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Sample records for functional fermented milk

  1. FERMENTED MILK AS A FUNCTIONAL FOOD

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    Irena Rogelj

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Certain foods have been associated with health benefits for many years; fermented milks and yoghurt are typical examples. The health properties of these dairy products were a part of folklore until the concept of probiotics emerged, and the study of fermented milks and yoghurt containing probiotic bacteria has become more systematic. Functional foods have thus developed as a food, or food ingredient, with positive effects on host health and/or well-being beyond their nutritional value, and fermented milk with probiotic bacteria has again become the prominent representative of this new category of food. Milk alone is much more than the sum of its nutrients. It contains an array of bioactivities: modulating digestive and gastrointestinal functions, haemodynamics, controlling probiotic microbial growth, and immunoregulation. When fermented milk is enriched with probiotic bacteria and prebiotics it meets all the requirements of functional food. The possible positive effects of enriched fermented milk on host health will be reviewed.

  2. The fermented milk product of functional destination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. V. Golubeva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available As a flavor component selected syrup made from viburnum. This berry is widely used in various forms in the food industry including the dairy. Particular attention should be paid to the fact that the viburnum is a wild plant, and does not need to land and cultivation costs. Viburnum is rich in biologically active substances and raw materials is a drug. Fruits of Viburnum is rich in organic acids, in particular valeric acid. From berries contain minerals: manganese, zinc, iron, phosphorus, copper, chromium, iodine, selenium. Mass fraction of iron in Kalina in 2–3 times higher compared to other berries. The Kalina 70% more than the C vitamin, than lemon, it also contains vitamins A, E, P and K. In berries contains tannin, pectin, tannins, coumarins, resinous esters, glycoside viburnin (very useful in the composition of Viburnum, namely it makes bitter berries. It is suggested the use of syrup of viburnum in the production of fermented milk product. Since the biologically active substances is not destroyed by freezing and processing was freeze berries and added sucrose. The syrup had the gray edge-ruby color and a pleasant taste. Fermented milk product functionality produced reservoir method. Technological process of obtaining a fermented milk product is different from the traditional operations of preparation components and their introduction in the finished product. The consumption of 100 g of fermented milk product with a vitamin premix meets the daily requirement of vitamins A, B complex, C, D, E 40–50%. According to the research developed formulation of dairy products, assessed their quality. Production of fermented milk product thus expanding the range of dairy products functional orientation.

  3. Invited review: Fermented milk as antihypertensive functional food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltrán-Barrientos, L M; Hernández-Mendoza, A; Torres-Llanez, M J; González-Córdova, A F; Vallejo-Córdoba, B

    2016-06-01

    Over the past decade, interest has risen in fermented dairy foods that promote health and could prevent diseases such as hypertension. This biological effect has mainly been attributed to bioactive peptides encrypted within dairy proteins that can be released during fermentation with specific lactic acid bacteria or during gastrointestinal digestion. The most studied bioactive peptides derived from dairy proteins are antihypertensive peptides; however, a need exists to review the different studies dealing with the evaluation of antihypertensive fermented milk before a health claim may be associated with the product. Thus, the objective of this overview was to present available information related to the evaluation of fermented milk containing antihypertensive peptides by in vitro and in vivo studies, which are required before a fermented functional dairy product may be introduced to the market. Although commercial fermented milks with antihypertensive effects exist, these are scarce and most are based on Lactobacillus helveticus. Thus, a great opportunity is available for the development of functional dairy products with new lactic acid bacteria that support heart health through blood pressure- and heart rate-lowering effects. Hence, the consumer may be willing to pay a premium for foods with important functional benefits. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Donkey Milk for Manufacture of Novel Functional Fermented Beverages.

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    Perna, Annamaria; Intaglietta, Immacolata; Simonetti, Amalia; Gambacorta, Emilio

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate on the functional features of a donkey milk probiotic berevage as a novel food. Particularly, it was to study the decrease of lactose content and the antioxidant activity of standard yogurt (YC) and probiotic yogurt (YP; Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus casei) from donkey milk during the storage up to 30 d at 4 ºC. The evolution of lactose content using enzymatic-spectrophotometric kits was analyzed. Antioxidant activity of yogurt was measured using 2,2'-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS), ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), and thiol assays. Parallel consumer sensory studies were carried out as consumer test in order to gain information about the impact of these novel fermented beverages on sensory perceptions. The statistical analysis has shown significant effect of studied factors. The results showed that the lactose content gradually decreased during storage in both yogurts, reaching values of 2.36% and 2.10% in YC and YP, respectively, at 30 d (P donkey milk could be configured as health and nutraceutical food, which aims to meet nutritional requirements of certain consumers groups with lactose or cow milk protein intolerance.

  5. Total Solid Optimizing in The Making of Functional Fermentation Milk Drink Lactobacillus Cassei Tomatoes

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    Syuryani Syahrul

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to get Functional Fermentation Milk Drink  Lactobacillus cassei TomatoesExtract Formulation appropriately, in a way to organize the total solid. The total solid for semi-solid fermentation milk is about 24 – 28 %. In searching for Functional Fermentation Milk Drink  Lactobacillus cassei Tomatoes extractformulation, the plan to be used is Random Complete Design (RCD with 5 treatments and 3 repetitions.  For advance test is done by Duncan’s New Multiple Range Test (DNMRT on real standard 5 %. The treatment is made based on skim powder milk percentage that to be added to the fresh milk that contained 13 % of total solid for getting fermentation milk appropriate with wanted total solidity. Each treatments are : (A. Addition skim powder milk 3 %; (B. Addition skim powder milk 6 %; (C. Addition skim powder milk 9 %; (D. Addition skim powder milk 12 % (E. Addition skim powder milk 15 %. The best treatment to be choosen is E (Addition skim powder milk 15 % because the total solidity approaches standard ( 22,054 %, microbial total above the standard (1,9 x 1010, acid total (0,6968 %, pH (4,93 and organoleptic aspects in terms of taste, texture, aroma and preferred color by panelist.

  6. Fermented milk for hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Usinger, Lotte; Reimer, Christina; Ibsen, Hans

    2012-01-01

    Fermented milk has been suggested to have a blood pressure lowering effect through increased content of proteins and peptides produced during the bacterial fermentation. Hypertension is one of the major risk factors for cardiovascular disease world wide and new blood pressure reducing lifestyle...... interventions, such as fermented milk, would be of great importance....

  7. The effect of probiotic fermented milk and inulin on the functions and microecology of the intestine.

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    Sairanen, Ulla; Piirainen, Laura; Gråsten, Soile; Tompuri, Tuomo; Mättö, Jaana; Saarela, Maria; Korpela, Riitta

    2007-08-01

    We investigated the effects of a probiotic fermented milk and inulin on gastrointestinal function and microecology. The study was double-blinded and comprised 66 healthy adults (22 male, 44 female), mean age 40 years (range, 22-60 years). After a 12-d baseline period the subjects were randomized to consume, for 3 weeks, 3x200 ml daily of either (1) a fermented milk with probiotics (Bifidobacterium longum BB536, Bifidobacterium spp. 420 and Lactobacillus acidophilus 145), (2) a fermented milk with the same probiotics plus 4 g inulin, or (3) a control fermented milk. During the last 7 d of the baseline and the intervention periods, the subjects kept a record of their defaecation frequency and gastrointestinal symptoms, and collected all their faeces. Intestinal transit time, stool weight and faecal enzyme activities were measured. Thirty-nine subjects were randomized to give faecal samples for analysis of pH and microbes, including lactobacilli, bifidobacteria, coliforms, Escherichia coli, Bacteroides and Clostridium perfringens. Consumption of fermented milk with probiotics or with probiotics and inulin increased the faecal number of lactobacilli (P=0.009, P=0.003) and bifidobacteria (P=0.046, P=0.038) compared with the baseline. Compared with the control fermented milk, both active products increased lactobacilli (P=0.005, ANCOVA). Subjects consuming fermented milk with probiotics and inulin suffered from gastrointestinal symptoms, especially flatulence, more than the others (P<0.001). In conclusion, the probiotic fermented milk product had a positive effect by increasing the number of lactobacilli and bifidobacteria in the colon. Inulin did not alter this effect but it increased gastrointestinal symptoms.

  8. Fermented milk for hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usinger, Lotte; Reimer, Christina; Ibsen, Hans

    2012-04-18

    Fermented milk has been suggested to have a blood pressure lowering effect through increased content of proteins and peptides produced during the bacterial fermentation. Hypertension is one of the major risk factors for cardiovascular disease world wide and new blood pressure reducing lifestyle interventions, such as fermented milk, would be of great importance. To investigate whether fermented milk or similar products produced by lactobacilli fermentation of milk proteins has any blood pressure lowering effect in humans when compared to no treatment or placebo. The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), English language databases, including MEDLINE (1966-2011), EMBASE (1974-2011), Cochrane Complementary Medicine Trials Register, Allied and Complementary Medicine (AMED) (1985-2011), Food science and technology abstracts (1969-2011). Randomised controlled trials; cross over and parallel studies evaluating the effect on blood pressure of fermented milk in humans with an intervention period of 4 weeks or longer. Data was extracted individually by two authors, afterwards agreement had to be obtained before imputation in the review. A modest overall effect of fermented milk on SBP was found (MD -2.45; 95% CI -4.30 to -0.60), no effect was evident on DBP (MD -0.67; 95% CI -1.48, 0.14). The review does not support an effect of fermented milk on blood pressure. Despite the positive effect on SBP the authors conclude, for several reasons, that fermented milk has no effect on blood pressure. The effect found was very modest and only on SBP, the included studies were very heterogeneous and several with weak methodology. Finally, sensitivity and subgroup analyses could not reproduce the antihypertensive effect. The results do not give notion to the use of fermented milk as treatment for hypertension or as a lifestyle intervention for pre-hypertension nor would it influence population blood pressure.

  9. Use of milk-based kombucha inoculum for milk fermentation

    OpenAIRE

    Kolarov Ljiljana A.; Milanović Spasenija D.; Lončar Eva S.; Malbaša Radomir V.

    2009-01-01

    In this investigation fermented milk beverages with 0.9% of milk fat were produced using 10 and 15% (v/v) of traditional and milk-based kombucha inoculum by application of appropriate technological process. Milk fermentation using two types and concentrations of kombucha inoculum were stopped when the pH reached 4.5. Sigmoidal fermentation profiles were noticed with traditional kombucha inoculums and linear with milk-based kombucha inoculums. Chemical content and physico-chemical characterist...

  10. Survival of the functional yeast Kluyveromyces marxianus B0399 in fermented milk with added sorbic acid.

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    Tabanelli, G; Verardo, V; Pasini, F; Cavina, P; Lanciotti, R; Caboni, M F; Gardini, F; Montanari, C

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the survival of the functional yeast Kluyveromyces marxianus B0399 in an industrially produced fermented milk was evaluated. In particular, the yeast viability was assessed throughout the entire shelf-life of the product (30 d) to ensure the presence of the effective yeast dose (20 million viable cells for each serving of 125 g) while avoiding, by sorbic acid addition, yeast growth, which could affect product quality and stability. To find the best combination of yeast and sorbic acid concentration, 13 different combinations were tested, and then 2 of them were chosen for industrial production. In production at lower concentrations (30 million viable cells, 150 mg/kg of sorbic acid) the effective dose was maintained only at 4 and 6°C, whereas at higher dosages (70 million viable cells, 250 mg/kg of sorbic acid) the effect of temperature was less evident. In all the trials, the concentration of sorbic acid was not affected by microbial metabolism and remained stable throughout the entire shelf-life.

  11. Effect of high-pressure homogenization, nonfat milk solids, and milkfat on the technological performance of a functional strain for the production of probiotic fermented milks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrignani, F; Iucci, L; Lanciotti, R; Vallicelli, M; Mathara, J Maina; Holzapfel, W H; Guerzoni, M E

    2007-10-01

    The aim of this research was the evaluation of the effects of milkfat content, nonfat milk solids content, and high-pressure homogenization on 1) fermentation rates of the probiotic strain Lactobacillus paracasei BFE 5264 inoculated in milk; 2) viability loss of this strain during refrigerated storage; and 3) texture parameters, volatile compounds, and sensorial properties of the coagula obtained. The data achieved suggested a very strong effect of the independent variables on the measured attributes of fermented milks. In fact, the coagulation times were significantly affected by pressure and added milkfat, and the rheological parameters of the fermented milk increased with the pressure applied to the milk for added nonfat milk solids concentrations lower than 3%. Moreover, the polynomial models and the relative response surfaces obtained permitted us to identify the levels of the 3 independent variables that minimized the viability loss of the probiotic strain used during refrigerated storage.

  12. Use of milk-based kombucha inoculum for milk fermentation

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    Kolarov Ljiljana A.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In this investigation fermented milk beverages with 0.9% of milk fat were produced using 10 and 15% (v/v of traditional and milk-based kombucha inoculum by application of appropriate technological process. Milk fermentation using two types and concentrations of kombucha inoculum were stopped when the pH reached 4.5. Sigmoidal fermentation profiles were noticed with traditional kombucha inoculums and linear with milk-based kombucha inoculums. Chemical content and physico-chemical characteristics of kombucha fermented milk beverages were typical and yoghurt-like for all obtained products. The best textural and sensory characteristics possesed beverage obtained in fermentation of milk using 10% (v/v of milk-based kombucha inoculum.

  13. Quality of fermented whey beverage with milk

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    Rakin Marica B.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most economical ways of whey processing is the production of beverages, that represents a single process that exploits all the potential of whey as a raw material. Functional and sensory characteristics of whey based beverages are a criterion that is crucial to the marketing of products and win over consumers. The aim of this study was to determine nutritional and functional characteristics of fermented whey beverage with milk and commercial ABY-6 culture. The results showed that the applied starter culture can be used for the production of fermented whey based beverage with satisfactory nutritional properties. Addition of milk was important not only in the nutritional quality of the resulting product, but also improved the taste, the homogeneity and stability. Analysis of the chemical composition of fermented whey based beverage and nutritional information about it indicates that the product is a good source of protein and calcium. Fermented beverage contained 8.07 log (CFU/mL, showed antioxidant activity of at least 38.1% and the titratable acidity of 28.2°SH corresponding to the acidity of the product in this category. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 31017 i br. 451-03-00605/2012-16/85

  14. Yoghurt fermentation trials utilizing mare milk: comparison with cow milk

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    R. Giangiacomo

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Mare milk shows a very interesting nutritional composition, similar to human milk. Whey protein fraction represents about 50% of total proteins, with a good amount of essential amino acids, and high lysozyme concentration (Jauregui-Adell, 1975. Mare milk contains essential fatty acids, progenitors of ω3 and ω6, higher than cow milk (Csapò et al., 1995; Curadi et al., 2002. In east european countries mare milk is utilized in dietetics and therapeutics for gastroenteric and cardiac pathologies (Sharmanov et al., 1982; Mirrakimov et al., 1986, or as a drink obtained from lactic and alcoholic fermentation (Koumiss...

  15. Co-culture fermentation of peanut-soy milk for the development of a novel functional beverage.

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    Santos, Claudia Cristina Auler do Amaral; Libeck, Bárbara da Silva; Schwan, Rosane Freitas

    2014-09-01

    Most of the commercial probiotic products are dairy-based, and the development of non-dairy probiotic products could be an alternative for new functional products. The peanut-soy milk (PSM(1)) was inoculated with six different lactic acid bacteria (LAB), including probiotic strains and yeasts and fermentation was accomplished for 24h at 37 °C and afterwards, another 24h at ±4 °C. The Pediococcus acidilactici (UFLA BFFCX 27.1), Lactococcus lactis (CCT 0360), Lactobacillus rhamnosus (LR 32) probiotic LAB, and the Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus (LB 340) yogurt starter culture reached cell concentrations of about 8.3log CFU/mL during fermentation. However, these strains were not able to acidify the substrate when inoculated as pure culture. The Lactobacillus acidophilus (LACA 4) probiotic produced significant amounts of lactic acid (3.35 g/L) and rapidly lowered the pH (4.6). Saccharomyces cerevisiae (UFLA YFFBM 18.03) did not completely consume the available sugars in PSM and consequently produced low amounts of ethanol (0.24 g/L). In pure culture, S. cerevisiae (UFLA YFFBM 18.03), L. rhamnosus (LR 32), L. acidophilus (LACA 4), and P. acidilactici (UFLA BFFCX 27.1) promoted the increase of total amino acids (48.02%, 47.32%, 46.21% and, 44.07%, respectively). However, when in co-cultured, the strains consumed the free amino acids favoring their growth, and reaching the population of 8log CFU/mL in PSM. Lactic acid production increased, and 12 h was required to reach a pH value of 4.3. In general, the strains were more efficient in the use of available carbohydrates and release of metabolites in co-cultured than in single culture fermentations. An average of 58% and 78% of available carbohydrates was consumed when single and co-cultures were evaluated, respectively. Higher lactic acid contents were found in a binary culture of P. acidilactici (UFLA BFFCX 27.1) and L. acidophilus (LACA 4), and by co-culture of P. acidilactici (UFLA BFFCX 27.1), L

  16. Fermentation and storage of probiotic yoghurt from goat’s milk

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    Rajka Božanić

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Cow’s and goat’s milk supplemented with inulin were fermented withABT4 culture. The population growth of Streptococcus thermophilus,Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium ssp. in plain and inulinsupplemented goat’s milk during fermentation was evaluated. The survival of strains during 28 d of storage was followed in comparison with that of cow’s milk. The time required to reach the desired pH of 4.6 during fermentation was 6 h for both types of milk. At that time the proportion of viable cells of Streptococcus thermophilus, Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium ssp. in all fermented samples was comparable 40 : 33 : 27, respectively. During the storage viable count of streptococci and bifidobacteria have not decreased. In supplemented samples viable counts of bifidobacteria were increased and during 28th day of storage were higher for 0.6 logarithms compared to the non supplemented samples. Surviving of lactobacilli was poorer in fermented goat's milk than in fermented cow's milk during storage. The addition of inulin improved the firmness of fermented goat’s and cow’s milks products. Inulin addition partly masked the goat’s flavour of produced yoghurt. During storage the fermented goat's samples were scored better in comparison with cow's samples. Goat’s milk fermented with probiotic bacteria and fortified with inulin complies with the requirements of functional food.

  17. Characterisation of lactic acid bacteria in spontaneously fermented camel milk and selection of strains for fermentation of camel milk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fugl, Angelina June Brandt; Berhe, Tesfemariam; Kiran, Anil

    2017-01-01

    The microbial communities in spontaneously fermented camel milk from Ethiopia were characterised through metagenomic 16S rRNA sequencing and lactic acid bacteria were isolated with the goal of selecting strains suitable as starter cultures. The fermented camel milk microbiota was dominated either...... fermented camel milk and the isolated LAB strains will significantly contribute towards improving food safety and food security in dry regions that depend on camel milk production....

  18. Modulation of intestinal barrier function to ameliorate Salmonella infection in mice by oral administration of fermented milks produced with Lactobacillus plantarum MTCC 5690 - a probiotic strain of Indian gut origin.

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    Rokana, Namita; Singh, Rajbir; Mallappa, Rashmi Hogarehalli; Batish, Virender Kumar; Grover, Sunita

    2016-12-01

    Probiotic Lactobacillus plantarum MTCC 5690, a probiotic strain of Indian gut origin, and milk formulations produced with the same were explored in this study as biotherapeutics by evaluating their functional efficacy against Salmonella infection in mice. The efficacy of milk formulations (fermented/unfermented) of MTCC 5690 for enhancement of intestinal barrier function was determined by monitoring the permeability and histopathology of the intestine. Infected mice fed with probiotic Dahi, fermented probiotic drink and sweetened fermented probiotic drink maintained the health and integrity of the intestinal epithelium as compared to those fed with PBS, milk, unfermented probiotic milk and Dahi. Our relative expression data revealed that the changes caused by MTCC 5690 in intestinal barrier function components were established through modulation of the key regulatory receptors Toll-like receptor 2 and Toll-like receptor 4. The results suggest that fermented milks of MTCC 5690 could enhance the defences of the intestinal barrier in enteric infection condition and, therefore, can be explored as a dietary-based strategy to reduce Salmonella infection in the human gut.

  19. a Fermented Milk-Based-Sorghum-Flour

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Drying Kinetics, Physico-chemical and Nutritional Characteristics of ... methods on the drying behaviour, functional and nutritional quality of such a food ..... Table 2: Proximate composition of sorghum and of milk-sorghum flours. .... J. of Human.

  20. Vegetable milks and their fermented derivative products

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    Neus Bernat

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The so-called vegetable milks are in the spotlight thanks to their lactose-free, animal protein-free and cholesterol-free features which fit well with the current demand for healthy food products. Nevertheless, and with the exception of soya, little information is available about these types of milks and their derivatives. The aims of this review, therefore, are to: highlight the main nutritional benefits of the nut and cereal vegetable milks available on the market, fermented or not; describe the basic processing steps involved in their manufacturing process; and analyze the major problems affecting their overall quality, together with the current feasible solutions. On the basis of the information gathered, vegetable milks and their derivatives have excellent nutritional properties which provide them a high potential and positive market expectation. Nevertheless, optimal processing conditions for each raw material or the application of new technologies have to be researched in order to improve the quality of the products. Hence, further studies need to be developed to ensure the physical stability of the products throughout their whole shelf-life. These studies would also allow for a reduction in the amount of additives (hydrocolloids and/or emulsifiers and thus reduce the cost of the products. In the particular case of fermented products, the use of starters which are able to both improve the quality (by synthesizing enhanced flavors and providing optimal textures and exert health benefits for consumers (i.e. probiotics is the main challenge to be faced in future studies.

  1. Does fermented milk possess antihypertensive effect in humans?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Usinger, Lotte; Ibsen, Hans; Jensen, Lars T

    2009-01-01

    The putative antihypertensive effect of milk after fermentation by lactic bacteria has attracted attention over the past 20 years. Research on fermented milk and hypertension has mainly focused on the content of peptides with in-vitro angiotensin converting enzyme-inhibitor effect. However......, fermented milk products contain several proteins, peptides and minerals, all with possible different antihypertensive modes of actions. The burden of cardiovascular events in industrialized countries caused by hypertension is considerable. Diet modifications are one way to lower blood pressure......, and fermented milk could be a feasible way. In this review, interventional human studies of the possible antihypertensive effect of fermented milk are evaluated. The results are diverging, and the antihypertensive effect is still debatable. Additionally, present knowledge of bioavailability and in-vivo actions...

  2. 2d electrophoresis of bovine milk proteins and milk fermented drink

    OpenAIRE

    Damir Mogut; Anna Iwaniak; Monika Hrynkiewicz; Jerzy Dziuba

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was the analysis of milk and milk fermented drink proteomes with the use of 2D electrophoresis. The criteria of proteins separation were the values of their isoelectric points (pI) and molecular weights (MW). Our results showed that milk and milk fermented drink proteomes consisted of 118 and 121 spots, respectively. The computer analysis revealed the identity of 95 spots in both proteomes. Non-identical spots indicated the changes resulting from the action of bact...

  3. A survey on composition and microbiota of fresh and fermented yak milk at different Tibetan altitudes

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, X. H.; Z. Luo; Yu, L.; Ren, F.Z.; Han, B.Z.; Nout, M.J.R.

    2009-01-01

    Yak milk is a type of milk that people are less familiar with due to its remote geographical location, the particular geographical environment and climatic conditions in Tibet, which may have significant effects on composition, microbiota and fermentation outcome. To investigate the chemical composition and microbiota of fresh and fermented yak milk, and to isolate and characterize the predominant microorganisms in the fermented milk, yak milk (24 fresh and 30 fermented milk samples) was coll...

  4. Almond milk fermented with different potentially probiotic bacteria improves iron uptake by intestinal epithelial (Caco-2 cells

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    Neus Bernat

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available New fermented almond milks were developed, using different potentially probiotic bacteria, in order to meet the current demand for healthy, versatile non-dairy products. An in vitro digestion/Caco-2 cell model was used to evaluate the effect of both non-fermented and fermented almond milks on the mitochondrial enzymatic activities of enterocytes. Moreover, macrophages were challenged with the in-vitro digested samples and the production of pro-inflammatory biomarkers TNF-a and IL-6 was quantified. Enzymatic activities of cell cultures seemed to be stimulated by the exposure to both fermented and non-fermented almond milks. Both biomarkers decreased (p< 0.05 in fermented almond milks with either B. bifidum or B. longum. Results showed that fermented almond products favored the energetic metabolism of enterocytes and had a lower inflammatory response than non-fermented almond milk, suggesting its benefits for the management of allergies/intolerances. Moreover, the fermentation process enhanced the uptake of iron by Caco-2 cells, especially when using L. rhamnosus and either B. bifidum or B. longum as starters, thus improving the product bioactivity. Therefore, new non-dairy fermented products with functional properties were developed, which might be positioned as alternatives to cow-milk products for sensitized groups of population (allergic and/or intolerant to cow milk or anemic population, among others.

  5. Effect of fermented soy milk on the intestinal bacterial ecosystem

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ⅰ-Chi Cheng; Huey-Fang Shang; Tzann-Feng Lin; Tseng-Hsing Wang; Hao-Sheng Lin; Shyh-Hsiang Lin

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effect of fermented soy milk on human ecosystem in the intestinal tract by way of examining the population of different microorganisms isolated from fecal samples.METHODS: A crossover experimental design was applied.Twenty-eight healthy adults completed this experiment.Each subject consumed 250 mL, twice a day between meals, of either fermented soy milk or regular soy milk first for 2 wk, then switched to the other drink after 2 wk.Fecal samples were collected from all subjects every week starting from the second week to the end of the experiment.The microorganisms analyzed were Bifidobacterium spp.,Lactobacillus spp., Clostridium perfringens, coliform organisms, and total anaerobic organisms.RESULTS: In the period of fermented soy milk consumption,the populations of Bifidobacterium spp. and Lactobacillus spp. increased (P<0.05) as well as the ratios of Bifidobacterium spp. and lactobacillus spp. to Clostridium perfringens (P<0.05). The population of coliform organisms decreased (P<0.05) when subjects were in the period of fermented soy milk consumption.CONCLUSION: Intake of fermented soy milk significantly improved the ecosystem of the intestinal tract in the body by increasing the amount of probiotics.

  6. Properties of fermented beverages from modified cow milk

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    Romualda Danków

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A characteristic property of mare milk is its low fat and protein content and high lactose content. Whey proteins account for approximately 40% total protein content, while casein content is below 50%. For this reason mare milk is defined as albumin milk in contrast to casein-type cow milk. The aim of the study was to modify cow milk composition to imitate that of mare milk using the microfiltration process. Fermented drinks were produced from modified cow milk with the use of two different starter cultures. Produced drinks were subjected to organoleptic examination, as well as physico-chemical and microbiological analyses. Analyses were performed after 1, 3, 7, 14 and 21 days of cold storage. It was found that active acidity, density, colour and dynamic viscosity changed during storage. Counts of lactic acid bacteria and yeasts decreased. Drinks differed in terms of their taste, as well as aroma and consistency.

  7. 2d electrophoresis of bovine milk proteins and milk fermented drink

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    Damir Mogut

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was the analysis of milk and milk fermented drink proteomes with the use of 2D electrophoresis. The criteria of proteins separation were the values of their isoelectric points (pI and molecular weights (MW. Our results showed that milk and milk fermented drink proteomes consisted of 118 and 121 spots, respectively. The computer analysis revealed the identity of 95 spots in both proteomes. Non-identical spots indicated the changes resulting from the action of bacterial proteinases on milk proteins during the production of milk fermented drink. Proteolytic starter cultures applied to produce the milk fermented drink led to a partial hydrolysis of milk proteins to peptides and free amino acid residues. Results obtained led to confirm the suitability of 2D electrophoresis to observe the changes in the proteomes of milk products, as well as other food products after the application of technological processes. The development of the methods of proteomic analysis will let, in the future, eliminate the artefacts, which may limit the possibility of errors during proteins’ identification.

  8. Chemical characterisation and application of acid whey in fermented milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lievore, Paolla; Simões, Deise R S; Silva, Karolline M; Drunkler, Northon L; Barana, Ana C; Nogueira, Alessandro; Demiate, Ivo M

    2015-04-01

    Acid whey is a by-product from cheese processing that can be employed in beverage formulations due to its high nutritional quality. The objective of the present work was to study the physicochemical characterisation of acid whey from Petit Suisse-type cheese production and use this by-product in the formulation of fermented milk, substituting water. In addition, a reduction in the fermentation period was tested. Both the final product and the acid whey were analysed considering physicochemical determinations, and the fermented milk was evaluated by means of sensory analysis, including multiple comparison and acceptance tests, as well as purchase intention. The results of the physicochemical analyses showed that whey which was produced during both winter and summer presented higher values of protein (1.22 and 0.97 %, w/v, respectively), but there were no differences in lactose content. During the autumn, the highest solid extract was found in whey (6.00 %, w/v), with larger amounts of lactose (4.73 %, w/v) and ash (0.83 %, w/v). When analysing the fermented milk produced with added acid whey, the acceptance test resulted in 90 % of acceptance; the purchase intention showed that 54 % of the consumers would 'certainly buy' and 38 % would 'probably buy' the product. Using acid whey in a fermented milk formulation was technically viable, allowing by-product value aggregation, avoiding discharge, lowering water consumption and shortening the fermentation period.

  9. Fermented milks: a historical food with modern applications--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamime, A Y

    2002-12-01

    : This paper was presented at the symposium which was organized by Instituto Danone Mexico in May 2001, and it provides an overview of the current scientific knowledge on fermented milks concerning the historical developments, manufacturing stages, classification of such products, and nutritional aspects. Particular attention has been paid to the human health benefits associated with the consumption of these products, the use of probiotic starter cultures and their industrial applications, and the significance of using a trained sensory panel for the evaluation of probiotic fermented milks made with different commercial blends of starter cultures. The paper also highlights the future research areas for the exploitation of starter microflora (Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium and Enterococcus species) in fermented milk products. : This review indicates that the complex metabolism of the starter cultures is well established; however, more information is still needed on specific microbial metabolites such as polymerization of milk sugars for the production of exopolysaccharides and the modification of the milk peptides and secretion of bacteriocins. More clinical studies are still required to establish the 'functional' health benefits of probiotic fermented milks to humans.

  10. Movements of dams milked for fermented horse milk production in Mongolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bat-Oyun, Tserenpurev; Ito, Takehiko Y; Purevdorj, Yadamjav; Shinoda, Masato; Ishii, Satomi; Buho, Hoshino; Morinaga, Yuki

    2017-08-18

    Airag, (Fermented horse milk) is a traditional milk product in Mongolia. Herders separate foals from their dams and tie them at a milking site during the daytime to produce airag. To evaluate the effects of horse management on the movement of dams, we tracked three dams in a herd in camp 1 during summer and camp 2 during autumn of 2013 and analyzed their movements during the milking (daytime) and non-milking (nighttime) periods in an area famous for its high-quality airag. Dams were gathered every 1.7 ± 0.0 h between 07.46 and 15.47 hours at the milking sites and milked 4.6 ± 0.2 times/day during the study period (86 days). Daily cumulative and maximum linear distances from the milking sites were longer (P < 0.01) during the non-milking period than during the milking period. Daily home ranges were 91 and 26 times greater during the non-milking period (P < 0.001) in camps 1 and 2, respectively. The greater range during the non-milking period would reflect the spatial distributions of water, salt and forage. The dams initially used similar areas and gradually shifted their daily home ranges after several days. This shift suggests that the dams grazed farther afield as forage availability declined around the milking site. For better airag production and sustainable pasture use, our results provide insights useful for evaluating the effects of milking management on vegetation and soil in those pastures, for selecting the appropriate milking times and frequency, and for choosing the right timing to shift milking sites. © 2017 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  11. The changes of proteins fractions shares in milk and fermented milk drinks

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    Genowefa Bonczar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. The aim of this research was to observe the changes which take place in the electrophoretic picture of milk proteins after pasteurisation and inoculation with different starter cultures (both traditional and probiotic. After incubation, the yoghurt, kefir, acidified milk, fermented Bifidobacterium bifidum drink and Lactobacillus acidophillus drink were chilled for 14 days to observe the changes which occurred. Materials and methods. The research materials were raw and pasteurised milk, as well as fermented milk- based drinks. The raw milk used for research came from Polish Holstein-Fresian black and white cows. The milk was sampled 3 times and divided into 5 parts, each of which was pasteurised at 95°C for 10 min and then cooled for inoculation: yoghurt to 45°C, kefir and acidified milk to 22°C and drinks with Bifidobacterium bifidum and Lactobacillus acidophillus to 38°C. Milk was inoculated with lyophilised, direct vat starter cul- tures, in an amount equal to 2% of the working starter. For the production of fermented drinks, the subsequent starters were applied: “YC-180” Christian Hansen for yoghurt, “D” Biolacta-Texel-Rhodia for kefir, CH-N--11 Christian Hansen for acidified milk, starter by Christian Hansen for the probiotic Bifidobacterium bifidum milk, starter by Biolacta-Texel-Rhodia for the probiotic Lactobacillus acidophillus milk. The analyses were conducted in raw, pasteurised and freshly fermented milk as well as in milk drinks stored for 14 days. The total solid content was estimated by the drying method; the fat content by the Gerber method; the lactose content by the Bertrand method; the protein content by the Kjeldahl method with Buchi apparatus; the density of milk was measured with lactodensimeter; acidity with a pH-meter; and potential acidity by Soxhlet-Henkl method (AOAC, 1990. The electrophoretic separation of proteins in raw and pasteurised milk, as well as in freshly produced milk drinks

  12. The microbiology of South African traditional fermented milks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beukes, E M; Bester, B H; Mostert, J F

    2001-02-15

    A total of 15 samples of traditional fermented milk were collected from individual households in South Africa and Namibia. Lactic acid bacteria dominated the microflora of these samples, especially the genera Leuconostoc, Lactococcus and Lactobacillus. Other groups identified included pyogenic streptococci and enterococci. The dominant lactococci species was Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis. Eighty-three percent of the leuconostoc isolates were identified as Leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp. dextranicum. Other species identified included Leuconostoc citreum, Leuconostoc lactis, Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. lactis and Lactobacillus plantarum.

  13. Characteristic chromatographic fingerprint study of short-chain fatty acids in human milk, infant formula, pure milk and fermented milk by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Zhenzuo; Liu, Yanan; Zhu, Yan; Yang, Jing; Sun, Lili; Chai, Xin; Wang, Yuefei

    2016-09-01

    Human milk, infant formula, pure milk and fermented milk as food products or dietary supplements provide a range of nutrients required to both infants and adults. Recently, a growing body of evidence has revealed the beneficial roles of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), a subset of fatty acids produced from the fermentation of dietary fibers by gut microbiota. The objective of this study was to establish a chromatographic fingerprint technique to investigate SCFAs in human milk and dairy products by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. The multivariate method for principal component analysis assessed differences between milk types. Human milk, infant formula, pure milk and fermented milk were grouped independently, mainly because of differences in formic acid, acetic acid, propionic acid and hexanoic acid levels. This method will be important for the assessment of SCFAs in human milk and various dairy products.

  14. Peptide separation of commercial fermented milk during refrigerated storage

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    Luis Guillermo González-Olivares

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Milk is an important source of bioactive compounds. Many of these compounds are released during fermentation and refrigerated storage. The aim of this study was to determine the release of peptides by lactic acid bacteria in commercial fermented milk during refrigerated storage. The size and profile of peptides were analyzed by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and sizeexclusion HPLC. During electrophoresis, it was observed that the peptides were released from caseins, whereas β-lactoglobulin was the whey protein with the highest degradation. HPLC analysis confirmed the pattern of peptide formation observed in electrophoresis. Two fractions lower than 2 kDa with aromatic amino acids in their structure were separated. These results were consistent with those reported for structures of peptides with antihypertensive activity. Therefore, the presence of aromatic amino acids in the peptide fractions obtained increases the likelihood of finding peptides with such activity in refrigerated commercial fermented milk. In conclusion, during cold storage, peptides with different molecular weights are released and accumulated. This could be due to the action of proteinases and peptidases of the proteolytic system in lactic acid bacteria.

  15. Alteration of fatty acids content during cow's and goat's milk fermentation with ABT-2 culture

    OpenAIRE

    Vedran Slačanac; Jovica Hardi; Hrvoje Pavlović; Mato Vlainić; Mirela Lučan

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, changes in composition and contents of each fatty acid during fermentation with ABT-2 culture were examined. The objective of this study was to determinate the increase of short (SCFA) and medium (MCFA) chain fatty acids in goat's and cow's milk during fermentation with ABT-2 culture. The hypothesis of this study was that higher contents of SCFA and MCFA are produced in goat's milk in comparison with cow's milk, during fermentation with ABT-2 culture. Obtained results have show...

  16. The role of fermented milk in complementary feeding of young children: lessons from transition countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branca, F; Rossi, L

    2002-12-01

    Probiotic bacteria are used for production of fermented dairy products. The use of probiotic bacteria has the potential to replenish the natural intestinal flora of the body. These bacteria competitively inhibit the growth and colonization of pathogenic bacteria. Breastmilk is the best food for babies, also from a probiotic point of view. Human milk, in fact, contains many substances that stimulate the growth of bifidobacteria in vitro and in the small intestine of infants. Improvement of lactose digestion and avoidance of symptoms of intolerance in lactose malabsorbers are the most profoundly studied health-relevant effects of fermented milk. In fact fermented milks are nutritionally similar to unfermented milk, except that some of lactose is broken down to glucose and galactose. The role of fermented milk in complementary feeding and in particular for the prevention of anaemia is an innovative theme, recently focused. Iron deficiency in infants and young children is widespread and has serious consequences for child health. Prevention of iron deficiency should therefore be given high priority. The too-early introduction of unmodified cow's milk and milk products is an important nutritional risk factors for the development of iron-deficiency anaemia. Fermented milks represent an excellent source of nutrients such as calcium, protein, phosphorus and riboflavin. During the fermentation of milk, lactic acid and other organic acids are produced and these increase the absorption of iron. If fermented milk is consumed at mealtimes, these acids are likely to have a positive effect on the absorption of iron from other foods.

  17. FERMENTABILITY AND RHEOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF LACTOPEROXIDASE ACTIVATED BUFFALO MILK YOGHURT

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    Aijaz H. Soomro

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Present study was planned to produce and evaluate the coagulum from buffalo milk preserved with the activation of its lactoperoxidase system (LPO-system. A total of 10 trials were conducted and in each trial milk base was equally divided into three parts, two of which were treated with 20 mg/L (A and 30 mg/L (B solution of Sodium thiocyanate + Hydrogen peroxide and third part was kept as control (C. All the samples were analyzed for fermentability trend, pH, acidity, viscosity, specific gravity, syneresis and organoleptic properties. The decreasing trend in pH during fermentation period was comparatively slow in LPO-system activated milk A and B (4h and 5h as compared to control yoghurt (3h. The titratable acidity (% lactic acid of A, B and C yoghurt was 0.86±0.022, 0.85±0.025 and 0.89±0.024, respectively. The viscosity and specific gravity of control yoghurt was significantly (P0.05 were observed in the total solids, fat, ash, lactose and protein contents among the control, A and B yoghurt. Two week stored samples of control yoghurt received lower sensory score for appearance, flavor, body/texture and overall acceptability as compared to fresh control yoghurt. Simultaneously, LPO-system treated A and B yoghurt received high score during storage period than the control yoghurt.

  18. The effect of fermentation temperature on the functional dairy product quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanurić Katarina G.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine the possibility of fermented dairy beverage production by the application of kombucha cultivated on thyme tea in combination with a probiotic starter and to evaluate the quality of the new functional product. Fermented dairy beverages are produced from milk with 1.6% milk fat at three fermentation temperatures: 37°C, 40ºC and 43ºC.Chemical quality, rheological properties and products of added starter cultures metabolism were determined in the fermented dairy beverages after production and after10 days of storage. Produced fermented dairy beverages have reduced milk fat content and good textural characteristics. Besides the highly valuable milk components, they contain numerous compounds which have pronounced therapeutic properties. These products could be used as functional food in the diet of different populations for health improvement.

  19. Study on Nutrient Functions and Fermented Properties of Tibetan Kefir Fermentation Milk%藏灵菇发酵乳的营养功能及发酵特性研究现状

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯铄涵

    2012-01-01

    Tibetan Kefir was a rare flora from Tibetan highland. The yogurt which was fermented by the Tibetan Kefir had lots of beneficial floras. It had many nutrient functions which caused many attentions since 1998 when it was first brought into inland. This article reviewed the following aspects of Tibetan Kefir, such as nutrient functions, fermented properties, proliferation conditions and development of Tibetan Kefir fermentation products.%藏灵菇是源自西藏雪原的特有珍稀菌种,可用作酸奶的发酵剂,发酵的酸奶含有大量有益菌,对人体具有多方面的生理保健功能,自1998年由西藏牧区传入内地以来,引起了很多人的关注。本文主要从藏灵菇的营养功能、发酵特性和增殖条件以及发酵制品的发展前景几个方面进行介绍。

  20. Development of Antioxidant Activity during Milk Fermentation by Wild Isolates of Lactobacillus helveticus

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    Aazam Namdari

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Oxidative stress, due to free radicals, brings injury to the body by attacking large molecules and cell organs, and is the main reason of many diseases. Fermentation of foods containing large amount of proteins such as milk by special species of lactic acid bacteria is a potential way in enhancement of the antioxidative activity of foods. This study aimed at evaluating non-common starter species isolates of Lactobacillus helveticus for their capability to produce fermented milk enriched in antioxidant peptides.Materials and Methods: Reconstituted skim milk (11% was inoculated with 7 wild isolates of Lactobacillus helveticus, and after 24 h fermentation at 37ºC, the samples were kept 4ºC and for 14 days. Viable cell number, acidification and proteolysis degree in the milk fermented by each isolate were assessed in 1, 7 and 14 days. Development of antioxidant activity was measured using DPPH and ABTS●+ radial scavenging activities during the storage period.Results and Conclusion: Though some slight strain-dependent differences were observed in growth, acidification and proteolysis, all the samples showed considerably strong antioxidant activity (at least 62.32±3.66% and 57.64±1.42% measured using DPPH and ABTS●+ radicals, respectively through the whole storage period. In vitro simulated gastrointestinal digestion indicated that DPPH radical-scavenging activity of the antioxidative peptidic supernatants was not affected significantly by consecutive pepsin-pancreatin hydrolysis in most of the samples. These evidences support Lactobacillus helveticus as a promising functional culture able to promote health benefits in dairy-based functional foods.Conflict of interest: The authors declare that there is no conflict of interest.

  1. Probiotic fermented almond “milk” as an alternative to cow-milk yoghurt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neus Bernat

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Probiotics in almond-based matrices were considered as a means of obtaining fermented products which would cover both the current demand for health-promoting foods and for alternatives to standard yoghurts. Firstly, the combined effect of high pressure homogenisation (HPH and heat treatment on the physical stability of almond “milk” was studied. The beverage was homogenised by applying 62, 103 and 172 MPa (MF1, MF2 and MF3 respectively; MF3 was also combined with two different heat treatments (85 ºC-30 min (LH and 121 ºC-15 min (HH. Both microstructure and colloidal stability were analysed in all the processed samples to select the most suitable treatment with which to obtain a stable product. The selected almond milk was then fermented with probiotic Lactobacillus reuteri and Streptococcus thermophilus and the final product was characterised throughout cold storage time (28 days as to pH, acidity, serum retention and starter viability. A sensory evaluation and probiotic survival to in vitro digestion was also conducted. The results showed that the physical and structural almond-milk properties were affected by both HPH and heat treatments, obtaining the greatest stability in MF3-LH samples. The fermented milk permitted probiotic survivals above the level suggested as minimum for ensuring health benefits during the entire controlled time and, hence, can be considered as a functional food. No differences in the sensory acceptability of the product were found between 1 and 28 storage days. Therefore, a new, functional, fermented product was developed, which was suitable for targeted groups, such as the lactose-intolerant and cow-milk-protein allergic populations.

  2. Production and chemical composition of two dehydrated fermented dairy products based on cow or goat milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Fernández, Jorge; Díaz-Castro, Javier; Alférez, Maria J M; Hijano, Silvia; Nestares, Teresa; López-Aliaga, Inmaculada

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the differences between the main macro and micronutrients including proteins, fat, minerals and vitamins in cow and goat dehydrated fermented milks. Fermented goat milk had higher protein and lower ash content. All amino acids (except for Ala), were higher in fermented goat milk than in fermented cow milk. Except for the values of C11:0, C13:0, C16:0, C18:0, C20:5, C22:5 and the total quantity of saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids, all the other fatty acid studied were significantly different in both fermented milks. Ca, Mg, Zn, Fe, Cu and Se were higher in fermented goat milk. Fermented goat milk had lower amounts of folic acid, vitamin E and C, and higher values of vitamin A, D3, B6 and B12. The current study demonstrates the better nutritional characteristics of fermented goat milk, suggesting a potential role of this dairy product as a high nutritional value food.

  3. Technology and potential applications of probiotic encapsulation in fermented milk products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iravani, Siavash; Korbekandi, Hassan; Mirmohammadi, Seyed Vahid

    2015-08-01

    Fermented milk products containing probiotics and prebiotics can be used in management, prevention and treatment of some important diseases (e.g., intestinal- and immune-associated diseases). Microencapsulation has been used as an efficient method for improving the viability of probiotics in fermented milks and gastrointestinal tract. Microencapsulation of probiotic bacterial cells provides shelter against adverse conditions during processing, storage and gastrointestinal passage. Important challenges in the field include survival of probiotics during microencapsulation, stability of microencapsulated probiotics in fermented milks, sensory quality of fermented milks with microencapsulated probiotics, and efficacy of microencapsulation to deliver probiotics and their controlled or targeted release in the gastrointestinal tract. This study reviews the current knowledge, and the future prospects and challenges of microencapsulation of probiotics used in fermented milk products. In addition, the influence of microencapsulation on probiotics viability and survival is reviewed.

  4. Kivuguto traditional fermented milk and the dairy industry in Rwanda. A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karenzi, E.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditional methods of fermenting milk involve the use of indigenous microorganisms, leading to the production of a variety of tastes in fermented milk products. Kivuguto is a fermented milk product, which is popular in Rwanda. Kivuguto is produced by traditional spontaneous acidification of raw milk by a microflora present both on utensils and containers used for milk preservation and in the near environment of cattle. Thus, this method does not allow the shelf stability of the product. Faced to such a situation, modern dairies now produce fermented milk and other dairy products using exotic strains. The main objectives of this paper are firstly, to provide documentation on the traditional production of kivuguto, as well as its by-products, and secondly, to describe the current situation of the dairy industry in Rwanda.

  5. The antioxidant activity of kombucha fermented milk products with stinging nettle and winter savory

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    Vitas Jasmina S.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the antioxidant activity of fermented milk products obtained by kombucha fermentation. Two starter cultures were used as follows: starter obtained after kombucha fermentation on sweetened stinging nettle extract; as well as starter obtained after kombucha fermentation on sweetened winter savory extract. The starters were added to milk with 0.8, 1.6 and 2.8% milk fat. Fermentation was carried out at 37, 40 and 43oC and stopped when the pH reached 4.5. Antioxidant activity to hydroxyl and DPPH radicals was monitored using response surface methodology. Kombucha fermented milk products with stinging nettle (KSN and with winter savory (KWS showed the same antioxidant response to hydroxyl and different response to DPPH radicals. Synergetic effect of milk fat and fermentation temperature to antioxidant activity to hydroxyl radicals for both types of kombucha fermented milk products (KSN and KWS was established. Optimum processing conditions in term of antioxidant activity are: milk fat around 2.8% and process temperature around 41 and 43°C for KSN and KWS respectively.

  6. Characterisation of lactic acid bacteria isolated from fermented milk "laban".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chammas, Gisele I; Saliba, Rachad; Corrieu, Georges; Béal, Catherine

    2006-07-01

    The technological properties of 96 lactic acid bacteria isolated from Lebanese traditional fermented milk "laban" were characterised. They were classified by phenotypic and biochemical analyses as Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus, thus indicating that laban is a fermented milk similar to yogurt. Most strains of L. bulgaricus (87.5%) exhibited a high acidification activity, whereas strains of streptococci showed low acidification ability. 33.3% of streptococci strains and 25% of lactobacilli strains displayed similar acidification performances as European strains. Results obtained for syneresis, texture and rheological parameters led us to consider that isolated strains were not low polymer-producing strains. Some of them displayed interesting characteristics such as low syneresis and high values for rheological parameters. The major flavour compounds found in pure cultures were acetaldehyde, acetone, 2-butanone, dimethyl disulfide, acetoin, 2,3-butanedione, 2,3-pentanedione, and acetic, hexanoic and butanoic acids. Acetaldehyde (7.4%) and organic acids (48.3%) were mainly produced by L. bulgaricus strains, whereas streptococci cultures contained high relative levels of 2,3-butanedione and acetoin, which represented around 82% of the total flavour compounds. Finally, strains isolated from laban samples exhibited different technological properties than those used in yogurt production, thus conferring specific characteristics to this product.

  7. Suitability of high pressure-homogenized milk for the production of probiotic fermented milk containing Lactobacillus paracasei and Lactobacillus acidophilus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrignani, Francesca; Burns, Patricia; Serrazanetti, Diana; Vinderola, Gabriel; Reinheimer, Jorge; Lanciotti, Rosalba; Guerzoni, M Elisabetta

    2009-02-01

    High pressure homogenization (HPH) is one of the most promising alternatives to traditional thermal treatment for food preservation and diversification. In order to evaluate its potential for the production of fermented milks carrying probiotic bacteria, four types of fermented milks were manufactured from HPH treated and heat treated (HT) milk with and without added probiotics. Microbiological, physicochemical and organoleptic analyses were carried out during the refrigerated period (35 d at 4 degrees C). HPH application to milk did not modify the viability of the probiotic cultures but did increase the cell loads of the starter cultures (ca. 1 log order) compared with traditional products. The coagula from HPH-milk was significantly more compacted (Pmilk, and it had the highest values of consistency, cohesiveness and viscosity indexes compared with fermented milks produced without HPH treatment. All the samples received high sensory analysis scores for each descriptor considered. HPH treatment of milk can potentially diversify the market for probiotic fermented milks, especially in terms of texture parameters.

  8. Thesis Abstract Fermented milk elaborated with Camellia sinensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, O A S; Silva, M I A; Boari, C A

    2016-05-13

    This study aimed to develop and to characterize fermented dairy beverage formulated with Camellia sinensis. The infusion was elaborated with the addiction of dehydrated leaves of C. sinensis in whey (1g/100g) which added in sweetened milk (10% sucrose w/w) coagulated by Streptococcus salivarius subspecies thermophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subspecies bulgaricus in proportions of 10, 20, 30 and 40% (v/w). The control treatment consisted of yogurt added with sucrose (10% w/w). Analysis were performed to quantify dry mass, moisture, ash, protein, fat, sodium, acidity, total quantification of lactic acid bacteria, total antioxidant activity and viscosity at the initial time of production and at 15 and 30 days of storage. Chromatographic determination of volatile compounds and sensory tests of acceptance and consumption intention were conducted at the initial time of production. Dry matter content, moisture, ash and total count of lactic acid bacteria from fermented milk drink formulations were not significantly affected by the amount of infusion of C. sinensis. However, the content of protein, fat and sodium were significantly lower with the increase of the proportion of infusion incorporated into the product. Significant reduction in apparent viscosity occurs with the increase in the amount of infusion added. The total antioxidant activity of the formulations was significantly higher as higher were the amount of added infusion. The addition of infusion contributed to the diversification of volatile aroma and taste makers in the product. The formulation of fermented dairy drink with addition of 30% infusion C. sinensis was better evaluated in sensory tests, with greater acceptance and greater consumer intent of consumption.

  9. Temporal changes in milk proteomes reveal developing milk functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xinliu; McMahon, Robert J; Woo, Jessica G; Davidson, Barbara S; Morrow, Ardythe L; Zhang, Qiang

    2012-07-06

    Human milk proteins provide essential nutrition for growth and development, and support a number of vital developmental processes in the neonate. A complete understanding of the possible functions of human milk proteins has been limited by incomplete knowledge of the human milk proteome. In this report, we have analyzed the proteomes of whey from human transitional and mature milk using ion-exchange and SDS-PAGE based protein fractionation methods. With a larger-than-normal sample loading approach, we are able to largely extend human milk proteome to 976 proteins. Among them, 152 proteins are found to render significant regulatory changes between transitional milk and mature milk. We further found that immunoglobulins sIgA and IgM are more abundant in transitional milk, whereas IgG is more abundant in mature milk, suggesting a transformation in defense mechanism from newborns to young infants. Additionally, we report a more comprehensive view of a complement system and associated regulatory apparatus in human milk, demonstrating the presence and function of a system similar to that found in the circulation but prevailed by alternative pathway in complement activation. Proteins involved in various aspects of carbohydrate metabolism are also described, revealing either a transition in milk functionality to accommodate carbohydrate-rich secretions as lactation progresses, or a potentially novel way of looking at the metabolic state of the mammary tissue. Lately, a number of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins are found to be in higher abundance in transitional milk and may be relevant to the development of infants' gastrointestinal tract in early life. In contrast, the ECM protein fibronectin and several of the actin cytoskeleton proteins that it regulates are more abundant in mature milk, which may indicate the important functional role for milk in regulating reactive oxygen species.

  10. Qualidade de leites fermentados funcionais elaborados a partir de bactérias ácido-lácticas isoladas de queijo de coalho Quality of functional fermented milks produced by the use of lactic acid bacteria isolated from coalho cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.P. Viegas

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Leites fermentados foram elaborados a partir de bactérias ácido-lácticas com propriedades funcionais, isoladas de queijo de coalho com e sem a adição de concentrado proteico de soro (CPS. Características físico-químicas, microbiológicas e sensoriais dos produtos elaborados foram analisadas durante 40 dias de estocagem sob refrigeração a 8-10ºC. Todos os leites fermentados elaborados, independentemente da adição de CPS e da cultura utilizada, apresentaram contagens adequadas de bactérias (>10(8UFC/mL durante todo o período de avaliação, o que garantiria seu possível potencial funcional. Leites fermentados por Lactobacillus acidophilus apresentaram melhor aceitação (PFermented milks were produced using whey protein concentrate (WPC and potentially functional lactic acid bacteria, which were isolated from coalho cheese produced in. Physical-chemical, microbiological, and sensorial characteristics of the fermented milks were analyzed during 40 days under refrigeration at 8-10ºC. All products, irrespectively of WPC adding or culture used, showed appropriated bacterial counts (>10(8CFU/mL throughout the evaluation time, which would guarantee their functional potential. Lactobacillus acidophilus fermented milks presented better sensorial approval (P<0.05 when evaluated at 10-day storage; while Weissella confusa fermented milks presented lower acceptance (P<0.05 at 40-day storage. The association of Lactobacillus acidophilus and Weissella confusa or Lactobacillus acidophilus isolatedly, irrespectively of WPC adding, should be recommended for the industrial elaboration of novel functional fermented milks using Brazilian lactic cultures as starters.

  11. Milk Oligosaccharide Variation in Sow Milk and Milk Oligosaccharide Fermentation in Piglet Intestine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Difilippo, Elisabetta; Pan, Feipeng; Logtenberg, Madelon; Willems, Rianne; Braber, Saskia; Fink-Gremmels, Johanna; Schols, Henk Arie; Gruppen, Harry

    2016-01-01

    Porcine milk oligosaccharides (PMOs) were analyzed in six colostrum and two mature milk samples from Dutch Landrace sows. In total, 35 PMOs were recognized of which 13 were new for the PMO literature: Neutral HexNAc-Hex, β4′-galactosyllactose, putative GalNAc(α/β1-3)Gal(β1-4)Glc,

  12. Milk Oligosaccharide Variation in Sow Milk and Milk Oligosaccharide Fermentation in Piglet Intestine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Difilippo, Elisabetta; Pan, Feipeng; Logtenberg, Madelon; Willems, Rianne H A M; Braber, Saskia; Fink-Gremmels, Johanna; Schols, Henk Arie; Gruppen, Harry

    Porcine milk oligosaccharides (PMOs) were analyzed in six colostrum and two mature milk samples from Dutch Landrace sows. In total, 35 PMOs were recognized of which 13 were new for the PMO literature: neutral HexNAc-Hex, β4'-galactosyllactose, putative GalNAc(α/β1-3)Gal(β1-4)Glc,

  13. The performance of probiotic fermented sheep milk and ice cream sheep milk in inhibiting enamel mineral loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadelman, P; Frazão, J V; Vieira, T I; Balthazar, C F; Andrade, M M; Alexandria, A K; Cruz, A G; Fonseca-Gonçalves, A; Maia, L C

    2017-07-01

    The study aimed to evaluate the effects of two different sheep milk-based food matrices - fermented sheep milk and ice cream - with added probiotic bacteria (Lactobacillus casei 431) on dental enamel subjected to an in vitro highly cariogenic challenge. Sixty enamel blocks were selected and randomly allocated into five treatment groups (n=12): conventional fermented sheep milk (CFSM), probiotic fermented sheep milk (PFSM), conventional sheep milk ice cream (CSMIC), probiotic sheep milk ice cream (PSMIC) and control using deionized water. The blocks were subjected to highly cariogenic pH cycling and the products were applied (5min), in a blinded way, once a day to simulate a daily use for 8 consecutive days. A microhardness test was performed before and after the treatment to estimate the percentage of microhardness surface loss (% SML). Scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) was performed to confirm the mineral loss. All groups had lost microhardness after the experiment. However, CFSM and PFSM exhibited the most positive findings when compared to the control in both ice creams. Scanning electron microscopy showed less mineral loss in CFSM and PFSM compared with CSMIC, PSMIC and control after the cariogenic challenge. Overall, fermented milk decreased mineral loss from enamel subjected to a highly cariogenic challenge, regardless of the presence of probiotics in their composition, which had a higher efficacy compared to ice cream. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Comparative Growth Behaviour and Biofunctionality of Lactic Acid Bacteria During Fermentation of Soy Milk and Bovine Milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hati, Subrota; Patel, Nikita; Mandal, Surajit

    2017-04-29

    The study reports the growth, acidification and proteolysis of eight selected lactic acid bacteria in skim and soy milk. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition and antimicrobial profiles of skim and soy milk fermented by the lactic acid bacteria were also determined. Among eight lactic cultures (S. thermophilus MD2, L. helveticus V3, L. rhamnosus NS6, L. rhamnosus NS4, L. bulgaricus NCDC 09, L. acidophilus NCDC 15, L. acidophilus NCDC 298 and L. helveticus NCDC 292) studied, L. bulgaricus NCDC 09 and S. thermophilus MD2 decreased the pH of skim and soy milk in greater extent. Acid production (i.e. titratable acidity) by L. bulgaricus NCDC 09 and L. helveticus V3 was higher than other strains. Higher viable counts were observed in S. thermophilus MD2 and L. helveticus V3. Higher proteolysis was exhibited by S. thermophilus MD2 and L. rhamnosus NS6 in both skim and soy milk. Milk fermented by S. thermophilus (MD2) exhibited highest angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition. Antimicrobial activities of cell-free supernatant of milk fermented by S. thermophilus MD2 and L. helveticus V3 were higher. All the tested lactic acid bacteria performed better in skim milk as compared to soy milk.

  15. Fermentation optimization of goat milk with Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium bifidum by Box-Behnken design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Guowei; Bao, Chunju; Chen, He; Wang, Changfeng; Yang, Hui

    2016-01-01

    Goat milk is only limited to the processing of goat milk powder and liquid milk, the products are mainly about milk powder and a few of them are made as milk tablet. Therefore, the study of probiotic goat milk will have great significance in the full use of goats and the development of the goat milk industry in China. The effect of fermentation temperature (35°C, 37°C, 39°C), strain ratio (1:1:1, 2:1:1, 3:1:1) and inoculum size (4%, 5%, 6%) on viable counts of L. acidophilus and B. bifidum, total bacteria and sensory value during fermentation process of L. acidophilus and B. bifidum goat yogurt (AB-goat yogurt) was investigated. The optimum fermentation conditions for AB-goat yogurt were: fermentation temperature 38°C, the strain ratio 2:1:1, inoculum size 6%. Under the optimum conditions, the viable counts of B. bifidum, L. acidophilus, total bacteria and sensory value reached (4.30 ±0.11)×107  cfu/mL, (1.39 ±0.09)×108  cfu/mL, (1.82±0.06)×109  cfu/mL and 7.90 ±0.14, respectively. The fermentation temperature, the strain ratio and inoculum size had a significant effect on the fermentation of AB-goat yogurt and these results are beneficial for developing AB-goat yogurt.

  16. Microbiological detection of probiotic microorganisms in fermented milk products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radka Burdychová

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A number of health benefits have been claimed for probiotic bacteria such as Lactobacillus acidophilus, Bifidobacterium spp. and Lactobacillus rhamnosus. Because of the potential health benefits, these organisms are increasingly incorporated into dairy foods. However, to reach health benefits, the concentration of probiotics have to be 106 CFU/g of a product. For assessing of required probiotic bacteria quantity, it is important to have a working method for selective enumeration of these probiotic bacteria. Five bacteriological media were evaluated to assess their suitability to selectively enumerate Streptococcus thermophilus, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium spp. Bacteriological media evaluated included Streptococcus thermophilus agar, pH modified MRS agar, MRS-vancomycine agar and BSM (Bifidus selective medium agar under different culture conditions.Seven selected fermented milk products with probiotic culture were analyzed for their bacterial populations using the described selective bacteriological media and culture conditions. All milk products contained probiotic microorganisms claimed to be present in declared quantity (106–107/g.

  17. Milk fermentation products of L. helveticus R389 activate calcineurin as a signal to promote gut mucosal immunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perdigón Gabriela

    2007-09-01

    at sites of infection. Conclusion The oral administration of the supernatant of milk fermented by L. helveticus R389 enhanced the gut mucosal immunity by improving the mechanisms that reinforce the epithelial and non-specific barriers and the gut functioning at sites of infection, with an improvement in the expression of the enzyme calcineurin, an important signal in the network that activates the gut immune system. The results of this work contribute to revealing the mechanisms underlying the immunomodulation of the gut immune function by fermented milks with probiotic bacteria.

  18. Oxidative Stability and Sensory Attributes of Fermented Milk Product Fortified with Fish Oil and Marine Phospholipids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, Henna Fung Sieng; Thomsen, Birgitte Raagaard; Hyldig, Grethe;

    2013-01-01

    to be the main factor that influenced the lipid oxidation in the marine PL emulsion and fermented milk system. In addition, both oxidative stability and sensory acceptability of fortified products varied depending on the quality of the marine PL used for fortification.......Marine phospholipids (PL) are potential ingredients for food fortification due to its numerous advantages. The main objective of this study was to investigate whether a fermented milk product fortified with a mixture of marine PL and fish oil had better oxidative stability than a fermented milk...... product fortified with fish oil alone. Fortification of a fermented milk product with marine PL was performed by incorporating 1 % w/w lipids, either in the form of neat oil or in the form of a pre-emulsion. Lipid oxidation was investigated in the neat emulsions and fortified products by the measurements...

  19. Development of a non-dairy probiotic fermented product based on almond milk and inulin

    OpenAIRE

    Bernat Pérez, Neus; Cháfer Nácher, María Teresa; Chiralt Boix, Mª Amparo; González Martínez, María Consuelo

    2015-01-01

    A new fermented almond milk that combined the properties of both almonds and probiotics was considered to cover the current versatile health-promoting foods' demand. Almond milk fermentation with probiotic Lactobacillus reuteri and Streptococcus thermophilus was studied by using a Central Composite design with response surface methodology, and different factors (glucose, fructose, inulin and starters) were optimised to assure high probiotic survivals in the final product. The optimal formulat...

  20. FERMENTED MILK TRADEMARK: A STUDY OF ACCEPTANCE AND CORRELATION WITH PH AND ACIDITY

    OpenAIRE

    Medeiros, Ertha Janine Lacerda de; Lima, Ana Raquel Carmo de; Moura, Márcio Ducat; Moreira, Ricardo Targino

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the sensory acceptance and the purchase intention of fermented milk produced with different microorganisms, which have extensive marketing in the country, searching for a more pleasant alternative food consumption in relation to sensory characteristics. Three brands of fermented milk were evaluated: brand A (Lactobacilus casei defensis), B (Lactobacilus paracasei) and C (Lactobacilus casei and Lactocacilus acidophilus). These brands were submitted to the Sensory T...

  1. Technology and potential applications of probiotic encapsulation in fermented milk products

    OpenAIRE

    Iravani, Siavash; Korbekandi, Hassan; Mirmohammadi, Seyed Vahid

    2014-01-01

    Fermented milk products containing probiotics and prebiotics can be used in management, prevention and treatment of some important diseases (e.g., intestinal- and immune-associated diseases). Microencapsulation has been used as an efficient method for improving the viability of probiotics in fermented milks and gastrointestinal tract. Microencapsulation of probiotic bacterial cells provides shelter against adverse conditions during processing, storage and gastrointestinal passage. Important c...

  2. Antioxidant Activity of Whey from Milk Fermented with Lactobacillus Species Isolated from Nigerian Fermented Foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ifeoma Korie

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Eight Lactobacillus isolates obtained from five indigenous fermented foods (ogi, ogi baba, wara, kunnu and ugba were investigated. Wara is a dairy-based food while the others are not dairy-based. The bacteria were isolated on MRS agar and purified by successive streaking on the same medium. The whey fraction of skimmed milk fermented with each isolate was assayed for radical scavenging effects using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical. All the whey fractions showed radical scavenging activities. The five isolates with the highest activities were selected. On the basis of Gram stain reaction, cellular morphology, biochemical tests and carbohydrate utilization profiles they were identified as strains of Lactobacillus brevis, L. fermentum, L. plantarum, L. casei and L. delbrueckii. The antioxidant activities of whey fractions from 24-hour fermentations with the selected organisms were investigated using both radical scavenging effects and lipid peroxidation inhibitory activity. The radical scavenging activity was generally higher than the lipid peroxidation inhibition, except in the L. plantarum strain, which did not show any significant difference in both activities. The probiotic potential of the isolates was evaluated by pH and bile tolerance. None of the selected isolates showed any growth at pH=2.0 but L. casei and L. delbrueckii survived at this pH. Four of the five selected isolates were able to grow in 0.5 % dehydrated bile, with L. casei strain showing the highest level of growth, followed by L. delbrueckii. L. plantarum strain was not bile tolerant. The ability of L. casei and L. delbrueckii strains to survive at pH=2 and grow in the presence of bile indicates that the isolates may be able to colonize the gastrointestinal tract. The findings of this study indicate that Lactobacillus strains isolated from indigenous Nigerian fermented foods could be useful as starter cultures to provide antioxidants in food and that fermented milk

  3. Estimation of the antioxidant activity of the commercially available fermented milks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Najgebauer-Lejko

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. Free radicals are connected with the increased risk of certain diseases, especially cancers. There is some scientific evidence that antioxidant-rich diet may inhibit the negative impact of free radicals. The aim of the present study was to analyse the antioxidant capacity of the selected commercial natural and flavoured fermented milks offered in Poland, derived from different producers. Material and methods. The following commercially available natural fermented milks: 12 yoghurts, 12 kefirs, 2 butter milks, 2 cultured milks, Turkish yoghurt drink (ayran and the following flavoured fermented milks: 22 yoghurts, 2 acidophillus milks, 2 kefirs, butter milk and vegetable flavoured fermented milk were analysed for their antioxidant potential. The antioxidant capacity was assessed, in two replicates and twice for each product, by means of ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP and DPPH radical scavenging ability (expressed as ARP – anti radical power methods. Results. Among all analysed plain products, yoghurts and kefirs were characterised by the highest antioxi- dant activity. The presence of probiotic Lactobacillus casei strains in the product positively affected both FRAP and ARP values. Antioxidant capacity of the flavoured fermented milks was primarily affected by the type and quality (e.g. fruit concentration of the added flavouring preparation. The most valuable regarding the estimated parameters were chocolate, coffee, grapefruit with green tea extract as well as bilberry, forest fruits, strawberry and cherry with blackcurrant fillings. Conclusions. Protein content, inclusion of probiotic microflora as well as type and quality of flavouring preparations are the main factors affecting antioxidant properties of fermented milks.

  4. Digestibility, Milk Production, and Udder Health of Etawah Goats Fed with Fermented Coffee Husk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Badarina

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to assess the utilization of coffee husk fermented by Pleurotus ostreatus as feed supplement by measuring the digestibility, milk production and udder health of Etawah goats suffered from subclinical mastitis (+1. There were three experimental diets consisted of T0 (control diet/basal diet without fermented coffee husk, T1 (basal diet with 6% fermented coffee husk and T2 (basal diet with 6% fermented coffee husk soaked in crude palm oil for an hour before using. Basal diet consisted of napier grass (60% and concentrate (40%. The results showed that supplementation of lactating Etawah does with fermented coffee husk did not affect the palatability of the diets, but increased the protein and crude fiber consumption (P<0.05. There was no significant effect on nutrient digestibility and milk production while milk composition (protein, fat, total solid increased in supplemented groups (P<0.05. The persistency of milk production and the somatic cells count were not different. There was an improvement of somatic cells count on supplemented groups. In conclusion, fermented coffee husk could be used as feed supplement without any negative effects on digestibility and milk production. The positive effects to udder health could be expected from including fermented coffee husk in diets.

  5. Use of Lactobacillus helveticus BGRA43 for Manufacturing Fermented Milk Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanka Lukic

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Lactobacillus helveticus BGRA43 isolated from human intestines shows antimicrobial activity against foodborne pathogens and during fermentation in milk releases peptides with demonstrated anti-inflammatory properties. In this study, it was found that strain BGRA43 exhibits antimicrobial activity against human pathogens Yersinia enterocolitica, Shigella sonnei, S. flexneri and Streptococcus pneumoniae. Strain BGRA43 was able to survive in simulated gastric juice containing milk and retained cell number stability during the incubation in simulated intestinal conditions. In addition, LC/MS/MS analysis showed the ability of BGRA43 to hydrolyze β-lactoglobulin. Abundant growth of strain BGRA43 occurred in the presence of prebiotics inulin or concentrated oat bran β-glucan (Nutrim®, even when used as the sole carbon source. Similarly, strain BGRA43 grew satisfactorily in pure cow's or goat's milk as well as in the milk containing inulin or Nutrim®. Using the probiotic strain BGRA43 as a single starter strain, fermented milk products obtained from cow's or goat's milk with or without inulin or Nutrim® contained about 107 CFU/mL. The products were homogeneous and viscous and the best sensory scores were observed for fermented milk beverage made from reconstituted skimmed milk, whole cow's milk and whole goat's milk supplemented with 1 % inulin.

  6. Sensory perception of the fermented goat milk: potential application of the DSC method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Eunice de BESSA

    Full Text Available Abstract Goat milk and its derivatives present proven beneficial health properties; however, some sensory aspects associated to consumers’ expectations restrict the consumption growth for these products. In this work, fermented caprine milk formulations have been evaluated utilizing the methodology of Discourse of the Collective Subject (Discurso do Sujeito Coletivo – DSC associated to sensory analysis, in order to evaluate the perception of fermented caprine milk by consumers. The physicochemical and microbiological requisites of the fermented milk formulations evaluated during the storage, were according to current legislation. The probiotic characteristics of evaluated formulations were preserved, presenting viable cells counts for Lactobacillus acidophilus LA-5, Bifidobacterium BB-12, and Streptococcus thermophilus higher than 1x106 CFU/mL, along 28 days of storage. The Discourse of the Collective Subject results have shown that the typical taste and flavor, present in products derived from caprine milk, did not influence the purchase intention, which was expressive for all fermented milks. The Discourse of the Collective Subject has elucidated the consumers’ perspective, determining then both, the consumers’ profile and the factors interfering on the acquisition of fermented caprine milk.

  7. Effects of fermented soy milk on the liver lipids under oxidative stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ching-Yi Lin; Zheng-Yu Tsai; I-Chi Cheng; Shyh-Hsiang Lin

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effects of fermented soy milk powder on the antioxidative status and lipid metabolism in the livers of CCl4-injected rats.METHODS: Forty-five healthy male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to five groups according to five different diets: control (AIN-76), AIN-76+highdose fermented soy milk powder, AIN-76+low-dose fermented soy milk powder, AIN-76+high-dose milk yogurt powder and AIN-76+low-dose milk yogurt powder. The experiment lasted for 8 wk. After 4 wk, all the rats received intraperitoneal administration of CCl4 (0.2 mL/100 g body weight) every week. Total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), TBARS, ALP, and antioxidative enzymes in the liver were evaluated.RESULTS: There was also no significant difference in TBARS and antioxidative enzymes in the liver. TC and TG in the groups fed with fermented soy milk powder were generally lower than those fed with casein powder.CONCLUSION: Consumption of fermented soy milk was positive in lowering total cholesterol and TG accumulation in the liver under CCl4-induced oxidative stress.

  8. Intestinal fermentation of lactose and prebiotic lactose derivatives, including human milk oligosaccharides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Venema, K.

    2012-01-01

    This review describes the recent advances in technology to study fermentation of lactose and its prebiotic derivatives, including human milk oligosaccharides. Novel molecular tools to identify members of the microbiota that ferment these substrates are highlighted, as well as the use of stable isoto

  9. A survey on composition and microbiota of fresh and fermented yak milk at different Tibetan altitudes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, X.H.; Luo, Z.; Yu, L.; Ren, F.Z.; Han, B.Z.; Nout, M.J.R.

    2009-01-01

    Yak milk is a type of milk that people are less familiar with due to its remote geographical location, the particular geographical environment and climatic conditions in Tibet, which may have significant effects on composition, microbiota and fermentation outcome. To investigate the chemical

  10. A survey on composition and microbiota of fresh and fermented yak milk at different Tibetan altitudes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, X.H.; Luo, Z.; Yu, L.; Ren, F.Z.; Han, B.Z.; Nout, M.J.R.

    2009-01-01

    Yak milk is a type of milk that people are less familiar with due to its remote geographical location, the particular geographical environment and climatic conditions in Tibet, which may have significant effects on composition, microbiota and fermentation outcome. To investigate the chemical composi

  11. INFLUENCE OF DRINKING A PROBIOTIC FERMENTED MILK BEVERAGE CONTAINING BIFIDOBACTERIUM ANIMALIS ON THE SYMPTOMS OF CONSTIPATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaís Rodrigues MOREIRA

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT BACKGROUND Constipation is a chronic problem in many patients all over the world. OBJECTIVE - To evaluate the effect of consumption of a probiotic fermented milk beverage containing Bifidobacterium animalis on the symptoms of constipation. METHODS - This randomized, double-blind controlled trial included 49 female patients aged 20 to 50 years and diagnosed with constipation according to the ROME III criteria (Diagnostic Criteria for Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders and the Bristol Stool Form Scale. The patients were randomized into two groups: the intervention group received the probiotic fermented milk beverage and the control group received non-probiotic milk. Participants were instructed to ingest 150 mL of the beverages during 60 days. At the end of this period, patients were assessed again by the ROME III criteria and Bristol scale. The Wilcoxon test was used to evaluate pre and post-intervention results of the ROME III criteria and Bristol scale. The statistical significance level was considered as 5% ( P ≤0.05. RESULTS - The intervention group showed improvement in the following criteria: straining during a bowel movement ( P <0.001, feeling of incomplete evacuation ( P <0.001 and difficulty in passing stool ( P <0.014, in addition to Bristol scale results ( P <0.001. In the control group, improvements were observed in the following criteria: straining during a bowel movement ( P <0.001, feeling of incomplete evacuation ( P <0.001 and difficulty in passing stool ( P <0.025, in addition to Bristol scale results ( P <0.001. No statistically significant post-intervention differences were observed between the two groups for the Rome III criteria and Bristol scale. CONCLUSION - The results show that the consumption of milk resulted in the improvement of constipation symptoms, regardless of the probiotic culture.

  12. Optimisation of oat milk formulation to obtain fermented derivatives by using probiotic Lactobacillus reuteri microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernat, N; Cháfer, M; González-Martínez, C; Rodríguez-García, J; Chiralt, A

    2015-03-01

    Functional advantages of probiotics combined with interesting composition of oat were considered as an alternative to dairy products. In this study, fermentation of oat milk with Lactobacillus reuteri and Streptococcus thermophilus was analysed to develop a new probiotic product. Central composite design with response surface methodology was used to analyse the effect of different factors (glucose, fructose, inulin and starters) on the probiotic population in the product. Optimised formulation was characterised throughout storage time at 4 ℃ in terms of pH, acidity, β-glucan and oligosaccharides contents, colour and rheological behaviour. All formulations studied were adequate to produce fermented foods and minimum dose of each factor was considered as optimum. The selected formulation allowed starters survival above 10(7)/cfu ml to be considered as a functional food and was maintained during the 28 days controlled. β-glucans remained in the final product with a positive effect on viscosity. Therefore, a new probiotic non-dairy milk was successfully developed in which high probiotic survivals were assured throughout the typical yoghurt-like shelf life.

  13. Functional and technological properties of camel milk proteins: a review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hailu, Yonas; Hansen, Egon Bech; Seifu, Eyassu

    2016-01-01

    processed in dairy plants, and a number of consumer products have been marketed. A better understanding of the technological and functional properties, as required for product improvement, has been gained in the past years. Absence of the whey protein β-LG and a low proportion of к-casein cause differences...... in relation to dairy processing. In addition to the technological properties, there are also implications for human nutrition and camel milk proteins are of interest for applications in infant foods, for food preservation and in functional foods. Proposed health benefits include inhibition of the angiotensin......This review summarises current knowledge on camel milk proteins, with focus on significant peculiarities in protein composition and molecular properties. Camel milk is traditionally consumed as a fresh or naturally fermented product. Within the last couple of years, an increasing quantity is being...

  14. Milk fermented by Propionibacterium freudenreichii induces apoptosis of HGT-1 human gastric cancer cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabien J Cousin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Gastric cancer is one of the most common cancers in the world. The "economically developed countries" life style, including diet, constitutes a risk factor favoring this cancer. Diet modulation may lower digestive cancer incidence. Among promising food components, dairy propionibacteria were shown to trigger apoptosis of human colon cancer cells, via the release of short-chain fatty acids acetate and propionate. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A fermented milk, exclusively fermented by P. freudenreichii, was recently designed. In this work, the pro-apoptotic potential of this new fermented milk was demonstrated on HGT-1 human gastric cancer cells. Fermented milk supernatant induced typical features of apoptosis including chromatin condensation, formation of apoptotic bodies, DNA laddering, cell cycle arrest and emergence of a subG1 population, phosphatidylserine exposure at the plasma membrane outer leaflet, reactive oxygen species accumulation, mitochondrial transmembrane potential disruption, caspase activation and cytochrome c release. Remarkably, this new fermented milk containing P. freudenreichii enhanced the cytotoxicity of camptothecin, a drug used in gastric cancer chemotherapy. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Such new probiotic fermented milk may thus be useful as part of a preventive diet designed to prevent gastric cancer and/or as a food supplement to potentiate cancer therapeutic treatments.

  15. Survival of Brucella abortus in milk fermented with a yoghurt starter culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zúñiga Estrada, Armida; Mota de la Garza, Lydia; Sánchez Mendoza, Miroslava; Santos López, Eva María; Filardo Kerstupp, Santiago; López Merino, Ahidé

    2005-01-01

    In countries such as Mexico, brucellosis is still an important public health problem due to the consumption of non-pasteurized milk and dairy products, contaminated with Brucella spp. The aim of this study was to look into the survival of Brucella abortus during fermentation of milk with a yoghurt starter culture and storage at refrigeration temperature. Sterile skim milk was inoculated with B. abortus at two concentrations, 10(5) and 10(8) CFU/ml simultaneously with a yoghurt starter culture of lactic acid bacteria (Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subspecie bulgaricus). Inoculated flasks were incubated at 42 degrees C, followed by refrigeration at 4 degrees C. Samples were taken during fermentation and during storage and viable count of B. abortus and lactic acid bacteria and pH were determined. Results showed that after 10 days of storage at 4 degrees C, B. abortus was recovered in fermented milk at a level of 10(5) CFU/ml, despite the low pH below 4.0. Therefore B. abortus is able to survive in fermented milk. This finding may imply that non-pasteurized fermented milk contaminated with Brucella abortus could be a means of transmission of these bacteria.

  16. Fermented milk supplemented with probiotics and prebiotics can effectively alter the intestinal microbiota and immunity of host animals

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wang, S; Zhu, H; Lu, C; Kang, Z; Luo, Y; Feng, L; Lu, X

    2012-01-01

    Fermented milk supplemented with 2 probiotic strains, Bifidobacterium lactis Bi-07 and Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM, and a prebiotic, isomaltooligosaccharide, was orally administered to 100 healthy...

  17. Fermented goat milk consumption improves melatonin levels and influences positively the antioxidant status during nutritional ferropenic anemia recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Fernandez, Jorge; Diaz-Castro, Javier; Alférez, M José M; Nestares, Teresa; Ochoa, Julio J; Sánchez-Alcover, Ana; López-Aliaga, Inmaculada

    2016-02-01

    The aim of the current study was to assess the influence of fermented goat or cow milk on melatonin levels and antioxidant status and during anemia recovery. Eighty male Wistar rats were placed on a pre-experimental period of 40 days and randomly divided into two groups, a control group receiving normal-Fe diet (45 mg kg(-1)) and the Fe-deficient group receiving low-Fe diet (5 mg kg(-1)). Then, the rats were fed with fermented goat or cow milk-based diets with a normal-Fe content or Fe-overload (450 mg kg(-1)) for 30 days. After 30 days of feeding the fermented milks, the total antioxidant status (TAS) was higher in both groups of animals fed fermented goat milk with the normal-Fe content. Plasma and urine 8-OHdG were lower in control and anemic rats fed fermented goat milk. Melatonin and corticosterone increased in the anemic groups during Fe replenishment with both fermented milks. Urine isoprostanes were lower in both groups fed fermented goat milk. Lipid and protein oxidative damage were higher in all tissues with fermented cow milk. During anemia instauration, an increase in melatonin was observed, a fact that would improve the energy metabolism and impaired inflammatory signaling, however, during anemia recovery, fermented goat milk had positive effects on melatonin and TAS, even in the case of Fe-overload, limiting the evoked oxidative damage.

  18. Detection of cheese whey and caseinomacropeptide in fermented milk beverages using high performance liquid chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.H.P. Andrade

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Cheese whey level and caseinomacropeptide (CMP index of fermented milk beverages added with four levels of cheese whey (0, 10, 20, and 40% and stored at 8-10oC for 0, 7, 14 and 21 days were determined by high performance liquid chromatography-gel filtration (HPLC-GF. Additionally, the interference of the starter culture and the storage time on the detection of cheese whey and CMP were investigated. Refrigerated storage up to 21 days did not affect (P>0.05 cheese whey and CMP amounts in milk (0% of cheese whey and in fermented milk beverages added with 10 and 20% of cheese whey (P>0.05. However, cheese whey and CMP amounts were higher than expected (P<0.05 in fermented milk beverages added with 40% of cheese whey and stored for 21 days.

  19. Microbiological and physical-chemical characteristics of fermented milk beverages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.H.P. Andrade

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate some microbiological and physical-chemical characteristics of fermented milk beverages collected at the main supermarkets in Belo Horizonte (MG. 40 samples of the products corresponding to five distinct brands were collected. They were submitted to the following analyses: Most Probable Number (MPN of total (30ºC and thermal tolerant coliforms (45ºC, Salmonella spp., coagulase positive Staphylococcus, molds and yeasts, lactic acid bacteria, pH, titratable acidity and contents of moisture, total solids, protein and fat. The analyses were carried out during the last week of shelf life. The microbiological quality of the samples was good and the counts of lactic bacteria were above the minimum established by the official legislation. Streptococcus and Lactobacillus were isolated and identified from the products and Lactobacillus delbrueckii was molecularly identified in three samples. The mean values for the contents of fat and protein, titratable acidity, pH, moisture and total solids ranged from 1.24 to 1.98%; 1.88 to 2.22%; 0.54 to 0.66%; 3.91 to 4.16; 81.18 to 83.25% and 16.75 to 18.82%, respectively. All samples had protein content in agreement with the official legislation.

  20. The role of interaction between yeasts and lactic acid bacteria in African fermented milks: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narvhus, Judith A; Gadaga, Tendekayi Henry

    2003-09-01

    Yeasts are present in indigenous African fermented milks in numbers up to log 8 cfu g(-1), together with a varied lactic acid bacteria (LAB) flora, and therefore potentially contribute to product characteristics. However, interaction between yeasts and LAB in these products has received little notice. In studies of indigenous fermented milk in Zimbabwe and Uganda, many samples contained more than one species of yeast, but Saccharomyces cerevisiae was most commonly isolated. Other frequent isolates were other species of Saccharomyces and several species of Candida. Most yeast isolates were lactose-negative but usually galactose-positive. Some strains assimilated lactate and citrate. The growth in milk of strains of yeasts and LAB, isolated from naturally soured milk in Zimbabwe, and their interaction when selected pairs of strains were grown together has been studied. Interactions were shown by the significantly different amounts of certain metabolites produced, such as acetaldehyde and malty aldehydes, when co-cultures were compared to pure cultures. Preliminary sensory acceptance tests did not show, however, that milks made from a co-culture with Candida kefyr and LAB were preferable to the pure LAB culture. Further work is still needed to elucidate the reactions that may be taking place in fermented milk between varying LAB and yeast populations. The potential for use as starter cultures depends on various aspects, including the final product being prepared. The role of other microorganisms in naturally fermented milk also needs to be studied.

  1. High fiber probiotic fermented mare's milk reduces the toxic effects of mercury in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed M. Abdel-Salam

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Since the advent of the Industrial Revolution in the late 19th century, we have all been unfortunately exposed to an increasingly toxic and polluted world. Among the most dangerous of these pollutants is mercury, which is considered to be the most toxic non-radioactive heavy metal. Fermented foods may help cleanse the body of heavy metals. Fermentation breaks down the nutrients in foods by the action of beneficial microorganisms and creates natural chelators that are available to bind toxins and remove them from the body. Aims: The current study was designed to determine the impact of feeding a high fiber probiotic fermented mare's milk on the biological effects of mercury toxicity in rat model. Methods and Materials: The high fiber fermented mare's milk containing probiotics was prepared and its sensory properties, chemical composition, and antioxidant activity were determined. A rat model of mercury toxicity was used. The effect of feeding the high fiber probiotic fermented mare's milk to rats, along with mercury ingestion, was determined by the analysis of several biochemical markers in serum and histopathological examinations of brain and kidney. Results: The high fiber fermented mare's milk containing probiotics was found to be acceptable by all test panels and volunteers. Mercury ingestion was found to cause biochemical and histopathological alterations in rat serum and tissues. The mercury-treated rats showed a decrease in body weight and an increase in kidney weight. Sera of the mercury treated rats showed alterations in biochemical parameters, and histopathological changes in brain and kidney. However, the rats fed high fiber fermented mare`s milk along with mercury ingestion showed improved histopathology of kidney and brain, and there was restoration of the biochemical parameters in serum to almost normal values. Conclusions: Feeding high fiber fermented mare`s milk may reduce the toxic effects of mercury.

  2. In Vitro Fermentation of Porcine Milk Oligosaccharides and Galacto-oligosaccharides Using Piglet Fecal Inoculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Difilippo, Elisabetta; Pan, Feipeng; Logtenberg, Madelon; Willems, Rianne H A M; Braber, Saskia; Fink-Gremmels, Johanna; Schols, Henk A; Gruppen, Harry

    2016-03-16

    In this study, the in vitro fermentation by piglet fecal inoculum of galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS) and porcine milk oligosaccharides (PMOs) was investigated to identify possible preferences for individual oligosaccharide structures by piglet microbiota. First, acidic PMOs and GOS with degrees of polymerization 4-7 were depleted within 12 h of fermentation, whereas fucosylated and phosphorylated PMOs were partially resistant to fermentation. GOS structures containing β1-3 and β1-2 linkages were preferably fermented over GOS containing β1-4 and β1-6 linkages. Upon in vitro fermentation, acetate and butyrate were produced as the main organic acids. GOS fermentation by piglet inoculum showed a unique fermentation pattern with respect to preference of GOS size and organic acids production.

  3. Production of Functional High-protein Beverage Fermented with Lactic Acid Bacteria Isolated from Korean Traditional Fermented Food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Young-Hee; Shin, Il-Seung; Hong, Sung-Moon; Kim, Cheol-Hyun

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to manufacture functional high protein fermented beverage, using whey protein concentrate (WPC) and Lactobacillus plantarum DK211 isolated from kimchi, and to evaluate the physicochemical, functional, and sensory properties of the resulting product. The fermented whey beverage (FWB) was formulated with whey protein concentrate 80 (WPC 80), skim milk powder, and sucrose; and fermented with Lactobacillus plantarum DK211 as single, or mixed with Lactococcus lactis R704, a commercial starter culture. The pH, titratable acidity, and viable cell counts during fermentation and storage were evaluated. It was found that the mixed culture showed faster acid development than the single culture. The resulting FWB had high protein (9%) and low fat content (0.2%). Increased viscosity, and antioxidant and antimicrobial activity were observed after fermentation. A viable cell count of 10(9) CFU/mL in FWB was achieved within 10 h fermentation, and it remained throughout storage at 15℃ for 28 d. Sensory analysis was also conducted, and compared to that of a commercial protein drink. The sensory scores of FWB were similar to those of the commercial protein drink in most attributes, except sourness. The sourness was highly related with the high lactic acid content produced during fermentation. The results showed that WPC and vegetable origin lactic acid bacteria isolated from kimchi might be used for the development of a high protein fermented beverage, with improved functionality and organoleptic properties.

  4. Improved viability of bifidobacteria in fermented milk by cocultivation with Lactococcus lactis subspecies lactis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odamaki, T; Xiao, J Z; Yonezawa, S; Yaeshima, T; Iwatsuki, K

    2011-03-01

    The poor survival of probiotic bacteria in commercial yogurts may limit their potential to exert health benefits in humans. The objective was to improve the survival of bifidobacteria in fermented milk. Cocultivation with some strains of Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis improved the survival of bifidobacteria in fermented milk during refrigerated storage. Studies on one strain, Lc. lactis ssp. lactis MCC866, showed that the concentrations of dissolved oxygen were kept lower in the cocultivated fermented milk during storage compared with monocultured Bifidobacterium longum BB536 or samples cocultured with another noneffective Lc. lactis ssp. lactis strain. Degradation of genomic DNA was suppressed in the cocultivating system with Lc. lactis ssp. lactis MCC866. Several genes that participated in protection from active oxygen species (e.g., genes coding for alkyl hydroperoxide reductase and Fe(2+) transport system) were expressed at higher levels during refrigerated storage in Lc. lactis ssp. lactis MCC 866 compared with another noneffective Lc. lactis ssp. lactis strain. Concentration of free iron ion was also lower in supernatants of fermented milk cocultivated with B. longum BB536 and Lc. lactis ssp. lactis MCC866. These results suggest that Lc. lactis ssp. lactis MCC 866 is potentially superior in reducing oxygen damage and consequently improves the survival of bifidobacteria in the cocultivating system. This cocultivation system is of industrial interest for producing fermented milk containing viable bifidobacteria with long shelf life.

  5. Consumption of fermented milk products and breast cancer: a case-control study in The Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van't Veer, P; Dekker, J M; Lamers, J W; Kok, F J; Schouten, E G; Brants, H A; Sturmans, F; Hermus, R J

    1989-07-15

    In a case-control study in The Netherlands, we observed a significantly lower consumption of fermented milk products (predominantly yogurt and buttermilk) among 133 incident breast cancer cases as compared to 289 population controls (mean +/- SD among users only, 116 +/- 100 versus 157 +/- 144 g/day; P less than 0.01). The age-adjusted odds ratio of daily consumption of 1.5 glasses (greater than or equal to 225 g) of fermented milk versus none was 0.50 (95% confidence interval, 0.23-1.08). When fermented milk was entered as a continuous variable (per g) in either age-adjusted or multivariate analysis, the odds ratio expressed per 225 g was 0.63 (multivariate-adjusted 95% confidence interval, 0.41-0.96). After multivariate adjustment for intake of fat and other confounders, a statistically significant decrease in breast cancer risk was also observed for increasing intake of Gouda cheese. The multivariate-adjusted odds ratio expressed per 60 g of this fermented product was 0.56 (95% confidence interval, 0.33-0.95). For daily intake of milk, no statistically significant differences were observed between cases and controls. These results support the hypothesis that high consumption of fermented milk products may protect against breast cancer.

  6. Optimisation of minimal media for production of aroma compounds typical for fermented milk products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nevenka Mazić

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to optimize the composition of minimalgrowth media containing lactose and milk, in which lactic acid bacteria (LAB would produce the maximum amount of volatile aroma compounds typical for fermented milk products. Ingredients used for the preparation of media were casein, tri-sodium-citrate, lactose, milk minerals, whey proteins and milk with 1.5% fat. The several prepared media differed mainly in the amount of citrate and whey proteins. Fermentation was carried out at room temperature until the media reached pH value of 5. Samples were evaluated for sensory characteristics using quantitative descriptive analysis (QDA. In all media the target pH was reached after 68-71 hours of fermentation, depending on citrate level. Fermentation and the production of aroma compounds were more intensive in media that contained whey proteins compared to media with only casein. Increased citrate level had a positive influence on the aroma production. Citrate increased the initial pH of the media and acted as a buffer during fermentation, which lead to longer fermentation and prolonged production of aroma compounds. At pH around 5, the desired cultured aroma was the most intensive, whereas sour taste was less dominant. The substrate with 0.25% citrate and 0.1% whey proteins, at pH 5, was rated as best regarding its sensory characteristics.

  7. Effects of Tibetan Kefir Fermented Milk on the Liver Mitochondrial Function in Aging Mice%藏灵菇发酵乳对衰老小鼠肝脏线粒体功能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程广东; 张强; 吕冬云; 李春丰; 岳丽红

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the effects of Tibetan kefir fermented milk on the liver mitochondrial function in aging mice induced by D-galactose (gal),mice were injected subcutaneously with D-gal.After they were continuously treated for 42 days,the body weight,serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT)and aspartate aminotransferase (AST)activ-ities,mitochondrial enzyme activity and mitochondrial permeability changes in mice′s liver were examined.The re-sults showed that,compared with control group,the body weight was significantly decreased (P <0.05);the ALT and AST were respectively increased to (78.7±10.6)U/L and (68.5±12.7)U/L (both P <0.01),the mitochondrial enzyme activity significantly decreased by 27.2% (P<0.01),and mitochondrial permeability signif-icantly increased by 98.4% (P<0.01)in the D-gal model group.In the Tibetan kefir fermented milk protection group,body weight of mice was significantly increased (P<0.05),ALT and AST were significantly recovered to (54.3±12.4)U/L (P<0.01),(47.7±8.9)U/L (P<0.01),and mitochondrial enzyme activity and permeabil-ity also showed a recovery (P <0.05 and P <0.01,respectively),respectively compared with the D-gal model group.The results revealed that the Tibetan kefir fermented milk can protected against D-gal-induced liver damage through inhibiting mitochondria degeneration.%为探究藏灵菇发酵乳对 D-半乳糖(D-gal)诱导衰老模型小鼠肝脏线粒体功能的影响,给小鼠皮下注射 D-gal,各组连续处理42 d 后,检测小鼠体重变化、血清丙氨酸转氨酶(ALT)和天冬氨酸转氨酶(AST)活力变化,肝脏线粒体酶活力变化及线粒体通透性变化。结果发现,与对照组相比,D-gal 模型组小鼠体重显著降低(P <0.05),ALT 及 AST 分别升高至78.7 U/L±10.6 U/L(P <0.01)、68.5 U/L±12.7 U/L(P <0.01),线粒体酶活性显著降低,降低了27.2%(P <0.01),线粒体通透性显著增加,增加了98.4%(P

  8. Microbes from raw milk for fermented dairy products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wouters, J.T.M.; Ayad, E.H.E.; Hugenholtz, J.; Smit, G.

    2002-01-01

    Milk has a high nutritive value, not only For the new-born mammal and for the human consumer, but also for microbes. Raw milk kept at roam temperature will be liable to microbial spoilage. After some days, the milk will spontaneously become sour. This is generally due to the activity of lactic acid

  9. Exopolysaccharides Isolated from Milk Fermented with Lactic Acid Bacteria Prevent Ultraviolet-Induced Skin Damage in Hairless Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morifuji, Masashi; Kitade, Masami; Fukasawa, Tomoyuki; Yamaji, Taketo; Ichihashi, Masamitsu

    2017-01-13

    We studied the mechanism by which fermented milk ameliorates UV-B-induced skin damage and determined the active components in milk fermented with lactic acid bacteria by evaluating erythema formation, dryness, epidermal proliferation, DNA damage and cytokine mRNA levels in hairless mice exposed to acute UV-B irradiation. Nine week-old hairless mice were given fermented milk (1.3 g/kg BW/day) or exopolysaccharide (EPS) concentrate (70 mg/kg BW/day) orally for ten days. Seven days after fermented milk or EPS administration began, the dorsal skin of the mice was exposed to a single dose of UV-B (20 mJ/cm²). Ingestion of either fermented milk or EPS significantly attenuated UV-B-induced erythema formation, dryness and epidermal proliferation in mouse skin. Both fermented milk and EPS were associated with a significant decrease in cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers and upregulated mRNA levels of xeroderma pigmentosum complementation group A (XPA), which is involved in DNA repair. Furthermore, administration of either fermented milk or EPS significantly suppressed increases in the ratio of interleukin (IL)-10/IL-12a and IL-10/interferon-gamma mRNA levels. Together, these results indicate that EPS isolated from milk fermented with lactic acid bacteria enhanced DNA repair mechanisms and modulated skin immunity to protect skin against UV damage.

  10. Human in vivo study of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system and the sympathetic activity after 8 weeks daily intake of fermented milk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Usinger, Lotte; Ibsen, Hans; Linneberg, Allan

    2010-01-01

    Milk fermented by lactic acid bacteria is suggested to have antihypertensive effect in humans. In vitro and animal studies have established an angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor effect of peptides in fermented milk. However, other modes of action must be considered, because until today...... no human studies have confirmed an ACE inhibition in relation to the intake of fermented milk....

  11. Functional Properties of Microorganisms in Fermented Foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyoti Prakash Tamang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Fermented foods have unique functional properties imparting some health benefits to consumers due to presence of functional microorganisms, which possess probiotics properties, antimicrobial, antioxidant, peptide production, etc. Health benefits of some global fermented foods are synthesis of nutrients, prevention of cardiovascular disease, prevention of cancer, gastrointestinal disorders, allergic reactions, diabetes, among others. The present paper is aimed to review the information on some functional properties of the microorganisms associated with fermented foods and beverages, and their health-promoting benefits to consumers.

  12. Study of black rice fermented milk and fermented beverage%黑米发酵乳和发酵饮料的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马先红; 许海侠; 孙丽卓

    2016-01-01

    The types and process formula of black rice fermented milk and fermented beverage were reviewed. The current situation and development prospect of black rice fermented milk and fermented beverages were also analyzed,in order to provide some theoretical reference for the research of black rice fermented milk and fermented beverage.%对国内黑米发酵乳和发酵饮料的种类和工艺配方进行了综述。对黑米发酵乳和发酵饮料目前的状况与发展前景进行了分析,以期为黑米发酵乳和发酵饮料的研究提供一些理论参考。

  13. Therapeutic effect of Streptococcus thermophilus CRL 1190-fermented milk on chronic gastritis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cecilia; Rodríguez; Marta; Medici; Fernanda; Mozzi; Graciela; Font; de; Valdez

    2010-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the potential therapeutic effect of exopolysaccharide (EPS)-producing Streptococcus thermophilus (S. thermophilus) CRL 1190 fermented milk on chronic gastritis in Balb/c mice. METHODS: Balb/c mice were fed with the fermented milk for 7 d after inducing gastritis with acetyl-salicylic acid (ASA, 400 mg/kg body weight per day for 10 d). Omeprazole was included in this study as a positive therapeutic control. The gastric in? ammatory activity was evaluated from gastric histology and in? amm...

  14. Use of whey powder and skim milk powder for the production of fermented cream

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ceren AKAL

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study is about the production of fermented cream samples having 18% fat by addition of starter cultures. In order to partialy increase non-fat solid content of fermented cream samples, skim milk powder and demineralized whey powder in two different rates (50% and 70% were used. Samples were analyzed for changes in their biochemical and physicochemical properties (total solid, ash, fat, titratable acidity, pH value, total nitrogen, viscosity, tyrosine, acid number, peroxide and diacetyl values during 29-day of storage period. Samples tested consisted of 7 different groups; control group (without adding any powder, skim milk powder, 50% demineralized whey powder and 70% demineralized whey powder samples were in two different addition rate (2% and 4%. Also samples were analyzed for sensory properties. According to the results obtained, the addition of milk powder products affected titratable acidity and tyrosine values of fermented cream samples. Although powder addition and/or storage period didn’t cause significant variations in total solid, ash, fat, pH value, viscosity, acid number, peroxide, tyrosine and diacetyl values; sensory properties of fermented cream samples were influenced by both powder addition and storage period. Fermented cream containing 2% skim milk powder gets the top score of sensory evaluation among the samples.

  15. Kefir Grains Change Fatty Acid Profile of Milk during Fermentation and Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, C. P.; Álvares, T. S.; Gomes, L. S.; Torres, A. G.; Paschoalin, V. M. F.; Conte-Junior, C. A.

    2015-01-01

    Several studies have reported that lactic acid bacteria may increase the production of free fatty acids by lipolysis of milk fat, though no studies have been found in the literature showing the effect of kefir grains on the composition of fatty acids in milk. In this study the influence of kefir grains from different origins [Rio de Janeiro (AR), Viçosa (AV) e Lavras (AD)], different time of storage, and different fat content on the fatty acid content of cow milk after fermentation was investigated. Fatty acid composition was determined by gas chromatography. Values were considered significantly different when pkefir relatively to fermented kefir leading to possible increase of antimutagenic and anticarcinogenic potential and improvement of nutritional quality of lipids in storage milk. Only high-lipidic matrix displayed increase polyunsaturated fatty acids after fermentation. These findings open up new areas of study related to optimizing desaturase activity during fermentation in order to obtaining a fermented product with higher nutritional lipid quality. PMID:26444286

  16. Bioaccessible Antioxidants in Milk Fermented by Bifidobacterium longum subsp. longum Strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mérilie Gagnon

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Bifidobacterium longum subsp. longum is among the dominant species of the human gastrointestinal microbiota and could thus have potential as probiotics. New targets such as antioxidant properties have interest for beneficial effects on health. The objective of this study was to evaluate the bioaccessibility of antioxidants in milk fermented by selected B. longum subsp. longum strains during in vitro dynamic digestion. The antioxidant capacity of cell extracts from 38 strains, of which 32 belong to B. longum subsp. longum, was evaluated with the ORAC (oxygen radical absorbance capacity method. On the basis of screening and gene sequence typing by multilocus locus sequence analysis (MLSA, five strains were chosen for fermenting reconstituted skim milk. Antioxidant capacity varied among the strains tested (P=0.0009. Two strains of B. longum subsp. longum (CUETM 172 and 171 showed significantly higher ORAC values than the other bifidobacteria strains. However, there does not appear to be a relationship between gene sequence types and antioxidant capacity. The milk fermented by each of the five strains selected (CUETM 268, 172, 245, 247, or PRO 16-10 did not have higher initial ORAC values compared to the nonfermented milk samples. However, higher bioaccessibility of antioxidants in fermented milk (175–358% was observed during digestion.

  17. Bioaccessible Antioxidants in Milk Fermented by Bifidobacterium longum subsp. longum Strains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagnon, Mérilie; Savard, Patricia; Rivière, Audrey; LaPointe, Gisèle

    2015-01-01

    Bifidobacterium longum subsp. longum is among the dominant species of the human gastrointestinal microbiota and could thus have potential as probiotics. New targets such as antioxidant properties have interest for beneficial effects on health. The objective of this study was to evaluate the bioaccessibility of antioxidants in milk fermented by selected B. longum subsp. longum strains during in vitro dynamic digestion. The antioxidant capacity of cell extracts from 38 strains, of which 32 belong to B. longum subsp. longum, was evaluated with the ORAC (oxygen radical absorbance capacity) method. On the basis of screening and gene sequence typing by multilocus locus sequence analysis (MLSA), five strains were chosen for fermenting reconstituted skim milk. Antioxidant capacity varied among the strains tested (P = 0.0009). Two strains of B. longum subsp. longum (CUETM 172 and 171) showed significantly higher ORAC values than the other bifidobacteria strains. However, there does not appear to be a relationship between gene sequence types and antioxidant capacity. The milk fermented by each of the five strains selected (CUETM 268, 172, 245, 247, or PRO 16-10) did not have higher initial ORAC values compared to the nonfermented milk samples. However, higher bioaccessibility of antioxidants in fermented milk (175–358%) was observed during digestion. PMID:25802836

  18. Effects of probiotic fermented milk on symptoms and intestinal flora in patients with irritable bowel syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, B.; Olsson, J.; Ohlson, K.

    2011-01-01

    Objective. The effect of probiotics on IBS symptoms has been mixed, but remains an intriguing treatment option with appeal to the patient. Material and methods. Patients fulfilling the Rome II criteria were randomized double-blind to a daily intake of 500 ml of fermented milk containing at least 5...... containing probiotics or acidified milk. The effect of probiotics on IBS symptoms remains uncertain and further studies are warranted....

  19. Analysis of Proximate and Protein Profile of Kefir from Fermented Goat and Cow Milk

    OpenAIRE

    Erwin Hidayat; Irna Kinayungan W; Muhammad Irhas; Fathurrahman Sidiq

    2015-01-01

    This research aims to analyze the characteristics of proximate and protein profile in kefir from fermented goat milk and cow milk with different concentration of kefir grains. The research design was true experimental with Completely Randomized Design (CRD) of 3 repetitions. The research procedures consisted of kefir production, proximate analysis and protein profile characterization. Proximate assay result was analyzed by using LSD, whereas the protein profile was analyzed by descriptive qua...

  20. Analysis of Proximate and Protein Profile of Kefir from Fermented Goat and Cow Milk

    OpenAIRE

    Erwin Hidayat; Irna Kinayungan W; Muhammad Irhas; Fathurrahman Sidiq

    2015-01-01

    This research aims to analyze the characteristics of proximate and protein profile in kefir from fermented goat milk and cow milk with different concentration of kefir grains. The research design was true experimental with Completely Randomized Design (CRD) of 3 repetitions. The research procedures consisted of kefir production, proximate analysis and protein profile characterization. Proximate assay result was analyzed by using LSD, whereas the protein profile was analyzed by descriptive qua...

  1. The eff ect of addition of selected milk protein preparations on the growth of Lactobacillus acidophilus and physicochemical properties of fermented milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waldemar Gustaw

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. The intake of fermented milk products, especially yoghurts, has been systematically increasing for a few decades. The purpose of this work was to obtain milk products fermented with a mix of bacterial cultures (yoghurt bacteria and Lactobacillus acidophillus LA-5 and enriched with selected milk protein preparations. Secondly, the aim of the work was to determine physiochemical and rheological properties of the obtained products. Material and methods. The following additives were applied in the experiment: whey protein concen- trate (WPC 65, whey protein isolate (WPI, demineralised whey powder (SPD, caseinoglycomacropeptide (CGMP, α-lactalbumin (α-la, sodium caseinate (KNa and calcium caseinate (KCa. Milk was fermented using probiotic strain Lactobacillus acidophillus LA-5 and a typical yoghurt culture. The products were analysed in terms of the survivability of bacterial cells during refrigerated storage, rheological properties and syneresis. Fermented milk products were obtained using blends of bacterial strains: ST-B01:Lb-12 (1:1, ST-B01:Lb-12:LA-5 (1:1:2. Results. Milk beverages fermented with typical yoghurt bacteria and LA-5 strain showed intensive syner- esis. The addition of LA-5 strain caused formation of harder acid gels, comparing to typical yoghurts. Milk products which were prepared from skimmed milk possessed higher values of hardness and consistency coefficient. The increase of concentrations of milk preparations (except of WPI did not cause significant differences in the hardness of acidic gels obtained by fermentation of mixed culture with a probiotic strain. Conclusion. The applied preparations improved physiochemical properties of the milk beverages which were prepared with a probiotic strain. The increase of protein milk preparations concentration resulted in a gradual decrease of the secreted whey. Among the products that were made of full milk powder and were subjected to three weeks of refrigerated storage

  2. Functional genomics for food fermentation processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smid, E J; Hugenholtz, J

    2010-01-01

    This review describes recent scientific and technological drivers of food fermentation research. In addition, a number of practical implications of the results of this development will be highlighted. The first part of the manuscript elaborates on the message that genome sequence information gives us an unprecedented view on the biodiversity of microbes in food fermentation. This information can be made applicable for tailoring relevant characteristics of food products through fermentation. The second part deals with the integration of genome sequence data into metabolic models and the use of these models for a number of topics that are relevant for food fermentation processes. The final part will be about metagenomics approaches to reveal the complexity and understand the functionality of undefined complex microbial consortia used in a diverse range of food fermentation processes.

  3. PROFIL ASAM LEMAK DAN ASAM AMINO SUSU KAMBING SEGAR DAN TERFERMENTASI [Fatty Acid and Amino Acid Profile of Fresh and Fermented Goat Milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Erna Kustyawati*

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to investigate the composition of fatty acids and amino acids in fresh and fermented goa-milk. The milk was in oculated with 4% (v/v of L. casei and fermented at 37°C for 48 h. Analysis of fatty acids of fresh and fermented goat and cow’s milk was done by HPLC method, where as amino acid composition was analyzed by GC method. Twenty five semi-trained panelists evaluated the sensory characteristics of fermented milk. Results showed that the fermentation process changed fatty acid profile in goat milk. The saturated fatty acids found in fermented goat-milk were lauric, misristic, and palmitic acid while the unsaturated fatty acids were oleic, linoleic, and linolenic acid. The total amount of saturated fatty acid of fermented goat-milk was higher while unsaturated fatty acid was lower than those in fresh goat milk. The aroma of goaty flavor, strong and musky or “prengus”, was slightly detected in fermented goat milk. Linoleic acid was not detected in fermented goat milk and therefore it was less susceptible from oxidativedeterioration. On the other hand, the fermentation process did not change the profile of amino acids in goat milk. Fermented dairy product made from whole goat milkand cow’s milk was accepted by the panelist as it hadslightly sour taste, yellowish color, and slightly goaty flavor, yet it had high amount of saturated fatty acids.

  4. Kefir Grains Change Fatty Acid Profile of Milk during Fermentation and Storage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C P Vieira

    Full Text Available Several studies have reported that lactic acid bacteria may increase the production of free fatty acids by lipolysis of milk fat, though no studies have been found in the literature showing the effect of kefir grains on the composition of fatty acids in milk. In this study the influence of kefir grains from different origins [Rio de Janeiro (AR, Viçosa (AV e Lavras (AD], different time of storage, and different fat content on the fatty acid content of cow milk after fermentation was investigated. Fatty acid composition was determined by gas chromatography. Values were considered significantly different when p<0.05. The highest palmitic acid content, which is antimutagenic compost, was seen in AV grain (36.6g/100g fatty acids, which may have contributed to increasing the antimutagenic potential in fermented milk. Higher monounsaturated fatty acid (25.8 g/100g fatty acids and lower saturated fatty acid (72.7 g/100g fatty acids contents were observed in AV, when compared to other grains, due to higher Δ9-desaturase activity (0.31 that improves the nutritional quality of lipids. Higher oleic acid (25.0 g/100g fatty acids and monounsaturated fatty acid (28.2g/100g fatty acids and lower saturated fatty acid (67.2g/100g fatty acids contents were found in stored kefir relatively to fermented kefir leading to possible increase of antimutagenic and anticarcinogenic potential and improvement of nutritional quality of lipids in storage milk. Only high-lipidic matrix displayed increase polyunsaturated fatty acids after fermentation. These findings open up new areas of study related to optimizing desaturase activity during fermentation in order to obtaining a fermented product with higher nutritional lipid quality.

  5. Production of benzoic acid as a natural compound in fermented skim milk using commercial cheese starter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sun-Young; Yoo, Mi-Young; Paik, Hyun-Dong; Lim, Sang-Dong

    2017-06-01

    In this study, we investigated the production of natural benzoic acid (BA) in skim milk fermentation by 5 kinds of commercial cheese starters. Five kinds of starter were inoculated into 10% reconstituted skim milk, and then the culture was incubated at 2-h intervals for 10 h at 30, 35, and 40°C. In fermentation by MW 046 N+LH 13, the starter for making raclette, BA was highly detected after 8 h at 30 and 35°C. In fermentation by LH 13, the starter for making berg, BA steadily increased and was highly detected at 40°C. In fermentation by TCC-3+TCC-4, the starter for making Caciocavallo and mozzarella, BA was detected after 2 h at 40°C. Also, BA was detected after 4 and 8 h at 35 and 30°C, respectively. In fermentation by Flora-Danica, the starter for making Gouda, BA was increased until 6 h and decreased after 6 h at all temperatures. Among the 5 kinds of fermentation, the level of BA was the highest in fermentation by Flora-Danica at 6 h at 35°C, at 14.55 mg/kg. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Levels of Se, Zn, Mg and Ca in commercial goat and cow milk fermented products: Relationship with their chemical composition and probiotic starter culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro-Alarcón, Miguel; Cabrera-Vique, Carmen; Ruiz-López, Ma Dolores; Olalla, Manuel; Artacho, Reyes; Giménez, Rafael; Quintana, Verónica; Bergillos, Triana

    2011-12-01

    We determined Se, Zn, Mg and Ca levels in 42 samples of goat and cow fermented milks which are widely consumed in Spain were determined. Atomic absorption spectrometry (hydride generation for Se and flame atomisation for remaining elements) was used as an analytical technique. Reliability of the procedure was checked. Only Mg levels in goat fermented milks were significantly higher to those found in cow fermented milks (pcultures were not significantly different to those found in fermented milks with additional probiotic microorganisms (p>0.05). It was concluded that goat fermented milks are a better source for Mg than cow samples.

  7. Simultaneous determination of fermented milk aroma compounds by a potentiometric sensor array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hruskar, Mirjana; Major, Nikola; Krpan, Marina; Vahcić, Nada

    2010-09-15

    The paper reports on the application of an electronic tongue for simultaneous determination of ethanol, acetaldehyde, diacetyl, lactic acid, acetic acid and citric acid content in probiotic fermented milk. The alphaAstree electronic tongue by Alpha M.O.S. was employed. The sensor array comprised of seven non-specific, cross-sensitive sensors developed especially for food analysis coupled with a reference Ag/AgCl electrode. Samples of plain, strawberry, apple-pear and forest-fruit flavored probiotic fermented milk were analyzed both by standard methods and by the potentiometric sensor array. The results obtained by these methods were used for the development of neural network models for rapid estimation of aroma compounds content in probiotic fermented milk. The highest correlation (0.967) and lowest standard deviation of error for the training (0.585), selection (0.503) and testing (0.571) subset was obtained for the estimation of ethanol content. The lowest correlation (0.669) was obtained for the estimation of acetaldehyde content. The model exhibited poor performance in average error and standard deviations of errors in all subsets which could be explained by low sensitivity of the sensor array to the compound. The obtained results indicate that the potentiometric electronic tongue coupled with artificial neural networks can be applied as a rapid method for the determination of aroma compounds in probiotic fermented milk.

  8. In Vitro Fermentation of Porcine Milk Oligosaccharides and Galacto-oligosaccharides Using Piglet Fecal Inoculum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Difilippo, Elisabetta; Pan, Feipeng; Logtenberg, Madelon; Willems, Rianne; Braber, Saskia; Fink-Gremmels, Johanna; Schols, Henk A.; Gruppen, Harry

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the in vitro fermentation by piglet fecal inoculum of galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS) and porcine milk oligosaccharides (PMOs) was investigated to identify possible preferences for individual oligosaccharide structures by piglet microbiota. First, acidic PMOs and GOS with degrees of

  9. In Vitro Fermentation of Porcine Milk Oligosaccharides and Galacto-oligosaccharides Using Piglet Fecal Inoculum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Difilippo, Elisabetta; Pan, Feipeng; Logtenberg, Madelon; Willems, Rianne H A M; Braber, Saskia; Fink-Gremmels, Johanna; Schols, Henk A; Gruppen, Harry

    In this study, the in vitro fermentation by piglet fecal inoculum of galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS) and porcine milk oligosaccharides (PMOs) was investigated to identify possible preferences for individual oligosaccharide structures by piglet microbiota. First, acidic PMOs and GOS with degrees of

  10. Draft Genome Sequence of Enterococcus mundtii QAUEM2808, Isolated from Dahi, a Fermented Milk Product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farah, N; Mehdi, A; Soomro, S I; Soomro, N I; Tareb, R; Desmasures, N; Vernoux, J P; Bakhtiar, S M; Imran, M

    2016-09-15

    Enterococcus mundtii QAUEM2808 has been isolated from dahi, an indigenous fermented milk product of Pakistan. Here, we report the draft genome sequence for this strain, which consists of 160 contigs corresponding to 2,957,514 bp and a G+C content of 38.5%.

  11. Functional and technological properties of camel milk proteins: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hailu, Yonas; Hansen, Egon Bech; Seifu, Eyassu; Eshetu, Mitiku; Ipsen, Richard; Kappeler, Stefan

    2016-11-01

    This review summarises current knowledge on camel milk proteins, with focus on significant peculiarities in protein composition and molecular properties. Camel milk is traditionally consumed as a fresh or naturally fermented product. Within the last couple of years, an increasing quantity is being processed in dairy plants, and a number of consumer products have been marketed. A better understanding of the technological and functional properties, as required for product improvement, has been gained in the past years. Absence of the whey protein β-LG and a low proportion of к-casein cause differences in relation to dairy processing. In addition to the technological properties, there are also implications for human nutrition and camel milk proteins are of interest for applications in infant foods, for food preservation and in functional foods. Proposed health benefits include inhibition of the angiotensin converting enzyme, antimicrobial and antioxidant properties as well as an antidiabetogenic effect. Detailed investigations on foaming, gelation and solubility as well as technological consequences of processing should be investigated further for the improvement of camel milk utilisation in the near future.

  12. Monitoring lactic acid production during milk fermentation by in situ quantitative proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouteille, R; Gaudet, M; Lecanu, B; This, H

    2013-04-01

    When fermenting milk, lactic bacteria convert part of α- and β-lactoses into d- and l- lactic acids, causing a pH decrease responsible for casein coagulation. Lactic acid monitoring during fermentation is essential for the control of dairy gel textural and organoleptic properties, and is a way to evaluate strain efficiency. Currently, titrations are used to follow the quantity of acids formed during jellification of milk but they are not specific to lactic acid. An analytical method without the use of any reagent was investigated to quantify lactic acid during milk fermentation: in situ quantitative proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Two methods using in situ quantitative proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy were compared: (1) d- and l-lactic acids content determination, using the resonance of their methyl protons, showing an increase from 2.06 ± 0.02 to 8.16 ± 0.74 g/L during 240 min of fermentation; and (2) the determination of the α- and β-lactoses content, decreasing from 42.68 ± 0.02 to 30.76 ± 1.75 g/L for the same fermentation duration. The ratio between the molar concentrations of produced lactic acids and consumed lactoses enabled cross-validation, as the value (2.02 ± 0.18) is consistent with lactic acid bacteria metabolism.

  13. Isolation, identification and characterization of yeasts from fermented goat milk of the Yaghnob Valley in Tajikistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linnea Annie Qvirist

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The geographically isolated region of the Yaghnob Valley, Tajikistan, has allowed its inhabitants to maintain a unique culture and lifestyle. Their fermented goat milk constitutes one of the staple foods for the Yaghnob population, and is produced by backslopping, i.e. using the previous fermentation batch to inoculate the new one. This study addresses the yeast composition of the fermented milk, assessing genotypic and phenotypic properties.The 52 isolates included in this study revealed small species diversity, belonging to Kluyveromyces marxianus, Pichia fermentans, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and one Kazachstania unispora. The K. marxianus strains showed two different genotypes, one of which never described previously. The two genetically different groups also differed significantly in several phenotypic characteristics, such as tolerance towards high temperatures, low pH, and presence of acid. Microsatellite analysis of the S. cerevisiae strains from this study, compared to 350 previously described strains, attributed the Yaghnobi S. cerevisiae to two different ancestry origins, both distinct from the wine and beer strains, and similar to strains isolated from human and insects faeces, suggesting a peculiar origin of these strains, and the existence of a gut reservoir for S. cerevisiae.Our work constitutes a foundation for strain selection for future applications as starter cultures in food fermentations. This work is the first ever on yeast diversity from fermented milk of the previously unexplored area of the Yaghnob Valley.

  14. Isolation, Identification and Characterization of Yeasts from Fermented Goat Milk of the Yaghnob Valley in Tajikistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qvirist, Linnea A.; De Filippo, Carlotta; Strati, Francesco; Stefanini, Irene; Sordo, Maddalena; Andlid, Thomas; Felis, Giovanna E.; Mattarelli, Paola; Cavalieri, Duccio

    2016-01-01

    The geographically isolated region of the Yaghnob Valley, Tajikistan, has allowed its inhabitants to maintain a unique culture and lifestyle. Their fermented goat milk constitutes one of the staple foods for the Yaghnob population, and is produced by backslopping, i.e., using the previous fermentation batch to inoculate the new one. This study addresses the yeast composition of the fermented milk, assessing genotypic, and phenotypic properties. The 52 isolates included in this study revealed small species diversity, belonging to Kluyveromyces marxianus, Pichia fermentans, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and one Kazachstania unispora. The K. marxianus strains showed two different genotypes, one of which never described previously. The two genetically different groups also differed significantly in several phenotypic characteristics, such as tolerance toward high temperatures, low pH, and presence of acid. Microsatellite analysis of the S. cerevisiae strains from this study, compared to 350 previously described strains, attributed the Yaghnobi S. cerevisiae to two different ancestry origins, both distinct from the wine and beer strains, and similar to strains isolated from human and insects feces, suggesting a peculiar origin of these strains, and the existence of a gut reservoir for S. cerevisiae. Our work constitutes a foundation for strain selection for future applications as starter cultures in food fermentations. This work is the first ever on yeast diversity from fermented milk of the previously unexplored area of the Yaghnob Valley. PMID:27857705

  15. Occurrence of Disease Causing Organisms Including Bacteriophages in Indigenous Fermented Milk Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. J.S.Ghosh

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this investigation is to focus on such microbial changes, which are a consequence of unhygienic practices during production, incomplete fermentation and poor storage conditions. In India different fermented products are prepared from milk. These products are mostly intended primarily to conserve the nutritional values of milk. However, since most of these products are flavored and sweetened, these are mostly consumed during festival seasons. Like m ilk these products not only provide nutrients, but also are excellent media for the growth of microorganisms. Microbial growth is seen in the results, which involves successive changes with enteric or food related factors leading to incidence of food poisoning and deterioration of product. Isolation of coliphages is an indication of presence of other phages which could be aetiology of certain improper fermentation due to lack of proper inoculum.

  16. Impact of preacidification of milk and fermentation time on the properties of yogurt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Y; Horne, D S; Lucey, J A

    2009-07-01

    Casein interactions play an important role in the textural properties of yogurt. The objective of this study was to investigate how the concentration of insoluble calcium phosphate (CCP) that is associated with casein particles and the length of fermentation time influence properties of yogurt gels. A central composite experimental design was used. The initial milk pH was varied by preacidification with glucono-delta-lactone (GDL), and fermentation time (time to reach pH 4.6 from the initial pH) was altered by varying the inoculum level. We hypothesized that by varying the initial milk pH value, the amount of CCP would be modified and that by varying the length of the fermentation time we would influence the rate and extent of solubilization of CCP during any subsequent gelation process. We believe that both of these factors could influence casein interactions and thereby alter gel properties. Milks were preacidified to pH values from 6.55 to 5.65 at 40 degrees C using GDL and equilibrated for 4 h before inoculation. Fermentation time was varied from 250 to 500 min by adding various amounts of culture at 40 degrees C. Gelation properties were monitored using dynamic oscillatory rheology, and microstructure was studied using fluorescence microscopy. Whey separation and permeability were analyzed at pH 4.6. The preacidification pH value significantly affected the solubilization of CCP. Storage modulus values at pH 4.6 were positively influenced by the preacidification pH value and negatively affected by fermentation time. The value for the loss tangent maximum during gelation was positively affected by the preacidification pH value. Fermentation time positively affected whey separation and significantly influenced the rate of CCP dissolution during fermentation, as CCP dissolution was a slow process. Longer fermentation times resulted in greater loss of CCP at the pH of gelation. At the end of fermentation (pH approximately 4.6), virtually all CCP was dissolved

  17. Determination of ivermectin and moxidecin residues in bovine milk and examination of the effects of these residues on acid fermentation of milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imperiale, F; Sallovitz, J; Lifschitz, A; Lanusse, C

    2002-09-01

    Ivermectin (IVM) and moxidectin (MXD) are broad-spectrum antiparasitic drugs not approved for use in dairy animals, although their use in dairy sheep, goats and cattle nevertheless occurs in many parts of the world. The work reported here describes (1) the application of an HPLC method (including milk samples clean-up and chemical extraction) to quantify IVM and MXD residues in bovine milk, and (2) an assessment of the effect of different IVM and MXD concentrations on bovine milk acid fermentation. The latter was carried out using the 'yoghurt test' to determine the minimum IVM and MXD concentrations affecting milk acid fermentation. The sample clean-up, chemical extraction and the validated HPLC method allowed the quantification of IVM and MXD up to 0.1 ng ml(-1) in milk with acceptable validation coefficients. Drug recoveries from fortified milk samples ranged between 72% (CV = 9.1%) and 75% (CV = 13.3%) for MXD and IVM, respectively. Neither IVM nor MXD affected the acid fermentation of bovine milk. In fact, there was no drug-induced changes on milk acidity even at IVM and MXD concentrations as high as 1000 ng ml(-1). These results indicate that the yoghurt biological test is not suitable to evaluate the presence of milk residues for these antiparasitic compounds. Thus, a highly sensitive HPLC technique is the only reliable method for determining the presence of residual concentrations of IVM and MXD in milk and dairy products to assure consumer safety.

  18. Effects of Bacillus subtilis natto on milk production, rumen fermentation and ruminal microbiome of dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, P; Wang, J Q; Deng, L F

    2013-02-01

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of Bacillus subtilis natto, which was initially isolated from fermented soybeans on milk production, rumen fermentation and ruminal microbiome in dairy cows. In Experiment 1, 36 early lactation Chinese Holstein dairy cows (56 ± 23 days in milk) were randomly assigned to three groups: Control, cows were fed total mixed ration (TMR); BSNLOW, TMR plus 0.5 × 1011 colony-forming units (cfu) of B. subtilis natto/cow per day; and BSNHIGH, TMR plus 1.0 × 1011 cfu of B. subtilis natto/cow per day. During the 70-day treatment period, daily milk production and daily milk composition were determined in individual cows. The results showed that supplementing dairy cows with 0.5 × 1011 and 1.0 × 1011 cfu of B. subtilis natto linearly increased (P subtilis natto from days 8 to 21 (trial period) and rumen samples were collected on days 20 and 21. B. subtilis natto was discontinued from days 22 to 28 (post-trial period) and rumen samples were collected on days 27 and 28. Compared with the pre- and post-periods, ruminal pH decreased by 2.7% to 3.0% during the trial period (P subtilis natto improves milk production and milk components yield, decreases SCC and promotes the growth of total ruminal bacteria, proteolytic and amylolytic bacteria, which indicate that B. subtilis natto has potential to be applied as a probiotic for dairy cows.

  19. Optimal Cultivation Time for Yeast and Lactic Acid Bacteria in Fermented Milk and Effects of Fermented Soybean Meal on Rumen Degradability Using Nylon Bag Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Polyorach

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to determine an optimal cultivation time for populations of yeast and lactic acid bacteria (LAB co-cultured in fermented milk and effects of soybean meal fermented milk (SBMFM supplementation on rumen degradability in beef cattle using nylon bag technique. The study on an optimal cultivation time for yeast and LAB growth in fermented milk was determined at 0, 4, 8, 24, 48, 72, and 96 h post-cultivation. After fermenting for 4 days, an optimal cultivation time of yeast and LAB in fermented milk was selected and used for making the SBMFM product to study nylon bag technique. Two ruminal fistulated beef cattle (410±10 kg were used to study on the effect of SBMFM supplementation (0%, 3%, and 5% of total concentrate substrate on rumen degradability using in situ method at incubation times of 0, 2, 4, 6, 12, 24, 48, and 72 h according to a Completely randomized design. The results revealed that the highest yeast and LAB population culture in fermented milk was found at 72 h-post cultivation. From in situ study, the soluble fractions at time zero (a, potential degradability (a+b and effective degradability of dry matter (EDDM linearly (p<0.01 increased with the increasing supplemental levels and the highest was in the 5% SBMFM supplemented group. However, there was no effect of SBMFM supplement on insoluble degradability fractions (b and rate of degradation (c. In conclusion, the optimal fermented time for fermented milk with yeast and LAB was at 72 h-post cultivation and supplementation of SBMFM at 5% of total concentrate substrate could improve rumen degradability of beef cattle. However, further research on effect of SBMFM on rumen ecology and production performance in meat and milk should be conducted using in vivo both digestion and feeding trials.

  20. Effect of Aqueous Extract of the Seaweed Gracilaria domingensis on the Physicochemical, Microbiological, and Textural Features of Fermented Milks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavares Estevam, Adriana Carneiro; Alonso Buriti, Flávia Carolina; de Oliveira, Tiago Almeida; Pereira, Elainy Virginia Dos Santos; Florentino, Eliane Rolim; Porto, Ana Lúcia Figueiredo

    2016-04-01

    The effects of the Gracilaria domingensis seaweed aqueous extract in comparison with gelatin on the physicochemical, microbial, and textural characteristics of fermented milks processed with the mixed culture SAB 440 A, composed of Streptococcus thermophilus, Lactobacillus acidophilus, and Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis, were investigated. The addition of G. domingensis aqueous extract did not affect pH, titratable acidity, and microbial viability of fermented milks when compared with the control (with no texture modifier) and the products with added gelatin. Fermented milk with added the seaweed aqueous extract showed firmness, consistency, cohesiveness, and viscosity index at least 10% higher than those observed for the control product (P < 0.05). At 4 h of fermentation, the fermented milks with only G. domingensis extract showed a texture comparable to that observed for products containing only gelatin. At 5 h of fermentation, firmness and consistency increased significantly (P < 0.05) in products with only seaweed extract added, a behavior not observed in products with the full amount of gelatin, probably due to the differences between the interactions of these ingredients with casein during the development of the gel network throughout the acidification of milk. The G. domingensis aqueous extract appears as a promising gelatin alternative to be used as texture modifier in fermented milks and related dairy products.

  1. Survival of Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis in yoghurt and in commercial fermented milk products containing probiotic cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Brandt, L; Coudijzer, K; Herman, L; Michiels, C; Hendrickx, M; Vlaemynck, G

    2011-05-01

    To assess the survival of Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP) in yoghurt and commercial fermented milk products containing probiotic strains. Whole and skimmed UHT milk artificially inoculated with MAP were used to manufacture yoghurt, using two different yoghurt starter cultures. Five commercial fermented milk products were inoculated with MAP. Two different MAP strains were studied. The survival of MAP in all products was monitored by culture over a 6-week storage period at 6°C. In yoghurt, MAP counts did not change appreciably during the storage period. Fat content and type of yoghurt starter culture had no consistent effect on the survival of MAP. In the fermented milk products, survival patterns varied but resulted in a 1·5 to ≥3·8 log reduction for the Niebüll strain and a 1·2-2·2 log reduction for the NIZO strain after 6 weeks, depending on the probiotic starters present in the product. MAP easily survived in yoghurt but MAP numbers decreased in fermented milk products containing probiotic cultures. The results contribute to the lack of knowledge on the behaviour of MAP in yoghurt and fermented milk products containing probiotic cultures. This knowledge is valuable in the context of the risk of MAP transmission to humans via yoghurt and the possible contribution of probiotic fermented milk products to the elimination of MAP. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Applied Microbiology © 2011 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  2. Change of lactose content after milk fermentation using various microbial cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Vinko

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine lactose and lactic acid content and acidity changes in typified milk prior to fermentation and in dairy products on 1st and 28th day of their storage at 8 °C in cold environment. In this study 5 different dairy products were observed: yogurt, extra lactose yogurt, bifido milk, sour cream and sour milk. The enzymatic method for determination of lactose has been used. The biggest change in lactose and lactic acid content, according to study results, has happened in the process of fermentation, as expected. About 16-20 % of lactose has been converted by mesophilus, while significantly bigger part (round 30 % of lactose to lactic acid has been converted by thermophilus. The smallest part of lactose conversion was performed by Bifidobacterium therapy culture (just 15 % after the first day and 19 % on 28th day of cold storage which is due to the greater adjustment period of Bifidobacterium in milk for lactose fermentation.

  3. Microbiological, physical, chemical and sensory characteristics of milk fermented with Lactobacillus plantarum - doi: 10.4025/actascihealthsci.v35i1.11939

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Furlaneto-Maia

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This study developed a fermented milk with Lactobacillus plantarum and evaluated its microbiological, physical-chemical and sensory characteristics during 70 days of storage at 10ºC. The study analyzed the counts of total viable cells, total and thermotolerant coliforms, yeast and mold; acidity, pH, ash, fat and total solids; sensory evaluation and purchase intention of the final product by consumers. Nutrition information was compared with seven commercial brands of fermented dairy products. The final formula contained 10% sugar, 6% milk powder and 4% microbial inoculum. The final product was fat-free. Acidity, ash content and total solids were stable during storage, unlike pH. No total or thermotolerant coliforms, yeast or mold were detected. L. plantarum counts ranged from 10.1 Log10 CFU mL-1 at the beginning to 8.9 Log10 CFU mL-1 at the end of the storage period. The product had good acceptance and high purchase intent. The nutrition information of fermented milk was similar to those of commercial brands evaluated. L. plantarum demonstrated good viability in fermented milk, and although not considered a probiotic food in Brazil, it is promising for the production of foods with functional properties and/or health claims.  

  4. Effects of fermentation with Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG on product quality and fatty acids of goat milk yogurt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Ru; Chen, Han; Chen, Hui; Ding, Wu

    2016-01-01

    The effect of fermentation with Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG on the product quality of goat milk yogurt using traditional yogurt starter was studied through single-factor experiments and orthogonal experiments. The optimum fermentation condition was evaluated by the titratable acidity of goat milk yogurt, water-retaining capability, sensory score, and texture properties; the fatty acids of the fermented goat milk were determined by a gas chromatograph. Results indicate that high product quality of goat milk yogurt can be obtained and the content of short-chain and medium-chain fatty acids can be decreased significantly when amount of sugar added was 7%, inoculation amount was 3%, the ratio of 3 lactic acid bacteria--Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus, Streptococcus thermophilus, and L. rhamnosus GG--was 1:1:3, and fermentation temperature was 42°C. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Preservative effect of various indigenous plants on fermented milk ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    2014-01-31

    Jan 31, 2014 ... An aqueous extract concentration of 40mg/ml was prepared from each of the plants and introduced ..... this milk sample, which may have led to high production of lactic acid. ... Lutuluo R., Kunguru K., Wood N., and. Mathenge ...

  6. Complete genome sequence and description of Lactococcus garvieae M14 isolated from Algerian fermented milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Moumene

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available We describe using a polyphasic approach that combines proteomic by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF analysis, genomic data and phenotypic characterization the features of Lactococcus garvieae strain M14 newly isolated from the fermented milk (known as raib of an Algerian cow. The 2 188 835 bp containing genome sequence displays a metabolic capacity to form acid fermentation that is very useful for industrial applications and encodes for two bacteriocins responsible for its eventual bioprotective properties.

  7. Validation of Steins/Arla Foods method for lactate fermenting clostridia in milk

    OpenAIRE

    Flodin, Jessica

    2009-01-01

    One of the most serious and economically important defects caused by clostridia in milk products is the late blowing of semi-hard cheeses. Clostridia occur naturally in soil and can contaminate milk through crops contaminated by dung and soil followed by a less successful silage process, that give them opportunity to grow unaerobically. When anaerobic conditions occur, such as storage of semi-hard cheese, they ferment lactic acid to butyric acid and the gases CO2 and H2. At the fusion of Arla...

  8. Fermented food in the context of a healthy diet: how to produce novel functional foods?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leroy, Frédéric; De Vuyst, Luc

    2014-11-01

    This review presents an overview of recent studies on the production of functional fermented foods, of both traditional and innovative natures, and the mapping of the functional compounds involved. The functional aspects of fermented foods are mostly related to the concept of probiotic bacteria or the targeted microbial generation of functional molecules, such as bioactive peptides, during food fermentation. Apart from conventional yoghurt and fermented milks, several fermented nondairy foods are globally gaining in interest, in particular from soy or cereal origin, sometimes novel but often originating from ethnic (Asian) diets. In addition, a range of functional nonmicrobial compounds may be added to the fermented food matrix. Overall, a wide variety of potential health benefits is being claimed, yet often poorly supported by mechanistic insights and rarely demonstrated with clinical trials or even animal models. Although functional foods offer considerable market potential, several issues still need to be addressed. As most of the studies on functional fermented foods are of a rather descriptive and preliminary nature, there is a clear need for mechanistic studies and well controlled in-vivo experiments.

  9. Lactobacillus acidophilus antagonistic action against pathogenic strains inoculated in the fermented milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neila Mello Cortez

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available With the present study aimed to evaluate the antagonistic action of Lactobacillus acidophilus front of Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Listeria monocytogenes. In vitro tests were performed using Petri dishes with MRS agar and the milk fermented with Lactobacillus acidophilus also analyzed the chemistry and physical characteristics of the product during 35 days of storage under refrigeration. It has been observed in vitro formation of inhibition zones, ranging from 6 to 18 mm diameter, compared to the tested pathogens by lactic culture raises, indicating the possibility of producing organic acids, bacteriocins or other growth-inhibiting substances. In the fermented milk prepared, during storage, the probiotic micro-organism tested was able to inhibit the growth of E. coli O157: H7 and L. monocytogenes; and the log cycle reduction of S. aureus.

  10. Milk fermentation by Lactococcus lactis with modified proteolytic systems to accumulate potentially bio-active peptides

    OpenAIRE

    Algaron, Florence; Miranda, Guy; Le Bars, Dominique; Monnet, Véronique

    2004-01-01

    International audience; The proteolytic system of lactic acid bacteria has been characterised in detail and numerous modified strains with null or increased specific proteolytic activities have been constructed or identified among natural strains. Based on this knowledge, our objective was to ferment milk with modified strains and produce mixtures of peptides with specific features corresponding to potential bio-activities. We used a collection of Lactococcus lactis negative mutants for pepti...

  11. Optimization of lactobionic acid production by Acetobacter orientalis isolated from Caucasian fermented milk, "Caspian Sea yogurt".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiryu, Takaaki; Yamauchi, Kouhei; Masuyama, Araki; Ooe, Kenichi; Kimura, Takashi; Kiso, Taro; Nakano, Hirofumi; Murakami, Hiromi

    2012-01-01

    We have reported that lactobionic acid is produced from lactose by Acetobacter orientalis in traditional Caucasian fermented milk. To maximize the application of lactobionic acid, we investigated favorable conditions for the preparation of resting A. orientalis cells and lactose oxidation. The resting cells, prepared under the most favorable conditions, effectively oxidized 2-10% lactose at 97.2 to 99.7 mol % yield.

  12. Development of Antioxidant Activity during Milk Fermentation by Wild Isolates of Lactobacillus helveticus

    OpenAIRE

    Aazam Namdari; Fatemeh Nejati

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objective: Oxidative stress, due to free radicals, brings injury to the body by attacking large molecules and cell organs, and is the main reason of many diseases. Fermentation of foods containing large amount of proteins such as milk by special species of lactic acid bacteria is a potential way in enhancement of the antioxidative activity of foods. This study aimed at evaluating non-common starter species isolates of Lactobacillus helveticus for their capability to produce fer...

  13. In vitro probiotic potential of Lactobacillus spp. isolated from fermented milks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.F. Cunha

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The potential of in vitro probiotic Lactobacillus spp. was evaluated in fermented milks marketed in Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil. Of the samples analyzed, 86.7% had at least 10(6 CFU/mL of Lactobacillus spp., complying with the Brazilian quality standards for fermented milks. Furthermore, 56.7% had minimum count ranging from 10(8 to 10(9 CFU/mL, which is in accordance with legal parameters. The remaining 43.3% would not be able to satisfactorily guarantee benefits to consumers. The amount of Lactobacillus spp. varied between batches of products, which may indicate failures in monitoring during manufacture, transport or storage. All strains of Lactobacillus spp. showed some inhibitory activity against the indicator microorganisms, being more pronounced against pathogenic microorganisms than against non-pathogenic (P<0.05. Samples of Lactobacillus spp. showed different profiles of antimicrobial susceptibility, with an occurrence of cases of multidrug resistance. All strains tested showed sensitivity to bile salts (0.3% and resistance to gastric pH (2.0. Lactobacillus spp. of commercial fermented milks should be present in higher amounts in some brands, be resistant to bile salts and have no multiple resistance to antimicrobials.

  14. Development of a non-dairy probiotic fermented product based on almond milk and inulin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernat, Neus; Cháfer, Maite; Chiralt, Amparo; González-Martínez, Chelo

    2015-09-01

    A new fermented almond "milk" that combined the properties of both almonds and probiotics was considered to cover the current versatile health-promoting foods' demand. Almond milk fermentation with probiotic Lactobacillus reuteri and Streptococcus thermophilus was studied by using a Central Composite design with response surface methodology, and different factors (glucose, fructose, inulin and starters) were optimised to assure high probiotic survivals in the final product. The optimal formulation was physicochemically characterised throughout cold storage (28 days) and both probiotic survivals to in vitro digestion and proteolysis were quantified. Results showed that a high probiotic population (>10(7) cfu/mL) was obtained in the previously optimised almond milk throughout storage time, which correspond to the addition of 0.75 g of glucose/100 mL, 0.75 g of fructose/100 mL, 2 g/100 mL inulin and 6 mL/100 mL inoculum. Glucose was used as the main nutrient and the production of mannitol by L. reuteri was detected. The fermentation process increased the viscosity values, forming a weak gel structure, whose physical properties hardly changed. Probiotic bacteria notably survived (51%) to the in vitro digestion, surely related to the inulin presence, which would add value to the developed product by enhancing the potential health benefits of its consumption.

  15. Volatile Organic Compounds in Naturally Fermented Milk and Milk Fermented Using Yeasts, Lactic Acid Bacteria and Their Combinations As Starter Cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bennie C. Viljoen

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The volatile organic compounds present in 18 Zimbabwean naturally fermented milk (amasi samples and those produced by various yeasts, lactic acid bacteria (LAB and yeast/ LAB combinations were determined using headspace gas chromatography. The yeast strains used were: Candida kefyr 23, C. lipolytica 57, Saccharomyces cerevisiae 71, C. lusitaniae 68, C. tropicalis 78, C. lusitaniae 63, C. colliculosa 41, S. dairenensis 32, and Dekkera bruxellensis 43, and were coded Y1 to Y9, respectively. The LAB strains used were Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis Lc39, L. lactis subsp. lactis Lc261, Lactobacillus paracasei Lb11, and L. lactis subsp. lactis biovar. diacetylactis C1, and were coded B1 to B4, respectively. Some of the volatile organic compounds found in amasi were acetaldehyde, ethanol, acetone, 2-methyl propanal, 2-methyl-1-propanol and 3-methyl-1-butanol. However, the levels of volatile organic compounds in the naturally fermented milk (NFM samples varied from one sample to another, with acetaldehyde ranging from 0.1–18.4 ppm, 3-methyl butanal from <0.1–0.47 ppm and ethanol from 39.3–656 ppm. The LAB/C. kefyr 23 (B/Y1 co-cultures produced significantly (p<0.05 higher levels of acetaldehyde and ethanol than the levels found in the NFM. The acetaldehyde levels in the B/Y1 samples ranged from 26.7–87.7 ppm, with L. lactis subsp. lactis biovar. diacetylactis C1 (B4 producing the highest level of acetaldehyde in combination with C. kefyr 23 (Y1. Using principal component analysis (PCA, most of the NFM samples were grouped together with single and co-cultures of Lc261, Lb11 and the non-lactose fermenting yeasts, mainly because of the low levels of ethanol and similar levels of 3-methyl butanal. Chromatograms of amasi showed prominent peak of methyl aldehydes and their alcohols including 3-methyl-butanal and 3-methyl-butanol, suggesting that these compounds are important attributes of Zimbabwean naturally fermented milk.

  16. Using Goat's Milk, Barley Flour, Honey, and Probiotic to Manufacture of Functional Dairy Product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Magdy Mohamed; Hamad, Mohamed Farid; Elraghy, Esraa Mohamed

    2017-08-23

    Stirred yogurt manufactured using probiotic culture which usually called Rayeb milk in the Middle East region is one of the most important functional fermented milk products. To increase the health and functionality properties to this product, some ingredients like fruits, cereal, and whey protein are used in production. This study was carried out to prepare functional Rayeb milk from goat's milk, barley flour (15%) and honey (4%) mixtures using ABT culture. Also, vanilla and cocoa powder were used as flavorings. Adding barley flour and honey to goat's milk increased curd tension and water-holding capacity and decreased coagulation time and susceptibility to syneresis. The values of carbohydrate, total solids, dietary fiber, ash, total protein, water soluble nitrogen, total volatile fatty acids, unsaturated fatty acids, oleic, linoleic, α-linolenic acids, and antioxidant activity were higher in Rayeb milk supplemented with barley flour and honey than control. The viabilities of Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium lactis Bb12 (Chr. Hansen's Lab A/S) increased in fortified Rayeb milk. The recommended level of 10(7) cfu g(-1) of bifidobacteria as a probiotic was exceeded for these samples. Addition of vanilla (0.1%) or cocoa powder (0.5%) improved the sensory properties of fortified Rayeb milk.

  17. The antihypertensive effect of fermented milk in individuals with prehypertension or borderline hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Usinger, Lotte; Jensen, L T; Flambard, B

    2010-01-01

    -blind placebo-controlled study of the antihypertensive effect of Lactobacillus helveticus FM in 94 prehypertensive and borderline hypertensive subjects. The participants were randomised into three treatment groups with a daily intake of 150 ml of FM, 300 ml of FM or placebo (chemically acidified milk......Fermented milk (FM) with putative antihypertensive effect in humans could be an easy applicable lifestyle intervention against hypertension. The mode of action is supposed to be through active milk peptides, shown to possess in vitro ACE-inhibitory effect. Blood pressure (BP) reductions upto 23 mm...... Hg have been reported in spontaneously hypertensive rats fed FM. Results from human studies of the antihypertensive effect are inconsistent. However, many studies suffer from methodological weaknesses, as insufficient blinding and the use of office BP measurements. We conducted a randomised, double...

  18. The antihypertensive effect of fermented milk in individuals with prehypertension or borderline hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Usinger, Lotte; Jensen, L T; Flambard, B

    2010-01-01

    -blind placebo-controlled study of the antihypertensive effect of Lactobacillus helveticus FM in 94 prehypertensive and borderline hypertensive subjects. The participants were randomised into three treatment groups with a daily intake of 150¿ml of FM, 300¿ml of FM or placebo (chemically acidified milk......Fermented milk (FM) with putative antihypertensive effect in humans could be an easy applicable lifestyle intervention against hypertension. The mode of action is supposed to be through active milk peptides, shown to possess in vitro ACE-inhibitory effect. Blood pressure (BP) reductions upto 23¿mm......¿Hg have been reported in spontaneously hypertensive rats fed FM. Results from human studies of the antihypertensive effect are inconsistent. However, many studies suffer from methodological weaknesses, as insufficient blinding and the use of office BP measurements. We conducted a randomised, double...

  19. Functional fermented whey-based beverage using lactic acid bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pescuma, Micaela; Hébert, Elvira María; Mozzi, Fernanda; de Valdez, Graciela Font

    2010-06-30

    Whey protein concentrate (WPC) is employed as functional food ingredient because of its nutritional value and emulsifying properties. However, the major whey protein beta-lactoglobulin (BLG) is the main cause of milk allergy. The aim of this study was to formulate a fermented whey beverage using selected lactic acid bacteria and WPC35 (WPC containing 35% of proteins) to obtain a fermented product with low lactose and BLG contents and high essential amino acid concentration. Cell viability, lactose consumption, lactic acid production, proteolytic activity, amino acid release and BLG degradation by the selected strains Lactobacillus acidophilus CRL 636, Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus CRL 656 and Streptococcus thermophilus CRL 804, as single or mixed (SLaB) cultures were evaluated in WPC35 (10%, w/v) incubated at 37 degrees C for 24h. Then, the fermented WPC35 was mixed with peach juice and calcium lactate (2%, w/v) and stored at 10 degrees C for 28 days. During fermentation, single cultures grew 1.7-3.1 log CFU/ml and produced 25.1-95.0 mmol/l of lactic acid as consequence of lactose consumption (14.0-41.8 mmol/l) after 12h fermentation. L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus CRL 656 was the most proteolytic strain (626 microg/ml Leu) and released the branched-chain essential amino acids Leu (16 microg/ml), Ile (27 microg/ml) and Val (43 microg/ml). All strains were able to degrade BLG in a range of 41-85% after 12h incubation. The starter culture SLaB grew 3.0 log CFU/ml, showed marked pH reduction, produced 122.0 mmol/l of lactic acid, displayed high proteolytic activity (484 microg/ml Leu) releasing Leu (13 microg/ml), Ile (18 microg/ml) and Val (35 microg/ml), and hydrolyzed 92% of BLG. The addition of calcium lactate to WPC35 maintained the drink pH stable during shelf life; no contamination was detected during this period. After 28 days, a decrease in cell viability of all strains was observed being more pronounced for L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus

  20. Impact of a probiotic fermented milk in the gut ecosystem and in the systemic immunity using a non-severe protein-energy-malnutrition model in mice

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    Carmuega Esteban

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malnutrition affects the immune response, causing a decrease of defence mechanisms and making the host more susceptible to infections. Probiotics can reconstitute the intestinal mucosa and stimulate local and systemic immunity. The aim of this work was evaluate the effects of a probiotic fermented milk as a complement of a re-nutrition diet, on the recovery of the intestinal barrier, and mucosal and systemic immune functions in a murine model of non-severe protein-energy-malnutrition. Its potential protection against Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium infection was also analyzed. Methods Mice were undernourished and divided into 3 groups according to the dietary supplement received during re-nutrition (milk, probiotic fermented milk or its bacterial free supernatant and compared to well-nourished and malnourished mice. They were sacrificed previous to the re-nutrition and 5 days post re-nutrition. The phagocytic activity of macrophages from spleen and peritoneum and the changes in the intestinal histology and microbiota were evaluated. Different immune cell populations and cytokine productions were analyzed in the small intestine tissues. The effect of the re-nutrition supplements on the systemic immunity using OVA antigen and against an infection with S. Typhimurium was also studied. Results Probiotic fermented milk was the most effective re-nutrition diet that improved the intestinal microbiota. Its administration also increased the number of IgA+ cells, macrophages and dendritic cells. The production of different cytokine (IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-12 by these cells and the phagocytic activity in peritoneum and spleen was also increased. This re-nutrition diet also stimulated the systemic immune response against OVA antigen which was diminished after the malnutrition period and also improved the host response against S. Typhimurium, decreasing the spread of pathogenic bacteria to the liver and the spleen. The

  1. In vitro probiotic evaluation of phytase producing Lactobacillus species isolated from Uttapam batter and their application in soy milk fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraniya, Appukuttan; Jeevaratnam, Kadirvelu

    2015-09-01

    Probiotic lactic acid bacteria are health promoters and have been traditionally consumed without the knowledge that they have beneficial properties. These bacteria mainly involve in secreting antimicrobials, enhance immune-modulatory effects, and preserve the intestinal epithelial barrier by competitively inhibiting the pathogenic organisms. The aim of this study was to investigate the in vitro probiotic properties of Lactobacillus pentosus, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus plantarum ssp. argentoratensis, and Lactobacillus plantarum ssp. plantarum isolated from fermented Uttapam batter. The isolates produced bacteriocins that were effective against several pathogens. All the isolates exhibited tolerance to bile, gastric, and intestinal conditions. Beneficial properties like cholesterol assimilation and production of enzymes such as β-galactosidase, phytase and bile hydrolase varied among the isolates. Four isolates from each sub-species effectively adhered to Caco-2 cells and prevented pathogen adhesion. Using these strains, the soy milk was fermented, which exhibited higher antioxidant activity, 2,2-diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging activity and decreased phytate content when compared to unfermented soy milk. Thus, these probiotic isolates can be successfully used for formulation of functional foods that thereby help to improvise human health.

  2. Efficacy of fermented milk and whey proteins in Helicobacter pylori eradication: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachdeva, Aarti; Rawat, Swapnil; Nagpal, Jitender

    2014-01-21

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) eradication is considered a necessary step in the management of peptic ulcer disease, chronic gastritis, gastric adenocarcinoma and mucosa associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma. Standard triple therapy eradication regimens are inconvenient and achieve unpredictable and often poor results. Eradication rates are decreasing over time with increase in antibiotic resistance. Fermented milk and several of its component whey proteins have emerged as candidates for complementary therapy. In this context the current review seeks to summarize the current evidence available on their role in H. pylori eradication. Pertinent narrative/systematic reviews, clinical trials and laboratory studies on individual components including fermented milk, yogurt, whey proteins, lactoferrin, α-lactalbumin (α-LA), glycomacropeptide and immunoglobulin were comprehensively searched and retrieved from Medline, Embase, Scopus, Cochrane Controlled Trials Register and abstracts/proceedings of conferences up to May 2013. A preponderance of the evidence available on fermented milk-based probiotic preparations and bovine lactoferrin suggests a beneficial effect in Helicobacter eradication. Evidence for α-LA and immunoglobulins is promising while that for glycomacropeptide is preliminary and requires substantiation. The magnitude of the potential benefit documented so far is small and the precise clinical settings are ill defined. This restricts the potential use of this group as a complementary therapy in a nutraceutical setting hinging on better patient acceptability/compliance. Further work is necessary to identify the optimal substrate, fermentation process, dose and the ideal clinical setting (prevention/treatment, first line therapy/recurrence, symptomatic/asymptomatic, gastritis/ulcer diseases etc.). The potential of this group in high antibiotic resistance or treatment failure settings presents interesting possibilities and deserves further exploration.

  3. Development of an alternative culture medium for the selective enumeration of Lactobacillus casei in fermented milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombo, Monique; de Oliveira, Aline Evelyn Zimmermann; de Carvalho, Antonio Fernandes; Nero, Luís Augusto

    2014-05-01

    Monitoring the populations of probiotic strains of the species Lactobacillus casei in food is required by food industries in order to assure that a minimum concentration of these organisms will be ingested by consumers. In this context, Petrifilm™ AC plates can be used along with selective culture media to allow the enumeration of specific groups of lactic acid bacteria. The present study aimed to assess chemical substances as selective agents for Lb. casei in order to propose a selective culture medium to be used with Petrifilm™ AC plates as an alternative protocol for the enumeration of probiotic strains of this species in fermented milk. Twenty-six probiotic and starter cultures (including six strains of Lb. casei) were plated on de Man Rogosa and Sharpe (MRS) agar with distinct concentrations of nalidixic acid, bile, lithium chloride, metronidazole, sodium propionate, and vancomycin. Vancomycin at 10 mg/L demonstrated selective activity for Lb. casei. In addition, 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chlorine was identified as a compound that did not inhibit Lb. casei, and Petrifilm™ AC plates used with MRS and vancomycin at 10 mg/L (MRS-V) demonstrated more colonies of this organism when incubated under anaerobic conditions than aerobic conditions. Acidophilus milk and yoghurt were prepared, added to Lb. casei strains, and stored at 4 °C. Lb. casei populations were monitored using MRS-V and MRTLV by conventional plating and associated with Petrifilm™ AC plates. All correlation indices between counts obtained by conventional plating and Petrifilm™ AC were significant (p enumeration of Lb. casei strains in fermented milk. However, the selective potential of this culture medium must be evaluated considering the specific strains of Lb. casei and the starter cultures inoculated in the fermented milk that requires monitoring.

  4. Short communication: Antioxidative and antibacterial activities on Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli O157:H4 in milk with added ginseng marc extract fermented by Lactobacillus plantarum KCCM 11613P.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eom, S J; Hwang, J E; Jung, J; Jee, H-S; Kim, K-T; Paik, H-D

    2017-08-09

    Ginseng marc, a by-product of the extraction of fresh ginseng, is known to have bioactive compounds, but is frequently discarded as agriculture waste. The objectives of our study were to assess the antioxidative activity of fermented ginseng marc extract using Lactobacillus plantarum KCCM 11613P and to evaluate antibacterial activity of fermented milk with added ginseng marc extract during fermentation. After 24 h of fermentation of ginseng marc extract, the viable cell number was increased to 7.7 ± 0.1 log cfu/mL, and the pH and total titratable acidity were 4.2 ± 0.4 and 0.6% lactic acid, respectively. The total phenolic and flavonoid contents of fermented ginseng marc extract increased by 32.4 and 23.3%, respectively. Higher antioxidative activity of fermented ginseng marc extract was obtained in the β-carotene bleaching, ferric-reducing ability of plasma, and ferric thiocyanate assays than the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazy assay. However, the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazy scavenging effect decreased due to lowered pH. During production of fermented milk with ginseng, inhibition rate of Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli were 9.7 and 2.3%, respectively. The present study shows the possibilities of Lactobacillus plantarum KCCM 11613P used as a fermentation strain and ginseng marc used as a functional supplement in milk. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Effect of milk fermentation by kefir grains and selected single strains of lactic acid bacteria on the survival of Mycobacterium bovis BCG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macuamule, C L S; Wiid, I J; van Helden, P D; Tanner, M; Witthuhn, R C

    2016-01-18

    Mycobacterium bovis that causes Bovine tuberculosis (BTB) can be transmitted to humans thought consumption of raw and raw fermented milk products from diseased animals. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) used in popular traditional milk products in Africa produce anti-microbial compounds that inhibit some pathogenic and spoilage bacteria. M. bovis BCG is an attenuated non-pathogenic vaccine strain of M. bovis and the aim of the study was to determine the effect of the fermentation process on the survival of M. bovis BCG in milk. M. bovis BCG at concentrations of 6 log CFU/ml was added to products of kefir fermentation. The survival of M. bovis BCG was monitored at 12-h intervals for 72 h by enumerating viable cells on Middlebrook 7H10 agar plates enriched with 2% BD BACTEC PANTA™. M. bovis BCG was increasingly reduced in sterile kefir that was fermented for a period of 24h and longer. In the milk fermented with kefir grains, Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. paracasei or Lactobacillus casei, the viability of M. bovis BCG was reduced by 0.4 logs after 24h and by 2 logs after 48 h of fermentation. No viable M. bovis BCG was detected after 60 h of fermentation. Results from this study show that long term fermentation under certain conditions may have the potential to inactivate M. bovis BCG present in the milk. However, to ensure safety of fermented milk in Africa, fermentation should be combined with other hurdle technologies such as boiling and milk pasteurisation.

  6. Research Advance on Functional Fermented Alcoholic Milk Beverage-Kefir%酒精性发酵功能乳饮料——开菲尔的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘辉; 高瑞萍; 宁娜

    2011-01-01

    As an old and new fermented dairy products, Kefir's nutritional characteristics and health function, more and more loved by the people. This article introduce d the Kefir and kefir grains, its nutritional characteristics, features and research progress of related products were reviewed as well. The research prospects of Kefir were predicted.%作为一种古老而又新型的发酵奶制品,Kefir的营养特性及其保健功能,愈来愈受到人们的喜爱.本文介绍了Kefir及其发酵剂开菲尔粒,并对Kefir的营养特性、功能特性及其相关制品的研究进展做一综述,对Kefir的研究进行了展望.

  7. Antioxidant Activity of Peptides from Fermented Milk with Mix Culture of Lactic Acid Bacteria and Yeast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Li

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study is to investigate the production of antioxidant peptides during milk fermentation with co-culture of Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB and yeast. Five LAB strains, previously screened with higher hydrolysis activity and Debaryomyces hansenii H2 which isolated from Tibet kefir were used in the study. The peptides separated from fermented milk were analysed antioxidant activity with DPPH radical scavenging, hydroxyl radical scavenging, chelation of metal ions and reducing power assays. The growth of Streptococcus. thermophilus Lactobacillus. delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus and Lactococcus. lactis was enhanced with co-cultures and L. acidophilus was inhibited in co-culture with yeast. In co-culture with yeast, a significant decrease of the acidity was observed among all the fermentation and the pH reached higher values than in single LAB cultures. Except for L.delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus, there was no significant difference of protein hydrolysis with other test LAB strains between co-culture and single culture. The co-incubation of LAB with the yeast developed a stronger antioxidant activity in DPPH radical and hydroxyl radical scavenging and no significant (p>0.05 difference in chelation of metal ions. The reducing power of L.delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus and L. helveticus in co-culture was significant higher than those of single culture.

  8. Effect of Total Inoculum Size Containing Lactobacillus acidophilus or Lactobacillus casei on Fermentation of Goat Milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Chen

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In order to obtain the optimum inoculum size of goat milk fermented by probiotics, the total inoculum size containing L. acidophilus or L. casei on pH, acidity and viable counts and sensory during fermentation were studied on the basis of S. thermophilus and L. bulgaricus as starter cultures. The results showed as follows: the optimum inoculum size of L. acidophilus or L. casei were all 7% and goat milk was fermented at 39°C for 4.5 h. The pH, acidity, the viable counts of L. acidophilus and the total viable counts were respectively 4.48, 91°T, 1.60×107 cfu/mL and 1.69×109 cfu/mL. The pH, acidity, the viable counts of L. casei and the total viable counts were respectively 4.38, 96°T, 2.80×108 cfu/mL and 2.20×109 cfu/mL.

  9. Fermentation optimization of goat milk with Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium bifidum by Box-Behnken design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guowei Shu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background. Goat milk is only limited to the processing of goat milk powder and liquid milk, the products are mainly about milk powder and a few of them are made as milk tablet. Therefore, the study of probiotic goat milk will have great significance in the full use of goats and the development of the goat milk industry in China. Methods. The effect of fermentation temperature (35°C, 37°C, 39°C, strain ratio (1:1:1, 2:1:1, 3:1:1 and in- oculum size (4%, 5%, 6% on viable counts of L. acidophilus and B. bifidum, total bacteria and sensory value during fermentation process of L. acidophilus and B. bifidum goat yogurt (AB-goat yogurt was investigated. Results. The optimum fermentation conditions for AB-goat yogurt were: fermentation temperature 38°C, the strain ratio 2:1:1, inoculum size 6%. Under the optimum conditions, the viable counts of B. bifidum, L. aci- dophilus, total bacteria and sensory value reached (4.30 ±0.11×107  cfu/mL, (1.39 ±0.09×108  cfu/mL, (1.82±0.06×109  cfu/mL and 7.90 ±0.14, respectively. Conclusion. The fermentation temperature, the strain ratio and inoculum size had a significant effect on the fermentation of AB-goat yogurt and these results are beneficial for developing AB-goat yogurt.

  10. Novel fermented chickpea milk with enhanced level of γ-aminobutyric acid and neuroprotective effect on PC12 cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen Li

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, novel fermented chickpea milk with high γ -aminobutyric acid (GABA content and potential neuroprotective activity was developed. Fermentation starter that can produce GABA was selected from 377 strains of lactic acid bacteria isolated from traditional Chinese fermented foods. Among the screened strains, strain M-6 showed the highest GABA-producing capacity in De Man–Rogosa and Sharp (MRS broth and chickpea milk. M-6 was identified as Lactobacillus plantarum based on Gram staining, API carbohydrate fermentation pattern testing, and 16s rDNA sequencing. The complete gene encoding glutamate decarboxylase was cloned to confirm the presence of the gene in L. plantarum M-6. The fermentation condition was optimized by response surface methodology. Results demonstrated that L. plantarum M-6 produced the highest GABA content of 537.23 mg/L. The optimal condition included an inoculum concentration of 7%, presence of 0.2% (m/v monosodium glutamate and 55 µ M pyridoxal-5-phosphate, incubation temperature of 39 °C and fermentation time of 48 h . GABA-enriched chickpea milk exerted protective effects on PC12 cells against MnCl2 -induced injury. GABA-enriched chickpea milk improved cell viability and markedly attenuated the release of lactate dehydrogenase compared with the impaired cells.

  11. Probiotic viability and storage stability of yogurts and fermented milks prepared with several mixtures of lactic acid bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mani-López, E; Palou, E; López-Malo, A

    2014-05-01

    Currently, the food industry wants to expand the range of probiotic yogurts but each probiotic bacteria offers different and specific health benefits. Little information exists on the influence of probiotic strains on physicochemical properties and sensory characteristics of yogurts and fermented milks. Six probiotic yogurts or fermented milks and 1 control yogurt were prepared, and we evaluated several physicochemical properties (pH, titratable acidity, texture, color, and syneresis), microbial viability of starter cultures (Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus) and probiotics (Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus casei, and Lactobacillus reuteri) during fermentation and storage (35 d at 5°C), as well as sensory preference among them. Decreases in pH (0.17 to 0.50 units) and increases in titratable acidity (0.09 to 0.29%) were observed during storage. Only the yogurt with S. thermophilus, L. delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus, and L. reuteri differed in firmness. No differences in adhesiveness were determined among the tested yogurts, fermented milks, and the control. Syneresis was in the range of 45 to 58%. No changes in color during storage were observed and no color differences were detected among the evaluated fermented milk products. Counts of S. thermophilus decreased from 1.8 to 3.5 log during storage. Counts of L. delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus also decreased in probiotic yogurts and varied from 30 to 50% of initial population. Probiotic bacteria also lost viability throughout storage, although the 3 probiotic fermented milks maintained counts ≥ 10(7)cfu/mL for 3 wk. Probiotic bacteria had variable viability in yogurts, maintaining counts of L. acidophilus ≥ 10(7) cfu/mL for 35 d, of L. casei for 7d, and of L. reuteri for 14 d. We found no significant sensory preference among the 6 probiotic yogurts and fermented milks or the control. However, the yogurt and fermented milk made with L. casei were better accepted. This

  12. Direct determination of calcium, sodium and potassium in fermented milk products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kravić Snežana Ž.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was the investigation of the possibilities of direct determination of calcium, sodium and potassium in the commercial and kombucha-based fermented milk products by flame photometry. Two procedures were used for sample preparation: simple dilution with water (direct method and extraction with mineral acid. Calcium, sodium and potassium levels determined after mentioned sample preparation methods were compared. The results showed that the differences between the values obtained for the different sample treatment were within the experimental error at the 95% confidence level. Compared to the method based on extraction with mineral acid, the direct method is efficient, faster, simpler, cheaper, and operates according to the principles of Green Chemistry. Consequently, the proposed method for the direct determination of calcium, sodium and potassium could be applied for the rapid routine analysis of the mineral content in the fermented dairy products. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 46009

  13. Short communication: Change of naturally occurring benzoic acid during skim milk fermentation by commercial cheese starters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Noori; Park, Sun-Young; Kim, Sun-Young; Yoo, Mi-Young; Paik, Hyun-Dong; Lim, Sang-Dong

    2016-11-01

    This study sought to investigate the change of naturally occurring benzoic acid (BA) during skim milk fermentation by 4 kinds of commercial cheese starters used in domestic cheese. The culture was incubated at 3-h intervals for 24h at 30, 35, and 40°C. The BA content during fermentation by Streptococcus thermophilus STB-01 was detected after 12h at all temperatures, sharply increasing at 30°C. In Lactobacillus paracasei LC431, BA was detected after 9h at all temperatures, sharply increasing until 18h and decreasing after 18h at 30 and 35°C. In the case of R707 (consisting of Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis and Lactococcus lactis ssp. cremoris), BA increased from 6h to 15h and decreased after 15h at 40°C. The BA during STB-01 and CHN-11 (1:1; mixture of S. thermophilus, Lc. lactis ssp. lactis, Lc. lactis ssp. cremoris, Lc. lactis ssp. diacetylactis, Leuconostoc mesenteroides ssp. cremoris) fermentation was detected after 3h at 35 and 40°C, sharply increasing up to 12h and decreasing after 15h at 35°C, and after 6h, increasing up to 9h at 30°C. After 3h, it steadily decreased at 40°C. The highest amount of BA was found during the fermentation by R707 at 30°C; 15h with 12.46mg/kg.

  14. Detection of cheese whey and caseinomacropeptide in fermented milk beverages using high performance liquid chromatography

    OpenAIRE

    E.H.P. Andrade; M.R. Souza; Fonseca,L.M.; C.F.A.M. Penna; M.M.O.P. Cerqueira; T. Roza; Seridan,B.; M.F.S. Resende; Pinto, F. A.; C.N.B.C. Villanoeva; Leite,M.O.

    2014-01-01

    Cheese whey level and caseinomacropeptide (CMP) index of fermented milk beverages added with four levels of cheese whey (0, 10, 20, and 40%) and stored at 8-10oC for 0, 7, 14 and 21 days were determined by high performance liquid chromatography-gel filtration (HPLC-GF). Additionally, the interference of the starter culture and the storage time on the detection of cheese whey and CMP were investigated. Refrigerated storage up to 21 days did not affect (P>0.05) cheese whey and CMP amounts in mi...

  15. Differentiation of lactate-fermenting, gas-producing Clostridium spp. isolated from milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingham, S C; Hassler, J R; Tsai, Y W; Ingham, B H

    1998-09-08

    Endospores of Clostridium spp. capable of producing gas in a lactate-containing medium were enumerated from 14 pasteurized milk samples from Wisconsin cheese plants. Concentrations of endospores of lactate-fermenting, gas-producing Clostridium spp. were between 5.0 x 10(-2) and 1.7 x 10(0) MPN ml(-1). Concentrations of presumptive C. tyrobutyricum endospores (defined by subterminal endospore position and lactate dehydrogenase activity) were lower, not exceeding 2.0 x 10(-2) MPN ml(-1). Based on subterminal endospore position, lactate dehydrogenase activity, and a carbohydrate fermentation profile identical to C. tyrobutyricum strain ATCC 25755, five isolates (Ct) were initially characterized as C. tyrobutyricum, a known cause of late-blowing in high-pH cheeses. Twenty-eight other isolates (Cx) produced gas from lactate, but differed from ATCC 25755 in either endospore position, lactate dehydrogenase activity or carbohydrate fermentation profile. When inoculated at high concentrations in Gouda cheese, strain ATCC 25755, two Ct isolates and 18 Cx isolates tested produced gas during ripening. Among the five Ct isolates obtained and two reference strains confirmed as C. tyrobutyricum, there were four qualitatively different volatile organic acid byproduct profiles. Each of the two confirmed C. tyrobutyricum reference strains and five Ct isolates had distinct quantitative cell membrane fatty acid (CMFA) profiles. The Cx isolates represented 14 different volatile organic acid byproduct profiles and each isolate had a unique CMFA profile. Pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) of DNA from the two confirmed reference C. tyrobutyricum strains, four Ct and three Cx isolates, showed a low degree of relatedness. The results of this study suggest that a heterogeneous group of lactate-fermenting, gas-producing Clostridium spp. may be found in milk. Gas chromatographic analysis of volatile organic acid byproducts or CMFA, and PFGE of DNA are highly discriminating methods for

  16. Effect of fermented milk containing Lactobacillus rhamnosus SD11 on oral microbiota of healthy volunteers: A randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rungsri, P; Akkarachaneeyakorn, N; Wongsuwanlert, M; Piwat, S; Nantarakchaikul, P; Teanpaisan, R

    2017-10-01

    The aims of this study were to evaluate whether short-term consumption of fermented milk containing Lactobacillus rhamnosus SD11 affected levels of oral microbiota in vivo and whether L. rhamnosus SD11 could colonize in the human mouth. We also monitored for potential side effects of the probiotic. The applicability of using L. rhamnosus SD11 compared with Lactobacillus bulgaricus as a starter culture for fermented milk was evaluated. After informed consent, 43 healthy young adults were recruited and randomly assigned to either the probiotic or control group and received fermented milk containing L. rhamnosus SD11 or L. bulgaricus, respectively, once daily for 4 wk. The numbers of mutans streptococci, lactobacilli, and total bacteria in saliva were counted at baseline and then after 4 and 8 wk. An oral examination was performed at baseline and after 8 wk. The persistence of L. rhamnosus SD11 was investigated by DNA fingerprinting using arbitrary primer-PCR. Results demonstrated that statistically significant reductions in mutans streptococci and total bacteria were observed in the probiotic group compared with the control group, and the number of lactobacilli was significantly increased in both groups after receiving fermented milks. Lactobacillus rhamnosus SD11 could be detected (in >80% of subjects) up to 4 wk following cessation of dosing among subjects in the probiotic group. No side effects were reported. Thus, L. rhamnosus SD11 could be used as a starter culture for fermented milk. Daily consumption of L. rhamnosus SD11-containing fermented milk for 4 wk may have beneficial effects on oral health by reducing salivary levels of mutans streptococci. The probiotic was apparently able to colonize the oral cavity for a longer time than previously reported. However, the potential benefits of probiotic L. rhamnosus SD11 on oral health require further evaluation with a larger group of volunteers in a longer-term study. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science

  17. Production and metaboLic pathways of key fLavor compounds in fermented miLk as weLL as functionaL genes%发酵乳中的主要风味物质及其代谢合成途径和关键功能基因

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘文俊; 张和平

    2016-01-01

    Flavor not only plays an important role in the fermented milk because it is an indicator for good quality formation of fer-mented milk,but also it can determine acceptance of products by consumers.In this paper,the types and concentration of volatile flavor compounds presented in fermented milk,as well as their role in the milk flavor quality formation were reviewed.In addi-tion,the formation mechanisms of volatile flavor compounds and their metabolic pathways combined with gene regulation in relat-ed lactic acid bacteria species were summarized.%风味不仅对发酵乳的品质形成具有重要作用,而且是决定消费者对产品认可度的重要指标。结合发酵乳中产生的挥发性风味物质种类、含量以及它们在发酵乳风味形成中的作用,对乳酸菌在发酵乳挥发性风味物质的形成机制和相关菌种的代谢合成途径进行了综述,并对近年来围绕发酵乳风味物质改善进行的代谢调控的关键功能基因进行了总结和梳理。

  18. Short communication: survival of the characteristic microbiota in probiotic fermented camel, cow, goat, and sheep milks during refrigerated storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varga, L; Süle, J; Nagy, P

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to monitor the viability during storage of Lactobacillus acidophilus LA-5 (A), Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis BB-12 (B), and Streptococcus thermophilus CHCC 742/2130 (T) in probiotic cultured dairy foods made from pasteurized camel, cow, goat, and sheep milks fermented by an ABT-type culture. The products manufactured were stored at 4°C for 42d. Microbiological analyses were performed at weekly intervals. Streptococcus thermophilus CHCC 742/2130 was the most numerous culture component in all 4 products both at the beginning and at the end of storage. The viable counts of streptococci showed no significant decline in fermented camel milk throughout the entire storage period. The initial numbers of Lb. acidophilus LA-5 were over 2 orders of magnitude lower than those of Strep. thermophilus CHCC 742/2130. With the progress of time, a slow and constant decrease was observed in lactobacilli counts; however, the final viability percentages of this organism did not differ significantly in the probiotic fermented milks tested. The cultured dairy foods made from cow, sheep, and goat milks had comparable B. animalis ssp. lactis BB-12 counts on d 0, exceeding by approximately 0.5 log10 cycle those in the camel milk-based product. No significant losses occurred in viability of bifidobacteria in fermented camel, cow, and sheep milks during 6wk of refrigerated storage. In conclusion, all 4 varieties of milk proved to be suitable raw materials for the manufacture of ABT-type fermented dairy products that were microbiologically safe and beneficial for human consumption. It was suggested that milk from small ruminants be increasingly used to produce probiotic fermented dairy foods. The development of camel milk-based probiotic cultured milks appears to be even more promising because new markets could thus be conquered. It must be emphasized, however, that further microbiological and sensory studies, technology development activities, and

  19. Short communication: Viability of culture organisms in honey-enriched acidophilus-bifidus-thermophilus (ABT)-type fermented camel milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varga, L; Süle, J; Nagy, P

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this research was to monitor the survival during refrigerated storage of Lactobacillus acidophilus LA-5 (A), Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis BB-12 (B), and Streptococcus thermophilus CHCC 742/2130 (T) in cultured dairy foods made from camel and, for comparison, cow milks supplemented with black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L.) honey and fermented by an acidophilus-bifidus-thermophilus (ABT)-type culture. Two liters of dromedary camel milk and 2 L of cow milk were heated to 90 °C and held for 10 min, then cooled to 40 °C. One half of both types of milk was fortified with black locust honey at the rate of 5.0% (wt/vol), whereas the other half was devoid of honey and served as a control. The camel and cow milks with and without honey were subsequently inoculated with ABT-5 culture and were fermented at 37 °C until a pH value of 4.6 was reached. Thereafter, the probiotic fermented milks were cooled to 15 °C in ice water and were each separated into 18 fractions that were transferred in sterile, tightly capped centrifuge tubes. After 24 h of cooling at 8 °C (d 0), the samples were stored at refrigeration temperature (4 °C). Three tubes of all 4 products (i.e., fermented camel and cow milks with and without honey) were taken at each sampling time (i.e., following 0, 7, 14, 21, 28, and 35 d of storage), and the counts of characteristic microorganisms and those of certain spoilage microbes (yeasts, molds, coliforms, Escherichia coli) were enumerated. The entire experimental program was repeated twice. The results showed that addition of black locust honey at 5% to heat-treated camel and cow milks did not influence the growth and survival of starter streptococci during production and subsequent refrigerated storage of fermented ABT milks. In contrast, honey improved retention of viability of B. animalis ssp. lactis BB-12 in the camel milk-based product during storage at 4 °C up to 5 wk. No spoilage organisms were detected in any of the samples tested

  20. Effects of probiotic fermented milk on biofilms, oral microbiota, and enamel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodi, Carolina Simonetti; Oliveira, Lidiane Viana; Brighenti, Fernanda Lourenção; Delbem, Alberto Carlos Botazzo; Martinhon, Cleide Cristina Rodrigues

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate in vitro and in vivo the effects of 2 brands of probiotic fermented milk on biofilms, oral microbiota, and enamel. For the in situ experiment, ten volunteers wore palatine devices containing four blocks of bovine dental enamel over 3 phases, during which 20% sucrose solution, Yakult® (Treatment A), and Batavito® (Treatment B) were dropped on the enamel blocks. Salivary microbial counts were obtained and biofilm samples were analyzed after each phase. For the in vivo experiment, the same ten volunteers drunk Yakult® (Treatment C) and Batavito® (Treatment D) in two phases. Saliva samples were collected for microbial analysis after each phase. The in situ study showed that in comparison with Treatment A, Treatment B resulted in fewer total cultivable anaerobes and facultative microorganisms in biofilms, higher final microhardness, lower percentage change in surface hardness, and smaller integrated subsurface enamel hardness. In the in vivo study, Treatment D resulted in a reduction in the counts of all microorganisms. The results suggested that the probiotic fermented milk Batavito®, but not Yakult®, reduced the amount of oral microorganisms and mineral loss in bovine enamel.

  1. Effect of inulin on the growth and survival of Bifidobacterium longum BB536 in fermented goat’s and cow’s milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Šimunek

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Fermented dairy products were made from standardized goat and cow milk (2.9 % milk fat with addition of 3 % skimmed milk powder (control samples, or with addition of 2 % inulin and 1 % skimmed milk powder (experimental samples. Fermentation of samples was carried out at 40 °C by thermophilic yoghurt culture YC-380 and probiotic culture Bifidobacterium longum BB536. Desired acidity (pH around 4.5 was achieved in all samples in about 5.5 h. Viable count of probiotic strain (logN/m increased for all samples for on average 1.4 logarithmic units except for the sample of cow’s milk supplemented with inulin, which exhibited the highest growth of bifidobacteria for approximately 1.7 logarithmic units. During fermentation somewhat faster decrease of pH-value was observed in goat milk samples compared to cow milk samples. At the end of fermentation there was no statistically significant difference (P>0.05 in pH-values regardless of milk origin or inulin addition. During thirty days of fermented drink storage at lower temperature (about 6 °C, slightly lower pH-values were observed in cow milk samples compared to goat milk, especially in cow milk enriched with inulin. During storage, until the 15th day, an increase in the number of viable count of probiotic bacteria was observed in all samples, while from 20th to 30th day a decrease of 0.5 logarithmic units of the same parameter was recorded. In goat milk their survival was somewhat smaller compared to cow milk. The number of bifidobacteria in samples supplemented with inulin on the last day of storage, compared to control samples, was higher for 0.3 logarithmic units, regardless of the milk origin. After thirty days of refrigerated storage, recommended concentration of bifidobacteria was insured in all samples, thus directly implying that these fermented drinks can be included in probiotics.

  2. Viability of microflora pf market fermented milk products in simulated conditions of gastric and duodenum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Ziarno

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Background. The non-probiotic lactic acid bacteria have only rarely been used in in vitro or in vivo studies, because they are not considered to exert health benefits. To exert the beneficial effect in human organism, LAB needs to meet some criteria, for example the viability in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT. The aim of this work was to determine the viability of microflora of chosen market non-probiotic fermented milk products in simulated gastric and duodenal fluids. Material and methods. Ten market non-probiotic fermented milk products bought in Warsaw were used in this study. Ten grams of each product have been suspended in simulated gastric fluid, and then the mixture has been transferred into simulated duodenal fluid. Immediately after bacteria inoculums addition and at the end of the experiment, the number of lactobacilli and lactococci was measured. Results. The number of lactococci or streptococci decreased by 0.1-0.3 log cycle after 3 h in gastric mixture. Only in one yoghurt the population of streptococci decreased by 0.9 log cycle. The population of lactobacilli did not change in condition of simulated gastric fluid. The significant reduction of lactobacilli, lactococci and streptococci population was observed after the transfer of mixture into simulated duodenal fluid and incubation in this condition for 5 h. After the end of experiments in every studied sample the number of microflora remained at the level above 6 log CFU/mL. Conclusions. The results indicate that the condition simulating gastric fluid is not a menace to viability of lactic acid bacteria, if they are protected by milk products. The significant reduction of bacteria number in simulated duodenal fluid was probably caused by cell shock to intensive pH change of environment and loss of protective barrier caused by digestive enzymes activity.

  3. Rumen Fermentation and Milk Quality of Dairy Cows Fed Complete Feed Silages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Komalasari

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to evaluate the rumen fermentation and milk quality of Friesian Holstein (FH cows given complete feed silages during lactation. Twelve FH cows in 5th mo lactation were offered four dietary treatments in a completely randomized design with three replications. The treatments were, control diet (NS containing 50% concentrate, 45% elephant grass and 5% sun flower meal; grass complete feed silage (GS containing 50% concentrate, 45% elephant grass and 5% sunflower meal; rice straw complete feed silage (RSS containing 50% concentrate, 30% elephant grass, 15% rice straw and 5% sunflower and palm oil frond complete feed silage (PKS containing 50% concentrate, 30% elephant grass, 15% palm oil frond, and 5% sunflower meal. Ensilage was done with addition of Lactobacillus plantarum 1A-2 and cellulase enzyme. Analysis of variance and Duncan test were applied to compare the different among the means of treatments. Complete feed silages had range of pH between 3.89-4.44, temperature of 28.0-29.67 oC and lactic acid bacteria of 0.54-1.50 x 108 cfu/g. Crude protein intake of RSS was the highest among treatments. Acetate concentration in rumen liquor was more than 70%. Milk yield and protein were not different among treatments. GS gave the highest milk fat (5.66%. The conclusion was that both complete feed silages, using rice straw or palm oil frond can be used as alternative rations for lactating dairy cows.

  4. Analysis of Proximate and Protein Profile of Kefir from Fermented Goat and Cow Milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erwin Hidayat

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to analyze the characteristics of proximate and protein profile in kefir from fermented goat milk and cow milk with different concentration of kefir grains. The research design was true experimental with Completely Randomized Design (CRD of 3 repetitions. The research procedures consisted of kefir production, proximate analysis and protein profile characterization. Proximate assay result was analyzed by using LSD, whereas the protein profile was analyzed by descriptive qualitative method. Based on the analysis of kefir proximate levels, the kefir grain (5% showed the highest proximate level of both kefirs from goat milk and cow milk. The analysis of protein profile of cow milk kefir showed 75 kDa of protein ribbon, while the goat milk kefir showed 48 kDa, 60 kDa and 75 kDa. Therefore it can be concluded that the proximate level of goat and cow milk kefir with different concentration of kefir grains showed significant differences in the nutrition content as well as its protein profiles.Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah menganalisis karakteristik proksimat dan profil protein pada kefir hasil fermentasi susu kambing dan susu sapi dengan konsentrasi biji kefir yang berbeda-beda. Penelitian ini adalah eksperimen murni, dengan Rancangan Acak Lengkap (RAL 3 kali ulangan. Prosedur penelitian meliputi pembuatan kefir, analisis proksimat dan profil protein. Data hasil proksimat dianalisi uji BNT, sedangkan profil protein dianalisis deskriptif kualitatif. Berdasarkan analisis kadar proksimat kefir, kefir grains 5% menunjukan kadar proksimat paling tinggi baik pada kefir susu kambing dan susu sapi. Sedangkan analisis profil protein kefir susu sapi menunjukan pita protein 75 kDa, pada kefir susu kambing yaitu 48 kDa, 60 kDa dan 75 kDa. Simpulan dari penelitian ini bahwa kadar proksimat kefir susu kambing dan susu sapi dengan konsentrasi kefir grains yang berbeda menunjukan perbedaan kandungan yang berbeda secara signifikan dengan

  5. Analysis of Proximate and Protein Profile of Kefir from Fermented Goat and Cow Milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erwin Hidayat

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to analyze the characteristics of proximate and protein profile in kefir from fermented goat milk and cow milk with different concentration of kefir grains. The research design was true experimental with Completely Randomized Design (CRD of 3 repetitions. The research procedures consisted of kefir production, proximate analysis and protein profile characterization. Proximate assay result was analyzed by using LSD, whereas the protein profile was analyzed by descriptive qualitative method. Based on the analysis of kefir proximate levels, the kefir grain (5% showed the highest proximate level of both kefirs from goat milk and cow milk. The analysis of protein profile of cow milk kefir showed 75 kDa of protein ribbon, while the goat milk kefir showed 48 kDa, 60 kDa and 75 kDa. Therefore it can be concluded that the proximate level of goat and cow milk kefir with different concentration of kefir grains showed significant differences in the nutrition content as well as its protein profiles.Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah menganalisis karakteristik proksimat dan profil protein pada kefir hasil fermentasi susu kambing dan susu sapi dengan konsentrasi biji kefir yang berbeda-beda. Penelitian ini adalah eksperimen murni, dengan Rancangan Acak Lengkap (RAL 3 kali ulangan. Prosedur penelitian meliputi pembuatan kefir, analisis proksimat dan profil protein. Data hasil proksimat dianalisi uji BNT, sedangkan profil protein dianalisis deskriptif kualitatif. Berdasarkan analisis kadar proksimat kefir, kefir grains 5% menunjukan kadar proksimat paling tinggi baik pada kefir susu kambing dan susu sapi. Sedangkan analisis profil protein kefir susu sapi menunjukan pita protein 75 kDa, pada kefir susu kambing yaitu 48 kDa, 60 kDa dan 75 kDa. Simpulan dari penelitian ini bahwa kadar proksimat kefir susu kambing dan susu sapi dengan konsentrasi kefir grains yang berbeda menunjukan perbedaan kandungan yang berbeda secara signifikan dengan

  6. Metabolically Improved Exopolysaccharide Production by Streptococcus thermophilus and Its Influence on the Rheological Properties of Fermented Milk

    OpenAIRE

    Svensson, Malin; Waak, Elisabet; Svensson, Ulla; Rådström, Peter

    2005-01-01

    Altered levels of enzymes in the central carbon metabolism in Streptococcus thermophilus increased the exopolysaccharide (EPS) production 3.3 times over that of the parent strain. The influence of enhanced EPS production on the rheological properties of fermented milk is described for engineered strains of S. thermophilus which produce different levels of EPSs.

  7. Modulation of DNA-induced damage and repair capacity in humans after dietary intervention with lutein-enriched fermented milk.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Herrero-Barbudo

    Full Text Available Dietary factors provide protection against several forms of DNA damage. Additionally, consumer demand for natural products favours the development of bioactive food ingredients with health benefits. Lutein is a promising biologically active component in the food industry. The EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies considers that protection from oxidative damage may be a beneficial physiological effect but that a cause and effect relationship has not been established. Thus, our aim was to evaluate the safety and potential functional effect of a lutein-enriched milk product using the Comet Assay in order to analyze the baseline, the induced DNA-damage and the repair capacity in the lymphocytes of 10 healthy donors before and after the intake of the mentioned product. Our data suggest that the regular consumption of lutein-enriched fermented milk results in a significant increase in serum lutein levels and this change is associated with an improvement in the resistance of DNA to damage and the capacity of DNA repair in lymphocytes. Our results also support the lack of a genotoxic effect at the doses supplied as well as the absence of interactions and side effects on other nutritional and biochemicals markers.

  8. Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis survival during fermentation of soured milk products detected by culture and quantitative real time PCR methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klanicova, B; Slana, I; Roubal, P; Pavlik, I; Kralik, P

    2012-07-02

    Mycobacterium avium paratuberculosis (MAP), etiological agent of paratuberculosis in ruminants, is able to survive extreme conditions like very low pH (stomach), high temperature (pasteurization) or low temperature (refrigerated storage). Cheese, infant powder milk, cream and other milk and dairy products might thus be considered as possible sources of MAP for humans. The aim of this study was to investigate the survival of two MAP field isolates during fermentation of three different types of soured milk products (SMP; yogurt, acidophilus milk and kefir) under laboratory conditions. Pasteurized MAP-free milk was artificially contaminated with 10(6)MAPcells/mL and survival and absolute numbers of MAP were monitored during fermentation (4 or 16 h) and after six weeks of storage at 4°C by culture and quantitative real time PCR (qPCR). Viability of MAP was determined by culture using Herrold's egg yolk medium and Middlebrook 7H10 with antibiotics, supplemented with Mycobactin J and incubated at 37°C for up to 12 weeks. The absolute numbers of MAP were quantified by previously published qPCR assays targeting F57 and IS900 loci in MAP genome. We herein confirm that MAP can survive pH reduction, however, longer exposure to pH below 4 in SMP seems to be critical because it inhibits growth. Therefore, it is suggested that probiotic cultures that can decrease pH below 4 during fermentation could provide better inactivation of MAP in SMP.

  9. Effect of feeding Bacillus subtilis natto fermentation product on milk production and composition, blood metabolites and rumen fermentation in early lactation dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, H; Wang, J Q; Kang, H Y; Dong, S H; Sun, P; Bu, D P; Zhou, L Y

    2012-06-01

    This experiment was conducted to determine the effect of Bacillus subtilis natto fermentation product supplementation on blood metabolites, rumen fermentation and milk production and composition in early lactation dairy cows. Thirty-six multiparous Holstein cows (DIM = 29 ± 6 days, parity = 2.8 ± 1.1) were blocked by DIM and parity and then randomly assigned to three treatments (12 per treatment) in a 9-week trial. Cows in control, DFM1 and DFM2 were fed TMR diets supplemented with 0, 6 and 12 g of B. subtilis natto solid-state fermentation product per day per cow respectively. Plasma non-esterified fatty acids were lower (p = 0.03) in DFM1 and DFM2 compared with control cows (633 and 639 vs. 685 μm). Ruminal propionate increased (23.9 vs. 26.3 and 26.9/100 mol, control vs. DFM1 and DFM2 respectively) and acetate decreased (64.2 vs. 62.7 and 62.1/100 mol, control vs. DFM1 and DFM2 respectively) with increasing B. subtilis natto fermentation product supplementation. DMI of the cows in three treatments was not affected by B. subtilis natto fermentation product supplementation, but milk yield was 3.1 and 3.2 kg/day higher for DFM1 and DFM2 than that for control cows on average across the 9-week trial, and significant differences were observed during weeks 5-9 of the trial, which resulted in 9.5% and 11.7% increase in feed efficiency. B. subtilis natto fermentation product supplementation did not affect milk fat percentage and protein yield but increased (p < 0.05) milk fat yield and lactose percentage (p < 0.01) and tended to decrease protein percentage (p = 0.06). The findings show that B. subtilis natto fermentation product was effective in increasing lactation performance of early lactation dairy cows possibly by altering the rumen fermentation pattern without any negative effects on blood metabolites.

  10. Novel method based on chromogenic media for discrimination and selective enumeration of lactic acid bacteria in fermented milk products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galat, Anna; Dufresne, Jérôme; Combrisson, Jérôme; Thépaut, Jérôme; Boumghar-Bourtchai, Leyla; Boyer, Mickaël; Fourmestraux, Candice

    2016-05-01

    Microbial analyses of fermented milk products require selective methods to discriminate between close species simultaneously present in high amounts. A culture-based method combining novel chromogenic agar media and appropriate incubation conditions was developed to enumerate lactic acid bacteria (LAB) strains in fermented milk. M1 agar, containing two chromogenic substrates, allowed selective enumeration of Lactobacillus rhamnosus, two strains of Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. paracasei and Streptococcus salivarius subsp. thermophilus based on differential β-galactosidase and β-glucosidase activities. Depending on the presence of some or all of the above strains, M1 agar was supplemented with L-rhamnose or vancomycin and incubations were carried out at 37 °C or 44 °C to increase selectivity. A second agar medium, M2, containing one chromogenic substrates was used to selectively enumerate β-galactosidase producing Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus at 47 °C. By contrast with the usual culture media, the chromogenic method allowed unambiguous enumeration of each species, including discrimination between the two L. paracasei, up to 10(9) CFU/g of fermented milk. In addition, the relevance of the method was approved by enumerating reference ATCC strains in pure cultures and fermented milk product. The method could also be used for enumerations on non-Danone commercial fermented milk products containing strains different from those used in this study, showing versatility of the method. To our knowledge, this is the first description of a chromogenic culture method applied to selective enumeration of LAB. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  11. Enhancement of Antioxidative and Intestinal Anti-inflammatory Activities of Glycated Milk Casein after Fermentation with Lactobacillus rhamnosus 4B15.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Nam Su; Joung, Jae Yeon; Lee, Ji Young; Kim, Younghoon; Kim, Sae Hun

    2017-06-14

    In this study, we investigated the glycoproteomics of glycated milk casein (GMC) and GMC fermented by Lactobacillus rhamnosus 4B15 (FGMC) and determined their biological implications. There was a significant increase in the antioxidative and anti-inflammatory activities of GMC with galactose, which were higher than those of GMC with glucose (GMC-glc). Furthermore, the fermentation of GMC by L. rhamnosus 4B15 synergistically enhanced the above activities compared to those of unfermented GMC. Especially, fermented GMC-glc (FGMC-glc) possessed remarkably improved reducing power and radical scavenging activities. Moreover, FGMC-glc ameliorated the inflammatory response and tight junction-related intestinal epithelial dysfunction. Additionally, hexose-derived glycation and modification sites in protein sequences of GMC were identified. In particular, glycosylation and sulfation of serine and threonine residues were observed, and distinct modification sites were detected after fermentation. Therefore, these results indicated that glycation-induced modification of casein and fermentation correlated strongly with the enhanced functional properties.

  12. Effects of lauric and myristic acids on ruminal fermentation, production, and milk fatty acid composition in lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hristov, A N; Lee, C; Cassidy, T; Long, M; Heyler, K; Corl, B; Forster, R

    2011-01-01

    The objectives of this experiment were to investigate the effects of lauric (LA) and myristic (MA) acids on ruminal fermentation, production, and milk fatty acid (FA) profile in lactating dairy cows and to identify the FA responsible for the methanogen-suppressing effect of coconut oil. The experiment was conducted as a replicated 3×3 Latin square. Six ruminally cannulated cows (95±26.4 DIM) were subjected to the following treatments: 240 g/cow per day each of stearic acid (SA, control), LA, or MA. Experimental periods were 28 d and cows were refaunated between periods. Lauric acid reduced protozoal counts in the rumen by 96%, as well as acetate, total VFA, and microbial N outflow from the rumen, compared with SA and MA. Ruminal methane production was not affected by treatment. Dry matter intake was reduced 35% by LA compared with SA and MA, which resulted in decreased milk yield. Milk fat content also was depressed by LA compared with SA and MA. Treatment had no effect on milk protein content. All treatments increased milk concentration of the respective treatment FA. Concentration of C12:0 was more than doubled by LA, and C14:0 was increased (45%) by MA compared with SA. Concentration of milk FAC16 FA and MUFA were increased, by LA compared with the other treatments. In this study, LA had profound effects on ruminal fermentation, mediated through inhibited microbial populations, and decreased DMI, milk yield, and milk fat content. Despite the significant decrease in protozoal counts, however, LA had no effect on ruminal methane production. Thus, the antimethanogenic effect of coconut oil, observed in related studies, is likely due to total FA application level, the additive effect of LA and MA, or a combination of both. Both LA and MA modified milk FA profile significantly.

  13. Foods for Special Dietary Needs: Non-dairy Plant-based Milk Substitutes and Fermented Dairy-type Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mäkinen, Outi Elina; Wanhalinna, Viivi; Zannini, Emanuele; Arendt, Elke Karin

    2016-01-01

    A growing number of consumers opt for plant-based milk substitutes for medical reasons or as a lifestyle choice. Medical reasons include lactose intolerance, with a worldwide prevalence of 75%, and cow's milk allergy. Also, in countries where mammal milk is scarce and expensive, plant milk substitutes serve as a more affordable option. However, many of these products have sensory characteristics objectionable to the mainstream western palate. Technologically, plant milk substitutes are suspensions of dissolved and disintegrated plant material in water, resembling cow's milk in appearance. They are manufactured by extracting the plant material in water, separating the liquid, and formulating the final product. Homogenization and thermal treatments are necessary to improve the suspension and microbial stabilities of commercial products that can be consumed as such or be further processed into fermented dairy-type products. The nutritional properties depend on the plant source, processing, and fortification. As some products have extremely low protein and calcium contents, consumer awareness is important when plant milk substitutes are used to replace cow's milk in the diet, e.g. in the case of dairy intolerances. If formulated into palatable and nutritionally adequate products, plant-based substitutes can offer a sustainable alternative to dairy products.

  14. Inhibitory effect of honey-sweetened goat and cow milk fermented with Bifidobacterium lactis Bb-12 on the growth of Listeria monocytogenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirela Lučan

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine the influence of honey addition on fermentation of goat and cow milk with Bifidobacterium lactis Bb-12. Additionally, inhibitory potential of honey-sweetened fermented goat and cow milk against Listeria monocytogenes strain was examined. Two monofloral honey types, dark-colored chestnut and light-colored acacia honey were added. The basic hypothesis of this study was that addition of honey could have influence on the growth of Bifidobacterium lactis during the fermentation of goat and cow milk. Furthermore, higher inhibitory potential caused by honey addition against Listeria monocytogenes has been assumed. Compared to cow milk, higher acidity and CFU of Bifidobacterium lactis Bb-12 were noted in the fermented goat milk in all phases of the fermentation process. The results of this study show that both types of honey enhanced growth and acidity of the Bifidobacterium lactis Bb-12 in both milk types during fermentation. A disc assay has shown that development of growth inhibition zones depends on the type and concentration of honey, as well as on the milk type. The chestnut honey had generally higher inhibitory effect than acacia honey.

  15. Effect of Aloe vera (Aloe barbadensis Miller) on survivability, extent of proteolysis and ACE inhibition of potential probiotic cultures in fermented milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basannavar, Santosh; Pothuraju, Ramesh; Sharma, Raj Kumar

    2014-10-01

    In the present investigation, the effect of Aloe vera gel powder on angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activity, extent of proteolysis during fermentation and survival of Lactobacillus casei NCDC19 during storage of fermented milk was studied. Among the different cultures screened for ACE inhibitory activity, Lactobacillus casei NCDC 19 exhibited the highest ACE inhibition (approx. 40%) as well as extent of proteolysis (0.37, Abs₃₄₀). In the presence of Aloe vera (0.5% and 1% w/v) an increase in extent of proteolysis (0.460 ± 0.047 and 0.480 ± 0.027) and percent ACE inhibitory activity (44.32 ± 2.83 and 47.52 ± 1.83) was observed in comparison to control. Aloe vera powder addition also led to an increase in viable counts (>11 log cfu mL⁻¹) of L. casei NCDC 19 in fermented milk during storage for 7 days and the counts were maintained in sufficiently higher numbers. The study suggests Aloe vera to be a good functional ingredient which can be further explored for different health attributes. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. Occurrence and function of yeasts in Asian indigenous fermented foods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aidoo, K.E.; Nout, M.J.R.; Sarkar, P.K.

    2006-01-01

    In the Asian region, indigenous fermented foods are important in daily life. In many of these foods, yeasts are predominant and functional during the fermentation. The diversity of foods in which yeasts predominate ranges from leavened bread-like products such as nan and idli, to alcoholic beverages

  17. Occurrence and function of yeasts in Asian indigenous fermented foods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aidoo, K.E.; Nout, M.J.R.; Sarkar, P.K.

    2006-01-01

    In the Asian region, indigenous fermented foods are important in daily life. In many of these foods, yeasts are predominant and functional during the fermentation. The diversity of foods in which yeasts predominate ranges from leavened bread-like products such as nan and idli, to alcoholic beverages

  18. Milk composition, milk fatty acid profile, digestion, and ruminal fermentation in dairy cows fed whole flaxseed and calcium salts of flaxseed oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Côrtes, C; da Silva-Kazama, D C; Kazama, R; Gagnon, N; Benchaar, C; Santos, G T D; Zeoula, L M; Petit, H V

    2010-07-01

    Four ruminally lactating Holstein cows averaging 602+/-25 kg of body weight and 64+/-6 d in milk at the beginning of the experiment were randomly assigned to a 4 x 4 Latin square design to determine the effects of feeding whole flaxseed and calcium salts of flaxseed oil on dry matter intake, digestibility, ruminal fermentation, milk production and composition, and milk fatty acid profile. The treatments were a control with no flaxseed products (CON) or a diet (on a dry matter basis) of 4.2% whole flaxseed (FLA), 1.9% calcium salts of flaxseed oil (SAL), or 2.3% whole flaxseed and 0.8% calcium salts of flaxseed oil (MIX). The 4 isonitrogenous and isoenergetic diets were fed for ad libitum intake. Experimental periods consisted of 21 d of diet adaptation and 7 d of data collection and sampling. Dry matter intake, digestibility, milk production, and milk concentrations of protein, lactose, urea N, and total solids did not differ among treatments. Ruminal pH was reduced for cows fed the CON diet compared with those fed the SAL diet. Propionate proportion was higher in ruminal fluid of cows fed CON than in that of those fed SAL, and cows fed the SAL and CON diets had ruminal propionate concentrations similar to those of cows fed the FLA and MIX diets. Butyrate concentration was numerically higher for cows fed the SAL diet compared with those fed the FLA diet. Milk fat concentration was lower for cows fed SAL than for those fed CON, and there was no difference between cows fed CON and those fed FLA and MIX. Milk yields of protein, fat, lactose, and total solids were similar among treatments. Concentrations of cis-9 18:1 and of intermediates of ruminal biohydrogenation of fatty acids such as trans-9 18:1 were higher in milk fat of cows fed SAL and MIX than for those fed the CON diet. Concentration of rumenic acid (cis-9, trans-11 18:2) in milk fat was increased by 63% when feeding SAL compared with FLA. Concentration of alpha-linolenic acid was higher in milk fat of cows

  19. Comparison of molecular techniques with other methods for identification and enumeration of probiotics in fermented milk products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagheripoor-Fallah, Niloofar; Mortazavian, Amir; Hosseini, Hedayat; Khoshgozaran-Abras, Sadegh; Rad, Aziz Homayouni

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays, an increasing attention is being given to fermented milk products including yogurt, kefir, buttermilk, and acidophilus milk. Fermented milks, especially the ones containing probiotics, are claimed to be useful for health of host (such as intestinal- and immune-associated diseases). Their healthful effects could be significantly enhanced by incorporating probiotic microorganisms; those have healthful advantages for host when consumed in an appropriate viable number in food products. Probiotic dairy products have stepped to the market and are being commercially produced under various brand names. In addition, these products are legislatively obliged to be labeled for the microorganisms contained. Therefore, identification and enumeration of their microorganisms are a cause of concern. Several culture-dependent methods have been introduced and used to identify the microorganisms, in which the researchers have experienced multiple difficulties. Thereby, molecular approaches were present as an alternative, offering advantages such as accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, and speed. This article reviews the molecular approaches employed for identification and enumeration of probiotics in fermented milk products.

  20. Effects of addition of essential oils and monensin premix on digestion, ruminal fermentation, milk production, and milk composition in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benchaar, C; Petit, H V; Berthiaume, R; Whyte, T D; Chouinard, P Y

    2006-11-01

    Four ruminally cannulated, lactating Holstein cows were used in a 4 x 4 Latin square design (28-d periods) with a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement of treatments to study the effects of dietary addition of essential oils (0 vs. 2 g/d; EO) and monensin (0 vs. 350 mg/d; MO) on digestion, ruminal fermentation characteristics, milk production, and milk composition. Intake of dry matter averaged 22.7 kg/d and was not significantly affected by dietary additives. Apparent digestibilities of dry matter, organic matter, neutral detergent fiber, and starch were similar among treatments. Apparent digestibility of acid detergent fiber was increased when diets were supplemented with EO (48.9 vs. 46.0%). Apparent digestibility of crude protein was higher for cows fed MO compared with those fed no MO (65.0 vs. 63.6%). Nitrogen retention was not changed by additive treatments and averaged 27.1 g/d across treatments. Ruminal pH was increased with the addition of EO (6.50 vs. 6.39). Ruminal ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N) concentration was lower with MO-supplemented diets compared with diets without MO (12.7 vs. 14.3 mg/100 mL). No effect of EO and MO was observed on total volatile fatty acid concentrations and molar proportions of individual volatile fatty acids. Protozoa counts were not affected by EO and MO addition. Production of milk and 4% fat-corrected milk was similar among treatments (33.6 and 33.4 kg/d, respectively). Milk fat content was lower for cows fed MO than for cows fed diets without MO (3.8 vs. 4.1%). The reduced milk fat concentration in cows fed MO was associated with a higher level of trans-10 18:1, a potent inhibitor of milk fat synthesis. Milk urea nitrogen concentration was increased by MO supplementation, but this effect was not apparent when MO was fed in combination with EO (interaction EO x MO). Results from this study suggest that feeding EO (2 g/d) and MO (350 mg/d) to lactating dairy cows had limited effects on digestion, ruminal fermentation characteristics, milk

  1. Effect of diet fermentability and unsaturated fatty acid concentration on recovery from diet-induced milk fat depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rico, D E; Holloway, A W; Harvatine, K J

    2015-11-01

    Diet-induced milk fat depression is caused by highly fermentable and high-unsaturated fatty acid (FA) diets, and results in reduced milk fat concentration and yield, reduced de novo FA, and increased trans isomers of the alternate biohydrogenation pathways. The hypothesis of the current experiment was that a diet higher in fermentability and lower in unsaturated FA (UFA) would accelerate recovery compared with a high-UFA and lower-fermentability diet. Eight ruminally cannulated and 9 noncannulated multiparous Holstein cows were randomly assigned to treatment sequences in a replicated Latin square design. During each period milk fat depression was induced for 10 d by feeding a low-fiber, high-UFA diet [25.9% neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and 3.3% C18:2]. Following the induction phase, cows were switched to recovery treatments for 18 d designed to correct dietary fermentability, UFA, or both fermentability and UFA concentration. Treatments during recovery were (1) correction of fiber and UFA diet [control; 31.8% NDF and 1.65% C18:2], (2) a diet predominantly correcting fiber, but not UFA [high oil (HO); 31.3% NDF and 2.99% C18:2], and (3) a diet predominantly correcting UFA, but not fiber concentration [low fiber (LF); 28.4% NDF and 1.71% C18:2]. Milk and milk component yield, milk FA profile, ruminal pH, and 11 rumen microbial taxa were measured every third day during recovery. Milk yield decreased progressively in HO and control, whereas it was maintained in the LF diet. Milk fat concentration increased progressively during recovery in all treatments, but was on average 9% lower in LF than control from d 12 to 18. Milk fat yield increased progressively in all treatments and was not different between control and LF at any time point, but was lower in HO than control on d 15. Milk trans-10 C18:1 and trans-10,cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid decreased progressively in all treatments, but was higher in HO than control from d 3 to 18 [136 ± 50 and 188 ± 57% (mean ± SD

  2. Effects of essential oils on digestion, ruminal fermentation, rumen microbial populations, milk production, and milk composition in dairy cows fed alfalfa silage or corn silage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benchaar, C; Petit, H V; Berthiaume, R; Ouellet, D R; Chiquette, J; Chouinard, P Y

    2007-02-01

    Four Holstein cows fitted with ruminal cannulas were used in a 4 x 4 Latin square design (28-d periods) with a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement of treatments to investigate the effects of addition of a specific mixture of essential oil compounds (MEO; 0 vs. 750 mg/d) and silage source [alfalfa silage (AS) vs. corn silage (CS)] on digestion, ruminal fermentation, rumen microbial populations, milk production, and milk composition. Total mixed rations containing either AS or CS as the sole forage source were balanced to be isocaloric and isonitrogenous. In general, no interactions between MEO addition and silage source were observed. Except for ruminal pH and milk lactose content, which were increased by MEO supplementation, no changes attributable to the administration of MEO were observed for feed intake, nutrient digestibility, end-products of ruminal fermentation, microbial counts, and milk performance. Dry matter intake and milk production were not affected by replacing AS with CS in the diet. However, cows fed CS-based diets produced milk with lower fat and higher protein and urea N concentrations than cows fed AS-based diets. Replacing AS with CS increased the concentration of NH(3)-N and reduced the acetate-to-propionate ratio in ruminal fluid. Total viable bacteria, cellulolytic bacteria, and protozoa were not influenced by MEO supplementation, but the total viable bacteria count was higher with CS- than with AS-based diets. The apparent digestibility of crude protein did not differ between the AS and CS treatments, but digestibilities of neutral detergent fiber and acid detergent fiber were lower when cows were fed CS-based diets than when they were fed AS-based diets. Duodenal bacterial N flow, estimated using urinary purine derivatives and the amount of N retained, increased in cows fed CS-based diets compared with those fed AS-based diets. Feeding cows AS increased the milk fat contents of cis-9, trans-11 18:2 (conjugated linoleic acid) and 18:3 (n-3 fatty

  3. Supplementation of milk formula with galacto-oligosaccharides improves intestinal micro-flora and fermentation in term infants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BEN Xiao-ming 贲晓明; ZHOU Xiao-yu 周晓玉; ZHAO Wei-hua 赵卫华; YU Wen-liang 喻文亮; PAN Wei 潘伟; ZHANG Wei-li 张伟利; WU Sheng-mei 吴圣楣; Christien M.Van Beusekom; Anne Schaafsma

    2004-01-01

    Background Oligosaccharides in human milk may protect infants by improving the intestinal micro-flora and fermentation. This study was to investigate effects of infant formula milk consisting of galacto-oligosaccharide (GOS) on intestinal microbial populations and the fermentation characteristics in term infants in comparison with that of human milk. Methods The test formula (Frisolac H, Friesland, Netherland) was supplemented with GOS at a concentration of 0.24 g/dl. Human milk and another formula without oligosaccharides (Frisolac H, Friesland, Netherland) were used as positive and negative control respectively. Growth, stool characteristics, and side effects of the recruited infants were recorded after 3 and 6 months' follow-up, and the fecal species were collected for the analysis of intestinal micro-flora, short chain fatty acid (SCFA) and pH.Results At the end of 3- and 6-month feeding period, intestinal Bifidobacteria and Lactobacilli were significantly increased in infants fed with GOS supplemented formula and human milk when compared with infants fed with negative control formula; however, there was no statistically significant difference between GOS supplemented formula and human milk groups. Stool characteristics were influenced by the supplement and main fecal SCFA (acetic), and stool frequency were significantly increased in infants fed with GOS supplemented formula and human milk, while the fecal pH was significantly decreased as compared with that of negative control (P<0.05). Supplementation had no influence on incidence of side effects (including crying, regurgitation and vomiting). Conclusions Supplementing infant formula with GOS at a concentration of 0.24 g/dl stimulates the growth of Bifidobacteria and Lactobacilli in the intestine and stool characteristics are similar to in term infants fed with human milk.

  4. Comparison of functional aspects in two automatic milking systems and auto-tandem milking parlors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gygax, L; Neuffer, I; Kaufmann, C; Hauser, R; Wechsler, B

    2007-09-01

    Milk yield, milking frequency, intermilking interval, teat-cup attachment success rate, and length of the milking procedure are important functional aspects of automatic milking systems (AMS). In this study, these variables were compared for 2 different models of AMS (AMS-1, with free cow traffic, and AMS-2, with selectively guided cow traffic) and auto-tandem milking parlors (ATM) on 4 farms each. Data on milking-stall visits and milkings of 20 cows were recorded on 3 successive days by means of video observations. Data were evaluated with mixed-effects models. Milk yield did not differ among the 3 milking systems. Milking frequency in the AMS was 2.47/d [95% confidence interval (CI) = (2.38, 2.56)], and was significantly higher than the 2 milkings/d in ATM. Milking frequency was lower for cows with a higher number of days in milk (DIM) in AMS-1 [change of -0.057/10 DIM, CI = (-0.070, -0.044)], but remained constant for cows with varying DIM in AMS-2 [change of -0.003/10 DIM, CI = (-0.034, 0.027)]. As a consequence, milking frequency was higher in early lactation [by 0.603, CI = (0.102, 1.103)] and lower in late lactation in AMS-1 than in AMS-2 [by -0.397, CI = (-0.785, -0.008)]. The intermilking interval showed the opposite pattern. Teat-cup attachment was more successful in AMS-1 than in AMS-2 (98.4 vs. 94.3% of the milkings), with some variation among farms (range: AMS-1 96.2 to 99.5%; AMS-2 91.5 to 96.1%). The length of the entire milking process did not differ among the milking systems [454 s, CI = (430, 478)], although the preparation phase was longer [changes in comparison with ATM: in AMS-1 by a factor of 2.90, CI = (2.30, 3.65), and in AMS-2 by 5.15, CI = (4.09, 6.48)] and the actual milking phase was shorter in both AMS-1 and AMS-2 than in ATM [changes in comparison with ATM: in AMS-1 by a factor of 0.76, CI = (0.62, 0.94), and in AMS-2 by 0.75, CI = (0.60, 0.93)]. The admission [changes in comparison with ATM: in AMS-1 by a factor of 2.56, CI = (1.55, 4

  5. Digestion, Ruminal Fermentation, Ciliate Protozoal Populations, and Milk Production from Dairy Cows Fed Cinnamaldehyde, Quebracho Condensed Tannin, or Yucca schidigera Saponin Extracts

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Benchaar, C; McAllister, T. A; Chouinard, P. Y

    2008-01-01

    ...% tannins, 150 g/cow per day), and saponins from Yucca schidigera extract (YSE, containing 10% saponins; 60 g/cow per day) on digestion, ruminal fermentation characteristics, protozoal populations, and milk production...

  6. Effect of a fermented milk containing Bifidobacterium lactis DN-173010 on Chinese constipated women

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yue-Xin Yang; Mei He; Gang Hu; Jie Wei; Philippe Pages; Xian-Hua Yang; Sophie Bourdu-Naturel

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effect of a fermented milk containing Bifidobacterium lactis DN- 173010 and yogurt strains (BIO ) on adult women with constipation in Beijing. METHODS: A total of 135 adult females with constipation were randomly allocated to consume for 2 wk either 100 g of the test fermented milk or 100 g of an acidified milk containing non-living bacteria (control). Stool frequency, defecation condition scores, stool consistency and food intake were recorded at baseline and after 1 and 2 wk in an intention-to-treat population of 126 subjects. In parallel, safety evaluation parameters were performed. RESULTS: At baseline, no differences were found between groups. Following consumption of test product, stool frequency was significantly increased after 1 wk (3.5±1.5 vs 2.4±0.6, P < 0.01) and 2 wk (4.1±1.7 vs 2.4±0.6, P < 0.01), vs baseline. Similarly, after 1 and 2 wk, of test product consumption, defecation condition (1.1±0.9 vs 1.9±1.2, P < 0.01 and 0.8±1.0 vs 1.9±1.2, P < 0.01, respectively) and stool consistency (1.0±0.8 vs 1.5±1.1, P < 0.01 and 0.6±0.8 vs 1.5±1.1, P < 0.01, respectively) were significantly improved. Compared with the control group, stool frequency was also significantly increased (3.5±1.5 vs 2.5± 0.9, P <0.01 and 4.1±1.7 vs 2.6±1.0, P <0.01, respectively), and defecation condition (1.1±0.9 vs 1.6±1.1, P < 0.01 and 0.8±1.0 vs 1.6±1.1, P < 0.01, respectively) and stool consistency (1.0±0.8 vs 1.4±1.0, P < 0.05 and 0.6±0.8 vs 1.3±1.0, P < 0.01, respectively) significantly decreased after 1 and 2 wk of product consumption. During the same period, food intake did not change between the two groups, and safety parameters of the subjects were within normal ranges. CONCLUSION: This study suggests a beneficial effect of a fermented milk containing B. lactis DN-173010 on stool frequency, defecation condition and stool consistency in adult women with constipation constipated women after 1 and 2 wk of consumption.

  7. Structure, function and nutritional potential of milk osteopontin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Brian Søndergaard; Sørensen, Esben Skipper

    2016-01-01

    Osteopontin (OPN) is a multifunctional protein present in most tissues and body fluids, with the highest concentrations found in milk. Processes for isolation of OPN from bovine milk for use in infant formula have been developed and studies have investigated the effects of oral administration...... of milk OPN. At the same time, plasma OPN levels have been shown to be elevated in some types of cancer, and OPN has been suggested as a potential diagnostic marker for cancer. OPN exists in several different isoforms in vivo, of which presumably only a minority is directly or indirectly implicated...... in cancer related events. In this article, we review the differences between milk-derived OPN and OPN derived from transformed cells and compare the structure of OPN from human and bovine milk. Furthermore, current knowledge about the function of OPN in milk and recent findings about the effect of orally...

  8. Milk Chemical Composition of Dairy Cows Fed Rations Containing Protected Omega-3 Fatty Acids and Fermented Rice Bran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudibya

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The research was conducted to investigate the effect of ration containing protected omega-3 and fermented rice bran on chemical composition of dairy milk. The research employed 10 female PFH dairy cows of 2-4 years old with body weight 300-375 kg. The research was assigned in randomized complete block design. The treatment consisted of P0= control ration, P1= P0 + 20% fermented rice bran, P2= P1 + 4% soya bean oil, P3= P1 + 4% protected tuna fish oil and P4= P1 + 4% protected lemuru fish oil. The results showed that the effects of fish oil supplementation in the rations significantly (P<0.01 decreased feed consumption, cholesterol, low density lipoprotein, lipids, and saturated fatty acids. Meanwhile, it increased milk production, content of high density lipoprotein, omega-3, omega-6 and unsaturated fatty acids in the dairy cows milk. It is concluded that the inclusion of 4% protected fish oil in the rations can produce healthy milk by decreasing milk cholesterol and increasing omega-3 fatty acids content.

  9. Fermented milk containing Lactobacillus GG alleviated DSS-induced colitis in mice and activated epidermal growth factor receptor and Akt signaling in intestinal epithelial cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazutoyo Yoda

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG was assessed for its ability to alleviate DSS-induced colitis in mice and activate epidermal growth factor receptor and Akt signaling in intestinal epithelial cells. In this study mice were treated with DSS to induce colitis and they were given Lactobacillus GG fermented milk to assess the effect of probiotic on colitis. Lactobacillus GG fermented milk significantly reduced the colitis associated changes suggesting a protective effect against DSS induced colitis.

  10. Inhibitory effect of honey-sweetened goat and cow milk fermented with Bifidobacterium lactis Bb-12 on the growth of Listeria monocytogenes

    OpenAIRE

    Mirela Lučan; Vedran Slačanac; Jovica Hardi; Krešimir Mastanjević; Jurislav Babić; Vinko Krstanović; Marko Jukić

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the influence of honey addition on fermentation of goat and cow milk with Bifidobacterium lactis Bb-12. Additionally, inhibitory potential of honey-sweetened fermented goat and cow milk against Listeria monocytogenes strain was examined. Two monofloral honey types, dark-colored chestnut and light-colored acacia honey were added. The basic hypothesis of this study was that addition of honey could have influence on the growth of Bifidobacterium lactis durin...

  11. Effects of microbial inoculants on corn silage fermentation, microbial contents, aerobic stability, and milk production under field conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Niels Bastian; Sloth, Karen Helle; Højberg, Ole

    2010-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the effects of 2 corn silage inoculation strategies (homofermentative vs. heterofermentative inoculation) under field conditions and to monitor responses in silage variables over the feeding season from January to August. Thirty-nine commercial dairy farms...... sufficiently from the epiphytic flora on whole-crop corn to affect fermentation in standard qualities of corn silage. Heterofermentative inoculation increased aerobic stability and numerous fermentation variables. None of the treatments affected milk production, and more-stable corn silage seemed to have...

  12. Influence of Sunflower Whole Seeds or Oil on Ruminal Fermentation, Milk Production, Composition, and Fatty Acid Profile in Lactating Goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. A. Morsy

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the effect of sunflower seeds, either as whole or as oil, on rumen fermentation, milk production, milk composition and fatty acids profile in dairy goats. Fifteen lactating Damascus goats were divided randomly into three groups (n = 5 fed a basal diet of concentrate feed mixture and fresh Trifolium alexandrinum at 50:50 on dry matter basis (Control in addition to 50 g/head/d sunflower seeds whole (SS or 20 mL/head/d sunflower seeds oil (SO in a complete randomized design. Milk was sampled every two weeks during 90 days of experimental period for chemical analysis and rumen was sampled at 30, 60, and 90 days of the experiment for ruminal pH, volatile fatty acids (tVFA, and ammonia-N determination. Addition of SO decreased (p = 0.017 ruminal pH, whereas SO and SS increased tVFA (p<0.001 and acetate (p = 0.034 concentrations. Serum glucose increased (p = 0.013 in SO and SS goats vs Control. The SO and SS treated goats had improved milk yield (p = 0.007 and milk fat content (p = 0.002. Moreover, SO increased milk lactose content (p = 0.048 and feed efficiency (p = 0.046 compared to Control. Both of SS and SO increased (p<0.05 milk unsaturated fatty acids content specially conjugated linolenic acid (CLA vs Control. Addition of SS and SO increased (p = 0. 021 C18:3N3 fatty acid compared to Control diet. Data suggested that addition of either SS or SO to lactating goats ration had beneficial effects on milk yield and milk composition with enhancing milk content of healthy fatty acids (CLA and omega 3, without detrimental effects on animal performance.

  13. Influence of Sunflower Whole Seeds or Oil on Ruminal Fermentation, Milk Production, Composition, and Fatty Acid Profile in Lactating Goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morsy, T A; Kholif, S M; Kholif, A E; Matloup, O H; Salem, A Z M; Elella, A Abu

    2015-08-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of sunflower seeds, either as whole or as oil, on rumen fermentation, milk production, milk composition and fatty acids profile in dairy goats. Fifteen lactating Damascus goats were divided randomly into three groups (n = 5) fed a basal diet of concentrate feed mixture and fresh Trifolium alexandrinum at 50:50 on dry matter basis (Control) in addition to 50 g/head/d sunflower seeds whole (SS) or 20 mL/head/d sunflower seeds oil (SO) in a complete randomized design. Milk was sampled every two weeks during 90 days of experimental period for chemical analysis and rumen was sampled at 30, 60, and 90 days of the experiment for ruminal pH, volatile fatty acids (tVFA), and ammonia-N determination. Addition of SO decreased (p = 0.017) ruminal pH, whereas SO and SS increased tVFA (p<0.001) and acetate (p = 0.034) concentrations. Serum glucose increased (p = 0.013) in SO and SS goats vs Control. The SO and SS treated goats had improved milk yield (p = 0.007) and milk fat content (p = 0.002). Moreover, SO increased milk lactose content (p = 0.048) and feed efficiency (p = 0.046) compared to Control. Both of SS and SO increased (p<0.05) milk unsaturated fatty acids content specially conjugated linolenic acid (CLA) vs Control. Addition of SS and SO increased (p = 0. 021) C18:3N3 fatty acid compared to Control diet. Data suggested that addition of either SS or SO to lactating goats ration had beneficial effects on milk yield and milk composition with enhancing milk content of healthy fatty acids (CLA and omega 3), without detrimental effects on animal performance.

  14. Effects of feeding forage soybean silage on milk production, nutrient digestion, and ruminal fermentation of lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas-Bello-Pérez, E; Mustafa, A F; Seguin, P

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the feeding value of forage soybean silage (SS) for dairy cows relative to a fourth-cut alfalfa silage (AS). Forage soybean was harvested at full pod stage. Two isonitrogenous diets were formulated with a 48:52 forage:concentrate ratio. Soybean silage and AS constituted 72% of the forage in each diet, with corn silage constituting the remaining 28%. Twenty Holsteins cows in early lactation were used in a switchback design. Four lactating Holsteins cows fitted with ruminal cannulas were used to determine the effects of dietary treatments on ruminal fermentation parameters and in vivo total tract nutrient utilization. Relative to AS, SS contained 15, 28, and 25% more neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber, and crude protein, respectively. Dry matter intake (23.5 vs. 25.1 kg/d) and milk yield (35.5 vs. 37.2 kg/d) were lower for cows fed SS than for those fed AS. However, energy-corrected milk and milk efficiency were similar for both dietary treatments. Milk protein, lactose, and total solids concentrations were not influenced by dietary treatments (average 3.0, 4.7, and 12.6%, respectively). However, cows fed SS produced milk with greater milk fat (3.8 vs. 3.6%) and milk urea nitrogen concentrations (15.6 vs. 14.3 mg/dL) compared with cows fed AS. Ruminal pH was lower, whereas ruminal NH3-N concentration was greater in cows fed SS than in cows fed AS. Total tract digestibilities of dry matter, crude protein, and neutral detergent fiber were not influenced by silage type. We concluded that forage SS, when compared with AS, had a negative impact on feed intake and milk yield, whereas energy-corrected milk, milk efficiency, and total tract nutrient digestion were similar.

  15. Occurrence and function of yeasts in Asian indigenous fermented foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aidoo, Kofi E; Nout, M J Rob; Sarkar, Prabir K

    2006-01-01

    In the Asian region, indigenous fermented foods are important in daily life. In many of these foods, yeasts are predominant and functional during the fermentation. The diversity of foods in which yeasts predominate ranges from leavened bread-like products such as nan and idli, to alcoholic beverages such as rice and palm wines, and condiments such as papads and soy sauce. Although several products are obtained by natural fermentation, the use of traditional starter cultures is widespread. This minireview focuses on the diversity and functionality of yeasts in these products, and on opportunities for research and development.

  16. 牦牛乳及牦牛酸乳营养价值的研究现状%Research Progress of Yak Milk and Fermented Yak Milk and Their Nutritional Value

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴春生; 李键; 骞宇; 索化夷

    2012-01-01

    牦牛乳是由生活在高海拔地区的特殊物种——牦牛所产的乳,可经乳酸菌发酵成牦牛酸乳。牦牛乳的营养价值极其丰富,富含各种氨基酸、钙、铁、锌、维生素等营养物质,相比普通牛乳,牦牛乳含有更高的功能性脂肪酸和蛋白质,越来越引起人们的关注。本文综述了牦牛乳和牦牛酸乳中的各种营养元素以及乳酸菌的益生功能。但是目前对牦牛乳制品的营养价值开发和利用尚不够深入,还需进一步加大研究和开发力度。%Yak milk is produced by yak,a special species living in high attitude,and can be fermented by lactic acid bacteria into yoghurt.Yak milk has a high nutritional value and is rich in amino acids,Ca,Fe,Zn,vitamins,and so on.Yak milk is more abundant in functional fatty acids and proteins compared to common bovine milk and has aroused growing attention.This paper provides a review of various nutrients in yak milk and yoghurt and the probiotic effect of lactic acid bacteria.However,the nutritional value of yak milk products has not been developed and utilized in depth yet.Therefore,further research and development is needed.

  17. 金针菇发酵乳饮料的研制%Development of Fermented Milk Beverage with Flammulina Velutipes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢士娟; 李玉锋; 汪静心

    2014-01-01

    This article researches and produces a fermented milk beverage with fermented milk and flammulina velutipes juice as main material ,and determines its production process and optimal formula which is 30% flammulina velutipes juice ,9% cane sugar and 0 .25‰ /0 .30‰ CMC-Na/PGA .%研制了一种以发酵乳和金针菇菌汁为主要原料加工调制成的发酵乳饮料,确定了金针菇菌汁发酵乳饮料的生产工艺和最佳配方,得出了最佳工艺配方为金针菇菌汁的添加量30%、蔗糖的添加量9%、稳定剂CMC-Na+PGA=0.25‰+0.30‰。

  18. Effects of a milk product, fermented by Lactobacillus acidophilus and with fructo-oligosaccharides added, on blood lipids in male volunteers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaafsma, G.; Meuling, W.J.A.; Dokkum, W. van; Bouley, C.

    1998-01-01

    Objective: To investigate in adult male volunteers the effect of a new fermented milk product, fermented by Lactobacillus acidophilus and with fructo-oligosaccharides added, on blood lipids. Design: Randomized placebo-controlled double-blind two-way cross over trial with two treatment periods of thr

  19. Effects of a milk product, fermented by Lactobacillus acidophilus and with fructo-oligosaccharides added, on blood lipids in male volunteers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaafsma, G.; Meuling, W.J.A.; Dokkum, W. van; Bouley, C.

    1998-01-01

    Objective: To investigate in adult male volunteers the effect of a new fermented milk product, fermented by Lactobacillus acidophilus and with fructo-oligosaccharides added, on blood lipids. Design: Randomized placebo-controlled double-blind two-way cross over trial with two treatment periods of thr

  20. Physicochemical and functional properties of yeast fermented brown rice flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilowefah, Muna; Bakar, Jamilah; Ghazali, Hasanah M; Mediani, Ahmed; Muhammad, Kharidah

    2015-09-01

    In the current study, effects of fermentation on physicochemical and functional properties of brown rice flour (BRF) were investigated. Fermentation conditions were optimized using response surface methodology to achieve moderate acidity (pH 5-6), specifically pH 5.5 of brown rice batter with time, temperature and yeast concentration as the independent variables. The results indicated that brown rice batter was well fermented to maintain pH 5.5 at optimum conditions of 32 °C for 6.26 h using 1 % yeast concentration. Fermentation at moderate acidity significantly increased the levels of protein, total ash, insoluble fiber, soluble fibre, minerals, phenolics, antioxidants, resistant starch, riboflavin, pyridoxine, nicotinic acid, γ-tocotrienol, and δ-tocotrienol. However, it reduced the contents of γ-oryzanol, γ-tocopherol, α-tocopherol, phytic acid, amylose and total starch. Foaming capacity, foaming stability, oil holding capacity, gelatinization temperatures, enthalpy and whiteness of BRF were increased after fermentation. In contrast, its swelling power, water solubility index, hot paste viscosity, breakdown, and setback significantly decreased. Microstructure of BRF was also influenced, where its starch granules released from its enclosed structure after fermentation. This investigation shows evidence that yeast fermentation modified the functionality of BRF and can be used as a functional food ingredient.

  1. Functional Characterization of Bacterial Communities Responsible for Fermentation of Doenjang: A Traditional Korean Fermented Soybean Paste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Woo Yong; Jung, Ji Young; Lee, Hyo Jung; Jeon, Che Ok

    2016-01-01

    Doenjang samples were prepared in triplicate and their microbial abundance, bacterial communities, and metabolites throughout fermentation were analyzed to investigate the functional properties of microorganisms in doenjang. Viable bacterial cells were approximately three orders of magnitude higher than fungal cells, suggesting that bacteria are more responsible for doenjang fermentation. Pyrosequencing and proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy were applied for the analysis of bacterial communities and metabolites, respectively. Bacterial community analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that doenjang samples included Bacillus, Enterococcus, Lactobacillus, Clostridium, Staphylococcus, Corynebacterium, Oceanobacillus, and Tetragenococcus. These genera were found either in doenjang-meju or solar salts, but not in both, suggesting two separate sources of bacteria. Bacillus and Enterococcus were dominant genera during the fermentation, but their abundances were not associated with metabolite changes, suggesting that they may not be major players in doenjang fermentation. Tetragenococcus was dominant in 108 day-doenjang samples, when lactate, acetate, putrescine, and tyramine increased quickly as glucose and fructose decreased, indicating that Tetragenococcus might be primarily responsible for organic acid and biogenic amine production. Lactobacillus was identified as a dominant group from the 179-day samples, associated with the increase of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and the decrease of galactose, indicating a potential role for this genus as a major GABA producer during fermentation. The results of this study clarified the functional properties of major bacterial communities in the doenjang fermentation process, contributing to the production of safe and high-quality doenjang.

  2. Functional characterization of bacterial communities responsible for fermentation of doenjang, a traditional Korean fermented soybean paste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woo Yong eJung

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Doenjang samples were prepared in triplicate and their microbial abundance, bacterial communities, and metabolites throughout fermentation were analyzed to investigate the functional properties of microorganisms in doenjang. Viable bacterial cells were approximately three orders of magnitude higher than fungal cells, suggesting that bacteria are more responsible for doenjang fermentation. Pyrosequencing and proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy were applied for the analysis of bacterial communities and metabolites, respectively. Bacterial community analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that doenjang samples included Bacillus, Enterococcus, Lactobacillus, Clostridium, Staphylococcus, Corynebacterium, Oceanobacillus, and Tetragenococcus. These genera were found either in doenjang-meju or solar salts, but not in both, suggesting two separate sources of bacteria. Bacillus and Enterococcus were dominant genera during the fermentation, but their abundances were not associated with metabolite changes, suggesting that they may not be major players in doenjang fermentation. Tetragenococcus was dominant in 108 day-doenjang samples, when lactate, acetate, putrescine, and tyramine increased quickly as glucose and fructose decreased, indicating that Tetragenococcus might be primarily responsible for organic acid and biogenic amine production. Lactobacillus was identified as a dominant group from the 179-day samples, associated with the increase of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA and the decrease of galactose, indicating a potential role for this genus as a major GABA producer during fermentation. The results of this study clarified the functional properties of major bacterial communities in the doenjang fermentation process, contributing to the production of safe and high-quality doenjang.

  3. Impact of microbial cultures on proteolysis and release of bioactive peptides in fermented milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaves-López, Clemencia; Serio, Annalisa; Paparella, Antonello; Martuscelli, Maria; Corsetti, Aldo; Tofalo, Rosanna; Suzzi, Giovanna

    2014-09-01

    This study aimed at evaluating co-cultures of selected microorganisms for their proteolytic activity and capability to produce fermented milk enriched with ACE-inhibitory (ACEI) peptides. Selected yeasts (Torulaspora delbruekii KL66A, Galactomyces geotrichum KL20B, Pichia kudriavzevii KL84A and Kluyveromyces marxianus KL26A) and lactic acid bacteria strains (Lactobacillus plantarum LAT03, Lb. plantarum KLAT01 and the not virulent Enterococcus faecalis KE06) were screened as single cultures for their capacity of releasing ACEI peptides without producing bitter taste. Three strains cultures (yeast, Lb. plantarum and E. faecalis) were performed to evaluate the combined impact on microbial growth, lactic acid production, citric acid consumption, proteolysis, ACEI activity, and bitter taste after 36 h of fermentation at 28 °C. While G. geotrichum KL20B showed a strong stimulating effect on Lb. plantarum strains and the production of peptides with ACEI activity, the presence of T. delbruekii KL26A in the cultures was deleterious both to ACEI activity and product taste. The most effective combination was P. kudriavzevii KL84A, Lb. plantarum LAT3, E. faecalis KL06, which showed the highest ACEI activity (IC50 = 30.63 ± 1.11 μg ml(-1)) and gave no bitter taste for 7 days at 6 °C. Our results highlight the importance of choosing the strains combination carefully, to obtain a high yield of ACEI activity without bitter taste.

  4. Production of fermented probiotic beverages from milk permeate enriched with whey retentate and identification of present lactic acid bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jagoda Šušković

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available In this research the application of bacterial strains Lactobacillus acidophilus M92, Lactobacillus plantarum L4 and Enterococcus faecium L3 in the production of fermented probiotic beverages from milk permeate enriched with 10 % (v/v whey retentate, was investigated. In the previous researches of probiotic concept, probiotic properties of these three strains of lactic acid bacteria have been defined. At the end of controlled fermentation, probiotic strains have produced 7.4 g/L lactic acid, pH was decreased to 4.7, and number of live cells was around 108 CFU/mL. Number of viable count of probiotic bacteria, which were identified with RAPD (Random Amplified Polymorphic DNAmethod, was maintained at around 107 CFU/mL during 28 days of the preservation at 4 °C. Furthermore, a spontaneous fermentation of milk permeate enriched with 10 % (v/v of whey retentate was carried out and lactic acid bacteria present in these substrates were isolated. All of these bacterial strains have rapidly acidified the growth media and have shown antibacterial activity against chosen test-microorganisms, what are important properties of potential starter cultures for the fermentation of dairy products. The results of biochemical API analysis have identified isolated strains as Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis and Lactobacillus helveticus.

  5. Optimization of hydrogen production by Halobacterium salinarium coupled with E coli using milk plasma as fermentative substrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brijesh Prasad

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Batch experiments were conducted to investigate the fermentative hydrogen production by coupled system of Halobacterium salinarium and E. coli. Increase in the light intensity from 6000 lux to 12000 lux and changing the inoculums level of E coli resulted in 10 fold increase in the rate of hydrogen production using the coupled system. Statistical based design of experiments was applied to optimize the rate of hydrogen production using milk plasma,popularly known as cheese whey, a dairy industry byproduct. An optimal rate of hydrogen production of 56.7 ml/l h was achieved with 14.42 % (by volume of milk plasma and an initial pH of 6.6. The investigations provided information on achieving higher yields with milk plasma as substrate, its optimal concentration, and importance of media pH for producing higher rate of hydrogen.

  6. Effect of a probiotic fermented milk on the thymus in Balb/c mice under non-severe protein-energy malnutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Núñez, Ivanna Novotny; Galdeano, Carolina Maldonado; Carmuega, Esteban; Weill, Ricardo; de Moreno de LeBlanc, Alejandra; Perdigón, Gabriela

    2013-08-28

    Protein–energy malnutrition (PEM) causes a significant impairment of the immune system, the thymus being one of the most affected organs. It has been demonstrated that the administration of probiotic fermented milk (PFM) recovered the intestinal barrier, histological alterations and mucosal and systemic immune functions in a non-severe malnutrition model using BALB/c mice. The aim of the present study was to evaluate, in the same model of malnutrition, the effect of a PFM added to a re-nutrition diet on the recovery of the thymus, analysing histological and functional alterations caused by malnutrition. Mice were undernourished and divided into three groups according to the dietary supplement received during re-nutrition: milk, PFM or its bacterial-free supernatant (BFS). They were compared with well-nourished and malnourished mice. PFM was the most effective re-nutrition supplement to improve the histology of the thymus, decreasing cellular apoptosis in this organ and recovering the percentage of CD4þ/CD82 single-positive thymocytes. Immature doublepositive thymocytes were increased in the malnourished control (MC). The production of different cytokines in the thymus was increased in mice given PFM, compared with the mice that received other dietary supplements and MC. Mice given the BFS presented an improvement in the thymus similar to those that received milk. We demonstrated the importance of the whole PFM supplementation on the histological and functional recovery of the thymus in a non-severe PEM model.

  7. Technical note: A mathematical function to predict daily milk yield of dairy cows in relation to the interval between milkings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klopčič, M; Koops, W J; Kuipers, A

    2013-09-01

    The milk production of a dairy cow is characterized by lactation production, which is calculated from daily milk yields (DMY) during lactation. The DMY is calculated from one or more milkings a day collected at the farm. Various milking systems are in use today, resulting in one or many recorded milk yields a day, from which different calculations are used to determine DMY. The primary objective of this study was to develop a mathematical function that described milk production of a dairy cow in relation to the interval between 2 milkings. The function was partly based on the biology of the milk production process. This function, called the 3K-function, was able to predict milk production over an interval of 12h, so DMY was twice this estimate. No external information is needed to incorporate this function in methods to predict DMY. Application of the function on data from different milking systems showed a good fit. This function could be a universal tool to predict DMY for a variety of milking systems, and it seems especially useful for data from robotic milking systems. Further study is needed to evaluate the function under a wide range of circumstances, and to see how it can be incorporated in existing milk recording systems. A secondary objective of using the 3K-function was to compare how much DMY based on different milking systems differed from that based on a twice-a-day milking. Differences were consistent with findings in the literature. Copyright © 2013 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. A functional food: a traditional Tarhana fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merih KIVANÇ

    Full Text Available Abstract White wheat flour, concentrated full fat yoghurt, tomato paste, onion, red and green paprika, and mint and salt are used in the preparation of Tarhana. During the 7-day Tarhana fermentation period, the acidity increased from 1.10% to 3.25%, the pH decreased from 5.22 to 4.13, and the moisture decreased from 70.12% to 26.15%. The chemical composition of the Tarhana at the end of fermentation was determined as: moisture 9.55%, protein 12.05%, total ash 5.65%, salt 5.65%, and fat 4.88%. During the fermentation, the lactic acid bacteria count of increased from 1.32 X 102 to 4.20 X 104 CFU/g, the total mesophilic aerobe bacteria count increased from 1.75 X 101 to 2.28 X 102 CFU/g, the yeast count increased from 3.45 X 10 1 to 2.40 X 105 CFU/g, the mould count from 1.55 X 10 1 to 2.45 X 104 CFU/g, in the content of Tarhana dough. It was observed that Lactococcus lactis spp. lactis, Leuconostoc mesenteroides, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Enterococcus durans, Pediococcus spp., Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. lactis and Lactobacillus paracasei bacteria played a role during the fermentation of Tarhana dough. Kluyveromyces marxianus, Yarrowia lipolytica, Pichia membranaefaciens, Pichia mexicana, Pichia angusta, Debaryomyces hansenii, Candida sorboxylosa, Candida fluviatilis, Saccharomyces cerevisiae were identified during the Tarhana fermentation.

  9. Practical background modification fermented beverage technology for the formation of defined functional properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Botvinnikova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of provision of population with dairy products is escalating due to the fact that today, throughout the world, particularly in Russia, there is a shortage of milk as raw material, increasing every year. In the future, the consumption of milk and dairy products will continue to outpace growth in milk production is solid. To solve this problem, domestic producers need to find new ways to increase production of raw milk and improve the consumer and functional properties of fermented dairy products. The work was proposed the use of acoustic effects of ultrasound, triggered by the ultrasound, the technological model UTA ABOUT, 4/22 OM (frequency mechanical vibrations 22 ± 1,65 kHz. The main factors determining consumer characteristics, were taken physico-chemical parameters, structural and mechanical characteristics and the accumulation of minor biologically active substances – kefiran. In the study was obtained results confirming the necessity of using ultrasonic impact (RAS in the production technology of dairy products.

  10. Plasmid Profiling and Curing of Lactobacillus Strains Isolated from Fermented Milk for Probiotic Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Lavanya

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the antimicrobial susceptibilities and presence of plasmids in 7 probiotics strains which had been isolated from the fermented milk were determined. Resistance to 8 commonly used antibiotics $- lactans (penicillin, ampicilin, gram positive spectrum (vanomycin, broad spectrum (rifampin, trimethoprim and aminogycosides (kanamycin, streptomycin, and bacitracin was assessed by disk diffusion. Among these strains 20, 20, 60, 70, 90 and 100% were found to be exhibit a significant degree of resistance to kanamycin, trimetroprim, rifampicin, kanamycin, amphicilin and penicillin respectively. Further, plasmid profile and curing of plasmid were performed for the seven isolates. Analysis of the plasmid profiles of the 7 cured derivatives revealed loss of plasmids except 2 strains where curing was partially effective. All the strains lost penicillin resistance after curing indicating that plasmids encodes for resistance character. However, vanomycin resistance is not lost upon curing which indicates that such resistance is usually intrinsic (chromosomally encoded and not transmissible. Finally, the antimicrobial susceptibility after curing was done to check the safety aspect of the isolates for their application as probiotics and among the 7 strains, 5 were proved to be potent probiotics.

  11. Effect of probiotic fermented milk (kefir on glycemic control and lipid profile in type 2 diabetic patients: a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Ostadrahimi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes is a global health problem in the world. Probiotic food has anti-diabetic property. The aim of this trial was to determine the effect of probiotic fermented milk (kefir on glucose and lipid profile control in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.This randomized double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial was conducted on 60 diabetic patients aged 35 to 65 years.Patients were randomly and equally (n=30 assigned to consume either probiotic fermented milk (kefir or conventional fermented milk (dough for 8 weeks. Probiotic group consumed 600 ml/day probiotic fermented milk containing Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacteria and control group consumed 600 ml/day conventional fermented milk.Blood samples tested for fasting blood glucose, HbA1C, triglyceride (TG, total cholesterol, HDL-C and LDL-C at the baseline and end of the study.The comparison of fasting blood glucose between two groups after intervention was statistically significant (P=0.01. After intervention, reduced HbA1C compared with the baseline value in probiotic fermented milk group was statistically significant (P=0.001, also the HbA1C level significantly decreased in probiotic group in comparison with control group (P=0.02 adjusting for serum levels of glucose, baseline values of HbA1c and energy intake according to ANCOVA model. Serum triglyceride, total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and HDL- cholesterol levels were not shown significant differences between and within the groups after intervention.Probiotic fermented milk can be useful as a complementary or adjuvant therapy in the treatment of diabetes.

  12. Effect of Probiotic Fermented Milk (Kefir) on Glycemic Control and Lipid Profile In Type 2 Diabetic Patients: A Randomized Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    OSTADRAHIMI, Alireza; TAGHIZADEH, Akbar; MOBASSERI, Majid; FARRIN, Nazila; PAYAHOO, Laleh; BEYRAMALIPOOR GHESHLAGHI, Zahra; VAHEDJABBARI, Morteza

    2015-01-01

    Background: Diabetes is a global health problem in the world. Probiotic food has anti-diabetic property. The aim of this trial was to determine the effect of probiotic fermented milk (kefir) on glucose and lipid profile control in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Methods: This randomized double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial was conducted on 60 diabetic patients aged 35 to 65 years.Patients were randomly and equally (n=30) assigned to consume either probiotic fermented milk (kefir) or conventional fermented milk (dough) for 8 weeks. Probiotic group consumed 600 ml/day probiotic fermented milk containing Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacteria and control group consumed 600 ml/day conventional fermented milk.Blood samples tested for fasting blood glucose, HbA1C, triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol, HDL-C and LDL-C at the baseline and end of the study. Results: The comparison of fasting blood glucose between two groups after intervention was statistically significant (P=0.01). After intervention, reduced HbA1C compared with the baseline value in probiotic fermented milk group was statistically significant (P=0.001), also the HbA1C level significantly decreased in probiotic group in comparison with control group (P=0.02) adjusting for serum levels of glucose, baseline values of HbA1c and energy intake according to ANCOVA model. Serum triglyceride, total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and HDL- cholesterol levels were not shown significant differences between and within the groups after intervention. Conclusion: Probiotic fermented milk can be useful as a complementary or adjuvant therapy in the treatment of diabetes. PMID:25905057

  13. Comprehensive Proteomic Analysis of Human Milk-derived Extracellular Vesicles Unveils a Novel Functional Proteome Distinct from Other Milk Components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Herwijnen, Martijn J C; Zonneveld, Marijke I; Goerdayal, Soenita; Nolte-'t Hoen, Esther N M; Garssen, Johan; Stahl, Bernd; Maarten Altelaar, A F; Redegeld, Frank A; Wauben, Marca H M

    2016-11-01

    Breast milk contains several macromolecular components with distinctive functions, whereby milk fat globules and casein micelles mainly provide nutrition to the newborn, and whey contains molecules that can stimulate the newborn's developing immune system and gastrointestinal tract. Although extracellular vesicles (EV) have been identified in breast milk, their physiological function and composition has not been addressed in detail. EV are submicron sized vehicles released by cells for intercellular communication via selectively incorporated lipids, nucleic acids, and proteins. Because of the difficulty in separating EV from other milk components, an in-depth analysis of the proteome of human milk-derived EV is lacking. In this study, an extensive LC-MS/MS proteomic analysis was performed of EV that had been purified from breast milk of seven individual donors using a recently established, optimized density-gradient-based EV isolation protocol. A total of 1963 proteins were identified in milk-derived EV, including EV-associated proteins like CD9, Annexin A5, and Flotillin-1, with a remarkable overlap between the different donors. Interestingly, 198 of the identified proteins are not present in the human EV database Vesiclepedia, indicating that milk-derived EV harbor proteins not yet identified in EV of different origin. Similarly, the proteome of milk-derived EV was compared with that of other milk components. For this, data from 38 published milk proteomic studies were combined in order to construct the total milk proteome, which consists of 2698 unique proteins. Remarkably, 633 proteins identified in milk-derived EV have not yet been identified in human milk to date. Interestingly, these novel proteins include proteins involved in regulation of cell growth and controlling inflammatory signaling pathways, suggesting that milk-derived EVs could support the newborn's developing gastrointestinal tract and immune system. Overall, this study provides an expansion of

  14. Effects of lasalocid or monensin supplementation on digestion, ruminal fermentation, blood metabolites, and milk production of lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martineau, R; Benchaar, C; Petit, H V; Lapierre, H; Ouellet, D R; Pellerin, D; Berthiaume, R

    2007-12-01

    Six ruminally fistulated midlactating multiparous Holstein cows were used in a double 3 x 3 Latin square design (35-d periods) to study the effects of lasalocid (LAS) and monensin (MON) supplemented at 24 mg/ kg of dry matter on digestion, ruminal fermentation, blood metabolites, and milk production. Cows were blocked according to milk production and fed a red clover silage-based total mixed ration (17.8% crude protein) without supplementation or supplemented with LAS or MON. Daily dry matter intake, milk production, and milk fat and protein concentrations were similar among treatments and averaged 23.5 kg, 36.6 kg, 3.36%, and 3.38%, respectively. Rumen lipogenic:glucogenic volatile fatty acids and NH(3)-N concentration were lower, and apparent digestibility of dry matter, organic matter, crude protein, and gross energy were higher with than without ionophore supplementation. Compared with LAS, MON increased concentrations of plasma urea-N and milk urea-N, and excretion of urinary urea-N and total N. Monensin also decreased N retention and tended to reduce plasma concentration of nonessential AA in comparison with LAS. Both ionophores reduced daily fecal excretion of N by 13 g compared with the control, but MON increased daily losses of urinary N by 36 g compared with LAS. Results from this study suggest that postabsorptive metabolism of N might be altered by the type of ionophore fed.

  15. Effects of feeding three types of corn-milling coproducts on milk production and ruminal fermentation of lactating Holstein cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelzer, J M; Kononoff, P J; Gehman, A M; Tedeschi, L O; Karges, K; Gibson, M L

    2009-10-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine the effects of feeding 3 corn-milling coproducts on intake, milk production, ruminal fermentation, and digestibility of lactating Holstein cows. In experiment 1, three corn-milling coproducts were fed at 15% of the diet dry matter (DM) to 28 Holstein cows averaging (+/-SD) 625 +/- 81 kg of body weight and 116 +/- 33 d in milk to determine effects on DM intake and milk production. In experiment 2, the same rations were fed to 4 ruminally fistulated, multiparous Holstein cows averaging 677 +/- 41 kg of body weight and 144 +/- 5 d in milk to determine the effects on ruminal fermentation and digestibility. In both experiments, cows and treatments were assigned randomly in 4 x 4 Latin squares over four 21-d periods. Treatments were formulated by replacing portions of forage and concentrate feeds with 15% coproduct and included 1) 0% coproduct (control), 2) dried distillers grains plus solubles (DDGS), 3) dehydrated corn germ meal (germ), and 4) high-protein dried distillers grains (HPDDG). Feed intake was recorded daily, and milk samples were collected on d 19 to 21 of each period for analysis of major components. Rumen fluid was collected at 10 time points over 24 h post feeding on d 21 of experiment 2. In experiment 1, DM intake was greater for the germ (24.3 kg/d) and DDGS treatments (23.8 kg/d), but DDGS was not different from the control (22.9 kg/d) and HPDDG treatments (22.4 kg/d). Milk production paralleled DM intake and tended to be greater for the germ (32.1 kg/d) and DDGS treatments (30.9 kg/d), but the DDGS treatment was not different from the control (30.6 kg/d) and HPDDG treatments (30.3 kg/d). However, yields of milk fat, milk protein, and 3.5% FCM were similar and averaged (+/-SEM) 1.1 +/- 0.1, 0.9 +/- 0.03, and 31.7 +/- 1.3 kg/d. Milk urea nitrogen was greater for the HPDDG (15.9 mg/dL) and germ treatments (15.5 mg/dL) than for the control (15.0 mg/dL) and DDGS treatments (14.9 mg/dL). In experiment 2, DM

  16. Functional similarities between pigeon 'milk' and mammalian milk: induction of immune gene expression and modification of the microbiota.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meagan J Gillespie

    Full Text Available Pigeon 'milk' and mammalian milk have functional similarities in terms of nutritional benefit and delivery of immunoglobulins to the young. Mammalian milk has been clearly shown to aid in the development of the immune system and microbiota of the young, but similar effects have not yet been attributed to pigeon 'milk'. Therefore, using a chicken model, we investigated the effect of pigeon 'milk' on immune gene expression in the Gut Associated Lymphoid Tissue (GALT and on the composition of the caecal microbiota. Chickens fed pigeon 'milk' had a faster rate of growth and a better feed conversion ratio than control chickens. There was significantly enhanced expression of immune-related gene pathways and interferon-stimulated genes in the GALT of pigeon 'milk'-fed chickens. These pathways include the innate immune response, regulation of cytokine production and regulation of B cell activation and proliferation. The caecal microbiota of pigeon 'milk'-fed chickens was significantly more diverse than control chickens, and appears to be affected by prebiotics in pigeon 'milk', as well as being directly seeded by bacteria present in pigeon 'milk'. Our results demonstrate that pigeon 'milk' has further modes of action which make it functionally similar to mammalian milk. We hypothesise that pigeon 'lactation' and mammalian lactation evolved independently but resulted in similarly functional products.

  17. Sustainable Milk and Meat Production while Reducing Methane Emissions from Livestock Enteric Fermentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castelan-Ortega, O. A.; Molina, L. T.; Pedraza-Beltrán, P. E.; Hernández-Pineda, G.; Ku-Vera, J. C.; Benaouda, M.; Gonzalez-Ronquillo, M.

    2016-12-01

    Ruminants produce all the milk and most of the meat demanded by humans; however, ruminant production generates large quantities of greenhouse gases (GHG), around 15% of anthropogenic emissions of GHG are attributed to ruminant production. Therefore there is an urgent need to develop sustainable alternatives to mitigate GHG emissions by ruminants and to increase the supply of high quality protein for human consumption in a climate change scenario. The objective of this work is to present sustainable options to mitigate methane (CH4) production from enteric fermentation by cattle and to illustrate how productivity can be increased at the same time. We conducted several experiments to measure CH4 emission in vivo by cattle in order to estimate emission factors in the temperate and tropical climate regions of Mexico followed by inventory calculation. We then evaluated the supplementation to cattle of different tanniferous plants to reduce enteric CH4 formation and finally established two mitigation scenarios for each region. Leucaena leucocephala and Cosmos bipinnatus are the tanniferous plants that produced the largest reduction in CH4 formation. In scenario 1, a moderate mitigation scenario, it was assumed 16% reduction of enteric CH4 emission in the temperate climate regions (TEMP) and 36% in the tropical regions (TROP) with cattle population of 37.8 million heads, from which 22.3 are in the TEMP (emission factor 529 l/day/head) and 15.5 in the TROP (emission factor 137 l/day/head). Reduction potential resulting from the use of C. bipinnatus and L. Leucocephala over a year is 1,203Gg. In scenario 2, a high mitigation situation, it was assumed a 26% reduction of CH4 emission in the TEMP and 36% in the TROP and the same cattle population. The reduction potential resulting from C. bipinnatus and L. Leucocephala use in a year is 1,512 Gg. Results showed that in both scenarios the CH4 released by enteric fermentation could be reduced by the use of the plants evaluated

  18. Microbiological, biochemical, and functional aspects of sugary kefir fermentation - A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorda, Fernanda Assumpção; de Melo Pereira, Gilberto Vinicius; Thomaz-Soccol, Vanete; Rakshit, Sudip Kumar; Pagnoncelli, Maria Giovana Binder; Vandenberghe, Luciana Porto de Souza; Soccol, Carlos Ricardo

    2017-09-01

    Sugary kefir beverage is produce by fermenting raw sugar solution with kefir grains, the latter consisting of polysaccharide and microorganisms. This beverage, with great consumption in countries such as USA, Japan, France, and Brazil, represents a promising market to functional cultured drinks. This paper reviews the microbial diversity and interaction, kinetics, safety, and bioactivities of sugary kefir fermentation. The literature reviewed here demonstrates that sugary kefir possesses a similar microbial association relative to traditional milk kefir fermentation, especially among lactic acid bacteria and yeast species, such as Lactobacillus, Leuconostoc, Kluyveromyces, Pichia, and Saccharomyces. However, a selective pressure at species level is generally observed, as, for example, the stimulation of Saccharomyces species metabolism, leading to a high content of alcohol in the final product. This also seems to stimulate the growth of acetic acid bacteria that benefit of increased ethanol production to acetic acid metabolism. Existing reports have suggested important bioactivities associated with sugary kefir beverage consumption, such as antimicrobial, antiedematogenic, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, cicatrizing, and healing activities. Other alternative non-dairy substrates, such as fruits, vegetables, and molasses, have also been tested for adaptation of kefir grains and production of functional beverages with distinct sensory characteristics. This diversification is of crucial importance for the production of new probiotic products to provide people with special needs (lactose intolerance) and vegan consumers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Effect of cassava hay and rice bran oil supplementation on rumen fermentation, milk yield and milk composition in lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunsin, R; Wanapat, M; Rowlinson, P

    2012-10-01

    Four crossbred (75% Holstein Friesian) lactating dairy cows, with an average live weight of 418±5 kg and 36±10 d in milk were randomly assigned according to a 2×2 factorial arrangement in a 4×4 Latin square design to evaluate the effects of cassava hay (CH) and rice bran oil (RBO) on feed intake, nutrient digestibility, ruminal fermentation, milk yield, and milk composition. Factor A was non-supplementation or supplementation with CH in the concentrate. Factor B was supplementation with RBO at 0% or 4% in the concentrate mixture. The four dietary treatments were (T1) control (Concentrate with non-CH plus 0% RBO; C), (T2) Concentrate with CH plus 0% RBO (CH), (T3) Concentrate with non-CH plus 4% RBO (RBO), and (T4) Concentrate with CH plus 4% RBO (CHRBO). The cows were offered concentrate, at a ratio of concentrate to milk production of 1:2, and urea-lime treated rice straw was fed ad libitum. Urea-lime treated rice straw involved 2.5 g urea and 2.5 g Ca(OH)2 (purchased as hydrated lime) in 100 ml water, the relevant volume of solution was sprayed onto a 100 g air-dry (91% DM) straw, and then covering the stack with a plastic sheet for a minimum of 10 d before feeding directly to animals. The CH based concentrate resulted in significantly higher roughage intake and total DM intake expressed as a percentage of BW (p<0.05). Ruminal pH, NH3-N, BUN and total VFA did not differ among treatments, while RBO supplementation increased propionate, but decreased acetate concentration (p<0.05). Furthermore, the population of total ruminal bacteria was significantly lower on the RBO diet (p<0.05). In contrast, the total ruminal bacteria and cellulolytic bacteria on the CH diet were higher than on the other treatments. Supplementation with CH increased (p<0.05) F. succinogens and R. flavefaciens populations, whereas the populations of B. fibrisolvens and M. elsdenii were increased on the RBO diet. In addition, supplementation with CH and RBO had no effect on milk production

  20. Lactobacillus paracasei CBA L74 Metabolic Products and Fermented Milk for Infant Formula Have Anti-Inflammatory Activity on Dendritic Cells In Vitro and Protective Effects against Colitis and an Enteric Pathogen In Vivo

    OpenAIRE

    Elena Zagato; Erika Mileti; Lucia Massimiliano; Francesca Fasano; Andrea Budelli; Giuseppe Penna; Maria Rescigno

    2014-01-01

    The rapid expansion of commercially available fermented food products raises important safety issues particularly when infant food is concerned. In many cases, the activity of the microorganisms used for fermentation as well as what will be the immunological outcome of fermented food intake is not known. In this manuscript we used complex in vitro, ex-vivo and in vivo systems to study the immunomodulatory properties of probiotic-fermented products (culture supernatant and fermented milk witho...

  1. Study of modified sweet corn fermented milk%改性甜玉米发酵乳的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李春梅; 迟玉杰; 王丹; 孙丽颖; 柳丹

    2011-01-01

    通过单因素和正交实验确定了改性甜玉米发酵乳的发酵工艺条件.结果表明,改性玉米浆与鲜乳以1∶1.5的质量比混合,加入质量分数为3%蔗糖+3%乳糖,稳定剂的添加量为0.2%果胶+0.1%单甘酯,选用保加利亚乳杆菌和乳酸链球菌1∶1的比例按4%的接种量接种,在43℃条件下发酵7h,可得到质地均匀、口感细腻、具有甜玉米清香的发酵乳.%In this study, the fermentation conditions is determined according to a single factor and orthogonal experiments. The optimum condition of modified sweet corn fermented milk is that modified sweet corn syrup and milk is mixed by ratio of 1:1.5, adding 6% sugar(su crose: lactose =1:1),adding 0.2%pectin+0.1% monoglycerides, Lactobadllus bulgaricus and Nisin is 1:1 ratio and the baeteria inoculum 4% at 43 ℃ for 7 hours. The texture is uniform,the taste is exquisite and the fermented milk with sweet com flavor and fragrance.

  2. Characterization of Probiotic Fermented Milk Prepared by Different Inoculation Size of Mesophilic and Thermophilic Lactic Acid Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Nasiri Boosjin

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Importance of development of novel probiotic fermented milk and challenge made for its acceptability is well known. In this research, the impact of different inoculation sizes of yogurt and DL-type starter culture (mesophilic and thermophilic LAB on titratable acidity, viscosity, sensorial and microbial properties of fermented milk was investigated; and finally, probiotic Langfil was produced.Materials and Methods: Fermented milk produced by 1, 2 and 3% v v-1 inocula consisting thermophilic: mesophilic starter cultures 10:90 (Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis, Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris, Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis, Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis biovar. diacetylactis and Leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp. cremoris. Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. Bulgaricus were analyzed for determination of titratable acidity, viscosity, viability of mesophilic starter cultures and sensory properties on days 5, 10, and 15 of storage at 4°C. Then, the most suitable treatments were selected for the producing probiotic Langfil, containing probiotic starter culture (2% v v-1 inoculums with equal ratio of Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium bifidum. Lactococcus lactis and L. cremoris were counted on M17 agar, while Leuconostoc and Lactobacillus were counted aerobically on tomato juice agar and MRS bile agar, respectively. Bifidobacterium was cultured anaerobically on MRS bile agar. Sensory evaluation was carried out by ten trained panelists, based on a nine-point hedonic scale during the cold storage.Results and Conclusion: According to results, the best organoleptic properties were achieved in the product prepared with 2% the mesophilic and thermophilic starter cultures and 2% probiotic. This product had a high viscosity. An Iranian probiotic Langfil with desired properties was produced using the best treatment prepared.Conflict of interests: The authors declare no conflict of

  3. 咖啡发酵含乳饮料的研制%Dvelopment of a fermented milk beverage with coffee

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李向东; 刘鹭

    2012-01-01

    The application of different levels of carrageenan, sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC), agar, xasthan gum and stabilizer blends in fermented milk beverage with coffee was studied in this paper. Through orthogonal experiments, the optimal conditions for beverage-making were determined as: 15% coffee juice, 50% fermented milk, 3% stabilizer blends Ⅱ (0.2% carrageenan+0.1% CMC), 8% sucrose addition.The results showed that the taste and stability of the fermented milk beverage are best, physical and chemical indicators, sensory indicators and microbial indicators can reach the required range, room temperature storage time of two months or more. The compound stabilizers had a good stabilizing effect and could be applied to production practice.%研究了卡拉胶、耐酸型CMC、琼脂、黄原胶及其复配稳定剂在咖啡发酵型含乳饮料中的应用,通过正交试验得到咖啡发酵含乳饮料的最佳配方,即15%的咖啡萃取液、50%的发酵乳、3%的复配稳定剂Ⅱ(0.1%卡拉胶+0.1%耐酸型CMC)和8%的白砂糖.结果表明,咖啡发酵型含乳饮料口感和稳定性最佳,理化指标、感官指标、微生物指标都可以达到所要求的范围,常温贮存时间2个月以上,可以应用于生产实践.

  4. Effect of fermented milk containing Lactobacillus casei strain Shirota on constipation-related symptoms and haemorrhoids in women during puerperium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, T; Kubota, H; Gawad, A; Gheyle, L; Ramael, S; Oishi, K

    2015-01-01

    Constipation and haemorrhoids are common complaints after childbirth. The objective of this pilot study was to evaluate impact of fermented milk containing Lactobacillus casei strain Shirota (LcS) on stool consistency and frequency, constipation-related symptoms and quality of life, and incidence of haemorrhoids in women during puerperium. Forty women who had natural childbirth were randomised to group consuming either one bottle/day of fermented milk containing at least 6.5×109 cfu of LcS, or placebo, for 6 weeks after childbirth. Subjects filled in a diary on their bowel habits including number of bowel movement, stool consistency and incidence of haemorrhoids, and answered questionnaires on constipation-related symptoms (PAC-SYM) and quality of life (PAC-QOL) during the study period. The probiotic group showed the better scores on overall PAC-SYM (P=0.013), PAC-SYM subscales of abdominal symptoms (P=0.043) and rectal symptoms (P=0.031), and PAC-QOL satisfaction subscale (P=0.037) in comparison with the placebo group. In the probiotic group, two to four subjects experienced haemorrhoids during the first 3 weeks of treatment. The number decreased in week 4 and no one had haemorrhoids on most days in week 5-6. In the placebo group, on average four subjects had haemorrhoids from the beginning, and no obvious change was observed until week 6. No statistically significant effect was observed on stool consistency and frequency. The study products did not cause any adverse event in the subjects. Results of this study indicate that continuous consumption of fermented milk containing LcS might alleviate constipation-related symptoms, provide satisfactory bowel habit and result in earlier recovery from haemorrhoids in women during puerperium. Nonetheless, there are several limitations in interpretation of the results attributed to the study design, including lack of baseline data. Further study is required in order to confirm the efficacy.

  5. Fermented milk containing Lactobacillus casei strain Shirota prevents the onset of physical symptoms in medical students under academic examination stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato-Kataoka, A; Nishida, K; Takada, M; Suda, K; Kawai, M; Shimizu, K; Kushiro, A; Hoshi, R; Watanabe, O; Igarashi, T; Miyazaki, K; Kuwano, Y; Rokutan, K

    2016-01-01

    This pilot study investigated the effects of the probiotic Lactobacillus casei strain Shirota (LcS) on psychological, physiological, and physical stress responses in medical students undertaking an authorised nationwide examination for promotion. In a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 24 and 23 healthy medical students consumed a fermented milk containing LcS and a placebo milk, respectively, once a day for 8 weeks until the day before the examination. Psychophysical state, salivary cortisol, faecal serotonin, and plasma L-tryptophan were analysed on 5 different sampling days (8 weeks before, 2 weeks before, 1 day before, immediately after, and 2 weeks after the examination). Physical symptoms were also recorded in a diary by subjects during the intervention period for 8 weeks. In association with a significant elevation of anxiety at 1 day before the examination, salivary cortisol and plasma L-tryptophan levels were significantly increased in only the placebo group (Pstressful situations.

  6. Effect of fermented milk containing Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium longum on plasma lipids of women with normal or moderately elevated cholesterol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Sara; Borges, Nuno

    2009-11-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effect of milk fermented with Lactobacillus acidophilus 145 and Bifidobacterium longum BB536 on plasma lipids in a sample of adult women. A double-blind, placebo controlled, cross-over study (two periods of four weeks each separated by a 1-week washout period) was performed in 34 women, aged between 18 and 65 years. Group A consumed 125 g fermented milk three times a day for the first 4 weeks while group B consumed regular yoghurt under the same conditions. (Groups A and B switched products for the second treatment period). Women taking the test product with a baseline total cholesterol above 190 mg/dl showed a significant reduction in LDL cholesterol. HDL cholesterol was also reduced by the test product. We conclude that the fermented milk may help to reduce LDL levels in hypercholesterolemic adult women.

  7. Formation of the texture of fermented milk and cereal product by varying the particle size distribution of cereal compositions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pas'ko O. V.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Combining animal and plant components is a promising direction of creating specialized foods of high biological and nutritional value. In this regard, research aimed at developing a fermented product technology based on combination of raw milk and grain products is relevant. In researches a set of generally accepted standard methods including physical-chemical, microbiological, biochemical, rheological, and mathematical methods of statistical processing of research results and development of mathematical models has been applied. The paper presents the results of research aimed at developing the technology of fermented milk – cereal product. In the first phase of research to substantiate product composition the systematic approach has been applied considering components of the product, changes of their status and properties as the current biotechnological systems (BPS. Selection of the grains' optimum ratio in the composition has been carried out on the basis of a set of indicators: the chemical composition and energy value, the content of B vitamins and dietary fibers, the indicator of biological value, organoleptic characteristics. Analysis of the combined results allows choose cereal flakes composition ratio of 1 : 1 : 1 (Oatmeal : Barley : Rye for further studies. As the main source of carbohydrate honey is used, it also improves the organoleptic properties of the product. Nutritional supplement glycine is used as a modifier of taste and smell. It has been found that introduction of glycine at 0.1 % in the BPS "milk – cereal composition" naturally decreases the intensity of taste and smell of cereal composition. The effect of particle size distribution of cereal composition on properties of the biotechnological system of milky cereal product has been established as well. For technology of the developed product the fraction selected cereal composition (Oatmeal : Barley : Rye as a 1 : 1 : 1 with a particle size of 670–1 000 microns has

  8. [Breast milk: its nutritional composition and functional properties].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tackoen, M

    2012-09-01

    Human milk is a complex biological fluid with thousands of components. The milk composition in the mammalian species is specific and adapted to the needs of the offspring. It contains macronutrients (proteins, lipids and carbohydrates), micronutrients (minerals and vitamins) and numerous biologically active substrates. Human milk not only covers the nutritional needs of the newborn but protects the baby against infection, inflammation and oxidative stress. It has immunomodulation properties and confers trophical protection to the intestinal mucosa. The newborn infant is particularly immature: innate immunity, adaptive immunity and intestinal immaturity. Human milk will offer this exogenous protective and immunomodulating source. The development of the composition of the intestinal microflora of the neonate will be impacted by pre- and probiotic components of human milk. Current scientific knowledge of human milk properties highlights interdependency of the different components, ontogeny of the intestinal function, development of the mucosal intestinal immune system, colonization by the intestinal microbiota and protection against pathogens. Quality of these interactions influences the newborn's short and long-term health status. The promotion of breastfeeding with the support of the Baby Friendly Hospital Initiative (BFHI) program and labeling has been shown to have positive impact in public health.

  9. Scientific Opinion on the safety of ?heat-treated milk products fermented with Bacteroides xylanisolvens DSM 23964? as a novel food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Following a request from the European Commission, the EFSA NDA Panel was asked to carry out the additional assessment for ‘pasteurised milk products fermented with Bacteroides xylanisolvens DSM 23964’ as a novel food (NF in the context of Regulation (EC No 258/97. Pasteurised or ultra-high-temperature-treated milk is used for the fermentation process with B. xylanisolvens DSM 23964. After fermentation the product is heat treated for one hour at 75 °C to ensure the absence of viable B. xylanisolvens DSM 23964. The Panel considers the information provided on the identity and characterisation of B. xylanisolvens DSM 23964 to be sufficient. The production process encompasses standard techniques used by the dairy industry, is sufficiently described by the applicant and does not give rise to safety concerns. The Panel considers that the information provided on the production process and on the content of vitamins B2 and B12 and furosine in heat-treated fermented milk products does not give rise to concerns regarding disadvantageous nutritional effects. The Panel considers that the microbiological data provided do not give rise to safety concerns. The Panel also notes that a pilot study and a RCT over six weeks with 140 volunteers receiving daily doses of a spray-dried heat-treated fermented milk product containing intakes of up to 1 ´ 1012 inactivated bacterial cells of B. xylanisolvens DSM 23964 were provided. No clinical effects related to the treatment were observed in the two studies. Although no information has been provided to conclude on the risk of allergic reactions caused by the NF, the Panel considers that it is unlikely that its allergenic potential is dissimilar to that of other fermented dairy products. The Panel concludes that the NF ‘heat-treated milk products fermented with B. xylanisolvens DSM 23964’ is safe for the proposed uses and at the proposed use levels.

  10. Influence of milk fermented with Lactobacillus rhamnosus NCDC 17 alone and in combination with herbal ingredients on diet induced adiposity and related gene expression in C57BL/6J mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pothuraju, Ramesh; Sharma, Raj Kumar; Chagalamarri, Jayasimha; Kavadi, Praveen Kumar; Jangra, Surender

    2015-11-01

    Obesity has become a major health problem in developed countries and is rapidly catching up in the developing world due to changes in their life style. Dietary incorporation of functional foods, including probiotic fermented milk and herbal ingredients, is being tried to ameliorate metabolic disorders. In the present study, the effect of dietary supplementation of a probiotic (Lactobacillus rhamnosus NCDC 17) fermented milk alone or either of the herbal preparations (Aloe vera/Gymnema sylvestre powders, 1% w/w) on the progression of obesity has been studied in C57BL/6J mice fed with a high fat diet for 12 weeks. At the end of the experimental period, oral administration of L. rhamnosus and herbs resulted in a significant decrease in the body weight, epididymal fat mass, fasting blood glucose and serum insulin levels. Supplementation of the probiotic L. rhamnosus alone and in combination with herbs showed a significant decrease in the adipocyte cell size and an increase in the number. Finally, obesity related adipokines levels were maintained at normal by the treatment groups. Thus, dietary intervention of milk fermented with probiotic L. rhamnosus alone or in combination with any of the herbal preparations seems to show anti-obesity and anti-inflammatory properties.

  11. Effects of Pleurotus eryngii polysaccharides on bacterial growth, texture properties, proteolytic capacity, and angiotensin-I-converting enzyme-inhibitory activities of fermented milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Siqian; Shah, Nagendra P

    2015-05-01

    Pleurotus eryngii is one of the most favored oyster mushrooms and contains various beneficial bioactive compounds. Polysaccharide extracted from P. eryngii (PEPS) was added as a natural-source ingredient to milk before fermentation, and the effects of additional PEPS on fermented milk were investigated in this study. The PEPS were extracted and added to reconstituted skim milk (12%, wt/vol) at 0.5, 0.25, and 0.125% (wt/vol) and fermented by a non-exopolysaccharide-producing strain, Streptococcus thermophilus Australian Starter Culture Collection (ASCC) 1303 (ST 1303), or an exopolysaccharide-producing Strep. thermophilus ASCC 1275 (ST 1275). Bacterial growth, texture properties, microstructure, proteolytic capacity, and angiotensin-I-converting enzyme-inhibitory activities of fermented milk (FM) were determined during refrigerated storage at 4°C for 21d. Viable counts of starter bacteria in FM with 0.5% PEPS added were the highest. Changes in pH were consistent with changes in titratable acidities for all samples. The FM samples with added PEPS showed denser protein aggregates containing larger serum pores in confocal micrographs compared with those without PEPS at d 0 and 21during refrigerated storage. The values for spontaneous whey separation of FM with added PEPS were significantly higher than those of FM fermented by ST 1303 or ST 1275 without PEPS. The proteolytic activities of ST 1303 of FM with added PEPS were higher than those of FM fermented by ST 1303 without PEPS. The FM with added 0.125% PEPS had similar angiotensin-I-converting enzyme-inhibitory activity to that fermented by ST 1303 without PEPS; both were higher than those of other samples during refrigerated storage. Firmness and gumminess values of FM with added PEPS were higher than those of FM fermented by ST 1303 or ST 1275 without PEPS.

  12. Effect of bromochloromethane on methane emission, rumen fermentation pattern, milk yield, and fatty acid profile in lactating dairy goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abecia, L; Toral, P G; Martín-García, A I; Martínez, G; Tomkins, N W; Molina-Alcaide, E; Newbold, C J; Yáñez-Ruiz, D R

    2012-04-01

    Several technologies have been tested to reduce enteric methanogenesis, but very few have been successfully used in practical conditions for livestock. Furthermore, the consequences of reduced rumen methane production on animal performance and milk quality are poorly understood. The aim of this work was to investigate the effect of feeding bromochloromethane (BCM), a halogenated aliphatic hydrocarbon with potential antimethanogenic activity, to dairy goats on rumen methane production, fermentation pattern, the abundance of major microbial groups, and on animal performance and milk composition. Eighteen goats were allocated to 2 experimental groups of 9 animals each: treated (BCM+) or not (BCM-) with 0.30 g of BCM/100 kg of body weight per day. The BCM was administered per os in 2 equal doses per day from parturition to 2 wk postweaning (10 wk). After weaning, methane emissions were recorded over 2 consecutive days (d 57 and 58 on treatment) in polycarbonate chambers. On d 59, individual rumen fluid samples were collected for volatile fatty acid (VFA) analysis and quantification of bacterial, protozoal, and archaeal numbers by real-time PCR. On d 69 and 70, daily milk production was recorded and samples were collected for determination of fat, protein, lactose, casein, and total solids concentration by infrared spectrophotometry, and fatty acid composition by gas chromatography. Treatment with BCM reduced methane production by 33% (21.6 vs. 14.4 L/kg of DMI) compared with nontreated animals, although it did not affect the abundance of rumen bacteria, protozoa, and total methanogenic archaea. The observed improvement in the efficiency of digestive processes was accompanied by a 36% increase in milk yield, probably due to the more propionic type of rumen fermentation and an increase in VFA production. The increase in milk yield was not accompanied by any changes in the concentrations or yields of fat, protein, or lactose. Despite the substantial decrease in methane

  13. Non-fermented and fermented jabuticaba (Myrciaria cauliflora Mart.) pomaces as valuable sources of functional ingredients

    OpenAIRE

    Morales, Patricia; Barros, Lillian; Dias, Maria Inês; Santos-Buelga, Celestino; FERREIRA, ISABEL C.F.R.; Ramirez Asquieri, Eduardo; Berrios, José De J.

    2016-01-01

    abuticaba (Myrciaria cauliflora. Mart) is a highly perishable fruit native to Brazil, which is consumed both fresh and industrially processed in the form of juices, jams, wines and distilled liqueurs. This processing generates a large amount of waste by-products, which represent approximately 50% of the fruit weight. The by-products are of interest for obtaining valuable bioactive compounds that could be used as nutraceuticals or functional ingredients. In this study, fermented and non-fermen...

  14. Effects of supplementing condensed tannin extract on intake, digestion, ruminal fermentation, and milk production of lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dschaak, C M; Williams, C M; Holt, M S; Eun, J-S; Young, A J; Min, B R

    2011-05-01

    A lactation experiment was conducted to determine the influence of quebracho condensed tannin extract (CTE) on ruminal fermentation and lactational performance of dairy cows. The cows were fed a high forage (HF) or a low forage (LF) diet with a forage-to-concentrate ratio of 59:41 or 41:59 on a dry matter (DM) basis, respectively. Eight multiparous lactating Holstein cows (62 ± 8.8 d in milk) were used. The design of the experiment was a double 4 × 4 Latin square with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments, and each period lasted 21 d (14 d of treatment adaptation and 7 d of data collection and sampling). Four dietary treatments were tested: HF without CTE, HF with CTE (HF+CTE), LF without CTE, and LF with CTE (LF+CTE). Commercial quebracho CTE was added to the HF+CTE and the LF+CTE at a rate of 3% of dietary DM. Intake of DM averaged 26.7 kg/d across treatments, and supplementing CTE decreased intakes of DM and nutrients regardless of forage level. Digestibilities of DM and nutrients were not affected by CTE supplementation. Milk yield averaged 35.3 kg/d across treatments, and yields of milk and milk component were not influenced by CTE supplementation. Negative effects of CTE supplementation on feed intake resulted in increased feed efficiency (milk yield/DM intake). Although concentration of milk urea N (MUN) decreased by supplementing CTE in the diets, efficiency of N use for milk N was not affected by CTE supplementation. Feeding the LF diet decreased ruminal pH (mean of 6.47 and 6.33 in HF and LF, respectively). However, supplementation of CTE in the diets did not influence ruminal pH. Supplementing CTE decreased total volatile fatty acid concentration regardless of level of forage. With CTE supplementation, molar proportions of acetate, propionate, and butyrate increased in the HF diet, but not in the LF diet, resulting in interactions between forage level and CTE supplementation. Concentration of ammonia-N tended to decrease with supplementation of

  15. Reduced-fat dried distillers grains with solubles reduces the risk for milk fat depression and supports milk production and ruminal fermentation in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez-Ramirez, H A; Castillo Lopez, E; Jenkins, C J R; Aluthge, N D; Anderson, C; Fernando, S C; Harvatine, K J; Kononoff, P J

    2016-03-01

    Twenty Holstein cows, 12 primiparous and 8 multiparous, with (mean ± SD) 91 ± 19 d in milk and 595 ± 81 kg were used in replicated 4 × 4 Latin squares to compare the effects of feeding conventional dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) and reduced-fat DDGS (RFDDGS) in combination with rumen-inert fat (RIF) on milk production and rumen fermentation; one square contained rumen cannulated animals for rumen measurements. In each 21-d period, cows were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 dietary treatments (values on a dry matter basis): (1) control (CON) that contained 0% DDGS; (2) DG contained 30% DDGS; (3) RFDG contained 30% RFDDGS in substitution of DDGS; and (4) RFDG+RIF was similar to RFDG with the addition of 1.9% RIF. Unlike most practical diets in the dairy field, our diets had 18.0% crude protein. Dry matter intake was similar across treatments with any form of DDGS averaging 26.0 ± 0.6 kg/d, whereas the CON diet resulted in less dry matter intake, 21.6 ± 0.6 kg/d. Milk yield tended to be 1.7 kg/d greater for diets with either type of DDGS. Concentration of milk protein was greatest for the DG and RFDG diets, intermediate for the RFDG+RIF diet, and least for the CON diet, namely 3.22, 3.21, 3.12, and 3.07 ± 0.05%. Reduced milk fat percentage and yield were observed when cows consumed the DG diet, 3.27 ± 0.10% and 1.11 ± 0.04 kg/d, respectively, whereas these responses were similar among CON, RFDG, and RFDG+RIF, which averaged 3.68 ± 0.10% and 1.22 ± 0.04 kg/d. The presence of trans-10,cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid was only detected in milk from cows consuming the DG diet; similarly, concentration and yield of trans-10 18:1 were greater for cows consuming this diet. Rumen ammonia was similar across treatments averaging 27.0 ± 2.1mg/dL. The CON and RFDG+RIF diets had similar mean pH, 6.1 ± 0.11, whereas DG and RFDG resulted in lower pH averaging 5.79 ± 0.11. No effect on total concentration of volatile fatty acids was observed; the overall mean

  16. Effect of bee pollen supplement on antimicrobial, chemical, rheological, sensorial properties and probiotic viability of fermented milk beverages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oktay Yerlikaya

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In this research, effect of bee pollen supplement on antimicrobial, chemical, rheological, sensorial properties and probiotic viability of fermented milk beverages was studied. Bee pollens were added in the rate of 2.5 mg•mL-1 (B, 5 mg•mL-1 (C, 7.5 mg•mL-1 (D, 10 mg•mL-1 (E, and 20 mg•mL-1 (F. Control sample (A was not supplemented with bee pollen. Control and supplemented milk samples were fermented by a commercial ABT1 starter culture (Chr. Hansen, Hørsholm, Denmark containing Lactobacillus acidophilus La 5, Bifidobacterium animalis subs. lactis Bb 12, and Streptococcus thermophilus. While no antimicrobial impact was observed against L. monocytogenes, S. aureus, P. fluorescens, P. aeruginosa and A. hydrophilia upto 7.5 mg•mL-1 pollen addition, addition between 10 mg•mL-1 to 20 mg•mL-1 resulted in activity, and positive effect only in inhibition rates against bacteria such as S. thyphimurium and E. coli. Bee pollen supplements has shown a positive effect on probiotic viability and occurred on increase apparent viscosity, but their effect on sensorial properties was negative. Furthermore an improvement with increasing concentration of pollen addition that yielded no negative effect on physicochemical properties was detected.

  17. Effect of probiotic fermented milk and chlorophyllin on gene expressions and genotoxicity during AFB₁-induced hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Manoj; Verma, Vinod; Nagpal, Ravinder; Kumar, Ashok; Gautam, Sanjeev K; Behare, Pradip V; Grover, Chand R; Aggarwal, Praveen K

    2011-12-15

    The aim of this study was to investigate the chemopreventive effect of probiotic fermented milk and chlorophyllin on aflatoxin B₁ (AFB₁) induced hepatocellular carcinoma. In vivo trials were conducted on 200 Wistar rats allocated to eight groups. Rats in the positive control group were given intraperitoneal injection of aflatoxin B₁ at 450 μg/kg body weight twice a week for 6 weeks. The rats were sacrificed and dissected at 25th week of the experiment, and comet assay was carried out in hepatic cells to assess the genotoxicity or DNA damage. The tumour incidence was decreased by approximately one-third than AFB₁ control group. The expression of c-myc bax, bcl-2, cyclin D1, p53 and rasp-21 genes was also studied. A significant (Pchlorophyllin group as compared to aflatoxin B₁ control group. The c-myc, bcl-2, cyclin D1 and rasp-21 level was found to be highest in AFB₁ control group as compared to the treatment group. The results advocate the enhanced protective potential of probiotic fermented milk and chlorophyllin against AFB₁-induced molecular alterations in hepatic cells during carcinogenesis.

  18. Simultaneous analysis of carbohydrates and organic acids by HPLC-DAD-RI for monitoring goat's milk yogurts fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Costa, Marion Pereira; Frasao, Beatriz da Silva; Lima, Bruno Reis Carneiro da Costa; Rodrigues, Bruna Leal; Conte Junior, Carlos Adam

    2016-05-15

    During yogurt manufacture, the lactose fermentation and organic acid production can be used to monitor the fermentation process by starter cultures and probiotic bacteria. In the present work, a simple, sensitive and reproducible high-performance liquid chromatography with dual detectors, diode array detector and refractive index was validated by simultaneous analysis of carbohydrates and organic acids in goat milk yogurts. In addition, pH and bacterial analysis were performed. Separation of all the compounds was performed on an Aminex HPX-87H column (300×7.8 mm, 9 µm) utilizing a 3 mmol L(-1) sulfuric acid aqueous mobile phase under isocratic conditions. Lactose, glucose, galactose, citric, lactic and formic acids were used to evaluate the following performance parameters: selectivity, linearity, precision, limit of detection (LOD), limit of quantification (LOQ), decision limits (CCα), detection capabilities (CCβ), recovery and robustness. For the method application a six goat milk yogurts were elaborated: natural, probiotic, prebiotic, symbiotic, cupuassu fruit pulp, and probiotic with cupuassu fruit pulp. The validated method presented an excellent selectivity with no significant matrix effect, and a broad linear study range with coefficients of determination higher than 0.995. The relative standard deviation was lower than 10% under repeatability and within-laboratory reproducibility conditions for the studied analytes. The LOD of the method was defined from 0.001 to 0.003 µg g(-1), and the LOQ from 0.003 to 0.013 µg g(-1). The CCα was ranged from 0.032 to 0.943 µg g(-1), and the CCβ from 0.053 to 1.604 µg g(-1). The obtained recovery values were from 78% to 119%. In addition, the method exhibited an appropriate robustness for all parameter evaluated. Base in our data, it was concluded that the performance parameters demonstrated total method adequacy for the detection and quantification of carbohydrates and organic acids in goat milk yogurts. The

  19. 五色豆类发酵乳的研制%Development of 5-color bean fermented milk

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘芳; 罗惠波; 曹新志; 罗晓梅

    2012-01-01

    A new type of health & fitness fermented milk, i.e. 5-color bean fermented milk which is high-quality, nutritious, uniquely flavored and affordable, can be produced by combining raw milk and five kinds of beans, i.e. mung bean, soybean, white bean, red bean, and black bean, with an efficient leaven of mixed strains. Optimum technological conditions are determined through sensory comprehensive evaluation. It is indicated by test result that the best ratio of mung bean, soybean, white bean, red bean, and black bean is 35% : 35% : 20% : 5% : 5%, that the best soy milk ratio is 2 : 8, that the best fermentation conditions are 6% of sugar amount, 3% of inoculum amount, 42 °C offer-mentation temperature, and 4 hours of fermentation time, and that the optimum combination of stabilizers consists of 0.09% of pectin, 0.10% of xanthan gum and 0.08% of sodium carboxymethyl cellulose. 5 -color bean fermented milk is produced under the optimum technological conditions, and sensory comprehensive evaluation and physiochemical and microbiological tests are conducted on the product. Results: the sensory comprehensive evaluation of the product reaches A level; fat content, protein content, total sugar content, acidity, calcium content, and sodium content are 4.0962 g/100 g, 4.9157 g/100 g, 8.37 %, 94.294 °T, 121.67 mg/100 g, and 80.79 mg/100 g respectively; and lactic acid bacteria content is 1.5×108 cfu/mL, with no coliforms and pathogenic bacteria detected.%将鲜牛乳与5种豆类食品,即绿豆、黄豆、白豆、红豆、黑豆组合,采用高效混菌发酵剂,研制一种高品质、营养全面、风味独特、经济适用的新型保健发酵乳.通过感官综合评定确定出最佳工艺条件.结果表明:5种豆子的最佳配比为35%∶35%∶20%∶5%∶5%;最佳豆奶比为2∶8;最佳发酵条件为加糖量6%,接种量3%,发酵温度42 ℃,发酵时间4h;最佳稳定剂组合:果胶0.09%,黄原胶0.10%,羧甲基纤维素钠0.08%.采用

  20. Optimization of fermentation process in skim milk with ST-ⅢLactobacillus plantarum%植物乳杆菌ST-Ⅲ脱脂乳的发酵工艺优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    华宝珍; 李莎; 徐爱才; 徐志平; 马成杰

    2014-01-01

    Fermented milk is increasingly used as a carrier of probiotics for their potential health functions. Because the concentration of viable probiotics is the key factor to health functions, it should be higher than the recommended concentration for probiotics (106 CFU/g). However, there are many products with low viability of probiotics in the market. It is very important and necessary for the milk industry to increase the count of viable probiotics in yogurt. In addition, survival during the passage through the gastrointestinal tract is generally considered a key feature for probiotics to preserve their expected health functions. However, the traditional yogurt starters (Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus bulgaricus) have weak tolerance to acid and bile salt and hence limit therapeutic effects. Lactobacillus plantarum has been demonstrated that it can survive in the human intestine and tolerate acid and bile salt. Moreover, it has a lot of precious therapeutic effects, such as precipitating and assimilating cholesterols, lowering blood sugar, diminishing inflammation and improving immunity. Hence, L.plantarumhas become one of research hotspots in recent years. Lactobacillus plantarum ST-Ⅲ strain (CGMCC No.0847) is a probiotics and has ability to tolerate acid and bile salts as well as grow in the lower intestinal tract. It also be proved to have ability to precipitate and assimilate cholesterols in vitro andin vivo. However L.plantarumST-Ⅲ strain is auxotrophic and has weak ability to grow in skim milk and clot milk by acidification. In this study, to increase the concentration of viableL.plantarumST-Ⅲ and elucidate the factors restricting growth ofL.plantarumST-Ⅲ in skim milk, the fermentation conditions were researched and optimized. The effects of soybean polypeptide concentration, manganese gluconate concentration, inoculum size of S. thermophilus and fermentation temperature on the pH and living cell count ofL.plantarumST-Ⅲ of fermented milk

  1. Inhibitory effect of essential oils against Lactobacillus rhamnosus and starter culture in fermented milk during its shelf-life period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Mengue Feniman Moritz

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The use of essential oils in foods has attracted great interest, due to their antagonistic action against pathogenic microorganisms. However, this action is undesirable for probiotic foods, as products containing Lactobacillus rhamnosus. The aim of the present study was to measure the sensitivity profile of L. rhamnosus and a yogurt starter culture in fermented milk, upon addition of increasing concentrations of cinnamon, clove and mint essential oils. Essential oils were prepared by steam distillation, and chemically characterised by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS and determination of density. Survival curves were obtained from counts of L. rhamnosus and the starter culture (alone and in combination, upon addition of 0.04% essential oils. In parallel, titratable acidity was monitored over 28 experimental days. Minimum inhibitory concentration values, obtained using the microdilution method in Brain Heart Infusion medium, were 0.025, 0.2 and 0.4% for cinnamon, clove and mint essential oils, respectively. Cinnamon essential oil had the highest antimicrobial activity, especially against the starter culture, interfering with lactic acid production. Although viable cell counts of L. rhamnosus were lower following treatment with all 3 essential oils, relative to controls, these results were not statistically significant; in addition, cell counts remained greater than the minimum count of 10(8CFU/mL required for a product to be considered a probiotic. Thus, although use of cinnamon essential oil in yogurt makes starter culture fermentation unfeasible, it does not prevent the application of L. rhamnosus to probiotic fermented milk. Furthermore, clove and mint essential oil caused sublethal stress to L. rhamnosus.

  2. Inhibition of Growth and Metastasis of Breast Cancer in Mice by Milk Fermented With Lactobacillus casei CRL 431.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aragón, Félix; Carino, Silvia; Perdigón, Gabriela; de Moreno de LeBlanc, Alejandra

    2015-06-01

    Breast cancer is the second cause of death in women, who are especially related to uncontrolled metastasis. It was previously demonstrated that the administration of milk fermented by Lactobacillus casei CRL 431 [fermented milk (FM)] delayed the tumor growth in a murine breast cancer model. In this work we evaluated if the administration of FM to mice, starting when the tumor was measurable, can affect not only the tumor growth, but also the extravasation of tumor cells and the lung metastasis. The evaluation of immune cells-infiltrating tumors and lungs was also performed. Tumor volume was calculated. Whole blood, lungs, and liver were processed to count the number of colonies formed by tumor cells. Blood serum was obtained for monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, interleukin (IL)-10, and IL-6 determination, lung tissues for histologic observations, and tumor tissues for angiogenesis determination. Mice that received FM were compared with animals given milk or to the controls without any especial supplementation. The results showed that FM administration to mice decreased or suppressed tumor growth, with less tumor vascularity, extravasation of tumor cells, and lung metastasis. These benefits were associated to modulation of the immune response by decreasing the infiltration of macrophages in both the tumor and the lungs. FM administration maintained an increased antitumor response associated to CD8 lymphocytes, and also increased CD4 lymphocytes that can be involved in the modulation of the immune response. The future evaluation of cytokine profiles will allow knowing more about subpopulation of macrophages and lymphocytes associated to the beneficial effect of this probiotic in the breast cancer model.

  3. Study on Variations of Essential Amino Acid in Fermented Milk During Fermentation and Cold Storage%发酵乳在发酵和低温储存过程中必需氨基酸变化研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周炜; 范宇; 陈历俊

    2012-01-01

    研究了混菌发酵乳与单菌发酵乳在发酵和4℃储存过程中必需氨基酸含量变化,并与作为底物的脱脂乳粉氨基酸组分进行对比。研究表明,在发酵和储存过程中总游离氨基酸含量增加;随储存时间延长,必需氨基酸含量增加,约占总游离氨基酸含量13%—17%;混菌发酵乳游离氨基酸和必需氨基酸含量高于单菌发酵乳。%The variations of essential amino acid in mix and single culture fermented milk were studied,and amino acid composition was compared with skim milk powder.The results showed that the content of free amino acid increased during fermentation and cold storage and essential amino acid content increased with storage time passing,which accounted for 13%—17% of total free amino acid.There were more essential amino acid in mix culture fermented milk than single culture fermented milk.

  4. Effects of microbial inoculants on corn silage fermentation, microbial contents, aerobic stability, and milk production under field conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristensen, N B; Sloth, K H; Højberg, O; Spliid, N H; Jensen, C; Thøgersen, R

    2010-08-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the effects of 2 corn silage inoculation strategies (homofermentative vs. heterofermentative inoculation) under field conditions and to monitor responses in silage variables over the feeding season from January to August. Thirty-nine commercial dairy farms participated in the study. Farms were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 treatments: control (nonactive carrier; Chr. Hansen A/S, Hørsholm, Denmark), Lactisil (inoculation with 1 x 10(5)Lactobacillus pentosus and 2.5 x 10(4)Pediococcus pentosaceus per gram of fresh matter; Chr. Hansen A/S), and Lalsil Fresh (inoculation with 3 x 10(5)Lactobacillus buchneri NCIMB 40788 per gram of fresh matter; Lallemand Animal Nutrition, Blagnac, France). Inoculation with Lactisil had no effects on fermentation variables and aerobic stability. On the contrary, inoculation with Lalsil Fresh doubled the aerobic stability: 37, 38, and 80+/-8h for control, Lactisil, and Lalsil Fresh, respectively. The effect of Lalsil Fresh on aerobic stability tended to differ between sampling times, indicating a reduced difference between treatments in samples collected in April. Lalsil Fresh inoculation increased silage pH and contents of acetic acid, propionic acid, propanol, propyl acetate, 2-butanol, propylene glycol, ammonia, and free AA. The contents and ratios of DL-lactic acid, L-lactic acid relative to DL-lactic acid, free glucose, and DL-lactic acid relative to acetic acid decreased with Lalsil Fresh inoculation. Lalsil Fresh inoculation increased the silage counts of total lactic acid bacteria and reduced yeast counts. The Fusarium toxins deoxynivalenol, nivalenol, and zearalenone were detected in all silages at all collections, but the contents were not affected by ensiling time or by inoculation treatment. The effect of inoculation treatments on milk production was assessed by collecting test-day results from the involved farms and comparing the actual milk production with predicted milk production

  5. Research on Optimization of Buffalo Fermented Milk%水牛发酵乳配方的优化研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨洋; 高航; 李中柱

    2014-01-01

    By the using of buffalo milk as raw material, sensory evaluation as an indicator, the optimum component of buffalo fermented milk were optimized by response surface method. The results showed that the best formula for each component were buffalo milk 70.0%, sucrose 9.0%, whey protein powder 3.1%. The obtained product has fine texture,smooth and good taste.%以水牛乳为原料,以感官评价为指标,利用响应面法对水牛发酵乳的配方进行优化。结果表明,水牛发酵乳的最佳配方为水牛乳添加量70.0%、蔗糖添加量9.0%、乳清蛋白粉添加量3.1%。其获得的产品组织细腻,口感爽滑,风味俱佳。

  6. Effect of Milk Product Fermented by Lactobacillus plantarum on Blood Lipids in Hyperlipidemia Rat%植物乳杆菌发酵乳对高脂血症大鼠血脂的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    齐炳理; 张兴昌; 孙婷; 陈世贤

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of milk product fermented by Lactobacillus plantarum on blood lipids in hyperlipidemia rat and to provide experimental date for develeping functional fermented dairy product. The hyperlipidemia rat model was induced by high fat diet successfully and then the rats were randomly divided into 3 group:hyperlipidemia group, fermented milk group and the untreated group. The hyperlipidemia group were still fed high fat diet as control , the fermented milk group were fed not only high fat diet but also milk product fermented by Lactobacillus plantarum by gastric gavage and the untreated group changed to be fed basic diet. The blood lipids concentrations of each group were determined after a 4 weeks feeding period. The results showed that the concentrations of serum total cholesterol (TC) and low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) of the fermented milk group and the untreated group decreased significantly (P<0.01), also the concentrations of serum high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) of the fermented milk group and the untreated group increased significantly (P<0.05) compared with hyperlipidemia group. The present results indicated that the milk product fermented by Lactobacillus plantarum could improve blood lipids in hyperlipidemia rat, and the blood lipids in hyperlipidemia rat can recover naturally by improving diet structure.%为了探讨植物乳杆菌发酵乳对实验性高脂血症大鼠血脂代谢的调节作用,为功能性发酵乳制品开发提供实验参考。采用高脂饲料喂养法,诱导形成大鼠高脂血症模型,将造模成功大鼠随机分为3组:高脂模型组、发酵乳样品组和自然降脂组。高脂模型组继续饲喂高脂饲料作为对照,发酵乳样品组饲喂高脂饲料的同时灌胃植物乳杆菌发酵乳,自然降脂组改为饲喂基础饲料,4周后测定各组大鼠的血脂浓度。结果显示,发酵乳样品组及自然降脂

  7. Phenotypic and genotypic characterization of sorbitol-negative of slow-fermenting (suspected O157) Escherichia coli isolated from milk samples in Lombardy region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Picozzi, C.; Foschino, R.; Heuvelink, A.E.; Beumer, R.R.

    2005-01-01

    Aims: To investigate phenotypic and genotypic aspects of sorbitol-negative or slow-fermenting Escherichia coli, suspected to belong to O157 serogroup, isolated in Italy. Methods and Results: Milk samples originating from goats and cows were screened for the presence of E. coli O157 with cultural met

  8. Human in vivo study of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system and the sympathetic activity after 8 weeks daily intake of fermented milk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Usinger, Lotte; Ibsen, Hans; Linneberg, Allan

    2010-01-01

    until today no human studies have confirmed an ACE inhibition in relation to the intake of fermented milk. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We undertook a double-blinded randomized placebo-controlled study including 94 borderline-hypertensive persons to study the effect on human physiology of Lactobacillus...

  9. The effect of consumption of milk fermented by Lactobacillus casei strain Shirota on the intestinal microflora and immune parameters in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spanhaak, S.; Havenaar, R.; Schaafsma, G.

    1998-01-01

    Objective: To determine the effect of consumption of milk fermented by Lactobacillus casei strain Shirota (L. casei Shirota) on the composition and metabolic activities of the intestinal microflora, and immune parameters in humans. Subjects: Twenty healthy male subjects aged 40-65 years were selecte

  10. Processing research on Hazelnut-Kefir fermented milk%开菲尔榛子发酵乳的工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘艳霞; 周婷姗

    2012-01-01

    In this essay, the processing of Hazelnut—Kefir fermented milk, Hazelnut milk and milk as raw material, are studied in details. The optimal fermentation conditions are determined by L16(45) orthogonal tests. And the results are as follows: Hazelnut milk and the milk, with the ratio of 8:2, fermented with 3% inoculation at 25℃ for 14 hours. The products have special taste and flavor, with 0.26% alcohol and 83 °T.%利用传统酸牛乳酒(Kefir)的发酵剂—开菲尔粒(Kefir Grains)制作的发酵剂,对榛子乳与牛乳的混合原料进行发酵,采用L16(45)正交试验设计筛选制备开菲尔榛子乳的最佳发酵务件.结果表明:当棒子乳与鲜牛乳混合比例8∶2,接种量为3%,发酵温度25℃,加糖量10%,发酵时间14h时,所得的产品的酸度为83°T,乙醇体积分数为0.26%,风味柔和,口感独特.

  11. A approach to fermented products of milk and the hydrolytes of whole egg%蛋乳发酵酸奶工艺的探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫金姣; 李斌; 杨凌霄; 周彬; 范劲松; 马美湖

    2011-01-01

    Eggs and milk are rich in nutritional value.The yogurt of milk and egg used of eggs, milk and other materials throught fermentation has both eggs and yogurt nutritional value and unique health benefits. This paper summarized the progress of research on overseas and domestic the yogurt of milk and egg, and analyzed the factors of egg addition and sterilization conditions, the proportion of fermentation bacteria, inoculation and fermentation temperature and time affected on the yogurt of milk and egg.%鸡蛋与牛奶均具有丰富的营养价值,利用鸡蛋、牛奶等原料通过发酵方法制得的蛋乳发酵酸奶更是具有鸡蛋与酸奶两种物质的营养价值和独特的保健功效.本文综述了国内外蛋乳发酵酸奶的研究进展,并分析了蛋液的添加量、蛋液杀菌条件、发酵菌种比例、接种量和发酵温度和时间等因素对蛋乳发酵酸奶制作的影响.

  12. Supplementation of increasing amounts of linseed oil to dairy cows fed total mixed rations: effects on digestion, ruminal fermentation characteristics, protozoal populations, and milk fatty acid composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benchaar, C; Romero-Pérez, G A; Chouinard, P Y; Hassanat, F; Eugene, M; Petit, H V; Côrtes, C

    2012-08-01

    The effect of linseed oil (LO) supplementation on nutrient digestibility, forage (i.e., timothy hay) in sacco ruminal degradation, ruminal fermentation characteristics, protozoal populations, milk production, and milk fatty acid (FA) profile in dairy cows was investigated. Four ruminally cannulated, primiparous lactating cows were used in a 4 × 4 Latin square design (28-d periods). They were fed a total mixed ration (50:50 forage:concentrate (F:C) ratio [dry matter (DM) basis] without supplementation (control, CTL), or supplemented (wt/wt; DM basis) with LO at 2, 3, or 4%. Supplementation with LO had no effect on DM intake (19 kg/d) and apparent total-tract digestibility of nutrients (organic matter, neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber, starch, and gross energy). Ruminal pH, ammonia, and total volatile FA concentrations were not changed by LO supplementation to diets. Extent of changes in volatile FA pattern and effective ruminal degradability of DM of timothy hay were minor. Neither the total numbers nor the genera distribution of protozoa was changed by the addition of increasing amounts of LO to the diet. Milk yield increased linearly (26.1, 27.3, 27.4, and 28.4 kg/d for CTL to LO4, respectively) as the amount of LO added to the diet increased. Milk fat content was not affected by LO supplementation, whereas milk protein content decreased linearly with increasing amounts of LO in the diet. Milk fat proportions of several intermediates of ruminal biohydrogenation of polyunsaturated FA (i.e., trans-10 18:1, trans-11 18:1, cis-9,trans-11 18:2, trans-11,cis-15 18:2, and cis-9,trans-11,cis-15 18:3) increased linearly with LO addition to the diet. The proportion of cis-9,cis-12 18:2 decreased linearly (2.06, 1.99, 1.91, and 1.83% for CTL to LO4, respectively) as the amount of LO in the diet increased. Milk fat content of cis-9,cis-12,cis-15 18:3 increased as the level of LO in the diet increased up to 3% but no further increase was observed when 4% of LO

  13. Functional Characteristics of Milk Protein Concentrates and Their Modification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uluko, Hankie; Liu, Lu; Lv, Jia-Ping; Zhang, Shu-Wen

    2016-05-18

    A major deterrent to the usage of milk protein concentrate (MPC), a high-protein milk product with increasing demand as a food and sports drink ingredient, has been its poor functional characteristics when compared with other milk protein products such as whey protein concentrate and sodium caseinates. This review discusses the recent research on functional properties of MPC, focusing on factors that may contribute to the poor functional characteristics before, during, and after production. Current research, methods employed, and new understanding on the causes of poor solubility of MPC at mild temperatures (about 20°C) has been presented, including loss of solubility during storage as these areas have received unprecedented attention over the past decade, and also affects other useful functional properties of MPC, such as emulsifying properties, gelation, and foaming. Processing methods, which include heat treatment, high-pressure application, microwave heating, ultrasound application, and enzyme and salts modification, have been used or have potential to modify or improve the functional properties of MPCs. Future research on the effects of these processing methods on the functional properties, including effects of enzyme hydrolysis on bitterness and bioactivity, has also been discussed.

  14. Review: Production and functionality of active peptides from milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muro Urista, C; Álvarez Fernández, R; Riera Rodriguez, F; Arana Cuenca, A; Téllez Jurado, A

    2011-08-01

    In recent years, research on the production of active peptides obtained from milk and their potential functionality has grown, to a great extent. Bioactive peptides have been defined as specific protein fragments that have a positive impact on body functions or conditions, and they may ultimately have an influence on health. Individual proteins of casein or milk-derived products such as cheese and yogurt have been used as a protein source to study the isolation and activity of peptides with several applications. Currently, the milk whey waste obtained in the production of cheese also represents a protein source from which active peptides could be isolated with potential industrial applications. The active properties of milk peptides and the results found with regard to their physiological effects have led to the classification of peptides as belonging to the group of ingredients of protein nature, appropriate for use in functional foods or pharmaceutical formulations. In this study, the main peptides obtained from milk protein and the past research studies about its production and biological activities will be explained. Second, an analysis will be made on the methods to determinate the biological activities, the separation of bioactive peptides and its structure identification. All of these form the base required to obtain synthetic peptides. Finally, we explain the experimental animal and human trials done in the past years. Nevertheless, more research is required on the design and implementation of equipment for the industrial production and separation of peptides. In addition, different authors suggest that more emphasis should therefore be given to preclinical studies, proving that results are consistent and that effects are demonstrated repeatedly by several research human groups.

  15. Fermented Brown Rice Flour as Functional Food Ingredient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilowefah, Muna; Chinma, Chiemela; Bakar, Jamilah; Ghazali, Hasanah M.; Muhammad, Kharidah; Makeri, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    As fermentation could reduce the negative effects of bran on final cereal products, the utilization of whole-cereal flour is recommended, such as brown rice flour as a functional food ingredient. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the effect of fermented brown rice flour on white rice flour, white rice batter and its steamed bread qualities. Brown rice batter was fermented using commercial baker’s yeast (Eagle brand) according to the optimum conditions for moderate acidity (pH 5.5) to obtain fermented brown rice flour (FBRF). The FBRF was added to white rice flour at 0%, 10%, 20%, 30%, 40% and 50% levels to prepare steamed rice bread. Based on the sensory evaluation test, steamed rice bread containing 40% FBRF had the highest overall acceptability score. Thus, pasting properties of the composite rice flour, rheological properties of its batter, volume and texture properties of its steamed bread were determined. The results showed that peak viscosity of the rice flour containing 40% FBRF was significantly increased, whereas its breakdown, final viscosity and setback significantly decreased. Viscous, elastic and complex moduli of the batter having 40% FBRF were also significantly reduced. However, volume, specific volume, chewiness, resilience and cohesiveness of its steamed bread were significantly increased, while hardness and springiness significantly reduced in comparison to the control. These results established the effectiveness of yeast fermentation in reducing the detrimental effects of bran on the sensory properties of steamed white rice bread and encourage the usage of brown rice flour to enhance the quality of rice products. PMID:28234309

  16. Influence of processing on functionality of milk and dairy proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augustin, Mary Ann; Udabage, Punsandani

    2007-01-01

    The inherent physical functionality of dairy ingredients makes them useful in a range of food applications. These functionalities include their solubility, water binding, viscosity, gelation, heat stability, renneting, foaming, and emulsifying properties. The suitability of dairy ingredients for an application can be further tailored by altering the structure of the proteins using appropriate processes. The processes discussed include physical modification (heat treatment, acidification, addition of mineral slats, homogenization, and shear), enzymatic modification (renneting, hydrolysis, and transglutamination), and chemical modification (use of chemical agents and the Maillard reaction). Emerging food processes (high pressure and ultrasound) are also discussed. The challenges for using dairy ingredients for the delivery of nutrients and bioactive components, while maintaining physical functionality, are also highlighted. There is a need for continued research into the fundamental aspects of milk proteins and their responses to various stresses for further differentiation of milk products and for the delivery of ingredients with consistent quality for target applications.

  17. KARAKTERISTIK PRODUK FERMENTASI DARI BAHAN BAKU KOMBINASI SUSU KAMBING DENGAN EKSTRAK KEDELAI, EKSTRAK JAGUNG, ATAU SANTAN KELAPA [Characterization of Fermented Products Made From Caprine Milk in Combination with Soy Extract, Corn Extract or Coconut Extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hartati Chairunnisa*

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the best combination of caprine milk with soy extract, corn extract, or coconut extract in the production of flavored fermented milk products. Products were analyzed for the lactic acid content, crude protein, viscosity and also organoleptic properties (color, texsture, flavour, overall acceptance. This study was performed by a Completely Randomized Design with four kind of treatments, i.e.caprine, caprine milk in combination with soy extract, corn extract, or coconut extract with five replications. The result indicated that the caprine milk in combination with soy extract resulted an acceptable flavored fermented milk product containing 0.78% lactic acid, 6.62% crude protein, and had a viscosity of 2120 centipoise. The texture of the most liked flavoured fermented milk product was viscous to most viscous, and the flavour was slightly sour to sour.

  18. Effect of Origanum vulgare L. leaves on rumen fermentation, production, and milk fatty acid composition in lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hristov, A N; Lee, C; Cassidy, T; Heyler, K; Tekippe, J A; Varga, G A; Corl, B; Brandt, R C

    2013-02-01

    This experiment investigated the effects of dietary supplementation of Origanum vulgare L. leaf material (OR) on rumen fermentation, production, and milk fatty acid composition in dairy cows. The experimental design was a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square with 8 rumen-cannulated Holstein cows and 20-d experimental periods. Treatments were control (no OR supplementation), 250 g/cow per day OR (LOR), 500 g/d OR (MOR), and 750 g/d OR (HOR). Oregano supplementation had no effect on rumen pH, volatile fatty acid concentrations, and estimated microbial protein synthesis, but decreased ammonia concentration and linearly decreased methane production per unit of dry matter intake (DMI) compared with the unsupplemented control: 18.2, 16.5, 11.7, and 13.6g of methane/kg of DMI, respectively. Proportions of rumen bacterial, methanogen, and fungal populations were not affected by treatment. Treatment had no effect on total-tract apparent digestibility of dietary nutrients, except neutral detergent fiber digestibility was slightly decreased by all OR treatments compared with the control. Urinary N losses and manure odor were not affected by OR, except the proportion of urinary urea N in the total excreted urine N tended to be decreased compared with the control. Oregano linearly decreased DMI (28.3, 28.3, 27.5, and 26.7 kg/d for control, LOR, MOR, and HOR, respectively). Milk yield was not affected by treatment: 43.4, 45.2, 44.1, and 43.4 kg/d, respectively. Feed efficiency was linearly increased with OR supplementation and was greater than the control (1.46, 1.59, 1.60, and 1.63 kg/kg, respectively). Milk composition was unaffected by OR, except milk urea-N concentration was decreased. Milk fatty acid composition was not affected by treatment. In this short-term study, OR fed at 250 to 750 g/d decreased rumen methane production in dairy cows within 8h after feeding, but the effect over a 24-h feeding cycle has not been determined. Supplementation of the diet with OR linearly

  19. Administration of kefir-fermented milk protects mice against Giardia intestinalis infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Mariana Correa; Golowczyc, Marina A; De Antoni, Graciela L; Pérez, Pablo F; Humen, Martín; Serradell, María de los Angeles

    2013-12-01

    Giardiasis, caused by the protozoan Giardia intestinalis, is one of the most common intestinal diseases worldwide and constitutes an important problem for the public health systems of various countries. Kefir is a probiotic drink obtained by fermenting milk with 'kefir grains', which consist mainly of bacteria and yeasts that coexist in a complex symbiotic association. In this work, we studied the ability of kefir to protect mice from G. intestinalis infection, and characterized the host immune response to this probiotic in the context of the intestinal infection. Six- to 8-week-old C75BL/6 mice were separated into four groups: controls, kefir mice (receiving 1 : 100 dilution of kefir in drinking water for 14 days), Giardia mice (infected orally with 4×10(7) trophozoites of G. intestinalis at day 7) and Giardia-kefir mice (kefir-treated G. intestinalis-infected mice), and killed at 2 or 7 days post-infection. Kefir administration was able to significantly reduce the intensity of Giardia infection at 7 days post-infection. An increase in the percentage of CD4(+) T cells at 2 days post-infection was observed in the Peyer's patches (PP) of mice belonging to the Giardia group compared with the control and kefir groups, while the percentage of CD4(+) T cells in PP in the Giardia-kefir group was similar to that of controls. At 2 days post-infection, a reduction in the percentage of B220-positive major histocompatibility complex class II medium cells in PP was observed in infected mice compared with the other groups. At 7 days post-infection, Giardia-infected mice showed a reduction in RcFcε-positive cells compared with the control group, suggesting a downregulation of the inflammatory response. However, the percentages of RcFcε-positive cells did not differ from controls in the kefir and Giardia-kefir groups. An increase in IgA-positive cells was observed in the lamina propria of the kefir group compared with controls at 2 days post-infection. Interestingly, the

  20. Transformation kinetics of fermented milk using Lactobacillus casei (Lc1) and Streptococcus thermophilus: comparison of results with other Inocula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, Susana Vargas; Guerrero, Francisco Quintanilla; Torres, Maykel González; Castro, Ma Del Pilar Carreón; Talavera, Rogelio Rodríguez

    2017-02-01

    Probiotic-based starter cultures are generally used to produce fermented milks with improved characteristics in the final product. In this study, Lactobacillus casei and Streptococcus thermophilus (Lc1-St) were used as the starter inoculum. The transformation kinetics and properties of the final product were compared with systems produced with other inocula. The Lc1-St inoculum delayed the production of lactic acid from 40 to 70 min (depending on temperature and concentration) when compared to Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus (Lb-St) and Lactobacillus johnsonii and Streptococcus thermophilus (La1-St). The Lc1-St inoculum reached the aggregation system faster (30-80 min) than Lb-St (120-210 min) and La1-St (160-220 min), however, the production of exopolysaccharides and organic phosphates was delayed as a consequence of the lack of synergy between Lc1 and St.

  1. Effect of different preservative treatments on the shelf-life of sorghum malt based fermented milk beverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Shaik Abdul; Garg, Faqir Chand; Pal, Dharam

    2014-08-01

    Studies were conducted to extend the shelf life of sorghum based fermented milk beverage (referred to SSL) developed at our Institute. In the first approach preservatives namely nisin (N) @ 400RU/ml, MicroGARD (M) @ (1%), potassium sorbate (PS) @ (0.15%) were added to the beverage before packaging and in the second approach thermization (65 °C/5 min) of the packaged samples containing above mentioned preservatives was adopted. The shelf life was assessed on the basis of sensory, physico-chemical and microbiological parameters. Total plate count and lactic acid bacterial count increased till 7th day of storage and afterwards decreased significantly (p thermization treatment helped in improving the microbiological and chemical quality of the beverage, the sensory and physical quality was adversely affected. Addition of PS without thermization was found to be the best preservation technique for enhancing the shelf life of SSL at refrigeration conditions.

  2. Evaluation of different drying techniques on the nutritional and biofunctional properties of a traditional fermented sheep milk product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alu'datt, Muhammad H; Rababah, Taha; Alhamad, Mohammad N; Obaidat, Mohammad M; Gammoh, Sana; Ereifej, Khalil; Al-Ismail, Khaild; Althnaibat, Rami M; Kubow, Stan

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of solar and freeze drying techniques on the physicochemical, nutritional and biofunctional properties of salted or unsalted Jameed from fermented sheep milk product. The highest yield of Jameed was obtained via the salted-solar drying process. As measured by colorimetry, salted freeze-dried Jameed showed improved consumer characteristics in terms of increased lightness and decreased red and yellow color components. When unsalted Jameed was prepared by solar or freeze drying, additional major peptide bands were detected by SDS-PAGE treatments as compared to the solar or freeze drying of the salted Jameed. Use of salt in the preparation of solar dried Jameed also led to the highest ACE inhibitory activities whereas antioxidant activity was lowest in unsalted solar dried Jameed. The study findings indicate that both greater yield and better overall nutritional and biofunctional properties were associated with solar dried salted Jameed.

  3. Immunoglobulin A in Bovine Milk: A Potential Functional Food?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cakebread, Julie A; Humphrey, Rex; Hodgkinson, Alison J

    2015-08-26

    Immunoglobulin A (IgA) is an anti-inflammatory antibody that plays a critical role in mucosal immunity. It is found in large quantities in human milk, but there are lower amounts in bovine milk. In humans, IgA plays a significant role in providing protection from environmental pathogens at mucosal surfaces and is a key component for the establishment and maintenance of intestinal homeostasis via innate and adaptive immune mechanisms. To date, many of the dairy-based functional foods are derived from bovine colostrum, targeting the benefits of IgG. IgA has a higher pathogenic binding capacity and greater stability against proteolytic degradation when ingested compared with IgG. This provides IgA-based products greater potential in the functional food market that has yet to be realized.

  4. 凝固型雪莲果风味发酵乳的研制%Production of the Flavored Fermented Milk of Smallanthus sonchifolius

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋淑红; 赵艳; 闫浩

    2012-01-01

    [Objective]To discuss the optimum production technology of the flavored fermented milk of Smallanthus sonchifolius. [Method] With the raw materials of Smallanthus sonchifolius juice and milk,the flavored fermented milk was produced,based on single factor test,an orthogonal experiment was conducted with the four factors of juice content, strain inoculation,fermentation temperature and fermentation time at three levels. [ Result]With 15% Smallanthus sonchifolius juice,3% strain inoculation ,42 ℃ of fermentation temperature and 5 h of fermentation time,the sensory quality of the fermented milk product was evaluated from its color, aroma, state and taste so as to produce excellent flavored fermented milk. [ Conclusion]The study provided references for the deep-level and multi-level processing of Smallanthus sonchifolius so that it can have greater market value.%[目的]探讨雪莲果风味发酵乳的最佳生产工艺.[方法]以雪莲果果汁和牛奶为原料进行风味发酵乳的研制,在单因素试验的基础上采用正交试验方法,以果汁含量、菌种接种量、发酵温度、发酵时间为指标,进行4因素3水平试验.[结果]当雪莲果果汁添加量为15%,菌种接种量为3%,发酵温度为42℃,发酵时间为5h时,从雪莲果发酵乳的色泽、气味、组织状态、滋味4个方面对产品进行感官评价,可获得风味最佳的雪莲果发酵乳.[结论]研究可为雪莲果的深层次、多元化加工提供参考,使雪莲果具有更大的市场开发潜力.

  5. [HYGIENIC SUBSTANTIATION OF THE PREVENTION OF NUTRITION ASSOCIATED ANEMIA WITH THE AID OF FORTIFIED FERMENTED MILK BIOPRODUCT].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glagoleva, O N; Turchaninov, D V; Boyarskaya, L A; Bogdashin, I V

    2015-01-01

    The pilot controlled study proved the effectiveness of enriched fermented milk product "Prolacta" as means of the primary prevention of nutrition-associated anemia, firstly, at the stage of latent iron deficiency. The study included 166 adult residents of the city of Omsk. Among examined patiens there were 48 (30%) men and 118 (70%) women aged from 18 to 59 years (mean age: 29.2 ± 0.84 years). Experimental group (79 persons) over two months took 1 glass (200 ml) of bioproduct "Prolacta" daily. The control group (87 people) no received this product neither used supplements or other vitamins and minerals. The groups were matched by gender and age. As criteria for the deviation from the normal settings there were accepted following values: the concentration of hemoglobin (Hb)--less than 130 g/l in men and less than 120 g/l in women; serum iron level--less than 12.5 µmol/L, serum ferritin in men less than 95 µg/l, in women--less than 30 µg/l. The proportion of persons from the main study group with latent iron deficiency decreased from 41.8% to 25.3% (p < 0.05), the proportion of subjects with normal iron supply increased significantly (from 26.6 to 41.8%; p < 0.05). Regular consumption of fermented milk enriched with bio "Prolacta" as a means of preventing the deficiency of micronutrients and nutrition-related anemia in large extent is recommended to persons from groups at-risk (athletes, children and adolescents, and women of reproductive age). Preventive effects of this product are combined with the nutritional benefits of dairy products, its use improves the structure of nutrition of the population

  6. Non-fermented and fermented jabuticaba (Myrciaria cauliflora Mart.) pomaces as valuable sources of functional ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Patricia; Barros, Lillian; Dias, Maria Inês; Santos-Buelga, Celestino; Ferreira, Isabel C F R; Ramirez Asquieri, Eduardo; Berrios, José De J

    2016-10-01

    Jabuticaba (Myrciaria cauliflora. Mart) is a highly perishable fruit native to Brazil, which is consumed both fresh and industrially processed in the form of juices, jams, wines and distilled liqueurs. This processing generates a large amount of waste by-products, which represent approximately 50% of the fruit weight. The by-products are of interest for obtaining valuable bioactive compounds that could be used as nutraceuticals or functional ingredients. In this study, fermented and non-fermented jabuticaba pomaces were studied regarding their hydrophilic and lipophilic compounds, as well as their antioxidant properties, including: soluble sugars, organic acids and tocopherols (using high performance liquid chromatography coupled to refraction index, diode array and fluorescence detector, respectively); phenolics and anthocyanins, (using liquid chromatography coupled to diode array detection, and mass spectrometry with electrospray ionization); and fatty acids (using gas-liquid chromatography with flame ionization detection). The analytical data demonstrated that jabuticaba pomaces are a rich source of bioactive compounds such as tocopherols, polyunsaturated fatty acids and phenolic compounds (namely hydrolyzable tannins and anthocyanins) with antioxidant potential. Therefore, jabuticaba pomace may have good potential as a functional ingredient in the fabrication of human foods and animal feed.

  7. Milk protein tailoring to improve functional and biological properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JEAN-MARC CHOBERT

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Proteins are involved in every aspects of life: structure, motion, catalysis, recognition and regulation. Today's highly sophisticated science of the modifications of proteins has ancient roots. The tailoring of proteins for food and medical uses precedes the beginning of what is called biochemistry. Chemical modification of proteins was pursued early in the twentieth century as an analytical procedure for side-chain amino acids. Later, methods were developed for specific inactivation of biologically active proteins and titration of their essential groups. Enzymatic modifications were mainly developed in the seventies when many more enzymes became economically available. Protein engineering has become a valuable tool for creating or improving proteins for practical use and has provided new insights into protein structure and function. The actual and potential use of milk proteins as food ingredients has been a popular topic for research over the past 40 years. With today's sophisticated analytical, biochemical and biological research tools, the presence of compounds with biological activity has been demonstrated. Improvements in separation techniques and enzyme technology have enabled efficient and economic isolation and modification of milk proteins, which has made possible their use as functional foods, dietary supplements, nutraceuticals and medical foods. In this review, some chemical and enzymatic modifications of milk proteins are described, with particular focus on their functional and biological properties.

  8. Replacing corn silage with different forage millet silage cultivars: effects on milk yield, nutrient digestion, and ruminal fermentation of lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunette, T; Baurhoo, B; Mustafa, A F

    2014-10-01

    This study investigated the effects of dietary replacement of corn silage (CS) with 2 cultivars of forage millet silages [i.e., regular millet (RM) and sweet millet (SM)] on milk production, apparent total-tract digestibility, and ruminal fermentation characteristics of dairy cows. Fifteen lactating Holstein cows were used in a replicated 3 × 3 Latin square experiment and fed (ad libitum) a high-forage total mixed ration (68:32 forage:concentrate ratio). Dietary treatments included CS (control), RM, and SM diets. Experimental silages constituted 37% of each diet DM. Three ruminally fistulated cows were used to determine the effect of dietary treatments on ruminal fermentation and total-tract nutrient utilization. Relative to CS, RM and SM silages contained 36% more crude protein, 66% more neutral detergent fiber (NDF), and 88% more acid detergent fiber. Cows fed CS consumed more dry matter (DM; 24.4 vs. 22.7 kg/d) and starch (5.7 vs. 3.7 kg/d), but less NDF (7.9 vs. 8.7 kg/d) than cows fed RM or SM. However, DM, starch and NDF intakes were not different between forage millet silage types. Feeding RM relative to CS reduced milk yield (32.7 vs. 35.2 kg/d), energy-corrected milk (35.8 vs. 38.0 kg/d) and SCM (32.7 vs. 35.3 kg/d). However, cows fed SM had similar milk, energy-corrected milk, and solids-corrected milk yields than cows fed CS or RM. Milk efficiency was not affected by dietary treatments. Milk protein concentration was greatest for cows fed CS, intermediate for cows fed SM, and lowest for cows fed RM. Milk concentration of solids-not-fat was lesser, whereas milk urea nitrogen was greater for cows fed RM than for those fed CS. However, millet silage type had no effect on milk solids-not-fat and milk urea nitrogen levels. Concentrations of milk fat, lactose and total solids were not affected by silage type. Ruminal pH and ruminal NH3-N were greater for cows fed RM and SM than for cows fed CS. Total-tract digestibility of DM (average=67.9%), NDF (average=53

  9. Scientific Opinion on the safety of ‘heat-treated milk products fermented with Bacteroides xylanisolvens DSM 23964’ as a novel food

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    Following a request from the European Commission, the EFSA NDA Panel was asked to carry out the additional assessment for ‘pasteurised milk products fermented with Bacteroides xylanisolvens DSM 23964’ as a novel food (NF) in the context of Regulation (EC) No 258/97. Pasteurised or ultra-high-temp......Following a request from the European Commission, the EFSA NDA Panel was asked to carry out the additional assessment for ‘pasteurised milk products fermented with Bacteroides xylanisolvens DSM 23964’ as a novel food (NF) in the context of Regulation (EC) No 258/97. Pasteurised or ultra......-high-temperature-treated milk is used for the fermentation process with B. xylanisolvens DSM 23964. After fermentation the product is heat treated for one hour at 75 °C to ensure the absence of viable B. xylanisolvens DSM 23964. The Panel considers the information provided on the identity and characterisation of B....... xylanisolvens DSM 23964 to be sufficient. The production process encompasses standard techniques used by the dairy industry, is sufficiently described by the applicant and does not give rise to safety concerns. The Panel considers that the information provided on the production process and on the content...

  10. Role of Production Area, Seasonality and Age of Fermented Camel (Camelus Dromedarius Milk Gariss on Mineral Contents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Ismail Ahmed

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to study the differences between some minerals content of gariss samples collected from two different production areas in two different production systems (i.e. traditional system Kordofan area and semi-intensive system- which, the camels are kept in an open barn and graze around the farm. The lactating female camels are supplemented with concentrates in addition to good quality ration containing groundnut cake and Sorghum biocolor and water supply upon required in Kordofan and Khartoum provinces in Sudan at the different seasons (summer, autumn and winter and their gariss samples were collected. Sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium and phosphorus of gariss samples collected in autumn season (Kordofan area, summer season (Khartoum area, and winter season (Khartoum and Kordofan areas were determined, after that the age of gariss was noted from farmers directly when the samples were collected. Four different ages of gariss which registered were (5-8 hrs, 12 hrs, 48 hrs and more than 48 hrs. Each fermentation time (age of gariss was used for analyzing mineral contents. The results showed that gariss prepared from different production locations and in different seasons in Kordofan and Khartoum production areas were statistically different in most of the mineral contents determined. To conclude, different feeding sources or different physiological status may affect camels’ milk and consequently their gariss product, also different age of gariss had affects the mineral content of milk.

  11. Some Technological Properties of Lactic Acid Bacteria Isolated from Dahi and Datshi, Naturally Fermented Milk Products of Bhutan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shangpliang, H. N. J.; Sharma, Sharmila; Rai, Ranjita; Tamang, Jyoti P.

    2017-01-01

    Dahi and datshi are common naturally fermented milk (NFM) products of Bhutan. Population of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in dahi (pH 3.7) and datshi (pH 5.2) was 1.4 × 107 and 3.9 × 108 cfu/ml, respectively. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing isolates of LAB from dahi and datshi were identified as Enterococcus faecalis, E. faecium, Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis. LAB strains were tested for some technological properties. All LAB strains except E. faecalis CH2:17 caused coagulation of milk at both 30°C for 48 h. Only E. faecium DH4:05 strain was resistant to pH 3. No significant difference (P > 0.05) of viable counts was observed in MRS broth with and without lysozyme. All LAB strains grew well in 0.3% bile showing their ability to tolerate bile salt. None of the LAB strains showed >70% hydrophobicity. This study, being the first of its microbiological analysis of the NFM of Bhutan, has opened up to an extent of research work that gives a new insight to the products. PMID:28203227

  12. Probiotic lactobacilli and bifidobacteria in a fermented milk product with added fruit preparation reduce antibiotic associated diarrhea and Helicobacter pylori activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vrese, Michael; Kristen, Holger; Rautenberg, Peter; Laue, Christiane; Schrezenmeir, Jürgen

    2011-11-01

    To investigate matrix-specifity of probiotic effects and particularly of the reduction of antibiotics-associated diarrhea, a controlled, randomized, double-blind study was performed, in which 88 Helicobacter pylori-infected but otherwise healthy subjects were given for eight weeks either a) a probiotic fruit yoghurt "mild" containing Lactobacillus acidophilus LA-5 plus Bifidobacterium lactis BB-12, n = 30), b) the same product but pasteurized after fermentation (n = 29) or c) milk acidified with lactic acid (control, n = 29). During week five, a Helicobacter eradication therapy was performed. Helicobacter activity was measured via 13C-2-urea breath tests and antibiotic-associated diarrhoea and other gastrointestinal complaints were recorded by validated questionnaires. In intervention group a, b and c the mean number of days with diarrhoea was 4, 10 and 10 (Pantibiotics treatment was -1·4 ± 1·1, -1·2 ± 1·1, 2·6 ± 1·1 points/four weeks (Pprobiotic bacteria but (rather) to components of acidified milk (most probably lactic acid). Fruit-yogurt-like fermented milk products with living probiotic bacteria significantly shorten the duration of antibiotics-associated diarrhoea and improve gastrointestinal complaints. Fruit yogurt-like fermented milk is a matrix suitable for probiotic bacteria.

  13. 黄花梨发酵乳酸饮料加工工艺研究%Study on Process of Sour Milk Beverage by Fermentation of Huanghua Pear

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    武美莲; 吴蔚书

    2011-01-01

    [ Objective ] The process of sour milk beverage by fermentation of Huanghua Pear was explored. [ Method ] The ingredients of sour milk beverage by fermentation of Huanghua pear were studied by orthogonal experiments. The choice of lactic acid bacteria in fermented sour milk beverage, the proportion of composite emulsion stabilizer, production process, processing condition and standard of quality were determined. [ Result] The result indicated that the best ingredients of sour milk beverage by fermentation were as follows: 50% Huanghua pear juice, 50% skim milk, and 6% sucrose. The best proportion of composite emulsion stabilizer was 0.10% Glycerin monostearate, 0.15% Sucrose ester, O. 05% Xanthan gum, and O. 10% Seaweed gel. [ Conclusion] This process could increase the added value of Huanghua pear to meet the demand of the market.%[目的]探讨黄花梨发酵乳酸饮料的加工工艺.[方法]运用正交试验法对黄花梨发酵乳酸饮料的配方进行研究;同时确定发酵乳酸饮料的乳酸菌选择、复合乳化稳定剂的配比、生产工艺流程、工艺条件及质量标准.[结果]发酵乳酸饮料的最佳配方为黄花梨汁50%,脱脂乳50%,蔗糖6%;复合乳化稳定剂最适配比为单甘酯0.10%,蔗糖酯0.15%,黄原胶0.05%,海藻胶0.10%.[结论]该加工工艺可增加黄花梨的附加值,满足市场需求.

  14. Relationships between functional genes in Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus isolates and phenotypic characteristics associated with fermentation time and flavor production in yogurt elucidated using multilocus sequence typing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wenjun; Yu, Jie; Sun, Zhihong; Song, Yuqin; Wang, Xueni; Wang, Hongmei; Wuren, Tuoya; Zha, Musu; Menghe, Bilige; Heping, Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus (L. bulgaricus) is well known for its worldwide application in yogurt production. Flavor production and acid producing are considered as the most important characteristics for starter culture screening. To our knowledge this is the first study applying functional gene sequence multilocus sequence typing technology to predict the fermentation and flavor-producing characteristics of yogurt-producing bacteria. In the present study, phenotypic characteristics of 35 L. bulgaricus strains were quantified during the fermentation of milk to yogurt and during its subsequent storage; these included fermentation time, acidification rate, pH, titratable acidity, and flavor characteristics (acetaldehyde concentration). Furthermore, multilocus sequence typing analysis of 7 functional genes associated with fermentation time, acid production, and flavor formation was done to elucidate the phylogeny and genetic evolution of the same L. bulgaricus isolates. The results showed that strains significantly differed in fermentation time, acidification rate, and acetaldehyde production. Combining functional gene sequence analysis with phenotypic characteristics demonstrated that groups of strains established using genotype data were consistent with groups identified based on their phenotypic traits. This study has established an efficient and rapid molecular genotyping method to identify strains with good fermentation traits; this has the potential to replace time-consuming conventional methods based on direct measurement of phenotypic traits.

  15. Production processing of fermented soy-milk by lactic acid bacteria%乳酸菌发酵酸豆乳生产工艺的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方海田; 刘慧燕

    2009-01-01

    以大豆为原料,对生产酸豆乳的工艺进行了研究.纯豆乳经浸泡、磨浆、脱腥后制成,通过正交试验,获得最佳的发酵工艺,豆水比为大豆∶水=1∶ 10.嗜热链球菌∶保加利亚乳杆菌=1∶ 1,85℃杀菌30min,蔗糖的添加量为8%,前发酵温度为40℃,前发酵时间为4h,接种量5%,后发酵温度4℃.%Using soybeans as raw material, production processing of fermented soy-milk was investigated in this paper. Pure soybean milk was obtained by soaking, grinding, removing fishy smell. The optimal fermentation conditions were achieved through orthogonal experiment the ratio of Streptococcus thermophilus to Lactobacillus pasteurization time 30 min, content of sucrose addition 8%, pre-fermentation temperature 40℃, pre-fermentation time 4 h, inoculum 5% and post-fermentation temperature 4℃.

  16. Influence of carbohydrates on feed intake, rumen fermentation and milk performance in high yielding dairy cows.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, de H.

    1993-01-01

    Food for human consumption originates directly from plants, after processing, or indirectly by conversion of plant materials into food of animal origin through livestock. An important example of food of animal origin are dairy products such as milk, cheese, butter, yoghurt, etc.During the last decad

  17. Plant-based milk alternatives an emerging segment of functional beverages: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Sethi, Swati; Tyagi, S. K.; Anurag, Rahul K.

    2016-01-01

    Plant-based or non-dairy milk alternative is the fast growing segment in newer food product development category of functional and specialty beverage across the globe. Nowadays, cow milk allergy, lactose intolerance, calorie concern and prevalence of hypercholesterolemia, more preference to vegan diets has influenced consumers towards choosing cow milk alternatives. Plant-based milk alternatives are a rising trend, which can serve as an inexpensive alternate to poor economic group of developi...

  18. Lactobacillus paracasei CBA L74 metabolic products and fermented milk for infant formula have anti-inflammatory activity on dendritic cells in vitro and protective effects against colitis and an enteric pathogen in vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Zagato

    Full Text Available The rapid expansion of commercially available fermented food products raises important safety issues particularly when infant food is concerned. In many cases, the activity of the microorganisms used for fermentation as well as what will be the immunological outcome of fermented food intake is not known. In this manuscript we used complex in vitro, ex-vivo and in vivo systems to study the immunomodulatory properties of probiotic-fermented products (culture supernatant and fermented milk without live bacteria to be used in infant formula. We found in vitro and ex-vivo that fermented products of Lactobacillus paracasei CBA L74 act via the inhibition of proinflammatory cytokine release leaving anti-inflammatory cytokines either unaffected or even increased in response to Salmonella typhimurium. These activities are not dependent on the inactivated bacteria but to metabolic products released during the fermentation process. We also show that our in vitro systems are predictive of an in vivo efficacy by the fermented products. Indeed CBA L74 fermented products (both culture medium and fermented milk could protect against colitis and against an enteric pathogen infection (Salmonella typhimurium. Hence we found that fermented products can act via the inhibition of immune cell inflammation and can protect the host from pathobionts and enteric pathogens. These results open new perspectives in infant nutrition and suggest that L. paracasei CBA L74 fermented formula can provide immune benefits to formula-fed infants, without carrying live bacteria that may be potentially dangerous to an immature infant immune system.

  19. Lactobacillus paracasei CBA L74 metabolic products and fermented milk for infant formula have anti-inflammatory activity on dendritic cells in vitro and protective effects against colitis and an enteric pathogen in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zagato, Elena; Mileti, Erika; Massimiliano, Lucia; Fasano, Francesca; Budelli, Andrea; Penna, Giuseppe; Rescigno, Maria

    2014-01-01

    The rapid expansion of commercially available fermented food products raises important safety issues particularly when infant food is concerned. In many cases, the activity of the microorganisms used for fermentation as well as what will be the immunological outcome of fermented food intake is not known. In this manuscript we used complex in vitro, ex-vivo and in vivo systems to study the immunomodulatory properties of probiotic-fermented products (culture supernatant and fermented milk without live bacteria to be used in infant formula). We found in vitro and ex-vivo that fermented products of Lactobacillus paracasei CBA L74 act via the inhibition of proinflammatory cytokine release leaving anti-inflammatory cytokines either unaffected or even increased in response to Salmonella typhimurium. These activities are not dependent on the inactivated bacteria but to metabolic products released during the fermentation process. We also show that our in vitro systems are predictive of an in vivo efficacy by the fermented products. Indeed CBA L74 fermented products (both culture medium and fermented milk) could protect against colitis and against an enteric pathogen infection (Salmonella typhimurium). Hence we found that fermented products can act via the inhibition of immune cell inflammation and can protect the host from pathobionts and enteric pathogens. These results open new perspectives in infant nutrition and suggest that L. paracasei CBA L74 fermented formula can provide immune benefits to formula-fed infants, without carrying live bacteria that may be potentially dangerous to an immature infant immune system.

  20. Effects of fermentation time on the functional and pasting properties of defatted Moringa oleifera seed flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oloyede, Omobolanle O; James, Samaila; Ocheme, Ocheme B; Chinma, Chiemela E; Akpa, V Eleojo

    2016-01-01

    Effects of fermentation time on the functional and pasting properties of defatted Moringa oleifera seed flour was examined. Moringa seeds were fermented naturally at 0, 12, 24, 48 and 72 h; oven dried at 60°C for 12 h; milled into five different flour samples for each fermentation time and defatted. The functional and pasting properties of the samples were determined. The result shows significant increase in the water absorption capacity, oil absorption capacity, foaming capacity and emulsifying capacity with increase in fermentation time. However, there was a significant decrease in bulk density (0.53-0.32 g/cm(3)) and dispersibility (36.00-20.50%) with an increase in fermentation time. There were significant increase in peak viscosity, trough, breakdown, final viscosity, and set back with increasing fermentation time. The swelling power and solubility of fermented Moringa seed flour was significantly affected.

  1. Effect of alcohol fermented feed on lactating performance, blood metabolites, milk Fatty Acid profile and cholesterol content in holstein lactating cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, X Z; Park, B K; Yan, C G; Choi, J G; Ahn, J S; Shin, J S

    2012-11-01

    A feeding experiment with 40 lactating Holstein cows and 4 dietary treatments was conducted to investigate supplementation with different levels of alcohol fermented feed to the TMR on lactating performance, blood metabolites, milk fatty acid profile and cholesterol concentration of blood and milk. Forty Holstein lactating cows (106±24 d post-partum; mean±SD) were distributed into four groups and randomly assigned to one of four treatments with each containing 10 cows per treatment. The treatment supplemented with TMR (DM basis) as the control (CON), and CON mixed with alcohol-fermented feeds (AFF) at a level of 5%, 10% and 15% of the TMR as T1, T2 and T3, respectively. Dry matter intake and milk yield were not affected by supplementation of AFF. An increased 4% FCM in the milk occurred in cows fed T3 diet compared with CON, while T1 and T2 diets decreased 4% FCM in a dose dependent manner. Supplementation of AFF increased the concentration of albumin, total protein (TP), ammonia, and high density lipoprotein-cholesterol in serum compared with CON. In contrast, supplementation with AFF clearly decreased concentration of blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and total cholesterol (TC) compare with CON. AFF supplementation increased the proportion of C18:1n9 and C18:2n6 compared to CON. A decrease in the concentration of saturated fatty acid (SFA) for T1, T2 and T3 resulted in an increased unsaturated fatty acid (USFA) to SFA ratio compared to CON. Concentration of cholesterol in milk fat was reduced in proportion to the supplemental level of AFF. Feeding a diet supplemented with a moderate level AFF to lactating cows could be a way to alter the feed efficiency and fatty acid profile of milk by increasing potentially human consumer healthy fatty acid without detrimental effects on feed intake and milk production. A substantially decreased cholesterol proportion in milk induced by supplementation AFF suggests that alcohol fermented feed may improve milk cholesterol levels

  2. Effect of Alcohol Fermented Feed on Lactating Performance, Blood Metabolites, Milk Fatty Acid Profile and Cholesterol Content in Holstein Lactating Cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Z. Li

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available A feeding experiment with 40 lactating Holstein cows and 4 dietary treatments was conducted to investigate supplementation with different levels of alcohol fermented feed to the TMR on lactating performance, blood metabolites, milk fatty acid profile and cholesterol concentration of blood and milk. Forty Holstein lactating cows (106±24 d post-partum; mean±SD were distributed into four groups and randomly assigned to one of four treatments with each containing 10 cows per treatment. The treatment supplemented with TMR (DM basis as the control (CON, and CON mixed with alcohol-fermented feeds (AFF at a level of 5%, 10% and 15% of the TMR as T1, T2 and T3, respectively. Dry matter intake and milk yield were not affected by supplementation of AFF. An increased 4% FCM in the milk occurred in cows fed T3 diet compared with CON, while T1 and T2 diets decreased 4% FCM in a dose dependent manner. Supplementation of AFF increased the concentration of albumin, total protein (TP, ammonia, and high density lipoprotein-cholesterol in serum compared with CON. In contrast, supplementation with AFF clearly decreased concentration of blood urea nitrogen (BUN and total cholesterol (TC compare with CON. AFF supplementation increased the proportion of C18:1n9 and C18:2n6 compared to CON. A decrease in the concentration of saturated fatty acid (SFA for T1, T2 and T3 resulted in an increased unsaturated fatty acid (USFA to SFA ratio compared to CON. Concentration of cholesterol in milk fat was reduced in proportion to the supplemental level of AFF. Feeding a diet supplemented with a moderate level AFF to lactating cows could be a way to alter the feed efficiency and fatty acid profile of milk by increasing potentially human consumer healthy fatty acid without detrimental effects on feed intake and milk production. A substantially decreased cholesterol proportion in milk induced by supplementation AFF suggests that alcohol fermented feed may improve milk cholesterol

  3. Milk metabolites as indicators of mammary gland functions and milk quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silanikove, Nissim; Merin, Uzi; Shapiro, Fira; Leitner, Gabriel

    2014-08-01

    The assumption, that metabolites derived from the activity of the mammary gland epithelial cells reflect changes in milk secretion and its coagulation properties, was tested in dairy cows. The experiment included cows with uninfected udders and cows with one of the glands infected by different bacteria specie. Analysis were carried at the cow level (including all four glands), or at the gland level. High and significant correlations among the concentrations of lactose, glucose, glucose-6-posphate, milk related respiratory index (the ratio between the concentrations of citrate/lactate+malate in milk) and milk-derived glycolytic index (the ratio between glucose-6-phosphate and glucose in milk) and milk clotting parameters were found. The physiological basis for these relations and their ability to predict the deterioration in milk quality in subclinically infected glands and in glands previously clinically infected with Escherichia coli are discussed.

  4. Milk Odd- and Branched-Chain Fatty Acids in Relation to the Rumen Fermentation Pattern

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlaeminck, B.; Fievez, V.; Tamminga, S.; Dewhurst, R.J.; Vuuren, van A.M.; Brabander, de D.; Demeyer, D.

    2006-01-01

    The objectives of this study were 1) to determine whether a relationship exists between molar proportions of volatile fatty acids in the rumen and milk odd-and branched-chain fatty acid concentrations (i.e., iso C13:0, anteiso C13:0, iso C14:0, C15:0, iso C15:0, anteiso C15:0, iso C16:0, C17:0, iso

  5. Plant-based Paste Fermented by Lactic Acid Bacteria and Yeast: Functional Analysis and Possibility of Application to Functional Foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuwaki, Shinsuke; Nakajima, Nobuyoshi; Tanaka, Hidehiko; Ishihara, Kohji

    2012-01-01

    A plant-based paste fermented by lactic acid bacteria and yeast (fermented paste) was made from various plant materials. The paste was made of fermented food by applying traditional food-preservation techniques, that is, fermentation and sugaring. The fermented paste contained major nutrients (carbohydrates, proteins, and lipids), 18 kinds of amino acids, and vitamins (vitamin A, B1, B2, B6, B12, E, K, niacin, biotin, pantothenic acid, and folic acid). It contained five kinds of organic acids, and a large amount of dietary fiber and plant phytochemicals. Sucrose from brown sugar, used as a material, was completely resolved into glucose and fructose. Some physiological functions of the fermented paste were examined in vitro. It was demonstrated that the paste possessed antioxidant, antihypertensive, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, anti-allergy and anti-tyrosinase activities in vitro. It was thought that the fermented paste would be a helpful functional food with various nutrients to help prevent lifestyle diseases.

  6. Short-Term Effects of Kefir-Fermented Milk Consumption on Bone Mineral Density and Bone Metabolism in a Randomized Clinical Trial of Osteoporotic Patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min-Yu Tu

    Full Text Available Milk products are good sources of calcium that may reduce bone resorption and help prevent bone loss as well as promote bone remodeling and increase bone formation. Kefir is a product made by kefir grains that degrade milk proteins into various peptides with health-promoting effects, including antithrombotic, antimicrobial and calcium-absorption enhancing bioactivities. In a controlled, parallel, double-blind intervention study over 6 months, we investigated the effects of kefir-fermented milk (1,600 mg supplemented with calcium bicarbonate (CaCO3, 1,500 mg and bone metabolism in 40 osteoporosis patients, and compared them with CaCO3 alone without kefir supplements. Bone turnover markers were measured in fasting blood samples collected before therapy and at 1, 3, and 6 months. Bone mineral density (BMD values at the spine, total hip, and hip femoral neck were assessed by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA at baseline and at 6 months. Among patients treated with kefir-fermented milk, the relationships between baseline turnover and 6 months changes in DXA-determined BMD were significantly improved. The serum β C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (β-CTX in those with T-scores > -1 patients significantly decreased after three months treatment. The formation marker serum osteocalcin (OC turned from negative to positive after 6 months, representing the effect of kefir treatment. Serum parathyroid hormone (PTH increased significantly after treatment with kefir, but decreased significantly in the control group. PTH may promote bone remodeling after treatment with kefir for 6 months. In this pilot study, we concluded that kefir-fermented milk therapy was associated with short-term changes in turnover and greater 6-month increases in hip BMD among osteoporotic patients.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02361372.

  7. Short-Term Effects of Kefir-Fermented Milk Consumption on Bone Mineral Density and Bone Metabolism in a Randomized Clinical Trial of Osteoporotic Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Min-Yu; Chen, Hsiao-Ling; Tung, Yu-Tang; Kao, Chao-Chih; Hu, Fu-Chang; Chen, Chuan-Mu

    2015-01-01

    Milk products are good sources of calcium that may reduce bone resorption and help prevent bone loss as well as promote bone remodeling and increase bone formation. Kefir is a product made by kefir grains that degrade milk proteins into various peptides with health-promoting effects, including antithrombotic, antimicrobial and calcium-absorption enhancing bioactivities. In a controlled, parallel, double-blind intervention study over 6 months, we investigated the effects of kefir-fermented milk (1,600 mg) supplemented with calcium bicarbonate (CaCO3, 1,500 mg) and bone metabolism in 40 osteoporosis patients, and compared them with CaCO3 alone without kefir supplements. Bone turnover markers were measured in fasting blood samples collected before therapy and at 1, 3, and 6 months. Bone mineral density (BMD) values at the spine, total hip, and hip femoral neck were assessed by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) at baseline and at 6 months. Among patients treated with kefir-fermented milk, the relationships between baseline turnover and 6 months changes in DXA-determined BMD were significantly improved. The serum β C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (β-CTX) in those with T-scores > -1 patients significantly decreased after three months treatment. The formation marker serum osteocalcin (OC) turned from negative to positive after 6 months, representing the effect of kefir treatment. Serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) increased significantly after treatment with kefir, but decreased significantly in the control group. PTH may promote bone remodeling after treatment with kefir for 6 months. In this pilot study, we concluded that kefir-fermented milk therapy was associated with short-term changes in turnover and greater 6-month increases in hip BMD among osteoporotic patients. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02361372.

  8. Genetic diversity of Lactobacillus spp of natural Ethawah goat milk fermented was determined by using 16srDNA with DDGE analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Kusmiyati

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to characterize of Lactobacillus spp. from natural Ethawah goat milk-fermented were using 16SrDNA by denaturation gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE analysis. Goat and bovine (as negative control milk naturally fermented among 24hour until 6 days. Morphological and biochemistry of bacteria were characterized by standard methods. The total DNA of bacteria were isolated using alkali lysis, PCR amplification was carried out using 3 pairs of specific primers, DNA-amplified using DGGE and then to determine the relationship among Lactobacteria using NTsys package software V2.0. Phenotypical and biochemical study showed that the 11 strains are belonging to genus Lactobacillus. The dendogram results show all of isolates had similarity characters with genus Lactobacillus around 56-76%. According to morphological and DDGE profiles, we were identified that bacteria isolate of goat milk-fermented are K1A, and K3A are L. casei,and bacteria isolate K3B is L. plantarum.

  9. A Review of Fermented Foods with Beneficial Effects on Brain and Cognitive Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Binna; Hong, Veronica Minsu; Yang, Jeongwon; Hyun, Heejung; Im, Jooyeon Jamie; Hwang, Jaeuk; Yoon, Sujung; Kim, Jieun E.

    2016-01-01

    Around the world, fermentation of foods has been adopted over many generations, primarily due to their commercial significance with enriched flavors and high-profile nutrients. The increasing application of fermented foods is further promoted by recent evidence on their health benefits, beyond the traditionally recognized effects on the digestive system. With recent advances in the understanding of gut-brain interactions, there have also been reports suggesting the fermented food’s efficacy, particularly for cognitive function improvements. These results are strengthened by the proposed biological effects of fermented foods, including neuroprotection against neurotoxicity and reactive oxygen species. This paper reviews the beneficial health effects of fermented foods with particular emphasis on cognitive enhancement and neuroprotective effects. With an extensive review of fermented foods and their potential cognitive benefits, this paper may promote commercially feasible applications of fermented foods as natural remedies to cognitive problems. PMID:28078251

  10. 发酵酸豆乳生产工艺及问题研究%Research on Manufacturing Technique and Problems of Fermentation Sour Soybean Milk

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶春苗

    2016-01-01

    Nutritional value of soybean is extremely high, flavor and nutritive fermentation--sour soybean milk will be obtained after fermenting by lactic acid bacteria. In this paper, it introduced the manufacturing technique of sour soybean milk, analyzed the existing problems in the production process of sour soybean milk, and put forward the solution, providing the references for optimizing the manufacturing technique and improving the quality of sour soybean milk.%大豆营养价值极高,对其进行磨浆,利用乳酸菌发酵,可以得到具有风味和营养的发酵制品———酸豆乳。介绍酸豆乳的生产工艺,分析酸豆乳生产过程中的存在的问题,并提出解决方法,为优化酸豆乳生产工艺以及提高产品质量提供借鉴。

  11. The influence of saccharin and sorbitol upon the BB-12® activity in milk and the rheological characteristics of fermented products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luminiţa PRICOPE

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available studied related to the activity of the probiotic culture BB-12® in milk. Sweeteners concentrations used in the experiments were chosen based on the results of a preferential sensorial analysis. The acidity and pH dynamics monitored during bifidobacteria incubation at 37°C showed that BB-12® behaves in a similar way in milk and milk sweetened with saccharin (0.05‰ or sorbitol (1.5%. Also it was noticed that the fermentation starts without a lag phase in the presence of sorbitol. The bifidobacteria maintained their viability at a level of 109 viable count during 14 days of storage at 4°C. Sweetened fermented milk samples showed higher consistency index compared to the control sample. More than that, after 7 days of storage (4ºC it was observed an increase of the k-value for thesaccharin and sorbitol samples, while for the control sample the consistency index has a 85% decrease. After 7 days of storage the sweetened samples maintained the same viscoelastic behavior.The study was performed in order to collect scientific evidences on the possibility to obtain probiotic dairy products sweetened with alternative sweeteners.

  12. Gastrointestinal-active oligosaccharides from human milk and functional foods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albrecht, S.A.

    2011-01-01

    Keywords: human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs), galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS), konjac glucomannan (KGM), breast milk, baby feces, gastrointestinal metabolization, blood-group specific conjugates, CE-LIF-MSn   Oligosaccharides, as present in human milk or supplemented to food, are renowned for

  13. Random regression models using different functions to model milk flow in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laureano, M M M; Bignardi, A B; El Faro, L; Cardoso, V L; Tonhati, H; Albuquerque, L G

    2014-09-12

    We analyzed 75,555 test-day milk flow records from 2175 primiparous Holstein cows that calved between 1997 and 2005. Milk flow was obtained by dividing the mean milk yield (kg) of the 3 daily milking by the total milking time (min) and was expressed as kg/min. Milk flow was grouped into 43 weekly classes. The analyses were performed using a single-trait Random Regression Models that included direct additive genetic, permanent environmental, and residual random effects. In addition, the contemporary group and linear and quadratic effects of cow age at calving were included as fixed effects. Fourth-order orthogonal Legendre polynomial of days in milk was used to model the mean trend in milk flow. The additive genetic and permanent environmental covariance functions were estimated using random regression Legendre polynomials and B-spline functions of days in milk. The model using a third-order Legendre polynomial for additive genetic effects and a sixth-order polynomial for permanent environmental effects, which contained 7 residual classes, proved to be the most adequate to describe variations in milk flow, and was also the most parsimonious. The heritability in milk flow estimated by the most parsimonious model was of moderate to high magnitude.

  14. 乳清姜汁发酵饮料的研制%A STUDY ON PRODUCTION OF FERMENTED MILK WHEY - GINGER BEVERAGE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    玛丽娜; 敖日格乐; 斯木吉德

    2012-01-01

    此项研究旨在利用营养丰富的乳清和药食同源的生姜为原料,开发具有营养保健功能的新型饮料-乳清姜汁发酵饮料.为饮料工业的发展开辟新领域.在研究中通过采用均匀设计的试验方法,对乳清姜汁发酵饮料发酵过程中的发酵条件进行了优化,并得出相关试验结论.其中碱性蛋白酶水解试验最优条件为,酶量为0.03%,pH值8.0,温度50℃,时间120min.乳清姜汁发酵试验最优条件为,乳酸菌种接种量为3%,乳清和姜汁的比例4:1,发酵时间5h.%This study contributes to the development of beverages that promote human health. Milk whey and ginger juice contain rich health -beneficial nutrients. In this study, milk whey and ginger juice were used as main ingredients to produce a fermented milk whey - ginger beverage. A uniform design testing method was adopted to determine the optimum conditions for fermentation of the milk whey - ginger beverage. The results of testing show that the optimum reaction conditions for basic proteinase are: an enzyme dosage of 0. 03% , a pH of 8.0, a temperature of 50℃ , and a duration time of 120min. The results of testing also show that the optimum conditions for fermenting the liquid mixture of milk whey and ginger juice are- an inoculationlactic lactic bacteria dosage of 3% , a ratio of 4:1 (milk whey to ginger juice) , and a fermentation duration time of 5h.

  15. Fermented milk by single/multiple lactic strains isolated from "Viili"-the fermentation process, texture properties and sensory evaluation%Viili源乳酸菌酸奶发酵工艺及质构/感官性质评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈丽丽; 冯秀娟; 左芳雷; 陈尚武

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study is to evaluate the fermented milk fermented by single Lactococcus.lactis subsp.lactis strain isolated from "Viili" and by the composite microbial system of "Viili".By optimizing temperature and the composition of culture media,we found that the most effective culture medium is GM17 plus 10 g/L reconstituted skimmed milk (RSM),and the fermentation tempurature is 28 ℃.Based on the texture properties and sensory evaluation,We made two different fermented milk via the adjustment of the proportion of the strains.We also investigated the survival rates of Lactococcus.lactis subsp.lactis and composite microbial system of "Viili" in the presence of different cryoprotectants,coming to a conclusion that the best protection was achieved with 100 g/L RSM plus 100 g/L trehalose.%采用分离自Viili发酵乳的乳酸乳球菌乳脂亚种和Viili天然复合菌系的混合菌种制作发酵乳.通过优化温度和培养基、评价发酵乳的质构性质和感官性质和分析冷冻干燥后菌株的存活率,确定菌种活化的最适培养基为GM17+质量浓度10 g/L脱脂乳,最适发酵温度为28℃;调整菌种的复配比例,得到两种不同质构和感官性质的发酵乳产品;冷冻干燥的最佳保护剂组合为100 g/L脱脂乳+100g/L海藻糖.

  16. In vitro safety assessments and antimicrobial activities of Lactobacillus rhamnosus strains isolated from a fermented mare's milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aryantini, Ni Putu Desy; Yamasaki, Eiki; Kurazono, Hisao; Sujaya, I Nengah; Urashima, Tadasu; Fukuda, Kenji

    2017-03-01

    Safety and probiotic characteristics such as antimicrobial activities of three Lactobacillus rhamnosus strains, FSMM15, FSMM22 and FSMM26, previously isolated as potential probiotics from fermented mare's milk were investigated. The three FSMM strains were susceptible to ampicillin, gentamycin, kanamycin, streptomycin, tetracycline and chloramphenicol, whereas they were resistant to erythromycin (minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) = 4-8 µg/mL) and clindamycin (MIC = 4 µg/mL); bioconversion of bile salts, hemolytic activity and mucin degradation activity were negative; enzymatic activities of α-chymotrypsin and β-glucosidase were detected, but those of α-galactosidase, β-glucuronidase and N-acetyl-β-glucosaminidase, were undetectable. Among the strains, strain FSMM15 was chosen as a safer probiotic candidate due mainly to the lack of plasminogen binding ability. Despite lower acid production of strain FSMM15 than others, its cell-free culture supernatant inhibited growths of Salmonella Typhimurium LT-2, Shigella sonnei, Listeria monocytogenes, and Escherichia coli O157 with comparable levels of ampicillin, suggesting a favorable aspect of strain FSMM15 as a probiotic strain. © 2016 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  17. Identification of volatile components in Chinese Sinkiang fermented camel milk using SAFE, SDE, and HS-SPME-GC/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, Li; Fu-Ping, Zheng; Hai-Tao, Chen; Si-Yuan, Liu; Chen, Gu; Zhen-Yang, Song; Bao-Guo, Sun

    2011-12-01

    The volatile components of Chinese Sinkiang fermented camel milk were isolated by solvent assisted flavour evaporation (SAFE), simultaneous distillation extraction (SDE, dichloromethane and diethyl ether as solvent, respectively) and headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME, CAR/PDMS, PDMS/DVB and DVB/CAR/PDMS fibre extraction, respectively) and analysed by GC/MS. A total of 133 volatile components were identified under 6 different conditions, including 30 esters, 20 acids, 18 saturated alcohols, 15 unsaturated aliphatic alcohols, 8 saturated ketones, 9 saturated aldehydes, 8 unsaturated aliphatic aldehydes, 6 furans, 5 sulphur-containing compounds, 5 ethers, 5 lactones, 3 other compounds, and 1 unsaturated aliphatic ketone. Three pretreatment methods were compared, assisted by principal component analysis (PCA). The results indicated that the volatile components obtained using different methods varied greatly both in categories and in content, and therefore, a multi-pretreatment method should be adopted together with GC/MS. A total of 71 aroma-active compounds were detected by gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O), among which 66 aroma-active compounds were found by SDE (60, dichloromethane as solvent; 24, diethyl ether as solvent), 26 by SAFE.

  18. Saccharomyces cerevisiae from Brazilian kefir-fermented milk: An in vitro evaluation of probiotic properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Meire Dos Santos Falcão de; Souza, Karoline Mirella Soares de; Albuquerque, Wendell Wagner Campos; Teixeira, José António Couto; Cavalcanti, Maria Taciana Holanda; Porto, Ana Lúcia Figueiredo

    2017-09-01

    The therapeutic use of probiotics for supporting the antibiotic action against gastrointestinal disorders is a current trend and emerging applications have gained popularity because of their support for various microbiological activities in digestive processes. Microorganisms isolated from kefir with great probiotic properties, in addition to high resistance to harsh environmental conditions, have been widely researched. Administration of probiotic yeasts offers a number of advantages, when compared to bacteria, because of particular characteristics as their larger cell size. In the present study, 28 strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae were isolated, after in vitro digestion of kefir-fermented milk, and identified by molecular based approaches. A screening was performed to determine important quality requirements for probiotics including: antagonistic and antioxidant activities, β-galactosidase synthesis, autoaggregation, surface hydrophobicity and adhesion to epithelial cells. The results showed strains: with antagonistic activity against microbial pathogens such as Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis; able to produce β-galactosidase; with antioxidant activity levels higher than 90%; with hydrophobicity activity and autoaggregation ability (evaluated by adhesion test, where all the strains presented adhesion to mice ileal epithelial cells). These findings are relevant and the strains are recommended for further in vivo studies as well as for potential therapeutic applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Applicability of a Lactobacillus amylovorus strain as co-culture for natural folate bio-enrichment of fermented milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laiño, Jonathan Emiliano; Juarez del Valle, Marianela; Savoy de Giori, Graciela; LeBlanc, Jean Guy Joseph

    2014-11-17

    The ability of 55 strains from different Lactobacillus species to produce folate was investigated. In order to evaluate folic acid productivity, lactobacilli were cultivated in the folate-free culture medium (FACM). Most of the tested strains needed folate for growth. The production and the extent of vitamin accumulation were distinctive features of individual strains. Lactobacillus amylovorus CRL887 was selected for further studies because of its ability to produce significantly higher concentrations of vitamin (81.2 ± 5.4 μg/L). The safety of this newly identified folate producing strain was evaluated through healthy experimental mice. No bacterial translocation was detected in liver and spleen after consumption of CRL887 during 7 days and no undesirable side effects were observed in the animals that received this strain. This strain in co-culture with previously selected folate producing starter cultures (Lactobacillus bulgaricus CRL871, and Streptococcus thermophilus CRL803 and CRL415) yielded a yogurt containing high folate concentrations (263.1 ± 2.4 μg/L); a single portion of which would provide 15% of the recommended dietary allowance. This is the first report where a Lactobacillus amylovorus strain was successfully used as co-culture for natural folate bio-enrichment of fermented milk.

  20. Effectiveness of convective drying to conserve indigenous yeasts with high volatile profile isolated from algerian fermented raw bovine milk (Rayeb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Latifa HAMOUDI-BELARBI

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Yeasts Candida tropicalis, Yarrowia lipolytica, Wickerhamomyces anomalus, Issatchenkia orientalis, Kluyveromyces marxianus, Saprochaete suaveolens and Trichosporon coremiiforme were isolated and identified by physiological, biochemical tests with API 20C AUX system and molecular methods by restriction fragment analysis of PCR-amplified 28S-rRNA from Algerian fermented raw bovine milk (Rayeb. Selected yeasts S. suaveolens, I. orientalis, K. marxianus and W. anomalus produced esters and higher esters which can exert a pertinent influence on the sensory characteristics of Rayeb. Viability of S. suaveolens and W. anomalus using three methods of drying (freeze-drying, convective drying, and spray-drying and during 4 months of storage at 4 °C and 25 °C in the darkness was studied. Immediately after each drying method, high survival was obtained using freeze-drying followed by convective drying in rice cakes and spray-drying respectively. During storage at 4 °C, convective drying provided better survival of yeast cultures of S. suaveolens and W. anomalus than freeze-drying. At 25 °C of storage, convective and freeze-dried yeast cultures showed no significant loss of viable cells up to 2 months of storage. Spray-dried yeast cultures had the greatest loss of viable count during the 3 months of storage at 25 °C.

  1. Effect of buckwheat flour and oat bran on growth and cell viability of the probiotic strains Lactobacillus rhamnosus IMC 501®, Lactobacillus paracasei IMC 502® and their combination SYNBIO®, in synbiotic fermented milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coman, Maria Magdalena; Verdenelli, Maria Cristina; Cecchini, Cinzia; Silvi, Stefania; Vasile, Aida; Bahrim, Gabriela Elena; Orpianesi, Carla; Cresci, Alberto

    2013-10-15

    Fermented foods have a great significance since they provide and preserve large quantities of nutritious foods in a wide diversity of flavors, aromas and texture, which enrich the human diet. Originally fermented milks were developed as a means of preserving nutrients and are the most representatives of the category. The first aim of this study was to screen the effect of buckwheat flour and oat bran as prebiotics on the production of probiotic fiber-enriched fermented milks, by investigating the kinetics of acidification of buckwheat flour- and oat bran-supplemented milk fermented by Lactobacillus rhamnosus IMC 501®, Lactobacillus paracasei IMC 502® and their 1:1 combination named SYNBIO®. The probiotic strains viability, pH and sensory characteristics of the fermented fiber-enriched milk products, stored at 4 °C for 28 days were also monitored. The results showed that supplementation of whole milk with the tested probiotic strains and the two vegetable substrates results in a significant faster lowering of the pH. Also, the stability of L. rhamnosus IMC 501®, L. paracasei IMC 502® and SYNBIO® during storage at 4 °C for 28 days in buckwheat flour- and oat bran-supplemented samples was remarkably enhanced. The second aim of the study was to develop a new synbiotic product using the best combination of probiotics and prebiotics by promoting better growth and survival and be acceptable to the consumers with high concentration of probiotic strain. This new product was used to conduct a human feeding trial to validate the fermented milk as a carrier for transporting bacterial cells into the human gastrointestinal tract. The probiotic strains were recovered from fecal samples in 40 out of 40 volunteers fed for 4 weeks one portion per day of synbiotic fermented milk carrying about 10(9) viable cells. © 2013.

  2. Isolation and identification of lactic acid bacteria from fermented milk and selection of excellent strains%发酵乳中乳酸菌的分离鉴定及优良菌株的筛选

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘芳; 曹新志; 王凤娇; 周龙伟

    2012-01-01

    从市售发酵乳中分离鉴定出保加利亚乳杆菌和嗜热链球菌,对其进行凝乳情况的考察和产酸能力、后酸化能力、产香能力、产黏能力、分解蛋白质能力及保健功能的测试,各筛出一株优良菌株,拟定在后续试验中按一定比例作进一步的应用研究,以期制备高效复合菌株发酵剂。本试验可为实际生产中发酵乳优良菌株的筛选提供理论依据。%Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus extracted from commercial fermented milk are to be identified. Upon the observation of their renneting and testing of their potentials for acid, post-acidification, aroma-production, mucosity-production and proteolysis and health functions, an excellent strain is to be selected respectively. It is postulated here that application research will be conducted in follow-up experiments in certain proportions for the preparation of efficient compound strain leavens. The experiment is able to lay the theoretical foundation for the selection of excellent strains of fermented milk in physical production.

  3. Production technology of pumpkin-carrot fermented milk beverage%南瓜胡萝卜发酵乳饮料的工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙婕; 尹国友; 杜佩佩; 史亚杰; 赵卫涛; 陈合兴

    2011-01-01

    The pumpkin-carrot fermented milk beverage was produced using pumpkin and carrot as main raw materials by a series of treatments (pretreatment, softening, mashing, etc) and with the addition of different minor ingredients. The optimal formula and production conditions of pumpkin-carrot fermented milk beverage were determined by single factor test and response surface design. The results showed that the optimal formula of the beverage were pumpkin juice 70%, carrot juice 30%, skimmed milk powder 2.5%, acesulfame 0.025% and composite stabilizer 0.18%. The optimal production conditions of the beverage was inoculum 3%, fermentation temperature 42T and fermentation time 4h.%以南瓜、胡萝卜为主要原料,经预处理、软化、打浆等工序,添加各种辅料,采用单因素试验和响应面设计,确定南瓜胡萝卜发酵乳饮料生产的最佳配方和工艺条件.结果表明,饮料的最佳配方为南瓜汁70%,胡萝卜汁30%,脱脂乳粉2.5%,安赛蜜0.025%,复合稳定剂0.18%.饮料的最佳工艺条件为接种量3%,发酵温度42℃,发酵时间4h.

  4. The advantages of deep ocean water for the development of functional fermentation food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chun-Lin

    2015-03-01

    Deep ocean water (DOW) is obtained from 600 m below the sea surface. In recent years, DOW has been applied in the development of fermentation biotechnologies and functional foods. DOW is rich in trace minerals, comprises multiple physiological and health functions, and is able to promote microbe growth; therefore, the application of DOW directly benefits the development of the fermentation industry and functional foods. This study integrated the current health functions and applications of DOW with the latest results from studies related to fermentation biotechnology. Subsequently, the influence of applying DOW in fermented functional food development and the effects in health function improvements were summarized. According to the previous studies, the main reasons for the increased effect of fermented functional foods through the application of DOW are increased generation of functional metabolite contents in the microbes, intrinsic health functions of DOW, and the microbial use of mechanisms of converting the absorbed inorganic ions into highly bioavailable organic ions for the human body. These combined advantages not only enhance the health functions of fermentation products but also provide fermentation products with the intrinsic health functions of DOW.

  5. Preparation of an Inhalational Jelly containing Fermented Milk%可吸型含发酵乳果冻的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄晓庆; 钟秀娟

    2012-01-01

    Fresh milk or powdered milk was fermented by stain ABT-5. Then the fermented milk was mixed with 12% white sugar, 0.18% citric acid, 0.8% composited coagulator (0.20% CMC-Na+0.05% pectin+0.20% carrageenan+0.35% konjac glucomannan+0.05% xanthan gum+0.05% locust bean gum), and 0.2% emusifer. After homogenized by 20 Mpa and sterilization, a novel inhalational jelly containing fermented milk was obtained. The product had good stability, sterilization and high nutrition value.%以优质鲜牛奶或奶粉为原料,经菌种ABT-5发酵得到发酵牛奶基料,再通过添加12%白砂糖、0.18%柠檬酸、0.8%的复合凝胶剂(0.20% CMC-Na+0.05%果胶+0.20%卡拉胶+0.35%魔芋胶+0.05%黄原胶+0.05%刺槐豆胶)、0.2%的乳化剂,经20 MPa均质后,灌装杀菌得到一种可吸型含发酵乳的新型果冻,该产品稳定性较好,且风味独特、酸甜爽口、营养价值高.

  6. 高活菌数复合益生菌发酵乳工艺优化%Optimization of fermentation conditions of milk with blend probiotic strains based on high viable count

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘成国; 易文芝; 周辉

    2013-01-01

      The viable probiotic count is the key factor to functionality of fermented milk. It is very important for the milk industry to improve the number of viable bacteria in its final products. Lactobacillus casei and Bifidobacterium were blended using them as a starter culture for fermented milk to achieve a high viable probiotic count. Lactobacillus casei and Bifidobacterium were studied and a high density culture technology of Lactobacillus was applied to increase the number of viable bacteria in the fermentation system. Determination of the absorbance method was used to assess the viable count of probiotics in fermented milk in which the calcium ion would combine with salt under alkaline conditions to make fermented milk dispersed evenly in a solution state. Ethylenediamine Tetraacetic Acid (EDTA) was selected as a chelating agent to chelate the calcium ion in the fermented milk, and to make the solution clarify. The OD value of the bacteria did not change significantly after entering the stable phase, and the number of viable probiotics count in the fermented milk achieved the maximum. The OD value of fermented milk in this study did not change significantly from the second day of fermentation. On this basis, OD value was measured for three consecutive days from the second day, and the average OD value was used as indicator of the viable probiotic count.%  益生菌发酵乳中的活菌数是保证其功能特性的关键因素,为提高益生菌发酵乳中的活菌总数,以干酪乳杆菌和双歧杆菌复合菌种为试验对象,以发酵过程中的 pH 值和吸光度平均值OD值为试验指标,在单因素试验的基础上,利用 Box-Benhnken 中心组合试验和响应面分析法研究了接种量、益生菌接种比例、发酵温度、葡萄糖添加量以及大豆多肽添加量对发酵乳 pH 值和活菌数的影响,并建立了复合益生菌发酵模型。响应面优化试验结果表明复合益生菌发酵的最佳工艺

  7. 不同乳酸菌在花生乳中的发酵特性%The fermentation characteristics of lactic acid bacteria in the peanut milk

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李苏红; 李润国; 赵秀红; 李拖平

    2012-01-01

    Through sensory evaluation and the determination of acidity, the characteristics of seven kinds of lactic acid bacteria in fermented peanut milk were analyzed, Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus were screened as suitable strains of peanut milk fermentation. Further more, the influence on fermentation including the ratio of two strains, fermentation temperature and time,inoculation amount, sucrose amount and the stimulative effect of the addition of milk were investigated. The results showed that maximum growth was observed in the ratio of two strains with 1:1, cultured for 8 h at 42℃ in the ratio of peanut milk and milk with 7 : 3, inoculation amout of 4% and sucrose of 4%. The solidified peanut yogurt prepared with this method had a unique flavor of peanut, mild sour and good curd state,%通过感官评定和酸度测定,分析7种乳酸菌在花生乳中发酵的特性,筛选出保加利亚乳杆菌和嗜热链球菌作为花生乳发酵的适宜菌株.进一步研究两种菌的混合配比、混合发酵适宜的温度和时间、接种量和蔗糖对混合发酵的影响及牛奶对混合菌发酵花生乳的促进作用,确立混合菌发酵的适宜参数:保加利亚乳杆菌和嗜热链球菌按1∶1混合,接种量为4%,蔗糖量4%,在42℃下对花生乳与牛奶体积比为7∶3的混合液发酵8h,可获得凝乳良好,酸味适口,具有花生独特香味的凝固型花生酸奶.

  8. Effects of feeding lauric acid or coconut oil on ruminal protozoa numbers, fermentation pattern, digestion, omasal nutrient flow, and milk production in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faciola, A P; Broderick, G A

    2014-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the feeding of coconut oil (CO), in which lauric acid (La) comprises about 50% of the fatty acid composition, as a practical rumen protozoa (RP) suppressing agent, to assess whether the source of La affects ruminal fermentation and animal performance and to test whether suppressing RP improves N utilization, nutrient digestion, nutrient flow at the omasal canal, and milk production. Fifteen multiparous Holstein cows (3 fitted with ruminal cannulas) and 15 primiparous Holstein cows (3 fitted with ruminal cannulas) were used in a replicated 3×3 Latin square experiment with 14d of adaptation and 14d of sample collection. Diets were fed as total mixed ration and contained (dry matter basis) 10% corn silage, 50% alfalfa silage, and 40% concentrate. The control diet contained 3% (dry matter basis) calcium soaps of palm oil fatty acids (Megalac, Church & Dwight Co. Inc., Princeton, NJ) as a ruminally inert fat source and had no added La or CO. Diets with La and CO were formulated to contain equal amounts of La (1.3%, dry matter basis). Dry matter intake was not affected by treatment. Both CO and La reduced RP numbers by about 40%. Lauric acid reduced yield of milk and milk components; however, CO did not affect yield of milk and yields of milk components. Both La and CO caused small reductions in total VFA concentration; CO increased molar proportion of ruminal propionate, reduced ruminal ammonia and branched-chain volatile fatty acids, suggesting reduced protein degradation, and reduced milk urea N and blood urea N concentrations, suggesting improved protein efficiency. Lauric acid reduced total-tract apparent digestibility of neutral detergent fiber and acid detergent fiber as well as ruminal apparent digestibility of neutral detergent fiber and acid detergent fiber as measured at the omasal canal; however, CO did not alter fiber digestion. Microbial protein flow at the omasal canal, as well as the flow of N fractions at

  9. Tempe fermentation, innovation and functionality: update into the third millenium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nout, M.J.R.; Kiers, J.L.

    2005-01-01

    Fermented foods represent on average one-third of total food consumption. Tempe is a major fermented soyabean food and is known for its attractive flavour, texture and superior digestibility. This present review aims at providing an overview of literature data from ca 1990 until present. Although tr

  10. Tempe fermentation, innovation and functionality: update into the third millenium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nout, M.J.R.; Kiers, J.L.

    2005-01-01

    Fermented foods represent on average one-third of total food consumption. Tempe is a major fermented soyabean food and is known for its attractive flavour, texture and superior digestibility. This present review aims at providing an overview of literature data from ca 1990 until present. Although tr

  11. Antagonistics against pathogenic Bacillus cereus in milk fermentation by Lactobacillus plantarum ZDY2013 and its anti-adhesion effect on Caco-2 cells against pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhihong; Tao, Xueying; Shah, Nagendra P; Wei, Hua

    2016-04-01

    Lactobacillus plantarum ZDY2013 is a potential probiotic isolated from fermented bean acid. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the in vitro antimicrobial activity of this organism against Bacillus cereus in milk fermentation, the antiadhesion ability on intestinal epithelial cells, as well as its ability to abrogate the cytotoxic effect and expression levels of genes. We found no antimicrobial activity produced by L. plantarum once the pH was adjusted to 6.0 and 7.0. The pH decreased continuously when L. plantarum and B. cereus were co-incubated during milk fermentation, which caused a decrease in the B. cereus counts. Antiadhesion assays showed that L. plantarum can significantly inhibit the adhesion of enterotoxin-producing B. cereus ATCC14579 and pathogenic B. cereus HN001 by inhibition, competition, and displacement. The supernatants of B. cereus, either alone or in conjunction with L. plantarum, caused damage to the membrane integrity of Caco-2 cells to release lactate dehydrogenase. In addition, L. plantarum tended to attenuate proinflammatory cytokine and oxidative stress gene expression on Caco-2 cells, inducing with B. cereus HN001 supernatants. This study provided systematic insights into the antagonistic effect of L. plantarum ZDY2013, and the information may be helpful to explore potential control measures for preventing food poisoning by lactic acid bacteria.

  12. Specific IgA to lactic acid bacteria in feces of children consuming milk fermented by yoghurt symbiosis and Lactobacillus casei (Danone strain DN 114 001).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faure, G C; Morisset, M; Gobert, B; Guérin, C; Pedone, C; Bouley, C; Béné, M C

    2001-01-01

    An immunoreactive role of lactic acid bacteria established in animals has seldom been investigated in humans. In a large-scale clinical study, children from day-care centers received either yoghurt (Y), milk fermented by yoghurt symbiosis and Lactobacillus casei (DN 114 001) (YC), or gelified milk (GM) as diet supplements during two 30-day supplementation periods separated by one 30-day period without supplementation. Feces samples were collected before, during, and after the 2nd supplementation period. Proteins were extracted in a buffer containing enzymatic inhibitors. IgA levels were assessed and adjusted to the weight of feces samples. Specific IgA to lactic acid bacteria strains (Streptococcus thermophilus 8901A, 8902A; Lactobacillus bulgaricus; Lactobacillus casei) present in Y and YC were assayed in ELISA and adjusted to individual IgA levels. Mean levels of fecal IgA were within reported ranges for pediatric populations of similar age. IgA levels decreased significantly but transiently in children receiving Y, and increased significantly in children receiving GM, but did not vary in the group of children who were given YC. Specific IgA to the 4 strains tested increased significantly during the supplementation period only in the group of children receiving GM, while it was transient and not significant in children receiving YC. No variation was noted in children given Y Specific IgA to lactic acid bacteria can be assayed in feces. Supplementation with fermented milks might induce a mucosal tolerance to environmental flora.

  13. Isolation and identification of microorganisms and antibacterial activity of Laban Zeer, an Egyptian traditional fermented milk product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farag Ali Saleh

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Laban Zeer is a traditional Egyptian fermented milk product. The microorganisms of Laban Zeer were isolated and identified to species level, as well as the antibacterial activity of Laban Zeer was also studied against pathogenic bacteria. Total viable microorganisms, including, lactic acid bacteria (LAB, aerobic mesophilic bacterial, Enterococus and Enterobacteriaceae were enumerated. A total forty eight LAB and twenty eight yeast isolates were isolated from four Laban Zeer samples and identified by API 50 CHL and API 20C AUX identification system, respectively. The avenger of LAB counts were 7.4 cfu/g, while yeast and Enterococus counts were 4.67 and 4.39 cfu/g, respectively. It is noted that the count of bacteria belonging to the family of Enterobacteriaceae was not detected in all tested samples. The LAB species were identified as Leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp. cremoris, Lb. rhamnosus, Lb.  plantarum, Lb. paracasei subsp paracasei, Lb. delbercii subsp bulgaricus, Lb. curvatus subsp curvatus and Lb acidophilus. The isolated yeasts were identified as Sccharomyces cervisiae, Candida kefyr, Candida utilis and Rhodotorula mucilaginosa. The most frequently isolated species was found to be Leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp. cremoris (37.5%, Lb. rhamnosus (20.8%, Sccharomyces cervisiae (41.9% and Candida kefyr (29.0%.  The antimicrobial activities of Laban Zeer were evaluated in vitro using an agar well diffusion method and in situ method. The major supernatants of Laban Zeer samples inhibited the growth of pathogenic bacteria, belonging to Escherichia, Pseudomonas, Salmonella, Listeria and Staphylococcus genera in various degrees. The in situ method was performed by the inoculation of Staph. aureus and E. coli in Laban Zeer samples separately at an initial level around of 6 log cfu/ml. The count of Staph. aureus and E. coli were not detected after 12 and 3 days of refrigerated storage period,  respectively in samples number 2 and 3. Laban Zeer is

  14. Effects of lauric acid on ruminal protozoal numbers and fermentation pattern and milk production in lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faciola, A P; Broderick, G A; Hristov, A; Leão, M I

    2013-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate lauric acid (LA) as a practical ruminal protozoa-suppressing agent and assess effects of protozoal suppression on fermentation patterns and milk production in dairy cows. In a pilot study, 6 lactating Holstein cows fitted with ruminal cannulae were used in a randomized complete-block design trial. Cows were fed a basal total mixed ration (TMR) containing (DM basis) 15% alfalfa silage, 40% corn silage, 30% rolled high moisture shelled corn, and 14% solvent soybean meal, and assigned to 1 of 3 treatments: 1) control, 2) 160 g/d of LA, or 3) 222 g/d of sodium laurate, which is equimolar to 160 g/d of LA, all given as a single dose into the rumen via cannulae before feeding. Both agents showed high antiprotozoal activity when pulse dosed at these amounts via ruminal cannulae, reducing protozoa by 90% (PLauric acid reduced ruminal ammonia concentration by 60% (P<0.01) without altering DMI. Both agents reduced ruminal total free AA concentration (P<0.01) and LA did not affect ruminal pH or total VFA concentration. In a large follow-up feeding trial, 52 Holstein cows (8 with ruminal cannulae) were used in a randomized complete-block design trial. Cows were assigned to 1 of 4 diets and fed only that diet throughout the study. The TMR contained (DM basis) 29% alfalfa silage, 36% corn silage, 14% rolled high moisture shelled corn, and 8% solvent soybean meal. The 4 experimental diets were similar, except part of the finely ground dry corn was replaced with LA in stepwise increments from 0 to 0.97% of dietary DM, which provided (as consumed) 0, 83, 164, and 243 g/d of LA. Adding these amounts of LA to the TMR did not affect DMI, ruminal pH, or other ruminal traits, and milk production. However, LA consumed at 164 and 243 g/d in the TMR reduced the protozoal population by only 25% and 30% (P=0.05), respectively, showing that these levels, when added to the TMR, were not sufficient to achieve a concentration within the rumen that

  15. Plant-based milk alternatives an emerging segment of functional beverages: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sethi, Swati; Tyagi, S K; Anurag, Rahul K

    2016-09-01

    Plant-based or non-dairy milk alternative is the fast growing segment in newer food product development category of functional and specialty beverage across the globe. Nowadays, cow milk allergy, lactose intolerance, calorie concern and prevalence of hypercholesterolemia, more preference to vegan diets has influenced consumers towards choosing cow milk alternatives. Plant-based milk alternatives are a rising trend, which can serve as an inexpensive alternate to poor economic group of developing countries and in places, where cow's milk supply is insufficient. Though numerous types of innovative food beverages from plant sources are being exploited for cow milk alternative, many of these faces some/any type of technological issues; either related to processing or preservation. Majority of these milk alternatives lack nutritional balance when compared to bovine milk, however they contain functionally active components with health promoting properties which attracts health conscious consumers. In case of legume based milk alternatives, sensory acceptability is a major limiting factor for its wide popularity. New and advanced non-thermal processing technologies such as ultra high temperature treatment, ultra high pressure homogenization, pulsed electric field processing are being researched for tackling the problems related to increase of shelf life, emulsion stability, nutritional completeness and sensory acceptability of the final product. Concerted research efforts are required in coming years in functional beverages segment to prepare tailor-made newer products which are palatable as well as nutritionally adequate.

  16. Anticarcinogenic effect of probiotic fermented milk and chlorophyllin on aflatoxin-B₁-induced liver carcinogenesis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, M; Verma, V; Nagpal, R; Kumar, A; Behare, P V; Singh, B; Aggarwal, P K

    2012-04-01

    The present investigation was carried out to evaluate the hepatoprotective effect of probiotic fermented milk (FM) containing Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG and Lactobacillus casei strain Shirota, alone as well as in combination with chlorophyllin (CHL) as an antioxidant agent in male Wistar rats administered aflatoxin-B₁ (AFB₁). AFB₁ was injected intraperitoneally at the rate of 450 μg/kg body weight per animal twice a week for 6 weeks, maintaining an equal time interval between the two consecutive AFB₁ administrations. A total of 125 male Wistar rats were randomly allocated to five groups, each group having twenty-five animals. Group I was offered FM containing L. rhamnosus GG and L. casei strain Shirota. Group II was administered AFB1 and served as the control group; group III was administered FM-AFB₁, in which besides administering AFB₁, FM was also offered. Group IV was offered CHL and AFB₁, and group V was offered both FM and CHL along with AFB₁. The rats were euthanised at the 15th and 25th week of the experiment and examined for the biochemical and hepatopathological profile. A significant reduction in thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) was observed in the FM-CHL-AFB₁ group compared with the AFB1 control group. FM alone or in combination with CHL was found to show a significant (P < 0·05) hepatoprotective effect by lowering the levels of TBARS and by enhancing the activities of antioxidant enzymes such as glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione-S-transferase, indicating that probiotic FM alone or in combination with CHL possesses a potent protective effect against AFB₁-induced hepatic damage.

  17. Functional Similarities between Pigeon ‘Milk’ and Mammalian Milk: Induction of Immune Gene Expression and Modification of the Microbiota

    OpenAIRE

    Gillespie, Meagan J; Dragana Stanley; Honglei Chen; Donald, John A.; Nicholas, Kevin R.; Robert J Moore; Crowley, Tamsyn M

    2012-01-01

    Pigeon 'milk' and mammalian milk have functional similarities in terms of nutritional benefit and delivery of immunoglobulins to the young. Mammalian milk has been clearly shown to aid in the development of the immune system and microbiota of the young, but similar effects have not yet been attributed to pigeon 'milk'. Therefore, using a chicken model, we investigated the effect of pigeon 'milk' on immune gene expression in the Gut Associated Lymphoid Tissue (GALT) and on the composition of t...

  18. Functional properties of milk drinks flavored with mangaba pulp and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    luiz eduardo nascimento

    Vol. 15(34), pp. 1846-1854, 24 August, 2016 .... storage times of 1, 8, 15, 22 and 29 days. About 25 g of fermented fermented ..... Conclusion ... Oficializa os Métodos Analíticos Oficiais ... Avaliação físico-química, microbiológica e reológica de.

  19. Effects of replacing grass silage with forage pearl millet silage on milk yield, nutrient digestion, and ruminal fermentation of lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunette, T; Baurhoo, B; Mustafa, A F

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of dietary replacement of grass silage (GS) with forage millet silages that were harvested at 2 stages of maturity [i.e., vegetative stage and dough to ripe seed (mature) stage] on milk production, apparent total-tract digestibility, and ruminal fermentation characteristics of dairy cows. Fifteen lactating Holstein cows were used in a replicated 3 × 3 Latin square experiment and fed (ad libitum) a total mixed ration (60:40 forage:concentrate ratio). Dietary treatments included control (GS), vegetative millet silage (EM), and mature millet silage (MM) diets. Experimental silages comprised 24% of dietary dry matter (DM). Soybean meal and slow-release urea were added in millet diets to balance for crude protein (CP). Three additional ruminally fistulated cows were used to determine the effect of treatments on ruminal fermentation and total-tract nutrient utilization. Cows fed the GS diet consumed more DM (22.9 vs. 21.7 ± 1.02 kg/d) and CP (3.3 vs. 3.1 ± 0.19 kg/d), and similar starch (4.9 ± 0.39 kg/d) and neutral detergent fiber (NDF; 8.0 ± 0.27 kg/d) compared with cows fed the MM diet. Replacing the EM diet with the MM diet did not affect DM, NDF, or CP intakes. Cows fed the MM diet produced less milk (26.1 vs. 29.1 ± 0.79 kg/d), energy-corrected milk (28.0 vs.30.5 ± 0.92 kg/d), and 4% fat-corrected milk (26.5 vs. 28.3 ± 0.92 kg/d) yields than cows fed the GS diet. However, cows fed diets with EM and GS produced similar yields of milk, energy-corrected milk, and 4% fat-corrected milk. Feed efficiency (milk yield:DM intake) was greater only for cows fed the GS diet than those fed the MM diet. Milk protein yield and concentration were greater among cows fed the GS diet compared with those fed the EM or MM diets. Milk fat and lactose concentrations were not influenced by diet. However, milk urea N was lower for cows fed the GS diet than for those fed the MM diet. Ruminal NH3-N was greater for cows fed the EM diet than for

  20. Bovine milk as a source of functional oligosaccharides for improving human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zivkovic, Angela M; Barile, Daniela

    2011-05-01

    Human milk oligosaccharides are complex sugars that function as selective growth substrates for specific beneficial bacteria in the gastrointestinal system. Bovine milk is a potentially excellent source of commercially viable analogs of these unique molecules. However, bovine milk has a much lower concentration of these oligosaccharides than human milk, and the majority of the molecules are simpler in structure than those found in human milk. Specific structural characteristics of milk-derived oligosaccharides are crucial to their ability to selectively enrich beneficial bacteria while inhibiting or being less than ideal substrates for undesirable and pathogenic bacteria. Thus, if bovine milk products are to provide human milk-like benefits, it is important to identify specific dairy streams that can be processed commercially and cost-effectively and that can yield specific oligosaccharide compositions that will be beneficial as new food ingredients or supplements to improve human health. Whey streams have the potential to be commercially viable sources of complex oligosaccharides that have the structural resemblance and diversity of the bioactive oligosaccharides in human milk. With further refinements to dairy stream processing techniques and functional testing to identify streams that are particularly suitable for enriching beneficial intestinal bacteria, the future of oligosaccharides isolated from dairy streams as a food category with substantiated health claims is promising.

  1. Bacteriophage Pollution in the Production of Fermented Milk and Preventions%浅议发酵乳生产中噬菌体的污染与防治

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王小玲

    2012-01-01

    Bacteriophage pollution is a common problem in the fermentation industry.The paper analyzes the types of bacteriophage,pollution channels and symptoms in the production of fermented milk and proposes some corresponding checking methods and preventive measures to ensure the safety of production.%噬菌体污染是发酵工业普遍存在的问题。分析了发酵乳生产中噬菌体的类型,污染途径和表现症状,针对其特性提出了检查办法和防治措施,从而保证生产的安全。

  2. Effects of Artemisia annua Extracts on Ruminal Fermentation Parameters in vivo,Concentration of Conjugated Linoleic Acid in the Rumen and Milk in Dairy Goats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Li-fang; MA Yan-fen; GAO Min; LU De-xun

    2011-01-01

    IntroductionIt has been well established that plant oil or fish oil could enhance cis-9 trans-11CLA content in the ruminant food products.However, it is generally accepted that adding unsaturated fatty acid to ruminant diets may exert negative effects on fiber degradation and rumen microbe populations.For this reason,there is growing interest in evaluating the potential measures of increasing cis-9 trans-11CLA content in the ruminant food products.Recently some researches showed that some plants or plant extracts could increase cis-9 trans-11CLA content in milk.The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the effects of Artemisia annua Extracts (AAE) on ruminal fermentation parameters in vivo,the proportions of cis-9 trans11CLA and trans-11 C18∶1 in the ruminal fluid and in dairy goats milk.

  3. Ruminal fermentation characteristics and fatty acid profile of ruminal fluid and milk of dairy cows fed flaxseed hulls supplemented with monensin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva-Kazama, Daniele C; Côrtes, Cristiano; Kazama, Ricardo; Benchaar, Chaouki; Santos, Geraldo T D; Zeoula, Lucia M; Petit, Hélène V

    2011-02-01

    Flaxseed hull, a co-product obtained from flax processing, is a rich source of n-3 fatty acids (FA) but there is little information on its value for dairy production. Monensin supplementation is known to modify biohydrogenation of FA by rumen microbes. Therefore, the main objective of the experiment was to determine the effect of feeding a combination of monensin and flaxseed hulls on ruminal fermentation characteristics and FA profile of ruminal fluid and milk. Four ruminally fistulated multiparous Holstein cows averaging 665 ± 21 kg body weight and 190 ± 5 d in milk were assigned to a 4×4 Latin square design (28-d experimental periods) with a 2×2 factorial arrangement of treatments. Treatments were: 1) control, neither flaxseed hulls nor monensin; 2) diet containing (dry matter basis) 19·8% flaxseed hulls; 3) diet with monensin (16 mg/kg dry matter); 4) diet containing 19·8% (dry matter basis) flaxseed hulls and 16 mg monensin/kg. Flaxseed hull supplementation decreased the acetate to propionate ratio in ruminal fluid and monensin had no effect. Concentrations of trans-18:1 isomers (trans9,trans11,trans13/14+6/8) and cis9,12,15-18:3 in ruminal fluid and milk fat were higher and those of cis9,12-18:2 in milk fat tended (P=0·07) to be higher for cows supplemented with flaxseed hulls than for cows fed no flaxseed hulls. Monensin had little effect on milk fatty acid profile. A combination of flaxseed hulls and monensin did not result in better milk fatty acid profile than when feeding only flaxseed hulls.

  4. Effect of lauric acid and coconut oil on ruminal fermentation, digestion, ammonia losses from manure, and milk fatty acid composition in lactating cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hristov, A N; Vander Pol, M; Agle, M; Zaman, S; Schneider, C; Ndegwa, P; Vaddella, V K; Johnson, K; Shingfield, K J; Karnati, S K R

    2009-11-01

    This experiment (replicated 3 x 3 Latin square design) was conducted to investigate the effects of lauric acid (LA) or coconut oil (CO) on ruminal fermentation, nutrient digestibility, ammonia losses from manure, and milk fatty acid (FA) composition in lactating cows. Treatments consisted of intraruminal doses of 240 g of stearic acid/d (SA; control), 240 g of LA/d, or 530 g of CO/d administered once daily, before feeding. Between periods, cows were inoculated with ruminal contents from donor cows and allowed a 7-d recovery period. Treatment did not affect dry matter intake, milk yield, or milk composition. Ruminal pH was slightly increased by CO compared with the other treatments, whereas LA and CO decreased ruminal ammonia concentration compared with SA. Both LA and CO decreased protozoal counts by 80% or more compared with SA. Methane production rate in the rumen was reduced by CO compared with LA and SA, with no differences between LA and SA. Treatments had no effect on total tract apparent dry matter, organic matter, N, and neutral detergent fiber digestibility coefficients or on cumulative (15 d) in vitro ammonia losses from manure. Compared with SA, LA and CO increased milk fat 12:0, cis-9 12:1, and trans-9 12:1 content and decreased 6:0, 8:0, 10:0, cis-9 10:1, 16:0, 18:0, cis 18:1, total 18:2, 18:3 n-3 and total polyunsaturated FA concentrations. Administration of LA and 14:0 (as CO) in the rumen were apparently transferred into milk fat with a mean efficiency of 18 and 15%, respectively. In conclusion, current data confirmed that LA and CO exhibit strong antiprotozoal activity when dosed intraruminally, an effect that is accompanied by decreases in ammonia concentration and, for CO, lowered methane production. Administration of LA and CO in the rumen also altered milk FA composition.

  5. Milk-derived GM3 and GD3 differentially inhibit dendritic cell maturation and effector functionalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brønnum, H.; Seested, T.; Hellgren, Lars;

    2005-01-01

    value of gangliosides in breast milk has yet to be elucidated but when milk is ingested, dietary gangliosides might conceptually affect immune cells, such as dendritic cells (DCs). In this study, we address the in vitro effect of GD(3) and GM(3) on DC effector functionalities. Treatment of bone marrow...

  6. Inhibitory effects of freeze-dried milk fermented by selected Lactobacillus bulgaricus strains on carcinogenesis induced by 1,2-dimethylhydrazine in rats and by diethylnitrosamine in hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balansky, R; Gyosheva, B; Ganchev, G; Mircheva, Z; Minkova, S; Georgiev, G

    1999-12-01

    Fermented milk products might be used for cancer chemoprevention due to their putative anticarcinogenic and antitumor activities. The diet was supplemented with freeze-dried milk fermented by Lactobacillus bulgaricus strain LBB.B 144 (product FFM.B 144) added throughout the experiment at doses of 1.3 g and 2.5 g per rat, 5 times a week starting 3 weeks before the first carcinogen injection. This treatment significantly inhibited, by 26.2-28.6% and by 34.2%, the total intestinal carcinogenesis induced by 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH, 21 mg/kg, s.c., once per week for 20 weeks) in male and female BD6 rats, respectively. FFM.B144 decreased the tumor incidence and multiplicity in large bowel, caecum, and duodenum. Protective effects were better expressed in female animals, with exception of that observed in duodenum. Supplementation of diet with freeze-dried milk fermented by Lactobacillus bulgaricus strain LBB.B5 (product FFM.B5) inhibited DMH-induced carcinogenesis only in the large bowel, but had no significant protective effect when all intestinal tumors were taken into account. However, both freeze-dried products favorably shifted the differentiation of large bowel tumors by increasing the proportion of benign and highly differentiated malignant tumors and decreasing in parallel the number of poorly differentiated carcinomas without influencing the tumor size. A lower number of cases with visible mesenterial metastasis was also observed in FFM-treated rats. In addition, both FFM.B 144 and FFM.B5 significantly inhibited, by 26-33%, the induction in the same rats of ear-duct tumors. FFM.B144 but not FFM.B5 was also effective in inhibiting the tracheal carcinogenesis induced in Syrian golden hamsters by diethylnitrosamine (DEN, 100 mg/kg, two s.c. injections), the protective effect being better expressed in female animals. The anticarcinogenic potential of some fermented milk products might be exploited in chemoprevention of cancer in humans.

  7. Study of biochemical and organoleptic characteristics of acidic alcoholic fermentation milk (kefir as a dietary food for people suffering from lactose intolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohadeseh Nemati

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The fermented milk, kefir is one of the oldest products originating Caucasus Mountains. This Fermentation product has high biological values .Kefir products due to lactic acid bacteria that produce the enzyme lactase could be a suggestive food for people suffering from lactose intolerance. Today, consumers want high-quality food with minimal processing steps to produce healthy product with minimal levels of preservatives can kept in an acceptable time. Our Research were to produce kefir on an industrial scale with high quality with optimal biochemical and organoleptic characteristics that could be a suitable diet in lactose intolerant patients. In this research, milk, whey, kefir starter, mint essence was used to generate product. produced Kefir in accordance with mixture- amount( 5 variables including the certain concentration of each compounds( milk (100,75,50, 25,0 and the whey (100, 75, 50, 25,0, the mint essence (200, 125, 50, the starter (4, 2.5, 1 and storage time (14, 7, 0 were examined.Samples chemical (PH, acidity state and biological and organoleptic properties were analyzed. The resultsshowed with increase in preserving time,microbialpopulationcount decreasedbut PH increased. Increasingamount ofessence leadto decreased in PH. Change in milk, whey concentration effect on PH.but in this case results don’t reached significant level.Other parameters had no significant change during examination.Overall ourfindings indicated the properties of our kefirproduct have optimal features according to chemical and organoleptic analysis Also we suggested that kefir could be considered as suitable diet for patients with lactose intolerance.

  8. Evaluation of Fermented Sausages Manufactured with Reduced-fat and Functional Starter Cultures on Physicochemical, Functional and Flavor Characteristics

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Young Joo; Park,Sung Yong; Lee, Hong Cheol; Yoo, Seung Seok; Oh, Se Jong; Kim, Hyeong Sang; Chin, Koo Bok

    2014-01-01

    Fermented foods with probiotics having functional properties may provide beneficial effects on health. These effects are varied, depending on the type of lactic acid bacteria (LAB). Different probiotic LAB might have different functional properties. Thus, this study was performed to evaluate the quality of fermented sausages manufactured with functional starter cultures (Lactobacillus plantarum 115 and 167, and Pediococcus damnosus L12) and different fat levels, and to determine the optimum c...

  9. Estudio de declaraciones nutricionales y saludables en el etiquetado de leches fermentadas Study of nutrition and health claims on labelling of fermented milk products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Montero Marín

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Antecedentes: El consumo de leches fermentadas en España ha aumentado enormemente en los últimos 40 años. Además del yogur, se han introducido nuevas variedades fermentadas por bifidobacterias u otras especies de lactobacilos. La riqueza nutricional de estos alimentos junto con los posibles beneficios de las cepas fermentadoras, han propiciado la presencia de declaraciones nutricionales y saludables en su etiquetado. La normativa vigente no regula expresamente estas frases y actualmente se está elaborando una propuesta de Reglamento Europeo para la normalización de dichas declaraciones. Objetivos: Estudiar las declaraciones nutricionales y saludables en el etiquetado de leches fermentadas en base a la legislación actual, la propuesta de Reglamento Europeo y la bibliografía relacionada. Comparar el etiquetado del yogur con el del resto de leches fermentadas en lo referente a declaraciones. Resultados: El 94% del etiquetado presenta información nutricional. El 38% posee declaraciones nutricionales, de las cuales el 20% aluden al contenido en materia grasa, el 12% al calcio, aunque el 26% contienen menos del 15% de la CDR, el 7% al aporte de vitaminas, cuyo 22% tiene menos del 15% de la CDR o no indica el contenido y el 7% al de fibra. Las declaraciones saludables están en el 32% del etiquetado. Conclusiones: Las declaraciones saludables se encuentran con mayor frecuencia en leches fermentadas distintas del yogur haciendo referencia mayoritariamente a la condición de probióticos y prebióticos. Se observa una falta de información al consumidor en cuanto a las cantidades necesarias a consumir o respecto a cual es el beneficio real que proporciona el alimento. Se realizan declaraciones nutricionales en productos con contenido normal de ciertos nutrientes lo que puede crear confusión respecto a los alimentos realmente enriquecidos.Background: The consumption of fermented milk products in Spain has been increased for the last 40 years. In

  10. Quality, functionality, and shelf life of fermented meat and meat products: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Pavan; Chatli, M K; Verma, Akhilesh K; Mehta, Nitin; Malav, O P; Kumar, Devendra; Sharma, Neelesh

    2017-09-02

    Fermentation of meat is a traditional preservation method used widely for improving quality and shelf life of fermented meat products. Fermentation of meat causes a number of physical, biochemical, and microbial changes, which eventually impart functional properties, sensory characteristics, and nutritional aspects to these products and inhibit the growth of various pathogenic and spoilage microorganisms. These changes include acidification (carbohydrate catabolism), solubilization and gelation of myofibrillar and sarcoplasmic proteins of muscle, degradation of proteins and lipids, reduction of nitrate into nitrite, formation of nitrosomyoglobin, and dehydration. Dry-fermented sausages are increasingly being used as carrier of probiotics. The production of biogenic amines during fermentation can be controlled by selecting proper starter cultures and other preventive measures such as quality of raw materials, hygienic measures, temperature, etc.

  11. Microbial succession and the functional potential during the fermentation of Chinese soy sauce brine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanita eSulaiman

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The quality of traditional Chinese soy sauce is determined by microbial communities and their inter-related metabolic roles in the fermentation tank. In this study, traditional Chinese soy sauce brine samples were obtained periodically to monitor the transitions of the microbial population and functional properties during the six months of fermentation process. Whole genome shotgun (WGS method revealed that the fermentation brine was dominated by the bacterial genus Weissella and later dominated by the fungal genus Candida. Metabolic reconstruction of the metagenome sequences demonstrated a characteristic profile of heterotrophic fermentation of proteins and carbohydrates. This was supported by the detection of ethanol with stable decrease of pH values. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study that explores the temporal changes in microbial successions over a period of six months, through metagenome shotgun sequencing in traditional Chinese soy sauce fermentation and the biological processes therein.

  12. 瑞士乳杆菌与干酪乳杆菌在脱脂乳中发酵特性的研究%Study on Fermentation of Lactobicillus helveticus and Lactocillus casei in Skimmed Milk

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鲍志宁; 魏培培; 林伟锋; 陈中

    2011-01-01

    研究了瑞士乳杆菌(Lh134)和干酪乳杆菌(Lc134)单独与组合在脱脂乳中发酵32 h的pH、发酵乳酸度值、活菌数和氨基酸态氮变化.结果表明,Lh134在脱脂乳中发酵速度比Lc134快,Lh134和Lc134组合在脱脂乳中的发酵能力高过二者单株发酵,发酵结束时pH下降至3.90,发酵乳酸度达到281.30°T,活菌数为2.15×109CFU/mL,真基酸态氮值最高可达0.1292×10-2g/g发酵乳基.%The fermentations of Lactobacillus helveticus (Lh134) and Lactobacillus casei (Lc134) in skimmed milk were studied by analysis of the changes in pH, fermentation acidity, viable cell numbers and amino nitrogen. It's showed that Lh134 fermentation capacity in skimmed milk is better than Lc134. The combination of Lh134 and Lc134 in skimmed milk fermentation has a higher level in lactate production than separately fermentation .At the end of fermentation, the pH values of combination sample's fell to 3.90; the fermentation acidity increased to 281.30°T; the viable cell numbers grew to 2.15×109 CFU/mL; and the amino nitrogen could up to 0.1292×10-2 g/g fermented milk-based.

  13. SOUR MILK FORMULAS IN NUTRITION OF INFANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.F. Lukushkina

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Health-giving properties of fermented food are related to the fact, that acid medium improves assimilation of protein and fat, increases absorption of iron and zinc, improves digestion. But the kefir and other sour milk food based on the whole milk can’t be used in nutrition of infants as human milk substitute because of high content of protein, high osmolarity, deficiency of vitamins and microelements. The article describes the results of clinical approbation of new modern sour milk formula «NAN sour milk», containing proper amount of high-quality protein (OptiPro, enriched with lactalbumin and all sufficient vitamins and microelements. This mixture contains also probiotics (B. lactis, providing high functionality of this food. Key words: infants, sour milk formula, nutrition.(Voprosy sovremennoi pediatrii — Current Pediatrics. 2010;9(1:136-141

  14. 发酵驼乳和发酵牛乳对慢性肾功能衰竭大鼠影响的比较研究%Repercussion of Fermentation Camel Milk and Fermentation Milk on the Impact of Chornic Renal Failure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘蕾; 李建美; 张敏; 王娟; 郭春燕; 刘微; 李擎; 吉日木图

    2011-01-01

    为了研究发酵驼乳和发酵牛乳对腺嘌呤所致大鼠慢性肾功能衰竭的影响效果。试验采用腺嘌呤复制慢性肾功能衰竭大鼠模型,以发酵驼乳和发酵牛乳作为受试物进行灌胃干预。通过检测大鼠体质量、血肌酐(Scr)、尿素氮(BUN)、一氧化氮(NO)、超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)、血清总蛋白(TP)、钙(Ca)、磷(P)、24 h尿量、尿蛋白(UP)及肾脏病理组织学变化,分析驼乳对慢性肾功能衰竭大鼠的影响。结果:发酵驼乳可降低大鼠Scr、BUN水平、减缓UP、调节Ca、P的含量,提高SOD、TP水平,具有保护肾功能的作用。结论:驼乳%to study fermentation camel milk and fermentation milk on the impact of Chornic Renal Failure rats induced adenine.Method: by using the model of Chornic Renal Failure rats duplicated by adenine,the body weight of rats,kidney index,serum creatinine(Scr),Urea Nitrogen(BUN),nitric oxide(NO),superoxide dismutase(SOD),total serum protein(TP),calcium(Ca),phosphorus(P),urine volume after 24 hours,urine protein(UP) were detected to compare the the influence of the fermented camel milk and the fermented milk to improvement of the chornic renal failure.Conclusion: fermented camel milk can improve the chornic renal failure and play a part in protection of the kidney.

  15. 发酵乳中ACE抑制肽生成的外部因素条件的研究%Study on external conditions of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitory peptide derived from fermented milk

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜瞻梅; 吴刚; 霍贵成; 田波

    2011-01-01

    External factor condition of antihypertensive peptide derived from fermented milk were studied. During the fermentation experiment of single latic acid bacteria,when the pH range from 4.7 to 5.0 in the fermented milk,peptide concentration increased quickly and ACE inhibitory activity was made stronger. And peptdie and ACE inhibitory activity were with positive correlation. Peptide contents increased in fermented milk with fortified casein and whey,especially fast for the latter. ACE inhibitory activity decreased in the added whey fermented milk, but increased in the added casein fermented milk. Effects of fermentation temperature and preservation temperature were studied. Compared with fermentation at 42℃,there were more antihypertensive peptide production at 37℃. At the same time,compared with preservation at 4℃,there were more ACE activities and higher peptide contents in fermented milk at 37℃ (P < 0.01 ).That was provided with technique basis for production of antihypertensive peptide by fermentation.%探讨了促进发酵乳中ACE抑制肤生成的外部因素条件.研究结果表明,菌株发酵凝乳(pH 4.7~5.0)后,产生肤量迅速积累,ACE抑制活性大幅度增强,产生的肽量与ACE抑制活性具有正相关性.添加乳清蛋白和酪蛋白可提高发酵乳中的肽含量,添加酪蛋白组更为突出;添加乳清蛋白组肤粉ACE抑制活性减弱,而添加酪蛋白组肽粉ACE抑制活性增强.与发酵温度42℃相比,37℃发酵条件下有利于发酵乳ACE抑制肽生成;与4℃冷藏处理相比,37℃条件下保温培养对提高ACE抑制活性和肽含量更为显著(P<0.01),实验结果为发酵法生产ACE抑制肽提供了可靠的技术依据.

  16. Effects of the percentage of concentrate on rumen fermentation, nutrient digestibility, plasma metabolites, and milk composition in mid-lactation goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serment, A; Schmidely, P; Giger-Reverdin, S; Chapoutot, P; Sauvant, D

    2011-08-01

    The aim of this work was to study the effects of the dietary percentage of concentrate on patterns of intake, the evolution of rumen fermentation characteristics and plasma metabolites after a meal, nutrient digestibility, and milk production and composition in a medium-term trial in dairy goats. These effects have been well studied in dairy cattle but seldom in goats. Thirteen ruminally and duodenally cannulated dairy goats (95±4 d in milk) fed ad libitum were used in this study. Goats were assigned to 1 of 2 dietary treatments: high-concentrate (70% concentrate on dry matter basis) or a low-concentrate (35%) total mixed rations. The experiment was conducted over a period of 10 wk, including 3 wk of adaption to the diets. Patterns of intake, rumen fermentation characteristics, and plasma metabolites after a meal and fatty acids profile of milk fat were compared at the onset and at the end of the experiment. The increase in dietary percentage of concentrate decreased rumen pH, acetate to propionate ratio, ammonia-N concentration, and plasma urea concentration. The percentage of concentrate did not affect total volatile fatty acid concentrations. The high-concentrate diet increased the rate of intake during the morning meal at the onset of the experiment, whereas it decreased total dry matter intake and the rate of intake during the morning meal at the end of the experiment. The high-concentrate diet resulted in greater organic matter digestibility. Raw milk yield and protein yield were greater in goats fed the high-concentrate diet, whereas fat yield was not affected by dietary treatments. The milk fat content was lower in goats fed the high-concentrate diet. Proportions of the trans-C18:1 isomer relative to total fatty acids in milk were higher with the high-concentrate diet, but no modification of the proportion of total trans-C18:1 was detected, in particular no shift from trans-11 C18:1 to trans-10 C18:1 was observed. Further, the isomer trans-10,cis-12 C18

  17. Novel consortium of Klebsiella variicola and Lactobacillus species enhances the functional potential of fermented dairy products by increasing the availability of branched-chain amino acids and the amount of distinctive volatiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosales-Bravo, H; Morales-Torres, H C; Vázquez-Martínez, J; Molina-Torres, J; Olalde-Portugal, V; Partida-Martínez, L P

    2017-08-17

    Identify novel bacterial taxa that could increase the availability of branched-chain amino acids and the amount of distinctive volatiles during skim milk fermentation. We recovered 344 bacterial isolates from stool samples of healthy and breastfed infants. Five were selected based on their ability to produce branched-chain amino acids. Three strains were identified as Escherichia coli, one as Klebsiella pneumoniae and other as Klebsiella variicola by molecular and biochemical methods. HPLC and solid-phase microextraction with GC-MS were used for the determination of free amino acids and volatile compounds respectively. The consortium formed by K. variicola and four Lactobacillus species showed the highest production of Leu and Ile in skim milk fermentation. In addition, the production of volatile compounds, such as acetoin, ethanol, 2-nonanone, and acetic, hexanoic and octanoic acids, increased in comparison to commercial yogurt, Emmental and Gouda cheese. Also, distinctive volatiles, such as 2,3-butanediol, 4-methyl-2- hexanone and octanol, were identified. The use of K. variicola in combination with probiotic Lactobacillus species enhances the availability of Leu and Ile and the amount of distinctive volatiles during skim milk fermentation. The identified consortium increases the functional potential of fermented dairy products. © 2017 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  18. Effects of extruding wheat dried distillers grains with solubles with peas or canola meal on ruminal fermentation, microbial protein synthesis, nutrient digestion, and milk production in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claassen, R M; Christensen, D A; Mutsvangwa, T

    2016-09-01

    Our objective was to examine the effects of feeding coextruded and nonextruded supplements consisting of wheat dried distillers grains with solubles with peas (WDDGS-peas) or canola meal (WDDGS-CM) on ruminal fermentation, omasal flow, and production performance in Holstein cows. Eight cows (4 ruminally cannulated) were used in a replicated 4×4 Latin square with 28-d periods and a 2×2 factorial arrangement of dietary treatments. Dietary treatments were coextruded or nonextruded mixtures of WDDGS-peas and WDDGS-CM that were included in total mixed rations at 15.1% [dry matter (DM) basis]. Diet had no effect on DM intake. Milk yield was greater in cows fed coextruded diets compared with those fed nonextruded diets. Milk fat content was greater in cows fed nonextruded diets compared with those fed coextruded diets, but milk fat yield was greater in cows fed coextruded diets compared with those fed nonextruded diets. Milk yield tended to be greater and milk protein yield was greater in cows fed WDDGS-peas compared with those fed WDDGS-CM. Cows fed nonextruded diets had a greater milk urea-N concentration compared with those fed coextruded diets. Cows fed coextruded diets had greater ruminal digestion of DM and tended to have greater ruminal digestion of organic matter compared with those fed nonextruded diets. Total-tract digestibilities of organic matter, crude protein, ether extract, and starch were greater, whereas that of acid detergent fiber and neutral detergent fiber tended to be greater in cows fed coextruded compared with those fed nonextruded diets. Total-tract digestibility of ether extract was lower whereas that of starch was greater and that of crude protein tended to be greater in cows fed WDDGS-peas compared with those fed WDDGS-CM. Total N excretion and milk N efficiency were unaffected by diet. Ruminal NH3-N concentration tended to be greater in cows fed WDDGS-CM compared with those fed WDDGS-peas. Ruminal propionate concentration was greater whereas

  19. Effect of Feeding Fermented Brewer's Grains on Milking Performance of NIWEN Milk Buffalo%饲喂发酵啤酒糟对尼温一代奶水牛泌乳性能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    项延润; 杨金勇

    2011-01-01

    【Objective】To investigate the effects of feeding fermented brewer's grains on the milking performance of NIWEN milk buffalo.【Method】27 healthy cows with similar production performance were randomly assigned to 3 treatments,9 in each treatment.The treatmentⅠwas fed the basal diet with 5 kg/head/day fermented brewer's grains instead of 0.5 kg concentrate,and treat Ⅱ fed the basal diet with 5kg/head/day fermented brewer's grains instead of 1 kg concentrate.Treat Ⅲ was as the control and fed a basal diet.The experiment lasted for 120 days.【Result】The results showed that:①By enzymatic hydrolysis and fermenting,the concentration of crude protein in fresh brewer's grains was about 9.1%,which increased 32.65%.The concentration of crude fiber was about 9.1%,decreased by 7.14% compared with the original.The pH value decreased from 4.2 to 4.02.②Milk yield of TreatⅠincreased 10.01% and 7.50% respectively compared to the control and the Treat Ⅱ.(P0.05).The mild yield of Treat Ⅱ was 2.33% higher than that of the control group(P0.05).③Feeding Fermented brewer's grains and concentrate in proper proportions could increase the milk fat and milk protein in milk buffalo,make the milk yield reach to the peak lactation period rapidly and decline slowly after the peak lactation period.【Conclusion】Feeding Fermented brewer's grains and concentrate in proper proportions can increase the milk fat and milk protein in milk buffalo.%[目的]为了探索发酵啤酒糟对尼温一代奶水牛泌乳量及奶质量的影响。[方法]选择生产性能相近的健康尼温一代奶水牛27头,随机分为3组,每组9头,试验I组用5kg发酵啤酒糟(替代0.5kg精料)与精料搭配饲喂,试验Ⅱ组用5kg发酵啤酒糟(替代1kg精料)与精料搭配饲喂,对照组直接饲喂精料。[结果]表明,在120d的试验期内:①鲜啤酒糟经发酵酶解,菌体蛋白饲料的粗蛋白含量达9.1%,提高了32.65%,

  20. A novel consortium of Lactobacillus rhamnosus and Streptococcus thermophilus for increased access to functional fermented foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kort, Remco; Westerik, Nieke; Mariela Serrano, L; Douillard, François P; Gottstein, Willi; Mukisa, Ivan M; Tuijn, Coosje J; Basten, Lisa; Hafkamp, Bert; Meijer, Wilco C; Teusink, Bas; de Vos, Willem M; Reid, Gregor; Sybesma, Wilbert

    2015-12-08

    The lactic acid bacterium Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG is the most studied probiotic bacterium with proven health benefits upon oral intake, including the alleviation of diarrhea. The mission of the Yoba for Life foundation is to provide impoverished communities in Africa increased access to Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG under the name Lactobacillus rhamnosus yoba 2012, world's first generic probiotic strain. We have been able to overcome the strain's limitations to grow in food matrices like milk, by formulating a dried starter consortium with Streptococcus thermophilus that enables the propagation of both strains in milk and other food matrices. The affordable seed culture is used by people in resource-poor communities. We used S. thermophilus C106 as an adjuvant culture for the propagation of L. rhamnosus yoba 2012 in a variety of fermented foods up to concentrations, because of its endogenous proteolytic activity, ability to degrade lactose and other synergistic effects. Subsequently, L. rhamnosus could reach final titers of 1E+09 CFU ml(-1), which is sufficient to comply with the recommended daily dose for probiotics. The specific metabolic interactions between the two strains were derived from the full genome sequences of L. rhamnosus GG and S. thermophilus C106. The piliation of the L. rhamnosus yoba 2012, required for epithelial adhesion and inflammatory signaling in the human host, was stable during growth in milk for two rounds of fermentation. Sachets prepared with the two strains, yoba 2012 and C106, retained viability for at least 2 years. A stable dried seed culture has been developed which facilitates local and low-cost production of a wide range of fermented foods that subsequently act as delivery vehicles for beneficial bacteria to communities in east Africa.

  1. 发酵乳中双岐杆菌种类快速识别%Rapid identification bifidobacterium in fermented milk products by PCR-DGGE analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王立平; 吴艳涛; 刘晓莉; 曹悦

    2012-01-01

    To establish a rapid identification method for bifidobacterium in fermented milk products.The use of Polymerase Chain Reaction-Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis(PCR-DGGE) technique in identifying bifidobacterium present in commercial probiotic yoghurts dealed with pronase E was evaluated.Identification was achieved comparing the PCR-DGGE patterns obtained from the analysed products with the ladder bands.PCR-DGGE assays enabled identification of the species of bifidobacterium initially present in commercial fermented milk products and their accurate quantification with a detection threshold of 105 cells per mL of product.Established PCR-DGGE analysis method is situble for detection of bifidobacterium in commercial probiotic yoghurts.%建立发酵乳制品中双歧杆菌快速识别方法。采用酶解前处理法获取样品中菌体细胞,基于PCR-DGGE技术确定发酵乳中双歧杆菌种属。该方法能准确、快速鉴别双歧杆菌,检出限为105cfu/mL。该方法可用于发酵乳中双歧杆菌的准确识别。

  2. 香椿酸豆奶生产工艺技术研究%Study on Processing Technology of Fermented Soybean Milk with Chinese Toona

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    万娅琼; 伍玉菡; 尤逢患; 储耀宇

    2012-01-01

    以香椿和大豆为原料,研究了香椿酸豆奶生产的关键技术,优化了香椿汁的添加量及发酵条件。结果显示:香椿提取液添加量为5.0%,混合工作发酵剂接种比例为4%,白砂糖8%,乳清粉0.5%,磷酸三钠0.05%,复合稳定剂0.2%,并高压均质2次,生产的酸豆奶色泽淡绿,酸甜适口,无气泡和乳清析出,具有香椿和大豆特有香气和发酵乳香。%The key processing technology of fermented soybean milk was studied using Chinese Toona and soybean as materi- als. The purpose was to develop fermented soybean milk with Chinese Toona flavor. The result showed that it could be real- ized with 5.0% Chinese Toona extract,4% mixed starter,8% sugar,0.5% whey powder, 0.05% trisodium phosphate, 0.2% complex stabilizer and twice high- pressure homogenization.

  3. Determination of volatile and non-volatile products of milk fermentation processes using capillary zone electrophoresis and solid phase microextraction coupled to gas chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ligor, Magdalena; Jarmalaviciene, Reda; Szumski, Michal; Maruska, Audrius; Buszewski, Boguslaw

    2008-08-01

    The aim of the investigations was to develop analytical methods for the determination of selected volatile and non-volatile organic compounds numbering among the final products of milk fermentation. The analyzed compounds were as follows: biacetyl and carboxylic acids (formic, acetic, citric, and lactic). The model yogurt was prepared under controlled conditions in our laboratory by addition of the selected bacteria (Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus) to the milk sample. The temperature, time, and stirring were controlled during the fermentation process. Factors considered in SPMPE-GC-FID method development included fiber exposure time, salt addition, temperature of extraction, and temperature of desorption. Various SPME fibers, for example with PDMS, CAR/PDMS, PA, and PDMS/DVB coatings, were tested to obtain the highest recovery of the investigated compounds extracted from yogurt samples. Based on these preliminary experiments, qualitative and quantitative analyses for the determination of biacetyl were performed by SPME-GC-FID. Moreover, a capillary zone electrophoresis method was developed for the determination of carboxylic acids in the yogurt samples. The buffer composition as well as deproteinization by acetonitrile were found to have a crucial effect on the analysis.

  4. USE OF BUTTER MILK AND POULTRY-TRANSFORMING WASTES FOR ENHANCED PRODUCTION OF Bacillus subtilis SPB1 BIOSURFACTANT IN SUBMERGED FERMENTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raida Zouari

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Biosurfactants are valuable microbial amphiphilic molecules with effective surface-active and biological properties applicable to several industries and processes. Microorganisms synthesize them, especially during growth on water-immiscible substrates, providing an alternative to chemically prepared conventional surfactants. Microbial surfactants are not yet a sustainable alternative to chemically synthesized surfactants seeing their potentially high production charges. This study highlights the use of low-cost agro-industrial raw material for fermentative production of biosurfactants. The Box–Behnken Design and response surface methodology were employed to optimize the concentrations of the ratio butter milk /distilled water, poultry-transforming wastes and inoculum size for lipopeptide biosurfactant production by B.subtilis SPB1 in submerged fermentation.The best production yield was about 12.61 ± 0.7 g/L of crude lipopeptide biosurfactant. It can be obtained when using a ratio butter milk /distilled water of 1.5, poultry-transforming wastes of 23g/L and an inoculum size of 0.12. In comparison to the highest biosurfactant production yield reported for Bacillus subtilis SPB1, three fold increases were obtained.

  5. Fermented inulin hydrolysate by Bifidobacterium breve as cholesterol binder in functional food application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melanie, Hakiki; Susilowati, Agustine; Maryati, Yati

    2017-01-01

    Inulin hydrolysate is a result of inulin hydrolysis by inulinase enzyme of Scopulariopsis sp.-CBS1 fungi isolated from dahlia tuber skin in the formation of fructooligosaccharides (FOS) as dietary fiber. Inulin hydrolysate fermented by Bifidobacterium breve has a potential as cholesterol binder in digestive system due to dietary fiber content in inulin. This study was conducted to evaluate the best cholesterol binding capacity by the variation of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) culture concentration of 10%, 20% and 30% (v/v), respectively. Fermentation process were conducted with inulin hydrolysate concentration of 25% (w/v), skim milk 7,5% (w/v) and various LAB culture concentration at 40 °C for 0, 12, 24, 36 and 48 hours. The results showed that the variation of LAB culture concentrations affect the cholesterol binding ability in fermented inulin hydrolysate. The fermentation process with 10% LAB culture concentration at 40°C for 48 hours resulted in the highest cholesterol binding capacity (CBC) of 13,69 mg/g at pH 7and 14,44 mg/g at pH 2 with composition of total acids of 0,787%, soluble dietary fiber of 0,396%, insoluble dietary fiber of 5,47%, total solids of 14,476%, total sugars of 472,484 mg/mL, reducing sugar of 92 mg/mL and total plate count (TPC) of 7,278 log CFU/mL, respectively.

  6. Digestion, ruminal fermentation, ciliate protozoal populations, and milk production from dairy cows fed cinnamaldehyde, quebracho condensed tannin, or Yucca schidigera saponin extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benchaar, C; McAllister, T A; Chouinard, P Y

    2008-12-01

    Four ruminally cannulated lactating cows were used in a 4 x 4 Latin square design (28-d periods) to determine the effects of cinnamaldehyde (CIN; 1 g/cow per day), condensed tannins from quebracho trees (QCT, containing 70% tannins, 150 g/cow per day), and saponins from Yucca schidigera extract (YSE, containing 10% saponins; 60 g/cow per day) on digestion, ruminal fermentation characteristics, protozoal populations, and milk production. Intake of dry matter was not affected by the addition of CIN or QCT, but cows fed YSE had lesser intake than cows fed the control diet (21.8 vs. 23.2 kg/d). Apparent total-tract digestibilities of dry matter, organic matter, crude protein, neutral detergent fiber, and acid detergent fiber were unaffected by dietary treatments. Supplementation with CIN, QTE, or YSE did not affect in situ ruminal degradation of soybean meal, grass silage, or corn grain. Ruminal pH (6.67), total volatile fatty acid concentration (135 mM), and molar proportions (mol/100 mol of total volatile fatty acid) of acetate (65.0), propionate (19.6), and butyrate (11.2) were similar among treatments. Ruminal NH(3)-N concentration was not changed by the addition of CIN and YSE, but tended to decrease in cows fed QCT compared with cows fed the control diet (132 vs. 160 mg/L). Total numbers of ruminal protozoa were not changed by adding CIN, QCT, or YSE in the diet (5.85 log(10)/mL). However, the number of Isotricha was greater in ruminal fluid of cows fed CIN than in ruminal fluid of cows fed the control diet (4.46 vs. 4.23 log(10)/mL). Milk production (33.1 kg/d), milk fat (4.3%), and milk protein (3.5%) remained unchanged between dietary treatments. Results of this study show that under our experimental conditions, supplementing dairy cow diets with CIN, QCT, or YSE had limited effects on digestion, ruminal fermentation characteristics, and protozoal populations. The lack of effects observed in this study suggests that these antimicrobials require administration

  7. Evaluation of antagonistic activity of milk fermented with kefir grains of different origins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Paulo Victorino Santos

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the potential of kefir grains, obtained from three different towns/cities in the Southeast Region of Brazil to inhibit the growth of the five pathogenic microorganisms was evaluated. The samples showed the growth inhibition from 42.80-69.15 for Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538, 30.73-59.89 for Escherichia coli ATCC 11229, 44.99-73.05 for Salmonela typhi ATCC 6539, 41.45-54.18 for Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 15313 and 70.38-86.80 for Bacillus cereus RIBO 1222-173-S4. These results indicated that the kefir grains evaluated had antagonistic activity toward the different pathogens tested. The ability to inhibit, although differently depending on the regional microbiota, indicated a potential for their use as a functional food.

  8. Survival and bioactivities of selected probiotic lactobacilli in yogurt fermentation and cold storage: New insights for developing a bi-functional dairy food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutella, Giuseppina Sefora; Tagliazucchi, Davide; Solieri, Lisa

    2016-12-01

    In previous work, we demonstrated that two probiotic strains, namely Lactobacillus casei PRA205 and Lactobacillus rhamnosus PRA331, produce fermented milks with potent angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE)-inhibitory and antioxidant activities. Here, we tested these strains for the survivability and the release of antihypertensive and antioxidant peptides in yogurt fermentation and cold storage. For these purposes three yogurt batches were compared: one prepared using yogurt starters alone (Lactobacillus delbrueckii subspecies bulgaricus 1932 and Streptococcus thermophilus 99), and the remaining two containing either PRA205 or PRA331 in addition to yogurt starters. Despite the lower viable counts at the fermentation end compared to PRA331, PRA205 overcame PRA331 in survivability during refrigerated storage for 28 days, leading to viable counts (>10(8) CFU/g) higher than the minimum therapeutic threshold (10(6) CFU/g). Analyses of in vitro ACE-inhibitory and antioxidant activities of peptide fractions revealed that yogurt supplemented with PRA205 displays higher amounts of antihypertensive and antioxidant peptides than that produced with PRA331 at the end of fermentation and over storage. Two ACE-inhibitory peptides, Valine-Proline-Proline (VPP) and Isoleucine-Proline-Proline (IPP), were identified and quantified. This study demonstrated that L. casei PRA205 could be used as adjunct culture for producing bi-functional yogurt enriched in bioactive peptides and in viable cells, which bring health benefits to the host as probiotics.

  9. Study on Mixture Starter of Lactic Bacteria and Yeast to Prepare Stirring Fermentation Bean-Milk%发酵型含醇酸豆奶的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋立文; 付海平

    2001-01-01

    为了开发酸豆奶新产品,对乳酸菌、酵母菌混和发酵生产酸豆奶进行了研究。正交试验结果表明,生产品质优良产品的最佳工艺参数为:豆水比 1∶ 10;菌种:保加利亚乳杆菌 (Lactobacillus bulgaricus)+嗜热链球菌 (Streptococcus thermophilus),啤酒酵母 (Saccharomyces cerevisiae),菌种配比 1∶ 2;蔗糖、明胶、羧甲基纤维素纳、黄原胶、乙基麦芽酚等适量,发酵时间为 6h,发酵温度 35℃,发酵剂接种量 3%。%In order to develop the new product of fermentation bean-milk.The co-fermentation of soymilk by Lactobacillus bulgaricus Streptococcus thermophilus and Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been studied.The results of orthogonal experiments indicates that the best process factors are:bean-water proportion 1∶ 10;the proportion of specices lactic bacteria and Saccbaromyces cerevisiae is a ration of 1∶ 2,sugar、 gelation、 sodium carboxymethyl cellulose、 ethyl maltol,fermentation time 6h,temperature 35℃ ,inoculum size 3% .The quality of the product is good.

  10. Effects of Protein Level and Mangosteen Peel Pellets (Mago-pel) in Concentrate Diets on Rumen Fermentation and Milk Production in Lactating Dairy Crossbreds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norrapoke, T.; Wanapat, M.; Wanapat, S.

    2012-01-01

    Four, lactating dairy crossbreds (50%×50% Holstein Friesian×Native Zebu cattle) were randomly assigned according to a 2×2 factorial arrangement (two protein levels and two levels of mangosteen peel pellets (Mago-pel)) in a 4×4 Latin square design to receive four dietary treatments. All cows received concentrate at a proportion of 1 kg concentrate per 2 kg of milk yield, and urea-treated 5% rice straw (UTRS) was given ad libitum. It was found that total dry matter intakes, nutrient digestibility, ruminal pH and NH3-N concentrations were not affected (p>0.05) by treatments. Concentrations of ruminal pH and NH3-N were not affected by dietary treatments although the concentration of BUN varied significantly (p0.05); however, the population of protozoa was decreased (p0.05) among dietary treatments (p>0.05); however, copy numbers of Ruminococcus flavefaciens was increased when protein level increased (p0.05) milk composition except solids-not-fat which was higher in cows fed the diet with 19% CP. Therefore, feeding a concentrate containing 16% CP together with 300 g/hd/d Mago-pel supplementation results in changes in rumen fermentation and microbial population and improvements in milk production in lactating dairy crossbreds fed on UTRS. PMID:25049652

  11. OPTIMIZATION OF MILK-CLOTTING PROTEASE PRODUCTION BY A LOCAL ISOLATE OF ASPERGILLUS NIGER FFB1 IN SOLID-STATE FERMENTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Souhila Bensmail

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The need to surmount the limitation of obtaining rennin, has been actively pushed researches to find new substitutes that present high milk-clotting activity which enables the production of high yields of cheese. In this study, the production of extracellular milk-clotting protease by locally isolated fungal specie, Aspergillus niger FFB1 under solid-state fermentation (SSF using cheep agro-industrial byproduct (wheat bran was optimized. The effects of several physicochemical and environmental factors were investigated to select the optimal conditions that ensure the best milk-clotting activity by application of "One-factor-at-a-time" method. A trial of cheese production using the crude extract was also carried out. The maximum enzyme activity (830 SU/g bran with a ratio MCA/PA of 4.25 was obtained under the optimum conditions of temperature (30°C, spores concentration (106 spores/mL, incubation time (72 hours, and moisture content of solid substrate (39.2% adjusted suitably with mineral solution (Czapek-Dox of pH 4.

  12. Investigations on the effects of Ca-soap of linseed oil on rumen fermentation in sheep and on milk composition of goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cenkvári, E; Fekete, S; Fébel, H; Veresegyházi, T; Andrásofszky, E

    2005-01-01

    Six rumen-cannulated wethers were fed by a diet composed of alfalfa hay and concentrate and supplemented by 75 g Ca-soap of linseed oil (5.4% in dry matter, DM) daily. A model trial was performed to detect the effects of the Ca-soap on rumen fermentation parameters and on fibre digestion. Approximately 3 h after feeding Ca-soap, ratio of C2:C3 decreased (from 4.33 to 4.02) and the production of i- and n-butyrate and i- and n-valeriate increased by 28, 5.3, 11.76% and 6.80% respectively. Total volatile fatty acid concentration in rumen fluid did not change (126.1 vs. 126.4 mm) as a result of Ca-soap supplementation. The in vitro trial showed no detrimental influence of Ca-soap on the acid detergent fibre (ADF) degradation. Using feed samples containing Ca-soap to be incubated in tubes, ADF digestion proved to be significantly higher (p soap on milk composition. Their ration contained alfalfa hay, millet straw and a concentrate. In the experimental group (seven goats) the diet was supplemented with Ca-soap of linseed oil (75 g/animal/day). The milk composition was changed (slightly reduced solid content, sometimes significantly reduced milk fat contents), when Ca-soap was included in the diet of lactating goats.

  13. Plant-based Paste Fermented by Lactic Acid Bacteria and Yeast: Functional Analysis and Possibility of Application to Functional Foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuwaki, Shinsuke; Nakajima, Nobuyoshi; Tanaka, Hidehiko; Ishihara, Kohji

    2012-01-01

    A plant-based paste fermented by lactic acid bacteria and yeast (fermented paste) was made from various plant materials. The paste was made of fermented food by applying traditional food-preservation techniques, that is, fermentation and sugaring. The fermented paste contained major nutrients (carbohydrates, proteins, and lipids), 18 kinds of amino acids, and vitamins (vitamin A, B1, B2, B6, B12, E, K, niacin, biotin, pantothenic acid, and folic acid). It contained five kinds of organic acids, and a large amount of dietary fiber and plant phytochemicals. Sucrose from brown sugar, used as a material, was completely resolved into glucose and fructose. Some physiological functions of the fermented paste were examined in vitro. It was demonstrated that the paste possessed antioxidant, antihypertensive, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, anti-allergy and anti-tyrosinase activities in vitro. It was thought that the fermented paste would be a helpful functional food with various nutrients to help prevent lifestyle diseases. PMID:25114554

  14. Lactic acid bacterial fermentation on the production of functional antioxidant herbal Anoectochilus formosanus Hayata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Chang-Chai; Wang, Chung-Yi; Wang, Ya-Ping; Tzeng, Wen-Sheng; Shyu, Yuan-Tay

    2011-03-01

    This study evaluated a novel use of the traditional Asian herb Anoectochilus formosanus. This plant is a traditional food item, generally used for the treatment of liver disorder, hepatitis, hypertension, diabetes, cardiovascular disorder, etc. In this study, the root, stem, and leaf of A. formosanus were used as substrates for lactic fermentation. The fermentation products were analyzed for their total antioxidant activity, reducing power, and scavenging effect on superoxide anion radicals and hydrogen peroxide. The pH of the fermentation medium reached its lowest value, 3.5, at the 35th hour of fermentation. Antioxidant activity of A. formosanus was found to be 61-78%. Lactobacillus longum-led fermentation exhibited the greatest reducing power with an average of 0.3. The products of fermentations utilizing the three plant parts as substrates exhibited a similar scavenging activity (27-30%) on free radicals. This study may suggest a novel use of lactic-fermenting A. formosanus in the production of functional food.

  15. Identification of Dominant Lactic Acid Bacteria Isolated from Different Fermented Milk in Xinjiang of China%新疆地区不同酸奶中优势乳酸菌的分离与鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏艳; 曾小群; 潘道东; 曹锦轩; 李和生

    2012-01-01

    在乳制品工业中乳酸菌被认为是重要的益生菌之一.本文对来自新疆的酸驼奶、酸牛奶、酸马奶、酸羊奶以及俄罗斯酸奶中的优势乳酸菌进行分离,结合165 rRNA序列同源性分析和生理生化试验,鉴定出几种优势乳酸杆菌,即发酵乳杆菌、干酪乳杆菌、植物乳杆菌、戊糖乳杆菌.%Lactic acid bacteria are important probiotics in the dairy industry. In this study, dominant lactic acid bacteria were isolated from fermented camel milk, fermented milk, fermented mare's milk and fermented goat's milk which were made by nomadic families in Xinjiang, China and Russia. Besides, several kinds of dominant lactic acid bacteria were identified by conventional identification and 16S rRNA sequencing analysis, these dominant lactic acid bacteria were Lactobacillus fermentum, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus casei and Lactobacillus pentosus.

  16. Probiotic fermented dairy products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adnan Tamime

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Fermented dairy products are the most popular vehicle used in theindustry for the implantation of the probiotic microflora in humans. Therefore this paper provides an overview of new knowledge on probiotic fermented dairy products. It involves historical developments, commercial probiotic microorganisms and products, and their therapeutic properties, possibilities of quality improvement of different types of newly developed fermented dairy products together with fermented goat’s milk products.

  17. Composition, yield, and functionality of reduced-fat Oaxaca cheese: effects of using skim milk or a dry milk protein concentrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caro, I; Soto, S; Franco, M J; Meza-Nieto, M; Alfaro-Rodríguez, R H; Mateo, J

    2011-02-01

    The effect of adding either skim milk or a commercial dry milk protein concentrate (MPC) to whole milk on the composition, yield, and functional properties of Mexican Oaxaca cheese were investigated. Five batches of Oaxaca cheeses were produced. One batch (the control) was produced from whole milk containing 3.5% fat and 9% nonfat solids (SNF). Two batches were produced from milk standardized with skim milk to 2.7 and 1.8% fat, maintaining the SNF content at 9%. In the other 2 batches, an MPC (40% protein content) was used to standardize the milk to a SNF content of 10 and 11%, maintaining the milk fat content at 3.5%. The use of either skim milk or MPC caused a significant decrease in the fat percentage in cheese. The use of skim milk or MPC showed a nonsignificant tendency to lower total solids and fat recoveries in cheese. Actual, dry matter, and moisture-adjusted cheese yields significantly decreased with skim milk addition, but increased with MPC addition. However, normalized yields adjusted to milk fat and protein reference levels did not show significant differences between treatments. Considering skim milk-added and control cheeses, actual yield increased with cheese milk fat content at a rate of 1.34 kg/kg of fat (R=0.88). In addition, cheese milk fat and SNF:fat ratio proved to be strong individual predictors of cheese moisture-adjusted yield (r(2) ≈ 0.90). Taking into account the results obtained from control and MPC-added cheeses, a 2.0-kg cheese yield increase rate per kg of milk MPC protein was observed (R=0.89), with TS and SNF being the strongest predictors for moisture adjusted yield (r(2) ≈ 0.77). Reduced-fat Oaxaca cheese functionality differed from that of controls. In unmelted reduced-fat cheeses, hardness and springiness increased. In melted reduced-fat cheeses, meltability and free oil increased, but stretchability decreased. These changes were related to differences in cheese composition, mainly fat in dry matter and calcium in SNF.

  18. Evaluation of Fermented Sausages Manufactured with Reduced-fat and Functional Starter Cultures on Physicochemical, Functional and Flavor Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young Joo; Park, Sung Yong; Lee, Hong Cheol; Yoo, Seung Seok; Oh, Se Jong; Kim, Hyeong Sang; Chin, Koo Bok

    2014-01-01

    Fermented foods with probiotics having functional properties may provide beneficial effects on health. These effects are varied, depending on the type of lactic acid bacteria (LAB). Different probiotic LAB might have different functional properties. Thus, this study was performed to evaluate the quality of fermented sausages manufactured with functional starter cultures (Lactobacillus plantarum 115 and 167, and Pediococcus damnosus L12) and different fat levels, and to determine the optimum condition for the manufacture of these products. Medium-fat (~15%) fermented sausages reduced the drying time and cholesterol contents, as compared to regular-fat counterparts. In proximate analysis, the contents of moisture and protein of regular-fat products were lower than medium-fat with reduced fat content. The regular-fat products also had a lighter color and less redness, due to reduced fat content. Approximately 35 volatile compounds were identified in functional fermented sausages, and hexanal, trans-caryophyllene, and tetradecanal were the major volatile compounds. Selected mixed starter culture showed the potential possibility of replacing the commercial starter culture (LK30 plus) in flavor profiles. However, medium-fat fermented sausage containing selected mixed starter culture tended to be less acceptable than their high-fat counterparts, due to excess dry ring developed in the surface. These results indicate that the use of combinations of L. plantarum 115 and 167, and P. damnosus L12 as a starter culture, will prove useful for manufacturing the fermented sausage.

  19. 益生菌发酵绿豆乳的菌种筛选%Screening of Probiotic Bacteria for Mungbean Milk Fermentation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘晓宇; 谷新晰; 董慧; 许文涛; 田洪涛; 罗云波

    2012-01-01

    Strains of probiotic bacteria which were isolated from dairy products, health products and internationally-recognized probiotics were chose as test strains. Through the domestication, their characteristics were studied by evaluating the curd, curd time, sensory quality, viable count of probiotics, and pH value of the fermented mungbean milk to obtain several strains with high reproductively ability and fermentation activity .The result indicates that Lactobacillus casei 07-211, Lactobaccillus kelveticus AS 1.1877T, 05-29 and Lactobacillus plantarum AS. 1.2986, 07-191 were screened from 13 strains of lactic acid bacteria for mungbean milk fermentation. After a 6-hour fermentation of the mungbean milk fragrance with those three strains, curd could be formed with, the viable cell number reached 3.9×108, 1.6×108 and 1.4×108 cfu/ml, respectively. The pH values of the fermented soybean milk by these three strains were 4.16,4.30 and 4.32, respectively, and the acidity values reached 83.5,81.0 and 75.2 °T, respectively. This research can provide reference for development of functionnal probiotics yoghurt.%本文以分离自益生菌乳制品、微生态制剂、保健品的13株国际公认的益生乳酸菌为试验菌株,接种于纯绿豆乳培养基中进行发酵.通过检测其凝乳与否、凝乳时间、以及凝乳时pH、活菌数、感官评价等指标,筛选适宜发酵绿豆乳的繁殖力强、发酵活性高的益生菌菌株.结果表明:经过层层筛选得到的干酪乳杆菌07-211、植物乳杆菌08-193、瑞士乳杆菌05-29等三株益生菌发酵6h均可均一凝乳,有绿豆香,且凝乳时,其活菌数分别可达到3.9×108、1.6×108、1A×108 cfu/mL,凝乳时pH分别为4.16、4.30、4.32,滴定酸度分别为83.5、81.0、75.2 °T,可作为新型绿豆乳制品的发酵菌株.

  20. Technical note: a mathematical function to predict daily milk yield of dairy cows in relation to the interval between milkings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klopcic, M.; Koops, W.J.; Kuipers, A.

    2013-01-01

    The milk production of a dairy cow is characterized by lactation production, which is calculated from daily milk yields (DMY) during lactation. The DMY is calculated from one or more milkings a day collected at the farm. Various milking systems are in use today, resulting in one or many recorded

  1. Methane production, digestion, ruminal fermentation, nitrogen balance, and milk production of cows fed corn silage- or barley silage-based diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benchaar, C; Hassanat, F; Gervais, R; Chouinard, P Y; Petit, H V; Massé, D I

    2014-02-01

    This study evaluated the effects of replacing barley silage (BS) with corn silage (CS) in dairy cow diets on enteric CH4 emissions, ruminal fermentation characteristics, digestion, milk production, and N balance. Nine ruminally cannulated lactating cows were used in a replicated 3 × 3 Latin square design (32-d period) and fed (ad libitum) a total mixed ration (TMR; forage:concentrate ratio 60:40; dry matter basis) with the forage portion consisting of either barley silage (0% CS; 0% CS and 54.4% BS in the TMR), a 50:50 mixture of both silages (27% CS; 27.2% CS and 27.2% BS in the TMR), or corn silage (54% CS; 0% BS and 54.4% CS in the TMR). Increasing the CS proportion (i.e., at the expense of BS) also involved increasing the proportion of corn grain (at the expense of barley grain). Intake and digestibility of dry matter and milk production increased linearly as the proportion of CS increased in the diet. Increasing dietary CS proportion decreased linearly the acetate molar proportion and increased linearly that of propionate. Daily CH4 emissions tended to respond quadratically to increasing proportions of CS in the diet (487, 540, and 523 g/d for 0, 27, and 54% CS, respectively). Methane production adjusted for dry matter or gross energy intake declined as the amount of CS increased in the diet; this effect was more pronounced when cows were fed the 54% CS diet than the 27% CS diet. Increasing the CS proportion in the diet improved N utilization, as reflected by decreases in ruminal ammonia concentration and urinary N excretion and higher use of dietary N for milk protein secretion. Total replacement of BS with CS in dairy cow diets offers a strategy to decrease CH4 energy losses and control N losses without negatively affecting milk performance.

  2. PENAMBAHAN SUSU BUBUK FULL CREAM PADA PEMBUATAN PRODUK MINUMAN FERMENTASI DARI BAHAN BAKU EKSTRAK JAGUNG MANIS [Addition of Full Cream Milk Powder in the Production of Fermented Drink Made from Sweet Corn Extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hartati Chairunnisa*

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to determine the effect of full cream milk powder addition to the quality of fermented drink from sweet corn extract. The quality examined were total bacteria, total solid, lactic acid content, and acceptability including colour, texture, flavor, and overall acceptance. The experiment was set up in a Completly Randomized Design with five levels of full cream milk powder (8, 10, 12, 14, 16% and four replications. The results showed that addition 12% of full cream milk powder in sweet corn extract resulted in acceptable fermented drink containing of 11.2 x 109 cfu/g lactic acid bacteria, 17.8% total solid, and 0.95% lactic acid. This formula had yellow color, desired texture & flavor and recieived the highest score of overall acceptance.

  3. Physicochemical, functional and sensory attributes of milk prepared from irradiated tiger nut (Cyperus esculentus L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Abenaa A. Okyere; George T. Odamtten

    2014-01-01

    Five tiger nut (Cyperus esculentus L.) cultivars were collected from four different regions of Ghana and irradiated. The aim of this study was to evaluate some physicochemical, functional and sensory qualities of milk produced from irradiated tiger nut samples. Analysis was carried out for pH, total solids, moisture, sugar brix and viscosity. Finally the consumer acceptability of the milk prepared from the nuts was determined by a taste panel using the parameters of colour, taste, aroma, mout...

  4. 酿酒酵母对贮存期发酵乳特性的影响%Effect of Saccharomyces cerevisiae on the characteristics of fermented milk during the storage period

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕雪峰; 闵伟红; 陈历俊; 姜铁民

    2013-01-01

    To research the effect of Saccharomyces cerevisiae on the characteristics of fermented milk during the storage period.The results showed that the growth of Saccharomyces cerevisiae with Lactic acid bacteria is characterised by stimulatory effects that involve both Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Lactic acid bacteria,it is helpful for stabilizing the number of living bacteria in the fermented milk; Saccharomyces cerevisiae has an influence on firmness,consistency and cohensiveness of the fermented milk,especially the consistency and cohensiveness of the fermented milk have significantly effect during the mid-to late of the storage period; The pH of the fermented milk by co-cultures of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Lactic acid bacteria is lower than that by Lactic acid bacteria inoculated alone.%通过添加酿酒酵母,研究了酿酒酵母对贮存期发酵乳特性的影响.结果表明,乳酸菌和酿酒酵母存在相互促进作用,这有利于发酵乳中活菌数的稳定;添加酿酒酵母后,发酵乳的坚实度、稠度和黏度均产生了变化,在贮存中后期稠度和黏度具有显著性差异;添加酿酒酵母的发酵乳与乳酸菌单独发酵的发酵乳相比pH值较低.

  5. Lactodifucotetraose, a human milk oligosaccharide, attenuates platelet function and inflammatory cytokine release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newburg, David S; Tanritanir, Ayse C; Chakrabarti, Subrata

    2016-07-01

    Human milk strongly quenches inflammatory processes in vitro, and breastfed infants have lower incidence of inflammatory diseases than those fed artificially. Platelets from neonates, in contrast to those from adults, are less responsive to platelet agonists such as collagen, thrombin, ADP, and epinephrine. Breastfed infants absorb oligosaccharides intact from the human milk in their gut to the circulation. This study was to determine whether these oligosaccharides can attenuate platelet function and platelet secretion of pro-inflammatory proteins, and to identify the active component. The natural mixture of oligosaccharides from human milk and pure individual human milk oligosaccharides were tested for their ability to modulate responses of platelets isolated from human blood following exposure to thrombin, ADP, and collagen. Human milk and the natural mixture of human milk oligosaccharides inhibited platelet release of inflammatory proteins. Of the purified human milk oligosaccharides tested, only lactodifucotetraose (LDFT) significantly inhibited thrombin induced release of the pro-inflammatory proteins RANTES and sCD40L. LDFT also inhibited platelet adhesion to a collagen-coated surface, as well as platelet aggregation induced by ADP or collagen. These data indicate that LDFT may help modulate hemostasis by suppressing platelet-induced inflammatory processes in breastfed infants. This activity suggests further study of LDFT for its potential as a therapeutic agent in infants and adults.

  6. Function of SREBP1 in the Milk Fat Synthesis of Dairy Cow Mammary Epithelial Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nan Li

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Sterol regulatory element-binding proteins (SREBPs belong to a family of nuclear transcription factors. The question of which is the most important positive regulator in milk fat synthesis in dairy cow mammary epithelial cells (DCMECs between SREBPs or other nuclear transcription factors, such as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ, remains a controversial one. Recent studies have found that mTORC1 (the mammalian target of rapamycin C1 regulates SREBP1 to promote fat synthesis. Thus far, however, the interaction between the SREBP1 and mTOR (the mammalian target of rapamycin pathways in the regulation of milk fat synthesis remains poorly understood. This study aimed to identify the function of SREBP1 in milk fat synthesis and to characterize the relationship between SREBP1 and mTOR in DCMECs. The effects of SREBP1 overexpression and gene silencing on milk fat synthesis and the effects of stearic acid and serum on SREBP1 expression in the upregulation of milk fat synthesis were investigated in DCMECs using immunostaining, Western blotting, real-time quantitative PCR, lipid droplet staining, and detection kits for triglyceride content. SREBP1 was found to be a positive regulator of milk fat synthesis and was shown to be regulated by stearic acid and serum. These findings indicate that SREBP1 is the key positive regulator in milk fat synthesis.

  7. Effects of increasing amounts of corn dried distillers grains with solubles in dairy cow diets on methane production, ruminal fermentation, digestion, N balance, and milk production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benchaar, C; Hassanat, F; Gervais, R; Chouinard, P Y; Julien, C; Petit, H V; Massé, D I

    2013-04-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the effects of including corn dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) in the diet at the expense of corn and soybean meal on enteric CH4 emissions, ruminal fermentation characteristics, digestion (in sacco and apparent total-tract digestibility), N balance, and milk production of dairy cows. Twelve lactating Holstein cows were used in a triplicated 4×4 Latin square design (35-d periods) and fed (ad libitum intake) a total mixed ration containing (dry matter basis) 0, 10, 20, or 30% DDGS. Dry matter intake increased linearly, whereas apparent-total tract digestibility of dry matter and gross energy declined linearly as DDGS level in the diet increased. Increasing the proportion of DDGS in the diet decreased the acetate:propionate ratio, but this decrease was the result of reduced acetate concentration rather than increased propionate concentration. Milk yield increased linearly (up to +4kg/d) with increasing levels of DDGS in the diet and a tendency was observed for a quadratic increase in energy-corrected milk as the proportion of DDGS in the diet increased. Methane production decreased linearly with increasing levels of DDGS in the diet (495, 490, 477, and 475 g/d for 0, 10, 20, and 30% DDGS diets, respectively). When adjusted for gross energy intake, CH4 losses also decreased linearly as DDGS proportion increased in the diet by 5, 8, and 14% for 10, 20, and 30% DDGS diets, respectively. Similar decreases (up to 12% at 30% DDGS) were also observed when CH4 production was corrected for digestible energy intake. When expressed relative to energy-corrected milk, CH4 production declined linearly as the amount of DDGS increased in the diet. Total N excretion (urinary and fecal; g/d) increased as the amount of DDGS in the diet increased. Efficiency of N utilization (milk N secretion as a proportion of N intake) declined linearly with increasing inclusion of DDGS in the diet. However, productive N increased linearly with

  8. Inhibitory Effect of the Fermented Soybean Milk by Lactobacillus plantarum ST-Ⅲon Maltase%植物乳杆菌ST-Ⅲ发酵豆乳对麦芽糖酶的抑制作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩瑨; 吴正钧

    2013-01-01

      采用改良的体外模型测试了植物乳杆菌ST-Ⅲ发酵的各种豆乳对麦芽糖酶的抑制作用,并分析了豆乳发酵程度(以pH计)、发酵豆乳抽提物浓度与麦芽糖酶抑制率之间的对应关系。结果表明,ST-Ⅲ发酵大豆豆乳对麦芽糖酶的抑制率最高,并且随着发酵时间的延长,发酵产物对麦芽糖酶的抑制率越高。从固形物含量5%(质量分数)、发酵24 h的发酵豆乳制备的抽提物对于麦芽糖酶半抑制浓度为3.0 mg/mL。%  The inhibition effect of different fermented bean milks by Lactobacillus plantarum ST-Ⅲon maltase (EC 3.2.1.20) was assayed in an improved in vitro model. Furthermore, the correlation of the fermentation degree ( estimated by pH value ) as well as the concentration of extract from fermented soybean milk on the inhibition effect was tested. The results showed the fermented soybean milk by Lactobacillus plantarum ST-Ⅲdemonstrated the strongest inhibitory activity to maltase. The inhibition intensity increased along with the elongation of the fermentation period. The IC50 of crude extract prepared from the 5 %(w/w)soybean milk fermented by Lactobacillus plantarum ST-Ⅲfor 24 hr was 3 mg/mL.

  9. Effect of orally administered soy milk fermented with Lactobacillus plantarum LAB12 and physical exercise on murine immune responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appukutty, M; Ramasamy, K; Rajan, S; Vellasamy, S; Ramasamy, R; Radhakrishnan, A K

    2015-01-01

    Probiotics are live microorganisms that confer health benefits through the gastrointestinal microbiota. This nutritional supplement may benefit athletes who undergo rigorous training by maintaining their gastrointestinal functions and overall health. In this study the influence of moderate physical exercise using a graded treadmill exercise, alone or in combination with the consumption of a soy product fermented with Lactobacillus plantarum LAB12 (LAB12), on tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) responses was investigated in a murine model. Male BALB/c mice were randomly divided into four groups of six mice each (control, exercise alone, LAB12 and LAB12 + exercise). Mice treated with the potential probiotic LAB12 were orally gavaged for 42 days. At autopsy, blood and spleen from the animals were collected. The splenocytes were cultured in the presence of a mitogen, concanavalin A (Con A). The amount of TNF-α produced by the Con A-stimulated splenocytes was quantified using ELISA, while their proliferation was determined using the [(3)H]-thymidine incorporation method. This study shows that LAB12-supplemented and exercise-induced mice showed marked increase (P<0.05) in cell proliferation compared to the control animals. TNF-α production was suppressed (P<0.05) in the LAB12 group compared to the untreated mice. These results demonstrate that supplementation with LAB12 has immunomodulatory effects, under conditions of moderate physical exercise, which may have implications for human athletes. Further investigation in human trials is warranted to confirm and extrapolate these findings.

  10. The Use of Lactic Acid Bacteria Starter Culture in the Production of Nunu, a Spontaneously Fermented Milk Product in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fortune Akabanda

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nunu, a spontaneously fermented yoghurt-like product, is produced and consumed in parts of West Africa. A total of 373 predominant lactic acid bacteria (LAB previously isolated and identified from Nunu product were assessed in vitro for their technological properties (acidification, exopolysaccharides production, lipolysis, proteolysis and antimicrobial activities. Following the determination of technological properties, Lactobacillus fermentum 22-16, Lactobacillus plantarum 8-2, Lactobacillus helveticus 22-7, and Leuconostoc mesenteroides 14-11 were used as single and combined starter cultures for Nunu fermentation. Starter culture fermented Nunu samples were assessed for amino acids profile and rate of acidification and were subsequently evaluated for consumer acceptability. For acidification properties, 82%, 59%, 34%, and 20% of strains belonging to Lactobacillus helveticus, L. plantarum, L. fermentum, and Leu. mesenteriodes, respectively, demonstrated fast acidification properties. High proteolytic activity (>100 to 150 μg/mL was observed for 50% Leu. mesenteroides, 40% L. fermentum, 41% L. helveticus, 27% L. plantarum, and 10% Ent. faecium species. In starter culture fermented Nunu samples, all amino acids determined were detected in Nunu fermented with single starters of L. plantarum and L. helveticus and combined starter of L. fermntum and L. helveticus. Consumer sensory analysis showed varying degrees of acceptability for Nunu fermented with the different starter cultures.

  11. Influence of carbohydrates on feed intake, rumen fermentation and milk performance in high-yielding dairy cows

    OpenAIRE

    de Visser

    1993-01-01

    Food for human consumption originates directly from plants, after processing, or indirectly by conversion of plant materials into food of animal origin through livestock. An important example of food of animal origin are dairy products such as milk, cheese, butter, yoghurt, etc.

    During the last decades milk production from Dutch dairy herds has increased considerably. This increase in production, yield and content, was the result of a combination of improvements in genetic po...

  12. New insight into microbial diversity and functions in traditional Vietnamese alcoholic fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thanh, Vu Nguyen; Thuy, Nguyen Thanh; Chi, Nguyen Thuy; Hien, Dinh Duc; Ha, Bui Thi Viet; Luong, Dao Thi; Ngoc, Pham Duc; Ty, Pham Van

    2016-09-02

    The roles of microorganisms in traditional alcoholic fermentation are often assumed based on abundance in the starter and activity in pure culture. There is a serious lack of hard evidence on the behavior and activity of individual microbial species during the actual fermentation process. In this study, microbial succession and metabolite changes during 7days of traditional Vietnamese alcoholic fermentation were monitored. Special attention was devoted to starch degradation. In total, 22 microbial species, including 6 species of filamentous fungi (Rhizopus microsporus, Rhizopus arrhizus, Mucor indicus, Mucor circinelloides, Cunninghamella elegans, Aspergillus niger), 1 yeast-like fungus (Saccharomycopsis fibuligera), 7 yeasts (Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Clavispora lusitaniae, Wickerhamomyces anomalus, Lindnera fabianii, Pichia kudriavzevii, Candida rugosa, Candida tropicalis), and 8 bacteria (Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, Lactobacillus brevis, Lactobacillus helveticus, Acinetobacter baumannii, Staphylococcus hominis, Bacillus megaterium, Enterobacter asburiae, Pediococcus pentosaceus) were identified. Despite the presence of a complex microbiota in the starter, the fermentation process is consistent and involves a limited number of functional species. Rapid change in microbial composition of fermentation mash was observed and it was correlated with ethanol content. Microbial biomass reached maximum during first 2days of solid state fermentation. Acidification of the medium took place in day 1, starch degradation in days 2, 3, 4, and alcohol accumulation from day 3. Although Sm. fibuligera dominated by cell count amongst potential starch degraders, zymography indicated that it did not produce amylase in the fermentation mash. In mixed culture with Rhizopus, amylase production by Sm. fibuligera is regulated by the moisture content of the substrate. Rhizopus was identified as the main starch degrader and S. cerevisiae as the main ethanol producer. Bacterial load was

  13. 益生菌发酵驼乳对慢性肾功能衰竭的治疗作用%The rapeutic Action of Probiotic Fermented Camel Milk on Chronic Renal Failure Rats Caused by Adenine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李建美; 潘蕾; 张敏; 王娟; 刘薇; 郭春燕; 李擎; 吉日木图

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To compare the different therapeutic Failure(CRF) of rats. Method: CRF rat models induced by fermentation camel milk. And then evaluated the therapeutic action of probiotics felTnented camel milk on Chronic Renal adenine were received intragastric administration with probiotic effect of three kinds of fermented camel milk by measure the diet and water intake, weight, kidney index, serum creatinine(Scr), Urea Nitrogen(BUN), nitric oxide(NO), superoxide dismutase(SOD), serum total protein(STP), calcium(Ca), phosphorus(P), urine volume in 24 hours, urine protein(UP) and the Renal Biopsy. Result: The result showed that fermentation camel milk can reduce the serum level of Set and BUN, slow down UP, ameliorate the balance of calcium and phosphorus, enhanced the level of SOD and STP and alleviated pathological changes of the kidney tissue. Conclusion: Different kinds of probiotic fermented camel milk are effective in treating CRF of rats and the effect of camel milk fermented by L.casei Zhang is superior to camel milk fermented by other probiotics.%目的:比较不同菌种发酵的驼乳制品对腺嘌呤所致大鼠慢性。肾功能衰竭(CRF)的缓解作用。方法:采用腺嘌呤复制CRF大鼠模型,以不同发酵剂发酵的驼乳作为受试物进行灌胃干预。通过检测大鼠的饮食饮水情况、排尿量、尿液和血清常规指标及肾脏病理组织学变化,评估各发酵驼乳对CRF大鼠的治疗效果。结果:发酵驼乳均可改善肾功能衰竭大鼠的一般生理状况,可降低大鼠血肌酐(Scr)、尿素氦(BUN)水平,减缓尿蛋白(UP),调节Ca、P的含量,提高过氧化物歧化酶(SOD)、血清总蛋白(STP)水平,具有保护肾功能的作用,其中LIcaseiZhang发酵的驼乳对CRF大鼠的改善效果最佳。

  14. In silico analysis of amino acid biosynthesis and proteolysis in Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus 2038 and the implications for bovine milk fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Huajun; Liu, Enuo; Hao, Pei; Konno, Tomonobu; Oda, Munehiro; Ji, Zai-Si

    2012-08-01

    The amino acid biosynthesis pathway and proteolytic system of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus 2038 (L. bulgaricus 2038), a mainstay of large-scale yogurt production, were modeled based on its genomic sequence. L. bulgaricus 2038 retains more potential for amino acid synthesis and a more powerful proteolytic system than other L. bulgaricus strains, but favors amino acid uptake over de novo synthesis. Free amino acids and peptides in bovine milk provide the main nitrogen sources; whey is more important than casein for L. bulgaricus during fermentation. Free amino acids are imported by amino acid permeases and by ABC-type transport systems whereas exogenous oligopeptides are imported by ABC-type proteins only. Histidine is neither synthesized nor imported singly, which might explain why L. bulgaricus cannot grow in synthetic media.

  15. Harnessing functional food strategies for the health challenges of space travel—Fermented soy for astronaut nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Nicole D.; Champagne, Claude P.; Masotti, Adriana I.; Wagar, Lisa E.; Tompkins, Thomas A.; Green-Johnson, Julia M.

    2011-04-01

    Astronauts face numerous health challenges during long-duration space missions, including diminished immunity, bone loss and increased risk of radiation-induced carcinogenesis. Changes in the intestinal flora of astronauts may contribute to these problems. Soy-based fermented food products could provide a nutritional strategy to help alleviate these challenges by incorporating beneficial lactic acid bacteria, while reaping the benefits of soy isoflavones. We carried out strain selection for the development of soy ferments, selecting strains of lactic acid bacteria showing the most effective growth and fermentation ability in soy milk ( Streptococcus thermophilus ST5, Bifidobacterium longum R0175 and Lactobacillus helveticus R0052). Immunomodulatory bioactivity of selected ferments was assessed using an in vitro challenge system with human intestinal epithelial and macrophage cell lines, and selected ferments show the ability to down-regulate production of the pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-8 following challenge with tumour necrosis factor-alpha. The impact of fermentation on vitamin B1 and B6 levels and on isoflavone biotransformation to agluconic forms was also assessed, with strain variation-dependent biotransformation ability detected. Overall this suggests that probiotic bacteria can be successfully utilized to develop soy-based fermented products targeted against health problems associated with long-term space travel.

  16. Influence of Sweet Corn Juice on the Fermentation and Storage Characteristics of Sour Milk%甜玉米汁对酸奶发酵及贮藏特性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阎柳娟; 黄翠姬; 陶幼芬; 李军生

    2011-01-01

    [ Objective] The study aimed to provide theoretical basis for developing sour milk product with sweet corn juice. [ Method] The sour milk with sweet corn juice was prepared with whole milk powder, white granulated sugar and sweet corn juice as raw materials and the influence of sweet corn juice on the pH value, fitratable acidity, biacetyl content and total number of lactobacilli of sour milk during fermentation and storage process was studied. [ Result ] The milk-clotting time of sour milk added with corn juice was shorter, the milk-clotting effect was better, the titratable acidity was increased faster, and the more the sweet corn juice was added, the shorter the milk-clotting time of sour milk was. During fermentation process, the biacetyl content of sour milk added with sweet corn juice was lower than that of sour milk without sweet corn juice. During storage, the titratable acidity of sour milk added with sweet corn juice was increased slowly relatively and the decrement of total number of lactobacilli was less. [ Conclusion] The addition of sweet corn juice could promote the growth of lactobacilli and inhibit the post-acidification phenomenon of sour milk to some degree.%[目的]为开发甜玉米汁酸奶产品提供理论依据.[方法]以全脂奶粉、白砂糖和甜玉米汁为原料制备甜玉米汁酸奶,研究甜玉米汁对酸奶发酵及贮藏过程中pH、滴定酸度、双乙酰含量和乳酸菌总数的影响.[结果]添加玉米汁的酸奶凝乳时间较短,凝乳效果较好.滴定酸度增加较快,且甜玉米汁添加量越多,酸奶凝乳时间越短.在发酵过程中,添加甜玉米汁的酸奶双乙酰含量低于未添加组,而在贮藏过程中,添加甜玉米汁的酸奶滴定酸度增加较慢,乳酸菌总数下降较少.[结论]添加甜玉米汁可促进乳酸菌生长,并在一定程度上抑制酸奶的后酸化现象.

  17. Nutrient utilization, ruminal fermentation, microbial abundances, and milk yield and composition in dairy goats fed diets including tomato and cucumber waste fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Huelva, M; Ramos-Morales, E; Molina-Alcaide, E

    2012-10-01

    The effects of replacing 35% of cereals-based concentrate with feed blocks (FB) containing waste fruits of tomato, cucumber, or barley grain in diets for lactating goats on nutrient utilization, ruminal fermentation, microbial N flow to the duodenum, milk yield and quality, methane emissions, and abundances of total bacteria and methanogens were studied. Eight Murciano-Granadina goats (39.4 ± 5.39 kg of body weight, mean ± SD) in the middle of the third lactation were used and 4 diets were studied in a replicated 4×4 Latin square experimental design. Diets consisted of alfalfa hay (A) plus concentrate (C) in a 1:1 ratio (diet AC) or diets in which 35% of the concentrate was replaced with FB including wastes of tomato fruit, cucumber, or barley. In each period, 2 goats were randomly assigned to 1 of the dietary treatments. Intakes of FB including tomato, cucumber, and barley were 208 ± 65, 222 ± 52, and 209 ± 83 g of dry matter per animal and day, respectively. The replacement of 35% of concentrate with FB did not compromise nutrient apparent digestibility, total purine derivative urinary excretion, milk yield and composition, and total bacteria and methanogen abundances. Digestible energy and that in methane and urine were higher for AC than for FB-containing diets, whereas the metabolizable energy value was not affected by diet. The inclusion of tomato and cucumber fruits in FB decreased N in urine and CH(4) emissions compared with AC, which is environmentally relevant. However, tomato-based FB decreased microbial N flow in the rumen, whereas goats fed cucumber-based FB had the highest values for this measurement. Moreover, FB containing barley or tomato and cucumber led to lower rumen volatile fatty acid and NH(3)-N concentrations, respectively. Milk from goats fed diets including tomato and cucumber-based FB had higher linoleic, linolenic, and total polyunsaturated fatty acid concentrations than that from goats fed AC. Overall, our study suggests that

  18. Relationship of severity of subacute ruminal acidosis to rumen fermentation, chewing activities, sorting behavior, and milk production in lactating dairy cows fed a high-grain diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, X; Oba, M

    2014-05-01

    The objectives of the current study were to evaluate the variation in severity of subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA) among lactating dairy cows fed a high-grain diet and to determine factors characterizing animals that are tolerant to high-grain diets. Sixteen ruminally cannulated late-lactating dairy cows (days in milk=282 ± 33.8; body weight=601 ± 75.9 kg) were fed a high-grain diet consisting of 35% forage and 65% concentrate mix. After 17 d of diet adaptation, chewing activities were monitored for a 24-h period and ruminal pH was measured every 30s for 72 h. Acidosis index, defined as the severity of SARA (area of pH acidosis index ranged from 0.0 to 10.9 pH · min/kg of DMI. Six cows with the lowest acidosis index (0.04 ± 0.61 pH · min/kg) and 4 with the highest acidosis index (7.67 ± 0.75 pH · min/kg) were classified as animals that were tolerant and susceptible to the high-grain diet, respectively. Total volatile fatty acid concentration and volatile fatty acid profile were not different between the groups. Susceptible animals sorted against long particles, whereas tolerant animals did not (sorting index=87.6 vs. 97.9, respectively). However, the tolerant cows had shorter total chewing time (35.8 vs. 45.1 min/kg of DMI). In addition, although DMI, milk yield, and milk component yields did not differ between the groups, milk urea nitrogen concentration was higher for tolerant cows compared with susceptible cows (12.8 vs. 8.6 mg/dL), which is possibly attributed to less organic matter fermentation in the rumen of tolerant cows. These results suggest that a substantial variation exists in the severity of SARA among lactating dairy cows fed the same high-grain diet, and that cows tolerant to the high-grain diet might be characterized by less sorting behavior but less chewing time, and higher milk urea nitrogen concentration. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Disorder in milk proteins: structure, functional disorder, and biocidal potentials of lactoperoxidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almehdar, Hussein A; El-Fakharany, Esmail M; Uversky, Vladimir N; Redwan, Elrashdy M

    2015-01-01

    This article continues a series of reviews on the abundance and roles of intrinsic disorder in milk proteins. Besides caseins, which are the major proteinaceous constituents of any milk that can be isolated by isoelectric precipitation, milk contains a set of soluble whey proteins, such as β-lactoglobulin, α-lactalbumin, serum albumin, immunoglobulins, lactoferrin, lactoperoxidase, glycomacropeptide, and proteose peptone (the last two are soluble casein derivatives). Lactoferrin and lactoperoxidase (LPO) are known to possess prominent biocidal activity, serving as efficient antibiotics and antiviral agents against a wide spectrum of bacteria, fungi, and viruses. LPO is a heme-containing peroxidase expressed as preproprotein. The mature protein has a single catalytic domain, structure of which is known for a protein isolated from several species. Functionally, LPO is a crucial component of the LPO system that includes LPO, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and thiocyanate (SCN(-)), being a well-studied, naturally occurring antimicrobial system in milk that is effective against many microorganisms and some viruses. Although various aspects of LPO structure and function are rather well studied and were subjects of several recent reviews, the abundance and potential functional roles of intrinsically disordered regions in this protein have never being addressed as of yet. The major goal of this article is to fill this gap and to show how intrinsic disorder is encoded in the amino acid sequence of LPO, and how intrinsic disorder is related to functions of this important milk protein.

  20. 牛奶发泡酒发酵菌株构建及发酵工艺优化%Optimization of Fermentation Strain Production and Fermentation Technology of Milk Foaming Wine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭宝帅; 刘秀河

    2015-01-01

    首先构建牛奶发泡酒的发酵菌株,然后利用生产干酪后剩余的乳清为原料进行发酵产酒。具体操作为先对乳清进行超滤处理,去除影响产品口感的盐;然后接种乳酸菌发酵,以调节产品的口感;再添加乳糖酶分解乳糖;最后接种酵母菌进行发酵。并通过单一变量和正交试验确定了牛奶发泡酒的最佳工艺条件为1‰的乳糖酶添加量1mL/L,1%胰蛋白胨溶液添加量4mL/L,乳酸菌接种量5mL/L∶5mL/L和酵母菌接种量4%。%The fermentation strain of milk foaming wine was produced. Then a low-alcohol milk foaming wine with the whey from the production process of cheese as primary raw material was produced. Firstly,remov the salt in the whey by ultrafiltration,which will affect the taste. Secondly,adjust the mouthfeel of the product by inoculating with lactic acid bacteria;then broke down lactose by adding the enzyme lactase. Finally,inoculated yeast to produce alcohol by fermenting. By using the simple variable method and the orthogonal experimental design,the optimum condition for making milk foaming wine was determined: 1‰lactase was 0.95mL/L;1% tryptone was 0.5%;lactobacillus inoculation quantity was 4.5mL/L×4.5mL/L;yeast inoculation quantity was 0.5%.

  1. Efficacy of oral administration of lactic acid bacteria isolated from cocoa in a fermented milk preparation: reduction of colitis in an experimental rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos, T F; Melo, T A; Santos, D S; Rezende, R P; Dias, J C T; Romano, C C

    2016-07-29

    We investigated the probiotic potential of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) obtained from cocoa fermentation using an experimental rat model of colitis. Cocoa beans were collected from fermentation boxes every 12 h for 5 days to isolate the microorganisms. Strains were isolated by serial dilution and plating on MRS agar. Gram-positive and catalase-negative rods were subjected to DNA extraction, polymerase chain reaction, and sequencing. Ten strains were randomly pooled and used to prepare a fermented milk drink that was used to treat the experimental colitis. A parallel group was treated with a single strain drink. Serum concentrations of cytokines and IgA, total and differential counts of blood leukocytes, and histological appearance were compared with the untreated control colitis group. Eighty strains of LAB were identified as Lactobacillus fermentum (68) and Lactobacillus plantarum (12). The multi-strain LAB pool significantly reduced the total number of leukocytes. There was a significant reduction in the percentage of neutrophils and monocytes compared with the control colitis group. IFN-γ concentration was downregulated in animals treated with the LAB pool. IL-10 and IgA increased significantly in the group treated with the strains. Histological analysis showed that the LAB pool reduced the inflammatory infiltrate and restored tissue architecture. The group treated with the single strain LAB drink (L. fermentum) showed no signs of inflammation remission. The results confirm the probiotic action of cocoa-derived LAB in the treatment of experimental colitis. Studies using isogenic models and humans will clarify the mechanisms of immune response modulation in inflammatory bowel disease.

  2. [INFLUENCE OF THE REGULAR INTAKE OF FERMENTED MILK PRODUCTS ENRICHED BY MICRONUTRIENTS ON SOME INDICES OF IRON METABOLISM IN ADOLESCENTS INVOLVED IN SPORTS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turchaninov, D V; Bovarskaya, L A; Bogdashin, I V; Bagrova, L V; Gotwald, A R; Kozubenko, O V

    2015-01-01

    There was performed an experimental study of the influence of regular intake offermented milk enriched by products "Bifidin" and "Prolacta" on indices of iron metabolism in adolescents of 12-17 years, involved in sports (n = 94). In all study participants there was made double blood test (every 60 days), there were determined the levels of hemoglobin, serum iron, serum ferritin, C-reactive protein. The intervention in the main group (n = 68) was in daily intake offermented milk product in a volume of 200 ml (1 Cup) in addition to the normal diet within 2 months, including 35 cases who had used the bioproduct "Bifidin" and 33 persons- bioproduct "Prolacta". The control group was consisted of 26 persons from the adolescents engaged in the same sections, but not taking additional fermented milk drinks. The average values of all studied indices in adolescent athletes of the main and control groups before and after the intervention were consistent with reference values. Latent iron deficiency was detected in 23.4 ± 4.4% of adolescents involved in sports. At the second point of the research in two months of intake of enriched dairy products in the main group there was noticed the gain in levels of serum iron, ferritin, and the decline of the concentration of C-reactive protein. The results of the study allow us to consider enriched dairy products "Bifidin" and "Prolacta" as one of the components of complex measures of prophylaxis of hypovitaminosis and microelementoses in adolescents who are actively involved in sports.

  3. Study on improving the fermentation performance of Lactobacillus acidophilus in soybean milk%提高嗜酸乳杆菌在豆乳中发酵性能的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕慧超; 熊宇生; 刘伦伦; 夏延斌

    2011-01-01

    测定了嗜酸乳杆菌、保加利亚乳杆菌和嗜热链球菌发酵豆乳的单菌产酸曲线与混菌产酸曲线,并采用正交实验分析了它们对发酵豆乳的品质影响及与单菌发酵豆乳贮存期质量变化的比较.结果表明,嗜酸乳杆菌、保加利亚乳杆菌是影响酸豆乳质量的主要因素,嗜热链球菌次之.按体积分数为2.2%嗜酸乳杆菌、体积分数为3.0%保加利亚乳杆菌、体积分数为1.8%嗜热链球菌配比共同发酵,可得到组织状态、口感风味较好的酸豆乳,克服了单一嗜酸乳杆菌发酵豆乳产酸慢、凝乳时间长、活菌数不高且贮存期活菌数下降快的缺陷.%In this study,Single curves and the mixed lactic acid bacteria acid production curves of Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus bacteria fermented soybean milk were determined. By using the cross-experimental analysis method,their impact on the quality of fermented soybean milk were studied .Also,the quality changes of mixed bacteria and single-strain fermented soybean milk were compared during storage period. The results shows that Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus bulgaricus are the main factots in fermented soybean milk, followed by Streptococcus thermophilus; In accordance with the proportion of 2.2%Lactobacillus acidophilus,3.0%Lactoba cillusbulgaricusandl.8%Streptococc-us thermophilus to co-ferment soybean milk, we can get organized state and good taste ,which overcomes the defects of single Lactobacillus acidophilus in fermented soybean milk that produce acid slowly, curd for a long time, not high number of viable cells and fast -decreasing viable cells during storage period.

  4. 黑米发酵乳饮料配方的响应面法优化%Optimization of formula of black rice fermented milk beverages by response surface methodology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卞春; 季澜洋

    2016-01-01

    With black rice and skimmed milk powder as the main materials,the black rice was gelatinized and liquefied,and then mixed with skimmed milk powder,sugar and pectin. After fermented by the lactic acid bacteria,the milk beverages with living bacteria was made. The formula of black rice fermented milk beverages was optimized by Box–Behnken design based on single factor experiment. The optimal values of the above parameters were obtained as followed:skimmed milk powder content was 5.39 g/100mL,sugar content was 8.16 g/100mL and pectin content was 3.88 mL/100mL. Under these optimal conditions,the black rice fermented milk beverages with superior quality was obtained.%以新鲜黑米和脱脂乳粉为主要原料,黑米经糊化、液化后添加脱脂乳粉、白砂糖和果胶,经乳酸菌发酵后制得含有活菌的乳饮料。在单因素试验的基础上,利用Design–Expert软件进行三因素三水平的Box–Behnken试验设计,并对黑米发酵乳饮料的配方进行优化分析。通过响应面法分析确定黑米发酵乳饮料的最佳配方为脱脂乳粉5.39 g/100mL、白砂糖8.16 g/100mL、果胶3.88 mL/100mL。在此条件下,制备的黑米发酵乳饮料的口感、色泽和质地良好。

  5. Effect of dietary starch or micro algae supplementation on rumen fermentation and milk fatty acid composition of dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boeckaert, C.; Vlaeminck, B.; Dijkstra, J.; Issa-Zacharia, A.; Nespen, van T.; Straalen, van W.; Fievez, V.

    2008-01-01

    Two experiments with rumen-fistulated dairy cows were conducted to evaluate the effects of feeding docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; C22:6 n-3)-enriched diets or diets provoking a decreased rumen pH on milk fatty acid composition. In the first experiment, dietary treatments were tested during 21-d experime

  6. Influence of carbohydrates on feed intake, rumen fermentation and milk performance in high-yielding dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, de H.

    1993-01-01

    Food for human consumption originates directly from plants, after processing, or indirectly by conversion of plant materials into food of animal origin through livestock. An important example of food of animal origin are dairy products such as milk, cheese, butter, yoghurt, etc.

    Dur

  7. Influence of carbohydrates on feed intake, rumen fermentation and milk performance in high-yielding dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, de H.

    1993-01-01

    Food for human consumption originates directly from plants, after processing, or indirectly by conversion of plant materials into food of animal origin through livestock. An important example of food of animal origin are dairy products such as milk, cheese, butter, yoghurt,

  8. Nitrogen cycling in an ecological farming system of milk vetch culture - pig raising - biogas fermentation - rice culture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, J.R.; Berge, ten H.F.M.; Zhang, M.L.; Wu, J.F.; Guo, C.Z.; Liu, W.

    2002-01-01

    The [15]N - labeled technique was used to study the stock, transformation, fate and utilization efficiency of N in the farming-pig husbandry-biogas ecosystem in rice areas. It was shown that the crude protein digestibility of the ensilaged milk vetch by pig was 53.76%, the recovery rates of ensilage

  9. High throughput biotechnology in traditional fermented food industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yong; Xu, Rong-man; Song, Jia; Wang, Wei-min

    2010-11-01

    Traditional fermented food is not only the staple food for most of developing countries but also the key healthy food for developed countries. As the healthy function of these foods are gradually discovered, more and more high throughput biotechnologies are being used to promote the old and new industry. As a result, the microflora, manufacturing processes and product healthy function of these foods were pushed forward either in the respect of profundity or extensiveness nowadays. The application and progress of the high throughput biotechnologies into traditional fermented food industries were different from each other, which was reviewed and detailed by the catalogues of fermented milk products (yogurt, cheese), fermented sausages, fermented vegetables (kimchi, sauerkraut), fermented cereals (sourdough) and fermented beans (tempeh, natto). Given the further promotion by high throughput biotechnologies, the middle and/or down-stream process of traditional fermented foods would be optimized and the process of industrialization of local traditional fermented food having many functional factors but in small quantity would be accelerated. The article presents some promising patents on traditional fermented food industry.

  10. Lactic acid fermentation as a tool to enhance the functional features of Echinacea spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzello, Carlo Giuseppe; Coda, Rossana; Macías, Davinia Sánchez; Pinto, Daniela; Marzani, Barbara; Filannino, Pasquale; Giuliani, Giammaria; Paradiso, Vito Michele; Di Cagno, Raffaella; Gobbetti, Marco

    2013-05-04

    Extracts and products (roots and/or aerial parts) from Echinacea ssp. represent a profitable market sector for herbal medicines thanks to different functional features. Alkamides and polyacetylenes, phenols like caffeic acid and its derivatives, polysaccharides and glycoproteins are the main bioactive compounds of Echinacea spp. This study aimed at investigating the capacity of selected lactic acid bacteria to enhance the antimicrobial, antioxidant and immune-modulatory features of E. purpurea with the prospect of its application as functional food, dietary supplement or pharmaceutical preparation. Echinacea purpurea suspension (5%, wt/vol) in distilled water, containing 0.4% (wt/vol) yeast extract, was fermented with Lactobacillus plantarum POM1, 1MR20 or C2, previously selected from plant materials. Chemically acidified suspension, without bacterial inoculum, was used as the control to investigate functional features. Echinacea suspension fermented with Lb. plantarum C2 exhibited a marked antimicrobial activity towards Gram-positive and -negative bacteria. Compared to control, the water-soluble extract from Echinacea suspension fermented with Lactobacillus plantarum 1MR20 showed twice time higher radical scavenging activity on DPPH. Almost the same was found for the inhibition of oleic acid peroxidation. The methanol extract from Echinacea suspension had inherent antioxidant features but the activity of extract from the sample fermented with strain 1MR20 was the highest. The antioxidant activities were confirmed on Balb 3T3 mouse fibroblasts. Lactobacillus plantarum C2 and 1MR20 were used in association to ferment Echinacea suspension, and the water-soluble extract was subjected to ultra-filtration and purification through RP-FPLC. The antioxidant activity was distributed in a large number of fractions and proportional to the peptide concentration. The antimicrobial activity was detected only in one fraction, further subjected to nano-LC-ESI-MS/MS. A mixture of

  11. Exploitation of the nutritional and functional characteristics of traditional Italian legumes: the potential of sourdough fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curiel, José Antonio; Coda, Rossana; Centomani, Isabella; Summo, Carmine; Gobbetti, Marco; Rizzello, Carlo Giuseppe

    2015-03-02

    This study aimed at evaluating the composition of nineteen traditional Italian legumes and at investigating the potential of the sourdough fermentation with selected lactic acid bacteria to improve the nutritional and functional features. Traditional Italian legumes, all with product certifications and belonging to Phaseolus vulgaris, Cicer arietinum, Lathyrus sativus, Lens culinaris and Pisum sativum species, were used in this study. Seeds were milled, and flours were analyzed for proximate composition and subjected to sourdough fermentation at 30°C for 24h. Lactobacillus plantarum C48 and Lactobacillus brevis AM7 were used as selected starters. Compared to control doughs, without bacterial inoculum, the concentrations of free amino acids (FAA), soluble fibres, and total phenols increased for all legume sourdoughs. Raffinose decreased of up to ca. 64%. During sourdough fermentation, the level of GABA markedly increased and reached values up to 624mg/kg. Condensed tannins decreased. At the same time, almost all legume sourdoughs showed increases of the antioxidant and phytase activities. As shown by PCA analysis based on data of total FAA, GABA, raffinose, soluble/insoluble dietary fibre, condensed tannins and antioxidant and phytase activities, all legume sourdoughs were clearly differentiated from control doughs. The traditional Italian legumes are bio-diverse, and all showed high levels of nutritional elements and suitability for optimal sourdough fermentation. Legume flours subjected to sourdough fermentation would be suitable to be used alone or better in mixture with cereals, and as gluten-free ingredients for making novel and healthy foods.

  12. Replacing alfalfa silage with corn silage in dairy cow diets: Effects on enteric methane production, ruminal fermentation, digestion, N balance, and milk production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassanat, F; Gervais, R; Julien, C; Massé, D I; Lettat, A; Chouinard, P Y; Petit, H V; Benchaar, C

    2013-07-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of replacing alfalfa silage (AS) with corn silage (CS) in dairy cow total mixed rations (TMR) on enteric CH4 emissions, ruminal fermentation characteristics, apparent total-tract digestibility, N balance, and milk production. Nine ruminally cannulated lactating cows were used in a replicated 3×3 Latin square design (32-d period) and fed (ad libitum) a TMR [forage:concentrate ratio of 60:40; dry matter (DM) basis], with the forage portion consisting of either alfalfa silage (0% CS; 56.4% AS in the TMR), a 50:50 mixture of both silages (50% CS; 28.2% AS and 28.2% CS in the TMR), or corn silage (100% CS; 56.4% CS in the TMR). Increasing the CS proportion (i.e., at the expense of AS) in the diet was achieved by decreasing the corn grain proportion and increasing that of soybean meal. Intake of DM and milk yield increased quadratically, whereas DM digestibility increased linearly as the proportion of CS increased in the diet. Increasing the dietary CS proportion resulted in changes (i.e., lower ruminal pH and acetate:propionate ratio, reduced fiber digestibility, decreased protozoa numbers, and lower milk fat and higher milk protein contents) typical of those observed when cows are fed high-starch diets. A quadratic response in daily CH4 emissions was observed in response to increasing the proportion of CS in the diet (440, 483, and 434 g/d for 0% CS, 50% CS, and 100% CS, respectively). Methane production adjusted for intake of DM, and gross or digestible energy was unaffected in cows fed the 50% CS diet, but decreased in cows fed the 100% CS diet (i.e., quadratic effect). Increasing the CS proportion in the diet at the expense of AS improved N utilization, as reflected by the decreases in ruminal NH3 concentration and manure N excretion, suggesting low potential NH3 and N2O emissions. Results from this study, suggest that total replacement of AS with CS in dairy cow diets offers a means of decreasing CH4 output

  13. Folk to functional: An explorative overview of rice-based fermented foods and beverages in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mousumi Ray

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Fermented foods share an integral part of age-old wisdom from ancient Indian civilization. Over the generations, this pioneering practice of food fermentation has expanded and improved to preserve and fortify the available food resources, particularly to meet the hidden hunger. India, being the second largest producer of rice, has a great history of traditional rice-based fermented foods with different tastes and textures linked with cultural diversity and mostly prepared by rural women following village art techniques. Some of them have been scientifically investigated and it has been revealed that microflora in natural or starter culture plays imperative roles to bio-embolden the rice with varieties of health promoting macronutrients and micronutrients, phytochemicals, and other functional components during fermentation. In this review, some explorative information on traditional rice-based foods and beverages has been assembled to illustrate the global interest in Indian food heritage and their functional aspects. The review also deals with the preparation of raw materials, traditional processing, composition, and ethno-medicinal importance of each food to encourage entrepreneurs to develop large-scale production to meet the growing market demand of functional foods.

  14. Is Lactate an undervalued functional component of lactic acid bacteria-fermented food products?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graciela eGarrote

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Although it has been traditionally regarded as an intermediate of carbon metabolism and major component of fermented dairy products contributing to organoleptic and antimicrobial properties of food, there is evidence gathered in recent years that lactate has bioactive properties that may be responsible of broader properties of functional foods. Lactate can regulate critical functions of several key players of the immune system such as macrophages and dendritic cells, being able to modulate inflammatory activation of epithelial cells as well. Intraluminal levels of lactate derived from fermentative metabolism of lactobacilli have been shown to modulate inflammatory environment in intestinal mucosa. The molecular mechanisms responsible to these functions, including histone deacetylase dependent-modulation of gene expression and signalling through G-protein coupled receptors have started to be described. Since lactate is a major fermentation product of several bacterial families with probiotic properties, we here propose that it may contribute to some of the properties attributed to these microorganisms and in a larger view, to the properties of food products fermented by lactic acid bacteria.

  15. Digital Prototyping of Milk Products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frisvad, Jeppe Revall; Nielsen, Otto Højager Attermann; Skytte, Jacob Lercke

    2012-01-01

    of most foods make them much more challenging to visualise and simulate realistically. We present models and methods that take steps toward digital prototyping of milk products and other food colloids. To simulate the dynamics of liquid products that only exist digitally, we use deformable simplicial...... or asymmetry parameter) are the input needed for a Monte Carlo based graphical rendering. We have developed a model for predicting the optical properties of milk as a function of its fat and protein contents [4]. However, the model has only been validated to a limited extent. We suggest that diffuse...... reflectance measurements can be used for more extensive validation and for gathering data that can be used to extend our current model such that it can also predict how the optical properties develop during fermentation or acidification of milk to yogurt. A well-established way of measuring optical properties...

  16. 大豆乳混合牛乳制备仿开菲尔发酵条件的优化%Optimization of Fermentation Conditions for the Preparation of Soybean Milk Mixed with Milk:Semi-Kefir

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪建明; 陶杰; 贾磊

    2014-01-01

    研究大豆乳混合牛乳发酵制备一种仿开菲尔产品.在前期单因素实验确定混合乳制备仿开菲尔的酵母菌和乳酸菌的接种量分别为1.0×105,mL-1和1.0×107,mL-1、最佳的发酵温度为22,℃的条件下,通过单因素实验和中心复合设计实验得到优化混合乳发酵制备仿开菲尔的最佳工艺条件:牛乳与豆乳的添加比例为7﹕3,蔗糖添加量为1.6%,发酵时间为22,h.在此条件下所得产品的 pH 为4.32,酸度为0.73%,乙醇含量为1.398,mg/g,黏度为2.990,Pa·s.与市售开菲尔产品感官对比,所得产品质地细腻、酸度适宜、香气协调,改善了传统开菲尔的风味,更适宜我国消费者.%A kind of semi-Kefir production which was fermented with soymilk and milk was prepared. The amount of yeast and lactic acid bacteria and the best fermentation temperature were 1.0×105,mL-1,1.0×107,mL-1,and 22,℃,which were determined by early single-factor experiments. Based on single factors and central composite design experiments,the opti-mum processing conditions of imitation Kefir were determined as follow:the ratio of pure milk to soy milk was 7﹕3,the sugar added was 1.6%,and the fermentation time was 22,hours. In the optimized conditions,the pH,acidity,ethanol concen-tration,viscosity of the product were 4.32,0.73%,1.398,mg/g and 2.990,Pa·s,respectively. Compared with commercially available Kefir in the sensory evaluation,the product in this research had better texture,the pH was more suitable,the aroma was more appropriately coordinated,and the traditional flavor of Kefir was improved as well. Therefore,this product can be more acceptable by Chinese consumers.

  17. 紫背天葵色素对酸豆奶发酵进程的影响%Influence of Begonia Fimbristipula Hance Pigment on Fermentation Process of Sour Soy Milk

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔蕊静; 康维民; 郭朔

    2013-01-01

    soybeans were the main raw materials and the pigment extracted from begonia fimbristipula hance was added into soy milk to make sour soy milk through the process of lactic acid fermentation, with lactobacillus bulgari-cus and streptococcus thermophilus mixed in an equal ratio as leavening agent. Through single factor test, we explored the influence of begonia fimbristipula hance pigment on fermentation pH, number of lactic acid bacteria, quality and preservation performance of sour soy milk. As the results showed, in the soy milk where the soybean and water mass proportion was 1: 10, we added 6% begonia fimbristipula hance pigment extract, 6% sucrose and 2% glucose , and when they were cooled to 43℃ after 30 min of 85℃ sterilization we inoculated 3% lactic acid bacteria for 6 hours of fermentation. In this process, begonia fimbristipula hance pigment was beneficial to growth and reproduction of lactic acid bacteria, accelerated the process of acid fermentation of soy milk, shortened the fermentation time, and could improve the product tissue state and preservation performance. With bright red color, manufactured sour soy milk had delicate tissue, good coagulation, good taste and flavor and high nutritional value.%大豆为主要原料,将紫背天葵提取色素添加到豆奶中,保加利亚乳杆菌和嗜热链球菌等比混合为发酵剂进行乳酸发酵制酸豆奶.通过单因素试验,探讨紫背天葵色素对酸豆奶发酵pH、乳酸菌数、酸豆奶品质及保藏性能的影响.结果表明,豆水质量比为1:10的豆奶中添加6%紫背天葵色素提取液,6%蔗糖和2%葡萄糖,85℃杀菌30 min后冷却至43℃,接种3%乳酸菌发酵6h,紫背天葵色素的添加有利于乳酸菌的生长繁殖,加速酸豆奶的发酵进程,缩短发酵时间,能改善产品的组织状态,提高产品的保藏性能.制得的酸豆奶色泽鲜红,组织细腻,凝固性好,滋味和气味优良,营养价值高.

  18. Qualitative Study of Functional Groups and Antioxidant Properties of Soy-Based Beverages Compared to Cow Milk

    OpenAIRE

    Alessandra Durazzo; Paolo Gabrielli; Pamela Manzi

    2015-01-01

    Soy-based beverages are a source of high quality proteins and balanced nutrients; they thus represent an alternative to milk in case of allergy to cow milk proteins or intolerance to lactose. In this research, antioxidant properties of soy-based beverages and UHT cow milk were studied. In addition, color parameters, by a quick and non-destructive methodology, were studied in order to verify a possible correlation with antioxidant properties and a qualitative analysis of the major functional ...

  19. 哈蟆油发酵乳中蛋白质及氨基酸含量分析%Analysis of protein and amino acid content of Oviductus Ranae in fermented milk

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘同帅; 邱智东; 翁丽丽; 郝洁; 翁砚

    2016-01-01

    Objective To establish a method for analysis of protein and amino acidcontent of Ranae Oviductus fermented milk. Methods Using Coomassie bright blue for determination of Ranae Oviductus fermented milk protein content,determination of the content of amino acids by automatic amino acid analyzer. Results The three batch of Ranae Oviductus fermented milk protein content were 8. 050 1,8. 093 0,7. 758 2 mg/mL. The average total amino acid content was 15. 320 5 mg/mL. Conclusion Ranae Oviductus in fermented milk containing synthetic human body needs protein rich amino acids.%目的:建立哈蟆油发酵乳中蛋白质及氨基酸含量分析方法。方法运用考马斯亮蓝法测定哈蟆油发酵乳中蛋白质含量,运用氨基酸自动分析仪测定哈蟆油发酵乳中氨基酸的含量。结果3批哈蟆油发酵乳蛋白含量分别为8.0501、8.0930、7.7582 mg/mL。平均总氨基酸的含量为15.3205 mg/mL。结论哈蟆油发酵乳中含有合成人体所需蛋白质及丰富的氨基酸。

  20. Physicochemical, functional and sensory attributes of milk prepared from irradiated tiger nut (Cyperus esculentus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abenaa A. Okyere

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Five tiger nut (Cyperus esculentus L. cultivars were collected from four different regions of Ghana and irradiated. The aim of this study was to evaluate some physicochemical, functional and sensory qualities of milk produced from irradiated tiger nut samples. Analysis was carried out for pH, total solids, moisture, sugar brix and viscosity. Finally the consumer acceptability of the milk prepared from the nuts was determined by a taste panel using the parameters of colour, taste, aroma, mouth feel and overall acceptability. The sugar content varied from 6.0 ± 0.3% (Techiman to 15.00 ± 1.00% (Asebu Ekroful depending on the irradiation dose applied. Generally, increase in dose increased the sugar availability but decreased viscosity of the milk prepared from the nuts. The milk with the highest viscosity was from Kwahu Aduamoa and Techiman with the least viscosity from Bawjiase. Generally, no significant difference was detected by the sensory panellists with regard to mouth feel and taste among the milk samples prepared from the various tiger nut cultivars.

  1. 生产乳豆混合开菲尔的酵母菌株的筛选%Selection of Yeast Strains for Kefir Fermentation from Milk and Soymilk Mixture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    耿媛; 汪建明; 李立英; 贾磊

    2012-01-01

    The yeast strains for traditional kefir fermentation were not suitable for milk and soybean milk. Some indicators such as total acid, sugar in the fermented kefir were detected by intervals during the fermentation in order to screen out the suitable yeast strain from S. cerevisiae Yl, S. cerevisiae Y2, S. ellipsoideus Y3 and S. fragrans Y4. The result showed that S. cerevisiae Yl grew well in mixed milk kefir, produced the high amount of total acid, had the relatively strong ability of decomposition of sugar, and produced the suitable amount of ethanol. After 32h fermentation, in the milk and soymilk kefir fermented by S. cerevisiae Yl, the viable count was 7.261og l0cells/mL; pH was 5.52; total acid value was 0.57%; sugar value was 3.10g/L and ethanol content was 1547.60μg/g. And the flavor profile of the fermented kefir was good. Therefore, S. cerevisiae Yl was selected as the best yeast strain for fermentation.%用于传统开菲尔的发酵酵母不适合发酵乳豆混合开菲尔.通过测定发酵过程中的酸度、残糖等指标,从S.cerevisiae Y1、S.cerevisiae Y2、S.ellipsoideus Y3及S.fragrans Y4四种酵母中筛选乳豆混合开菲尔的适合发酵菌株.结果表明,S.cerevisiae Y1生长较好,产酸较强,利用糖能力中等,产醇适宜.发酵32h时,S.cerevisiae Y1发酵的开菲尔中活菌数为7.26log 10CFU/mL,pH为5.52,酸度值为0.57%,残糖为3.10g/L,乙醇含量为1547.60μg/g.结合S.cerevisiae Y1的开菲尔感官品质较优,因此将其作为乳豆混合开菲尔的最佳发酵菌株.

  2. Effect of homogenization of cream on composition, yield, and functionality of Cheddar cheese made from milk supplemented with ultrafiltered milk

    OpenAIRE

    Oommen, Bonney; Mistry, Vikram; Nair, Manoj

    2000-01-01

    International audience; Cheddar cheeses were made from milks supplemented with ultrafiltered skim milk to 4.57 and 5.93% protein and from milks without supplementation to serve as controls (3.18% protein). Milks were standardized (casein-to-fat ratio of 0.7) with unhomogenized cream or homogenized (6.9/3.45 MPa) cream. The six treatments were replicated five times. Rennet clotting time decreased with protein concentration and homogenization of cream increased it. $\\rm k_{20}$, the time to rea...

  3. 响应面法优化乳杆菌发酵生产奶味香精的工艺研究%Study on the Technology of Milk Flavor Produced by Fermentation with Lactobacillus bulgaricus via Response Surface Methodology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王军喜; 赵翾; 钱敏; 赵文红

    2012-01-01

    主要研究了利用响应面法优化保加利亚乳杆菌发酵生产奶味香精的工艺条件.选择底物浓度、菌种接种量、发酵温度、发酵时间为考察因索,利用Design-Expert软件进行设计和分析,确定了发酵产香的最佳工艺条件为:底物浓度21%、菌种接种量16%、发酵温度38℃、发酵时间21h.%This paper mainly studied the technology of the milk flavor which was produced by fermentation with Lactobacillus bulgaricus via response surface methodology. The substrate concentration, inoculation quantity, the fermentation temperature and ferment time were selected as the factor lever, then the Design-expert software was used to design and analyse the technology condition. The results showed the optimum fermentation technological conditions as follows: substrate concentration 21 %, inoculation quantity of the strain 16% . the fermentation temperature 38 ℃ and ferment 21 h.

  4. Research on the Processing Technology of Adding the Cornus Ofifcinalis Juice in Fermented Goat Milk%山茱萸发酵酸羊乳的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦立虎; 任江红; 马兆瑞; 乔成亚

    2014-01-01

    研究采用酸羊乳为主要原料,添加白砂糖、山茱萸汁、柠檬酸、香精、增稠剂、乳化剂、螯合剂等辅料,经均质、杀菌、冷却、灌装等加工工艺制成一种保健型发酵酸羊乳。试验结果:料液混合比例为酸羊乳37%,白砂糖10%,山茱萸汁10%,稳定剂0.55%,柠檬酸0.1%~0.2%,柠檬酸钠0.02%,六偏磷酸钠0.03%,香精0.08%,其余为水;加工工艺参数为料液混合温度30~40℃,均质条件18~20 MPa,杀菌条件120℃/20 s,在2~6℃条件下存放。%The study used fermented goat milk as the main raw material, by adding sugar, Cornus ofifcinalis juice, citric acid, lfavor, stabilizers, chelating agents and other excipients, then through homogenization, sterilization, cooling, ifling and other processes to made into a health drink. The results are as folows: the amount of different materials, fermented milk 37%, sugar 10%, Cornus ofifcinalis juice 10%, stabilizer 0.55%, citric acid 0.1%~0.2%, Sodium citrate 0.02%, sodium hexametaphosphate 0.03%, essence 0.08%, the rest is water; the optimum process conditions, mixing temperature is 30~40℃, homogenization pressure is 18~20 MPa, and the sterilization condition to be as 120℃、20 s and stored at 2~6℃.

  5. Fibroblast growth factor 21 in breast milk controls neonatal intestine function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavaldà-Navarro, Aleix; Hondares, Elayne; Giralt, Marta; Mampel, Teresa; Iglesias, Roser; Villarroya, Francesc

    2015-09-02

    FGF21 is a hormonal factor with important functions in the control of metabolism. FGF21 is found in rodent and human milk. Radiolabeled FGF21 administered to lactating dams accumulates in milk and is transferred to neonatal gut. The small intestine of neonatal (but not adult) mice highly expresses β-Klotho in the luminal area. FGF21-KO pups fed by FGF21-KO dams showed decreased expression and circulating levels of incretins (GIP and GLP-1), reduced gene expression of intestinal lactase and maltase-glucoamylase, and low levels of galactose in plasma, all associated with a mild decrease in body weight. When FGF21-KO pups were nursed by wild-type dams (expressing FGF21 in milk), intestinal peptides and digestive enzymes were up-regulated, lactase enzymatic activity was induced, and galactose levels and body weight were normalized. Neonatal intestine explants were sensitive to FGF21, as evidenced by enhanced ERK1/2 phosphorylation. Oral infusion of FGF21 into neonatal pups induced expression of intestinal hormone factors and digestive enzymes, lactase activity and lactose absorption. These findings reveal a novel role of FGF21 as a hormonal factor contributing to neonatal intestinal function via its presence in maternal milk. Appropriate signaling of FGF21 to neonate is necessary to ensure optimal digestive and endocrine function in developing intestine.

  6. Fermented milk containing Bifidobacterium lactis DN-173 010 in childhood constipation: a randomized, double-blind, controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabbers, Merit M; Chmielewska, Ania; Roseboom, Maaike G; Crastes, Nolwenn; Perrin, Catherine; Reitsma, Johannes B; Norbruis, Obbe; Szajewska, Hania; Benninga, Marc A

    2011-06-01

    Constipation is a frustrating symptom affecting 3% of children worldwide. A fermented dairy product containing Bifidobacterium lactis strain DN-173 010 was effective in increasing stool frequency in constipated women. Our aim was to assess the effects of this product in constipated children. In this prospective randomized, double-blind, controlled trial, 159 constipated children (defecation frequency DN-173 010 (n = 79) or a control product (n = 80) twice a day for 3 weeks. The primary endpoint was the change in stool frequency from baseline to after 3 weeks of product consumption. Analyses were by intention to treat. Eleven children did not return to any follow-up visit (5 in the probiotic group, 6 in the control group) and were therefore excluded from the final analysis. Thus, 74 children in each group were analyzed. The change in stool frequency from baseline to after 3 weeks of product consumption increased in both groups, but the difference was not statistically significant (2.9 ± 3.2 in probiotic group versus 2.6 ± 2.6 in control group, P = .35). There were no serious adverse events. In constipated children, the fermented dairy product containing B lactis strain DN-173 010 did increase stool frequency, but this increase was comparable in the control group. There is currently not sufficient evidence to recommend fermented dairy products containing B lactis strain DN-173 010 in this category of patients. Future studies should focus on whether a longer period of probiotic products is more effective in children who have a short history of constipation.

  7. Functional Resilience and Response to a Dietary Additive (Kefir in Models of Foregut and Hindgut Microbial Fermentation In Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel de la Fuente

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Stability in gut ecosystems is an important area of study that impacts on the use of additives and is related with several pathologies. Kefir is a fermented milk drink made with a consortium of yeast and bacteria as a fermentation starter, of which the use as additive in companion and livestock animals has increased in the last few years. To investigate the effect of kefir milk on foregut and hindgut digestive systems, an in vitro approach was followed. Either rumen fluid or horse fecal contents were used as a microbial inoculate and the inclusion of kefir (fresh, autoclaved, or pasteurized was tested. Gas production over 72 h of incubation was recorded and pH, volatile fatty acids (VFAs, lactate and ammonia concentration as well as lactic acid (LAB and acetic acid bacteria, and yeast total numbers were also measured. Both direct and indirect (by subtracting their respective blanks effects were analyzed and a multivariate analysis was performed to compare foregut and hindgut fermentation models. Addition of kefir boosted the fermentation by increasing molar concentration of VFAs and ammonia and shifting the Acetate to Propionate ratio in both models but heat processing techniques like pasteurization or autoclaving influenced the way the kefir is fermented and reacts with the present microbiota. In terms of comparison between both models, the foregut model seems to be less affected by the inclusion of Kefir than the hindgut model. In terms of variability in the response, the hindgut model appeared to be more variable than the foregut model in the way that it reacted indirectly to the addition of different types of kefir.

  8. Functional Resilience and Response to a Dietary Additive (Kefir) in Models of Foregut and Hindgut Microbial Fermentation In Vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Fuente, Gabriel; Jones, Eleanor; Jones, Shann; Newbold, Charles J

    2017-01-01

    Stability in gut ecosystems is an important area of study that impacts on the use of additives and is related with several pathologies. Kefir is a fermented milk drink made with a consortium of yeast and bacteria as a fermentation starter, of which the use as additive in companion and livestock animals has increased in the last few years. To investigate the effect of kefir milk on foregut and hindgut digestive systems, an in vitro approach was followed. Either rumen fluid or horse fecal contents were used as a microbial inoculate and the inclusion of kefir (fresh, autoclaved, or pasteurized) was tested. Gas production over 72 h of incubation was recorded and pH, volatile fatty acids (VFAs), lactate and ammonia concentration as well as lactic acid (LAB) and acetic acid bacteria, and yeast total numbers were also measured. Both direct and indirect (by subtracting their respective blanks) effects were analyzed and a multivariate analysis was performed to compare foregut and hindgut fermentation models. Addition of kefir boosted the fermentation by increasing molar concentration of VFAs and ammonia and shifting the Acetate to Propionate ratio in both models but heat processing techniques like pasteurization or autoclaving influenced the way the kefir is fermented and reacts with the present microbiota. In terms of comparison between both models, the foregut model seems to be less affected by the inclusion of Kefir than the hindgut model. In terms of variability in the response, the hindgut model appeared to be more variable than the foregut model in the way that it reacted indirectly to the addition of different types of kefir.

  9. Effects of feeding lauric acid on ruminal protozoa numbers, fermentation, and digestion and on milk production in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faciola, A P; Broderick, G A

    2013-05-01

    The objectives of this study were 1) to determine the level of lauric acid (LA) addition to the diet necessary to effectively suppress ruminal protozoa (RP) to the extent observed when a single dose was given directly into the rumen, 2) to assess LA effects on production and ruminal metabolism, and 3) to determine the time needed for RP to reestablish themselves after LA is withdrawn from the diet of lactating dairy cows. In Exp. 1, 2 Holstein cows fitted with ruminal cannulae were used in a split-plot design pilot study. Both cows consumed the same level of LA, starting with 0 g/d and increasing to 129, 270, and 438 g/d mixed into the diet. Diets were fed as total mixed ration (TMR) and contained (DM basis) 30% corn silage, 30% alfalfa silage, and 40% concentrate. Lauric acid intake linearly decreased DMI (P = 0.03), RP numbers (P digestibility (P < 0.01); and milk production and milk components (P < 0.01). Therefore, LA does not appear to be a feasible RP suppressant for feeding in practical diets.

  10. Methane production, nutrient digestion, ruminal fermentation, N balance, and milk production of cows fed timothy silage- or alfalfa silage-based diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassanat, F; Gervais, R; Massé, D I; Petit, H V; Benchaar, C

    2014-10-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of changing forage source in dairy cow diets from timothy silage (TS) to alfalfa silage (AS) on enteric CH₄ emissions, ruminal fermentation characteristics, digestion, milk production, and N balance. Nine ruminally cannulated lactating cows were used in a replicated 3 × 3 Latin square design (32-d period) and fed (ad libitum) a total mixed ration (TMR; forage:concentrate ratio of 60:40, dry matter basis), with the forage portion consisting of either TS (0% AS; 0% AS and 54.4% TS in the TMR), a 50:50 mixture of both silages (50% AS; 27.2% AS and 27.2% TS in the TMR), or AS (100% AS; 54.4% AS and 0% TS in the TMR). Compared with TS, AS contained less (36.9 vs. 52.1%) neutral detergent fiber but more (20.5 vs. 13.6%) crude protein (CP). In sacco 24-h ruminal degradability of organic matter (OM) was higher for AS than for TS (73.5 vs. 66.9%). Replacement of TS with AS in the diet entailed increasing proportions of corn grain and bypass protein supplement at the expense of soybean meal. As the dietary proportion of AS increased, CP and starch concentrations increased, whereas fiber content declined in the TMR. Dry matter intake increased linearly with increasing AS proportions in the diet. Apparent total-tract digestibility of OM and gross energy remained unaffected, whereas CP digestibility increased linearly and that of fiber decreased linearly with increasing inclusion of AS in the diet. The acetate-to-propionate ratio was not affected, whereas ruminal concentration of ammonia (NH₃) and molar proportion of branched-chain VFA increased as the proportion of AS in the diet increased. Daily CH₄ emissions tended to increase (476, 483, and 491 g/d for cows fed 0% AS, 50% AS, and 100% AS, respectively) linearly as cows were fed increasing proportions of AS. Methane production adjusted for dry matter intake (average=19.8 g/kg) or gross energy intake (average=5.83%) was not affected by increasing AS inclusion

  11. New lactic acid bacterial strains from traditional Mongolian fermented milk products have altered adhesion to porcine gastric mucin depending on the carbon source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimoto-Nira, Hiromi; Yamasaki, Seishi; Sasaki, Keisuke; Moriya, Naoko; Takenaka, Akio; Suzuki, Chise

    2015-03-01

    Attachment of lactic acid bacteria to the mucosal surface of the gastrointestinal tract is a major property of probiotics. Here, we examined the ability of 21 lactic acid bacterial strains isolated from traditional fermented milk products in Mongolia to adhere to porcine gastric mucin in vitro. Higher attachment was observed with Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus strains 6-8 and 8-1 than with Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (positive control). Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris strain 7-1 adhered to mucin as effectively as did strain GG. Heat inactivation decreased the adhesive ability of strains 6-8 and 8-1 but did not affect strain 7-1. The adhesion of strains 6-8, 7-1 and 8-1 was significantly inhibited when the cells were pretreated with periodate and trypsin, indicating that proteinaceous and carbohydrate-like cell surface compounds are involved in the adhesion of these strains. The adhesion of strain 7-1 was affected by the type of carbohydrate present in the growth medium, being higher with fructose than with lactose, galactose or xylose as the carbon source. The sugar content of 7-1 cells grown on various carbohydrates was negatively correlated with its adhesive ability. We provide new probiotic candidate strains and new information regarding carbohydrate preference that influences lactic acid bacterial adhesion to mucin.

  12. Effects of Germination and Fermentation on the Functionality of Whole Soy Flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Livia Patrascu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Nutritional quality and technological performances of grains can be modulated through germination and controlled fermentation. The aim of the work was to estimate the effect of germination (72 h at 23oC and fermentation on the fundamental rheological properties of the soy flour based suspensions and sourdoughs, and to assess the bread making potential of the whole soy flours by considering the thermo-mechanical functionality of soy in admixture with white wheat flour. Soy flour based sourdough were prepared using three different starter cultures, consisting of mixtures of lactic acid bacteria like Lactobacillus plantarum, Lb. brevis, Lb. rhamnosus, Lb. casei, Lb. acidophilus, Bifidobacterium BB12®, and Streptococcus thermophilus and/or yeast Kluyveromyces marxianus subsp. Marxianus. The rheological behaviour of the suspensions and sourdoughs was influenced by the soy germination and fermentation processes. The stress sweep tests indicated significant narrowing of the linear viscoelastic regions, as well as the decrease of the stress values required for the beginning of flow. The temperature ramp test showed more intense swelling in case of the germinated and fermented samples. Both native and germinated soy flours were used to replace 15% of the wheat flour, and the Mixolab test indicated that the germination process caused the decrease of protein weakening and dough stability. The sourdoughs addition to the wheat flour resulted in significant changes of the thermo-mechanical properties of the dough. Properties related to stability of starch gel during heating, starch gelatinization and retrogradation depended on the type of starter culture used for fermentation.

  13. Induction of functional secretory IgA responses in breast milk, by pneumococcal capsular polysaccharides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finn, Adam; Zhang, Qibo; Seymour, Lynn; Fasching, Claudine; Pettitt, Emily; Janoff, Edward N

    2002-11-15

    Capsule-specific secretory IgA (s-IgA) in breast milk may enhance protection against pneumococcal disease in infants. After immunization of 3 lactating mothers with 23-valent polysaccharide vaccine, specific s-IgA, but not IgG, increased by >2-fold in milk of at least 1 subject for 6 of 7 serotypes. The s-IgA was predominantly IgA1, in secretory form, and highly specific with avidity distinct from serum IgA and IgG. Milk whey from 2 immunized women supported dose- and complement-dependent killing of Streptococcus pneumoniae serotypes 19F and 14 by human neutrophils, as did purified s-IgA to serotype 19F. These data reveal that capsule-specific human s-IgA in breast milk can initiate killing of S. pneumoniae, providing proof of concept that vaccine-induced human mucosal s-IgA can support functional bactericidal activity. Determining the biologic role for s-IgA in killing and inhibiting adherence of S. pneumoniae in vivo will contribute to the development of mucosal vaccines against S. pneumoniae.

  14. Relationship between involvement and functional milk desserts intention to purchase. Influence on attitude towards packaging characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ares, Gastón; Besio, Mariángela; Giménez, Ana; Deliza, Rosires

    2010-10-01

    Consumers perceive functional foods as member of the particular food category to which they belong. In this context, apart from health and sensory characteristics, non-sensory factors such as packaging might have a key role on determining consumers' purchase decisions regarding functional foods. The aims of the present work were to study the influence of different package attributes on consumer willingness to purchase regular and functional chocolate milk desserts; and to assess if the influence of these attributes was affected by consumers' level of involvement with the product. A conjoint analysis task was carried out with 107 regular milk desserts consumers, who were asked to score their willingness to purchase of 16 milk dessert package concepts varying in five features of the package, and to complete a personal involvement inventory questionnaire. Consumers' level of involvement with the product affected their interest in the evaluated products and their reaction towards the considered conjoint variables, suggesting that it could be a useful segmentation tool during food development. Package colour and the presence of a picture on the label were the variables with the highest relative importance, regardless of consumers' involvement with the product. The importance of these variables was higher than the type of dessert indicating that packaging may play an important role in consumers' perception and purchase intention of functional foods.

  15. 乳酸菌发酵法检测鲜乳和乳粉中的两种抗生素残留%Determination of Two Antibiotic Residues in Milk and Milk Powder by the Method of Lactic Acid Bacteria Fermentation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    樊璐; 李宏梁; 唐欣; 张莉; 樊成; 刘倩; 黄峻榕

    2014-01-01

    Lactic acid bacteria fermentation can be restricted by antibiotics. The method of lactic acid bacteria fermentation for determination of two antibiotic (penicillin and ceftiofur) residues in milk and milk powder was established. The detection limits of two antibiotics were obtained by adding antibiotics to non-anti-milk , inoculating lactic acid bacteria and determining pH during fermentation. The results showed that , when milk was used as background, detection limits of penicillin and ceftiofur were 0.08 U/mL and 0.08 μg/mL, when milk powder was used as background, detection limits of penicillin and ceftiofur were 0.1 U/mL and 0.08μg/mL. This method is simple, rapid, and inexpensive, and suitable for promotion.%根据抗生素能抑制乳酸菌发酵的原理,建立了用乳酸菌发酵检测鲜乳及乳粉中青霉素和头孢噻呋残留的方法。通过向无抗乳中添加抗生素,接种乳酸菌,测定发酵过程中的pH,得出两种抗生素的检测限。结果表明:以鲜乳为本底时,青霉素和头孢噻呋的检测限分别为0.08 U/mL、0.08μg/mL;以乳粉为本底时,青霉素和头孢噻呋的检测限分别为0.1 U/mL、0.08μg/mL。该方法简单、快速、价格低廉,适于推广。

  16. Enhanced Microbial, Functional and Sensory Properties of Herbal Yogurt Fermented with Korean Traditional Plant Extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joung, Jae Yeon; Lee, Ji Young; Ha, Young Sik; Shin, Yong Kook; Kim, Younghoon; Kim, Sae Hun; Oh, Nam Su

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of two Korean traditional plant extracts (Diospyros kaki THUNB. leaf; DK, and Nelumbo nucifera leaf; NN) on the fermentation, functional and sensory properties of herbal yogurts. Compared to control fermentation, all plant extracts increased acidification rate and reduced the time to complete fermentation (pH 4.5). Supplementation of plant extracts and storage time were found to influence the characteristics of the yogurts, contributing to increased viability of starter culture and phenolic compounds. In particular, the increase in the counts of Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus was highest (2.95 and 1.14 Log CFU/mL respectively) in DK yogurt. Furthermore, supplementation of the plant extracts significantly influenced to increase the antioxidant activity and water holding capacity and to produce volatile compounds. The higher antioxidant activity and water holding capacity were observed in NN yogurt than DK yogurt. Moreover, all of the sensory characteristics were altered by the addition of plant extracts. Addition of plant extracts increased the scores related to flavor, taste, and texture from plain yogurt without a plant extract, as a result of volatile compounds analysis. Thus, the overall preference was increased by plant extracts. Consequently, supplementation of DK and NN extracts in yogurt enhanced the antioxidant activity and physical property, moreover increased the acceptability of yogurt. These findings demonstrate the possibility of using plant extracts as a functional ingredient in the manufacture of herbal yogurt.

  17. Development and Stability of Beer Incorporated with Fermented Goat Milk with Added Red Date Juice%红枣羊乳啤的制备及其稳定性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    娄新曼; 王存芳

    2015-01-01

    为丰富羊乳产品,开阔羊乳市场,给消费者带来更多的消费选择,实验以山羊乳、麦芽、红枣、酒花为主要原料,分别通过乳酸菌的乳酸发酵和酵母菌的酒精发酵后,将得到的红枣羊乳酸液和啤酒原浆按一定体积比配比,制备出兼具酸乳、啤酒、碳酸饮料风味和保健功能的新型红枣羊乳啤饮料,并通过测定沉淀率和稳定系数对其稳定性进行分析。结果表明:当红枣羊乳酸液与啤酒原浆的体积比为1∶1,红枣羊乳酸液中红枣汁添加量12%、羧甲基纤维素钠添加量0.2%、果胶添加量0.15%、蔗糖酯添加量0.1%、白砂糖添加量4%时生产的红枣羊乳啤口感最佳,稳定性最好。%In recent years, goat milk has attracted growing attention from consumers, which has highlighted the importance of enriching the types of goat milk products, expand the goat milk market and providing more options for consumers. A fermented alcoholic beverage with the blended flavors of yoghurt, beer and carbonated beverage was developed consisting of original beer produced by alcoholic fermentation of malt and hops with yeast and lactic acid bacteria fermented goat milk with added red date juice. The stability of the formulated beverage was evaluated based on precipitation rate and stability coefficient. The best taste and stability were achieved concurrently when the original beer was blended with the fermented goat milk added with 12% red date juice, 0.2% CMC-Na, 0.15% pectin, 0.1% sucrose ester and 4% white granulated sugar.

  18. Proteome analysis of functionally differentiated bovine (Bos indicus) mammary epithelial cells isolated from milk

    KAUST Repository

    Janjanam, Jagadeesh

    2013-10-01

    Mammary gland is made up of a branching network of ducts that end in alveoli. Terminally differentiated mammary epithelial cells (MECs) constitute the innermost layer of aveoli. They are milk-secreting cuboidal cells that secrete milk proteins during lactation. Little is known about the expression profile of proteins in the metabolically active MECs during lactation or their functional role in the lactation process. In the present investigation, we have reported the proteome map of MECs in lactating cows using 2DE MALDI-TOF/TOF MS and 1D-Gel-LC-MS/MS. MECs were isolated from milk using immunomagnetic beads and confirmed by RT-PCR and Western blotting. The 1D-Gel-LC-MS/MS and 2DE-MS/MS based approaches led to identification of 431 and 134 proteins, respectively, with a total of 497 unique proteins. Proteins identified in this study were clustered into functional groups using bioinformatics tools. Pathway analysis of the identified proteins revealed 28 pathways (p < 0.05) providing evidence for involvement of various proteins in lactation function. This study further provides experimental evidence for the presence of many proteins that have been predicted in annotated bovine genome. The data generated further provide a set of bovine MEC-specific proteins that will help the researchers to understand the molecular events taking place during lactation. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Functional properties and applications of edible films made of milk proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, H

    1995-11-01

    Edible films and coatings based on milk proteins have been developed to be used as a protective layer on foods or between food components. The most important functionalities of an edible film or coating include control of mass transfers, mechanical protection, and sensory appeal. Control of mass transfers involves preventing foods from desiccation, regulating microenvironments of gases around foods, and controlling migration of ingredients and additives in the food systems. Adequate mechanical strength of an edible film is necessary to protect the integrity of packaging throughout distribution. The sensory properties of an edible coating or film are a key factor for acceptance of final products. Simple milk protein films are good barriers to gas transfers because of their complex intermolecular bindings. Lipid is frequently incorporated into protein films to improve their properties as barriers to moisture vapor. Protein films are distinctly different in mechanical profiles from those films made of other materials. Approaches traditionally used in material sciences have been adapted and modified for studying the functionality of edible films. Potential uses of innovative processing technologies in film making to alter the film functionality are briefly discussed. A survey of potential applications of edible film based on milk protein is presented.

  20. NMR-based milk metabolomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sundekilde, Ulrik; Larsen, Lotte Bach; Bertram, Hanne Christine S.

    2013-01-01

    Milk is a key component in infant nutrition worldwide and, in the Western parts of the world, also in adult nutrition. Milk of bovine origin is both consumed fresh and processed into a variety of dairy products including cheese, fermented milk products, and infant formula. The nutritional quality...... and processing capabilities of bovine milk is closely associated to milk composition. Metabolomics is ideal in the study of the low-molecular-weight compounds in milk, and this review focuses on the recent nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based metabolomics trends in milk research, including applications linking...... the milk metabolite profiling with nutritional aspects, and applications which aim to link the milk metabolite profile to various technological qualities of milk. The metabolite profiling studies encompass the identification of novel metabolites, which potentially can be used as biomarkers or as bioactive...

  1. Kefir fermented milk and kefiran promote growth of Bifidobacterium bifidum PRL2010 and modulate its gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafini, Fausta; Turroni, Francesca; Ruas-Madiedo, Patricia; Lugli, Gabriele Andrea; Milani, Christian; Duranti, Sabrina; Zamboni, Nicole; Bottacini, Francesca; van Sinderen, Douwe; Margolles, Abelardo; Ventura, Marco

    2014-05-16

    Bifidobacteria constitute one of the dominant groups of microorganisms colonizing the human gut of infants. Their ability to utilize various host-derived glycans as well as dietary carbohydrates has received considerable scientific attention. However, very little is known about the role of fermented foods, such as kefir, or their constituent glycans, such as kefiran, as substrates for bifidobacterial growth and for the modulation of the expression of bifidobacterial host-effector molecules. Here, we show that Bifidobacterium bifidum PRL2010 exhibits high growth performance among the bifidobacterial strains tested when cultivated on kefir and/or kefiran polymer. Furthermore, a 16S rRNA metagenomic approach revealed that the microbiota of kefir is modified upon the addition of PRL2010 cells to the kefir matrix. Finally, our results show that kefir and kefiran are able to influence the transcriptome of B. bifidum PRL2010 causing increased transcription of genes involved in the metabolism of dietary glycans as well as genes that act as host-microbe effector molecules such as pili. Altogether, these data support the use of kefir as a valuable means for the delivery of effective microbial cells in probiotic therapy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. 发酵条件对羊乳酸奶品质影响及工艺优化研究%Influence of fermentation conditions on the quality of goat milk yogurt and technology optimization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周强; 刘蒙佳; 易冬莹; 徐婷婷; 陈聪娟

    2014-01-01

    试验以脱脂羊乳粉为原料制备酸奶,通过对羊乳酸奶进行感官评定并测定酸度、持水力、黏度3个理化指标,探讨发酵条件对羊乳酸奶品质的影响,并在单因素试验的基础上,通过正交试验获得羊乳酸奶的最优发酵工艺配方为:发酵温度44℃,发酵时间8 h,菌种添加量0.125%,蔗糖添加量4%,所得羊乳酸奶口感细腻、酸甜可口.%In this paper,we used skim sheep milk powder as the raw material to prepare yogurt and dis-cussed the influence of fermentation conditions on the quality of goat milk yogurt.The sensory evaluation and determination of physio-chemical indexes were analyzed,including acidity,water-holding capacity,vis-cosity,etc.The optimum process based on the single factor and orthogonal test were as follows:fermenta-tion temperature 44 ℃,fermentation time 8 hours,inoculation volume 0.125%,sugar content 4%.The final goat milk yogurt was sweet and sour,tasty and delicious.

  3. Study of Ami Maka Ana ( Traditional Fermented Buffalo Milk as Nutritional Food at Los Palos East Timor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Made Sugitha

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted  to determine the public attitude toward the existence of traditional food ami maka-ana (AMAprepared by addition of maka wele( alip-bark in to buffalo milk at Locales. The method used were explorative and laboratory research, for determining the location was based on the method of purposive sampling, in which 4 villages  in the sub district of Locales was chosen as the location of the study. The samples of AMA were collected from each village which were tested organoleptically and chemical composition at  Food Nutrition Laboratory of FTP-Unud Denpasar, Bali, Indonesia.  The results showed that Panelists were like the taste and overall acceptance by its characteristics such as moisture ( 50.15%,  ash ( 2.00%, protein (18.15%, fat( 20.78%, lactose( 3.68%, total acidity( 0.86%,,  total solids ( 49.95% ,   total solids non fat ( 34.71%,  total count (5.65 x 104 CFU/g and lactic acid bacteria ( 2.15 x 104 CFU/g.

  4. The Effect of Silage and Concentrate Type on Intake Behavior, Rumen Function, and Milk Production in Dairy Cows in Early and Late Lactation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abrahamse, P.A.; Vlaeminck, B.; Tamminga, S.; Dijkstra, J.

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the effect of feeding total mixed rations (TMR) that differ in structural and nonstructural carbohydrates to dairy cows in early and late lactation on short-term feed intake, dry matter intake (DMI), rumen fermentation variables, and milk yield. A 5 x

  5. Isoflavone and Protein Constituents of Lactic Acid-Fermented Soy Milk Combine to Prevent Dyslipidemia in Rats Fed a High Cholesterol Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maki Kobayashi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A high cholesterol diet induces dyslipidemia. This study investigated whether isoflavone aglycones in lactic acid-fermented soy milk (LFS improve lipid metabolism in rats fed a high cholesterol diet. Male Sprague-Dawley rats aged seven weeks were fed an AIN-93G diet, a 1% cholesterol diet (a high cholesterol diet, a high-cholesterol diet containing 4% isoflavone extract of LFS (LFS extract diet, a high-cholesterol diet containing 19.4% ethanol-washed LFS (ethanol-washed LFS diet, isoflavone-poor diet, or a high cholesterol diet containing 23.2% intact LFS (intact LFS diet for five weeks. The plasma total cholesterol (TC level was increased in the rats fed the LFS extract diet compared with those fed the high cholesterol diet. The TC level was decreased by the intact LFS and ethanol-washed LFS diets. The cholesterol-lowering effect was stronger in the rats fed the intact LFS diet than those fed the ethanol-washed LFS diet. The plasma triglyceride (TG level was unchanged in the rats fed the LFS extract diet, but it decreased in rats fed the intact LFS and ethanol-washed LFS diets. Although, compared with the high cholesterol diet, the LFS extract and ethanol-washed LFS diets did not reduce hepatic cholesterol and TG, both levels were remarkably lowered by the intact LFS diet. These results suggest that the improvement in lipid metabolism of rats fed a high-cholesterol diet containing LFS isoflavone aglycones is not due to an independent effect but due to a cooperative effect with soy protein.

  6. Isoflavone and Protein Constituents of Lactic Acid-Fermented Soy Milk Combine to Prevent Dyslipidemia in Rats Fed a High Cholesterol Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Maki; Egusa, Shintaro; Fukuda, Mitsuru

    2014-01-01

    A high cholesterol diet induces dyslipidemia. This study investigated whether isoflavone aglycones in lactic acid-fermented soy milk (LFS) improve lipid metabolism in rats fed a high cholesterol diet. Male Sprague-Dawley rats aged seven weeks were fed an AIN-93G diet, a 1% cholesterol diet (a high cholesterol diet), a high-cholesterol diet containing 4% isoflavone extract of LFS (LFS extract diet), a high-cholesterol diet containing 19.4% ethanol-washed LFS (ethanol-washed LFS diet, isoflavone-poor diet), or a high cholesterol diet containing 23.2% intact LFS (intact LFS diet) for five weeks. The plasma total cholesterol (TC) level was increased in the rats fed the LFS extract diet compared with those fed the high cholesterol diet. The TC level was decreased by the intact LFS and ethanol-washed LFS diets. The cholesterol-lowering effect was stronger in the rats fed the intact LFS diet than those fed the ethanol-washed LFS diet. The plasma triglyceride (TG) level was unchanged in the rats fed the LFS extract diet, but it decreased in rats fed the intact LFS and ethanol-washed LFS diets. Although, compared with the high cholesterol diet, the LFS extract and ethanol-washed LFS diets did not reduce hepatic cholesterol and TG, both levels were remarkably lowered by the intact LFS diet. These results suggest that the improvement in lipid metabolism of rats fed a high-cholesterol diet containing LFS isoflavone aglycones is not due to an independent effect but due to a cooperative effect with soy protein. PMID:25514389

  7. Effects of Bacillus subtilis natto and Different Components in Culture on Rumen Fermentation and Rumen Functional Bacteria In Vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Peng; Li, Jinan; Bu, Dengpan; Nan, Xuemei; Du, Hong

    2016-05-01

    This study was to investigate the effects of live or autoclaved Bacillus subtilis natto, their fermented products and media on rumen fermentation and rumen functional bacteria in vitro. Rumen fluid from three multiparous lactating Holstein cows was combined and transferred into serum bottles after diluted. Fifteen serum bottles were divided into five treatments, which were designed as following: CTR (the fermentation of 0.5 g TMR and ruminal fluids from dairy cows), LBS (CTR plus a minimum of 10(11) cfu live Bacillus subtilis natto), ABS (CTR plus a minimum of 10(11) cfu autoclaved Bacillus subtilis natto), BSC (CTR plus 1 ml Bacillus subtilis natto fermentation products without bacteria), and BSM (CTR plus 1 ml liquid fermentation medium). When separated from the culture, live Bacillus subtilis natto individually increased the concentrations of ammonia-N (P Bacillus subtilis natto has the similar function with the live bacteria except for the ratio of acetate and propionate. Except B. fibrisolvens, live or autoclaved Bacillus subtilis natto did not influence or decreased the 16S rRNA gene quantification of the detected bacteria. BSC and BSM altered the relative expression of certain functional bacteria in the rumen. These results indicated that it was Bacillus subtilis natto thalli that played the important role in promoting rumen fermentation when applied as a probiotic in dairy ration.

  8. Research on the Processing Technology of Fermented Milk Containing Strawberry Juice%发酵型草莓果汁乳饮料加工工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    提伟钢; 邵士凤; 邹佩文

    2011-01-01

    [目的]研究具有营养保健功能的发酵型草莓果汁乳饮料的加工工艺和配方,为其工业生产提供技术参考.[方法]通过正交试验确定发酵型草莓果汁乳饮料的最佳配方,同时选用耐酸CMC-Na、阿拉伯胶和果胶3种稳定剂进行复配,采用正交试验,以沉淀率为指标,确定了3种稳定荆的最佳配比.[结果]确定的工艺条件:酸乳制备的发酵时间以5~6h为宜,乳酸菌饮料制备时应控制pH3.8~4.0,酸度0.4%左右,均质温度55 ~60℃,均质压力20 ~ 25 MPa;确定的最佳配方:酸乳添加量35%,稳定剂添加量0.5%,草莓汁添加量10%时饮料的口感及综合品质最佳;采用复合稳定剂可大大提高稳定效果,当耐酸CMC-Na添加量为0.2%,阿拉伯胶用量为0.2%,果胶添加量为0.1%时,饮料的稳定性最好.[结论]通过以上试验研究,可得到具有独特风味的高质量的发酵型草莓果汁乳饮料产品.%[Objective] The technical reference for the industrial production of the fermented milk containing strawberry juice, which was one kind of nutrition and health drink, was provided through research on its processing technology and formulation. [ Method ] The best formula of the product was assured with the orthogonal experimental method. The best amount of three kinds of stabilizer: acid-tolerant CMC-Na, gum ar-abic and pectin, which was added the preparation of compound product, respectively, was determined based on the index of the precipitation rate of the compound product through the orthogonal experiment. [ Result ] The best processing condition of the product was that the time of yoghurt fermentation was about 5-6 hours, the preparation of lactic acid bacteria beverage should be controlled under the following condition: the pH value was 3.8 -4.0; the acidity, about 0.4%; the homogeneous temperature, 55 - 60 ℃; and the homogenization pressure ,20-25 Mpa. The best formula of the compound product was; the added amount

  9. Effect of fermented milk product containing lactotripeptides and plant sterol esters on haemodynamics in subjects with the metabolic syndrome--a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hautaniemi, Elina J; Tikkakoski, Antti J; Tahvanainen, Anna; Nordhausen, Klaus; Kähönen, Mika; Mattsson, Tiina; Luhtala, Satu; Turpeinen, Anu M; Niemelä, Onni; Vapaatalo, Heikki; Korpela, Riitta; Pörsti, Ilkka H

    2015-08-14

    We investigated the effects of fermented milk product containing isoleucine-proline-proline, valine-proline-proline and plant sterol esters (Pse) on plasma lipids, blood pressure (BP) and its determinants systemic vascular resistance and cardiac output. In a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, 104 subjects with the metabolic syndrome (MetS) were allocated to three groups in order to receive fermented milk product containing (1) 5 mg/d lactotripeptides (LTP) and 2 g/d plant sterols; (2) 25 mg/d LTP and 2 g/d plant sterols; (3) placebo for 12 weeks. Plasma lipids and home BP were monitored. Haemodynamics were examined in a laboratory using radial pulse wave analysis and whole-body impedance cardiography in the supine position and during orthostatic challenge. There were no differences between the effects of the two treatments and placebo on the measurements of BP at home or on BP, systemic vascular resistance index and cardiac index in the laboratory, neither in the supine nor in the upright position. The changes in plasma LDL-cholesterol concentration were - 0.1 (95% CI - 0.3, 0.1 and - 0.3, 0.0) mmol/l in the 5 and 25 mg/d LTP groups, respectively, and +0.1 (95% CI - 0.1, 0.3) mmol/l during placebo (P= 0.024). Both at baseline and at week 12, the increase in systemic vascular resistance during head-up tilt was lower in the 25 mg/d LTP group than in the 5 mg/d LTP group (Ppersistent differences in cardiovascular regulation between these groups. In subjects with the MetS, intake of LTP and Pse in fermented milk product showed a lipid-lowering effect of borderline significance, while no antihypertensive effect was observed at home or in the laboratory.

  10. Genetic Screening of Functional Properties of Lactic Acid Bacteria in a Fermented Pearl Millet Slurry and in the Metagenome of Fermented Starchy Foods▿

    OpenAIRE

    Turpin, Williams; Humblot, Christèle; Guyot, Jean-Pierre

    2011-01-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) (n = 152) in African pearl millet slurries and in the metagenomes of amylaceous fermented foods were investigated by screening 33 genes involved in probiotic and nutritional functions. All isolates belonged to six species of the genera Pediococcus and Lactobacillus, and Lactobacillus fermentum was the dominant species. We screened the isolates for the abilities to survive passage through the gastrointestinal tract and to synthesize folate and riboflavin. The isolate...

  11. 西藏乳及发酵乳制品中乳酸菌与酵母菌分布%Distribution of lactic acid bacteria and yeast in raw milk and fermented dairy products in Tibet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗章; 陈历俊; 陈历水; 周伟明

    2013-01-01

    西藏当地牦牛乳及发酵乳制品中的微生物分布备受科研人员的关注,而且重点多集中在其中的乳酸菌和酵母菌.本文对西藏当地乳及乳制品中乳酸菌与酵母菌的分布做了详细的介绍,包括原料乳、曲拉和藏灵菇乳中的乳酸菌和酵母菌的研究现状,并对今后的发展趋势做了分析.%More and more researches are paying attention to the microorganism distribution of the local raw milk and fermented dairy products in Tibet todays,and most of works focus on lactic acid bacteria and yeast.In this paper,the distribution of lactic acid bacteria and yeast in Tibet local milk and dairy products was discussed in detail,including the status quo of lactic acid bacteria and yeast in raw milk,Qula and Tibet kefir milk product.At last,the trends were analyzed.

  12. Composition of breast milk of lactating adolescents in function of time of lactation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kallyne Bolognini Pereira

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the composition of breast milk of lactating adolescents in function of lactation time. Methods: We followed 51 lactating adolescents, between the 6th and 14th weeks postpartum (WPP. The determination of fat, protein and lactose in milk were conducted, respectively, by the methods of Lucas, Lowry and Perry & Doan. Micronutrients were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Data was presented by the mean and standard error. ANOVA with repeated measures was used and Tukey as post test. It was accepted a significance level of 5%. Results: There was a significant reduction (P<0.05 in protein content during the postpartum weeks studied (6th: 16.6 ± 1.1; 10th: 13.7 ± 1.0; 14th WPP: 12.3 ± 1.1 g/day. The lactose (6th: 60.2 ± 1.9; 10th: 60.4 ± 2.6; 14th WPP: 65.1 ± 4.0 g/day and fat (6th: 41.6 ± 3.3; 10th: 36.2 ± 3.4; 14th WPP: 31.5 ± 9.0 g/day concentration remained unaffected. The zinc concentration in the breast milk was lower than that is commonly found in literature (mean 1.16 mg/day. The copper, iron, calcium and phosphorus concentration was sufficient to meet the needs of the infants between 0 and 6 months old. Conclusion: The lactation period did not influence the concentration of micronutrients, lactose and lipids, but there is a reduction on protein of the breast milk. In spite of the reducing concentration of protein, it is sufficient to meet the needs of infants from 0 to 6 months old.

  13. Human, donkey and cow milk differently affects energy efficiency and inflammatory state by modulating mitochondrial function and gut microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinchese, Giovanna; Cavaliere, Gina; Canani, Roberto Berni; Matamoros, Sebastien; Bergamo, Paolo; De Filippo, Chiara; Aceto, Serena; Gaita, Marcello; Cerino, Pellegrino; Negri, Rossella; Greco, Luigi; Cani, Patrice D; Mollica, Maria Pina

    2015-11-01

    Different nutritional components are able, by modulating mitochondrial function and gut microbiota composition, to influence body composition, metabolic homeostasis and inflammatory state. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the effects produced by the supplementation of different milks on energy balance, inflammatory state, oxidative stress and antioxidant/detoxifying enzyme activities and to investigate the role of the mitochondrial efficiency and the gut microbiota in the regulation of metabolic functions in an animal model. We compared the intake of human milk, gold standard for infant nutrition, with equicaloric supplementation of donkey milk, the best substitute for newborns due to its nutritional properties, and cow milk, the primary marketed product. The results showed a hypolipidemic effect produced by donkey and human milk intake in parallel with enhanced mitochondrial activity/proton leakage. Reduced mitochondrial energy efficiency and proinflammatory signals (tumor necrosis factor α, interleukin-1 and lipopolysaccharide levels) were associated with a significant increase of antioxidants (total thiols) and detoxifying enzyme activities (glutathione-S-transferase, NADH quinone oxidoreductase) in donkey- and human milk-treated animals. The beneficial effects were attributable, at least in part, to the activation of the nuclear factor erythroid-2-related factor-2 pathway. Moreover, the metabolic benefits induced by human and donkey milk may be related to the modulation of gut microbiota. In fact, milk treatments uniquely affected the proportions of bacterial phyla and genera, and we hypothesized that the increased concentration of fecal butyrate in human and donkey milk-treated rats was related to the improved lipid and glucose metabolism and detoxifying activities.

  14. Milk Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... rash, often around the mouth Colic, in babies Milk allergy or milk intolerance? A true milk allergy differs from milk ... Question ingredients when ordering in restaurants. Sources of milk products Obvious sources of allergy-causing milk proteins ...

  15. Application of Sequential Experimental Design on Optimizing of the Kefir Fermentation from Mixed Milk%应用序贯设计优化混合乳开菲尔的发酵条件

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪建明; 贾磊; 孙敏

    2011-01-01

    The sequential experimental design was used to optimize the fermentation conditions of kefir from milk and soymilk.Fractional factorial design was employed to evaluate the six factors,viz.the ratio of milk and soymilk,inoculum of saccharomyces cerevisiae,inoculum of lactic acid bacteria,the addition of sucrose,fermentation temperature and time.It was found that the addition of sucrose and fermentation time were the significant factors for fermentation.Then the steepest ascent design was conducted to approach the greatest response area and the optimum combinations of significant factors were confirmed via Central Composite Design(CCD).The results indicated that the optimal conditions were the ratio of milk and soymilk was 7∶ 3,the inoculum of the LAB and yeast were 1.00×107 CFU/mL and 1.00×105 CFU/mL respectively,the addition of sucrose was 1.6%,the fermentation temperature was 22℃ and the time was 22h.%采用序贯设计对以牛乳和豆乳为原料研制混合乳开菲尔的发酵条件进行了优化。首先应用部分析因设计对影响开菲尔发酵的牛乳与豆乳比例、酵母接种量、乳酸菌接种量、蔗糖添加量、发酵温度、发酵时间6个因子进行了分析,筛选出蔗糖添加量和发酵时间为显著因子,然后通过最陡爬坡设计逼近最大响应区域,应用中心复合设计法确定蔗糖添加量(x4)和发酵时间(x6)的最佳组合,最终得到混合乳开菲尔发酵的最优发酵条件为牛乳与豆乳比例为7∶3,酵母接种量为1.00×105 CFU/mL,乳酸菌接种量为1.00×107 CFU/mL,蔗糖添加量为1.6%,发酵温度为22℃,发酵时间为22 h。

  16. Evaluation of a functional soy product with addition of soy fiber and fermented with probiotic kefir culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahis Regina Baú

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the chemical, sensory properties and stability of a functional soy product with soy fiber and fermented with probiotic kefir culture. The product was characterized by the chemical composition, color and sensory analysis. The stability of the product was evaluated by pH, acidity, viscosity, firmness, syneresis measurements and cells counts. The functional soy product presented better chemical composition and difference in color compared to the fermented product without fiber. Sensory analysis showed that the functional soy product had good acceptance and had better firmness and reduced syneresis compared to fermented product without fiber. The lactic acid bacteria counts decreased slightly during 28 days at 4°C of the storage and the product showed good microbiological stability. The functional soy product due to high Lactococcus lactis counts could be considered as a probiotic for the entire storage period.

  17. Genetic parameters for functional longevity, type traits, SCS, milk flow and production in the Italian Brown Swiss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Attilio Rossoni

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to estimate genetic parameters for a set of new traits and to update values for production and morphological traits to be used in the selection index of Italian Brown Swiss dairy cattle. Longevity, milking speed and somatic cell scores (SCS were considered for inclusion in the selection index, and (covariances with all traits of the selection index were estimated. SCS was considered on a lactation basis while milk flow as the amount of milk (kg released per time unit (minute measured with a flowmeter. Cow functional longevity was the total herd life corrected for the production level. A total of 127,416 first lactation records of cows calving from 1985 to 2003 were considered. In order to maximize the number of records available for each combination of traits, 9 data sets were created. Estimates were obtained from multivariate linear sire models with equal design matrix in subsequent separated analysis. REML algorithms and canonical transformation were used to calculate (covariance estimates among all traits: functional longevity, milking speed, SCS, 5 production traits (milk, fat and protein yields, fat and protein percent, and 19 type traits. Heritabilities estimated were 0.14 ± 0.02 for SCS, 0.33 ± 0.07 for milk flow, and 0.04 ± 0.01 for functional longevity. Genetic correlation values between SCS and milk yield, fat percent and protein percent resulted of 0.18 ± 0.09, -0.19 ± 0.08, and -0.22 ± 0.08 respectively. Functional longevity had a strong positive genetic correlation with udder depth (0.42 ± 0.10 while a negative correlation with rear legs set (-0.56 ± 0.10. Milk flow was positively correlated with most of the production measures: 0.30 ± 0.18 with milk yield, 0.24 ± 0.17 with fat yields 0.16 ± 0.20 with protein yield. Additionally milk flow resulted largely genetically correlated with some type traits (0.53 ± 0.14 rear udder width, 0.40 ± 0.16 hock quality, 0.32 ± 0.15 rump angle, -0.25 ± 0

  18. Active compounds and distinctive sensory features provided by American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius L.) extract in a new functional milk beverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tárrega, A; Salvador, A; Meyer, M; Feuillère, N; Ibarra, A; Roller, M; Terroba, D; Madera, C; Iglesias, J R; Echevarría, J; Fiszman, S

    2012-08-01

    American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius L.) has recognized neurocognitive effects, and a ginsenoside-rich extract of the root of the plant has been shown to improve cognitive functions in young adults. This study aimed at assessing the chemical and sensory profiles of a UHT-treated, low-lactose functional milk containing American ginseng. Individual ginsenosides in the milk were analyzed by HPLC. Descriptive sensory analysis was performed by a trained panel to quantitatively document sensory changes resulting from the addition of ginseng and the UHT process on flavored and unflavored milks. Consumer acceptance of the product was also investigated. Total ginsenoside content in the UHT-treated milk enriched with the ginseng extract after UHT process treatment was 7.52 mg/100 g of milk, corresponding to a recovery of 67.6% compared with the content in the unprocessed extract. The intake of 150 to 300 mL of this ginseng-enriched milk provides the amount of total ginsenosides (11.5 to 23 mg) necessary to improve cognitive function after its consumption. Both the presence of ginsenosides and their thermal treatment affected some sensory properties of the milk, most notably an increase in bitterness and metallic taste, the appearance of a brownish color, and a decrease in milky flavor. Levels of brown color, bitterness, and metallic taste were highest in the industrially processed ginseng-enriched milk. The bitterness attributable to ginseng extract was reduced by addition of vanilla flavor and sucralose. A consumer exploratory study revealed that a niche of consumers exists who are willing to consume this type of product. Copyright © 2012 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Functional properties of butter oil made from bovine milk with experimentally altered fat composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz-Gonzalez, G; Jimenez-Flores, R; Bremmer, D R; Clark, J H; DePeters, E J; Schmidt, S J; Drackley, J K

    2007-11-01

    Modification of milk fat composition might be desirable to alter manufacturing characteristics or produce low saturated fat dairy products that more closely meet consumer dietary preferences. The aim of this research was to evaluate functional properties of butter oil obtained from milks with fat composition modified by altering the profile of long-chain fatty acids (FA) absorbed from the small intestine of cows. A control and 5 mixtures of long-chain free FA were infused into the abomasum of lactating dairy cows in a 6 x 6 Latin square design with 21-d periods. Treatments were 1) control (no FA infused), 2) mostly saturated FA (C16:C18 = 0.72), 3) low-linoleic palm FA (C16:C18 = 0.85), 4) palm FA (C16:C18 = 0.72), 5) soy FA (C16:C18 = 0.10), and 6) high-palmitic soy FA (C16:C18 = 0.68). All treatments included meat solubles and Tween 80 as emulsifiers. Solid fat content (from 0 to 40 degrees C), melting point, and force at fracture were determined in butter oil. Milk fat from cows infused with palm FA (treatment 4) exhibited functionality equal to or better than control butter oil. Infusion with palm FA increased amounts of triglyceride (TG) fractions with 48, 52, and 54 carbon numbers but decreased TG with 32, 34, 36, and 42 carbon numbers. Infusion with soy FA increased TG with 26, 38, 40, 52, and 54 carbon numbers but decreased TG with 34, 42, and 46 carbons. Infusion of the mostly saturated FA increased TG with 38, 50, 52, and 54 carbon numbers but decreased TG with 32, 34, and 42 carbon numbers. These TG groups were consistently correlated with functional properties of butter oils from different treatments. The content of palmitic acid is important for maintaining functionality in the presence of increased polyunsaturated FA. The composition of milk fat may be able to be optimized through nutritional manipulation of diets for dairy cows if the optimal composition of FA and TG is defined for a particular dairy product.

  20. Development of functional milk desserts enriched with resistant starch based on consumers' perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ares, Florencia; Arrarte, Eloísa; De León, Tania; Ares, Gastón; Gámbaro, Adriana

    2012-10-01

    Sensory characteristics play a key role in determining consumers' acceptance of functional foods. In this context, the aim of the present work was to apply a combination of sensory and consumer methodologies to the development of chocolate milk desserts enriched with resistant starch. Chocolate milk desserts containing modified waxy maize starch were formulated with six different concentrations of two types of resistant starch (which are part of insoluble dietary fiber). The desserts were evaluated by trained assessors using Quantitative Descriptive Analysis. Moreover, consumers scored their overall liking and willingness to purchase and answered an open-ended question. Resistant starch caused significant changes in the sensory characteristics of the desserts and a significant decrease in consumers' overall liking and willingness to purchase. Consumer data was analyzed applying survival analysis on overall liking scores, considering the risk on consumers liking and willing to purchase the functional products less than their regular counterparts. The proposed methodologies proved to be useful to develop functional foods taking into account consumers' perception, which could increase their success in the market.

  1. Screening low-viscosity strains of lactic acid bacteria in fermented goat milk%发酵羊乳中乳酸菌低产粘菌株的筛选

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    乌素; 张富新; 苏彤; 乔星

    2012-01-01

    The viscosity of 11 Lactobacillus bulgaricus strains and 11 Streptococcus thermophilus strains from the commercial starter cultures was studied in fermented goat milk.The results showed that Lactobacillus bulgaricus L.b-124 strain and L.b-346 strain, Streptococcus thermophilus S.t-222 strain and S.t-346 strain had lower viscoproduction capacity and shorter coagulation time.When L.b-346 strain and S.t-346 strain were mixed in 1:1 ratio and fermented in goat milk at 43℃,the lower viscosity was obtained.%对从商业乳酸菌发酵剂分离纯化的11株保加利亚乳杆菌和11株嗜热链球菌在发酵羊乳中的粘度进行了研究。结果表明,保加利亚乳杆菌L.b-124菌株和L.b-346菌株、嗜热链球菌S.t-222菌株和S.t-346菌株具有较低的产粘能力,凝乳时间也较短;将L.b-346菌株与S.t-346菌株按杆菌和球菌1:1比例混合后在43℃下发酵羊乳时,可获得较低的发酵粘度。

  2. A differential medium for the enumeration bifidobacterium in fermented milk%一种发酵乳中双歧杆菌鉴别培养基计数评估

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王立平

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To establish a quantitative method for bifidobacterium in fermented milk.Methods:A differential culture medium,which use fructose as the only source of carbohydrates,was emploied to quantitatively assess bifidobacterium,based on a morphological differentiation of colonies and a counting of bifidobacterium on the same plate.Results:Results obtained with FBM are very close to those obtained by the use of reference media(P0.05).Conclusion:FBM medium is situble for enumering Bifidobacterium in fermented milk%目的:建立发酵乳中双歧杆菌数量计数测定方法。方法:采用果糖为碳源的鉴别培养基,基于乳酸菌同型发酵和异型菌落形态的差异,借助pH指示剂确定样品中双歧杆菌数量。结果:该培养基所计双歧杆菌数量与对照培养基所计数量在同一数量级且差异不显著(P〉0.05)。结论:该培养基可用于发酵乳中双歧杆菌的准确计数。

  3. Physical properties of acid milk gels prepared at 37 degrees C up to gelation but at different incubation temperatures for the remainder of fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Y; Horne, D S; Lucey, J A

    2010-05-01

    We investigated the effect of altering temperature immediately after gels were formed at 37 degrees C. We defined instrumentally measurable gelation (IMG) as the point at which gels had a storage modulus (G') > or = 5Pa. Gels were made at constant incubation temperature (IT) of 37 degrees C up to IMG, and then cooled to 30 or 33.5, or heated to 40.5 or 44 degrees C, at a rate of 1 degrees C/min and maintained at those temperatures until pH 4.6. Control gel was made at 37 degrees C (i.e., no temperature change during gelation/gel development). Gel formation was monitored using small strain dynamic oscillatory rheology, and the resulting structure and physical properties at pH 4.6 were studied by fluorescence microscopy, large deformation rheology, whey separation (WS), and permeability (B). A single strain of Streptococcus thermophilus was used to avoid variations in the ratios of strains that could have resulted from changes in temperature during fermentation. Total time required to reach pH 4.6 was similar for samples made at constant IT of 37 degrees C or by cooling after IMG from 37 to either 30 or 33.5 degrees C, but gels heated to 40 or 44 degrees C needed less time to reach pH 4.6. Cooling gels after IMG resulted in an increase in G' values at pH 4.6, a decrease in LT(max), WS, and B, and an increase in the area of protein aggregates of micrographs compared with the control gel made at constant IT of 37 degrees C. Heating gels after IMG resulted in a decrease in G' values at pH 4.6 and an increase in LT(max) values and WS. The physical properties of acid milk gels were dominated by the temperature profile during the gel-strengthening phase that occurs after IMG. This study indicates that the final properties of yogurt greatly depend on the environmental conditions (e.g., temperature, time/rate of pH change) experienced by the casein particles/clusters during the critical early gel development phase when bonding between and within particles is still labile

  4. Composition et flore microbienne de lait de yak frais et fermenté du Tibet à différentes altitudes.

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Xiao-He; Luo, Zhang; Yu, Li; Ren, Fa-Zheng; Han, Bei-Zhong; Nout, M.J. Robert

    2009-01-01

    International audience; Yak milk is a type of milk that people are less familiar with due to its remote geographical location, the particular geographical environment and climatic conditions in Tibet, which may have significant effects on composition, microbiota and fermentation outcome. To investigate the chemical composition and microbiota of fresh and fermented yak milk, and to isolate and characterize the predominant microorganisms in the fermented milk, yak milk (24 fresh and 30 fermente...

  5. The Influence on Flavoring Substance and Texture Characteristics in Fermented Milk Products Caused by Yeast%酵母菌对发酵乳风味物质和质构特性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田裕春; 柴溢; 李安然; 陈历俊; 姜铁民

    2014-01-01

    以发酵乳为原料,通过在原有乳酸菌的基础上,加入酵母菌,待发酵液凝乳后,测定其中风味物质和质构特性的变化情况,研究酵母菌对于发酵乳中风味物质产生以及质构特性的影响。实验结果证明:在加入酵母菌之后,风味物质的含量较之前明显提高,变化最大的异戊醇的含量提高了200%以上;质构特性的各参数也有显著提升,其中,硬度和黏聚性明显提高,而稠度和黏度尽管提升不显著,但仍有较大上涨趋势。说明酵母菌的加入对于发酵乳制品中的风味物质和质构特性均有较显著的影响。%Regarding the fermented milk as the material,on the basis of the original lactic acid bacteria,add a certain percentage of yeast into the fermented broth ,determine the change of the flavoring substance and the texture characteristic after the curd,and research the influence on the flavoring substance and the texture characteristics in fermented milk caused by yeast. The experimental results shows that:the content of the flavor substance improved significantly after the addition of the yeast and the content of isoamyl alcohol increased more than 200%as the greatest change. And also the various parameters of the texture characteristics has made a lot of ascension:hardness and cohesiveness improved significantly ,the consistency and the viscosity still had a large upward trend in spite of its non-obviousness. All the conclusions above shows that the addition of yeast in fermented milk products has a significant influence on both the flavoring substance and the texture characteristics.

  6. Effect of adjusted pH prior to ultrafiltration of skim milk on membrane performance and physical functionality of milk protein concentrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, X; Vasiljevic, T; Ramchandran, L

    2016-02-01

    Processing conditions during ultrafiltration of skim milk influence properties of the casein micelle and thereby the physical properties of milk protein concentrate (MPC). The aim of the study was to establish the effects of pH adjustment of skim milk feed to obtain MPC with desired emulsification properties. The ultrafiltration was conducted using commercially pasteurized skim milk with the pH adjusted to 6.7 (control), 6.3, 5.9, or 5.5 at 15°C until a volume concentration factor of 5 was reached. Effects of pH adjustment on selected physico-chemical properties (Ca content, particle size, ζ-potential) and functionalities (solubility, heat stability, emulsification capacity, and stability) of MPC were determined. Lowering the feed pH solubilized colloidal calcium phosphate that substantially contributed to modifying the properties of casein. This caused a reduction in the particle size while increasing the net negative charge. The structural modifications in proteins were manifested in the Fourier transform infrared spectra. Subsequent concentration did not induce any further protein structural changes. Such modifications to the casein micelles and colloidal calcium phosphate negatively affected the solubility and heat stability of the corresponding MPC powders. However, the emulsion activity index improved only until the pH of the feed was lowered to 5.9 and declined when pH was dropped to 5.5, followed with the loss of stability. Readjusting the pH of MPC powder dispersions to 6.7 restored their surface properties and thereby their functionality. Lowering the feed pH also negatively affected the membrane performance by clogging the membrane pores and lowering the flux, particularly at pH 5.5. Adjusting pH to 5.9 produced MPC with optimum emulsifying properties with minimal influence on membrane performance. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Functional Screening of Antibiotic Resistance Genes from a Representative Metagenomic Library of Food Fermenting Microbiota

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Devirgiliis

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Lactic acid bacteria (LAB represent the predominant microbiota in fermented foods. Foodborne LAB have received increasing attention as potential reservoir of antibiotic resistance (AR determinants, which may be horizontally transferred to opportunistic pathogens. We have previously reported isolation of AR LAB from the raw ingredients of a fermented cheese, while AR genes could be detected in the final, marketed product only by PCR amplification, thus pointing at the need for more sensitive microbial isolation techniques. We turned therefore to construction of a metagenomic library containing microbial DNA extracted directly from the food matrix. To maximize yield and purity and to ensure that genomic complexity of the library was representative of the original bacterial population, we defined a suitable protocol for total DNA extraction from cheese which can also be applied to other lipid-rich foods. Functional library screening on different antibiotics allowed recovery of ampicillin and kanamycin resistant clones originating from Streptococcus salivarius subsp. thermophilus and Lactobacillus helveticus genomes. We report molecular characterization of the cloned inserts, which were fully sequenced and shown to confer AR phenotype to recipient bacteria. We also show that metagenomics can be applied to food microbiota to identify underrepresented species carrying specific genes of interest.

  8. The effect of homogenization and milk fat fractions on the functionality of Mozzarella cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowney, M K; Hickey, M W; Roupas, P; Everett, D W

    2003-03-01

    Mozzarella cheese was manufactured from milk containing either a low (olein) or a high (stearin) melting point fraction of milk fat or anhydrous milk fat. The fat was dispersed into skim milk by homogenization at 2.6 MPa before being manufactured into cheese. The melting point of the milk fat did not affect the size or shape of the fat globules, nor was there any effect of homogenization on the polymorphic state of the milk fat. There were no changes in milk fat globule size and shape concomitant with the amount of free oil formed. The polymorphic state of the milk fat did affect the amount of free oil formed and the apparent viscosity of the cheese. The lower melting point fraction yielded a larger amount of free oil. The higher melting point fraction yielded a higher viscosity of melted cheese at 60 degrees C. Mozzarella cheese was also manufactured from homogenized milk, nonhomogenized milk, and a 1:1 ratio of the two, without altering the milk fat composition. Increasing the proportion of homogenized milk yielded a lower free oil content and higher viscosity of the cheese.

  9. Qualitative Study of Functional Groups and Antioxidant Properties of Soy-Based Beverages Compared to Cow Milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Durazzo

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Soy-based beverages are a source of high quality proteins and balanced nutrients; they thus represent an alternative to milk in case of allergy to cow milk proteins or intolerance to lactose. In this research, antioxidant properties of soy-based beverages and UHT cow milk were studied. In addition, color parameters, by a quick and non-destructive methodology, were studied in order to verify a possible correlation with antioxidant properties and a qualitative analysis of the major functional groups undertaken by Fourier Transformed Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR on Attenuated Total Reflectance (ATR was carried out. Extractable and hydrolysable polyphenols were studied in soy-based beverages. However, only the extractable fraction was studied in UHT milk, which was characterized by a small amount of polyphenols. All color parameters showed highly significant differences among soy-based beverages and between soy-based beverages and cow milk. FTIR-ATR spectra of soy-based beverages and cow milk showed several differences in the various regions depending on both the specific contribution of molecular groups and different food items.

  10. Qualitative Study of Functional Groups and Antioxidant Properties of Soy-Based Beverages Compared to Cow Milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durazzo, Alessandra; Gabrielli, Paolo; Manzi, Pamela

    2015-07-15

    Soy-based beverages are a source of high quality proteins and balanced nutrients; they thus represent an alternative to milk in case of allergy to cow milk proteins or intolerance to lactose. In this research, antioxidant properties of soy-based beverages and UHT cow milk were studied. In addition, color parameters, by a quick and non-destructive methodology, were studied in order to verify a possible correlation with antioxidant properties and a qualitative analysis of the major functional groups undertaken by Fourier Transformed Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) on Attenuated Total Reflectance (ATR) was carried out. Extractable and hydrolysable polyphenols were studied in soy-based beverages. However, only the extractable fraction was studied in UHT milk, which was characterized by a small amount of polyphenols. All color parameters showed highly significant differences among soy-based beverages and between soy-based beverages and cow milk. FTIR-ATR spectra of soy-based beverages and cow milk showed several differences in the various regions depending on both the specific contribution of molecular groups and different food items.

  11. Qualitative Study of Functional Groups and Antioxidant Properties of Soy-Based Beverages Compared to Cow Milk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durazzo, Alessandra; Gabrielli, Paolo; Manzi, Pamela

    2015-01-01

    Soy-based beverages are a source of high quality proteins and balanced nutrients; they thus represent an alternative to milk in case of allergy to cow milk proteins or intolerance to lactose. In this research, antioxidant properties of soy-based beverages and UHT cow milk were studied. In addition, color parameters, by a quick and non-destructive methodology, were studied in order to verify a possible correlation with antioxidant properties and a qualitative analysis of the major functional groups undertaken by Fourier Transformed Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) on Attenuated Total Reflectance (ATR) was carried out. Extractable and hydrolysable polyphenols were studied in soy-based beverages. However, only the extractable fraction was studied in UHT milk, which was characterized by a small amount of polyphenols. All color parameters showed highly significant differences among soy-based beverages and between soy-based beverages and cow milk. FTIR-ATR spectra of soy-based beverages and cow milk showed several differences in the various regions depending on both the specific contribution of molecular groups and different food items. PMID:26783841

  12. Linseed oil supplementation to dairy cows fed diets based on red clover silage or corn silage: Effects on methane production, rumen fermentation, nutrient digestibility, N balance, and milk production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benchaar, C; Hassanat, F; Martineau, R; Gervais, R

    2015-11-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the effect of linseed oil (LO) supplementation to red clover silage (RCS)- or corn silage (CS)-based diets on enteric CH4 emissions, ruminal fermentation characteristics, nutrient digestibility, N balance, and milk production. Twelve rumen-cannulated lactating cows were used in a replicated 4×4 Latin square design (35-d periods) with a 2×2 factorial arrangement of treatments. Cows were fed (ad libitum) RCS- or CS-based diets [forage:concentrate ratio 60:40; dry matter (DM) basis] without or with LO (4% of DM). Supplementation of LO to the RCS-based diet reduced enteric CH4 production (-9%) and CH4 energy lo