain of the food, medicine, commodity, chemical industry, and so on. The exploitation status of tea functional components in the domain of the new type food was summarized, and the existent problems and the application prospects were analyzed to provide the reference basis for the development and utilization of tea functional components.

  17. Marine functional food

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luten, J.B.

    2009-01-01

    This book reviews the research on seafood and health, the use and quality aspects of marine lipids and seafood proteins as ingredients in functional foods and consumer acceptance of (marine) functional food. The first chapter covers novel merging areas where seafood may prevent disease and improve h

  18. In vitro evaluation of whole faba bean and its seed coat as a potential source of functional food components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çalışkantürk Karataş, Selen; Günay, Demet; Sayar, Sedat

    2017-09-01

    In vitro studies were conducted to evaluate the particular nutritional benefits of whole faba bean seed (WFB) and fava bean seed coat (FBSC). Total dietary fiber contents of WFB and FBSC were 27.5% and 82.3%, respectively. FBSC were contained much higher total phenolic substances, condensed tannins, and total antioxidant activity than WFB. Bile acid (BA)-binding capacities of in vitro digested samples and nutritionally important products produced by in vitro fermentation of digestion residues were also studied. The BA-binding capacities of WFB and FBSC were 1.94 and 37.50μmol/100mg, respectively. Total BA bound by FBSC was even higher than the positive standard cholestyramine. Lignin and other constituents of the Klason residue were found to influence BA-binding properties. Moreover, the extent of the in vitro fermentation process showed that, fermentability of FBSC residue was significantly lower than that of WFB residue. Overall, faba bean, especially its seed coat, has great potential as a functional food. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.): a potential source of high-value components for functional foods and nutraceuticals--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahib, Najla Gooda; Anwar, Farooq; Gilani, Anwarul-Hassan; Hamid, Azizah Abdul; Saari, Nazamid; Alkharfy, Khalid M

    2013-10-01

    Coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.), a herbal plant, belonging to the family Apiceae, is valued for its culinary and medicinal uses. All parts of this herb are in use as flavoring agent and/or as traditional remedies for the treatment of different disorders in the folk medicine systems of different civilizations. The plant is a potential source of lipids (rich in petroselinic acid) and an essential oil (high in linalool) isolated from the seeds and the aerial parts. Due to the presence of a multitude of bioactives, a wide array of pharmacological activities have been ascribed to different parts of this herb, which include anti-microbial, anti-oxidant, anti-diabetic, anxiolytic, anti-epileptic, anti-depressant, anti-mutagenic, anti-inflammatory, anti-dyslipidemic, anti-hypertensive, neuro-protective and diuretic. Interestingly, coriander also possessed lead-detoxifying potential. This review focuses on the medicinal uses, detailed phytochemistry, and the biological activities of this valuable herb to explore its potential uses as a functional food for the nutraceutical industry.

  20. Functional Food Science in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contor, L

    2001-08-01

    The goal of the Functional Food Science in Europe (FUFOSE) concerted action was to reach consensus on scientific concepts of functional foods in Europe by using the science base that supports evidence that specific nutrients positively affect physiological functions. The outcome proposes "a working definition" of functional foods: foods can be regarded as functional if they can be satisfactorily demonstrated to affect beneficially one or more target functions in the body, beyond adequate nutritional effects, in a way relevant to an improved state of health and well-being and/or reduction of risk of disease. Functional foods must remain foods and they must achieve their effects in amounts normally consumed in a diet. Evidence from human studies, based on markers relating to biological response or on intermediate endpoint markers of disease, could provide a sound scientific basis for messages and claims about the functional food products. Two types of claims are proposed that relate directly to these two categories of markers: Enhanced function claims (type A) and reduced risk of disease claims (type B). A new EU Concerted Action will start with, and build upon, the principles defined within FUFOSE. This project PASSCLAIM will (i) produce a consensus on principles for the scientific substantiation of health-related claims for food and food components, (ii) select common criteria for how markers should be identified, validated and used in well-designed studies to explore the links between diet and health and (iii) to evaluate critically the existing schemes which assess the scientific substantiation of claims.

  1. Functional foods: salient features and clinical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riezzo, Giuseppe; Chiloiro, Marisa; Russo, Francesco

    2005-09-01

    The term "functional food" refers to foods or ingredients of foods providing an additional physiological benefit beyond their basic nutritional needs. Health benefits are best obtained through a varied diet containing fruits, vegetables, grains, legumes and seeds. However, fortified foods and dietary supplements have been marketed and food industry have made functional food one of their current leading trends. Recently, the number of functional foods that have a potential benefit on health has hugely grown and scientific evidence is supporting the role of functional foods in prevention and treatment of several diseases. Cancer, diabetes, heart disease and hypertension are the most important diseases that can be treated or prevented by functional foods; other diseases are osteoporosis, abnormal bowel motility, and arthritis. It has been estimated that 80% of cancer in USA have a nutrition/diet component suggesting a great impact of functional food and foods components on incidence and treatment of cancer. Numerous factors complicate the evaluation of scientific evidence such as the complexity of food substance, effect on food, metabolic changes associated to dietary changes, the lack of biological markers of disease development. This paper reviews the scientific evidence supporting this area regarding only those foods and ingredients in which a clear experimental and clinical evidence exists for their chemopreventive and therapeutic effects.

  2. Functional foods in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech-Larsen, Tino; Scholderer, Joachim

    2007-01-01

    The fact that the European markets for functional foods generally are less developed, compared to the US and the Japanese markets, has often been attributed to a restrictive and inconsistent health claim legislation in and between the European countries. With the European Parliament's second...... reading of the main principles of the harmonized regulation COM/2003/0424, this situation is about to change. This article reviews the regulatory aspects, the results of consumer research and the marketing strategies regarding the use of health claims for functional foods in Europe, and it comments...

  3. The perceived healthiness of functional foods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech-Larsen, Tino; Grunert, Klaus G.

    2003-01-01

    Functional foods presumably enable the consumer to lead a healthier life without changing eating habits. Whether consumers accept this proposition or not is potentially influenced by their perceptions of the healthiness of the processing methods, enrichment components, food-types, and health claims...... foods, whereas the use of different health claims, processing methods, enrichments, product types, and especially the interactions between the two latter, are important determinants of consumers' perceptions of the healthiness of functional foods. Udgivelsesdato: FEB...... used in the production and marketing of functional foods. Because consumers may perceive functional enrichment as interfering with nature, cultural values pertaining to man's manipulation of nature may also influence consumer acceptance of functional foods. The purpose of the study described here...

  4. Galactooligosaccharides: novel components of designer foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangwan, Vikas; Tomar, S K; Singh, R R B; Singh, A K; Ali, Babar

    2011-05-01

    Since introduction of functional foods, commercialization of the traditionally used probiotics has ushered in more followers into the new fraternity of sophisticated, health-conscious consumers. In 1995, this was followed by the first introduction of prebiotics. Prebiotics are defined as "a non-digestible feed supplement, beneficially affecting the host by selectively stimulating growth and/or activity in one or a limited number of bacteria in the colon." The number of new product introductions with prebiotics has steeply increased over the last few years. Paradoxically, probiotics have limited applications as these cannot be used in wide range of food products because of their viability issue. Fortunately, prebiotics do not suffer from any such constraint and can be used in a wide range of food products. Probiotics do not have a long shelf life in their active form. In most cases, refrigeration is required to maintain the shelf life. While probiotics are predominantly used in fermented dairy products, the use of prebiotics has expanded into other food categories. Prebiotics have successfully been incorporated in a wide variety of human food products such as baked goods, sweeteners, yoghurts, nutrition bars, and meal replacement shakes. For instance, the introduction of galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS) into baby foods has been very successful. GOS, which are identical to the human milk oligosaccharides, has emerged with strong clinical support for both digestive and immune health. Various aspects related to GOS such as types and functions of functional food constituents with special reference to GOS, their role as prebiotics, and enhanced industrial production through microbial intervention are dealt in this review.

  5. The perceived healthiness of functional foods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech-Larsen, Tino; Grunert, Klaus G.

    2003-01-01

    Functional foods presumably enable the consumer to lead a healthier life without changing eating habits. Whether consumers accept this proposition or not is potentially influenced by their perceptions of the healthiness of the processing methods, enrichment components, food-types, and health claims...... used in the production and marketing of functional foods. Because consumers may perceive functional enrichment as interfering with nature, cultural values pertaining to man's manipulation of nature may also influence consumer acceptance of functional foods. The purpose of the study described here...... is to clarify to which extent Danish, Finnish and American consumers' perceptions of the healthiness of functional foods are explained by the factors mentioned above. The general results indicate that values pertaining to man's manipulation of nature is only modestly related to the acceptance of functional...

  6. Protein Functionality in Food Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Panpan

    2010-01-01

    The structure,shape,color,smell and taste of food were decided by protein functionality.The utilization of protein will improve by changing the protein functionality.Protein functionality is also advantage to maintain and utilize the nutrition of food.This paper summarized the nature,classification,factors and prospect of protein functionality.It ccn provide a theoretical basis for application of protein in food industry.

  7. Dansk skepsis mod "functional foods"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech-Larsen, Tino

    2000-01-01

    MAPP Centret har undersøgt danske, finske og amerikanske forbrugeres holdninger til functional foods og til genmodificerede fødevarer. Undersøgelsen er baseret på personlige interviews med 1500 danske, finske og nordamerikanske forbrugere. På trods af den store udbredelse af functional foods i USA......, viste undersøgelsen, at finnerne faktisk var mere positive over for functional foods end amerikanerne. De danske forbrugere var klart de mest skeptiske....

  8. Danish consumers' attitudes towards functional foods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Jacob

    have been enriched with a substance already present in the conventional product. With regard to price, the analyses show that some segments are willing to pay more for functional foods if they think there is a health effect. The marketing of functional foods should emphasise the convenience of getting......1. "Functional foods" is a relatively new term used to describe food products which have been enriched with natural substances/components with a specific physiological preventive and/or health-promoting effect. As yet, there are few actual functional foods in the Danish market, but in Japan...... segments with a preference for the various enriched products. Two relatively large segments (25% and 20% of respondents respectively) had a higher value perception for the enriched than for the conventional product, especially as regards the calcium and vitamin D-enriched dairy product and the fibre...

  9. Position of the academy of nutrition and dietetics: functional foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowe, Kristi M; Francis, Coni

    2013-08-01

    It is the position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics to recognize that although all foods provide some level of physiological function, the term functional foods is defined as whole foods along with fortified, enriched, or enhanced foods that have a potentially beneficial effect on health when consumed as part of a varied diet on a regular basis at effective levels based on significant standards of evidence. The Academy supports Food and Drug Administration-approved health claims on food labels when based on rigorous scientific substantiation. All food is essentially functional at some level as it provides energy and nutrients needed to sustain life. However, there is growing evidence that some food components, not considered nutrients in the traditional sense, may provide positive health benefits. Foods containing these food components are called functional foods. Functional food research holds many promises for improving the quality of life for consumers; however, to achieve such outcomes, scientific research must effectively establish the bioavailability and efficacy of these compounds at levels that are physiologically achievable under typical dietary patterns. This Position Paper reviews the complexities of defining functional foods; categories of foods marketed as functional; regulation of functional foods; the scientific substantiation of and advancement of functional food research; as well as a message to registered dietitians and dietetic technicians, registered, on how to remain current in their knowledge of functional food research and the translation of this information to consumers. Copyright © 2013 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Bioactive food components, inflammatory targets, and cancer prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young S; Young, Matthew R; Bobe, Gerd; Colburn, Nancy H; Milner, John A

    2009-03-01

    Various dietary components may modify chronic inflammatory processes at the stage of cytokine production, amplification of nuclear factor-kappaB-mediated inflammatory gene expression, and the release of anti-inflammatory cytokine, transforming growth factor-beta. This review provides a synopsis of the strengths and weaknesses of the evidence that specific bioactive food components influence inflammation-related targets linked to cancer. A target repeatedly surfacing as a site of action for several dietary components is transforming growth factor beta. Whereas the use of dietary intervention strategies offers intriguing possibilities for maintaining normal cell function by modifying a process that is essential for cancer development and progression, more information is needed to characterize the minimum quantity of the bioactive food components required to bring about a change in inflammation-mediated cancer, the ideal time for intervention, and the importance of genetics in determining the response. Unquestionably, the societal benefits of using foods and their components to prevent chronic inflammation and associated complications, including cancer, are enormous.

  11. Natural pesticides and bioactive components in foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beier, R C

    1990-01-01

    In this review, some common food plants and their toxic or otherwise bioactive components and mycotoxin contaminants have been considered. Crucifers contain naturally occurring components that are goitrogenic, resulting from the combined action of allyl isothiocyanate, goitrin, and thiocyanate. Although crucifers may provide some protection from cancer when taken prior to a carcinogen, when taken after a carcinogen they act as promoters of carcinogenesis. The acid-condensed mixture of indole-3-carbinol (a component of crucifers) binds to the TCDD receptor and causes responses similar to those of TCDD. Herbs contain many biologically active components, with more than 20% of the commercially prepared human drugs coming from these plants. Onion and garlic juices can help to prevent the rise of serum cholesterol. Most herbs used in treatments may have many natural constituents that act oppositely from their intended use. Some herbs like Bishop's week seed contain carcinogens, and many contain pyrrolizidine alkaloids that can cause cirrhosis of the liver. The general phytoalexin response in plants (including potatoes, tomatoes, peppers, eggplant, celery, and sweet potatoes) induced by external stimuli can increase the concentrations of toxic chemical constituents in those plants. In potatoes, two major indigenous compounds are alpha-solanine and alpha-chaconine, which are human plasma cholinesterase inhibitors and teratogens in animals. Because of its toxicity, the potato variety Lenape was withdrawn from the market. Celery, parsley, and parsnips contain the linear furanocoumarin phytoalexins psoralen, bergapten, and xanthotoxin that can cause photosensitization and also are photomutagenic and photocarcinogenic. Celery field workers and handlers continually have photosensitization problems as a result of these indigenous celery furanocoumarins. A new celery cultivar (a result of plant breeding to produce a more pest-resistant variety) was responsible for significant

  12. Functional microorganisms for functional food quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobbetti, M; Cagno, R Di; De Angelis, M

    2010-09-01

    Functional microorganisms and health benefits represent a binomial with great potential for fermented functional foods. The health benefits of fermented functional foods are expressed either directly through the interactions of ingested live microorganisms with the host (probiotic effect) or indirectly as the result of the ingestion of microbial metabolites synthesized during fermentation (biogenic effect). Since the importance of high viability for probiotic effect, two major options are currently pursued for improving it--to enhance bacterial stress response and to use alternative products for incorporating probiotics (e.g., ice cream, cheeses, cereals, fruit juices, vegetables, and soy beans). Further, it seems that quorum sensing signal molecules released by probiotics may interact with human epithelial cells from intestine thus modulating several physiological functions. Under optimal processing conditions, functional microorganisms contribute to food functionality through their enzyme portfolio and the release of metabolites. Overproduction of free amino acids and vitamins are two classical examples. Besides, bioactive compounds (e.g., peptides, γ-amino butyric acid, and conjugated linoleic acid) may be released during food processing above the physiological threshold and they may exert various in vivo health benefits. Functional microorganisms are even more used in novel strategies for decreasing phenomenon of food intolerance (e.g., gluten intolerance) and allergy. By a critical approach, this review will aim at showing the potential of functional microorganisms for the quality of functional foods.

  13. Functional foods: an ecologic perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marriott, B M

    2000-06-01

    A functional food is defined as any food or food ingredient that may provide a health benefit beyond that conferred by the nutrients the food contains. As nutrition scientists move into this arena, they must build on the wealth of information that already exists in plant biology. In particular, the evolutionary and physiologic bases for the production of secondary plant chemicals in plants must be considered in order to plan meaningful experiments for testing the functionality of these chemical compounds for humans. One problem that may arise is that in using the term functional food, the meaning may be lost in the continued proliferation of related terms used in product marketing. The new National Institutes of Health Office of Dietary Supplements addressed some of these issues as it developed the operating definitions described in this report.

  14. Consumer acceptance of functional foods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frewer, Lynn J.; Scholderer, Joachim; Lambert, Nigel

    2003-01-01

    In the past, it has been assumed that consumers would accept novel foods if there is a concrete and tangible consumer benefit associated with them, which implies that those functional foods would quickly be accepted. However, there is evidence that individuals are likely to differ in the extent...

  15. Parametric functional principal component analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sang, Peijun; Wang, Liangliang; Cao, Jiguo

    2017-03-10

    Functional principal component analysis (FPCA) is a popular approach in functional data analysis to explore major sources of variation in a sample of random curves. These major sources of variation are represented by functional principal components (FPCs). Most existing FPCA approaches use a set of flexible basis functions such as B-spline basis to represent the FPCs, and control the smoothness of the FPCs by adding roughness penalties. However, the flexible representations pose difficulties for users to understand and interpret the FPCs. In this article, we consider a variety of applications of FPCA and find that, in many situations, the shapes of top FPCs are simple enough to be approximated using simple parametric functions. We propose a parametric approach to estimate the top FPCs to enhance their interpretability for users. Our parametric approach can also circumvent the smoothing parameter selecting process in conventional nonparametric FPCA methods. In addition, our simulation study shows that the proposed parametric FPCA is more robust when outlier curves exist. The parametric FPCA method is demonstrated by analyzing several datasets from a variety of applications. © 2017, The International Biometric Society.

  16. Position of the American Dietetic Association: functional foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasler, Clare M; Brown, Amy C

    2009-04-01

    All foods are functional at some physiological level, but it is the position of the American Dietetic Association (ADA) that functional foods that include whole foods and fortified, enriched, or enhanced foods have a potentially beneficial effect on health when consumed as part of a varied diet on a regular basis, at effective levels. ADA supports research to further define the health benefits and risks of individual functional foods and their physiologically active components. Health claims on food products, including functional foods, should be based on the significant scientific agreement standard of evidence and ADA supports label claims based on such strong scientific substantiation. Food and nutrition professionals will continue to work with the food industry, allied health professionals, the government, the scientific community, and the media to ensure that the public has accurate information regarding functional foods and thus should continue to educate themselves on this emerging area of food and nutrition science. Knowledge of the role of physiologically active food components, from plant, animal, and microbial food sources, has changed the role of diet in health. Functional foods have evolved as food and nutrition science has advanced beyond the treatment of deficiency syndromes to reduction of disease risk and health promotion. This position paper reviews the definition of functional foods, their regulation, and the scientific evidence supporting this evolving area of food and nutrition. Foods can no longer be evaluated only in terms of macronutrient and micronutrient content alone. Analyzing the content of other physiologically active components and evaluating their role in health promotion will be necessary. The availability of health-promoting functional foods in the US diet has the potential to help ensure a healthier population. However, each functional food should be evaluated on the basis of scientific evidence to ensure appropriate integration

  17. Anthocyanins as Functional Food Colors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motohashi, Noboru; Sakagami, Hiroshi

    Anthocyanins, a proanthocyanidin-type of flavonoid, contain an abundance of functional phytochemicals and occur in fruits such as cranberry, blueberry, orange, apple and in vegetables such as tomato, sweet pepper, spinach, and radishes. Functional and essential diets have been ingested in daily life since the primitive era of history. When anthocyanins are coupled with some water-soluble sugar molecules, their color becomes red, yellow, violet, or blue. It is very intriguing that anthocyanins provide the colorful variety of pigments for pansies, petunias, plums, and other diverse flowers. Chlorophyll in various fruits and vegetables is the main green phyto-component, while anthocyanins are probably the most important visible plant pigments in the natural kingdom having specific colors. Anthocyanins have been clinically used in many folklore medicines worldwide. Anthocyanins could provide health benefits for age-related diseases as well as other diseases. Anthocyanins have higher antioxidant capacity against oxidative stress induced by excess reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as superoxide radicals, hydrogen peroxide, and thus the human body might be protected from oxidative injury by anthocyanins. On the basis of these facts, we review the synthesis of plant flavonoids and their ability to scavenge oxidants, inhibit or activate enzymes, and the safety of proanthocyanidins and anthocyanidins present in common foods.

  18. Interactions between plant proteins/enzymes and other food components, and their effects on food quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Chenyan; Zhao, Guanghua; Ning, Yong

    2017-05-24

    Plant proteins are the main sources of dietary protein for humans, especially for vegetarians. There are a variety of components with different properties coexisting in foodstuffs, so the interactions between these components are inevitable to occur, thereby affecting food quality. Among these interactions, the interplay between plant proteins/enzymes from fruits and vegetables, cereals, and legumes and other molecules plays an important role in food quality, which recently has gained a particular scientific interest. Such interactions not only affect the appearances of fruits and vegetables and the functionality of cereal products but also the nutritive properties of plant foods. Non-covalent forces, such as hydrogen bond, hydrophobic interaction, electrostatic interaction, and van der Waals forces, are mainly responsible for these interactions. Future outlook is highlighted with aim to suggest a research line to be followed in further studies.

  19. Interpretable functional principal component analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Zhenhua; Wang, Liangliang; Cao, Jiguo

    2016-09-01

    Functional principal component analysis (FPCA) is a popular approach to explore major sources of variation in a sample of random curves. These major sources of variation are represented by functional principal components (FPCs). The intervals where the values of FPCs are significant are interpreted as where sample curves have major variations. However, these intervals are often hard for naïve users to identify, because of the vague definition of "significant values". In this article, we develop a novel penalty-based method to derive FPCs that are only nonzero precisely in the intervals where the values of FPCs are significant, whence the derived FPCs possess better interpretability than the FPCs derived from existing methods. To compute the proposed FPCs, we devise an efficient algorithm based on projection deflation techniques. We show that the proposed interpretable FPCs are strongly consistent and asymptotically normal under mild conditions. Simulation studies confirm that with a competitive performance in explaining variations of sample curves, the proposed FPCs are more interpretable than the traditional counterparts. This advantage is demonstrated by analyzing two real datasets, namely, electroencephalography data and Canadian weather data.

  20. Is coffee a functional food?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dórea, José G; da Costa, Teresa Helena M

    2005-06-01

    Definitions of functional food vary but are essentially based on foods' ability to enhance the quality of life, or physical and mental performance, of regular consumers. The worldwide use of coffee for social engagement, leisure, enhancement of work performance and well-being is widely recognised. Depending on the quantities consumed, it can affect the intake of some minerals (K, Mg, Mn, Cr), niacin and antioxidant substances. Epidemiological and experimental studies have shown positive effects of regular coffee-drinking on various aspects of health, such as psychoactive responses (alertness, mood change), neurological (infant hyperactivity, Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases) and metabolic disorders (diabetes, gallstones, liver cirrhosis), and gonad and liver function. Despite this, most reviews do not mention coffee as fulfilling the criteria for a functional food. Unlike other functional foods that act on a defined population with a special effect, the wide use of coffee-drinking impacts a broad demographic (from children to the elderly), with a wide spectrum of health benefits. The present paper discusses coffee-drinking and health benefits that support the concept of coffee as a functional food.

  1. Nutraceuticals and Functional Foods: The Foods for the Future World.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gul, Khalid; Singh, A K; Jabeen, Rifat

    2016-12-09

    The health and wellness of human beings is largely dictated by the consumption of nutritious foods. Various studies have linked foods as helpful in combating a number of degenerative diseases; as such, a lot of research on functional attributes linked directly to the health benefits of various plant and animal foods have been witnessed in recent years. Although vast number of naturally occurring health-enhancing substances are of plant origin, there are a number of physiologically active components in animal products as well that deserve attention for their potential role in optimal health. Consumption of biologically active ingredients in fruits and vegetables has been linked to help combat diseases such as cancer, cardiovascular diseases, obesity, and gastrointestinal tract disorders. Lot of research is required to substantiate the potential health benefits of those foods for which the diet-health relationships are not sufficiently validated, and create a strong scientific knowledge base for proper application of naturally present foods in combating various diseases and disorders.

  2. Black Beans, Fiber, and Antioxidant Capacity Pilot Study: Examination of Whole Foods vs. Functional Components on Postprandial Metabolic, Oxidative Stress, and Inflammation in Adults with Metabolic Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reverri, Elizabeth J; Randolph, Jody M; Steinberg, Francene M; Kappagoda, C Tissa; Edirisinghe, Indika; Burton-Freeman, Britt M

    2015-07-27

    Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) contain bioactive components with functional properties that may modify cardiovascular risk. The aims of this pilot study were to evaluate the ability of black beans to attenuate postprandial metabolic, oxidative stress, and inflammatory responses and determine relative contribution of dietary fiber and antioxidant capacity of beans to the overall effect. In this randomized, controlled, crossover trial, 12 adults with metabolic syndrome (MetS) consumed one of three meals (black bean (BB), fiber matched (FM), and antioxidant capacity matched (AM)) on three occasions that included blood collection before (fasting) and five hours postprandially. Insulin was lower after the BB meal, compared to the FM or AM meals (p differences over time: AM > BB > FM. Oxidized LDL (oxLDL) was not different by meal, although a trend for declining oxLDL was observed after the BB and AM meals at five hours compared to the FM meal. Triglycerides and interleukin-6 (IL-6) increased in response to meals (p < 0.0001). Inclusion of black beans with a typical Western-style meal attenuates postprandial insulin and moderately enhances postprandial antioxidant endpoints in adults with MetS, which could only be partly explained by fiber content and properties of antioxidant capacity.

  3. Black Beans, Fiber, and Antioxidant Capacity Pilot Study: Examination of Whole Foods vs. Functional Components on Postprandial Metabolic, Oxidative Stress, and Inflammation in Adults with Metabolic Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth J. Reverri

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris contain bioactive components with functional properties that may modify cardiovascular risk. The aims of this pilot study were to evaluate the ability of black beans to attenuate postprandial metabolic, oxidative stress, and inflammatory responses and determine relative contribution of dietary fiber and antioxidant capacity of beans to the overall effect. In this randomized, controlled, crossover trial, 12 adults with metabolic syndrome (MetS consumed one of three meals (black bean (BB, fiber matched (FM, and antioxidant capacity matched (AM on three occasions that included blood collection before (fasting and five hours postprandially. Insulin was lower after the BB meal, compared to the FM or AM meals (p < 0.0001. A significant meal × time interaction was observed for plasma antioxidant capacity (p = 0.002 revealing differences over time: AM > BB > FM. Oxidized LDL (oxLDL was not different by meal, although a trend for declining oxLDL was observed after the BB and AM meals at five hours compared to the FM meal. Triglycerides and interleukin-6 (IL-6 increased in response to meals (p < 0.0001. Inclusion of black beans with a typical Western-style meal attenuates postprandial insulin and moderately enhances postprandial antioxidant endpoints in adults with MetS, which could only be partly explained by fiber content and properties of antioxidant capacity.

  4. Consumer acceptance of functional foods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frewer, Lynn J.; Scholderer, Joachim; Lambert, Nigel

    2003-01-01

    In the past, it has been assumed that consumers would accept novel foods if there is a concrete and tangible consumer benefit associated with them, which implies that those functional foods would quickly be accepted. However, there is evidence that individuals are likely to differ in the extent...... and concerns associated with processing technologies, emerging scientific innovations and their own health status may enable the development of information strategies that are relevant to wider groups of individuals in the population, and deliver real health benefits to people suffering from illnesses relating...

  5. Functional food science and behaviour and psychological functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellisle, F; Blundell, J E; Dye, L; Fantino, M; Fern, E; Fletcher, R J; Lambert, J; Roberfroid, M; Specter, S; Westenhöfer, J; Westerterp-Plantenga, M S

    1998-08-01

    The impact of ingesting various foods on psychological and behavioural functions is a topic of both interest and concern to the general public. In this article, the scientific literature concerning demonstrated cause-and-effect relationships is reviewed, beginning with methodological considerations specific to the quantification of particular behaviours and psychological events. The essential function of food is to satisfy hunger and the need for essential nutrients. The contributions of macronutrients to appetite and satiety are described, as well as their impact on metabolism and energy balance. Functional properties of macronutrient substitutes (high-intensity sweeteners, fat replacers) and flavour enhancers are examined in relation to their contribution to hunger, satiety, and energy balance. The effects of foods and individual nutrients on the performance of diverse psychomotor tasks are studied with consideration given to the various validated quantitative tools used to assess behaviour. The effects of food components on activation, sedation, and affective states such as dysphoria are also reviewed, with special attention given to brain function and neuroactive substances such as serotonin and the endorphins. The case of hyperactivity in children is given special emphasis with reference to the potential influence of sugar and food additives. Safety issues related to food constituents and additives are discussed. Finally, a set of criteria is proposed for the evaluation and elaboration of studies in the behavioural and psychological fields, along with suggestions for future research.

  6. Food and functional dyspepsia: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncanson, K R; Talley, N J; Walker, M M; Burrows, T L

    2017-09-15

    Functional dyspepsia (FD) is a debilitating functional gastrointestinal disorder characterised by early satiety, post-prandial fullness or epigastric pain related to meals, which affects up to 20% of western populations. A high dietary fat intake has been linked to FD and duodenal eosinophilia has been noted in FD. We hypothesised that an allergen such as wheat is a risk factor for FD and that withdrawal will improve symptoms of FD. We aimed to investigate the relationship between food and functional dyspepsia. Sixteen out of 6451 studies identified in a database search of six databases met the inclusion criteria of studies examining the effect of nutrients, foods and food components in adults with FD or FD symptoms. Wheat-containing foods were implicated in FD symptom induction in six studies, four of which were not specifically investigating gluten and two that were gluten-specific, with the implementation of a gluten-free diet demonstrating a reduction in symptoms. Dietary fat was associated with FD in all three studies that specifically measured this association. Specific foods reported as inducing symptoms were high in either natural food chemicals, high in fermentable carbohydrates or high in wheat/gluten. Caffeine was associated with FD in four studies, although any association with alcohol was uncertain. Wheat and dietary fats may play key roles in the generation of FD symptoms and reduction or withdrawal eased symptoms. Randomised trials investigating the roles of gluten, FODMAPs (fermentable oligosaccharide, disaccharide, monosaccharide and polyols) and high fat ingestion and naturally occurring food chemicals in the generation of functional dyspepsia symptoms are warranted and further investigation of the mechanisms is now required. © 2017 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  7. Biosensors for functional food safety and analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavecchia, Teresa; Tibuzzi, Arianna; Giardi, Maria Teresa

    2010-01-01

    The importance of safety and functionality analysis of foodstuffs and raw materials is supported by national legislations and European Union (EU) directives concerning not only the amount of residues of pollutants and pathogens but also the activity and content of food additives and the health claims stated on their labels. In addition, consumers' awareness of the impact of functional foods' on their well-being and their desire for daily healthcare without the intake pharmaceuticals has immensely in recent years. Within this picture, the availability of fast, reliable, low cost control systems to measure the content and the quality of food additives and nutrients with health claims becomes mandatory, to be used by producers, consumers and the governmental bodies in charge of the legal supervision of such matters. This review aims at describing the most important methods and tools used for food analysis, starting with the classical methods (e.g., gas-chromatography GC, high performance liquid chromatography HPLC) and moving to the use of biosensors-novel biological material-based equipments. Four types of bio-sensors, among others, the novel photosynthetic proteins-based devices which are more promising and common in food analysis applications, are reviewed. A particular highlight on biosensors for the emerging market of functional foods is given and the most widely applied functional components are reviewed with a comprehensive analysis of papers published in the last three years; this report discusses recent trends for sensitive, fast, repeatable and cheap measurements, focused on the detection of vitamins, folate (folic acid), zinc (Zn), iron (Fe), calcium (Ca), fatty acids (in particular Omega 3), phytosterols and phytochemicals. A final market overview emphasizes some practical aspects ofbiosensor applications.

  8. Apiaceae seeds as functional food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aćimović Milica G.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this review was to point to a great importance of plants from Apiaceae family as a functional food. Caraway (Carum carvi L., anise (Pimpinella anisum L., coriander (Coriandrum sativum L., dill (Anethum graveolens L., fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill. and cumin (Cuminum cyminum L. are plants from the above-mentioned family whose seeds are widely used in folk medicine, pharmaceutical industry, as spices, flavoring agents and as dietary supplements. These plants are rich in essential oil, which is a mixture of volatile compounds that give it a characteristic aroma. Their antioxidant and antimicrobial activities have been proven and because of these activities they have great potential to be used as natural food conservatives. These plants also have hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic activities as well as anticancer properties. They are used as food supplements in everyday nutrition and as natural health products for the prevention and treatment of many disorders such as inflammations, hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia and others. Apart from this, these plants have real application in foods such as pastries, meat and dairy products, pickles and salads as well as spice blends like curry powder, garam masala and others.

  9. Promises and problems of functional foods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Katan, M.B.; Roos, de N.M.

    2004-01-01

    Functional foods are branded foods, which claim, explicitly or implicitly, to improve health or well being. We review typical functional foods and their ingredients, efficacy, and safety. We also review regulations for health claims for foods worldwide. These regulations often allow manufacturers to

  10. Promises and problems of functional foods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Katan, MB; De Roos, NM

    2004-01-01

    "Functional" foods are branded foods, which claim, explicitly or implicitly, to improve health or well being. We review typical functional foods and their ingredients, efficacy, and safety. We also review regulations for health claims for foods worldwide. These regulations often allow manufacturers

  11. Promises and problems of functional foods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Katan, MB; De Roos, NM

    2004-01-01

    "Functional" foods are branded foods, which claim, explicitly or implicitly, to improve health or well being. We review typical functional foods and their ingredients, efficacy, and safety. We also review regulations for health claims for foods worldwide. These regulations often allow manufacturers

  12. Structured Functional Principal Component Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shou, Haochang; Zipunnikov, Vadim; Crainiceanu, Ciprian M.; Greven, Sonja

    2015-01-01

    Summary Motivated by modern observational studies, we introduce a class of functional models that expand nested and crossed designs. These models account for the natural inheritance of the correlation structures from sampling designs in studies where the fundamental unit is a function or image. Inference is based on functional quadratics and their relationship with the underlying covariance structure of the latent processes. A computationally fast and scalable estimation procedure is developed for high-dimensional data. Methods are used in applications including high-frequency accelerometer data for daily activity, pitch linguistic data for phonetic analysis, and EEG data for studying electrical brain activity during sleep. PMID:25327216

  13. Cereal based functional food of Indian subcontinent: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Arpita; Raychaudhuri, Utpal; Chakraborty, Runu

    2012-12-01

    Due to constant health awareness and readily available information on usefulness of different diet and their direct link with health, the demand of functional food is increasing day by day. The concept of functional foods includes foods or food ingredients that exert a beneficial effect on host health and/or reduce the risk of chronic disease beyond basic nutritional functions. Increasing awareness of consumer health and interest in functional foods to achieve a healthy lifestyle has resulted in the need for food products with versatile health-benefiting properties. Cereal- and cereal component-based food products offer opportunities to include probiotics, prebiotics, and fibers in the human diet. Various growth studies using probiotic Lactic acid bacteria on cereal-based substrates and utilization of whole grain or components as high-fiber foods in developing novel food products lend support to the idea that cereal-based media may well be good probiotic carriers. It is essential that science and traditional knowledge should go together to find mutually beneficial results. In the Indian subcontinent, making use of fermented food and beverages using local food crops and other biological resources are very common. But the nature of the products and the base material vary from region to region.

  14. Scientific substantiation of functional food health claims in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yuexin

    2008-06-01

    This article provides an overview of the procedures involved in scientific substantiation of functional food health claims in China. The definition of a functional food is discussed, in addition to the factors that led to its modification in 2005. The framework of administration includes the regulation of functional foods, steps involved in submission of dossiers, the safety control system for raw materials and products, and technical procedures for testing and evaluation. Scientific evidence required for a claim includes evidence from product tests in addition to evidence resulting from complete scientific literature searches relative to the food material or component in question. Currently, the 4 main rules for functional food assessment in China include 1) functional assessment procedures; 2) standard toxicological assessment; 3) regulations on nutrient supplements; and 4) standard analytical methods for functional components. The current situation for functional foods in China is analyzed, including a discussion of the distribution of the 27 currently allowed functional food health claims. The effectiveness of functional foods and health claims for improving health relies largely on the motivation and education of the public to be able to make good choices.

  15. Modified planar functions and their components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anbar Meidl, Nurdagül; Meidl, Wilfried Meidl

    2017-01-01

    functions in odd characteristic as a vectorial bent function. We finally point out that though these components behave somewhat different than the multivariate bent4 functions, they are bent or semibent functions shifted by a certain quadratic term, a property which they share with their multivariate......Zhou ([20]) introduced modified planar functions in order to describe (2n; 2n; 2n; 1) relative difference sets R as a graph of a function on the finite field F2n, and pointed out that projections of R are difference sets that can be described by negabent or bent4 functions, which are Boolean...... functions given in multivariate form. One of the objectives of this paper is to contribute to the understanding of these component functions of modified planar functions. Moreover, we obtain a description of modified planar functions by their components which is similar to that of the classical planar...

  16. Functional foods : verbindende schakel tussen food en farma?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stijnen, D.; Dagevos, H.

    2001-01-01

    Argumenten voor het met vereende krachten betreden van de markt voor functional foods. De resultaten van een gezamenlijke studie door ATO en het LEI zijn vastgelegd in het rapport: "De wereld van functional foods: op het raakvlak van twee ketens". In twee artikelen wordt dit rapport behandeld

  17. Functional foods : verbindende schakel tussen food en farma?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stijnen, D.; Dagevos, H.

    2001-01-01

    Argumenten voor het met vereende krachten betreden van de markt voor functional foods. De resultaten van een gezamenlijke studie door ATO en het LEI zijn vastgelegd in het rapport: "De wereld van functional foods: op het raakvlak van twee ketens". In twee artikelen wordt dit rapport behandeld

  18. Functional food consumption in Germany: A lifestyle segmentation study

    OpenAIRE

    Franz, Annabell; Nowak, Beate

    2010-01-01

    Due to increasing health consciousness among consumers, there is an ever‐growing demand for food and beverages with health‐improving components. Not only ‘light’ and low fat products are in demand, but increasingly so‐called well‐being products and food which can prevent certain diseases. The German market for functional food is still growing. But who are the German functional food consumers? In an online‐survey referring to the Food‐ Related Lifestyle by BRUNSØ and GRUNERT (1995) we tried to...

  19. Recent advances in component resolved diagnosis in food allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borres, Magnus P; Maruyama, Nobuyuki; Sato, Sakura; Ebisawa, Motohiro

    2016-10-01

    Due to the high prevalence of food allergic diseases globally there are increasing demands in clinical practice for managing IgE-mediated conditions. During the last decade, component resolved diagnostics has been introduced into the field of clinical allergology, providing information that cannot be obtained from extract-based tests. Component resolved data facilitate more precise diagnosis of allergic diseases and identify sensitizations attributable to cross-reactivity. Furthermore it assists risk assessment in clinical practice as sensitization to some allergenic molecules is related to persistence of clinical symptoms and systemic rather than local reactions. The information may also aid the clinician in prescription of oral immunotherapy (OIT) in patients with severe symptoms, and in giving advice on food allergen avoidance or on the need to perform food challenges. The use of allergen components is rapidly evolving and increases our possibility to treat food allergic patients with a more individual approach. Using molecular allergology, we can already now better diagnose, prognose and grade the food allergy. In summary, daily routine molecular allergy diagnostics offers a number of benefits that give us a higher diagnostic precision and allow for better management of the patient.

  20. Position of the American Dietetic Association: phytochemicals and functional foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-04-01

    Never before has the focus on the health benefits of commonly available foods been so strong. The philosophy that food can be health promoting beyond its nutritional value is gaining acceptance within the public arena and among the scientific community as mounting research links diet/food components to disease prevention and treatment. Dietitians are uniquely qualified and positioned to translate the available sound scientific evidence into practical dietary applications for the consumer and to provide the food industry and the government with valuable insight and expertise for future research, product development, and regulation of phytochemicals and functional foods. Increasing the availability of healthful foods, including functional foods, in the American diet is critical to ensuring a healthier population. As the nutrition experts, dietetics professionals must be the leaders in this new, exciting, and meaningful field as it evolves.

  1. Functional foods: the case for closer evaluation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, Nynke de; Klungel, Olaf H; Verhagen, Hans; Wolfs, Marion C J; Ocké, Marga C; Leufkens, Hubert G M

    2007-01-01

    Current regulations focus on the mandatory safety evaluation of functional foods before they come to market, but Nynke de Jong and colleagues argue that the effects of such foods should also be evaluated after they have been launched

  2. Bioactive Food Components and Cancer-Specific Metabonomic Profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young S. Kim

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Cancer cells possess unique metabolic signatures compared to normal cells, including shifts in aerobic glycolysis, glutaminolysis, and de novo biosynthesis of macromolecules. Targeting these changes with agents (drugs and dietary components has been employed as strategies to reduce the complications associated with tumorigenesis. This paper highlights the ability of several food components to suppress tumor-specific metabolic pathways, including increased expression of glucose transporters, oncogenic tyrosine kinase, tumor-specific M2-type pyruvate kinase, and fatty acid synthase, and the detection of such effects using various metabonomic technologies, including liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS and stable isotope-labeled MS. Stable isotope-mediated tracing technologies offer exciting opportunities for defining specific target(s for food components. Exposures, especially during the early transition phase from normal to cancer, are critical for the translation of knowledge about food components into effective prevention strategies. Although appropriate dietary exposures needed to alter cellular metabolism remain inconsistent and/or ill-defined, validated metabonomic biomarkers for dietary components hold promise for establishing effective strategies for cancer prevention.

  3. Bioactive food components and cancer-specific metabonomic profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young S; Milner, John A

    2011-01-01

    Cancer cells possess unique metabolic signatures compared to normal cells, including shifts in aerobic glycolysis, glutaminolysis, and de novo biosynthesis of macromolecules. Targeting these changes with agents (drugs and dietary components) has been employed as strategies to reduce the complications associated with tumorigenesis. This paper highlights the ability of several food components to suppress tumor-specific metabolic pathways, including increased expression of glucose transporters, oncogenic tyrosine kinase, tumor-specific M2-type pyruvate kinase, and fatty acid synthase, and the detection of such effects using various metabonomic technologies, including liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS) and stable isotope-labeled MS. Stable isotope-mediated tracing technologies offer exciting opportunities for defining specific target(s) for food components. Exposures, especially during the early transition phase from normal to cancer, are critical for the translation of knowledge about food components into effective prevention strategies. Although appropriate dietary exposures needed to alter cellular metabolism remain inconsistent and/or ill-defined, validated metabonomic biomarkers for dietary components hold promise for establishing effective strategies for cancer prevention.

  4. European consumers' acceptance of functional foods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G.

    2010-01-01

    Consumer acceptance of functional foods is analyzed from the perspective of consumer quality perception of food products. Four major dimensions of food quality are identified: taste and other sensory characteristics, healthiness, convenience, and naturalness. Functional foods provide, from...... the consumer perspective, synergies between healthiness and convenience, but may, in the consumer mind, lead to trade-offs between healthiness on the one side and taste and naturalness on the other side. This may explain the reluctance of European consumers to accept functional food products....

  5. European consumers' acceptance of functional foods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G.

    2010-01-01

    Consumer acceptance of functional foods is analyzed from the perspective of consumer quality perception of food products. Four major dimensions of food quality are identified: taste and other sensory characteristics, healthiness, convenience, and naturalness. Functional foods provide, from...... the consumer perspective, synergies between healthiness and convenience, but may, in the consumer mind, lead to trade-offs between healthiness on the one side and taste and naturalness on the other side. This may explain the reluctance of European consumers to accept functional food products....

  6. Functional food science and food for specified health use policy in Japan: state of the art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arai, Soichi; Yasuoka, Akihito; Abe, Keiko

    2008-02-01

    The science and policy of functional foods are a matter of global concern and this review provides up-to-date information about the Japanese 'food for specified health use' policy based on functional food science. A great many studies on nonnutritive but physiologically functional food components have provided more precise evidence regarding the structure-function relationships that underlie the approval of food for specified health use products. Functional foods, defined as those that have the potential to reduce the risk of lifestyle-related diseases and associated abnormal modalities, have garnered global interest since the 1980s when the systematic research had humble beginnings as a national project in Japan. In 1991, the project led to the launch of the national food for specified health use policy; 703 food for specified health use products with 11 categories of health claims have been approved up to the present (31 August 2007). The development of this policy has been supported basically by nutritional epidemiology, food chemistry and biochemistry, physiology and clinical medicine, and even the genomics on food and nutrition. This review also highlights the current academia-industry collaboration in Japan.

  7. Anaphylaxis to hyperallergenic functional foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ameratunga Rohan

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Food allergy can cause life threatening reactions. Currently, patients with severe food allergy are advised to avoid foods which provoke allergic reactions. This has become increasingly difficult as food proteins are being added to a broader range of consumer products. Patients and methods Here we describe our investigations into the allergenicity of a new drink when two cow's milk allergic children suffered anaphylaxis after consuming Wh2ole®. Results Our studies have shown that in comparison with cow's milk, Wh2ole® contains at least three times the concentration of β-lactoglobulin. β-lactoglobulin is one of the dominant allergens in bovine milk. Conclusions These studies have shown that modern technology allows the creation of "hyperallergenic" foods. These products have the potential to cause severe reactions in milk allergic persons. Avoiding inadvertent exposure is the shared responsibility of allergic consumers, regulatory authorities and the food industry.

  8. Concepts and strategy of functional food science: the European perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberfroid, M B

    2000-06-01

    Recent knowledge supports the hypothesis that, beyond meeting nutrition needs, diet may modulate various functions in the body and play detrimental or beneficial roles in some diseases. Concepts in nutrition are expanding from emphasis on survival, hunger satisfaction, and preventing adverse effects to emphasizing the use of foods to promote a state of well-being and better health and to help reduce the risk of disease. In many countries, especially Japan and the United States, research on functional foods is addressing the physiologic effects and health benefits of foods and food components, with the aim of authorizing specific health claims. The positive effects of a functional food can be either maintaining a state of well-being and health or reducing the risk of pathologic consequences. Among the most promising targets for functional food science are gastrointestinal functions, redox and antioxidant systems, and metabolism of macronutrients. Ongoing research into functional foods will allow the establishment of health claims that can be translated into messages for consumers that will refer to either enhanced function or reduction of disease risk. Only a rigorous scientific approach that produces highly significant results will guarantee the success of this new discipline of nutrition. This presents a challenge for the scientific community, health authorities, and the food industry.

  9. Functional Foods Baseline and Requirements Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, M. R.; Bermudez-Aguirre, L. D.; Douglas, G.

    2015-01-01

    Current spaceflight foods were evaluated to determine if their nutrient profile supports positioning as a functional food and if the stability of the bioactive compound within the food matrix over an extended shelf-life correlated with the expected storage duration during the mission. Specifically, the research aims were: Aim A. To determine the amount of each nutrient in representative spaceflight foods immediately after processing and at predetermined storage time to establish the current nutritional state. Aim B. To identify the requirements to develop foods that stabilize these nutrients such that required concentrations are maintained in the space food system throughout long duration missions (up to five years). Aim C. To coordinate collaborations with health and performance groups that may require functional foods as a countermeasure.

  10. The Struggle over Functional Foods: Justice and the Social Meaning of Functional Foods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korthals, M.

    2002-01-01

    The social and scientific debate over functional foods has two focal points: one is the issue of the reliability and trustworthiness of the claims connected with functional foods. You don't have to be a suspicious person to be skeptical vis-à-vis the rather exorbitant claims of most functional foods

  11. FERMENTED MILK AS A FUNCTIONAL FOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Rogelj

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Certain foods have been associated with health benefits for many years; fermented milks and yoghurt are typical examples. The health properties of these dairy products were a part of folklore until the concept of probiotics emerged, and the study of fermented milks and yoghurt containing probiotic bacteria has become more systematic. Functional foods have thus developed as a food, or food ingredient, with positive effects on host health and/or well-being beyond their nutritional value, and fermented milk with probiotic bacteria has again become the prominent representative of this new category of food. Milk alone is much more than the sum of its nutrients. It contains an array of bioactivities: modulating digestive and gastrointestinal functions, haemodynamics, controlling probiotic microbial growth, and immunoregulation. When fermented milk is enriched with probiotic bacteria and prebiotics it meets all the requirements of functional food. The possible positive effects of enriched fermented milk on host health will be reviewed.

  12. Multilevel sparse functional principal component analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di, Chongzhi; Crainiceanu, Ciprian M; Jank, Wolfgang S

    2014-01-29

    We consider analysis of sparsely sampled multilevel functional data, where the basic observational unit is a function and data have a natural hierarchy of basic units. An example is when functions are recorded at multiple visits for each subject. Multilevel functional principal component analysis (MFPCA; Di et al. 2009) was proposed for such data when functions are densely recorded. Here we consider the case when functions are sparsely sampled and may contain only a few observations per function. We exploit the multilevel structure of covariance operators and achieve data reduction by principal component decompositions at both between and within subject levels. We address inherent methodological differences in the sparse sampling context to: 1) estimate the covariance operators; 2) estimate the functional principal component scores; 3) predict the underlying curves. Through simulations the proposed method is able to discover dominating modes of variations and reconstruct underlying curves well even in sparse settings. Our approach is illustrated by two applications, the Sleep Heart Health Study and eBay auctions.

  13. Functional Properties of Microorganisms in Fermented Foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyoti Prakash Tamang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Fermented foods have unique functional properties imparting some health benefits to consumers due to presence of functional microorganisms, which possess probiotics properties, antimicrobial, antioxidant, peptide production, etc. Health benefits of some global fermented foods are synthesis of nutrients, prevention of cardiovascular disease, prevention of cancer, gastrointestinal disorders, allergic reactions, diabetes, among others. The present paper is aimed to review the information on some functional properties of the microorganisms associated with fermented foods and beverages, and their health-promoting benefits to consumers.

  14. Concepts in functional foods: the case of inulin and oligofructose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberfroid, M B

    1999-07-01

    Recent advances in biosciences support the hypothesis that diet modulates various body functions. Diet may maintain well-being and reduce the risk of some diseases. Such discoveries have led to the concept of "functional food" and the development of the new discipline, i.e., "functional food science." A practical and simple definition of a "functional food" is a food for which a claim has been authorized. The food components to be discussed as potential "functional food ingredients" are the inulin-type fructans, i.e., chicory inulin and oligofuctose. The targets for their effects are the colonic microflora, the gastrointestinal physiology, the immune functions, the bioavailability of minerals, the metabolism of lipids and colonic carcinogenesis. Potential health benefits include reduction of risk of colonic diseases, noninsulin-dependent diabetes, obesity, osteoporosis and cancer. The documentation of such benefits requires scientific evidence that must be evaluated in terms of "health claims." Previous assessments have concluded that, in terms of "functional claims," strong evidence exists for a prebiotic effect and improved bowel habit. The evidence for calcium bioavailability is promising, and positive modulation of triglyceride metabolism is undergoing preliminary evaluation. Scientific research still must be done to support any "disease risk reduction claim," but sound hypotheses do already exist for designing the relevant human nutrition trials.

  15. Functional Food in Traditional Persian Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zare, Roghayeh; Hosseinkhani, Ayda

    2016-05-01

    During the last decades, there have been great advancements in the field of preventive medicine. Research has demonstrated that nutrition plays a crucial role in the prevention of chronic diseases. The concept of functional food was first introduced in Japan during the 1980s. It proposes to consider food not only vital to survive, but also a mean for mental and physical well-being, contributing to the prevention and reduction of risk factors for diseases. However, there is evidence that the concept was believed by ancient physicians as well. One of the traditional systems of medicines is traditional Persian medicine (TPM). Rhazes said; "as long as a disease could be treated with food, medicine should be avoided". We carried out a review of Avicenna's Canon of medicine and Rhazes books for the definition of food and drug and similar concepts of functional food. We listed the identified concepts along with their examples. The classification of food and their therapeutic use were explained in Canon of medicine. Rhazes has a book called 'Manafe al-Aghziyeh', in which he writes about the medicinal benefits of different nutrition. Five concepts (food, drug, medicinal food, nutritional medicine and antidote or poison) were noted in these books. There are many recommendations on food for the prevention and treatment of diseases in TPM books, which can be the basis for novel research studies.

  16. Modifying bitterness in functional food systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudette, Nicole J; Pickering, Gary J

    2013-01-01

    The functional foods sector represents a significant and growing portion of the food industry, yet formulation of these products often involves the use of ingredients that elicit less than desirable oral sensations, including bitterness. Promising new functional ingredients, including polyphenolics, may be more widely and readily employed in the creation of novel functional foods if their aversive bitter taste can be significantly reduced. A number of approaches are used by the industry to improve the taste properties and thus the acceptance of conventional foods that elicit excessive bitterness. This article reviews the most commonly employed techniques, including the use of bitter-modifying additives, which may prove useful for successfully introducing new functional ingredients into this rapidly growing sector.

  17. Branding strategies for internationalizing functional food companies

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Objective of the Study This study investigates the interrelations between the internationalization characteristics and branding strategies of the Finnish functional food companies. The aim is to identify and analyze what are the potential branding strategy alternatives for the Finnish functional food companies and how they are selected during the internationalization process. Furthermore, the objective is to build a framework explaining the determination of branding strategi...

  18. Can Functional Food and Organic Food be Supporting Concepts in Europe?

    OpenAIRE

    Bügel, Susanne; Almer, Kamille; Zalecka, A.; Ploeger, A.; Huber, Machteld; Kahl, J.

    2013-01-01

    Poster IUNS 20st International Congress of Nutrition. Functional and organic food belong to fast growing segments of the European food market. The question is whether organic food can also be a functional food. The conclusion is that functional food and organic food are competing rather than supporting concepts in Europe.

  19. Intellectual property and regulation of functional foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrović Slobodan D.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Today, there exist scientific evidences that functional foods have favorable physiological and psychological effects as well as additional functions in relation to health, apart from the basic nutritional effects, thus offering the potential of enhance health or reduced the risk of diseases. Since interest in this category of foods has increased, new products have appeared as well as the need to introduce and set up standards and guidelines for the development and promotion of such foods. Technological development in this area and involvement of great multinationals in research investment and development of new products have reinforced the importance of the intellectual property rights, especially of patent protections and trademarks.

  20. Migration of components from cork stoppers to food: challenges in determining inorganic elements in food simulants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corona, T; Iglesias, M; Anticó, E

    2014-06-18

    The inorganic elements potentially migrating from cork to a food simulant [a hydroalcoholic solution containing 12 and 20% (v/v) ethanol] have been determined by means of inductively coupled plasma (ICP) with atomic emission and mass spectrometric detection. The experimental instrumental conditions were evaluated in depth, taking into account spectroscopic and nonspectroscopic interference caused by the presence of ethanol and other components in the sample. We report concentrations ranging from 4 μg kg(-1) for Cd to 28000 μg kg(-1) for Al in the food simulant (concentrations given in kilograms of cork). The values found for Ba, Mn, Fe, Cu, and Zn have been compared with the guideline values stated in EU Regulation 10/2011. In all cases, cork met the general safety criteria applicable to food contact material. Finally, we have proposed water as an alternative to the hydroalcoholic solution to simplify quantification of the tested elements using ICP techniques.

  1. The Struggle over Functional Foods: Justice and the Social Meaning of Functional Foods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korthals, M.

    2002-01-01

    The social and scientific debate over functional foods has two focal points: one is the issue of the reliability and trustworthiness of the claims connected with functional foods. You don't have to be a suspicious person to be skeptical vis-à-vis the rather exorbitant claims of most functional

  2. Functional genomics for food fermentation processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smid, E J; Hugenholtz, J

    2010-01-01

    This review describes recent scientific and technological drivers of food fermentation research. In addition, a number of practical implications of the results of this development will be highlighted. The first part of the manuscript elaborates on the message that genome sequence information gives us an unprecedented view on the biodiversity of microbes in food fermentation. This information can be made applicable for tailoring relevant characteristics of food products through fermentation. The second part deals with the integration of genome sequence data into metabolic models and the use of these models for a number of topics that are relevant for food fermentation processes. The final part will be about metagenomics approaches to reveal the complexity and understand the functionality of undefined complex microbial consortia used in a diverse range of food fermentation processes.

  3. Are functional foods redefining nutritional requirements?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Peter J; Varady, Krista A

    2008-02-01

    Functional foods are increasing in popularity owing to their ability to confer health and physiological benefits. Nevertheless, the notion that functional foods improve health when providing nutrients at levels above and beyond existing recommended intakes is inconsistent with the definition of requirement. This disparity highlights the need for an alternative definition of nutrient requirement. The present objective is to examine distinctions between optimization of health, as defined by what we currently deem as required intakes, versus adding physiological benefit using bioactive agents found in functional foods. Presently, requirement is defined as the lowest amount of intake of a nutrient that will maintain a defined level of nourishment for a specific indicator of adequacy. In contrast, functional foods are described as ingredients that are not necessary for body function, yet provide added physiological benefit that confer better overall health. Plant sterols are one example of such an ingredient. Plant sterols lower plasma cholesterol concentrations, and may thus be considered essential nutrients in physiological situations where circulating cholesterol concentrations are high. Similarly, intakes of omega-3 fats beyond existing requirement may confer additional health benefits such as hypolipidemic and anti-diabetic effects. These examples underscore the inconsistencies between what is defined as a nutrient requirement versus what is identified as a health benefit of a functional food. Such discrepancies emphasize the need for a more all-encompassing definition of a nutrient requirement; that is, one that moves beyond the prevention of overt deficiency to encompass improved health and disease risk reduction.

  4. Identification of Milk Component in Ancient Food Residue by Proteomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Chuan; Jiang, Hongen; Lü, Enguo; Wu, Yunfei; Guo, Lihai; Xie, Yongming; Wang, Changsui; Yang, Yimin

    2012-01-01

    Background Proteomic approaches based on mass spectrometry have been recently used in archaeological and art researches, generating promising results for protein identification. Little information is known about eastward spread and eastern limits of prehistoric milking in eastern Eurasia. Methodology/Principal Finding In this paper, an ancient visible food remain from Subeixi Cemeteries (cal. 500 to 300 years BC) of the Turpan Basin in Xinjiang, China, preliminarily determined containing 0.432 mg/kg cattle casein with ELISA, was analyzed by using an improved method based on liquid chromatography (LC) coupled with MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS to further identify protein origin. The specific sequence of bovine casein and the homology sequence of goat/sheep casein were identified. Conclusions/Significance The existence of milk component in ancient food implies goat/sheep and cattle milking in ancient Subeixi region, the furthest eastern location of prehistoric milking in the Old World up to date. It is envisioned that this work provides a new approach for ancient residue analysis and other archaeometry field. PMID:22615887

  5. Identification of milk component in ancient food residue by proteomics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuan Hong

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Proteomic approaches based on mass spectrometry have been recently used in archaeological and art researches, generating promising results for protein identification. Little information is known about eastward spread and eastern limits of prehistoric milking in eastern Eurasia. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDING: In this paper, an ancient visible food remain from Subeixi Cemeteries (cal. 500 to 300 years BC of the Turpan Basin in Xinjiang, China, preliminarily determined containing 0.432 mg/kg cattle casein with ELISA, was analyzed by using an improved method based on liquid chromatography (LC coupled with MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS to further identify protein origin. The specific sequence of bovine casein and the homology sequence of goat/sheep casein were identified. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The existence of milk component in ancient food implies goat/sheep and cattle milking in ancient Subeixi region, the furthest eastern location of prehistoric milking in the Old World up to date. It is envisioned that this work provides a new approach for ancient residue analysis and other archaeometry field.

  6. Functional Food in Traditional Persian Medicine

    OpenAIRE

    Zare, Roghayeh; Hosseinkhani, Ayda

    2016-01-01

    Background: During the last decades, there have been great advancements in the field of preventive medicine. Research has demonstrated that nutrition plays a crucial role in the prevention of chronic diseases. The concept of functional food was first introduced in Japan during the 1980s. It proposes to consider food not only vital to survive, but also a mean for mental and physical well-being, contributing to the prevention and reduction of risk factors for diseases. However, there is evidenc...

  7. Essential oils in food preservation: mode of action, synergies, and interactions with food matrix components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morten eHyldgaard

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Essential oils are aromatic and volatile liquids extracted from plants. The chemicals in essential oils are secondary metabolites, which play an important role in plant defence as they often possess antimicrobial properties. The interest in essential oils and their application in food preservation has been amplified in recent years by an increasingly negative consumer perception of synthetic preservatives. Furthermore, food-borne diseases are a growing public health problem worldwide, calling for more effective preservation strategies. The antibacterial properties of essential oils and their constituents have been documented extensively. Pioneering work has also elucidated the mode of action of a few essential oil constituents, but detailed knowledge about most of the compounds' mode of action is still lacking. This knowledge is particularly important to predict their effect on different microorganisms, how they interact with food matrix components, and how they work in combination with other antimicrobial compounds. The main obstacle for using essential oil constituents as food preservatives is that they are most often not potent enough as single components, and they cause negative organoleptic effects when added in sufficient amounts to provide an antimicrobial effect. Exploiting synergies between several compounds has been suggested as a solution to this problem. However, little is known about which interactions lead to synergistic, additive, or antagonistic effects. Such knowledge could contribute to design of new and more potent antimicrobial blends, and to understand the interplay between the constituents of crude essential oils. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of current knowledge about the antibacterial properties and antibacterial mode of action of essential oils and their constituents, and to identify research avenues that can facilitate implementation of essential oils as natural preservatives in foods.

  8. Essential oils in food preservation: mode of action, synergies, and interactions with food matrix components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyldgaard, Morten; Mygind, Tina; Meyer, Rikke Louise

    2012-01-01

    Essential oils are aromatic and volatile liquids extracted from plants. The chemicals in essential oils are secondary metabolites, which play an important role in plant defense as they often possess antimicrobial properties. The interest in essential oils and their application in food preservation has been amplified in recent years by an increasingly negative consumer perception of synthetic preservatives. Furthermore, food-borne diseases are a growing public health problem worldwide, calling for more effective preservation strategies. The antibacterial properties of essential oils and their constituents have been documented extensively. Pioneering work has also elucidated the mode of action of a few essential oil constituents, but detailed knowledge about most of the compounds' mode of action is still lacking. This knowledge is particularly important to predict their effect on different microorganisms, how they interact with food matrix components, and how they work in combination with other antimicrobial compounds. The main obstacle for using essential oil constituents as food preservatives is that they are most often not potent enough as single components, and they cause negative organoleptic effects when added in sufficient amounts to provide an antimicrobial effect. Exploiting synergies between several compounds has been suggested as a solution to this problem. However, little is known about which interactions lead to synergistic, additive, or antagonistic effects. Such knowledge could contribute to design of new and more potent antimicrobial blends, and to understand the interplay between the constituents of crude essential oils. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of current knowledge about the antibacterial properties and antibacterial mode of action of essential oils and their constituents, and to identify research avenues that can facilitate implementation of essential oils as natural preservatives in foods.

  9. Essential Oils in Food Preservation: Mode of Action, Synergies, and Interactions with Food Matrix Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyldgaard, Morten; Mygind, Tina; Meyer, Rikke Louise

    2012-01-01

    Essential oils are aromatic and volatile liquids extracted from plants. The chemicals in essential oils are secondary metabolites, which play an important role in plant defense as they often possess antimicrobial properties. The interest in essential oils and their application in food preservation has been amplified in recent years by an increasingly negative consumer perception of synthetic preservatives. Furthermore, food-borne diseases are a growing public health problem worldwide, calling for more effective preservation strategies. The antibacterial properties of essential oils and their constituents have been documented extensively. Pioneering work has also elucidated the mode of action of a few essential oil constituents, but detailed knowledge about most of the compounds’ mode of action is still lacking. This knowledge is particularly important to predict their effect on different microorganisms, how they interact with food matrix components, and how they work in combination with other antimicrobial compounds. The main obstacle for using essential oil constituents as food preservatives is that they are most often not potent enough as single components, and they cause negative organoleptic effects when added in sufficient amounts to provide an antimicrobial effect. Exploiting synergies between several compounds has been suggested as a solution to this problem. However, little is known about which interactions lead to synergistic, additive, or antagonistic effects. Such knowledge could contribute to design of new and more potent antimicrobial blends, and to understand the interplay between the constituents of crude essential oils. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of current knowledge about the antibacterial properties and antibacterial mode of action of essential oils and their constituents, and to identify research avenues that can facilitate implementation of essential oils as natural preservatives in foods. PMID:22291693

  10. Targeting the Epigenome with Bioactive Food Components for Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Thomas Prates; Moreno, Fernando Salvador; Ross, Sharon Ann

    2012-01-01

    Epigenetic processes participate in cancer development and likely influence cancer prevention. Global DNA hypomethylation, gene promoter hypermethylation and aberrant histone post-translational modifications are hallmarks of neoplastic cells which have been associated with genomic instability and altered gene expression. Because epigenetic deregulation occurs early in carcinogenesis and is potentially reversible, intervention strategies targeting the epigenome have been proposed for cancer prevention. Bioactive food components (BFCs) with anticancer potential, including folate, polyphenols, selenium, retinoids, fatty acids, isothiocyanates and allyl compounds, influence DNA methylation and histone modification processes. Such activities have been shown to affect the expression of genes involved in cell proliferation, death and differentiation that are frequently altered in cancer. Although the epigenome represents a promising target for cancer prevention with BFCs, few studies have addressed the influence of dietary components on these mechanisms in vivo, particularly on the phenotype of humans, and thus the exact mechanisms whereby diet mediates an effect on cancer prevention remains unclear. Primary factors that should be elucidated include the effective doses and dose timing of BFCs to attain epigenetic effects. Because diet-epigenome interactions are likely to occur in utero, the impact of early-life nutrition on cancer risk programming should be further investigated. PMID:22353664

  11. Targeting the epigenome with bioactive food components for cancer prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Thomas Prates; Moreno, Fernando Salvador; Ross, Sharon Ann

    2011-01-01

    Epigenetic processes participate in cancer development and likely influence cancer prevention. Global DNA hypomethylation, gene promoter hypermethylation and aberrant histone post-translational modifications are hallmarks of neoplastic cells which have been associated with genomic instability and altered gene expression. Because epigenetic deregulation occurs early in carcinogenesis and is potentially reversible, intervention strategies targeting the epigenome have been proposed for cancer prevention. Bioactive food components (BFCs) with anticancer potential, including folate, polyphenols, selenium, retinoids, fatty acids, isothiocyanates and allyl compounds, influence DNA methylation and histone modification processes. Such activities have been shown to affect the expression of genes involved in cell proliferation, death and differentiation that are frequently altered in cancer. Although the epigenome represents a promising target for cancer prevention with BFCs, few studies have addressed the influence of dietary components on these mechanisms in vivo, particularly on the phenotype of humans, and thus the exact mechanisms whereby diet mediates an effect on cancer prevention remains unclear. Primary factors that should be elucidated include the effective doses and dose timing of BFCs to attain epigenetic effects. Because diet-epigenome interactions are likely to occur in utero, the impact of early-life nutrition on cancer risk programming should be further investigated.

  12. A finite element method based microwave heat transfer modeling of frozen multi-component foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitchai, Krishnamoorthy

    Microwave heating is fast and convenient, but is highly non-uniform. Non-uniform heating in microwave cooking affects not only food quality but also food safety. Most food industries develop microwavable food products based on "cook-and-look" approach. This approach is time-consuming, labor intensive and expensive and may not result in optimal food product design that assures food safety and quality. Design of microwavable food can be realized through a simulation model which describes the physical mechanisms of microwave heating in mathematical expressions. The objective of this study was to develop a microwave heat transfer model to predict spatial and temporal profiles of various heterogeneous foods such as multi-component meal (chicken nuggets and mashed potato), multi-component and multi-layered meal (lasagna), and multi-layered food with active packages (pizza) during microwave heating. A microwave heat transfer model was developed by solving electromagnetic and heat transfer equations using finite element method in commercially available COMSOL Multiphysics v4.4 software. The microwave heat transfer model included detailed geometry of the cavity, phase change, and rotation of the food on the turntable. The predicted spatial surface temperature patterns and temporal profiles were validated against the experimental temperature profiles obtained using a thermal imaging camera and fiber-optic sensors. The predicted spatial surface temperature profile of different multi-component foods was in good agreement with the corresponding experimental profiles in terms of hot and cold spot patterns. The root mean square error values of temporal profiles ranged from 5.8 °C to 26.2 °C in chicken nuggets as compared 4.3 °C to 4.7 °C in mashed potatoes. In frozen lasagna, root mean square error values at six locations ranged from 6.6 °C to 20.0 °C for 6 min of heating. A microwave heat transfer model was developed to include susceptor assisted microwave heating of a

  13. Components of executive functioning in metamemory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mäntylä, Timo; Rönnlund, Michael; Kliegel, Matthias

    2010-10-01

    This study examined metamemory in relation to three basic executive functions (set shifting, working memory updating, and response inhibition) measured as latent variables. Young adults (Experiment 1) and middle-aged adults (Experiment 2) completed a set of executive functioning tasks and the Prospective and Retrospective Memory Questionnaire (PRMQ). In Experiment 1, source recall and face recognition tasks were included as indicators of objective memory performance. In both experiments, analyses of the executive functioning data yielded a two-factor solution, with the updating and inhibition tasks constituting a common factor and the shifting tasks a separate factor. Self-reported memory problems showed low predictive validity, but subjective and objective memory performance were related to different components of executive functioning. In both experiments, set shifting, but not updating and inhibition, was related to PRMQ, whereas source recall showed the opposite pattern of correlations in Experiment 1. These findings suggest that metamemorial judgments reflect selective effects of executive functioning and that individual differences in mental flexibility contribute to self-beliefs of efficacy.

  14. Biokinetics of food additive silica nanoparticles and their interactions with food components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jeong-A; Kim, Mi-Kyung; Song, Jae Ho; Jo, Mi-Rae; Yu, Jin; Kim, Kyoung-Min; Kim, Young-Rok; Oh, Jae-Min; Choi, Soo-Jin

    2017-02-01

    Nanomaterials have been widely utilized in the food industry in production, packaging, sensors, nutrient delivery systems, and food additives. However, research on the interactions between food-grade nanoparticles and biomolecules as well as their potential toxicity is limited. In the present study, the in vivo solubility, oral absorption, tissue distribution, and excretion kinetics of one of the most extensively used food additives, silica (SiO2) were evaluated with respect to particle size (nano vs bulk) following single-dose oral administration to rats. Intestinal transport mechanism was investigated using a 3D culture system, in vitro model of human intestinal follicle-associated epithelium (FAE). The effect of the presence of food components, such as sugar and protein, on the oral absorption of nanoparticles was also evaluated with focus on their interactions. The results obtained demonstrated that the oral absorption of nanoparticles (3.94±0.38%) was greater than that of bulk materials (2.95±0.37%), possibly due to intestinal transport by microfold (M) cells. On the other hand, particle size was found to have no significant effect on in vivo dissolution property, biodistribution, or excretion kinetics. Oral absorption profile of silica nanoparticles was highly dependent on the presence of sugar or protein, showing rapid absorption rate in glucose, presumably due to their surface interaction on nanoparticles. These findings will be useful for predicting the potential toxicity of food-grade nanoparticles and for understanding biological interactions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. 77 FR 23751 - Certain Food Waste Disposers and Components and Packaging Thereof; Institution of Investigation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-20

    ... COMMISSION Certain Food Waste Disposers and Components and Packaging Thereof; Institution of Investigation... importation, and the sale within the United States after importation of certain food waste disposers and... sale within the United States after importation of certain food waste disposers and components...

  16. Functional Food and Organic Food are Competing Rather than Supporting Concepts in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Bügel

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available A review of recent literature pertaining to organic and functional food was conducted according its conceptual background. Functional and organic food both belong to fast growing segments of the European food market. Both are food according to the European food regulations, but organic food is further regulated by the European regulation for organic agriculture and food production. This regulation restricts the number of food additives and limits substantial changes in the food. This may cause problems in changing the food based on single constituents or attributes when applying the concept of functional food to organic food production. Claims of the influence of the food positively on health can only be accepted as true when the claims have been tested and then validated by the EU-Commission. Whereas functional food focuses on product comparison based on specific constituents or attributes, organic food as a whole has no placebo for comparison and effects on environment and society are not part of the health claim regulation. Therefore it seems rather difficult to establish the health claims of organic foods. Consumers buy organic food out of an emotional attitude and associate the food with naturalness. In contrast, the decision for buying functional food is related to rationality and consumers associate functional food with a more technological approach. For this reason, the authors conclude that the concept of functional food seems not to support organic food production in Europe.

  17. Food components and the Immune System: from tonic agents to allergens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Caetano Faria

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The intestinal mucosa is the major site of contact with antigens, and it lodges the largest lymphoid tissue in the body. In physiological conditions, microbiota and dietary antigens are the natural sources of stimulation for the gut associated lymphoid tissues (GALT and for the immune system as a whole. Germ free models have provided some insights on the immunological role of gut antigens. However, most of the GALT is not located in the large intestine, where gut microbiota is prominent. It is concentrated in the small intestine where protein absorption takes place. In this review, we will address the involvement of food components in the development and the function of the immune system. Studies in mice have already shown that dietary proteins are critical elements for the developmental shift of the immature neonatal immune profile into a fully developed immune system. The immunological effects of other food components (such as vitamins and lipids will also be addressed. Most of the cells in the GALT are activated and local proinflammatory mediators are abundant. Regulatory elements are known to provide a delicate yet robust balance that keeps the gut homeostasis at check. Usually antigenic contact in the gut induces two major immune responses, oral tolerance and production of secretory IgA. However, under pathological conditions mucosal homeostasis is disturbed resulting in inflammatory reactions such as food hypersensitivity. Food allergy development depends on many factors such as genetic predisposition, biochemical features of allergens and a growing array of environmental elements. Neuroimmune interactions are also implicated in food allergy and they are examples of the high complexity of the phenomenon. Recent findings on the gut circuits triggered by food components will be reviewed to show that, far beyond their role as nutrients, they are critical players in the operation of immune system in health and disease.

  18. Reduction in intestinal cholesterol absorption by various food components: mechanisms and implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohn, Jeffrey S; Kamili, Alvin; Wat, Elaine; Chung, Rosanna W S; Tandy, Sally

    2010-06-01

    A number of different food components are known to reduce plasma and LDL-cholesterol levels by affecting intestinal cholesterol absorption. They include: soluble fibers, phytosterols, saponins, phospholipids, soy protein and stearic acid. These compounds inhibit cholesterol absorption by affecting cholesterol solubilization in the intestinal lumen, interfering with diffusion of luminal cholesterol to the gut epithelium and/or inhibiting molecular mechanisms responsible for cholesterol uptake by the enterocyte. Cholesterol content of intestinal chylomicrons is subsequently reduced, less cholesterol is transported to the liver within chylomicron remnants, hepatic LDL-receptor activity is increased and plasma levels of LDL-cholesterol are decreased. Reduced hepatic VLDL production and less conversion of VLDL to LDL also contribute to lower LDL levels. Certain food components may also affect intestinal bile acid metabolism. Further investigation of the way in which these functional ingredients affect intestinal lipid metabolism will facilitate their use and application as cardiovascular nutraceuticals.

  19. Process-Structure-Function Relations of Pectin in Food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiaens, Stefanie; Van Buggenhout, Sandy; Houben, Ken; Jamsazzadeh Kermani, Zahra; Moelants, Katlijn R N; Ngouémazong, Eugénie D; Van Loey, Ann; Hendrickx, Marc E G

    2016-01-01

    Pectin, a complex polysaccharide rich in galacturonic acid, has been identified as a critical structural component of plant cell walls. The functionality of this intricate macromolecule in fruit- and vegetable-based-derived products and ingredients is strongly determined by the nanostructure of its most abundant polymer, homogalacturonan. During food processing, pectic homogalacturonan is susceptible to various enzymatic as well as nonenzymatic conversion reactions modifying its structural and, hence, its functional properties. Consequently, a profound understanding of the various process-structure-function relations of pectin aids food scientists to tailor the functional properties of plant-based derived products and ingredients. This review describes the current knowledge on process-structure-function relations of pectin in foods with special focus on pectin's functionality with regard to textural attributes of solid plant-based foods and rheological properties of particulated fruit- and vegetable-derived products. In this context, both pectin research performed via traditional, ex situ physicochemical analyses of fractionated walls and isolated polymers and pectin investigation through in situ pectin localization are considered.

  20. [Dietetic canned food using ocean fish and plant components].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serpunina, L T; Kniazeva, N S; Perova, L I; Slavgorodskaia, I P; Shatniuk, L N; Pokrovskaia, G R; Aleshko-Ozhevskiĭ, Iu P; Amanova, I Iu; Grigor'eva, M P

    2000-01-01

    The results of the creating canned ground goods of a new kind are described in this article. The main character references of food value of hake and the canned ground foods based on it. It has been established that the new products of safety. Clinical tests have been showed the efficiency of including these canned goods in the menu of fat patients, also with heavy obesity. Dietetic canned ground foods on the base of oceanic fishes with plant additives.

  1. Food Derived Bioactive Peptides and Intestinal Barrier Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Martínez-Augustin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A wide range of food-derived bioactive peptides have been shown to exert health-promoting actions and are therefore considered functional foods or nutraceuticals. Some of these actions are related to the maintenance, reinforcement or repairment of the intestinal barrier function (IBF whose role is to selectively allow the absorption of water, nutrients and ions while preventing the influx of microorganisms from the intestinal lumen. Alterations in the IBF have been related to many disorders, such as inflammatory bowel disease or metabolic syndrome. Components of IBF are the intestinal epithelium, the mucus layer, secretory immunoglobulin A and cells of the innate and adaptive immune systems. Here we review the effects of food derived bioactive peptides on these IBF components. In vitro and in vivo effects, both in healthy and disease states, have been reviewed. Although limited, the available information indicates a potential for food-derived peptides to modify IBF and to contribute to disease treatment, but further research is needed to better isolate responsible peptides, and to help define their mode of action.

  2. Lactic acid bacteria in dairy food: surface characterization and interactions with food matrix components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgain, J; Scher, J; Francius, G; Borges, F; Corgneau, M; Revol-Junelles, A M; Cailliez-Grimal, C; Gaiani, C

    2014-11-01

    This review gives an overview of the importance of interactions occurring in dairy matrices between Lactic Acid Bacteria and milk components. Dairy products are important sources of biological active compounds of particular relevance to human health. These compounds include immunoglobulins, whey proteins and peptides, polar lipids, and lactic acid bacteria including probiotics. A better understanding of interactions between bioactive components and their delivery matrix may successfully improve their transport to their target site of action. Pioneering research on probiotic lactic acid bacteria has mainly focused on their host effects. However, very little is known about their interaction with dairy ingredients. Such knowledge could contribute to designing new and more efficient dairy food, and to better understand relationships between milk constituents. The purpose of this review is first to provide an overview of the current knowledge about the biomolecules produced on bacterial surface and the composition of the dairy matter. In order to understand how bacteria interact with dairy molecules, adhesion mechanisms are subsequently reviewed with a special focus on the environmental conditions affecting bacterial adhesion. Methods dedicated to investigate the bacterial surface and to decipher interactions between bacteria and abiotic dairy components are also detailed. Finally, relevant industrial implications of these interactions are presented and discussed.

  3. Nanotechnology Applications in Functional Foods; Opportunities and Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Harjinder

    2016-03-01

    Increasing knowledge on the link between diet and human health has generated a lot of interest in the development of functional foods. However, several challenges, including discovering of beneficial compounds, establishing optimal intake levels, and developing adequate food delivering matrix and product formulations, need to be addressed. A number of new processes and materials derived from nanotechnology have the potential to provide new solutions in many of these fronts. Nanotechnology is concerned with the manipulation of materials at the atomic and molecular scales to create structures that are less than 100 nm in size in one dimension. By carefully choosing the molecular components, it seems possible to design particles with different surface properties. Several food-based nanodelivery vehicles, such as protein-polysaccharide coacervates, multiple emulsions, liposomes and cochleates have been developed on a laboratory scale, but there have been very limited applications in real food systems. There are also public concerns about potential negative effects of nanotechnology-based delivery systems on human health. This paper provides an overview of the new opportunities and challenges for nanotechnology-based systems in future functional food development.

  4. Nanotechnology Applications in Functional Foods; Opportunities and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Harjinder

    2016-01-01

    Increasing knowledge on the link between diet and human health has generated a lot of interest in the development of functional foods. However, several challenges, including discovering of beneficial compounds, establishing optimal intake levels, and developing adequate food delivering matrix and product formulations, need to be addressed. A number of new processes and materials derived from nanotechnology have the potential to provide new solutions in many of these fronts. Nanotechnology is concerned with the manipulation of materials at the atomic and molecular scales to create structures that are less than 100 nm in size in one dimension. By carefully choosing the molecular components, it seems possible to design particles with different surface properties. Several food-based nanodelivery vehicles, such as protein-polysaccharide coacervates, multiple emulsions, liposomes and cochleates have been developed on a laboratory scale, but there have been very limited applications in real food systems. There are also public concerns about potential negative effects of nanotechnology-based delivery systems on human health. This paper provides an overview of the new opportunities and challenges for nanotechnology-based systems in future functional food development. PMID:27069899

  5. Utilizing food effects to overcome challenges in delivery of lipophilic bioactives: structural design of medical and functional foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClements, David Julian

    2013-12-01

    The oral bioavailability of many lipophilic bioactives, such as pharmaceuticals and nutraceuticals, is relatively low due to their poor solubility, permeability and/or chemical stability within the human gastrointestinal tract (GIT). The oral bioavailability of lipophilic bioactives can be improved by designing food matrices that control their release, solubilization, transport and absorption within the GIT. This article discusses the challenges associated with delivering lipophilic bioactive components, the impact of food composition and structure on oral bioavailability and the design of functional and medical foods for improving the oral bioavailability of lipophilic bioactives. Food-based delivery systems can be used to improve the oral bioavailability of lipophilic bioactives. There are a number of potential advantages to delivering lipophilic bioactives using functional or medical foods: greater compliance than conventional delivery forms; increased bioavailability and efficacy; and reduced variability in biological effects. However, food matrices are structurally complex multicomponent materials and research is still needed to identify optimum structures and compositions for particular bioactives.

  6. Olive oil as functional component in meat and meat products

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    K Jalarama Reddy; K Jayathilakan; M C Pandey

    2015-01-01

    ...) and it has got wider applications. It is used in the preparation of different food products in order to achieve functional properties as a fat replacer, antioxidant properties, health promoting functions and to improve the fatty acid...

  7. ABOUT FOOD ADDITIVES AS IMPORTANT PART OF FUNCTIONAL FOOD

    OpenAIRE

    Umida Khodjaeva; Tatiana Bojňanská; Vladimír Vietoris; Oksana Sytar

    2013-01-01

    The main characteristics and classification of food additives, which are common in the food production, have been described in the present review. The ways of food additives classification, source of nature, main antioxidants, food colouring, flavours, flavor enhancers, bulking agents, stabilizers, sweeteners which were collected from literature based on structural and biochemical characteristics with description of source and possible effects on human, organisms and environment have been pre...

  8. Impact of nutrients and food components on dyslipidemias: what is the evidence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Carla de Oliveira Barbosa; Dos Santos, Carolina Araújo; Leite, Jacqueline Isaura Alvarez; Caldas, Ana Paula Silva; Bressan, Josefina

    2015-11-01

    Dyslipidemias have been shown to bear a close association with an increased risk of cardiovascular diseases, atherosclerosis in particular. As efforts are being made to find alternative therapies and ways to prevent disease, there is a corresponding rise in public interest in food and/or active food components that contribute to an improved lipid profile and, thus, to better health. Besides supplying the basic nutrients necessary for well-being, some foods add further physiologic benefits. In fact, specific foods and bioactive components could be beneficial in controlling dyslipidemias. From a review of the literature on foods and bioactive compounds, their recommended quantities, and expected effects, we found that the following nutrients and food components could positively impact the lipid profile: monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids, soluble fiber, vegetable proteins, phytosterols, and polyphenols. Therefore, incorporating these components into the regular diets of individuals is justified, because they contribute additional positive effects. This suggests that they also be recommended in clinical practice.

  9. Immunoglobulin A in Bovine Milk: A Potential Functional Food?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cakebread, Julie A; Humphrey, Rex; Hodgkinson, Alison J

    2015-08-26

    Immunoglobulin A (IgA) is an anti-inflammatory antibody that plays a critical role in mucosal immunity. It is found in large quantities in human milk, but there are lower amounts in bovine milk. In humans, IgA plays a significant role in providing protection from environmental pathogens at mucosal surfaces and is a key component for the establishment and maintenance of intestinal homeostasis via innate and adaptive immune mechanisms. To date, many of the dairy-based functional foods are derived from bovine colostrum, targeting the benefits of IgG. IgA has a higher pathogenic binding capacity and greater stability against proteolytic degradation when ingested compared with IgG. This provides IgA-based products greater potential in the functional food market that has yet to be realized.

  10. Yacon (Smallanthus sonchifolius): a functional food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, Grethel Teresa Choque; Tamashiro, Wirla Maria da Silva Cunha; Maróstica Junior, Mário Roberto; Pastore, Glaucia Maria

    2013-09-01

    Yacon (Smallanthus sonchifolius) is an Andean tuberous root that is regarded as a functional food given that it contains fructooligosaccharides (FOS), inulin and phenolic compounds. The consumption of FOS and inulin improves the growth of bifidobacteria in the colon, enhances mineral absorption and gastrointestinal metabolism and plays a role in the regulation of serum cholesterol. Furthermore, the literature reports that the consumption of these prebiotics promotes a positive modulation of the immune system, improving resistance to infections and allergic reactions. Certain studies have demonstrated the potential of yacon as an alternative food source for those patients with conditions that require dietary changes. This review intends to describe the potential of yacon as a prebiotic and its cultivation and industrial processing for human consumption.

  11. Consumption of functional foods in Europe: a systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Asli E. Özen; María del Mar Bibiloni; Antoni Pons; Josep A Tur

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To assess differences in functional foods consumption between European countries. Design: Systematic review. The literature search was conducted in Medlars Online International Literature (MEDLINE), via PubMed© and Scopus. Twenty two studies were identified to examine the differences in functional food consumption between European countries. Results: Figures on consumers of functional foods reveal differences across European countries. Functional foods are popular in most of Europe...

  12. Nanotechnology in food science: Functionality, applicability, and safety assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaojia He; Huey-Min Hwang

    2016-01-01

    Rapid development of nanotechnology is expected to transform many areas of food science and food industry with increasing investment and market share. In this article, current applications of nanotechnology in food systems are briefly reviewed. Functionality and applicability of food-related nanotechnology are highlighted in order to provide a comprehensive view on the development and safety assessment of nanotechnology in the food industry. While food nanotechnology offers great potential be...

  13. Inulin-type fructans: functional food ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberfroid, Marcel B

    2007-11-01

    A food (ingredient) is regarded as functional if it is satisfactorily demonstrated to affect beneficially 1 or more target functions in the body beyond adequate nutritional effects. The term inulin-type fructans covers all beta(2inulin (DP 2-60, DP(av) = 12), oligofructose (DP 2-8, DP(av) = 4), and inulin HP (DP 10-60, DP(av) = 25) as well as Synergy 1, a specific combination of oligofructose and inulin HP. Inulin-type fructans resist digestion and function as dietary fiber improving bowel habits. But, unlike most dietary fibers, their colonic fermentation is selective, thus causing significant changes in the composition of the gut microflora with increased and reduced numbers of potentially health-promoting bacteria and potentially harmful species, respectively. Both oligofructose and inulin act in this way and thus are prebiotic: they also induce changes in the colonic epithelium and in miscellaneous colonic functions. In particular, the claim "inulin-type fructans enhance calcium and magnesium absorption" is scientifically substantiated, and the most active product is oligofructose-enriched inulin (Synergy 1). A series of studies furthermore demonstrate that inulin-type fructans modulate the secretion of gastrointestinal peptides involved in appetite regulation as well as lipid metabolism. Moreover, a large number of animal studies and preliminary human data show that inulin-type fructans reduce the risk of colon carcinogenesis and improve the management of inflammatory bowel diseases. Inulin-type fructans are thus functional food ingredients that are eligible for enhanced function claims, but, as more human data become available, risk reduction claims will become scientifically substantiated.

  14. Bioactive food components, cancer cell growth limitation and reversal of glycolytic metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keijer, Jaap; Bekkenkamp-Grovenstein, Melissa; Venema, Dini; Dommels, Yvonne E M

    2011-06-01

    Cancer cells are resistant to apoptosis and show a shift in energy production from mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation to cytosolic glycolysis. Apoptosis resistance and metabolic reprogramming are linked in many cancer cells and both processes center on mitochondria. Clearly, mutated cancer cells escape surveillance and turn into selfish cells. However, many of the mechanisms that operate cellular metabolic control still function in cancer cells. This review describes the metabolic importance of glucose and glutamine, glycolytic enzymes, oxygen, growth cofactors and mitochondria and focuses on the potential role of bioactive food components, including micronutrients. The role of B- and A-vitamin cofactors in (mitochondrial) metabolism is highlighted and the cancer protective potential of omega-3 fatty acids and several polyphenols is discussed in relation to metabolic reprogramming, including the mechanisms that may be involved. Furthermore, it is shown that cancer cell growth reduction by limiting the growth cofactor folic acid seems to be associated with reversal of metabolic reprogramming. Altogether, reversal of metabolic reprogramming may be an attractive strategy to increase susceptibility to apoptotic surveillance. Food bioactive components that affect various aspects of metabolism may be important tools to reverse glycolytic to oxidative metabolism and enhance sensitivity to apoptosis. The success of such a strategy may depend on several actors, acting in concert. Growth cofactors may be one of these, which call for careful (re)evaluation of their function in normal and in cancer metabolism.

  15. Development of functional foods for radiation workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jo, Sung Kee; Yu, Young Beob; Park, Hae Ran; Byun, Myung Woo; Yang, Jae Seung; Kim, Sung Ho; Yee, Sung Tae

    2000-03-01

    In searching modulators of immunity and hematopoiesis among natural products, being used as foods, six herbs exhibited lymphocyte proliferation in vitro, and six exhibited augmentation of hematopoietic cell growth. The combined treatments showed synergistic effects of lymphocyte proliferation and of hematopoietic cell growth. On the other hand, we found four effective oriental medicinal prescriptions, used as energy tonic or blood-building decoctions, for survival and regeneration of hematopoietic cells and for protection of stem cells of intestinal crypt in irradiated mice. On the basis of these results, extracts from combinations of herbs were made in expectation of higher effects in the three respects. In immuno modulation activity by the two combinations of herbs was confirmed in mice. In culture of bone narrow cells, growth improvement of non-adherent precursor and induction of cytokine expression by herb mixture extracts were observed. In evaluation of fractions, polysaccharide fraction showed modulation of immunity and hematopoiesis, and methanol fraction showed stem cell protection from radiation. On the basis of the results, we made two provisional products by addition of polysaccharide fraction to the water extract. In further research, the active components would be identified and the fractional foods would be developed for overcoming of declined immunity and radiation damage. For security of sanitation by irradiation, the stability in activity of irradiated resources was confirmed. (author)

  16. Functional foods and cardiometabolic diseases : International Task Force for Prevention of Cardiometabolic Diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Assman, G.; Buono, P.; Valle, Della E.; Farinaro, E.; Ferns, G.; Krogh, V.; Kromhout, D.

    2014-01-01

    Mounting evidence supports the hypothesis that functional foods containing physiologically-active components may be healthful. Longitudinal cohort studies have shown that some food classes and dietary patterns are beneficial in primary prevention, and this has led to the identification of putative f

  17. Functional links and robustness in food webs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allesina, Stefano; Bodini, Antonio; Pascual, Mercedes

    2009-06-27

    The robustness of ecosystems to species losses is a central question in ecology, given the current pace of extinctions and the many species threatened by human impacts, including habitat destruction and climate change. Robustness from the perspective of secondary extinctions has been addressed in the context of food webs to consider the complex network of species interactions that underlie responses to perturbations. In-silico removal experiments have examined the structural properties of food webs that enhance or hamper the robustness of ecosystems to species losses, with a focus on the role of hubs, the most connected species. Here we take a different approach and focus on the role of the connections themselves. We show that trophic links can be divided into functional and redundant based on their contribution to robustness. The analysis of empirical webs shows that hubs are not necessarily the most important species as they may hold many redundant links. Furthermore, the fraction of functional connections is high and constant across systems regardless of size and interconnectedness. The main consequence of this scaling pattern is that ecosystem robustness can be considerably reduced by species extinctions even when these do not result in any secondary extinctions. This introduces the possibility of tipping points in the collapse of ecosystems.

  18. Peanuts as functional food: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arya, Shalini S; Salve, Akshata R; Chauhan, S

    2016-01-01

    Peanut is an important crop grown worldwide. Commercially it is used mainly for oil production but apart from oil, the by-products of peanut contains many other functional compounds like proteins, fibers, polyphenols, antioxidants, vitamins and minerals which can be added as a functional ingredient into many processed foods. Recently it has also revealed that peanuts are excellent source of compounds like resveratrol, phenolic acids, flavonoids and phytosterols that block the absorption of cholesterol from diet. It is also a good source of Co-enzyme Q10 and contains all the 20 amino acids with highest amount of arginine. These bioactive compounds have been recognized for having disease preventive properties and are thought to promote longevity. The processing methods like roasting and boiling have shown increase in the concentration of these bioactive compounds. In the present paper an overview on peanut bioactive constituents and their health benefits are presented.

  19. A valuation method on physiological functionality of food materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-10-15

    This reports is about valuation method on physiological functionality of food materials. It includes ten reports: maintenance condition of functional foods in Korea by Kim, Byeong Tae, management plan and classification of functional foods by Jung, Myeong Seop, measurement method vitality of functional foods for preventing diabetes, measurement way of aging delayed activation by Lee, Jae Yong, improvement on effectiveness of anti hypertension by functional foods by Park, Jeon Hong, and practice case for the method of test on anti gastritis antiulcer by Lee, Eun Bang.

  20. Pomegranate as a functional food and nutraceutical source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johanningsmeier, Suzanne D; Harris, G Keith

    2011-01-01

    Pomegranate, a fruit native to the Middle East, has gained widespread popularity as a functional food and nutraceutical source. The health effects of the whole fruit, as well as its juices and extracts, have been studied in relation to a variety of chronic diseases. Promising results against cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and prostate cancer have been reported from human clinical trials. The in vitro antioxidant activity of pomegranate has been attributed to its high polyphenolic content, specifically punicalagins, punicalins, gallagic acid, and ellagic acid. These compounds are metabolized during digestion to ellagic acid and urolithins, suggesting that the bioactive compounds that provide in vivo antioxidant activity may not be the same as those present in the whole food. Anthocyanins and the unique fatty acid profile of the seed oil may also play a role in pomegranate's health effects. A more complete characterization of pomegranate components and their physiological fate may provide mechanistic insight into the potential health benefits observed in clinical trials.

  1. Design management of functional foods for quality of life improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butnariu, Monica; Caunii, Angela

    2013-01-01

    The paper examines the benefit of bread enriched with antioxidants on oxidative stress, and on the quantities of hydrosoluble antioxidants in a group of human subjects. The home-management of functional foods strategy seeks to improve prompt and effective basic nutrition using additional attributes that are directly positively beneficial for health and well-being. The purpose of this clinical study was to test the tolerance and benefits of multicomponent functional foods enriched with antioxidant compounds obtained from plant extracts on healthy adult volunteers. A detailed protocol was created to formalize and standardize the procedures for data collection, e.g. filling out standardized forms and functional diet questionnaires. For the research method, Group A was given the special diet enriched with multicomponent antioxidant foods and Group B (control). The data were analysed using the quantitative methods. They showed significant increase of hydrosoluble antioxidants in group A compared to control, from 220.61+/-27.92 - 313.56+/-37.09 micrograms/mL (p=0.05), compared to 280.47+/-32.1 - 238.27+/-44.93 micrograms/mL (p=0.45). Also, oxidative stress values showed a decrease in the diet group compared to control that reached statistical significance. Oxidative stress decreased in the diet group to 244 +/- 89 compared to 308+/-108 UFORT in the control group. The responses of the prevention of chronic diseases to a functional foods strategy depend on how they are absorbed and utilized in the body. An anti-oxidant diet with natural bioactive components could become an interesting solution for degenerative disorders in which oxidative stress is increased.

  2. Prebiotics and probiotics: are they functional foods?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberfroid, M B

    2000-06-01

    A probiotic is a viable microbial dietary supplement that beneficially affects the host through its effects in the intestinal tract. Probiotics are widely used to prepare fermented dairy products such as yogurt or freeze-dried cultures. In the future, they may also be found in fermented vegetables and meats. Several health-related effects associated with the intake of probiotics, including alleviation of lactose intolerance and immune enhancement, have been reported in human studies. Some evidence suggests a role for probiotics in reducing the risk of rotavirus-induced diarrhea and colon cancer. Prebiotics are nondigestible food ingredients that benefit the host by selectively stimulating the growth or activity of one or a limited number of bacteria in the colon. Work with prebiotics has been limited, and only studies involving the inulin-type fructans have generated sufficient data for thorough evaluation regarding their possible use as functional food ingredients. At present, claims about reduction of disease risk are only tentative and further research is needed. Among the claims are constipation relief, suppression of diarrhea, and reduction of the risks of osteoporosis, atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease associated with dyslipidemia and insulin resistance, obesity, and possibly type 2 diabetes. The combination of probiotics and prebiotics in a synbiotic has not been studied. This combination might improve the survival of the bacteria crossing the upper part of the gastrointestinal tract, thereby enhancing their effects in the large bowel. In addition, their effects might be additive or even synergistic.

  3. 78 FR 1881 - Certain Food Waste Disposers and Components and Packaging Thereof; Notice of the Commission's...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION Certain Food Waste Disposers and Components and Packaging Thereof; Notice of the Commission's Determination Not To Review Initial Determinations Granting Complainant's Motions To Partially Terminate...

  4. 77 FR 50716 - Certain Food Waste Disposers and Components and Packaging Thereof; Notice of Commission...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION Certain Food Waste Disposers and Components and Packaging Thereof; Notice of Commission Determination Not to Review an Initial Determination Granting Complainant's Motions To Amend the Notice...

  5. Physical Demands, Mental Performance and Food Components in Military Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-08-01

    Glucose has a positive effect on reaction time, alertness and the speed of information processing. - The amino acid taurine may, in combination with...soldiers as well. Other components such as gingko biloba, ginseng, chocolate, taurine and tryptophan are not tested for their effectiveness in military...alternate kneeling muscular strength environment down/standing up upper extremity heat digging back/arms/ shoulders cold overcome natural upper leg muscles

  6. Probiotics - the versatile functional food ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syngai, Gareth Gordon; Gopi, Ragupathi; Bharali, Rupjyoti; Dey, Sudip; Lakshmanan, G M Alagu; Ahmed, Giasuddin

    2016-02-01

    Probiotics are live microbes which when administered in adequate amounts as functional food ingredients confer a health benefit on the host. Their versatility is in terms of their usage which ranges from the humans to the ruminants, pigs and poultry, and also in aquaculture practices. In this review, the microorganisms frequently used as probiotics in human and animal welfare has been described, and also highlighted are the necessary criteria required to be fulfilled for their use in humans on the one hand and on the other as microbial feed additives in animal husbandry. Further elaborated in this article are the sources from where probiotics can be derived, the possible mechanisms by which they act, and their future potential role as antioxidants is also discussed.

  7. Functional Foods in Macedonia: Consumers’ Perspective and Public Health Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Spiroski

    2013-12-01

    Conclusion: On average, Macedonian consumers have a positive attitude and high expectations of functional foods. Public health policies still lag when compared to comprehensive approach of the food industry in market placement of these products.

  8. Evaluating bioactive food components in obesity and cancer prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowe, Kristi M; Allison, David

    2015-01-01

    Research into bioactive food compounds (BFC) continues to evolve albeit with shared challenges among scientists in the fields of obesity and cancer treatment and prevention. Given the diversity of scientific disciplines involved in evaluating BFC, multidisciplinary conferences provide opportunities to update the state of the science and critically discuss conceptual and methodological challenges encountered in studying BFC in both preclinical and clinical trials. This overview is an introduction to presentations given at a conference sponsored by the National Cancer Institute of the National Institutes of Health and the University of Alabama at Birmingham, which convened a multidisciplinary group of researchers evaluating BFC in obesity and cancer prevention. Full presentations can be viewed in video format at http://www.norc.uab.edu/courses/conferences/conference2013.

  9. Development of Functional Foods and Advanced Technology for Radioprotection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jo, Sung Kee; Byun, Myung Woo; Kim, Jin Kyu (and others)

    2003-05-15

    We have previously developed two medicinal herb mixtures that protects immune/hematopoietic system and self-renewal tissues against irradiation and enhances immune/hematopoietic functions. In this study, we have developed two pilot products by adding the effective fractions to the hot water extract of the herb mixtures and investigated their efficacy. In irradiated mice, pilot products protected hematopoietic stem cells, promoted the regeneration and activation of immune cells, normalized the unbalanced immune reaction, and inhibited the growth of cancer cells. Polysaccharide was active fraction and mechanisms were elucidated. The products also protected the stem cells in self-renewal tissues. DNA/membrane damages, apoptotic cell signals, chromosome/DNA alterations, and oxidation of protein/lipid were inhibited by pilot products, and their radical scavenging activities were observed. Five active components were isolated and identified. Pilot products also inhibited the cancer development by 30% in irradiated mice. In clinical investigation, pilot products inhibited the side-effects of cancer therapy including immune/hematopoietic depression. Therefore, the pilot products may be used as functional foods for overcoming of immune/hematopoietic depression and self-renewal tissue damages induced by irradiation, as well as for the immune/hematopoietic enhancement. Also we have screened food materials for inhibition of radiation-induced chronic damage (carcinogenesis), and selected effective 4 materials and elicited two mixture preparations with enhanced activity, and confirmed their inhibitory activities in cancer initiation model systems. To obtain the applicability of radiation technology for the safe sanitation and distribution of functional food materials, we verified the toxicological safety, stability of activity and active components of irradiated medicinal herbs. Also, screening of new radioprotective materials and basic biological research for the enhancement of

  10. 78 FR 52429 - Indirect Food Additives: Adhesives and Components of Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 175 Indirect Food Additives: Adhesives and Components of Coatings CFR Correction In Title 21 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Parts 170 to...

  11. Is tomato a healthy and/or functional food?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inmaculada Navarro-González

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a literature review about the presence of bioactive compounds in tomato and tomato based food, and these compounds function to promote health in the human organism. Several scientific studies show that tomato and tomato based products have several molecules, some of them with antioxidant activity, that protect lipids, lipoproteins, DNA, etc. against free radicals. This function could be one of the causes of the apparent link between consumption and protection of degenerative and chronic diseases such as cancer, cardiovascular disease, Parkinson’s disease, etc. More recent studies have proposed different biochemical mechanisms in which tomato components can exert this beneficial role on health. In addition, several studies seem to show that the greatest benefit of this food is due to the synergistic effect between all its compounds. Some epidemiological studies associate that regular intake has several beneficial effects on health. Due to the association between bioactive compounds, daily tomato consumption and its effect on human health, the aim of the current literature review is summarize the compounds in this food and its possible actions on health.

  12. Plant Food Residues as a Source of Nutraceuticals and Functional Foods

    OpenAIRE

    Theodoros Varzakas; George Zakynthinos; Francis Verpoort

    2016-01-01

    This chapter describes the use of different plant and vegetable food residues as nutraceuticals and functional foods. Different nutraceuticals are mentioned and explained. Their uses are well addressed along with their disease management and their action as nutraceutical delivery vehicles.

  13. The Relation between Attitudes toward Functional Foods and Satisfaction with Food-Related Life

    OpenAIRE

    Schnettler, B.; Adasme-Berríos , C.; K. G. Grunert; Márquez , M.P.; Lobos , G.; Salinas-Oñate, N.; Orellana, L; Sepúlveda, J

    2016-01-01

    Purpose – To assess the effect of attitudes towards functional foods (FF) on university students’ satisfaction with food-related life and to distinguish student typologies, considering that the attitudes towards FF are not homogeneous among consumers. Design/methodology - A survey was applied to 372 university students (mean age=20.4 years, SD=2.4) in southern Chile. The questionnaire included the Attitudes towards Functional Foods (AFF) questionnaire and the Satisfaction with Food-related Li...

  14. NAD+ Is a Food Component That Promotes Exit from Dauer Diapause in Caenorhabditis elegans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mylenko, Mykola; Boland, Sebastian; Penkov, Sider; Sampaio, Julio L.; Lombardot, Benoit; Vorkel, Daniela; Verbavatz, Jean-Marc; Kurzchalia, Teymuras V.

    2016-01-01

    The free-living soil nematode Caenorhabditis elegans adapts its development to the availability of food. When food is scarce and population density is high, worms enter a developmentally arrested non-feeding diapause stage specialized for long-term survival called the dauer larva. When food becomes available, they exit from the dauer stage, resume growth and reproduction. It has been postulated that compound(s) present in food, referred to as the “food signal”, promote exit from the dauer stage. In this study, we have identified NAD+ as a component of bacterial extract that promotes dauer exit. NAD+, when dissolved in alkaline medium, causes opening of the mouth and ingestion of food. We also show that to initiate exit from the dauer stage in response to NAD+ worms require production of serotonin. Thus, C. elegans can use redox cofactors produced by dietary organisms to sense food. PMID:27907064

  15. Development of Functional Foods for Body Protection Using Radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jo, S. K.; Jung, U. H.; Park, H. R.

    2007-07-15

    We have previously developed two herbal compositions(HemoHIM, HemoTonic) that protects immune/hematopoietic system and self-renewal tissues against radiation and enhances immune/hematopoietic functions. In this study, we tried to expand its usability by verifying its protective activity against various harmful stimuli as well as radiation. HemoHIM was shown to be highly effective in reducing immune/hematopoietic damage, particularly, normalizing the Th1/Th2 imbalance, which seemed to be a result of increased production of IL-12p70 by APC and enhanced NK cell activity. Also HemoHIM was shown to have protective activities against UV-induced skin damage, immune system damage by an anticancer drug (CP), immune depression by old age and stress, and inflammation. Finally it was confirmed in a human study that HemoHIM improves the immune cell functions and cytokine production. Based on these results, HemoHIM has been approved as a health functional food for immunomodulation by Korea FDA and succeeded in its industrialization. Meanwhile, to develop functional foods for the reduction of chronic radiation damage (carcinogenesis), we have screened natural products for inhibitory activities against carcinogenesis-related factors, and developed two anti-carcinogenic compositions. Also 6 single compounds were isolated and identified from radioprotective natural products and elucidated some synergistic protection by several single compounds and established a basis for the development of advanced technology for radioprotection. Also, to obtain the applicability of radiation technology for the safe sanitatation and distribution of functional food materials, we verified the toxicological safety, stability of activity and active components of irradiated medicinal herbs

  16. Consumer Market for Functional Foods in South Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia Dutra de Barcellos

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims at investigating the consumer market for functional foods (FF in Porto Alegre, South Brazil. Functional food is any healthy food claimed to have a health-promoting or disease-preventing property beyond the basic function of supplying nutrients. Health has been named as the most significant trend and innovation driver in the global food and drinks market. Brazil is one of the leading countries in food production and consumption, and the market for functional foods have been growing 10% per year, three times more than the market for conventional foods. Although this food category is considered mature in some developed markets (such as in Japan, in the Nordic countries and in the U.S, it is still unknown for many consumers, especially those located in developing countries. On the other hand, functional foods has been attracting the attention of multinationals and local food industries in Brazil, since innovation can significantly impact on their competitive advantages. Therefore, in this study, first we are going to identify the availability of functional food products in the local retail market, through observation techniques. Our aim is to confront consumers’ needs with local food companies’ market supply. Secondly, we investigate consumers’ motivations, attitudes and intention to buy functional foods, since the market demands a better understanding of this trend. A survey with 450 consumers was conducted and provided quantitative insights. Results indicate that the market for functional foods in Rio Grande do Sul is incipient, but it is developing fast. There are few local functional food products in the market, but those are attractive to consumers and indicate promising opportunities. The survey shows that interviewed consumers presented positive attitudes towards functional foods and enough purchasing power to buy it. Dieticians, nutritionists and other health professionals have high credibility and could help inform

  17. Immunomodulation by Food: Allergy Mitigation by Dietary Components

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wichers, H.J.; Mes, J.J.

    2011-01-01

    Proper and well-balanced immune functioning is of pivotal importance to health and well-being. In the past decades, there has been an apparent decrease in the prevalence of classical infectious diseases, with a concomitant increase in immune-related disorders, including allergies. Causally, a relati

  18. [Components of plastic disrupt the function of the nervous system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szychowski, Konrad Andrzej; Wójtowicz, Anna Katarzyna

    2013-05-27

    Development of the chemical industry leads to the development of new chemical compounds, which naturally do not exist in the environment. These chemicals are used to reduce flammability, increase plasticity, or improve solubility of other substances. Many of these compounds, which are components of plastic, the new generation of cosmetics, medical devices, food packaging and other everyday products, are easily released into the environment. Many studies have shown that a major lipophilicity characterizes substances such as phthalates, BPA, TBBPA and PCBs. This feature allows them to easily penetrate into living cells, accumulate in the tissues and the organs, and affect human and animal health. Due to the chemical structures, these compounds are able to mimic some endogenous hormones such as estradiol and to disrupt the hormone homeostasis. They can also easily pass the placental barrier and the blood-brain barrier. As numerous studies have shown, these chemicals disturb the proper functions of the nervous system from the earliest moments of life. It has been proven that these compounds affect neurogenesis as well as the synaptic transmission process. As a consequence, they interfere with the formation of the sex of the brain, as well as with the learning processes, memory and behavior. Additionally, the cytotoxic and pro-apoptotic effect may cause neurodegenerative diseases. This article presents the current state of knowledge about the effects of phthalates, BPA, TBBPA, and PCBs on the nervous system.

  19. The proposal of vinegar farm with the character of functional foods.

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    The work is focused on the development of a new functional food . The functional food in addition to nutrient sources must clearly contribute to the health improvement thanks to another ingredient which must be of natural origin. I chose vinegar as the basic component in my work. The vinegar can be made in a vinegar manufacturer through classical oxidation technique of diluted ethanol solution by acetic bacteria on the large contact surface with air alcohol analysis . Diluted ethanol may well...

  20. Nutrition by design: a review of biotechnology in functional food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Reynolds

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Medical institutions in industrial and developing countries are increasingly turning to functional foods as intervention in chronic disease. Advances in genetic engineering have provided methods of purposefully designing functional foods and bioactive compound-producing organisms. This literature review examines the recent history of biotechnological applications in functional food, the state of bioagricultural engineering for high-value compound production, and the challenges that developers face in promulgatingfunctional foods from biotechnological sources. Based on the literature reviewed, it is predicted that adding biotechnologically-produced compounds will be more successful in producing novel functional foods. Conclusion: Current functional food application is frequently hampered by a dearth of foods suitable to the purpose. The concurrent advent of biotechnology means that producers and clinicians are not constrained by limited and precarious natural development. Biotechnology has already produced altered dietary staples that can safely induce real health benefits, but the social approval of genetically modified foodstuffs is inconsistent at best. Modifying microalgae to produce micro and macronutrients, for harvest and incorporation into functional food products, provides the ideal specificity and reliability for bioactive compound use. However, its application in biomedical science is impeded by technical difficulty. It remains to be seen if microorganism engineering willbe able to meet the needs of its many stakeholders, including the functional food community. Nonetheless,the prospect of a flourishing functional food market, and the healthier population it will bring about, certainly makes it worth a try.

  1. Suitability of Different Food Grade Materials for the Encapsulation of Some Functional Foods Well Reported for Their Advantages and Susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wani, Touseef Ahmed; Shah, Adil Gani; Wani, Sajad Mohd; Wani, Idrees Ahmed; Masoodi, Farooq Ahmad; Nissar, Nazia; Shagoo, Mudasir Ahmad

    2016-11-17

    Functional foods find a very important place in the modern era, where different types of cancer, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, etc. are on a high. Irrespective of the abundance of bioactive components in different fruits and vegetables, their low solubility in aqueous solution, vulnerability to destruction in different environmental and gastrointestinal conditions and a low intestinal absorption becomes a concern. Because it is quite difficult to commercialize non food materials for the food encapsulation purposes due to their safety concerns in the human body, scientists in the recent times have come up with the idea of encapsulating the different bioactive components in different food grade materials that are able to safeguard these bioactive components against the different environmental and gastrointestinal conditions and ensure their safe and targeted delivery at their absorption sites. Different food grade encapsulation materials including various oligosaccharides, polysaccharides (starch, cyclodextrins, alginates, chitosan, gum arabic, and carboxymethyl cellulose) and proteins and their suitability for encapsulating various bioactive components like flavonoids (catechins, rutin, curcumin, hesperetin, and vanillin), nonflavonoids (resveratrol), carotenoids (β-carotene, lycopene, and lutein), and fatty acids (fish oil, flaxseed oil, and olive oil) of high medical and nutritional value are reviewed here.

  2. Improved Functional Characteristics of Whey Protein Hydrolysates in Food Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Jeewanthi, Renda Kankanamge Chaturika; Lee, Na-Kyoung; Paik, Hyun-Dong

    2015-01-01

    This review focuses on the enhanced functional characteristics of enzymatic hydrolysates of whey proteins (WPHs) in food applications compared to intact whey proteins (WPs). WPs are applied in foods as whey protein concentrates (WPCs), whey protein isolates (WPIs), and WPHs. WPs are byproducts of cheese production, used in a wide range of food applications due to their nutritional validity, functional activities, and cost effectiveness. Enzymatic hydrolysis yields improved functional and nutr...

  3. Occurrence and function of yeasts in Asian indigenous fermented foods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aidoo, K.E.; Nout, M.J.R.; Sarkar, P.K.

    2006-01-01

    In the Asian region, indigenous fermented foods are important in daily life. In many of these foods, yeasts are predominant and functional during the fermentation. The diversity of foods in which yeasts predominate ranges from leavened bread-like products such as nan and idli, to alcoholic beverages

  4. Occurrence and function of yeasts in Asian indigenous fermented foods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aidoo, K.E.; Nout, M.J.R.; Sarkar, P.K.

    2006-01-01

    In the Asian region, indigenous fermented foods are important in daily life. In many of these foods, yeasts are predominant and functional during the fermentation. The diversity of foods in which yeasts predominate ranges from leavened bread-like products such as nan and idli, to alcoholic beverages

  5. Food insecurity and cognitive function in Puerto Rican adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Food insecurity is associated with nutrient inadequacy and a variety of unfavorable health outcomes. However, little is known about whether food security is associated with lower cognitive function in the elderly. We investigated the prevalence of food insecurity in a representative sample of 1358 P...

  6. Consumption of functional foods in Europe: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asli E. Özen

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess differences in functional foods consumption between European countries. Design: Systematic review. The literature search was conducted in Medlars Online International Literature (MEDLINE, via PubMed© and Scopus. Twenty two studies were identified to examine the differences in functional food consumption between European countries. Results: Figures on consumers of functional foods reveal differences across European countries. Functional foods are popular in most of European countries like Finland, Sweden, the Netherlands, Poland, Spain and Cyprus, but not so in other countries like Denmark, Italy and Belgium. A high percentage of adolescents in the European Mediterranean countries (Spain and Cyprus, but not Italy consume functional foods. Evaluation of functional foods consumption according to gender is difficult, because results differ from one study to another. Conclusions: Functional foods have become very popular in Europe in recent years, but still huge differences exist between Europeans on consumption of functional foods. Further research is needed to find out the reasons behind these differences and to understand consumers' needs for functional foods.

  7. Genetically modified food - one of the ways of the functional food production?

    OpenAIRE

    Kamil Pícha

    2004-01-01

    In current time emerge the informations about using of genetic modification as a mean to gain a positive benefit of food, it means for production of functional food. The problem can be already the consumer's confidence that the concrete food will really have the promised effect. Its attitude can be further influenced also by the information on the package about use of GMO.

  8. Dietary supplements and functional foods: 2 sides of a coin?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halsted, Charles H

    2003-04-01

    Dietary supplements are used by more than one-half of the adult US population. In contrast to pharmaceuticals, dietary supplements may be sold in the United States with little regulation other than listing of ingredients and the potential health benefits. By contrast, herbal products in Germany are carefully regulated by the same standards as drugs, and efforts are under way to standardize their regulation in the entire European Union. Most herbal users do not inform their physicians that they are taking these supplements, and most physicians do not inquire. Although some herbal products have clinically proven benefits, it is increasingly apparent that many contain potentially toxic substances, particularly in relation to interactions with drugs. Hence, it is essential that practicing physicians develop a working knowledge of herbals-specifically, about claims for their usage and potential or proven efficacies and toxicities-and that they incorporate such knowledge into the evaluation and management of their patients. By contrast, functional foods-integral components of the diet that are understood to contribute added health benefits-are the subject of intense and widespread research in food and nutritional science. Examples include many polyphenolic substances, carotenoids, soy isoflavones, fish oils, and components of nuts that possess antioxidant and other properties that decrease the risk of vascular diseases and cancer. Practicing physicians are advised to stay abreast of these emerging findings in order to best advise their patients on the value of health-promoting diets in disease prevention.

  9. Safety impact--the risk/benefits of functional foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascal, Gérard

    2009-12-01

    It is amazing to see how much the approach of the food risk analysis evolved in the recent years. For half a century and the birth of the risk assessment methodology in the food domain, only no appreciable health risk was considered acceptable by the manager. This is the vocabulary used in the case of a voluntary, deliberated human action, as the use of food additives (definition of ADI). In the case of risks not resulting from such an action, as that of the presence of contaminants, the risk assessor allocates provisional tolerable daily, weekly or monthly intake that are the basis for regulation. This vocabulary is in agreement with the objective which consists in approaching closer possible of the zero risk which is the wish of a majority of the consumers. Some years ago, the risk managers insisted to obtain from the assessors as often as possible a quantitative risk evaluation. More recently even, the managers would like to decide on the basis of a balance of risk and benefit acceptable for management purposes. Finally, they hope that general principles and tools will be available for conducting a quantitative risk-benefit analysis for foods and food ingredients. What is possible in the case of functional foods (FF)? Based on the definition of FF proposed in the programme FUFOSE, one has to distinguish between different situations in order to assess the risk: that of a micro-, that of a macro-component or that of a whole food. These situations have been clearly described in the document resulting from FOSIE. The standardized methodology relevant to assess micro-components is not well adapted to the assessment of whole food. Concepts of substantial equivalence and of history of safe use could be useful tools in this case. However, quantitative risk assessment remains a very difficult exercise. If a process for the assessment of health benefit of FF has been proposed as an outcome of the PASSCLAIM action, the quantification of this benefit needs adequate tools

  10. Exotic berries as a functional food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasekan, Ola

    2014-11-01

    Berries and berry extracts are known to possess properties (i.e., phenolic acids, flavonoids, and anthocyanins) that make them important in disease prevention. Observational studies have shown that many berries may hold promise for public health. However, the long-term impact of berries intake on specific populations and their functionality claims has not been fully tested. In addition, although several biological effects which are based on epidemiological studies have been explained scientifically, the mechanism of their actions is not fully understood. Therefore, this review set out to address the issue of berries intake and their potential functionality. In addition, a glimpse of what the future may hold for the berries was highlighted. Many of the potential health benefits of berries have been associated with their specific chemical and biological properties including their ability to modulate enzymes as well as interact, and bind to proteins. General inspection of the literature suggests that berries, such as cranberries and goji, are efficacious in the treatment of urinary tract infection and seasonal influenza, respectively. Recent study on wild blueberries has shown that they possess protective effect against cardiovascular disease. In addition, other berries have been reported to possess the ability to inhibit cervical cells (HeLa cells), modulate postprandial glucose and insulin responses. However, there is a need to address the issue of safety, efficacy, and interactions of berries intake with other dietary components. Also, more research studies should be focused on the influence of biotechnology on the functionality of berries. http://links.lww.com/COCN/A8.

  11. Design of Electro-Functional Polymeric Systems with Siloxane Components

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yusuke Kawakami

    2005-01-01

    @@ 1Introduction Siloxane derivatives have many unique static and dynamic properties like low surface free energy, incompatibility with other component, and bond flexibility. Various functional polymeric systems were designed by taking advantage of these properties.

  12. Functional food science and the cardiovascular system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornstra, G; Barth, C A; Galli, C; Mensink, R P; Mutanen, M; Riemersma, R A; Roberfroid, M; Salminen, K; Vansant, G; Verschuren, P M

    1998-08-01

    Cardiovascular disease has a multifactorial aetiology, as is illustrated by the existence of numerous risk indicators, many of which can be influenced by dietary means. It should be recalled, however, that only after a cause-and-effect relationship has been established between the disease and a given risk indicator (called a risk factor in that case), can modifying this factor be expected to affect disease morbidity and mortality. In this paper, effects of diet on cardiovascular risk are reviewed, with special emphasis on modification of the plasma lipoprotein profile and of hypertension. In addition, dietary influences on arterial thrombotic processes, immunological interactions, insulin resistance and hyperhomocysteinaemia are discussed. Dietary lipids are able to affect lipoprotein metabolism in a significant way, thereby modifying the risk of cardiovascular disease. However, more research is required concerning the possible interactions between the various dietary fatty acids, and between fatty acids and dietary cholesterol. In addition, more studies are needed with respect to the possible importance of the postprandial state. Although in the aetiology of hypertension the genetic component is definitely stronger than environmental factors, some benefit in terms of the development and coronary complications of atherosclerosis in hypertensive patients can be expected from fatty acids such as alpha-linolenic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid. This particularly holds for those subjects where the hypertensive mechanism involves the formation of thromboxane A2 and/or alpha 1-adrenergic activities. However, large-scale trials are required to test this contention. Certain aspects of blood platelet function, blood coagulability, and fibrinolytic activity are associated with cardiovascular risk, but causality has been insufficiently proven. Nonetheless, well-designed intervention studies should be initiated to further evaluate such promising dietary

  13. Hadronization corrections to helicity components of the fragmentation function

    CERN Document Server

    Sjöstrand, Torbjörn; Jarlskog, C; Jarlskog, Ch. Zacharatou

    2001-01-01

    In the hadronic decays of Z, gluon emission leads to the appearance of the longitudinal component of the fragmentation function, F_L. Measurement of F_L and the transverse component, F_T, could thus provide an insight into the gluon fragmentation function. However, hadronization corrections at low x can be significant. Here we present a method of accounting for such corrections, using the JETSET event generator as illustration.

  14. Executive Function and Food Approach Behavior in Middle Childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karoline eGroppe

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Executive function (EF has long been considered to be a unitary, domain-general cognitive ability. However, recent research suggests differentiating ‘hot’ affective and ‘cool’ cognitive aspects of EF. Yet, findings regarding this two-factor construct are still inconsistent. In particular, the development of this factor structure remains unclear and data on school-aged children is lacking. Furthermore, studies linking EF and overweight or obesity suggest that EF contributes to the regulation of eating behavior. So far, however, the links between EF and eating behavior have rarely been investigated in children and non-clinical populations.First, we examined whether EF can be divided into hot and cool factors or whether they actually correspond to a unitary construct in middle childhood. Second, we examined how hot and cool EF are associated with different eating styles that put children at risk of becoming overweight during development. Hot and cool EF were assessed experimentally in a non-clinical population of 1,657 elementary-school children (aged 6-11 years. The ‘food approach’ behavior was rated mainly via parent questionnaires.Findings indicate that hot EF is distinguishable from cool EF. However, only cool EF seems to represent a coherent functional entity, whereas hot EF does not seem to be a homogenous construct. This was true for a younger and an older subgroup of children. Furthermore, different EF components were correlated with eating styles, such as responsiveness to food, desire to drink, and restrained eating in girls but not in boys. This shows that lower levels of EF are not only seen in clinical populations of obese patients but are already associated with food approach styles in a normal population of elementary school-aged girls. Although the direction of effect still has to be clarified, results point to the possibility that EF constitutes a risk factor for eating styles contributing to the development of

  15. Executive function and food approach behavior in middle childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groppe, Karoline; Elsner, Birgit

    2014-01-01

    Executive function (EF) has long been considered to be a unitary, domain-general cognitive ability. However, recent research suggests differentiating "hot" affective and "cool" cognitive aspects of EF. Yet, findings regarding this two-factor construct are still inconsistent. In particular, the development of this factor structure remains unclear and data on school-aged children is lacking. Furthermore, studies linking EF and overweight or obesity suggest that EF contributes to the regulation of eating behavior. So far, however, the links between EF and eating behavior have rarely been investigated in children and non-clinical populations. First, we examined whether EF can be divided into hot and cool factors or whether they actually correspond to a unitary construct in middle childhood. Second, we examined how hot and cool EF are associated with different eating styles that put children at risk of becoming overweight during development. Hot and cool EF were assessed experimentally in a non-clinical population of 1657 elementary-school children (aged 6-11 years). The "food approach" behavior was rated mainly via parent questionnaires. Findings indicate that hot EF is distinguishable from cool EF. However, only cool EF seems to represent a coherent functional entity, whereas hot EF does not seem to be a homogenous construct. This was true for a younger and an older subgroup of children. Furthermore, different EF components were correlated with eating styles, such as responsiveness to food, desire to drink, and restrained eating in girls but not in boys. This shows that lower levels of EF are not only seen in clinical populations of obese patients but are already associated with food approach styles in a normal population of elementary school-aged girls. Although the direction of effect still has to be clarified, results point to the possibility that EF constitutes a risk factor for eating styles contributing to the development of overweight in the long-term.

  16. Utilisation of corn (Zea mays) bran and corn fiber in the production of food components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Devin J; Inglett, George E; Liu, Sean X

    2010-04-30

    The milling of corn for the production of food constituents results in a number of low-value co-products. Two of the major co-products produced by this operation are corn bran and corn fiber, which currently have low commercial value. This review focuses on current and prospective research surrounding the utilization of corn fiber and corn bran in the production of potentially higher-value food components. Corn bran and corn fiber contain potentially useful components that may be harvested through physical, chemical or enzymatic means for the production of food ingredients or additives, including corn fiber oil, corn fiber gum, cellulosic fiber gels, xylo-oligosaccharides and ferulic acid. Components of corn bran and corn fiber may also be converted to food chemicals such as vanillin and xylitol. Commercialization of processes for the isolation or production of food products from corn bran or corn fiber has been met with numerous technical challenges, therefore further research that improves the production of these components from corn bran or corn fiber is needed.

  17. Functional food science in Japan: state of the art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arai, S

    2000-01-01

    In 1984, a new science related to functional food was initiated by a National Project team under the auspices of the Japan Ministry of Education and Science. It was followed by a great many academic and industrial studies to occupy a central position in the field of food and nutritional sciences. In 1993, the Ministry of Health and Welfare established a policy of "Foods for Specified Health Uses" (FOSHU) by which health claims of some selected functional foods are legally permitted. Up to now (November 22. 1999), 167 FOSHU products have been born. Since the time (1984) when the concept of functional food" was proposed, it seems that the science in Japan has been progressing along, among others, a unique path of development. The uniqueness is seen in the development of functional foods by minimizing undesirable as well as maximizing desirable food factors. Hypoallergenic foods, developed from their materials by removing allergens, offer a good example. Another characteristic may be found in the field of sensory science which aims at elucidating a molecular logic of the senses of taste and smell in reference to their effects on physiological systems in the body. The paper discusses some characteristics of functional food science in Japan, with special emphasis on these topics.

  18. Modeling complex and multi-component food systems in molecular dynamics simulations on the example of chocolate conching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greiner, Maximilian; Sonnleitner, Bettina; Mailänder, Markus; Briesen, Heiko

    2014-02-01

    Additional benefits of foods are an increasing factor in the consumer's purchase. To produce foods with the properties the consumer demands, understanding the micro- and nanostructure is becoming more important in food research today. We present molecular dynamics (MD) simulations as a tool to study complex and multi-component food systems on the example of chocolate conching. The process of conching is chosen because of the interesting challenges it provides: the components (fats, emulsifiers and carbohydrates) contain diverse functional groups, are naturally fluctuating in their chemical composition, and have a high number of internal degrees of freedom. Further, slow diffusion in the non-aqueous medium is expected. All of these challenges are typical to food systems in general. Simulation results show the suitability of present force fields to correctly model the liquid and crystal density of cocoa butter and sucrose, respectively. Amphiphilic properties of emulsifiers are observed by micelle formation in water. For non-aqueous media, pulling simulations reveal high energy barriers for motion in the viscous cocoa butter. The work for detachment of an emulsifier from the sucrose crystal is calculated and matched with detachment of the head and tail groups separately. Hydrogen bonding is shown to be the dominant interaction between the emulsifier and the crystal surface. Thus, MD simulations are suited to model the interaction between the emulsifier and sugar crystal interface in non-aqueous media, revealing detailed information about the structuring and interactions on a molecular level. With interaction parameters being available for a wide variety of chemical groups, MD simulations are a valuable tool to understand complex and multi-component food systems in general. MD simulations provide a substantial benefit to researchers to verify their hypothesis in dynamic simulations with an atomistic resolution. Rapid rise of computational resources successively

  19. Pinto Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L. as a Functional Food: Implications on Human Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicki Schlegel

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Most foods are considered functional in terms of providing nutrients and energy to sustain daily life, but dietary systems that are capable of preventing or remediating a stressed or diseased state are classified as functional foods. Dry beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L. contain high levels of chemically diverse components (phenols, resistance starch, vitamins, fructooligosaccharides that have shown to protect against such conditions as oxidative stress, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, metabolic syndrome, and many types of cancer, thereby positioning this legume as an excellent functional food. Moreover, the United States has a rich dry bean history and is currently a top producer of dry beans in the world with pinto beans accounting for the vast majority. Despite these attributes, dry bean consumption in the US remains relatively low. Therefore, the objective of this manuscript is to review dry beans as an important US agricultural crop and as functional food for the present age with an emphasis on pinto beans.

  20. LEADING TRENDS IN THE EUROPEAN FUNCTIONAL FOOD MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Kozonova

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Functional foods market is changing rapidly. Now the market has the highest growth. In the European Union food producers try to fit virtually every product under the "functional" definition. In this article we will review major trends in the EU functional foods market and try to analyze them. It is well known that foods fortified with nutritional and disease-preventing qualities are invigorating the world food industry. Health-conscious consumers are driving the demand for products that aim to promote better health, increase longevity and prevent the onset of chronic diseases. With a fast-emerging middle class, more disposable income, and a greater number of working/more educated women in emerging markets, the worldwide potential for functional foods/beverages is unprecedented. Milk formula, energy drinks, probiotic yogurt, juice drinks, sports drinks, cereal, and biscuits were among the top-performing functional global health and wellness food categories in 2014. There is a breakout of the year's top trends driving the market for functional foods and beverages. A review of recent deal drivers, the fastest-growing products and innovation trends can help businesses identify the most promising entry points to this market.

  1. Functionalization of Semiconductor Nanomaterials for Optoelectronic Devices And Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-04

    alternative for single quarter wavelength coating. Previous investigations on Ta2O5 include corrosion protection coating, electrochromic devices ...Functionalization of semiconductor nanomaterials for optoelectronic devices and components 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER FA9550-10-1-0136 5c. PROGRAM...Distribution A 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES None 14. ABSTRACT Various semiconductor nanomaterials were functionalized for optoelectronic devices , such

  2. A Component Analysis of Schedule Thinning during Functional Communication Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betz, Alison M.; Fisher, Wayne W.; Roane, Henry S.; Mintz, Joslyn C.; Owen, Todd M.

    2013-01-01

    One limitation of functional communication training (FCT) is that individuals may request reinforcement via the functional communication response (FCR) at exceedingly high rates. Multiple schedules with alternating periods of reinforcement and extinction of the FCR combined with gradually lengthening the extinction-component interval can…

  3. Functional Principal Components Analysis of Shanghai Stock Exchange 50 Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiliang Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this paper is to explore the principle components of Shanghai stock exchange 50 index by means of functional principal component analysis (FPCA. Functional data analysis (FDA deals with random variables (or process with realizations in the smooth functional space. One of the most popular FDA techniques is functional principal component analysis, which was introduced for the statistical analysis of a set of financial time series from an explorative point of view. FPCA is the functional analogue of the well-known dimension reduction technique in the multivariate statistical analysis, searching for linear transformations of the random vector with the maximal variance. In this paper, we studied the monthly return volatility of Shanghai stock exchange 50 index (SSE50. Using FPCA to reduce dimension to a finite level, we extracted the most significant components of the data and some relevant statistical features of such related datasets. The calculated results show that regarding the samples as random functions is rational. Compared with the ordinary principle component analysis, FPCA can solve the problem of different dimensions in the samples. And FPCA is a convenient approach to extract the main variance factors.

  4. Marine biotechnology advances towards applications in new functional foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Ana C; Rodrigues, Dina; Rocha-Santos, Teresa A P; Gomes, Ana M P; Duarte, Armando C

    2012-01-01

    The marine ecosystem is still an untapped reservoir of biologically active compounds, which have considerable potential to supply food ingredients towards development of new functional foods. With the goal of increasing the availability and chemical diversity of functional marine ingredients, much research has been developed using biotechnological tools to discover and produce new compounds. This review summarizes the advances in biotechnological tools for production of functional ingredients, including enzymes, for the food industry. Tools involving biotechnological processes (bioreactors, fermentations, bioprocessing) and those involving genetic research designated as molecular biotechnology are discussed highlighting how they can be used in the controlled manipulation and utilization of marine organisms as sources of food ingredients, as well as discussing the most relevant shortcomings towards applications in new functional foods.

  5. The role of functional foods, nutraceuticals, and food supplements in intestinal health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cencic, Avrelija; Chingwaru, Walter

    2010-06-01

    New eating habits, actual trends in production and consumption have a health, environmental and social impact. The European Union is fighting diseases characteristic of a modern age, such as obesity, osteoporosis, cancer, diabetes, allergies and dental problems. Developed countries are also faced with problems relating to aging populations, high energy foods, and unbalanced diets. The potential of nutraceuticals/functional foods/food supplements in mitigating health problems, especially in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, is discussed. Certain members of gut microflora (e.g., probiotic/protective strains) play a role in the host health due to its involvement in nutritional, immunologic and physiological functions. The potential mechanisms by which nutraceuticals/functional foods/food supplements may alter a host's health are also highlighted in this paper. The establishment of novel functional cell models of the GI and analytical tools that allow tests in controlled experiments are highly desired for gut research.

  6. Wigner function of coherent state of N components

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ye Yong-Hua; Zeng Gao-jian

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we study the Wigner function of coherent state of N components, especially two components and three components. This function consists of two terms: the Gaussian term and the interference term with the negativity. The first term comprises N Gaussian surfaces evenly centred on a circle of radius |β| = |α| with a separate angle of 2π/N, and the second term is composed of 1/2N(N - 1) Gaussian-cosine surfaces evenly centred in a circular region of radius |β|<|α|. Here, a is the eigenvalue of the annihilation operator a, and βis a variable in some complex space in which the Wigner function is defined. We have proved that the essential condition to eliminate the negativity of the Wigner function is that the mean photon count of the coherent state is equal to that of the Glouber coherent state.

  7. Effect of Addition of Cereal Based Beta-glucan on Technological and Functional Properties of Foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nihal Şimşekli

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays usage of dietary fibers in foods has been increasing duo to revealing of health benefits. Beta-glucans found especially in oats and barley, are polysaccharide and source of water-soluble dietary fiber. Positive effects of beta-glucans like healing coronary-heart disease, lowering blood cholesterol level, balancing blood sugar level and preventing obesity, made beta-glucans widespread functional food components for producing various foods. In addition to beneficial physiological effects of beta-glucans, they texturize, gelatinize, emulsify and stabilize the foods. They increase viscosity, replace fat and enhance rheological properties in cereal, meat and dairy products. They are also used to produce packing material depending on their mechanical properties and molecular weights. In this review, effects of addition of cereal based beta-glucans on technological and functional properties of various foods are revealed based on previous studies.

  8. Increasing component functionality via multi-process additive manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coronel, Jose L.; Fehr, Katherine H.; Kelly, Dominic D.; Espalin, David; Wicker, Ryan B.

    2017-05-01

    Additively manufactured components, although extensively customizable, are often limited in functionality. Multi-process additive manufacturing (AM) grants the ability to increase the functionality of components via subtractive manufacturing, wire embedding, foil embedding and pick and place. These processes are scalable to include several platforms ranging from desktop to large area printers. The Multi3D System is highlighted, possessing the capability to perform the above mentioned processes, all while transferring a fabricated component with a robotic arm. Work was conducted to fabricate a patent inspired, printed missile seeker. The seeker demonstrated the advantage of multi-process AM via introduction of the pick and place process. Wire embedding was also explored, with the successful interconnect of two layers of embedded wires in different planes. A final demonstration of a printed contour bracket, served to show the reduction of surface roughness on a printed part is 87.5% when subtractive manufacturing is implemented in tandem with AM. Functionality of the components on all the cases was improved. Results included optical components embedded within the printed housing, wires embedded with interconnection, and reduced surface roughness. These results highlight the improved functionality of components through multi-process AM, specifically through work conducted with the Multi3D System.

  9. Functional group diversity increases with modularity in complex food webs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoya, D; Yallop, M L; Memmott, J

    2015-06-10

    Biodiversity increases the ability of ecosystems to provide multiple functions. Most studies report a positive relationship between species richness and the number of ecosystem functions. However, it is not known whether the number of functional groups is related to the structure of the underlying species interaction network. Here we present food web data from 115 salt marsh islands and show that network structure is associated with the number of functional groups present. Functional group diversity is heterogeneously distributed across spatial scales, with some islands hosting more functional groups than others. Functional groups form modules within the community so that food webs with more modular architectures have more functional group diversity. Further, in communities with different interaction types, modularity can be seen as the multifunctional equivalent of trophic complementarity. Collectively, these findings reveal spatial heterogeneity in the number of functional groups that emerges from patterns in the structure of the food web.

  10. Evaluation in Component Technology Small Scale Food Industry Cluster in West Sumatera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunarif Taib

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of small-scale food industry cluster is influenced by the technology component. Because it required accurate information about the importance of existing technology components. This study aims to evaluate the technology components that are known several important factors that need to be improved so that clusters of small-scale food industries can thrive. This research using the program Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP to determine the level of importance of each variable based on its value. The survey results revealed that each technology component has a value as follows: technoware component of the operation of the order is a factor (0.2889, quality of raw materials (0.2770, improvement of production efficiency (0.1894, the fulfillment of production capacity (0.1717, technology adoption (0.0489 and resource technologies (0.0242. Components of the order value is organoware environmental management factor (0.6267, marketing management (0.2797 and production management (0.0936. Components infoware order value is a factor of production records (0.6267, the promotion of products (0.2797 and documentation effort (0.0936. Humanware component order is the motivation factor (0.5022, the trust fellow members (0.1883, knowledge manager (0.1854, the management skills (0.0817 and innovation (0, 0425.

  11. Preparation and evaluation of functional foods in adjuvant arthritis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Okbi, S. Y.; Mohamed, D. A.

    2012-07-01

    Adjuvant arthritis is an animal model that closely resembles rheumatoid arthritis in humans. It is a successful working model used to study new anti-inflammatory agents. In previous studies (animal and clinical) we have shown that evening primrose oil, fish oil and the methanol extract of date fruits and fenugreek seeds have anti-inflammatory activity and that the methanol extract of dates has an antioxidant effect. Based on these studies, the aim of the present study was to prepare 7 functional foods containing such bioactive fractions separately or in combination and to evaluate them in adjuvant arthritis in rats, study the stability of bioactive ingredients and evaluate their sensory properties. The studied biochemical parameters were erythrocyte sedimentation rate, erythrocyte superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and plasma copper, zinc and interlukin 2. Nutritional parameters, including body weight gain, food intake and food efficiency ratio were monitored during the feeding of the functional foods. The bioactive ingredients assessed were total phenolic contents and fatty acids. The results showed improvement in the biochemical parameters, body weight gain and food efficiency ratio of arthritic rats fed on the functional foods with different degrees. All the prepared functional foods were sensory accepted. The active ingredients showed stability during storage. In conclusion, all the tested functional foods showed promising antiinflammatory activity and were determined to be acceptable through sensory evaluation which means that their potential beneficial use as dietary supplements in rheumatoid arthritis patients may be recommended. (Author) 42 refs.

  12. Food and feed components for gut health-promoting adhesion of E. coli Salmonella enterica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Becker, P.M.; Galletti, S.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A host runs less risk of contracting a gastrointestinal infection when enteropathogenic bacteria adhere to dietary fibers instead of to epithelial cell receptors. The aim of this study was to test the binding capacity of food and feed components for intestinal bacteria from various hosts

  13. Comparative genomic analysis of innate immunity reveals novel and conserved components in crustacean food crop species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Alvina G; Aboobaker, A Aziz

    2017-05-18

    Growing global demands for crustacean food crop species have driven large investments in aquaculture research worldwide. However, large-scale production is susceptible to pathogen-mediated destruction particularly in developing economies. Thus, a thorough understanding of the immune system components of food crop species is imperative for research to combat pathogens. Through a comparative genomics approach utilising extant data from 55 species, we describe the innate immune system of the class Malacostraca, which includes all food crop species. We identify 7407 malacostracan genes from 39 gene families implicated in different aspects of host defence and demonstrate dynamic evolution of innate immunity components within this group. Malacostracans have achieved flexibility in recognising infectious agents through divergent evolution and expansion of pathogen recognition receptors genes. Antiviral RNAi, Toll and JAK-STAT signal transduction pathways have remained conserved within Malacostraca, although the Imd pathway appears to lack several key components. Immune effectors such as the antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) have unique evolutionary profiles, with many malacostracan AMPs not found in other arthropods. Lastly, we describe four putative novel immune gene families, potentially representing important evolutionary novelties of the malacostracan immune system. Our analyses across the broader Malacostraca have allowed us to not only draw analogies with other arthropods but also to identify evolutionary novelties in immune modulation components and form strong hypotheses as to when key pathways have evolved or diverged. This will serve as a key resource for future immunology research in crustacean food crops.

  14. Food and feed components for gut health-promoting adhesion of E. coli Salmonella enterica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Becker, P.M.; Galletti, S.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A host runs less risk of contracting a gastrointestinal infection when enteropathogenic bacteria adhere to dietary fibers instead of to epithelial cell receptors. The aim of this study was to test the binding capacity of food and feed components for intestinal bacteria from various hosts

  15. Fermented food in the context of a healthy diet: how to produce novel functional foods?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leroy, Frédéric; De Vuyst, Luc

    2014-11-01

    This review presents an overview of recent studies on the production of functional fermented foods, of both traditional and innovative natures, and the mapping of the functional compounds involved. The functional aspects of fermented foods are mostly related to the concept of probiotic bacteria or the targeted microbial generation of functional molecules, such as bioactive peptides, during food fermentation. Apart from conventional yoghurt and fermented milks, several fermented nondairy foods are globally gaining in interest, in particular from soy or cereal origin, sometimes novel but often originating from ethnic (Asian) diets. In addition, a range of functional nonmicrobial compounds may be added to the fermented food matrix. Overall, a wide variety of potential health benefits is being claimed, yet often poorly supported by mechanistic insights and rarely demonstrated with clinical trials or even animal models. Although functional foods offer considerable market potential, several issues still need to be addressed. As most of the studies on functional fermented foods are of a rather descriptive and preliminary nature, there is a clear need for mechanistic studies and well controlled in-vivo experiments.

  16. Selecting the Number of Principal Components in Functional Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yehua; Wang, Naisyin; Carroll, Raymond J

    2013-12-19

    Functional principal component analysis (FPCA) has become the most widely used dimension reduction tool for functional data analysis. We consider functional data measured at random, subject-specific time points, contaminated with measurement error, allowing for both sparse and dense functional data, and propose novel information criteria to select the number of principal component in such data. We propose a Bayesian information criterion based on marginal modeling that can consistently select the number of principal components for both sparse and dense functional data. For dense functional data, we also developed an Akaike information criterion (AIC) based on the expected Kullback-Leibler information under a Gaussian assumption. In connecting with factor analysis in multivariate time series data, we also consider the information criteria by Bai & Ng (2002) and show that they are still consistent for dense functional data, if a prescribed undersmoothing scheme is undertaken in the FPCA algorithm. We perform intensive simulation studies and show that the proposed information criteria vastly outperform existing methods for this type of data. Surprisingly, our empirical evidence shows that our information criteria proposed for dense functional data also perform well for sparse functional data. An empirical example using colon carcinogenesis data is also provided to illustrate the results.

  17. Selecting the Number of Principal Components in Functional Data

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Yehua

    2013-12-01

    Functional principal component analysis (FPCA) has become the most widely used dimension reduction tool for functional data analysis. We consider functional data measured at random, subject-specific time points, contaminated with measurement error, allowing for both sparse and dense functional data, and propose novel information criteria to select the number of principal component in such data. We propose a Bayesian information criterion based on marginal modeling that can consistently select the number of principal components for both sparse and dense functional data. For dense functional data, we also develop an Akaike information criterion based on the expected Kullback-Leibler information under a Gaussian assumption. In connecting with the time series literature, we also consider a class of information criteria proposed for factor analysis of multivariate time series and show that they are still consistent for dense functional data, if a prescribed undersmoothing scheme is undertaken in the FPCA algorithm. We perform intensive simulation studies and show that the proposed information criteria vastly outperform existing methods for this type of data. Surprisingly, our empirical evidence shows that our information criteria proposed for dense functional data also perform well for sparse functional data. An empirical example using colon carcinogenesis data is also provided to illustrate the results. Supplementary materials for this article are available online. © 2013 American Statistical Association.

  18. Antimicrobial activities of commercial essential oils and their components against food-borne pathogens and food spoilage bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mith, Hasika; Duré, Rémi; Delcenserie, Véronique; Zhiri, Abdesselam; Daube, Georges; Clinquart, Antoine

    2014-07-01

    This study was undertaken to determine the in vitro antimicrobial activities of 15 commercial essential oils and their main components in order to pre-select candidates for potential application in highly perishable food preservation. The antibacterial effects against food-borne pathogenic bacteria (Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella Typhimurium, and enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7) and food spoilage bacteria (Brochothrix thermosphacta and Pseudomonas fluorescens) were tested using paper disk diffusion method, followed by determination of minimum inhibitory (MIC) and bactericidal (MBC) concentrations. Most of the tested essential oils exhibited antimicrobial activity against all tested bacteria, except galangal oil. The essential oils of cinnamon, oregano, and thyme showed strong antimicrobial activities with MIC ≥ 0.125 μL/mL and MBC ≥ 0.25 μL/mL. Among tested bacteria, P. fluorescens was the most resistant to selected essential oils with MICs and MBCs of 1 μL/mL. The results suggest that the activity of the essential oils of cinnamon, oregano, thyme, and clove can be attributed to the existence mostly of cinnamaldehyde, carvacrol, thymol, and eugenol, which appear to possess similar activities against all the tested bacteria. These materials could be served as an important natural alternative to prevent bacterial growth in food products.

  19. Antimicrobial activities of commercial essential oils and their components against food-borne pathogens and food spoilage bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mith, Hasika; Duré, Rémi; Delcenserie, Véronique; Zhiri, Abdesselam; Daube, Georges; Clinquart, Antoine

    2014-01-01

    This study was undertaken to determine the in vitro antimicrobial activities of 15 commercial essential oils and their main components in order to pre-select candidates for potential application in highly perishable food preservation. The antibacterial effects against food-borne pathogenic bacteria (Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella Typhimurium, and enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7) and food spoilage bacteria (Brochothrix thermosphacta and Pseudomonas fluorescens) were tested using paper disk diffusion method, followed by determination of minimum inhibitory (MIC) and bactericidal (MBC) concentrations. Most of the tested essential oils exhibited antimicrobial activity against all tested bacteria, except galangal oil. The essential oils of cinnamon, oregano, and thyme showed strong antimicrobial activities with MIC ≥ 0.125 μL/mL and MBC ≥ 0.25 μL/mL. Among tested bacteria, P. fluorescens was the most resistant to selected essential oils with MICs and MBCs of 1 μL/mL. The results suggest that the activity of the essential oils of cinnamon, oregano, thyme, and clove can be attributed to the existence mostly of cinnamaldehyde, carvacrol, thymol, and eugenol, which appear to possess similar activities against all the tested bacteria. These materials could be served as an important natural alternative to prevent bacterial growth in food products. PMID:25473498

  20. Postlaunch Monitoring of Functional Foods - Methodology development (II)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong N de; Buurma-Rethans EJM; Fransen HP; Ocke MC; CVG

    2005-01-01

    Despite the availability of numerous cohort and monitoring studies in different populations in the Netherlands, the available information on functional food and/or supplement use on the whole from these studies is rather limited. Unfortunately, food intake data are vital for Post Launch Monitoring

  1. Functional MRI of food-induced brain responses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smeets, P.A.M.

    2006-01-01

    The ultimate goal of this research was to find central biomarkers of satiety, i.e., physiological measures in the brain that relate to subjectively rated appetite, actual food intake, or both. This thesis describes the changes in brain activity in response to food stimuli as measured by functional

  2. The "young" consumer perception of Functional Foods in Italy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giudice, Del T.; Nebbia, S.; Pascucci, S.

    2012-01-01

    We analysed the role of acceptance of functional foods (FFs) focusing on the preferences expressed by three distinct groups of young Italian consumers. FFs represent an innovation both in terms of technology and marketing for Italian food companies, and the segment of young consumers would appear es

  3. Functional MRI of food-induced brain responses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smeets, P.A.M.

    2006-01-01

    The ultimate goal of this research was to find central biomarkers of satiety, i.e., physiological measures in the brain that relate to subjectively rated appetite, actual food intake, or both. This thesis describes the changes in brain activity in response to food stimuli as measured by functional M

  4. Functional MRI of food-induced brain responses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smeets, P.A.M.

    2006-01-01

    The ultimate goal of this research was to find central biomarkers of satiety, i.e., physiological measures in the brain that relate to subjectively rated appetite, actual food intake, or both. This thesis describes the changes in brain activity in response to food stimuli as measured by functional M

  5. Quality function deployment in the food industry: a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Costa, A.I.A.; Dekker, M.; Jongen, W.M.F.

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents a detailed literature review on the topic of the application of quality function deployment (QFD) in the food industry. This review is extended with a thorough description of the methodologies involved in the practice of QFD within food companies, exemplified with the help of a c

  6. FUNCTIONAL FOODS OR PHYTOCHEMICALS, CLASSIFICATION AND IMPORTANCE

    OpenAIRE

    Chasquibol S., Nancy; Departamento de Química Analítica, Facultad de Química e Ingeniería Química Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos. Lima, Perú.; Lengua C., Laura; Departamento de Química Analítica, Facultad de Química e Ingeniería Química Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos; Delmás, Inés; Departamento de Química Analítica, Facultad de Química e Ingeniería Química Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos; Rivera C., Dolores; Departamento de Química Analítica, Facultad de Química e Ingeniería Química Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos.Lima, Perú; Bazán, Dora; Departamento de Química Analítica, Facultad de Química e Ingeniería Química Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos; Aguirre M., Rosa; Departamento de Química Analítica, Facultad de Química e Ingeniería Química Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos. Lima, Perú; Bravo A., Martha; Departamento de Química Analítica, Facultad de Química e Ingeniería Química Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos

    2014-01-01

    We described the benefits of funtional or phytochemicals foods in disease prevention and health promotion. This article is a contribution for the development of this new research area. Los alimentos funcionales o fitoquímicos tienen diversos beneficios en la prevención de enfermedades y contribuyen a reducir ciertas enfermedades crónicas. Se presenta el siguiente articulo como conttibución para el desarrollo de esta nueva área de investigación.

  7. The relation between attitudes toward functional foods and satisfaction with food-related life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schnettler, Berta; Adasme-Berríos, Cristian; Grunert, Klaus G;

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to assess the effect of attitudes towards functional foods (AFF) on university students’ satisfaction with food-related life (SWFL) and to distinguish student typologies, considering that the AFF are not homogeneous among consumers. Design/methodology/approach...

  8. Development of a locally sustainable functional food based on mutandabota, a traditional food in southern Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mpofu, A.; Linnemann, A.R.; Sybesma, W.; Kort, R.; Nout, M.J.R.; Smid, E.J.

    2014-01-01

    A probiotic dairy product was developed on the basis of a traditional dish called mutandabota to enable resource-poor populations in southern Africa to benefit from a functional food. Mutandabota is widely consumed in rural southern Africa, making it an ideal food matrix to carry probiotics. First,

  9. Plant Food Residues as a Source of Nutraceuticals and Functional Foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theodoros Varzakas

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This chapter describes the use of different plant and vegetable food residues as nutraceuticals and functional foods. Different nutraceuticals are mentioned and explained. Their uses are well addressed along with their disease management and their action as nutraceutical delivery vehicles.

  10. Research, Design and Manufacture of Functional Components of the Microsatellite's Components "Republica Moldova"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bostan, Ion; Canter, Valeriu; Secrieru, Nicolae; Bodean, Ghenadie; Blaja, Valeriu

    2012-06-01

    This paper deals with the main current results of investigation , designing and manufacturing of functional components of microsatellite, obtained in the State investigation programm, "Valoristaion of renewable energy in the Republic of Moldova and development of Moldavian Satellite". The satellite will have a mass of 12.5 kg. The paper contains 8 chapters, 11 figures, 11 bibliographical references.

  11. Novel approaches in food-processing technology: new technologies for preserving foods and modifying function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knorr, D

    1999-10-01

    Recent advances in emerging food-processing technologies, such as high hydrostatic pressure or high-intensity electric field pulses, allow targeted and sophisticated modification and preservation of foods. We are beginning to understand the mechanisms involved in pressure inactivation of bacterial spores and have been collecting considerable amounts of kinetic data regarding inactivation mechanisms of enzymes and vegetative microorganisms. We are also gaining more insight into the permeabilization of plant membranes and related biosynthetic responses, making progress in food structure engineering and food modification for function, and have been initiating process developments for gentle processing of delicate biomaterials based on pressure-assisted phase transitions of water.

  12. Folk to functional: An explorative overview of rice-based fermented foods and beverages in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mousumi Ray

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Fermented foods share an integral part of age-old wisdom from ancient Indian civilization. Over the generations, this pioneering practice of food fermentation has expanded and improved to preserve and fortify the available food resources, particularly to meet the hidden hunger. India, being the second largest producer of rice, has a great history of traditional rice-based fermented foods with different tastes and textures linked with cultural diversity and mostly prepared by rural women following village art techniques. Some of them have been scientifically investigated and it has been revealed that microflora in natural or starter culture plays imperative roles to bio-embolden the rice with varieties of health promoting macronutrients and micronutrients, phytochemicals, and other functional components during fermentation. In this review, some explorative information on traditional rice-based foods and beverages has been assembled to illustrate the global interest in Indian food heritage and their functional aspects. The review also deals with the preparation of raw materials, traditional processing, composition, and ethno-medicinal importance of each food to encourage entrepreneurs to develop large-scale production to meet the growing market demand of functional foods.

  13. Search for the active components and studies on the mechanism of the hematopoiesis improvement foods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yee, Sung Tae; Ha, Mee Hye; Jeong, Young Ran [Sunchon National University, Chonan (Korea)

    1999-04-01

    In this experiments, we established long-termed culture methods of bone marrow stromal cells for proliferation and differentiation of stem cells. And we selected some extracts which support maximal proliferation of stromal cells with this method. We conformed the synergic effects of herval mixture extracts for stromal cell growth. The proliferation of stromal cells was increased rather by the addition of mixture extracts than by addition of single strain extract. In the previous and cooperative experiments, we selected complex extracts which increased the number of nonadherent mononuclear cells. Different cytokine expression patterns were observed stromal cells cultured in the presence or absence of mixture extracts which support differentiation of nonadherent cells. Stimulation of macrophage cell line with herval extracts with the treatments of recombinant interferon-{gamma} resulted in increased nitric oxide synthesis in a dose-dependent manners. In addition, these extracts induced the same effects on the peritoneal macrophages. Altered patterns of cytokine mRNA expression - IL-1{beta}, IL-6, LT and iNOS-were observed in the stromals cells cultured with extracts of herbal plant. In regarding of the results, isolation and development of new and effective systems to screen for active hematopoietic component needs to be proceeded. Such studies on the hematopoietic modulation and mechanism of herbal plants would further lead to new avenues for the development of functional foods which effect such as radiation damages or leukemia. (author). 20 refs., 13 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Critical components of odors in evaluating the performance of food waste composting plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mao, I-F. [Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, National Yang-Ming University, No. 155, Sec.2, Li-Nong St., Beitou, Taipei, Taiwan (China)]. E-mail: ifmao@ym.edu.tw; Tsai, C.-J. [Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, National Yang-Ming University, No. 155, Sec.2, Li-Nong St., Beitou, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Shen, S.-H. [Department of Environment Management, Jin Wen Institute of Technology, No. 99, An-Chung Rd., Hsin-Tien City, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Lin, T.-F. [Institute of Environmental Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, No. 1, Ta-Hsueh Rd., Tainan, Taiwan (China); Chen, W.-K. [Department of Environment Management, Jin Wen Institute of Technology, No. 99, An-Chung Rd., Hsin-Tien City, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Chen, M.-L. [Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, National Yang-Ming University, No. 155, Sec.2, Li-Nong St., Beitou, Taipei, Taiwan (China)]. E-mail: mlchen@ym.edu.tw

    2006-11-01

    The current Taiwan government policy toward food waste management encourages composting for resource recovery. This study used olfactometry, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and gas detector tubes to evaluate the ambient air at three of the largest food waste composting plants in Taiwan. Ambient air inside the plants, at exhaust outlets and plant boundaries was examined to determine the comprehensive odor performance, critical components, and odor elimination efficiencies of various odor control engineering. Analytical results identified 29 compounds, including ammonia, amines, acetic acid, and multiple volatile organic compounds (VOCs) (hydrocarbons, ketones, esters, terpenes and S-compounds) in the odor from food waste composting plants. Concentrations of six components - ammonia, amines, dimethyl sulfide, acetic acid, ethyl benzene and p-Cymene - exceeded human olfactory thresholds. Ammonia, amines, dimethyl sulfide and acetic acid accounted for most odors compared to numerous VOCs. The results also show that the biotrickling filter was better at eliminating the concentrations of odor, NH{sub 3}, amines, S-compounds and VOCs than the chemical scrubber and biofilters. All levels measured by olfactometry at the boundaries of food waste composting plants (range, 74-115 Odor Concentration (OC)) exceeded Taiwan's EPA standard of 50 OC. This study indicated that the malodor problem continued to be a significant problem for food waste recovery.

  15. Detection of shrimp-derived components in food by real-time fluorescent PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Jijuan; Yu, Bing; Ma, Lidan; Zheng, Qiuyue; Zhao, Xin; Xu, Junyi

    2011-10-01

    Crustaceans such as shrimp and crabs and their products are important allergens in food, and allergic reactions due to the consumption of shrimp and crabs are frequently reported. However, the chemical properties of shrimp-derived allergens, except for Pen a I, are still unclear. Therefore, it is important to establish a more sensitive and specific method for detecting the composition of foods containing shrimp. In the present study, we developed a real-time fluorescent PCR to identify the specific shrimp-derived components in food. The primers and TaqMan probes for real-time fluorescent PCR were designed based on 16S rRNA genes through comparing a large number of nucleic acid sequences from different species of shrimp that have been published by the National Center for Biotechnology Information. In total, 56 kinds of samples, including different kinds of shrimp, crab, fish, shellfish, and octopus, were subjected to detection by real-time PCR. The results indicated that real-time fluorescent PCR could successfully identify the shrimp-derived components. In order to explore the effect of food processing on detection sensitivity, fish powder containing shrimp powder was treated by heating at 133°C for 30 min. The limit of detection of shrimp-derived components in fish powder was 0.05% (wt/wt).

  16. Functional foods as potential therapeutic options for metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, L; Poudyal, H; Panchal, S K

    2015-11-01

    Obesity as part of metabolic syndrome is a major lifestyle disorder throughout the world. Current drug treatments for obesity produce small and usually unsustainable decreases in body weight with the risk of major adverse effects. Surgery has been the only treatment producing successful long-term weight loss. As a different but complementary approach, lifestyle modification including the use of functional foods could produce a reliable decrease in obesity with decreased comorbidities. Functional foods may include fruits such as berries, vegetables, fibre-enriched grains and beverages such as tea and coffee. Although health improvements continue to be reported for these functional foods in rodent studies, further evidence showing the translation of these results into humans is required. Thus, the concept that these fruits and vegetables will act as functional foods in humans to reduce obesity and thereby improve health remains intuitive and possible rather than proven.

  17. Enzyme technology for precision functional food ingredient processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Anne S.

    2010-01-01

    modification of potato starch processing residues. Such targeted enzyme-catalyzed reactions provide new invention opportunities for designing functional foods with significant health benefits. The provision of well-defined naturally structured compounds can, moreover, assist in obtaining the much...

  18. Nutritional and functional properties of a complementary food based ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nutritional and functional properties of a complementary food based on Kenyan ... Analytical Chemists (AOAC) were used to determine the proximate chemical ... spectrophotometry was used to determine the mineral element composition.

  19. The opinion of Dutch dietitians about functional foods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, N.; Hoendervangers, C.T.; Bleeker, J.K.; Ocke, M.C.

    2004-01-01

    Objective To obtain information about Dutch dietitian's attitudes, perceived knowledge, training preferences, counselling procedures, opinions about post-launch monitoring, and personal consumption of functional foods. Design A self-administered, 62-item, postal survey in 2002. Subjects Five hundred

  20. Nanotechnology in food science: Functionality, applicability, and safety assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaojia He

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Rapid development of nanotechnology is expected to transform many areas of food science and food industry with increasing investment and market share. In this article, current applications of nanotechnology in food systems are briefly reviewed. Functionality and applicability of food-related nanotechnology are highlighted in order to provide a comprehensive view on the development and safety assessment of nanotechnology in the food industry. While food nanotechnology offers great potential benefits, there are emerging concerns arising from its novel physicochemical properties. Therefore, the safety concerns and regulatory policies on its manufacturing, processing, packaging, and consumption are briefly addressed. At the end of this article, the perspectives of nanotechnology in active and intelligent packaging applications are highlighted.

  1. Action-based distribution functions for spheroidal galaxy components

    CERN Document Server

    Posti, Lorenzo; Nipoti, Carlo; Ciotti, Luca

    2014-01-01

    We present an approach to the design of distribution functions that depend on the phase-space coordinates through the action integrals. The approach makes it easy to construct a dynamical model of a given stellar component. We illustrate the approach by deriving distribution functions that self-consistently generate several popular stellar systems, including the Hernquist, Jaffe, Navarro, Frenk and White models. We focus on non-rotating spherical systems, but extension to flattened and rotating systems is trivial. Our distribution functions are easily added to each other and to previously published distribution functions for discs to create self-consistent multi-component galaxies. The models this approach makes possible should prove valuable both for the interpretation of observational data and for exploring the non-equilibrium dynamics of galaxies via N-body simulation.

  2. Hydrogels from biopolymer hybrid for biomedical, food, and functional food applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hybrid hydrogels from biopolymers have been applied for various indications across a wide range of biomedical, pharmaceutical, and functional food industries. In particular, hybrid hydrogels synthesized from two biopolymers have attracted increasing attention. The inclusion of a second biopolymer st...

  3. Prebiotics as functional food ingredients preventing diet-related diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florowska, A; Krygier, K; Florowski, T; Dłużewska, E

    2016-05-18

    This paper reviews the potential of prebiotic-containing foods in the prevention or postponement of certain diet-related diseases, such as cardiovascular diseases with hypercholesterolemia, osteoporosis, diabetes, gastrointestinal infections and gut inflammation. Also the data on prebiotics as food ingredients and their impact on food product quality are presented. Prebiotics are short chain carbohydrates that are resistant to the digestion process in the upper part of the digestive system, are not absorbed in any segment of the gastrointestinal system, and finally are selectively fermented by specific genera of colonic bacteria. The mechanisms of the beneficial impacts of prebiotics on human health are very difficult to specify directly, because their health-promoting functions are related to fermentation by intestinal microflora. The impact of prebiotics on diet-related diseases in many ways also depends on the products of their fermentation. Prebiotics as functional food ingredients also have an impact on the quality of food products, due to their textural and gelling properties. Prebiotics as food additives can be very valuable in the creation of functional food aimed at preventing or postponing many diet-related diseases. They additionally have beneficial technological properties which improve the quality of food products.

  4. Applications and functions of food-grade phosphates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampila, Lucina E

    2013-10-01

    Food-grade phosphates are used in the production of foods to function as buffers, sequestrants, acidulants, bases, flavors, cryoprotectants, gel accelerants, dispersants, nutrients, precipitants, and as free-flow (anticaking) or ion-exchange agents. The actions of phosphates affect the chemical leavening of cakes, cookies, pancakes, muffins, and doughnuts; the even melt of processed cheese; the structure of a frankfurter; the bind and hydration of delicatessen meats; the fluidity of evaporated milk; the distinctive flavor of cola beverages; the free flow of spice blends; the mineral content of isotonic beverages; and the light color of par-fried potato strips. In the United States, food-grade phosphates are generally recognized as safe, but use levels have been defined for some foods by the Code of Federal Regulations, specifically Titles 9 and 21 for foods regulated by the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) and the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA), respectively. Standards for food purity are defined nationally and internationally in sources such as the Food Chemicals Codex and the Joint Food and Agriculture Organization and World Health Organization (FAO/WHO) Expert Committee on Food Additives.

  5. Longitudinal functional principal component modelling via Stochastic Approximation Monte Carlo

    KAUST Repository

    Martinez, Josue G.

    2010-06-01

    The authors consider the analysis of hierarchical longitudinal functional data based upon a functional principal components approach. In contrast to standard frequentist approaches to selecting the number of principal components, the authors do model averaging using a Bayesian formulation. A relatively straightforward reversible jump Markov Chain Monte Carlo formulation has poor mixing properties and in simulated data often becomes trapped at the wrong number of principal components. In order to overcome this, the authors show how to apply Stochastic Approximation Monte Carlo (SAMC) to this problem, a method that has the potential to explore the entire space and does not become trapped in local extrema. The combination of reversible jump methods and SAMC in hierarchical longitudinal functional data is simplified by a polar coordinate representation of the principal components. The approach is easy to implement and does well in simulated data in determining the distribution of the number of principal components, and in terms of its frequentist estimation properties. Empirical applications are also presented.

  6. Food labels as boundary objects: how consumers make sense of organic and functional foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eden, Sally

    2011-03-01

    This paper considers how consumers make sense of food labeling, drawing on a qualitative, empirical study in England. I look in detail at two examples of labeling: 1) food certified as produced by organic methods and 2) functional food claimed to be beneficial for human health, especially probiotic and cholesterol-lowering products. I use the concept of "boundary objects" to demonstrate how such labels are intended to work between the worlds of food producers and food consumers and to show how information is not merely transferred as a "knowledge fix" to consumer ignorance. Rather, consumers drew on a binary of "raw" and "processed" food and familiarity with marketing in today's consumer culture to make sense of such labeling.

  7. Extracting functional components of neural dynamics with Independent Component Analysis and inverse Current Source Density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lęski, Szymon; Kublik, Ewa; Swiejkowski, Daniel A; Wróbel, Andrzej; Wójcik, Daniel K

    2010-12-01

    Local field potentials have good temporal resolution but are blurred due to the slow spatial decay of the electric field. For simultaneous recordings on regular grids one can reconstruct efficiently the current sources (CSD) using the inverse Current Source Density method (iCSD). It is possible to decompose the resultant spatiotemporal information about the current dynamics into functional components using Independent Component Analysis (ICA). We show on test data modeling recordings of evoked potentials on a grid of 4 × 5 × 7 points that meaningful results are obtained with spatial ICA decomposition of reconstructed CSD. The components obtained through decomposition of CSD are better defined and allow easier physiological interpretation than the results of similar analysis of corresponding evoked potentials in the thalamus. We show that spatiotemporal ICA decompositions can perform better for certain types of sources but it does not seem to be the case for the experimental data studied. Having found the appropriate approach to decomposing neural dynamics into functional components we use the technique to study the somatosensory evoked potentials recorded on a grid spanning a large part of the forebrain. We discuss two example components associated with the first waves of activation of the somatosensory thalamus. We show that the proposed method brings up new, more detailed information on the time and spatial location of specific activity conveyed through various parts of the somatosensory thalamus in the rat.

  8. Occurrence and function of yeasts in Asian indigenous fermented foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aidoo, Kofi E; Nout, M J Rob; Sarkar, Prabir K

    2006-01-01

    In the Asian region, indigenous fermented foods are important in daily life. In many of these foods, yeasts are predominant and functional during the fermentation. The diversity of foods in which yeasts predominate ranges from leavened bread-like products such as nan and idli, to alcoholic beverages such as rice and palm wines, and condiments such as papads and soy sauce. Although several products are obtained by natural fermentation, the use of traditional starter cultures is widespread. This minireview focuses on the diversity and functionality of yeasts in these products, and on opportunities for research and development.

  9. Functional Salad Dressing as an Excipient Food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibel Karakaya

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to develop salad dressing as an excipient food that can be used to enhance beneficial effects of salads when co-ingested together. The compounds that include bioactive constituents different from other salad dressings are germinated seed and sprouts of lentils and cowpeas, and caseinomacropeptide isolated from whey. The proximate composition, total phenols and total flavonoids of salad dressing were determined. Its beneficial effects on health (antioxidant activity, antidiabetic activity, bile acid binding capacity, and angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitory activity were determined using in vitro methods.
Energy value of salad dressing is 111 kcal/100 g and 11.41% of the energy value of the salad dressing is provided by protein. Total phenol content is 79 mg CE/100 g. Salad dressing displayed higher antioxidant activity against DPPH radical (130 mM Trolox/100 g than that of ORAC value (72 mM Trolox/100 g. Salad dressing inhibited ACE by approximately 37%. Expected glycemic index of salad dressing was 74.0 and belongs to high glycemic index foods. Contrary to, salad dressing inhibited α-glucosidase and α-amylase with the IC50 values 1.77 mg protein/mL and 2.40 mg protein/mL, respectively. Relative to cholestyramine, bile acid binding capacity of salad dressing is 39.85%.

  10. Newer Approaches to Identify Potential Untoward Effects in Functional Foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marone, Palma Ann; Birkenbach, Victoria L; Hayes, A Wallace

    2016-01-01

    Globalization has greatly accelerated the numbers and variety of food and beverage products available worldwide. The exchange among greater numbers of countries, manufacturers, and products in the United States and worldwide has necessitated enhanced quality measures for nutritional products for larger populations increasingly reliant on functionality. These functional foods, those that provide benefit beyond basic nutrition, are increasingly being used for their potential to alleviate food insufficiency while enhancing quality and longevity of life. In the United States alone, a steady import increase of greater than 15% per year or 24 million shipments, over 70% products of which are food related, is regulated under the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). This unparalleled growth has resulted in the need for faster, cheaper, and better safety and efficacy screening methods in the form of harmonized guidelines and recommendations for product standardization. In an effort to meet this need, the in vitro toxicology testing market has similarly grown with an anticipatory 15% increase between 2010 and 2015 of US$1.3 to US$2.7 billion. Although traditionally occupying a small fraction of the market behind pharmaceuticals and cosmetic/household products, the scope of functional food testing, including additives/supplements, ingredients, residues, contact/processing, and contaminants, is potentially expansive. Similarly, as functional food testing has progressed, so has the need to identify potential adverse factors that threaten the safety and quality of these products.

  11. The relation between attitudes toward functional foods and satisfaction with food-related life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schnettler, Berta; Adasme-Berríos, Cristian; Grunert, Klaus G

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to assess the effect of attitudes towards functional foods (AFF) on university students’ satisfaction with food-related life (SWFL) and to distinguish student typologies, considering that the AFF are not homogeneous among consumers. Design....../methodology/approach A survey was applied to 372 university students (mean age=20.4 years, SD=2.4) in Southern Chile. The questionnaire included the AFF questionnaire and the SWFL scale, questions about consumption and knowledge about functional food (FF) and socio-demographic characteristics. Findings Using confirmatory...

  12. Food webs: reconciling the structure and function of biodiversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Ross M; Brose, Ulrich; Dunne, Jennifer A; Hall, Robert O; Hladyz, Sally; Kitching, Roger L; Martinez, Neo D; Rantala, Heidi; Romanuk, Tamara N; Stouffer, Daniel B; Tylianakis, Jason M

    2012-12-01

    The global biodiversity crisis concerns not only unprecedented loss of species within communities, but also related consequences for ecosystem function. Community ecology focuses on patterns of species richness and community composition, whereas ecosystem ecology focuses on fluxes of energy and materials. Food webs provide a quantitative framework to combine these approaches and unify the study of biodiversity and ecosystem function. We summarise the progression of food-web ecology and the challenges in using the food-web approach. We identify five areas of research where these advances can continue, and be applied to global challenges. Finally, we describe what data are needed in the next generation of food-web studies to reconcile the structure and function of biodiversity.

  13. Functional herbal food ingredients used in type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perera, Pathirage Kamal; Li, Yunman

    2012-01-01

    From many reports it is clear that diabetes will be one of the major diseases in the coming years. As a result there is a rapidly increasing interest in searching new medicines, or even better searching prophylactic methods. Based on a large number of chemical and pharmacological research work, numerous bioactive compounds have been found in functional herbal food ingredients for diabetes. The present paper reviews functional herbal food ingredients with regards to their anti-diabetic active principles and pharmacological test results, which are commonly used in Asian culinary system and medical system and have demonstrated clinical or/and experimental anti-diabetic effectiveness. Our idea of reviewing this article is to give more attention to these functional food ingredients as targets medicinal foods in order to prevent or slow down the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  14. A Functional Food : “ Şifalı Top ”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sıdıka Nur Kıyak

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available With the development of awareness of healthy eating, consumers are waiting to provide from food in terms of nutrition as well as health benefits. As a result of these expectations of consumers to new products, functional foods have been one of the fastest developing sectors in the food industry. The aim of this study is to develop a new functional food which has high nutrition values and healthy. For this purpose, broccoli, cauliflower and celery vegetables which are not preferred to consume by children in daily life is used to develop a functional product in that children want to consume fondly. Also grinding of stale bread is used in this product to prevent waste of bread. This new product given the shape of tiny ball by rolling was named as “Şifalı Top” and served with chocolate and strawberry sauce.

  15. Functional foods as carriers for SYNBIO®, a probiotic bacteria combination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coman, Maria Magdalena; Cecchini, Cinzia; Verdenelli, Maria Cristina; Silvi, Stefania; Orpianesi, Carla; Cresci, Alberto

    2012-07-16

    The popularity of functional foods continues to increase as consumers desire flavorful foods that will fulfil their health needs. Among these foods, probiotics may exert positive effects on the composition of gut microbiota and overall health. However, in order to be beneficial, the bacterial cultures have to remain live and active at the time of consumption. The aim of this study was to develop new probiotic food products, such as seasoned cheeses, salami, chocolate and ice-cream with a final probiotic concentration of approximately 10⁹CFU/daily dose of Lactobacillus rhamnosus IMC 501® and Lactobacillus paracasei IMC 502® mixed 1:1 (SYNBIO®). The survival and viability of probiotics were determined during the foods shelf-life. The values of viable probiotic bacteria of all dairy and non-dairy foods were between 10⁷ and 10⁹CFU/g of food at the end of the shelf-life and for some of them the values were maintained even after the expiry date. Based on the results of the current study, all the dairy ("Caciotta" cheese, "Pecorino" cheese, "Büscion" Swiss cheese and "Fiordilatte" ice-cream) and non-dairy ("Ciauscolo" salami, Larded salami, Swiss small salami, milk chocolate, dark chocolate, organic jam and chocolate mousse) food products studied would be excellent vehicles to deliver the probiotic health effects because of the high viability of probiotics during the shelf-life of foods and in some cases even after their expiry date.

  16. Analysis of nutrient components of food for Asian Elephants in the wild and in captivity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Lihong; LIN Liu; HE Qian; ZHANG Jinguo; ZHANG Li

    2007-01-01

    Thirty-seven wild plants as food for Asian elephants in the field in Simao,Yunnan province,China and five cultivated plants as food for captive elephants in the Beijing Zoo were collected and analyzed for their main nutrient components.Protein,fat,fiber,dry material,ash as well as major microelements:calcium,kalium,zincum,sodium in the food were analyzed by standard methodology.No significant differences were found between the wild plants taken in the field and forage provided in captivity.However,the calcium content in the forage is significantly less than the average of those in the wild plants.It is suggested that the increase in calcium intake may contribute to the relief of low plasma calcium diseases of elephants in captivity.

  17. 77 FR 17093 - Certain Food Waste Disposers and Components and Packaging Thereof: Notice of Receipt of Complaint...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-23

    ... COMMISSION Certain Food Waste Disposers and Components and Packaging Thereof: Notice of Receipt of Complaint... complaint entitled Certain Food Waste Disposers and Components and Packaging Thereof, DN 2886; the Commission is soliciting comments on any public interest issues raised by the complaint or...

  18. Influencing Factors of Catering and Food Service Industry Based on Principal Component Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zi Tang

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Scientific analysis of influencing factors is of great importance for the healthy development of catering and food service industry. This study attempts to present a set of critical indicators for evaluating the contribution of influencing factors to catering and food service industry in the particular context of Harbin City, Northeast China. Ten indicators that correlate closely with catering and food service industry were identified and performed by the principal component analysis method using panel data collected from 2000 to 2011. The result showed that three principal components were extracted out of ten indicators, which can be synthesized respectively as comprehensive strength of catering and food service industry, development of social and economy and residents’ consumption willingness to catering services. Additionally, among ten indicators, five relatively important indicators were prioritized as Revenue from principal business of above designated size, Profits of principal business, Cost of principal business, Total investment in fixed assets in hotel and catering services and Retail sales of hotel and catering services.

  19. BIOACTIVE COMPONENTS OF GYNURA DIVARICATA AND ITS POTENTIAL USE IN HEALTH, FOOD AND MEDICINE: A MINI-REVIEW.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Bing-Qing; Zhang, Yu-Qing

    2017-01-01

    G. divaricata (L.) DC belongs to genus the Gynura Cass which is a kind of perennial herb that has good health protection efficacy and is especially used widely in medicine and functional food. It is one of the most famous traditional Chinese medicinal herbs and is usually used to cure bronchitis, pulmonary tuberculosis, kink cough, rheumatism, diabetes, and so on. It has a long history for the treatment of diabetes mellitus in the folk medicine. This review is aimed at gathering all information relating to G. divaricata and obtaining new insights for further studies on G. divaricata. PubMed, Springer Link, Web of Science, Science Direct and Research Gate were used for the literature search. The key search terms included G. divaricata isolation and identification, flavonoids and their combinations without language restriction. The period for the search is from year 1979 to 2016. The main chemical components were listed, and the folk application, the extraction and separation methods of main chemical components, pharmacological effects of G. divaricata were discussed, which further demonstrated the plant's value as health food and medicine. The present review is of great significance to the development of new medicinal resources and health food of G. divaricata.

  20. Memory Systems, Processing Modes, and Components: Functional Neuroimaging Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabeza, Roberto; Moscovitch, Morris

    2013-01-01

    In the 1980s and 1990s, there was a major theoretical debate in the memory domain regarding the multiple memory systems and processing modes frameworks. The components of processing framework argued for a middle ground: Instead of neatly divided memory systems or processing modes, this framework proposed the existence of numerous processing components that are recruited in different combinations by memory tasks and yield complex patterns of associations and dissociations. Because behavioral evidence was not sufficient to decide among these three frameworks, the debate was largely abandoned. However, functional neuroimaging evidence accumulated during the last two decades resolves the stalemate, because this evidence is more consistent with the components framework than with the other two frameworks. For example, functional neuroimaging evidence shows that brain regions attributed to one memory system can contribute to tasks associated with other memory systems and that brain regions attributed to the same processing mode (perceptual or conceptual) can be dissociated from each other. Functional neuroimaging evidence suggests that memory processes are supported by transient interactions between a few regions called process-specific alliances. These conceptual developments are an example of how functional neuroimaging can contribute to theoretical debates in cognitive psychology. PMID:24163702

  1. When is dietary fiber considered a functional food?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prosky, L

    2000-01-01

    Before answering the question of when dietary fiber can be considered a functional food we must first decide what can be called a dietary fiber. The generally accepted definition of dietary fiber is that of Trowell that dietary fiber consists of the remnants of edible plant cells polysaccharides, lignin, and associated substances resistant to (hydrolysis) digestion by the alimentary enzymes of humans. In Japan the food tables list the dietary fiber content of animal as well as plant tissues, while many countries accept saccharides of less than DP-10 as dietary fiber (inulin, oligofructose, Fibersol-2, polydextrose, fructooligosaccharides, galactooligosaccharides etc.). These shorter chain oligosaccharides do not precipitate as dietary fiber in the standard Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC) method, which is accepted by the US Food & Drug Administration, the US Department of Agriculture and the Food & Agriculture Organization of the World Health Organization for nutrition labeling purposes. In the United Kingdom the term dietary fiber has been replaced in nutrition labeling by nonstarch polysaccharides. Therefore the American Association of Cereal Chemists (AACC) commissioned an ad hoc committee of scientists to evaluate continuing validity of the currently used definition, and if appropriate, to modify and update that definition. Obtaining scientific input from the community of analysts, health professionals, and dietary fiber researchers was considered a high priority. To this end three meetings were held in the space of six months to assure input from all persons knowledgeable in the field with the answer expected sometime before 2000. Dietary fiber can be considered a functional food when it imparts a special function to that food aside from the normal expected function and similarly when the dietary fiber is used as an additive to foods. For example, dietary fiber contributes to colonic health, bifidobacterial or lactobacillus stimulation in the

  2. Origin and concept of medicine food homology and its application in modern functional foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Yan; Jiang, Jian-Guo

    2013-12-01

    The viewpoints of "medicine food homology" (MFH) conform to today's food requirements of returning to a natural and green healthy life. This paper aims to introduce the concept of MFH and its origin and evolution, and analyze the relationship between food and Chinese medicine. In this review, more than 80 MFH materials approved by China's Ministry of Health are listed and their effective ingredients are summarized in detail. Their treatment mechanism in TCM and western medicine are summarized too. Moreover, some new MFH resources that have been gradually developed are also introduced. MFH materials are a treasure house of functional factors for current functional foods. Innovative ideas for the development of MFH resources in current functional foods are prospected and discussed, such as taking advantage of Chinese diet theory, building a database for MFH varieties and developing new methods and technologies. At present, modern research for the development of MFH functional foods is still in its primary stage, there is still much work required in the popularization of the MFH concept and the development of new products. Knowledge and technological innovations in this area should be accelerated in the future to promote the modernization of MFH.

  3. Effects of Sleep Deprivation on Dissociated Components of Executive Functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Adrienne M.; Whitney, Paul; Belenky, Gregory; Hinson, John M.; Van Dongen, Hans P.A.

    2010-01-01

    Study Objectives: We studied the effects of sleep deprivation on executive functions using a task battery which included a modified Sternberg task, a probed recall task, and a phonemic verbal fluency task. These tasks were selected because they allow dissociation of some important executive processes from non-executive components of cognition. Design: Subjects were randomized to a total sleep deprivation condition or a control condition. Performance on the executive functions task battery was assessed at baseline, after 51 h of total sleep deprivation (or no sleep deprivation in the control group), and following 2 nights of recovery sleep, at fixed time of day (11:00). Performance was also measured repeatedly throughout the experiment on a control task battery, for which the effects of total sleep deprivation had been documented in previously published studies. Setting: Six consecutive days and nights in a controlled laboratory environment with continuous behavioral monitoring. Participants: Twenty-three healthy adults (age range 22–38 y; 11 women). Twelve subjects were randomized to the sleep deprivation condition; the others were controls. Results: Performance on the control task battery was considerably degraded during sleep deprivation. Overall performance on the modified Sternberg task also showed impairment during sleep deprivation, as compared to baseline and recovery and compared to controls. However, two dissociated components of executive functioning on this task—working memory scanning efficiency and resistance to proactive interference—were maintained at levels equivalent to baseline. On the probed recall task, resistance to proactive interference was also preserved. Executive aspects of performance on the phonemic verbal fluency task showed improvement during sleep deprivation, as did overall performance on this task. Conclusion: Sleep deprivation affected distinct components of cognitive processing differentially. Dissociated non

  4. Sociodemographic Factors Differentiating the Consumer and the Motivations for Functional Food Consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, Artur; Annunziata, Azzurra; Vecchio, Riccardo

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the (1) role of gender, age, and education in the evaluation of multidimensional criteria of the purchase of functional products, which were (a) quality and organoleptic attributes, (b) attributes of packaging and labeling, (c) healthful properties, (d) functional components, (e) base product (carrier) and (2) most important motives for the purchase and consumption of functional food among consumers of different sociodemographic profiles. The data were collected in direct interviews. The sample (n = 200) consisted of 137 women and 63 men age 18-60 years. The research tool was a questionnaire divided into 4 sections. The first one included quality attributes. The second one included healthful properties, functional components, and carriers. The third one concerned the motives for purchasing functional food and included the consequences and values. In the fourth section the participants were asked about gender, age, and education. Gender, age, and education differentiated the criteria influencing the decision to purchase functional food. Women, older people (35-60 years), and those with university education attach the greatest importance to naturalness, nutritional value, freshness, food safety, and quality guarantee. Clear differences between men and women appear in the field of functional components, which are significantly more important for women than for men. Gender, age, and education essentially differentiate the preferences for base product (carrier). Young men prefer meat products in the role of functional carriers. In turn, women and older men prefer cereal products as basic functional carriers. Young consumers are more open to high-technology food processing. Motivations are differentiated by age and gender. Young men, as opposed to women and older men, attach less importance to functional and psychological consequences: improvement of health, healthy eating, conscious choice, and health promotion. Women and older

  5. Grape seed oil: a potential functional food?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Branco SHINAGAWA

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Grape seed oil (GSO is not often consumed in Brazil and little is known of its nutritional value. Around the world there are already studies that point to the high levels of minority bioactive compounds and their relation to health benefits. The main constituent of GSO is linoleic fatty acid, some works are controversial and there is no consensus in literature regarding their effect on the animal organism. Thus, this study aimed to present a review of GSO and show the potential health effects of its major components, not only linoleic acid, but also γ-tocotrienol and β-sitosterol, and finally, their influence on lipid-modulating, anti and pro oxidative parameters.

  6. Flax and flaxseed oil: an ancient medicine & modern functional food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Ankit; Sharma, Vivek; Upadhyay, Neelam; Gill, Sandeep; Sihag, Manvesh

    2014-09-01

    Flaxseed is emerging as an important functional food ingredient because of its rich contents of α-linolenic acid (ALA, omega-3 fatty acid), lignans, and fiber. Flaxseed oil, fibers and flax lignans have potential health benefits such as in reduction of cardiovascular disease, atherosclerosis, diabetes, cancer, arthritis, osteoporosis, autoimmune and neurological disorders. Flax protein helps in the prevention and treatment of heart disease and in supporting the immune system. As a functional food ingredient, flax or flaxseed oil has been incorporated into baked foods, juices, milk and dairy products, muffins, dry pasta products, macaroni and meat products. The present review focuses on the evidences of the potential health benefits of flaxseed through human and animals' recent studies and commercial use in various food products.

  7. Hydrogels from Biopolymer Hybrid for Biomedical, Food, and Functional Food Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert C. Spiro

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid hydrogels from biopolymers have been applied for various indications across a wide range of biomedical, pharmaceutical, and functional food industries. In particular, hybrid hydrogels synthesized from two biopolymers have attracted increasing attention. The inclusion of a second biopolymer strengthens the stability of resultant hydrogels and enriches its functionalities by bringing in new functional groups or optimizing the micro-environmental conditions for certain biological and biochemical processes. This article presents approaches that have been used by our groups to synthesize biopolymer hybrid hydrogels for effective uses for immunotherapy, tissue regeneration, food and functional food applications. The research has achieved some challenging results, such as stabilizing physical structure, increasing mucoadhesiveness, and the creation of an artificial extracellular matrix to aid in guiding tissue differentiation.

  8. Development of functional food products in relation to obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Choudhary

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract:The development of new eating habits, as well as actual trends in production and consumption,has a health, environmental and social impact. The entire world is fighting diseases characteristic of the modern age such as obesity, osteoporosis, cancer, diabetes, allergies, and dental problems. With a global increase in the prevalence of obesity, both nutrition and exercise play key roles in its prevention and treatment. Natural product (nutraceutical interventions are currently being investigated on a large-scale basis as potential treatments for obesity and weight management. With advancing nutritional sciences, several nutrients such as; low-glycemic-indexcarbohydrates, 5-hydroxytryptophan, green tea extract, and chromium have been shown topromote weight loss. The first two nutrients decrease appetite, green tea increases the 24 hrenergy expenditure, and chromium promotes the composition of the weight lost to be fat rather than lean tissue. These have been assembled, in efficacious doses, into a new functional food product and described in this review. Each component has already been shown to promote weight loss independently in clinical trials.

  9. Innovative analytical tools to characterize prebiotic carbohydrates of functional food interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corradini, Claudio; Lantano, Claudia; Cavazza, Antonella

    2013-05-01

    Functional foods are one of the most interesting areas of research and innovation in the food industry. A functional food or functional ingredient is considered to be any food or food component that provides health benefits beyond basic nutrition. Recently, consumers have shown interest in natural bioactive compounds as functional ingredients in the diet owing to their various beneficial effects for health. Water-soluble fibers and nondigestible oligosaccharides and polysaccharides can be defined as functional food ingredients. Fructooligosaccharides (FOS) and inulin are resistant to direct metabolism by the host and reach the caecocolon, where they are used by selected groups of beneficial bacteria. Furthermore, they are able to improve physical and structural properties of food, such as hydration, oil-holding capacity, viscosity, texture, sensory characteristics, and shelf-life. This article reviews major innovative analytical developments to screen and identify FOS, inulins, and the most employed nonstarch carbohydrates added or naturally present in functional food formulations. High-performance anion-exchange chromatography with pulsed electrochemical detection (HPAEC-PED) is one of the most employed analytical techniques for the characterization of those molecules. Mass spectrometry is also of great help, in particularly matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS), which is able to provide extensive information regarding the molecular weight and length profiles of oligosaccharides and polysaccharides. Moreover, MALDI-TOF-MS in combination with HPAEC-PED has been shown to be of great value for the complementary information it can provide. Some other techniques, such as NMR spectroscopy, are also discussed, with relevant examples of recent applications. A number of articles have appeared in the literature in recent years regarding the analysis of inulin, FOS, and other carbohydrates of interest in the field and

  10. Nanotechnology Applications in Functional Foods; Opportunities and Challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Harjinder

    2016-01-01

    Increasing knowledge on the link between diet and human health has generated a lot of interest in the development of functional foods. However, several challenges, including discovering of beneficial compounds, establishing optimal intake levels, and developing adequate food delivering matrix and product formulations, need to be addressed. A number of new processes and materials derived from nanotechnology have the potential to provide new solutions in many of these fronts. Nanotechnology is ...

  11. The Serbian functional food market: Does regulation make a difference?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojanović Žaklina

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on empirical analysis of the Serbian functional food market and its comparison with those in other Western Balkan countries (WBC. The purpose is to examine whether the existence of regulation, as an institutional precondition, makes a difference on the operating of the functional food market. This market is a new, fast developing segment, based on health claims made for food. Consumers in Serbia cannot verify health claims either before or after the purchase/consumption, since the property rights on information are extremely weak. Additionally, with successful innovation the free-rider problem usually occurs. Thus, strong institutional support is necessary to ensure regular market functioning. In order to identify the effects of regulation and some other factors with crucial influence on the differences between Serbian and other WBC functional food markets, pooled cross sectional analysis is conducted. The fixed-group effects model is estimated based on data of product categories observed across WBC. Differences in the current level of WBC market development could be explained by the existence of legal regulation, competition, and other factors. All results implicate the necessity of regulatory supervision as well as closer cooperation between government, the private sector, consumer groups, academics, and the research community in further functional food market development in Serbia.

  12. Membrane processes in production of functional whey components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lutfiye Yilmaz-Ersan

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, whey has been recognised as a major source of nutritional and functional ingredients for the food industry. Commercial whey products include various powders, whey protein concentrates and isolates, and fractionated proteins, such as a-lactalbumin and b-lactoglobulin. The increased interest in separation and fractionation of whey proteins arises from the differences in their functional, biological and nutritional properties. In response to concerns about environmental aspects, research has been focused on membrane filtration technology, which provides exciting new opportunities for large-scale protein and lactose fractionation. Membrane separation is such technique in which particles are separated according to their molecular size. The types of membrane processing techniques are ultrafiltration, microfiltration, reverse osmosis, pervaporation, electrodialysis and nanofiltration. A higher purification of whey proteins is possible by combining membrane separation with ion-exchange. This paper provides an overview of types and applications of membrane separation techniques

  13. IR-360 nuclear power plant safety functions and component classification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yousefpour, F., E-mail: fyousefpour@snira.co [Management of Nuclear Power Plant Construction Company (MASNA) (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shokri, F.; Soltani, H. [Management of Nuclear Power Plant Construction Company (MASNA) (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2010-10-15

    The IR-360 nuclear power plant as a 2-loop PWR of 360 MWe power generation capacity is under design in MASNA Company. For design of the IR-360 structures, systems and components (SSCs), the codes and standards and their design requirements must be determined. It is a prerequisite to classify the IR-360 safety functions and safety grade of structures, systems and components correctly for selecting and adopting the suitable design codes and standards. This paper refers to the IAEA nuclear safety codes and standards as well as USNRC standard system to determine the IR-360 safety functions and to formulate the principles of the IR-360 component classification in accordance with the safety philosophy and feature of the IR-360. By implementation of defined classification procedures for the IR-360 SSCs, the appropriate design codes and standards are specified. The requirements of specific codes and standards are used in design process of IR-360 SSCs by design engineers of MASNA Company. In this paper, individual determination of the IR-360 safety functions and definition of the classification procedures and roles are presented. Implementation of this work which is described with example ensures the safety and reliability of the IR-360 nuclear power plant.

  14. Exploration of functional food consumption in older adults in relation to food matrices, bioactive ingredients, and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vella, Meagan N; Stratton, Laura M; Sheeshka, Judy; Duncan, Alison M

    2013-01-01

    The functional food industry is expanding, yet research into consumer perceptions of functional foods is limited. Older adults could benefit from functional foods due to age-related food and health issues. This research gathered information about functional foods from community-dwelling older adults (n = 200) who completed a researcher-administered questionnaire about consumption, food matrices, bioactive ingredients, and health areas addressed through functional foods. Overall prevalence of functional food consumption was found to be 93.0%. Commonly consumed foods included yogurt with probiotics (56.0%), eggs with omega-3 fatty acids (37.0%), and bread with fiber (35.5%). Functional food matrices primarily consumed were yogurt (51.5%), bread (44.0%), and cereal (40.0%). The primary functional food bioactive consumed was dietary fiber (79.5%). Most participants (86.2%) indicated that they consume functional foods to improve health, and the major areas specified were osteoporosis/bone health (67.5%), heart disease (61.0%), and arthritis (55.0%). These results inform health professionals regarding the potential of functional foods to support health among older adults.

  15. Action-based distribution functions for spheroidal galaxy components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posti, Lorenzo; Binney, James; Nipoti, Carlo; Ciotti, Luca

    2015-03-01

    We present an approach to the design of distribution functions that depend on the phase-space coordinates through the action integrals. The approach makes it easy to construct a dynamical model of a given stellar component. We illustrate the approach by deriving distribution functions that self-consistently generate several popular stellar systems, including the Hernquist, Jaffe, and Navarro, Frenk and White models. We focus on non-rotating spherical systems, but extension to flattened and rotating systems is trivial. Our distribution functions are easily added to each other and to previously published distribution functions for discs to create self-consistent multicomponent galaxies. The models this approach makes possible should prove valuable both for the interpretation of observational data and for exploring the non-equilibrium dynamics of galaxies via N-body simulations.

  16. Encapsulation of vegetable oils as source of omega-3 fatty acids for enriched functional foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz Ruiz, Jorge Carlos; Ortiz Vazquez, Elizabeth De La Luz; Segura Campos, Maira Rubi

    2017-05-03

    Polyunsaturated omega-3 fatty acids (PUFAs), a functional component present in vegetable oils, are generally recognized as being beneficial to health. Omega-3 PUFAs are rich in double bonds and unsaturated in nature; this attribute makes them highly susceptible to lipid oxidation and unfit for incorporation into long shelf life foods. The microencapsulation of oils in a polymeric matrix (mainly polysaccharides) offers the possibility of controlled release of the lipophilic functional ingredient and can be useful for the supplementation of foods with PUFAs. The present paper provides a literature review of different vegetable sources of omega-3 fatty acids, the functional effects of omega-3 fatty acids, different microencapsulation methods that can possibly be used for the encapsulation of oils, the properties of vegetable oil microcapsules, the effect of encapsulation on oxidation stability and fatty acid composition of vegetable oils, and the incorporation of long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in foods.

  17. Sequential Proton Loss Electron Transfer in Deactivation of Iron(IV) Binding Protein by Tyrosine Based Food Components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tang, Ning; Skibsted, Leif Horsfelt

    2017-01-01

    The iron(IV) binding protein ferrylmyoglobin, MbFe(IV)=O, was found to be reduced by tyrosine based food components in aqueous solution through a sequential proton loss electron transfer reaction mechanism without binding to the protein as confirmed by isothermal titration calorimetry. Dopamine...... by protonation of ferrylmyoglobin and facilitated proton transfer at acidic conditions. Enthalpy-entropy compensation effects were observed for the activation parameters (ΔH† and ΔS†), indicating the common reaction mechanism. Moreover, principal component analysis combined with heat map were performed...... to understand the relationship between density functional theory calculated molecular descriptors and kinetic data, which was further modeled by partial least squares for quantitative structure-activity relationship analysis. In addition, a three tyrosine residue containing protein, lysozyme, was also found...

  18. Strategies of functional food for cancer prevention in human beings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Ya-Wen; Yang, Jia-Zheng; Pu, Xiao-Ying; Du, Juan; Yang, Tao; Yang, Shu-Ming; Zhu, Wei-Hua

    2013-01-01

    Functional food for prevention of chronic diseases is one of this century's key global challenges. Cancer is not only the first or second leading cause of death in China and other countries across the world, but also has diet as one of the most important modifiable risk factors. Major dietary factors now known to promote cancer development are polished grain foods and low intake of fresh vegetables, with general importance for an unhealthy lifestyle and obesity. The strategies of cancer prevention in human being are increased consumption of functional foods like whole grains (brown rice, barley, and buckwheat) and by-products, as well some vegetables (bitter melon, garlic, onions, broccoli, and cabbage) and mushrooms (boletes and Tricholoma matsutake). In addition some beverages (green tea and coffee) may be protective. Southwest China (especially Yunnan Province) is a geographical area where functional crop production is closely related to the origins of human evolution with implications for anticancer influence.

  19. Consumer demand for personalized nutrition and functional food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roosen, Jutta; Bruhn, Maike; Mecking, Rebecca-Ariane; Drescher, Larissa S

    2008-12-01

    New developments in nutrigenetic research and the European regulation 1924/2006 on health claims have spurred interest in developing and marketing functional food designed for personalized nutrition. Personalized nutrition uses genetic information regarding a person's health risk profile. Specifically adapted nutrition recommendations are claimed to help reducing disease risk. An internet survey was conducted in December 2007 using a sample of 452 randomly selected adults in Germany. The survey instrument assesses if consumers would be willing to participate in genetic risk profiling, if they are interested in personalized nutrition advice and if they desire functional food products adapted to their individual nutrigenetic profile. In addition, we estimate the acceptance of functional food products designed to reduce the risk of cardio-vascular diseases. Consumers have a positive attitude towards the testing of their genetic profile to be used in nutrient advice. About 45 % of the sample would agree to such a test and like to obtain a personalized advice on nutrition. Similarly, more than 40 % of the sample showed a positive willingness to buy the proposed functional food products. Given these results, the concept of personalized nutrition seems promising. However, several challenges remain regarding targeted nutrition advice and food marketing.

  20. Functional models of power electronic components for system studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, Kwa-Sur; Yang, Lifeng; Dravid, Narayan

    1991-01-01

    A novel approach to model power electronic circuits has been developed to facilitate simulation studies of system-level issues. The underlying concept for this approach is to develop an equivalent circuit, the functional model, that performs the same functions as the actual circuit but whose operation can be simulated by using larger time step size and the reduction in model complexity, the computation time required by a functional model is significantly shorter than that required by alternative approaches. The authors present this novel modeling approach and discuss the functional models of two major power electronic components, the DC/DC converter unit and the load converter, that are being considered by NASA for use in the Space Station Freedom electric power system. The validity of these models is established by comparing the simulation results with available experimental data and other simulation results obtained by using a more established modeling approach. The usefulness of this approach is demonstrated by incorporating these models into a power system model and simulating the system responses and interactions between components under various conditions.

  1. Influence of gender, age and motives underlying food choice on perceived healthiness and willingness to try functional foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ares, Gastón; Gámbaro, Adriana

    2007-07-01

    The aims of the present study were to study the effect of different carriers and enrichments on the perceived healthiness and willingness to try functional foods; and to evaluate the effect of age, gender and motives underlying food choice. Participants had to evaluate different functional food concepts and had to answer a food choice questionnaire. Results showed that carrier products had the largest effect on consumers' perception of healthiness and willingness to try of the evaluated functional foods concepts. The highest positive relative utilities were achieved when the enrichment was a functional ingredient inherent in the product. Furthermore, gender, age and motives underlying food choice affected the preference patterns for the evaluated functional foods concepts, but it depended on the carrier and enrichment considered, suggesting that functional foods might not be accepted by all the consumers and that they could be tailored for certain groups.

  2. Functional foods and nutraceuticals in the primary prevention of cardiovascular diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alissa, Eman M; Ferns, Gordon A

    2012-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is now the leading cause of death globally and is a growing health concern. Dietary factors are important in the pathogenesis of CVD and may to a large degree determine CVD risk, but have been less extensively investigated. Functional foods are those that are thought to have physiological benefits and/or reduce the risk of chronic disease beyond their basic nutritional functions. The food industry has started to market products labelled as "functional foods." Although many review articles have focused on individual dietary variables as determinants of CVD that can be modified to reduce the risk of CVD, the aim of this current paper was to examine the impact of functional foods in relation to the development and progression of CVD. Epidemiologic studies have demonstrated the association between certain dietary patterns and cardiovascular health. Research into the cardio-protective potential of their dietary components might support the development of functional foods and nutraceuticals. This paper will also compare the effect of individual bioactive dietary compounds with the effect of some dietary patterns in terms of their cardiovascular protection.

  3. Functional Foods and Nutraceuticals in the Primary Prevention of Cardiovascular Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eman M. Alissa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular disease (CVD is now the leading cause of death globally and is a growing health concern. Dietary factors are important in the pathogenesis of CVD and may to a large degree determine CVD risk, but have been less extensively investigated. Functional foods are those that are thought to have physiological benefits and/or reduce the risk of chronic disease beyond their basic nutritional functions. The food industry has started to market products labelled as “functional foods.” Although many review articles have focused on individual dietary variables as determinants of CVD that can be modified to reduce the risk of CVD, the aim of this current paper was to examine the impact of functional foods in relation to the development and progression of CVD. Epidemiologic studies have demonstrated the association between certain dietary patterns and cardiovascular health. Research into the cardio-protective potential of their dietary components might support the development of functional foods and nutraceuticals. This paper will also compare the effect of individual bioactive dietary compounds with the effect of some dietary patterns in terms of their cardiovascular protection.

  4. Foods and nutritional components of diets of black bear in Rocky Mountain National Park, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, R.A.; Bender, L.C.

    2009-01-01

    We used scat analysis to determine diets and relative nutritional values of diets for black bears (Ursus americanus Pallas, 1780) in Rocky Mountain National Park, Colorado, from 2003 to 2006, and compared foods consumed and nutritional components to identify important sources of fecal gross energy (GE), crude fat (CF), and fecal nitrogen (FN) in annual and seasonal diets. Patterns of use of food classes followed typical seasonal patterns for bears, although use of animal matter was among the highest reported (>49% annually). Use of animal matter increased after spring, although crude protein levels in bear diets were always >25%. GE was typically lowest for grasses and other herbaceous plants and highest for ants and ungulates; FN was strongly positively related to most animal sources, but negatively correlated with vegetative matter; and CF showed the strongest positive relationship with ungulates and berries, with the latter likely influenced by the presence of seeds. Compared with historic data (1984-1991), contemporary diets included substantially greater prevalence of anthropogenic foods, which likely contributed to increases in size, condition, and productivity of the contemporary bear population. Management strategies are needed to increase quantity and quality of natural foods while minimizing dependence on anthropogenic sources.

  5. Antibacterial interactions of monolaurin with commonly used antimicrobials and food components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hui; Wei, Hewen; Cui, Yinan; Zhao, Guoqun; Feng, Fengqin

    2009-09-01

    Monolaurin is a nontraditional antimicrobial agent that possesses better antimicrobial activities but causes no health problems to consumers, but the use of monolaurin in the food industry as a preservative is still limited. Using a microtiter plate assay, the minimum inhibitory concentrations for monolaurin were 25 microg/mL against Escherichia coli, 12.5 microg/mL against Staphylococcus aureus, and 30 microg/mL against Bacillus subtilis. The interaction with commonly used antimicrobials revealed that monolaurin and nisin acted synergistically against the test microorganisms, monolaurin in combination with sodium dehydroacetate or ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid was synergistic against E. coli and B. subtilis but not S. aureus, and monolaurin combined with calcium propionate or sodium lactate showed no synergistic effects against any test microorganism. The interaction with food components revealed that the antibacterial effectiveness of monolaurin was reduced by fat or starch while the monolaurin activity remained unchanged in the presence of protein. This study contributes to a better understanding on the use of monolaurin as a nontraditional preservative in food products. Results from this study suggest the potential use of monolaurin as a nontraditional preservative in combination with commonly used antimicrobials, such as nisin, sodium dehydroacetate, or ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, and suggest that the antibacterial effectiveness of monolaurin may be reduced significantly in high-fat or low-starch food products.

  6. Food choice as a key management strategy for functional gastrointestinal symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Peter R; Shepherd, Susan J

    2012-05-01

    Recognition of food components that induce functional gut symptoms in patient's functional bowel disorders (FBD) has been challenging. Food directly or indirectly provides considerable afferent input into the enteric nervous system. There is an altered relationship between the afferent input and perception/efferent response in FBD. Defining the nature of food-related stimuli may provide a means of minimizing such an input and gut symptoms. Using this premise, reducing the intake of FODMAPs (fermentable oligo-, di-, and mono-saccharides and polyols)--poorly absorbed short-chain carbohydrates that, by virtue of their small molecular size and rapid fermentability, will distend the intestinal lumen with liquid and gas--improves symptoms in the majority of patients. Well-developed methodologies to deliver the diet via dietician-led education are available. Another abundant source of afferent input is natural and added food chemicals (such as salicylates, amines, and glutamates). Studies are needed to assess the efficacy of the low food chemical dietary approach. A recent placebo-controlled trial of FODMAP-poor gluten provided the first valid evidence that non-celiac gluten intolerance might actually exist, but its prevalence and underlying mechanisms require elucidation. Food choice via the low FODMAP and potentially other dietary strategies is now a realistic and efficacious therapeutic approach for functional gut symptoms.

  7. Functional food availability, a limitation to peoples’ health on Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Ndungu

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Background:All foods are imported to markets in smaller islands in the Caribbean. Before export of foods to these destinations, the foods are subjected to several preservative procedures like irradiation, pesticide spray and prolonged refrigeration etc., to last the extended transport periods. This reduces availability of protective elements and the nutrient contents of the foods to scanty levels,especially to common people with low and middle incomes. Hence the majority of people in these categories on the small islands become vulnerable to ill health. Aims and Objectives: To assess 1. Food availability 2. Normal transport period for foods to reach from the suppliers, and 3. Current level of prevalence of non-infective chronic diseases in the area. Methods: Data were collected from two sources. One set of data was collected from the three supermarkets on the island to obtain information on source, transport time and nature of foods imported; and the second from 200 randomly selected responses of diseased persons for information on the age, gender and cause of death. Results: All the foods were imported and the time taken for the food (including protective foods to reach the island was about 3 weeks. The major causes of death were malignancy (30%, diabetes and its complications (25%, cardio vascular diseases (19.5%, STD / HIV (8.5% and other causes (17.0%. A review of prevalence of chronic diseases like hypertension, diabetes, heart diseases, arthritis and associated functional limitations, in the region reveals that their prevalence is proportionately high on the island compared to nearby developed mainland Functional Foods in Health and Disease 2011; 7:222-231 regions. Body mass index of ≥25 was reported to be as high as 58.3%. The health care facilitiesavailable are seen to be limited and public health activity to prevent or manage the prevailing chronic health issues, appeared to be meager. Conclusion: There is a need to address the

  8. Willingness to purchase functional foods according to their benefits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schnettler, Berta; Miranda, Horacio; Lobos, Germán

    2015-01-01

    people in southern Chile. The questionnaire measured willingness to buy FFs with 18 different benefits, knowledge about FFs, socio-demographic characteristics and satisfaction with life and with food-related life. Findings – Two dimensions were found for benefits sought in FFs: disease prevention.......5 per cent) showed greater disposition to buy FFs which improve bodily functions. The types differ according to the size of family, presence and age of children at home, ethnic origin, education, socio-economic status, knowledge about FFs and satisfaction with life and food-related life. Research....../value – This study provides information on the willingness to buy FFs and relates it to ethnic origin and satisfaction with food-related life. People from ethnic minorities are less inclined to buy FFs. People who are more inclined to buy FFs are more satisfied with their life and their food-related life...

  9. The role of rabbit meat as functional food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalle Zotte, Antonella; Szendro, Zsolt

    2011-07-01

    Increasing consumer knowledge of the link between diet and health has raised the awareness and demand for functional food ingredients. Meat and its derivatives may be considered functional foods to the extent that they contain numerous compounds thought to be functional. This review will attempt to outline the excellent nutritional and dietetic properties of rabbit meat and offer an overview of the studies performed on the strategies adopted to improve the functional value of rabbit meat. Dietary manipulation has been seen to be very effective in increasing the levels of essential FA, EPA, DHA, CLA, branched chain FA, vitamin E, and selenium in rabbit meat. Dietary fortification with vitamin E or natural products such as oregano essential oil, chia seed oil, and Spirulina platensis microalga seem promising in improving the oxidative stability of rabbit meat while also adding functional ingredients.

  10. Diabetes mellitus type 2 and functional foods of plant origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathak, Manju

    2014-01-01

    Diabetes is the common, exponentially growing, serious human health problem existing globally. Risk factors like genetic predisposition, lack of balanced diet, inappropriate and lethargic lifestyle, overweight, obesity, stress including emotional and oxidative and lack of probiotics in gut are found to be the causing factors either in isolation or in synergy predisposing Diabetes. High blood sugar is a common symptom in all types of diabetes mellitus and the physiological cause of diabetes is lack of hormone Insulin or resistance in function faced by insulin. Low levels of Insulin causes decreased utilization of glucose by body cells, increased mobilization of fats from fat storage cells and depletion of proteins in the tissues of the body, keeping the body in crisis. The functional foods help achieving optimal physiological metabolism and cellular functions helping the body to come out of these crises. The mechanism of the functional foods is envisaged to act via optimizing vitamins, minerals, essential amino acids, prebiotics and probiotics. This paper reviews role of functional foods of plant origin in the regulation of blood sugar in type 2 diabetes mellitus and also discusses some vital patents in this area. The article aims at creating awareness about key food ingredients in order to prevent most acute effects of diabetes mellitus and to greatly delay the chronic effects as well.

  11. Master crossover functions for one-component fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrabos, Yves; Lecoutre, Carole; Palencia, Fabien; Le Neindre, Bernard; Erkey, Can

    2008-02-01

    By introducing three well-defined dimensionless numbers, we establish the link between the scale dilatation method able to estimate master (i.e., unique) singular behaviors of the one-component fluid subclass and the universal crossover functions recently estimated [Garrabos and Bervillier, Phys. Rev. E 74, 021113 (2006)] from the bounded results of the massive renormalization scheme applied to the Phi(d)(4)(n) model of scalar order parameter (n=1) and three dimensions (d=3), representative of the Ising-like universality class. The master (i.e., rescaled) crossover functions are then able to fit the singular behaviors of any one-component fluid without adjustable parameter, using only one critical energy scale factor, one critical length scale factor, and two dimensionless asymptotic scale factors, which characterize the fluid critical interaction cell at its liquid-gas critical point. An additional adjustable parameter accounts for quantum effects in light fluids at the critical temperature. The effective extension of the thermal field range along the critical isochore where the master crossover functions seems to be valid corresponds to a correlation length greater than three times the effective range of the microscopic short-range molecular interaction.

  12. Consumer Acceptance of Functional Foods in Ho Chi Minh City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duy Tung BUI

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to identify and evaluate the underlying factors affecting consumer acceptance of functional foods. The contribution of this study is to better understand customer willingness to buy such products in Ho Chi Minh City by shedding light on how socio-demographic, cognitive and attitudinal determinants affect consumer's choices of foods. We conducted a survey using 217 respondents from Ho Chi Minh City. Next, we develop a binary-probit model to quantify the impact of each factor on consumer acceptance. The results show that having a sick relative, beliefs in health benefits positively affect acceptance level. Other than that, old people in Ho Chi Minh City tend to reject the use of functional foods. However, when they are provided with enough knowledge, they are the most intensive buyers of these products. Implications and further researches are also discussed.

  13. Nutraceuticals and functional foods in the management of hyperlipidemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Gu; Wang, Hong; Zhang, Xu; Yang, Shang-Tian

    2014-01-01

    Hyperlipidemia is one of the major risk factor for the development of cardiovascular disease. Hypolipidemic nutraceuticals and functional foods help improve serum lipid profiles as reducing total cholesterol, triglyceride, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, while elevating high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. The effectiveness of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid, phytosterols, dietary fiber, and tea catechin in management of hyperlipidemia has been clearly demonstrated in epidemiological and interventional trials. Studies on mechanism reveal that they act as inhibitor or activator of critical enzyme, agonist or inhibitor of transcription factor, competitor of transporter, and sequestrant of bile acid to modulate lipid homeostasis. Hypolipidemic effects are also claimed in dietary proteins, many polyphenols, other phytochemicals, raw extract, or even whole food. This review attempts to give an overview of lipid homeostasis and summarize recent findings of hypolipidemic nutraceuticals and functional foods according to their active ingredients, focusing on the efficacy and underlying mechanisms.

  14. Evaluation of food, nutrition and functional substances, in the selected food materials for space agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomita-Yokotani, Kaori; Kimura, Yasuko; Yamashita, Masamichi; Kimura, Shunta; Sato, Seigo; Katoh, Hiroshi

    2016-07-01

    We have been studying the evaluation of food, nutrition and functional substances, in the selected organic materials for useful life-support systems in closed bio-ecosystems for space agriculture on Mars in the future. We have already proposed several species as food materials; cyanobacterium, Nostoc sp. HK-01 and the Japanese cherry tree. Nostoc sp. HK-01 is a terrestrial cyanobacterium which has high tolerances to several space environments. In addition to its high tolerances to serious environments, HK-01 has a high protein content. Total protein per 100 g of the dried colony of Nostoc sp. HK-01 was approximately 50 g. Woody plant materials also have several properties which can be utilized in our habitation environment and as food. We have already found abilities to produce important functional substances for humans in the selected trees. Here, we show the extended results of our experiments.

  15. Assessing convergence processes at the intersection of the food and pharmaceutical industries in functional food innovation using different perspectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bornkessel, S.

    2016-01-01

    Assessing convergence processes at the intersection of the food and pharmaceutical industries in functional food innovation using different perspectives  Sabine Bornkessel The worldwide growing functional food market (e.g. Menrad, 2

  16. Assessing convergence processes at the intersection of the food and pharmaceutical industries in functional food innovation using different perspectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bornkessel, S.

    2016-01-01

    Assessing convergence processes at the intersection of the food and pharmaceutical industries in functional food innovation using different perspectives  Sabine Bornkessel The worldwide growing functional food market (e.g. Menrad, 2

  17. Dairy and functional foods research in the Agricultural Research Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Dairy and Functional Foods Research Unit is the only group in the Agricultural Research Service that is dedicated to solving critical problems in milk utilization and fruit and vegetable byproducts from specialty crops. The many areas of investigation include development of specialty cheese, c...

  18. Research at the Dairy and Functional Foods Research Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dr. Peggy Tomasula is Research Leader of the Dairy and Functional Foods Research Unit (DFFRU), ARS, USDA, Wyndmoor, PA, a group that includes 11 Research Scientists, 4 of whom are Lead Scientists (LS), 13 support scientists, and 3 Retired Collaborators. The mission of the DFFRU is to solve critical ...

  19. The food, GI tract functionality and human health cluster

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mattila-Sandholm, T.; Blaut, M.; Daly, C.; Vuyst, de L.; Dore, J.; Gibson, G.; Goossens, H.; Knorr, D.; Lucas, J.; Lahteenmaki, L.; Mercenier, A.M.E.; Saarela, M.; Shanahan, F.; Vos, de W.M.

    2002-01-01

    The Food, GI-tract Functionality and Human Health (PROEUHEALTH) Cluster brings together eight complementary, multicentre interdisciplinary research projects. All have the common aim of improving the health and quality of life of European comsumers. The collaboration involves 64 different research gr

  20. Postlaunch Monitoring of Functional Foods - Methodology development (I)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong N de; Ocke MC; CVG

    2004-01-01

    Already for some years, the development of a Postlaunch Monitoring system for functional foods is on the research agenda of several stakeholders involved, e.g. the industries, the government, and research institutes. Up till now, proposals for such a system have been highly hypothetical and only li

  1. Functional Foods as Differentiated Products: the Italian Yogurt Market

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonanno, A.

    2013-01-01

    In spite of the growing consumers' interest for functional foods, the knowledge regarding the demand for these products and their profitability is limited. Adapting the LA/AIDS (Linear Approximated–Almost Ideal Demand System) model by means of Pinkse, Slade and Brett's distance metric method (2002),

  2. FOOD SAFETY SYSTEMS’ FUNCTIONING IN POLISH NETWORKS OF GROCERY STORES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paweł NOWICKI

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This article shows the way how the food safety systems are functioning in Polish networks of grocery stores. The study was conducted in the fourth quarter of 2012 in the south‐eastern Poland. There were chosen three organizations that meet certain conditions: medium size Polish grocery network without participation of foreign capital and up to 30 retail locations within the group. Studies based on a case study model. The research found that regular and unannounced inspections carried out to each store's, impact on increasing safety of food offered and the verification of GHP requirements on the headquarters level has a significant impact on the safety of food offered as well as on the knowledge and behavior of employees. In addition it was found that the verification and analysis of food safety management system is an effective tool for improving food safety. It was also shown that in most cases there is no formal crisis management system for the food protection in the surveyed companies and employees are only informed of what to do in case of an emergency.

  3. Effects of Food Components That Activate TRPA1 Receptors on Mucosal Ion Transport in the Mouse Intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fothergill, Linda J; Callaghan, Brid; Rivera, Leni R; Lieu, TinaMarie; Poole, Daniel P; Cho, Hyun-Jung; Bravo, David M; Furness, John B

    2016-10-10

    TRPA1 is a ligand-activated cation channel found in the intestine and other tissues. Components of food that stimulate TRPA1 receptors (phytonutrients) include allyl isothiocyanate, cinnamaldehyde and linalool, but these may also act at other receptors. Cells lining the intestinal mucosa are immunoreactive for TRPA1 and Trpa1 mRNA occurs in mucosal extracts, suggesting that the TRPA1 receptor is the target for these agonists. However, in situ hybridisation reveals Trpa1 expression in 5-HT containing enteroendocrine cells, not enterocytes. TRPA1 agonists evoke mucosal secretion, which may be indirect (through release of 5-HT) or direct by activation of enterocytes. We investigated effects of the phytonutrients on transmucosal ion currents in mouse duodenum and colon, and the specificity of the phytonutrients in cells transfected with Trpa1, and in Trpa1-deficient mice. The phytonutrients increased currents in the duodenum with the relative potencies: allyl isothiocyanate (AITC) > cinnamaldehyde > linalool (0.1 to 300 μM). The rank order was similar in the colon, but linalool was ineffective. Responses to AITC were reduced by the TRPA1 antagonist HC-030031 (100 μM), and were greatly diminished in Trpa1-/- duodenum and colon. Responses were not reduced by tetrodotoxin, 5-HT receptor antagonists, or atropine, but inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis reduced responses. Thus, functional TRPA1 channels are expressed by enterocytes of the duodenum and colon. Activation of enterocyte TRPA1 by food components has the potential to facilitate nutrient absorption.

  4. Safety issues of botanicals and botanical preparations in functional foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroes, R; Walker, R

    2004-05-20

    Although botanicals have played a role in the marketing of health products for ages, there is an increased interest today due to their perceived health benefits. Not only do consumers increasingly take charge of their health, but the scientific information and understanding of the beneficial health effects of bioactive substances in food, functional foods and food supplements have improved. Increasing use of these products has also led to concerns about their actual safety. Recorded cases of intoxications have triggered such concerns. The safety assessment of these substances is complicated by, amongst others, the variability of composition. Furthermore, consumption of such functional products is expected to produce physiological effects, which may lead to low margins of safety as the margin between exposure of such products and the safe level of intake are likely to be small. The safety assessment of botanicals and botanical preparations in food and food supplement should at least involve: the characterisation and quality of the material, its quality control; the intended use and consequent exposure; history of use and exposure; product comparison(s); toxicological information gathering; Risk characterisation/safety assessment. As a guidance tool, a decision tree approach is proposed to assist in determining the extent of data requirements based on the nature of the such product. This guidance tool in safety assessment was developed by an expert group of the International Life Sciences Institute (ILSI), European Branch, and is currently in press. In this paper a summarised version of this tool is presented.

  5. Plant and Fungal Food Components with Potential Activity on the Development of Microbial Oral Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Daglia

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the content in macronutrients, free sugars, polyphenols, and inorganic ions, known to exert any positive or negative action on microbial oral disease such as caries and gingivitis, of seven food/beverages (red chicory, mushroom, raspberry, green and black tea, cranberry juice, dark beer. Tea leaves resulted the richest material in all the detected ions, anyway tea beverages resulted the richest just in fluoride. The highest content in zinc was in chicory, raspberry and mushroom. Raspberry is the richest food in strontium and boron, beer in selenium, raspberry and mushroom in copper. Beer, cranberry juice and, especially green and black tea are very rich in polyphenols, confirming these beverages as important sources of such healthy substances. The fractionation, carried out on the basis of the molecular mass (MM, of the water soluble components occurring in raspberry, chicory, and mushroom extracts (which in microbiological assays revealed the highest potential action against oral pathogens, showed that both the high and low MM fractions are active, with the low MM fractions displaying the highest potential action for all the fractionated extracts. Our findings show that more compounds that can play a different active role occur in these foods.

  6. Antimicrobial activity of essential oil components against potential food spoilage microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, G; Rüben, C; Upmann, M

    2013-08-01

    The antimicrobial activity of six essential oil components against the potential food spoilage bacteria Aeromonas (A.) hydrophila, Escherichia (E.) coli, Brochothrix (B.) thermosphacta, and Pseudomonas (P.) fragi at single use and in combination with each other was investigated. At single use, the most effective oil components were thymol (bacteriostatic effect starting from 40 ppm, bactericidal effect with 100 ppm) and carvacrol (50 ppm/100 ppm), followed by linalool (180 ppm/720 ppm), α-pinene (400 ppm/no bactericidal effect), 1,8-cineol (1,400 ppm/2,800 ppm), and α-terpineol (600 ppm/no bactericidal effect). Antimicrobial effects occurred only at high, sensorial not acceptable concentrations. The most susceptible bacterium was A. hydrophila, followed by B. thermosphacta and E. coli. Most of the essential oil component combinations tested showed a higher antimicrobial effect than tested at single use. Antagonistic antimicrobial effects were observed particularly against B. thermosphacta, rarely against A. hydrophila. The results show that the concentration of at least one of the components necessary for an antibacterial effect is higher than sensorial acceptable. So the use of herbs with a high content of thymol, carvacrol, linalool, 1,8-cineol, α-pinene or α-terpineol alone or in combination must be weighted against sensorial quality.

  7. Improved swimming pool achieves higher reproducibility and sensitivity to effect of food components as ergogenic AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishihara, Kengo; Yamada, Ayumi; Mita, Yukiko; Goto, Ayako; Ishimi, Tomoe; Mabuchi, Haruko; Inoue, Kazuo; Fushiki, Tohru; Yasumoto, Kyoden

    2009-06-01

    A previously developed current swimming pool for mice has been used to evaluate many food components that enhance endurance exercise performance. In this article, to improve reproducibility, reliability and sensitivity of this assay system, we improved the spout part to generate a uniform current and divided the pool into six lanes to avoid physical interference between swimming mice. The stability of the current flow was assessed by measuring the surface current speed and water volume from the spout part. Maximum swimming times of ddY and BALB/c mice were measured to assess the reproducibility of the maximum swimming time. The improvement in sensitivity compared to the original equipment was estimated under three physiological conditions: low carbohydrate diet feeding, low blood hemoglobin level, and carbohydrate supplementation during exercise. The new spout part improved uniformity and quick adjustment of surface current, yielding an increase of workload in a stepwise manner during swimming. Exercise workload was increased in proportion to surface current speed, as evidenced by cadence of kicks and serum lactic acid levels. The improved swimming pool showed higher reproducibility of swimming time until fatigue (pswimming time was improved in the swimming pool. The improved swimming pool yielded higher sensitivity for low carbohydrate diet feeding (pswimming pool. The improvement of the swimming pool achieved higher sensitivity and reproducibility in assessing various diet and food components compared to the original swimming pool.

  8. Household Food Waste: Multivariate Regression and Principal Components Analyses of Awareness and Attitudes among U.S. Consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Danyi; Roe, Brian E

    2016-01-01

    We estimate models of consumer food waste awareness and attitudes using responses from a national survey of U.S. residents. Our models are interpreted through the lens of several theories that describe how pro-social behaviors relate to awareness, attitudes and opinions. Our analysis of patterns among respondents' food waste attitudes yields a model with three principal components: one that represents perceived practical benefits households may lose if food waste were reduced, one that represents the guilt associated with food waste, and one that represents whether households feel they could be doing more to reduce food waste. We find our respondents express significant agreement that some perceived practical benefits are ascribed to throwing away uneaten food, e.g., nearly 70% of respondents agree that throwing away food after the package date has passed reduces the odds of foodborne illness, while nearly 60% agree that some food waste is necessary to ensure meals taste fresh. We identify that these attitudinal responses significantly load onto a single principal component that may represent a key attitudinal construct useful for policy guidance. Further, multivariate regression analysis reveals a significant positive association between the strength of this component and household income, suggesting that higher income households most strongly agree with statements that link throwing away uneaten food to perceived private benefits.

  9. Household Food Waste: Multivariate Regression and Principal Components Analyses of Awareness and Attitudes among U.S. Consumers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    We estimate models of consumer food waste awareness and attitudes using responses from a national survey of U.S. residents. Our models are interpreted through the lens of several theories that describe how pro-social behaviors relate to awareness, attitudes and opinions. Our analysis of patterns among respondents’ food waste attitudes yields a model with three principal components: one that represents perceived practical benefits households may lose if food waste were reduced, one that represents the guilt associated with food waste, and one that represents whether households feel they could be doing more to reduce food waste. We find our respondents express significant agreement that some perceived practical benefits are ascribed to throwing away uneaten food, e.g., nearly 70% of respondents agree that throwing away food after the package date has passed reduces the odds of foodborne illness, while nearly 60% agree that some food waste is necessary to ensure meals taste fresh. We identify that these attitudinal responses significantly load onto a single principal component that may represent a key attitudinal construct useful for policy guidance. Further, multivariate regression analysis reveals a significant positive association between the strength of this component and household income, suggesting that higher income households most strongly agree with statements that link throwing away uneaten food to perceived private benefits. PMID:27441687

  10. Household Food Waste: Multivariate Regression and Principal Components Analyses of Awareness and Attitudes among U.S. Consumers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danyi Qi

    Full Text Available We estimate models of consumer food waste awareness and attitudes using responses from a national survey of U.S. residents. Our models are interpreted through the lens of several theories that describe how pro-social behaviors relate to awareness, attitudes and opinions. Our analysis of patterns among respondents' food waste attitudes yields a model with three principal components: one that represents perceived practical benefits households may lose if food waste were reduced, one that represents the guilt associated with food waste, and one that represents whether households feel they could be doing more to reduce food waste. We find our respondents express significant agreement that some perceived practical benefits are ascribed to throwing away uneaten food, e.g., nearly 70% of respondents agree that throwing away food after the package date has passed reduces the odds of foodborne illness, while nearly 60% agree that some food waste is necessary to ensure meals taste fresh. We identify that these attitudinal responses significantly load onto a single principal component that may represent a key attitudinal construct useful for policy guidance. Further, multivariate regression analysis reveals a significant positive association between the strength of this component and household income, suggesting that higher income households most strongly agree with statements that link throwing away uneaten food to perceived private benefits.

  11. Improved Functional Characteristics of Whey Protein Hydrolysates in Food Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeewanthi, Renda Kankanamge Chaturika; Lee, Na-Kyoung; Paik, Hyun-Dong

    2015-01-01

    This review focuses on the enhanced functional characteristics of enzymatic hydrolysates of whey proteins (WPHs) in food applications compared to intact whey proteins (WPs). WPs are applied in foods as whey protein concentrates (WPCs), whey protein isolates (WPIs), and WPHs. WPs are byproducts of cheese production, used in a wide range of food applications due to their nutritional validity, functional activities, and cost effectiveness. Enzymatic hydrolysis yields improved functional and nutritional benefits in contrast to heat denaturation or native applications. WPHs improve solubility over a wide range of pH, create viscosity through water binding, and promote cohesion, adhesion, and elasticity. WPHs form stronger but more flexible edible films than WPC or WPI. WPHs enhance emulsification, bind fat, and facilitate whipping, compared to intact WPs. Extensive hydrolyzed WPHs with proper heat applications are the best emulsifiers and addition of polysaccharides improves the emulsification ability of WPHs. Also, WPHs improve the sensorial properties like color, flavor, and texture but impart a bitter taste in case where extensive hydrolysis (degree of hydrolysis greater than 8%). It is important to consider the type of enzyme, hydrolysis conditions, and WPHs production method based on the nature of food application.

  12. The four-component aureocin A70 as a promising agent for food biopreservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlin Fagundes, Patrícia; Miceli de Farias, Felipe; Cabral da Silva Santos, Olinda; Souza da Paz, Juliana Aparecida; Ceotto-Vigoder, Hilana; Sales Alviano, Daniela; Villela Romanos, Maria Teresa; de Freire Bastos, Maria do Carmo

    2016-11-21

    Aureocin A70 is the only four-component bacteriocin described to date. As it inhibits the growth of a wide range of Gram-positive bacteria, including Listeria monocytogenes strains isolated from food, its potential for improving food safety was investigated in this study. Aureocin A70 (10,240AU/mL) proved to be bactericidal, but not extensively lytic, against listerial strains. The antibacterial activity of aureocin A70 (16AU/mL) was then tested in UHT-treated skimmed milk inoculated with the food-associated L. monocytogenes L12 strain (4-log CFU/mL) during storage at 4°C for one week. Aureocin A70 caused a time-dependent reduction in the listerial viable cell counts (5.51-log units) up to 7days of incubation. Aureocin A70 was neither toxic to the Vero and the L-929 cell lines nor exhibited a hemolytic activity against sheep red blood cells. Aureocin A70 proved to be completely stable for one month at 25°C, 16weeks at 4°C and 20weeks at -20°C. Aureocin A70 exhibited a time-dependent susceptibility to simulated gastric juice and bile salts mimicking gastrointestinal conditions. The entrapment of aureocin A70 in an alginate/gelatin matrix revealed that this bacteriocin can be released from this matrix. Moreover, it remained adsorbed to and active on a low-density polyethylene plastic surface suggesting that aureocin A70 may be employed in bioactive packaging to control the growth of undesirable bacteria. Taken together these results suggest that aureocin A70 is a promising alternative to be used in food applications.

  13. Bioactive compounds in seaweed; functional food applications and legislation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holdt, Susan Løvstad; Kraan, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    Seaweed is more than the wrap that keeps rice together in sushi. Seaweed biomass is already used for a wide range of other products in food, including stabilising agents. Biorefineries with seaweed as feedstock are attracting worldwide interest and include low-volume, high value-added products an...... of uses to enhance comparisons. In addition, scientific experiments performed on seaweed used as animal feed are presented, and EU, US and Japanese legislation on functional foods is reviewed.......Seaweed is more than the wrap that keeps rice together in sushi. Seaweed biomass is already used for a wide range of other products in food, including stabilising agents. Biorefineries with seaweed as feedstock are attracting worldwide interest and include low-volume, high value-added products...

  14. Fenugreek: Potential Applications as a Functional Food and Nutraceutical

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasim Khorshidian

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Fenugreek (Trigonella  foenum graecum, native to southern Europe and Asia, is an annual herb with white flowers and hard, yellowish brown and angular seeds, known from ancient times, for nutritional value beside of its medicinal effects. Fenugreek seeds are rich source of gum, fiber, alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins and volatile content. Due to its high content of fiber, fenugreek could be used as food stabilizer, adhesive and emulsifying agent to change food texture for some special purposes. Some evidence suggests that fenugreek may also be regarded as antidiabetic, anticarcinogenic, antioxidant, antibacterial agent, antianorexia agent, and gastric stimulant, as well as remedy for hypocholesterolemia and hypoglycemia. The present article is aimed to review the potential applications of fenugreek as a functional food and nutraceutical agent.

  15. Global change in the trophic functioning of marine food webs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maureaud, Aurore; Gascuel, Didier; Colléter, Mathieu

    2017-01-01

    The development of fisheries in the oceans, and other human drivers such as climate warming, have led to changes in species abundance, assemblages, trophic interactions, and ultimately in the functioning of marine food webs. Here, using a trophodynamic approach and global databases of catches...... and life history traits of marine species, we tested the hypothesis that anthropogenic ecological impacts may have led to changes in the global parameters defining the transfers of biomass within the food web. First, we developed two indicators to assess such changes: the Time Cumulated Indicator (TCI......) measuring the residence time of biomass within the food web, and the Efficiency Cumulated Indicator (ECI) quantifying the fraction of secondary production reaching the top of the trophic chain. Then, we assessed, at the large marine ecosystem scale, the worldwide change of these two indicators over the 1950...

  16. Presence of CP4-EPSPS Component in Roundup Ready Soybean-Derived Food Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Honghong Wu

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available With the widespread use of Roundup Ready soya (event 40-3-2 (RRS, the traceability of transgenic components, especially protein residues, in different soya-related foodstuffs has become an important issue. In this report, transgenic components in commercial soya (including RRS protein concentrates were firstly detected by using polymerase chain reaction (PCR and western blot. The results illustrated the different degradation patterns of the cp4-epsps gene and corresponding protein in RRS-derived protein concentrates. Furthermore, western blot was applied to investigate the single factor of food processing and the matrix on the disintegration of CP4-EPSPS protein in RRS powder and soya-derived foodstuffs, and trace the degradation patterns during the food production chain. Our results suggested that the exogenous full length of CP4-EPSPS protein in RRS powder was distinctively sensitive to various heat treatments, including heat, microwave and autoclave (especially, and only one degradation fragment (23.4 kD of CP4-EPSPS protein was apparently observed when autoclaving was applied. By tracing the protein degradation during RRS-related products, including tofu, tou-kan, and bean curd sheets, however, four degradation fragments (42.9, 38.2, 32.2 and 23.4 kD were displayed, suggesting that both boiling and bittern adding procedures might have extensive effects on CP4-EPSPS protein degradation. Our results thus confirmed that the distinctive residues of the CP4-EPSPS component could be traced in RRS-related foodstuffs.

  17. Functional foods and urban agriculture: two responses to climate change-related food insecurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Jane M; Donati, Kelly J; Pike, Lucy L; Hattersley, Libby

    2009-01-01

    Affluent diets have negative effects on the health of the population and the environment. Moreover, the ability of industrialised agricultural ecosystems to continue to supply these diets is threatened by the anticipated consequences of climate change. By challenging the ongoing supply the diets of affluent countries, climate change provides a population and environmental health opportunity. This paper contrasts two strategies for dealing with climate change-related food insecurity. Functional foods are being positioned as one response because they are considered a hyper-efficient mechanism for supplying essential micronutrients. An alternative response is civic and urban agriculture. Rather than emphasising increased economic or nutritional efficiencies, civic agriculture presents a holistic approach to food security that is more directly connected to the economic, environmental and social factors that affect diet and health.

  18. Minimally Processed Functional Foods: Technological and Operational Pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, Svetlana

    2016-10-01

    This paper offers a concise review of technical and operational concepts underpinning commercialization of minimally processed functional foods (FFs), foods with fresh-like qualities commanding premium prices. The growing number of permitted nutritional content/health claims, many of which relate to well-being, coupled with emerging extraction and food processing technologies offers new exciting opportunities for small and medium size enterprises (SMEs) specializing in fresh produce to play an active role in the health market. Supporting SMEs, governments could benefit from savings in healthcare costs and value creation in the economy. Consumers could benefit from novel FF formats such as refrigerated RTE (ready-to-eat) meals, a variety of fresh-like meat-, fish-, and egg-based products, fresh-cut fruits and vegetables, cereal-based fermented foods and beverages. To preserve these valuable commodities, mild biological (enzymatic treatment, fermentation and, bio-preservation) and engineering solutions are needed. The latter include nonthermal techniques such as high-pressure treatment, cook-chill, sous-vide, mirco-encapsulation, vacuum impregnation and others. "De-constructive" culinary techniques such as 3D food printing and molecular gastronomy as well as developments in nutrigenomics and digital technologies facilitate novel product formats, personalization and access to niche markets. In the operational sense, moving from nourishment to health improvement demands a shift from defensive market-oriented to offensive market-developing strategies including collaborative networks with research organizations.

  19. Global change in the trophic functioning of marine food webs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gascuel, Didier; Colléter, Mathieu; Palomares, Maria L. D.; Du Pontavice, Hubert; Pauly, Daniel; Cheung, William W. L.

    2017-01-01

    The development of fisheries in the oceans, and other human drivers such as climate warming, have led to changes in species abundance, assemblages, trophic interactions, and ultimately in the functioning of marine food webs. Here, using a trophodynamic approach and global databases of catches and life history traits of marine species, we tested the hypothesis that anthropogenic ecological impacts may have led to changes in the global parameters defining the transfers of biomass within the food web. First, we developed two indicators to assess such changes: the Time Cumulated Indicator (TCI) measuring the residence time of biomass within the food web, and the Efficiency Cumulated Indicator (ECI) quantifying the fraction of secondary production reaching the top of the trophic chain. Then, we assessed, at the large marine ecosystem scale, the worldwide change of these two indicators over the 1950–2010 time-periods. Global trends were identified and cluster analyses were used to characterize the variability of trends between ecosystems. Results showed that the most common pattern over the study period is a global decrease in TCI, while the ECI indicator tends to increase. Thus, changes in species assemblages would induce faster and apparently more efficient biomass transfers in marine food webs. Results also suggested that the main driver of change over that period had been the large increase in fishing pressure. The largest changes occurred in ecosystems where ‘fishing down the marine food web’ are most intensive. PMID:28800358

  20. The meaning of functional trait composition of food webs for ecosystem functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gravel, Dominique; Albouy, Camille; Thuiller, Wilfried

    2016-05-19

    There is a growing interest in using trait-based approaches to characterize the functional structure of animal communities. Quantitative methods have been derived mostly for plant ecology, but it is now common to characterize the functional composition of various systems such as soils, coral reefs, pelagic food webs or terrestrial vertebrate communities. With the ever-increasing availability of distribution and trait data, a quantitative method to represent the different roles of animals in a community promise to find generalities that will facilitate cross-system comparisons. There is, however, currently no theory relating the functional composition of food webs to their dynamics and properties. The intuitive interpretation that more functional diversity leads to higher resource exploitation and better ecosystem functioning was brought from plant ecology and does not apply readily to food webs. Here we appraise whether there are interpretable metrics to describe the functional composition of food webs that could foster a better understanding of their structure and functioning. We first distinguish the various roles that traits have on food web topology, resource extraction (bottom-up effects), trophic regulation (top-down effects), and the ability to keep energy and materials within the community. We then discuss positive effects of functional trait diversity on food webs, such as niche construction and bottom-up effects. We follow with a discussion on the negative effects of functional diversity, such as enhanced competition (both exploitation and apparent) and top-down control. Our review reveals that most of our current understanding of the impact of functional trait diversity on food web properties and functioning comes from an over-simplistic representation of network structure with well-defined levels. We, therefore, conclude with propositions for new research avenues for both theoreticians and empiricists.

  1. Impact of food components during in vitro digestion of silver nanoparticles on cellular uptake and cytotoxicity in intestinal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichtenstein, Dajana; Ebmeyer, Johanna; Knappe, Patrick; Juling, Sabine; Böhmert, Linda; Selve, Sören; Niemann, Birgit; Braeuning, Albert; Thünemann, Andreas F; Lampen, Alfonso

    2015-11-01

    Because of the rising application of nanoparticles in food and food-related products, we investigated the influence of the digestion process on the toxicity and cellular uptake of silver nanoparticles for intestinal cells. The main food components--carbohydrates, proteins and fatty acids--were implemented in an in vitro digestion process to simulate realistic conditions. Digested and undigested silver nanoparticle suspensions were used for uptake studies in the well-established Caco-2 model. Small-angle X-ray scattering was used to estimate particle core size, size distribution and stability in cell culture medium. Particles proved to be stable and showed radii from 3.6 to 16.0 nm. Undigested particles and particles digested in the presence of food components were comparably taken up by Caco-2 cells, whereas the uptake of particles digested without food components was decreased by 60%. Overall, these findings suggest that in vivo ingested poly (acrylic acid)-coated silver nanoparticles may reach the intestine in a nanoscaled form even if enclosed in a food matrix. While appropriate for studies on the uptake into intestinal cells, the Caco-2 model might be less suited for translocation studies. Moreover, we show that nanoparticle digestion protocols lacking food components may lead to misinterpretation of uptake studies and inconclusive results.

  2. Spent yeast as natural source of functional food additives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakowska, Rita; Sadowska, Anna; Dybkowska, Ewa; Świderski, Franciszek

    Spent yeasts are by-products arising from beer and wine production which over many years have been chiefly used as feed additives for livestock. They contain many valuable and bioactive substances which has thereby generated much interest in their exploitation. Up till now, the main products obtained from beer-brewing yeasts are β-glucans and yeast extracts. Other like foodstuffs include dried brewer’s yeast, where this is dried and the bitterness removed to be fit for human consumption as well as mannan-oligosaccharides hitherto used in the feed industry. β-glucans constitute the building blocks of yeast cell walls and can thus be used in human nutrition as dietary supplements or serving as food additives in functional foods. β-glucans products obtained via post-fermentation of beer also exhibit a high and multi-faceted biological activity where they improve the blood’s lipid profile, enhance immunological status and have both prebiotic and anti-oxidant properties. Yeast extracts are currently being used more and more to enhance flavour in foodstuffs, particularly for meat and its products. Depending on how autolysis is carried out, it is possible to design extracts of various meat flavours characteristic of specific meats. Many different flavour profiles can be created which may be additionally increased in combination with vegetable extracts. Within the food market, yeast extracts can appear in various guises such as liquids, pastes or powders. They all contain significant amounts of glutamic acid, 5’-GMP and 5’-IMP nucleotides together with various amino acids and peptides that act synergistically for enhancing the flavour of foodstuff products. Recent studies have demonstrated additional benefits of yeast extracts as valuable sources of amino acids and peptides which can be used in functional foods and dietary supplements. These products possess GRAS status (Generally Recognised As Safe) which thereby also adds further as to why they should be used

  3. Functional foods for dyslipidaemia and cardiovascular risk prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirtori, Cesare R; Galli, Claudio; Anderson, James W; Sirtori, Elena; Arnoldi, Anna

    2009-12-01

    A food can be regarded as 'functional' if it can demonstrate a beneficial efficacy on one or more target functions in the body in a convincing way. Beyond adequate nutritional qualities, functional foods should either improve the state of health and wellbeing and/or reduce the risk of disease. Functional foods that are marketed with claims of heart disease reduction focus primarily on the major risk factors, i.e. cholesterol, diabetes and hypertension. Some of the most innovative products are designed to be enriched with 'protective' ingredients, believed to reduce risk. They may contain, for example, soluble fibre (from oat and psyllium), useful both for lowering cholesterol and blood pressure, or fructans, effective in diabetes. Phytosterols and stanols lower LDL-cholesterol in a dose-dependent manner. Soya protein is more hypocholesterolaemic in subjects with very high initial cholesterol and recent data indicate also favourable activities in the metabolic syndrome. n-3 Fatty acids appear to exert significant hypotriacylglycerolaemic effects, possibly partly responsible for their preventive activity. Dark chocolate is gaining much attention for its multifunctional activities, useful both for the prevention of dyslipidaemia as well as hypertension. Finally, consensus opinions about tea and coffee have not emerged yet, and the benefits of vitamin E, garlic, fenugreek and policosanols in the management of dyslipidaemia and prevention of arterial disease are still controversial.

  4. [Inulin and derivates as key ingredients in functional foods].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madrigal, Lorena; Sangronis, Elba

    2007-12-01

    Inulin is a non-digestible carbohydrate that is contained in many vegetables, fruits and cereals. It is industrially produced from the chicory's root (Cichorium intybus) and it is widely used as ingredient in functional foods. Inulin and its derivate compounds (oligofructose, fructooligosaccharides) are usually called fructans, as they are basically based on linear fructose chains. This review presents a description of inulin and its most common derivate compounds: chemical structure, natural sources, physic-chemical properties, technological functionality, industrial manufacturing, analytical method for determination and health benefits: prebiotic, dietary fiber, low caloric value, hypoglycemic action, enhancement of calcium and magnesium bioavailability. Potential benefits: lipid parameters regulation, reduction of colon cancer risk and others, improvement of immune response, intestinal disorders protection. From technological point of view, these compounds exhibit a variety of properties: thickener, emulsifier, gel forming, sugar and fat substitute, humectant, freezing point depression. Inulin and derivates are been used in pharmaceutical, chemical and processing industry as technological additives and excipients. They are also been used for animal feeding. They are been considered as "bioactive" compounds to be proposed as future packaging material. Fructans are proposed to be classified as "functional fiber", according to recent concepts based on physiological effects on individuals. This review of inulin and its derivates was useful to show the broad boundaries of these compounds in the food industry and why they may be considered as key ingredients in the expanding functional food market.

  5. Germinated grains: a superior whole grain functional food?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Kristina; Stojanovska, Lily; Vasiljevic, Todor; Mathai, Michael

    2013-06-01

    Grains are global dietary staples that when consumed in whole grain form, offer considerable health benefits compared with milled grain foods, including reduced body weight gain and reduced cardiovascular and diabetes risks. Dietary patterns, functional foods, and other lifestyle factors play a fundamental role in the development and management of epidemic lifestyle diseases that share risks of developing adverse metabolic outcomes, including hyperglycaemia, hypertension, dyslipidaemia, oxidative stress, and inflammation. Whole grains provide energy, nutrients, fibres, and bioactive compounds that may synergistically contribute to their protective effects. Despite their benefits, the intake of grains appears to be lower than recommended in many countries. Of emerging interest is the application of germination processes, which may significantly enhance the nutritional and bioactive content of grains, as well as improve palatability. Enhancing grain foods in a natural way using germination techniques may therefore offer a practical, natural, dietary intervention to increase the health benefits and acceptability of whole grains, with potentially widespread effects across populations in attenuating adverse lifestyle disease outcomes. Continuing to build on the growing body of in-vitro studies requires substantiation with extended in-vivo trials so that we may further develop our understanding of the potential of germinated grains as a functional food.

  6. Technologies for Enhancement of Bioactive Components and Potential Health Benefits of Cereal and Cereal-Based Foods: Research Advances and Application Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, Ahmed S M; Wang, Peng; Wang, Na; Yang, Shu; Xiao, Zhigang

    2017-08-28

    Cereal grains are a major source of human food and their production has steadily been increased during the last several decades to meet the demand of our increasing world population. The modernized society and the expansion of the cereal food industry created a need for highly efficient processing technologies, especially flour production. Earlier scientific research efforts have led to the invention of the modern steel roller mill, and the refined flour of wheat has become a basic component in most of cereal-based foods such as breads and pastries because of the unique functionality of wheat protein. On the other hand, epidemiological studies have found that consumption of whole cereal grains was health beneficial. The health benefit of whole cereal grain is attributed to the combined effects of micronutrients, phytochemicals, and dietary fibre, which are mainly located in the outer bran layer and the germ. However, the removal of bran and germ from cereal grains during polishing and milling results in refined flour and food products with lower bioactive compounds and dietary fibre contents than those from whole grain. Also, the level of bioactive compounds in cereal food is influenced by other food preparation procedures such as baking, cooking, extrusion, and puffing. Therefore, food scientists and nutritionists are searching for strategies and processing technologies to enhance the content and bioavailability of nutrients, bioactive compounds, and dietary fibre of cereal foods. The objective of this article was to review the research advances on technologies for the enhancement of bioactive compounds and dietary fibre contents of cereal and cereal-based foods. Bioactivities or biological effects of enhanced cereal and cereal-based foods are presented. Challenges facing the application of the proposed technologies in the food industry are also discussed.

  7. A conceptual model of food quality management functions based on a techno-managerial approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luning, P.A.; Marcelis, W.J.

    2007-01-01

    In agribusiness and food industry quality management problems are commonly approached by applying control systems and procedures. However, assuming predictable food systems and people following procedures seems too straightforward. This paper introduces a model of food quality management functions t

  8. A conceptual model of food quality management functions based on a techno-managerial approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luning, P.A.; Marcelis, W.J.

    2007-01-01

    In agribusiness and food industry quality management problems are commonly approached by applying control systems and procedures. However, assuming predictable food systems and people following procedures seems too straightforward. This paper introduces a model of food quality management functions

  9. DIETARY FOOD FORTIFIED WITH OROTIC ACID AND LIVER FUNCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yohanes Buang

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The effects of dietary food fortified with orotic acid (1.0% on liver function were studied in rats. The rats fed withorotic acid promoted liver triglyceride content markedly, that was 5-fold higher than that of the control. The livermalondialdehyde (MDA content increased by 10%, but the gluthation peroxidase (GSH-Px activity decreased by 50%.The serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST and alanine aminotransferase (ALT activities increased by 25% and 30%,respectively. Therefore, the decreased GSH-Px activity was associated with the promotions of AST, ALT, and the liverMDA levels. In conclusion: dietary orotic acid promotes lipid peroxidation but reduces the rate of the antioxidantenzyme. Therefore, dietary food fortified with orotic acid attenuates the liver function.

  10. Multiprocess 3D printing for increasing component functionality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Eric; Wicker, Ryan

    2016-09-30

    Layer-by-layer deposition of materials to manufacture parts-better known as three-dimensional (3D) printing or additive manufacturing-has been flourishing as a fabrication process in the past several years and now can create complex geometries for use as models, assembly fixtures, and production molds. Increasing interest has focused on the use of this technology for direct manufacturing of production parts; however, it remains generally limited to single-material fabrication, which can limit the end-use functionality of the fabricated structures. The next generation of 3D printing will entail not only the integration of dissimilar materials but the embedding of active components in order to deliver functionality that was not possible previously. Examples could include arbitrarily shaped electronics with integrated microfluidic thermal management and intelligent prostheses custom-fit to the anatomy of a specific patient. We review the state of the art in multiprocess (or hybrid) 3D printing, in which complementary processes, both novel and traditional, are combined to advance the future of manufacturing. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  11. Cultural, socioeconomic and nutritional determinants of functional food consumption patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullie, P; Guelinckx, I; Clarys, P; Degrave, E; Hulens, M; Vansant, G

    2009-11-01

    The aim of our research was to describe cultural, socioeconomic and nutritional determinants associated with functional food consumption. Cross-sectional design in 5000 military men. Using mailed questionnaires, the functional food consumption frequency was recorded. Margarines fortified with phytosterols or phytostanols were used on a daily basis by 26.3% of the responders. Only 4.7% took a daily portion of probiotics, whereas 14.0% consumed one or more portions of nuts a week. One man out of three consumed one cup of tea daily, whereas 10.2% consumed one glass of red wine daily. Three or more portions of fruit a day were consumed by 19.1%, and two or more portions of vegetables a day by 26.6%. Only 12.3% consumed a portion of fatty fish weekly. After adjustment for age, body mass index, physical activity, use of vitamin supplements, smoking, marital status, cultural background, educational and income level, the daily consumption of fortified margarines increased with age. The consumption of fermented dairy products increased with physical activity and with the use of vitamin supplements. The consumption of fortified margarines, nuts, tea and fatty fish was strongly influenced by cultural background, with higher consumptions for Flemish-speaking men compared with French-speaking persons. Daily consumption of red wine was higher in French-speaking men and in higher educated men. Finally, functional food consumption was associated with a healthy dietary pattern. Age, physical activity, level of education, use of vitamin supplements and cultural background are predictors of functional food consumption patterns.

  12. Physiological Role of Two-Component Signal Transduction Systems in Food-Associated Lactic Acid Bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monedero, Vicente; Revilla-Guarinos, Ainhoa; Zúñiga, Manuel

    2017-01-01

    Two-component systems (TCSs) are widespread signal transduction pathways mainly found in bacteria where they play a major role in adaptation to changing environmental conditions. TCSs generally consist of sensor histidine kinases that autophosphorylate in response to a specific stimulus and subsequently transfer the phosphate group to their cognate response regulators thus modulating their activity, usually as transcriptional regulators. In this review we present the current knowledge on the physiological role of TCSs in species of the families Lactobacillaceae and Leuconostocaceae of the group of lactic acid bacteria (LAB). LAB are microorganisms of great relevance for health and food production as the group spans from starter organisms to pathogens. Whereas the role of TCSs in pathogenic LAB (most of them belonging to the family Streptococcaceae) has focused the attention, the roles of TCSs in commensal LAB, such as most species of Lactobacillaceae and Leuconostocaceae, have been somewhat neglected. However, evidence available indicates that TCSs are key players in the regulation of the physiology of these bacteria. The first studies in food-associated LAB showed the involvement of some TCSs in quorum sensing and production of bacteriocins, but subsequent studies have shown that TCSs participate in other physiological processes, such as stress response, regulation of nitrogen metabolism, regulation of malate metabolism, and resistance to antimicrobial peptides, among others. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Molecular evolution of SRP cycle components: functional implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Althoff, S; Selinger, D; Wise, J A

    1994-06-11

    Signal recognition particle (SRP) is a cytoplasmic ribonucleoprotein that targets a subset of nascent presecretory proteins to the endoplasmic reticulum membrane. We have considered the SRP cycle from the perspective of molecular evolution, using recently determined sequences of genes or cDNAs encoding homologs of SRP (7SL) RNA, the Srp54 protein (Srp54p), and the alpha subunit of the SRP receptor (SR alpha) from a broad spectrum of organisms, together with the remaining five polypeptides of mammalian SRP. Our analysis provides insight into the significance of structural variation in SRP RNA and identifies novel conserved motifs in protein components of this pathway. The lack of congruence between an established phylogenetic tree and size variation in 7SL homologs implies the occurrence of several independent events that eliminated more than half the sequence content of this RNA during bacterial evolution. The apparently non-essential structures are domain I, a tRNA-like element that is constant in archaea, varies in size among eucaryotes, and is generally missing in bacteria, and domain III, a tightly base-paired hairpin that is present in all eucaryotic and archeal SRP RNAs but is invariably absent in bacteria. Based on both structural and functional considerations, we propose that the conserved core of SRP consists minimally of the 54 kDa signal sequence-binding protein complexed with the loosely base-paired domain IV helix of SRP RNA, and is also likely to contain a homolog of the Srp68 protein. Comparative sequence analysis of the methionine-rich M domains from a diverse array of Srp54p homologs reveals an extended region of amino acid identity that resembles a recently identified RNA recognition motif. Multiple sequence alignment of the G domains of Srp54p and SR alpha homologs indicates that these two polypeptides exhibit significant similarity even outside the four GTPase consensus motifs, including a block of nine contiguous amino acids in a location

  14. Functional redundancy and food web functioning in linuron-exposed ecosystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Laender, F., E-mail: frederik.delaender@ugent.be [Laboratory of Environmental Toxicity and Aquatic Ecology, Ghent University, Plateaustraat 22, 9000 Ghent (Belgium); Van den Brink, P.J., E-mail: Paul.vandenBrink@wur.nl [Department of Aquatic Ecology and Water Quality Management, Wageningen University, PO Box 47, 6700 AA Wageningen (Netherlands); Janssen, C.R., E-mail: colin.janssen@ugent.be [Laboratory of Environmental Toxicity and Aquatic Ecology, Ghent University, Plateaustraat 22, 9000 Ghent (Belgium)

    2011-10-15

    An extensive data set describing effects of the herbicide linuron on macrophyte-dominated microcosms was analysed with a food web model to assess effects on ecosystem functioning. We showed that sensitive phytoplankton and periphyton groups in the diets of heterotrophs were gradually replaced by more tolerant phytoplankton species as linuron concentrations increased. This diet shift - showing redundancy among phytoplankton species - allowed heterotrophs to maintain their functions in the contaminated microcosms. On an ecosystem level, total gross primary production was up to hundred times lower in the treated microcosms but the uptake of dissolved organic carbon by bacteria and mixotrophs was less sensitive. Food web efficiency was not consistently lower in the treated microcosms. We conclude that linuron predominantly affected the macrophytes but did not alter the overall functioning of the surrounding planktonic food web. Therefore, a risk assessment that protects macrophyte growth also protects the functioning of macrophyte-dominated microcosms. - Highlights: > Food web modelling reveals the functional response of species and ecosystem to linuron. > Primary production was more sensitive to linuron than bacterial production. > Linuron replaced sensitive phytoplankton by tolerant phytoplankton in heterotrophs' diets. > Linuron did not change the functioning of heterotrophs. - Food web modelling reveals functional redundancy of the planktonic community in microcosms treated with linuron.

  15. Consideration of interaction between nanoparticles and food components for the safety assessment of nanoparticles following oral exposure: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yi; Li, Juan; Liu, Fang; Li, Xiyue; Jiang, Qin; Cheng, Shanshan; Gu, Yuxiu

    2016-09-01

    Nanoparticles (NPs) are increasingly used in food, and the toxicity of NPs following oral exposure should be carefully assessed to ensure the safety. Indeed, a number of studies have shown that oral exposure to NPs, especially solid NPs, may induce toxicological responses both in vivo and in vitro. However, most of the toxicological studies only used NPs for oral exposure, and the potential interaction between NPs and food components in real life was ignored. In this review, we summarized the relevant studies and suggested that the interaction between NPs and food components may exist by that 1) NPs directly affect nutrients absorption through disruption of microvilli or alteration in expression of nutrient transporter genes; 2) food components directly affect NP absorption through physico-chemical modification; 3) the presence of food components affect oxidative stress induced by NPs. All of these interactions may eventually enhance or reduce the toxicological responses induced by NPs following oral exposure. Studies only using NPs for oral exposure may therefore lead to misinterpretation and underestimation/overestimation of toxicity of NPs, and it is necessary to assess the synergistic effects of NPs in a complex system when considering the safety of NPs used in food.

  16. Identification of the Beer Component Hordenine as Food-Derived Dopamine D2 Receptor Agonist by Virtual Screening a 3D Compound Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommer, Thomas; Hübner, Harald; El Kerdawy, Ahmed; Gmeiner, Peter; Pischetsrieder, Monika; Clark, Timothy

    2017-03-01

    The dopamine D2 receptor (D2R) is involved in food reward and compulsive food intake. The present study developed a virtual screening (VS) method to identify food components, which may modulate D2R signalling. In contrast to their common applications in drug discovery, VS methods are rarely applied for the discovery of bioactive food compounds. Here, databases were created that exclusively contain substances occurring in food and natural sources (about 13,000 different compounds in total) as the basis for combined pharmacophore searching, hit-list clustering and molecular docking into D2R homology models. From 17 compounds finally tested in radioligand assays to determine their binding affinities, seven were classified as hits (hit rate = 41%). Functional properties of the five most active compounds were further examined in β-arrestin recruitment and cAMP inhibition experiments. D2R-promoted G-protein activation was observed for hordenine, a constituent of barley and beer, with approximately identical ligand efficacy as dopamine (76%) and a Ki value of 13 μM. Moreover, hordenine antagonised D2-mediated β-arrestin recruitment indicating functional selectivity. Application of our databases provides new perspectives for the discovery of bioactive food constituents using VS methods. Based on its presence in beer, we suggest that hordenine significantly contributes to mood-elevating effects of beer.

  17. Functional metagenomics to decipher food-microbe-host crosstalk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larraufie, Pierre; de Wouters, Tomas; Potocki-Veronese, Gabrielle; Blottière, Hervé M; Doré, Joël

    2015-02-01

    The recent developments of metagenomics permit an extremely high-resolution molecular scan of the intestinal microbiota giving new insights and opening perspectives for clinical applications. Beyond the unprecedented vision of the intestinal microbiota given by large-scale quantitative metagenomics studies, such as the EU MetaHIT project, functional metagenomics tools allow the exploration of fine interactions between food constituents, microbiota and host, leading to the identification of signals and intimate mechanisms of crosstalk, especially between bacteria and human cells. Cloning of large genome fragments, either from complex intestinal communities or from selected bacteria, allows the screening of these biological resources for bioactivity towards complex plant polymers or functional food such as prebiotics. This permitted identification of novel carbohydrate-active enzyme families involved in dietary fibre and host glycan breakdown, and highlighted unsuspected bacterial players at the top of the intestinal microbial food chain. Similarly, exposure of fractions from genomic and metagenomic clones onto human cells engineered with reporter systems to track modulation of immune response, cell proliferation or cell metabolism has allowed the identification of bioactive clones modulating key cell signalling pathways or the induction of specific genes. This opens the possibility to decipher mechanisms by which commensal bacteria or candidate probiotics can modulate the activity of cells in the intestinal epithelium or even in distal organs such as the liver, adipose tissue or the brain. Hence, in spite of our inability to culture many of the dominant microbes of the human intestine, functional metagenomics open a new window for the exploration of food-microbe-host crosstalk.

  18. Possible Involvement of the Local Renin-Angiotensin System in Exocrine Pancreas Responses to Food Components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grant G

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The functioning of the exocrine and endocrine pancreas is strictly co-ordinated through an interdependent array of neural and endocrine, paracrine and autocrine hormonal factors. The responses of the exocrine pancreas to food are primarily initiated via hormones secreted by neuroendocrine cells in the gut. No role for the pancreatic renin-angiotensin system in these mechanisms has so far been established. However, because of its distribution throughout the pancreas, the renin-angiotensin system could have a function in fine-tuning of secretory responses or in integrating some of the actions of the endocrine and exocrine pancreas. In the normal diet, we are exposed to an array of bioactive (lectins, protease inhibitors, hormone-mimics, tannins, etc. Some can profoundly alter pancreas metabolism both in a beneficial or detrimental manner. Others could have beneficial effects on the pancreas renin-angiotensin system. The effects of these compounds need to be evaluated.

  19. Preparation and evaluation of functional foods in adjuvant arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Okbi, S. Y.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Adjuvant arthritis is an animal model that closely resembles rheumatoid arthritis in humans. It is a successful working model used to study new anti-inflammatory agents. In previous studies (animal and clinical we have shown that evening primrose oil, fish oil and the methanol extract of date fruits and fenugreek seeds have anti-inflammatory activity and that the methanol extract of dates has an antioxidant effect. Based on these studies, the aim of the present study was to prepare 7 functional foods containing such bioactive fractions separately or in combination and to evaluate them in adjuvant arthritis in rats, study the stability of bioactive ingredients and evaluate their sensory properties. The studied biochemical parameters were erythrocyte sedimentation rate, erythrocyte superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and plasma copper, zinc and interlukin 2. Nutritional parameters, including body weight gain, food intake and food efficiency ratio were monitored during the feeding of the functional foods. The bioactive ingredients assessed were total phenolic contents and fatty acids. The results showed improvement in the biochemical parameters, body weight gain and food efficiency ratio of arthritic rats fed on the functional foods with different degrees. All the prepared functional foods were sensory accepted. The active ingredients showed stability during storage. In conclusion, all the tested functional foods showed promising antiinflammatory activity and were determined to be acceptable through sensory evaluation which means that their potential beneficial use as dietary supplements in rheumatoid arthritis patients may be recommended.

    La artritis adyuvante es un modelo utilizado en animales y se caracteriza por ser muy parecida a la artritis reumatoide en humanos. Se trata de un modelo de trabajo utilizado con éxito para estudiar nuevos agentes anti-inflamatorios. En estudios previos (animales y clínica hemos demostrado que

  20. Functional genomics of lactic acid bacteria: from food to health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douillard, François P; de Vos, Willem M

    2014-08-29

    Genome analysis using next generation sequencing technologies has revolutionized the characterization of lactic acid bacteria and complete genomes of all major groups are now available. Comparative genomics has provided new insights into the natural and laboratory evolution of lactic acid bacteria and their environmental interactions. Moreover, functional genomics approaches have been used to understand the response of lactic acid bacteria to their environment. The results have been instrumental in understanding the adaptation of lactic acid bacteria in artisanal and industrial food fermentations as well as their interactions with the human host. Collectively, this has led to a detailed analysis of genes involved in colonization, persistence, interaction and signaling towards to the human host and its health. Finally, massive parallel genome re-sequencing has provided new opportunities in applied genomics, specifically in the characterization of novel non-GMO strains that have potential to be used in the food industry. Here, we provide an overview of the state of the art of these functional genomics approaches and their impact in understanding, applying and designing lactic acid bacteria for food and health.

  1. 78 FR 41840 - Indirect Food Additives: Adhesives and Components of Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-12

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 175 Indirect Food Additives: Adhesives and... Drug Administration (FDA or we) is amending the food additive regulations to no longer provide for the... the Federal Register of July 17, 2012 (77 FR 41953), we announced that food additive petition...

  2. Effects of Food Components That Activate TRPA1 Receptors on Mucosal Ion Transport in the Mouse Intestine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda J. Fothergill

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available TRPA1 is a ligand-activated cation channel found in the intestine and other tissues. Components of food that stimulate TRPA1 receptors (phytonutrients include allyl isothiocyanate, cinnamaldehyde and linalool, but these may also act at other receptors. Cells lining the intestinal mucosa are immunoreactive for TRPA1 and Trpa1 mRNA occurs in mucosal extracts, suggesting that the TRPA1 receptor is the target for these agonists. However, in situ hybridisation reveals Trpa1 expression in 5-HT containing enteroendocrine cells, not enterocytes. TRPA1 agonists evoke mucosal secretion, which may be indirect (through release of 5-HT or direct by activation of enterocytes. We investigated effects of the phytonutrients on transmucosal ion currents in mouse duodenum and colon, and the specificity of the phytonutrients in cells transfected with Trpa1, and in Trpa1-deficient mice. The phytonutrients increased currents in the duodenum with the relative potencies: allyl isothiocyanate (AITC > cinnamaldehyde > linalool (0.1 to 300 μM. The rank order was similar in the colon, but linalool was ineffective. Responses to AITC were reduced by the TRPA1 antagonist HC-030031 (100 μM, and were greatly diminished in Trpa1−/− duodenum and colon. Responses were not reduced by tetrodotoxin, 5-HT receptor antagonists, or atropine, but inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis reduced responses. Thus, functional TRPA1 channels are expressed by enterocytes of the duodenum and colon. Activation of enterocyte TRPA1 by food components has the potential to facilitate nutrient absorption.

  3. Biguanide related compounds in traditional antidiabetic functional foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perla, Venu; Jayanty, Sastry S

    2013-06-01

    Biguanides such as metformin are widely used worldwide for the treatment of type-2 diabetes. The identification of guanidine and related compounds in French lilac plant (Galega officinalis L.) led to the development of biguanides. Despite of their plant origin, biguanides have not been reported in plants. The objective of this study was to quantify biguanide related compounds (BRCs) in experimentally or clinically substantiated antidiabetic functional plant foods and potatoes. The corrected results of the Voges-Proskauer (V-P) assay suggest that the highest amounts of BRCs are present in green curry leaves (Murraya koenigii (L.) Sprengel) followed by fenugreek seeds (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.), green bitter gourd (Momordica charantia Descourt.), and potato (Solanum tuberosum L.). Whereas, garlic (Allium sativum L.), and sweet potato (Ipomea batatas (L.) Lam.) contain negligible amounts of BRCs. In addition, the possible biosynthetic routes of biguanide in these plant foods are discussed.

  4. Therapeutic Role of Functional Components in Alliums for Preventive Chronic Disease in Human Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuping; Yang, Jiazhen; Pu, Xiaoying; Du, Juan; Yang, Xiaomeng; Yang, Tao; Yang, Shuming

    2017-01-01

    Objectives. Functional components in alliums have long been maintained to play a key role in modifying the major risk factors for chronic disease. To obtain a better understanding of alliums for chronic disease prevention, we conducted a systematic review for risk factors and prevention strategies for chronic disease of functional components in alliums, based on a comprehensive English literature search that was conducted using various electronic search databases, especially the PubMed, ISI Web of Science, and CNKI for the period 2007–2016. Allium genus especially garlic, onion, and Chinese chive is rich in organosulfur compounds, quercetin, flavonoids, saponins, and others, which have anticancer, preventive cardiovascular and heart diseases, anti-inflammation, antiobesity, antidiabetes, antioxidants, antimicrobial activity, neuroprotective and immunological effects, and so on. These results support Allium genus; garlic and onion especially may be the promising dietotherapeutic vegetables and organopolysulfides as well as quercetin mechanism in the treatment of chronic diseases. This review may be used as scientific basis for the development of functional food, nutraceuticals, and alternative drugs to improve the chronic diseases. PMID:28261311

  5. Recent trends in functional food science and the industry in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arai, Soichi; Morinaga, Yasushi; Yoshikawa, Toshikazu; Ichiishi, Eiichiro; Kiso, Yoshinobu; Yamazaki, Masatoshi; Morotomi, Masami; Shimizu, Makoto; Kuwata, Tamotsu; Kaminogawa, Shuichi

    2002-10-01

    International recognition of functional foods has resulted in the recent global development of this field, which originated in Japan. The national policy on functional foods, in terms of "foods for specified health use", also has been developing and has motivated the food industry to produce a variety of new food items. In Japan as well as in many other countries, academic and industrial scientists have been working in collaboration for the analysis and practical applications of functional food science. Emphasis has been placed on the study of antioxidant and anticarcinogenic food factors as well as pre- and probiotics. This review pinpoints recent trends in the science and industry in this field.

  6. Small Components of the Wave Function of Electron

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    This paper shows that the moving or time-varying large components of four-component wavefunction of electron would induce small components, and vice versa. Then when a wave packet of electron is moving with high speeds or varies rapidly, or its size is sufficiently small, or in the presence of a strong electromagnetic field, its small components and the related effects cannot be ignored. Furthermore, the spin quantum states of both a moving electron and a motionless electron can be affected by some special electrostatic fields. This may open a new pathway for spintronics to the manipulation of electron spins in the absence of applied magnetic fields.

  7. Consumer understanding and use of health claims: the case of functional foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annunziata, Azzurra; Mariani, Angela; Vecchio, Riccardo

    2014-01-01

    As widely acknowledged functional foods (FFs) may contribute to improve human health due to the presence of specific components useful for their protective action against several diseases. However it is essential that consumers are able to comprehend and assess the properties of FFs health claims play a central role in helping consumers to select among food alternatives, beyond providing protection against unsupported or misleading statements about foods properties. At the same time health claims are the main marketing tool that the food industry could use to differentiate FFs from other products. Clearly, massive investments in research and development are necessary to enter the FF market segment, together with the possibility to protect innovation through patents. Current paper aims to examine factors influencing consumer understanding and use of food health claims on FFs, as well as providing several indications for developers, marketers and policy makers. After a brief review of the literature the results of a quantitative survey conducted online on 650 Italian consumers are presented. Results show that consumer use and understanding of health claims on FFs depend on different variables such as socio-demographic characteristics, knowledge and confidence with nutrition information but also wording and variables related specifically to the product. Furthermore, different segments with a diverse degree of use and understanding of health claims have been identified. Therefore, to boost market growth, more efforts are needed by policy makers and marketers to provide better information on nutrition and health aspects of FF using an approach capable to ensure truthful, significant and clear information. Finally some recent patents related to the FFs market with specific regard to components and/or functionality investigated in the current paper are reviewed.

  8. Effect of substrate on periphyton communities and relationships among food web components in shallow hypertrophic lake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Mieczan

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available We studied the role of natural (common reed and artificial substrata (bamboo in structuring the abundance and taxonomic composition of periphyton assemblages. Investigations were conducted in a shallow, hypertrophic lake situated in the area of Polesie Lubelskie (Eastern Poland. Periphyton communities (algae, ciliates, small metazoa and chironomids on both types of substratum were sampled monthly, from May to November of 2007. Water samples for chemical analysis were collected together with biological samples. We selected the group of ten environmental variables which are the most important in determining the habitat conditions in highly eutrophic lakes: temperature, Secchi disc visibility, conductivity, dissolved oxygen, periphytic chlorophyll-a, N-NO3, N-NH4, TP, P-PO4 and total organic carbon (TOC. The abundances of periphytic algae, ciliates, metazoa and chironomids were significantly affected by season and substrate. On natural substrata, in all studied months, periphyton communities showed higher abundances. The results of PCA analysis confirmed the distinction between periphyton communities on natural and artificial substrata. The Monte Carlo permutation test showed that the periphyton communities on common reed were the most significantly affected by temperature, N-NO3, Secchi disc visibility and TOC. The communities on artificial substrata were significantly influenced by temperature, P-PO4 and TOC. On natural substrata biomass of periphytic algae was significantly negatively correlated with abundances of all groups of potential grazers (ciliates, metazoa, chironomids. On artificial substrata the relations between components of periphytic food web were stronger; correlation coefficients between algae, protists and chironomids were significant at P<0.01. The results of analysis indicate that periphytic algae can play an important role as food source for higher trophic levels. These interactions are less significant on natural (reed

  9. Component

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tibor Tot

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A unique case of metaplastic breast carcinoma with an epithelial component showing tumoral necrosis and neuroectodermal stromal component is described. The tumor grew rapidly and measured 9 cm at the time of diagnosis. No lymph node metastases were present. The disease progressed rapidly and the patient died two years after the diagnosis from a hemorrhage caused by brain metastases. The morphology and phenotype of the tumor are described in detail and the differential diagnostic options are discussed.

  10. Structures, Components and Functions of Secretory Tissues in Houttuynia cordata

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xi-Lu Ni; Li Peng; Wen-Zhe Liu

    2007-01-01

    Houttuynia cordata Thunb., traditionally used as a therapeutic plant in folk medicine, has shown antioxidant and anticancer activities.The species, as a core component of paleoherbs, is normally characterized based on the presence of different types of secretory tissue: oil cells, three types of secretory cells and glandular hairs.The aim of this work was to study the structural, componential, and the functional characteristics of the secretory tissues in both the floral and vegetative parts.The results indicate that oll cells and secretory cells are distributed in all organs of the plant, while glandular hairs are situated on the aerial stems and leaves.Both oil cells and glandular hairs initiate from the protoderm, but their developmental processes are different.Although three types of secretory cells initiate from different primary meristems, the developmental pattems of different secretory cells are the same.Also, although the origins of secretory cells are different from oil cells, their early developmental processes are the same.Histochemical results show that oil cells, secretory cells and glandular hairs produce flavonoids, phenolic compounds, tannins, lipids, aldehyde and ketone-compounds.In addition, there are terpenoids and pectic-like substances in oil cells, alkaloids in secretory cells of aerial stems, and terpenoids and alkaloids in glandular hairs.These compounds play very important roles in protecting plants from being eaten by herbivores (herbivory) and infected by microbial pathogens.The oil cell and secretory cell, as unicellular secretory tissues, are intermediates between the primitive surface glandular and secretory cavity and canal during the evolution of secretory structures.

  11. Egg and Egg-Derived Foods: Effects on Human Health and Use as Functional Foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose M. Miranda

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Eggs are sources of protein, fats and micronutrients that play an important role in basic nutrition. However, eggs are traditionally associated with adverse factors in human health, mainly due to their cholesterol content. Nowadays, however, it is known that the response of cholesterol in human serum levels to dietary cholesterol consumption depends on several factors, such as ethnicity, genetic makeup, hormonal factors and the nutritional status of the consumer. Additionally, in recent decades, there has been an increasing demand for functional foods, which is expected to continue to increase in the future, owing to their capacity to decrease the risks of some diseases and socio-demographic factors such as the increase in life expectancy. This work offers a brief overview of the advantages and disadvantages of egg consumption and the potential market of functional eggs, and it explores the possibilities of the development of functional eggs by technological methods.

  12. Invited review: Fermented milk as antihypertensive functional food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltrán-Barrientos, L M; Hernández-Mendoza, A; Torres-Llanez, M J; González-Córdova, A F; Vallejo-Córdoba, B

    2016-06-01

    Over the past decade, interest has risen in fermented dairy foods that promote health and could prevent diseases such as hypertension. This biological effect has mainly been attributed to bioactive peptides encrypted within dairy proteins that can be released during fermentation with specific lactic acid bacteria or during gastrointestinal digestion. The most studied bioactive peptides derived from dairy proteins are antihypertensive peptides; however, a need exists to review the different studies dealing with the evaluation of antihypertensive fermented milk before a health claim may be associated with the product. Thus, the objective of this overview was to present available information related to the evaluation of fermented milk containing antihypertensive peptides by in vitro and in vivo studies, which are required before a fermented functional dairy product may be introduced to the market. Although commercial fermented milks with antihypertensive effects exist, these are scarce and most are based on Lactobacillus helveticus. Thus, a great opportunity is available for the development of functional dairy products with new lactic acid bacteria that support heart health through blood pressure- and heart rate-lowering effects. Hence, the consumer may be willing to pay a premium for foods with important functional benefits. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Functional Foods Programs Serve as a Vehicle to Provide Nutrition Education to Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cirignano, Sherri M.

    2011-01-01

    An increase in consumer interest in functional foods provides an opportunity for FCS educators to use this topic in Extension programming to promote current nutrition recommendations. The Functional Foods for Life Educational Programs (FFL) are a curriculum of six evidence-based mini-seminars that highlight specific functional foods that have the…

  14. Positioning functional foods in an ecological approach to the prevention of overweight and obesity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wieringa, N.F.; van der Windt, H.J.; Zuiker, R.R.M.; Dijkhuizen, L.; Verkerk, M.A.; Vonk, R.J.; Swart, J.A.A.

    2008-01-01

    To contribute to the social debate about the role of functional foods in the prevention of overweight and obesity using an ecological model to study the positioning of functional foods and their social implications. Positioning was conceptualized as the relative attention given to functional foods

  15. Functional Foods Programs Serve as a Vehicle to Provide Nutrition Education to Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cirignano, Sherri M.

    2011-01-01

    An increase in consumer interest in functional foods provides an opportunity for FCS educators to use this topic in Extension programming to promote current nutrition recommendations. The Functional Foods for Life Educational Programs (FFL) are a curriculum of six evidence-based mini-seminars that highlight specific functional foods that have the…

  16. Buckwheat as a Functional Food and Its Effects on Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giménez-Bastida, Juan Antonio; Zieliński, Henryk

    2015-09-16

    Buckwheat (BW) is a gluten-free pseudocereal that belongs to the Polygonaceae family. BW grain is a highly nutritional food component that has been shown to provide a wide range of beneficial effects. Health benefits attributed to BW include plasma cholesterol level reduction, neuroprotection, anticancer, anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic effects, and improvement of hypertension conditions. In addition, BW has been reported to possess prebiotic and antioxidant activities. In vitro and animal studies suggest that BW's bioactive compounds, such as D-chiro-inositol (DCI), BW proteins (BWP), and BW flavonoids (mainly rutin and quercetin) may be partially responsible for the observed effects. The purpose of this paper is to review the recent research regarding the health benefits of BW, in vitro and in vivo, focusing on the specific role of its bioactive compounds and on the mechanisms by which these effects are exerted.

  17. Antimicrobial activity of plant essential oils using food model media: efficacy, synergistic potential and interactions with food components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez, J; Barry-Ryan, C; Bourke, P

    2009-04-01

    The aim of this study was to optimise the antimicrobial efficacy of plant essential oils (EOs) for control of Listeria spp. and spoilage bacteria using food model media based on lettuce, meat and milk. The EOs evaluated were lemon balm, marjoram, oregano and thyme and their minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) were determined against Enterobacter spp., Listeria spp., Lactobacillus spp., and Pseudomonas spp. using the agar dilution method and/or the absorbance based microplate assay. MICs were significantly lower in lettuce and beef media than in TSB. Listeria strains were more sensitive than spoilage bacteria, and oregano and thyme were the most active EOs. EO combinations were investigated using the checkerboard method and Oregano combined with thyme had additive effects against spoilage organisms. Combining lemon balm with thyme yielded additive activity against Listeria strains. The effect of simple sugars and pH on antimicrobial efficacy of oregano and thyme was assessed in a beef extract and tomato serum model media. EOs retained greater efficacy at pH 5 and 2.32% sugar, but sugar concentrations above 5% did not negatively impact EO efficacy. In addition to proven antimicrobial efficacy, careful selection and investigation of EOs appropriate to the sensory profile of foods and composition of the food system is required. This work shows that EOs might be more effective against food-borne pathogens and spoilage bacteria when applied to foods containing a high protein level at acidic pH, as well as moderate levels of simple sugars.

  18. Minor components in food oils: a critical review of their roles on lipid oxidation chemistry in bulk oils and emulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bingcan; McClements, David Julian; Decker, Eric Andrew

    2011-12-01

    Food oils are primarily composed of triacylglycerols (TAG), but they may also contain a variety of other minor constituents that influence their physical and chemical properties, including diacylglycerols (DAG), monoacylglycerols (MAG), free fatty acids (FFA), phospholipids (PLs), water, and minerals. This article reviews recent research on the impact of these minor components on lipid oxidation in bulk oils and oil-in-water emulsions. In particular, it highlights the origin of these minor components, the influence of oil refining on the type and concentration of minor components present, and potential physicochemical mechanisms by which these minor components impact lipid oxidation in bulk oils and emulsions. This knowledge is crucial for designing food, pharmaceutical, personal care, and other products with improved stability to lipid oxidation.

  19. Functional food awareness and perceptions in relation to information sources in older adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background The functional food industry has experienced innovative and economic expansion, yet research into consumer perceptions of functional foods and their associated health claims is limited. Among consumers, older adults could benefit from functional foods due to age-related issues pertaining to food and health. The purpose of this research was to identify the need for information related to functional foods among older adults (≥60 years old) and to assess awareness and perceptions of health claims on functional food packages. Methods Community-dwelling older adults (n = 200) completed a researcher administered questionnaire designed to collect information about functional foods including current consumption, motivating factors for consumption, perceived need for information, sources of information for functional foods and awareness of health claims. Results Prevalence of functional food consumption among participants was 93.0%. Increased awareness and knowledge was the most commonly reported factor that would promote functional food consumption (85.5%) and 63.5% of participants wanted more information about functional foods with preferred sources being newspapers/magazines/books (68.5%) and food labels (66.1%). Participants were predominately (93.5%) aware of health claims on functional foods and those with more education were more likely to report being aware of health claims (p = 0.045). Conclusions Although functional food consumption among older adults in this sample is high, there is a need for further information regarding functional foods. These results inform stakeholders regarding the potential for information to influence functional food acceptance among older adult consumers. PMID:24886306

  20. Functional food awareness and perceptions in relation to information sources in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vella, Meagan N; Stratton, Laura M; Sheeshka, Judy; Duncan, Alison M

    2014-05-17

    The functional food industry has experienced innovative and economic expansion, yet research into consumer perceptions of functional foods and their associated health claims is limited. Among consumers, older adults could benefit from functional foods due to age-related issues pertaining to food and health. The purpose of this research was to identify the need for information related to functional foods among older adults (≥60 years old) and to assess awareness and perceptions of health claims on functional food packages. Community-dwelling older adults (n = 200) completed a researcher administered questionnaire designed to collect information about functional foods including current consumption, motivating factors for consumption, perceived need for information, sources of information for functional foods and awareness of health claims. Prevalence of functional food consumption among participants was 93.0%. Increased awareness and knowledge was the most commonly reported factor that would promote functional food consumption (85.5%) and 63.5% of participants wanted more information about functional foods with preferred sources being newspapers/magazines/books (68.5%) and food labels (66.1%). Participants were predominately (93.5%) aware of health claims on functional foods and those with more education were more likely to report being aware of health claims (p = 0.045). Although functional food consumption among older adults in this sample is high, there is a need for further information regarding functional foods. These results inform stakeholders regarding the potential for information to influence functional food acceptance among older adult consumers.

  1. Approach to novel functional foods for stress control 4. Regulation of serotonin transporter by food factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Mikiko; Haito, Sakiko; Furumoto, Mari; Kawai, Yoshichika; Terao, Junji; Miyamoto, Ken-ichi

    2005-11-01

    Serotonin transporters (SERTs) are pre-synaptic proteins specialized for the clearance of serotonin following vesicular release at central nervous system (CNS) and enteric nervous system synapses. SERTs are high affinity targets in vivo for antidepressants such as serotonin selective reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). These include 'medical' psychopharmacological agents such as analgesics and antihistamines, a plant extract called St John's Wort (Hypericum). Osteoclasts are the primary cells responsible for bone resorption. They arise by the differentiation of osteoclast precursors of the monocyte/macrophage lineage. The expression of SERTs was increased in RANKL-induced osteoclast-like cells. Using RANKL stimulation of RAW264.7 cells as a model system for osteoclast differentiation, we studied the direct effects of food factor on serotonin uptake. The SSRIs (fluoxetine and fluvoxamine) inhibited markedly (approximately 95%) in serotonin transport in differentiated osteoclast cells. The major components of St. John's Wort, hyperforin and hypericine were significantly decreased in serotonin transport activity. Thus, a new in vitro model using RANKL-induced osteoclast-like cells may be useful to analyze the regulation of SERT by food factors and SSRIs.

  2. FORMATION OF BACTERIAL AND ZOOPLANKTON COMPONENT OF NATURAL FOOD BASE UNDER EFFECT OF TRADITIONAL ORGANIC FERTILIZERS

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    S. Krazhan

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Characterization of bacteria and zooplankton in rearing ponds using traditional fertilizers: cattle manure and bird droppings in modern conditions for fish farming. Methodology. Material collection and processing were carried out according to conventional hydrochemical and hydrobiological methods. Findings. We consider forming of bacteria and zooplankton component of natural food base of Irkliiv herbivorous fish nursery rearing ponds under the influenced of traditional organic fertilizers such as bird droppings (0,12 t/ha and cattle manure (2,0 t/ha. Each pond was planted by ongrowing Nyvka carp larvae (40,0 thousand ind./ha with silver carp (1,0 thousand ind./ha and grass carp larvae (1,0 thousand ind./ha. Qualitative and quantitative development of bacteria and zooplankton in fish-breeding ponds was investigated. The results show that in the development of the studied invertebrate groups of zooplankton in production ponds had no significant differences, except for rotifers, which group prevailed by the biomass to 3,6 times in the pond with the introduction of humus. Originality. The parameters of bacteria and zooplankton by the application of traditional organic fertilizers at present fish farming are studied. Practical value. These quantitative indicators of bacteria and zooplankton of fish-rearing ponds with water supply from Kremenchug reservoir, the application of cattle manure and bird droppings could be offered as an optimum data at present fish production stage.

  3. Inductive and Coinductive Components of Corecursive Functions in Coq

    CERN Document Server

    Bertot, Yves

    2008-01-01

    In Constructive Type Theory, recursive and corecursive definitions are subject to syntactic restrictions which guarantee termination for recursive functions and productivity for corecursive functions. However, many terminating and productive functions do not pass the syntactic tests. Bove proposed in her thesis an elegant reformulation of the method of accessibility predicates that widens the range of terminative recursive functions formalisable in Constructive Type Theory. In this paper, we pursue the same goal for productive corecursive functions. Notably, our method of formalisation of coinductive definitions of productive functions in Coq requires not only the use of ad-hoc predicates, but also a systematic algorithm that separates the inductive and coinductive parts of functions.

  4. Functional foods and nutraceuticals in a market of bolivian immigrants in Buenos Aires (Argentina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pochettino, María Lelia; Puentes, Jeremías P; Buet Costantino, Fernando; Arenas, Patricia M; Ulibarri, Emilio A; Hurrell, Julio A

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a research in urban ethnobotany, conducted in a market of Bolivian immigrants in the neighborhood of Liniers, Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires (Argentina). Functional foods and nutraceuticals belonging to 50 species of 18 families, its products, and uses were recorded. Some products are exclusive from the Bolivian community; others are frequent within the community, but they are also available in the general commercial circuit; they are introduced into it, generally, through shops called dietéticas ("health-food stores"), where products associated with the maintenance of health are sold. On this basis, the traditional and nontraditional components of the urban botanical knowledge were evaluated as well as its dynamics in relation to the diffusion of the products. Both the framework and methodological design are innovative for the studies of the urban botanical knowledge and the traditional markets in metropolitan areas.

  5. Functional Foods and Nutraceuticals in a Market of Bolivian Immigrants in Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pochettino, María Lelia; Puentes, Jeremías P.; Buet Costantino, Fernando; Arenas, Patricia M.; Ulibarri, Emilio A.; Hurrell, Julio A.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a research in urban ethnobotany, conducted in a market of Bolivian immigrants in the neighborhood of Liniers, Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires (Argentina). Functional foods and nutraceuticals belonging to 50 species of 18 families, its products, and uses were recorded. Some products are exclusive from the Bolivian community; others are frequent within the community, but they are also available in the general commercial circuit; they are introduced into it, generally, through shops called dietéticas (“health-food stores”), where products associated with the maintenance of health are sold. On this basis, the traditional and nontraditional components of the urban botanical knowledge were evaluated as well as its dynamics in relation to the diffusion of the products. Both the framework and methodological design are innovative for the studies of the urban botanical knowledge and the traditional markets in metropolitan areas. PMID:22203866

  6. Functional Foods and Nutraceuticals in a Market of Bolivian Immigrants in Buenos Aires (Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Lelia Pochettino

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of a research in urban ethnobotany, conducted in a market of Bolivian immigrants in the neighborhood of Liniers, Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires (Argentina. Functional foods and nutraceuticals belonging to 50 species of 18 families, its products, and uses were recorded. Some products are exclusive from the Bolivian community; others are frequent within the community, but they are also available in the general commercial circuit; they are introduced into it, generally, through shops called dietéticas (“health-food stores”, where products associated with the maintenance of health are sold. On this basis, the traditional and nontraditional components of the urban botanical knowledge were evaluated as well as its dynamics in relation to the diffusion of the products. Both the framework and methodological design are innovative for the studies of the urban botanical knowledge and the traditional markets in metropolitan areas.

  7. Phenetic distances in the Drosophila melanogaster-subgroup species and oviposition-site preference for food components

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, M.; Boerema, A.

    1981-01-01

    Oviposition-site preferences (O.S.P.) have been investigated in females of six sibling species of the Drosophila melanogaster subgroup. O.S.P. were determined for standard food components and yeast genotypes. Females of all species showed a strong preference for complete medium and avoidance of pure

  8. Health Effects of Bioactive Components in Plant Foods; Results and Opinion of the EU-COST926 Action

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verkerk, R.; Piskula, M.; Bovy, A.G.; Dekker, M.

    2014-01-01

    This paper reviews the main results of EU-action: “COST 926: Impact of new technologies on the health benefits and safety of bioactive plant compounds”. The bioavailability and the effects on gene expression of various bioactive components in plant foods are described in relation with their implicat

  9. High-Value Components and Bioactives from Sea Cucumbers for Functional Foods—A Review

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    Nazamid Saari

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Sea cucumbers, belonging to the class Holothuroidea, are marine invertebrates, habitually found in the benthic areas and deep seas across the world. They have high commercial value coupled with increasing global production and trade. Sea cucumbers, informally named as bêche-de-mer, or gamat, have long been used for food and folk medicine in the communities of Asia and Middle East. Nutritionally, sea cucumbers have an impressive profile of valuable nutrients such as Vitamin A, Vitamin B1 (thiamine, Vitamin B2 (riboflavin, Vitamin B3 (niacin, and minerals, especially calcium, magnesium, iron and zinc. A number of unique biological and pharmacological activities including anti-angiogenic, anticancer, anticoagulant, anti-hypertension, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antioxidant, antithrombotic, antitumor and wound healing have been ascribed to various species of sea cucumbers. Therapeutic properties and medicinal benefits of sea cucumbers can be linked to the presence of a wide array of bioactives especially triterpene glycosides (saponins, chondroitin sulfates, glycosaminoglycan (GAGs, sulfated polysaccharides, sterols (glycosides and sulfates, phenolics, cerberosides, lectins, peptides, glycoprotein, glycosphingolipids and essential fatty acids. This review is mainly designed to cover the high-value components and bioactives as well as the multiple biological and therapeutic properties of sea cucumbers with regard to exploring their potential uses for functional foods and nutraceuticals.

  10. Inductive and Coinductive Components of Corecursive Functions in Coq

    OpenAIRE

    Bertot, Yves; Komendantskaya, Ekaterina

    2008-01-01

    International audience; In Constructive Type Theory, recursive and corecursive definitions are subject to syntactic restrictions which guarantee termination for recursive functions and productivity for corecursive functions. However, many terminating and productive functions do not pass the syntactic tests. Bove proposed in her thesis an elegant reformulation of the method of accessibility predicates that widens the range of terminative recursive functions formalisable in Constructive Type The...

  11. The contribution of three components of nutrition knowledge to socio-economic differences in food purchasing choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinnon, Loretta; Giskes, Katrina; Turrell, Gavin

    2014-08-01

    To assess socio-economic differences in three components of nutrition knowledge, i.e. knowledge of (i) the relationship between diet and disease, (ii) the nutrient content of foods and (iii) dietary guideline recommendations; furthermore, to determine if socio-economic differences in nutrition knowledge contribute to inequalities in food purchasing choices. The cross-sectional study considered household food purchasing, nutrition knowledge, socio-economic and demographic information. Household food purchasing choices were summarised by three indices, based on self-reported purchasing of sixteen groceries, nineteen fruits and twenty-one vegetables. Socio-economic position (SEP) was measured by household income and education. Associations between SEP, nutrition knowledge and food purchasing were examined using general linear models adjusted for age, gender, household type and household size. Brisbane, Australia in 2000. Main household food shoppers (n 1003, response rate 66·4 %), located in fifty small areas (Census Collectors Districts). Shoppers in households of low SEP made food purchasing choices that were less consistent with dietary guideline recommendations: they were more likely to purchase grocery foods comparatively higher in salt, sugar and fat, and lower in fibre, and they purchased a narrower range of fruits and vegetables. Those of higher SEP had greater nutrition knowledge and this factor attenuated most associations between SEP and food purchasing choices. Among nutrition knowledge factors, knowledge of the relationship between diet and disease made the greatest and most consistent contribution to explaining socio-economic differences in food purchasing. Addressing inequalities in nutrition knowledge is likely to reduce socio-economic differences in compliance with dietary guidelines. Improving knowledge of the relationship between diet and disease appears to be a particularly relevant focus for health promotion aimed to reduce socio

  12. Natural antioxidants in functional foods: from food safety to health benefits

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    Nieto, Susana

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Oxygen is essential for metabolism but it may be highly damaging for both organisms and foods unless properly controlled. Among uncontrolled detrimental processes lipid oxidation (or oxidative rancidity is one of the most relevant. Oxidative rancidity of foods is initiated by reactive oxygen species (ROS. ROS are also formed in living organisms as consequence of metabolic activity with potentially sided effects, though a certain physiological level of ROS is crucial for the regulation of cell functions. Oxidative stress is defined as a disturbance in the pro-oxidant/anti-oxidant balance and antioxidants of synthetic or natural origin may have an important role in the maintenance of this balance. Synthetic antioxidants are widely used in the food industry, however concerns about their safety have changed the interest to natural antioxidants which are presumed to be safe. Natural antioxidants such as tocopherols, ascorbic acid, rosemary extracts, lycopene and some flavonoids are now available to be added to foods in replacement of synthetic products. These antioxidants may reinforce the activity of the endogenous antioxidant systems providing extra protection against oxidative stress. Food preserved with added natural antioxidants can be considered as functional foods because these products can provide better health conditions to consumer.El oxígeno es un metabolito esencial para la vida. Sin embargo puede ser altamente dañino para el organismo y para los alimentos que consumimos si su actividad no es controlada. Uno de los efectos mas deteriorativos del oxígeno es la oxidación de los lípidos o rancidez oxidativa. Este es un proceso que en los alimentos es iniciado por las llamadas especies reactivas del oxígeno (ROS, las que también se pueden formar en los organismos vivos como consecuencia de la actividad metabólica de estos, con efectos graves para estos organismos. Ciertos procesos metabólicos requieren de la participación de los ROS

  13. What determines ingredient awareness of consumers? A study on ten functional food ingredients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bornkessel, S.; Bröring, S.; Omta, S.W.F.; Trijp, van J.C.M.

    2014-01-01

    Given the importance of consumer awareness of functional food ingredients for healthy food choices, the aim of this study is to explore consumers’ ingredient awareness and the determinants which influence the awareness about functional food ingredients. A sample of 200 German consumers was interview

  14. Oral processing characteristics of solid savoury meal components, and relationship with food composition, sensory attributes and expected satiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forde, C G; van Kuijk, N; Thaler, T; de Graaf, C; Martin, N

    2013-01-01

    The modern food supply is often dominated by a large variety of energy dense, softly textured foods that can be eaten quickly. Previous studies suggest that particular oral processing characteristics such as large bite size and lack of chewing activity contribute to the low satiating efficiency of these foods. To better design meals that promote greater feelings of satiation, we need an accurate picture of the oral processing characteristics of a range of solid food items that could be used to replace softer textures during a normal hot meal. The primary aim of this study was to establish an accurate picture of the oral processing characteristics of a set of solid savoury meal components. The secondary aim was to determine the associations between oral processing characteristics, food composition, sensory properties, and expected satiation. In a within subjects design, 15 subjects consumed 50 g of 35 different savoury food items over 5 sessions. The 35 foods represented various staples, vegetables and protein rich foods such a meat and fish. Subjects were video-recorded during consumption and measures included observed number of bites, number of chews, number of swallows and derived measures such as chewing rate, eating rate, bite size, and oral exposure time. Subjects rated expected satiation for a standard 200 g portion of each food using a 100mm and the sensory differences between foods were quantified using descriptive analysis with a trained sensory panel. Statistical analysis focussed on the oral processing characteristics and associations between nutritional, sensory and expected satiation parameters of each food. Average number of chews for 50 g of food varied from 27 for mashed potatoes to 488 for tortilla chips. Oral exposure time was highly correlated with the total number of chews, and varied from 27 s for canned tomatoes to 350 s for tortilla chips. Chewing rate was relatively constant with an overall average chewing rate of approximately 1 chew

  15. Infant food applications of complex carbohydrates: Structure, synthesis, and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, Dorothy L; Craft, Kelly M; Townsend, Steven D

    2017-01-02

    Professional health bodies such as the World Health Organization (WHO), the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP), and the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) recommend breast milk as the sole source of food during the first year of life. This position recognizes human milk as being uniquely suited for infant nutrition. Nonetheless, most neonates in the West are fed alternatives by 6 months of age. Although inferior to human milk in most aspects, infant formulas are able to promote effective growth and development. However, while breast-fed infants feature a microbiota dominated by bifidobacteria, the bacterial flora of formula-fed infants is usually heterogeneous with comparatively lower levels of bifidobacteria. Thus, the objective of any infant food manufacturer is to prepare a product that results in a formula-fed infant developing a breast-fed infant-like microbiota. The goal of this focused review is to discuss the structure, synthesis, and function of carbohydrate additives that play a role in governing the composition of the infant microbiome and have other health benefits.

  16. Inulin and Oligofructosis: a review about functional properties, prebiotic effects and importance for food industry

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Celia de Oliveira Hauly; Janaína Andréa Moscatto

    2002-01-01

    Nowadays consumers are more conscious about the relation between food and health. Therefore food industry has been looking for food that has a lot of benefits besides good flavor and appearance. Inulin and oligofructose are fructose polimers, vastly found in plants as storage carbohydrates. They present important functional for the food industry. Both inulin and oligofructose have been used as fiber bulk in food products. Differently from other fibers, they do not add flavor, allowing the foo...

  17. Marschall Rhône-Poulenc Award Lecture. Nutritional and functional characteristics of whey proteins in food products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Wit, J N

    1998-03-01

    Whey proteins are well known for their high nutritional value and versatile functional properties in food products. Estimates of the worldwide production of whey indicate that about 700,000 tonnes of true whey proteins are available as valuable food ingredients. Nutritional and functional characteristics of whey proteins are related to the structure and biological functions of these proteins. During recent decades, interest has grown in the nutritional efficacy of whey proteins in infant formula and in dietetic and health foods, using either native or predigested proteins. This paper focuses attention on the differences and similarities in composition of human and bovine milks with reference to infant formula. More desirable milk protein composition for consumption by humans is obtained by the addition of lactoferrin and more specific fractionations of proteins from bovine milk. Optimization of heating processes is important to minimize the destruction of milk components during fractionation and preservation processes. Some functional characteristics of whey proteins are discussed in relation to their properties for application in food products. Information obtained from functional characterization tests in model systems is more suitable to explain retroactively protein behavior in complex food systems than to predict functionality.

  18. Functional Food Market Development in Serbia: Motivations and Barriers

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    Žaklina Stojanović

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present main findings obtained from the empirical analysis of the functional food market in Serbia. The analysis is based on the in-depth interviews with relevant processors and retailers present on the market. The following set of topics are considered: (1 motivations (driving forces and barriers to offer products with nutrition and health (N&H claim and (2 perception of consumer demand toward N&H claimed products. Differences between Serbia and other Western Balkan Countries (WBC are explored by using nonparametric techniques based on the independent samples. Results support overall conclusion that this market segment in Serbia is underdeveloped and rather producer than consumer driven compared to more developed WBC markets.

  19. The role of whey in functional dairy food production

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    Ljubica Tratnik

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Modern life style also enhances a need for creation of better dairyproducts, in comparison with traditional ones, possessing functionalcharacteristics. Whey is consisted primarily of lactose, proteins of high nutritive value, important minerals and imunoactive compounds, as well as vitamins of B group. It can be used for fermented probiotic drinks and albumin cheese production. Using new methods of pressure membrane filtration and demineralisation the economic manufacture of whey, as a valuable source of nutrients, is enabled. The aim of this paper is to give an overview on the possibilities of sweet whey, especially whey protein concentrates, use in functional dairy products manufacture from cow’s and goat’s milk. The paper is based on the published scientific research performed in the Laboratory for Technology of Milk and Dairy Products of the Faculty of Food Technology and Biotechnology University of Zagreb.

  20. Chemopreventive functional food through selenium biofortification of cauliflower plants

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    Anca Oancea

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to develop a biotechnological approach for production of cauliflower as safe functional food, with an optimal content of chemopreventive compounds, by a protective biofortification, through selenium application together with betaine and spraying adjuvants. In the control and treated cauliflower plants we determined the amount of total selenium, glucosinolates (sulforaphane and SAH (S-Adenosyl-homocysteine. We also assayed the chemopreventive effects of compounds formed in the treated cruciferous plants through in vitro tests, using human colorectal tumor cell line (CaCo2. Extracts of plants treated with selenium applied together with betaine and spraying adjuvant were significantly more active on reduction of tumoral cell viability than the extract of control plants. Cauliflower plants, obtained after our treatments for protective biofortification, were used to feed rabbits, for 10 days. The ingestion of biofortified cauliflower did not modify the hematological and biochemical parameters on the laboratory animals.

  1. Functional Values and Characteristics of Food Brand Name Based on the Relation between Language and Culture

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    Haitao Lu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available For commodities, labeling is a mark enabling food producers or manufacturers to differ their goods from others in a same classification. As a kind of labeling, food brand is various in form and its name is the focus of this study. With market economic system, Chinese food industry is facing much severer market competitions, so studying on languages of food brand name has significant guidance to the sustainable development of food brand. This study investigates characteristics of food brand name whose functional values are analyzed and discussed in the view of culture, leading to the indication of main problems and naming principles of food brand name.

  2. The Exploitation of the Traditional Component in Restructuring Modern Food Offer in Romania

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    Magdalena Bobe

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Food and eating habits, together with adjacent agricultural activities have had and an important role in the development of modern society and the individual itself. Besides its nutritional role, food has become a main socio-cultural determinant, food consumption patterns being influenced, on one hand, by psycho-sensory and quality characteristics of the food product and, on the other hand, by the physiological state of the consumer and its main determinants: traditions, religion and culture. These elements, together with economic considerations have a significant share in shaping the modern eating habits. In this context, the present paper aims to identify and analyze the main capitalization methods of the food’s traditional potential in reshaping the modern food offer, starting with a literature review and continuing with an exploratory analyze of the traditional food sector in Romania. Considering the main directions outlined by literature, this article tries to identify a set of specific features of the traditional food sector in Romania both in terms of producer and consumer perspectives. In this regard, an interview and an exploratory based questionnaire study were conducted. Having as a starting point the wide variety of Romanian food resources, this study aims to highlight how culinary customs have been modeled throughout history in order to establish eating patterns as an assessment method based on the impact of technological progress on the future alimentation.

  3. Curcuma longa and Curcuma mangga leaves exhibit functional food property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yunbao; Nair, Muraleedharan G

    2012-11-15

    Although leaves of Curcuma mangga and Curcuma longa are used in food preparations, the bioactive components in it are not known. In this study, antioxidant, antiinflammatory and anticancer activities of leave extracts and its isolates were investigated using established bioassay procedures in our laboratory. The leaf extracts of both plants gave similar bioassay and chromatographic profiles. The methanolic and water extracts of C. mangga (CMM and CMW) and C. longa (CLM and CLW), at 100 μg/mL, inhibited lipid peroxidation (LPO) by 78%, 63%, 81% and 43%, cyclooxygenase enzymes COX-1 by 55%, 33%, 43% and 24% and COX-2 by 65%, 55%, 77% and 69%, respectively. At same concentration, CMM, CMW, CLM and CLW showed growth inhibition of human tumour cell lines by 0-46%. Therefore, a bioassay-guided isolation of water and methanolic extracts of C. longa was carried out and afforded nine isolates. At 25 μg/mL, these compounds inhibited LPO by 11-87%, COX-1 and -2 enzymes by 0-35% and 0-82% and growth of human tumour cells by 0-36%, respectively.

  4. Aloe vera as a functional ingredient in foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez Rodríguez, Elena; Darias Martín, Jacinto; Díaz Romero, Carlos

    2010-04-01

    The main scientific discoveries on Aloe vera published mainly in the last three decades are presented in this work. After describing Aloe from a botanical point of view, the papers related with the chemical composition of different parts of the leaf of Aloe, particularly those in which the gel is described and are presented in a synthetic manner. The chemical analyses reveal that Aloe gel contains mannose polymers with some glucose and other sugars, among which the most important is Acemannan. Besides these, other components such as glycoproteins, enzymes, amino acids, vitamins, and minerals are described. Different factors also affecting the chemical composition of the gel, such as species and variety, climatic and soil conditions, cultivation methods, processing and preservation, are enumerated and discussed. On the other hand, the main therapeutic applications have been revised and the possible damaging effects of Aloe are also commented upon. A special emphasis is placed on the biologically active compounds or groups of compounds responsible for the therapeutic applications and which are their action mechanisms. The paper concludes that more research is needed to confirm the therapeutic and beneficial effects and to definitively clarify the myth surrounding Aloe vera. A general view on the problem of the commercialization and establishment of the quality and safety of Aloe products in the food industry has been offered here. The main points and European regulations that need to be considered regarding the quality control of prepared Aloe products are presented in this paper.

  5. Ecstasy exposure & gender: examining components of verbal memory functioning.

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    Jenessa S Price

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Studies have demonstrated verbal memory deficits associated with past year ecstasy use, although specific underlying components of these deficits are less understood. Further, prior research suggests potential gender differences in ecstasy-induced serotonergic changes. Therefore, the current study investigated whether gender moderated the relationship between ecstasy exposure and components of verbal memory after controlling for polydrug use and confounding variables. METHOD: Data were collected from 65 polydrug users with a wide range of ecstasy exposure (ages 18-35; 48 ecstasy and 17 marijuana users; 0-2310 ecstasy tablets. Participants completed a verbal learning and memory task, psychological questionnaires, and a drug use interview. RESULTS: Increased past year ecstasy exposure predicted poorer short and long delayed free and cued recalls, retention, and recall discrimination. Male ecstasy users were more susceptible to dose-dependent deficits in retention than female users. CONCLUSION: Past year ecstasy consumption was associated with verbal memory retrieval, retention, and discrimination deficits in a dose-dependent manner in a sample of healthy young adult polydrug users. Male ecstasy users were at particular risk for deficits in retention following a long delay. Gender difference may be reflective of different patterns of polydrug use as well as increased hippocampal sensitivity. Future research examining neuronal correlates of verbal memory deficits in ecstasy users are needed.

  6. Functional food red yeast rice (RYR) for metabolic syndrome amelioration: a review on pros and cons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Seema

    2016-05-01

    Red yeast rice (RYR), the fermentation product of mold Monascus purpureus has been an integral part of Oriental food and traditional Chinese medicine, long before the discovery of their medicinal roles. With the identification of bioactive components as polyketide pigments (statins), and unsaturated fatty acids, RYR has gained a nutraceutical status. Hypercholesterolemic effect of this fermented compound has been validated and monacolin K has been recognized as the pivotal component in cholesterol alleviation. Functional similarity with commercial drug lovastatin sans the side effects has catapulted its popularity in other parts of the world as well. Apart from the hypotensive role, ameliorative benefits of RYR as anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic, anticancer and osteogenic agent have emerged, fueling intense research on it. Mechanistic studies have revealed their interaction with functional agents like coenzyme Q10, astaxanthin, vitamin D, folic acid, policosanol, and berberine. On the other hand, concurrence of mycotoxin citrinin and variable content of statin has marred its integration in mainstream medication. In this disputable scenario, evaluation of the scopes and lacunae to overcome seems to contribute to an eminent area of healthcare. Red yeast rice (RYR), the rice-based fermentation product of mold Monascus purpureus is a functional food. Its bioactive component monacolin K acts like synthetic drug lovastatin, without the severe side effects of the latter. RYR has been validated to lower cholesterol, control high blood pressure; confer anti-flammation, hypoglycaemic, anticancer and osteogenic properties. However, dose inconsistency and co-occurrence of toxin citrinin hampers its dietary supplementation prospect. Further research might facilitate development of RYR as a nutraceutical.

  7. Novel concepts on functional foods and nutrigenomics in healthy aging and chronic diseases: a review of fermented papaya preparation research progress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Marotta

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available AbstractFunctional foods are an emerging research field corresponding with genomical, epidemiological and clinical studies integrated with the food industry in accordance with the consumer demands. Consequently, the features of the functional foods are being discussed by various researchers and related institutions, and a common view has been pointed out about the availability and the nature of the components of functional foods. Recently, the outcomes of functional foods are being assessed by the help of all the available scientific tools. Genomic medicine is one of the most promising areas of research to reveal the benefits of functional foods and the bioactive ingredients. Nutrigenomics aims at studying the genetic and epigenetic interactions with a nutrient or the functional component in order to lead to a phenotype change and therefore to the cell metabolism, differentiation or even apoptosis. Papaya and its fermentation product arespecific products derived from the technologically advanced and controlled environmentalfriendly bio-fermentation process. Functional Foods in Health and Disease 2012, 2(5:120-136 It has been well known for a long time that the natural anti-oxidant properties of papaya, mainly depending on vitamins A and C in addition to certain amino acids, were consistent both in the fruit and derived from the papain enzyme which is no longer present in the fermented product. In this article, functional foods in genomic medicine are discussed in review of the fermented papaya preparation research progress. Clinical evidences about fermented papaya as a functional food are reported as supported by various research protocols and experimental models. The benefits of fermented papaya preparation are also discussed in nutrigenomic basis and it is reported to have an important antioxidant and transcriptomic potential which deserves further investigation. As a conclusion, fermented papaya preparation represents a Functional Food

  8. Functional foods: health claim-food product compatibility and the impact of health claim framing on consumer evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Kleef, Ellen; van Trijp, Hans C M; Luning, Pieternel

    2005-06-01

    Two studies are reported, which aim to strengthen the scientific underpinning of strategic decisions regarding functional food development, as to (1) which health benefits to claim, (2) with which product (category), and (3) in which communication format. The first exploratory study is a secondary analysis of 10 different health claims systematically combined with 10 different food carriers to evaluate their combined suitability for functional food positioning. The results show that consumers tend to prefer functional food concepts that primarily communicate disease-related health benefits in carriers with a healthy image or health positioning history. Study 2 examines health claim format and systematically varies the way in which specific health benefits are being communicated to the consumer. Two physiologically oriented claims (heart disease and osteoporosis) and two psychologically oriented food claims (stress and lack of energy) are expressed in enhanced function format versus disease risk reduction format. Also, it includes the individual difference variable of 'regulatory focus' and the health status of the respondent to explore how these factors impact health claim evaluation. The results show that consumer evaluations primarily differ to the extent that health claims are personally relevant in addressing an experienced disease state. Framing is important, but its effect differs by health benefit. No strong effects for consumers' regulatory focus were found. Underlying mechanisms of these effects and their implications for the development of functional foods are discussed.

  9. Evolution of the human diet: linking our ancestral diet to modern functional foods as a means of chronic disease prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jew, Stephanie; AbuMweis, Suhad S; Jones, Peter J H

    2009-10-01

    The evolution of the human diet over the past 10,000 years from a Paleolithic diet to our current modern pattern of intake has resulted in profound changes in feeding behavior. Shifts have occurred from diets high in fruits, vegetables, lean meats, and seafood to processed foods high in sodium and hydrogenated fats and low in fiber. These dietary changes have adversely affected dietary parameters known to be related to health, resulting in an increase in obesity and chronic disease, including cardiovascular disease (CVD), diabetes, and cancer. Some intervention trials using Paleolithic dietary patterns have shown promising results with favorable changes in CVD and diabetes risk factors. However, such benefits may be offset by disadvantages of the Paleolithic diet, which is low in vitamin D and calcium and high in fish potentially containing environmental toxins. More advantageous would be promotion of foods and food ingredients from our ancestral era that have been shown to possess health benefits in the form of functional foods. Many studies have investigated the health benefits of various functional food ingredients, including omega-3 fatty acids, polyphenols, fiber, and plant sterols. These bioactive compounds may help to prevent and reduce incidence of chronic diseases, which in turn could lead to health cost savings ranging from $2 to $3 billion per year as estimated by case studies using omega-3 and plant sterols as examples. Thus, public health benefits should result from promotion of the positive components of Paleolithic diets as functional foods.

  10. Functions and Design of Video Components in Multimedia Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhagen, Plon W.

    1996-01-01

    Examines design decisions regarding the use of video segments in interactive multimedia applications. Highlights include video functions in relation to content or logistics; utilization patterns; and results of audiovisual research on presentation or production variables, including narration and sound, special effects, pacing, and animation. (LRW)

  11. Component Thermodynamical Selection Based Gene Expression Programming for Function Finding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaolu Guo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Gene expression programming (GEP, improved genetic programming (GP, has become a popular tool for data mining. However, like other evolutionary algorithms, it tends to suffer from premature convergence and slow convergence rate when solving complex problems. In this paper, we propose an enhanced GEP algorithm, called CTSGEP, which is inspired by the principle of minimal free energy in thermodynamics. In CTSGEP, it employs a component thermodynamical selection (CTS operator to quantitatively keep a balance between the selective pressure and the population diversity during the evolution process. Experiments are conducted on several benchmark datasets from the UCI machine learning repository. The results show that the performance of CTSGEP is better than the conventional GEP and some GEP variations.

  12. Animal diversity and ecosystem functioning in dynamic food webs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Florian D.; Brose, Ulrich; Rall, Björn C.; Guill, Christian

    2016-10-01

    Species diversity is changing globally and locally, but the complexity of ecological communities hampers a general understanding of the consequences of animal species loss on ecosystem functioning. High animal diversity increases complementarity of herbivores but also increases feeding rates within the consumer guild. Depending on the balance of these counteracting mechanisms, species-rich animal communities may put plants under top-down control or may release them from grazing pressure. Using a dynamic food-web model with body-mass constraints, we simulate ecosystem functions of 20,000 communities of varying animal diversity. We show that diverse animal communities accumulate more biomass and are more exploitative on plants, despite their higher rates of intra-guild predation. However, they do not reduce plant biomass because the communities are composed of larger, and thus energetically more efficient, plant and animal species. This plasticity of community body-size structure reconciles the debate on the consequences of animal species loss for primary productivity.

  13. Development of a locally sustainable functional food based on mutandabota, a traditional food in southern Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mpofu, Augustine; Linnemann, Anita R; Sybesma, Wilbert; Kort, Remco; Nout, M J R; Smid, Eddy J

    2014-05-01

    A probiotic dairy product was developed on the basis of a traditional dish called mutandabota to enable resource-poor populations in southern Africa to benefit from a functional food. Mutandabota is widely consumed in rural southern Africa, making it an ideal food matrix to carry probiotics. First, a process to produce probiotic mutandabota was designed. Raw cow milk was boiled and subsequently cooled to ambient temperature (25°C). Next, dry pulp from the fruit of the baobab tree (Adansonia digitata L.) was added to the milk at a concentration of 4% (wt/vol). This mixture was inoculated with the probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus yoba and left to ferment for 24h, while the growth of the bacterial culture was monitored. Final ingredients were then added to produce probiotic mutandabota that had 14% (wt/vol) baobab fruit pulp and 7% (wt/vol) sugar in cow milk. The pH of probiotic mutandabota was pH 3.5, which ensures that the product is microbiologically safe. The viable plate count of L. rhamnosus yoba increased from 5.8 ± 0.3 log cfu/mL at the point of inoculation to 8.8 ± 0.4 log cfu/mL at the moment of consumption, thereby meeting the criterion to have a viable count of the probiotic bacterium in excess of 6 log cfu/mL of a product. Baobab fruit pulp at 4% promoted growth of L. rhamnosus yoba with a maximal specific growth rate (μmax) of 0.6 ± 0.2/h at 30°C. The developed technology, though specific for this particular product, has potential to be applied for the delivery of probiotics through a variety of indigenous foods in different regions of the world. Upon consumption, probiotic mutandabota is expected to improve the population's intestinal health, which is especially relevant for vulnerable target groups such as children and elderly people. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Conceptual model of consumer’s willingness to eat functional foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babicz-Zielinska, Ewa; Jezewska-Zychowicz, Maria

    The functional foods constitute the important segment of the food market. Among factors that determine the intentions to eat functional foods, the psychological factors play very important roles. Motives, attitudes and personality are key factors. The relationships between socio-demographic characteristics, attitudes and willingness to purchase functional foods were not fully confirmed. Consumers’ beliefs about health benefits from eaten foods seem to be a strong determinant of a choice of functional foods. The objective of this study was to determine relations between familiarity, attitudes, and beliefs in benefits and risks about functional foods and develop some conceptual models of willingness to eat. The sample of Polish consumers counted 1002 subjects at age 15+. The foods enriched with vitamins or minerals, and cholesterol-lowering margarine or drinks were considered. The questionnaire focused on familiarity with foods, attitudes, beliefs about benefits and risks of their consumption was constructed. The Pearson’s correlations and linear regression equations were calculated. The strongest relations appeared between attitudes, high health value and high benefits, (r = 0.722 and 0.712 for enriched foods, and 0.664 and 0.693 for cholesterol-lowering foods), and between high health value and high benefits (0.814 for enriched foods and 0.758 for cholesterol-lowering foods). The conceptual models based on linear regression of relations between attitudes and all other variables, considering or not the familiarity with the foods, were developed. The positive attitudes and declared consumption are more important for enriched foods. The beliefs on high health value and high benefits play the most important role in the purchase. The interrelations between different variables may be described by new linear regression models, with the beliefs in high benefits, positive attitudes and familiarity being most significant predictors. Health expectations and trust to

  15. The Psycho-sensorial Value of the Food Products – a Provocative Component in Purchase Decision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Bobe

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The psycho-sensorial value is a specific, complex and determinant concept of the food products that is reflected by means of psycho-sensorial properties such as: shape, size, aspect, colour, taste, smell, fragrance, bouquet, density, clarity. The assessment of these properties by the consumers is decisive for the acceptance or the rejection of foods and classifies the products into savoury, or non-savoury, attractive, indifferent, or unattractive. The psycho-sensorial features of food products allow us to make quick assessments of their qualities, but with a high degree of subjectivity among the common consumers and big individual variations, assessments that are highly influenced by the hedonic value of food products. The sensory analysis of foods is part of the modern analytical methods: when correctly and scientifically applied, it allows a real assessment of the quality of these products, evaluation which could not be obtained only by assessing physicochemical and microbiological methods. However, the scientific methods for sensorial assessment have a higher degree of objectivity and are used successfully in industry and trade, in evaluating the qualitative level of foods by authorised and qualified people. Otherwise, the design of the psycho-sensorial value of food products involves tests and sensorial analyses and has as main objective the establishment of concordances among the consumers’ demands and the level of the sensorial characteristics of the products. The present paper aims at underlining the necessity to design the psycho-sensorial value of processed foods, as well as the importance of educating and informing the consumers for a better capacity to get oriented on the market, and implicitly, for a right purchase decision.

  16. Mapping crustal S-wave velocity structure with SV-component receiver function method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹最红; 陈晓非

    2003-01-01

    In this article, we analyze the characters of SV-component receiver function of teleseismic body waves and its advantages in mapping the S-wave velocity structure of crust in detail. Similar to radial receiver function, SV-component receiver function can be obtained by directly deconvolving the P-component from the SV-component of teleseismic recordings. Our analyses indicate that the change of amplitude of SV-component receiver function against the change of epicentral distance is less than that of radial receiver function. Moreover, the waveform of SV-component receiver function is simpler than the radial receiver function and gives prominence to the PS converted phases that are the most sensitive to the shear wave velocity structure in the inversion. The synthetic tests show that the convergence of SV-component receiver function inversion is faster than that of the radial receiver function inversion. As an example, we investigate the S-wave velocity structure beneath HIA station by using the SV-component receiver function inversion method.

  17. Objective method for registration of the sniffing component of the search behavior in rabbits subjected to food deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kromin, A A; Ignatova, Yu P

    2014-02-01

    A method for registration of the sniffing component of the search behavior in rabbits subjected to food deprivation is suggested. Pulsed activities of the muscles controlling the movements of the wings of the nostrils and the pressure in the nasal cavity are recorded simultaneously. The method allows accurate artifact-free registration of the time and amplitude parameters of the sniffing component of the search behavior. The registration is realized on an MP150 programmed complex, consisting of EMG 100C biopotential amplifiers and Samba 202 intracavitary pressure recorder. The method allows synchronous real-time registration of pulsed activities of the muscles setting in motion the wings of the nostrils and the changes in the intranasal pressure in the course of search behavior of animals under conditions of food deprivation without limiting their locomotor activity.

  18. Heavy quarkonia spectra using wave function with gluonic components

    OpenAIRE

    Bartnik, E. A.; Al-Nadary, H.

    2009-01-01

    We calculate the spectra of charmonium and bottomium in an approximation scheme which treats hard gluons perturbatively while soft gluons are expanded in a set of localized wave functions. Quark-antiquark and quark-antiquark-gluon sectors are included. Reasonable agreement with 2 parameters only is found but the spectra are too coulombic. Despite large coupling constant the admixture of the quark-antiquark-gluon sector is found to be remarkably small.

  19. Componentes funcionales en aceites de pescado y de alga Functional components in fish and algae oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Conchillo

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Buena parte del desarrollo de nuevos alimentos funcionales está encaminada al descubrimiento o aplicación de componentes de los alimentos que favorezcan la instauración de un perfil lipídico saludable en el organismo. El objetivo del trabajo fue realizar la caracterización de la fracción lipídica de dos tipos de aceites, de pescado y de alga, para valorar su potencial utilización como ingredientes funcionales, tanto en relación con el contenido en ácidos grasos de alto peso molecular como con la presencia de esteroles y otros componentes de la fracción insaponificable. Ambos aceites presentaron una fracción lipídica muy rica en ácidos grasos poliinsaturados ω-3 de alto peso molecular, con un 33,75% en el caso del aceite de pescado y un 43,97% en el de alga, siendo el EPA el ácido graso mayoritario en el pescado y el DHA en el alga. La relación ω-6/ω-3 fue en ambos aceites inferior a 0,4. En cuanto a la fracciσn insaponificable, el aceite de alga presentσ un contenido 3 veces menor de colesterol y una mayor proporciσn de escualeno. El contenido en fitosteroles fue significativamente superior en el aceite de alga.An important area of the development of new functional foods is facussed on finding or applying food components which favour achieving a healthier lipid profile in the organism. The objective of this work was to carry out the characterisation of the lipid fraction of two oils, fish oil and algae oil, to evaluate their potential use as functional ingredients, in relation to the high molecular weight fatty acid content and the presence of sterols and other components of the unsaponificable fraction. Both oils showed a lipid fraction rich in high molecular weight polyunsaturated ω-3 fatty acids, containing a 33.75% in the fish oil and a 43.97% in the algae oil. Eicosapentaenoic acid was the major fatty acid in fish oil, whereas docosahexaenoic was the most abundant fatty acid in algae oil. The ω-6/ω-3 ratio was lower

  20. Functional Foods and Nutraceuticals in the Primary Prevention of Cardiovascular Diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Alissa, Eman M.; Gordon A Ferns

    2012-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is now the leading cause of death globally and is a growing health concern. Dietary factors are important in the pathogenesis of CVD and may to a large degree determine CVD risk, but have been less extensively investigated. Functional foods are those that are thought to have physiological benefits and/or reduce the risk of chronic disease beyond their basic nutritional functions. The food industry has started to market products labelled as “functional foods.” Alth...

  1. Merging traditional Chinese medicine with modern drug discovery technologies to find novel drugs and functional foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graziose, Rocky; Lila, Mary Ann; Raskin, Ilya

    2010-03-01

    Traditional Chinese Medicines (TCM) are rapidly gaining attention in the West as sources of new drugs, dietary supplements and functional foods. However, lack of consistent manufacturing practices and quality standards, fear of adulteration, and perceived deficiencies in scientific validation of efficacy and safety impede worldwide acceptance of TCM. In addition, Western pharmaceutical industries and regulatory agencies are partial toward single ingredient drugs based on synthetic molecules, and skeptical of natural product mixtures. This review concentrates on three examples of TCM-derived pharmaceuticals and functional foods that have, despite these usual obstacles, risen to wide acceptance in the West based on their remarkable performance in recent scientific investigations. They are: Sweet wormwood (Artemisia annua), the source of artemisinin, which is the currently preferred single compound anti-malarial drug widely used in combination therapies and recently approved by US FDA; Thunder god vine (Tripterygium wilfordii) which is being developed as a botanical drug for rheumatoid arthritis; and green tea (Camellia sinensis) which is used as a functional beverage and a component of dietary supplements.

  2. Component alignment and functional outcome following computer assisted and jig based total knee arthroplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dnyanesh G Lad

    2013-01-01

    Conclusions: A significantly improved placement of the component was found in the coronal and sagittal planes of the tibial component by CAS. The placement of the components in the other planes was comparable with the values recorded in the jig-based surgery group. Functional outcome was not significantly different.

  3. Development and hygiene of functional foods with immunomodulation activity using radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jo, Sung Kee; Yu, Young Beob; Park, Hae Ran; Byun, Myung Woo; Yang, Jae Seung [Korea Atomic Energy Research Insitiute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sung Ho [Chonnam Univ., Kwangju (Korea, Republic of); Yee, Sung Tae [Sunchon Univ., Sunchon (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-04-01

    In searching modulators of immunity and hemopoiesis among natural products, being used as foods, 6 herbs exhibited lymphocyte proliferation in vitro, and 6 exhibited augmentation of hematopoietic cell growth. The combined treatments showed synergistic effects of lymphocyte proliferation and of hematopoietic cell growth. On the other hand, we found 4 effective Oriental medicinal prescriptions, used as energy tonic or blood-building decoctions, for survival and regeneration of hematopoietic cells and for protection of stem cells of intestinal crypt in irradiated mice. On the basis of these results, extracts from combinations of herbs were made in expectation of higher effects in the three respects. The immunomodulation activity by the herb combination was confirmed in mice. In culture of bone marrow cells, the changes of cytokine expression patterns by herb mixture extracts were observed. In the further studies, we would to evaluate the effects of the herb combinations, to identify the active component, to confirm toxicological safety, and to prepare the provisional products for foods. And then, the functional foods with immunomodulation activity would be developed, and would be applied to overcoming the declined immunity and hemopoiesis caused by various factors.

  4. Loss-of-function variants of the filaggrin gene are associated with clinical reactivity to foods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ginkel, C. D.; Flokstra-de Blok, B. M. J.; Kollen, B. J.; Kukler, J.; Koppelman, G. H.; Dubois, A. E. J.

    The aim of this study was to assess the genetic association of Filaggrin loss-of-function (FLG LOF) genetic variants with food allergy, and to investigate the added value of this test in diagnosing food allergy. Clinical reactivity to foods was diagnosed by the gold standard, the double-blind,

  5. Response to consumer demand for reduced-fat foods; multi-functional fat replacers

    Science.gov (United States)

    The excessive dietary fat intake can result in health problems such as obesity and heart-related diseases, resulting in increased consumer demand for reduced fat foods. A number of food ingredients with fat-like functions have been developed as fat alternatives in the food industry. Especially, so...

  6. Assessing Executive Function components in 9 years old children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Reyes

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Executive Function (EF is a multidimensional construct. It includes a set of abilities that allows to execute actions with a purpose, aimed to a goal, in an efficient way. The objective of this work is to explore some of the cognitive abilities that constitute a common factor for EF in 9 years-old children. The chosen instruments: Batería de Evaluación Neuropsicológica de la Función Ejecutiva en niños (ENFEN (Battery of Neuropsychological Assessment for Executive Function in Children, along with the Backward Digits Subtestfrom the WISC-III, were administered to 101 children from private schools of Buenos Aires State, Argentina. The ENFEN consists on EF tasks, including Phonological and Semantic Fluency, Trail Making Test versions for children (gray and colored sets, Interference Task, and Planning disc movements according to a model. An initial confirmatory factor analysis didn’t show significant fit indexes, being the Inhibitory control the variable with the lower and non significant factorial weight. A second model excluding the Inhibitory control measure was conducted, and it showed excellent fit indexes. Therefore, it can be concluded that at this age, some of the cognitive abilities included on the EF are: Phonological and Semantic Fluency, Sustained and Selective attention, Planning and Working memory; which is not the case for Inhibitory Control (measured by the Interference Task in the ENFEN.

  7. Functional Foods Examined: The Health Claims Being Made for Food Products and the Need for Regulation

    OpenAIRE

    1996-01-01

    This report examines food products which claim, or imply, that they possess a health or\\ud nutritional benefit to the consumer. These include the recently-promoted ‘functional’ foods —\\ud such as those with added bacterial cultures, fish oils or soluble polysaccharides supposedly of\\ud benefit to the eater — as well as foods which have for some time been promoting themselves as\\ud having the benefit of added nutrients or being a rich source of certain nutrients.\\ud That a food product should ...

  8. The Functional Foods Dossier: Building Solid Health Claims. How to prepare the scientific dossier for health claims of European functional food. Practical Industrial guide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    dr. Korver, O.; Kühn, M.C.; Richardson, D.P.

    2004-01-01

    This practical book explains to the industry manager all the special aspects related to the preparation of the scientific dossier for health claims of European functional foods (science, legislation, communication, product development).

  9. ACaenorhabditis elegans dauer-inducing pheromone and an antagonistic component of the food supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, J W; Riddle, D L

    1984-08-01

    The free-living soil nematodeCaenorhabditis elegans forms a nonfeeding dispersal stage at the second molt called the dauer larva when exposed to environmental cues indicating crowding and limited food. An improved bioassay, tenfold more sensitive than that used previously, has been used in the characterization of the two chemical cues which act competitively in controlling this developmental process. The pheromone concentration provides a measure of the population density; it enhances dauer larva formation, and inhibits recovery (exit) from the dauer stage. The pheromone is a family of related molecules which are nonvolatile, very stable, and possess physical and Chromatographie properties similar to those of hydroxylated fatty acids and bile acids. A food signal, with effects on development opposite those of the pheromone, is produced by bacteria, and is also present in yeast extract. In contrast to the pheromone, the food signal is a labile substance which is neutral and hydrophilic.

  10. Yellow Mealworm Protein for Food Purposes - Extraction and Functional Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xue; Vázquez-Gutiérrez, José Luis; Johansson, Daniel P; Landberg, Rikard; Langton, Maud

    2016-01-01

    A protocol for extraction of yellow mealworm larvae proteins was established, conditions were evaluated and the resulting protein extract was characterised. The freeze-dried yellow mealworm larvae contained around 33% fat, 51% crude protein and 43% true protein on a dry matter basis. The true protein content of the protein extract was about 75%, with an extraction rate of 70% under optimised extraction conditions using 0.25 M NaOH, a NaOH solution:ethanol defatted worm ratio of 15:1 mL/g, 40°C for 1 h and extraction twice. The protein extract was a good source of essential amino acids. The lowest protein solubility in distilled water solution was found between pH 4 and 5, and increased with either increasing or decreasing pH. Lower solubility was observed in 0.5 M NaCl solution compared with distilled water. The rheological tests indicated that temperature, sample concentration, addition of salt and enzyme, incubation time and pH alterations influenced the elastic modulus of yellow mealworm protein extract (YMPE). These results demonstrate that the functional properties of YMPE can be modified for different food applications.

  11. Strawberry as a functional food: an evidence-based review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Arpita; Nguyen, Angel; Betts, Nancy M; Lyons, Timothy J

    2014-01-01

    Emerging research provides substantial evidence to classify strawberries as a functional food with several preventive and therapeutic health benefits. Strawberries, a rich source of phytochemicals (ellagic acid, anthocyanins, quercetin, and catechin) and vitamins (ascorbic acid and folic acid), have been highly ranked among dietary sources of polyphenols and antioxidant capacity. It should however be noted that these bioactive factors can be significantly affected by differences in strawberry cultivars, agricultural practices, storage, and processing methods: freezing versus dry heat has been associated with maximum retention of strawberry bioactives in several studies. Nutritional epidemiology shows inverse association between strawberry consumption and incidence of hypertension or serum C-reactive protein; controlled feeding studies have identified the ability of strawberries to attenuate high-fat diet induced postprandial oxidative stress and inflammation, or postprandial hyperglycemia, or hyperlipidemia in subjects with cardiovascular risk factors. Mechanistic studies have elucidated specific biochemical pathways that might confer these protective effects of strawberries: upregulation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) activity, downregulation of NF-kB activity and subsequent inflammation, or inhibitions of carbohydrate digestive enzymes. These health effects may be attributed to the synergistic effects of nutrients and phytochemicals in strawberries. Further studies are needed to define the optimal dose and duration of strawberry intake in affecting levels of biomarkers or pathways related to chronic diseases.

  12. Yellow Mealworm Protein for Food Purposes - Extraction and Functional Properties.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue Zhao

    Full Text Available A protocol for extraction of yellow mealworm larvae proteins was established, conditions were evaluated and the resulting protein extract was characterised. The freeze-dried yellow mealworm larvae contained around 33% fat, 51% crude protein and 43% true protein on a dry matter basis. The true protein content of the protein extract was about 75%, with an extraction rate of 70% under optimised extraction conditions using 0.25 M NaOH, a NaOH solution:ethanol defatted worm ratio of 15:1 mL/g, 40°C for 1 h and extraction twice. The protein extract was a good source of essential amino acids. The lowest protein solubility in distilled water solution was found between pH 4 and 5, and increased with either increasing or decreasing pH. Lower solubility was observed in 0.5 M NaCl solution compared with distilled water. The rheological tests indicated that temperature, sample concentration, addition of salt and enzyme, incubation time and pH alterations influenced the elastic modulus of yellow mealworm protein extract (YMPE. These results demonstrate that the functional properties of YMPE can be modified for different food applications.

  13. Food conversion efficiency and the von Bertalanffy growth function 1: a modification of Pauly's model

    OpenAIRE

    Temming, A.

    1994-01-01

    A simple modification of Pauly's model for relating food conversion efficiency (K sub(1)) and body weight is proposed. The key parameter is an index to how efficiently food can be absorbed; the other parameter is related to the surface-limiting growth, an important component of von Bertalanff's and Pauly's theories of fish growth.

  14. Effect of compositional alteration of food matrices and processing on availability of selected nutrients and bioactive components in rice products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oghbaei, Morteza; Prakash, Jamuna

    2011-05-01

    The aim was to determine the influence of compositional alteration and processing on the digestibility/availability of nutrients and bioactive components [protein (IVPD), starch (IVSD), iron, calcium, polyphenols, flavonoids] in rice products. The compositional changes representing fortified foods in 'wafers' and 'noodles' were addition of iron, rice bran, onion and cabbage. The moisture content of wafer and noodles ranged from 4.1 to 4.8% and from 73.3 to 82.1%, respectively. Wafer control (73.9-75.9%) and noodle with iron and control (85.4-87.0%) showed the highest IVPD and IVSD. Addition of rice bran decreased nutrient digestibility. The control and iron-added products exhibited least and highest available iron (2.50-2.69% and 5.99-7.07%). Total and available bioactive components increased in proportion to added external source. Overall availability of all components was better in noodles than in wafers, indicating high moisture supported higher availability. In conclusion, it can be said that both composition of the food matrix and processing influenced the availability of analyzed components.

  15. Functional foods: regulation and innovations in the EU

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moors, E.H.M.

    2012-01-01

    Worldwide consumers are becoming more interested in the relation between food and health. In order to harmonize regulation on foods throughout the EU, the Regulation EC1924/2006 on nutrition and health claims came into force, as a first specific set of EU legal rules dealing with nutrition and

  16. Composition-Based Prediction of Temperature-Dependent Thermophysical Food Properties: Reevaluating Component Groups and Prediction Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phinney, David Martin; Frelka, John C; Heldman, Dennis Ray

    2017-01-01

    Prediction of temperature-dependent thermophysical properties (thermal conductivity, density, specific heat, and thermal diffusivity) is an important component of process design for food manufacturing. Current models for prediction of thermophysical properties of foods are based on the composition, specifically, fat, carbohydrate, protein, fiber, water, and ash contents, all of which change with temperature. The objectives of this investigation were to reevaluate and improve the prediction expressions for thermophysical properties. Previously published data were analyzed over the temperature range from 10 to 150 °C. These data were analyzed to create a series of relationships between the thermophysical properties and temperature for each food component, as well as to identify the dependence of the thermophysical properties on more specific structural properties of the fats, carbohydrates, and proteins. Results from this investigation revealed that the relationships between the thermophysical properties of the major constituents of foods and temperature can be statistically described by linear expressions, in contrast to the current polynomial models. Links between variability in thermophysical properties and structural properties were observed. Relationships for several thermophysical properties based on more specific constituents have been identified. Distinctions between simple sugars (fructose, glucose, and lactose) and complex carbohydrates (starch, pectin, and cellulose) have been proposed. The relationships between the thermophysical properties and proteins revealed a potential correlation with the molecular weight of the protein. The significance of relating variability in constituent thermophysical properties with structural properties--such as molecular mass--could significantly improve composition-based prediction models and, consequently, the effectiveness of process design. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  17. Functional food productions: release the potential of bioactive compounds through food processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epidemiological studies of bioactive compounds from plant-based foods have consistently pointed to undisputed benefits of consumption of plant-based foods on human health particularly regarding cardiovascular diseases and cancers. However, in order to attain the dosage required from these studies, p...

  18. Natural Bioactive Food Components for Improving Enteral Tube Feeding Tolerance in Adult Patient Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuchnia, Adam J; Conlon, Beth; Greenberg, Norman

    2017-08-01

    Tube feeding (TF) is the most common form of nutrition support. In recent years, TF administration has increased among patient populations within and outside hospital settings, in part due to greater insurance coverage, reduced use of parenteral nutrition, and improved formularies suitable for sole source nutrition. With increasing life expectancy and improved access to TFs, the number of adults dependent on enteral nutrition is expected to grow. However, enteral TF intolerance (ETFI) is the most common complication of TFs, typically presenting with at least 1 adverse gastrointestinal event, including nausea, diarrhea, and constipation. ETFI often leads to reductions in TF volume with associated energy and protein deficits. Potentially ensuing malnutrition is a major public health concern due its effects on increased risk of morbidity and mortality, infections, prolonged hospital length of stay, and higher healthcare costs. As such, there is a need for intervention strategies to prevent and reduce ETFI. Incorporating whole foods with bioactive properties is a promising strategy. Emerging research has elucidated bioactive properties of whole foods with specific benefits for the prevention and management of adverse gastrointestinal events commonly associated with TFs. However, lack of evidence-based recommendations and technological challenges have limited the use of such foods in commercial TF formulas. This review addresses research gaps by discussing 5 whole foods (rhubarb, banana, curcumin, peppermint oil, and ginger) with bioactive attributes identified through literature searches and clinical experience as having substantial scientific rationale to consider their application for ETFI in adult populations.

  19. Competitive kinetics as a tool to determine rate constants for reduction of ferrylmyoglobin by food components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jongberg, Sisse; Lund, Marianne Nissen; Pattison, David I.

    2016-01-01

    . This approach allows determination of apparent rate constants for the oxidation of proteins by haem proteins of relevance to food oxidation and should be applicable to other systems. A similar approach has provided approximate apparent rate constants for the reduction of MbFe(IV)=O by catechin and green tea...

  20. Mucosal Immune Regulation in Intestinal Disease. The role of bacterial products, food components and drugs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bol-Schoenmakers, M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304846953

    2009-01-01

    The challenge of the mucosal gut associated immune system is to remain unresponsive to food products and commensal microbiota, while mounting an appropriate immune response towards pathogens. This implicates the necessity of tight immune regulation within the gut associated lymphoid tissue (GALT).

  1. Plant and fungal food components with potential activity on the development of microbial oral diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daglia, M.; Papetti, A.; Mascherpa, D.; Grisoli, P.; Giusto, G.; Lingström, P.; Pratten, J.; Signoretto, C.; Spratt, D.A.; Wilson, M.; Zaura, E.; Gazzani, G.

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports the content in macronutrients, free sugars, polyphenols, and inorganic ions, known to exert any positive or negative action on microbial oral disease such as caries and gingivitis, of seven food/beverages (red chicory, mushroom, raspberry, green and black tea, cranberry juice, dar

  2. Production of poultry meat and eggs as functional food: Challenges and opportunities

    OpenAIRE

    Perić L.; Rodić V.; Milošević N.

    2011-01-01

    In the last decades people became highly aware of the connection between food and health, especially in developed countries of Europe and USA. Food can only be considered functional if together with its basic nutritional impact it has beneficial effects on human health. It must improve general conditions and/or decrease the risk of the disease. Functional foods should be enhanced with added ingredients not normally found in the product, providing health ben...

  3. Goya (Lycium barbarum) fruits as bioactive components source in food – a literature review

    OpenAIRE

    Bartosz Kulczyński; Barbara Groszczyk; Anna Cerba; Anna Gramza-Michałowska

    2014-01-01

    Goya (Lycium barbarum) berries belong to a group called “superfruits”, because they contain many nutritional value components with high biological activity. The present paper focused on short characteristic and chemical components, and on the nutritional and health value of goya fruits. Results of numerous scientific investigations confirm their hypoglycemic effect, lowering cholesterol and triglycerides level in blood, immunostimulative, anticancer and antioxidative activity. Sin...

  4. Fermented Brown Rice Flour as Functional Food Ingredient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilowefah, Muna; Chinma, Chiemela; Bakar, Jamilah; Ghazali, Hasanah M.; Muhammad, Kharidah; Makeri, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    As fermentation could reduce the negative effects of bran on final cereal products, the utilization of whole-cereal flour is recommended, such as brown rice flour as a functional food ingredient. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the effect of fermented brown rice flour on white rice flour, white rice batter and its steamed bread qualities. Brown rice batter was fermented using commercial baker’s yeast (Eagle brand) according to the optimum conditions for moderate acidity (pH 5.5) to obtain fermented brown rice flour (FBRF). The FBRF was added to white rice flour at 0%, 10%, 20%, 30%, 40% and 50% levels to prepare steamed rice bread. Based on the sensory evaluation test, steamed rice bread containing 40% FBRF had the highest overall acceptability score. Thus, pasting properties of the composite rice flour, rheological properties of its batter, volume and texture properties of its steamed bread were determined. The results showed that peak viscosity of the rice flour containing 40% FBRF was significantly increased, whereas its breakdown, final viscosity and setback significantly decreased. Viscous, elastic and complex moduli of the batter having 40% FBRF were also significantly reduced. However, volume, specific volume, chewiness, resilience and cohesiveness of its steamed bread were significantly increased, while hardness and springiness significantly reduced in comparison to the control. These results established the effectiveness of yeast fermentation in reducing the detrimental effects of bran on the sensory properties of steamed white rice bread and encourage the usage of brown rice flour to enhance the quality of rice products. PMID:28234309

  5. Chromatographic Evaluation and Characterization of Components of Gentian Root Extract Used as Food Additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amakura, Yoshiaki; Yoshimura, Morio; Morimoto, Sara; Yoshida, Takashi; Tada, Atsuko; Ito, Yusai; Yamazaki, Takeshi; Sugimoto, Naoki; Akiyama, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    Gentian root extract is used as a bitter food additive in Japan. We investigated the constituents of this extract to acquire the chemical data needed for standardized specifications. Fourteen known compounds were isolated in addition to a mixture of gentisin and isogentisin: anofinic acid, 2-methoxyanofinic acid, furan-2-carboxylic acid, 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furfural, 2,3-dihydroxybenzoic acid, isovitexin, gentiopicroside, loganic acid, sweroside, vanillic acid, gentisin 7-O-primeveroside, isogentisin 3-O-primeveroside, 6'-O-glucosylgentiopicroside, and swertiajaposide D. Moreover, a new compound, loganic acid 7-(2'-hydroxy-3'-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl)benzoate (1), was also isolated. HPLC was used to analyze gentiopicroside and amarogentin, defined as the main constituents of gentian root extract in the List of Existing Food Additives in Japan.

  6. Direct determination of major components in human diets and baby foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cascant, Mari Merce; Garrigues, Salvador; de la Guardia, Miguel

    2015-03-01

    A fast method has been developed for the determination of fat, proteins, carbohydrates, and energy value in baby food, infant fast food, and canteen menus, using near-infrared (NIR) and mid-infrared (MIR) spectroscopy measurements and multivariate calibration methods based on partial least square regression. Reference standard methods were employed to build and validate the infrared methods for direct determination of nutrients. Coefficients of determination obtained between predicted values and reference ones for total fat, proteins, carbohydrates, and energy value were 96.7, 98.1, 98.9, and 96.5 for NIR and 91.0, 93.0, 92.0, and 84.1 for MIR, respectively, with relative root mean square error of prediction (RRMSEP) below or equal to 9 % for NIR and 16 % for MIR. Results obtained indicate that both NIR and MIR techniques have good predictive capabilities, with the NIR method being the most accurate and simple.

  7. Demographic and lifestyle characteristics of functional food consumers and dietary supplement users.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, N. de; Ocké, M.C.; Branderhorst, H.A.C.; Friele, R.

    2003-01-01

    Functional foods and/or supplements may be used in the context of a healthy lifestyle or as a means to compensate for an unhealthy lifestyle. Adverse long-term and/or cumulative effects of functional food or supplement intake are of public health concern; it is therefore important to identify functi

  8. Functional food monitoring as part of the new Dutch dietary monitoring system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rompelberg CJM; Jager M; Bakker MI; Buurma-Rethans EJM; Ocke MC; CVG

    2006-01-01

    Good data on functional food consumption necessary for an adequate Dutch nutrition policy are lacking. This lack may be overcome in future by including functional food monitoring in the new dietary monitoring system in the Netherlands. One specific form of monitoring could be an Internet-based quest

  9. Functional food monitoring as part of the new Dutch dietary monitoring system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rompelberg CJM; Jager M; Bakker MI; Buurma-Rethans EJM; Ocke MC; CVG

    2006-01-01

    Good data on functional food consumption necessary for an adequate Dutch nutrition policy are lacking. This lack may be overcome in future by including functional food monitoring in the new dietary monitoring system in the Netherlands. One specific form of monitoring could be an Internet-based quest

  10. Demographic and lifestyle characteristics of functional food consumers and dietary supplement users.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, N. de; Ocké, M.C.; Branderhorst, H.A.C.; Friele, R.

    2003-01-01

    Functional foods and/or supplements may be used in the context of a healthy lifestyle or as a means to compensate for an unhealthy lifestyle. Adverse long-term and/or cumulative effects of functional food or supplement intake are of public health concern; it is therefore important to identify functi

  11. Workshop Postlaunch Monitoring 'Functional Foods', waar ligt de rol van sector VCV?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong N de; Ocke MC; CVG

    2003-01-01

    In December 2002 the RIVM's Nutrition and Consumer Safety Division held a workshop aimed at defining its position and future tasks in a Post-launch Monitoring (PLM) system for functional foods, which is yet to be developed. Here, (unexpected) effects of the use of functional foods after marketing an

  12. Functional food monitoring as part of the new Dutch dietary monitoring system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rompelberg CJM; Jager M; Bakker MI; Buurma-Rethans EJM; Ocke MC; CVG

    2006-01-01

    Good data on functional food consumption necessary for an adequate Dutch nutrition policy are lacking. This lack may be overcome in future by including functional food monitoring in the new dietary monitoring system in the Netherlands. One specific form of monitoring could be an Internet-based

  13. Consumption of organic and functional food. A matter of well-being and health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goetzke, Beate; Nitzko, Sina; Spiller, Achim

    2014-06-01

    Health is an important motivation for the consumption of both organic and functional foods. The aim of this study was to clarify to what extent the consumption of organic and functional foods are characterized by a healthier lifestyle and a higher level of well-being. Moreover, the influence of social desirability on the respondents' response behavior was of interest and was also analyzed. Well-being and health was measured in a sample of 555 German consumers at two levels: the cognitive-emotional and the behavioral level. The results show that although health is an important aspect for both functional food and organic food consumption, these two forms of consumption were influenced by different understandings of health: organic food consumption is influenced by an overall holistic healthy lifestyle including a healthy diet and sport, while functional food consumption is characterized by small "adjustments" to lifestyle to enhance health and to increase psychological well-being. An overlap between the consumption of organic and functional food was also observed. This study provides information which enables a better characterization of the consumption of functional food and organic food in terms of well-being and health. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Peroxidases in food industry : crosslinking of proteins and polysaccharides to impart novel functional properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boeriu, C.G.

    2008-01-01

    Covalent attachment of proteins to carbohydrates can significantly change the functional properties of the polymers, which may be useful industrially. To produce novel functional polymers,for food applications, we explored the enzymatic crosslinking of proteins and polysaccharides. Heterologous conj

  15. Interactions of phenolic compounds with globular proteins and their effects on food-related functional properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prigent, S.V.E.

    2005-01-01

    In order to modulate the functional properties of food proteins, the interactions between globular proteins and the monomeric phenolic, caffeoylquinic acid (CQA, chlorogenic acid), and the oligomeric phenolics, procyanidins, were characterized and investigated for their effect on protein functional

  16. nutritional status, functional ability and food habits of institutionalised ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hi-tech

    2004-05-05

    May 5, 2004 ... children, food preparation and looking after animals. This helps in freeing younger .... the non-institutionalised males was overweight or obese. .... of activities that required heavy physical exercises .... Chichester, UK, 1991.

  17. Sensory Characteristics and Volatile Components of Dry Dog Foods Manufactured with Sorghum Fractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donfrancesco, Brizio Di; Koppel, Kadri

    2017-06-17

    Descriptive sensory analysis and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) with a modified headspace solid-phase microextraction (SPME) method was performed on three extruded dry dog food diets manufactured with different fractions of red sorghum and a control diet containing corn, brewer's rice, and wheat as a grain source in order to determine the effect of sorghum fractions on dry dog food sensory properties. The aroma compounds and flavor profiles of samples were similar with small differences, such as higher toasted aroma notes, and musty and dusty flavor in the mill-feed sample. A total of 37 compounds were tentatively identified and semi-quantified. Aldehydes were the major group present in the samples. The total volatile concentration was low, reflecting the mild aroma of the samples. Partial least squares regression was performed to identify correlations between sensory characteristics and detected aroma compounds. Possible relationships, such as hexanal and oxidized oil, and broth aromatics were identified. Volatile compounds were also associated with earthy, musty, and meaty aromas and flavor notes. This study showed that extruded dry dog foods manufactured with different red sorghum fractions had similar aroma, flavor, and volatile profiles.

  18. Functional properties of whey protein and its application in nanocomposite materials and functional foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Helen

    Whey is a byproduct of cheese making; whey proteins are globular proteins which can be modified and polymerized to add functional benefits, these benefits can be both nutritional and structural in foods. Modified proteins can be used in non-foods, being of particular interest in polymer films and coatings. Food packaging materials, including plastics, can linings, interior coatings of paper containers, and beverage cap sealing materials, are generally made of synthetic petroleum based compounds. These synthetic materials may pose a potential human health risk due to presence of certain chemicals such as Bisphenol A (BPA). They also add to environmental pollution, being difficult to degrade. Protein-based materials do not have the same issues as synthetics and so can be used as alternatives in many packaging types. As proteins are generally hydrophilic they must be modified structurally and their performance enhanced by the addition of waterproofing agents. Polymerization of whey proteins results in a network, adding both strength and flexibility. The most interesting of the food-safe waterproofing agents are the (large aspect ratio) nanoclays. Nanoclays are relatively inexpensive, widely available and have low environmental impact. The clay surface can be modified to make it organophilic and so compatible with organic polymers. The objective of this study is the use of polymerized whey protein (PWP), with reinforcing nanoclays, to produce flexible surface coatings which limit the transfer of contents while maintaining food safety. Four smectite and kaolin type clays, one treated and three natural were assessed for strengthening qualities and the potential waterproofing and plasticizing benefits of other additives were also analyzed. The nutritional benefits of whey proteins can also be used to enhance the protein content of various foodstuffs. Drinkable yogurt is a popular beverage in the US and other countries and is considered a functional food, especially when

  19. A Layered Searchable Encryption Scheme with Functional Components Independent of Encryption Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangchun Luo

    2014-01-01

    from the core searchable structure. Based on this observation, we propose a layered searchable encryption (LSE scheme, which provides compatibility, flexibility, and security for various settings and functionalities. In this scheme, the outputs of the core searchable component based on either symmetric or asymmetric setting are converted to some uniform mappings, which are then transmitted to loosely coupled functional components to further filter the results. In such a way, all functional components could directly support both symmetric and asymmetric settings. Based on LSE, we propose two representative and novel constructions for ranked keyword query (previously only available in symmetric scheme and range query (previously only available in asymmetric scheme.

  20. Automatic Generation of Web Applications from Visual High-Level Functional Web Components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quan Liang Chen

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents high-level functional Web components such as frames, framesets, and pivot tables, which conventional development environments for Web applications have not yet supported. Frameset Web components provide several editing facilities such as adding, deleting, changing, and nesting of framesets to make it easier to develop Web applications that use frame facilities. Pivot table Web components sum up various kinds of data in two dimensions. They reduce the amount of code to be written by developers greatly. The paper also describes the system that implements these high-level functional components as visual Web components. This system assists designers in the development of Web applications based on the page-transition framework that models a Web application as a set of Web page transitions, and by using visual Web components, makes it easier to write processes to be executed when a Web page transfers to another.

  1. The effect of extrusion on the functional components and in vitro lycopene bioaccessibility of tomato pulp added corn extrudates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonyali, Bade; Sensoy, Ilkay; Karakaya, Sibel

    2016-02-01

    The effect of processing on functional ingredients and their in vitro bioaccessibility should be investigated to develop better food products. Tomato pulp was added as a functional ingredient to extrudates. The effects of extrusion on the functional properties of the extrudates and the in vitro bioaccessibility of lycopene were investigated. Two different temperature sets were applied during extrusion: 80 °C, 90 °C, 100 °C and 130 °C and 80 °C, 100 °C, 130 °C and 160 °C. Screw speed and feed rate were kept constant at 225 rpm and 36 ± 1 g min(-1), respectively. The feed moisture content was adjusted to 30 ± 1% by mixing the tomato pulp to the corn grit. Antioxidant activity and the total phenolic content decreased after the extrusion process. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis indicated that the lycopene content decreased after the extrusion process when feed and extrudates were compared. In vitro bioaccessibility of lycopene for the extruded samples with 160 °C last zone treatment temperature was higher than the feed and extruded samples with 130 °C last zone treatment temperature. The results indicate that extrusion affects the food matrix and the release of functional components.

  2. A study of consumers' perceptions and prediction of consumption patterns for generic health functional foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Nam E; Kim, Ju Hyeon; Lee, Yeon Kyoung; Lee, Hye Young

    2011-01-01

    The Korea Food and Drug Administration (KFDA) revised the Health Functional Food Act in 2008 and extended the form of health functional foods to general food types. Therefore, this study was performed to investigate consumers' perceptions of the expanded form of health functional food and to predict consumption patterns. For this study, 1,006 male and female adults aged 19 years and older were selected nationwide by multi-stage stratified random sampling and were surveyed in 1:1 interviews. The questionnaire survey was conducted by Korea Gallup. The subjects consisted of 497 (49.4%) males and 509 (50.6%) females. About 57.9% of the subjects recognized the KFDA's permission procedures for health functional foods. Regarding the health functional foods that the subjects had consumed, red ginseng products were the highest (45.3%), followed by nutritional supplements (34.9%), ginseng products (27.9%), lactobacillus-containing products (21.0%), aloe products (20.3%), and Japanese apricot extract products (18.4%). Opinions on expanding the form of health functional foods to general food types scored 4.7 points on a 7-point scale, showing positive responses. In terms of the effects of medicine-type health functional foods versus generic health functional foods, the highest response was 'same effects if the same ingredients are contained' at a rate of 34.7%. For intake frequency by food type, the response of 'daily consistent intake' was 31.7% for capsules, tablets, and pills, and 21.7% for extracts. For general food types, 'daily consistent intake' was 44.5% for rice and 22.8% for beverages, which were higher rates than those for medicine types. From the above results, consumers had positive opinions of the expansion of health functional foods to generic forms but are not expected to maintain accurate intake frequencies or amounts. Thus, continuous promotion and education are needed for proper intake of generic health functional foods. PMID:21994526

  3. Analysis on Nutritional and Functional Components of Different Pueraria lobata Roots

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jinping; WU; Fengling; GUO; Xianqiang; SHAO; Yan; HU; Jianjun; ZHAO; Zhengming; QIU

    2015-01-01

    This paper made analysis and evaluation of nutritional components and functional components of different Pueraria lobata roots. Nutritional components mainly include water,ash content,fat,reducing sugar,starch and cellulose; functional components mainly include flavone and polyphenol. Pueraria lobata root No. 1 has highest ash content,flavone,and polyphenol but lowest fat,so it is suitable for using as medical Pueraria lobata root resource. Pueraria lobata root No. 5 has starch content as high as 64. 43%,and is recommended using as vegetable and processing into Pueraria lobata powder. Pueraria lobata root No. 5 has cellulose content as high as 17. 79% and is recommended processing into Pueraria lobata tablets. Through comparison of nutritional and functional components of different Pueraria lobata roots,it is intended to provide reference for variety selection,breeding,production and processing of Pueraria lobata roots.

  4. Functional foods: health claim-food product compatibility and the impact of health claim framing on consumer evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleef, van E.; Trijp, van H.C.M.; Luning, P.A.

    2005-01-01

    Two studies are reported, which aim to strengthen the scientific underpinning of strategic decisions regarding functional food development, as to (1) which health benefits to claim, (2) with which product (category), and (3) in which communication format. The first exploratory study is a secondary a

  5. The role of consumer acceptance in the food innovation process: young consumer perception of functional food in Italy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giudice, Del T.; Pascucci, S.

    2010-01-01

    This paper analysed the factors influencing the acceptance of functional foods (FFs) of three distinct groups of young Italian consumers. We implemented an ordered probit model based on data collected in a field survey carried out in southern Italy in 2008. The results showed that different sources

  6. Consumer Acceptance of Functional Foods and Their Ingredients: Positioning Options for Innovations at the Borderline Between Foods and Drugs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bornkessel, S.; Bröring, S.; Omta, S.W.F.

    2011-01-01

    Consumer acceptance is pivotal for the market success of new functional food products. Thereby, the acceptance is mainly influenced by three factors: consumer characteristics, purchasing situation and products characteristics. The study at hand analyses these influence factors using the example of j

  7. Use of functional foods among Swedish consumers is related to health-consciousness and perceived effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landström, Eva; Hursti, Ulla-Kaisa Koivisto; Becker, Wulf; Magnusson, Maria

    2007-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to survey attitudes to and use of functional foods and to investigate which demographic variables and attitudes to diet and health predict consumption of functional foods among Swedish consumers. A questionnaire was developed and sent to 2000 randomly selected Swedish citizens aged between 17 and 75 years. A total of 972 (48%) responded, 53% were female and 44% male. Mean age was 45 years. The results revealed that 84% of respondents were familiar with the concept of functional foods; 83% had consumed/purchased at least one of the seven functional food products presented in the questionnaire. Of those who had consumed a functional food, 25% had perceived effect of it. Positive correlations were seen between consumers perceiving a personal reward from eating functional foods, having an interest in natural products and an interest in general health. Consumption/purchase of functional foods was related to beliefs in the effects of the products, having consumed nutraceuticals or dietary supplements, having a diet-related problem personally or in the family, and a high level of education. The characteristic Swedish functional food consumer has a high level of education, is health-conscious and interested in healthy foods and believes in the health effect of functional foods. Thus, factors other than demographics better explain consumption of FF. However, the study population may represent a more health-conscious segment of the Swedish population in general. Additional studies are therefore required to elucidate the attitudes and use of FF in different consumer groups.

  8. Relation of reward from food intake and anticipated food intake to obesity: a functional magnetic resonance imaging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stice, Eric; Spoor, Sonja; Bohon, Cara; Veldhuizen, Marga G; Small, Dana M

    2008-11-01

    The authors tested the hypothesis that obese individuals experience greater reward from food consumption (consummatory food reward) and anticipated consumption (anticipatory food reward) than lean individuals using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) with 33 adolescent girls (mean age = 15.7, SD = 0.9). Obese relative to lean adolescent girls showed greater activation bilaterally in the gustatory cortex (anterior and mid insula, frontal operculum) and in somatosensory regions (parietal operculum and Rolandic operculum) in response to anticipated intake of chocolate milkshake (vs. a tasteless solution) and to actual consumption of milkshake (vs. a tasteless solution); these brain regions encode the sensory and hedonic aspects of food. However, obese relative to lean adolescent girls also showed decreased activation in the caudate nucleus in response to consumption of milkshake versus a tasteless solution, potentially because they have reduced dopamine receptor availability. Results suggest that individuals who show greater activation in the gustatory cortex and somatosensory regions in response to anticipation and consumption of food, but who show weaker activation in the striatum during food intake, may be at risk for overeating and consequent weight gain.

  9. Functional food. Product development, marketing and consumer acceptance--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siró, István; Kápolna, Emese; Kápolna, Beáta; Lugasi, Andrea

    2008-11-01

    It was mainly the advances in understanding the relationship between nutrition and health that resulted in the development of the concept of functional foods, which means a practical and new approach to achieve optimal health status by promoting the state of well-being and possibly reducing the risk of disease. Functional foods are found virtually in all food categories, however products are not homogeneously scattered over all segments of the growing market. The development and commerce of these products is rather complex, expensive and risky, as special requirements should be answered. Besides potential technological obstacles, legislative aspects, as well as consumer demands need to be taken into consideration when developing functional food. In particular, consumer acceptance has been recognized as a key factor to successfully negotiate market opportunities. This paper offers a brief overview of the current functional food market situation in USA, Japan and some European countries completed with some comments on functional food future potential. It explores the main challenges of such product development focusing on the different factors determining the acceptance of functional food. Furthermore it discusses some prominent types of these food products currently on the market.

  10. Pie waste - A component of food waste and a renewable substrate for producing ethanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magyar, Margaret; da Costa Sousa, Leonardo; Jayanthi, Singaram; Balan, Venkatesh

    2017-04-01

    Sugar-rich food waste is a sustainable feedstock that can be converted into ethanol without an expensive thermochemical pretreatment that is commonly used in first and second generation processes. In this manuscript we have outlined the pie waste conversion to ethanol through a two-step process, namely, enzyme hydrolysis using commercial enzyme products mixtures and microbial fermentation using yeast. Optimized enzyme cocktail was found to be 45% alpha amylase, 45% gamma amylase, and 10% pectinase at 2.5mg enzyme protein/g glucan produced a hydrolysate with high glucose concentration. All three solid loadings (20%, 30%, and 40%) produced sugar-rich hydrolysates and ethanol with little to no enzyme or yeast inhibition. Enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation process mass balance was carried out using pie waste on a 1000g dry weight basis that produced 329g ethanol at 20% solids loading. This process clearly demonstrate how food waste could be efficiently converted to ethanol that could be used for making biodiesel by reacting with waste cooking oil. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Stable binding of alternative protein-enriched food matrices with concentrated cranberry bioflavonoids for functional food applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grace, Mary H; Guzman, Ivette; Roopchand, Diana E; Moskal, Kristin; Cheng, Diana M; Pogrebnyak, Natasha; Raskin, Ilya; Howell, Amy; Lila, Mary Ann

    2013-07-17

    Defatted soy flour (DSF), soy protein isolate (SPI), hemp protein isolate (HPI), medium-roast peanut flour (MPF), and pea protein isolate (PPI) stably bind and concentrate cranberry (CB) polyphenols, creating protein/polyphenol-enriched matrices. Proanthocyanidins (PAC) in the enriched matrices ranged from 20.75 mg/g (CB-HPI) to 10.68 mg/g (CB-SPI). Anthocyanins (ANC) ranged from 3.19 mg/g (CB-DSF) to 1.68 mg/g (CB-SPI), whereas total phenolics (TP) ranged from 37.61 mg/g (CB-HPI) to 21.29 mg/g (CB-SPI). LC-MS indicated that the enriched matrices contained all identifiable ANC, PAC, and flavonols present in CB juice. Complexation with SPI stabilized and preserved the integrity of the CB polyphenolic components for at least 15 weeks at 37 °C. PAC isolated from enriched matrices demonstrated comparable antiadhesion bioactivity to PAC isolated directly from CB juice (MIC 0.4-0.16 mg/mL), indicating their potential utility for maintenance of urinary tract health. Approximately 1.0 g of polyphenol-enriched matrix delivered the same amount of PAC available in 1 cup (300 mL) of commercial CB juice cocktail, which has been shown clinically to be the prophylactic dose for reducing recurring urinary tract infections. CB-SPI inhibited Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial growth. Nutritional and sensory analyses indicated that the targeted CB-matrix combinations have high potential for incorporation in functional food formulations.

  12. Dietary fats, teas, dairy, and nuts: potential functional foods for weight control?

    Science.gov (United States)

    St-Onge, Marie-Pierre

    2005-01-01

    Functional foods are similar to conventional foods in appearance, but they have benefits that extend beyond their basic nutritional properties. For example, functional foods have been studied for the prevention of osteoporosis, cancer, and cardiovascular disease. They have yet to be related to the prevention of obesity, although obesity is one of the major health problems today. The inclusion of foods or the replacement of habitual foods with others that may enhance energy expenditure (EE) or improve satiety may be a practical way to maintain a stable body weight or assist in achieving weight loss; such foods may act as functional foods in body weight control. Some foods that might be classified as functional foods for weight control because of their effects on EE and appetite-including medium-chain triacylglycerols, diacylglycerols, tea, milk, and nuts-are reviewed here. Only human studies reporting EE, appetite, or body weight are discussed. When studies of whole food items are unavailable, studies of nutraceuticals, the capsular equivalents of functional foods, are reviewed. To date, dietary fats seem to be most promising and have been the most extensively studied for their effects on body weight control. However, the weight loss observed is small and should be considered mostly as a measure to prevent weight gain. Carefully conducted clinical studies are needed to firmly ascertain the effect of tea, milk, and nuts on body weight maintenance, to assess their potential to assist in weight-loss efforts, and to ascertain dose-response relations and mechanisms of action for the 4 food types examined.

  13. Plant food allergens--structural and functional aspects of allergenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breiteneder, Heimo; Clare Mills, E N

    2005-09-01

    The three dominating plant food allergen groups belong to the prolamin and cupin superfamilies and to the family 10 of pathogenesis-related proteins. The prolamin superfamily comprises allergenic 2S albumins, nonspecific lipid transfer proteins and cereal alpha-amylase/trypsin inhibitors. These allergens have related structures and are stable to thermal processing and proteolysis. The cupin superfamily comprises the allergenic 7S and 11S globulin storage proteins from peanuts, soybean and tree nuts which are heat stable and can form immunogenicity enhancing aggregates. The Bet v 1 family of allergens includes tree pollinosis-associated food allergens with low stability which induce the symptoms of the oral allergy syndrome.

  14. Evaluation of coriander spice as a functional food by using in vitro bioassays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chuan-Rui; Dissanayake, Amila A; Kevseroğlu, Kudret; Nair, Muraleedharan G

    2015-01-15

    Coriander leaves and seeds are widely used as a condiment and spice. The use of roasted coriander seeds in food and beverage is very common. In this study, we investigated raw and roasted coriander seeds for their functional food quality using antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and human tumour cell proliferation inhibitory assays. The hexane and methanolic extracts of raw and roasted coriander seeds showed identical chromatographic and bioassay profiles. Chromatographic purification of the roasted seed extracts afforded tripetroselinin as the predominant component. Other isolates were petroselinic acid, 1,3-dipetroselinin, 2-C-methyl-d-erythritol, 2-C-methyl-d-erythritol 4-O-β-d-glucopyranoside and linalool. Hexane and methanolic extracts of both raw and roasted seeds and pure isolates from them showed comparable antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities to the positive controls used in the assays, and inhibited the growth of human tumour cells AGS (gastric carcinoma), DU-145 and LNCaP (prostate carcinoma), HCT-116 (colon carcinoma), MCF-7 (breast carcinoma) and NCI-H460 (lung carcinoma) by 4-34%, respectively.

  15. The orexin component of fasting triggers memory processes underlying conditioned food selection in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferry, Barbara; Duchamp-Viret, Patricia

    2014-03-14

    To test the selectivity of the orexin A (OXA) system in olfactory sensitivity, the present study compared the effects of fasting and of central infusion of OXA on the memory processes underlying odor-malaise association during the conditioned odor aversion (COA) paradigm. Animals implanted with a cannula in the left ventricle received ICV infusion of OXA or artificial cerebrospinal fluid (ACSF) 1 h before COA acquisition. An additional group of intact rats were food-deprived for 24 h before acquisition. Results showed that the increased olfactory sensitivity induced by fasting and by OXA infusion was accompanied by enhanced COA performance. The present results suggest that fasting-induced central OXA release influenced COA learning by increasing not only olfactory sensitivity, but also the memory processes underlying the odor-malaise association.

  16. Ectoine as a natural component of food: detection in red smear cheeses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Julia; Schwarz, Thomas; Lentzen, Georg

    2007-11-01

    Ectoine is a compatible solute accumulated in halophilic bacteria in response to high salt concentrations and offers protection from osmotic stress. The occurrence of compatible solutes is widespread among bacteria, yet ectoine has never been detected in foods. The use of an ectoine producing microorganism (Brevibacterium linens) in the surface ripening of red smear cheeses led to the question whether ectoine can be found in cheese. Therefore we examined samples from a variety of cheese manufacturers and different types of red smear cheeses for the presence of ectoine using HPLC and HPLC/MS analysis. Ectoine solely appears in the rind and was detected up to 178 mg/200 g red smear cheese, depending on several factors like ripening status and conditions throughout the cheese production process (e.g. salt concentrations of used brine baths).

  17. Gastrointestinal-active oligosaccharides from human milk and functional foods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albrecht, S.A.

    2011-01-01

    Keywords: human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs), galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS), konjac glucomannan (KGM), breast milk, baby feces, gastrointestinal metabolization, blood-group specific conjugates, CE-LIF-MSn   Oligosaccharides, as present in human milk or supplemented to food, are renowned for

  18. Functional food microstructures for macronutrient release and delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norton, J E; Gonzalez Espinosa, Y; Watson, R L; Spyropoulos, F; Norton, I T

    2015-03-01

    There is a need to understand the role of fat, protein and carbohydrate in human health, and also how foods containing and/or structured using these macronutrients can be designed so that they can have a positive impact on health. This may include a reduction in fat, salt or sugar, the protection and targeted release of micronutrients or active ingredients from/to particular parts of the digestive system, improvement of gastrointestinal health or satiety enhancing properties. Such foods can be designed with various macro- and microstructures that will impact on macronutrient release and delivery. These include simple and double emulsions, the use of Pickering particles and shells, nanoparticles, liposomes, gelled networks, fluid gels and gel particles, foams, self-assembled structures, and encapsulated systems. In order to design foods that deliver these benefits understanding of how these structures behave in the gastrointestinal tract is also required, which should involve utilising both in vitro and in vivo studies. This review aims to draw together research in these areas, by focusing on the current state of the art, but also exciting possibilities for future research and food development.

  19. Health claims on functional foods: the Japanese regulations and an international comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Toshio

    2003-12-01

    The Japanese scientific academic community defined 'functional food' early in the 1980s. That is, functional foods are those that have three functions. The primary function is nutrition. The secondary function is a sensory function or sensory satisfaction. The third is the tertiary function, which is physiological. The Japanese Ministry of Health, Labour, and Welfare (MHLW) set up 'Foods for Specified Health Use' (FOSHU) in 1991 as a regulatory system to approve the statements made on food labels concerning the effect of the food on the human body. Food products applying for approval by FOSHU are scientifically evaluated in terms of their effectiveness and safety by the Council of Pharmaceutical Affairs and Food Hygiene under the MHLW. The regulatory range of FOSHU was broadened in 2001 to accept the forms of capsules and tablets in addition to those of conventional foods. FOSHU increased the total to about 330 items in January 2003. The MHLW enacted a new regulatory system, 'Foods with Health Claims', in April 2001, which consists of the existing FOSHU system and the newly established 'Foods with Nutrient Function Claims' (FNFC). Under the FNFC, twelve vitamins (vitamins A, B1, B2, B6, B12, C, E, D, biotin, pantothenic acid, folic acid, and niacin) and two minerals (Ca and Fe) are standardized. Examples of claims regarding these substances are as follows: 'Calcium is a nutrient which is necessary to form bones and teeth'; 'Vitamin D is a nutrient which promotes calcium absorption in the gut intestine and aids in the formation of bones.' The upper and lower levels of the daily consumption of these nutrients are also determined. The labelling of functional foods should always be based on scientific evidence and be in harmony with international standards. The nutrient-function claim was adopted in the guidelines for nutrition claims by the Codex Alimentarius in 1997. The claims of the Japanese FNFC are equivalent to the nutrient function claims standardized by the

  20. Analysis of nutritional components of eight famine foods of the Republic of Niger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sena, L P; Vanderjagt, D J; Rivera, C; Tsin, A T; Muhamadu, I; Mahamadou, O; Millson, M; Pastuszyn, A; Glew, R H

    1998-01-01

    In the western Sahel, indigenous plants become important staples when cereal harvests are inadequate to support populations inhabiting that region of Africa. The purpose of this study was to assess the nutrient content of several of these edible wild plants. The leaves of the following seven plant foods were analyzed: Ziziphus mauritiana, Cerathotheca sesamoides, Moringa oleifera, Leptadenia hastata, Hibiscus sabdarifa, Amaranthus viridis, and Adansonia digitata. The fatty acid, vitamin E, carotenoid, selected mineral and amino acid contents of these plant foods were determined. These same analyses were performed on the fruit of the Adanisonia digitata. In quantitative and qualitative terms, Amaranthus viridis was found to be an excellent source of protein. Its amino acid composition compared favorably to that of a World Health Organization (WHO) protein standard. It also contained considerable amounts of the two fatty acids that are essential in humans (linoleic and alpha-linolenic) and a number of minerals including iron, magnesium. calcium and zinc. The leaves of Hibiscus sabdarifa contained an appreciable quantity of protein the composition of which was comparable to the WHO standard. The mineral content of the leaves of this plant was also exceptionally high; noteworthy was its high zinc content. H. sabdarifa also contained significant quantities of the two essential fatty acids. Ziziphus mauritiana was an excellent source of the essential fatty acid linoleic acid and several of the metals including iron, calcium, magnesium and zinc. Its content of other essential nutrients, however, was rather low. In general, Adansonia digitata leaves were nutritionally superior to the fruit of the tree; however, the fruit did contain useful quantities of potassium, phosphorus, zinc and alpha-linolenic acid. The Leptadenia hastata leaves were an especially good source of lutein and beta-carotene. These data should be useful to the people who inhabit the western Sahel in

  1. Diurnal rhythmicity in biological processes involved in bioavailability of functional food factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsurusaki, Takashi; Sakakibara, Hiroyuki; Aoshima, Yoshiki; Yamazaki, Shunsuke; Sakono, Masanobu; Shimoi, Kayoko

    2013-05-01

    In the past few decades, many types of functional factors have been identified in dietary foods; for example, flavonoids are major groups widely distributed in the plant kingdom. However, the absorption rates of the functional food factors are usually low, and many of these are difficult to be absorbed in the intact forms because of metabolization by biological processes during absorption. To gain adequate beneficial effects, it is therefore mandatory to know whether functional food factors are absorbed in sufficient quantity, and then reach target organs while maintaining beneficial effects. These are the reasons why the bioavailability of functional food factors has been well investigated using rodent models. Recently, many of the biological processes have been reported to follow diurnal rhythms recurring every 24 h. Therefore, absorption and metabolism of functional food factors influenced by the biological processes may vary with time of day. Consequently, the evaluation of the bioavailability of functional food factors using rodent models should take into consideration the timing of consumption. In this review, we provide a perspective overview of the diurnal rhythm of biological processes involved in the bioavailability of functional food factors, particularly flavonoids.

  2. Acaricidal activity of Thymus vulgaris oil and its main components against Tyrophagus putrescentiae, a stored food mite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, E Y; Lim, J H; Kim, H G; Lee, H S

    2008-02-01

    The acaricidal activities of compounds derived from Thymus vulgaris (thyme) oil against Tyrophagus putrescentiae were assessed using an impregnated fabric disk bioassay, and were compared with those of the synthetic acaricides, benzyl benzoate and N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide. The observed responses differed according to dosage and chemical components. The 50% lethal dose (LD50) value of the T. vulgaris oil against T. putrescentiae was 10.2 microg/cm2. Biologically active constituents derived from T. vulgaris oil were purified by using silica gel chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography. The structures of acaricidal components were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), 13C NMR, 1H-13C COSY-NMR, and DEPT-NMR spectra, and were subsequently identified as carvacrol and thymol. Carvacrol was the most toxic compound with LD50 values (4.5 microg/cm2) significantly different from thymol (11.1 microg/cm2), benzyl benzoate (11.3 microg/cm2), and N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide (13.9 microg/cm2). Linalool was as toxic as was N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide. The lower LD50 of carvacrol indicates that it may be the major contributor of the toxicity of T. vulagaris oil against the stored food mite, although it only constitutes 14.2% of the oil. From this point of view, carvacrol and thymol can be very useful as potential control agents against stored food mite.

  3. FOOD PROCESSING TECHNOLOGY AS A MEDIATOR OF FUNCTIONALITY. STRUCTURE-PROPERTY-PROCESS RELATIONSHIPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ester Betoret

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available During the last years, the food industry has been facing technical and economic changes both in society and in the food processing practices, paying high attention to food products that meet the consumers´ demands. In this direction, the study areas in food process and products have evolved mainly from safety to other topics such as quality, environment or health. The improvement of the food products is now directed towards ensuring nutritional and specific functional benefits. Regarding the processes evolution, they are directed to ensure the quality and safety of environmentally friendly food products produced optimizing the use of resources, minimally affecting or even enhancing their nutritional and beneficial characteristics. The product structure both in its raw form and after processing plays an important role maintaining, enhancing and delivering the bioactive compounds in the appropriate target within the organism. The aim of this review is to make an overview on some synergistic technologies that can constitute a technological process to develop functional foods, enhancing the technological and/or nutritional functionality of the food products in which they are applied. More concretely, the effect of homogenization, vacuum impregnation and drying operations on bioactive compounds have been reviewed, focusing on the structure changes produced and its relationship on the product functionality, as well as on the parameters and the strategies used to quantify and increase the achieved functionality.

  4. Food and symptom generation in functional gastrointestinal disorders: physiological aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farré, Ricard; Tack, Jan

    2013-05-01

    The response of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) to ingestion of food is a complex and closely controlled process, which allows optimization of propulsion, digestion, absorption of nutrients, and removal of indigestible remnants. This review summarizes current knowledge on the mechanisms that control the response of the GIT to food intake. During the cephalic phase, triggered by cortical food-related influences, the GIT prepares for receiving nutrients. The gastric phase is dominated by the mechanical effect of the meal volume. Accumulation of food in the stomach activates tension-sensitive mechanoreceptors, which in turn stimulate gastric accommodation and gastric acid secretion through the intrinsic and vago-vagal reflex pathways. After meal ingestion, the tightly controlled process of gastric emptying starts, with arrival of nutrients in the duodenum triggering negative feedback on emptying and stimulating secretion of digestive enzymes through the neural (mainly vago-vagal reflex, but also intrinsic) and endocrine (release of peptides from entero-endocrine cells) pathways. Several types of specialized receptors detect the presence of all main categories of nutrients. In addition, the gastrointestinal mucosa expresses receptors of the T1R and T2R families (taste receptors) and several members of the transient receptor potential channel family, all of which are putatively involved in the detection of specific tastants in the lumen. Activation of nutrient and taste sensors also activates the extrinsic and intrinsic neural, as well as entero-endocrine, pathways. During passage through the small bowel, nutrients are progressively extracted, and electrolyte-rich liquid intestinal content with non-digestible residue is delivered to the colon. The colon provides absorption of the water and electrolytes, storage of non-digestible remnants of food, aboral propulsion of contents, and finally evacuation through defecation.

  5. Components of a Mediterranean diet and their impact on cognitive functions in aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian eHuhn

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Adhering to the Mediterranean diet (MeDi is known to be beneficial with regard to age-associated diseases including cardiovascular diseases and type 2 diabetes. Recent studies also suggest an impact on cognition and brain structure, and increasing effort is made to track effects down to single nutrients.Aims: To review whether two MeDi components, i.e. long-chain omega-3 fatty acids (LC-n3-FA derived from sea-fish, and plant polyphenols including resveratrol (RSV, exert positive effects on brain health in aging. Content: We summarized health benefits associated with the MeDi and evaluated available studies on the effect of (1 fish-consumption and LC-n3-FA supplementation as well as (2 diet-derived or supplementary polyphenols such as RSV, on cognitive performance and brain structure in animal models and human studies. Also, we discussed possible underlying mechanisms.Conclusion: A majority of available studies suggest that consumption of LC-n3-FA with fish or fishoil-supplements exerts positive effects on brain health and cognition in older humans. However, more large-scale randomized controlled trials are needed to draw definite recommendations. Considering polyphenols and RSV, only a few controlled studies are available to date, yet the evidence based on animal research and first interventional human trials is promising and warrants further investigation. In addition, the concept of food synergy within the MeDi encourages future trials that evaluate the impact of comprehensive lifestyle patterns to help maintaining cognitive functions into old age.

  6. Overview of the dairy and food processing research conducted at the Dairy and Functional Foods Research Unit, ERRC, and research to develop sustainable food processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    The DFFRU is dedicated to solving critical problems in the utilization of milk and specialty crop byproducts by developing high-quality, value-added functional foods and consumer products. The presentation will give an overview of the research projects that will benefit human health and well-being. ...

  7. A composite-appropriate integration method of thick functional components in fibre-reinforced plastics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filippatos, A.; Höhne, R.; Kliem, M.; Gude, M.

    2016-03-01

    The use of integrated structural health monitoring systems for critical composite parts, such as wind turbine blades, fuselage and wing parts, is an promising approach to guarantee a safe and efficient operational lifetime of such components. Therefore, the integration of thick functional components like sensors, actuators and electronic components is often necessary. An optimal integration of such components should be ensured without material imperfections in the composite structure, i.e. voids and resin rich areas, and failure of the functional components. In this paper, first investigations were undertaken for a basic understanding of the mechanical performance of a fibre reinforced plastic component with integrated functional elements. The influence of different materials and treatment methods for the encapsulation of electronic components was experimentally investigated under static and dynamic loading tests. By means of a parametric finite element model, the effects of an encapsulation and various parameters such as the shape and orientation of the electronic components were examined. Several encapsulation variants were investigated in order to minimise the chance of failure initiations. Based both on experimental and numerical results, a preferred composite integration concept was selected for an electronic board and some first recommendations for an optimal integration were derived.

  8. A novel strategy with standardized reference extract qualification and single compound quantitative evaluation for quality control of Panax notoginseng used as a functional food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, S P; Qiao, C F; Chen, Y W; Zhao, J; Cui, X M; Zhang, Q W; Liu, X M; Hu, D J

    2013-10-25

    Root of Panax notoginseng (Burk.) F.H. Chen (Sanqi in Chinese) is one of traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs) based functional food. Saponins are the major bioactive components. The shortage of reference compounds or chemical standards is one of the main bottlenecks for quality control of TCMs. A novel strategy, i.e. standardized reference extract based qualification and single calibrated components directly quantitative estimation of multiple analytes, was proposed to easily and effectively control the quality of natural functional foods such as Sanqi. The feasibility and credibility of this methodology were also assessed with a developed fast HPLC method. Five saponins, including ginsenoside Rg1, Re, Rb1, Rd and notoginsenoside R1 were rapidly separated using a conventional HPLC in 20 min. The quantification method was also compared with individual calibration curve method. The strategy is feasible and credible, which is easily and effectively adapted for improving the quality control of natural functional foods such as Sanqi.

  9. Food intolerance, diet composition, and eating patterns in functional dyspepsia patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Roberta Villas Boas; Lorena, Sônia Letícia Silva; Almeida, Jazon Romilson de Souza; Mesquita, Maria Aparecida

    2010-01-01

    The aims of this study are to investigate dietary factors, food intolerance, and the body mass index data, as an indicator of nutritional status, in functional dyspepsia patients. Forty-one functional dyspepsia patients and 30 healthy volunteers answered a standardized questionnaire to identify eating habits and food intolerance, and then completed a 7-day alimentary diary. There was no significant difference in daily total caloric intake between patients and controls. Patients associated their symptoms with the ingestion of several foods, but in general maintained their regular intake, with the exception of a small reduction in the proportion of fat in comparison with controls (median 28 vs. 34%; P = 0.001). No patient was underweight. In conclusion, our results suggest that food intolerance has no remarkable influence on food pattern and nutritional status in most functional dyspepsia patients. Further studies are necessary to clarify the role of fat in the generation of dyspeptic symptoms.

  10. Biomarker and dietary validation of a Canadian food frequency questionnaire to measure eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acid intakes from whole food, functional food, and nutraceutical sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Ashley C; Hogg, Ryan C; Kishi, Diane M; Stark, Ken D

    2012-07-01

    Canadian dietary sources of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) include marine and non-marine whole foods, functional foods, and nutraceuticals. In the present study, these sources were incorporated into a nutrient-specific, semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and the ability to measure the EPA and DHA intakes of Canadian adults was assessed. Specifically, the EPA and DHA intakes estimated by FFQ of 78 men and women, 20 to 60 years of age, were compared with EPA and DHA measurements from 3-day food records and measures of EPA and DHA in fasting whole blood. Mean (±standard deviation) and median intakes of EPA+DHA were 0.34±0.34 and 0.21 g/day by FFQ and 0.47±0.71 and 0.13 g/day by food record, with no significant differences between mean intakes (P=0.93). The FFQ provided higher estimates than the food record at low intakes of EPA and DHA and lower estimates at high intakes based on Bland-Altman plots. The FFQ was moderately correlated with food record (r=0.31 to 0.49) and with blood biomarker measures of EPA and DHA (r=0.31 to 0.51). Agreement analysis revealed that 42% of participants were classified in the same and 77% into same or adjacent quartile when EPA and DHA intake was assessed by food record and by FFQ. Similar quartile agreement was found for EPA and DHA intakes by FFQ with blood biomarker EPA and DHA. The range of the validity coefficients, calculated using the method of triads, was 0.43 to 0.71 for FFQ measurement of EPA+DHA. The FFQ is an adequate tool for estimating usual EPA and DHA intakes and ranking Canadian adults by their intakes. Copyright © 2012 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Cross-industry Collaborations in the Convergence Area of Functional Foods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bornkessel, S.; Broring, Stefanie; Omta, S.W.F.

    2016-01-01

    Convergence processes are based on the activity of distinct industry sectors showing crossindustry
    collaborations. The aim of this paper is to analyze cross-industry collaborations between
    the food and pharmaceutical sectors in the convergence area of functional foods. Selected
    companies

  12. Consumer versus expert hazard identification: A mental models study of a functional food ingredient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hagemann, Kit; Scholderer, Joachim

    Objectives: The consumer part of the EU project NOFORISK compares laypeople and experts' understanding of benefits and risks associated with the functional food ingredient Phytosterol. The Council of the European Union has recently authorised the marketing of Phytosterol-enriched rye bread...... as a novel food under Regulation (EC) No 258/97....

  13. Development of probiotic mutandabota, a locally sustainable functional food incorporating Lactobacillus rhamnosus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mpofu, A.

    2015-01-01

    Development of probiotic mutandabota, a locally sustainable functional food incorporating Lactobacillus rhamnosus Mutandabota or umlondo is an indigenous food that is consumed in Southern Africa on a daily basis. The product is made by mixing raw cow’s or goat’s milk

  14. Cross-industry Collaborations in the Convergence Area of Functional Foods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bornkessel, S.; Broring, Stefanie; Omta, S.W.F.

    2016-01-01

    Convergence processes are based on the activity of distinct industry sectors showing crossindustry
    collaborations. The aim of this paper is to analyze cross-industry collaborations between
    the food and pharmaceutical sectors in the convergence area of functional foods. Selected
    companies

  15. Development of probiotic mutandabota, a locally sustainable functional food incorporating Lactobacillus rhamnosus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mpofu, A.

    2015-01-01

    Development of probiotic mutandabota, a locally sustainable functional food incorporating Lactobacillus rhamnosus Mutandabota or umlondo is an indigenous food that is consumed in Southern Africa on a daily basis. The product is made by mixing raw cow’s or goat’s milk wit

  16. Development of probiotic mutandabota, a locally sustainable functional food incorporating Lactobacillus rhamnosus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mpofu, A.

    2015-01-01

    Development of probiotic mutandabota, a locally sustainable functional food incorporating Lactobacillus rhamnosus Mutandabota or umlondo is an indigenous food that is consumed in Southern Africa on a daily basis. The product is made by mixing raw cow’s or goat’s milk wit

  17. A review of the interactions between acrylamide, microorganisms and food components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duda-Chodak, A; Wajda, Ł; Tarko, T; Sroka, P; Satora, P

    2016-03-01

    Acrylamide (AA) and its metabolites have been recognized as potential carcinogens, but also they can cause other negative symptoms in human or animal organisms and therefore this class of chemical compounds has attracted a lot of attention. These substances are usually formed when heating asparagine in the presence of compounds that have α-hydroxycarbonyl groups, α,β,γ,δ-diunsaturated carbonyl groups or α-dicarbonyl groups. The acrolein pathway and enzymatic decarboxylation of asparagine, as well as endogenic processes, are other alternative routes to AA formation. It has been demonstrated that the animal model used for examining AA toxicity may not be sufficient to investigate these changes in humans, therefore it is necessary to design an in vitro model, which could provide more accurate insights into the direction of these processes in human organisms. Acrylamide can be metabolized through both oxidative and reductive pathways; moreover, there is also a chance that some representatives of intestinal microbiota are able to transform acrylamide. It was shown that there are various microorganisms, mostly bacteria, that produce amidases, i.e. enzymes decomposing AA. Lactic acid bacteria also appear to demonstrate the ability to use acrylamide as a carbon source, but this still requires further investigation. Another way to prevent AA toxicity is related to the presence of some food compounds, such as certain proteins or polyphenols. There are still lot of gaps in the current knowledge related to AA toxicity, so future potential research directions are presented in this review as well.

  18. Allanblackia Oil: Phytochemistry and Use as a Functional Food

    OpenAIRE

    Crockett, Sara L.

    2015-01-01

    The consumption and commercial exploitation of Allanblackia (Clusiaceae) seed oils is of current interest. The favorable physicochemical characteristics of Allanblackia oil (solid at room temperature; high stearic acid content) lend food products that contain it (i.e., vegetable-based dairy products, ice cream, spreads) health advantages over others that contain higher levels of lauric, myristic, and/or palmitic acids, which can increase blood cholesterol levels. Such considerations are impo...

  19. Functional MRI of Challenging Food Choices: Forced Choice between Equally Liked High- and Low-Calorie Foods in the Absence of Hunger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charbonnier, Lisette; van der Laan, Laura N; Viergever, Max A; Smeets, Paul A M

    2015-01-01

    We are continuously exposed to food and during the day we make many food choices. These choices play an important role in the regulation of food intake and thereby in weight management. Therefore, it is important to obtain more insight into the mechanisms that underlie these choices. While several food choice functional MRI (fMRI) studies have been conducted, the effect of energy content on neural responses during food choice has, to our knowledge, not been investigated before. Our objective was to examine brain responses during food choices between equally liked high- and low-calorie foods in the absence of hunger. During a 10-min fMRI scan 19 normal weight volunteers performed a forced-choice task. Food pairs were matched on individual liking but differed in perceived and actual caloric content (high-low). Food choice compared with non-food choice elicited stronger unilateral activation in the left insula, superior temporal sulcus, posterior cingulate gyrus and (pre)cuneus. This suggests that the food stimuli were more salient despite subject's low motivation to eat. The right superior temporal sulcus (STS) was the only region that exhibited greater activation for high versus low calorie food choices between foods matched on liking. Together with previous studies, this suggests that STS activation during food evaluation and choice may reflect the food's biological relevance independent of food preference. This novel finding warrants further research into the effects of hunger state and weight status on STS, which may provide a marker of biological relevance.

  20. Functional MRI of Challenging Food Choices: Forced Choice between Equally Liked High- and Low-Calorie Foods in the Absence of Hunger.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisette Charbonnier

    Full Text Available We are continuously exposed to food and during the day we make many food choices. These choices play an important role in the regulation of food intake and thereby in weight management. Therefore, it is important to obtain more insight into the mechanisms that underlie these choices. While several food choice functional MRI (fMRI studies have been conducted, the effect of energy content on neural responses during food choice has, to our knowledge, not been investigated before. Our objective was to examine brain responses during food choices between equally liked high- and low-calorie foods in the absence of hunger. During a 10-min fMRI scan 19 normal weight volunteers performed a forced-choice task. Food pairs were matched on individual liking but differed in perceived and actual caloric content (high-low. Food choice compared with non-food choice elicited stronger unilateral activation in the left insula, superior temporal sulcus, posterior cingulate gyrus and (precuneus. This suggests that the food stimuli were more salient despite subject's low motivation to eat. The right superior temporal sulcus (STS was the only region that exhibited greater activation for high versus low calorie food choices between foods matched on liking. Together with previous studies, this suggests that STS activation during food evaluation and choice may reflect the food's biological relevance independent of food preference. This novel finding warrants further research into the effects of hunger state and weight status on STS, which may provide a marker of biological relevance.

  1. A mainstay of functional food science in Japan--history, present status, and future outlook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arai, S; Osawa, T; Ohigashi, H; Yoshikawa, M; Kaminogawa, S; Watanabe, M; Ogawa, T; Okubo, K; Watanabe, S; Nishino, H; Shinohara, K; Esashi, T; Hirahara, T

    2001-01-01

    The development of food science in the near future probably depends on the advance in functional food science, the concept of which was proposed first in Japan nearly 15 years ago. The new science has been internationally distributed and accepted as conceptually being beyond nutrition. In Japan, however, it traced a unique path of progress in the form of a product-driven rather than concept-driven science. Actually, a number of substances and products with potential for disease risk reduction rather than simply for health maintenance have been investigated for their body-modulating functions. Some of them have been applied in practice to the industrialization of functional foods in terms of "foods for specified health uses" legally defined by new legislation. A variety of sophisticated methods have been introduced as well, including the so-called "XYZ" evaluation system, database construction for assessment of the function, and even the DNA microarray technique. The Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry, and Fisheries (MAFF) and the Ministry of Health and Welfare (MHW) also commenced their scientific as well as political activity, with its spread to industries which almost simultaneously began to vigorously investigate functional food products for enlargement of the food market. With all of this as a background, the Japan Liaison of the International Union of Food Science and Technology (IUFoST) hold a function food science symposium on behalf of related scientific bodies including the Japan Section of the International Life Science Institute (ILSI). This paper is an overview compiled from 12 presentations made in the symposium, with the aim of internationally publicizing the activity of functional food science in Japan.

  2. Functional health literacy and healthy eating: Understanding the brazilian food guide recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Auristela Magalhães Coelho

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the relationship between the functional health literacy of Unified Heath System users and the understanding of food servings in the pocket version of the Brazilian Food Guide. Methods: Functional health literacy was assessed by the Brief Test of functional health literacy. Two dialogue rounds were conducted with patients with adequate functional health literacy (Group 1 and inadequate functional health literacy (Group 2. The dialogues were recorded and analyzed according to the discourse of the collective subject. Results: Most (58.0% users had inadequate functional health literacy. Five core areas were identified: understands serving sizes; does not understand serving sizes; serving sizes are confusing; unfamiliar/uncommon foods; small letters. Group 2 had more trouble understanding. Conclusion: Difficulty understanding hinders health promotion. Individuals need to have access to educational materials that are easier to understand and developed taking their functional health literacy into account.

  3. Deciphering the consumer behaviour facets of functional foods: A literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Navdeep; Singh, Devinder Pal

    2017-05-01

    This paper presents a systematic literature review of studies investigating various facets of consumer behaviour towards functional foods. It focuses on published international research on functional food attitude and behaviour from across the world. Research papers (n = 112) that were identified were coded in terms of study type, variables studied, product type, participant profile, research methodology and analysis details, as well as results and implications for future research. Results provide a systematic overview of the context in which behaviour towards functional foods have been examined in the past and provide a synthesis of findings in four categories of determinants, namely (1) Personal Factors, (2) Psychological Factors, (3) Cultural & Social Factors, and (4) Factors relating to the functional food product. A reference model for the relationships between these factors and behaviour of consumers is derived. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Assessment of some Australian red wines for price, phenolic content, antioxidant activity, and vintage in relation to functional food prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Yung J; Prenzler, Paul D; Saliba, Anthony J; Ryan, Danielle

    2011-01-01

    Twenty-three Cabernet Sauvignon wines from the Mudgee region and thirty-two Shiraz wines from the Hunter Valley region were analyzed for phenolic content and antioxidant activity. Concentrations of (+)-catechin, quercetin, and transresveratrol, total phenolic content, and DPPH antioxidant activity varied considerably, both within and between varieties. Individual phenols, total phenols, and antioxidant activity were correlated with price and vintage. Shiraz wines showed positive and significant correlations for catechin and quercetin concentrations with total phenols, antioxidant activity, and vintage; and for total phenols and antioxidant activity with vintage. Cabernet Sauvignon wines showed positive and significant correlations for quercetin concentration with total phenols and antioxidant activity. There was a negative and significant correlation found between price and antioxidant activity for Cabernet Sauvignon wines. Results are discussed in terms of the potential for wine to be considered a functional food. We report on potential health benefits (antioxidant activity) of 55 wines typical of 2 geographically close, but distinct, wine regions of Australia. Our results highlight the variability in functional components as an issue that needs further research and consideration in relation to wine as a functional food. The price of studied wines is not reflective of their health functionality, based on antioxidant activities. © 2011 Institute of Food Technologists®

  5. A Review of Fermented Foods with Beneficial Effects on Brain and Cognitive Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Binna; Hong, Veronica Minsu; Yang, Jeongwon; Hyun, Heejung; Im, Jooyeon Jamie; Hwang, Jaeuk; Yoon, Sujung; Kim, Jieun E.

    2016-01-01

    Around the world, fermentation of foods has been adopted over many generations, primarily due to their commercial significance with enriched flavors and high-profile nutrients. The increasing application of fermented foods is further promoted by recent evidence on their health benefits, beyond the traditionally recognized effects on the digestive system. With recent advances in the understanding of gut-brain interactions, there have also been reports suggesting the fermented food’s efficacy, particularly for cognitive function improvements. These results are strengthened by the proposed biological effects of fermented foods, including neuroprotection against neurotoxicity and reactive oxygen species. This paper reviews the beneficial health effects of fermented foods with particular emphasis on cognitive enhancement and neuroprotective effects. With an extensive review of fermented foods and their potential cognitive benefits, this paper may promote commercially feasible applications of fermented foods as natural remedies to cognitive problems. PMID:28078251

  6. Functionalities and input methods for recording food intake: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusin, Miroslav; Arsand, Eirik; Hartvigsen, Gunnar

    2013-08-01

    Increasing healthcare costs related to lifestyle-related chronic diseases require new solutions. Research on self-management tools is expanding and many new tools are emerging. Recording food intake is a key functionality in many of these tools. Nutrition monitoring is a relevant method to gain an overview of factors influencing health. However, keeping a food diary often constitutes a challenge for a patient, and developing a user-friendly and useful electronic food diary is not straightforward. To gain insight into the existing approaches to recording food intake, and to analyze current functionalities and input methods. We searched digital libraries, vendor markets and social networks focusing on nutrition. Selection criteria were publications written in English, and patient-oriented tools that offered recording of food intake or nutrition. The system properties that we searched for were types of data, types of terminal, target population, and types of reports and sharing functionalities. We summarized the properties based on their frequency in the reviewed sample. 31 publications met the selection criteria. The majority of the identified food recording systems (67%) facilitated entry of food type and the consumed quantity of food; 16% of the systems were able to record more than one type of data. The three most frequent target populations were people with obesity, diabetes and overweight. Mobile phones were used as terminals in 35% of the cases, personal computers (PCs) in 29%, and personal digital assistants in 23%. Only 10% supported both PCs and mobile phones. Data sharing was provided by 71% and reports by 51% of the systems. We searched for apps in Google Play and the Apple Store and tested 45 mobile applications that stored food intake data, of which 62% supported recording of types of food, 24% recording of carbohydrate intake and 15% recording of calorie intake. The majority of the mobile applications offered some kind of reports and data sharing

  7. In silico genotoxicity of coumarins: application of the Phenol-Explorer food database to functional food science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guardado Yordi, E; Matos, M J; Pérez Martínez, A; Tornes, A C; Santana, L; Molina, E; Uriarte, E

    2017-08-01

    Coumarins are a group of phytochemicals that may be beneficial or harmful to health depending on their type and dosage and the matrix that contains them. Some of these compounds have been proven to display pro-oxidant and clastogenic activities. Therefore, in the current work, we have studied the coumarins that are present in food sources extracted from the Phenol-Explorer database in order to predict their clastogenic activity and identify the structure-activity relationships and genotoxic structural alerts using alternative methods in the field of computational toxicology. It was necessary to compile information on the type and amount of coumarins in different food sources through the analysis of databases of food composition available online. A virtual screening using a clastogenic model and different software, such as MODESLAB, ChemDraw and STATISTIC, was performed. As a result, a table of food composition was prepared and qualitative information from this data was extracted. The virtual screening showed that the esterified substituents inactivate molecules, while the methoxyl and hydroxyl substituents contribute to their activity and constitute, together with the basic structures of the studied subclasses, clastogenic structural alerts. Chemical subclasses of simple coumarins and furocoumarins were classified as active (xanthotoxin, isopimpinellin, esculin, scopoletin, scopolin and bergapten). In silico genotoxicity was mainly predicted for coumarins found in beer, sherry, dried parsley, fresh parsley and raw celery stalks. The results obtained can be interesting for the future design of functional foods and dietary supplements. These studies constitute a reference for the genotoxic chemoinformatic analysis of bioactive compounds present in databases of food composition.

  8. Advances in Microalgae-Derived Phytosterols for Functional Food and Pharmaceutical Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Xuan; Su, Peng; Zhang, Wei

    2015-07-09

    Microalgae contain a variety of bioactive lipids with potential applications in aquaculture feed, biofuel, food and pharmaceutical industries. While microalgae-derived polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) and their roles in promoting human health have been extensively studied, other lipid types from this resource, such as phytosterols, have been poorly explored. Phytosterols have been used as additives in many food products such as spread, dairy products and salad dressing. This review focuses on the recent advances in microalgae-derived phytosterols with functional bioactivities and their potential applications in functional food and pharmaceutical industries. It highlights the importance of microalgae-derived lipids other than PUFA for the development of an advanced microalgae industry.

  9. Huitlacoche (corn smut), caused by the phytopathogenic fungus Ustilago maydis, as a functional food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juárez-Montiel, Margarita; Ruiloba de León, Sandra; Chávez-Camarillo, Griselda; Hernández-Rodríguez, César; Villa-Tanaca, Lourdes

    2011-01-01

    In recent years the need has arisen to study and develop (or re-discover) foods that have nutritional characteristics as well as specific functions, such as improving health and/or reducing the risk of disease. For this reason knowledge of the nutritional value of food is important to promote greater consumer acceptance. In Mexico huitlacoche (also, cuitlacoche) has traditionally been prized as a delicacy since the time of the Aztecs and is currently being studied as a potential functional food and as a producer of natural bioactive substances that are used in fortifying foods. To present an updated review about the properties of the huitlacoche (corn smut) as functional food. A bibliographic search was performed and data were discussed. The data of the works reviewed here show that huitlacoche contains many compounds that confer to it unique organoleptic and nutraceutical characteristics. The content of bioactive substances in huitlacoche supports the proposal that this is a good functional food as well as producer of compounds to enrich other foods. Copyright © 2010 Revista Iberoamericana de Micología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  10. Analysis of Consumer Attitudes and Consumers’ Willingness to Pay for Functional Foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorgelina Di Pasquale

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to analyze consumer behaviour in relation to functional foods by a direct survey. To this end, the proposal is an analysis of the reasons for choosing to consume this type of food or not, accompanied by a supplementary investigation, mostly to assess the relationship between consumption patterns and willingness to pay (WTP for the most common categories of functional foods, such as milk fortified with CLA (conjugated linoleic acid. Our research shows that a proportion of the population is unaware of the existence of functional foods and their properties. Moreover, it shows that when the concept of functional foods is explained to consumers, this creates a greater willingness to pay for such food, which is strongly linked to type of product carrier but not greatly to income. So the knowledge and transparency of information appear to be decisive variables in the process of choice, with significant implications in terms of policies for classification, labelling of food and public health.

  11. Effect of water chemistry on the planktonic communities and relationships among food web components across a freshwater ecotone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mieczan T.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Most ecological research on the food web has been focused more on the pelagic zone than on the transitional zone - ecotones between lentic and lotic habitats. The specific goals of this study were to determine whether the contact zone of waters differs in hydrochemical and biological terms from the waters of the canal and the open water zone, and to evaluate the influence of particular macro-habitats on the interactions between components of the planktonic food web. The distribution of samples in ordination space led us to conclude that the studied habitats are distributed along the rising gradient of total organic carbon and nutrients. Assemblages of all investigated groups showed a strong compositional gradient correlated with conductivity and total phosphorus, while a second strong gradient in species composition was explained by nitrate nitrogen and/or phosphate concentrations. The analysis of trophic relationships in the system bacteriaciliates- crustaceans reveals a clear differentiation and strength of mutual relations between the analyzed zones. The highest number of significant correlations was determined in the contact zone. It can also be a place of very efficient matter and energy flow in freshwater ecosystems.

  12. Bioactive Components and Functional Properties of Biologically Activated Cereal Grains: A Bibliographic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Arashdeep; Sharma, Savita

    2015-10-14

    Whole grains provide energy, nutrients, fibres and bioactive compounds that may synergistically contribute to their protective effects. A wide range of these compounds is affected by germination. While some compounds, such as β-glucans are degraded, others, like antioxidants and total phenolics are increased by means of biological activation of grains. The water and oil absorption capacity as well as emulsion and foaming capacity of biologically activated grains are also improved. Application of biological activation of grains is of emerging interest, which may significantly enhance the nutritional, functional and bioactive content of grains, as well as improve palatability of grain foods in a natural way. Therefore, biological activation of cereals can be a way to produce food grains enriched with health promoting compounds and enhanced functional attributes.

  13. Separation of different wave components in the Bethe–Salpeter wave function

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Jiao-Kai Chen

    2011-03-01

    The scalar products of polarization tensor and unit vectors are presented explicitly in spherical coordinate system expanded in terms of spherical harmonic functions. By applying the obtained formulae, different wave components in the Salpeter wave function can be shown explicitly, and the results are consistent with the results obtained by - coupling analysis. The cancelation formula is given, by which the terms with pure = + 1 wave components in the Salpeter wave function for the bound state with = (-1) can be obtained by separating the = - 1 wave components from mixing terms. This separation provides the basis for studying higher-order contributions from the coupling of = - 1 and + 1 wave states, and for solving the Salpeter equation exactly without approximation.

  14. The naturally occurring furanones: formation and function from pheromone to food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colin Slaughter, J

    1999-08-01

    florionda (Walker) and the 2,5-dimethyl derivative deters fungal growth on strawberries and is an important component of the attractive aroma of the fruit. The red seaweed Delisea pulchra (Greville) Montagne produces a range of brominated furanones which prevent colonisation of the plant by bacteria by interfering with the acylated homoserine lactone (AHL) signalling system used by the bacteria for quorum sensing. In addition, these compounds can deter grazing by marine herbivores. It is proposed here that the evolved biological function of a number of furanones is to act as inter-organism signal molecules in several different systems. This has resulted in two coincidental effects which are important for humans. Firstly, the easily oxidized nature of the furanones in general, which is likely to be an important property in their functioning as signal molecules, results in both mutagenic and anti-carcinogenic activity. The balance of these two effects from compounds in the diet has yet to be fully established. Secondly, and more specifically, the 4-hydroxy-3(2H)-furanones associated with fruit aromas act to attract animals to the fruit, which ensures seed dispersal. In the case of humans, the coincidental synthesis of some of these compounds in foods during preparation results in these foods appearing particularly attractive through the transferred operation of the original signalling mechanisms.

  15. The advantages of deep ocean water for the development of functional fermentation food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chun-Lin

    2015-03-01

    Deep ocean water (DOW) is obtained from 600 m below the sea surface. In recent years, DOW has been applied in the development of fermentation biotechnologies and functional foods. DOW is rich in trace minerals, comprises multiple physiological and health functions, and is able to promote microbe growth; therefore, the application of DOW directly benefits the development of the fermentation industry and functional foods. This study integrated the current health functions and applications of DOW with the latest results from studies related to fermentation biotechnology. Subsequently, the influence of applying DOW in fermented functional food development and the effects in health function improvements were summarized. According to the previous studies, the main reasons for the increased effect of fermented functional foods through the application of DOW are increased generation of functional metabolite contents in the microbes, intrinsic health functions of DOW, and the microbial use of mechanisms of converting the absorbed inorganic ions into highly bioavailable organic ions for the human body. These combined advantages not only enhance the health functions of fermentation products but also provide fermentation products with the intrinsic health functions of DOW.

  16. On the relationship between executive functions of working memory and components derived from fluid intelligence measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Xuezhu; Schweizer, Karl; Wang, Tengfei; Chu, Pei; Gong, Qin

    2017-09-14

    The aim of the current study is to provide new insights into the relationship between executive functions and intelligence measures in considering the item-position effect observed in intelligence items. Raven's Advanced Progressive Matrices (APM) and Horn's LPS reasoning test were used to assess fluid intelligence which served as criterion in investigating the relationship between intelligence and executive functions. A battery of six experimental tasks measured the updating, shifting, and inhibition processes of executive functions. Data were collected from 205 university students. Fluid intelligence showed substantial correlations with the updating and inhibition processes and no correlation with the shifting process without considering the item-position effect. Next, the fixed-link model was applied to APM and LPS data separately to decompose them into an ability component and an item-position component. The results of relating the components to executive functions showed that the updating and shifting processes mainly contributed to the item-position component whereas the inhibition process was mainly associated with the ability component of each fluid intelligence test. These findings suggest that improvements in the efficiency of updating and shifting processes are likely to occur during the course of completing intelligence measures and inhibition is important for intelligence in general. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Divergent composition but similar function of soil food webs of individual plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bezemer, T M; Fountain, M T; Barea, J M

    2010-01-01

    Soils are extremely rich in biodiversity, and soil organisms play pivotal roles in supporting terrestrial life, but the role that individual plants and plant communities play in influencing the diversity and functioning of soil food webs remains highly debated. Plants, as primary producers...... and providers of resources to the soil food web, are of vital importance for the composition, structure, and functioning of soil communities. However, whether natural soil food webs that are completely open to immigration and emigration differ underneath individual plants remains unknown. In a biodiversity......, and functioning of the complete soil food webs of 58 individual plants, belonging to two of the plant species, Lotus corniculatus (Fabaceae) and Plantago lanceolata (Plantaginaceae). We isolated and identified more than 150 taxa/groups of soil organisms. The soil community composition and structure of the entire...

  18. Design Choices for Thermofluid Flow Components and Systems that are Exported as Functional Mockup Units

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wetter, Michael; Fuchs, Marcus; Nouidui, Thierry

    2015-09-21

    This paper discusses design decisions for exporting Modelica thermofluid flow components as Functional Mockup Units. The purpose is to provide guidelines that will allow building energy simulation programs and HVAC equipment manufacturers to effectively use FMUs for modeling of HVAC components and systems. We provide an analysis for direct input-output dependencies of such components and discuss how these dependencies can lead to algebraic loops that are formed when connecting thermofluid flow components. Based on this analysis, we provide recommendations that increase the computing efficiency of such components and systems that are formed by connecting multiple components. We explain what code optimizations are lost when providing thermofluid flow components as FMUs rather than Modelica code. We present an implementation of a package for FMU export of such components, explain the rationale for selecting the connector variables of the FMUs and finally provide computing benchmarks for different design choices. It turns out that selecting temperature rather than specific enthalpy as input and output signals does not lead to a measurable increase in computing time, but selecting nine small FMUs rather than a large FMU increases computing time by 70%.

  19. Development Of Functional Foods Sea Weeds Algae Untouched Potential And Alternative Resource - A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habtamu Admassu

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Let food be thy medicine and medicine be thy food by Hippocrates was obscured with the advent of modern drug therapy and nutrition science until to twentieth century. The combination of consumer desires advances in food technology and new evidence-based correlation between nutrition to disease and disease prevention has created an unprecedented opportunity to concentrate on public health issues through diet and lifestyle. There is widespread interest these days to make a choice of functional foods from natural products that might promote health through specific bio-active compounds. Considering the diversity of biochemicals and capable of exerting functional bioactivities a growing trend is developing across globe to use seaweeds in functional food development. Compounds isolated from seaweeds have various functional biological activities antibacterial activity antioxidant potential anti-inflammatory properties anti-e coagulant activity anti-viral activity and antifungal and apoptotic activity. Therefore this review focuses on several bioactive chemicals in seaweeds and their biological activities for which they are responsible as a functional food ingredient.

  20. Independent functional connectivity networks underpin food and monetary reward sensitivity in excess weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdejo-Román, Juan; Fornito, Alex; Soriano-Mas, Carles; Vilar-López, Raquel; Verdejo-García, Antonio

    2017-02-01

    Overvaluation of palatable food is a primary driver of obesity, and is associated with brain regions of the reward system. However, it remains unclear if this network is specialized in food reward, or generally involved in reward processing. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to characterize functional connectivity during processing of food and monetary rewards. Thirty-nine adults with excess weight and 37 adults with normal weight performed the Willingness to Pay for Food task and the Monetary Incentive Delay task in the fMRI scanner. A data-driven graph approach was applied to compare whole-brain, task-related functional connectivity between groups. Excess weight was associated with decreased functional connectivity during the processing of food rewards in a network involving primarily frontal and striatal areas, and increased functional connectivity during the processing of monetary rewards in a network involving principally frontal and parietal areas. These two networks were topologically and anatomically distinct, and were independently associated with BMI. The processing of food and monetary rewards involve segregated neural networks, and both are altered in individuals with excess weight.

  1. Suitability of polystyrene as a functional barrier layer in coloured food contact materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genualdi, Susan; Addo Ntim, Susana; Begley, Timothy

    2015-01-01

    Functional barriers in food contact materials (FCMs) are used to prevent or reduce migration from inner layers in multilayer structures to food. The effectiveness of functional barrier layers was investigated in coloured polystyrene (PS) bowls due to their intended condition of use with hot liquids such as soups or stew. Migration experiments were performed over a 10-day period using USFDA-recommended food simulants (10% ethanol, 50% ethanol, corn oil and Miglyol) along with several other food oils. At the end of the 10 days, solvent dyes had migrated from the PS bowls at 12, 1 and 31,000 ng cm(-)(2) into coconut oil, palm kernel oil and Miglyol respectively, and in coconut oil and Miglyol the colour change was visible to the human eye. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) images revealed that the functional barrier was no longer intact for the bowls exposed to coconut oil, palm kernel oil, Miglyol, 10% ethanol, 50% ethanol and goat's milk. Additional tests showed that 1-dodecanol, a lauryl alcohol derived from palm kernel oil and coconut oil, was present in the PS bowls at an average concentration of 11 mg kg(-1). This compound is likely to have been used as a dispersing agent for the solvent dye and aided the migration of the solvent dye from the PS bowl into the food simulant. The solvent dye was not found in the 10% ethanol, 50% ethanol and goat's milk food simulants above their respective limits of detection, which is likely to be due to its insolubility in aqueous solutions. A disrupted barrier layer is of concern because if there are unregulated materials in the inner layers of the laminate, they may migrate to food, and therefore be considered unapproved food additives resulting in the food being deemed adulterated under the Federal Food Drug and Cosmetic Act.

  2. Knowledge, perceptions and preferences of elderly regarding protein-enriched functional food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Zanden, Lotte D T; van Kleef, Ellen; de Wijk, René A; van Trijp, Hans C M

    2014-09-01

    Promoting protein consumption in the elderly population may contribute to improving the quality of their later years in life. Our study aimed to explore knowledge, perceptions and preferences of elderly consumers regarding protein-enriched food. We conducted three focus groups with independently living (ID) elderly (N = 24, Mage = 67 years) and three with elderly living in a residential home (RH) (N = 18, Mage = 83 years). Both the ID and RH elderly were predominantly sceptical about functional food in general. Confusion, distrust and a perceived lack of personal relevance were main perceived barriers to purchasing and consuming these products, although a majority of the participants did report occasionally consuming at least one type of functional food. For the ID elderly, medical advice was an important facilitator that could overcome barriers to purchasing and consuming protein-enriched food, indicating the importance of personal relevance for this group. For the RH elderly, in contrast, sensory appeal of protein-enriched foods was a facilitator. Carrier preferences were similar for the two groups; the elderly preferred protein-enriched foods based on healthy products that they consumed frequently. Future studies should explore ways to deal with the confusion and distrust regarding functional food within the heterogeneous population of elderly.

  3. Understanding heterogeneity among elderly consumers: an evaluation of segmentation approaches in the functional food market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Zanden, Lotte D T; van Kleef, Ellen; de Wijk, René A; van Trijp, Hans C M

    2014-06-01

    It is beneficial for both the public health community and the food industry to meet nutritional needs of elderly consumers through product formats that they want. The heterogeneity of the elderly market poses a challenge, however, and calls for market segmentation. Although many researchers have proposed ways to segment the elderly consumer population, the elderly food market has received surprisingly little attention in this respect. Therefore, the present paper reviewed eight potential segmentation bases on their appropriateness in the context of functional foods aimed at the elderly: cognitive age, life course, time perspective, demographics, general food beliefs, food choice motives, product attributes and benefits sought, and past purchase. Each of the segmentation bases had strengths as well as weaknesses regarding seven evaluation criteria. Given that both product design and communication are useful tools to increase the appeal of functional foods, we argue that elderly consumers in this market may best be segmented using a preference-based segmentation base that is predictive of behaviour (for example, attributes and benefits sought), combined with a characteristics-based segmentation base that describes consumer characteristics (for example, demographics). In the end, the effectiveness of (combinations of) segmentation bases for elderly consumers in the functional food market remains an empirical matter. We hope that the present review stimulates further empirical research that substantiates the ideas presented in this paper.

  4. Food nanotechnology – an overview

    OpenAIRE

    Bhupinder S Sekhon

    2010-01-01

    Food nanotechnology is an area of emerging interest and opens up a whole universe of new possibilities for the food industry. The basic categories of nanotechnology applications and functionalities currently in the development of food packaging include: the improvement of plastic materials barriers, the incorporation of active components that can deliver functional attributes beyond those of conventional active packaging, and the sensing and signaling of relevant information. Nano food packag...

  5. Generalized multilevel function-on-scalar regression and principal component analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldsmith, Jeff; Zipunnikov, Vadim; Schrack, Jennifer

    2015-06-01

    This manuscript considers regression models for generalized, multilevel functional responses: functions are generalized in that they follow an exponential family distribution and multilevel in that they are clustered within groups or subjects. This data structure is increasingly common across scientific domains and is exemplified by our motivating example, in which binary curves indicating physical activity or inactivity are observed for nearly 600 subjects over 5 days. We use a generalized linear model to incorporate scalar covariates into the mean structure, and decompose subject-specific and subject-day-specific deviations using multilevel functional principal components analysis. Thus, functional fixed effects are estimated while accounting for within-function and within-subject correlations, and major directions of variability within and between subjects are identified. Fixed effect coefficient functions and principal component basis functions are estimated using penalized splines; model parameters are estimated in a Bayesian framework using Stan, a programming language that implements a Hamiltonian Monte Carlo sampler. Simulations designed to mimic the application have good estimation and inferential properties with reasonable computation times for moderate datasets, in both cross-sectional and multilevel scenarios; code is publicly available. In the application we identify effects of age and BMI on the time-specific change in probability of being active over a 24-hour period; in addition, the principal components analysis identifies the patterns of activity that distinguish subjects and days within subjects.

  6. Prediction of the Functional Performance of Machined Components Based on Surface Topography: State of the Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grzesik, Wit

    2016-10-01

    This survey overviews the functional performance of manufactured components produced by typical finishing machining operations in terms of their topographical characteristics. Surface topographies were characterized using both profile (2D) and 3D (areal) surface roughness parameters. The prediction of typical functional properties such as fatigue, friction, wear, bonding and corrosion is discussed based on appropriate surface roughness parameters. Some examples of real 3D surface topographies produced with desired functional characteristics are provided. This survey highlights technological possibilities of producing surfaces with enhanced functional properties by machining processes.

  7. Functionality of system components: Conservation of protein function in protein feature space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lars Juhl; Ussery, David; Brunak, Søren

    2003-01-01

    Many protein features useful for prediction of protein function can be predicted from sequence, including posttranslational modifications, subcellular localization, and physical/chemical properties. We show here that such protein features are more conserved among orthologs than paralogs, indicati...

  8. Food intake profiles of children aged 12, 24 and 48 months from the 2004 Pelotas (Brazil birth cohort: an exploratory analysis using principal components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gatica Giovanna

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives To identify food intake profiles of children during their first four years of life and assess its variations according to sociodemographic and behavioral characteristics. Methods The Pelotas Birth Cohort Study (Brazil recruited 4,231 liveborns, who were followed-up at ages 3, 12, 24 and 48 months. Food consumption data of children aged 12, 24 and 48 months was collected using a list of foods consumed during a 24-hour period prior to the interview. The food profiles were identified with the use of principal component analysis (PCA for each age studied. Results Five components were identified at each age, four of them similar in all time points, namely: beverages, milks, staple, and snacks. A meat & vegetables component was identified at 12 and 24 months and a treats component at 48 months. The greatest nutritional differences were found among children from different socioeconomic levels. With regard to the milks component, higher breast milk intake compared to cow's milk was seen among poorer children (12- and 24-month old and higher milk and chocolate powdered milk drink consumption was seen among more affluent children aged 48 months. Poorer children of less educated mothers showed higher adherence to the treats component (48 months. Regarding to the snack component, poorer children consumed more coffee, bread/cookies while more affluent children consumed proportionately more fruits, yogurt and soft drinks. Child care outside of the home was also a factor influencing food profiles more aligned with a healthier diet. Conclusions The study results showed that very early in life children show food profiles that are strongly associated with social (maternal schooling, socioeconomic position and child care and behavioral characteristics (breast-feeding duration, bottle-feeding and pacifier use.

  9. Practical use of herb mixture preparations as functional foods for hemato-immunomodulation and cancer therapy assistance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jo, Sung Kee; Jung, U Hee; Park, Hae Ran and others

    2006-01-15

    This research project was intended to verify biological efficacy and to develop optimal manufacturing process of a novel herbal preparation (HemoHIM), and finally to practicalize it as a functional food for hemato-immunomodulation and cancer therapy assistance. HemoHIM alleviated the suppression of immune and hematopoietic functions in irradiated or anticancer drug(cyclophosphamide)-treated mice, enhanced the anticancer immune activity, and reduced the biological damage by oxidative stress. From these results, the optical application condition of HemoHIM was established. Then, the biologically active components, polysaccharide fraction for immune and hematopoiesis, and 5 antioxidant compounds, were isolated and identified. Based on these results, the standards for the active component contents were established and the optimal manufacturing process was developed. The contents of heavy metals and pesticides were analyzed by US FDA and the pilot product was shown to contain no heavy metals and pesticides. Also the pilot product showed no biological toxicity in the animal toxicity test including the long-term administration, teratogenicity, and local toxicity test. These results confirmed the safety of HemoHIM as a food. Finally, the human efficacy was evaluated. In result, the pilot product alleviated the suppression of immune cell numbers in cancer patients who received the radiation or chemotherapy, and enhanced the immune cell numbers and functions in the immune-depressed sub-healthy volunteers. Based on these results, KAERI and Kolmar Korea, Co. founded the joint venture company, SunBioTech Co. and two herbal preparation products (HemoHIM and HemoTonic) were partially commercialized. This herbal preparation is expected to be applied as a heath functional food for immune and hematopoiesis modulation, and also as a general medicine for the alleviation of immune and hematopoiesis suppression during cancer treatments in the future through further study.

  10. On The Effectiveness Of And Preference For Punishment And Extinction Components Of Function-Based Interventions

    OpenAIRE

    Hanley, Gregory P; Piazza, Cathleen C; Fisher, Wayne W.; Maglieri, Kristen A

    2005-01-01

    The current study describes an assessment sequence that may be used to identify individualized, effective, and preferred interventions for severe problem behavior in lieu of relying on a restricted set of treatment options that are assumed to be in the best interest of consumers. The relative effectiveness of functional communication training (FCT) with and without a punishment component was evaluated with 2 children for whom functional analyses demonstrated behavioral maintenance via social ...

  11. The partition function of a multi-component Coulomb gas on a circle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jokela, Niko; Keski-Vakkuri, Esko [Helsinki Institute of Physics, University of Helsinki, PO Box 64, FIN-00014 (Finland); Jaervinen, Matti [University of Southern Denmark, Campusvej 55, DK-5230 Odense M (Denmark)], E-mail: niko.jokela@helsinki.fi, E-mail: mjarvine@ifk.sdu.dk, E-mail: esko.keski-vakkuri@helsinki.fi

    2008-04-11

    We study a two-dimensional Coulomb gas consisting of a mixture of particles carrying various positive multiple integer charges, confined on a unit circle. We consider the system in the canonical and grand canonical ensembles, and attempt to calculate the partition functions analytically, using Toeplitz and confluent Vandermonde determinants. Just like in the simple one-component system (Dyson gas), the partition functions simplify at special temperature {beta} = 2, allowing us to find compact expressions for them.

  12. Allanblackia Oil: Phytochemistry and Use as a Functional Food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara L. Crockett

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The consumption and commercial exploitation of Allanblackia (Clusiaceae seed oils is of current interest. The favorable physicochemical characteristics of Allanblackia oil (solid at room temperature; high stearic acid content lend food products that contain it (i.e., vegetable-based dairy products, ice cream, spreads health advantages over others that contain higher levels of lauric, myristic, and/or palmitic acids, which can increase blood cholesterol levels. Such considerations are important for individuals prone to cardiovascular disease or with hypercholesterolemia. Domestication projects of several Allanblackia species in tropical Africa are underway, but wildcrafting of fruits to meet the seed demand still occurs. Proper species authentication is important, since only authenticated oil can be deemed safe for human consumption. The chemical constituency of Allanblackia seed oils, and potential roles of these phytochemicals in preventive strategies (e.g., as part of a healthy diet and as pharmacological agents used to treat chronic disease were examined in this review. The primary and secondary metabolite constituency of the seed oils of nearly all Allanblackia species is still poorly known. The presence, identity, and quantity of potentially bioactive secondary metabolites in the seed oils, and pharmacological testing of isolated compounds were identified as important directions for future research.

  13. Allanblackia Oil: Phytochemistry and Use as a Functional Food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crockett, Sara L

    2015-09-15

    The consumption and commercial exploitation of Allanblackia (Clusiaceae) seed oils is of current interest. The favorable physicochemical characteristics of Allanblackia oil (solid at room temperature; high stearic acid content) lend food products that contain it (i.e., vegetable-based dairy products, ice cream, spreads) health advantages over others that contain higher levels of lauric, myristic, and/or palmitic acids, which can increase blood cholesterol levels. Such considerations are important for individuals prone to cardiovascular disease or with hypercholesterolemia. Domestication projects of several Allanblackia species in tropical Africa are underway, but wildcrafting of fruits to meet the seed demand still occurs. Proper species authentication is important, since only authenticated oil can be deemed safe for human consumption. The chemical constituency of Allanblackia seed oils, and potential roles of these phytochemicals in preventive strategies (e.g., as part of a healthy diet) and as pharmacological agents used to treat chronic disease were examined in this review. The primary and secondary metabolite constituency of the seed oils of nearly all Allanblackia species is still poorly known. The presence, identity, and quantity of potentially bioactive secondary metabolites in the seed oils, and pharmacological testing of isolated compounds were identified as important directions for future research.

  14. FUNCTIONALLY GRADED ALUMINA/MULLITE COATINGS FOR PROTECTION OF SILICON CARBIDE CERAMIC COMPONENTS FROM CORROSION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prof. Stratis V. Sotirchos

    2001-02-01

    The main objective of this research project was the formulation of processes that can be used to prepare compositionally graded alumina/mullite coatings for protection from corrosion of silicon carbide components (monolithic or composite) used or proposed to be used in coal utilization systems (e.g., combustion chamber liners, heat exchanger tubes, particulate removal filters, and turbine components) and other energy-related applications. Since alumina has excellent resistance to corrosion but coefficient than silicon carbide, the key idea of this project has been to develop graded coatings with composition varying smoothly along their thickness between an inner (base) layer of mullite in contact with the silicon carbide component and an outer layer of pure alumina, which would function as the actual protective coating of the component. (Mullite presents very good adhesion towards silicon carbide and has thermal expansion coefficient very close to that of the latter.)

  15. Role of functionality in two-component signal transduction: A stochastic study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maity, Alok Kumar; Bandyopadhyay, Arnab; Chaudhury, Pinaki; Banik, Suman K.

    2014-03-01

    We present a stochastic formalism for signal transduction processes in a bacterial two-component system. Using elementary mass action kinetics, the proposed model takes care of signal transduction in terms of a phosphotransfer mechanism between the cognate partners of a two-component system, viz., the sensor kinase and the response regulator. Based on the difference in functionality of the sensor kinase, the noisy phosphotransfer mechanism has been studied for monofunctional and bifunctional two-component systems using the formalism of the linear noise approximation. Steady-state analysis of both models quantifies different physically realizable quantities, e.g., the variance, the Fano factor (variance/mean), and mutual information. The resultant data reveal that both systems reliably transfer information of extracellular environment under low external stimulus and in a high-kinase-and-phosphatase regime. We extend our analysis further by studying the role of the two-component system in downstream gene regulation.

  16. A layered searchable encryption scheme with functional components independent of encryption methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Guangchun; Peng, Ningduo; Qin, Ke; Chen, Aiguo

    2014-01-01

    Searchable encryption technique enables the users to securely store and search their documents over the remote semitrusted server, which is especially suitable for protecting sensitive data in the cloud. However, various settings (based on symmetric or asymmetric encryption) and functionalities (ranked keyword query, range query, phrase query, etc.) are often realized by different methods with different searchable structures that are generally not compatible with each other, which limits the scope of application and hinders the functional extensions. We prove that asymmetric searchable structure could be converted to symmetric structure, and functions could be modeled separately apart from the core searchable structure. Based on this observation, we propose a layered searchable encryption (LSE) scheme, which provides compatibility, flexibility, and security for various settings and functionalities. In this scheme, the outputs of the core searchable component based on either symmetric or asymmetric setting are converted to some uniform mappings, which are then transmitted to loosely coupled functional components to further filter the results. In such a way, all functional components could directly support both symmetric and asymmetric settings. Based on LSE, we propose two representative and novel constructions for ranked keyword query (previously only available in symmetric scheme) and range query (previously only available in asymmetric scheme).

  17. Nanotechnology in the development of novel functional foods or their package. An overview based in patent analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Esteve, Edgar; Bernardos, Andrea; Martínez-Máñez, Ramón; Barat, José M

    2013-04-01

    In recent years nanotechnology has become a significant component in food industry. It is present in all food chain steps, from the design of new ingredients or additives, to the most modern systems of food quality methods or packaging, demonstrating the great potential of this new technology in a sector as traditional as food. However, while interest by industry in nanotechnology increases, the rejection by consumers, concerned about the potential risk, does too. The aim of this review is to evaluate the development of food nanotechnology by means of a patent analysis, highlighting current applications of nanotechnology along the whole food chain and contextualizing this evolution in the social scene.

  18. High Throughput Integrated Technologies for Multimaterial Functional Micro Components (EU FP7 HINMICO 2013-2016)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the HINMICO project is the development and optimization of manufacturing processes for the production of high-added value high quality multi-material micro-components, with the possibility of additional, functionalities, through more integrated, efficient and cost-effective proce...

  19. Exploring functional data analysis and wavelet principal component analysis on ecstasy (MDMA wastewater data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefania Salvatore

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Wastewater-based epidemiology (WBE is a novel approach in drug use epidemiology which aims to monitor the extent of use of various drugs in a community. In this study, we investigate functional principal component analysis (FPCA as a tool for analysing WBE data and compare it to traditional principal component analysis (PCA and to wavelet principal component analysis (WPCA which is more flexible temporally. Methods We analysed temporal wastewater data from 42 European cities collected daily over one week in March 2013. The main temporal features of ecstasy (MDMA were extracted using FPCA using both Fourier and B-spline basis functions with three different smoothing parameters, along with PCA and WPCA with different mother wavelets and shrinkage rules. The stability of FPCA was explored through bootstrapping and analysis of sensitivity to missing data. Results The first three principal components (PCs, functional principal components (FPCs and wavelet principal components (WPCs explained 87.5-99.6 % of the temporal variation between cities, depending on the choice of basis and smoothing. The extracted temporal features from PCA, FPCA and WPCA were consistent. FPCA using Fourier basis and common-optimal smoothing was the most stable and least sensitive to missing data. Conclusion FPCA is a flexible and analytically tractable method for analysing temporal changes in wastewater data, and is robust to missing data. WPCA did not reveal any rapid temporal changes in the data not captured by FPCA. Overall the results suggest FPCA with Fourier basis functions and common-optimal smoothing parameter as the most accurate approach when analysing WBE data.

  20. Adverse Food Reaction and Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders: Role of the Dietetic Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasqui, Francesca; Poli, Carolina; Colecchia, Antonio; Marasco, Giovanni; Festi, Davide

    2015-09-01

    Bloating, abdominal discomfort or pain, disturbed bowel habits are very common symptoms, frequently reported by the patients soon after food ingestion. These symptoms may occur in different clinical conditions, such as functional bowel disorders, food adverse reactions, gluten-related syndromes, which frequently are interrelated. Consequently, in clinical practice, it is necessary to perform a correct diagnosis in order to identify, for the single patient, the most appropriate therapeutic strategy, which may include not only specific drugs, but also, and mainly, life style changes (healthy nutritional behavior and constant physical activity). The aim of this review is to provide to the general physician, according to the available evidence, the most appropriate diagnostic work-ups for recognizing the different clinical scenarios (i.e. food allergy and intolerance, functional bowel diseases, gluten-related syndromes), to identify their clinical interrelationships and to suggest the most appropriate management. In fact, as far as food intolerances are concerned, it is well known that the number of patients who believe that their symptoms are related to food intolerance is increasing and consequently they restrict their diet, possibly causing nutritional deficiencies. Furthermore, there is an increasing use of unconventional diagnostic tests for food intolerance which lack accurate scientific evidence; the application of their results may induce misdiagnosis and unhealthy therapeutic choices. Consequently the recognition of food intolerance has to be performed on the basis of reliable tests within an agreed diagnostic workup.