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Sample records for functional balance training

  1. Virtual reality training improves balance function

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yurong Mao; Peiming Chen; Le Li; Dongfeng Huang

    2014-01-01

    Virtual reality is a new technology that simulates a three-dimensional virtual world on a com-puter and enables the generation of visual, audio, and haptic feedback for the full immersion of users. Users can interact with and observe objects in three-dimensional visual space without limitation. At present, virtual reality training has been widely used in rehabilitation therapy for balance dysfunction. This paper summarizes related articles and other articles suggesting that virtual reality training can improve balance dysfunction in patients after neurological diseases. When patients perform virtual reality training, the prefrontal, parietal cortical areas and other motor cortical networks are activated. These activations may be involved in the reconstruction of neurons in the cerebral cortex. Growing evidence from clinical studies reveals that virtual reality training improves the neurological function of patients with spinal cord injury, cerebral palsy and other neurological impairments. These ifndings suggest that virtual reality training can acti-vate the cerebral cortex and improve the spatial orientation capacity of patients, thus facilitating the cortex to control balance and increase motion function.

  2. Virtual reality training improves balance function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Yurong; Chen, Peiming; Li, Le; Huang, Dongfeng

    2014-09-01

    Virtual reality is a new technology that simulates a three-dimensional virtual world on a computer and enables the generation of visual, audio, and haptic feedback for the full immersion of users. Users can interact with and observe objects in three-dimensional visual space without limitation. At present, virtual reality training has been widely used in rehabilitation therapy for balance dysfunction. This paper summarizes related articles and other articles suggesting that virtual reality training can improve balance dysfunction in patients after neurological diseases. When patients perform virtual reality training, the prefrontal, parietal cortical areas and other motor cortical networks are activated. These activations may be involved in the reconstruction of neurons in the cerebral cortex. Growing evidence from clinical studies reveals that virtual reality training improves the neurological function of patients with spinal cord injury, cerebral palsy and other neurological impairments. These findings suggest that virtual reality training can activate the cerebral cortex and improve the spatial orientation capacity of patients, thus facilitating the cortex to control balance and increase motion function.

  3. Balance training improves postural balance, gait, and functional strength in adolescents with intellectual disabilities: Single-blinded, randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyeongjin; Lee, Myungmo; Song, Changho

    2016-07-01

    Adolescents with intellectual disabilities often present with problems of balance and mobility. Balance training is an important component of physical activity interventions, with growing evidence that it can be beneficial for people with intellectual disabilities. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of balance training on postural balance, gait, and functional strength in adolescents with intellectual disabilities. Thirty-two adolescents with intellectual disabilities aged 14-19 years were randomly assigned either to a balance training group (n = 15) or a control group (n = 16). Subjects in the balance training group underwent balance training for 40 min per day, two times a week, for 8 weeks. All subjects were assessed with posture sway and the one-leg stance test for postural balance; the timed up-and-go test and 10-m walk test for gait; and sit to stand test for functional strength. Postural balance and functional strength showed significant improvements in the balance training group (p strength showed no significant improvements in the control group. Further, postural balance and functional strength significantly improved in the balance training group compared with those in the control group. Balance training for adolescents with intellectual disabilities might be beneficial for improving postural balance and functional strength. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. The effect of balance training on cervical sensorimotor function and neck pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beinert, Konstantin; Taube, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    The authors' aim was to evaluate the effect of balance training on cervical joint position sense in people with subclinical neck pain. Thirty-four participants were randomly assigned to balance training or to stay active. Sensorimotor function was determined before and after 5 weeks of training by assessing the ability to reproduce the neutral head position and a predefined rotated head position. After balance training, the intervention group showed improved joint repositioning accuracy and decreased pain whereas no effects were observed in the control group. A weak correlation was identified between reduced neck pain intensity and improved joint repositioning. The present data demonstrate that balance training can effectively improve cervical sensorimotor function and decrease neck pain intensity.

  5. Effect of Core Stability Training on Trunk Function, Standing Balance, and Mobility in Stroke Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haruyama, Koshiro; Kawakami, Michiyuki; Otsuka, Tomoyoshi

    2017-03-01

    Trunk function is important for standing balance, mobility, and functional outcome after stroke, but few studies have evaluated the effects of exercises aimed at improving core stability in stroke patients. To investigate the effectiveness of core stability training on trunk function, standing balance, and mobility in stroke patients. An assessor-blinded, randomized controlled trial was undertaken in a stroke rehabilitation ward, with 32 participants randomly assigned to an experimental group or a control group (n = 16 each). The experimental group received 400 minutes of core stability training in place of conventional programs within total training time, while the control group received only conventional programs. Primary outcome measures were evaluated using the Trunk Impairment Scale (TIS), which reflects trunk function. Secondary outcome measures were evaluated by pelvic tilt active range of motion in the sagittal plane, the Balance Evaluation Systems Test-brief version (Brief-BESTest), Functional Reach test, Timed Up-and-Go test (TUG), and Functional Ambulation Categories (FAC). A general linear repeated-measures model was used to analyze the results. A treatment effect was found for the experimental group on the dynamic balance subscale and total score of the TIS ( P = .002 and P Core stability training has beneficial effects on trunk function, standing balance, and mobility in stroke patients. Our findings might provide support for introducing core stability training in stroke rehabilitation.

  6. Treadmill training with Thera-Band improves motor function, gait and balance in stroke patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    In, Taesung; Jin, Youngmi; Jung, Kyoungsim; Cho, Hwi-Young

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of treadmill training with Thera-Band on motor function, gait and balance abilities in patients with stroke. 30 participants with hemiparetic stroke were recruited and randomly divided into two groups: the experimental group (n = 15) and the control group (n = 15). Participants in both groups received conventional physical therapy for 30 minutes before the intervention. Additionally, subject in the experimental group performed treadmill training with Thera-Band for 30 minutes, five times a week for four weeks, while the control group conducted treadmill training only for the same amount of time. To measure motor function, Fugl-Meyer assessment (FMA) was used. Timed-up and Go (TUG), 10-meter walk test (10MWT) and Performance-oriented mobility assessment (POMA) were used to analysis balance and gait abilities. In FMA, TUG, 10MWT and Gait POMA, there were significant improvements in both groups after intervention. And more significant changes were shown in the experimental group than the control group (p in the Balance POMA. Our findings indicate that treadmill training with Thera-Band is beneficial and effective to improve motor function of the lower extremities, gait and balance ability in stroke patients.

  7. Neck proprioceptive training for balance function in patients with chronic poststroke hemiparesis: a case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Gyoung-Mo; Oh, Duck-Won

    2014-10-01

    [Purpose] This study investigated the effects of neck proprioceptive training on the balance of patients with chronic poststroke hemiparesis. [Subjects] Three patients with chronic stroke were recruited for this study. [Methods] The subjects underwent neck proprioceptive training using the red light of a laser pointer (30 min daily, five times per week for 4 weeks). Outcome measures included the stability and weight distribution indices measured with a Tetrax system and Timed Up and Go (TUG) and proprioception tests. [Results] For all subjects, the stability and weight distribution indices increased by 1.87-9.66% in the eyes-open and eyes-closed conditions, and the TUG and proprioception test scores improved by 2.49-15.27%. [Conclusion] Neck proprioceptive training may be a good option for improving the balance function of patients with chronic poststroke hemiparesis.

  8. Effect of treadmill gait training on static and functional balance in children with cerebral palsy: a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luanda A. C. Grecco

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Treadmill gait training as a therapeutic resource in the rehabilitation of children with cerebral palsy has recently been the focus of many studies; however, little is still known regarding its effect on static and functional balance in children. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to compare the effects of treadmill training and over ground gait training in children with cerebral palsy. METHOD: A randomized controlled trial with blinded evaluator was conducted with children with cerebral palsy between three and 12 years of age categorized in Levels I to III of the Gross Motor Function Classification System. Assessments were performed before and after the intervention and involved the Berg balance scale as well as the determination of oscillations from the center of pressure in the anteroposterior and mediolateral directions with eyes open and closed. The experimental group was submitted to treadmill training and the control group performed gait training over the ground. The intervention consisted of two 30-minute sessions per week for seven weeks. RESULTS: Both groups exhibited better functional balance after the protocol. The experimental group had higher Berg balance scale scores and exhibited lesser mediolateral oscillation with eyes open in comparison to the control group. CONCLUSIONS: Treadmill training had a greater effect on functional balance and mediolateral oscillation in comparison to over ground gait training in children with cerebral palsy. Trial registration: RBR-5v3kg9.(Brazilian Registry of Clinical Trials.

  9. Balance Training Enhances Vestibular Function and Reduces Overactive Proprioceptive Feedback in Elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiesmeier, Isabella K; Dalin, Daniela; Wehrle, Anja; Granacher, Urs; Muehlbauer, Thomas; Dietterle, Joerg; Weiller, Cornelius; Gollhofer, Albert; Maurer, Christoph

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: Postural control in elderly people is impaired by degradations of sensory, motor, and higher-level adaptive mechanisms. Here, we characterize the effects of a progressive balance training program on these postural control impairments using a brain network model based on system identification techniques. Methods and Material: We analyzed postural control of 35 healthy elderly subjects and compared findings to data from 35 healthy young volunteers. Eighteen elderly subjects performed a 10 week balance training conducted twice per week. Balance training was carried out in static and dynamic movement states, on support surfaces with different elastic compliances, under different visual conditions and motor tasks. Postural control was characterized by spontaneous sway and postural reactions to pseudorandom anterior-posterior tilts of the support surface. Data were interpreted using a parameter identification procedure based on a brain network model. Results: With balance training, the elderly subjects significantly reduced their overly large postural reactions and approximated those of younger subjects. Less significant differences between elderly and young subjects' postural control, namely larger spontaneous sway amplitudes, velocities, and frequencies, larger overall time delays and a weaker motor feedback compared to young subjects were not significantly affected by the balance training. Conclusion: Balance training reduced overactive proprioceptive feedback and restored vestibular orientation in elderly. Based on the assumption of a linear deterioration of postural control across the life span, the training effect can be extrapolated as a juvenescence of 10 years. This study points to a considerable benefit of a continuous balance training in elderly, even without any sensorimotor deficits.

  10. Balance Training Enhances Vestibular Function and Reduces Overactive Proprioceptive Feedback in Elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabella K. Wiesmeier

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Postural control in elderly people is impaired by degradations of sensory, motor, and higher-level adaptive mechanisms. Here, we characterize the effects of a progressive balance training program on these postural control impairments using a brain network model based on system identification techniques.Methods and Material: We analyzed postural control of 35 healthy elderly subjects and compared findings to data from 35 healthy young volunteers. Eighteen elderly subjects performed a 10 week balance training conducted twice per week. Balance training was carried out in static and dynamic movement states, on support surfaces with different elastic compliances, under different visual conditions and motor tasks. Postural control was characterized by spontaneous sway and postural reactions to pseudorandom anterior-posterior tilts of the support surface. Data were interpreted using a parameter identification procedure based on a brain network model.Results: With balance training, the elderly subjects significantly reduced their overly large postural reactions and approximated those of younger subjects. Less significant differences between elderly and young subjects' postural control, namely larger spontaneous sway amplitudes, velocities, and frequencies, larger overall time delays and a weaker motor feedback compared to young subjects were not significantly affected by the balance training.Conclusion: Balance training reduced overactive proprioceptive feedback and restored vestibular orientation in elderly. Based on the assumption of a linear deterioration of postural control across the life span, the training effect can be extrapolated as a juvenescence of 10 years. This study points to a considerable benefit of a continuous balance training in elderly, even without any sensorimotor deficits.

  11. Functional Mobility Performance and Balance Confidence in Older Adults after Sensorimotor Adaptation Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buccello-Stout, Regina R.; Cromwell, Ronita L.; Bloomberg, Jacob J.; Weaver, G. D.

    2010-01-01

    Research indicates a main contributor of injury in older adults is from falling. The decline in sensory systems limits information needed to successfully maneuver through the environment. The objective of this study was to determine if prolonged exposure to the realignment of perceptual-motor systems increases adaptability of balance, and if balance confidence improves after training. A total of 16 older adults between ages 65-85 were randomized to a control group (walking on a treadmill while viewing a static visual scene) and an experimental group (walking on a treadmill while viewing a rotating visual scene). Prior to visual exposure, participants completed six trials of walking through a soft foamed obstacle course. Participants came in twice a week for 4 weeks to complete training of walking on a treadmill and viewing the visual scene for 20 minutes each session. Participants completed the obstacle course after training and four weeks later. Average time, penalty, and Activity Balance Confidence Scale scores were computed for both groups across testing times. The older adults who trained, significantly improved their time through the obstacle course F (2, 28) = 9.41, p train. There was no difference in balance confidence scores between groups across testing times F (2, 28) = 0.503, p > 0.05. Although the training group improved mobility through the obstacle course, there were no differences between the groups in balance confidence.

  12. Effects of dual-task training on balance and executive functions in Parkinson's disease: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Ângela; Rocha, Nuno; Santos, Rubim; Tavares, João Manuel R S

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the efficacy of cognitive-motor dual-task training compared with single-task training on balance and executive functions in individuals with Parkinson's disease. Fifteen subjects, aged between 39 and 75 years old, were randomly assigned to the dual-task training group (n = 8) and single-task training group (n = 7). The training was run twice a week for 6 weeks. The single-task group received balance training and the dual-task group performed cognitive tasks simultaneously with the balance training. There were no significant differences between the two groups at baseline. After the intervention, the results for mediolateral sway with eyes closed were significantly better for the dual-task group and anteroposterior sway with eyes closed was significantly better for the single-task group. The results suggest superior outcomes for the dual-task training compared to the single-task training for static postural control, except in anteroposterior sway with eyes closed.

  13. Twelve weeks of BodyBalance® training improved balance and functional task performance in middle-aged and older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholson VP

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Vaughan P Nicholson, Mark R McKean, Brendan J Burkett School of Health and Sport Sciences, University of the Sunshine Coast, Sunshine Coast, QLD, Australia Purpose: The purpose of the study was to evaluate the effect of BodyBalance® training on balance, functional task performance, fear of falling, and health-related quality of life in adults aged over 55 years.Participants and methods: A total of 28 healthy, active adults aged 66±5 years completed the randomized controlled trial. Balance, functional task performance, fear of falling, and self-reported quality of life were assessed at baseline and after 12 weeks. Participants either undertook two sessions of BodyBalance per week for 12 weeks (n=15 or continued with their normal activities (n=13.Results: Significant group-by-time interactions were found for the timed up and go (P=0.038, 30-second chair stand (P=0.037, and mediolateral center-of-pressure range in narrow stance with eyes closed (P=0.017. There were no significant effects on fear of falling or self-reported quality of life.Conclusion: Twelve weeks of BodyBalance training is effective at improving certain balance and functional based tasks in healthy older adults. Keywords: postural control, yoga, tai chi, center of pressure, exercise

  14. Effects of balance and gait training on the recovery of the motor function in an animal model of Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Young-Jeoi; Lee, Byung-Hoon

    2014-06-01

    [Purpose] This study was conducted to investigate the effect of balance and gait training on the recovery of the motor function in a Parkinson's disease animal models. [Subjects and Methods] A total of 40 mice were randomly classified into four groups with 10 in each group: Group I-Normal; Group II-Parkinson's disease and no training; Group III-Parkinson's disease and balance training was performed; and Group IV-Parkinson's disease and gait training. Parkinson's disease was induced by administration of MPTP to animals in Groups II-IV. Groups III and IV did training once a day, five days a week, for four weeks. Neurobehavioral evaluation was performed through the pole and open-field tests. Immunological evaluation was performed via TH (tyrosine hydroxylase) protein expression, using western blot analysis. [Results] In the result of the pole test, Groups III and IV showed significantly greater motor function recovery than to Group II. The results of the open-field test also showed that Groups III and IV had significantly greater motor function recovery than to Group II, and Group IV showed significantly greater motor function recovery than to Group III. Using western blot analysis, we determined that the expression of TH protein in the corpus striatum was greatest in group I, followed by Groups III and IV, and that Group II had the lowest TH protein expression in the corpus striatum. [Conclusion] The results of this study showed that balance and gait training were effective at recovering the motor functions of a Parkinson's disease animal models induced by MPTP, and that gait training was more effective than balance training.

  15. Effects of core instability strength training on trunk muscle strength, spinal mobility, dynamic balance and functional mobility in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granacher, Urs; Lacroix, Andre; Muehlbauer, Thomas; Roettger, Katrin; Gollhofer, Albert

    2013-01-01

    Age-related postural misalignment, balance deficits and strength/power losses are associated with impaired functional mobility and an increased risk of falling in seniors. Core instability strength training (CIT) involves exercises that are challenging for both trunk muscles and postural control and may thus have the potential to induce benefits in trunk muscle strength, spinal mobility and balance performance. The objective was to investigate the effects of CIT on measures of trunk muscle strength, spinal mobility, dynamic balance and functional mobility in seniors. Thirty-two older adults were randomly assigned to an intervention group (INT; n = 16, aged 70.8 ± 4.1 years) that conducted a 9-week progressive CIT or to a control group (n = 16, aged 70.2 ± 4.5 years). Maximal isometric strength of the trunk flexors/extensors/lateral flexors (right, left)/rotators (right, left) as well as of spinal mobility in the sagittal and the coronal plane was measured before and after the intervention program. Dynamic balance (i.e. walking 10 m on an optoelectric walkway, the Functional Reach test) and functional mobility (Timed Up and Go test) were additionally tested. Program compliance was excellent with participants of the INT group completing 92% of the training sessions. Significant group × test interactions were found for the maximal isometric strength of the trunk flexors (34%, p strength, spinal mobility, dynamic balance and functional mobility can be mitigated by CIT. This training regimen could be used as an adjunct or even alternative to traditional balance and/or resistance training. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. Supervised Versus Home Exercise Training Programs on Functional Balance in Older Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youssef, Enas Fawzy; Shanb, Alsayed Abd elhameed

    2016-01-01

    Background Aging is associated with a progressive decline in physical capabilities and a disturbance of both postural control and daily living activities. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of supervised versus home exercise programs on muscle strength, balance and functional activities in older participants. Methods Forty older participants were equally assigned to a supervised exercise program (group-I) or a home exercise program (group-II). Each participant performed the exercise program for 35–45 minutes, two times per week for four months. Balance indices and isometric muscle strength were measured with the Biodex Balance System and Hand-Held Dynamometer. Functional activities were evaluated by the Berg Balance Scale (BBS) and the timed get-up-and-go test (TUG). Results The mean values of the Biodex balance indices and the BBS improved significantly after both the supervised and home exercise programs (P balance performance. The supervised program was superior to the home program in restoring functional activities and isometric muscle strength in older participants. PMID:28090182

  17. Exergame and Balance Training modulate Prefrontal Brain Activity during Walking and enhance Executive Function in Older Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick eEggenberger

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Different types of exercise training have the potential to induce structural and functional brain plasticity in the elderly. Thereby, functional brain adaptations were observed during cognitive tasks in functional magnetic resonance imaging studies that correlated with improved cognitive performance. This study aimed to investigate if exercise training induces functional brain plasticity during challenging treadmill walking and elicits associated changes in cognitive executive functions. Forty-two elderly participants were recruited and randomly assigned to either interactive cognitive-motor video game dancing (DANCE or balance and stretching training (BALANCE. The 8-week intervention included three sessions of 30 minutes per week and was completed by 33 participants (mean age 74.9±6.9 years. Prefrontal cortex (PFC activity during preferred and fast walking speed on a treadmill was assessed applying functional near infrared spectroscopy pre- and post-intervention. Additionally, executive functions comprising shifting, inhibition, and working memory were assessed. The results showed that both interventions significantly reduced left and right hemispheric PFC oxygenation during the acceleration of walking (p < .05 or trend, r = .25 to .36, while DANCE showed a larger reduction at the end of the 30-second walking task compared to BALANCE in the left PFC (F(1, 31 = 3.54, p = .035, r = .32. These exercise training induced modulations in PFC oxygenation correlated with improved executive functions (p < .05 or trend, r = .31 to .50. The observed reductions in PFC activity may release cognitive resources to focus attention on other processes while walking, which could be relevant to improve mobility and falls prevention in the elderly. This study provides a deeper understanding of the associations between exercise training, brain function during walking, and cognition in older adults.

  18. High-intensity interval training on an aquatic treadmill in adults with osteoarthritis: effect on pain, balance, function, and mobility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bressel, Eadric; Wing, Jessica E; Miller, Andrew I; Dolny, Dennis G

    2014-08-01

    Although aquatic exercise is considered a potentially effective treatment intervention for people with osteoarthritis (OA), previous research has focused primarily on calisthenics in a shallow pool with the inherent limitations on regulating exercise intensity. The purpose of this study was to quantify the efficacy of a 6-week aquatic treadmill exercise program on measures of pain, balance, function, and mobility. Eighteen participants (age = 64.5 ± 10.2 years) with knee OA completed a non-exercise control period followed by a 6-week exercise period. Outcome measures included visual analog scales for pain, posturography for balance, sit-to-stand test for function, and a 10-m walk test for mobility. The exercise protocol included balance training and high-intensity interval training (HIT) in an aquatic treadmill using water jets to destabilize while standing and achieve high ratings of perceived exertion (14-19) while walking. In comparison with pretests, participants displayed reduced joint pain (pre = 50.3 ± 24.8 mm vs. post = 15.8 ± 10.6 mm), improved balance (equilibrium pre = 66.6 ± 11.0 vs. post = 73.5 ± 7.1), function (rising index pre = 0.49 ± 0.19% vs. post = 0.33 ± 0.11%), and mobility (walk pre = 8.6 ± 1.4 s vs. post = 7.8 ± 1.1 s) after participating in the exercise protocol (p = 0.03-0.001). The same benefits were not observed after the non-exercise control period. Adherence to the exercise protocol was exceptional and no participants reported adverse effects, suggesting that aquatic treadmill exercise that incorporates balance and HIT training was well tolerated by patients with OA and may be effective at managing symptoms of OA.

  19. Task-specificity of balance training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giboin, Louis-Solal; Gruber, Markus; Kramer, Andreas

    2015-12-01

    Despite much research on balance training, it is still unclear whether balance training leads to highly task-specific adaptations or rather non-specific adaptations. Hence, in this study we examined whether balance training increased performance only in the balance task that was trained or also in non-trained tasks. Forty healthy participants (28 m 12 f, 25 ± 4 years, 177 ± 10 cm, 73 ± 14 kg) were assigned to one of two training groups (TGs) or a control group. Both TGs completed six sessions over 2 weeks, only the training device differed. Before and after the training, performance in the trained task as well as in additional untrained tasks was recorded. ANOVAs showed that each TG outperformed the other groups only in the task they had trained (e.g., task trained by TG1: +225% in TG1, only +41% and +30% in TG2 and control, group*time interaction, pbalance training resulted in highly task-specific effects, no transfer even to very similar tasks was observed. Therefore, we recommend identifying and training exactly those tasks that need improvement, and test the efficacy of training programs using specific tests instead of general tests with limited functional relevance.

  20. Wii Fit balance training or progressive balance training in patients with chronic stroke: a randomised controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Yatar, Gozde Iyigun; Yildirim, Sibel Aksu

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to compare the effects of Wii Fit balance training (WBT) and progressive balance training (PBT) approaches on balance functions, balance confidence, and activities of daily living in chronic stroke patients. [Subjects] A total of 30 patients were randomized into the WBT (n=15) and PBT (n=15) groups. [Methods] All of the subjects received exercise training based on a neurodevelopemental approach in addition to either Wii Fit or progressive balance training f...

  1. Research progress on balance function training method for the elderly%老年人平衡功能训练方法的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    万文洁; 瞿强; 徐燕

    2016-01-01

    It reviewed the balance function training methods for the elderly from the aspects of muscle strength training,body sensory training,body vibration balance training and cognitive function training.It put forward that problems in the domestic research and practice of balance function training for the elderly still existed.The interestingness of the training project should be improved,the easy,suitable and effective comprehensive balance training methods should be searched which could be simply carried out in the family and the community;the empirical study on the balance ability training for the elderly should be strengthened.%从肌肉力量训练、本体感觉训练、全身振动平衡训练、认知功能训练方面综述了老年人平衡功能训练方法;提出针对国内老年平衡领域研究和实践仍存在的不足,提高训练项目的趣味性,寻找便于在家庭和社区开展的、简便易行、适宜有效的综合性平衡训练方法,加强训练老年人平衡能力的实证研究。

  2. Functional balance tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parvin Raji

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: All activities of daily living need to balance control in static and dynamic movements. In recent years, a numerous increase can be seen in the functional balance assessment tools. Functional balance tests emphasize on static and dynamic balance, balance in weight transfer, the equilibrium response to the imbalances, and functional mobility. These standardized and available tests assess performance and require minimal or no equipment and short time to run. Functional balance is prerequisite for the most static and dynamic activities in daily life and needs sufficient interaction between sensory and motor systems. According to the critical role of balance in everyday life, and wide application of functional balance tests in the diagnosis and assessment of patients, a review of the functional balance tests was performed.Methods: The Google Scholar, PubMed, Science Direct, Scopus, Magiran, Iran Medex, and IranDoc databases were reviewed and the reliable and valid tests which were mostly used by Iranian researchers were assessed.Conclusion: It seems that Berg balance scale (BBS have been studied by Iranian and foreign researches more than the other tests. This test has high reliability and validity in elderly and in the most neurological disorders.

  3. Enhanced balance associated with coordination training with stochastic resonance stimulation in subjects with functional ankle instability: an experimental trial

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    Brown Cathleen N

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ankle sprains are common injuries that often lead to functional ankle instability (FAI, which is a pathology defined by sensations of instability at the ankle and recurrent ankle sprain injury. Poor postural stability has been associated with FAI, and sports medicine clinicians rehabilitate balance deficits to prevent ankle sprains. Subsensory electrical noise known as stochastic resonance (SR stimulation has been used in conjunction with coordination training to improve dynamic postural instabilities associated with FAI. However, unlike static postural deficits, dynamic impairments have not been indicative of ankle sprain injury. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the effects of coordination training with or without SR stimulation on static postural stability. Improving postural instabilities associated with FAI has implications for increasing ankle joint stability and decreasing recurrent ankle sprains. Methods This study was conducted in a research laboratory. Thirty subjects with FAI were randomly assigned to either a: 1 conventional coordination training group (CCT; 2 SR stimulation coordination training group (SCT; or 3 control group. Training groups performed coordination exercises for six weeks. The SCT group received SR stimulation during training, while the CCT group only performed coordination training. Single leg postural stability was measured after the completion of balance training. Static postural stability was quantified on a force plate using anterior/posterior (A/P and medial/lateral (M/L center-of-pressure velocity (COPvel, M/L COP standard deviation (COPsd, M/L COP maximum excursion (COPmax, and COP area (COParea. Results Treatment effects comparing posttest to pretest COP measures were highest for the SCT group. At posttest, the SCT group had reduced A/P COPvel (2.3 ± 0.4 cm/s vs. 2.7 ± 0.6 cm/s, M/L COPvel (2.6 ± 0.5 cm/s vs. 2.9 ± 0.5 cm/s, M/L COPsd (0.63 ± 0.12 cm vs. 0.73 ± 0

  4. Balance Function Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    Researchers at the Balance Function Laboratory and Clinic at the Minneapolis (MN) Neuroscience Institute on the Abbot Northwestern Hospital Campus are using a rotational chair (technically a "sinusoidal harmonic acceleration system") originally developed by NASA to investigate vestibular (inner ear) function in weightlessness to diagnose and treat patients with balance function disorders. Manufactured by ICS Medical Corporation, Schaumberg, IL, the chair system turns a patient and monitors his or her responses to rotational stimulation.

  5. Efficacy of Nintendo Wii training on mechanical leg muscle function and postural balance in community-dwelling older adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Martin; Læssøe, Uffe; Hendriksen, Carsten

    2013-01-01

    . METHODS: This randomized controlled trial examined postural balance and muscle strength in community-dwelling older adults (75±6 years) pre- and post-10 weeks of biofeedback-based Nintendo Wii training (WII, n = 28) or daily use of ethylene vinyl acetate copolymer insoles (controls [CON], n = 30). Primary......BACKGROUND: Older adults show increased risk of falling and major risk factors include impaired lower extremity muscle strength and postural balance. However, the potential positive effect of biofeedback-based Nintendo Wii training on muscle strength and postural balance in older adults is unknown...... strength (18%) than the control group at follow up (between-group difference = 269 N, 95% CI = 122; 416, and p = .001). In contrast, the center of pressure velocity moment did not differ (1%) between WII and CON at follow-up (between-group difference = 0.23mm(2)/s, 95% CI = -4.1; 4.6, and p = .92...

  6. EFFECT OF SPECIFIC BALANCE STRATEGY TRAINING PROGRAMME ON BALANCE IN INSTITUTIONALIZED ELDERLY POPULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muzaffar Mairaj

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Balance emerges from the interaction of multiple systems that are organized to meet functional task goals and that are constrained by environmental context, but is often compromised with advancing age. At least 30% of older people experience decline in physical activity after entry into residential care. Participation in activity is more difficult for older people because of fear, lack of motivation, depression and poor understanding of the long term benefits of physical activity. Thus our purpose was to investigate effect of specific balance strategy training programme as compared to general balance training in improving balance in institutionalized elderly population. Methods: 26 institutionalized elderly subjects participated in the study. Participants in group A were given specific balance strategy training programme and those in group B were given general balance training. Intervention was for 40 min per day, thrice a week for 4 weeks. Balance was assessed using Berg balance scale and Timed up and go test. Result: Both the interventions showed marked improvement in balance when assessed on Berg balance and Timed up and go test. The group having specific balance strategy training programme proved to be significantly better than general balance training programme. Conclusion: Specific balance strategy training programme being more effective than general regimens should be incorporated in addressing balance related problems of institutionalized elderly population.

  7. Does Motor Training of the Nonparetic Side Influences Balance and Function in Chronic Stroke? A Pilot RCT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanta Pandian

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Balance and functional abilities are controlled by both sides of the body. The role of nonparetic side has never been explored for such skills. Objective. The objective of the present study was to examine the effect of a motor therapy program primarily involving the nonparetic side on balance and function in chronic stroke. Method. A randomized controlled, double blinded trial was conducted on 39 poststroke hemiparetic subjects (21, men; mean age, 42 years; mean poststroke duration, 13 months. They were randomly divided into the experimental group (n=20 and control group (n=19. The participants received either motor therapy focusing on the nonparetic side along with the conventional program or conventional program alone for 8 weeks (3 session/week, 60 minutes each. The balance ability was assessed using Berg Balance Scale (BBS and Functional Reach Test (FRT while the functional performance was measured by Barthel Index (BI. Result. After intervention, the experimental group exhibited significant (P<0.05 change on BBS (5.65 versus 2.52 and BI (12.75 versus 2.16 scores in comparison to the control group. Conclusion. The motor therapy program incorporating the nonparetic side along with the affected side was found to be effective in enhancing balance and function in stroke.

  8. Effect of an herbal/botanical supplement on strength, balance, and muscle function following 12-weeks of resistance training: a placebo controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furlong, Jonathan; Rynders, Corey A; Sutherlin, Mark; Patrie, James; Katch, Frank I; Hertel, Jay; Weltman, Arthur

    2014-01-01

    StemSport (SS; StemTech International, Inc. San Clemente, CA) contains a proprietary blend of the botanical Aphanizomenon flos-aquae and several herbal antioxidant and anti-inflammatory substances. SS has been purported to accelerate tissue repair and restore muscle function following resistance exercise. Here, we examine the effects of SS supplementation on strength adaptations resulting from a 12-week resistance training program in healthy young adults. Twenty-four young adults (16 males, 8 females, mean age = 20.5 ± 1.9 years, mass = 70.9 ± 11.9 kg, stature = 176.6 ± 9.9 cm) completed the twelve week training program. The study design was a double-blind, placebo controlled parallel group trial. Subjects either received placebo or StemSport supplement (SS; mg/day) during the training. 1-RM bench press, 1-RM leg press, vertical jump height, balance (star excursion and center of mass excursion), isokinetic strength (elbow and knee flexion/extension) and perception of recovery were measured at baseline and following the 12-week training intervention. Resistance training increased 1-RM strength (p 0.10). These data suggest that compared to placebo, the SS herbal/botanical supplement did not enhance training induced adaptations to strength, balance, and muscle function above strength training alone.

  9. Effect of Balance Apparatus Training on the Balance Function and Walking Ability of Stroke Patients%平衡仪训练对脑卒中患者平衡功能和步行能力的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李林; 吴伊敏; 林昔和; 饶晓辉; 邵龙辉; 黄哲

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the effect in visual feedback training of balance apparatus on lower limb function, balance function and walking ability of hemiplegia patients. Methods:40 cases of hemiplegia after stroke were divided into balance group and control group with each of 20 cases, both received routine rehabilitation treatment, balance group added visual feedback training of balance apparatus, lower limb motor function, balance function and walking ability of affected side were compared before and after the treatment between the two groups. Results:The lower extremity mo-tor function (FMA), balance function (PST, LOS) and walking ability (pace, step) of two groups after treatment were all significantly higher than those before treatment (P<0.01), and balance group was significantly better than control group (P<0.05). Conclusion:Visual feedback training of bal-ance apparatus on stroke hemiplegia patients can effectively improve the lower limb function, balance function and walking ability.%目的:探讨平衡仪视觉反馈训练对偏瘫患者下肢功能、平衡功能和步行能力的影响。方法:40例脑卒中后偏瘫患者分为平衡仪组和对照组各20例,两组患者均采用常规康复治疗,平衡仪组加用平衡仪视觉反馈训练法,治疗前后比较两组患侧下肢运动功能、平衡功能及步行能力。结果:两组患者治疗后下肢运动功能(FMA)、平衡功能(PST值、LOS值)和步行能力(步速、步长)均明显优于治疗前(P<0.01),且平衡仪组显著优于对照组(P<0.05)。结论:平衡仪视觉反馈训练法可有效改善脑卒中偏瘫患者下肢功能、平衡功能及步行能力。

  10. Canoe game-based virtual reality training to improve trunk postural stability, balance, and upper limb motor function in subacute stroke patients: a randomized controlled pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Myung-Mo; Shin, Doo-Chul; Song, Chang-Ho

    2016-07-01

    [Purpose] This study was aimed at investigating the preliminary therapeutic efficacy and usefulness of canoe game-based virtual reality training for stroke patients. [Subjects and Methods] Ten stroke patients were randomly assigned to an experimental group (EG; n=5) or a control group (CG; n=5). Patients in both groups participated in a conventional rehabilitation program, but those in the EG additionally participated in a 30-min canoe game-based virtual reality training program 3 days a week for 4 weeks. Therapeutic efficacy was assessed based on trunk postural stability, balance, and upper limb motor function. In addition, the usefulness of canoe game-based virtual reality training was assessed in the EG and therapist group (TG; n=20), which consisted of physical and occupational therapists, by using the System Usability Scale (SUS). [Results] Improvements in trunk postural stability, balance, and upper limb motor function were observed in the EG and CG, but were greater in the EG. The mean SUS scores in the EG and TG were 71 ± 5.2 and 74.2 ± 4.8, respectively. [Conclusion] Canoe game-based virtual reality training is an acceptable and effective intervention for improving trunk postural stability, balance, and upper limb motor function in stroke patients.

  11. Efficacy of virtual reality-based balance training versus the Biodex balance system training on the body balance of adults

    OpenAIRE

    Ibrahim, Manal S.; Mattar, Ayman G.; Elhafez, Salam M.

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study investigated efficacy of virtual reality (VR)-based balance training on enhancing balance and postural reactions of adults as a low-cost new modality compared to the established Biodex Balance System (BBS). [Subjects] Thirty normal adults of both genders were divided randomly into two equal-sized experimental groups of 15: BBS balance training and VR balance training. [Methods] The training programmes were conducted in 12 sessions, three 15-min sessions per week. The Nint...

  12. Balance training in elderly women using public parks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiros-Rodríguez, Raquel; García-Soidan, José L

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluates the effects of a balance training program developed in public parks on functionality and general state of health in elderly women. It was a randomized controlled trial. Women older than 65 years (n = 28; 68.5 ± 2.9) participated in a balance training program that lasted 6 weeks, with sessions taking place twice a week (12 exercises/session, 50 min). Balance was analyzed by the Berg Balance Scale and Timed Up & Go Test. The generic health status was measured by the SF-12 Health Survey. These tests showed statistically significant differences in the experimental group (p balance.

  13. Effect of transcranial direct-current stimulation combined with treadmill training on balance and functional performance in children with cerebral palsy: a double-blind randomized controlled trial.

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    Natália de Almeida Carvalho Duarte

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cerebral palsy refers to permanent, mutable motor development disorders stemming from a primary brain lesion, causing secondary musculoskeletal problems and limitations in activities of daily living. The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of gait training combined with transcranial direct-current stimulation over the primary motor cortex on balance and functional performance in children with cerebral palsy. METHODS: A double-blind randomized controlled study was carried out with 24 children aged five to 12 years with cerebral palsy randomly allocated to two intervention groups (blocks of six and stratified based on GMFCS level (levels I-II or level III.The experimental group (12 children was submitted to treadmill training and anodal stimulation of the primary motor cortex. The control group (12 children was submitted to treadmill training and placebo transcranial direct-current stimulation. Training was performed in five weekly sessions for 2 weeks. Evaluations consisted of stabilometric analysis as well as the administration of the Pediatric Balance Scale and Pediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory one week before the intervention, one week after the completion of the intervention and one month after the completion of the intervention. All patients and two examiners were blinded to the allocation of the children to the different groups. RESULTS: The experimental group exhibited better results in comparison to the control group with regard to anteroposterior sway (eyes open and closed; p<0.05, mediolateral sway (eyes closed; p<0.05 and the Pediatric Balance Scale both one week and one month after the completion of the protocol. CONCLUSION: Gait training on a treadmill combined with anodal stimulation of the primary motor cortex led to improvements in static balance and functional performance in children with cerebral palsy. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Ensaiosclinicos.gov.br/RBR-9B5DH7.

  14. COMPARATIVE EFFECT OF VISION DEPRIVED BALANCE TRAINING OVER FREE VISION BALANCE TRAINING AMONG STROKE SUBJECTS

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    Jibi Paul

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The dramatic increase in the incidence and prevalence of neurological disorder like stroke has always demanded the need of new interventions in limiting the disability outcome. Disturbed balance is one of the common difficulties in stroke subjects. Several researches have conducted with the process of limiting the disability but still not controlled fully. The objective of the study is to find out the effect of balance exercise with deprivation of visual feedback in stroke subjects. Method: Total number of thirty subjects participated in the study. The duration of study was four weeks with five sittings in a week and with duration of sixty minutes in each training session. Data was collected using Berg balance scale and the get up and go test, statistical analysis using the Wilcoxon’s signed rank test and paired T-test. Result: The mean value of timed get up and go test in group A was 16.93 with a standard deviation of ±3.86. The t-value of the study was 2.63 with P-value of 0.007.The study found significant difference in effect as the calculated P < 0.05. The results showed that the conventional therapy along with masked vision could bring about significant changes in balance, mobility and function of patients suffering from balance impairment among post stroke. The data analysis found the significant difference between the visions deprived balance training to that of free vision balance training. Conclusion: Subjects with masked vision showed better outcomes on balance and get up and go test. Balance performance and movement was found better in subjects with deprived vision than those with free vision.

  15. Relevance of balance measurement tools and balance training for fall prevention in older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majumi M. Noohu, MPTh

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Approximately one in three older people fall each year owing to gait/balance disorder/weakness, the second leading cause of falls in older adults. This review evaluates the capability of different balance measurement tools to predict falls in the elderly, which are used routinely for assessing balance impairment. Balance measurement tools reviewed are the Timed Up and Go test, Berg Balance Scale, Tinetti Performance Oriented Mobility Assessment, Functional Reach Test, Clinical Test of Sensory Integration for Balance, and the postural sway measurements or center of pressure. The effect of balance training on the postural control mechanism and its efficacy in fall prevention in older adults were also reviewed. The current evidence is not conclusive enough to favor existing balance measurement tools and balance training implemented for fall prevention in older adults.

  16. Effects of dynamic postural balance training on balance function of hemiplegic stroke patients%动态姿态平衡仪训练对脑卒中偏瘫患者平衡功能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄小静; 窦祖林; 丘卫红; 付奕; 廖迪

    2011-01-01

    Method: Twenty hemiplegic stroke patients were recruited into the study and then randomly divided into the control group (n=10) and the training group (n=10). Conventional balance training was used in the control group; while visual feedback balance training with Smart-EquiTest System was employed in the training group. Both groups were trained 5d per week, for 2 weeks. Quantitative balance functions were evaluated using the sensory organization test(SOT) with Smart-EquiTest System, the Berg balance scale(BBS) and timed up & go test(TUGT) before training as well as 2 weeks after completing the training program.Result: Both groups revealed improvements in SOT, BBS and TUGT after 2-week training, and patients in the training group gained more improvements compared with the control group(P<0.05); In the training group, the scoring of the equilibrium index and exercise strategy in eye closed, sway referenced support(ECSS) and Sway-referenced vision(SVSS) of SOT improved significantly after training, with P<0.05 separately. On the other hand, no obvious difference was found in the equilibrium index in eye open(EO), eye closed(EC), sway-referenced vision (SV) and eye open, sway referenced support(EOSS) of SOT between the training group and the control group.Conclusion: Visual feedback balance training with Smart-EquiTest System is significantly more effective than conventional training to improve balance function of hemiplegic stroke patients. Author's address Dept. of Rehabilitation Medicine, Zhujiang Hospital, Guangzhou, 510282%目的:探讨使用动态姿态平衡仪对脑卒中后偏瘫患者进行平衡功能训练的效果.方法:选取20例符合入选标准的脑卒中患者,随机分为治疗组(n=10)和对照组(n=10).对照组进行传统的平衡功能训练,30min/d;治疗组根据动态姿态平衡仪评估结果采用内置的训练方案进行平衡功能训练,20min/d.两组训练时间均为5d/周,共2周.在治疗前和治疗2周后分别采用

  17. Efficacy of virtual reality-based balance training versus the Biodex balance system training on the body balance of adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Manal S; Mattar, Ayman G; Elhafez, Salam M

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study investigated efficacy of virtual reality (VR)-based balance training on enhancing balance and postural reactions of adults as a low-cost new modality compared to the established Biodex Balance System (BBS). [Subjects] Thirty normal adults of both genders were divided randomly into two equal-sized experimental groups of 15: BBS balance training and VR balance training. [Methods] The training programmes were conducted in 12 sessions, three 15-min sessions per week. The Nintendo(®) Wii Fit Plus (NWFP) and its balance board were used to train of the VR group. Each participant answered a questionnaire concerning usability, enjoyment, balance improvement, and fatigue at the end of the training programs. [Results] The study found a significant increase the measure of mean overall balance (OLB) in both groups. No significant difference was found between the groups, but a significant decrease in the mean balance-test time was found for both groups, with no significant difference between the two training methods. The VR programme was rated highly enjoyable by 81.8% of the group. [Conclusion] The Wii Fit Plus system with the balance board as a new VR balance-training technique, can be considered an effective and enjoyable tool for the training of adults' body balance.

  18. Effects of Virtual Reality Training (Exergaming) Compared to Alternative Exercise Training and Passive Control on Standing Balance and Functional Mobility in Healthy Community-Dwelling Seniors: A Meta-Analytical Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donath, Lars; Rössler, Roland; Faude, Oliver

    2016-09-01

    Balance training is considered an important means to decrease fall rates in seniors. Whether virtual reality training (VRT) might serve as an appropriate treatment strategy to improve neuromuscular fall risk parameters in comparison to alternative balance training programs (AT) is as yet unclear. To examine and classify the effects of VRT on fall-risk relevant balance performance and functional mobility compared to AT and an inactive control condition (CON) in healthy seniors. The literature search was conducted in five databases (CINAHL, EMBASE, ISI Web of Knowledge, PubMed, SPORTDiscus). The following search terms were used with Boolean conjunction: (exergam* OR exer-gam* OR videogam* OR video-gam* OR video-based OR computer-based OR Wii OR Nintendo OR X-box OR Kinect OR play-station OR playstation OR virtua* realit* OR dance dance revolution) AND (sport* OR train* OR exercis* OR intervent* OR balanc* OR strength OR coordina* OR motor control OR postur* OR power OR physical* OR activit* OR health* OR fall* risk OR prevent*) AND (old* OR elder* OR senior*). Randomized and non-randomized controlled trials applying VRT as interventions focusing on improving standing balance performance (single and double leg stance with closed and open eyes, functional reach test) and functional mobility (Berg balance scale, Timed-up and go test, Tinetti test) in healthy community-dwelling seniors of at least 60 years of age were screened for eligibility. Eligibility and study quality (PEDro scale) were independently assessed by two researchers. Standardized mean differences (SMDs) served as main outcomes for the comparisons of VRT versus CON and VRT versus AT on balance performance and functional mobility indices. Statistical analyses were conducted using a random effects inverse-variance model. Eighteen trials (mean PEDro score: 6 ± 2) with 619 healthy community dwellers were included. The mean age of participants was 76 ± 5 years. Meaningful effects in favor of VRT

  19. Lateral balance control for robotic gait training

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopman, B.; Meuleman, J.H.; Asseldonk, van E.H.F.; Kooij, van der H.

    2013-01-01

    For the rehabilitation of neurological patients robot-aided gait training is increasingly being used. Lack of balance training in these robotic gait trainers might contribute to the fact that they do not live up to the expectations. Therefore, in this study we developed and evaluated an algorithm to

  20. Balancing Training Techniques for Flight Controller Certification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosling, Christina

    2011-01-01

    Training of ground control teams has been a difficult task in space operations. There are several intangible skills that must be learned to become the steely eyed men and women of mission control who respond to spacecraft failures that can lead to loss of vehicle or crew if handled improperly. And as difficult as training is, it can also be costly. Every day, month or year an operator is in training, is a day that not only they are being trained without direct benefit to the organization, but potentially an instructor or mentor is also being paid for hours spent assisting them. Therefore, optimization of the training flow is highly desired. Recently the Expedition Division (DI) at Johnson Space Flight Center has recreated their training flows for the purpose of both moving to an operator/specialist/instructor hierarchy and to address past inefficiencies in the training flow. This paper will discuss the types of training DI is utilizing in their new flows, and the balance that has been struck between the ideal learning environments and realistic constraints. Specifically, the past training flow for the ISS Attitude Determination and Control Officer will be presented, including drawbacks that were encountered. Then the new training flow will be discussed and how a new approach utilizes more training methods and teaching techniques. We will look at how DI has integrated classes, workshops, checkouts, module reviews, scenarios, OJT, paper sims, Mini Sims, and finally Integrated Sims to balance the cost and timing of training a new flight controller.

  1. Comparison of two balance training programs on balance in community dwelling older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shefali Walia

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Impaired balance has been associated with an increased risk for falls and a resulting increase in the mortality rate of elder people. Thus, balance-training interventions have an important place in fall prevention. This study was designed with the purpose of identifying the appropriate balance-training program for community dwelling elderly adults with an active lifestyle. A sample of 70 elderly adults were randomly allocated into two groups: group 1 (n=35 received general balance and mobility exercise; group 2 (n=35 received specific balance strategy training. The intervention consisted of 5 sessions/week for 4 weeks. The outcome measures were Timed up and go test (TUGT and Berg balance scale (BBS. An inter-group (2-way mixed model analysis of co-variance and intra-group (repeated measures analysis was done to find the change in balance scores. After the intervention, the TUGT scores in group 1 were, mean=10.38 s, standard deviation (SD=1.59 s and in group 2 were, mean=9.27 s, SD=1.13 s. Post training, BBS scores for group 1 were, mean=54.69, SD=1.13, and for group 2 were, mean=55.57, SD =0.56. There was a significant group × time effect for TUGT and BBS score. All the subjects showed significant changes in balance scores after balance training interventions. The subjects who participated in the specific balance-strategy training significantly improved their functional mobility, as shown on the TUGT, compared to the general training group.

  2. Global Sales Training's Balancing Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehle, Sarah

    2010-01-01

    A one-size-fits-all global sales strategy that fails to take into account the cultural, regulatory, geographic, and economic differences that exist across borders is a blueprint for failure. For training organizations tasked with educating globally dispersed sales forces, the challenge is adapting to these differences while simultaneously…

  3. Can balance training promote balance and strength in prepubertal children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granacher, Urs; Muehlbauer, Thomas; Maestrini, Lea; Zahner, Lukas; Gollhofer, Albert

    2011-06-01

    The prevalence of sustaining a fall is particularly high in children. Deficits in postural control and muscle strength are important intrinsic fall risk factors. Thus, the purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of balance training (BT) followed by detraining on postural control, plantar flexor strength, and jumping height in prepubertal children. Thirty grade 1 school children participated in this study and were assigned to either an intervention class (INT, n = 15, age 6.7 ± 0.5 years) or a control class (n = 15, age 6.6 ± 0.5 years). The INT participated in 4 weeks of BT (3 per week) integrated in their physical education lessons. Pre, post, and follow-up tests included the measurements of postural sway on a balance platform, maximal torque and rate of force development of the plantar flexors on an isokinetic device, and jumping height on a force platform. The significance level was set at p training resulted in tendencies in terms of small to medium interaction effects yet not statistically significant improvements in postural sway (f = 0.14; p > 0.05), force production of the plantar flexors (f = 0.18; p> 0.05), and jumping height (f = 0.25; p> 0.05). Immaturity of the postural control system and deficits in attentional focus during practice of balance exercises could be responsible for the nonsignificant findings in this study. Thus, other training regimen (e.g., resistance training) should be applied alone or in combination with BT, which may have the potential to promote balance and strength in children.

  4. Balancing European SME Managers’ Training Contents: Perceived Importance & Training Needs

    OpenAIRE

    Morgado Leonel; Varajão João; Dominguez Caroline; Oliveira Irene; Sousa Fernanda

    2014-01-01

    Background: Given the limited available time of in-service professionals, the balance between the perceived importance of the course content and training needs is essential for the acceptance and attractiveness of training courses aimed at them. Objectives: The goal of the paper is to contribute to the development of entrepreneurship and business training programs for European SME managers. Methods/Approach: In six European countries a survey focusing on SME managers’ ...

  5. Effects of plyometric and pneumatic explosive strength training on neuromuscular function and dynamic balance control in 60-70year old males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piirainen, Jarmo M; Cronin, Neil J; Avela, Janne; Linnamo, Vesa

    2014-04-01

    The present study compared neuromuscular adaptations to 12weeks of plyometric (PLY) or pneumatic (PNE) power training and their effects on dynamic balance control. Twenty-two older adults aged 60-70 (PLY n=9, PNE n=11) participated in the study. Measurements were conducted at Pre, 4, 8 and 12weeks. Dynamic balance was assessed as anterior-posterior center of pressure (COP) displacement in response to sudden perturbations. Explosive isometric knee extension and plantar flexion maximal voluntary contractions (MVCs) were performed. Maximal drop jump performance from optimal dropping height was measured in a sledge ergometer. Increases in knee extensor and ankle plantar flexor torque and muscle activity were higher and occurred sooner in PNE, whereas in drop jumping, PLY showed a clearer increase in optimal drop height (24%, ptraining and soleus muscle activity after 12weeks of training. In spite of these training mode specific adaptations, both groups showed similar improvements in dynamic balance control after 4weeks of training (PLY 38%, ptraining may involve different neural adaptation mechanisms, both training modes can produce similar improvements in dynamic balance control in older individuals. As COP displacement was negatively correlated with rapid knee extension torque in both groups (PLY r=-0.775, ptraining, the results also highlight the importance of targeting rapid force production when training older adults to improve dynamic balance.

  6. 八段锦结合功能训练改善脑卒中患者平衡功能的研究%Research on Baduanjin Combined with Function Training in Improving Balance Functions of Stroke Patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白艳杰; 毛海燕; 郭健; 张铭

    2011-01-01

    摘要:目的:观察八段锦结合平衡功能训练对脑卒中后平衡功能的影响。方法:将符合纳入标准的60例脑卒中患者随机平均分成治疗组和对照组。对照组进行平衡功能训练,治疗组在对照组治疗的基础上练习八段锦。治疗前后分别采用三级平衡能力评定和Berg评分(BBS)评定2组患者的平衡能力。结果:经过42 d治疗,治疗组三级立位平衡能力评定较对照组有显著性差异(P<0.05),两组患者治疗后BBS评分有显著性差异(P<0.05)。结论:八段锦结合功能训练能改善卒中后患者的平衡能力。%Objective:To observe the influence of baduanjin combined with balancing function training on balance functions after stroke. Methods :60 stroke patients who met the inclusion criteria were randomly divided into 2 groups. The control group was given balancing function training while the treatment group received baduanjin based on the treatment given to the control group. Balance function assessment of level three and Berg balance score (BBS) were used for evaluating the balance functions of the patients in two groups before and after the treatment. Results: After 6 weeks' treatment, compared with that of the control group, there was a significant difference in the evaluation of orthostatic balance function of level three ( P <0. 05 ). BBS score of patients in both groups showed a significant difference (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Baduanjin therapy can improve balance functions of patients after stroke.

  7. The Effect of Long-Term Training Program on Balance in Children with Cerebral Palsy: Results of a Pilot Study for Individually Based Functional Exercises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzun, Selda

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the effects of long-term training program on balance and center of pressure (COP) for four male children (13 years of age) with cerebral palsy (CP). These children were classified into one hemiplegic (level II), one diplegic (level II) and two quadriplegic children (levels III and II) using the Gross Motor Function…

  8. The Effect of Long-Term Training Program on Balance in Children with Cerebral Palsy: Results of a Pilot Study for Individually Based Functional Exercises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzun, Selda

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the effects of long-term training program on balance and center of pressure (COP) for four male children (13 years of age) with cerebral palsy (CP). These children were classified into one hemiplegic (level II), one diplegic (level II) and two quadriplegic children (levels III and II) using the Gross Motor Function…

  9. Can balance trampoline training promote motor coordination and balance performance in children with developmental coordination disorder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giagazoglou, Paraskevi; Sidiropoulou, Maria; Mitsiou, Maria; Arabatzi, Fotini; Kellis, Eleftherios

    2015-01-01

    The present study aimed to examine movement difficulties among typically developing 8- to 9-year-old elementary students in Greece and to investigate the possible effects of a balance training program to those children assessed with Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD). The Body Coordination Test for Children (BCTC; Körperkoordinationstest fur Kinder, KTK, Kiphard & Schilling, 1974) was chosen for the purposes of this study and 20 children out of the total number of 200, exhibited motor difficulties indicating a probable DCD disorder. The 20 students diagnosed with DCD were equally separated into two groups where each individual of the experimental group was paired with an individual of the control group. The intervention group attended a 12-week balance training program while students of the second - control group followed the regular school schedule. All participants were tested prior to the start and after the end of the 12-week period by performing static balance control tasks while standing on an EPS pressure platform and structured observation of trampoline exercises while videotaping. The results indicated that after a 12-week balance training circuit including a trampoline station program, the intervention group improved both factors that were examined. In conclusion, balance training with the use of attractive equipment such as trampoline can be an effective intervention for improving functional outcomes and can be recommended as an alternative mode of physical activity.

  10. Virtual Balancing for Studying and Training Postural Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buettner, Daniela; Dalin, Daniela; Wiesmeier, Isabella K; Maurer, Christoph

    2017-01-01

    Postural control during free stance has been frequently interpreted in terms of balancing an inverted pendulum. This even holds, if subjects do not balance their own, but an external body weight. We introduce here a virtual balancing apparatus, which produces torque in the ankle joint as a function of ankle angle resembling the gravity and inertial effects of free standing. As a first aim of this study, we systematically modified gravity, damping, and inertia to examine its effect on postural control beyond the physical constraints given in the real world. As a second aim, we compared virtual balancing to free stance to test its suitability for balance training in patients who are not able to balance their full body weight due to certain medical conditions. In a feasibility study, we analyzed postural control during free stance and virtual balancing in 15 healthy subjects. Postural control was characterized by spontaneous sway measures and measures of perturbed stance. During free stance, perturbations were induced by pseudorandom anterior-posterior tilts of the body support surface. In the virtual balancing task, we systematically varied the anterior-posterior position of the foot plate where the balancing forces are zero following a similar pseudorandom stimulus profile. We found that subjects' behavior during virtual balancing resembles free stance on a tilting platform. This specifically holds for the profile of body excursions as a function of stimulus frequencies. Moreover, non-linearity between stimulus and response amplitude is similar in free and virtual balancing. The overall larger stimulus induced body excursions together with an altered phase behavior between stimulus and response could be in part explained by the limited use of vestibular and visual feedback in our experimental setting. Varying gravity or damping significantly affected postural behavior. Inertia as an isolated factor had a mild effect on the response functions. We conclude that

  11. Balancing the Demands of Education and Training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Mette Krogh; Sørensen, Jan Kahr

    Balancing the Demands of Education and Training – A Qualitative Study on Young Male Football Talents’ Dual Careers. M. K. Christensena and J. K. Sørensenb a Institute of Sports Science and Clinical Biomechanics, University of Southern Denmark b Department of Public Health – Sport Science, Aarhus...... University Workshop: Negotiating Athlete Identity in Career Transitions Abstract: Today’s young semi-professional football players are expected to continue their education while honing their talents as footballers. This means they must balance the contradictory demands that come from coming from the fields...... in a significant rise in the time such sporting assets spend on sport. Yet, attempting a professional career in football involves great mental and physical strains that profoundly affect the future lives of the young talents. The study presented in this paper explores how 15- to 19-year-old Danish football talents...

  12. Balance training and visual rehabilitation of age-related macular degeneration patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radvay, Xavier; Duhoux, Stéphanie; Koenig-Supiot, Françoise; Vital-Durand, François

    2007-01-01

    Patients with Age-Related Macular Degeneration (AMD) experience a large scotoma precluding central vision. In addition, 2/3 of these patients present visuomotor and balance deficits resulting in clumsiness and increased risk of falls. On the basis of previous work demonstrating that visual, vestibular and somatosensory functions involved in balance control can be rehabilitated by training, we attempted to improve these functions by balance training. We measured the impact of balance training on several visuomotor functions and reading speed. We compared balance status of 54 AMD patients to 55 normal controls. Sixteen of these patients and 14 controls subsequently received balance training sessions on a postural platform (Multitest) stressing sensorimotor coordination by selectively inhibiting or disturbing either, visual, vestibular or somatosensory input. Producing a conflict between two inputs reinforces the use of the third. We assessed postural sway, pointing accuracy, reading performance and, for the patients, the effect of low vision training and balance training on the shift from several spontaneous Preferred Retinal Loci (PRLs) to one or more Trained Retinal Loci (TRL). Even after a limited number of sessions of cross-modal balance training, the results show a significant improvement for the vestibular input and fixation stability. A decrease of visual dependency was observed only in the control group. Apart from these improvements, pointing accuracy and reading speed were not significantly improved compared to controls, leading to the conclusion that more training sessions may be necessary to gain more significant improvement of visuo-motor functions.

  13. Study on Influence of Functional Training on Balance Ability of Firefighters%功能性训练对消防员平衡能力的影响研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史德平; 杨英

    2016-01-01

    Terrible firefighting environment,frequent conversion between training and actual combat,common switch between relaxation and tension,long duration and high working intensity require firefighters to have good physical energy reserves.This study adopts a set of functional training method to train firefighters of a fire squadron in Jinzhong city.After a 3 -month training cycle,the paper studies balance ability index of firefighters before and after the functional training.Research results show that functional training can better improve firefighters’dynamic balance ability.%消防作业环境恶劣,训练与实战转换频繁,经常转换放松与紧张状态,而且持续时间长、作业强度大,要求士兵必须具备良好的体能储备。本研究采用一套功能性训练方法对晋中市某消防中队消防员进行训练。通过三个月的训练周期后,对消防员功能性训练前后的平衡能力指标进行研究。研究结果表明,功能性训练能更好地提高消防员动态平衡能力。

  14. The Effects of Motor-control Training to Recovery of Balance and Walking Function of Hemiplegia Patients%运动控制训练对偏瘫患者平衡及步行能力的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄宇; 郑栋华; 张继荣

    2011-01-01

    目的:观察运动控制训练对偏瘫患者平衡及步行能力的影响.方法:60名偏瘫患者随机分为两组,运动控制训练组与康复对照组,每组30例.评定平衡功能应用平衡障碍严重程度分级和Fugl-Meyer平衡功能评定量表,应用Holden功能步行分级评定步行能力.结果:运动控制训练组的平衡功能、步行能力得分均高于普通康复组,二者比较有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论:运动控制训练可以明显改善患者的平衡功能与步行能力.%Objective: To observe the effects of motor-control training to the recovery of balance and walking function in hemiplegia patients. Methods: Sixty hemiplegia patients were divided into motorcontrol group (group M, 30 cases) and control group (group C, 30 cases) randomly. Balance function was evaluated with balance function disorder grading and Fugl-Meyer balance function measurement and walking ability was graded with Holden walking grading form. Results: The scores of balance function and walking ability in group M were significantly higher than those in control group (P <0. 05). Conclusion: The balance function and walking ability of heimplegia patients could be improved by motor-control training.

  15. Effects in Balance Function Training on the Ability of Daily Living of Patients with Hemiplegia%平衡功能训练对偏瘫患者日常生活能力的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李冬; 李琪; 史青

    2013-01-01

    目的:研究平衡功能训练对偏瘫患者日常生活能力的影响。方法:40例脑卒中偏瘫患者分为A、B两组各20例,B组行常规康复训练,A组行强化平衡训练,观察两组日常生活能力。结果:治疗后A组BBS及MBI评分均显著高于B组(P<0.01)。结论:平衡功能训练能提高脑卒中偏瘫患者的日常生活能力。%Objective:To study the effects of balance function training on the ability of daily living of patients with hemiplegia. Methods:40 stroke patients with hemiplegia were divided into group A and group B, each of 20 cases, group B received routine rehabilitation training, and group A ad-opted intensive balance training, both were observed the ability of daily living. Results:After the treatment, BBS and MBI scores of group A were both significantly higher than those of group B (P<0.01). Conclusion:Balance function training can improve the ability of daily living of stroke pa-tients with hemiplegia.

  16. Anti-gravity training improves walking capacity and postural balance in patients with muscular dystrophy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berthelsen, Martin Peter; Husu, Edith; Christensen, Sofie Bouschinger

    2014-01-01

    -gravity treadmill, which offered weight support up to 80% of their body weight. Six minute walking distance, dynamic postural balance, and plasma creatine kinase were assessed 10weeks prior to training, immediately before training and after 10weeks of training. Training elicited an improvement of walking distance...... by 8±2% and dynamic postural balance by 13±4%, indicating an improved physical function. Plasma creatine kinase remained unchanged. These results provide evidence that a combination of aerobic and strength training during anti-gravity has the potential to safely improve functional ability in severely...

  17. Design of Upper Computer Software of Human Balance Function Evaluation and Training System%人体平衡功能评估训练系统上位机软件设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    凌徵华; 谢叻; 毛志勇; 蔡楷; 蔡萍; 蒲放

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To assess body balance function objectively and quantitatively, which can assist the doctor diagnose diseases according to the patient's balance ability effectively. Methods: Develop the software with visual studio and c # based on the needs of physicians and the hardware. Results:The system realizes real-time display of information about balance function, including both the COM(center of mass) and plantar pressure distribution. It can also manage the patient's information, store test results and print test report. Furthermore, rehabilitation training games can help patients train their balance function. Conclusion: This system can help doctors assess the patient's balance ability to provide a basis for the diagnosis, while contributing to patient rehabilitation training.%目的:客观、定量地评定人体平衡功能,有效地协助医生根据病人的平衡能力诊断疾病。方法:了解医生的需求,然后结合硬件在visual studio c#环境下进行开发。结果:该系统能实时显示被测试者的重心摇摆轨迹和足底压力分布,测试结束后计算出平衡能力的评估指标,并实现病人的信息管理、检测结果的存储与检测报告的打印。同时康复训练游戏可以帮助病人训练平衡能力。结论:该系统能帮助医生评估病人的平衡能力,为诊断提供依据,同时能提高病人康复训练的趣味性。

  18. 早期强化平衡训练促进脑卒中患者步行功能恢复%Early Intensive Balance Training to Promote Walking Function Recovery of Stroke Patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张锡萍; 彭辰

    2013-01-01

    目的:探讨早期强化平衡功能训练对脑卒中患者步行功能的影响。方法:将60例患者随机分为治疗组和对照组,对照组予神经内科常规药物和一般康复治疗,治疗组在对照组治疗基础上结合早期强化平衡功能训练,观察两组平衡功能和步行能力的改善情况。结果:治疗后,两组的BBS、MBI、FIM均高于治疗前,治疗组高于对照组(P<0.05)。结论:早期强化平衡训练能促进脑卒中患者步行功能的恢复。%Objective:To investigate the effects of early intensive balance function training on walking function of stroke patients. Methods:60 pa-tients were randomly divided into treatment group and control group, control group was given routine medicine of neurology and general rehabilita-tion therapy, treatment group treated with early intensive balance function training based on the treatment of control group, to observe the improve-ment of balance function and walking abilities between two groups. Results:BBS, MBI and FIM of two groups after the treatment were all higher than those before the treatment, and treatment group was better than control group (P<0.05). Conclusion:Early intensive balance training can pro-mote walking function recovery of stroke patients.

  19. Task-Specific Balance Training Improves the Sensory Organisation of Balance Control in Children with Developmental Coordination Disorder: A Randomised Controlled Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Fong, Shirley S.M.; Guo, X.; Liu, Karen P.Y.; Ki, W.Y.; Louie, Lobo H.T.; Chung, Raymond C.K.; Macfarlane, Duncan J

    2016-01-01

    Sensory organisation of balance control is compromised in children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD). A randomised controlled trial involving 88 children with DCD was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of a task-specific balance training (functional-movement training, FMT) programme in improving balance deficits in a DCD population. The DCD participants were randomly assigned to either a FMT group or a control group. The FMT group received two training sessions/ week for 3 months...

  20. Teaching Balance Training to Improve Stability and Cognition for Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Andrew L.; Norman, Shannon P.; Kim, Young Ae

    2013-01-01

    There are many benefits to having young children train or practice on balance boards. The physical education setting allows educators to provide opportunities for youth to develop essential fitness skills that can be transferred into other life experiences. Balance-board activities and exercises can help in training the central and peripheral…

  1. Fluid Balance of Adolescent Swimmers During Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, J D; Kavouras, Stavros A; Robillard, Joseph I; Bardis, Costas N; Johnson, Evan C; Ganio, Matthew S; McDermott, Brendon P; White, Michael A

    2016-03-01

    Swimming, either competitively or leisurely, is a unique activity that involves prolonged exercise while immersed in stable water temperatures. This environment could have an influence on the hydration status of swimmers independently of fluid balance. Forty-six healthy adolescent swimmers (26 males and 20 females; 12.8 ± 2.3 years; 50.6 ± 13.4 kg) were studied during a typical training session in an indoor swimming pool. First morning, prepractice and postpractice urine samples were tested for osmolality and specific gravity, whereas all athletes consumed fluids ad libitum. Sixty-seven percent of the athletes were hypohydrated (urine osmolality [Uosm] ≥700 mmol·kg(-1)) based on their first morning urine sample, which increased to 78% immediately before training. During the 2-hour swimming practice, the minimal sweat loss (0.39 ± 0.27 L) combined with ad libitum fluid availability resulted in unchanged body weight (0.1 ± 0.3 kg). Additionally, thirst was similar (before practice: 46 ± 26, after practice: 55 ± 33 mm on a 100-mm visual analog scale) at pretraining and posttraining time points (p > 0.05). Interestingly, postpractice Uosm was reduced significantly compared with the prepractice value (630 vs. 828 mmol·kg(-1); p = 0.001), without any significant change in body weight (0.1 ± 0.3 kg; p > 0.05). In conclusion, the present data indicated that more than two-thirds of the young swimmers appeared in their practice suboptimally hydrated. Although no changes in body mass were observed during the swimming practice, the decrease in urine hydration markers after swimming might less accurately reflect hydration state.

  2. MOTOmed运动训练对胸腰段脊髓损伤患者平衡功能的影响%Influence of MOTOmed training on balance function among patients with thoracolumbar spinal cord injuries patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王玉英; 黄学英; 王丽华; 柳尧花

    2015-01-01

    Objective To study the effect of MOTOmed training on balance function among patients with thoracolumbar spinal cord injuries. Methods A total of 60 patients with thoracolumbar spinal cord injuries were selected by random number from January 2009 to August 2013, and they were divided into the observation group and the control group, with 30 cases in each group. The control group was given the conventional rehabilitation training, while the observation group was given the MOTOmed training. Before rehabilitation, and four courses and eight courses after rehabilitation training, the Berg Balance Scale ( BBS) was used to evaluate the balance function. Results Four courses and eight courses after rehabilitation training, the BBS score of the observation group were (27. 37 ± 5. 38) and (33. 30 ± 4. 90), which were significantly higher than those of the control group (t=7. 569, 7. 796, respectively;P<0. 01). Conclusions The MOTOmed training combined with routine rehabilitation training can improve the balance function in patients with thoracolumbar spinal cord injury.%目的:探讨 MOTOmed 运动训练对胸腰段脊髓损伤患者平衡功能的影响。方法将2009年1月—2013年8月60例胸腰段脊髓损伤患者按随机数字表法分为观察组和对照组各30例。对照组患者进行常规康复训练,观察组在常规康复训练的基础上进行MOTOmed训练。康复前及康复训练后4,8个疗程分别对采用Berg平衡量表(BBS)评定患者的平衡功能。结果康复训练4,8个疗程后,观察组患者BBS评分分别为(27.37±5.38),(33.30±4.90)分,均高于对照组,差异有统计学意义(t值分别为7.569,7.796;P<0.01)。结论 MOTOmed训练配合常规康复训练可较好地改善恢复期胸腰段脊髓损伤患者的平衡功能。

  3. Balance Changes in Trained and Untrained Elderly Undergoing a Five-Months Multicomponent Training Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cordellat

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Balance is a main focus of elderly activity programs which can be assessed by functional tests or stabilometry platforms. Our study aims to compare balance-changes in trained (TRA and untrained (UNT elderly following a 5-month Multi-Component Training Program (MCTP, twice a week, one hour per day. 10 TRA (>2-years and 9 UNT (first year performed the Romberg´s test (Open-Eyes 30 seconds/Closed-Eyes 30 seconds ratio on a stabilometry platform (BT4, Hur Labs. COP displacement (Trace Length: TL and sway area (C90 were registered twice PRE (1&2, POST (3&4 and 3 months later (Detraining: 5&6 the EFAM-UV© program, a Cognitive MCTP based on gait training and Dual-Task neuromuscular proposals in enriched environments. Regarding Open-Eyes, Bonferroni post-hoc comparisons showed significant group-differences in TL for 1, 2, 5 & 6 sample conditions, and a slight trend toward significance in C90 1&5. TL also showed significant group-differences in Closed-Eyes 1, 5 & 6, while C90 only in 5 & 6 Closed-Eyes. Balance indicators TL and C90 show a different way regarding the training status. A 5-month MCTP reduces differences, but detraining quickly affects UNT. Although effective, short multicomponent interventions could lead to early worsening, so the ratio training-detraining might be considered in untrained elderly populatio

  4. Effect of Playful Balancing Training - A Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik Hautop; Jessen, Jari Due

    2013-01-01

    We used the modular playware in the form of modular interactive tiles for playful training of community-dwelling elderly with balancing problem. During short-term play on the modular interactive tiles, the elderly were playing physical, interactive games that were challenging their dynamic balance......, agility, endurance, and sensor-motoric reaction. A population of 12 elderly (average age: 79) with balancing problems (DGI average score: 18.7) was randomly assigned to control group or tiles training group, and tested before and after intervention. The tiles training group had statistical significant...... increase in balancing performance (DGI score: 21.3) after short-term playful training with the modular interactive tiles, whereas the control group remained with a score indicating balancing problems and risk of falling (DGI score: 16.6). The small pilot randomized controlled trial suggests...

  5. Feasibility of Wii Fit training to improve clinical measures of balance in older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bieryla KA

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Kathleen A Bieryla, Neil M DoldBiomedical Engineering Department, Bucknell University, Lewisburg, PA, USABackground and purpose: Numerous interventions have been proposed to improve balance in older adults with varying degrees of success. A novel approach may be to use an off-the-shelf video game system utilizing real-time force feedback to train older adults. The purpose of this study is to investigate the feasibility of using Nintendo's Wii Fit for training to improve clinical measures of balance in older adults and to retain the improvements after a period of time.Methods: Twelve healthy older adults (aged >70 years were randomly divided into two groups. The experimental group completed training using Nintendo's Wii Fit game three times a week for 3 weeks while the control group continued with normal activities. Four clinical measures of balance were assessed before training, 1 week after training, and 1 month after training: Berg Balance Scale (BBS, Fullerton Advanced Balance (FAB scale, Functional Reach (FR, and Timed Up and Go (TUG. Friedman two-way analysis of variance by ranks was conducted on the control and experimental group to determine if training using the Wii Balance Board with Wii Fit had an influence on clinical measures of balance.Results: Nine older adults completed the study (experimental group n = 4, control group n = 5. The experimental group significantly increased their BBS after training while the control group did not. There was no significant change for either group with FAB, FR, and TUG.Conclusion: Balance training with Nintendo's Wii Fit may be a novel way for older adults to improve balance as measured by the BBS.Keywords: older adults, balance, training

  6. Delivering Training Strategies: The Balanced Scorecard at Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baraldi, Stefano; Cifalinò, Antonella

    2015-01-01

    Aligning the value of training to organizational goals is an emerging need in human resource management. This study, aiming at expanding the research on training evaluation from a strategic management perspective, examines whether the use of the Balanced Scorecard approach can enable an effective delivery of training strategies, thus strengthening…

  7. Delivering Training Strategies: The Balanced Scorecard at Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baraldi, Stefano; Cifalinò, Antonella

    2015-01-01

    Aligning the value of training to organizational goals is an emerging need in human resource management. This study, aiming at expanding the research on training evaluation from a strategic management perspective, examines whether the use of the Balanced Scorecard approach can enable an effective delivery of training strategies, thus strengthening…

  8. Effectiveness of progressive resistance strength training versus traditional balance exercise in improving balance among the elderly - a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshua, Abraham M; D'Souza, Vivian; Unnikrishnan, B; Mithra, Prasanna; Kamath, Asha; Acharya, Vishak; Venugopal, Anand

    2014-03-01

    Falls are important health issues among the elderly people. Most falls in elderly result from abnormal balance control mechanisms. Balance and muscle force generation are directly related, and are associated with age related muscular changes. Studies addressing fall prevention have focused on various group and individualised strength training. However, evidence on strengthening of key muscles necessary for maintaining balance and postural control is lacking. To evaluate the effectiveness of individualised progressive resistance strength training (PRT) programme in improving balance for forward limits of stability in elderly with balance impairment, compared to traditional balance exercise (TBE), and combination of both (COMBI). This randomised controlled trial included three groups; 18 subjects in each aged ≥ 65 years, from the elderly care centres of Mangalore city in Southern India (between June 2008 and December 2012). Block randomisation technique was used and allocation concealment was done using sequentially arranged sealed opaque envelopes. The TBE group received 8 component traditional balance exercise; 4 times a week for 6 months. The PRT group received resistance training for the key muscles of lower extremities, using DeLormes and Watkins protocol. The COMBI group received PRT and TBE alternately (2 days of PRT and 2 days of TBE per week). Functional reach test (FRT) was used for measurement of forward limits of stability. The data was analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 15. For functional reach, PRT group had steady progression from baseline to 6 months (pelderly aged ≥65 years.

  9. Effects of virtual reality-based training and task-oriented training on balance performance in stroke patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyung Young; Kim, You Lim; Lee, Suk Min

    2015-06-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to investigate the clinical effects of virtual reality-based training and task-oriented training on balance performance in stroke patients. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were randomly allocated to 2 groups: virtual reality-based training group (n = 12) and task-oriented training group (n = 12). The patients in the virtual reality-based training group used the Nintendo Wii Fit Plus, which provided visual and auditory feedback as well as the movements that enabled shifting of weight to the right and left sides, for 30 min/day, 3 times/week for 6 weeks. The patients in the task-oriented training group practiced additional task-oriented programs for 30 min/day, 3 times/week for 6 weeks. Patients in both groups also underwent conventional physical therapy for 60 min/day, 5 times/week for 6 weeks. [Results] Balance and functional reach test outcomes were examined in both groups. The results showed that the static balance and functional reach test outcomes were significantly higher in the virtual reality-based training group than in the task-oriented training group. [Conclusion] This study suggested that virtual reality-based training might be a more feasible and suitable therapeutic intervention for dynamic balance in stroke patients compared to task-oriented training.

  10. Balance Training Programs in Athletes – A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brachman Anna

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available It has become almost routine practice to incorporate balance exercises into training programs for athletes from different sports. However, the type of training that is most efficient remains unclear, as well as the frequency, intensity and duration of the exercise that would be most beneficial have not yet been determined. The following review is based on papers that were found through computerized searches of PubMed and SportDiscus from 2000 to 2016. Articles related to balance training, testing, and injury prevention in young healthy athletes were considered. Based on a Boolean search strategy the independent researchers performed a literature review. A total of 2395 articles were evaluated, yet only 50 studies met the inclusion criteria. In most of the reviewed articles, balance training has proven to be an effective tool for the improvement of postural control. It is difficult to establish one model of training that would be appropriate for each sport discipline, including its characteristics and demands. The main aim of this review was to identify a training protocol based on most commonly used interventions that led to improvements in balance. Our choice was specifically established on the assessment of the effects of balance training on postural control and injury prevention as well as balance training methods. The analyses including papers in which training protocols demonstrated positive effects on balance performance suggest that an efficient training protocol should last for 8 weeks, with a frequency of two training sessions per week, and a single training session of 45 min. This standard was established based on 36 reviewed studies.

  11. The Relationship between Physical Activity and Thermal Protective Clothing on Functional Balance in Firefighters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Pui W.; Suyama, Joe; Cham, Rakie; Hostler, David

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the relationship between baseline physical training and the use of firefighting thermal protective clothing (TPC) with breathing apparatus on functional balance. Twenty-three male firefighters performed a functional balance test under four gear/clothing conditions. Participants were divided into groups by physical training status,…

  12. Assessing seniors' user experience (UX) of exergames for balance training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nawaz, Ather; Skjæret, Nina; Ystmark, Kristine;

    2014-01-01

    . This study aims to evaluate user experience and preferences of exergame technologies to train balance and to identify different factors that affect seniors' intention to use exergames. Fourteen healthy senior citizens played three different stepping exergames in a laboratory setting. Seniors' experience......Exergames technologies are increasingly used to help people achieve their exercise requirements including balance training. However, little is known about seniors' user experience of exergame technology for balance training and what factors they consider most important for using the exergames...... of the exergames and their preference to use exergames was assessed using a semi-structured interview, the system usability scale (SUS), and card ranking. The results of the study showed that in order for seniors to use exergames to train their balance, the exergames should particularly focus on challenging tasks...

  13. Relevance of balance measurement tools and balance training for fall prevention in older adults

    OpenAIRE

    Majumi M. Noohu, MPTh; Aparajit B. Dey, MD; Mohammed E. Hussain, PhD

    2014-01-01

    Approximately one in three older people fall each year owing to gait/balance disorder/weakness, the second leading cause of falls in older adults. This review evaluates the capability of different balance measurement tools to predict falls in the elderly, which are used routinely for assessing balance impairment. Balance measurement tools reviewed are the Timed Up and Go test, Berg Balance Scale, Tinetti Performance Oriented Mobility Assessment, Functional Reach Test, Clinical Test of Sensory...

  14. The Effects of Virtual Reality-based Balance Training on Balance of the Elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Gyeong Hee; Hwangbo, Gak; Shin, Hyung Soo

    2014-04-01

    [Purpose] The objective of this study was to determine the effects of virtual reality-based balance training on balance of the elderly. [Methods] The subjects were 32 healthy elderly people aged between 65 and 80, who were divided into a VR (virtual reality) training group (n=17) and a control group (n=15). The VR training group engaged in a 30-minute exercise session using Wii Fit three times a week for eight weeks, while the control group received no intervention. The balance of the two groups was measured before and after the intervention. [Results] According to the Romberg Test conducted to examine the effects of the training on balance, both the area covered by the body's center of pressure movement, and movement distances per unit area of the body's center of pressure envelope significantly decreased in the VR training group. Moreover, the two groups showed significant differences in balance. [Conclusion] Virtual reality training is effective at improving the balance of the healthy elderly. Thus, virtual reality training can be proposed as a form of fall prevention exercise for the elderly.

  15. Is Young Age a Limiting Factor When Training Balance? Effects of Child-Oriented Balance Training in Children and Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wälchli, Michael; Ruffieux, Jan; Mouthon, Audrey; Keller, Martin; Taube, Wolfgang

    2017-06-12

    Balance training studies in children reported conflicting results without evidence for improvements in children under the age of eight. The aim of this study therefore was to compare balance training adaptations in children of different age groups to clarify whether young age prevents positive training outcomes. The effects of five weeks of child-oriented balance training were tested in 77 (38 girls; 39 boys) participants of different age groups (6-7, 11-12, and 14-15 years) and compared to age-matched controls. Static and dynamic postural control, explosive strength, and jump height were assessed. Across age groups, dynamic postural sway decreased (-18.7%; p = .012; η(2)p = .09) and explosive force increased (8.6%; p = .040; η(2)p = .06) in the intervention groups. Age-specific improvements were observed in dynamic postural sway, with greatest effects in the youngest group (-28.8%; p = .026; r = .61). In contrast to previous research using adult-oriented balance exercises, this study demonstrated for the first time that postural control can be trained from as early as the age of six years in children when using child-oriented balance training. Therefore, the conception of the training seems to be essential in improving balance skills in young children.

  16. Improving Balance Function Using Low Levels of Electrical Stimulation of the Balance Organs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomberg, Jacob; Reschke, Millard; Mulavara, Ajitkumar; Wood, Scott; Serrador, Jorge; Fiedler, Matthew; Kofman, Igor; Peters, Brian T.; Cohen, Helen

    2012-01-01

    Crewmembers returning from long-duration space flight face significant challenges due to the microgravity-induced inappropriate adaptations in balance/ sensorimotor function. The Neuroscience Laboratory at JSC is developing a method based on stochastic resonance to enhance the brain s ability to detect signals from the balance organs of the inner ear and use them for rapid improvement in balance skill, especially when combined with balance training exercises. This method involves a stimulus delivery system that is wearable/portable providing imperceptible electrical stimulation to the balance organs of the human body. Stochastic resonance (SR) is a phenomenon whereby the response of a nonlinear system to a weak periodic input signal is optimized by the presence of a particular non-zero level of noise. This phenomenon of SR is based on the concept of maximizing the flow of information through a system by a non-zero level of noise. Application of imperceptible SR noise coupled with sensory input in humans has been shown to improve motor, cardiovascular, visual, hearing, and balance functions. SR increases contrast sensitivity and luminance detection; lowers the absolute threshold for tone detection in normal hearing individuals; improves homeostatic function in the human blood pressure regulatory system; improves noise-enhanced muscle spindle function; and improves detection of weak tactile stimuli using mechanical or electrical stimulation. SR noise has been shown to improve postural control when applied as mechanical noise to the soles of the feet, or when applied as electrical noise at the knee and to the back muscles.

  17. Effect of ankle proprioceptive training on static body balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakaya, Mehmet Gürhan; Rutbİl, Hilal; Akpinar, Ercan; Yildirim, Alİ; Karakaya, İlkİm Çitak

    2015-10-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to investigate the effect of ankle proprioceptive training on static body balance. [Subjects and Methods] In this randomized-controlled, single-blind study, 59 university students (35 females, 24 males) were randomized into study (n=29) and control (n=30) groups. The study group received a foot and ankle proprioceptive exercise program including stretching, strengthening (plantar and dorsi-flexors, invertor and evertor muscles), and balance board exercises, each with 10 repetitions per session, 5 days a week, for a total of 10 sessions. The control group did not receive any intervention. Static body balance was evaluated by a kinesthetic ability trainer, which showed the balance index scores under both single foot and both feet conditions. This evaluation was repeated at the end of two weeks for both groups. [Results] Outcome measures of the groups were similar at the baseline. Balance index scores of both groups improved at the end of two weeks, and the study group had significantly lower index scores than those of the control group, indicating better balance. [Conclusion] Ankle proprioceptive training had positive effects on static body balance parameters in healthy individuals, and it is worth investigating the effects of this type of training in patients with balance disorders.

  18. 八段锦结合平衡训练治疗脑卒中患者平衡功能障碍31例%Treatment of 31 Cases of Balance Function Disorder after Cerebral Stroke by Eight-section Brocade and Balance Training

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张瑶; 李丽

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To observe the effect of eight-section brocade combined with balance training on balance fuction disorder after cerebral stroke.Methods:A total of 62 cerebral stroke patients with balance fuction disorder were divided into observation group(n=31) and control group(n=31) according to the random number table.All patients of the two groups were given conventional medical therapy.On basis of the medical therapy,the control group received balance training and the observation group received eight-section brocade combined with balance training.The curative effect was evaluated by Fugl-Meyer assessment of lower extremity (FMA-L) and Berg balance scale (BBS) after 8 courses of treatment.Results:After treatment,the FMA-L and BBS scores of the two groups were all higher than those before treatment(P<0.05) and the recovery of the observation group was superior to the control group(P<0.05).Conclusion:Eight-section brocade combined with balance training can improve the balance function of cerebral stroke patients.%目的:观察八段锦结合平衡训练治疗脑卒中患者平衡功能障碍的疗效.方法:62例脑卒中后平衡功能障碍患者按照随机数字表法分为观察组和对照组各31例,两组均给予常规内科治疗,在此基础上对照组采用单纯平衡训练治疗,观察组采用八段锦结合平衡训练治疗.治疗8个疗程后,应用下肢运动功能量表(FMA-L)与平衡功能量表(BBS)评分判定治疗效果.结果:治疗后两组FMA-L评分和BBS评分组内比较均较治疗前提高(P<0.05),但观察组提高较对照组更为显著(P<0.05).结论:八段锦结合平衡训练可改善脑卒中患者平衡功能障碍.

  19. EFFECT OF NEUROMUSCULAR TRAINING ON BALANCE AMONG UNIVERSITY ATHLETES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohansundar Sankaravel

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Proprioceptive deficiency followed by lateral ankle sprain leads to poor balance is not uncommon. It has been linked with increased injury risk among young athletes. Introducing neuromuscular training programs for this have been believed as one of the means of injury prevention. Hence, this study was aimed to determine the effects of six weeks progressive neuromuscular training (PNM Training on static balance gains among the young athletes with a previous history of ankle sprains. Methods: This study was an experimental study design, with pre and post test method to determine the effects of PNM Training on static balance gains. All data were collected at university’s sports rehabilitation lab before and after six weeks of intervention period. There were 20 male and female volunteer young athletes (20.9 ± 0.85 years of age with a previous history of ankle sprain involving various sports were recruited from the University community. All the subjects were participated in a six week PNM Training that included stability, strength and power training. Outcome measures were collected by calculating the errors on balance error scoring system made by the athletes on static balance before and after the six weeks of intervention period. Static balance was tested in firm and foam surfaces and recorded accordingly. Results: The researchers found a significant decrease (2.40 ± 0.82 in total errors among the samples at the post test compared with their pre test (P >0.05. Conclusions: The study demonstrates that a PNM Training can improve the static balance on both the firm and foam surfaces among the young athletes with a previous history of ankle sprains.

  20. 平衡训练对脑卒中偏瘫患者下肢运动能力的影响%Effects of balance training on lower limbs motor function of stroke patients with hemiplegia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    万新炉; 黄怡; 叶正茂; 潘翠环; 高春华

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effects of balance training equipment on lower limbs motor function of hemiplegia stroke patients. Methods: Sixty-one cerebral infarction patients were randomly assigned into observation group (31 cases) and control group (30 cases). Both two groups received normal rehabilitation therapy. The patients in observation group received Biodex balance equipment training additionally. Clinical assessments were performed before and after treatment,including Functional Ambulation Category (FAC) ,Fugl-Meyer Assessment scale(FMA) , Barthel Index(BI) ,Berg Balance scale (BBS). Results: After treatment for 5 weeks,FMA,BI,BBS and FAC scores in both groups were increased than pretreatment (P<0. 01,0. 05) ,and those in observation group were obviously higher than in control group (P<0. 05). Conclusion: Balance training equipment combined with normal rehabilitation therapy was more effective than normal rehabilitation therapy in improving lower limbs motor function of hemiplegia stroke patients.%目的:探讨平衡训练对脑卒中偏瘫患者下肢运动能力的影响.方法:脑卒中偏瘫患者61例,将其随机分为观察组31例和对照组30例.2组均给予常规康复训练,观察组在此基础上加用Biodex平衡功能分析训练仪进行训练;训练前后进行功能性步行量表(FAC)、下肢运动功能评定量表(FMA)、日常生活活动能力Barthel指数(BI)及Berg平衡量表(BBS)评定.结果:治疗5周后,2组FMA、BI、BBS及FAC评分均较治疗前明显提高(P<0.01,0.05),且观察组更高于对照组(P<0.05).结论:平衡训练结合常规康复治疗对脑卒中偏瘫患者下肢运动能力的恢复较常规康复治疗效果更好.

  1. Slackline Training (Balancing Over Narrow Nylon Ribbons) and Balance Performance: A Meta-Analytical Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donath, Lars; Roth, Ralf; Zahner, Lukas; Faude, Oliver

    2017-06-01

    Adequate static and dynamic balance performance is an important prerequisite during daily and sporting life. Various traditional and innovative balance training concepts have been suggested to improve postural control or neuromuscular fall risk profiles over recent years. Whether slackline training (balancing over narrow nylon ribbons) serves as an appropriate training strategy to improve static and dynamic balance performance is as yet unclear. The aim was to examine the occurrence and magnitude of effects of slackline training compared with an inactive control condition on static and dynamic balance performance parameters in children, adults and seniors. Five biomedical and psychological databases (CINAHL, EMBASE, ISI Web of Knowledge, PubMed, SPORTDiscus) were screened using the following search terms with Boolean conjunctions: (slacklin* OR slack-lin* OR tight rop* OR tightrop* OR Slackline-based OR line-based OR slackrop* OR slack-rop* OR floppy wir* OR rop* balanc* OR ropedanc* OR rope-danc*) STUDY SELECTION: Randomized and non-randomized controlled trials that applied slackline training as an exercise intervention compared with an inactive control condition focusing on static and dynamic balance performance (perturbed and non-perturbed single leg stance) in healthy children, adults and seniors were screened for eligibility. Eligibility and study quality [Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro) scale] were independently assessed by two researchers. Standardized mean differences (SMDs) calculated as weighted Hedges' g served as main outcomes in order to compare slackline training versus inactive control on slackline standing as well as dynamic and static balance performance parameters. Statistical analyses were conducted using a random-effects, inverse-variance model. Eight trials (mean PEDro score 6.5 ± 0.9) with 204 healthy participants were included. Of the included subjects, 35 % were children or adolescents, 39 % were adults and 26 % were seniors

  2. Effect of sensorimotor training on balance in elderly patients with knee osteoarthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amal F. Ahmed

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Osteoarthritis (OA is a chronic disabling disease that generates many impairments of functional health status. Impairments of balance are recognized in patients with knee OA. This study investigated the short term effect of sensorimotor training on balance in elderly patients with knee OA, and whether these changes were associated with impairment of functional performance. In addition the possible independent predictors of impaired balance were determined. Forty female patients with knee OA were divided into two equal groups. The control group received a traditional exercise programme and the study group received sensorimotor training in addition to traditional exercises. Blind assessment was conducted at the beginning of the study and after 6 weeks of training to measure balance [in the form of overall stability index (OSI, medial/lateral stability index (MLSI, anterior/posterior stability index (APSI], perceived pain, proprioception acuity, knee extensor muscle torque, and functional disability. For the sensorimotor group, statistically significant improvements were recorded in all measured parameters, while the traditional exercise group recorded significant improvement only on measures of perceived pain, proprioception acuity, muscle torque, and functional disability, and non-significant changes on all balance measurements. Furthermore, the sensorimotor group produced significantly better improvement than the traditional group. The main predictor of balance was proprioception. The classic traditional exercise programme used in the management of knee OA is not enough for improving balance. Addition of sensorimotor training to the rehabilitation programme of these patients could produce more positive effects on balance and functional activity levels. The association between balance, proprioception and functional activity should be considered when treating knee OA.

  3. Flexible Training's Intrusion on Work/Life Balance

    OpenAIRE

    Zane BERGE; TAKIYA, Seema

    2005-01-01

    Flexible Training's Intrusion on Work/Life Balance Seema TAKIYAJennifer ARCHBOLDZane BERGEBaltimore, USA Learning interventions should be aligned with the human learning system. To be effective, they have to support human learning, not work against it. Thalheimer, 2004 ABSTRACT With more companies allowing flextime, more access to elearning, and telecomuting, the line between workplace flexibility and work-life balance begins to blur. Companies sell to employees the flexibility of being ab...

  4. Performances of a balanced hydraulic motor with planetary gear train

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hongying; Luo, Changjie; Wang, Huimin

    2012-07-01

    The current research of a balanced hydraulic motor focuses on the characteristics of the motor with three planet gears. References of a balanced hydraulic motor with more than three planet gears are hardly found. In order to study the characteristics of a balanced hydraulic motor with planetary gear train that includes more than three planet gears, on the basis of analysis of the structure and working principle of a balanced hydraulic motor with planetary gear train, formulas are deduced for calculating the hydraulic motor's primary performance indexes such as displacement, unit volume displacement, flowrate fluctuation ratio, etc. Influences of the gears' tooth number on displacement and flowrate characteristics are analyzed. In order to guarantee the reliability of sealing capability, the necessary conditions that tooth number of the sun gear and the planet gears should satisfy are discussed. Selecting large unit volume displacement and small displacement fluctuation ratio as designing objectives, a balanced hydraulic motor with three planet gears and a common gear motor are designed under the conditions of same displacement, tooth addendum coefficien and clearance coefficient. By comparing the unit volume displacement and fluctuation ratio of the two motors, it can be seen that the balanced hydraulic motor with planetary gear train has the advantages of smaller fluctuation ratio and larger unit volume displacement. The results provide theoretical basis for choosing gear tooth-number of this kind of hydraulic motor.

  5. Flexible Training's Intrusion on Work/Life Balance

    OpenAIRE

    TAKIYA, Seema; ARCHBOLD, Jennifer; Zane BERGE

    2015-01-01

    With more companies allowing “flextime”, more access to elearning, and telecomuting, the line between workplace flexibility and work-life balance begins to blur. Companies “sell” to employees the flexibility of being able to complete training programs from the comfort of the participant's home, allowing them to learn at their own speed. In many ways, this solution is of great value to many employees. What also must be considered with the flexibility such training offers, is the unintenti...

  6. Flexible Training's Intrusion on Work/Life Balance

    OpenAIRE

    TAKIYA, Seema; ARCHBOLD, Jennifer; Zane BERGE

    2005-01-01

    With more companies allowing “flextime”, more access to elearning, and telecomuting, the line between workplace flexibility and work-life balance begins to blur. Companies “sell” to employees the flexibility of being able to complete training programs from the comfort of the participant's home, allowing them to learn at their own speed. In many ways, this solution is of great value to many employees. What also must be considered with the flexibility such training offers, is the unintentional ...

  7. The effects of balance training and ankle training on the gait of elderly people who have fallen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jung-Hyun; Kim, Nyeon-Jun

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to examine the effects of balance training and muscle training around the ankle joints on the gait of elderly people who have experienced a fall. [Subjects] Twenty-six elderly people with a risk of falling and a Berg Balance Scale score of 37 to 50 points who had experienced a fall in the last year were randomly and equally assigned to either a balance training group or an ankle training group. The balance training group received training on a hard floor, training while maintaining balance on a cushion ball in a standing position, and training while maintaining balance on an unstable platform in a standing position; the ankle training group received training to strengthen the muscles around the ankle joints and conducted stretch exercise for the muscles around the ankle joints. [Results] There were significant changes in gait velocity, step length, and stride length in the balance training group after the intervention; there were significant changes in gait velocity, cadence, step time, cycle time, step length, and stride length in the ankle training group after the intervention. In a between-group comparison, the gait velocity of the balance training group showed a significant improvement compared with the ankle training group. [Conclusion] Both balance training and ankle joint training are effective in enhancing the gait ability of elderly people with a risk of falling; in particular, balance training is effective in improving the gait velocity of elderly people who have experienced a fall compared with ankle joint training.

  8. 姿势控制训练对偏瘫患者足底压力及平衡功能的影响%Influence of postural control training on plantar pressure and balance function of hemiparalysis patient

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘蓓蓓; 丁勤能; 王岩

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore the influence of postural control training on plantar pressure and balance function of hemip -aralysis patient .Methods Twenty-four cases of hemiparalysis patients were selected and divided into two groups of traditional group ( TG) and balance group ( BG) and had been taken postural control trainings .Novel Zebris pressure test platform was used to examine the pressure peak value (PPV),average pressure (AP),ellipse track length (ETL) of pressure center deviation including ellipse area ( EA) after postural control trainings .Results After two different training methods:①Compared with TG ,PPVs of front half foot and back half foot of unaffected side were both decreased significantly (P0.05).②Compared with TG,AP of front half foot in unaffected side decreased significantly and that in back half foot in-creased significantly (P0.05).③Compared BG with TG,EA,ETL and ratio between ETL and EA decreased significantly (P<0.05).Conclusion ①After two pos-tural control trainings ,there is no significant alteration on contact mode between feet and ground ,and feet pressure distribution condi-tion.Body’s methods to maintain balance have not been changed .②Both feet pressure balance abilities of hemiparalysis patients have been improved after two postural control trainings that indicate they are effective to increase hemiparalysis patients ’ balance function .③Steady trainings in BG promote the improvement of balance function and coordination ability .④BG had obvious advantages than TG in regaining balance adjustment function .%目的:探讨偏瘫患者在进行姿势控制训练后足底压力的变化及对平衡功能的影响。方法将24例偏瘫患者随机分为传统组和平衡组并进行姿势控制训练。使用Novel Zebris平板式足底压力系统测试患者训练后足底的压力峰值、平均压力、压力中心偏移的椭圆轨迹长度,以及椭圆轨迹包络面积。结果经过姿势训练后,①平衡组

  9. Web-based home rehabilitation gaming system for balance training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleh Kachmar

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Currently, most systems for virtual rehabilitation and motor training require quite complex and expensive hardware and can be used only in clinical settings. Now, a low-cost rehabilitation game training system has been developed for patients with movement disorders; it is suitable for home use under the distant supervision of a therapist. It consists of a patient-side application installed on a home computer and the virtual rehabilitation Game Server in the Internet. System can work with different input gaming devices connected through USB or Bluetooth, such as a Nintendo Wii balance board, a Nintendo Wii remote, a MS Kinect sensor, and custom made rehabilitation gaming devices based on a joystick. The same games can be used with all training devices. Assessment of the Home Rehabilitation Gaming System for balance training was performed on six patients with Cerebral Palsy, who went through daily training sessions for two weeks. Preliminary results showed balance improvement in patients with Cerebral Palsy after they had completed home training courses. Further studies are needed to establish medical requirements and evidence length.

  10. Taekwondo training improves balance in volunteers over 40.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pons van Dijk, G; Lenssen, A F; Leffers, P; Kingma, H; Lodder, J

    2013-01-01

    Balance deteriorates with age, and may eventually lead to falling accidents which may threaten independent living. As Taekwondo contains various highly dynamic movement patterns, Taekwondo practice may sustain or improve balance. Therefore, in 24 middle-aged healthy volunteers (40-71 year) we investigated effects of age-adapted Taekwondo training of 1 h a week during 1 year on various balance parameters, such as: motor orientation ability (primary outcome measure), postural and static balance test, single leg stance, one leg hop test, and a questionnaire. Motor orientation ability significantly increased in favor of the antero-posterior direction with a difference of 0.62° toward anterior compared to pre-training measurement, when participants corrected the tilted platform rather toward the posterior direction; female gender being an independent outcome predictor. On postural balance measurements sway path improved in all 19 participants, with a median of 9.3 mm/s (range 0.71-45.86), and sway area in 15 participants with 4.2 mm(2)/s (range 17.39-1.22). Static balance improved with an average of 5.34 s for the right leg, and with almost 4 s for the left. Median single leg stance duration increased in 17 participants with 5 s (range 1-16), and in 13 participants with 8 s (range 1-18). The average one leg hop test distance increased (not statistically significant) with 9.5 cm. The questionnaire reported a better "ability to maintain balance" in 16. In conclusion, our data suggest that age-adapted Taekwondo training improves various aspects of balance control in healthy people over the age of 40.

  11. CONTENTS AND FUNCTIONS OF BALANCED INDICATIVE MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muratova L. I.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In the article the questions of balanced indicative management essence are discussed, on basis of economic literature generalization its functions are dedicated, the system of indicators at the regional economy and economic agents level is formed, the structural elements and instruments of indicative management are analyzed

  12. Flexible Training's Intrusion on Work/Life Balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takiya, Seema; Archbold, Jennifer; Berge, Zane

    2005-01-01

    With more companies allowing "flextime", more access to elearning, and telecomuting, the line between workplace flexibility and work-life balance begins to blur. Companies "sell" to employees the flexibility of being able to complete training programs from the comfort of the participant's home, allowing them to learn at their own speed. In many…

  13. [Application of the balanced scorecard for evaluating the training process].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venturoli, Cristiana; Gamberoni, Loredana

    2009-01-01

    A training project in which nurses acted as tutors to novice nurses was introduced in the Ferrara University Hospital, with the aim of helping them to achieve the skills and professional expertise required in an operating theatre environment. Owing to the involvement of all the surgical divisions of the hospital and the continual addition of new staff, the Balanced Scorecard method (BSC) was used to assess the impact of training on the entire organization. The BSC method, a multidimensional method born in the USA in the 1990's, made it possible to assess the utility of training in the light of achieving institutional goals.

  14. The Efficacy of Balance Training with Video Game-Based Therapy in Subacute Stroke Patients: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Morone

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The video game-based therapy emerged as a potential valid tool in improving balance in several neurological conditions with controversial results, whereas little information is available regarding the use of this therapy in subacute stroke patients. The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy of balance training using video game-based intervention on functional balance and disability in individuals with hemiparesis due to stroke in subacute phase. Fifty adult stroke patients participated to the study: 25 subjects were randomly assigned to balance training with Wii Fit, and the other 25 subjects were assigned to usual balance therapy. Both groups were also treated with conventional physical therapy (40 min 2 times/day. The main outcome was functional balance (Berg Balance Scale-BBS, and secondary outcomes were disability (Barthel Index-BI, walking ability (Functional Ambulation Category, and walking speed (10-meters walking test. Wii Fit training was more effective than usual balance therapy in improving balance (BBS: 53 versus 48, P=0.004 and independency in activity of daily living (BI: 98 versus 93, P=0.021. A balance training performed with a Wii Fit as an add on to the conventional therapy was found to be more effective than conventional therapy alone in improving balance and reducing disability in patients with subacute stroke.

  15. The effects of action observation training and mirror therapy on gait and balance in stroke patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ho Jeong; Kim, Young Mi; Lee, Dong Kyu

    2017-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of action observation training and mirror therapy to improve on balance and gait function of stroke patients. [Subjects and Methods] The participants were randomly allocated to one of three groups: The action observation training with activity group practiced additional action observation training with activity for three 30-minute session for six weeks (n=12). The mirror therapy with activity group practiced additional mirror therapy with activity for three 30-minute sessions for six weeks (n=11). The only action observation training group practiced additional action observation training for three 30-minute sessions for weeks (n=12). All groups received conventional therapy for five 60-minute sessions over a six-week period. [Results] There were significant improvements in balance and gait function. The action observation training with activity group significantly improved subjects’ static balance. The action observation training with activity group and the mirror therapy with activity group significantly improved subjects’ gait ability. [Conclusion] The activation of mirror neurons combined with a conventional stroke physiotherapy program enhances lower-extremity motor recovery and motor functioning in stroke patients. PMID:28356646

  16. The effects of action observation training and mirror therapy on gait and balance in stroke patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ho Jeong; Kim, Young Mi; Lee, Dong Kyu

    2017-03-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of action observation training and mirror therapy to improve on balance and gait function of stroke patients. [Subjects and Methods] The participants were randomly allocated to one of three groups: The action observation training with activity group practiced additional action observation training with activity for three 30-minute session for six weeks (n=12). The mirror therapy with activity group practiced additional mirror therapy with activity for three 30-minute sessions for six weeks (n=11). The only action observation training group practiced additional action observation training for three 30-minute sessions for weeks (n=12). All groups received conventional therapy for five 60-minute sessions over a six-week period. [Results] There were significant improvements in balance and gait function. The action observation training with activity group significantly improved subjects' static balance. The action observation training with activity group and the mirror therapy with activity group significantly improved subjects' gait ability. [Conclusion] The activation of mirror neurons combined with a conventional stroke physiotherapy program enhances lower-extremity motor recovery and motor functioning in stroke patients.

  17. Taekwondo training improves balance in volunteers over forty.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaby ePons Van Dijk

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available AbstractBalance deteriorates with age, and may eventually lead to falling accidents which may threaten independent living. As Taekwondo contains various highly dynamic movement patterns, taekwondo practice may sustain or improve balance. Therefore, in 24 middle-aged healthy volunteers (40-71 year we investigated effects of age-adapted taekwondo training of one hour a week during one year on various balance parameters, such as: motor orientation ability (primary outcome measure, postural and static balance test, single leg stance, one leg hop test, and a questionnaire.Motor orientation ability significantly increased in favor of the antero-posterior direction with a difference of 0.62 degrees towards anterior compared to pre-training measurement, when participants corrected the tilted platform rather towards the posterior direction; female gender being an independent outcome predictor. On postural balance measurements sway path improved in all 19 participants, with a median of 9.3 mm/sec (range 0.71-45.86, and sway area in 15 participants with 4.2 mm²/sec (range 17.39-1.22. Static balance improved with an average of 5.34 seconds for the right leg, and with almost 4 seconds for the left. Median single leg stance duration increased in 17 participants with 5 seconds (range 1-16, and in 13 participants with 8 seconds (range 1-18. The average one leg hop test distance increased (not statistically significant with 9.5 cm. The questionnaire reported a better ‘ability to maintain balance’ in sixteen.In conclusion, our data suggest that age-adapted Taekwondo training improves various aspects of balance control in healthy people over the age of forty.

  18. Controlling chaos in balanced neural circuits with input spike trains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelken, Rainer; Wolf, Fred

    The cerebral cortex can be seen as a system of neural circuits driving each other with spike trains. Here we study how the statistics of these spike trains affects chaos in balanced target circuits.Earlier studies of chaos in balanced neural circuits either used a fixed input [van Vreeswijk, Sompolinsky 1996, Monteforte, Wolf 2010] or white noise [Lajoie et al. 2014]. We study dynamical stability of balanced networks driven by input spike trains with variable statistics. The analytically obtained Jacobian enables us to calculate the complete Lyapunov spectrum. We solved the dynamics in event-based simulations and calculated Lyapunov spectra, entropy production rate and attractor dimension. We vary correlations, irregularity, coupling strength and spike rate of the input and action potential onset rapidness of recurrent neurons.We generally find a suppression of chaos by input spike trains. This is strengthened by bursty and correlated input spike trains and increased action potential onset rapidness. We find a link between response reliability and the Lyapunov spectrum. Our study extends findings in chaotic rate models [Molgedey et al. 1992] to spiking neuron models and opens a novel avenue to study the role of projections in shaping the dynamics of large neural circuits.

  19. Unilateral balance training enhances neuromuscular reactions to perturbations in the trained and contralateral limb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Anderson Souza Castelo; Brito Silva, Priscila; Farina, Dario; Kersting, Uwe Gustav

    2013-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of unilateral balance training on the reactive recovery of balance for both trained and untrained limbs. Twenty-three subjects were randomly assigned to either a control group (CG) or a training group (TG). The latter performed six weeks of balance training for the right leg. The pre- and post-training measurements were based on single leg standing posture on a moveable force platform which moved 6 cm anteriorly. TG subjects were tested on the trained (TR) and untrained leg (UTR), whereas CG subjects were tested on the right leg (CTR). The center of pressure trajectory length (CPLEN) and average speed (CPSPD) as well as onsets of muscular activation and time to peak (EMGTP) from lower limb muscles were calculated and compared by a 2-way ANOVA (three legs×two training status). Muscular onsets were reduced after training for TR (∼19 ms, ptraining for CPLEN and medial-lateral CPSPD were found. Furthermore, the EMGTP of UTR was predominantly greater before training (∼17 ms, ptraining the EMGTP was similar among limbs. These results suggest that concomitant with improved balance recovery and neuromuscular reactions in TR, there is also a cross-education effect in UTR, which might be predominantly related to supraspinal adaptations shared between interconnected structures in the brain.

  20. New Approach in Fibromyalgia Exercise Program: A Preliminary Study Regarding the Effectiveness of Balance Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kibar, Sibel; Yıldız, Hatice Ecem; Ay, Saime; Evcik, Deniz; Ergin, Emine Süreyya

    2015-09-01

    To determine the effectiveness of balance exercises on the functional level and quality of life (QOL) of patients with fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) and to investigate the circumstances associated with balance disorders in FMS. Randomized controlled trial. Physical medicine and rehabilitation clinic. Patients (N=57) (age range, 18-65y) with FMS were randomly assigned into 2 groups. Group 1 was given flexibility and balance exercises for 6 weeks, whereas group 2 received only a flexibility program as the control group. Functional balance was measured by the Berg Balance Scale (BBS), and dynamic and static balance were evaluated by a kinesthetic ability trainer (KAT) device. Fall risk was assessed with the Hendrich II fall risk model. The Nottingham Health Profile, Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ), and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) were used to determine QOL and functional and depression levels, respectively. Assessments were performed at baseline and after the 6-week program. In group 1, statistically significant improvements were observed in all parameters (P.05). When comparing the 2 groups, there were significant differences in group 1 concerning the KAT static balance test (P=.017) and FIQ measurements (P=.005). In the correlation analysis, the BDI was correlated with the BBS (r=-.434) and Hendrich II results (r=.357), whereas body mass index (BMI) was correlated with the KAT static balance measurements (r=.433), BBS (r=-.285), and fall frequency (r=.328). A 6-week balance training program had a beneficial effect on the static balance and functional levels of patients with FMS. We also observed that depression deterioration was related to balance deficit and fall risk. Higher BMI was associated with balance deficit and fall frequency. Copyright © 2015 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Effect of aquatic dual-task training on balance and gait in stroke patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyoung; Lee, Dong-Kyu; Kim, Eun-Kyung

    2016-07-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of aquatic dual-task training on balance and gait in stroke patients. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty stroke patients were divided into the experimental (n=10) and control (n=10) groups. Both groups underwent neurodevelopmental treatment. The experimental group additionally underwent aquatic dual-task training for 30 minutes a day, 5 days a week, for 6 weeks. Balance was measured using the Berg balance scale, Five Times Sit-to Stand Test, and Functional Reach Test. Gait was measured using the 10-Meter Walk Test, Timed Up and Go Test, and Functional Gait Assessment. [Results] For intragroup comparison, the experimental group showed a significant change after the experiment in all balance and gait assessment tests. For intergroup comparison, the experimental group showed relatively more significant change after the experiment in all balance and gait assessment tests. [Conclusion] Our results showed that aquatic dual-task training has a positive effect on balance and gait in stroke patients.

  2. Impact of sensory integration training on balance among stroke patients: sensory integration training on balance among stroke patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jang Sang Hun

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This study attempts to investigate the impact that the sensory integration training has on the recovery of balance among patients with stroke by examining the muscle activity and limit of stability (LOS. A total of 28 subjects participated. The subjects were randomly allocated by the computer program to one of two groups: control (CON group (n=15, sensory integration training (SIT group (n=13. The research subjects received intervention five days a week for a total of four weeks. The CON group additionally received 30-minute general balance training, while the SIT group additionally received 30-minute sensory integration training. In the muscle activity, the improvement of Erector spinae (ES and Gluteus medius (GM was more significant in the SIT group than in the CON group. In the LOS, the improvement of affected side and forward side was significantly higher in the SIT group compared to the CON group. Sensory integration training can improve balance ability of patients with stroke by increasing muscle activity of stance limb muscles such as GM and trunk extensor such as ES along with enhancement of the limit of stability.

  3. Treadmill Training with Virtual Reality Improves Gait, Balance, and Muscle Strength in Children with Cerebral Palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Chunhee; Hwang, Wonjeong; Hwang, Sujin; Chung, Yijung

    2016-03-01

    Independent walking is an important goal of clinical and community-based rehabilitation for children with cerebral palsy (CP). Virtual reality-based rehabilitation therapy is effective in motivating children with CP. This study investigated the effects of treadmill training with virtual reality on gait, balance, muscular strength, and gross motor function in children with CP. Eighteen children with spastic CP were randomly divided into the virtual reality treadmill training (VRTT) group (9 subjects, mean age, 10.2 years) and treadmill training (TT) group (9 subjects, mean age, 9.4 years). The groups performed their respective programs as well as conventional physical therapy 3 times/week for 8 weeks. Muscle strength was assessed using a digitalized manual muscle tester. Gross motor function was assessed using the Gross Motor Functional Measure (GMFM). Balance was assessed using the Pediatric Balance Scale (PBS). Gait speed was assessed using the 10-meter walk test (10MWT), and gait endurance was assessed using the 2-minute walk test (2MWT). After training, gait and balance was improved in the VRTT compared to the TT group (P strength was significantly greater in the VRTT group than the TT group, except for right hamstring strength. The improvements in GMFM (standing) and PBS scores were greater in the VRTT group than the TT group (P strength, and gross motor function in children with CP.

  4. COMPARATIVE EFFECT OF VISION DEPRIVED BALANCE TRAINING OVER FREE VISION BALANCE TRAINING AMONG STROKE SUBJECTS

    OpenAIRE

    Jibi Paul

    2014-01-01

    Background: The dramatic increase in the incidence and prevalence of neurological disorder like stroke has always demanded the need of new interventions in limiting the disability outcome. Disturbed balance is one of the common difficulties in stroke subjects. Several researches have conducted with the process of limiting the disability but still not controlled fully. The objective of the study is to find out the effect of balance exercise with deprivation of visual feedback in stroke subject...

  5. Hydrodynamics of charge fluctuations and balance functions

    CERN Document Server

    Ling, B; Stephanov, M

    2013-01-01

    We apply stochastic hydrodynamics to the study of charge density fluctuations in QCD matter undergoing Bjorken expansion. We find that the charge density correlations are given by a time integral over the history of the system, with the dominant contribution coming from the QCD crossover region where the change of susceptibility per entropy, chi T/s, is most significant. We study the rapidity and azimuthal angle dependence of the resulting charge balance function using a simple analytic model of heavy-ion collision evolution. Our results are in agreement with experimental measurements, indicating that hydrodynamic fluctuations contribute significantly to the measured charge correlations in high energy heavy-ion collisions. The sensitivity of the balance function to the value of the charge diffusion coefficient D allows us to estimate the typical value of this coefficient in the crossover region to be rather small, of the order of 1/(2pi T), characteristic of a strongly coupled plasma.

  6. Effects of Wii Fit(®) balance game training on the balance ability of students with intellectual disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Tai-Yen

    2016-05-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to assess the effects of 8 weeks of Wii Fit balance game training on the balance abilities of students with intellectual disabilities. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-four students with intellectual disabilities were selected and randomly divided into Wii Fit balance game training, physical education, and sedentary activity groups. The Wii Fit balance game training group received two 40-minute Wii Fit balance game training sessions per week for a total of 8 weeks. Kruskal-Wallis one-way analysis of variance and the Wilcoxon signed rank test were used to compare differences. [Results] After eight weeks of training, the Wii Fit balance game training group showed significant differences between the pre- and post-training parameters, including the duration of standing on one leg with the eyes closed, average anteroposterior movement speed, swing area per unit time, and speed strength index. The physical education group showed significant differences between the pre- and post-training speed strength index values. The sedentary activity group did not show any significant differences between the pre- and post-training parameters. [Conclusion] Wii Fit balance game training can improve static balance and lower extremity muscle strength in students with intellectual disabilities.

  7. Task oriented training improves the balance outcome & reducing fall risk in diabetic population

    OpenAIRE

    Ghazal, Javeria; Malik, Arshad Nawaz; Amjad, Imran

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The objective was to determine the balance impairments and to compare task oriented versus traditional balance training in fall reduction among diabetic patients. Methods: The randomized control trial with descriptive survey and 196 diabetic patients were recruited to assess balance impairments through purposive sampling technique. Eighteen patients were randomly allocated into two groups; task oriented balance training group TOB (n=8) and traditional balance training group TBT (n...

  8. Balance training and center-of-pressure location in participants with chronic ankle instability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mettler, Abby; Chinn, Lisa; Saliba, Susan A; McKeon, Patrick O; Hertel, Jay

    2015-04-01

    Chronic ankle instability (CAI) occurs in some people after a lateral ankle sprain and often results in residual feelings of instability and episodes of the ankle's giving way. Compared with healthy people, patients with CAI demonstrated poor postural control and used a more anteriorly and laterally positioned center of pressure (COP) during a single-limb static-balance task on a force plate. Balance training is an effective means of altering traditional COP measures; however, whether the overall location of the COP distribution under the foot also changes is unknown. To determine if the spatial locations of COP data points in participants with CAI change after a 4-week balance-training program. Randomized controlled trial. Laboratory. Thirty-one persons with self-reported CAI. Participants were randomly assigned to a 4-week balance-training program or no balance training. We collected a total of 500 COP data points while participants balanced using a single limb on a force plate during a 10-second trial. The location of each COP data point relative to the geometric center of the foot was determined, and the frequency count in 4 sections (anteromedial, anterolateral, posteromedial, posterolateral) was analyzed for differences between groups. Overall, COP position in the balance-training group shifted from being more anterior to less anterior in both eyes-open trials (before trial = 319.1 ± 165.4, after trial = 160.5 ± 149.5; P = .006) and eyes-closed trials (before trial = 387.9 ± 123.8, after trial = 189.4 ± 102.9; P location from anterolateral to posterolateral. The program may have repaired some of the damaged sensorimotor system pathways, resulting in a more optimally functioning and less constrained system.

  9. Effects of Balance Training on Balance Performance in Healthy Older Adults : A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lesinski, Melanie; Hortobagyi, Tibor; Muehlbauer, Thomas; Gollhofer, Albert; Granacher, Urs

    2015-01-01

    Background The effects of balance training (BT) in older adults on proxies of postural control and mobility are well documented in the literature. However, evidence-based dose-response relationships in BT modalities (i.e., training period, training frequency, training volume) have not yet been estab

  10. Effects of Balance Training on Balance Performance in Healthy Older Adults : A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lesinski, Melanie; Hortobagyi, Tibor; Muehlbauer, Thomas; Gollhofer, Albert; Granacher, Urs

    2015-01-01

    Background The effects of balance training (BT) in older adults on proxies of postural control and mobility are well documented in the literature. However, evidence-based dose-response relationships in BT modalities (i.e., training period, training frequency, training volume) have not yet been

  11. Task-Specific Balance Training Improves the Sensory Organisation of Balance Control in Children with Developmental Coordination Disorder: A Randomised Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Shirley S M; Guo, X; Liu, Karen P Y; Ki, W Y; Louie, Lobo H T; Chung, Raymond C K; Macfarlane, Duncan J

    2016-02-11

    Sensory organisation of balance control is compromised in children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD). A randomised controlled trial involving 88 children with DCD was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of a task-specific balance training (functional-movement training, FMT) programme in improving balance deficits in a DCD population. The DCD participants were randomly assigned to either a FMT group or a control group. The FMT group received two training sessions/ week for 3 months. Measurements of the participants' sensory organisation (somatosensory, vestibular and visual ratios), balance and motor proficiency (Movement Assessment Battery for Children, MABC scores) and center of pressure sway velocity (Unilateral Stance Test, UST scores) were taken at baseline, immediately after FMT and 3 months after FMT. The FMT group showed greater improvements than the controls in somatosensory ratio at 3 and 6 months (all P  0.05). The results of both the MABC and the UST also indicated that the balance performance of the FMT group was significantly better than that of the control group at 3 and 6 months (all P balance training was found to marginally improve the somatosensory function and somewhat improve the balance performance of children with DCD.

  12. The effects of balance training and ankle training on the gait of elderly people who have fallen

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Jung-Hyun; Kim, Nyeon-Jun

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to examine the effects of balance training and muscle training around the ankle joints on the gait of elderly people who have experienced a fall. [Subjects] Twenty-six elderly people with a risk of falling and a Berg Balance Scale score of 37 to 50 points who had experienced a fall in the last year were randomly and equally assigned to either a balance training group or an ankle training group. The balance training group received training on a hard floor, t...

  13. A rationale for a ballet exercise-based balance training programme for older adults with balance impairments : an alternative approach to a group-based balance training in physiotherapy

    OpenAIRE

    Van Camp, Julia

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to combine ballet exercise and its teaching principles with physiotherapy practice for improving balance in elderly patients with balance impairment. The purpose of this study was to create theoretical and practical grounds for a balance training programme for older adults comprising ballet exercises. The study resulted in materials for a balance training programme grounded in the current literature on balance control, physiological changes in balance control a...

  14. Improving Balance Function Using Low Levels of Electrical Stimulation of the Balance Organs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomberg, Jacob; Reschke, Millard; Mulavara, Ajitkumar; Wood, Scott; Serrador, Jorge; Fiedler, Matthew; Kofman, Igor; Peters, Brian T.; Cohen, Helen

    2012-01-01

    Crewmembers returning from long-duration space flight face significant challenges due to the microgravity-induced inappropriate adaptations in balance/sensorimotor function. The Neuroscience Laboratory at JSC is developing a method based on stochastic resonance to enhance the brain's ability to detect signals from the balance organs of the inner ear and use them for rapid improvement in balance skill, especially when combined with balance training exercises. This method involves a stimulus delivery system that is wearable/portable and provides imperceptible electrical stimulation to the balance organs of the human body. Stochastic resonance (SR) is a phenomenon whereby the response of a nonlinear system to a weak periodic input signal is optimized by the presence of a particular non-zero level of noise. This phenomenon of SR is based on the concept of maximizing the flow of information through a system by a non-zero level of noise. Application of imperceptible SR noise coupled with sensory input in humans has been shown to improve motor, cardiovascular, visual, hearing, and balance functions. SR increases contrast sensitivity and luminance detection; lowers the absolute threshold for tone detection in normal hearing individuals; improves homeostatic function in the human blood pressure regulatory system; improves noise-enhanced muscle spindle function; and improves detection of weak tactile stimuli using mechanical or electrical stimulation. SR noise has been shown to improve postural control when applied as mechanical noise to the soles of the feet, or when applied as electrical noise at the knee and to the back muscles. SR using imperceptible stochastic electrical stimulation of the vestibular system (stochastic vestibular stimulation, SVS) applied to normal subjects has shown to improve the degree of association between the weak input periodic signals introduced via venous blood pressure receptors and the heart-rate responses. Also, application of SVS over 24

  15. Effect of Proprioceptive Training and Core Stability Training on Lower Limbs Motor Function and Balance in Patients with Hemi-plegia after Stroke%本体感觉训练结合核心稳定性训练对脑卒中偏瘫患者下肢功能及平衡的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张勃; 丁玎; 吕立

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effects of proprioceptive training and core stability training on the lower limbs motor function and balance in patients with hemiplegia after stoke. Methods 40 patients were randomly divided into treatment group (n=20) and control group (n=20). Both groups received routine rehabilitation and the treatment group received proprioceptive training and core stability training in addition. They were assessed with Fugl-Meyer Assessment (FMA) of lower limbs, Functional Ambulation Category (FAC), Berg Balance Scale (BBS), Timed Up-and-Go Test (TUGT) before and 6 weeks after treatment. Results The scores of FMA, FAC, BBS and TUGT im-proved in both groups after treatment (P<0.01), and improved more in the treatment group than in the control group (P<0.05). Conclusion Addition of proprioceptive training and core stability training may further improve the lower limbs motor function and balance of the hemi-plegics after stroke.%目的:探讨本体感觉训练与核心稳定性训练相结合对脑卒中偏瘫患者下肢功能及平衡的影响。方法40例脑卒中偏瘫患者随机分为治疗组(n=20)和对照组(n=20)。对照组进行常规康复训练,治疗组在此基础上增加本体感觉训练和核心稳定性训练,共6周。治疗前后采用简式Fugly-Meyer评定(FMA)下肢运动功能部分、Holden功能步行分级(FAC)、Berg平衡量表(BBS)、计时起立-行走测试(TUGT)进行评定。结果治疗后,两组患者FMA、FAC、BBS、TUGT评分均较治疗前明显改善(P<0.01),且治疗组均优于对照组(P<0.05)。结论增加本体感觉训练与核心稳定性训练可进一步提高脑卒中偏瘫患者的下肢运动功能及平衡功能。

  16. Efeito de um programa de treinamento funcional no equilíbrio postural de idosas da comunidade Effect of a functional training program on community-dwelling elderly women's postural balance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lygia Paccini Lustosa

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Programas de treino funcional podem colaborar na redução de incapacidades, quedas, problemas emocionais e sociais em idosos. O objetivo do estudo foi verificar o efeito de um programa de oito semanas de exercícios funcionais em idosas da comunidade, avaliando o impacto nas atividades instrumentais de vida diária (AIVD e no equilíbrio unipodálico. Deste estudo quasi-experimental participaram sete idosas da comunidade (71±8,1 anos, sem distinção de raça e/ ou condição social, excluindo-se aquelas com alterações cognitivas, doenças agudizadas ou neurológicas, quadro álgico na coluna ou articulações, labirintite, distúrbios visuais não-compensados, fratura prévia no último ano e utilização de apoio para a marcha. Todas responderam ao questionário de Lawton e se submeteram ao teste de apoio unipodálico antes e depois do programa, administrado três vezes por semana. O programa consistia em exercícios de marcha em flexão plantar, dorsiflexão, permanência em alternância de apoio unipodálico, marcha lateral com flexão de quadril aumentada e marcha tandem. Os resultados indicam melhora (p=0,042 no nível funcional (índice de Lawton após o programa e uma tendência à melhora no equilíbrio unipodálico, embora não-significante (p>0,105. O programa de exercícios proposto produziu pois melhora no desempenho das AIVD e uma tendência à melhora do equilíbrio estático, sugerindo ser relevante para aprimorar a autonomia das idosas.Functional training programs may help reduce elderly disabilities, falls, and emotional and social problems. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of an eight-week functional exercise program on aged women's instrumental activities of daily living (IADL and one-foot stance balance. Irrespective of race and/or social condition, 7 community-dwelling elderly women (aged 71±8.1 were selected, being excluded those with cognitive impairment, acute or neurological diseases, spine or joint

  17. Core stability training on lower limb balance strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dello Iacono, Antonio; Padulo, Johnny; Ayalon, Moshe

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the effects of core stability training on lower limbs' muscular asymmetries and imbalances in team sport. Twenty footballers were divided into two groups, either core stability or control group. Before each daily practice, core stability group (n = 10) performed a core stability training programme, while control group (n = 10) did a standard warm-up. The effects of the core stability training programme were assessed by performing isokinetic tests and single-leg countermovement jumps. Significant improvement was found for knee extensors peak torque at 3.14 rad · s(-1) (14%; P core stability group. The jump tests showed a significant reduction in the strength asymmetries in core stability group (-71.4%; P = 0.02) while a concurrent increase was seen in the control group (33.3%; P core exercises for optimal lower limbs strength balance development in young soccer players.

  18. The effects of stair gait training using proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation on stroke patients' dynamic balance ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, KyoChul; Park, Seung Hwan; Park, KwangYong

    2015-05-01

    [Purpose] This study aims to examine stroke patients' changes in dynamic balance ability through stair gait training where in proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) was applied. [Subjects and Methods] In total 30 stroke patients participated in this experiment and were randomly and equally allocated to an experimental group and a control group. The experimental group received exercise treatment for 30 min and stair gait training where in PNF was applied for 30 min and the control group received exercise treatment for 30 min and ground gait training where in PNF was applied for 30 min. For the four weeks of the experiment, each group received training three times per week, for 30 min each time. Berg Balance Scale (BBS) values were measured and a time up and go (TUG) test and a functional reach test (FRT) were performed for a comparison before and after the experiment. [Results] According to the result of the stroke patients' balance performance through stair gait training, the BBS and FRT results significantly increased and the TUG test result significantly decreased in the experimental group. On the contrary, BBS and FRT results did not significantly increase and the TUG test result did not significantly decrease in the control group. According to the result of comparing differences between before and after training in each group, there was a significant change in the BBS result of the experimental group only. [Conclusions] In conclusion, the gait training group to which PNF was applied saw improvements in their balance ability, and a good result is expected when neurological disease patients receive stair gait training applying PNF.

  19. The combination of plyometric and balance training improves sprint and shuttle run performances more often than plyometric-only training with children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaouachi, Anis; Othman, Aymen Ben; Hammami, Raouf; Drinkwater, Eric J; Behm, David G

    2014-02-01

    Because balance is not fully developed in children and studies have shown functional improvements with balance only training studies, a combination of plyometric and balance activities might enhance static balance, dynamic balance, and power. The objective of this study was to compare the effectiveness of plyometric only (PLYO) with balance and plyometric (COMBINED) training on balance and power measures in children. Before and after an 8-week training period, testing assessed lower-body strength (1 repetition maximum leg press), power (horizontal and vertical jumps, triple hop for distance, reactive strength, and leg stiffness), running speed (10-m and 30-m sprint), static and dynamic balance (Standing Stork Test and Star Excursion Balance Test), and agility (shuttle run). Subjects were randomly divided into 2 training groups (PLYO [n = 14] and COMBINED [n = 14]) and a control group (n = 12). Results based on magnitude-based inferences and precision of estimation indicated that the COMBINED training group was considered likely to be superior to the PLYO group in leg stiffness (d = 0.69, 91% likely), 10-m sprint (d = 0.57, 84% likely), and shuttle run (d = 0.52, 80% likely). The difference between the groups was unclear in 8 of the 11 dependent variables. COMBINED training enhanced activities such as 10-m sprints and shuttle runs to a greater degree. COMBINED training could be an important consideration for reducing the high velocity impacts of PLYO training. This reduction in stretch-shortening cycle stress on neuromuscular system with the replacement of balance and landing exercises might help to alleviate the overtraining effects of excessive repetitive high load activities.

  20. Effects of inspiratory muscle training on balance ability and abdominal muscle thickness in chronic stroke patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Dongha; Kim, Gayeong; Lee, Wanhee; Shin, Mary Myong Sook

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study evaluated the effects of inspiratory muscle training on pulmonary function, deep abdominal muscle thickness, and balance ability in stroke patients. [Subjects] Twenty-three stroke patients were randomly allocated to an experimental (n = 11) or control group (n = 12). [Methods] The experimental group received inspiratory muscle training-based abdominal muscle strengthening with conventional physical therapy; the control group received standard abdominal muscle strengthening with conventional physical therapy. Treatment was conducted 20 minutes per day, 3 times per week for 6 weeks. Pulmonary function testing was performed using an electronic spirometer. Deep abdominal muscle thickness was measured by ultrasonography. Balance was measured using the Berg balance scale. [Results] Forced vital capacity, forced expiratory volume in 1 second, deep abdominal muscle thickness, and Berg balance scale scores were significantly improved in the experimental group than in the control group. [Conclusion] Abdominal muscle strengthening accompanied by inspiratory muscle training is recommended to improve pulmonary function in stroke patients, and may also be used as a practical adjunct to conventional physical therapy.

  1. Use of the Microsoft Kinect system to characterize balance ability during balance training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Dohyung; Kim, ChoongYeon; Jung, HoHyun; Jung, Dukyoung; Chun, Keyoung Jin

    2015-01-01

    The risk of falling increases significantly in the elderly because of deterioration of the neural musculature regulatory mechanisms. Several studies have investigated methods of preventing falling using real-time systems to evaluate balance; however, it is difficult to monitor the results of such characterizations in real time. Herein, we describe the use of Microsoft's Kinect depth sensor system to evaluate balance in real time. Six healthy male adults (25.5±1.8 years, 173.9±6.4 cm, 71.4±6.5 kg, and 23.6±2.4 kg/m(2)), with normal balance abilities and with no musculoskeletal disorders, were selected to participate in the experiment. Movements of the participants were induced by controlling the base plane of the balance training equipment in various directions. The dynamic motion of the subjects was measured using two Kinect depth sensor systems and a three-dimensional motion capture system with eight infrared cameras. The two systems yielded similar results for changes in the center of body mass (P>0.05) with a large Pearson's correlation coefficient of γ>0.60. The results for the two systems showed similarity in the mean lower-limb joint angle with flexion-extension movements, and these values were highly correlated (hip joint: within approximately 4.6°; knee joint: within approximately 8.4°) (0.400.05). Large differences with a low correlation were, however, observed for the lower-limb joint angle in relation to abduction-adduction and internal-external rotation motion (γKinect system in balance training by measuring changes in the center of body mass and flexion-extension movements of the lower limbs, but not abduction-adduction and internal-external rotation.

  2. Flexible Training's Intrusion on Work/Life Balance

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    Zane BERGE

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Flexible Training's Intrusion on Work/Life Balance Seema TAKIYAJennifer ARCHBOLDZane BERGEBaltimore, USA Learning interventions should be aligned with the human learning system. To be effective, they have to support human learning, not work against it. Thalheimer, 2004 ABSTRACT With more companies allowing “flextime”, more access to elearning, and telecomuting, the line between workplace flexibility and work-life balance begins to blur. Companies “sell” to employees the flexibility of being able to complete training programs from the comfort of the participant's home, allowing them to learn at their own speed. In many ways, this solution is of great value to many employees. What also must be considered with the flexibility such training offers, is the unintentional consequences. This article explores questions such as does this flexibility create a 24-hour work day where the employee is continually accessible to work? Does it result in less family, personal and leisure time to the detriment of the worker?

  3. Exercise training changes autonomic cardiovascular balance in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Angelis, K; Wichi, R B; Jesus, W R A; Moreira, E D; Morris, M; Krieger, E M; Irigoyen, M C

    2004-06-01

    Experiments were performed to investigate the influence of exercise training on cardiovascular function in mice. Heart rate, arterial pressure, baroreflex sensitivity, and autonomic control of heart rate were measured in conscious, unrestrained male C57/6J sedentary (n = 8) and trained mice (n = 8). The exercise training protocol used a treadmill (1 h/day; 5 days/wk for 4 wk). Baroreflex sensitivity was evaluated by the tachycardic and bradycardic responses induced by sodium nitroprusside and phenylephrine, respectively. Autonomic control of heart rate and intrinsic heart rate were determined by use of methylatropine and propranolol. Resting bradycardia was observed in trained mice compared with sedentary animals [485 +/- 9 vs. 612 +/- 5 beats/min (bpm)], whereas mean arterial pressure was not different between the groups (106 +/- 2 vs. 108 +/- 3 mmHg). Baroreflex-mediated tachycardia was significantly enhanced in the trained group (6.97 +/- 0.97 vs. 1.6 +/- 0.21 bpm/mmHg, trained vs. sedentary), whereas baroreflex-mediated bradycardia was not altered by training. The tachycardia induced by methylatropine was significantly increased in trained animals (139 +/- 12 vs. 40 +/- 9 bpm, trained vs. sedentary), whereas the propranolol effect was significantly reduced in the trained group (49 +/- 11 vs. 97 +/- 11 bpm, trained vs. sedentary). Intrinsic heart rate was similar between groups. In conclusion, dynamic exercise training in mice induced a resting bradycardia and an improvement in baroreflex-mediated tachycardia. These changes are likely related to an increased vagal and decreased sympathetic tone, similar to the exercise response observed in humans.

  4. Balance and Gait Training With Augmented Feedback Improves Balance Confidence in People With Parkinson's Disease: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Xia; Mak, Margaret K Y

    2014-07-01

    Background Fear of falling has been identified as an important and independent fall-risk predictor in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). However, there are inconsistent findings on the effects of balance and gait training on balance confidence. Objective To explore whether balance and gait training with augmented feedback can enhance balance confidence in PD patients immediately after treatment and at 3- and 12-month follow-ups. Methods A total of 51 PD patients were randomly assigned to a balance and gait training (BAL) group or to an active control (CON) group. The BAL group received balance and gait training with augmented feedback, whereas CON participants received lower-limb strength training for 12 weeks. Outcome measures included Activities-Specific Balance Confidence (ABC) Scale, limits-of-stability test, single-leg-stance test, and spatiotemporal gait characteristics. All tests were administered before intervention (Pre), immediately after training (Post), and at 3 months (Post3m) and 12 months (Post12m) after treatment completion. Results The ABC score improved marginally at Post and significantly at Post3m and Post12m only in the BAL group (P confidence and balance and gait performance in patients with PD.

  5. Functional Balance Training Using a Domed Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-02-01

    core” implies, it is the central portion of the body, or torso, where stabilization of the abdominal, paraspinal, and gluteal muscles are critical...P.W. Core stability exercise in chronic low back pain . Orthop. Clin. N. Am. 34:245–254. 2003. 54 February 2005 • Strength and Conditioning Journal...imbalance and low back pain in athletes: influ- ence of core strengthening. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc. 34(1):9–16. 2002. 13. Nashner, L.M. Practical

  6. Estimation of Optimum Stimulus Amplitude for Balance Training using Electrical Stimulation of the Vestibular System

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    Goel, R.; Rosenberg, M. J.; De Dios, Y. E.; Cohen, H. S.; Bloomberg, J. J.; Mulavara, A. P.

    2016-01-01

    Sensorimotor changes such as posture and gait instabilities can affect the functional performance of astronauts after gravitational transitions. Sensorimotor Adaptability (SA) training can help alleviate decrements on exposure to novel sensorimotor environments based on the concept of 'learning to learn' by exposure to varying sensory challenges during posture and locomotion tasks (Bloomberg 2015). Supra-threshold Stochastic Vestibular Stimulation (SVS) can be used to provide one of many challenges by disrupting vestibular inputs. In this scenario, the central nervous system can be trained to utilize veridical information from other sensory inputs, such as vision and somatosensory inputs, for posture and locomotion control. The minimum amplitude of SVS to simulate the effect of deterioration in vestibular inputs for preflight training or for evaluating vestibular contribution in functional tests in general, however, has not yet been identified. Few studies (MacDougall 2006; Dilda 2014) have used arbitrary but fixed maximum current amplitudes from 3 to 5 mA in the medio-lateral (ML) direction to disrupt balance function in healthy adults. Giving this high level of current amplitude to all the individuals has a risk of invoking side effects such as nausea and discomfort. The goal of this study was to determine the minimum SVS level that yields an equivalently degraded balance performance. Thirteen subjects stood on a compliant foam surface with their eyes closed and were instructed to maintain a stable upright stance. Measures of stability of the head, trunk, and whole body were quantified in the ML direction. Duration of time they could stand on the foam surface was also measured. The minimum SVS dosage was defined to be that level which significantly degraded balance performance such that any further increase in stimulation level did not lead to further balance degradation. The minimum SVS level was determined by performing linear fits on the performance variable

  7. An economic evaluation of resistance training and aerobic training versus balance and toning exercises in older adults with mild cognitive impairment.

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    Jennifer C Davis

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mild cognitive impairment (MCI represents a critical window to intervene against dementia. Exercise training is a promising intervention strategy, but the efficiency (i.e., relationship of costs and consequences of such types of training remains unknown. Thus, we estimated the incremental cost-effectiveness of resistance training or aerobic training compared with balance and tone exercises in terms of changes in executive cognitive function among senior women with probable MCI. METHODS: Economic evaluation conducted concurrently with a six-month three arm randomized controlled trial including eighty-six community dwelling women aged 70 to 80 years living in Vancouver, Canada. Participants received twice-weekly resistance training (n = 28, twice weekly aerobic training (n = 30 or twice-weekly balance and tone (control group classes (n = 28 for 6 months. The primary outcome measure of the Exercise for Cognition and Everyday Living (EXCEL study assessed executive cognitive function, a test of selective attention and conflict resolution (i.e., Stroop Test. We collected healthcare resource utilization costs over six months. RESULTS: Based on the bootstrapped estimates from our base case analysis, we found that both the aerobic training and resistance training interventions were less costly than twice weekly balance and tone classes. Compared with the balance and tone group, the resistance-training group had significantly improved performance on the Stroop Test (p = 0.04. CONCLUSIONS: Resistance training and aerobic training result in health care cost saving and are more effective than balance and tone classes after only 6 months of intervention. Resistance training is a promising strategy to alter the trajectory of cognitive decline in seniors with MCI. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00958867.

  8. Optimized balance rehabilitation training strategy for the elderly through an evaluation of balance characteristics in response to dynamic motions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, HoHyun; Chun, Keyoung Jin; Hong, Jaesoo; Lim, Dohyung

    2015-01-01

    Balance is important in daily activities and essential for maintaining an independent lifestyle in the elderly. Recent studies have shown that balance rehabilitation training can improve the balance ability of the elderly, and diverse balance rehabilitation training equipment has been developed. However, there has been little research into optimized strategies for balance rehabilitation training. To provide an optimized strategy, we analyzed the balance characteristics of participants in response to the rotation of a base plate on multiple axes. Seven male adults with no musculoskeletal or nervous system-related diseases (age: 25.5±1.7 years; height: 173.9±6.4 cm; body mass: 71.3±6.5 kg; body mass index: 23.6±2.4 kg/m(2)) were selected to investigate the balance rehabilitation training using customized rehabilitation equipment. Rotation of the base plate of the equipment was controlled to induce dynamic rotation of participants in the anterior-posterior, right-diagonal, medial-lateral, and left-diagonal directions. We used a three-dimensional motion capture system employing infrared cameras and the Pedar Flexible Insoles System to characterize the major lower-extremity joint angles, center of body mass, and center of pressure. We found statistically significant differences between the changes in joint angles in the lower extremities in response to dynamic rotation of the participants (P0.05). These results indicate that optimizing rotation control of the base plate of balance rehabilitation training equipment to induce anterior-posterior and medial-lateral dynamic rotation preferentially can lead to effective balance training. Additional tests with varied speeds and ranges of angles of base plate rotation are expected to be useful as well as an analysis of the balance characteristics considering a balance index that reflects the muscle activity and cooperative characteristics.

  9. Maximizing lipocalin prediction through balanced and diversified training set and decision fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nath, Abhigyan; Subbiah, Karthikeyan

    2015-12-01

    Lipocalins are short in sequence length and perform several important biological functions. These proteins are having less than 20% sequence similarity among paralogs. Experimentally identifying them is an expensive and time consuming process. The computational methods based on the sequence similarity for allocating putative members to this family are also far elusive due to the low sequence similarity existing among the members of this family. Consequently, the machine learning methods become a viable alternative for their prediction by using the underlying sequence/structurally derived features as the input. Ideally, any machine learning based prediction method must be trained with all possible variations in the input feature vector (all the sub-class input patterns) to achieve perfect learning. A near perfect learning can be achieved by training the model with diverse types of input instances belonging to the different regions of the entire input space. Furthermore, the prediction performance can be improved through balancing the training set as the imbalanced data sets will tend to produce the prediction bias towards majority class and its sub-classes. This paper is aimed to achieve (i) the high generalization ability without any classification bias through the diversified and balanced training sets as well as (ii) enhanced the prediction accuracy by combining the results of individual classifiers with an appropriate fusion scheme. Instead of creating the training set randomly, we have first used the unsupervised Kmeans clustering algorithm to create diversified clusters of input patterns and created the diversified and balanced training set by selecting an equal number of patterns from each of these clusters. Finally, probability based classifier fusion scheme was applied on boosted random forest algorithm (which produced greater sensitivity) and K nearest neighbour algorithm (which produced greater specificity) to achieve the enhanced predictive performance

  10. A Virtual Reality-Cycling Training System for Lower Limb Balance Improvement

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    Chieh Yin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Stroke survivors might lose their walking and balancing abilities, but many studies pointed out that cycling is an effective means for lower limb rehabilitation. However, during cycle training, the unaffected limb tends to compensate for the affected one, which resulted in suboptimal rehabilitation. To address this issue, we present a Virtual Reality-Cycling Training System (VRCTS, which senses the cycling force and speed in real-time, analyzes the acquired data to produce feedback to patients with a controllable VR car in a VR rehabilitation program, and thus specifically trains the affected side. The aim of the study was to verify the functionality of the VRCTS and to verify the results from the ten stroke patients participants and to compare the result of Asymmetry Ratio Index (ARI between the experimental group and the control group, after their training, by using the bilateral pedal force and force plate to determine any training effect. The results showed that after the VRCTS training in bilateral pedal force it had improved by 0.22 (p=0.046 and in force plate the stand balance has also improved by 0.29 (p=0.031; thus both methods show the significant difference.

  11. A Virtual Reality-Cycling Training System for Lower Limb Balance Improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Chieh; Hsueh, Ya-Hsin; Yeh, Chun-Yu; Lo, Hsin-Chang; Lan, Yi-Ting

    2016-01-01

    Stroke survivors might lose their walking and balancing abilities, but many studies pointed out that cycling is an effective means for lower limb rehabilitation. However, during cycle training, the unaffected limb tends to compensate for the affected one, which resulted in suboptimal rehabilitation. To address this issue, we present a Virtual Reality-Cycling Training System (VRCTS), which senses the cycling force and speed in real-time, analyzes the acquired data to produce feedback to patients with a controllable VR car in a VR rehabilitation program, and thus specifically trains the affected side. The aim of the study was to verify the functionality of the VRCTS and to verify the results from the ten stroke patients participants and to compare the result of Asymmetry Ratio Index (ARI) between the experimental group and the control group, after their training, by using the bilateral pedal force and force plate to determine any training effect. The results showed that after the VRCTS training in bilateral pedal force it had improved by 0.22 (p = 0.046) and in force plate the stand balance has also improved by 0.29 (p = 0.031); thus both methods show the significant difference.

  12. Measurement of balance function and community participation in stroke survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Sinae

    2016-08-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to investigate the relationship between balance function and community participation in stroke survivors. [Subjects and Methods] Sixty-three patients diagnosed with hemiparetic stroke participated in this study (36 males, 27 females, aged 58.6 ± 15.2 years). The participants were assessed for balance function and their level of participation in the community, using activity card sorting and the Berg Balance Scale. A regression analysis was used to identify the influence of balance function on instrumental activities of daily living and leisure and social activities. [Results] The results of the regression analysis indicated that balance function measured by using the Berg Balance Scale affected community participation of patients with hemiparetic stroke. Participation in instrumental activities of daily living and leisure and social activities was affected by balance function. [Conclusion] This study provides useful information for designing efficient programs and identifying their effectiveness for enhancement of community participation in stroke survivors.

  13. Biofeedback for training balance and mobility tasks in older populations: a systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Context An effective application of biofeedback for interventions in older adults with balance and mobility disorders may be compromised due to co-morbidity. Objective To evaluate the feasibility and the effectiveness of biofeedback-based training of balance and/or mobility in older adults. Data Sources PubMed (1950-2009), EMBASE (1988-2009), Web of Science (1945-2009), the Cochrane Controlled Trials Register (1960-2009), CINAHL (1982-2009) and PsycINFO (1840-2009). The search strategy was composed of terms referring to biofeedback, balance or mobility, and older adults. Additional studies were identified by scanning reference lists. Study Selection For evaluating effectiveness, 2 reviewers independently screened papers and included controlled studies in older adults (i.e. mean age equal to or greater than 60 years) if they applied biofeedback during repeated practice sessions, and if they used at least one objective outcome measure of a balance or mobility task. Data Extraction Rating of study quality, with use of the Physiotherapy Evidence Database rating scale (PEDro scale), was performed independently by the 2 reviewers. Indications for (non)effectiveness were identified if 2 or more similar studies reported a (non)significant effect for the same type of outcome. Effect sizes were calculated. Results and Conclusions Although most available studies did not systematically evaluate feasibility aspects, reports of high participation rates, low drop-out rates, absence of adverse events and positive training experiences suggest that biofeedback methods can be applied in older adults. Effectiveness was evaluated based on 21 studies, mostly of moderate quality. An indication for effectiveness of visual feedback-based training of balance in (frail) older adults was identified for postural sway, weight-shifting and reaction time in standing, and for the Berg Balance Scale. Indications for added effectiveness of applying biofeedback during training of balance, gait, or

  14. Biofeedback for training balance and mobility tasks in older populations: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiari Lorenzo

    2010-12-01

    balance, gait, or sit-to-stand transfers in older patients post-stroke were identified for training-specific aspects. The same applies for auditory feedback-based training of gait in older patients with lower-limb surgery. Implications Further appropriate studies are needed in different populations of older adults to be able to make definitive statements regarding the (long-term added effectiveness, particularly on measures of functioning.

  15. EFFECTIVENESS OF A NEW BALANCE TRAINING PROGRAM ON ROCKER BOARD IN SITTING IN STROKE SUBJECTS A PILOT STUDY

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    Sandesh Rayamajhi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Stroke has been considered to be the most common cause of neurological disability with very high prevalence rate. The recovery of independence following stroke is a complex process requiring the reacquisition of many skills. Since controlling the body’s position in space is essential part of functional skills, restoration of balance is a critical part of the recovery of ability after stroke. Most of the work done regarding balance training in stroke subjects has focused on task-oriented activities and training under varied sensory input and found them to be effective. Studies have also compared the effect of stable and unstable surfaces on balance in stroke subjects and found that balance training on unstable surfaces is more effective in improving static and dynamic balance. There has not been any study till date investigating the effectiveness of balance training program on rocker board which is specific for stroke subjects who have difficulty in standing. Since balance training on rocker board in sitting has proved to be effective in improving balance in subjects with spinal cord injury who have difficulty in standing, there is a need to find out if similar balance training program on rocker board in sitting is also effective for improving balance of stroke subjects. Method: A Pilot study was performed on 10 stroke subjects selected through purposive sampling. Subjects were divided into two groups by randomization as control (CG and experimental group (EG. EG received balance training on a rocker board along with conventional physiotherapy program. The CG received only conventional physiotherapy program. Results: Post-intervention Berg balance scale score of EG and the CG was statistically significant (p < 0.05 in both the groups as compared to pre-treatment depicted through Wilcoxon signed rank analysis within the groups. Greater improvement was observed in the EG compared to the CG post-treatment, analysed through Mann

  16. Strength training in elderly people improves static balance: a randomized controlled trial

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    Sarabon Nejc

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim of this study was to investigate the effects of two different types of strength training programs on static balance in elderly subjects. Subjects older than 65 years of age were enrolled and assigned to control group (CG, n =19, electrical stimulation group (ES, n = 27 or leg press group (LP, n = 28. Subjects in both the training groups were exposed to training (2-3x/week for a period of 9 weeks. In the ES group the subjects received neuromuscular electrical stimulation of the anterior thigh muscles. In the LP group the subjects performed strength training on a computer-controlled leg press machine. Before and after the training period, static balance of the subject was tested using a quiet stance task. Average velocity, amplitude and frequency of the center-of-pressure (CoP were calculated from the acquired force plate signal. The data was statistically tested with analysis of (covariance and t-tests. The three groups of subjects showed statistically significant differences (p < 0.05 regarding the pre-training vs. post-training changes in CoP velocity, amplitude and frequency. The differences were more pronounced for CoP velocity and amplitude, while they were less evident in case of mean frequency. The mean improvements were higher in the LP group than in the ES group. Our results provide supportive evidence to the existence of the strength-balance relationship. Additionally, results indicate the role of recruiting central processes and activation of functional kinetic chains for the better end effect.

  17. Effects of 3-Dimensional Lumbar Stabilization Training for Balance in Chronic Hemiplegic Stroke Patients: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effects of the newly developed Spine Balance 3D system on the balance and gait abilities of hemiplegic stroke patients. Methods Twenty-eight hemiplegic patients with chronic stroke were randomly assigned to an experimental (n=14) or control group (n=14). The experimental and control groups performed balance training by using the newly developed Spine Balance 3D system and the well-known Biodex Balance System 30 minutes per day, three times a week for 7 weeks. The Berg Balance Scale (BBS), 10-m walking test (10mWT), Timed Up and Go Test (TUG), Functional Reach Test (FRT), the Korean version of the Fall Efficacy Scale-International (KFES-I), trunk muscle strength and stability were evaluated before and after 7 weeks of intervention. Results The 10mWT improved significantly (p=0.001) in the experimental group (using the Spine Balance 3D system) but not in the control group, and core muscle strength, which we checked using Spine Balance 3D system evaluation program, improved more in the experimental group as well. The results of the BBS, FRT, TUG, KFES-I, and Biodex Balance System evaluation program improved in both groups after 7 weeks of balance training. Conclusion We suggest that the newly-developed Spine Balance 3D system can be a more useful therapeutic tool for gait and dynamic balance rehabilitation in hemiplegic patients than a conventional 2D-based balance training system. A large-scale randomized controlled study is needed to prove the effect of this system. PMID:28119826

  18. Effects of 3-Dimensional Lumbar Stabilization Training for Balance in Chronic Hemiplegic Stroke Patients: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chun, Jin-Young; Seo, Jeong-Hwan; Park, Sung-Hee; Won, Yu Hui; Kim, Gi-Wook; Moon, Sung-Jun; Ko, Myoung-Hwan

    2016-12-01

    To investigate the effects of the newly developed Spine Balance 3D system on the balance and gait abilities of hemiplegic stroke patients. Twenty-eight hemiplegic patients with chronic stroke were randomly assigned to an experimental (n=14) or control group (n=14). The experimental and control groups performed balance training by using the newly developed Spine Balance 3D system and the well-known Biodex Balance System 30 minutes per day, three times a week for 7 weeks. The Berg Balance Scale (BBS), 10-m walking test (10mWT), Timed Up and Go Test (TUG), Functional Reach Test (FRT), the Korean version of the Fall Efficacy Scale-International (KFES-I), trunk muscle strength and stability were evaluated before and after 7 weeks of intervention. The 10mWT improved significantly (p=0.001) in the experimental group (using the Spine Balance 3D system) but not in the control group, and core muscle strength, which we checked using Spine Balance 3D system evaluation program, improved more in the experimental group as well. The results of the BBS, FRT, TUG, KFES-I, and Biodex Balance System evaluation program improved in both groups after 7 weeks of balance training. We suggest that the newly-developed Spine Balance 3D system can be a more useful therapeutic tool for gait and dynamic balance rehabilitation in hemiplegic patients than a conventional 2D-based balance training system. A large-scale randomized controlled study is needed to prove the effect of this system.

  19. Effect of multi-sensory balance training for unsteady elderly people: pilot study of the "Reykjavik model".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristinsdottir, Ella Kolbrun; Baldursdottir, Bergthora

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate effects of combined mechano- and proprioceptive, vestibular and fall-prevention training on postural control, functional ability, confidence in activities of daily living (ADL) and frequency of falls among unsteady elderly people. Subjects were 37 elderly outpatients attending physiotherapy because of instability. Treatment consisted of 18 multisensory balance training sessions. RESULTS from Sensory Organization Test, Five-Times-Sit-to-Stand Test, 30-m normal and fast walk with a turn, Ascending-Descending 11 steps and Activities-specific Balance Confidence Scale were compared before and after training. Information was gathered about number of falls 1 year prior to training, during training period and for 6 months after completion of training. Significant improvement was observed in all measured parameters (p elderly people.

  20. Balanced synaptic input shapes the correlation between neural spike trains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litwin-Kumar, Ashok; Oswald, Anne-Marie M; Urban, Nathaniel N; Doiron, Brent

    2011-12-01

    Stimulus properties, attention, and behavioral context influence correlations between the spike times produced by a pair of neurons. However, the biophysical mechanisms that modulate these correlations are poorly understood. With a combined theoretical and experimental approach, we show that the rate of balanced excitatory and inhibitory synaptic input modulates the magnitude and timescale of pairwise spike train correlation. High rate synaptic inputs promote spike time synchrony rather than long timescale spike rate correlations, while low rate synaptic inputs produce opposite results. This correlation shaping is due to a combination of enhanced high frequency input transfer and reduced firing rate gain in the high input rate state compared to the low state. Our study extends neural modulation from single neuron responses to population activity, a necessary step in understanding how the dynamics and processing of neural activity change across distinct brain states.

  1. Balanced synaptic input shapes the correlation between neural spike trains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok Litwin-Kumar

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Stimulus properties, attention, and behavioral context influence correlations between the spike times produced by a pair of neurons. However, the biophysical mechanisms that modulate these correlations are poorly understood. With a combined theoretical and experimental approach, we show that the rate of balanced excitatory and inhibitory synaptic input modulates the magnitude and timescale of pairwise spike train correlation. High rate synaptic inputs promote spike time synchrony rather than long timescale spike rate correlations, while low rate synaptic inputs produce opposite results. This correlation shaping is due to a combination of enhanced high frequency input transfer and reduced firing rate gain in the high input rate state compared to the low state. Our study extends neural modulation from single neuron responses to population activity, a necessary step in understanding how the dynamics and processing of neural activity change across distinct brain states.

  2. Balance Training Exercises Decrease Lower-Limb Strength Asymmetry in Young Tennis Players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sannicandro, Italo; Cofano, Giacomo; Rosa, Rosa A.; Piccinno, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    The issue of functional asymmetries in the lower-limbs has been the subject of numerous recent investigations concerning many different contact, limited-contact and non-contact sports. The presence of strength asymmetries in the lower-limbs of young athletes practicing various sporting disciplines is considered an intrinsic risk factor for injury; in such cases, compensation strategies should thus be implemented aimed at eliminating, or at least limiting, the degree of asymmetry in order to avoid the negative consequences asymmetries can have upon the health of young sportsmen and women on the long-term. The aim of the present study was to examine the presence of functional asymmetries in the lower-limbs of young tennis players in strength and speed drill performance and to test a specific balance-training programme in its capacity to effectively reduce such asymmetries. Twenty-three young tennis players were randomly assigned to the Experimental Group (EG) (n = 11: 4 females, 7 males; 13.2 ± 0.9 years; 50.8 ± 8.9 Kg; 1.63 ± 0.08 m) or Comparison Group (CG) (n = 12: 4 females, 8 males; 13.0 ± 0.9 years; 51.1 ± 9.2 Kg; 1.61 ± 0.09 m). To quantify percent asymmetries in lower-limb strength before (T0) and following (T1) training, performances were assessed in the one-leg hop test (OLH), side-hop test (SH) and side steps and forward 4.115-m test (4m-SSF). Performances in the 10 and 20m sprint tests and the Foran test were also assessed. The EG completed a total of 12 training sessions directed at balance training: two 30-minute sessions/week over a 6-week period. The CG followed an identical training schedule, but training sessions consisted of tennis-specific drills only. The results reveal significant differences between pre- and post-training tests in the EG only: the degree of lower-limb asymmetry was decreased in the EG following completion of the training programme, as assessed using the OLH test (p < 0.001), SH test (p < 0.001) and 4m-SSF test (p < 0

  3. Balance training exercises decrease lower-limb strength asymmetry in young tennis players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sannicandro, Italo; Cofano, Giacomo; Rosa, Rosa A; Piccinno, Andrea

    2014-05-01

    The issue of functional asymmetries in the lower-limbs has been the subject of numerous recent investigations concerning many different contact, limited-contact and non-contact sports. The presence of strength asymmetries in the lower-limbs of young athletes practicing various sporting disciplines is considered an intrinsic risk factor for injury; in such cases, compensation strategies should thus be implemented aimed at eliminating, or at least limiting, the degree of asymmetry in order to avoid the negative consequences asymmetries can have upon the health of young sportsmen and women on the long-term. The aim of the present study was to examine the presence of functional asymmetries in the lower-limbs of young tennis players in strength and speed drill performance and to test a specific balance-training programme in its capacity to effectively reduce such asymmetries. Twenty-three young tennis players were randomly assigned to the Experimental Group (EG) (n = 11: 4 females, 7 males; 13.2 ± 0.9 years; 50.8 ± 8.9 Kg; 1.63 ± 0.08 m) or Comparison Group (CG) (n = 12: 4 females, 8 males; 13.0 ± 0.9 years; 51.1 ± 9.2 Kg; 1.61 ± 0.09 m). To quantify percent asymmetries in lower-limb strength before (T0) and following (T1) training, performances were assessed in the one-leg hop test (OLH), side-hop test (SH) and side steps and forward 4.115-m test (4m-SSF). Performances in the 10 and 20m sprint tests and the Foran test were also assessed. The EG completed a total of 12 training sessions directed at balance training: two 30-minute sessions/week over a 6-week period. The CG followed an identical training schedule, but training sessions consisted of tennis-specific drills only. The results reveal significant differences between pre- and post-training tests in the EG only: the degree of lower-limb asymmetry was decreased in the EG following completion of the training programme, as assessed using the OLH test (p strategies may be inserted into training programmes.Balance

  4. Using balance training to improve the performance of youth basketball players

    OpenAIRE

    Boccolini, G.; A. Brazzit; Bonfanti, L; Alberti, G.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of 12 weeks of balance training to improve the balance and vertical jump abilities of young basketball players. Twenty-three players from two teams in the Under Fifteen Basketball Excellence category participated in the study. Participants were divided into two training groups: balance training (BAL, n = 11) and isotonic training (ISO, n = 12). Both groups were tested for balance and vertical jumps at the beginning of the competitive sea...

  5. Optimized balance rehabilitation training strategy for the elderly through an evaluation of balance characteristics in response to dynamic motions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung HH

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available HoHyun Jung,1 Keyoung Jin Chun,2 Jaesoo Hong,2 Dohyung Lim1 1Department of Mechanical Engineering, Sejong University, Seoul, Republic of Korea; 2Smart Welfare Technology Research Group, Korea Institute of Industrial Technology, Cheonan, Republic of Korea Abstract: Balance is important in daily activities and essential for maintaining an independent lifestyle in the elderly. Recent studies have shown that balance rehabilitation training can improve the balance ability of the elderly, and diverse balance rehabilitation training equipment has been developed. However, there has been little research into optimized strategies for balance rehabilitation training. To provide an optimized strategy, we analyzed the balance characteristics of participants in response to the rotation of a base plate on multiple axes. Seven male adults with no musculoskeletal or nervous system-related diseases (age: 25.5±1.7 years; height: 173.9±6.4 cm; body mass: 71.3±6.5 kg; body mass index: 23.6±2.4 kg/m2 were selected to investigate the balance rehabilitation training using customized rehabilitation equipment. Rotation of the base plate of the equipment was controlled to induce dynamic rotation of participants in the anterior–posterior, right-diagonal, medial–lateral, and left-diagonal directions. We used a three-dimensional motion capture system employing infrared cameras and the Pedar Flexible Insoles System to characterize the major lower-extremity joint angles, center of body mass, and center of pressure. We found statistically significant differences between the changes in joint angles in the lower extremities in response to dynamic rotation of the participants (P<0.05. The maximum was greater with anterior–posterior and medial–lateral dynamic rotation than with that in other directions (P<0.05. However, there were no statistically significant differences in the frequency of center of body mass deviations from the base of support (P>0.05. These results

  6. Sequencing Effects of Balance and Plyometric Training on Physical Performance in Youth Soccer Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammami, Raouf; Granacher, Urs; Makhlouf, Issam; Behm, David G; Chaouachi, Anis

    2016-12-01

    Hammami, R, Granacher, U, Makhlouf, I, Behm, DG, and Chaouachi, A. Sequencing effects of balance and plyometric training on physical performance in youth soccer athletes. J Strength Cond Res 30(12): 3278-3289, 2016-Balance training may have a preconditioning effect on subsequent power training with youth. There are no studies examining whether the sequencing of balance and plyometric training has additional training benefits. The objective was to examine the effect of sequencing balance and plyometric training on the performance of 12- to 13-year-old athletes. Twenty-four young elite soccer players trained twice per week for 8 weeks either with an initial 4 weeks of balance training followed by 4 weeks of plyometric training (BPT) or 4 weeks of plyometric training proceeded by 4 weeks of balance training (PBT). Testing was conducted pre- and posttraining and included medicine ball throw; horizontal and vertical jumps; reactive strength; leg stiffness; agility; 10-, 20-, and 30-m sprints; Standing Stork balance test; and Y-Balance test. Results indicated that BPT provided significantly greater improvements with reactive strength index, absolute and relative leg stiffness, triple hop test, and a trend for the Y-Balance test (p = 0.054) compared with PBT. Although all other measures had similar changes for both groups, the average relative improvement for the BPT was 22.4% (d = 1.5) vs. 15.0% (d = 1.1) for the PBT. BPT effect sizes were greater with 8 of 13 measures. In conclusion, although either sequence of BPT or PBT improved jumping, hopping, sprint acceleration, and Standing Stork and Y-Balance, BPT initiated greater training improvements in reactive strength index, absolute and relative leg stiffness, triple hop test, and the Y-Balance test. BPT may provide either similar or superior performance enhancements compared with PBT.

  7. Whole-body vibration training improves balance, muscle strength and glycosylated hemoglobin in elderly patients with diabetic neuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyoungjin; Lee, Seungwon; Song, Changho

    2013-12-01

    Elderly patients with diabetes and peripheral neuropathy are more likely to experience falls. However, the information available on how such falls can be prevented is scarce. We investigated the effects of whole-body vibration (WBV) combined with a balance exercise program on balance, muscle strength, and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) in elderly patients with diabetic peripheral neuropathy. Fifty-five elderly patients with diabetic neuropathy were randomly assigned to WBV with balance exercise group, balance exercise (BE) group, and control group. The WBV and BE groups performed the balance exercise program for 60 min per day, 2 times per week, for 6 weeks. Further, the WBV group performed WBV training (up to 3 × 3 min, 3 times per week, for 6 weeks). The control group did not participate in any training. The main outcome measures were assessed at baseline and after 6 weeks of training; namely, we assessed the postural sway and one leg stance (OLS) for static balance; Berg balance scale (BBS), timed up-and-go (TUG) test, and functional reach test (FRT) for dynamic balance; five-times-sit-to-stand (FTSTS) test for muscle strength; and HbA1c for predicting the progression of diabetes. Significant improvements were noted in the static balance, dynamic balance, muscle strength, and HbA1c in the WBV group, compared to the BE and control groups (P balance exercise program, the short-term WBV therapy is beneficial in improving balance, muscle strength and HbA1c, in elderly patients with diabetic neuropathy who are at high risk for suffering falls.

  8. Effects of virtual reality programs on balance in functional ankle instability

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Ki-Jong; Heo, Myoung

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of present study was to identify the impact that recent virtual reality training programs used in a variety of fields have had on the ankle’s static and dynamic senses of balance among subjects with functional ankle instability. [Subjects and Methods] This study randomly divided research subjects into two groups, a strengthening exercise group (Group I) and a balance exercise group (Group II), with each group consisting of 10 people. A virtual reality program was performed t...

  9. Effects of robot-assisted gait training on the balance and gait of chronic stroke patients: focus on dependent ambulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Duk Youn; Park, Si-Woon; Lee, Min Jin; Park, Dae Sung; Kim, Eun Joo

    2015-10-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to confirm the effect of robot-assisted gait training on the balance and gait ability of stroke patients who were dependent ambulators. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty stroke patients participated in this study. The participants were allocated to either group 1, which received robot-assisted gait training for 4 weeks followed by conventional physical therapy for 4 weeks, or group 2, which received the same treatments in the reverse order. Robot-assisted gait training was conducted for 30 min, 3 times a week for 4 weeks. The Berg Balance Scale, Modified Functional Reach Test, Functional Ambulation Category, Modified Ashworth Scale, Fugl-Meyer Assessment, Motricity Index, and Modified Barthel Index were assessed before and after treatment. To confirm the characteristics of patients who showed a significant increase in Berg Balance Scale after robot-assisted gait training as compared with physical therapy, subgroup analysis was conducted. [Results] Only lateral reaching and the Functional Ambulation Category were significantly increased following robot-assisted gait training. Subscale analyses identified 3 patient subgroups that responded well to robot-assisted gait training: a subgroup with hemiplegia, a subgroup in which the guidance force needed to be decreased to needed to be decreased to ≤45%, and a subgroup in which weight bearing was decreased to ≤21%. [Conclusion] The present study showed that robot-assisted gait training is not only effective in improving balance and gait performance but also improves trunk balance and motor skills required by high-severity stroke patients to perform activities daily living. Moreover, subscale analyses identified subgroups that responded well to robot-assisted gait training.

  10. EFFICACY OF ISOKINETIC STRENGTH TRAINING AND BALANCE EXERCISES ON LOWER LIMB MUSCLES IN SUBJECTS WITH STROKE

    OpenAIRE

    Dr.P.Keerthi Chandra Sekhar; Dr K. Madhavi; Dr. V.Srikumari; Dr. Patchava Appa Rao; Dr. A.Chathurvedi .P

    2013-01-01

    Background:To evaluate the efficacy of isokinetic strength training and balance exercises on lower limb musclesamong the subjects suffering with stroke.Materials and Methods:40 subjects who are suffering from strokewere divided into two groups, Experimental group received Isokinetic strength training and balance exercises(n=20) and Control group received conventional physiotherapy, results were measured withIsokinetic deviceand Berg balance scale for peak torque of knee extensors on paretic l...

  11. Change in functional balance after an exercise program with Nintendo Wii in Latino patients with cerebral palsy: a case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatica-Rojas, Valeska; Cartes-Velásquez, Ricardo; Méndez-Rebolledo, Guillermo; Olave-Godoy, Felipe; Villalobos-Rebolledo, David

    2016-08-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to explore the possibility of improving functional balance using an exercise program with Nintendo and the Balance Board peripheral in subjects with cerebral palsy. [Subjects and Methods] This study included 4 male outpatients of a neurological center. All participants received an exercise program based on the use of Nintendo with the Balance Board peripheral. Training consisted of three 25-min sessions per week for 6 weeks. Each session was guided by a physical therapist. Timed up-and-go and one-leg standing tests were conducted before and after the intervention. [Results] All subjects showed significant improvements in the results of the timed up-and-go test. However, there were no significant changes in the results of the one-leg standing test. [Conclusion] The exercise protocol involving Nintendo with the Balance Board peripheral appears to improve functional dynamic balance in patients with cerebral palsy. However, static functional balance does not improve after 6 weeks of training.

  12. Construction of high order balanced multiscaling functions via PTST

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Shouzhi; PENG Lizhong

    2006-01-01

    The concept of paraunitary two-scale similarity transform (PTST) is introduced. We discuss the property of PTST, and prove that PTST preserves the orthogonal, approximation order and smoothness of the given orthogonal multiscaling functions. What is more, by applying PTST, we present an algorithm of constructing high order balanced multiscaling functions by balancing the already existing orthogonal nonbalanced multi- scaling functions. The corresponding transform matrix is given explicitly. In addition, we also investigate the symmetry of the balanced multiscaling functions. Finally, construction examples are given.

  13. Balance disorders in the elderly: epidemiology and functional impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Harrison W; Bhattacharyya, Neil

    2012-08-01

    To quantify the prevalence and determine the impact of dizziness and balance disorders in the elderly. Cross-sectional analysis of a national database. The balance problems survey module of the 2008 National Health Interview Survey was examined, and cases of reported dizziness or balance problems in persons ≥65 years old were identified. The prevalence of balance disorders and associated symptoms and their impacts on self-reported functional limitations were determined. The related impact on daily activities for elderly persons with balance problems was quantified. Sex-based differences in balance problems were determined. Among 37.3 ± 0.9 million elderly persons (mean age, 74.4 ± 0.1 years; 56.9% ± 0.9% female), 7.0 ± 0.2 million persons (19.6% ± 0.7%) reported a problem with dizziness or balance in the preceding 12 months. Balance problems included difficulty with unsteadiness (68.0%), walking on uneven surfaces (54.8%), vertigo (30.1%), and faintness (29.6%). Prescription medication triggered the balance problem in 18.7%. Among the 50.0% of elderly persons with balance problems who sought care, 85.6%, 30.3%, 23.9%, and 16.8% saw a general practitioner, internist, neurologist, or otolaryngologist, respectively. Of this group, 27.4% reported that balance problems specifically prevented them from participating in activities including exercise (61.2%), social events (45.8%), and driving (47.1%). Females were more likely to experience balance problems than males (21.0% vs. 17.7%, P = .025). Approximately one in five elderly persons experiences annual problems with dizziness or balance. Given the significant prevalence and negative effect of balance problems on daily activities in the elderly, balance disorders merit special attention, particularly in the face of an aging population. Copyright © 2012 The American Laryngological, Rhinological, and Otological Society, Inc.

  14. A computer vision based candidate for functional balance test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nalci, Alican; Khodamoradi, Alireza; Balkan, Ozgur; Nahab, Fatta; Garudadri, Harinath

    2015-08-01

    Balance in humans is a motor skill based on complex multimodal sensing, processing and control. Ability to maintain balance in activities of daily living (ADL) is compromised due to aging, diseases, injuries and environmental factors. Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) estimate of the costs of falls among older adults was $34 billion in 2013 and is expected to reach $54.9 billion in 2020. In this paper, we present a brief review of balance impairments followed by subjective and objective tools currently used in clinical settings for human balance assessment. We propose a novel computer vision (CV) based approach as a candidate for functional balance test. The test will take less than a minute to administer and expected to be objective, repeatable and highly discriminative in quantifying ability to maintain posture and balance. We present an informal study with preliminary data from 10 healthy volunteers, and compare performance with a balance assessment system called BTrackS Balance Assessment Board. Our results show high degree of correlation with BTrackS. The proposed system promises to be a good candidate for objective functional balance tests and warrants further investigations to assess validity in clinical settings, including acute care, long term care and assisted living care facilities. Our long term goals include non-intrusive approaches to assess balance competence during ADL in independent living environments.

  15. ANKLE JOINT CONTROL DURING SINGLE-LEGGED BALANCE USING COMMON BALANCE TRAINING DEVICES - IMPLICATIONS FOR REHABILITATION STRATEGIES

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strøm, Mark; Thorborg, Kristian; Bandholm, Thomas;

    2016-01-01

    to characterize different balance exercises based on level of difficulty and sensori-motor training stimulus. PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to investigate frontal-plane ankle kinematics and associated peroneal muscle activity during single-legged balance on stable surface (floor) and three commonly used...... balance devices (Airex®, BOSU® Ball and wobble board). DESIGN: Descriptive exploratory laboratory study. METHODS: Nineteen healthy subjects performed single-legged balance with eyes open on an Airex® mat, BOSU® Ball, wobble board, and floor (reference condition). Ankle kinematics were measured using......BACKGROUND: A lateral ankle sprain is the most prevalent musculoskeletal injury in sports. Exercises that aim to improve balance are a standard part of the ankle rehabilitation process. In an optimal progression model for ankle rehabilitation and prevention of future ankle sprains, it is important...

  16. Effectiveness of simple balancing training program in elderly patients with history of frequent falls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuptniratsaikul V

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Vilai Kuptniratsaikul1, Rungnirand Praditsuwan2, Prasert Assantachai3, Teerada Ploypetch1, Suthipol Udompunturak4, Julaporn Pooliam41Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, 2Department of Medicine, 3Department of Preventive Medicine, 4Office for Research and Development, Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, ThailandObjective: To study the effectiveness of simply-performed balancing exercises in fall prevention.Design: Pre- and post-trial.Setting: University hospital from January 2009 to May 2010.Participants: Elderly with falls in the previous year.Intervention: Simple balancing exercise was performed at home every day and was recorded in the booklet.Measurements: New falling events and a battery of balancing abilities including the Timed Up and Go Test (TUGT, chair stand, functional reach, and Berg balance scale-short form were evaluated at baseline, 3-, 6-, 9-, and 12-month periods. Fear of falling and quality of life scores were assessed at baseline and 12-month periods.Results: 146 subjects were recruited, 116 female (79.5% with a mean age of 67.1 years. At the end of the study, 49% of participants had not fallen. All of the balancing abilities were compared between frequent and infrequent fallers and were significantly improved (P < 0.001 except for functional reach in the frequent fall group. Most subjects (72%–79% complied well with the exercise program. However, compliance had no effect on balancing abilities. About 36.4% of participants had adverse events from exercise, of which knee pain was the top ranked. The quality of life and the fall efficacy scores increased significantly at the end of the study. Factors affecting falling were compliance with exercise (adjusted odds ratio [OR]: 2.55, 95% confidence intervals [CI]: 1.04, 6.30 and a history of falling ≥3 times in the previous year (adjusted OR: 3.76, 95% CI: 1.18, 11.98.Conclusion: Performing simply-designed balancing exercises, at least 3 days per week, can increase

  17. Balance Training Exercises Decrease Lower-Limb Strength Asymmetry in Young Tennis Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Italo Sannicandro, Giacomo Cofano, Rosa A. Rosa, Andrea Piccinno

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The issue of functional asymmetries in the lower-limbs has been the subject of numerous recent investigations concerning many different contact, limited-contact and non-contact sports. The presence of strength asymmetries in the lower-limbs of young athletes practicing various sporting disciplines is considered an intrinsic risk factor for injury; in such cases, compensation strategies should thus be implemented aimed at eliminating, or at least limiting, the degree of asymmetry in order to avoid the negative consequences asymmetries can have upon the health of young sportsmen and women on the long-term. The aim of the present study was to examine the presence of functional asymmetries in the lower-limbs of young tennis players in strength and speed drill performance and to test a specific balance-training programme in its capacity to effectively reduce such asymmetries. Twenty-three young tennis players were randomly assigned to the Experimental Group (EG (n = 11: 4 females, 7 males; 13.2 ± 0.9 years; 50.8 ± 8.9 Kg; 1.63 ± 0.08 m or Comparison Group (CG (n = 12: 4 females, 8 males; 13.0 ± 0.9 years; 51.1 ± 9.2 Kg; 1.61 ± 0.09 m. To quantify percent asymmetries in lower-limb strength before (T0 and following (T1 training, performances were assessed in the one-leg hop test (OLH, side-hop test (SH and side steps and forward 4.115-m test (4m-SSF. Performances in the 10 and 20m sprint tests and the Foran test were also assessed. The EG completed a total of 12 training sessions directed at balance training: two 30-minute sessions/week over a 6-week period. The CG followed an identical training schedule, but training sessions consisted of tennis-specific drills only. The results reveal significant differences between pre- and post-training tests in the EG only: the degree of lower-limb asymmetry was decreased in the EG following completion of the training programme, as assessed using the OLH test (p < 0.001, SH test (p < 0.001 and 4m-SSF test (p

  18. "Pushing the Limits": Rethinking Motor and Cognitive Resources After a Highly Challenging Balance Training Program for Parkinson Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leavy, Breiffni; Roaldsen, Kirsti Skavberg; Nylund, Kamilla; Hagströmer, Maria; Franzén, Erika

    2016-08-11

    There is growing evidence for the positive effects of exercise training programs on balance control in Parkinson disease (PD). To be effective, balance training needs to be specific, progressive, and highly challenging. Little evidence exists, however, for how people with PD-related balance impairments perceive highly challenging and progressive balance training programs with dual-task components. The purpose of this study was to explore and describe perceptions of a highly challenging balance training program among people with mild to moderate PD. This study was qualitative in nature. In-depth interviews were conducted with 13 individuals with mild to moderate PD who had participated in a highly challenging balance training program. Interview transcripts were analyzed using qualitative content analysis, with an inductive approach. The analysis revealed 3 subthemes concerning participants' perceptions of highly challenging and progressive balance training: (1) movement to counter the disease, (2) dual-task training in contrast to everyday strategies, and (3) the struggle to maintain positive effects. The first subtheme reflects how physical activity was used as a short-term and long-term strategy for counteracting PD symptoms and their progression. The second subtheme incorporates the described experiences of being maximally challenged in a secure and supportive group environment, circumstances that stood in contrast to participants' everyday lives. The third subtheme describes participants' long-term struggle to maintain program effects on cognitive and physical function in the face of disease progression. Interpretation of the underlying patterns of these subthemes resulted in one overarching theme: training at the limits of balance capacity causes a rethinking motor and cognitive resources. The findings of this study cannot be considered to reflect the beliefs of those with weaker or negative beliefs concerning physical activity or be transferred to those at

  19. Balance Devices Train Golfers for a Consistent Swing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    As part of the effort to understand the effects of spaceflight on astronauts, NASA funded research that resulted in a commercial product to treat balance disorders. West Palm Beach, Florida-based Sports Therapy Inc. worked with the inventor to modify the technology, creating the Dynamic Balance System (DBS) for sports applications. DBS is now used by Professional Golfers' Association-owned facilities and golf academies to help players achieve an effective, balanced swing.

  20. Balance Functional Assessment in People with Visual Impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rutkowska Izabela

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were twofold: to assess the level of balance of people with visual impairment against the BOT-2 standard scores for the able-bodied, and to identify in which trials subjects had the greatest difficulties in maintaining balance with respect to the degree of vision loss and age categories. One hundred twenty-seven subjects with visual impairment aged 6-16 years, participated in the study (68 girls and 59 boys. The division for partially sighted people (61 and the blind (66 was made according to the WHO classification. Functional balance assessment was made using a balance subtest from the Bruininks-Oseretsky test. Significant relationships were noticed between age and the level of balance (χ2 = 8.35 p <0,05, as well as between the degree of vision loss and the level of balance (χ2 = 24.53 p <0,001. The level of balance of almost all blind subjects was below (20% or well-below (60% the average for the able-bodied. The subjects’ ability to maintain balance was not dependent on gender and was associated primarily with the degree of visual impairment and age. Partially sighted people had better balance than the blind and the decrease in visual acuity resulted in reduction of balance skills. The lowest level of balance was observed in blind students aged 7-11 years. Elaborating physical fitness improvement programs for children and adolescents with visual impairment, diversity of age, the degree of vision loss and limitations of ablility to maintain balance should be taken into account.

  1. Pilates vs. Balance Training in Health Community-Dwelling Seniors: a 3-arm, Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donath, L; Roth, R; Hürlimann, C; Zahner, L; Faude, O

    2016-03-01

    The study examined effects of traditional balance vs. mat-based Pilates training on balance and trunk strength in healthy community dwellers. Forty-eight seniors were either stratified to a balance training group (BAL, n=16, 69.1 (SD 5.8) y), Pilates training group (PIL, n=17, 70.8 (6.5) y) or control group (CON, n=15, 69.2 (6.1) y). BAL performed traditional balance training, while PIL conducted mat-based Pilates-exercises (8 weeks, 2 sessions/week 66 min each). Balance performance (single limb stance and perturbed kneeling, Y-Balance test), dynamic and isometric trunk flexion and extension were assessed during pre- and post-testing. According to the magnitude-based inference approach, substantial positive effects in favor of BAL compared to CON were found for the Y-balance score (right leg, effect size (d)=0.68; left leg, d=0.56), trunk extension (d=0.68) and single leg stance (right leg, d=0.61; left leg, d=0.38). Dynamic (d=0.32) and isometric (d=0.15) trunk flexion revealed unclear effects. For the Y-balance score (right leg, d=0.48, left leg, d=0.75) and single leg stance (right leg, +d=0.61%; left leg, d=0.67), interestingly, BAL substantially exceeded PIL. PIL vs. CON revealed unclear effects for most parameters (0.05training did not cause relevant adaptations in trunk strength and balance performance, whereas balance training substantially improved balance and trunk strength.

  2. Training for improved neuro-muscular control of balance in middle aged females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Gregory S; Deluigi, Fabio; Belli, Guido; Tentoni, Claudio; Gaetz, Michael B

    2016-01-01

    This study examined improvements in static balance and muscle electromyographic (EMG) activity following a four week progressive training program in 16 middle aged females (mean age = 46.9 ± 8.7 yrs; height 161.1 ± 6.0 cm; weight 65.4 ± 11.2 kg). Participants trained 3 times per week for 4 weeks, for 50 min per session, progressing base of support, stability, vision, resistance and torque in each of six basic exercises. Pre and post training measures of balance included feet together standing, a tandem stance and a one-leg stand (unsupported leg in the saggital plane) performed with the eyes closed, and a Stork Stand (unsupported leg in the frontal plane) with both eyes open and closed. In each position postural deviations were tallied for each individual while muscle recruitment was determined using root mean squared (RMS) EMG activity for the soleus, biceps femoris, erector spinae, rectus abdominis and internal oblique muscles of the dominant foot side. Balance scores were significantly improved post training in both the Balance Error Score System (p core stability allowed participants to move from a hip to an ankle postural control strategy through improved coordination of muscles involved in balance and reduced body sway. The core muscles were able to control body position with less activity post training suggesting improved muscle coordination and efficiency. These results suggest that short term progressive floor to BOSU™ balance training can improve standing balance in middle aged women.

  3. Balance Performance in Irradiated Survivors of Nasopharyngeal Cancer with and without Tai Chi Qigong Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Shirley S M; Chung, Louisa M Y; Tsang, William W N; Leung, Joyce C Y; Charm, Caroline Y C; Luk, W S; Chow, Lina P Y; Ng, Shamay S M

    2014-01-01

    This cross-sectional exploratory study aimed to compare the one-leg-stance time and the six-minute walk distance among TC Qigong-trained NPC survivors, untrained NPC survivors, and healthy individuals. Twenty-five survivors of NPC with TC Qigong experience, 27 survivors of NPC without TC Qigong experience, and 68 healthy individuals formed the NPC-TC Qigong group, NPC-control group, and healthy-control group, respectively. The one-leg-stance (OLS) timed test was conducted to assess the single-leg standing balance performance of the participants in four conditions: (1) standing on a stable surface with eyes open, (2) standing on a compliant surface with eyes open, (3) standing on a stable surface with eyes closed, and (4) standing on a compliant surface with eyes closed. The six-minute walk test (6MWT) was used to determine the functional balance performance of the participants. Results showed that the NPC-control group had a shorter OLS time in all of the visual and supporting surface conditions than the healthy control group (P Qigong-NPC group was comparable to that of the healthy control group in the somatosensory-challenging condition (condition 3) (P = 0.168) only. Additionally, there was no significant difference in the 6MWT distance among the three groups (P > 0.05). TC Qigong may be a rehabilitation exercise that improves somatosensory function and OLS balance performance among survivors of NPC.

  4. Balance Performance in Irradiated Survivors of Nasopharyngeal Cancer with and without Tai Chi Qigong Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirley S. M. Fong

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This cross-sectional exploratory study aimed to compare the one-leg-stance time and the six-minute walk distance among TC Qigong-trained NPC survivors, untrained NPC survivors, and healthy individuals. Twenty-five survivors of NPC with TC Qigong experience, 27 survivors of NPC without TC Qigong experience, and 68 healthy individuals formed the NPC-TC Qigong group, NPC-control group, and healthy-control group, respectively. The one-leg-stance (OLS timed test was conducted to assess the single-leg standing balance performance of the participants in four conditions: (1 standing on a stable surface with eyes open, (2 standing on a compliant surface with eyes open, (3 standing on a stable surface with eyes closed, and (4 standing on a compliant surface with eyes closed. The six-minute walk test (6MWT was used to determine the functional balance performance of the participants. Results showed that the NPC-control group had a shorter OLS time in all of the visual and supporting surface conditions than the healthy control group (P0.05. TC Qigong may be a rehabilitation exercise that improves somatosensory function and OLS balance performance among survivors of NPC.

  5. Pilot study comparing changes in postural control after training using a video game balance board program and 2 standard activity-based balance intervention programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pluchino, Alessandra; Lee, Sae Yong; Asfour, Shihab; Roos, Bernard A; Signorile, Joseph F

    2012-07-01

    To compare the impacts of Tai Chi, a standard balance exercise program, and a video game balance board program on postural control and perceived falls risk. Randomized controlled trial. Research laboratory. Independent seniors (N=40; 72.5±8.40) began the training, 27 completed. Tai Chi, a standard balance exercise program, and a video game balance board program. The following were used as measures: Timed Up & Go, One-Leg Stance, functional reach, Tinetti Performance Oriented Mobility Assessment, force plate center of pressure (COP) and time to boundary, dynamic posturography (DP), Falls Risk for Older People-Community Setting, and Falls Efficacy Scale. No significant differences were seen between groups for any outcome measures at baseline, nor were significant time or group × time differences for any field test or questionnaire. No group × time differences were seen for any COP measures; however, significant time differences were seen for total COP, 3 of 4 anterior/posterior displacement and both velocity, and 1 displacement and 1 velocity medial/lateral measure across time for the entire sample. For DP, significant improvements in the overall score (dynamic movement analysis score), and in 2 of the 3 linear and angular measures were seen for the sample. The video game balance board program, which can be performed at home, was as effective as Tai Chi and the standard balance exercise program in improving postural control and balance dictated by the force plate postural sway and DP measures. This finding may have implications for exercise adherence because the at-home nature of the intervention eliminates many obstacles to exercise training. Copyright © 2012 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Robot-assisted gait training is not superior to balance training for improving postural instability in patients with mild to moderate Parkinson's disease: a single-blind randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picelli, Alessandro; Melotti, Camilla; Origano, Francesca; Neri, Roberta; Verzè, Elisa; Gandolfi, Marialuisa; Waldner, Andreas; Smania, Nicola

    2015-04-01

    The main aim was to compare robotic gait training vs. balance training for reducing postural instability in patients with Parkinson's disease. The secondary aim was to compare their effects on the level of confidence during activities of daily living requiring balance, functional mobility and severity of disease. Randomized controlled trial. University hospital. A total of 66 patients with Parkinson's disease at Hoehn and Yahr Stage 3. After balanced randomization, all patients received 12, 45-minute treatment sessions, three days a week, for four consecutive weeks. A group underwent robot-assisted gait training with progressive gait speed increasing and body-weight support decreasing. The other group underwent balance training aimed at improving postural reactions (self and externally induced destabilization, coordination, locomotor dexterity exercises). Patients were evaluated before, after and one month posttreatment. Berg Balance Scale. Activities-Specific Balance Confidence Scale; Timed Up and Go Test; Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale. No significant differences were found between the groups for the Berg Balance Scale either immediately after intervention (mean score in the robotic training group 51.58 ±3.94; mean score in the balance training group 51.15 ±3.46), or one-month follow-up (mean score in the robotic training group 51.03 ±4.63; mean score in the balance training group 50.97 ±4.28). Similar results were found for all the secondary outcome measures. Our findings indicate that robotic gait training is not superior to balance training for improving postural instability in patients with mild to moderate Parkinson's disease. © The Author(s) 2014.

  7. Enhancing cognitive functioning in the elderly: multicomponent vs resistance training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Forte R

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Roberta Forte,1,2 Colin AG Boreham,1 Joao Costa Leite,3 Giuseppe De Vito,1 Lorraine Brennan,3 Eileen R Gibney,3 Caterina Pesce21Institute for Sport and Health, University College Dublin, Dublin, Ireland; 2Department of Human Movement and Sport Science, University of Rome "Foro Italico," Rome, Italy; 3Institute of Food and Health, University College Dublin, Dublin, IrelandPurpose: The primary purpose of this study was to compare the effects of two different exercise training programs on executive cognitive functions and functional mobility in older adults. A secondary purpose was to explore the potential mediators of training effects on executive function and functional mobility with particular reference to physical fitness gains.Methods: A sample of 42 healthy community dwelling adults aged 65 to 75 years participated twice weekly for 3 months in either: (1 multicomponent training, prioritizing neuromuscular coordination, balance, agility, and cognitive executive control; or (2 progressive resistance training for strength conditioning. Participants were tested at baseline (T1, following a 4-week control period (T2, and finally at postintervention (T3 for executive function (inhibition and cognitive flexibility and functional mobility (maximal walking speed with and without additional task requirements. Cardiorespiratory and muscular fitness were also assessed as potential mediators.Results: Indices of inhibition, the functions involved in the deliberate withholding of prepotent or automatic responses, and measures of functional mobility improved after the intervention, independent of training type. Mediation analysis suggested that different mechanisms underlie the effects of multicomponent and progressive resistance training. While multicomponent training seemed to directly affect inhibitory capacity, resistance training seemed to affect it indirectly through gains in muscular strength. Physical fitness and executive function variables did not

  8. Effects of Dynamic Neuromuscular Analysis Training on Static and Dynamic Balance in Indian Female Basketball Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Archna Sharma

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to investigate the effects of dynamic neuromuscular analysis on static and dynamic balance of Indian state level female athletes. It was hypothesized that the training protocol would improve both static and dynamic components of the balance, improving dynamic balance more than static. A total of 43 randomly selected state level female basketball players aged 16 -18 years participated in the study. The subjects were further divided into two groups, viz. Dynamic Neuromuscular Analysis (DNA group (n=23 and control group (n = 20. Pre and post static balance was tested to all the subjects by Stork Balance Test (SBT and Balance Error Scoring System (BESS, and dynamic balance was measured by Star Excursion Balance Test (SEBT. DNA intervention of 90 minutes was given for 6 weeks while the control group followed traditional training. Results showed a significant improvement both in static and dynamic balance (p<0.001. It might be concluded that 6 week DNA training designed for the prevention of ACL injuries could also improve both static and dynamic balance in Indian female basketball players.

  9. Effect of proprioception cross training on repositioning accuracy and balance among healthy individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Gohary, Tarek Mohamed; Khaled, Osama Ahmed; Ibrahim, Sameh R; Alshenqiti, Abdullah M; Ibrahim, Mahmoud I

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] To investigate possible cross effects of proprioception training on proprioception repositioning accuracy of the knee joint and on balance in healthy subjects. [Subjects and Methods] Sixty healthy college students and faculty members from faculty of physical therapy, Cairo University were recruited to participate. Participants were randomly assigned to training group (n=30) and control group (n=30). The training group received proprioceptive training program only for the dominant leg while the control group did not receive any kind of training. Outcome measures were twofold: (1) proprioception repositioning accuracy quantified through the active repositioning test for the non-dominant knee; and (2) balance stability indices determined through using Biodex balance system. Measurements were recorded before and after 8 weeks of proprioception training. [Results] There were significant decrease in the error of repositioning accuracy and the stability indices including anterposterior stability index, mediolateral stability index, and overall stability index of training group, measured post training, compared with control group. [Conclusion] Proprioception training has significant cross training effects on proprioception repositioning accuracy of the knee joint and on balance among healthy subjects. PMID:27942145

  10. A rehabilitation tool for functional balance using altered gravity and virtual reality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ince Serdar

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a need for effective and early functional rehabilitation of patients with gait and balance problems including those with spinal cord injury, neurological diseases and recovering from hip fractures, a common consequence of falls especially in the elderly population. Gait training in these patients using partial body weight support (BWS on a treadmill, a technique that involves unloading the subject through a harness, improves walking better than training with full weight bearing. One problem with this technique not commonly acknowledged is that the harness provides external support that essentially eliminates associated postural adjustments (APAs required for independent gait. We have developed a device to address this issue and conducted a training study for proof of concept of efficacy. Methods We present a tool that can enhance the concept of BWS training by allowing natural APAs to occur mediolaterally. While in a supine position in a 90 deg tilted environment built around a modified hospital bed, subjects wear a backpack frame that is freely moving on air-bearings (cf. puck on an air hockey table and attached through a cable to a pneumatic cylinder that provides a load that can be set to emulate various G-like loads. Veridical visual input is provided through two 3-D automultiscopic displays that allow glasses free 3-D vision representing a virtual surrounding environment that may be acquired from sites chosen by the patient. Two groups of 12 healthy subjects were exposed to either strength training alone or a combination of strength and balance training in such a tilted environment over a period of four weeks. Results Isokinetic strength measured during upright squat extension improved similarly in both groups. Measures of balance assessed in upright showed statistically significant improvements only when balance was part of the training in the tilted environment. Postural measures indicated less reliance on

  11. Balance Exercises Circuit improves muscle strength, balance, and functional performance in older women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avelar, Bruna Pereira; Costa, Juliana Nunes de Almeida; Safons, Marisete Peralta; Dutra, Maurílio Tiradentes; Bottaro, Martim; Gobbi, Sebastião; Tiedemann, Anne; de David, Ana Cristina; Lima, Ricardo Moreno

    2016-02-01

    This study introduces the Balance Exercises Circuit (BEC) and examines its effects on muscle strength and power, balance, and functional performance in older women. Thirty-five women aged 60+ (mean age = 69.31, SD = 7.35) were assigned to either a balance exercises group (BG, n = 14) that underwent 50-min sessions twice weekly, of a 12-week BEC program, or a wait-list control group (CG, n = 21). Outcome measures were knee extensor peak torque (PT), rate of force development (RFD), balance, Timed Up & Go (TUG), 30-s chair stand, and 6-min walk tests, assessed at baseline and 12 weeks. Twenty-three participants completed follow-up assessments. Mixed analysis of variance models examined differences in outcomes. The BG displayed improvements in all measures at follow-up and significantly improved compared with CG on, isokinetic PT60, PT180 (p = 0.02), RFD (p balance with eyes closed (p values range .02 to balance, and functionality in older women. The BEC warrants further investigation as a fall prevention intervention.

  12. Motor intensive anti-gravity training improves performance in dynamic balance related tasks in persons with Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malling, Anne Sofie B; Jensen, Bente R

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies indicate that the effect of training on motor performance in persons with Parkinson's disease (PDP) is dependent on motor intensity. However, training of high motor intensity can be hard to apply in PDP due to e.g. bradykinesia, rigidity, tremor and postural instability. Therefore, the aim was to study the effect of motor intensive training performed in a safe anti-gravity environment using lower-body positive pressure (LBPP) technology on performance during dynamic balance related tasks. Thirteen male PDP went through an 8-week control period followed by 8 weeks of motor intensive antigravity training. Seventeen healthy males constituted a control group (CON). Performance during a five repetition sit-to-stand test (STS; sagittal plane) and a dynamic postural balance test (DPB; transversal plane) was evaluated. Effect measures were completion time, functional rates of force development, directional changes and force variance. STS completion time improved by 24% to the level of CON which was explained by shorter sitting-time and standing-time and larger numeric rate of force change during lowering to the chair, indicating faster vertical directional change and improved relaxation. DPB completion time tended to improve and was accompanied by improvements of functional medial and lateral rates of force development and higher vertical force variance during DPB. Our results suggest that the performance improvements may relate to improved inter-limb coordination. It is concluded that 8 weeks of motor intensive training in a safe LBPP environment improved performance during dynamic balance related tasks in PDP.

  13. The effects of multiaxial and uniaxial unstable surface balance training in college athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisen, Tracey C; Danoff, Jerome V; Leone, James E; Miller, Todd A

    2010-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of 2 different types of unstable surface balance training (uniaxial on a rocker board [RB] and multiaxial on a dynadisc [DD]) on balance in division 1 collegiate athletes in sports that are at high risk for ankle sprains. Subjects (n = 36) consisted of male soccer players and female volleyball and soccer players who were equally and randomly assigned to 1 of 3 groups (CON, DD, and RB). Balance training consisting of balancing on 1 leg on either the RB or DD, while repeatedly catching a 1-kg ball was performed 3 times per week for 4 weeks. Balance was tested with the Star Excursion Balance Test (SEBT) before, halfway through, and at the completion of the balance training. Control (CON) subjects also were given the balance test but did not participate in the training. A 3-way repeated analysis of variance revealed that no group individually changed SEBT scores from pre (CON, 0.98 +/- 0.086; DD, 0.98 +/- 0.083; RB, 0.97 +/- 0.085) to post (CON, 1.00 +/- 0.090; DD, 1.01 +/- 0.088; RB, 1.02 +/- 0.068) after balance training. When the 2 treatment groups were combined (DD and RB), the p value decreased and came closer to significance (p = 0.136). When all 3 groups were combined, there was a significant difference in SEBT scores from pretraining (CON + DD + RB; 0.98 +/- 0.085) to posttraining (CON + DD + RB; 1.01 +/- 0.082), which likely indicates low statistical power. The increase in physical activity the subjects experienced during the return to in-season activity, may have contributed to the significant differences in SEBT scores over time but not between DD or RB training. Therefore, a threshold level of physical activity may exist that is necessary to maintain balance during the off-season.

  14. Balancing the Dual Functions of Portfolio Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Ricky; Lee, Icy

    2010-01-01

    While research on portfolio assessment (PA) has focused largely on the summative aspects of writing assessment, not much has been done to find out its formative potential. Drawing upon student questionnaires and student and teacher interview data, this paper aims to explore the formative functions of PA and, specifically, how the formative…

  15. Effect of yoga training on balance in elderly women

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Masoomeh Koohboomi; Ali Asghar Norasteh; Nader Samami

    2015-01-01

    .... Since physical activities can improve physical and mental conditions, followed by more independence in the elderly, this study was conducted to find out the effects of yoga programs on balance in the elderly. Methods...

  16. THE EFFECTIVENESS OF SPORTS SPECIFIC BALANCE TRAINING PROGRAM IN REDUCING RISK OF ANKLE SPRAIN IN BASKETBALL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ai Choo LEE

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: To investigate the effectiveness of four weeks sports specific balance training program to improve balance, thus reducing the risk of ankle sprain among Sultan Idris Education University basketball players. Method: There were 20 males basketball players (aged 19-24 years volunteered in this study. After screening process, there were14 male players met the inclusion criteria. They were randomized into two groups i.e experimental group (EG: n=7 and control group (CG: n=7. The EG undergone the four weeks sports specific balance training program three times per week while the CG followed their normal standard basketball training program. Balance Error Scoring System (BESS was used to assess static balance while Star Excursion Balance Test (SEBT is utilized to examine the dynamic balance. Pretest and posttest of balance measures were recorded using BESS and SEBT for both EG and CG. The data were analyzed using independent sample t-test (p=0.05. Results: The study findings indicated that there were significant differences between EG and CG for the static balance on firm surface (t=-4.642, p=0.001 and on foam surface (t=-8.590, P=0.000 as well as dynamic balance on left leg stance (t=2.350, P=0.037 and on right leg stance (t=3.145, P=0.008. Conclusion: The study findings indicated that the four weeks sports specific balance training program could improve balance ability in male basketball players, thus may reducing the risk of ankle sprain.

  17. Biofeedback for training balance and mobility tasks in older populations : a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zijlstra, Agnes; Mancini, Martina; Chiari, Lorenzo; Zijlstra, Wiebren

    2010-01-01

    Context: An effective application of biofeedback for interventions in older adults with balance and mobility disorders may be compromised due to co-morbidity. Objective: To evaluate the feasibility and the effectiveness of biofeedback-based training of balance and/or mobility in older adults. Data S

  18. Biofeedback for training balance and mobility tasks in older populations : a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zijlstra, Agnes; Mancini, Martina; Chiari, Lorenzo; Zijlstra, Wiebren

    2010-01-01

    Context: An effective application of biofeedback for interventions in older adults with balance and mobility disorders may be compromised due to co-morbidity. Objective: To evaluate the feasibility and the effectiveness of biofeedback-based training of balance and/or mobility in older adults. Data

  19. Exergaming: Interactive balance training in healthy community-dwelling older adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kosse, Nienke M.; Caljouw, Simone R.; Vuijk, Pieter-Jelle; Lamoth, Claudine J.C.

    2011-01-01

    Exergaming is a term used for videogame exercise. The aim of this study was to examine the training effect of an exergame that relies on the movements of a dynamic balance board. Nine healthy elderly subjects participated in a six-week intervention in which they played balance games three times a we

  20. Effect of yoga training on balance in elderly women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoomeh Koohboomi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The increase of age and reduction of physical activities usually cause undesirable physical and mental dysfunctions among the elderly. Since physical activities can improve physical and mental conditions, followed by more independence in the elderly, this study was conducted to find out the effects of yoga programs on balance in the elderly. Methods: this quasi-experimental study was carried out on 30 elderly women (age: 66±6.02 years, height: 161±11.53 centimeter and weight: 68.70±7.08 kilogram, all enjoying general health, were selected through convenience sampling. Sharpened-Romberg test (with open eyes and achievement test were used to measure static and dynamic balance, respectively. These tests were performed before and after the exercise program. Data analysis was performed by independent t- test (P<0.05. Results: Research findings showed that yoga exercises for 6 weeks had a significant impact on static balance (P= 0.002 and dynamic balance (P= 0.004 compared with the control group. Conclusion: It seems that yoga (Huta yoga has positive effects on balance in the elderly. These effects include improvement of dynamic and static balance.

  1. Effects of balance training using a virtual-reality system in older fallers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duque G

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Gustavo Duque,1,2 Derek Boersma,1 Griselda Loza-Diaz,2 Sanobar Hassan,1 Hamlet Suarez,3 Dario Geisinger,3 Pushpa Suriyaarachchi,1 Anita Sharma,1 Oddom Demontiero1,21Falls and Fractures Clinic, Department of Geriatric Medicine, Nepean Hospital, Penrith, NSW, Australia; 2Ageing Bone Research Program, Division of Geriatric Medicine, Sydney Medical School Nepean, The University of Sydney, Penrith, NSW, Australia; 3British Hospital, CLAEH School of Medicine, Montevideo, UruguayAbstract: Poor balance is considered a challenging risk factor for falls in older adults. Therefore, innovative interventions for balance improvement in this population are greatly needed. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of a new virtual-reality system (the Balance Rehabilitation Unit [BRU] on balance, falls, and fear of falling in a population of community-dwelling older subjects with a known history of falls. In this study, 60 community-dwelling older subjects were recruited after being diagnosed with poor balance at the Falls and Fractures Clinic, Nepean Hospital (Penrith, NSW, Australia. Subjects were randomly assigned to either the BRU-training or control groups. Both groups received the usual falls prevention care. The BRU-training group attended balance training (two sessions/week for 6 weeks using an established protocol. Change in balance parameters was assessed in the BRU-training group at the end of their 6-week training program. Both groups were assessed 9 months after their initial assessment (month 0. Adherence to the BRU-training program was 97%. Balance parameters were significantly improved in the BRU-training group (P < 0.01. This effect was also associated with a significant reduction in falls and lower levels of fear of falling (P < 0.01. Some components of balance that were improved by BRU training showed a decline after 9 months post-training. In conclusion, BRU training is an effective and well-accepted intervention to improve balance

  2. The Effect of Resistance Training on Performance of Gross Motor Skills and Balance in Children with Spastic Cerebral Palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebrahim Zarrinkalam

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Cerebral palsy is the most common chronic motor disability in children and can have negative effect on motor functions. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of eight weeks resistance training on gross motor ability, balance and walking speed in a group of such children. Methods: 21 cerebral palsy boys with spastic diplegia, aged between 12 and 16 years (mean, 13.66 years, participated in this study. A pre-test, involving walking, sitting, standing and walking up stairs. They were randomly divided into an experimental and control groups. Then, the experimental group participated in 8 weeks of resistance training.  The data was attained from a 10 meter walk test, Berg Balance Test, gross motor ability Section E, D and GMFCS tests.  Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, sample t-test were used for analyzing the data. Results: The results showed a significant improvement in the performance of experimental group in gross motor abilities section  E and D, balance and walking speed after 8 weeks of resistance training (P <0.05(. However, significant differences were not observed in the control group before and after the study (P <0.05.  Conclusion: The results showed that resistance training improves gross motor ability, balance and gait in children with cerebral palsy hence, it is recommended that resistance exercise be used as a therapeutic modality for children with cerebral palsy.

  3. Analysis of balance during functional walking in stroke survivors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Meulen, Fokke; Weenk, D.; van Asseldonk, Edwin H.F.; Schepers, H. Martin; Veltink, Petrus H.; Buurke, Jaap

    2016-01-01

    Background An important objective of rehabilitation care is to regain adequate balance function to safely ambulate in community. However, in rehabilitation practice, it remains unclear if a stroke survivor functionally recovers by restitution or by learning to compensate for the lack of restoration

  4. Role of treadmill training versus suspension therapy on balance in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gehan H. El-Meniawy

    2011-11-29

    Nov 29, 2011 ... the body and the performance of the vestibule system, also, it allows more ... effects of treadmill training and suspension therapy via using .... even resistance during training. ... analysis of the stability indices including overall stability index, .... changes in external or internal forces; for example as required.

  5. Changes in muscle activation following balance and technique training and a season of Australian football.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnelly, C J; Elliott, B C; Doyle, T L A; Finch, C F; Dempsey, A R; Lloyd, D G

    2015-05-01

    Determine if balance and technique training implemented adjunct to 1001 male Australian football players' training influenced the activation/strength of the muscles crossing the knee during pre-planned and unplanned sidestepping. Randomized Control Trial. Each Australian football player participated in either 28 weeks of balance and technique training or 'sham' training. Twenty-eight Australian football players (balance and technique training, n=12; 'sham' training, n=16) completed biomechanical testing pre-to-post training. Peak knee moments and directed co-contraction ratios in three degrees of freedom, as well as total muscle activation were calculated during pre-planned and unplanned sidestepping. No significant differences in muscle activation/strength were observed between the 'sham' training and balance and technique training groups. Following a season of Australian football, knee extensor (p=0.023) and semimembranosus (p=0.006) muscle activation increased during both pre-planned sidestepping and unplanned sidestepping. Following a season of Australian football, total muscle activation was 30% lower and peak valgus knee moments 80% greater (p=0.022) during unplanned sidestepping when compared with pre-planned sidestepping. When implemented in a community level training environment, balance and technique training was not effective in changing the activation of the muscles crossing the knee during sidestepping. Following a season of Australian football, players are better able to support both frontal and sagittal plane knee moments. When compared to pre-planned sidestepping, Australian football players may be at increased risk of anterior cruciate ligament injury during unplanned sidestepping in the latter half of an Australian football season. Copyright © 2014 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Stimulus Characteristics for Vestibular Stochastic Resonance to Improve Balance Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulavara, Ajitkumar; Fiedler, Matthew; Kofman, Igor; Peters, Brian; Wood, Scott; Serrado, Jorge; Cohen, Helen; Reschke, Millard; Bloomberg, Jacob

    2010-01-01

    Stochastic resonance (SR) is a mechanism by which noise can enhance the response of neural systems to relevant sensory signals. Studies have shown that imperceptible stochastic vestibular electrical stimulation, when applied to normal young and elderly subjects, significantly improved their ocular stabilization reflexes in response to whole-body tilt as well as balance performance during postural disturbances. The goal of this study was to optimize the amplitude characteristics of the stochastic vestibular signals for balance performance during standing on an unstable surface. Subjects performed a standard balance task of standing on a block of foam with their eyes closed. Bipolar stochastic electrical stimulation was applied to the vestibular system using constant current stimulation through electrodes placed over the mastoid process behind the ears. Amplitude of the signals varied in the range of 0-700 microamperes. Balance performance was measured using a force plate under the foam block, and inertial motion sensors were placed on the torso and head. Balance performance with stimulation was significantly greater (10%-25%) than with no stimulation. The signal amplitude at which performance was maximized was in the range of 100-300 microamperes. Optimization of the amplitude of the stochastic signals for maximizing balance performance will have a significant impact on development of vestibular SR as a unique system to aid recovery of function in astronauts after long-duration space flight or in patients with balance disorders.

  7. Balance, executive functions and falls in elderly with Alzheimer's disease (AD): a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedroso, Renata Valle; Coelho, Flávia Gomes de Melo; Santos-Galduróz, Ruth Ferreira; Costa, José Luiz Riani; Gobbi, Sebastião; Stella, Florindo

    2012-01-01

    Elderly individuals with AD are more susceptible to falls, which might be associated with decrements in their executive functions and balance, among other things. We aimed to analyze the effects of a program of dual task physical activity on falls, executive functions and balance of elderly individuals with AD. We studied 21 elderly with probable AD, allocated to two groups: the training group (TG), with 10 elderly who participated in a program of dual task physical activity; and the control group (CG), with 11 elderly who were not engaged in regular practice of physical activity. The Clock Drawing Test (CDT) and the Frontal Assessment Battery (FAB) were used in the assessment of the executive functions, while the Berg Balance Scale (BBS) and the Timed Up-and-Go (TUG)-test evaluated balance. The number of falls was obtained by means of a questionnaire. We observed a better performance of the TG as regards balance and executive functions. Moreover, the lower the number of steps in the TUG scale, the higher the scores in the CDT, and in the FAB. The practice of regular physical activity with dual task seems to have contributed to the maintenance and improvement of the motor and cognitive functions of the elderly with AD. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Optimizing Intermodal Train Schedules with a Design Balanced Network Design Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Michael Berliner; Crainic, Teodor Gabriel

    We present a modeling approach for optimizing intermodal trains schedules based on an infrastructure divided into time-dependent train paths. The formulation can be generalized to a capacitated multi commodity network design model with additional design balance constraints. We present a Tabu Search...

  9. Effect of Posture Training with Weighted Kypho-Orthosis (WKO on Improving Balance in Women with Osteoporosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Ahmad Raeissadat

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To determine the effect of weighted kypho-orthosis (WKO on improving balance in women with osteoporosis. In this nonrandomized controlled clinical trial, 31 patients with osteoporosis were included. The patients were assigned to two groups: (1 control group who received 4-week home-based daily exercise program including weight bearing, back strengthening, and balance exercises and (2 intervention group (WKO who performed aforementioned exercises and wore WKO for one hour twice a day. Patients were assessed using clinical balance tests (timed up and go test, functional reach test, and unilateral balance test before and 4 weeks after start of treatment. Results. Functional reach and timed up and go test were improved significantly in both groups compared to baseline. The improvement in intervention group was more significant in comparison to control group (P<0.05. Discussion. Posture training with WKO together with exercise program improved two clinical balance tests in women with osteoporosis. Conclusion. Posture training support (PTS applied as WKO together with back extension exercises can be prescribed as an intervention in elderly women in order to reduce the risk of falling.

  10. Effect of strength and balance training in children with Down's syndrome: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Sukriti; Rao, Bhamini Krishna; S D, Kumaran

    2011-05-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the effect of exercise training on strength and balance in children with Down's syndrome. Randomized controlled trial. Rehabilitation school for special children. Twenty-three children were randomized to intervention and control group. The intervention group (n = 12) underwent progressive resistive exercises for lower limbs and balance training for six weeks. The control group continued their regular activities followed at school. A handheld dynamometer was used to measure the lower limb muscle strength. Balance was assessed by the balance subscale of Bruininks Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency (BOTMP). Following the training, the children in the intervention group showed a statistically significant improvement (P strength of all the muscle groups assessed. The strength of knee extensors was 12.12 lbs in the control group versus 18.4 lbs in the experimental group; in hip flexors it was 12.34 lbs in the control group versus 16.66 lbs in the experimental group post-intervention. The balance of the children also improved significantly with an improvement in scores of the balance subscale of BOTMP (19.50 in the experimental group versus 9.00 in the control group, P = 0.001). This study suggests that a specific exercise training programme may improve the strength and balance in children with Down's syndrome.

  11. EFFICACY OF ISOKINETIC STRENGTH TRAINING AND BALANCE EXERCISES ON LOWER LIMB MUSCLES IN SUBJECTS WITH STROKE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr.P.Keerthi Chandra Sekhar

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background:To evaluate the efficacy of isokinetic strength training and balance exercises on lower limb musclesamong the subjects suffering with stroke.Materials and Methods:40 subjects who are suffering from strokewere divided into two groups, Experimental group received Isokinetic strength training and balance exercises(n=20 and Control group received conventional physiotherapy, results were measured withIsokinetic deviceand Berg balance scale for peak torque of knee extensors on paretic leg and balance respectively.Results:obtained results were analyzed with the use ofPaired T-test, which has been carried out to observe the treat-ment impact between the groups before and after the treatment. After a 6 week treatment period, thesub-jects in the Group I (strength training and balance exercise compared with the subjects in the Group II (con-ventional physiotherapy had shown a statistically significant improvement with the outcome measuresat 0.05level.Conclusion:Isokinetic strength training and balance exercise was found much effective in improving strengthof quadriceps lower limb and balance in subjects with stroke.

  12. Tracking Particles in Flows near Invariant Manifolds via Balance Functions

    CERN Document Server

    Kuehn, Christian; Kuhlmann, Hendrik C

    2016-01-01

    Particles moving inside a fluid near, and interacting with, invariant manifolds is a common phenomenon in a wide variety of applications. One elementary question is whether we can determine once a particle has entered a neighbourhood of an invariant manifold, when it leaves again. Here we approach this problem mathematically by introducing balance functions, which relate the entry and exit points of a particle by an integral variational formula. We define, study, and compare different natural choices for balance functions and conclude that an efficient compromise is to employ normal infinitesimal Lyapunov exponents. We apply our results to two different model flows: a regularized solid-body rotational flow and the asymmetric Kuhlmann--Muldoon model developed in the context of liquid bridges. Furthermore, we employ full numerical simulations of the Navier-Stokes equations of a two-way coupled particle in a shear--stress-driven cavity to test balance functions for a particle moving near an invariant wall. In co...

  13. Effectiveness of a balance-training program provided by qualified care workers for community-based older adults: A preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirase, Tatsuya; Inokuchi, Shigeru; Matsusaka, Nobuou; Okita, Minoru

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of a balance-training program provided by qualified care workers (QCWs) to community-based older adults attending day centers. Weekly balance training was conducted by QCWs working at day centers over a 6-month period. Fall risk factors, fear of falling, and physical function were compared between balance-training (n = 22) and control (n = 23) groups at baseline and after 6 months of intervention. Physical function assessments included the following: one-leg standing test, chair-standing test (CST), timed up-and-go test (TUGT), and a lower-extremity muscle strength test (LEST). Participants who underwent balance training significantly improved in the CST and LEST, and had reduced fear and risk of falling compared with the control group (p balance-training group, the TUGT was significantly better at 6 months than at baseline (p balance-training program for community-dwelling older adults can be effectively implemented by QCWs.

  14. Effects of modified sit-to-stand training on balance control in hemiplegic stroke patients: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Meng; Chen, Jin; Fan, Wenxiang; Mu, Jingsong; Zhang, Jinlong; Wang, Li; Zhuang, Jianhai; Ni, Chaomin

    2016-07-01

    To explore the effectiveness of modified sit-to-stand training on balance function in hemiplegic stroke patients. Randomized controlled trial. Rehabilitation medical centre. A total of 50 hemiplegic patients with stroke were randomly assigned to the control and experimental groups (n = 25 for each group). Patients in the control group received the sit-to-stand training with symmetrical foot position, while patients in the experimental group were given the modified sit-to-stand training in which the paretic foot placed posterior. Subjects in both groups received 30 minutes of sit-to-stand training, five times a week, for four weeks. The time and weight-bearing distribution during sit-to-stand movement, the centre of pressure sway length during quiet standing, the centre of pressure sway areas during dynamic standing and Berg Balance Scale were assessed before and after completing the four-week sit-to-stand training. Our data showed significant improvements in standing balance and the sit-to-stand movement for two groups in the post-training compared with the pre-training. After training, the rise time shortened more significantly in the experimental group (mean change, 0.90 ±0.25 seconds) than the control group (mean change, 0.42 ±0.18 seconds). Weight-bearing asymmetry showed significantly greater improvement in the experimental group (mean change, 0.17 ±0.10) than in the control group (mean change, 0.06 ±0.05). Centre of pressure sway length was significantly smaller in the experimental group (mean change, 27.85 ±10.58 cm) than in the control group (mean change, 21.95 ±8.19 cm). Centre of pressure sway areas was significantly larger in the experimental group (mean change, 84.24 ±26.48 cm(2)) than in the control group (mean change, 67.74 ±22.84 cm(2)) (P = 0.027). The Berg Balance Scale was significantly higher in the experiment group (mean change, 8.4 ±3.1) than the control group (mean change, 5.8±2.8). A modified

  15. A tool for balance control training using muscle synergies and multimodal interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galeano, D; Brunetti, F; Torricelli, D; Piazza, S; Pons, J L

    2014-01-01

    Balance control plays a key role in neuromotor rehabilitation after stroke or spinal cord injuries. Computerized dynamic posturography (CDP) is a classic technological tool to assess the status of balance control and to identify potential disorders. Despite the more accurate diagnosis generated by these tools, the current strategies to promote rehabilitation are still limited and do not take full advantage of the technologies available. This paper presents a novel balance training platform which combines a CDP device made from low-cost interfaces, such as the Nintendo Wii Balance Board and the Microsoft Kinect. In addition, it integrates a custom electrical stimulator that uses the concept of muscle synergies to promote natural interaction. The aim of the platform is to support the exploration of innovative multimodal therapies. Results include the technical validation of the platform using mediolateral and anteroposterior sways as basic balance training therapies.

  16. A Tool for Balance Control Training Using Muscle Synergies and Multimodal Interfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Galeano

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Balance control plays a key role in neuromotor rehabilitation after stroke or spinal cord injuries. Computerized dynamic posturography (CDP is a classic technological tool to assess the status of balance control and to identify potential disorders. Despite the more accurate diagnosis generated by these tools, the current strategies to promote rehabilitation are still limited and do not take full advantage of the technologies available. This paper presents a novel balance training platform which combines a CDP device made from low-cost interfaces, such as the Nintendo Wii Balance Board and the Microsoft Kinect. In addition, it integrates a custom electrical stimulator that uses the concept of muscle synergies to promote natural interaction. The aim of the platform is to support the exploration of innovative multimodal therapies. Results include the technical validation of the platform using mediolateral and anteroposterior sways as basic balance training therapies.

  17. Influence of posturographic platform biofeedback training on the dynamic balance of adult stroke patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maciaszek, Janusz; Borawska, Sylwia; Wojcikiewicz, Jacek

    2014-07-01

    The aim of the experiment was to analyze the influence of posturographic platform biofeedback training on the dynamic balance of patients who experienced ischemic stroke. The study included 21 patients treated at the Rehabilitation Center of the District Hospital in Białogard, in the Ward of Neurological Rehabilitation with the Stroke Division. The age of the patients (11 in the experimental and 10 in the control group) ranged between 55 and 65 years. The level of dynamic balance was determined with Timed Up and Go Test. The experimental group was subjected to the biofeedback training, practicing maintenance of body balance (forced sway training) on posturographic platform for 15 consecutive days. The perception of dynamic balance in the group subjected to biofeedback training improved to a markedly greater extent (P biofeedback training exerted stronger effect on the dynamic balance of patients who experienced the stroke of the left hemisphere with right-sided hemiparesis than in those with right hemisphere stroke and left-sided hemiparesis. The utilization of feedback mechanisms during training on a posturographic platform can be reflected by enhanced stimulation and further improvement of the control of performed motor tasks.

  18. Exergaming for balance training of elderly: state of the art and future developments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Diest, Mike; Lamoth, Claudine J C; Stegenga, Jan; Verkerke, Gijsbertus J; Postema, Klaas

    2013-09-25

    Fall injuries are responsible for physical dysfunction, significant disability, and loss of independence among elderly. Poor postural control is one of the major risk factors for falling but can be trained in fall prevention programs. These however suffer from low therapy adherence, particularly if prevention is the goal. To provide a fun and motivating training environment for elderly, exercise games, or exergames, have been studied as balance training tools in the past years. The present paper reviews the effects of exergame training programs on postural control of elderly reported so far. Additionally we aim to provide an in-depth discussion of technologies and outcome measures utilized in exergame studies. Thirteen papers were included in the analysis. Most of the reviewed studies reported positive results with respect to improvements in balance ability after a training period, yet few reached significant levels. Outcome measures for quantification of postural control are under continuous dispute and no gold standard is present. Clinical measures used in the studies reviewed are well validated yet only give a global indication of balance ability. Instrumented measures were unable to detect small changes in balance ability as they are mainly based on calculating summary statistics, thereby ignoring the time-varying structure of the signals. Both methods only allow for measuring balance after the exergame intervention program. Current developments in sensor technology allow for accurate registration of movements and rapid analysis of signals. We propose to quantify the time-varying structure of postural control during gameplay using low-cost sensor systems. Continuous monitoring of balance ability leaves the user unaware of the measurements and allows for generating user-specific exergame training programs and feedback, both during one game and in timeframes of weeks or months. This approach is unique and unlocks the as of yet untapped potential of exergames as

  19. The Effects of Slackline Balance Training on Postural Control in Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Monika; Kalicinski, Michael

    2016-07-01

    The present study investigated whether slackline training enhances postural control in older adults. Twenty-four participants were randomized into an intervention and a control group. The intervention group received 6 weeks of slackline training, two times per week. Pre-post measurement included the time of different standing positions on a balance platform with and without an external disturbance and the acceleration of the balance platform. Results showed significantly improved standing times during one-leg stance without external disturbance and a significantly reduced acceleration of the balance platform for the intervention group after the training period during tandem stance with and without an external disturbance. We conclude that slackline training in older adults has a positive impact on postural control and thus on the reduction of fall risk.

  20. The Influence of Long Bench Training with Dynamic Postural Balance Instrument on Walking Function of Patients with Parkinson's Disease%动态姿态平衡仪长台训练对帕金森病患者步行功能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑文华; 冯重睿; 张新斐

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the influence of long bench training with dynamic postural balance instrument on the walking function of pa-tients with Parkinson's disease. Methods:60 cases of patients with Parkinson's disease were randomly divided into treatment group (30 cases) and control group (30 cases). The control group treated by conventional gait training;while the treatment group trained by long bench at the instrument according to the assessment result of dynamic postural balance instrument. Both two groups trained 30min per day, 5 day per week, and totally 8 weeks. Used WLK and SNT, TUGT in the long bench of dynamic postural balance instrument to evaluate the walking balance ability of patients be-fore treatment and after 8 weeks of the treatment. Results:The WLK, SNT, TUGT after treatment of both groups were all improved, but the degree of treatment group was significantly better than that of control group (P<0.05). Conclusion:The effect of long bench training with dynamic postural bal-ance instrument in improving the gait and walking balance ability of patients with Parkinson's disease is better than conventional training.%目的:探讨动态姿态平衡仪长台训练对帕金森病患者步行功能的影响。方法:选取60例符合标准的帕金森病患者,随机分为治疗组和对照组各30例。对照组进行传统的步态训练;治疗组根据动态姿态平衡仪评估结果采用仪器长台对患者进行步态训练。两组训练时间均为30min/d,5d/周,共8周。在治疗前和治疗8周后分别采用动态姿态平衡仪长台中的步行测试(WLK)和步行转向测试(SNT)、计时“起立-行走”测试(TUGT)评估患者的步行平衡能力。结果:两组治疗后步行测试(WLK)、步行转向测试(SNT)、TUGT结果均较前改善,但治疗组的改善程度明显大于对照组(P<0.05)。结论:运用动态姿态平衡系统长台步态训练对改善帕金森病患者步态及步

  1. Effects of virtual reality programs on balance in functional ankle instability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ki-Jong; Heo, Myoung

    2015-10-01

    [Purpose] The aim of present study was to identify the impact that recent virtual reality training programs used in a variety of fields have had on the ankle's static and dynamic senses of balance among subjects with functional ankle instability. [Subjects and Methods] This study randomly divided research subjects into two groups, a strengthening exercise group (Group I) and a balance exercise group (Group II), with each group consisting of 10 people. A virtual reality program was performed three times a week for four weeks. Exercises from the Nintendo Wii Fit Plus program were applied to each group for twenty minutes along with ten minutes of warming up and wrap-up exercises. [Results] Group II showed a significant decrease of post-intervention static and dynamic balance overall in the anterior-posterior, and mediolateral directions, compared with the pre-intervention test results. In comparison of post-intervention static and dynamic balance between Group I and Group II, a significant decrease was observed overall. [Conclusion] Virtual reality programs improved the static balance and dynamic balance of subjects with functional ankle instability. Virtual reality programs can be used more safely and efficiently if they are implemented under appropriate monitoring by a physiotherapist.

  2. Effect of 6 Months of Balance Training During Pulmonary Rehabilitation in Patients With COPD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mkacher, Wajdi; Mekki, Marwa; Tabka, Zouhair; Trabelsi, Yassine

    2015-01-01

    Balance impairment is recognized as an important issue for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The aim of this study was to examine the effect of balance training as part of pulmonary rehabilitation (PR) on balance in COPD patients. Patients were randomly assigned to an intervention or usual care group. The intervention group underwent balance training 3 times a week for 6 months in addition to the standard PR. The control group received 6 months of the standard PR program only. Balance was assessed by the Timed Up and Go (TUG), Tinetti, Berg Balance Scale (BBS), and the Unipodal Stance (UST) tests. Balance confidence was rated using the ABC scale. Exercise tolerance was determined using a 6-Minute Walk Test. Following the completion of PR, the intervention group showed improvement in all balance measures. Only TUG, ABC, and UST scores were improved in the usual care group (P Tinetti, BBS, and ABC scores (P score (P scores on balance tests in COPD patients.

  3. Jump Rope Training: Balance and Motor Coordination in Preadolescent Soccer Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athos Trecroci, Luca Cavaggioni, Riccardo Caccia, Giampietro Alberti

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available General physical practice and multidimensional exercises are essential elements that allow young athletes to enhance their coordinative traits, balance, and strength and power levels, which are linked to the learning soccer-specific skills. Jumping rope is a widely-used and non-specific practical method for the development of athletic conditioning, balance and coordination in several disciplines. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of a short-term training protocol including jumping rope (JR exercises on motor abilities and body balance in young soccer players. Twenty-four preadolescent soccer players were recruited and placed in two different groups. In the Experimental group (EG, children performed JR training at the beginning of the training session. The control group (CG, executed soccer specific drills. Harre circuit test (HCT and Lower Quarter Y balance test (YBT-LQ were selected to evaluate participant’s motor ability (e.g. ability to perform rapidly a course with different physical tasks such as somersault and passages above/below obstacles and to assess unilateral dynamic lower limb balance after 8 weeks of training. Statistical analysis consisted of paired t-test and mixed analysis of variance scores to determine any significant interactions. Children who performed jumping rope exercises showed a significant decrease of 9% (p 0.05, ES = 0.05-0.2 from pre- to post-training. A training-by-group interaction was found for the composite score in both legs (p 0.14. Our findings demonstrated that JR practice within regular soccer training enhanced general motor coordination and balance in preadolescent soccer players. Therefore, the inclusion of JR practice within regular soccer training session should encouraged to improve children’s motor skills.

  4. Group Balance Training Specifically Designed for Individuals With Alzheimer Disease: Impact on Berg Balance Scale, Timed Up and Go, Gait Speed, and Mini-Mental Status Examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ries, Julie D; Hutson, Janet; Maralit, Leslie A; Brown, Megan B

    2015-01-01

    Individuals with Alzheimer disease (IwAD) experience more frequent and more injurious falls than their cognitively intact peers. Evidence of balance and gait dysfunction is observed earlier in the course of Alzheimer disease (AD) than once believed. Balance training has been demonstrated to be effective in improving balance and decreasing falls in cognitively intact older adults but is not well studied in IwAD. This study was designed to analyze the effects of a group balance training program on balance and falls in IwAD. The program was developed specifically for IwAD, with explicit guidelines for communication/interaction and deliberate structure of training sessions catered to the motor learning needs of IwAD. This prospective, quasi-experimental, pretest-posttest design study describes the effects of a balance training program for a cohort of IwAD. Thirty IwAD were recruited from 3 adult day health centers; 22 completed at least 1 posttest session. Participants were tested with Berg Balance Scale (BBS), Timed Up and Go (TUG), Self-Selected Gait Speed (SSGS), Fast Gait Speed (FGS), and Mini-Mental Status Examination (MMSE) immediately before and after the 3-month intervention and again 3 months later. Group training was held at the adult day health centers for 45 minutes, twice per week. Sessions were characterized by massed, constant, and blocked practice of functional, relevant activities with considerable repetition. Ratio of participant to staff member never exceeded 3:1. Physical therapist staff members assured that participants were up on their feet the majority of each session and were individually challenged as much as possible. Repeated-measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) for BBS was significant (F = 15.04; df = 1.67/28.40; P = .000) with post hoc tests, revealing improvement between pretest and immediate posttest (P = .000) and decline in performance between immediate and 3-month posttest (P = .012). Repeated-measures ANOVA posttest for MMSE was

  5. Vestibular loss and balance training cause similar changes in human cerebral white matter fractional anisotropy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hummel, Nadine; Hüfner, Katharina; Stephan, Thomas; Linn, Jennifer; Kremmyda, Olympia; Brandt, Thomas; Flanagin, Virginia L

    2014-01-01

    Patients with bilateral vestibular loss suffer from severe balance deficits during normal everyday movements. Ballet dancers, figure skaters, or slackliners, in contrast, are extraordinarily well trained in maintaining balance for the extreme balance situations that they are exposed to. Both training and disease can lead to changes in the diffusion properties of white matter that are related to skill level or disease progression respectively. In this study, we used diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to compare white matter diffusivity between these two study groups and their age- and sex-matched controls. We found that vestibular patients and balance-trained subjects show a reduction of fractional anisotropy in similar white matter tracts, due to a relative increase in radial diffusivity (perpendicular to the main diffusion direction). Reduced fractional anisotropy was not only found in sensory and motor areas, but in a widespread network including long-range connections, limbic and association pathways. The reduced fractional anisotropy did not correlate with any cognitive, disease-related or skill-related factors. The similarity in FA between the two study groups, together with the absence of a relationship between skill or disease factors and white matter changes, suggests a common mechanism for these white matter differences. We propose that both study groups must exert increased effort to meet their respective usual balance requirements. Since balance training has been shown to effectively reduce the symptoms of vestibular failure, the changes in white matter shown here may represent a neuronal mechanism for rehabilitation.

  6. Neural mechanisms underlying balance improvement with short term Tai Chi training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatts, Strawberry K; Woollacott, Marjorie Hines

    2006-02-01

    Though previous research has shown that Tai Chi reduces falls risk in older adults, no studies have examined underlying neural mechanisms responsible for balance improvement. We aimed to determine the efficacy of Tai Chi training in improving neuromuscular response characteristics underlying balance control in balance-impaired older adults. Twenty-two balance-impaired older adults were randomly divided into Tai Chi (TC) or control groups. Nineteen subjects (age 68-92, BERG 44 or less) completed the study. TC training included repetitive exercises using TC motor and biomechanical strategies, techniques, and postural elements. Control training included axial mobility exercises, balance/awareness education and stress reduction. Groups trained 1.5 hours/day, 5 days/week for 3 weeks. After post-testing the control group received TC training. Subjects walked across a force plate triggered to move forward 15 cm at 40 cm/sec at heel strike. Tibialis anterior (TA) and medial gastrocnemius (GA) responses during balance recovery were measured with electromyograms (EMGs). Four clinical measures of balance were also recorded. TC subjects, but not controls, significantly reduced both TA response time from 148.92 +/- 45.11 ms to 98.67 +/- 17.22 ms (p < or = 0.004) and occurrence of co-contraction of antagonist muscles (p < or = 0.003) of the perturbed leg. Clinical balance measures also significantly improved after TC. TC enhanced neuromuscular responses controlling the ankle joint of the perturbed leg. Fast, accurate neuromuscular activation is crucial for efficacious response to slips or trips.

  7. State dependent matrices and balanced energy functions for nonlinear systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scherpen, Jacquelien M.A.; Gray, W. Steven

    2000-01-01

    The nonlinear extension of the balancing procedure requires the case of state dependent quadratic forms for the energy functions, i.e., the nonlinear extensions of the linear Gramians are state dependent matrices. These extensions have some interesting ambiguities that do not occur in the linear cas

  8. Maintaining the balance. Novel molecular mechanisms regulating Foxp3 function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fleskens, V.

    2014-01-01

    A balanced immune response requires tight control of immune activation at various levels, which crucially involves the establishment of specific gene expression programs by key transcriptional regulators including the transcription factor Foxp3. As the driving factor of both development and function

  9. Balancing Consistency and Flexibility in Student Training Entitlements: Research Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Kaye; McKenna, Suzy; Griffin, Tabatha

    2016-01-01

    This research overview summarizes the work undertaken by Kaye Bowman and Suzy McKenna in exploring jurisdictional approaches to the implementation of student entitlements to vocational skills training, a key reform initiative in the National Partnership Agreement on Skills Reform (NPASR) of 2012-16. The overview is a condensed summary of three…

  10. Effect of the a circuit training program using obstacles on the walking and balance abilities of stroke patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Ki-Tae; Kim, Hyun-Joo

    2016-04-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of a circuit training program on the walking and balance abilities of stroke patients using an up-to-date walking analysis device. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects of this study were 12 adults who were diagnosed with stroke. Evaluation was conducted using the Smart Step test for walking ability; (BBS) for balance ability; and the Timed Up and Go test (TUG) for functional mobility and movement ability. The 12 stroke patients were randomly recruited and divided into two groups; an experimental group which performed circuit training with obstacles, and a control group which performed flat gait training). [Results] Between-group comparison of the change in the 10-m walking speed found a statistically significant difference between the two groups. Between-group comparison of the changes in BBS and TUG found statistically significant differences between the two groups. [Conclusion] The circuit training program using obstacles had a positive effect on the gait and balance abilities of the stroke patients.

  11. Audio-Biofeedback training for posture and balance in Patients with Parkinson's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zijlstra Wiebren

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patients with Parkinson's disease (PD suffer from dysrhythmic and disturbed gait, impaired balance, and decreased postural responses. These alterations lead to falls, especially as the disease progresses. Based on the observation that postural control improved in patients with vestibular dysfunction after audio-biofeedback training, we tested the feasibility and effects of this training modality in patients with PD. Methods Seven patients with PD were included in a pilot study comprised of a six weeks intervention program. The training was individualized to each patient's needs and was delivered using an audio-biofeedback (ABF system with headphones. The training was focused on improving posture, sit-to-stand abilities, and dynamic balance in various positions. Non-parametric statistics were used to evaluate training effects. Results The ABF system was well accepted by all participants with no adverse events reported. Patients declared high satisfaction with the training. A significant improvement of balance, as assessed by the Berg Balance Scale, was observed (improvement of 3% p = 0.032, and a trend in the Timed up and go test (improvement of 11%; p = 0.07 was also seen. In addition, the training appeared to have a positive influence on psychosocial aspects of the disease as assessed by the Parkinson's disease quality of life questionnaire (PDQ-39 and the level of depression as assessed by the Geriatric Depression Scale. Conclusions This is, to our knowledge, the first report demonstrating that audio-biofeedback training for patients with PD is feasible and is associated with improvements of balance and several psychosocial aspects.

  12. BALANCE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmichael, H.

    1953-01-01

    A torsional-type analytical balance designed to arrive at its equilibrium point more quickly than previous balances is described. In order to prevent external heat sources creating air currents inside the balance casing that would reiard the attainment of equilibrium conditions, a relatively thick casing shaped as an inverted U is placed over the load support arms and the balance beam. This casing is of a metal of good thernnal conductivity characteristics, such as copper or aluminum, in order that heat applied to one portion of the balance is quickly conducted to all other sensitive areas, thus effectively preventing the fornnation of air currents caused by unequal heating of the balance.

  13. Benefits of multi-session balance and gait training with multi-modal biofeedback in healthy older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Shannon B; Horslen, Brian C; Davis, Justin R; Allum, John H J; Carpenter, Mark G

    2016-06-01

    Real-time balance-relevant biofeedback from a wearable sensor can improve balance in many patient populations, however, it is unknown if balance training with biofeedback has lasting benefits for healthy older adults once training is completed and biofeedback removed. This study was designed to determine if multi-session balance training with and without biofeedback leads to changes in balance performance in healthy older adults; and if changes persist after training. 36 participants (age 60-88) were randomly divided into two groups. Both groups trained on seven stance and gait tasks for 2 consecutive weeks (3×/week) while trunk angular sway and task duration were monitored. One group received real-time multi-modal biofeedback of trunk sway and a control group trained without biofeedback. Training effects were assessed at the last training session, with biofeedback available to the feedback group. Post-training effects (without biofeedback) were assessed immediately after, 1-week, and 1-month post-training. Both groups demonstrated training effects; participants swayed less when standing on foam with eyes closed (EC), maintained tandem-stance EC longer, and completed 8 tandem-steps EC faster and with less sway at the last training session. Changes in sway and duration, indicative of faster walking, were also observed after training for other gait tasks. While changes in walking speed persisted post-training, few other post-training effects were observed. These data suggest there is little added benefit to balance training with biofeedback, beyond training without, in healthy older adults. However, transient use of wearable balance biofeedback systems as balance aides remains beneficial for challenging balance situations and some clinical populations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Relativistic Kinetic-Balance Condition for Explicitly Correlated Basis Functions

    CERN Document Server

    Simmen, Benjamin; Reiher, Markus

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the derivation of a kinetic-balance condition for explicitly correlated basis functions employed in semi-classical relativistic calculations. Such a condition is important to ensure variational stability in algorithms based on the first-quantized Dirac theory of 1/2-fermions. We demonstrate that the kinetic-balance condition can be obtained from the row reduction process commonly applied to solve systems of linear equations. The resulting form of kinetic balance establishes a relation for the $4^N$ components of the spinor of an $N$-fermion system to the non-relativistic limit, which is in accordance with recent developments in the field of exact decoupling in relativistic orbital-based many-electron theory.

  15. Dual-task training for balance and mobility in a person with severe traumatic brain injury: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritz, Nora E; Basso, D Michele

    2013-03-01

    Attentional impairments following severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) are common and can lead to decreased functional mobility and balance, as well as deficits in previously automatic movements such as walking and stair climbing. The purpose of this case study was to determine the feasibility and potential value of incorporating a cognitive-motor dual-task training program into physical therapy for a patient with a severe TBI. The patient was a 26-year-old woman who sustained a severe TBI during a motor vehicle accident 46 days prior to physical therapy evaluation. On the 8-level Rancho Los Amigos Cognitive Function Scale, her functioning was classified as level IV. She had impairments in attention, functional mobility, and balance, all of which limited her ability to participate in activities of daily living. : Physical therapy was provided over 26 days within the inpatient rehabilitation setting. Interventions included mobility tasks such as walking, balancing, and stair climbing. Mobility training was paired with specific secondary cognitive and motor tasks. Dual-task training may have contributed to improvements on outcome measures designed to test divided attention including the Walking While Talking Test and Trail Making Test and a greater rate of improvement in walking speed and time to descend stairs when compared to the baseline phase. Addition of cognitive-motor dual-task training to standard physical therapy in the inpatient rehabilitation setting appears to be feasible and may have value for improving function in individuals with severe TBI. (see Video, Supplemental Digital Content 1, http://links.lww.com/JNPT/A41) for more insights from the authors.

  16. Jump Rope Training: Balance and Motor Coordination in Preadolescent Soccer Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trecroci, Athos; Cavaggioni, Luca; Caccia, Riccardo; Alberti, Giampietro

    2015-12-01

    General physical practice and multidimensional exercises are essential elements that allow young athletes to enhance their coordinative traits, balance, and strength and power levels, which are linked to the learning soccer-specific skills. Jumping rope is a widely-used and non-specific practical method for the development of athletic conditioning, balance and coordination in several disciplines. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of a short-term training protocol including jumping rope (JR) exercises on motor abilities and body balance in young soccer players. Twenty-four preadolescent soccer players were recruited and placed in two different groups. In the Experimental group (EG), children performed JR training at the beginning of the training session. The control group (CG), executed soccer specific drills. Harre circuit test (HCT) and Lower Quarter Y balance test (YBT-LQ) were selected to evaluate participant's motor ability (e.g. ability to perform rapidly a course with different physical tasks such as somersault and passages above/below obstacles ) and to assess unilateral dynamic lower limb balance after 8 weeks of training. Statistical analysis consisted of paired t-test and mixed analysis of variance scores to determine any significant interactions. Children who performed jumping rope exercises showed a significant decrease of 9% (p 0.05, ES = 0.05-0.2) from pre- to post-training. A training-by-group interaction was found for the composite score in both legs (p 0.14). Our findings demonstrated that JR practice within regular soccer training enhanced general motor coordination and balance in preadolescent soccer players. Therefore, the inclusion of JR practice within regular soccer training session should encouraged to improve children's motor skills. Key pointsPerforming jumping rope exercises within a regular soccer program can be an additional method to improve balance and motor coordination.The performance improvement in the

  17. Jump Rope Training: Balance and Motor Coordination in Preadolescent Soccer Players

    OpenAIRE

    Trecroci, Athos; Cavaggioni, Luca; Caccia, Riccardo; Alberti, Giampietro

    2015-01-01

    General physical practice and multidimensional exercises are essential elements that allow young athletes to enhance their coordinative traits, balance, and strength and power levels, which are linked to the learning soccer-specific skills. Jumping rope is a widely-used and non-specific practical method for the development of athletic conditioning, balance and coordination in several disciplines. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of a short-term training protocol incl...

  18. The Effects of Highly Challenging Balance Training in Elderly With Parkinson's Disease: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conradsson, David; Löfgren, Niklas; Nero, Håkan; Hagströmer, Maria; Ståhle, Agneta; Lökk, Johan; Franzén, Erika

    2015-10-01

    Highly challenging exercises have been suggested to induce neuroplasticity in individuals with Parkinson's disease (PD); however, its effect on clinical outcomes remains largely unknown. To evaluate the short-term effects of the HiBalance program, a highly challenging balance-training regimen that incorporates both dual-tasking and PD-specific balance components, compared with usual care in elderly with mild to moderate PD. Participants with PD (n = 100) were randomized, either to the 10-week HiBalance program (n = 51) or to the control group (n = 49). Participants were evaluated before and after the intervention. The main outcomes were balance performance (Mini-BESTest), gait velocity (during normal and dual-task gait), and concerns about falling (Falls Efficacy Scale-International). Performance of a cognitive task while walking, physical activity level (average steps per day), and activities of daily living were secondary outcomes. A total of 91 participants completed the study. After the intervention, the between group comparison showed significantly improved balance and gait performance in the training group. Moreover, although no significant between group difference was observed regarding gait performance during dual-tasking; the participants in the training group improved their performance of the cognitive task while walking, as compared with the control group. Regarding physical activity levels and activities of daily living, in comparison to the control group, favorable results were found for the training group. No group differences were found for concerns about falling. The HiBalance program significantly benefited balance and gait abilities when compared with usual care and showed promising transfer effects to everyday living. Long-term follow-up assessments will further explore these effects. © The Author(s) 2015.

  19. BALANCED VS IMBALANCED TRAINING DATA: CLASSIFYING RAPIDEYE DATA WITH SUPPORT VECTOR MACHINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ustuner

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The accuracy of supervised image classification is highly dependent upon several factors such as the design of training set (sample selection, composition, purity and size, resolution of input imagery and landscape heterogeneity. The design of training set is still a challenging issue since the sensitivity of classifier algorithm at learning stage is different for the same dataset. In this paper, the classification of RapidEye imagery with balanced and imbalanced training data for mapping the crop types was addressed. Classification with imbalanced training data may result in low accuracy in some scenarios. Support Vector Machines (SVM, Maximum Likelihood (ML and Artificial Neural Network (ANN classifications were implemented here to classify the data. For evaluating the influence of the balanced and imbalanced training data on image classification algorithms, three different training datasets were created. Two different balanced datasets which have 70 and 100 pixels for each class of interest and one imbalanced dataset in which each class has different number of pixels were used in classification stage. Results demonstrate that ML and NN classifications are affected by imbalanced training data in resulting a reduction in accuracy (from 90.94% to 85.94% for ML and from 91.56% to 88.44% for NN while SVM is not affected significantly (from 94.38% to 94.69% and slightly improved. Our results highlighted that SVM is proven to be a very robust, consistent and effective classifier as it can perform very well under balanced and imbalanced training data situations. Furthermore, the training stage should be precisely and carefully designed for the need of adopted classifier.

  20. Balanced VS Imbalanced Training Data: Classifying Rapideye Data with Support Vector Machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ustuner, M.; Sanli, F. B.; Abdikan, S.

    2016-06-01

    The accuracy of supervised image classification is highly dependent upon several factors such as the design of training set (sample selection, composition, purity and size), resolution of input imagery and landscape heterogeneity. The design of training set is still a challenging issue since the sensitivity of classifier algorithm at learning stage is different for the same dataset. In this paper, the classification of RapidEye imagery with balanced and imbalanced training data for mapping the crop types was addressed. Classification with imbalanced training data may result in low accuracy in some scenarios. Support Vector Machines (SVM), Maximum Likelihood (ML) and Artificial Neural Network (ANN) classifications were implemented here to classify the data. For evaluating the influence of the balanced and imbalanced training data on image classification algorithms, three different training datasets were created. Two different balanced datasets which have 70 and 100 pixels for each class of interest and one imbalanced dataset in which each class has different number of pixels were used in classification stage. Results demonstrate that ML and NN classifications are affected by imbalanced training data in resulting a reduction in accuracy (from 90.94% to 85.94% for ML and from 91.56% to 88.44% for NN) while SVM is not affected significantly (from 94.38% to 94.69%) and slightly improved. Our results highlighted that SVM is proven to be a very robust, consistent and effective classifier as it can perform very well under balanced and imbalanced training data situations. Furthermore, the training stage should be precisely and carefully designed for the need of adopted classifier.

  1. Exergames for unsupervised balance training at home: A pilot study in healthy older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Diest, M; Stegenga, J; Wörtche, H J; Verkerke, G J; Postema, K; Lamoth, C J C

    2016-02-01

    Exercise videogames (exergames) are gaining popularity as tools for improving balance ability in older adults, yet few exergames are suitable for home-based use. The purpose of the current pilot study was to examine the effects of a 6-week unsupervised home-based exergaming training program on balance performance. Ten community dwelling healthy older adults (age: 75.9 ± 7.2 years) played a newly developed ice skating exergame for six weeks at home. In the game, the speed and direction of a virtual ice skater on a frozen canal were controlled using lateral weight shifts, which were captured using Kinect. Sway characteristics during quiet standing in eyes open (EO), eyes closed (EC) and dual task (DT) conditions were assessed in time and frequency domain before, and after two, four and six weeks of training. Balance was also evaluated using the narrow ridge balance test (NRBT). Multilevel modeling was applied to examine changes in balance ability. Participants played 631 (± 124)min over the intervention period and no subjects dropped out. Balance in terms of sway characteristics improved on average by 17.4% (EO) and 23.3% (EC) after six weeks of training (ptraining programs.

  2. Effects of slackline training on balance, jump performance & muscle activity in young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donath, L; Roth, R; Rueegge, A; Groppa, M; Zahner, L; Faude, O

    2013-12-01

    The study investigated the effects of slackline training (rope balancing) on balance, jump performance and muscle activity in children. Two primary-school classes (intervention, n=21, INT: age: 10.1 (SD 0.4) y, weight: 33.1 (4.5) kg; control, n=13, CON: age: 10.0 (SD 0.4) y, weight: 34.7 (7.4) kg) participated. Training was performed within 6 weeks, 5 times per week for 10 min each day. Balance (static and dynamic stance), countermovement jumps, reverse balancing on beams (3, 4.5 and 6 cm width), slackline standing (single- and double-limb) and electromyographic activity (soleus, gastrocnemius, tibialis anterior) were examined. INT significantly improved single- and double-limb slackline standing (double limb: 5.1 (3.4) s-17.2 (14.4) s; right leg: 8.2 (5.8) s-38.3 (36.0) s; left leg: 10.6 (5.8) s-49.0 (56.3) s; pJump performance remained unchanged (p=0.28, ηp²=0.04). In conclusion, daily slackline training results in large slackline-specific balance improvements. Transfer effects to static and dynamic stance, reverse balancing or jumping performance seemed to be restricted. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  3. Efeitos dos exercícios resistidos sobre o equilíbrio e a funcionalidade de idosos saudáveis: artigo de atualização Effects of resistance training on balance and functional ability in healthy elderly: an update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Lorenzi Monteiro de Araújo

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available A diminuição da força muscular com o envelhecimento e os baixos níveis de atividade física contribuem para défices funcionais e de equilíbrio. Esta revisão sistemática teve como objetivo analisar os estudos que correlacionaram o treino resistido (TR isolado, o equilíbrio e a função de idosos saudáveis. A busca nas bases do Google Acadêmico e na BVS levou à seleção de 35 estudos controlados. O TR isolado mostrou ser relevante para a função dos idosos (90% dos estudos devido sobretudo ao ganho de força e mobilidade. Exercícios de baixa e moderada intensidade tiveram melhores resultados sobre a função de idosas, frágeis e sedentários. Em relação ao equilíbrio, apesar da inconsistência dos dados, o TR parece exercer efeitos positivos, sobretudo devido a fatores neuromusculares. Estudos com parâmetros de treino e amostra uniformes são necessários para melhor comparação dos resultados, sobretudo em idosos com padrão funcional elevado.Muscle strength decrease in aging and low physical activity levels may be an indicator of balance deficits and functional limitations. The purpose of this systematic review was to assess the effects of resistance training (RT alone on balance performance and functional capacity in healthy elderly. The search in Google Scholar and BVS led to selecting 35 controlled trials. The RT alone showed to have positive effects (90% of the studies on functional tasks in elderly, associated with increases in strength and mobility. Moderate and low-intensity exercise could produce functional capacity benefits in older women, frail and sedentary elderly. Despite the inconsistency of data, resistance training appears to exert positive effects on balance, especially through neuromuscular factors. Standardization of methodology and homogeneity of sampling may ensure greater comparability of results, especially among elderly with high physical functional level.

  4. An 8-week reactive balance training program in older healthy adults:A preliminary investigation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Max R. Paquette; Yuhua Li; Joseph Hoekstra; Joshua Bravo

    2015-01-01

    Background:This preliminary study examined the effects of an 8-week supervised reactive balance training program on reaction time (RT) and foot speed, static balance and balance confidence in healthy older adults compared to an exercise control group. Methods:Twenty-five older adults were randomly assigned to a reactive balance training group (QuickBoard;n=12;71.0 ± 8.6 years) or a stationary cycling group (control; n = 13; 70.2 ± 6.0 years). Both groups were tested for foot RT foot speed, static balance, and balance confidence at baseline, 4-week, 8-week, and 4-week follow-up. Results: Results indicated significant improvements in QuickBoard foot RT and speed in both groups with greater improvements in the QuickBoard group. However, no group difference was found in static balance performance. Conclusion: Although the improvements in RT and foot speed may be beneficial for fall and trip prevention, the implications of the current findings for trip avoidance and performance of daily tasks are unclear.

  5. Within Session Sequence of Balance and Plyometric Exercises Does Not Affect Training Adaptations with Youth Soccer Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaouachi, Mehdi; Granacher, Urs; Makhlouf, Issam; Hammami, Raouf; Behm, David G; Chaouachi, Anis

    2017-01-01

    The integration of balance and plyometric training has been shown to provide significant improvements in sprint, jump, agility, and other performance measures in young athletes. It is not known if a specific within session balance and plyometric exercise sequence provides more effective training adaptations. The objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of using a sequence of alternating pairs of exercises versus a block (series) of all balance exercises followed by a block of plyometric exercises on components of physical fitness such as muscle strength, power, speed, agility, and balance. Twenty-six male adolescent soccer players (13.9 ± 0.3 years) participated in an 8-week training program that either alternated individual balance (e.g., exercises on unstable surfaces) and plyometric (e.g., jumps, hops, rebounds) exercises or performed a block of balance exercises prior to a block of plyometric exercises within each training session. Pre- and post-training measures included proxies of strength, power, agility, sprint, and balance such as countermovement jumps, isometric back and knee extension strength, standing long jump, 10 and 30-m sprints, agility, standing stork, and Y-balance tests. Both groups exhibited significant, generally large magnitude (effect sizes) training improvements for all measures with mean performance increases of approximately >30%. There were no significant differences between the training groups over time. The results demonstrate the effectiveness of combining balance and plyometric exercises within a training session on components of physical fitness with young adolescents. The improved performance outcomes were not significantly influenced by the within session exercise sequence. Key points The combination of balance and plyometric exercises can induce significant and substantial training improvements in muscle strength, power, speed, agility, and balance with adolescent youth athletes The within training session

  6. Effects of winter military training on energy balance, whole-body protein balance, muscle damage, soreness, and physical performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margolis, Lee M; Murphy, Nancy E; Martini, Svein; Spitz, Marissa G; Thrane, Ingjerd; McGraw, Susan M; Blatny, Janet-Martha; Castellani, John W; Rood, Jennifer C; Young, Andrew J; Montain, Scott J; Gundersen, Yngvar; Pasiakos, Stefan M

    2014-12-01

    Physiological consequences of winter military operations are not well described. This study examined Norwegian soldiers (n = 21 males) participating in a physically demanding winter training program to evaluate whether short-term military training alters energy and whole-body protein balance, muscle damage, soreness, and performance. Energy expenditure (D2(18)O) and intake were measured daily, and postabsorptive whole-body protein turnover ([(15)N]-glycine), muscle damage, soreness, and performance (vertical jump) were assessed at baseline, following a 4-day, military task training phase (MTT) and after a 3-day, 54-km ski march (SKI). Energy intake (kcal·day(-1)) increased (P < 0.01) from (mean ± SD (95% confidence interval)) 3098 ± 236 (2985, 3212) during MTT to 3461 ± 586 (3178, 3743) during SKI, while protein (g·kg(-1)·day(-1)) intake remained constant (MTT, 1.59 ± 0.33 (1.51, 1.66); and SKI, 1.71 ± 0.55 (1.58, 1.85)). Energy expenditure increased (P < 0.05) during SKI (6851 ± 562 (6580, 7122)) compared with MTT (5480 ± 389 (5293, 5668)) and exceeded energy intake. Protein flux, synthesis, and breakdown were all increased (P < 0.05) 24%, 18%, and 27%, respectively, during SKI compared with baseline and MTT. Whole-body protein balance was lower (P < 0.05) during SKI (-1.41 ± 1.11 (-1.98, -0.84) g·kg(-1)·10 h) than MTT and baseline. Muscle damage and soreness increased and performance decreased progressively (P < 0.05). The physiological consequences observed during short-term winter military training provide the basis for future studies to evaluate nutritional strategies that attenuate protein loss and sustain performance during severe energy deficits.

  7. Improvement of anticipatory postural adjustments for balance control: effect of a single training session

    OpenAIRE

    Kanekar, Neeta; Aruin, Alexander S.

    2014-01-01

    Humans use anticipatory and compensatory postural strategies to maintain and restore balance when perturbed. Inefficient generation and utilization of anticipatory postural adjustments (APAs) is one of the reasons for postural instability. The aim of the study was to investigate the role of training in improvement of APAs and its effect on subsequent control of posture. Thirteen healthy young adults were exposed to predictable external perturbations before and after a single training session ...

  8. Effect of partial weight-supported treadmill gait training on balance in patients with Parkinson disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganesan, Mohan; Sathyaprabha, Talakad N; Gupta, Anupam; Pal, Pramod Kumar

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the role of conventional gait training and partial weight-supported treadmill gait training (PWSTT) in improving the balance of patients with Parkinson disease (PD). Prospective randomized controlled design. National-level university tertiary hospital for mental health and neurosciences. Sixty patients with PD fulfilling the United Kingdom Brain Bank PD diagnostic criteria were recruited from the neurology outpatient department and movement disorder clinic. The patients were randomly assigned into 3 equal groups: (1) a control group that only received a stable dosage of dopaminomimetic drugs; (2) a conventional gait training (CGT) group that received a stable dosage of dopaminomimetic drugs and conventional gait training; and (3) a PWSTT group that received a stable dosage of dopaminomimetic drugs and PWSTT with unloading of 20% of body weight. The sessions for the CGT and PWSTT groups were provided for 30 minutes per day, 4 days per week, for 4 weeks (16 sessions). The Unified Parkinson Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) motor score, dynamic posturography, Berg Balance Scale, and Tinetti performance-oriented mobility assessment (POMA) were used as main outcome measures. A significant interaction effect was observed in the UPDRS motor score, mediolateral index, Berg Balance Scale, limits of stability (LOS) total score, POMA gait score, and balance score. Post-hoc analysis showed that in comparison with the control group, the PWSTT group had a significantly better UPDRS motor score, balance indices, LOS in 8 directions, POMA gait, and balance score. The CGT group had a significantly better POMA gait score compared with control subjects. Compared with the CGT group, the PWSTT group had a significantly better UPDRS motor score, mediolateral index, POMA gait score, and LOS total score. PWSTT may be a better interventional choice than CGT for gait and balance rehabilitation in patients with PD. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Physical Medicine and

  9. EFFECT OF DYNAMIC BALANCE TRAINING ON AGILITY IN MALE BASKETBALL PLAYERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avi Saraswat

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Athletes focus their training on two major goals, i.e., avoidance of the injury and increasing the performance. Balance training has been widely used in competitive sports to improve the balance and thus reduce the risk of injury, for example, ligamentous sprains, which are very common in Basketball. On the other hand, various drills are being used to improve the performance parameters such as agility. Our effort is to find out an exercise program which focuses on balance training and see whether it has any effect on agility. Methods: The study design was a Pretest-Posttest Control-Group Design. 30 healthy school level Male Basketball Players were selected from V-One Basketball Academy, Don Bosco Basketball Academy, Modern School Basketball Academy, New Delhi. They were randomly divided into two groups. Group A performed dynamic balance training 3 sessions per week for 4 weeks. Group B performed conventional exercises throughout the duration of the study. Outcome measure, i.e., T- test was measured pre and post 4 week period. Results: Data analysis was done by Independent t test and Paired t test for between group analysis and within group analysis respectively. There was a significant reduction in T-test times in the experimental group as compared to the control group (‘p’ value <0.05 while there was no significant improvement in the control group. Conclusion: Four weeks of dynamic balance training significantly improved agility as detected by T-test. Thus it can be concluded that the used protocol can be incorporated in the training regimes to reduce the risk of injury as well as improve the performance.

  10. Increases in Muscle Strength and Balance Using a Resistance Training Program Administered Via a Telecommunications System in Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottlieb, Daniel J.; DeMolles, Deborah; Fielding, Roger A.

    2011-01-01

    Background. Resistance training programs have been found to improve muscle strength, physical function, and depressive symptoms in middle-aged and older adults. These programs have typically been provided in clinical facilities, health clubs, and senior centers, which may be inconvenient and/or cost prohibitive for some older adults. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of an automated telemedicine intervention that provides real-time guidance and monitoring of resistance training in the home. Methods. A randomized clinical trial in 103 middle-aged or older participants. Participants were assigned to use of a theory-driven interactive voice response system designed to promote resistance training (Telephone-Linked Computer-based Long-term Interactive Fitness Trainer; n = 52) or to an attention control (n = 51) for a period of 12 months. Measurements of muscle strength, balance, walk distance, and mood were obtained at baseline, 3, 6, and 12 months. Results. We observed increased strength, improved balance, and fewer depressive symptoms in the intervention group than in the control group. Using generalized estimating equations modeling, group differences were statistically significant for knee flexion strength (p = .035), single-leg stance time (p = .029), and Beck Depression Inventory (p = .030). Conclusions. This computer-based telecommunications exercise intervention led to improvements in participants’ strength, balance, and depressive symptoms. Because of their low cost and easy accessibility, computer-based interventions may be a cost-effective way of promoting exercise in the home. PMID:21852283

  11. MOTOmed智能运动训练系统对脑卒中偏瘫患者平衡及下肢运动功能的影响①%Effect of MOTOmed Intelligent Training System on Balance and Lower Limb Motor Function in Stroke Patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高春华; 徐乐义; 黄杰; 肖锋

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of MOTOmed intelligent training system training on balance and lower limb motor func-tion in stroke patients. Methods 120 stroke patients were randomly divided into observation group (n=60) and control group (n=60) accord-ing to the random number table. Both groups were treated with routine rehabilitation training, the observation group received MOTOmed in-telligent training system in addition. They were evaluated with Fugl-Meyer assessment (FMA), Functional Ambulation Category (FAC), Bar-thel index (BI), Motricity index (MI-L), modified Ashworth scale (MAS) and Berg balance scale (BBS) before and 4, 8, 12 weeks after treat-ment. Results There was no difference in the score of FMA, BI, MI-L, BBS, MAS, FAC and the maximum walking speed, stride length and stride frequency between 2 groups before treatment (P>0.05). The scores of FMA, BI, MI-L, BBS, FAC and the maximum walking speed stride length and stride frequency increased in the observation group and there was a uptrend 4 weeks, 8 weeks and 12 weeks after treatment (P0.05)。治疗4周、8周及12周后,观察组FMA、BI、MI-L、BBS、FAC评分及最大步行速度、步长和步频等参数均较治疗前提高,且呈上升趋势(P<0.05);观察组MAS得分较治疗前降低,且呈下降趋势(P<0.05);观察组各指标均优于对照组(P<0.05)。结论 MOTOmed训练系统配合常规康复训练能够提高脑卒中偏瘫患者的平衡功能及下肢运动功能。

  12. FUNCTIONAL DISABILITY, SAGITTAL ALIGNMENT AND PELVIC BALANCE IN LUMBAR SPONDYLOLISTHESIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Muñiz Luna

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objectives: To demonstrate the recovery of lumbar sagittal pelvic alignment and sagittal pelvic balance after surgical reduction of lumbar spondylolisthesis and establish the benefits of the surgery for reduction and fixation of the lumbar spondylolisthesis with 360o circumferential arthrodesis for 2 surgical approaches by clinical and functional evaluation. Method: Eight patients with lumbar spondylolisthesis treated with surgical reduction and fixation of listhesis and segmental circumferential fusion with two surgical approaches were reviewed. They were evaluated before and after treatment with Oswestry, Visual Analogue for pain and Odom scales, performing radiographic measurement of lumbar sagittal alignment and pelvic sagittal balance with the technique of pelvic radius. Results: Oswestry scales and EVA reported improvement of symptoms after treatment in 8 cases; the Odom scale had six outstanding cases reported. The lumbar sagittal alignment presented a lumbosacral lordosis angle and a lumbopelvic lordosis angle reduced in 4 cases and increased in 4 other cases; pelvic sagittal balance increased the pelvic angle in 4 cases and decreased in 3 cases and the sacral translation of the hip axis to the promontory increased in 6 cases. Conclusion: The surgical procedure evaluated proved to be useful by modifying the lumbar sagittal alignment and the pelvic balance, besides reducing the symptoms, enabling the patient to have mobility and movement and the consequent satisfaction with the surgery.

  13. Action observation training for functional activities after stroke: a pilot randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jung-Hee; Lee, Byoung-Hee

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the effects of action observation training and motor imagery training on recovery from chronic stroke. Thirty patients who were more than six months post stroke participated in this study and were randomly allocated to three groups. The action observation training group practiced additional action observation training for five 30-minute sessions over a four-week period. The motor imagery training group practiced additional motor imagery training for five 30-minute sessions over a four-week period. The following clinical measures were used for assessment of dynamic balance and gait abilities: Timed Up and Go Test, Functional Reaching Test, Walking Ability Questionnaire, and Functional Ambulation Category. Spatiotemporal gait parameters were also collected using a GAITRite system. Compared with the physical training group, the action observation training group showed significant improvement in the Timed Up and Go test, gait speed, cadence, and single limb support of the affected side. No significant differences in any of the outcome measures were observed between the action observation training group and the motor imagery training group. Action observation training and motor imagery training results in improvement of dynamic balance and gait ability. These results suggest the feasibility and suitability of action observation training for patients with chronic stroke.

  14. Effects of Balance Training on Postural Sway, Leg Extensor Strength, and Jumping Height in Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granacher, Urs; Gollhofer, Albert; Kriemler, Susi

    2010-01-01

    Deficits in strength of the lower extremities and postural control have been associated with a high risk of sustaining sport-related injuries. Such injuries often occur during physical education (PE) classes and mostly affect the lower extremities. Thus, the objectives of this study were to investigate the effects of balance training on postural…

  15. Exergames for unsupervised balance training at home : A pilot study in healthy older adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Diest, Mike; Stegenga, Jan; Wörtche, Heinrich J.; Verkerke, G. J.; Postema, Klaas; Lamoth, Claude

    Exercise videogames (exergames) are gaining popularity as tools for improving balance ability in older adults, yet few exergames are suitable for home-based use. The purpose of the current pilot study was to examine the effects of a 6-week unsupervised home-based exergaming training program on

  16. Exergames for unsupervised balance training at home: A pilot study in healthy older adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Diest, Mike; Stegenga, Jan; Wörtche, Heinrich J.; Verkerke, Gijsbertus; Postema, Klaas; Lamoth, Claude

    2016-01-01

    Exercise videogames (exergames) are gaining popularity as tools for improving balance ability in older adults, yet few exergames are suitable for home-based use. The purpose of the current pilot study was to examine the effects of a 6-week unsupervised home-based exergaming training program on balan

  17. Effects of Balance Training on Postural Sway, Leg Extensor Strength, and Jumping Height in Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granacher, Urs; Gollhofer, Albert; Kriemler, Susi

    2010-01-01

    Deficits in strength of the lower extremities and postural control have been associated with a high risk of sustaining sport-related injuries. Such injuries often occur during physical education (PE) classes and mostly affect the lower extremities. Thus, the objectives of this study were to investigate the effects of balance training on postural…

  18. Overground vs. treadmill-based robotic gait training to improve seated balance in people with motor-complete spinal cord injury: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chisholm, Amanda E; Alamro, Raed A; Williams, Alison M M; Lam, Tania

    2017-04-11

    Robotic overground gait training devices, such as the Ekso, require users to actively participate in triggering steps through weight-shifting movements. It remains unknown how much the trunk muscles are activated during these movements, and if it is possible to transfer training effects to seated balance control. This study was conducted to compare the activity of postural control muscles of the trunk during overground (Ekso) vs. treadmill-based (Lokomat) robotic gait training, and evaluate changes in seated balance control in people with high-thoracic motor-complete spinal cord injury (SCI). Three individuals with motor-complete SCI from C7-T4, assumed to have no voluntary motor function below the chest, underwent robotic gait training. The participants were randomly assigned to Ekso-Lokomat-Ekso or Lokomat-Ekso-Lokomat for 10 sessions within each intervention phase for a total of 30 sessions. We evaluated static and dynamic balance control through analysis of center of pressure (COP) movements after each intervention phase. Surface electromyography was used to compare activity of the abdominal and erector spinae muscles during Ekso and Lokomat walking. We observed improved postural stability after training with Ekso compared to Lokomat during static balance tasks, indicated by reduced COP root mean square distance and ellipse area. In addition, Ekso training increased total distance of COP movements during a dynamic balance task. The trunk muscles showed increased activation during Ekso overground walking compared to Lokomat walking. Our findings suggest that the Ekso actively recruits trunk muscles through postural control mechanisms, which may lead to improved balance during sitting. Developing effective training strategies to reactivate the trunk muscles is important to facilitate independence during seated balance activity in people with SCI.

  19. The Effects of Pilates Training on Balance Control and Self-Reported Health Status in Community-Dwelling Older Adults: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabizon, Hadas; Press, Yan; Volkov, Ilia; Melzer, Itshak

    2016-07-01

    To evaluate the effect of a group-based Pilates training program on balance control and health status in healthy older adults. A single-blind, randomized, controlled trial. General community. A total of 88 community-dwelling older adults (age 71.15 ± 4.30 years), without evidence of functional balance impairment, were recruited and allocated at random to a Pilates intervention group (n = 44) or a control group (n = 44). The Pilates intervention group received 36 training sessions over three months (3 sessions a week), while the control group did not receive any intervention. Standing upright postural stability, performance-based measures of balance, and self-reported health status was assessed in both groups at baseline and at the end of the intervention period. Compared with the control group, the Pilates intervention did not improve postural stability, baseline functional measures of balance, or health status. The results suggest that because Pilates training is not task specific, it does not improve balance control or balance function in independent older adults.

  20. Lower-extremity resistance training on unstable surfaces improves proxies of muscle strength, power and balance in healthy older adults: a randomised control trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckardt, Nils

    2016-11-24

    It is well documented that both balance and resistance training have the potential to mitigate intrinsic fall risk factors in older adults. However, knowledge about the effects of simultaneously executed balance and resistance training (i.e., resistance training conducted on unstable surfaces [URT]) on lower-extremity muscle strength, power and balance in older adults is insufficient. The objective of the present study was to compare the effects of machine-based stable resistance training (M-SRT) and two types of URT, i.e., machine-based (M-URT) and free-weight URT (F-URT), on measures of lower-extremity muscle strength, power and balance in older adults. Seventy-five healthy community-dwelling older adults aged 65-80 years, were assigned to three intervention groups: M-SRT, M-URT and F-URT. Over a period of ten weeks, all participants exercised two times per week with each session lasting ~60 min. Tests included assessment of leg muscle strength (e.g., maximal isometric leg extension strength), power (e.g., chair rise test) and balance (e.g., functional reach test), carried out before and after the training period. Furthermore, maximal training load of the squat-movement was assessed during the last training week. Maximal training load of the squat-movement was significantly lower in F-URT in comparison to M-SRT and M-URT. However, lower-extremity resistance training conducted on even and uneven surfaces meaningfully improved proxies of strength, power and balance in all groups. M-URT produced the greatest improvements in leg extension strength and F-URT in the chair rise test and functional reach test. Aside from two interaction effects, overall improvements in measures of lower-extremity muscle strength, power and balance were similar across training groups. Importantly, F-URT produced similar results with considerably lower training load as compared to M-SRT and M-URT. Concluding, F-URT seems an effective and safe alternative training program to mitigate

  1. Effects of Swiss-ball core strength training on strength, endurance, flexibility, and balance in sedentary women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekendiz, Betül; Cuğ, Mutlu; Korkusuz, Feza

    2010-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of Swiss-ball core strength training on trunk extensor (abdominal)/flexor (lower back) and lower limb extensor (quadriceps)/flexor (hamstring) muscular strength, abdominal, lower back and leg endurance, flexibility and dynamic balance in sedentary women (n = 21; age = 34 ± 8.09; height = 1.63 ± 6.91 cm; weight = 64 ± 8.69 kg) trained for 45 minutes, 3 d·wk-1 for 12 weeks. Results of multivariate analysis revealed significant difference (p ≤ 0.05) between pre and postmeasures of 60 and 90° s trunk flexion/extension, 60 and 240° s-1 lower limb flexion/extension (Biodex Isokinetic Dynamometer), abdominal endurance (curl-up test), lower back muscular endurance (modified Sorensen test), lower limb endurance (repetitive squat test), lower back flexibility (sit and reach test), and dynamic balance (functional reach test). The results support the fact that Swiss-ball core strength training exercises can be used to provide improvement in the aforementioned measures in sedentary women. In conclusion, this study provides practical implications for sedentary individuals, physiotherapists, strength and conditioning specialists who can benefit from core strength training with Swiss balls.

  2. Assessment of postural balance in community-dwelling older adults - methodological aspects and effects of biofeedback-based Nintendo Wii training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Martin Grønbech

    The overall purpose of this thesis was to examine selected methodological aspects and novel approaches for measuring postural balance older adults, and to examine the effects of biofeedback-based Nintendo Wii training on selected physiological, psychological and functional outcome variables...... (familiarization) period is necessary for the Wii Agility test to avoid a systematic learning effect between successive test sessions. Study III investigated the effect of ten weeks of biofeedback-based Nintendo Wii training on static postural balance, mechanical lower limb muscle function, and functional...... performance in 58 community-dwelling older adults. Additionally, the study investigated the participant motivation for this type of training (Exergaming). Marked improvements in maximal leg muscle strength, rapid force capacity and functional performance were observed following the period of biofeedback...

  3. Relationship between maximum dynamic force of inferior members and body balance in strength training apprentices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariane Martins

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between force and balance show controversy results and has directimplications in exercise prescription practice. The objective was to investigate the relationshipbetween maximum dynamic force (MDF of inferior limbs and the static and dynamic balances.Participated in the study 60 individuals, with 18 to 24 years old, strength training apprentices.The MDF was available by mean the One Maximum Repetition (1MR in “leg press” and “kneeextension” and motor testes to available of static and dynamic balances. The correlation testsand multiple linear regression were applied. The force and balance variables showed correlationin females (p=0.038. The corporal mass and static balance showed correlation for the males(p=0.045. The explication capacity at MDF and practices time were small: 13% for staticbalance in males, 18% and 17%, respectively, for static and dynamic balance in females. Inconclusion: the MDF of inferior limbs showed low predictive capacity for performance in staticand dynamic balances, especially for males.

  4. Change in functional balance after an exercise program with Nintendo Wii in Latino patients with cerebral palsy: a case series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatica-Rojas, Valeska; Cartes-Velásquez, Ricardo; Méndez-Rebolledo, Guillermo; Olave-Godoy, Felipe; Villalobos-Rebolledo, David

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to explore the possibility of improving functional balance using an exercise program with Nintendo and the Balance Board peripheral in subjects with cerebral palsy. [Subjects and Methods] This study included 4 male outpatients of a neurological center. All participants received an exercise program based on the use of Nintendo with the Balance Board peripheral. Training consisted of three 25-min sessions per week for 6 weeks. Each session was guided by a physical therapist. Timed up-and-go and one-leg standing tests were conducted before and after the intervention. [Results] All subjects showed significant improvements in the results of the timed up-and-go test. However, there were no significant changes in the results of the one-leg standing test. [Conclusion] The exercise protocol involving Nintendo with the Balance Board peripheral appears to improve functional dynamic balance in patients with cerebral palsy. However, static functional balance does not improve after 6 weeks of training. PMID:27630446

  5. The Effect of Body Weight Support Treadmill Training on Gait Recovery, Proximal Lower Limb Motor Pattern, and Balance in Patients with Subacute Stroke

    OpenAIRE

    Yu-Rong Mao; Wai Leung Lo; Qiang Lin; Le Li; Xiang Xiao; Preeti Raghavan; Dong-Feng Huang

    2015-01-01

    Objective. Gait performance is an indicator of mobility impairment after stroke. This study evaluated changes in balance, lower extremity motor function, and spatiotemporal gait parameters after receiving body weight supported treadmill training (BWSTT) and conventional overground walking training (CT) in patients with subacute stroke using 3D motion analysis. Setting. Inpatient department of rehabilitation medicine at a university-affiliated hospital. Participants. 24 subjects with unilatera...

  6. EFFICACY OF HOME-BASED KINESTHESIA, BALANCE & AGILITY EXERCISE TRAINING AMONG PERSONS WITH SYMPTOMATIC KNEE OSTEOARTHRITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew W. Rogers

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy of a home-based kinesthesia, balance and agility (KBA exercise program to improve symptoms among persons age > 50 years with knee osteoarthritis (OA. Forty-four persons were randomly assigned to 8-weeks, 3 times per week KBA, resistance training (RT, KBA + RT, or Control. KBA utilized walking agility exercises and single-leg static and dynamic balancing. RT used elastic resistance bands for open chain lower extremity exercises. KBA + RT performed selected exercises from each technique. Control applied inert lotion daily. Outcomes included the OA specific WOMAC Index of Pain, Stiffness, and Physical Function (PF, community activity level, exercise self-efficacy, self-report knee stability, and 15m get up & go walk (GUG. Thirty-three participants [70.7 (SD 8.5 years] completed the trial. Analysis of variance comparing baseline, mid-point, and follow-up measures revealed significant (p < 0.05 improvements in WOMAC scores among KBA, RT, KBA + RT, and Control, with no differences between groups. However, Control WOMAC improvements peaked at mid- point, whereas improvement in the exercise conditions continued at 8-weeks. There were no significant changes in community activity level. Only Control improved exercise self-efficacy. Knee stability was improved in RT and Control. GUG improved in RT and KBA+RT. These results indicate that KBA, RT, or a combination of the two administered as home exercise programs are effective in improving symptoms and quality of life among persons with knee OA. Control results indicate a strong placebo effect in the short term. A combination of KBA and RT should be considered as part of the rehabilitation program, but KBA or RT alone may be appropriate for some patients. Studies with more statistical power are needed to confirm or refute these results. Patient presentation, preferences, costs, and convenience should be considered when choosing an exercise

  7. Efficacy of home-based kinesthesia, balance & agility exercise training among persons with symptomatic knee osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Matthew W; Tamulevicius, Nauris; Semple, Stuart J; Krkeljas, Zarko

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy of a home-based kinesthesia, balance and agility (KBA) exercise program to improve symptoms among persons age ≥ 50 years with knee osteoarthritis (OA). Forty-four persons were randomly assigned to 8-weeks, 3 times per week KBA, resistance training (RT), KBA + RT, or Control. KBA utilized walking agility exercises and single-leg static and dynamic balancing. RT used elastic resistance bands for open chain lower extremity exercises. KBA + RT performed selected exercises from each technique. Control applied inert lotion daily. Outcomes included the OA specific WOMAC Index of Pain, Stiffness, and Physical Function (PF), community activity level, exercise self-efficacy, self-report knee stability, and 15m get up & go walk (GUG). Thirty-three participants [70.7 (SD 8.5) years] completed the trial. Analysis of variance comparing baseline, mid-point, and follow-up measures revealed significant (p point, whereas improvement in the exercise conditions continued at 8-weeks. There were no significant changes in community activity level. Only Control improved exercise self-efficacy. Knee stability was improved in RT and Control. GUG improved in RT and KBA+RT. These results indicate that KBA, RT, or a combination of the two administered as home exercise programs are effective in improving symptoms and quality of life among persons with knee OA. Control results indicate a strong placebo effect in the short term. A combination of KBA and RT should be considered as part of the rehabilitation program, but KBA or RT alone may be appropriate for some patients. Studies with more statistical power are needed to confirm or refute these results. Patient presentation, preferences, costs, and convenience should be considered when choosing an exercise rehabilitation approach for persons with knee OA.

  8. Effect of training on the muscle strength and dynamic balance ability of adults with down syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsimaras, Vassilios K; Fotiadou, Eleni G

    2004-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of training on the muscle strength and dynamic balance ability of adults with Down syndrome (DS). Twenty-five adults with DS were separated into 2 groups. Fifteen subjects (mean age, 24.5 years) constituted the experiment group, whereas 10 subjects (mean age, 24.7 years) were in the control group of the study. Parameters measured were peak torque, isokinetic muscle endurance, and dynamic balance ability. All subjects performed a leg strength test on a Cyber II isokinetic dynamometer. In addition, the subjects' dynamic balance ability was measured by means of a balance deck (Lafayette). The experimental group followed a 12-week training program. As the results indicated, the experimental group showed a statistically significant improvement in all measured values when compared with the control group. It is concluded that adults with DS can improve their physical and kinetic abilities with the application of a systematic and well-designed training program.

  9. Effects of physical training on age-related balance and postural control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lelard, T; Ahmaidi, S

    2015-11-01

    In this paper, we review the effects of physical activity on balance performance in the elderly. The increase in the incidence of falls with age reflects the disorders of balance-related to aging. We are particularly interested in age-related changes in the balance control system as reflected in different static and dynamic balance tests. We report the results of studies demonstrating the beneficial effects of physical activity on postural balance. By comparing groups of practitioners of different physical activities, it appears that these effects on postural control depend on the type of activity and the time of practice. Thus, we have focused in the present review on "proprioceptive" and "strength" activities. Training programs offering a combination of several activities have demonstrated beneficial effects on the incidence of falls, and we present and compare the effects of these two types of training activities. It emerges that there are differential effects of programs of activities: while all activities improve participants' confidence in their ability, the "proprioceptive" activities rather improve performance in static tasks, while "strength" activities tend to improve performance in dynamic tasks. These effects depend on the targeted population and will have a greater impact on the frailest subjects. The use of new technologies in the form of "exergames" may also be proposed in home-based exercises.

  10. Effectiveness of Treadmill Training on Balance Control in Elderly People: A Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soraya Pirouzi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Physical exercise would improve postural stability, which is an essential factor in preventing accidental fall among the elderly population. The aim of this study is to examine the effectiveness of treadmill walking on balance improvement among the elderly people. A total of 30 community dwelling older adults with a Berg Balance Scale score of 36-48 and the ability to walk without aid were considered and divided into control (n=15 and experimental (n=15 groups. Individuals in the experimental group participated in 30 minutes of forward and backward treadmill training based on three times a week interval for a period of four weeks. Individuals in the control group were instructed to continue with their daily routine activity. Before and after training, gait speed was measured by six-minute walk test and balance ability was evaluated by Fullerton Advanced Balance Scale (FABS and Berg Balance Scale (BBS tests. Postural sway items such as the Center of Pressure (COP, average displacement and velocity were evaluated by using a force platform system. Data were collected in quiet standing, tandem position and standing on foam pads before and after intervention. After intervention, balance variables in the experimental group indicated a significant improvement in quiet standing on firm and foam surfaces, but no considerable improvement was shown in tandem position. A between-group comparison showed a significant reduction in COP velocity in the sagittal plane (P=0.030 during quiet standing and in the frontal plane (P=0.001 during standing on foam, whereas no significant reduction in COP parameters during tandem position was found. It is recommended that twelve sessions of forward and backward treadmill walk are effective in balance improvement in elderly people. Trial Registration Number: IRCT201209199440N2

  11. Effectiveness of treadmill training on balance control in elderly people: a randomized controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirouzi, Soraya; Motealleh, Ali Reza; Fallahzadeh, Fatemeh; Fallahzadeh, Mohammad Amin

    2014-11-01

    Physical exercise would improve postural stability, which is an essential factor in preventing accidental fall among the elderly population. The aim of this study is to examine the effectiveness of treadmill walking on balance improvement among the elderly people. A total of 30 community dwelling older adults with a Berg Balance Scale score of 36-48 and the ability to walk without aid were considered and divided into control (n=15) and experimental (n=15) groups. Individuals in the experimental group participated in 30 minutes of forward and backward treadmill training based on three times a week interval for a period of four weeks. Individuals in the control group were instructed to continue with their daily routine activity. Before and after training, gait speed was measured by six-minute walk test and balance ability was evaluated by Fullerton Advanced Balance Scale (FABS) and Berg Balance Scale (BBS) tests. Postural sway items such as the Center of Pressure (COP), average displacement and velocity were evaluated by using a force platform system. Data were collected in quiet standing, tandem position and standing on foam pads before and after intervention. After intervention, balance variables in the experimental group indicated a significant improvement in quiet standing on firm and foam surfaces, but no considerable improvement was shown in tandem position. A between-group comparison showed a significant reduction in COP velocity in the sagittal plane (P=0.030) during quiet standing and in the frontal plane (P=0.001) during standing on foam, whereas no significant reduction in COP parameters during tandem position was found. It is recommended that twelve sessions of forward and backward treadmill walk are effective in balance improvement in elderly people. IRCT201209199440N2.

  12. Effects of heavy-resistance strength and balance training on unilateral and bilateral leg strength performance in old adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beurskens, Rainer; Gollhofer, Albert; Muehlbauer, Thomas; Cardinale, Marco; Granacher, Urs

    2015-01-01

    The term "bilateral deficit" (BLD) has been used to describe a reduction in performance during bilateral contractions when compared to the sum of identical unilateral contractions. In old age, maximal isometric force production (MIF) decreases and BLD increases indicating the need for training interventions to mitigate this impact in seniors. In a cross-sectional approach, we examined age-related differences in MIF and BLD in young (age: 20-30 years) and old adults (age: >65 years). In addition, a randomized-controlled trial was conducted to investigate training-specific effects of resistance vs. balance training on MIF and BLD of the leg extensors in old adults. Subjects were randomly assigned to resistance training (n = 19), balance training (n = 14), or a control group (n = 20). Bilateral heavy-resistance training for the lower extremities was performed for 13 weeks (3 × / week) at 80% of the one repetition maximum. Balance training was conducted using predominately unilateral exercises on wobble boards, soft mats, and uneven surfaces for the same duration. Pre- and post-tests included uni- and bilateral measurements of maximal isometric leg extension force. At baseline, young subjects outperformed older adults in uni- and bilateral MIF (all p training (all p balance training (all p balance training (p training regimens resulted in increased MIF and decreased BLD of the leg extensors (HRT-group more than BAL-group), almost reaching the levels of young adults.

  13. Robotic resistance treadmill training improves locomotor function in human spinal cord injury: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ming; Landry, Jill M; Schmit, Brian D; Hornby, T George; Yen, Sheng-Che

    2012-05-01

    To determine whether cable-driven robotic resistance treadmill training can improve locomotor function in humans with incomplete spinal cord injury (SCI). Repeated assessment of the same patients with crossover design. Research units of rehabilitation hospitals in Chicago. Patients with chronic incomplete SCI (N=10) were recruited to participate in this study. Subjects were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 groups. One group received 4 weeks of assistance training followed by 4 weeks of resistance training, while the other group received 4 weeks of resistance training followed by 4 weeks of assistance training. Locomotor training was provided by using a cable-driven robotic locomotor training system, which is highly backdrivable and compliant, allowing patients the freedom to voluntarily move their legs in a natural gait pattern during body weight supported treadmill training (BWSTT), while providing controlled assistance/resistance forces to the leg during the swing phase of gait. Primary outcome measures were evaluated for each participant before training and after 4 and 8 weeks of training. Primary measures were self-selected and fast overground walking velocity and 6-minute walking distance. Secondary measures included clinical assessments of balance, muscle tone, and strength. A significant improvement in walking speed and balance in humans with SCI was observed after robotic treadmill training using the cable-driven robotic locomotor trainer. There was no significant difference in walking functional gains after resistance versus assistance training, although resistance training was more effective for higher functioning patients. Cable-driven robotic resistance training may be used as an adjunct to BWSTT for improving overground walking function in humans with incomplete SCI, particularly for those patients with relatively high function. Copyright © 2012 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. ROBOT-ASSISTED VS SENSORY INTEGRATION TRAINING IN TREATING GAIT AND BALANCE DYSFUNCTIONS IN PATIENTS WITH MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS:A RANDOMISED CONTROLLED TRIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marialuisa eGandolfi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Extensive research on both healthy subjects and patients with central nervous damage has elucidated a crucial role of postural adjustment reactions and central sensory integration processes in generating and shaping locomotors function, respectively. Whether robotic-assisted gait devices might improve these functions in Multiple sclerosis (MS patients is not fully investigated in literature.Purpose: The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of robot-assisted gait training (RAGT and sensory integration balance training (SIBT in improving walking and balance performance in patients with MS. Methods: Twenty-two patients with MS (EDSS: 1.5-6.5 were randomly assigned to two groups. The RAGT group (n= 12 underwent end-effector system training. The SIBT group (n=10 underwent specific balance exercises. Each patient received twelve 50-minutes treatment sessions (2 days/week. A blinded rater evaluated patients before and after treatment as well as 1 month posttreatment. Primary outcomes were walking speed and Berg Balance Scale. Secondary outcomes were the Activities-specific Balance Confidence Scale, Sensory Organization Balance Test, Stabilometric Assessment, Fatigue Severity Scale, cadence, step length, single and double support time, Multiple Sclerosis Quality of Life-54. Results: Between groups comparisons showed no significant differences on primary and secondary outcome measures over time. Within group comparisons showed significant improvements in both groups on the Berg Balance Scale (P=.001. Changes approaching significance were found on gait speed (P=.07 only in the RAGT group. Significant changes in balance task-related domains during standing and walking conditions were found in the SIBT group.Conclusion: Balance disorders in patients with MS may be ameliorated by RAGT and by SIBT.

  15. The effect of recreational soccer training and running on postural balance in untrained men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Markus Due; Sundstrup, Emil; Krustrup, Peter

    2011-01-01

    strength and countermovement jump velocity. Postural control was improved in response to 12 weeks of soccer training and high-intensity interval running, respectively, while less-marked changes were observed following continuous running. Notably, the reduced variability in CoP acceleration after soccer......The aim of this study was to examine the effect of intense intermittent exercise performed as soccer training or interval running in comparison with continuous endurance running exercise on postural balance in young healthy untrained males. Young sedentary men were randomized to soccer training...... (SOC, n = 10), continuous running (RUN; n = 9), high-intensity interval running (INT; n = 7) or no training (CON; n = 9). Postural balance was evaluated pre and post 12 weeks of training using a 30-s single-leg stance test on a force plate (AMTI) to yield center of pressure (CoP) sway path and 1-min...

  16. Effects of specific muscle imbalance improvement training on the balance ability in elite fencers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Taewhan; Kil, Sekee; Chung, Jinwook; Moon, Jeheon; Oh, Eunyoung

    2015-05-01

    [Purpose] The lunge Motion that occurs frequently in fencing training and matches results in imbalance of the upper and lower limbs muscles. This research focuses on the improvement of the imbalance that occurs in the national team fencers of the Republic of Korea through specific muscle imbalance improvement training. [Subjects] The subjects of this research were limited to right-handed male fencers. Nine male, right-handed national fencing athletes were selected for this study (4 epee, 5 sabre; age 28.2 ± 2.2 years; height 182.3 ± 4.0 cm; weight 76.5 ± 8.2 kg; experience 12.4 ± 3.0 years). [Methods] The specific muscle imbalance improvement training program was performed for 12 weeks and Pre-Post tests were to evaluate its effect on the experimental group. Measurements comprised anthropometry, test of balance, and movement analysis. [Results] After the training program, mediolateral sway of the nondominant lower limb and the balance scale showed statistically significant improvement. [Conclusion] The specific muscle imbalance improvement training program used in this research was proven to be effective for improving the muscle imbalance of elite fencers.

  17. Rapid and specific gray matter changes in M1 induced by balance training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taubert, Marco; Mehnert, Jan; Pleger, Burkhard; Villringer, Arno

    2016-06-01

    Training-induced changes in cortical structure can be observed non-invasively with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). While macroscopic changes were found mainly after weeks to several months of training in humans, imaging of motor cortical networks in animals revealed rapid microstructural alterations after a few hours of training. We used MRI to test the hypothesis of immediate and specific training-induced alterations in motor cortical gray matter in humans. We found localized increases in motor cortical thickness after 1h of practice in a complex balancing task. These changes were specific to motor cortical effector representations primarily responsible for balance control in our task (lower limb and trunk) and these effects could be confirmed in a replication study. Cortical thickness changes (i) linearly increased across the training session, (ii) occurred independent of alterations in resting cerebral blood flow and (iii) were not triggered by repetitive use of the lower limbs. Our findings show that motor learning triggers rapid and specific gray matter changes in M1.

  18. The effectiveness of balance training programs on reducing the incidence of ankle sprains in adolescent athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valovich McLeod, Tamara C

    2008-08-01

    Ankle sprains are one of the most common sport-related injuries treated by rehabilitation professionals. These injuries often result in lost participation and can lead to subsequent injury episodes. Therefore, it is important to determine appropriate means of preventing these injuries. There has recently been an increase in the popularity of balance training programs for the prevention of knee anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury, with some thought that starting these programs in younger athletes may be most beneficial. However, there is the potential that these types of training programs may also be beneficial for decreasing the risk of other lower extremity injuries, including ankle sprains in the adolescent athlete.

  19. Effect of core strength training on dynamic balance and agility in adolescent badminton players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozmen, Tarik; Aydogmus, Mert

    2016-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate effect of core strength training (CST) on core endurance, dynamic balance and agility in adolescent badminton players. Twenty adolescent (age = 10.8 ± 0.3 years; height = 140.6 ± 4.4 cm, weight = 33.9 ± 5.8 kg) badminton players were randomly divided into two groups as training group (TG) and control (CG) group. All subjects were evaluated with Star Excursion Balance Test (SEBT), Illinois Agility Test, and the core endurance tests. The TG completed CST twice a week, for 6 weeks. There were significant increases in (p  0.05). The CST resulted in significant gains in directions of the SEBT and core endurances in adolescent badminton players, but not in agility.

  20. Fall prevention among older adults: Case reports exemplifying the value of incorporating lumbar stabilization training during balance exercises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Van Der Merwe

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Older adults are at risk of fallingeach year. Fall injuries results in many health care expenses anddisabilities, yet non-western countries lack the infra-structure andresources for prevention programs. Balance exercises have beenfound to be a cost effective evidence-based intervention in treatingand preventing falls among older adults in western countries.Purpose: The aim of this report was to show that lumbar stabilizationexercises are not only a beneficial addition to a balanceprogram for the prevention and treatment of falls in older adults,but to demonstrate that these exercise can more rapidly improve thefunctional status of older adults, limiting healthcare costs.Case description: Two high functional older adults with a historyof falls presented with poor balance and fear of falling. Both patientsreceived the same balance exercise regime however lumbar stabilization exercises were added to one of the patient’s exerciseprograms. Gait speed, lower extremity strength and balance were assessed with the Balance Evaluation systems test (BESTest,figure-of-eight, four-step-square (FSST, five-time-sit-to-stand tests (5TSTS after two weeks and four weeks of treatment.Outcomes. All the outcome measures showed statistically significant improvements. Greater improvements in vertical stabilitylimits (14%, gait speed (9%, stability during gait (20% and five-time-sit-to-stand test were seen with the addition of lumbarstabilization exercises.Discussion. The addition of lumbar stabilization exercises during balance training is of value to improve gait speed, balancetesting scores in stability in gait and vertical stability limits.

  1. RELATIONSHIP OF EXECUTIVE FUNCTION, EDUCATIONAL STATUS AND QUALITY OF LIFE WITH THE FUNCTIONAL BALANCE IN OLDER ADULTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rushikesh K. Joshi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Balance is a complex construct which is affected by cognition. It is necessary to know the cognitive correlates of functional balance to design necessary interventions for the individuals with balance problems. Objectives: To determine the relationship of executive function, educational status and quality of life with the functional balance in older adults. Methodology: 120 healthy elderly subjects were taken for the study based on the inclusion criteria. Following the initial screening, the executive function, educational status and quality of life of the subjects were measured. Executive function performance test was used for measuring executive function. The quality of life was measured using SF36 questionnaire. The functional balance was measured using the berg balance scale and timed up and go test. The relationship among the outcome measure was found out using the Pearson correlation coefficient. Results: The results of the present study showed that EFPT and BBS are negatively correlated to each other with r-value -0.271. The educational status score showed a low positive correlation with functional balance with r-value 0.358. The quality of life did not show any significant correlation with functional balance. Interpretation & Conclusion: Executive function and functional balance showed a low correlation. This means that higher the executive function, better will be the functional balance of the individual. Moreover, educational status also affects the functional balance of the individual.

  2. Effects of whole body vibration training on balance in adolescents with and without Down syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villarroya, M Adoración; González-Agüero, Alejandro; Moros, Teresa; Gómez-Trullén, Eva; Casajús, José A

    2013-10-01

    The present study aimed to determine whether a whole body vibration training program (WBV) is able to improve static standing balance in adolescents with and without Down syndrome (DS). Thirty adolescents with DS aged 11-20 years (DSG) and 27 adolescent, age/sex matched, without DS (CG) joined the study. Participants of each group were divided into two comparable groups, those who performed WVB (in DSG: VDSG; in CG: VCG) and those who did not perform WVB (in DSG: nVDSG; in CG: nVCG). Static-standing-balance under four conditions (C1: open-eyes/fixed-foot-support; C2: closed-eyes/fixed-foot-support; C3: open-eyes/compliant-foot-support; C4: closed-eyes/compliant-foot-support) was examine, before and after a 20-week WBV training program. For balance study, Postural-Parameters (PPs), based on center of pressure (COP) oscillations (anterior/posterior and medial/lateral COP excursion and COP mean velocity), and PPs ratios among the four conditions were calculated. After WBV training, no significant differences were found in any parameter in the VCG and nVCG and neither in the nVDSG, but there was a decrease of mean values in the analyzed PPs under C4, with significant differences in medial/lateral COP excursion and COP mean velocity, and a significant decrease in the ratio C4/C1 of the mean velocity in VDSG. Therefore, WBV training had positive effects in the balance of DS adolescents although only under specific conditions, with vision and somatosensory input altered. The positive results of this study are encouraging and open a wide field of research, looking for the most efficient program for this population. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. EFFICACY OF A SPORTS SPECIFIC BALANCE TRAINING PROGRAMME ON THE INCIDENCE OF ANKLE SPRAINS IN BASKETBALL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elke Cumps

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to determine the efficacy of a 22- week prescribed sports specific balance training programme on the incidence of lateral ankle sprains in basketball players. A controlled clinical trial was set up. In total 54 subjects of six teams participated and were assigned to either an intervention (IG or a control group (CG. The IG performed a prescribed balance training programme on top of their normal training routine, using balance semi-globes. The programme consisted of 4 basketball skills each session and its difficulty was progressively thought-out. The intervention lasted 22 weeks and was performed 3 times a week for 5 to 10 minutes. Efficacy of the intervention on the incidence of lateral ankle sprains was determined by calculating Relative Risks (RR, including their 95% Confidence Intervals or CI and incidence rates expressed per 1000h. RR (95% CI showed a significantly lower incidence of lateral ankle sprains in the IG compared to the CG for the total sample (RR= 0.30 [95% CI: 0.11-0.84] and in men (RR= 0.29 [95% CI: 0.09-0.93]. The difference in RR was not confirmed when examining the incidence rates and their 95%CI's, which overlapped. The risk for new or recurrent ankle sprains was slightly lower in the IG (new: RR= 0.76 [95% CI: 0.17-3.40]; re-injury: RR= 0.21 [95% CI: 0.03-1.44]. Based on these pilot results, the use of balance training is recommended as a routine during basketball activities for the prevention of ankle sprains

  4. The effects of multidirectional stepping training on balance, gait ability, and falls efficacy following stroke

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Gi-Deok; Choi, Jin-Uk; KIM, YOUNG-MIN

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to determine whether a multidirectional stepping training improves balance, gait ability, and falls efficacy in stroke patients. [Subjects] Firty patients who met the selection criteria and agreed to participate in research at hospital N were randomly allocated and enrolled in this study. Twenty of the subjects were assigned to an experimental group that participated in combined stepping exercise, and the other twenty subjects were assigned to a control...

  5. The Effects of Plyometric Education Trainings on Balance and Some Psychomotor Characteristics of School Handball Team

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karadenizli, Zeynep Inci

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to search the effects of plyometric education trainings which was applied for 10-week on static-dynamic balance and some psychomotor characteristics of students who were been handball team of school. The female students-players (N = 16) who are in age 14,57 ± 0,92 years. All student have got 3,66 ± 0,63 years sport experience.…

  6. Comparing the Effect of Balance Training with and Without Suit Therapy on the Balance and the Gait Pattern of Patients with Parkinsin\\'s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Khodadadi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objective: Parkinson's Disease  is a progressive neurologic disorder affecting the central nervous system. The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of balance training with and without suit therapy on the balance and the gait pattern of patients with Parkinson's Disease. Material & Methods: participants with Parkinson's Disease were divided  into three groups of control, with suit therapy, and without suit therapy. The control group received only pharmacotherapy, while the groups with and without suit therapy received eigh weeks balance training in addition to pharmacotherapy. The patient's balance  and gait  were evaluted by Berg and Tinetti scales, respectively at the pretest and posttest of this study. Result: The result of the study showed significant difference in balance between the three groups (P<0/05. The groups with and without suit therapy were significantly more effective than control group (P<0/05, but between groups with and without suit therapy no significant difference was observed (P=0/076. The result of the study also revealed significant difference in gait between the three groups (P<0/05. The groups with and without suit therapy were significantly more effective than control group (P<0/05, and the group with suit therapy was significantly more effective than the group without suit therapy (P<0/05. Conclusion: To do balance traning is better than not to do it, and balance training with suit therapy is better than without suit therapy

  7. EFFECTS OF VIBRATION TRAINING AND DETRAINING ON BALANCE AND MUSCLE STRENGTH IN OLDER ADULTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro J. Marín

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to analyze the effects of 2 days/week versus 4 days/week of Whole Body Vibration (WBV during eight weeks of WBV training on health-related quality of life (SF-36, balance and lower body strength, as well as short-term detraining (3 weeks on balance and lower body strength among older adults. Thirty-four older adults were randomly assigned to a control group (Control; n = 11 or to one of the vibration training groups: WBV 2 days/week (WBV_2d; n = 11 or WBV 4 days/week (WBV_4d; n = 12. The WBV groups exercised for 8 weeks, following 3 weeks of detraining. Lower body strength increased significantly (p < 0.05 for both groups, WBV_2d and WBV_4d, after 8-week training. A significant reduction in strength was observed following 3 weeks of detraining only in WBV_2d group (p < 0.05. All variables of the SF-36 and the balance test did not change after intervention in any group. 2 days/week and 4 days/week of WBV during 8 weeks showed the same improvements on muscle strength. 3 weeks of detraining did not reverse the gains in strength made during 32 sessions of WBV

  8. Changes in knee joint biomechanics following balance and technique training and a season of Australian football.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnelly, Cyril J; Elliott, Bruce C; Doyle, Tim L A; Finch, Caroline F; Dempsey, Alasdair R; Lloyd, David G

    2012-10-01

    Determine if balance and technique training (BTT) implemented adjunct to normal Australian football (AF) training reduces external knee loading during sidestepping. Additionally, the authors determined if an athlete's knee joint kinematics and kinetics change over a season of AF. Eight amateur-level AF clubs (n=1,001 males) volunteered to participate in either 28 weeks of BTT or a 'sham' training (ST) adjunct to their normal preseason and regular training. A subset of 34 athletes (BTT, n=20; ST, n=14) were recruited for biomechanical testing in weeks 1-7 and 18-25 of the 28-week training intervention. During biomechanical testing, participants completed a series running, preplanned (PpSS) and unplanned sidestepping (UnSS) tasks. A linear mixed model (α=0.05) was used to determine if knee kinematics and peak moments during PpSS and UnSS were influenced by BTT and/or a season of AF. Both training groups significantly (p=0.025) decreased their peak internal-rotation knee moments during PpSS, and significantly (p=0.022) increased their peak valgus knee moments during UnSS following their respective training interventions. BTT was not effective in changing an athlete's knee joint biomechanics during sidestepping when conducted in 'real-world' training environments. Following normal AF training, the players had different changes to their knee joint biomechanics during both preplanned and unplanned sidestepping. When performing an unplanned sidestepping task in the latter half of a playing season, athletes are at an increased risk of ACL injury. The authors therefore recommend both sidestepping tasks are performed during biomechanical testing when assessing the effectiveness of prophylactic training protocols.

  9. Proxidant* antioxidant balance in supplemented elite female volleyball athletes during a six week training period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinović, J; Dopsaj, V; Kotur-Stevuljević, J; Dopsaj, M; Vujović, A; Stefanović, A; Nesić, G

    2011-03-01

    The objectives of this study were: 1) to evaluate pro-oxidant-antioxidant balance (PAB) associations with the commonly measured parameters of oxidative stress and antioxidatve defence in elite female volleyball athletes; 2) to investigate changes in the parameters of oxidative stress during a period of intense training and dietary antioxidant supplementation. Twenty-seven female volleyball players participated in this study. Blood samples were collected the day before the pre-competitive mesocycle training period began. After the first blood sample donation and during the next six weeks fourteen players (supplemented group) received a cocktail of antioxidants while thirteen of them (control group) received no dietary supplementation. The following parameters were measured: reactive oxygen metabolites (ROMs), superoxide anion (O2-), malondialdehyde (MDA), advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP), lipid hydroperoxides (LOOH), biological antioxidative potential (BAP), paraoxonase activity toward paraoxon (POase) and diazoxon (DZOase), superoxide dismutase (SOD), total sulphydryl group concentration (SH groups) and pro-oxidant-antioxidant balance. Significant associations were observed between biomarkers of oxidative damage with PAB in multiple linear regression model in the supplemented and the control groups (82.3% vs. 83.1%) before training and in the control group (82.1%) after training. Significant associations between antioxidative defence parameters and PAB values were found in the supplemented group after six-weeks of training (57%). In the absence of antioxidant supplementation, PAB values were dependent on the association with biomarkers of oxidative damage before and after training. After a six-week training period and the applied antioxidant supplementation, PAB values were under the influence of non-enzymatic anti-oxidative defence.

  10. Method of non-functional requirements balancing during service development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larisa Globa

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Today, the list of telecom services, their functionality and requirements for Service Execu-tion Environment (SEE are changing extremely fast. Especially when it concerns require-ments for charging as they have a high influence on business. This results in the need for constant adaptation and reconfiguration of Online Charging System (OCS used in mobile operator networks. Moreover any new functionality requested from a service can have an impact on system behavior (performance, response time, delays which are in general non-functional requirements. Currently, this influence and reconfiguration strategies are poorly formalized and validated. Current state-of-the-art approaches are considered methodolo-gies that can model non-functional or functional requirements but these approaches don’t take into account interaction between functional and nonfunctional requirements and col-laboration between services. All these result in time and money consuming service devel-opment and testing, and cause delays during service deployment. The balancing method proposed in this paper fills this gap. It employs a well-defined workflow with predefined stages for development and deployment process for OCS. The applicability of this novel ap-proach is described in a separate section which contains an example of GPRS service charging. A tool, based on this method will be developed, providing automation of service functionality influence on non-functional requirements and allowing to provide a target de-ployment model for a particular customer. The reduction of development time and thus nec-essary financial input has been proved based on real-world experiments.

  11. 下肢康复训练机器人对缺血性脑卒中偏瘫患者平衡及步行功能的影响%The effect of Lokomat lower limb gait training rehabilitation robot on balance function and walking ability in hemiplegic patients after ischemic stroke

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵雅宁; 郝正玮; 李建民; 马素慧; 沈海涛; 陈长香

    2012-01-01

    目的:观察下肢康复训练机器人对缺血性脑卒中(早期)偏瘫患者平衡功能以及步行功能的影响.方法:将40例偏瘫患者随机分为对照组(20例)和Lokomat组(20例).两组均给予常规肢体功能训练,对照组采用常规康复疗法,每周进行3次,每次30min,共治疗10周.Lokomat组给予下肢康复机器人为主的运动训练,辅以常规康复训练,每次30min,3次/周,共10周(2个疗程).采用Berg平衡量表及单项评分(测定平衡功能)、踝-后足评分量表(AOFAS)及其中的异常步态、前足活动(屈/伸)、后足活动(内翻加外翻)、踝-后足稳定性和足部对线(评价踝关节的功能恢复和异常步态)和步长、步宽、步频、步速(评价患者每天活动时实际步行功能的变化)进行疗效评价.结果:治疗前,两组在Berg平衡量表,踝-后足功能评分以及异常步态、前足活动(屈/伸)、后足活动(内翻加外翻)、踝-后足稳定性和足部对线,步长、步宽、步速和步频的评测差异均无显著性(P>0.05),均具有可比性.治疗后,Berg平衡量表,踝-后足功能评分及异常步态、前足活动(屈/伸)、后足活动(内翻加外翻)、踝-后足稳定性和足部对线,步长、步宽、步速和步频的评测较治疗前均有明显改善(P< 0.05);与对照组相比,Lokomat组改善均更明显(P<0.05);Berg平衡功能单项评分比较:训练后,Lokomat组从坐到站、无支撑站位、无支撑坐位、站到坐、转移、闭眼站立、并脚站立、前后脚成直线以及单脚站等方面评分均高于对照组(P<0.05).结论:下肢康复训练机器人能改善缺血性脑卒中偏瘫患者的踝背屈功能,对改善其平衡和步行功能具有积极作用.%Objective:To investigate the effect of Lokomat lower limb gait training rehabilitation robot on balance function and walking ability in hemiplegic patients after ischemic stroke. Method: Forty hemiplegic patients after ischemic stroke were

  12. Determination method of load balance ranges for train operation safety under strong wind

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田红旗

    2015-01-01

    The aerodynamic performances of a passenger car and a box car with different heights of windbreak walls under strong wind were studied using the numerical simulations, and the changes of aerodynamic side force, lift force and overturning moment with different wind speeds and wall heights were calculated. According to the principle of static moment balance of vehicles, the overturning coefficients of trains with different wind speeds and wall heights were obtained. Based on the influence of wind speed and wall height on the aerodynamic performance and the overturning stability of trains, a method of determination of the load balance ranges for the train operation safety was proposed, which made the overturning coefficient have nearly closed interval. A min(|A1|+|A2|), s.t.|A1|→|A2|(A1 refers to the downwind overturning coefficient and A2 refers to the upwind overturning coefficient) was found. This minimum value helps to lower the wall height as much as possible, and meanwhile, guarantees the operation safety of various types of trains under strong wind. This method has been used for the construction and improvement of the windbreak walls along the Lanzhou–Xinjiang railway (from Lanzhou to Urumqi, China).

  13. Within Session Sequence of Balance and Plyometric Exercises Does Not Affect Training Adaptations with Youth Soccer Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Chaouachi, Urs Granacher, Issam Makhlouf, Raouf Hammami, David G Behm, Anis Chaouachi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The integration of balance and plyometric training has been shown to provide significant improvements in sprint, jump, agility, and other performance measures in young athletes. It is not known if a specific within session balance and plyometric exercise sequence provides more effective training adaptations. The objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of using a sequence of alternating pairs of exercises versus a block (series of all balance exercises followed by a block of plyometric exercises on components of physical fitness such as muscle strength, power, speed, agility, and balance. Twenty-six male adolescent soccer players (13.9 ± 0.3 years participated in an 8-week training program that either alternated individual balance (e.g., exercises on unstable surfaces and plyometric (e.g., jumps, hops, rebounds exercises or performed a block of balance exercises prior to a block of plyometric exercises within each training session. Pre- and post-training measures included proxies of strength, power, agility, sprint, and balance such as countermovement jumps, isometric back and knee extension strength, standing long jump, 10 and 30-m sprints, agility, standing stork, and Y-balance tests. Both groups exhibited significant, generally large magnitude (effect sizes training improvements for all measures with mean performance increases of approximately >30%. There were no significant differences between the training groups over time. The results demonstrate the effectiveness of combining balance and plyometric exercises within a training session on components of physical fitness with young adolescents. The improved performance outcomes were not significantly influenced by the within session exercise sequence.

  14. Immediate effects of ankle balance taping with kinesiology tape on the dynamic balance of young players with functional ankle instability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Byeong-Gyu; Lee, Jung-Hoon

    2015-01-01

    Soccer, one of the most popular and well-known sports worldwide, involves complex motions such as running, quick changes in direction, jumping, and landing, all of which have a high risk of injury. Among them, ankle injuries are the most frequent. This study investigated the immediate effects of ankle balance taping (ABT) with kinesiology tape on the dynamic balance of young male soccer players with functional ankle instability (FAI). Nine young male soccer players with FAI in their dominant ankle were randomly subjected to no-, placebo-, and real-ABT conditions. After the appropriate treatment was administered, the dynamic balance was measured using the Star Excursion Balance Test (SEBT). In terms of the anterior and posterolateral reach distances on the SEBT, the real-ABT condition showed statistically significant increases compared to the no- and placebo-ABT conditions (p kinesiology tape can be expected to improve the dynamic balance of young male soccer players with FAI.

  15. Resistance versus Balance Training to Improve Postural Control in Parkinson's Disease: A Randomized Rater Blinded Controlled Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Schlenstedt

    Full Text Available Reduced muscle strength is an independent risk factor for falls and related to postural instability in individuals with Parkinson's disease. The ability of resistance training to improve postural control still remains unclear.To compare resistance training with balance training to improve postural control in people with Parkinson's disease.40 patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease (Hoehn&Yahr: 2.5-3.0 were randomly assigned into resistance or balance training (2x/week for 7 weeks. Assessments were performed at baseline, 8- and 12-weeks follow-up: primary outcome: Fullerton Advanced Balance (FAB scale; secondary outcomes: center of mass analysis during surface perturbations, Timed-up-and-go-test, Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale, Clinical Global Impression, gait analysis, maximal isometric leg strength, PDQ-39, Beck Depression Inventory. Clinical tests were videotaped and analysed by a second rater, blind to group allocation and assessment time.32 participants (resistance training: n = 17, balance training: n = 15; 8 drop-outs were analyzed at 8-weeks follow-up. No significant difference was found in the FAB scale when comparing the effects of the two training types (p = 0.14; effect size (Cohen's d = -0.59. Participants from the resistance training group, but not from the balance training group significantly improved on the FAB scale (resistance training: +2.4 points, Cohen's d = -0.46; balance training: +0.3 points, Cohen's d = -0.08. Within the resistance training group, improvements of the FAB scale were significantly correlated with improvements of rate of force development and stride time variability. No significant differences were found in the secondary outcome measures when comparing the training effects of both training types.The difference between resistance and balance training to improve postural control in people with Parkinson's disease was small and not significant with this sample size. There was weak evidence that

  16. Correlation between static balance and functional autonomy in elderly women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Noronha Ribeiro Daniel, Fernanda; de Souza Vale, Rodrigo Gomes; Giani, Tania Santos; Bacellar, Silvia; Escobar, Tatiane; Stoutenberg, Mark; Dantas, Estélio Henrique Martin

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to verify the correlation between static balance and functional autonomy in elderly women. The sample was a random selection of 32 sedentary elderly women (mean age=67.47 ± 7.37 years, body mass index=BMI=27.30 ± 5.07 kg/m(2)), who live in the city of Teresina in the state of Piauí, Brazil. Static balance was analyzed by stabilometric assessment using an electronic baropodometer which measured the average of the amplitude of postural oscillations in the right (RLD) and left (LLD) lateral displacements, anterior (AD) and posterior (PD) displacements, and in the elliptical area (EA) formed by the body's center of gravity. Functional autonomy was evaluated by a battery of tests from the LADEG protocol which is composed of: a 10 m walk (10 mW), getting up from a seated position (GSP), getting up from the prone position (GPP), getting up from a chair and movement around the house (GCMH), and putting on and taking off a shirt (PTS). The Spearman's correlation coefficient (r) indicated a positive and significant correlation between GPP and LLD (r=0.382; p=0.031), GPP and PD (r=0.398; p=0.024) and GPP and EA (r=0.368; p=0.038). These results show that sedentary elderly women who spent the greatest amount of time performing the GPP test achieved the largest mean amplitude of displacement leading to greater levels of instability.

  17. Usability and Effects of an Exergame-Based Balance Training Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wüest, Seline; Borghese, Nunzio Alberto; Pirovano, Michele; Mainetti, Renato; van de Langenberg, Rolf; de Bruin, Eling D

    2014-04-01

    Background: Post-stroke recovery benefits from structured, intense, challenging, and repetitive therapy. Exergames have emerged as promising to achieve sustained therapy practice and patient motivation. This study assessed the usability and effects of exergames on balance and gait. Subjects and Methods: Sixteen elderly participants were provided with the study intervention based on five newly developed exergames. The participants were required to attend 36 training sessions; lasting for 20 minutes each. Adherence, attrition and acceptance were assessed together with (1) Berg Balance Scale, (2) 7-m Timed Up and Go, (3) Short Physical Performance Battery, (4) force platform stance tests, and (5) gait analysis. Results: Thirteen participants completed the study (18.8 percent attrition), without missing a single training session (100 percent adherence). Participants showed high acceptance of the intervention. Only minor adaptations in the program were needed based on the users' feedback. No changes in center of pressure area during quiet stance on both stable and unstable surfaces and no changes of walking parameters were detected. Scores for the Berg Balance Scale (P=0.007; r=0.51), the 7-m Timed Up and Go (P=0.002; r=0.56), and the Short Physical Performance Battery (P=0.013; r=0.48) increased significantly with moderate to large effect sizes. Conclusion: Participants evaluated the usability of the virtual reality training intervention positively. Results indicate that the intervention improves gait- and balance-related physical performance measures in untrained elderly. The present results warrant a clinical explorative study investigating the usability and effectiveness of the exergame-based program in stroke patients.

  18. Hydration Status and Fluid Balance of Elite European Youth Soccer Players during Consecutive Training Sessions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaun M. Phillips

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to investigate the hydration status and fluid balance of elite European youth soccer players during three consecutive training sessions. Fourteen males (age 16.9 ± 0.8 years, height 1.79 ± 0.06 m, body mass (BM 70.6 ± 5.0 kg had their hydration status assessed from first morning urine samples (baseline and pre- and post-training using urine specific gravity (USG measures, and their fluid balance calculated from pre- to post-training BM change, corrected for fluid intake and urine output. Most participants were hypohydrated upon waking (USG >1.020; 77% on days 1 and 3, and 62% on day 2. There was no significant difference between first morning and pre-training USG (p = 0.11 and no influence of training session (p = 0.34 or time (pre- vs. post-training; p = 0.16 on USG. Significant BM loss occurred in sessions 1-3 (0.69 ± 0.22, 0.42 ± 0.25, and 0.38 ± 0.30 kg respectively, p < 0.05. Mean fluid intake in sessions 1-3 was 425 ± 185, 355 ± 161, and 247 ± 157 ml, respectively (p < 0.05. Participants replaced on average 71.3 ± 64.1% (range 0-363.6% of fluid losses across the three sessions. Body mass loss, fluid intake, and USG measures showed large inter-individual variation. Elite young European soccer players likely wake and present for training hypohydrated, when a USG threshold of 1.020 is applied. When training in a cool environment with ad libitum access to fluid, replacing ~71% of sweat losses results in minimal hypohydration (<1% BM. Consumption of fluid ad libitum throughout training appears to prevent excessive (≥2% BM dehydration, as advised by current fluid intake guidelines. Current fluid intake guidelines appear applicable for elite European youth soccer players training in a cool environment.

  19. Training on a knife's edge: how to balance triathlon training to prevent overuse injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bales, James; Bales, Karrn

    2012-12-01

    The sport of triathlon offers athletes the chance to build and/or maintain cardiovascular fitness across 3 endurance disciplines. Swimming, biking, and running each have a host of overuse injuries that can occur as a result of overtraining. High running mileage, a history of previous injury, inadequate warm up or cool down, and an increase in the years of triathlon experience are a few of the factors that have been linked to triathlon overuse injuries. Early identification of overtraining symptoms and a corresponding reallocation of balance between each discipline, perhaps with an emphasis on increasing swimming, may help prevent many overuse injuries.

  20. Effects of 3-Dimensional Lumbar Stabilization Training for Balance in Chronic Hemiplegic Stroke Patients: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Chun, Jin-Young; Seo, Jeong-Hwan; Park, Sung-Hee; Won, Yu Hui; Kim, Gi-Wook; Moon, Sung-Jun; Ko, Myoung-Hwan

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effects of the newly developed Spine Balance 3D system on the balance and gait abilities of hemiplegic stroke patients. Methods Twenty-eight hemiplegic patients with chronic stroke were randomly assigned to an experimental (n=14) or control group (n=14). The experimental and control groups performed balance training by using the newly developed Spine Balance 3D system and the well-known Biodex Balance System 30 minutes per day, three times a week for 7 weeks. The ...

  1. Effect of Acute Effort on Isometric Strength and Body Balance: Trained vs. Untrained Paradigm.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanisław Sterkowicz

    Full Text Available Years of training in competitive sports leads to human body adaptation to a specific type of exercise. In judo bouts, maintaining hand grip on an opponent's clothes and postural balance is essential for the effective technical and tactical actions. This study compares changes after maximal anaerobic exercise among judo athletes and untrained subjects regarding 1 maximum isometric handgrip strength (HGSmax and accuracy at the perceived 50% maximum handgrip force (1/2HGSmax and 2 the balance of 13 judo athletes at national (n = 8 and international (n = 5 competitive levels and 19 untrained university students. The groups did not differ in age, body height, and weight. Body mass index (BMI and body composition (JAWON were evaluated. The Wingate Anaerobic Test (WAnT, Monark 875E measured recommended anaerobic capacity indices. Hand grip strength (Takei dynamometer and balance (biplate balance platform were measured before warm-up (T1, before the WAnT test (T2, and after (T3. Parametric or non-parametric tests were performed after verifying the variable distribution assumption. Judoists had higher BMI and fat-free mass index (FFMI than the students. The athletes also showed higher relative total work and relative peak power and lower levels of lactic acid. The difference in judoists between HGSmax at T1 and HGSmax at T3 was statistically significant. Before warm-up (T1, athletes showed higher strength (more divergent from the calculated ½HGSmax value compared to students. Substantial fatigue after the WAnT test significantly deteriorated the body stability indices, which were significantly better in judo athletes at all time points. The findings suggest specific body adaptations in judoists, especially for body composition, anaerobic energy system efficiency, and postural balance. These characteristics could be trained for specifically by judo athletes to meet the time-motion and anaerobic demands of contemporary bouts.

  2. Resistance training for activity limitations in older adults with skeletal muscle function deficits: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Papa EV

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Evan V Papa,1 Xiaoyang Dong,2 Mahdi Hassan1 1Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanchang University, Nanchang, Jiangxi Province, People’s Republic of China; 2Department of Physical Therapy, University of North Texas Health Science Center, Fort Worth, TX, USA Abstract: Human aging results in a variety of changes to skeletal muscle. Sarcopenia is the age-associated loss of muscle mass and is one of the main contributors to musculoskeletal impairments in the elderly. Previous research has demonstrated that resistance training can attenuate skeletal muscle function deficits in older adults, however few articles have focused on the effects of resistance training on functional mobility. The purpose of this systematic review was to 1 present the current state of literature regarding the effects of resistance training on functional mobility outcomes for older adults with skeletal muscle function deficits and 2 provide clinicians with practical guidelines that can be used with seniors during resistance training, or to encourage exercise. We set forth evidence that resistance training can attenuate age-related changes in functional mobility, including improvements in gait speed, static and dynamic balance, and fall risk reduction. Older adults should be encouraged to participate in progressive resistance training activities, and should be admonished to move along a continuum of exercise from immobility, toward the recommended daily amounts of activity. Keywords: aging, strength training, sarcopenia, mobility, balance

  3. 重点肌群训练对脑卒中偏瘫患者平衡功能及步行能力的影响%Focus on muscle training on balance function and walking ability of cerebral apoplexy hemiplegia patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    屈泽; 李宣; 黄元芳; 李艳

    2014-01-01

    目的:研究探讨重点肌群强化对脑卒中偏瘫患者步行安全性及平衡功能的影响,为临床提供相关依据。方法:选择我院2009年2月~2012年2月接受脑卒中偏瘫治疗的患者126例作为研究对象,将所有患者严格按照随机分组原则分为锻炼组与对照各63例。其中2组均接受现代功能康复技术的步行训练与平衡训练,锻炼组在上述基础上强化加入髋外展肌群的训练,治疗前和治疗后6周使用Berg平衡评分量表以及Holden功能步行分类分别对2组患者平衡功能及步行功能进行评定,治疗结束后持续随访直至半年后,记录患者跌倒发生率。结果:治疗结束后,2组患者的BBS,Holden的功能步行分类级别较治疗之前有着明显的改善。组间比较锻炼组的评分级别优于对照组,差异具有显著性( P<0.05)。随访半年后,治疗结束的半年内锻炼组患者发生跌倒的频率显著低于对照组,差异具有统计学意义。(P<0.05)。结论:在常规锻炼的基础上增加重点肌群的锻炼可以明显增强脑卒中偏瘫患者平衡功能,加快功能恢复,效果显著,具有较高的临床应用价值。%Objective:research focus on muscle strengthening on the balance function of patients with cerebral apoplexy hemiplegia and pedestrian safety , provide evidences for clinical .Methods:select our hospital between December 2009 and February 20012 , 126 patients with cerebral apoplexy hemiplegia treated as object of study , all patients were in strict accordance with the principle of random grouping can be divided into exercise group and compared with 63 cases each .Two groups all received the balance of modern rehabilitation tech-niques training and walking training , the exercise groups on the basis of the above strengthening join xu lian hip abductor muscle group , before and after 6 weeks treatment using the Berg balance rating scale and walking

  4. Effects of Vibration Training and Detraining on Balance and Muscle Strength in Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marín, Pedro J.; Martín-López, Aurora; Vicente-Campos, Davinia; Angulo-Carrere, MT; García-Pastor, Teresa; Garatachea, Nuria; Chicharro, José L.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the effects of 2 days/week versus 4 days/week of Whole Body Vibration (WBV) during eight weeks of WBV training on health-related quality of life (SF-36), balance and lower body strength, as well as short-term detraining (3 weeks) on balance and lower body strength among older adults. Thirty-four older adults were randomly assigned to a control group (Control; n = 11) or to one of the vibration training groups: WBV 2 days/week (WBV_2d; n = 11) or WBV 4 days/week (WBV_4d; n = 12). The WBV groups exercised for 8 weeks, following 3 weeks of detraining. Lower body strength increased significantly (p < 0.05) for both groups, WBV_2d and WBV_4d, after 8-week training. A significant reduction in strength was observed following 3 weeks of detraining only in WBV_2d group (p < 0.05). All variables of the SF-36 and the balance test did not change after intervention in any group. 2 days/week and 4 days/week of WBV during 8 weeks showed the same improvements on muscle strength. 3 weeks of detraining did not reverse the gains in strength made during 32 sessions of WBV. Key points 2 days and 4 days per week of WBV training during 8 weeks showed the same improvements on muscle strength. 3 weeks of detraining did not reverse the gains in strength made during 32 sessions of WBV exercise. 3 weeks of detraining did reverse the gains in strength made during 16 sessions of WBV exercise. PMID:24150633

  5. Effects of vibration training and detraining on balance and muscle strength in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marín, Pedro J; Martín-López, Aurora; Vicente-Campos, Davinia; Angulo-Carrere, Mt; García-Pastor, Teresa; Garatachea, Nuria; Chicharro, José L

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the effects of 2 days/week versus 4 days/week of Whole Body Vibration (WBV) during eight weeks of WBV training on health-related quality of life (SF-36), balance and lower body strength, as well as short-term detraining (3 weeks) on balance and lower body strength among older adults. Thirty-four older adults were randomly assigned to a control group (Control; n = 11) or to one of the vibration training groups: WBV 2 days/week (WBV_2d; n = 11) or WBV 4 days/week (WBV_4d; n = 12). The WBV groups exercised for 8 weeks, following 3 weeks of detraining. Lower body strength increased significantly (p < 0.05) for both groups, WBV_2d and WBV_4d, after 8-week training. A significant reduction in strength was observed following 3 weeks of detraining only in WBV_2d group (p < 0.05). All variables of the SF-36 and the balance test did not change after intervention in any group. 2 days/week and 4 days/week of WBV during 8 weeks showed the same improvements on muscle strength. 3 weeks of detraining did not reverse the gains in strength made during 32 sessions of WBV. Key points2 days and 4 days per week of WBV training during 8 weeks showed the same improvements on muscle strength.3 weeks of detraining did not reverse the gains in strength made during 32 sessions of WBV exercise.3 weeks of detraining did reverse the gains in strength made during 16 sessions of WBV exercise.

  6. Wearable Sensor-Based Biofeedback Training for Balance and Gait in Parkinson Disease: A Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpinella, Ilaria; Cattaneo, Davide; Bonora, Gianluca; Bowman, Thomas; Martina, Laura; Montesano, Angelo; Ferrarin, Maurizio

    2017-04-01

    To analyze the feasibility and efficacy of a novel system (Gamepad [GAMing Experience in PArkinson's Disease]) for biofeedback rehabilitation of balance and gait in Parkinson disease (PD). Randomized controlled trial. Clinical rehabilitation gym. Subjects with PD (N=42) were randomized into experimental and physiotherapy without biofeedback groups. Both groups underwent 20 sessions of training for balance and gait. The experimental group performed tailored functional tasks using Gamepad. The system, based on wearable inertial sensors, provided users with real-time visual and acoustic feedback about their movement during the exercises. The physiotherapy group underwent individually structured physiotherapy without feedback. Assessments were performed by a blinded examiner preintervention, postintervention, and at 1-month follow-up. Primary outcomes were the Berg Balance Scale (BBS) and 10-m walk test (10MWT). Secondary outcomes included instrumental stabilometric indexes and the Tele-healthcare Satisfaction Questionnaire. Gamepad was well accepted by participants. Statistically significant between-group differences in BBS scores suggested better balance performances of the experimental group compared with the physiotherapy without biofeedback group both posttraining (experimental group-physiotherapy without biofeedback group: mean, 2.3±3.4 points; P=.047) and at follow-up (experimental group-physiotherapy without biofeedback group: mean, 2.7±3.3 points; P=.018). Posttraining stabilometric indexes showed that mediolateral body sway during upright stance was significantly reduced in the experimental group compared with the physiotherapy without biofeedback group (experimental group-physiotherapy without biofeedback group: -1.6±1.5mm; P=.003). No significant between-group differences were found in the other outcomes. Gamepad-based training was feasible and superior to physiotherapy without feedback in improving BBS performance and retaining it for 1 month. After

  7. Effect of isokinetic training on muscle strength and postural balance in children with Down's syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eid, Mohamed A; Aly, Sobhy M; Huneif, Mohamed A; Ismail, Dina K

    2017-06-01

    Children with Down's syndrome (DS) often have greater postural sway and delay in motor development. Muscle weakness and hypotonia, particularly of the lower extremities, are theorized to impair their overall physical health and ability to perform daily activities. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of isokinetic training on muscle strength and postural balance in children with DS. Thirty-one children with DS ranging in age from 9 to 12 years were assigned randomly into two groups. The control group received the conventional physical therapy, whereas the study group received the same therapy as the control group in addition to the isokinetic training 3 days a week for 12 weeks. Measurement of stability indices using the Biodex Stability System as well as peak torque of knee flexors and extensors of both sides using the isokinetic dynamometer was performed before and after 12 weeks of the treatment program. Each group showed significant improvements in postural balance and peak torque of knee flexors and extensors (Ptraining program induced greater improvements in muscle strength and postural balance in children with DS.

  8. COMPARATIVE STUDY ON THE EFFECT OF SQUARE STEPPING EXERCISES VERSUS BALANCE TRAINING EXERCISES ON FEAR OF FALL AND BALANCE IN ELDERLY POPULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harshika Bhanusali

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Balance is a complex process involving the reception and integration of sensory inputs and the planning and execution of movement to achieve a goal requiring upright posture. The need of the study is to compare the effect of square stepping exercises versus balance exercises on fear of falling and balance in elderly. Aims and Objectives: 1. To study the effects of square stepping exercise on older adults to improve balance impairments and reducing fear of falling. 2. To identify the effects of balance exercise on fear of falling and balance in elderly. 3. To compare effect of balance exercise and square stepping exercise and in older adults to improve balance and reducing fear of falling. Materials and Methods: 36 elderly individuals with age 60 year and above having MMSE score >24 and BBS scores of more than 41/56 with vital signs within normal range for elderly population were included in the study. Subjects with history of any neurological disease and musculoskeletal impairment that could account for possible balance impairment like CVA, Parkinson's disease, vestibular disorder, joint replacement, fractures etc, diagnosed with visual and auditory impairment, uncontrolled diabetes mellitus, unstable cardio-respiratory condition, which may affect the training procedure were excluded. Purpose of the study was explained to the subject. Written consent was taken. All participants were selected by simple random sampling and randomly divided into two groups. Group A received Square stepping exercises and group B received Balance training exercises for a period of 30 minutes with appropriate rest pause, 3 times per week for 4 weeks. Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE, Berg Balance Scale (BBS, Timed Get Up Go (TUG were used to assess cognition, balance respectively and Fall Efficacy Scale (FES was used to assess fear of falling Result: Participants in both the groups improved on BBS and TUG (p<0.0001 scores. Conclusion: The study

  9. Determine Optimal Stimulus Amplitude for Using Vestibular Stochastic Stimulation to Improve Balance Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goel, R.; Kofman, I.; DeDios, Y. E.; Jeevarajan, J.; Stepanyan, V.; Nair, M.; Congdon, S.; Fregia, M.; Cohen, H.; Bloomberg, J.J.; Mulavara, A.P.

    2015-01-01

    Sensorimotor changes such as postural and gait instabilities can affect the functional performance of astronauts when they transition across different gravity environments. We are developing a method, based on stochastic resonance (SR), to enhance information transfer by applying non-zero levels of external noise on the vestibular system (vestibular stochastic resonance, VSR). Our previous work has shown the advantageous effects of VSR in a balance task of standing on an unstable surface [1]. This technique to improve detection of vestibular signals uses a stimulus delivery system that provides imperceptibly low levels of white noise-based binaural bipolar electrical stimulation of the vestibular system. The goal of this project is to determine optimal levels of stimulation for SR applications by using a defined vestibular threshold of motion detection. A series of experiments were carried out to determine a robust paradigm to identify a vestibular threshold that can then be used to recommend optimal stimulation levels for sensorimotor adaptability (SA) training applications customized to each crewmember. The amplitude of stimulation to be used in the VSR application has varied across studies in the literature such as 60% of nociceptive stimulus thresholds [2]. We compared subjects' perceptual threshold with that obtained from two measures of body sway. Each test session was 463s long and consisted of several 15s long sinusoidal stimuli, at different current amplitudes (0-2 mA), interspersed with 20-20.5s periods of no stimulation. Subjects sat on a chair with their eyes closed and had to report their perception of motion through a joystick. A force plate underneath the chair recorded medio-lateral shear forces and roll moments. Comparison of threshold of motion detection obtained from joystick data versus body sway suggests that perceptual thresholds were significantly lower. In the balance task, subjects stood on an unstable surface and had to maintain balance

  10. The Effect of Body Weight Support Treadmill Training on Gait Recovery, Proximal Lower Limb Motor Pattern, and Balance in Patients with Subacute Stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Rong Mao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Gait performance is an indicator of mobility impairment after stroke. This study evaluated changes in balance, lower extremity motor function, and spatiotemporal gait parameters after receiving body weight supported treadmill training (BWSTT and conventional overground walking training (CT in patients with subacute stroke using 3D motion analysis. Setting. Inpatient department of rehabilitation medicine at a university-affiliated hospital. Participants. 24 subjects with unilateral hemiplegia in the subacute stage were randomized to the BWSTT (n=12 and CT (n=12 groups. Parameters were compared between the two groups. Data from twelve age matched healthy subjects were recorded as reference. Interventions. Patients received gait training with BWSTT or CT for an average of 30 minutes/day, 5 days/week, for 3 weeks. Main Outcome Measures. Balance was measured by the Brunel balance assessment. Lower extremity motor function was evaluated by the Fugl-Meyer assessment scale. Kinematic data were collected and analyzed using a gait capture system before and after the interventions. Results. Both groups improved on balance and lower extremity motor function measures (P<0.05, with no significant difference between the two groups after intervention. However, kinematic data were significantly improved (P<0.05 after BWSTT but not after CT. Maximum hip extension and flexion angles were significantly improved (P<0.05 for the BWSTT group during the stance and swing phases compared to baseline. Conclusion. In subacute patients with stroke, BWSTT can lead to improved gait quality when compared with conventional gait training. Both methods can improve balance and motor function.

  11. The Effects of Short-Term Ski Trainings on Dynamic Balance Performance and Vertical Jump in Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camliguney, Asiye Filiz

    2013-01-01

    Skiing is a sport where balance and strength are critical and which can be practiced actively especially from early years to old age. The purpose of this study is to examine the effect of a 5-day training of skiing skills on dynamic balance performance and development of vertical jump strength in adolescents. Sixteen adolescent volunteers who do…

  12. The Effects of Short-Term Ski Trainings on Dynamic Balance Performance and Vertical Jump in Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camliguney, Asiye Filiz

    2013-01-01

    Skiing is a sport where balance and strength are critical and which can be practiced actively especially from early years to old age. The purpose of this study is to examine the effect of a 5-day training of skiing skills on dynamic balance performance and development of vertical jump strength in adolescents. Sixteen adolescent volunteers who do…

  13. Dose-Response Relationships of Balance Training in Healthy Young Adults : A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lesinski, Melanie; Hortobagyi, Tibor; Muehlbauer, Thomas; Gollhofer, Albert; Granacher, Urs

    2015-01-01

    Background Balance training (BT) has been used for the promotion of balance and sports-related skills as well as for prevention and rehabilitation of lower extremity sport injuries. However, evidence-based dose-response relationships in BT parameters have not yet been established. Objective The obje

  14. Dose-Response Relationships of Balance Training in Healthy Young Adults : A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lesinski, Melanie; Hortobagyi, Tibor; Muehlbauer, Thomas; Gollhofer, Albert; Granacher, Urs

    Background Balance training (BT) has been used for the promotion of balance and sports-related skills as well as for prevention and rehabilitation of lower extremity sport injuries. However, evidence-based dose-response relationships in BT parameters have not yet been established. Objective The

  15. The Training & Development Function And The Power Of Getting ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Training & Development Function And The Power Of Getting Things Done. ... LBS Management Review ... The quality of an organization's human resources is key to success, and much of it is a function of training and development.

  16. RESURGENCE OF MANDS FOLLOWING FUNCTIONAL COMMUNICATION TRAINING

    Science.gov (United States)

    BERG, WENDY K.; RINGDAHL, JOEL E.; RYAN, STEPHEN E.; ING, ANNA D.; LUSTIG, NICOLE; ROMANI, PATRICK; WACKER, DAVID P.; ANDERSEN, JENNIFER K.; DURAKO, EMILY

    2015-01-01

    Experimental conditions similar to those described by Lieving and Lattal (2003) were used within two experiments to evaluate the resurgence of mands with humans. Two mands from the same operant class were trained with three participants with developmental disabilities during Experiment 1 and with two participants with developmental disabilities and a history of problem behavior during Experiment 2. The two mands were then placed on extinction. Both persisted, but showed different response strength during extinction. The mand with the weaker response strength was targeted for additional functional communication training and the alternative mand was placed on extinction. Following steady levels of occurrence of the targeted mand and no occurrences of the alternative mand, both mands were placed on extinction again. At least one instance of resurgence of the alternative mand occurred with every participant and resurgence of problem behavior occurred for both participants during Experiment 2. PMID:26640311

  17. The effect of strength training based on process approach intervention on balance of children with developmental coordination disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kordi, Hasan; Sohrabi, Mehdi; Saberi Kakhki, Alireza; Attarzadeh Hossini, Seyed R

    2016-12-01

    Balance is one of the main problems of children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD). According to process-oriented approach, besides strength training, neuromuscular adaptations can improve balance. To evaluate the effects of strength training on improving static and dynamic balance in DCD children. Children between 7 to 9 years old in Tehran participated in the study through randomized controlled trial design. Subjects were randomly divided into two experimental (n = 15) and control (n= 15) groups. The participants exercised for 12 weeks and 24 sessions. The experimental group received strength training using flexible Thera-band elastic exercise and control group received routine exercises in physical education class. Isometric strength of hip abductor muscles and plantar flexors were measured using hand held dynamometer, and Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency, Second Edition (BOT-2) was used for measurement of static and dynamic balance. Data were analyzed using independent and paired sample t-tests. Strength training significantly increased muscle strength in DCD children (P 0.05). The strength training leads to static balance improve in DCD children. There was not an improvement in dynamic balance through the strength training in these children.

  18. Effectiveness of simple balancing training program in elderly patients with history of frequent falls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuptniratsaikul, Vilai; Praditsuwan, Rungnirand; Assantachai, Prasert; Ploypetch, Teerada; Udompunturak, Suthipol; Pooliam, Julaporn

    2011-01-01

    To study the effectiveness of simply-performed balancing exercises in fall prevention. Pre- and post-trial. University hospital from January 2009 to May 2010. Elderly with falls in the previous year. Simple balancing exercise was performed at home every day and was recorded in the booklet. New falling events and a battery of balancing abilities including the Timed Up and Go Test (TUGT), chair stand, functional reach, and Berg balance scale-short form were evaluated at baseline, 3-, 6-, 9-, and 12-month periods. Fear of falling and quality of life scores were assessed at baseline and 12-month periods. 146 subjects were recruited, 116 female (79.5%) with a mean age of 67.1 years. At the end of the study, 49% of participants had not fallen. All of the balancing abilities were compared between frequent and infrequent fallers and were significantly improved (Pprogram. However, compliance had no effect on balancing abilities. About 36.4% of participants had adverse events from exercise, of which knee pain was the top ranked. The quality of life and the fall efficacy scores increased significantly at the end of the study. Factors affecting falling were compliance with exercise (adjusted odds ratio [OR]: 2.55, 95% confidence intervals [CI]: 1.04, 6.30) and a history of falling ≥3 times in the previous year (adjusted OR: 3.76, 95% CI: 1.18, 11.98). Performing simply-designed balancing exercises, at least 3 days per week, can increase balancing abilities, and decrease fall rates in the elderly with a history of previous falls. However, strategies to encourage elderly compliance may prevent falling.

  19. Emergence of Functional Specificity in Balanced Networks with Synaptic Plasticity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadra Sadeh

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In rodent visual cortex, synaptic connections between orientation-selective neurons are unspecific at the time of eye opening, and become to some degree functionally specific only later during development. An explanation for this two-stage process was proposed in terms of Hebbian plasticity based on visual experience that would eventually enhance connections between neurons with similar response features. For this to work, however, two conditions must be satisfied: First, orientation selective neuronal responses must exist before specific recurrent synaptic connections can be established. Second, Hebbian learning must be compatible with the recurrent network dynamics contributing to orientation selectivity, and the resulting specific connectivity must remain stable for unspecific background activity. Previous studies have mainly focused on very simple models, where the receptive fields of neurons were essentially determined by feedforward mechanisms, and where the recurrent network was small, lacking the complex recurrent dynamics of large-scale networks of excitatory and inhibitory neurons. Here we studied the emergence of functionally specific connectivity in large-scale recurrent networks with synaptic plasticity. Our results show that balanced random networks, which already exhibit highly selective responses at eye opening, can develop feature-specific connectivity if appropriate rules of synaptic plasticity are invoked within and between excitatory and inhibitory populations. If these conditions are met, the initial orientation selectivity guides the process of Hebbian learning and, as a result, functionally specific and a surplus of bidirectional connections emerge. Our results thus demonstrate the cooperation of synaptic plasticity and recurrent dynamics in large-scale functional networks with realistic receptive fields, highlight the role of inhibition as a critical element in this process, and paves the road for further computational

  20. Improvement of anticipatory postural adjustments for balance control: effect of a single training session.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanekar, Neeta; Aruin, Alexander S

    2015-04-01

    Humans use anticipatory and compensatory postural strategies to maintain and restore balance when perturbed. Inefficient generation and utilization of anticipatory postural adjustments (APAs) is one of the reasons for postural instability. The aim of the study was to investigate the role of training in improvement of APAs and its effect on subsequent control of posture. Thirteen healthy young adults were exposed to predictable external perturbations before and after a single training session consisting of catches of a medicine ball thrown at the shoulder level. 3-D body kinematics, EMG activity of thirteen trunk and lower limb muscles, and ground reaction forces were recorded before and immediately after a single training session. Muscle onsets, EMG integrals, center of pressure (COP), and center of mass (COM) displacements were analyzed during the anticipatory and compensatory phases of postural control. The effect of a single training session was seen as significantly early muscle onsets and larger anticipatory COP displacements. As a result, significantly smaller peak COM displacements were observed after the perturbation indicating greater postural stability. The outcome of this study provides a background for examining the role of training in improvement of APAs and its effect on postural stability in individuals in need.

  1. Motor intensive anti-gravity training improves performance in dynamic balance related tasks in persons with Parkinson's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malling, Anne Sofie Bøgh; Jensen, Bente Rona

    2016-01-01

    antigravity training. Seventeen healthy males constituted a control group (CON). Performance during a five repetition sit-to-stand test (STS; sagittal plane) and a dynamic postural balance test (DPB; transversal plane) was evaluated. Effect measures were completion time, functional rates of force development...... completion time tended to improve and was accompanied by improvements of functional medial and lateral rates of force development and higher vertical force variance during DPB. Our results suggest that the performance improvements may relate to improved inter-limb coordination. It is concluded that 8 weeks......, directional changes and force variance. STS completion time improved by 24% to the level of CON which was explained by shorter sitting-time and standing-time and larger numeric rate of force change during lowering to the chair, indicating faster vertical directional change and improved relaxation. DPB...

  2. Global Functioning of COPD Patients With and Without Functional Balance Impairment: An Exploratory Analysis Based on the ICF Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Joana; Marques, Alda; Jácome, Cristina; Gabriel, Raquel; Figueiredo, Daniela

    2015-04-01

    Balance impairment is a common manifestation in older people with COPD and may contribute to overall functional decline; however, the relationship between balance and global functioning has not been studied. This study aimed to explore the global functioning of COPD patients with and without functional balance impairment. Functional balance was assessed with the Timed Up-and-Go (TUG) test and global functioning with the Comprehensive ICF Core Set for Obstructive Pulmonary Diseases. Participants (n = 134) were divided in 2 groups according to their performance in TUG (with and without balance impairment) and the ICF Core Set results were compared between groups. Fifty-four (40.3%) participants had functional balance impairment. The groups presented a similar extent of problems in several categories of the ICF components. However, participants with balance impairment were more severely affected (p social life, and a more negative perception of Environmental factors related to products and technology of buildings for private use and social support services (p balance impairment have more functional problems and are more severely restricted in daily life than patients without compromised balance. Understanding the relationship between balance control and global functioning will contribute to guide interventions aimed at maintaining functioning and minimizing disability.

  3. Pilates exercise training vs. physical therapy for improving walking and balance in people with multiple sclerosis: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalron, Alon; Rosenblum, Uri; Frid, Lior; Achiron, Anat

    2017-03-01

    Evaluate the effects of a Pilates exercise programme on walking and balance in people with multiple sclerosis and compare this exercise approach to conventional physical therapy sessions. Randomized controlled trial. Multiple Sclerosis Center, Sheba Medical Center, Tel-Hashomer, Israel. Forty-five people with multiple sclerosis, 29 females, mean age (SD) was 43.2 (11.6) years; mean Expanded Disability Status Scale (S.D) was 4.3 (1.3). Participants received 12 weekly training sessions of either Pilates ( n=22) or standardized physical therapy ( n=23) in an outpatient basis. Spatio-temporal parameters of walking and posturography parameters during static stance. Functional tests included the Time Up and Go Test, 2 and 6-minute walk test, Functional Reach Test, Berg Balance Scale and the Four Square Step Test. In addition, the following self-report forms included the Multiple Sclerosis Walking Scale and Modified Fatigue Impact Scale. At the termination, both groups had significantly increased their walking speed ( P=0.021) and mean step length ( P=0.023). According to the 2-minute and 6-minute walking tests, both groups at the end of the intervention program had increased their walking speed. Mean (SD) increase in the Pilates and physical therapy groups were 39.1 (78.3) and 25.3 (67.2) meters, respectively. There was no effect of group X time in all instrumented and clinical balance and gait measures. Pilates is a possible treatment option for people with multiple sclerosis in order to improve their walking and balance capabilities. However, this approach does not have any significant advantage over standardized physical therapy.

  4. Balanced harvest: utopia, failure, or a functional strategy?

    OpenAIRE

    Kolding, Jeppe; Garcia, Serge M.; Zhou, Shijie; Heino, Mikko Petteri

    2016-01-01

    Since “balanced harvest” was proposed in 2010 as a possible tool in the operationalization of the ecosystem approach to fisheries (EAF), the concept gained extensive international attention. Because maintaining ecosystem structure and achieving maximum sustainable yields have become two of the key international legal obligations in fisheries management, balanced harvest is as topical as ever. An international workshop on balanced harvest, organized by the IUCN Fisheries Expert Group at FAO he...

  5. Assessment of postural balance in community-dwelling older adults - methodological aspects and effects of biofeedback-based Nintendo Wii training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Martin Grønbech

    citizens' centers and/or in the home of the elderly. The results presented in this thesis suggest that strict control of time-of-day is an important methodological aspect when evaluating postural balance in older adults, and an assessment protocol using the Nintendo Wii-Balance Board is reproducible......The overall purpose of this thesis was to examine selected methodological aspects and novel approaches for measuring postural balance older adults, and to examine the effects of biofeedback-based Nintendo Wii training on selected physiological, psychological and functional outcome variables...... in community-dwelling older adults. In Study I balance control was investigated using force plate analysis of Centre of Pressure (COP) excursion during static bilateral standing in 32 community-dwelling older adults at three different time-points (09:00, 12:30, and 16:00) throughout the day. An overall...

  6. Effect of balance training on walking speed and cardiac events in elderly patients with ischemic heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Shuhei; Matsunaga, Atsuhiko; Wang, Guoqin; Hoshi, Keika; Kamiya, Kentaro; Noda, Chiharu; Kimura, Masahiko; Yamaoka-Tojo, Minako; Masuda, Takashi

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to clarify the effect of standing balance training on walking speed (short-term outcome) and cardiac events (long-term outcome) in elderly ischemic heart disease (IHD) patients. This was a retrospective cohort study. Ninety-two elderly (≥ 65 years) IHD patients who underwent an inpatient cardiac rehabilitation program were assigned to two groups: a balance group that received standing balance training in addition to conventional (aerobic and resistance) training and a conventional group. Standing balance was assessed by one-leg standing time and a postural stability index reflecting dynamic balance, and normal walking speed was measured at baseline and hospital discharge. Patients were followed for up to 3 years or until a cardiac event occurred. There were no significant differences in clinical characteristics between the groups. Both groups showed a significant change in normal walking speed from baseline to hospital discharge (P balance group compared to the conventional group (P = 0.001). The postural stability index improved significantly only in the balance group (P = 0.005). Multivariable analyses using Cox proportional hazards model confirmed that standing balance training (hazard ratio [HR]: 0.408; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.162-1.029; P = 0.058) and fast walking speed (HR: 0.362; 95% CI: 0.137-0.957; P = 0.041) were associated with cardiac events. These findings show that standing balance training improves walking speed and reduces cardiac events, and suggests that such training can be an effective intervention for elderly IHD patients.

  7. Effects of 12-week proprioception training program on postural stability, gait, and balance in older adults: a controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Amat, Antonio; Hita-Contreras, Fidel; Lomas-Vega, Rafael; Caballero-Martínez, Isabel; Alvarez, Pablo J; Martínez-López, Emilio

    2013-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of a 12-week-specific proprioceptive training program on postural stability, gait, balance, and fall prevention in adults older than 65 years. The present study was a controlled clinical trial. Forty-four community dwelling elderly subjects (61-90 years; mean age, 78.07 ± 5.7 years) divided into experimental (n = 20) and control (n = 24) groups. The participants performed the Berg balance test before and after the training program, and we assessed participants' gait, balance, and the risk of falling, using the Tinetti scale. Medial-lateral plane and anterior-posterior plane displacements of the center of pressure, Sway area, length and speed, and the Romberg quotient about surface, speed, and distance were calculated in static posturography analysis (EPS pressure platform) under 2 conditions: eyes open and eyes closed. After a first clinical evaluation, patients were submitted to 12 weeks proprioception training program, 2 sessions of 50 minutes every week. This program includes 6 exercises with the BOSU and Swiss ball as unstable training tools that were designed to program proprioceptive training. The training program improved postural balance of older adults in mediolateral plane with eyes open (p 0.05). After proprioception training, gait (Tinetti), and balance (Berg) test scores improved 14.66% and 11.47% respectively. These results show that 12 weeks proprioception training program in older adults is effective in postural stability, static, and dynamic balance and could lead to an improvement in gait and balance capacity, and to a decrease in the risk of falling in adults aged 65 years and older.

  8. Effect of body awareness training on balance and walking ability in chronic stroke patients: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bang, Dae-Hyouk; Cho, Hyuk-Shin

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] To investigate the effects of body awareness training on balance and walking ability in chronic stroke patients. [Subjects] The subjects were randomly assigned to a body awareness training group (n=6) and a control group (n=6). [Methods] Patients in the body awareness training group received body awareness training for 20 minutes, followed by walking training for 30 minutes a day, 5 days a week for 4 weeks. The control group received walking training for 30 minutes a day, 5 days a week for 4 weeks. [Results] After the intervention, both groups showed significant improvements in the Berg Balance Scale, Timed Up and Go Test, and 10 m walk test compared with baseline results. The body awareness training group showed more significant improvements in the Berg Balance Scale and Timed Up and Go Test than the control group. There was no significant difference in the 10 m walk test between the groups. [Conclusion] The results of this study suggest that body awareness training has a positive effect on balance in patients with chronic stroke.

  9. Taekwondo Training Improves Sensory Organization and Balance Control in Children with Developmental Coordination Disorder: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Shirley S. M.; Tsang, William W. N.; Ng, Gabriel Y. F.

    2012-01-01

    Children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) have poorer postural control and are more susceptible to falls and injuries than their healthy counterparts. Sports training may improve sensory organization and balance ability in this population. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of three months of Taekwondo (TKD) training on the…

  10. Taekwondo Training Improves Sensory Organization and Balance Control in Children with Developmental Coordination Disorder: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Shirley S. M.; Tsang, William W. N.; Ng, Gabriel Y. F.

    2012-01-01

    Children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) have poorer postural control and are more susceptible to falls and injuries than their healthy counterparts. Sports training may improve sensory organization and balance ability in this population. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of three months of Taekwondo (TKD) training on the…

  11. Effects of inclined treadmill walking training with rhythmic auditory stimulation on balance and gait in stroke patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Sung Kyeung; Kang, Soon Hee

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to determine if an inclined treadmill with rhythmic auditory stimulation gait training can improve balance and gait ability in stroke patients. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty participants were randomly divided into three groups: inclined treadmill with rhythmic auditory stimulation training group (n=10), inclined treadmill training group (n=10), and treadmill training group (n=10). For all groups, the training was conducted for 4 weeks, 30 minutes per session, 5 times per week. Two subjects dropped out before study completion. [Results] All variables of balance and gait, except for the timed up and go test in the treadmill group, significantly improved in all groups. Moreover, all variables showed a more significant improvement in the inclined treadmill with rhythmic auditory stimulation group when compared with the other groups. Timed up and go test, Berg balance scale, 6 m walking test, walking speed, and symmetric index were significantly improved in the inclined treadmill group when compared with the treadmill group. [Conclusion] Thus, for stroke patients receiving gait training, inclined treadmill with rhythmic auditory stimulation training was more effective in maintaining balance and gait than inclined treadmill without rhythmic auditory stimulation or only treadmill training. PMID:28174453

  12. Altered Patterns of Reflex Excitability, Balance, and Locomotion Following Spinal Cord Injury (SCI and Locomotor Training.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prodip K Bose

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Spasticity is an important problem that complicates daily living in many individuals with SCI. While previous studies in human and animals revealed significant improvements in locomotor ability with treadmill locomotor training, it is not known to what extent locomotor training influences spasticity. In addition, it would be of considerable practical interest to know how the more ergonomically feasible cycle training compares with treadmill training as therapy to manage SCI-induced spasticity and to improve locomotor function. Our present studies were initiated to evaluate the influence of different types of locomotor training on measures of limb spasticity, gait, and reflex components that contribute to locomotion. For these studies, thirty animals received midthoracic SCI using the standard MASCIS protocol (10 g 2.5 cm weight drop. They were divided randomly into three equal groups: control (contused untrained, contused treadmill trained, and contused cycle trained. Velocity-dependent ankle torque was tested across a wide range of velocities (612 – 49 deg/sec to permit quantitation of tonic (low velocity and dynamic (high velocity contributions to lower limb spasticity. Treadmill and cycle training were started on post-injury day 8. By post-injury weeks 4 and 6, the untrained group revealed significant velocity-dependent ankle extensor spasticity, compared to pre-surgical control values. At these post-injury time points, spasticity was not observed in either of the two training groups. Instead, a significantly milder form of velocity dependent spasticity was detected at postcontusion week 8 through 12 in both treadmill and bicycle training groups at the four fastest ankle rotation velocities (350 - 612 deg/sec. Locomotor training using treadmill or bicycle also produced significant increase in the rate of recovery of limb placement measures (limb axis, base of support, and BBB and reflex rate depression, a quantitative assessment of

  13. Exercise training alters the balance between vasoactive compounds in skeletal muscle of individuals with essential hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ane Håkansson; Nyberg, Michael Permin; Bangsbo, Jens

    2011-01-01

    The effects of physical training on the formation of vasodilating and vasoconstricting compounds, as well as on related proteins important for vascular function, were examined in skeletal muscle of individuals with essential hypertension (n=10). Muscle microdialysis samples were obtained from...... subjects with hypertension before and after 16 weeks of physical training. Muscle dialysates were analyzed for thromboxane A(2), prostacyclin, nucleotides, and nitrite/nitrate. Protein levels of thromboxane synthase, prostacyclin synthase, cyclooxygenase 1 and 2, endothelial nitric oxide synthase (e...

  14. Fluid and Electrolyte Balance and Kidney Function Research in Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norsk, P.; Juel, N.; Kramer, H. J.; de Santo, N. G.; Regnard, J.; Heer, M.

    2005-06-01

    Fluid and electrolyte regulation in humans is modulated by gravitational stress through a complex interaction of cardiovascular reflexes, neuroendocrine variables, physical factors and renal function.Weightlessness is a unique tool to obtain more information on integrated fluid volume control. Results from space, however, have been unexpected and unpredictable from the results of ground- based simulations.The concept of how weightlesness and gravity modulate the regulation of body fluids and associated blood components must therefore be revised and a new simulation model developed. There are several main questions to be asked. Does weightlessness induce diuresis and natriuresis during the initial hours of spaceflight, leading to an extracellular and intravascular fluid volume deficit? Why are fluid- and sodium-retaining systems activated by spaceflight, and why are the renal responses to saline and water stimuli attenuated? Can excess sodium be stored in an hitherto unknown way, in particular during spaceflight? How can the effects of weightlessness on fluid and electrolyte regulation be correctly simulated on the ground? The information obtained from space might help us to understand how gravity degrades the fluid and electrolyte balance in sodium-retaining and oedema- forming states, such as in heart failure.

  15. The Functions and Methods of Mental Training on Competitive Sports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Jianshe

    Mental training is the major training method of the competitive sports and the main factor of athletes skill and tactics level.By combining the psychological factor with the current competitive sports characteristics, this paper presents the function of mental training forward athletes, and how to improve the comprehensive psychological quality by using mental training.

  16. Assessment of postural balance in community-dwelling older adults - methodological aspects and effects of biofeedback-based Nintendo Wii training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jørgensen, Martin Grønbech

    2014-01-01

    The overall purpose of this thesis was to examine selected methodological aspects and novel approaches for measuring postural balance older adults, and to examine the effects of biofeedback-based Nintendo Wii training on selected physiological, psychological and functional outcome variables in community-dwelling older adults. In Study I balance control was investigated using force plate analysis of Centre of Pressure (COP) excursion during static bilateral standing in 32 community-dwelling older adults at three different time-points (09:00, 12:30, and 16:00) throughout the day. An overall significant time-of-day effect was observed for all selected COP variables. The greatest change in all COP variables was observed (on average ~15%) between midday (12:30) and the afternoon (16:00), indicating that a systematic time-of-day influence on static postural balance exists in community-dwelling older adults. Consequently, longitudinal (i.e. pre-to-post training) comparisons of postural balance in in older adults with repeated assessments should be conducted at the same time-of-day. In Study II a novel approach for measuring postural balance (using the Nintendo Wii Stillness and Agility tests) was examined for reproducibility and concurrent validity in 30 community-dwelling older adults. While the Nintendo Wii Stillness test showed a high reproducibility, a systematic learning effect between successive sessions was observed for the Agility test. Moderate-to-excellent concurrent validity was seen for the Stillness test. In contrast, the Agility test revealed a poor concurrent validity. In conclusion, the Wii Stillness test seems to represent a low-cost objective reproducible test of postural balance in community-dwelling older adults and appears feasible in various clinical settings. A habituation (familiarization) period is necessary for the Wii Agility test to avoid a systematic learning effect between successive test sessions. Study III investigated the effect of ten

  17. Effect of a Home-based Balance Training Protocol on Dynamic Postural Control in Subjects with Chronic Ankle Instability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Ridder, R; Willems, T M; Vanrenterghem, J; Roosen, P

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to establish the presence of postural deficits in subjects with chronic ankle instability (CAI) and to assess the effect of an 8-week balance training program on dynamic postural control. A total of 43 subjects with CAI and 31 controls participated in this case-control study. Participants with CAI performed an 8-week home-based balance training, including 3 sessions a week. As main outcome measure, postural control was quantified after a vertical drop by means of the dynamic postural stability index (DPSI). Perceptual outcomes were documented using the FADI, FADI-Sport and VAS scales. At baseline, subjects with CAI displayed higher anterior/posterior and vertical postural instability, a poorer DPSI, and lower subjective stability scores compared to the control group. After balance training, all subjective stability scores improved significantly, although no changes were noted for the stability indices. In conclusion, subjects with CAI have an impaired postural control. As a treatment modality, balance training exhibits the capability of improving the subjective feeling of instability in subjects with CAI. However, there was no effect on dynamic postural control. Further research on the explanatory mechanisms of balance training is warranted, and other training modalities should be considered.

  18. BALANCE FUNCTIONS : Multiplicity and transverse momentum dependence of the charge dependent correlations in ALICE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodriguez Manso, A.

    2015-01-01

    The measurement of charge-dependent correlations between positively and negatively charged particles as a function of pseudorapidity and azimuthal angle, known as the \\emph{balance functions}, provide insight to the properties of matter created in high-energy collisions. The balance functions are ar

  19. Effect of a rehabilitation program using virtual reality for balance and functionality of chronic stroke patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wagner Henrique Souza Silva

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThis study aimed to investigate the effect of a rehabilitation program using virtual reality (VR in addition to conventional therapy for improvement of balance (BERG scale and functional independence (FIM scale in chronic stroke patients. Ten individuals, mean age of 51.4 (± 6.7 years, participated of eight 60-minute sessions comprising kinesiotherapy (15min, Nintendo Wii (30min and Learning transfer (15min exercises. After training, nonparametric statistical analysis showed significant improvement in total FIM (p= .01 and BERG scores (p= .00, and in some of their subitems: FIM - dressing lower body (p= .01, transfer to bathtub/shower (p= .02 and locomotion: stairs (p= .03; BERG - reaching forward with outstretched arm (p= .01, retrieving object from the floor (p= .04, turning 360º (p= .01, placing alternate foot on step (p≤ .01, standing with one foot in front (p= .01, and one leg stand (p= .03. These findings suggest a positive influence of virtual reality exercises adjunct to conventional therapy on rehabilitation of balance and functionality post stroke, and indicate the feasibility of the proposed VR-based rehabilitation program.

  20. Yoga might be an alternative training for the quality of life and balance in postmenopausal osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tüzün, S; Aktas, I; Akarirmak, U; Sipahi, S; Tüzün, F

    2010-03-01

    Osteoporotic vertebra and hip fractures are major causes of dysfunction, disability, mortality and impaired life quality in the ageing population. In the postmenopausal period, exercises prevent rapid bone loss and increase muscle strength, mobility and flexibility thereby decreasing the risk of falls and fractures. Yoga exercises, which have been an inseparable part of Eastern culture for hundreds of years, are now being used in the field of osteoporosis rehabilitation. Yoga has a positive effect on balance, posture, flexibility, and life quality resulting from its effects on balance, stretching, relaxation and strengthening. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of yoga exercises in postmenopausal osteoporotic women on balance and life quality and to compare the results with a classic osteoporosis exercise program. Twenty-six postmenopausal osteoporotic women over 55 years of age were included in the study. A neuromuscular test battery and the QUALEFFO as a life quality index were used for the assessment of balance and life quality, respectively. The results showed that yoga education has a positive effect on pain, physical functions, social functions, general In conclusion, yoga appears to be an alternative physical activity for the rehabilitation of osteoporotic subjects.

  1. A Selective Corrective Exercise to Decrease Falling and Improve Functional Balance in Idiopathic Parkinson’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedaghati

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background Posture instability and unsteady gait disorders in Parkinson’s Disease (PD usually contribute to fall-related fractures. Fall-related trauma in PD is the most common reason for injury. Despite providing modern care for PD patients (PP in the recent years, anti-PD drugs have no effect on falling. There is an urgent need to administer exercise interventions to reduce falls and related injuries in the rehabilitation program of PP. Objectives To explore the effect of a selective 10-week corrective exercise with an emphasis on gait training activities (GTA on the number of falls (NOFs, fear of falling, functional balance, timed up and go (TUG test among PD patients. Patients and Methods A purposeful sampling was performed on PP who had fallen or were at risk of falling in 2014. The study intervention consisted of a 10-week (3 sessions each week, each lasting 60 min corrective exercise program. Participants were randomly allocated to control and two exercise groups; the exercise group with balance pad (EGBP or exercise group with no balance pad (EGNBP. The analysis of variance (ANOVA and paired t-test were used for comparison between the groups (P ≤ 0.05. Results Administrating a selective corrective exercise in exercise group with balance pad (EGBP showed a significant difference in number of falls (NOF, Fall Efficacy Scale-international (FES-I, Berg balance scale (BBS (and timed up and go TUG (P = 0.001; while administrating the same exercise in exercise group with no balance pad (EGNBP showed no significant difference in NOF (P = 0.225 and a significant difference in FES-I (P = 0.031, BBS (P = 0.047 and TUG (P = 0.012. The control group showed no significant difference in each of the dependent variables. Conclusions Performing a selective corrective exercise on balance pad improves falling and functional balance in idiopathic PD.

  2. ANKLE JOINT CONTROL DURING SINGLE-LEGGED BALANCE USING COMMON BALANCE TRAINING DEVICES - IMPLICATIONS FOR REHABILITATION STRATEGIES

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strøm, Mark; Thorborg, Kristian; Bandholm, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    balance devices (Airex®, BOSU® Ball and wobble board). DESIGN: Descriptive exploratory laboratory study. METHODS: Nineteen healthy subjects performed single-legged balance with eyes open on an Airex® mat, BOSU® Ball, wobble board, and floor (reference condition). Ankle kinematics were measured using...

  3. A Top Level Analysis of Training Management Functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerson, Jack

    1995-01-01

    Discusses how to conduct a top-level analysis of training management functions to identify problems within a training system resulting from rapid growth, the acquisition of new departments, or mergers. The data gathering process and analyses are explained, training management functions and activities are described, and root causes and solutions…

  4. An Evaluation of Generalization of Mands during Functional Communication Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falcomata, Terry S.; Wacker, David P.; Ringdahl, Joel E.; Vinquist, Kelly; Dutt, Anuradha

    2013-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to evaluate the generalization of mands during functional communication training (FCT) and sign language training across functional contexts (i.e., positive reinforcement, negative reinforcement). A secondary purpose was to evaluate a training procedure based on stimulus control to teach manual signs. During…

  5. Training Residential Staff to Conduct Trial-Based Functional Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Joseph M.; Bloom, Sarah E.; Kunnavatana, S. Shanun; Collins, Shawnee D.; Clay, Casey J.

    2013-01-01

    We taught 6 supervisors of a residential service provider for adults with developmental disabilities to train 9 house managers to conduct trial-based functional analyses. Effects of the training were evaluated with a nonconcurrent multiple baseline. Results suggest that house managers can be trained to conduct trial-based functional analyses with…

  6. Aging, Functional Capacity and Eccentric Exercise Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gault, Mandy L.; Willems, Mark E.T.

    2013-01-01

    Aging is a multi-factorial process that ultimately induces a decline in our physiological functioning, causing a decreased health-span, quality of life and independence for older adults. Exercise participation is seen as a way to reduce the impact of aging through maintenance of physiological parameters. Eccentric exercise is a model that can be employed with older adults, due to the muscle’s ability to combine high muscle force production with a low energy cost. There may however be a risk of muscle damage before the muscle is able to adapt. The first part of this review describes the process of aging and how it reduces aerobic capacity, muscle strength and therefore functional mobility. The second part highlights eccentric exercise and the associated muscle damage, in addition to the repeated bout effect. The final section reviews eccentric exercise interventions that have been completed by older adults with a focus on the changes in functional mobility. In conclusion, eccentric endurance exercise is a potential training modality that can be applied to older adults for improving muscle strength, aerobic capacity and functional ability. However, further research is needed to assess the effects on aerobic capacity and the ideal prescription for eccentric endurance exercise. PMID:24307968

  7. Effects of load-controlled proprioceptive training on lower extremity motor and balance function of stroke patients%负荷控制的本体感觉训练对脑卒中患者平衡功能及下肢运动能力的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘化平; 冯慧; 李亚娟; 金宏柱

    2011-01-01

    Objective! To observe the effects of proprioception training with load-control on lower extremity motor and balance function of stroke patients in recovery stage.Method: Sixty-one patients with stroke in recovery stage were randomly divided into treatment group (n=31) and control group(n=30). The control group was treated with conventional physiotherapy, such as Bobath technique. Based on conventional rehabilitation, the treatment group was given proprioception training with load-control by Pro-Kin system. Both two groups were treated for 8 weeks. The changes of 10-meter maximum walking speed (MWS), Berg balance scale(BBS), short-form FMA scale in lower extremity(FMA-L) assessment and Barthel index (BI) were compared between two groups before and after treatment.Result:Before treatment, all parameters had no significant difference between two groups(P > 0.05). Before, and after 8-week treatment, the results of FMA-L, BBS, MWS, BI in treatment group were 20.9 ± 4.9,28.0 ± 3.3; 33.4 ± 6.9,52.1 ±3.2;32.4± 22.7,71.7 ±42.4;21.2± 13.4,62.8 ±11.2; 21.2 ± 13.4,62.8 ± 11.2 respectively. The results of FMA-L,BBS,MWS,BI in control group were 21.9 ± 2.7,24.5 ± 2.3;32.2 ± 6.1,39.3 ± 3.6;31.2 ± 23.4,58.5 ± 39.6;20.8 ± 14.1,43.2 ± 12.7 respectively. All function parameters changed significantly(P < 0.05),but the treatment group improve more than the control group(P < 0.05).Conclusion: The proprioception training with load-control have positive effects on improving lower extremity motor and balance function of stroke patients in recovery stage, it is worth to promote.Author's address Department of Rehabilitation Medicne, Nanjing Jiangbei People's Hospital of Dongnan University, Nanjing, 210048%目的:探讨负荷控制下的本体感觉训练对脑卒中恢复期患者平衡功能及下肢运动功能的影响.方法:61例脑卒中恢复期患者随机分为治疗组(31例)和对照组(30例),对照组患者采用Bobath技术为主的治疗;治疗组在常规

  8. Hypothalamic control of energy balance: different peptides, different functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leibowitz, Sarah F; Wortley, Katherine E

    2004-03-01

    Energy balance is maintained via a homeostatic system involving both the brain and the periphery. A key component of this system is the hypothalamus. Over the past two decades, major advances have been made in identifying an increasing number of peptides within the hypothalamus that contribute to the process of energy homeostasis. Under stable conditions, equilibrium exists between anabolic peptides that stimulate feeding behavior, as well as decrease energy expenditure and lipid utilization in favor of fat storage, and catabolic peptides that attenuate food intake, while stimulating sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activity and restricting fat deposition by increasing lipid metabolism. The equilibrium between these neuropeptides is dynamic in nature. It shifts across the day-night cycle and from day to day and also in response to dietary challenges as well as peripheral energy stores. These shifts occur in close relation to circulating levels of the hormones, leptin, insulin, ghrelin and corticosterone, and also the nutrients, glucose and lipids. These circulating factors together with neural processes are primary signals relaying information regarding the availability of fuels needed for current cellular demand, in addition to the level of stored fuels needed for long-term use. Together, these signals have profound impact on the expression and production of neuropeptides that, in turn, initiate the appropriate anabolic or catabolic responses for restoring equilibrium. In this review, we summarize the evidence obtained on nine peptides in the hypothalamus that have emerged as key players in this process. Data from behavioral, physiological, pharmacological and genetic studies are described and consolidated in an attempt to formulate a clear statement on the underlying function of each of these peptides and also on how they work together to create and maintain energy homeostasis.

  9. Relationship between force platform and two functional tests for measuring balance in the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil, André W O; Oliveira, Marcio R; Coelho, Vinícius A; Carvalho, Carlos E; Teixeira, Denilson C; da Silva, Rubens A

    2011-01-01

    Clinical and laboratory methods have been developed to assess the different dimensions of postural control with the aim to increase the clinical relevance of decisions about balance deficit. The purpose of this study was to correlate the force platform measurements with two functional tests used to evaluate balance in elderly. A total of 124 physically independent elderly volunteers participated in this study. Subjects performed the following three tests: 1) a traditional functional balance test, named the one-leg standing test, which measures the time in seconds at this position; 2) a functional agility/dynamic balance test, which quantifies the total time in seconds that a subject can stand up from a chair and move as quickly as possible around two cones; and 3) an unipodal balance test on a force platform. The one-leg standing test yielded a mean of 12 seconds (SD=9 s), while the mean time observed in the functional agility/dynamic balance test was 26 seconds (SD=6 s). The correlations between the balance parameters of force platform and two functional tests varied between -0.28 and 0.20, which shows a weak association between them. Our results support the idea that these functional tests do not necessarily furnish the same information regarding balance mechanisms as the force platform. This study contributes to the evaluation of balance in elderly and suggests that functional tests should be used with caution especially in regards to the purposes of the research and when conducting clinical assessments of the elderly.

  10. Relationship between body balance, lung function, nutritional status and functional capacity in adults with cystic fibrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer T. S. Penafortes

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cystic fibrosis (CF is a hereditary condition in which lung disease affects all patients. In addition to pulmonary involvement, the multisystemic components of CF cause significant physical limitations. However, the impact of lung function on balance control in CF has not been studied. OBJECTIVE: To assess body balance in adults with CF and to test its possible associations with lung function, nutritional status, and functional capacity. METHOD: This was a cross-sectional study in which 14 adults with CF underwent pulmonary function testing (spirometry, body plethysmography, and carbon monoxide diffusing capacity (DLco, respiratory muscle strength, 6-min walking distance (6MWD, Berg balance scale (BBS, nutritional analysis (body mass index and bioelectrical impedance, and stabilometry. Body balance was quantified using stabilometry; all participants performed the following two trials: opened base, eyes open (OBEO; closed base, eyes closed (CBEC. RESULTS: In stabilometry, the median for the lateral range and anterior-posterior range in the CBEC trial was 0.10 (0.08-0.11 and 0.13 (0.11-0.22, respectively (p<0.05. The maximal inspiratory pressure (MIP correlated inversely with the lateral standard deviation (ρ=–0.61; p<0.05 as the DLco correlated positively with the anterior-posterior range (ρ=0.54; p<0.05. There were significant relationships between body composition indexes and almost all stabilometric variables measured. There were no relationships of the BBS and 6MWD with the stabilometric variables. CONCLUSIONS: In adults with CF, imbalance occurs mainly in the anterior-posterior direction and is especially associated with body composition.

  11. Effects of virtual reality training using Nintendo Wii and treadmill walking exercise on balance and walking for stroke patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bang, Yo-Soon; Son, Kyung Hyun; Kim, Hyun Jin

    2016-11-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of virtual reality training using Nintendo Wii on balance and walking for stroke patients. [Subjects and Methods] Forty stroke patients with stroke were randomly divided into two exercise program groups: virtual reality training (n=20) and treadmill (n=20). The subjects underwent their 40-minute exercise program three times a week for eight weeks. Their balance and walking were measured before and after the complete program. We measured the left/right weight-bearing and the anterior/posterior weight-bearing for balance, as well as stance phase, swing phase, and cadence for walking. [Results] For balance, both groups showed significant differences in the left/right and anterior/posterior weight-bearing, with significant post-program differences between the groups. For walking, there were significant differences in the stance phase, swing phase, and cadence of the virtual reality training group. [Conclusion] The results of this study suggest that virtual reality training providing visual feedback may enable stroke patients to directly adjust their incorrect weight center and shift visually. Virtual reality training may be appropriate for patients who need improved balance and walking ability by inducing their interest for them to perform planned exercises on a consistent basis.

  12. Fluid, electrolyte, and acid-base balances in three-day, combined-training horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, S L

    1998-04-01

    Horses competing in 3-day, combined-training events develop a metabolic acidosis that is partially compensated for by a respiratory alkalosis immediately after phases B and D. By the end of phase C and 30 minutes to 2 hours after phase D, the acidosis is resolved by the oxidation of lactate, and a metabolic alkalosis prevails. A reduction in TBW and cation content occurs, which often is not replenished 12 to 24 hours after the event, even though the serum or plasma concentration of various constituents may be within normal limits. Hypochloremia and hypocalcemia, however, may persist 12 or more hours after the speed and endurance test. All of the data cited in this article are from horses that successfully completed their respective tests. Nevertheless, some horses developed substantial fluid and cation losses. In horses that are not well conditioned or in competitions in which terrain, footing, or hot environments increase the thermal load or decrease heat loss, greater losses of fluids and electrolytes can be expected. Body weight losses exceeding 5% and cation losses exceeding 4000 mEq/L occur in endurance horses suffering from exhaustion and synchronous diaphragmatic flutter. In one study, two thirds of the Na+ lost during exercise-induced sweating in cool, dry conditions was replenished from salt supplements added to a balanced forage and concentrated diet. Consequently, horses in regular training and competition may benefit from salt supplementation. The composition of the salt supplement and the amount fed should be based on the composition of the horse's diet, degree of work, and environmental conditions. Horses competing in a 3-day, combined-training event may be expected to have persistent losses of weight and cations, particularly if conditions result in heavy sweating. Many horses in the field studies had minimal changes in weight and cation balance compared with pre-event values. The diet and electrolyte supplementation of the horses in the majority of

  13. Thermal responses and body fluid balance of competitive male swimmers during a training session.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soler, Reynaldo; Echegaray, Marcos; Rivera, Miguel A

    2003-05-01

    Thermoregulatory and body fluid balance (BFB) responses of competitive swimmers were studied during a typical interval training session under natural field conditions. Subjects were 9 males (18.0 +/- 1.7 years; VO(2)max = 3.8 +/- 0.9 L x min(-1)) who covered 9,000 m in 180 minutes in an outdoor pool (mean water temperature = 26.8 +/- 0.3 degrees C; mean wet bulb globe temperature = 29.8 +/- 2.8 degrees C). Mean body weight (BWt) decreased by 1.8 +/- 0.5 kg (P WI) (0.1 +/- 0.2 kg) did not maintain BFB (-0.5 kg per hour) and plasma volume decreased 10.7 +/- 5.4%. During a typical training session, swimmers experienced significant body fluid losses, and WI was not enough to prevent involuntary dehydration. The magnitude of the fluid losses (2.5% of BWt) was sufficient to compromise convective thermoregulation because of the decreased plasma volume. Hence, to prevent involuntary dehydration, swimmers should be encouraged to consume an amount of fluids that equals losses throughout the training sessions.

  14. The contributions of balance to gait capacity and motor function in chronic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyoung Bo; Lim, Seong Hoon; Kim, Young Dong; Yang, Byung Il; Kim, Kyung Hoon; Lee, Kang Sung; Kim, Eun Ja; Hwang, Byong Yong

    2016-06-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to identify the contributions of balance to gait and motor function in chronic stroke. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-three outpatients participated in a cross-sectional assessment. Gait ability was assessed using the functional ambulation category, self-paced 10-m walking speed, and fastest 10-m walking speed. Standing balance and trunk control measures included the Berg Balance Scale and the Trunk Impairment Scale. Univariate and multivariate regression analyses were performed. [Results] Balance was the best predictor of the FAC, self-paced walking speed, and fastest walking speed, accounting for 57% to 61% of the variances. Additionally, the total score of TIS was the only predictor of the motor function of the lower limbs and the dynamic balance of TIS was a predictor of the motor function of the upper limbs, accounting for 41% and 29% of the variance, respectively. [Conclusion] This study demonstrated the relative contribution of standing balance and trunk balance to gait ability and motor function. They show that balance has a high power of explanation of gait ability and that trunk balance is a determinant of motor function rather than gait ability.

  15. DANCE, BALANCE AND CORE MUSCLE PERFORMANCE MEASURES ARE IMPROVED FOLLOWING A 9-WEEK CORE STABILIZATION TRAINING PROGRAM AMONG COMPETITIVE COLLEGIATE Dancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graning, Jessica; McPherson, Sue; Carter, Elizabeth; Edwards, Joshuah; Melcher, Isaac; Burgess, Taylor

    2017-01-01

    releve and bilateral anterior reach for the SEBT (both p ≤ 0.01), number of pirouettes (p = 0.011), and all measures of strength (p ≤ 0.05) except single leg heel raise. The RM ANOVA on mean percentage of change in TrA was significant; post hoc paired t tests demonstrated significant improvements in dancers’ TrA activations across the four instruction conditions Conclusion This core stabilization training program improves pirouette ability, balance (static and dynamic), and measures of muscle performance. Additionally, ADIM training resulted in immediate and short-term (nine-week) improvements in TrA activation in a functional dance position. Level of Evidence 2b PMID:28217414

  16. DANCE, BALANCE AND CORE MUSCLE PERFORMANCE MEASURES ARE IMPROVED FOLLOWING A 9-WEEK CORE STABILIZATION TRAINING PROGRAM AMONG COMPETITIVE COLLEGIATE Dancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Todd; Graning, Jessica; McPherson, Sue; Carter, Elizabeth; Edwards, Joshuah; Melcher, Isaac; Burgess, Taylor

    2017-02-01

    .01), number of pirouettes (p = 0.011), and all measures of strength (p ≤ 0.05) except single leg heel raise. The RM ANOVA on mean percentage of change in TrA was significant; post hoc paired t tests demonstrated significant improvements in dancers' TrA activations across the four instruction conditions. This core stabilization training program improves pirouette ability, balance (static and dynamic), and measures of muscle performance. Additionally, ADIM training resulted in immediate and short-term (nine-week) improvements in TrA activation in a functional dance position. 2b.

  17. Lower limb progressive resistance training improves leg strength but not gait speed or balance in Parkinson's disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillman, Alex; Muthalib, Makii; Hendy, Ashlee M; Johnson, Liam G; Rantalainen, Timo; Kidgell, Dawson J; Enticott, Peter G; Teo, Wei-Peng

    2015-01-01

    The use of progressive resistance training (PRT) to improve gait and balance in people with Parkinson's disease (PD) is an emerging area of interest. However, the main effects of PRT on lower limb functions such as gait, balance, and leg strength in people with PD remain unclear. Therefore, the aim of the meta-analysis is to evaluate the evidence surrounding the use of PRT to improve gait and balance in people with PD. Five electronic databases, from inception to December 2014, were searched to identify the relevant studies. Data extraction was performed by two independent reviewers and methodological quality was assessed using the PEDro scale. Standardized mean differences (SMD) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of fixed and random effects models were used to calculate the effect sizes between experimental and control groups and I (2) statistics were used to determine levels of heterogeneity. In total, seven studies were identified consisting of 172 participants (experimental n = 84; control n = 88). The pooled results showed a moderate but significant effect of PRT on leg strength (SMD 1.42, 95% CI 0.464-2.376); however, no significant effects were observed for gait speed (SMD 0.418, 95% CI -0.219 to 1.055). No significant effects were observed for balance measures included in this review. In conclusion, our results showed no discernable effect of PRT on gait and balance measures, although this is likely due to the lack of studies available. It may be suggested that PRT be performed in conjunction with balance or task-specific functional training to elicit greater lower limb functional benefits in people with PD.

  18. EFFECTS OF PLYOMETRIC TRAINING ON DYNAMIC BALANCE, HOP DISTANCE AND HAMSTRING QUADRICEPS RATIO IN FEMALE VOLLEYBALL ATHLETES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gülcan HARPUT

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of plyometric training on dynamic balance, hop distance and hamstring quadriceps ratio in female volleyball athletes. Thirty-four adolescent asymptomatic female volleyball athletes were included in the study. The athletes were randomly allocated into 2 groups. Group 1 received 6-week plyometric training and standard volleyball training. Group 2 received only standard volleyball training. Isokinetic dynamometer was used to measure the hamstring quadriceps ratio (H:Q. Star excursion balance test was used for assessing the dynamic balance and one leg hop test was used for measuring the hop distance. Repeated measures of ANOVA was conducted for statistical analysis. Plyometric training increased balance performance in only non-dominant limb and increased one leg hop distance in both dominant and non-dominant limb in female volleyball players (p<0.05. On the other hand, H:Q ratio of dominant limb was found increased (p=0.04 but it was similar between groups (p=0.39. The plyometric training could be used to enhance atletic performance in female volleyball players.

  19. EFFECTIVENESS OF TRUNK TRAINING EXERCISES VERSUS SWISS BALL EXERCISES FOR IMPROVING SITTING BALANCE AND GAIT PARAMETERS IN ACUTE STROKE SUBJECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kothalanka Viswaja

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of trunk training and Swiss ball exercises in acute stroke subjects. Trunk is often neglected part in the stroke rehabilitation, trunk training exercises and Swiss ball exercises result in better recruitment of trunk muscles thus improving sitting balance and gait parameters in acute stroke subjects. However literature evidences for trunk training exercises and Swiss ball exercises in improving sitting balance and gait are scarce in acute stroke population. Methods: A total of 60 subjects who met the inclusion criteria were recruited from department of physiotherapy, G.S.L general hospital and were randomly allocated into 2 groups with 30 subjects in each group. Initially all of them were screened for balance and gait using trunk impairment scale and by assessing gait parameters, after that they were given a 30min of trunk training and Swiss ball exercises for 5 days a week for 4 weeks. Both the groups received conventional physiotherapy for 4 weeks. Results: Post intervention there was no significant difference between the two groups. There was improvement post treatment in trunk training group (P0.5. Conclusion: The results had shown that both groups noted significant difference. But when comparing between these two groups there is no statistical significance noted. So this study concluded that there is no significant difference between trunk training exercises and Swiss ball exercises on sitting balance and gait parameters in subjects with stroke.

  20. Effects of a sitting boxing program on upper limb function, balance, gait, and quality of life in stroke patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Junhyuck; Gong, Jihwan; Yim, Jongeun

    2017-01-01

    Boxing training including traditional stretching, muscular strength training, and duration training would be considered to be effective for improved functional stretching, dynamic balance, walking speed, and quality of life. We aimed to investigate upper limb function, balance, gait, and quality of life in stroke patients before and after a sitting boxing program. Twenty-six participants were randomly allocated to a boxing group (n = 13) and control group (n = 13) after the upper limb function, balance, gait, and quality of Life were recorded. The boxing group underwent a sitting boxing program (3 times/week) as well as conventional physical therapy (3 times/week) for 6 weeks. The control group only underwent conventional physical therapy (3 times/week) for 6 weeks. The Manual Functional Test (MFT), non-affected hand grip, Berg Balance Scale (BBS), velocity moment with eye opened, 10-m Walk Test (10 MWT), and Stroke-Specific Quality of Life questionnaire (SS-QOL) were significantly improved in the boxing group (p boxing group compared to the control group (p boxing program group had positive effects on upper extremity function, balance, gait, and quality of life in stroke patients.

  1. Balance and mobility training with or without concurrent cognitive training improves the timed up and go (TUG), TUG cognitive, and TUG manual in healthy older adults: an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jehu, Deborah A; Paquet, Nicole; Lajoie, Yves

    2017-08-01

    The purpose was to explore the impact of balance and mobility training (BMT), balance and mobility plus cognitive training (BMT + C) and no training on the timed up and go (TUG), TUG cognitive (TUGcog), and TUG manual (TUGman) in older adults. A preliminary experiment examined the stability of these TUG measures over a 5-week period in older adults. Fifteen participants in the BMT group (70.2 ± 3.2 years) and 14 participants in the BMT + C group (68.7 ± 5.5 years) trained one-on-one, 3×/week for 12 weeks on a balance obstacle course. The BMT group and the BMT + C group completed two or three tasks simultaneously, respectively. Fifteen participants in the control group received no training (66.7 ± 4.2 years). The TUG, TUGcog, and TUGman were measured in seconds at baseline, after the 12-week training, and after the 12-week follow-up. During the preliminary experiment, ten participants (67.0 ± 6.9 years) completed the three TUG measures 1/week for 5 weeks. Both the BMT and BMT + C groups, but not the control group, exhibited significantly faster TUG, TUGcog, and TUGman after the intervention and maintained these improvements at the 12-week follow-up. No differences between the BMT and BMT + C groups emerged. The preliminary experiment showed that the three TUG measures were stable across five testing sessions. Both training groups improved functional mobility after the interventions and sustained these improvements over 12 weeks. This is likely not a function of repeating the TUG, TUGcog, and TUGman tests since no repeated exposure effect was shown.

  2. Estimating qualitative parameters for assessment of body balance and arm function in a simulated ambulatory setting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meulen, van Fokke B.; Reenalda, Jasper; Veltink, Peter H.

    2013-01-01

    Continuous daily-life monitoring of balance control and arm function of stroke survivors in an ambulatory setting, is essential for optimal guidance of rehabilitation. In a simulated ambulatory setting, balance and arm function of seven stroke subjects is evaluated using on-body measurement systems

  3. Designing a gamified, ability-appropriate diagnostics and training program for a Balance Health application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shruti Grover

    2015-10-01

    During our tests, we found a wide range of abilities between participants. Whilst there is a correlation between age and balance (Figure 5, there were outliers, certain participants had poor balance in spite of being in the younger cohort, and some older participants tested very well for their age. Our quantitative research indicates that this difference is due to the difference in activity histories over the life time of an individual. A 25 year old participant commented “Your app has shown me how awful my balance is! Not looking forward to being older and we have osteoporosis in my family! Lots of broken bones for me! O dear!!” This lead us to think that what seems like a straightforward act (standing on one leg for a period of 15 seconds , can actually be demotivating for individuals. In order to keep the participants engaged, we needed to incorporate easier stances, which while challenging, were not a blockade to improvement. This would allow an individual to start at an ability appropriate level and build up to better balance in tiny increments. Hence we have created a training programme (Figure 6 which can computationally determine the ability of the individual during the on boarding process. Once the current postural sway id determined, the individual is assigned to one of 3 Stances ( Semi Tandem for Beginners, Tandem for Intermediate, Uni-pedal Standing for Advanced. Each stance has 4 levels of varying lengths. ( typically 15s, 30s, 45s, 60s An individual could be assigned to start training at Stance 1, Level 1 ( i.e. Semi tandem for 15 sec and gradually build up-to 60 sec over the course of 36 sessions, at the end of which the ‘wobble reduction’ would be used a measure to determine whether they were ready to pass on to the next level. We have added gamification elements in the form of giving meaningful tips, avoiding negative feedback, simplifying the interface by removing numbers and of-course, medals and celebration screens (Figure 7.

  4. The effects of core stabilization exercise on dynamic balance and gait function in stroke patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Eun-Jung; Kim, Jung-Hee; Lee, Byoung-Hee

    2013-07-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of core stabilization exercise on dynamic balance and gait function in stroke patients. [Subjects] The subjects were 16 stroke patients, who were randomly divided into two groups: a core stabilization exercise group of eight subjects and control group of eight subjects. [Methods] Subjects in both groups received general training five times per week. Subjects in the core stabilization exercise group practiced an additional core stabilization exercise program, which was performed for 30 minutes, three times per week, during a period of four weeks. All subjects were evaluated for dynamic balance (Timed Up and Go test, TUG) and gait parameters (velocity, cadence, step length, and stride length). [Results] Following intervention, the core exercise group showed a significant change in TUG, velocity, and cadence. The only significant difference observed between the core group and control group was in velocity. [Conclusion] The results of this study suggest the feasibility and suitability of core stabilization exercise for stroke patients.

  5. 计算机辅助姿态平衡训练对小脑卒中后平衡障碍的影响%Effect of computer-assisted postural balance training on balance disorders after cerebellar stroke

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁景; 沈宏华; 孙超; 王帆; 何雯; 林桦

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the efficacy of computer-assisted postural balance training system combined with Bobath balance training on balance disorders after cerebellar stroke.Methods Forty patients with balance disorders after cerebellar stroke were randomly divided into either a combined training group or a control group (n =20 in each group).The control group was trained with Bobath balance training and routine rehabilitation treatment.On the basis of this,the combined training group used the computerassisted postural balance training system for rehabilitation treatment.The balance function,activities of daily living and motor function were evaluated with the Berg Balance Scale (BBS),modified Barthel Index,mBI)and Fugl-Meyer Assessment (FMA) before and after treatment,and the computer-assisted postural balance training system was used to conduct the postural balance ability according to the center of gravity track length,rectangle area of track,and peripheral area of track.Results There were no significant differences in various indexes before treatment between the patients of both groups.The scores of BBS,mBI and FMA after treatment were increased obviously (all P < 0.001).The the center of gravity track length,rectangle area of track,and peripheral area of track were decreased compared before treatment (P <0.001 or 0.05).In addition to the FMA score,all the indexes of the combined training group after treatment were significantly better than those of the control group (all P<0.05).Conclusions On the basis of Bobath balance training,using computer-assisted postural balance training system can obviously improve the balance disorder and extremities motion ability after cerebellar stroke,and thus improving the activities of daily living in cerebellar stroke patients.%目的 探讨计算机辅助姿态平衡训练系统联合Bobath平衡训练对小脑卒中后平衡障碍的疗效.方法 40例小脑卒中后平衡障碍患者随机分为联合

  6. EVALUTION OF EFFECTIVENESS OF BALANCE TRAINING IN CONVENTIONAL PROSTHESIS VERSUS ULTRAMODERN PROSTHESIS IN UNILATERAL TRANSTIBIAL AMPUTEE BY USING FLAMINGO BALANCE TEST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suresh

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To estimate the effectiveness of balance training on unilateral transtibal amputee with conventional prosthesis and ultramodern prosthesis. To compare the Effectiveness of balance training in conventional prosthesis versus ultramodern prosthesis in unilateral transtibial amputee by using Flamingo balance test. MATERIALS AND METHODS: After obtaining informed consent from the patients, we studied a total of 40 patients, aged between 30- 60 yrs, where they were randomly allocated into two groups. 20 patients in Group A with conventional prosthesis and 20 patients with ultramodern prosthesis in group B were subjected to 3 weeks of structured exercise programme after initial assessment of balance with Flamingo’s balance test and ten metre walk test. These tests were repeated in repeated in both the groups after the exercise programme and the results were tabulated and analysed. RESULTS: The mean age of population in group A was 50.55± 7.20 and in group B was 48.55±5.58, with age group ranging from 30 – 60 yrs. In group A the pre and post interventions mean values in Flamingo’s balance test were 15.55±2.58 and 13.05±3.05 respectively. In group B the pre and post intervention mean values were 12.35±1.26 and 8.3±0.86 respectively. In group A the pre and post interventions mean values in ten metre walk test are 45.00±3.62 and 35.00±6.39 respectively. In group B the pre and post intervention mean value are 40.00±4.29 and 26.70±2.95 respectively. The mean difference of balance using Flamingo Balance test during pre and post intervention in both the groups were compared using independent ‘t‘ test, which showed (t of 4.971 vs 6.805 in Groups A and B respectively; p=000*. The mean difference of balance in both the groups for ten metre walk test were t of 3.979 vs 5.650 in Groups A and B respectively (; p= 000*. CONCLUSION: In both groups there are statistically significant improvements in scores flamingo balance test and 10mt. walk

  7. Effects of task-oriented training on mobility function in children with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salem, Yasser; Godwin, Ellen M

    2009-01-01

    Improvement in mobility function has been the primary goal in the rehabilitation of children with cerebral palsy. Few studies have examined the effectiveness of task-oriented strength training for children with cerebral palsy. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of task-oriented strength training on mobility function in children with cerebral palsy. A single-blind, randomized controlled trial with pre-training and post-training evaluations. Ten children with cerebral palsy (GMFCS levels I-III) were randomly assigned to an experimental group (N = 5) or control group (N = 5). Mobility function was assessed using the Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM) and the Timed "Up and Go" (TUG) test. Participants in the control group received conventional physical therapy focused on improving walking and balance through facilitation and normalization of movement patterns. Participants in the experiment group received task-oriented strength training focused on strengthening the lower extremities and practicing functional tasks similar to those the child performs during daily activities. After the 5-week training period there were significant improvements in the experimental group for dimension D (p = 0.009), and dimension E (p = 0.009) of the GMFM. The experimental group significantly reduced the time taken to complete the TUG (p = 0.017). This study supports the efficacy of task-oriented strength training for improving mobility function in children with cerebral palsy. The findings demonstrate that the application of a task-oriented strength training program is linked to positive functional outcomes. The results suggest that children with cerebral palsy may benefit from a task-oriented strength training program. Further studies with a larger randomized sample and longer post-intervention follow-up are necessary to document the long-term effects of participation in task-oriented strength training programs in the cerebral palsy population.

  8. Charge balance functions in a scenario of continuing charge production in quark matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan, Ying-Hua [Harbin Institute of Technology, Department of Physics, Heilongjiang (China); Zhang, Wei-Ning [Harbin Institute of Technology, Department of Physics, Heilongjiang (China); Dalian University of Technology, School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Liaoning (China)

    2015-11-15

    We study the charge balance functions of π{sup +}π{sup -} and K{sup +}K{sup -} in a scenario of continuing charge creation in a strongly interacting quark-gluon plasma (QGP) in high-energy heavy-ion collisions, using relativistic hydrodynamics and the lattice QCD results of quark susceptibilities and the equation of state of the QGP. We find that the charge balance functions are dominated by their QGP components because most charges are produced before the hadronic stage. The hadronic component of the balance function of π{sup +}π{sup -} is small but non-negligible. The balance function of K{sup +}K{sup -} has a negative hadronic component because the strangeness decreases during the system evolution. The correlation between light and strange quarks leads to small enhancements of the balance functions at small rapidity difference. (orig.)

  9. Charge balance functions in a scenario of continuing charge production in quark matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Ying-Hua; Zhang, Wei-Ning

    2015-11-01

    We study the charge balance functions of π+π- and K+K- in a scenario of continuing charge creation in a strongly interacting quark-gluon plasma (QGP) in high-energy heavy-ion collisions, using relativistic hydrodynamics and the lattice QCD results of quark susceptibilities and the equation of state of the QGP. We find that the charge balance functions are dominated by their QGP components because most charges are produced before the hadronic stage. The hadronic component of the balance function of π+π- is small but non-negligible. The balance function of K+K- has a negative hadronic component because the strangeness decreases during the system evolution. The correlation between light and strange quarks leads to small enhancements of the balance functions at small rapidity difference.

  10. Long-term follow-up of a randomized controlled trial on additional core stability exercises training for improving dynamic sitting balance and trunk control in stroke patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabanas-Valdés, Rosa; Bagur-Calafat, Caritat; Girabent-Farrés, Montserrat; Caballero-Gómez, Fernanda Mª; du Port de Pontcharra-Serra, Helena; German-Romero, Ana; Urrútia, Gerard

    2017-03-01

    Analyse the effect of core stability exercises in addition to conventional physiotherapy training three months after the intervention ended. A randomized controlled trial. Outpatient services. Seventy-nine stroke survivors. In the intervention period, both groups underwent conventional physiotherapy performed five days/week for five weeks, and in addition the experimental group performed core stability exercises for 15 minutes/day. Afterwards, during a three-month follow-up period, both groups underwent usual care that could eventually include conventional physiotherapy or physical exercise but not in a controlled condition. Primary outcome was trunk control and dynamic sitting balance assessed by the Spanish-Version of Trunk Impairment Scale 2.0 and Function in Sitting Test. Secondary outcomes were standing balance and gait evaluated by the Berg Balance Scale, Tinetti Test, Brunel Balance Assessment, Spanish-Version of Postural Assessment Scale for Stroke and activities of daily living using the Barthel Index. A total of 68 subjects out of 79 completed the three-month follow-up period. The mean difference (SD) between groups was 0.78 (1.51) points ( p = 0.003) for total score on the Spanish-Version of Trunk Impairment Scale 2.0, 2.52 (6.46) points ( p = 0.009) for Function in Sitting Test, dynamic standing balance was 3.30 (9.21) points ( p= 0.009) on the Berg Balance Scale, gait was 0.82 (1.88) points ( p = 0.002) by Brunel Balance Assessment (stepping), and 1.11 (2.94) points ( p = 0.044) by Tinetti Test (gait), all in favour of core stability exercises. Core stability exercises plus conventional physiotherapy have a positive long-term effect on improving dynamic sitting and standing balance and gait in post-stroke patients.

  11. Non-physical practice improves task performance in an unstable, perturbed environment: motor imagery and observational balance training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taube, Wolfgang; Lorch, Michael; Zeiter, Sibylle; Keller, Martin

    2014-01-01

    For consciously performed motor tasks executed in a defined and constant way, both motor imagery (MI) and action observation (AO) have been shown to promote motor learning. It is not known whether these forms of non-physical training also improve motor actions when these actions have to be variably applied in an unstable and unpredictable environment. The present study therefore investigated the influence of MI balance training (MI_BT) and a balance training combining AO and MI (AO+MI_BT) on postural control of undisturbed and disturbed upright stance on unstable ground. As spinal reflex excitability after classical (i.e., physical) balance training (BT) is generally decreased, we tested whether non-physical BT also has an impact on spinal reflex circuits. Thirty-six participants were randomly allocated into an MI_BT group, in which participants imagined postural exercises, an AO+MI_BT group, in which participants observed videos of other people performing balance exercises and imagined being the person in the video, and a non-active control group (CON). Before and after 4 weeks of non-physical training, balance performance was assessed on a free-moving platform during stance without perturbation and during perturbed stance. Soleus H-reflexes were recorded during stable and unstable stance. The post-measurement revealed significantly decreased postural sway during undisturbed and disturbed stance after both MI_BT and AO+MI_BT. Spinal reflex excitability remained unchanged. This is the first study showing that non-physical training (MI_BT and AO+MI_BT) not only promotes motor learning of "rigid" postural tasks but also improves performance of highly variable and unpredictable balance actions. These findings may be relevant to improve postural control and thus reduce the risk of falls in temporarily immobilized patients.

  12. The Influence of Functional Fitness and Cognitive Training of Physical Disabilities of Institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I-Chen Yeh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available According to an investigation done by Taiwan Ministry of the Interior in 2013, there was more than 90% of the disability care institutions mainly based on life care. Previous studies have shown that individuals can effectively improve physical and cognitive training, improved in independent living and everyday competence. The purpose of the study was to investigate influence of the intervention program applying functional fitness and cognitive training to disabled residents in the institution. The subjects were disabled persons of a care institution in southern Taiwan and were randomly divided into training and control groups, both having 17 subjects. The age of the subjects was between 56 and 98 years with a mean age of 79.08 ± 10.04 years; the subjects of training group implemented 12 weeks of training on physical and cognitive training, while the control group subjects did not have any training program. The results revealed that subjects of the training group have significantly improved their functional shoulder rotation flexibility of left and right anterior hip muscle group flexibility of right, sitting functional balance of left and right, naming, attention, delayed recall, orientation, and Montreal cognitive assessment (MOCA. The study suggested developing physical fitness programs and physical and cognitive prescriptions for the disabled people of the institutions.

  13. A short executive function training program improves preschoolers’ working memory

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    Emma eBlakey

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive training has been shown to improve executive functions in middle childhood and adulthood. However, fewer studies have targeted the preschool years – a time when executive functions undergo rapid development. The present study tested the effects of a short four session executive function training program in 54 four-year-olds. The training group significantly improved their working memory from pre-training relative to an active control group. Notably, this effect extended to a task sharing few surface features with the trained tasks, and continued to be apparent three months later. In addition, the benefits of training extended to a measure of mathematical reasoning three months later, indicating that training executive functions during the preschool years has the potential to convey benefits that are both long-lasting and wide-ranging.

  14. Musical Training Induces Functional Plasticity in Human Hippocampus

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Training can change the functional and structural organization of the brain, and animal models demonstrate that the hippocampus formation is particularly susceptible to training-related neuroplasticity. In humans, however, direct evidence for functional plasticity of the adult hippocampus induced by training is still missing. Here, we used musicians' brains as a model to test for plastic capabilities of the adult human hippocampus. By using functional magnetic resonance imaging optimized for ...

  15. The Effects of Balance Training on Stability and Proprioception Scores of the Ankle in College Students

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    Andrew L. Shim

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine if stability and proprioception scores improved on college-aged students using a slack line device. Methods: One group of 20 participants aged 18-23 from a Midwestern university performed a pre-test/post-test on a computerized posturography plate to determine Center of Pressure (CoP and Limit of Stability (LoS scores.  Participants performed three 20-30 minute sessions per week of balance and proprioceptive training using a Balance Bow for a period of four weeks. Data were analyzed (SPSS 21.0 using a dependent t-test to determine if any changes occurred between pre- and post-test scores after four weeks.  Results: The analyses found no significance difference in Center of Pressure (CoP, normal stability eyes open (NSEO, normal stability eyes closed (NSEC, perturbed stability eyes open (PSEO, perturbed stability eyes closed (PSEC, or LoS forward (F, backward (B, or right (R scores in college-aged participants. A significant difference was found in LoS left (L and a notable trend towards significance was found in LoS R results. Conclusion: With the exception of LoS L stability scores, it was concluded that 12 sessions of 20-30 minutes, utilizing a slack line device, over a four week training period did not significantly improve stability and proprioceptive scores of the ankle in college-aged participants. Keywords: Proprioception, Limit of Stability (LoS, Center of Pressure (CoP, slack line device

  16. Balance and steadiness correction of the upright posture of patients having withstood an ischemic stroke with the help of stabilographic rehabilitation training equipment with biofeedback

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bredikhina Y. P.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The brain ischemic mortality rate in Russia occupies the third position. As a result, a recovery period after an ischemic stroke could undermine social and economic well-being of patients and their close relatives. One of the major consequences of a stroke includes the firm-motor defects. Their degree can be reduced with the help of rehabilitation measures intended to revive the motor function of paralyzed limbs and to train a patient to remain firm upright. A stabilographic rehabilitation training apparatus with biofeedback represents one of the variants of the posture training. This training in a playful way helps a patient to improve the balance and firmness indices of the upright position. This rehabilitation method improved considerably the patients’ clinical and stabilographic indices of the balance and firmness function in comparison with the patients whose programmes did not include this method. A patient could sense better that he/she was standing on the both lower limbs. The sensitivity in the lower limbs was intensifying or reviving. According to the additional stabilographic control tests, the total scatter of the pressure centre and the scatter in the sagittal plane, the rate of the pressure centre movement were decreasing; Romberg coefficient became normal.

  17. Long-term effects of new progressive group balance training for elderly people with increased risk of falling - a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halvarsson, Alexandra; Franzén, Erika; Farén, Elin; Olsson, Elisabeth; Oddsson, Lars; Ståhle, Agneta

    2013-05-01

    To evaluate the long-term effects of a progressive and specific balance group-based program in healthy elderly individuals with increased risk of falling. Follow-up of a randomized controlled trial at nine and 15 months on a population that has previously been described at three months. The study was conducted in Stockholm, Sweden. 59 community-dwelling elderly (age 67-93 years), recruited by advertisement, were randomly allocated to training or to serve as controls. Group balance training three times per week during 12 weeks with a 15 month follow-up time. Participants were assessed at baseline, three, nine, and 15 months thereafter for gait function (preferred and fast walking), rapid step execution (single and dual task), fear of falling, and likelihood of depression. Fast gait speed (p = 0.004), dual task step execution (p = 0.006) and fear of falling (p = 0.001) were still improved in the training group at nine months follow-up. Only self-perceived fear of falling remained significantly improved (p = 0.012) at 15 months follow-up. Although fast gait speed had decreased to baseline level in the training group (1.49 m/s) it remained significantly higher than in the control group (1.37 m/s) at the end of the study, a difference between the groups that was not seen at baseline. This training program provided important positive short and long-term benefits to gait, balance function, and fear of falling.

  18. The effect of a balance training programme on centre of pressure excursion in one-leg stance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhagen, Evert; Bobbert, Maarten; Inklaar, Melanie; van Kalken, Marike; van der Beek, Allard; Bouter, Lex; van Mechelen, Willem

    2005-12-01

    Balance training is widely used in the rehabilitation after an ankle sprain and is thought to have a decreasing effect on postural sway. The present study investigated whether a 5.5-week balance training programme leads to a decreased postural sway showing in a reduced range of centre of pressure excursion. Thirty university students participated in this study. Twenty-two untrained subjects were randomly assigned to either an intervention group (n=11) or a control group (n=11). The remaining eight subjects were participants in an organized volleyball competition and were assigned to an additional volleyball group (n=8). All subjects of the intervention group and the volleyball group received a 5.5-week balance training programme, while subjects of the control group received no training. Centre of pressure of the ground reaction force was measured as a proxy measure of postural sway, using a force platform. Measurements took place before and after the 5.5-week training programme for standing on one leg (both for right and for left leg) of single leg stance, both for the eyes-open and eyes-closed situation. From these measurements centre of pressure excursion in the anterior-posterior and the medial-lateral direction was calculated. A linear regression analysis was performed to check for differences in centre of pressure excursion between any of the groups over the training period. No differences in changes of centre of pressure excursion were found between any of the groups over the 5.5-week training period. Balance training does not lead to a reduction in centre of pressure excursion in a general population consisting of non-injured and previously injured subjects.

  19. Water balance and ad libitum water intake in football players during a training session

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Diego Hernández-Camacho

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: It is known that hydration plays a crucial performance in sports performance. But a great number of studies assessing hydration during football practice have shown that many players have a dehydration state prior to this sport and that most players are not able to replace water loss by sweating with ad libitum water intake. Objectives: To analyze ad libitum water consumption, water balance, thirst sensation and rate of perceived exertion on a sample of young football players during a training session. Material and Methods: A total of 57 players from three teams in the youth category voluntary participated in this study. Weight was collected at the beginning and at the end of training; thirst sensation, rate of perceived exertion and quantification of ingested water were assessed. We used descriptive statistics, correlational and ratio analysis. Results: Mean global intake of players studied was 844.74±351.95mL and an average loss of body water 1274.56±385.82mL. Average rate of dehydration of the initial weight was 0.63%. Average score of 2.81±1.32 on the scale of thirst sensation was obtained. Discussion and conclusions: Rate of loss of body water similar to previous studies is obtained. The players were not able to replace water loss by drinking liquid ad libitum, so the intake of an amount previously scheduled could become helpful.

  20. Improved functional vasodilation in obese Zucker rats following exercise training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebai, Mohamad; Lu, Silu; Xiang, Lusha; Hester, Robert L

    2011-09-01

    Obese individuals exhibit impaired functional vasodilation and exercise performance. We have demonstrated in obese Zucker rats (OZ), a model of morbid obesity, that insulin resistance impairs functional vasodilation via an increased thromboxane receptor (TP)-mediated vasoconstriction. Chronic treadmill exercise training improves functional vasodilation in the spinotrapezius muscle of the OZ, but the mechanisms responsible for the improvement in functional vasodilation are not clear. Based on evidence that exercise training improves insulin resistance, we hypothesized that, in the OZ, exercise training increases functional vasodilation and exercise capability due to decreases TP-mediated vasoconstriction associated with improved insulin sensitivity. Six-week-old lean Zucker rats (LZ) and OZ were exercised on a treadmill (24 m/min, 30 min/day, 5 days/wk) for 6 wk. An oral glucose tolerance test was performed at the end of the training period. We measured functional vasodilation in both exercise trained (spinotrapezius) and nonexercise trained (cremaster) muscles to determine whether the improved functional vasodilation following exercise training in OZ is due to a systemic improved insulin resistance. Compared with LZ, the sedentary OZ exhibited impairments in glucose tolerance and functional vasodilation in both muscles. The TP antagonist SQ-29548 improved the vasodilator responses in the sedentary OZ with no effect in the LZ. Exercising training of the LZ increased the functional vasodilation in spinotrapezius muscle, with no effect in the cremaster muscle. Exercising training of the OZ improved glucose tolerance, along with increased functional vasodilation, in both the spinotrapezius and cremaster muscles. SQ-29548 treatment had no effect on the vasodilator responses in either cremaster or spinotrapezius muscles of the exercise-trained OZ. These results suggest that, in the OZ, there is a global effect of exercising training to improve insulin resistance and

  1. The effects of trunk kinesio taping on balance ability and gait function in stroke patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yang Jin; Kim, Ji Young; Kim, Seong Yoel; Kim, Kyung Hoon

    2016-08-01

    [Purpose] Kinesio taping is a therapeutic method used in the treatment of various musculoskeletal and neuromuscular deficits, but there is limited evidence of the effects of trunk kinesio taping in neurologic patients. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the effects of trunk kinesio taping on balance ability and gait function in persons after a stroke. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-five post-stroke patients were included in this study. Kinesio tape was applied to four trunk muscles. Before and after the taping, in all subjects, the balance ability was measured using the Wii Balance Board, and gait function was assessed using the GAITRite system. [Results] The difference in gait function before and after trunk taping was not statistically significant. However, a variability of balance ability showed statistically significant differences. [Conclusion] These results suggest that taping may be a helpful method during rehabilitation programs for stroke patients. Its application to the trunk muscles is especially useful for improving balance ability.

  2. The effects of trunk kinesio taping on balance ability and gait function in stroke patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yang Jin; Kim, Ji Young; Kim, Seong Yoel; Kim, Kyung Hoon

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] Kinesio taping is a therapeutic method used in the treatment of various musculoskeletal and neuromuscular deficits, but there is limited evidence of the effects of trunk kinesio taping in neurologic patients. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the effects of trunk kinesio taping on balance ability and gait function in persons after a stroke. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-five post-stroke patients were included in this study. Kinesio tape was applied to four trunk muscles. Before and after the taping, in all subjects, the balance ability was measured using the Wii Balance Board, and gait function was assessed using the GAITRite system. [Results] The difference in gait function before and after trunk taping was not statistically significant. However, a variability of balance ability showed statistically significant differences. [Conclusion] These results suggest that taping may be a helpful method during rehabilitation programs for stroke patients. Its application to the trunk muscles is especially useful for improving balance ability. PMID:27630439

  3. Beyond Leptin: Emerging Candidates for the Integration of Metabolic and Reproductive Function during Negative Energy Balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    True, Cadence; Grove, Kevin L; Smith, M Susan

    2011-01-01

    Reproductive status is tightly coupled to metabolic state in females, and ovarian cycling in mammals is halted when energy output exceeds energy input, a metabolic condition known as negative energy balance. This inhibition of reproductive function during negative energy balance occurs due to suppression of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) release in the hypothalamus. The GnRH secretagogue kisspeptin is also inhibited during negative energy balance, indicating that inhibition of reproductive neuroendocrine circuits may occur upstream of GnRH itself. Understanding the metabolic signals responsible for the inhibition of reproductive pathways has been a compelling research focus for many years. A predominant theory in the field is that the status of energy balance is conveyed to reproductive neuroendocrine circuits via the adipocyte hormone leptin. Leptin is stimulatory for GnRH release and lower levels of leptin during negative energy balance are believed to result in decreased stimulatory drive for GnRH cells. However, recent evidence found that restoring leptin to physiological levels did not restore GnRH function in three different models of negative energy balance. This suggests that although leptin may be an important permissive signal for reproductive function as indicated by many years of research, factors other than leptin must critically contribute to negative energy balance-induced reproductive inhibition. This review will focus on emerging candidates for the integration of metabolic status and reproductive function during negative energy balance.

  4. On the impacts of working memory training on executive functioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiina eSalminen

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have reported improvements in a variety of cognitive functions following sole working memory (WM training. In spite of the emergence of several successful training paradigms, the scope of transfer effects has remained mixed. This is most likely due to the heterogeneity of cognitive functions that have been measured and tasks that have been applied. In the present study, we approached this issue systematically by investigating transfer effects from WM training to different aspects of executive functioning. Our training task was a demanding WM task that requires simultaneous performance of a visual and an auditory n-back task, while the transfer tasks tapped WM updating, coordination of the performance of multiple simultaneous tasks (i.e., dual-tasks and sequential tasks (i.e., task switching, and the temporal distribution of attentional processing. Additionally, we examined whether WM training improves reasoning abilities; a hypothesis that has so far gained mixed support. Following training, participants showed improvements in the trained task as well as in the transfer WM updating task. As for the other executive functions, trained participants improved in a task switching situation and in attentional processing. There was no transfer to the dual-task situation or to reasoning skills. These results therefore confirm previous findings that WM can be trained, and additionally, they show that the training effects can generalize to various other tasks tapping on executive functions.

  5. Effects of 8 Weeks of Balance or Weight Training for the Independently Living Elderly on the Outcomes of Induced Slips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sukwon; Lockhart, Thurmon

    2010-01-01

    The study was conducted to evaluate whether the balance or weight training could alter gait characteristics of elderly contributing to a reduction in the likelihood of slip-induced falls. A total of 18 elderly were evaluated for the study. The results indicated decreases in heel contact velocities and the friction demand characteristics after 8…

  6. An economic evaluation of a proprioceptive balance board training programme for the prevention of ankle sprains in volleyball

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhagen, E.A.L.M.; Tulder, van M.; Beek, van der A.J.; Bouter, L.M.; Mechelen, van W.

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the cost effectiveness of a proprioceptive balance board training programme for the prevention of ankle sprains in volleyball. METHODS: A total of 116 volleyball teams participated in this study which was carried out during the 2001-2002 volleyball season. Teams were randomly

  7. Effects of 8 Weeks of Balance or Weight Training for the Independently Living Elderly on the Outcomes of Induced Slips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sukwon; Lockhart, Thurmon

    2010-01-01

    The study was conducted to evaluate whether the balance or weight training could alter gait characteristics of elderly contributing to a reduction in the likelihood of slip-induced falls. A total of 18 elderly were evaluated for the study. The results indicated decreases in heel contact velocities and the friction demand characteristics after 8…

  8. An economic evaluation of a proprioceptive balance board training programme for the prevention of ankle sprains in volleyball

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhagen, E.A.L.M.; Tulder, van M.; Beek, van der A.J.; Bouter, L.M.; Mechelen, van W.

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the cost effectiveness of a proprioceptive balance board training programme for the prevention of ankle sprains in volleyball. METHODS: A total of 116 volleyball teams participated in this study which was carried out during the 2001-2002 volleyball season. Teams were randomly

  9. Feasibility of Intensive Mobility Training to Improve Gait, Balance, and Mobility in Persons With Chronic Neurological Conditions : A Case Series

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fritz, Stacy; Merlo-Rains, Angela; Rivers, Erin; Brandenburg, Barbara; Sweet, Janea; Donley, Jonathan; Mathews, Harvey; deBode, Stella; McClenaghan, Bruce A.

    2011-01-01

    Background and Purpose: Intensive mobility training (IMT) is a rehabilitative approach aimed at improving gait, balance, and mobility through the incorporation of task-specific, massed practice. The purpose of this case series was to examine the feasibility and benefits of the IMT protocol across a

  10. A Comparison of 12 Weeks of Pilates and Aquatic Training on the Dynamic Balance of Women with Mulitple Sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayyed Mohammad Marandi

    2013-01-01

    Results: The adjusted mean differences of Timed Up and Go Test (TUGT scores of the experimental groups are significantly different (P<0.05. Therefore, it can be said that Pilates exercise interventions and aquatic training can significantly increase the dynamic balance of the examinees in the post-experiment stage. Conclusions: Performing the Pilate exercises and aquatic training increases dynamic balance of the MS patients. Considering the role of dynamic balance on physical fitness and enabling the person in doing is daily chores and routines, and its direct effect on the quality of life, it leads the specialists in applying these exercises as a supplementary treatment along with the medicinal treatments for MS patients.

  11. Effect of Dorsiflexor Muscle Strengthening Using Russian Currents on Balance and Function in Elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Singh

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Balance difficulties are one of the major causes of altered mobility and functional decline in the elderly. Over the past 20 years, a considerable amount of research has been conducted to determine the relationship between balance control and motor or sensory system function in order to understand the causes of falling and to create effective strategies to prevent falls in elderly people The present study was done to determine the effectiveness of dorsiflexor muscle strengthening using Russian stimulation to improve balance and function in elderly. Motor component of balance was evaluated using two tests, i.e., mPOMA and Functional reach test whereas sensory component of balance was measured using mCTSIB and reaction time. Functional performance was typically assessed by Functional gait assessment test, functional ability in performing ADL (like bathing, toileting and IADL (like travelling, shopping tasks. Results of the study suggested that balance and functional status of the elderly improved significantly after eight weeks of dorsiflexor strengthening using Russian currents.

  12. The effects of hippotherapy on postural balance and functional ability in children with cerebral palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraes, Andréa Gomes; Copetti, Fernando; Angelo, Vera Regina; Chiavoloni, Luana Leonardo; David, Ana Cristina

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study evaluated the effects of hippotherapy on seated postural balance, dynamic balance, and functional performance in children with cerebral palsy and compared the effects of 12 and 24 sessions on seated postural balance. [Subjects and Methods] This study included 15 children with cerebral palsy aged between 5 and 10 years. Interventions: A hippotherapy protocol was performed for 30 minutes, twice a week, for 12 weeks. Postural balance in a sitting position was measured using an AMTI AccuSway Plus force platform 1 week before initiating the hippotherapy program and after 12 and 24 weeks. The Berg Balance Scale (BBS) and Pediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory (PEDI) were used before and after 24 sessions. [Results] Significant differences were observed for center of pressure (COP) variables, including medio-lateral (COPml), anteroposterior displacement (COPap), and velocity of displacement (VelCOP), particularly after 24 sessions. There were also significant differences in BBS scores and PEDI score increases associated with functional skills (self-care, social function, and mobility), caregiver assistance (self-care), social function, and mobility. [Conclusion] Hippotherapy resulted in improvement in postural balance in the sitting position, dynamic balance, and functionality in children with cerebral palsy, an effect particularly significant after 24 hippotherapy sessions. PMID:27630401

  13. The effects of horse riding simulation training on stroke patients' balance ability and abdominal muscle thickness changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Il-Hun; Kim, Byeong Jo

    2014-08-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of horse riding simulation training on changes in balance ability and abdominal muscle thicknesses of stroke patients. [Subjects] Thirty stroke patients with hemiplegia were recruited, and they were randomly assigned to a control or experimental group. [Methods] The experimental group performed horse riding simulation training, whereas the control group performed trunk exercises for 8 weeks. Balance ability was measured using a BioRescue system. The thicknesses of subjects' external oblique, internal oblique, and transversus abdominis muscles were measured by ultrasonic imaging. [Results] In the experimental group, balance ability was significantly improved after training. Similarly, the thickness of the abdominal muscles on the affected side changed after training in the experimental group, whereas the control group showed no statistically significant changes. [Conclusion] We suggest that horse riding simulation training is more effective than trunk exercises at reducing the center of pressure path length and travel speed and improving the asymmetry of the abdominal muscles of stroke patients.

  14. The effects of wobble board training on the eyes open and closed static balance ability of adolescents with down syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Tae-Jin

    2014-04-01

    [Purpose] The aim of the present study was to examine the influence of wobble board training on static balance, with and without vision, of adolescents with Down syndrome (DS). [Subjects] Ten adolescents with DS were recruited for this study. [Methods] Participants performed quiet standing with their eyes open and closed, pre- and post-wobble board training. During quiet standing, the center of pressure (COP) data was recorded using a force plate. To assess the static balance ability of the participants, the 95% confidence ellipse area of COP was calculated. The paired t-test was used to compare the 95% confidence ellipse area of COP between the eyes open and closed conditions, and between pre- and post-training. [Results] Although there was no significant difference in the 95% confidence ellipse area of COP between with and without vision, the 95% confidence ellipse area of COP decreased significantly after wobble board training. [Conclusion] These findings suggest that wobble board training is an effective at improving the static balance ability of adolescents with DS.

  15. Functional brain activation associated with working memory training and transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Cameron M; Lawlor-Savage, Linette; Goghari, Vina M

    2017-09-15

    While behavioural trials of working memory (WM) training have received much attention in recent years, a lesser explored parallel approach is functional neuroimaging. A small literature has suggested a complex time course for functional activation pattern changes following WM training (i.e. not simply increasing or decreasing due to training); however, no study to date has examined such neuroplastic effects in both the training task (dual n-back) and the fluid intelligence transfer task to which the training is purported to transfer (Raven's Matrices). This study investigated neural correlates of WM training in healthy young adults randomized to six weeks of WM training, or an active control condition (processing speed training) with a pre- and post-training fMRI design. Results indicated significant reductions in activation for the WM trained group in key WM-task related areas for trained WM tasks after training compared to the processing speed active control group. The same pattern of training related decreases in activation for the WM trained group was not observed for the transfer task, which is consistent with null results for all cognitive outcomes of the present trial. The observed pattern of results suggests that repetitive practice with a complex task does indeed lead to neuroplastic processes that very likely represent the reduced demand for attentional control while sub-components of the task become more routinized with practice. We suggest that future research investigate neural correlates of WM training in populations for which WM itself is impaired and/or behavioural trials of WM training have returned more promising results. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Balance functions: Multiplicity and transverse momentum dependence of the charge dependent correlations in ALICE

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2078856; Snellings, Raimond; Christakoglou, Panos

    The measurement of charge-dependent correlations between positively and negatively charged particles as a function of pseudorapidity and azimuthal angle, known as the balance functions, provide insight to the properties of matter created in high-energy collisions. The balance functions are argued to probe the creation time of the particles and are also sensitive to the collective motion of the system. In this thesis, I present the results of the measured balance functions in p--Pb collisions at √sNN = 5.02~TeV obtained with the ALICE detector at the LHC. The results are compared with balance functions measured in pp and Pb--Pb collisions at √s=7~TeV and √sNN = 2.76~TeV$, respectively. The width of the balance functions in both pseudorapidity and azimuthal angle for non-identified charged particles decreases with increasing multiplicity in all three systems, for particles with low transverse momentum value pT < 2~GeV/c. For higher values of transverse momentum the balance functions become narrower and...

  17. Effectiveness of balance training exercise in people with mild to moderate severity Alzheimer's disease: protocol for a randomised trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lautenschlager Nicola T

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Balance dysfunction and falls are common problems in later stages of dementia. Exercise is a well-established intervention to reduce falls in cognitively intact older people, although there is limited randomised trial evidence of outcomes in people with dementia. The primary objective of this study is to evaluate whether a home-based balance exercise programme improves balance performance in people with mild to moderate severity Alzheimer's disease. Methods/design Two hundred and fourteen community dwelling participants with mild to moderate severity Alzheimer's disease will be recruited for the randomised controlled trial. A series of laboratory and clinical measures will be used to evaluate balance and mobility performance at baseline. Participants will then be randomized to receive either a balance training home exercise programme (intervention group from a physiotherapist, or an education, information and support programme from an occupational therapist (control group. Both groups will have six home visits in the six months following baseline assessment, as well as phone support. All participants will be re-assessed at the completion of the programme (after six months, and again in a further six months to evaluate sustainability of outcomes. The primary outcome measures will be the Limits of Stability (a force platform measure of balance and the Step Test (a clinical measure of balance. Secondary outcomes include other balance and mobility measures, number of falls and falls risk measures, cognitive and behavioural measures, and carer burden and quality of life measures. Assessors will be blind to group allocation. Longitudinal change in balance performance will be evaluated in a sub-study, in which the first 64 participants of the control group with mild to moderate severity Alzheimer's disease, and 64 age and gender matched healthy participants will be re-assessed on all measures at initial assessment, and then at 6, 12

  18. Statistical technique for analysing functional connectivity of multiple spike trains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masud, Mohammad Shahed; Borisyuk, Roman

    2011-03-15

    A new statistical technique, the Cox method, used for analysing functional connectivity of simultaneously recorded multiple spike trains is presented. This method is based on the theory of modulated renewal processes and it estimates a vector of influence strengths from multiple spike trains (called reference trains) to the selected (target) spike train. Selecting another target spike train and repeating the calculation of the influence strengths from the reference spike trains enables researchers to find all functional connections among multiple spike trains. In order to study functional connectivity an "influence function" is identified. This function recognises the specificity of neuronal interactions and reflects the dynamics of postsynaptic potential. In comparison to existing techniques, the Cox method has the following advantages: it does not use bins (binless method); it is applicable to cases where the sample size is small; it is sufficiently sensitive such that it estimates weak influences; it supports the simultaneous analysis of multiple influences; it is able to identify a correct connectivity scheme in difficult cases of "common source" or "indirect" connectivity. The Cox method has been thoroughly tested using multiple sets of data generated by the neural network model of the leaky integrate and fire neurons with a prescribed architecture of connections. The results suggest that this method is highly successful for analysing functional connectivity of simultaneously recorded multiple spike trains.

  19. ANKLE JOINT CONTROL DURING SINGLE-LEGGED BALANCE USING COMMON BALANCE TRAINING DEVICES - IMPLICATIONS FOR REHABILITATION STRATEGIES

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strøm, Mark; Thorborg, Kristian; Bandholm, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A lateral ankle sprain is the most prevalent musculoskeletal injury in sports. Exercises that aim to improve balance are a standard part of the ankle rehabilitation process. In an optimal progression model for ankle rehabilitation and prevention of future ankle sprains, it is important...... compared to Airex® and floor. This study can serve as guidance for clinicians who wish to implement a gradual progression of ankle rehabilitation and prevention exercises by taking the related ankle kinematics and muscle activity into account. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level 3....

  20. The effect of biofeedback training on patients with functional constipation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Meihong; Lin, Zheng; Lin, Lin; Zhang, Hongjie; Wang, Meihfeng

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this prospective quasi-experimental study was to explore the influence of biofeedback training on patients with functional constipation (FC). Changes in clinical symptoms, psychological status, quality of life, and autonomic nervous function in 21 FC patients before and after biofeedback training were investigated. The psychological status and quality of life were evaluated with the Zung Self-Rating Anxiety Scale (SAS), Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS), and a Chinese version of the MOS 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey. Autonomic nervous function was assessed on the basis of heart rate variability recorded with a HANS-1000 autonomic nervous biofeedback apparatus. After a complete course of training (10 sessions), clinical symptoms were greatly improved (p biofeedback (p .05). We conclude that biofeedback training can improve clinical symptoms, psychological status, and quality of life in FC patients, but further research is needed to determine whether biofeedback training can improve the autonomic nervous function in FC patients.

  1. A perturbation-based balance training program for older adults: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peters Amy L

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous research investigating exercise as a means of falls prevention in older adults has shown mixed results. Lack of specificity of the intervention may be an important factor contributing to negative results. Change-in-support (CIS balance reactions, which involve very rapid stepping or grasping movements of the limbs, play a critical role in preventing falls; hence, a training program that improves ability to execute effective CIS reactions could potentially have a profound effect in reducing risk of falling. This paper describes: 1 the development of a perturbation-based balance training program that targets specific previously-reported age-related impairments in CIS reactions, and 2 a study protocol to evaluate the efficacy of this new training program. Methods/Design The training program involves use of unpredictable, multi-directional moving-platform perturbations to evoke stepping and grasping reactions. Perturbation magnitude is gradually increased over the course of the 6-week program, and concurrent cognitive and movement tasks are included during later sessions. The program was developed in accordance with well-established principles of motor learning, such as individualisation, specificity, overload, adaptation-progression and variability. Specific goals are to reduce the frequency of multiple-step responses, reduce the frequency of collisions between the stepping foot and stance leg, and increase the speed of grasping reactions. A randomised control trial will be performed to evaluate the efficacy of the training program. A total of 30 community-dwelling older adults (age 64–80 with a recent history of instability or falling will be assigned to either the perturbation-based training or a control group (flexibility/relaxation training, using a stratified randomisation that controls for gender, age and baseline stepping/grasping performance. CIS reactions will be tested immediately before and after the six

  2. Effect of Short Term Balance Training on Postural Stability in Ice Hockey Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavol Čech

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Postural stability is one of latent factors affecting game performance of an individual to a certain extent. The presented study deals with monitoring changes of postural stability in ice hockey players after eight week’s balance training. The screened sample consisted of junior category ice hockey players divided into experimental (n = 8 and reference groups (n = 8. Postural stability was measured using a stabilographic method on the AMTI AccuSwayPLUS force platform. The level of postural stability was assessed in three tests, namely bipedal stance with and without sight control and bipedal stance with reduced proprioception using the parameters of 95% confidence ellipse, path of CoP and mean velocity of CoP. The level of monitored stability parameters did not indicate any significant differences between the groups in any of the tests at the level of significance α = 0.05. Comparing postural stability of the experimental group between pre-test and post-test showed significant differences in the test without sight control and the test with reduced proprioception in lCoP and vCoP parameters (Z = 2.1004; α ˂ 0.05. Regarding the reference group, no significant changes of the level of postural stability between the pre-test and post-test were found in any of the parameters (Z = 0.3652 to 1.8257; α ˃ 0.05.

  3. Does Combined Physical and Cognitive Training Improve Dual-Task Balance and Gait Outcomes in Sedentary Older Adults?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, Sarah A.; Li, Karen Z.-H.; Berryman, Nicolas; Desjardins-Crépeau, Laurence; Lussier, Maxime; Vadaga, Kiran; Lehr, Lora; Minh Vu, Thien Tuong; Bosquet, Laurent; Bherer, Louis

    2017-01-01

    Everyday activities like walking and talking can put an older adult at risk for a fall if they have difficulty dividing their attention between motor and cognitive tasks. Training studies have demonstrated that both cognitive and physical training regimens can improve motor and cognitive task performance. Few studies have examined the benefits of combined training (cognitive and physical) and whether or not this type of combined training would transfer to walking or balancing dual-tasks. This study examines the dual-task benefits of combined training in a sample of sedentary older adults. Seventy-two older adults (≥60 years) were randomly assigned to one of four training groups: Aerobic + Cognitive training (CT), Aerobic + Computer lessons (CL), Stretch + CT and Stretch + CL. It was expected that the Aerobic + CT group would demonstrate the largest benefits and that the active placebo control (Stretch + CL) would show the least benefits after training. Walking and standing balance were paired with an auditory n-back with two levels of difficulty (0- and 1-back). Dual-task walking and balance were assessed with: walk speed (m/s), cognitive accuracy (% correct) and several mediolateral sway measures for pre- to post-test improvements. All groups demonstrated improvements in walk speed from pre- (M = 1.33 m/s) to post-test (M = 1.42 m/s, p < 0.001) and in accuracy from pre- (M = 97.57%) to post-test (M = 98.57%, p = 0.005).They also increased their walk speed in the more difficult 1-back (M = 1.38 m/s) in comparison to the 0-back (M = 1.36 m/s, p < 0.001) but reduced their accuracy in the 1-back (M = 96.39%) in comparison to the 0-back (M = 99.92%, p < 0.001). Three out of the five mediolateral sway variables (Peak, SD, RMS) demonstrated significant reductions in sway from pre to post test (p-values < 0.05). With the exception of a group difference between Aerobic + CT and Stretch + CT in accuracy, there were no significant group differences after training. Results

  4. Functional communication training with and without extinction and punishment.

    OpenAIRE

    Fisher, W.; Piazza, C; Cataldo, M.; Harrell, R.; Jefferson, G.; Conner, R

    1993-01-01

    Functional communication training has been reported to be a promising treatment for severe behavior problems. In this study, functional communication training alone and combined with extinction and/or punishment was evaluated for 4 clients with severe retardation, behavior problems, and communication deficits. The participants were inpatients on a hospital unit for treatment of severe behavior disorders. They received individualized interventions based on functional assessment that included r...

  5. The effects of Pilates exercise training on static and dynamic balance in chronic stroke patients: a randomized controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Hee Sung; Kim, You Lim; Lee, Suk Min

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to analyze the effects of Pilates exercise on static and dynamic balance in chronic stroke patients. [Subjects and Methods] Nineteen individuals with unilateral chronic hemiparetic stroke (age, 64.7 ± 6.9 years; height, 161.7 ± 7.9 cm; weight, 67.0 ± 11.1 kg) were randomly allocated to either a Pilates exercise group (PG, n=10) or a control group (CG, n=9). The PG attended 24 exercise sessions conducted over an 8-week period (3 sessions/week). Center of pressure (COP) sway and COP velocity were measured one week before and after the exercise program and compared to assess training effects. [Results] Pilates exercise positively affected both static and dynamic balance in patients with chronic stroke. For static balance, COP sway and velocity in the medial-lateral (M-L) and anterior-posterior (A-P) directions were significantly decreased in the PG after training while no significant differences were found in the CG. For dynamic balance, measured during treadmill walking, the PG showed significantly reduced COP sway and velocity in the M-L and A-P directions for both the paretic and non-paretic leg. [Conclusions] The findings provide initial evidence that Pilates exercise can enhance static and dynamic balance in patients with chronic stroke. PMID:27390424

  6. A Comparison of 12 Weeks of Pilates and Aquatic Training on the Dynamic Balance of Women with Mulitple Sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marandi, Sayyed Mohammad; Nejad, Vahid Shayegan; Shanazari, Zohreh; Zolaktaf, Vahid

    2013-01-01

    Background: Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is a disabling chronic disease of the nervous system in which the myelin system of the central nervous system is deteriorated. The objective of this study is to understand the effect of Pilates exercises and aquatic training for a 12 week period on the dynamic balance of MS patients. Methods: The research method is semi-experimental. As a result, among the female patients visiting the MS clinic of Kashani hospital in Esfahan, 57 patients with disease intensity levels between 0 and 4.5 were taken as samples. The average length of the disease was 8 ± 2 years, 20;40 years old, and they were randomly divided into three groups of Pilates exercise group, aquatic training group, and the control group. The exercise schedule for the experiment groups consisted of 12 weeks, three sessions per week, and 1 hour for each session. The dynamic balance of the patients, before and after the exercises was measured by Six Spot Step Test. Results: The adjusted mean differences of Timed Up and Go Test (TUGT) scores of the experimental groups are significantly different (PPilates exercise interventions and aquatic training can significantly increase the dynamic balance of the examinees in the post-experiment stage. Conclusions: Performing the Pilate exercises and aquatic training increases dynamic balance of the MS patients. Considering the role of dynamic balance on physical fitness and enabling the person in doing is daily chores and routines, and its direct effect on the quality of life, it leads the specialists in applying these exercises as a supplementary treatment along with the medicinal treatments for MS patients. PMID:23717760

  7. Unipedal Postural Balance and Countermovement Jumps After a Warm-up and Plyometric Training Session: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Franco, Natalia; Jiménez-Reyes, Pedro

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the immediate effects of a plyometric training protocol on unipedal postural balance and countermovement jumps. In addition, we analyzed the effects of a warm-up on these parameters. Thirty-two amateur male sprinters (24.9 ± 4.1 years; 72.3 ± 10.7 kg; 1.78 ± 0.05 m; 22.6 ± 3.3 kg·m) were randomly sorted into a control group (n = 16) (they did not perform any physical activity) and a plyometric training group (n = 16) (they performed a 15-minute warm-up and a high-intensity plyometric protocol consisting of 10 sets of 15 vertical jumps). Before and after the warm-up, and immediately after and 5 minutes after the plyometric protocol, all athletes indicated the perceived exertion on calf and quad regions on a scale from 0 (no exertion) to 10 (maximum exertion). They also carried out a maximum countermovement jump and a unipedal postural balance test (athletes would remain as still as possible for 15 seconds in a left leg and right leg support stance). Results showed that, in the plyometric group, length and velocity of center-of-pressure movement in right leg support stance increased compared with baseline (p = 0.001 and p = 0.004, respectively) and to the control group (p = 0.035 and p = 0.029, respectively) immediately after the plyometric protocol. In addition, the countermovement jump height decreased right after the plyometric protocol (p postural balance remained unaltered. As a conclusion, high-intensity plyometric exercises blunt unipedal postural balance and countermovement jump performance. The deterioration lasts at least 5 minutes, which may influence future exercises in the training session. Coaches should plan the training routine according to the immediate effects of plyometry on postural balance and vertical jumps, which play a role in injury prevention and sports performance.

  8. Effect of Vertical, Horizontal, and Combined Plyometric Training on Explosive, Balance, and Endurance Performance of Young Soccer Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Campillo, Rodrigo; Gallardo, Francisco; Henriquez-Olguín, Carlos; Meylan, Cesar M P; Martínez, Cristian; Álvarez, Cristian; Caniuqueo, Alexis; Cadore, Eduardo L; Izquierdo, Mikel

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effects of 6 weeks of vertical, horizontal, or combined vertical and horizontal plyometric training on muscle explosive, endurance, and balance performance. Forty young soccer players aged between 10 and 14 years were randomly divided into control (CG; n = 10), vertical plyometric group (VG; n = 10), horizontal plyometric group (HG; n = 10), and combined vertical and horizontal plyometric group (VHG; n = 10). Players performance in the vertical and horizontal countermovement jump with arms, 5 multiple bounds test (MB5), 20-cm drop jump reactive strength index (RSI20), maximal kicking velocity (MKV), sprint, change of direction speed (CODS), Yo-Yo intermittent recovery level 1 test (Yo-Yo IR1), and balance was measured. No significant or meaningful changes in the CG, apart from small change in the Yo-Yo IR1, were observed while all training programs resulted in meaningful changes in explosive, endurance, and balance performance. However, only VHG showed a statistically significant (p ≤ 0.05) increase in all performance test and most meaningful training effect difference with the CG across tests. Although no significant differences in performance changes were observed between experimental groups, the VHG program was more effective compared with VG (i.e., jumps, MKV, sprint, CODS, and balance performance) and HG (i.e., sprint, CODS, and balance performance) to small effect. The study demonstrated that vertical, horizontal, and combined vertical and horizontal jumps induced meaningful improvement in explosive actions, balance, and intermittent endurance capacity. However, combining vertical and horizontal drills seems more advantageous to induce greater performance improvements.

  9. A haptic floor for interaction and diagnostics with goal based tasks during virtual reality supported balance training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrej Krpič

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Balance training of patients after stroke is one of the primary tasks of physiotherapy after the hospitalization. It is based on the intensive training, which consists of simple, repetitive, goal-based tasks. The tasks are carried out by physiotherapists, who follow predefined protocols. Introduction of a standing frame and a virtual reality decrease the physical load and number of required physiotherapists. The patients benefit in terms of safety and increased motivation. Additional feedback – haptic floor can enhance the virtual reality experience, add additional level of difficulty and could be also used for generating postural perturbations. The purpose of this article is to examine whether haptic information can be used to identify specific anomalies in dynamic posturography.Methods: The performance and stability of closed-loop system of the haptic floor were tested using frequency analysis. A postural response normative was set up from data assessed in four healthy individuals who were exposed to unexpected movements of the haptic floor in eight directions. Postural responses of a patient after stroke participating in virtual reality supported balance training, where collisions resulted in floor movements, were assessed and contrasted to the normative.Results: Haptic floor system was stable and controllable up to the frequency of 1.1 Hz, sufficient for the generation of postural perturbations. Responses obtained after perturbations in two major directions for a patient after stroke demonstrated noticeable deviations from the normative.Conclusions: Haptic floor design, together with a standing frame and a virtual reality used for balance training, enables an assessment of directionally specific postural responses. The system was designed to identify postural disorders during balance training and rehabilitation progress outside specialized clinics, e.g. at patient’s home.

  10. Functional communication training with and without extinction and punishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, W; Piazza, C; Cataldo, M; Harrell, R; Jefferson, G; Conner, R

    1993-01-01

    Functional communication training has been reported to be a promising treatment for severe behavior problems. In this study, functional communication training alone and combined with extinction and/or punishment was evaluated for 4 clients with severe retardation, behavior problems, and communication deficits. The participants were inpatients on a hospital unit for treatment of severe behavior disorders. They received individualized interventions based on functional assessment that included reinforcement of a communication response with the same function as their destructive behavior. Results showed that for some patients, functional communication training was not sufficient to produce clinically significant reductions in destructive behavior, and the combination of training plus punishment produced the largest and most consistent reductions.

  11. Robotic resistance/assistance training improves locomotor function in individuals poststroke: a randomized controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ming; Landry, Jill M; Kim, Janis; Schmit, Brian D; Yen, Sheng-Che; Macdonald, Jillian

    2014-05-01

    To determine whether providing a controlled resistance versus assistance to the paretic leg at the ankle during treadmill training will improve walking function in individuals poststroke. Repeated assessment of the same patients with parallel design and randomized controlled study between 2 groups. Research units of rehabilitation hospitals. Patients (N=30) with chronic stroke. Subjects were stratified based on self-selected walking speed and were randomly assigned to the resistance or assistance training group. For the resistance group, a controlled resistance load was applied to the paretic leg at the ankle to resist leg swing during treadmill walking. For the assistance group, a load that assists swing was applied. Primary outcome measures were walking speed and 6-minute walking distance. Secondary measures included clinical assessments of balance, muscle tone, and quality of life. Outcome measures were evaluated before and after 6 weeks of training and at 8 weeks' follow-up, and compared within group and between the 2 groups. After 6 weeks of robotic training, walking speed significantly increased for both groups, with no significant differences in walking speed gains observed between the 2 groups. In addition, 6-minute walking distance and balance significantly improved for the assistance group but not for the resistance group. Applying a controlled resistance or an assistance load to the paretic leg during treadmill training may induce improvements in walking speed in individuals poststroke. Resistance training was not superior to assistance training in improving locomotor function in individuals poststroke. Copyright © 2014 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. The effect of core stability training on balance and mobility in ambulant individuals with multiple sclerosis: a multi-centre series of single case studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, J A; Gear, M; Pauli, A; Cowan, P; Finnigan, C; Hunter, H; Mobberley, C; Nock, A; Sims, R; Thain, J

    2010-11-01

    Core stability training is popular in the management of people with multiple sclerosis (MS); however, scientific evidence to support its effectiveness is scarce. To explore the effectiveness of core stability training on balance and mobility. A multi-centre series of eight single case studies was undertaken. Eight ambulant individuals with stable MS participated in 16 face-to-face core stability training sessions, delivered by a neurophysiotherapist, plus a daily home exercise programme. A range of outcomes were measured: 10-m timed walk, 12-item MS walking scale, timed get up and go, functional reach tests, timed single leg stance, visual analogue scales of two activities, and the Activities-specific Balance Confidence Scale. Visual analysis of trend, level and slope demonstrated improvement in five subjects (62%) in seven measures. This was confirmed by the two standard deviation band method of analysis for six measures. Analysis of group data (repeated measures within subjects analysis of variance) indicated significant improvement between baseline and intervention phases for timed walk (p = 0.019), MSWS-12 Scale (p = 0.041), forward (p = 0.015) and lateral reach (p = 0.012). In general, no further improvements were made following withdrawal of the intervention. This study provides preliminary evidence of the effectiveness of an 8-week core stability training programme in improving balance and mobility in ambulant people with MS. Variations in response to intervention are evident. Assessor-blinded randomized controlled studies are required to confirm these findings and determine patient characteristics which identify those who benefit most from this intervention.

  13. Functional Communication Training with and without Extinction and Punishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Wayne; And Others

    1993-01-01

    In this study, functional communication training alone and combined with extinction and/or punishment was evaluated for four clients with severe retardation, behavior problems, and communication deficits. Results showed that the combination of training plus punishment produced the largest and most consistent reductions in target behavior problems.…

  14. Musical training induces functional plasticity in human hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herdener, Marcus; Esposito, Fabrizio; di Salle, Francesco; Boller, Christian; Hilti, Caroline C; Habermeyer, Benedikt; Scheffler, Klaus; Wetzel, Stephan; Seifritz, Erich; Cattapan-Ludewig, Katja

    2010-01-27

    Training can change the functional and structural organization of the brain, and animal models demonstrate that the hippocampus formation is particularly susceptible to training-related neuroplasticity. In humans, however, direct evidence for functional plasticity of the adult hippocampus induced by training is still missing. Here, we used musicians' brains as a model to test for plastic capabilities of the adult human hippocampus. By using functional magnetic resonance imaging optimized for the investigation of auditory processing, we examined brain responses induced by temporal novelty in otherwise isochronous sound patterns in musicians and musical laypersons, since the hippocampus has been suggested previously to be crucially involved in various forms of novelty detection. In the first cross-sectional experiment, we identified enhanced neural responses to temporal novelty in the anterior left hippocampus of professional musicians, pointing to expertise-related differences in hippocampal processing. In the second experiment, we evaluated neural responses to acoustic temporal novelty in a longitudinal approach to disentangle training-related changes from predispositional factors. For this purpose, we examined an independent sample of music academy students before and after two semesters of intensive aural skills training. After this training period, hippocampal responses to temporal novelty in sounds were enhanced in musical students, and statistical interaction analysis of brain activity changes over time suggests training rather than predisposition effects. Thus, our results provide direct evidence for functional changes of the adult hippocampus in humans related to musical training.

  15. Executive function training in children with SLI: A pilot study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vugs, B.A.M.; Knoors, H.E.T.; Cuperus, J.M.; Hendriks, M.P.H.; Verhoeven, L.T.W.

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a computer-based executive function (EF) training in children with specific language impairment (SLI). Ten children with SLI, ages 8 to 12 years, completed a 25-session training of visuospatial working memory, inhibition and cognitive

  16. Executive Function Training in Children with SLI: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vugs, Brigitte; Knoors, Harry; Cuperus, Juliane; Hendriks, Marc; Verhoeven, Ludo

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a computer-based executive function (EF) training in children with specific language impairment (SLI). Ten children with SLI, ages 8 to 12 years, completed a 25-session training of visuospatial working memory, inhibition and cognitive flexibility over a 6-week period. Treatment outcome was…

  17. Effects of foot position of the nonparetic side during sit-to-stand training on postural balance in patients with stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jintae; Kim, Youngmi; Kim, Kyung

    2015-08-01

    [Purpose] We aimed to investigate postural balance after sit-to-stand (STS) training with different nonparetic foot positions in stroke patients. [Subjects] Thirty-six subjects who experienced a stroke (21 males, 15 females) participated and were divided into the symmetric foot position (SYMM), asymmetric foot position (ASYM), and step foot (STEP) groups. [Methods] Each group performed repetitive sit-to-stand training 5 times a week for 6 weeks. The timed up-and-go test (TUG), functional reach test (FRT), and F-mat system correcting the anterior/posterior (A-P) and medial/lateral (M-L) distance of the center of pressure (COP) were used to measure the static and dynamic postural balance pre- and postintervention. ANCOVA was used to analyze differences among groups, and preintervention variables were used as covariates. [Results] The TUG, FRT, and A-P and M-L distance of the COP in the ASYM and STEP groups were significantly decreased after intervention compared with the SYMM group. All parameters in the STEP group were lower than those in the ASYM group, without a significant difference. [Conclusion] The asymmetric foot position during STS is a good intervention to improve the static and dynamic postural balance in stroke patients. Especially, using a step to change the foot position is effective in improving STS performance.

  18. Is leg muscle strength correlated with functional balance and mobility among inpatients in geriatric rehabilitation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasselgren, Låtta; Olsson, Lillemor Lundin; Nyberg, Lars

    2011-01-01

    Determinants of functional balance and mobility have rarely been investigated in geriatric wards. This study examined if leg muscle strength correlates to functional balance and mobility among geriatric inpatients. Fifty inpatients, 29 women and 21 men (mean age 79.6 years) were included. Functional balance was assessed with the Berg Balance Scale (BBS) and mobility was assessed with the Physiotherapy Clinical Outcome Variable Scale (COVS). Strength in the leg extension muscles was measured as 1 Repetition Maximum (1RM) in a leg press and strength in the ankle muscles was measured with Medical Research Council grades (MRC, 0-5). The sum scores, and most of the single items, of the BBS and the COVS significantly correlated to 1RM/body weight, ankle dorsiflexion, and plantar flexion. In a stepwise multiple regression, ankle dorsiflexion and 1RM/body weight together accounted for 39% of the variance of the BBS and 41% of the variance of the COVS. Estimated values of the BBS and the COVS can be calculated from the equation. In clinical work, the knowledge about how leg muscle strength associates with balance and mobility may be useful in analyzing underlying causes of reduced balance and mobility function, and in planning rehabilitation programs.

  19. Does a land-based compensatory strength-training programme influences the rotator cuff balance of young competitive swimmers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batalha, Nuno; Raimundo, Armando; Tomas-Carus, Pablo; Paulo, João; Simão, Roberto; Silva, António J

    2015-01-01

    During the repeated execution of the swimming strokes, the shoulder adductor and internal rotator muscles have a tendency to become proportionally stronger when compared to their antagonist group. This can lead to muscle imbalances. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of a compensatory training programme on the strength and balance of shoulder rotator muscles in young swimmers. A randomized controlled trial design was used. Forty male swimmers took part in the study and were randomly divided into two groups: an experimental group (n = 20) and a training group (n = 20). A control group (n = 16) of young sedentary male students was also evaluated. The experimental group subjects participated in a 16-week shoulder-strength programme with Thera-Band® elastic bands; the training group was restricted to aquatic training. Peak torque of shoulder internal rotator and external rotator (ER) was measured at baseline and after 16 weeks. Concentric action at 1.04 rad s(-1) (3 reps) and 3.14 rad s(-1) (20 reps) was measured using an isokinetic dynamometer. The strength-training programme led to an improvement of the ER strength and shoulder rotator balance in the experimental group (data from both shoulders at 1.04 rad s(-1)). Moreover, concentric action at 3.14 rad s(-1) presented significant differences only for the dominant shoulder. Findings suggest that the prescribed shoulder-strengthening exercises could be a useful training option for young competitive swimmers. They can produce an increase in absolute strength values and greater muscle balance in shoulder rotators.

  20. Positive effects of 1-year football and strength training on mechanical muscle function and functional capacity in elderly men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundstrup, Emil; Jakobsen, Markus Due; Andersen, Lars Louis; Andersen, Thomas Rostgaard; Randers, Morten Bredsgaard; Helge, Jørn Wulff; Suetta, Charlotte; Schmidt, Jakob Friis; Bangsbo, Jens; Krustrup, Peter; Aagaard, Per

    2016-06-01

    A decline in physical capacity takes place with increasing age that negatively affects overall physical function including work ability and the ability to perform typical activities of daily living (ADL). The overall aim of the present study was to determine the neuromuscular adaptations to long-term (1 year) football and strength training in older untrained adults, and to assess the concurrent effect on functional ADL capacity. Twenty-seven healthy elderly males (68.2 ± 3.2 years) were randomly assigned to 12 months of either recreational football training (FT: n = 10), strength training (ST: n = 9) or served as inactive controls (CON: n = 8). Recreational football training consisted of small-sided training sessions whereas strength training consisted of high intensity exercises targeting the lower extremity and upper body. Maximal thigh muscle strength and rate of force development (RFD) were assessed with isokinetic dynamometry, while postural balance and vertical jumping performance were evaluated using force plate analysis. Furthermore, functional ability was evaluated by stair-ascent and chair-rising testing. A total of nine, nine and seven participants from FT, ST and CON, respectively, were included in the analysis. Both exercise regimens led to substantial gains in functional ability, evidenced by 24 and 18 % reduced stair-ascent time, and 32 and 21 % increased chair-rising performance in FT and ST, respectively (all P football training mainly resulted in enhanced hamstring strength (18 %, P football training mainly included enhanced strength and rapid force capacity of the hamstring muscles. Gains in functional ability were observed in response to both training regimens, evidenced by reduced stair-ascent time and increased chair-rising performance. Long-term football exercise and strength training both appear to be effective interventional strategies to improve factors of importance for ADL by counteracting the age-related decline in lower

  1. Effects of Exercise Training on Autonomic Function in Chronic Heart Failure: Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Chung-Yin; Hsieh, Ping-Lun; Hsiao, Shu-Fang; Chien, Meng-Yueh

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. Cardiac autonomic imbalance accompanies the progression of chronic heart failure (CHF). It is unclear whether exercise training could modulate autonomic control in CHF. This study aimed to review systematically the effects of exercise training on heart rate recovery (HRR) and heart rate variability (HRV) in patients with CHF. Methods. Literatures were systematically searched in electronic databases and relevant references. Only published randomized controlled trials (RCTs) focusing on exercise training for CHF were eligible for inclusion. Outcome measurements included HRR and HRV parameters. Results. Eight RCTs were eligible for inclusion and provided data on 280 participants (186 men). The participants were 52-70 years of age with New York Heart Association functional class II-III of CHF. Each study examined either aerobic or resistance exercise. Two trials addressed outcome of HRR and six HRV among these studies. Two RCTs showed that moderate aerobic exercise could improve HRR at 2 minutes after exercise training in CHF. Five of six RCTs demonstrated positive effects of exercise training on HRV which revealed the increments in high frequency (HF) and decrements in LF (low frequency)/HF ratio after training. Conclusion. Participation in an exercise training program has positive effects on cardiac autonomic balance in patients with CHF.

  2. A novel cable-driven robotic training improves locomotor function in individuals post-stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ming; Landry, Jill M; Yen, Sheng-Che; Schmit, Brian D; Hornby, T George; Rafferty, Miriam

    2011-01-01

    A novel cable-driven robotic gait training system has been tested to improve the locomotor function in individuals post stroke. Seven subjects with chronic stroke were recruited to participate in this 6 weeks robot-assisted treadmill training paradigm. A controlled assistance force was applied to the paretic leg at the ankle through a cable-driven robotic system. The force was applied from late stance to mid-swing during treadmill training. Body weight support was provided as necessary to prevent knee buckling or toe drag. Subjects were trained 3 times a week for 6 weeks. Overground gait speed, 6 minute walking distance, and balance were evaluated at pre, post 6 weeks robotic training, and at 8 weeks follow up. Significant improvements in gait speed and 6 minute walking distance were obtained following robotic treadmill training through a cable-driven robotic system. Results from this study indicate that it is feasible to improve the locomotor function in individuals post stroke through a flexible cable-driven robot.

  3. THE EFFECTS OF TAI CHI CHUAN COMBINED WITH VIBRATION TRAINING ON BALANCE CONTROL AND LOWER EXTREMITY MUSCLE POWER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pao-Hung Chung

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine whether performing Tai Chi Chuan on a customized vibration platform could enhance balance control and lower extremity muscle power more efficiently than Tai Chi Chuan alone in an untrained young population. Forty-eight healthy young adults were randomly assigned to the following three groups: a Tai Chi Chuan combined with vibration training group (TCV, a Tai Chi Chuan group (TCC or a control group. The TCV group underwent 30 minutes of a reformed Tai Chi Chuan program on a customized vibration platform (32 Hz, 1 mm three times a week for eight weeks, whereas the TCC group was trained without vibration stimuli. A force platform was used to measure the moving area of a static single leg stance and the heights of two consecutive countermovement jumps. The activation of the knee extensor and flexor was also measured synchronously by surface electromyography in all tests. The results showed that the moving area in the TCV group was significantly decreased by 15.3%. The second jump height in the TCV group was significantly increased by 8.14%, and the activation of the knee extensor/flexor was significantly decreased in the first jump. In conclusion, Tai Chi Chuan combined with vibration training can more efficiently improve balance control, and the positive training effect on the lower extremity muscle power induced by vibration stimuli still remains significant because there is no cross-interaction between the two different types of training methods.

  4. Effect of low- intensity continuous training on lung function and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Health Sci

    training (20-30 minutes of running at 40% of maximum oxygen uptake (VO2max). Lung function and .... index and the correlation index. Recovery index = Regression index x correlation Index ..... Fitness Parameters in Athletes. World Applied ...

  5. Production of functional proteins: balance of shear stress and gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Thomas John (Inventor); Hammond, Timothy Grant (Inventor); Kaysen, James Howard (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A method for the production of functional proteins including hormones by renal cells in a three dimensional culturing process responsive to shear stress uses a rotating wall vessel. Natural mixture of renal cells expresses the enzyme 1-.alpha.-hydroxylase which can be used to generate the active form of vitamin D: 1,25-diOH vitamin D.sub.3. The fibroblast cultures and co-culture of renal cortical cells express the gene for erythropoietin and secrete erythropoietin into the culture supernatant. Other shear stress response genes are also modulated by shear stress, such as toxin receptors megalin and cubulin (gp280). Also provided is a method of treating an in-need individual with the functional proteins produced in a three dimensional co-culture process responsive to shear stress using a rotating wall vessel.

  6. Weight lifting training and left ventricular function in adolescent subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagiv, M; Sagiv, M; Ben-Sira, D

    2007-09-01

    Training during adolescence may influence the myocardium's adaptation. Effects of exercise training on left ventricular function differ depending whether they result from pressure or volume overload. Accordingly, the present study was designed to examine, by echocardiography studies, the effects of endurance versus weight lifting training modes on left ventricular contractility in healthy adolescent boys. Sixty healthy adolescent boys were randomly and evenly divided into 3 groups: weightlifting training, run-training, and control. Exercising groups underwent 28-week training programs, 3-4 times a week, 35 min each session. The weight lifting program for consisted of training on 6 dynamic resistive machines at resistance corresponding to 6-repetition maximum. The running program was composed of aerobic exercise training at 65% of their VO(2max). At rest, only in the runners end diastolic volume and end systolic pressure-volume ratio differed significantly (Pweightlifters demonstrated improvement respectively in: wall stress (245+/-42 and 290+/-35 103 dyn.cm(2)), end systolic pressure-volume ratio (7.2+/-.7 and 6.4+/-.5 ratio) and ejection fraction (82+/-5% and 76+/-5%). Maximal oxygen uptake (48.2+/-3.2 and 43.8+/-3.5 mL.kg(-1).min(-1)), also improved significantly (Padolescent boys the mode of exercise training leads to significant differences in left ventricular function and contractility, related to differences in volume-after-load relationship and not to fundamental differences in the properties of the myocardium.

  7. Recovery of vestibular ocular reflex function and balance control after a unilateral peripheral vestibular deficit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allum, J H J

    2012-01-01

    This review describes the effect of unilateral peripheral vestibular deficit (UPVD) on balance control for stance and gait tests. Because a UPVD is normally defined based on vestibular ocular reflex (VOR) tests, we compared recovery observed in balance control with patterns of recovery in VOR function. Two general types of UPVD are considered; acute vestibular neuritis (AVN) and vestibular neurectomy. The latter was subdivided into vestibular loss after cerebellar pontine angle tumor surgery during which a vestibular neurectomy was performed, and vestibular loss following neurectomy to eliminate disabling Ménière's disease. To measure balance control, body-worn gyroscopes, mounted near the body's center of mass (CoM), were used. Measurement variables were the pitch (anterior-posterior) and roll (lateral) sway angles and angular velocities of the lower trunk/pelvis. Both patient groups showed balance deficits during stance tasks on foam, especially with eyes closed when stable balance control is normally highly dependent on vestibular inputs. Deficits during gait were also present and were more profound for complex gait tasks such as tandem gait than simple gait tasks. Major differences emerged between the groups concerning the severity of the deficit and its recovery. Generally, the effects of acute neuritis on balance control were more severe but recovered rapidly. Deficits due to vestibular neurectomy were less severe, but longer lasting. These results mostly paralleled recovery of deficits in VOR function. However, questions need to be raised about the effect on balance control of the two modes of neural plasticity occurring in the vestibular system following vestibular loss due to neuritis: one mode being the limited central compensation for the loss, and the second mode being some restoration of peripheral vestibular function. Future work will need to correlate deficits in balance control during stance and gait more exactly with VOR deficits and carefully

  8. Structural-functional model of medical students’ professional-applied physical training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petryshyn A.V.

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to work out and experimentally prove model of professional-applied physical training of medical higher educational establishments’ students. Material: in the research 80 students participated. In questioning physical education instructors of medical higher education establishments (n=20 participated. Results: influence of students’ professionally important characteristics on general physical fitness indicators and functional state has been shown. Directions of students’ physical fitness parameters’ individual diagnostic and control over physical education effectiveness have been offered. Volumes of physical exercises in the structure of training have been found: special training (15-20% and competition exercises (20-30%. Conclusions: the need in raising the level of professionally important for students’ abilities has been noted: speed power, static power endurance, power endurance, coordination of arms’ movements, static balance.

  9. Athletes who train on unstable compared to stable surfaces exhibit unique postural control strategies in response to balance perturbations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    D.S. Blaise Williams III; Nicholas G. Murray; Douglas W. Powell

    2016-01-01

    Background: Athletes have been shown to exhibit better balance compared to non-athletes (NON). However, few studies have investigated how the surface on which athletes train affects the strategies adopted to maintain balance. Two distinct athlete groups who experience different types of sport-specific balance training are stable surface athletes (SSA) such as basketball players and those who train on unstable surfaces (USA) such as surfers. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of training surface on dynamic balance in athletes compared to NON. Methods: Eight NON, eight SSA, and eight USA performed five 20-s trials in each of five experimental conditions including a static condition and four dynamic conditions in which the support surface translated in the anteroposterior (AP) or mediolateral (ML) planes using positive or negative feedback paradigms. Approximate entropy (ApEn) and root mean square distance (RMS) of the center of pressure (CoP) were calculated for the AP and ML directions. Four 3 × 5 (group × condition) repeated measures ANOVAs were used to determine significant effects of group and condition on variables of interest. Results: USA exhibited smaller ApEn values than SSA in the AP signals while no significant differences were observed in the ML CoP signals. Generally, the negative feedback conditions were associated with significantly greater RMS values than the positive feedback conditions. Conclusion: USA exhibit unique postural strategies compared to SSA. These unique strategies seemingly exhibit a direction-specific attribute and may be associated with divergent motor control strategies.

  10. Influence of a physical training program on muscle strength, balance and gait velocity among women with osteoporosis

    OpenAIRE

    Aveiro,MC; Granito,RN; Navega,MT; P Driusso; J Oishi

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The trend towards increased life expectancy will certainly lead to increases in morbidity and mortality relating to osteoporosis. Because of the lack of well defined protocols on the intensity and frequency of easily performed physical exercises for Brazilian women, this study proposed to analyze the effects of a training program for ankle muscle strength, balance performance and gait velocity among women with a densitometric diagnosis of osteoporosis. METHODS: Twelve female volun...

  11. Active robotic training improves locomotor function in a stroke survivor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishnan Chandramouli

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Clinical outcomes after robotic training are often not superior to conventional therapy. One key factor responsible for this is the use of control strategies that provide substantial guidance. This strategy not only leads to a reduction in volitional physical effort, but also interferes with motor relearning. Methods We tested the feasibility of a novel training approach (active robotic training using a powered gait orthosis (Lokomat in mitigating post-stroke gait impairments of a 52-year-old male stroke survivor. This gait training paradigm combined patient-cooperative robot-aided walking with a target-tracking task. The training lasted for 4-weeks (12 visits, 3 × per week. The subject’s neuromotor performance and recovery were evaluated using biomechanical, neuromuscular and clinical measures recorded at various time-points (pre-training, post-training, and 6-weeks after training. Results Active robotic training resulted in considerable increase in target-tracking accuracy and reduction in the kinematic variability of ankle trajectory during robot-aided treadmill walking. These improvements also transferred to overground walking as characterized by larger propulsive forces and more symmetric ground reaction forces (GRFs. Training also resulted in improvements in muscle coordination, which resembled patterns observed in healthy controls. These changes were accompanied by a reduction in motor cortical excitability (MCE of the vastus medialis, medial hamstrings, and gluteus medius muscles during treadmill walking. Importantly, active robotic training resulted in substantial improvements in several standard clinical and functional parameters. These improvements persisted during the follow-up evaluation at 6 weeks. Conclusions The results indicate that active robotic training appears to be a promising way of facilitating gait and physical function in moderately impaired stroke survivors.

  12. Active robotic training improves locomotor function in a stroke survivor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Chandramouli; Ranganathan, Rajiv; Kantak, Shailesh S; Dhaher, Yasin Y; Rymer, William Z

    2012-08-20

    Clinical outcomes after robotic training are often not superior to conventional therapy. One key factor responsible for this is the use of control strategies that provide substantial guidance. This strategy not only leads to a reduction in volitional physical effort, but also interferes with motor relearning. We tested the feasibility of a novel training approach (active robotic training) using a powered gait orthosis (Lokomat) in mitigating post-stroke gait impairments of a 52-year-old male stroke survivor. This gait training paradigm combined patient-cooperative robot-aided walking with a target-tracking task. The training lasted for 4-weeks (12 visits, 3 × per week). The subject's neuromotor performance and recovery were evaluated using biomechanical, neuromuscular and clinical measures recorded at various time-points (pre-training, post-training, and 6-weeks after training). Active robotic training resulted in considerable increase in target-tracking accuracy and reduction in the kinematic variability of ankle trajectory during robot-aided treadmill walking. These improvements also transferred to overground walking as characterized by larger propulsive forces and more symmetric ground reaction forces (GRFs). Training also resulted in improvements in muscle coordination, which resembled patterns observed in healthy controls. These changes were accompanied by a reduction in motor cortical excitability (MCE) of the vastus medialis, medial hamstrings, and gluteus medius muscles during treadmill walking. Importantly, active robotic training resulted in substantial improvements in several standard clinical and functional parameters. These improvements persisted during the follow-up evaluation at 6 weeks. The results indicate that active robotic training appears to be a promising way of facilitating gait and physical function in moderately impaired stroke survivors.

  13. Dancing or Fitness Sport? The Effects of Two Training Programs on Hippocampal Plasticity and Balance Abilities in Healthy Seniors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathrin Rehfeld

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Age-related degenerations in brain structure are associated with balance disturbances and cognitive impairment. However, neuroplasticity is known to be preserved throughout lifespan and physical training studies with seniors could reveal volume increases in the hippocampus (HC, a region crucial for memory consolidation, learning and navigation in space, which were related to improvements in aerobic fitness. Moreover, a positive correlation between left HC volume and balance performance was observed. Dancing seems a promising intervention for both improving balance and brain structure in the elderly. It combines aerobic fitness, sensorimotor skills and cognitive demands while at the same time the risk of injuries is low. Hence, the present investigation compared the effects of an 18-month dancing intervention and traditional health fitness training on volumes of hippocampal subfields and balance abilities. Before and after intervention, balance was evaluated using the Sensory Organization Test and HC volumes were derived from magnetic resonance images (3T, MP-RAGE. Fourteen members of the dance (67.21 ± 3.78 years, seven females, and 12 members of the fitness group (68.67 ± 2.57 years, five females completed the whole study. Both groups revealed hippocampal volume increases mainly in the left HC (CA1, CA2, subiculum. The dancers showed additional increases in the left dentate gyrus and the right subiculum. Moreover, only the dancers achieved a significant increase in the balance composite score. Hence, dancing constitutes a promising candidate in counteracting the age-related decline in physical and mental abilities.

  14. Glutamine supplementation and immune function during heavy load training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Qing-Hua; Xu, Rong-Mei; Zhang, Quan-Hai; Shen, Guo-Qing; Ma, Ming; Zhao, Xin-Ping; Guo, Yan-Hua; Wang, Yi

    2015-05-01

    Athletes with heavy training loads are prone to infectious illnesses, suggesting that their training may suppress immune function. This study sought to determine whether supplementation with the amino acid glutamine, which supports immune health, alters immune function in athletes during heavy load training. 24 athletes were randomly assigned to either an experimental group (n = 12) or a control group (n = 12). Athletes exercised using heavy training loads for 6 weeks. Athletes in the experimental group took 10 g glutamine orally once a day beginning 3 weeks after initial testing, while athletes in the control group were given a placebo. Immune function was assessed by measuring the following immunity markers: CD4⁺ and CD8⁺ T cell counts, serum IgA, IgG, and IgM levels, and natural killer (NK) cell activity both before and after the completion of training. The percentages of circulating CD8⁺ T cells were significantly different before (39.13 ± 5.87%) and after (26.63 ± 3.95%) training in the experimental group (p glutamine supplementation may be able to restore immune function and reduce the immunosuppressive effects of heavy-load training.

  15. Three New Construction Methods of the Highly Nonlinear Balanced Boolean Function

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANXinglie; SHEKun; JIQingbing; ZHOUMingtian; SHENChangxiang

    2003-01-01

    Nonlinearity is a nonlinear criterion of Boolean function. In this paper, some useful definitions and theorems are introduced, and then three new ways to construct the highly nonlinear balanced boolean function are given by ways of concatenating, dividing, modifying and alternating, which are proven to be very effective.

  16. The Interaction of Functional and Dysfunctional Emotions during Balance Beam Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottyn, Jorge; De Clercq, Dirk; Crombez, Geert; Lenoir, Matthieu

    2012-01-01

    The interaction between functional and dysfunctional emotions, as one of the major tenets of the Individual Zones of Optimal Functioning (IZOF) model (Hanin, 2000), was studied in a sport specific setting. Fourteen female gymnasts performed three attempts of a compulsory balance beam routine at three different heights. Heart rate and self-report…

  17. Executive Functions Are Associated With Gait and Balance in Community-Living Elderly People

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iersel, M.B. van; Kessels, R.P.C.; Bloem, B.R.; Verbeek, A.L.M.; Olde Rikkert, M.G.M.

    2008-01-01

    Background. Cognition influences gait and balance in elderly people. Executive functions seem to play a key role in this mechanism. Previous studies used only a single test to probe executive functions, and outcome measures were restricted to gait variables. We extend this prior work by examining

  18. An Examination of Family Communication within the Core and Balance Model of Family Leisure Functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kevin M.; Freeman, Patti A.; Zabriskie, Ramon B.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine family communication within the core and balance model of family leisure functioning. The study was conducted from a youth perspective of family leisure and family functioning. The sample consisted of youth (N= 95) aged 11 - 17 from 25 different states in the United States. Path analyses indicated that…

  19. The Interaction of Functional and Dysfunctional Emotions during Balance Beam Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottyn, Jorge; De Clercq, Dirk; Crombez, Geert; Lenoir, Matthieu

    2012-01-01

    The interaction between functional and dysfunctional emotions, as one of the major tenets of the Individual Zones of Optimal Functioning (IZOF) model (Hanin, 2000), was studied in a sport specific setting. Fourteen female gymnasts performed three attempts of a compulsory balance beam routine at three different heights. Heart rate and self-report…

  20. Autonomic Function Predicts Fitness Response to Short-Term High-Intensity Interval Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiviniemi, A M; Tulppo, M P; Eskelinen, J J; Savolainen, A M; Kapanen, J; Heinonen, I H A; Hautala, A J; Hannukainen, J C; Kalliokoski, K K

    2015-11-01

    We tested the hypothesis that baseline cardiac autonomic function and its acute response to all-out interval exercise explains individual fitness responses to high-intensity interval training (HIT). Healthy middle-aged sedentary men performed HIT (n=12, 4-6×30 s of all-out cycling efforts with 4-min recovery) or aerobic training (AET, n=9, 40-60 min at 60% of peak workload in exercise test [Loadpeak]), comprising 6 sessions within 2 weeks. Low (LF) and high frequency (HF) power of R-R interval oscillation were analyzed from data recorded at supine and standing position (5+5 min) every morning during the intervention. A significant training effect (ptraining*group interaction, was observed in Loadpeak and peak oxygen consumption (VO2peak). Pre-training supine LF/HF ratio, an estimate of sympathovagal balance, correlated with training outcome in Loadpeak (Spearman's rho [rs]=-0.74, p=0.006) and VO2peak (rs=- 0.59, p=0.042) in the HIT but not the AET group. Also, the mean change in the standing LF/HF ratio in the morning after an acute HIT exercise during the 1(st) week of intervention correlated with training response in Loadpeak (rs=- 0.68, p=0.014) and VO2peak (rs=-0.60, p=0.039) with HIT but not with AET. In conclusion, pre-training cardiac sympathovagal balance and its initial alterations in response to acute HIT exercise were related to fitness responses to short-term HIT. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  1. Postural balance, its sensory-motor correlates and self-reported functional ability in 75-year-old men and women: A cross-national comparative study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schroll, Marianne; Pertti, Era; Avlund, Kirsten

    1999-01-01

    Social medicine, postural balance, functional ability, activities of daily living, physical activity, ageing......Social medicine, postural balance, functional ability, activities of daily living, physical activity, ageing...

  2. Toe functions have little effect on dynamic balance ability in elderly people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimoto, Yoshinobu; Oyama, Yukitsuna; Tanaka, Mamoru; Sakamoto, Asuka

    2017-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the toe function of elderly people and the association with the dynamic balance ability for the developing effective fall-prevention measures. [Subjects and Methods] Seventy-eight participants in a community health service were included in this cross-sectional study. The Timed Up and Go Test and Four Square Step Test were used to test dynamic balance ability. The toe functions related to dynamic balance ability were toe flexion strength, presence or absence of restricted range of motion of the hallux, presence or absence of hallux pain, and hallux valgus angle. [Results] Factors related to the Timed Up and Go Test results were toe flexion strength, age, and presence or absence of hallux pain. Their standard partial regression coefficients were -0.400, 0.277, and -0.218, respectively. Factors related to the Four Square Step Test results were toe flexion strength and age. Their standard partial regression coefficients were -0.334 and 0.277, respectively. [Conclusion] Toe functions appear to have little impact on dynamic balance ability in elderly people who have mild toe dysfunction. Approaches that address not only the toes, but trunk functions, and other leg joints should be investigated for improving the dynamic balance ability.

  3. The Effect of Maximal Strength Training on Strength, Walking, and Balance in People with Multiple Sclerosis: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herb I. Karpatkin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available There is little literature examining the use of maximal strength training (MST in people with multiple sclerosis (pwMS. This pretest-posttest study examined the effects of a MST program on strength, walking, balance, and fatigue in a sample of pwMS. Seven pwMS (median EDSS 3.0, IQR 1.5 participated in a MST program twice weekly for eight weeks. Strength was assessed with 1-repetition maximum (1RM on each leg. Walking and balance were measured with the 6-Minute Walk Test (6MWT and Berg Balance Scale (BBS, respectively. Fatigue was measured during each week of the program with the Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS. The program was well tolerated, with an attendance rate of 96.4%. Participants had significant improvements in right leg 1RM (t6=-6.032, P=0.001, left leg 1RM (t(6=-5.388, P=0.002, 6MWT distance (t(6=-2.572,P=0.042, and BBS score (Z=-2.371, P=0.018 after the MST intervention. There was no significant change in FSS scores (F(1,3.312=2.411, P=0.092. Participants in the MST program experienced improved balance and walking without an increase in fatigue. This MST program may be utilized by rehabilitation clinicians to improve lower extremity strength, balance, and mobility in pwMS.

  4. The Effect of Maximal Strength Training on Strength, Walking, and Balance in People with Multiple Sclerosis: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Sarah; Park, David; Wright, Charles; Zervas, Michael

    2016-01-01

    There is little literature examining the use of maximal strength training (MST) in people with multiple sclerosis (pwMS). This pretest-posttest study examined the effects of a MST program on strength, walking, balance, and fatigue in a sample of pwMS. Seven pwMS (median EDSS 3.0, IQR 1.5) participated in a MST program twice weekly for eight weeks. Strength was assessed with 1-repetition maximum (1RM) on each leg. Walking and balance were measured with the 6-Minute Walk Test (6MWT) and Berg Balance Scale (BBS), respectively. Fatigue was measured during each week of the program with the Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS). The program was well tolerated, with an attendance rate of 96.4%. Participants had significant improvements in right leg 1RM (t(6) = −6.032, P = 0.001), left leg 1RM (t(6) = −5.388, P = 0.002), 6MWT distance (t(6) = −2.572, P = 0.042), and BBS score (Z = −2.371, P = 0.018) after the MST intervention. There was no significant change in FSS scores (F(1, 3.312) = 2.411, P = 0.092). Participants in the MST program experienced improved balance and walking without an increase in fatigue. This MST program may be utilized by rehabilitation clinicians to improve lower extremity strength, balance, and mobility in pwMS. PMID:28116161

  5. 动态姿势平衡仪训练儿童小脑出血后重度平衡功能障碍1例报道%Smart Equitest Balance Master Training for Severe Balance Disorder Caused by Cerebellar Hemorrhage in Children: A Case Report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林夏妃; 丘卫红; 付奕; 陈颖蓓; 李奎; 万桂芳; 谢纯青; 窦祖林

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨动态姿势平衡仪对小脑出血后共济失调患者进行康复干预的实效性.方法 对1例小脑出血后平衡功能障碍的10岁男孩采用动态姿势平衡仪进行评估及训练.结果 经过22周的平衡训练,动态姿势平衡仪评估与相关量表评估显示平衡功能显著改善,步态、姿势控制和日常生活自理能力逐渐提高,构音障碍明显改善,患儿可以返回学校继续学习.结论 动态姿势平衡仪能够改善儿童小脑损伤后共济失调所致平衡障碍,有效提高运动功能及日常生活自理能力.%Objective To study the effects and teasibility of Smart Equitest Balance Master training for severe balance disorder caused by cerebellar hemorrhage in children. Methods A 10-year-old boy with severe ataxia caused by cerebellar hemorrhage were trained with Smart Equitest Balance Master. He was assessed with Smart Equitest Balance Master, Modified Barthel Index and Berg Balance Scale. Results After 22 weeks of balance training, he improved in equilibrium, gait, posture control, activity of daily living,Hysarthria, and return to school to continue his study. Conclusion Smart Equitest Balance Master training can significantly improve palance function, motor function and activities of daily living after cerebellar hemorrhage.

  6. Purposeful heading during a season does not influence cognitive function or balance in female soccer players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaminski, Thomas W; Wikstrom, April M; Gutierrez, Gregory M; Glutting, Joseph J

    2007-10-01

    Soccer participation, especially among females, is growing in popularity in the United States. Purposeful heading, an important soccer skill, has recently been scrutinized for safety reasons. The purpose of this study was to determine whether there was a relationship between purposeful heading and scores on cognitive function and balance in high school and collegiate female soccer players. Prior to and following the soccer season, all players and members of the control group were given a battery of neuropsychological and balance tests. There were no significant correlations found between the total number of game headers and performance on either balance or neuropsychological testing.Differences were noted in adjusted balance scores postseason between the collegiate players and the other two groups.However, no differences were revealed in neurocognitive performance between the three groups. ©2007 Psychology Press, an imprint of the Taylor & Francis Group, an Informa business

  7. Hatha yoga on body balance

    OpenAIRE

    Erick Tadeu Prado; Vagner Raso; Renata Coelho Scharlach; Cristiane Akemi Kasse

    2014-01-01

    Background: A good body balance requires a proper function of vestibular, visual, and somatosensory systems which can be reach with exercise practice and/or yoga. Aim: To determine the effects of a 5-month hatha yoga training program on body balance in young adults. Materials and Methods: This study used a controlled, nonrandomized design, where the experimental group underwent a 5-month training program and were then compared with the control group that had a sedentary lifestyle. A c...

  8. Effectiveness of a balance training home exercise programme for adults with haemophilia: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, K; Fearn, M; Williams, S; Mudge, L; Walsh, C; McCarthy, P; Walsh, M; Street, A

    2010-01-01

    Adults with haemophilia and other bleeding disorders often develop lower limb musculoskeletal problems associated with bleeds into joints and muscles, which may affect balance performance and increase likelihood of falling. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of an individualized balance and strength home exercise programme on improving balance and related outcomes for adults with haemophilia and other bleeding disorders. Twenty male adults with haemophilia and other bleeding disorders (mean age 39.4 years, 95% CI = 33.7-45.1) were recruited to participate. They underwent a comprehensive clinical and force platform assessment of balance and related measures. Based on assessment findings, the assessing physiotherapist provided an individualized home exercise programme of balance, strengthening and walking exercises. Re-assessment occurred after the 4-month exercise programme. Twelve participants (60%) completed the programme and were re-assessed. There were no safety problems or dropouts associated with the exercise programme aggravating joint status. Although there were no statistically significant changes in any of the measures (adjusted for multiple comparisons), there were improvements of between 5% and 22% on 10 of the 16 measures, with the Neurocom modified Clinical Test of Sensory Interaction on Balance (P = 0.036) and Timed Sit to Stand (P = 0.064) approaching significance. A tailored home exercise programme targeting balance, strengthening and walking is feasible for adults with haemophilia and other bleeding disorders. These results suggest that positive physical outcomes including improved balance and mobility may be achieved with this type of programme.

  9. Narrative Balance Management in an Intelligent Biosafety Training Application for Improving User Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Nahum; Sanchez-Ruiz, Antonio; Cavazza, Marc; Shigematsu, Mika; Prendinger, Helmut

    2015-01-01

    The use of three-dimensional virtual environments in training applications supports the simulation of complex scenarios and realistic object behaviour. While these environments have the potential to provide an advanced training experience to students, it is difficult to design and manage a training session in real time due to the number of…

  10. Exercise training, physical fitness and the growth hormone-insulin-like growth factor-1 axis and cytokine balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliakim, Alon; Nemet, Dan

    2010-01-01

    The effect of exercise training on anabolic hormones and inflammatory mediators is particularly important during childhood and puberty, since during this period there is a spontaneous increase in anabolic hormones that leads to the marked puberty-related growth spurt. Therefore, any training-associated hormonal and/or inflammatory effect during this critical period may have profound consequences on growth and development, especially if the effect is maintained for long periods. Several studies suggest the hypothesis that a sudden imposition of a training program which is associated with substantial increase in energy expenditure leads initially to an increase in pro-inflammatory cytokines, and as a consequence, to decreases in IGF-1 levels. Further, if the training adaptation is successful, the proinflammatory cytokines fall, and with that decrease, the suppression of IGF-1 diminishes, an anabolic 'rebound' in the GH-IGF-1 axis may ensue, and IGF-1 level exceed the pretraining level. Exactly how and when this switch takes place, and whether the initial catabolic-type stage is necessary for the ultimate anabolic adaptation remains unknown. Consistent with the two phases hypothesis, longer periods of training were indeed associated with stable or with increases in circulating GH and IGF-1 levels. Despite the early training-associated decrease in circulating IGF-1 levels, there is an increase in muscle mass and fitness may improve, suggesting that the local tissue effect of exercise on growth factors differ from systemic effects. Total caloric intake as well as macronutrient content, consumption and timing influence the anabolic and inflammatory response to training. Finally, changes in the balance of anabolic and catabolic hormones and inflammatory mediators during the training season may help elite athletes and their coaches in their training and preparation for competition.

  11. Improved functional vasodilation in obese Zucker rats following exercise training

    OpenAIRE

    Sebai, Mohamad; Lu, Silu; Xiang, Lusha; Hester, Robert L.

    2011-01-01

    Obese individuals exhibit impaired functional vasodilation and exercise performance. We have demonstrated in obese Zucker rats (OZ), a model of morbid obesity, that insulin resistance impairs functional vasodilation via an increased thromboxane receptor (TP)-mediated vasoconstriction. Chronic treadmill exercise training improves functional vasodilation in the spinotrapezius muscle of the OZ, but the mechanisms responsible for the improvement in functional vasodilation are not clear. Based on ...

  12. An approximation for zero-balanced Appell function $F_1$ near $(1,1)$

    OpenAIRE

    Karp, D.

    2007-01-01

    We suggest an approximation for the zero-balanced Appell hypergeometric function $F_1$ near the singular point $(1,1)$. Our approximation can be viewed as a generalization of Ramanujan's approximation for zero-balanced ${_2F_1}$ and is expressed in terms of ${_3F_2}$. We find an error bound and prove some basic properties of the suggested approximation which reproduce the similar properties of the Appell function. Our approximation reduces to the approximation of Carlson-Gustafson when the Ap...

  13. The effect of ballroom dance on balance and functional autonomy among the isolated elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Eliane Gomes da Silva; Cader, Samária Ali; Vale, Rodrigo Gomes de Souza; Cruz, Thales Henrique Pires; Carvalho, Mauro Cezar de Gurgel de Alencar; Pinto, Francisco Miguel; Dantas, Estélio H M

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to analyze the influence of a ballroom dancing program on the functional autonomy and physical balance of institutionalized elderly individuals. The study enrolled 75 sedentary elderly subjects from long-term institutions who were randomly divided into a ballroom dance program group (EG; n=39) and a control group (CG; n=36). The protocol of the Latin American Group for Maturity (GDLAM) was used to evaluate functional autonomy. Physical balance was analyzed using a stabilometer and posture meter platforms. The level of significance in statistical tests was set at pdance program.

  14. The Effect of Additional Virtual Reality Training on Balance in Children with Cerebral Palsy after Lower Limb Surgery: A Feasibility Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyns, Pieter; Pans, Liene; Plasmans, Kaat; Heyrman, Lieve; Desloovere, Kaat; Molenaers, Guy

    2017-02-01

    Impaired balance is disabling for children with cerebral palsy (CPc), especially for CPc who recently underwent lower limb surgery. Positive results of using virtual reality (VR) in balance rehabilitation have been published in several outpatient populations. We investigated the feasibility of applying additional VR training focused on sitting balance in CP inpatients of a rehabilitation center after lower limb surgery. Additionally, we investigated the rate of enjoyment of VR training compared with conventional physiotherapy. Eleven spastic CPc (4/7 males/females) following rehabilitation after lower limb orthopedic surgery were included (5-18 years). The control group received conventional physiotherapy. The intervention group received additional VR training. Balance was measured using the Trunk Control Measurement Scale every 3 weeks of the rehabilitation period. Enjoyment was analyzed using a 10-point Visual Analog Scale. Providing additional VR training was feasible in terms of recruitment, treatment adherence, and assessment adherence. Both groups improved sitting balance after therapy. The current games were not perceived as more enjoyable than conventional physiotherapy. Including additional VR training to conventional physiotherapy is feasible and might be promising to train sitting balance in CPc after lower limb surgery. Future research should take equal patient allocation and training duration between groups into consideration.

  15. Effects of concentric and eccentric control exercise on gross motor function and balance ability of paretic leg in children with spastic hemiplegia

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Su-Ik; Kim, Mi-sun; Choi, Jong-Duk

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study examines the effect of concentric and eccentric control training of the paretic leg on balance and gross motor function in children with spastic hemiplegia. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty children with spastic hemiplegia were randomly divided into experimental and control groups. In the experimental group, 20 min of neurodevelopmental therapy and 20 min of concentric and eccentric control exercise were applied to the paretic leg. In the control group, 40 min of neurodevelo...

  16. 改善脑瘫患儿平衡功能的新方法%New Ways to Improve Balance Function of Cerebral Palsy Children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张漪; 姜淑芸; 王玲

    2014-01-01

    This article would summarize the new ways in cerebral palsy training to improve balance function at aboard in recent years, in order to provide some references to the development of rehabilitation of children with cerebral palsy.%本文主要就近年国外脑瘫训练中改善平衡功能的新方法作一综述,为促进小儿脑瘫康复的发展提供参考。

  17. In search of work/life balance: trainee perspectives on part-time obstetrics and gynaecology specialist training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry Amanda

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Part-time training (PTT is accessed by approximately 10% of Australian obstetrics and gynaecology trainees, a small but increasing minority which reflects the growing demand for improved work/life balance amongst the Australian medical workforce. This survey reports the attitudes and experiences of both full-time and part-time trainees to PTT. Methods An email-based anonymous survey was sent to all Australian obstetrics and gynaecology trainees in April 2009, collecting demographic and training status data, data on personal experiences of PTT and/or trainees, and attitudes towards PTT. Results 105 responses were received (20% response rate. These indicated strong support (90% from both full-time (FT and part-time (PT trainees for the availability of PTT. PT trainees were significantly more likely than FT trainees to be female with children. Improved morale was seen as a particular advantage of PTT; decreased continuity of care as a disadvantage. Conclusions Although limited by poor response rate, both PT and FT Australian obstetric trainees were supportive of part-time training. Both groups recognised important advantages and disadvantages of this mode of training. Currently, part-time training is accessed primarily by female trainees with family responsibilities, with many more trainees considering part-time training than the number that access it.

  18. Efficient VLSI architecture for training radial basis function networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Zhe-Cheng; Hwang, Wen-Jyi

    2013-03-19

    This paper presents a novel VLSI architecture for the training of radial basis function (RBF) networks. The architecture contains the circuits for fuzzy C-means (FCM) and the recursive Least Mean Square (LMS) operations. The FCM circuit is designed for the training of centers in the hidden layer of the RBF network. The recursive LMS circuit is adopted for the training of connecting weights in the output layer. The architecture is implemented by the field programmable gate array (FPGA). It is used as a hardware accelerator in a system on programmable chip (SOPC) for real-time training and classification. Experimental results reveal that the proposed RBF architecture is an effective alternative for applications where fast and efficient RBF training is desired.

  19. Efficient VLSI Architecture for Training Radial Basis Function Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Jyi Hwang

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel VLSI architecture for the training of radial basis function (RBF networks. The architecture contains the circuits for fuzzy C-means (FCM and the recursive Least Mean Square (LMS operations. The FCM circuit is designed for the training of centers in the hidden layer of the RBF network. The recursive LMS circuit is adopted for the training of connecting weights in the output layer. The architecture is implemented by the field programmable gate array (FPGA. It is used as a hardware accelerator in a system on programmable chip (SOPC for real-time training and classification. Experimental results reveal that the proposed RBF architecture is an effective alternative for applications where fast and efficient RBF training is desired.

  20. The effect of musical movement activities on the balance function of autistic children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atoosa Atigh

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Autistic children with low level performance have problems in social interaction, communication skills and sensory processing as well as motor and balance function. Musical activity is one of the most effective therapeutic strategies to manage some of these core defects. The present study examined the effect of musical movement activities on the balance function of 7 to 14 years autistic children with low performance. Methods: Twenty-two autistic students with low performance at age range of 7 to 14 years old participated in the study were assigned to experimental and control group randomly. The interventions were consisted of musical movement activities for experimental and without music for control group. Balance performance of subjects was assessed before treatment, and after 12th and 24th therapeutic sessions using balancing subtest of Bruininks-Oseretsky test of motor proficiency (BOTMP. The assessments were double blinded. Data were analyzed employing repeated measures of ANOVA. The SPSS software-version 17was used. Results: The results indicated that the effect of interventions on two groups was significantly different (F; 1.2= 52.8, P<0.001. The improvement in the balancing performance has been observed in both groups after 12th and 24th sessions although the difference in balance scores between groups was higher after 24th treatment session (P<0.001; that is in experimental group more improvement was obtained. Conclusion: The findings suggest that musical movement activities can accelerate the improvement in balance function of autistic children with low performance.

  1. Effects of Combined Exercise Training on Functional Performance in Children With Cerebral Palsy: A Randomized-Controlled Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peungsuwan, Punnee; Parasin, Pattamavadee; Siritaratiwat, Wantana; Prasertnu, Jilada; Yamauchi, Junichiro

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of combined exercise training on functional performance in participants with cerebral palsy. Fifteen participants with spastic cerebral palsy were randomly allocated into either exercise or control groups. Participants in the exercise group participated in a combined strength and endurance training program for 70 minutes per day, 3 days per week, for 8 weeks, whereas those in the control group did not participate in an exercise program. Study participants in both groups continued with their regular physical therapy during the study. After the 8-week training, a 6-minute walk, 30-second sit-to-stand, 10-m walk, and Functional Reach Tests, participants in the exercise group had significant improvement over their baseline values and were significantly higher than those in the control group. Combined exercise training improved walking ability, functional lower limb strength, and balance in participants with cerebral palsy.

  2. The Influence of Mindfulness and Emotion Skills Training on Teachers' Classrooms: The Effects of the Cultivating Emotional Balance Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Patricia A.; Foltz, Carol; Snowberg, Karin E.; Sim, Heewon; Kemeny, Margaret E.

    2011-01-01

    Cultivating Emotional Balance (CEB), an emotion skills and mindfulness intervention, improved wellbeing in a sample of teachers. Two studies examined whether such gain is associated with improvements in classrooms. Study 1 examined post-intervention differences in 20 dimensions of classroom climate (N = 21). CEB teachers were rated higher in…

  3. A Component Analysis of Schedule Thinning during Functional Communication Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betz, Alison M.; Fisher, Wayne W.; Roane, Henry S.; Mintz, Joslyn C.; Owen, Todd M.

    2013-01-01

    One limitation of functional communication training (FCT) is that individuals may request reinforcement via the functional communication response (FCR) at exceedingly high rates. Multiple schedules with alternating periods of reinforcement and extinction of the FCR combined with gradually lengthening the extinction-component interval can…

  4. Training and Transfer Effects of Executive Functions in Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorell, Lisa B.; Lindqvist, Sofia; Nutley, Sissela Bergman; Bohlin, Gunilla; Klingberg, Torkel

    2009-01-01

    Executive functions, including working memory and inhibition, are of central importance to much of human behavior. Interventions intended to improve executive functions might therefore serve an important purpose. Previous studies show that working memory can be improved by training, but it is unknown if this also holds for inhibition, and whether…

  5. [Study on an Exoskeleton Hand Function Training Device].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xin; Zhang, Ying; Li, Jicai; Yi, Jinhua; Yu, Hongliu; He, Rongrong

    2016-02-01

    Based on the structure and motion bionic principle of the normal adult fingers, biological characteristics of human hands were analyzed, and a wearable exoskeleton hand function training device for the rehabilitation of stroke patients or patients with hand trauma was designed. This device includes the exoskeleton mechanical structure and the electromyography (EMG) control system. With adjustable mechanism, the device was capable to fit different finger lengths, and by capturing the EMG of the users' contralateral limb, the motion state of the exoskeleton hand was controlled. Then driven by the device, the user's fingers conducting adduction/abduction rehabilitation training was carried out. Finally, the mechanical properties and training effect of the exoskeleton hand were verified through mechanism simulation and the experiments on the experimental prototype of the wearable exoskeleton hand function training device.

  6. Effects of Innovative WALKBOT Robotic-Assisted Locomotor Training on Balance and Gait Recovery in Hemiparetic Stroke: A Prospective, Randomized, Experimenter Blinded Case Control Study With a Four-Week Follow-Up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Soo-Yeon; Yang, Li; Park, In Jae; Kim, Eun Joo; JoshuaPark, Min Su; You, Sung Hyun; Kim, Yun-Hee; Ko, Hyun-Yoon; Shin, Yong-Il

    2015-07-01

    The present clinical investigation was to ascertain whether the effects of WALKBOT-assisted locomotor training (WLT) on balance, gait, and motor recovery were superior or similar to the conventional locomotor training (CLT) in patients with hemiparetic stroke. Thirty individuals with hemiparetic stroke were randomly assigned to either WLT or CLT. WLT emphasized on a progressive, conventional locomotor retraining practice (40 min) combined with the WALKBOT-assisted, haptic guidance and random variable locomotor training (40 min) whereas CLT involved conventional physical therapy alone (80 min). Both intervention dosages were standardized and provided for 80 min, five days/week for four weeks. Clinical outcomes included function ambulation category (FAC), Berg balance scale (BBS), Korean modified Barthel index (K-MBI), modified Ashworth scale (MAS), and EuroQol-5 dimension (EQ-5D) before and after the four-week program as well as at follow-up four weeks after the intervention. Two-way repeated measure ANOVA showed significant interaction effect (time × group) for FAC (p=0.02), BBS (p=0.03) , and K-MBI (p=0.00) across the pre-training, post-training, and follow-up tests, indicating that WLT was more beneficial for balance, gait and daily activity function than CLT alone. However, no significant difference in other variables was observed. This is the first clinical trial that highlights the superior, augmented effects of the WALKBOT-assisted locomotor training on balance, gait and motor recovery when compared to the conventional locomotor training alone in patients with hemiparetic stroke.

  7. A controlled clinical trial investigating the effects of cycle ergometry training on exercise tolerance, balance and quality of life in patients with Parkinson's disease.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Lauhoff, Paula

    2013-03-01

    To establish the effect of a 6-week programme of cycle ergometry training on exercise tolerance, balance, activities of daily living (ADL) and quality of life in individuals with Parkinson\\'s disease (PD).

  8. Comparison of the effectiveness of balance training using a reaching task between a sitting position and a standing position in the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seong-Gil; Goo, Miran; Park, Jin-Hyun

    2015-07-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to compare the effectiveness of balance training using a reaching task between a sitting position and a standing position in the elderly. [Subjects and Methods] The study included 30 elderly women from D city. The subjects were divided into the following two groups, according to the training position: the sitting group (n = 15) and standing group (n = 15). Both groups performed training for 20 min, thrice a week for 8 weeks. The short form of the berg balance scale (SFBBS), timed 10-m walk test (10MWT), timed up & go test (TUG), and falls efficacy scale (FES) were used before and after training. [Results] SFBBS, 10MWT, and TUG values were significantly different between before and after training in both groups. However, FES values were significantly different in only the standing group. [Conclusion] Balance training in a standing position is helpful for improving activities that mainly use the lower extremities, such as gait, and training in a sitting position is somewhat helpful for improving balance ability. In addition, balance training in both positions can help overcome the fear of falling.

  9. Physical training improves cardiopulmonary functional capacity and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Disease Laboratory, Human Parasitology, Department of Basic Health Sciences, State University of Maringa, Paraná, Brasil ... physical exercise, may increase the functional capacity of ... pressure (DBP) and heart rate (HR) [8]. ... disease of different etiologies, has been the ..... chronic infection induces an immune-type.

  10. The effect of an eyes-closed dance-specific training program on dynamic balance in elite pre-professional ballet dancers: a randomized controlled pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutt, Kimberley; Redding, Emma

    2014-03-01

    Visual conditions for a dancer vary greatly between theatrical performance environments and dance studios, and this variability may be detrimental to their dynamic balance performance, particularly under stage lighting. In order to maintain balance control, dancers reportedly rely heavily on visual input, yet those who rely more on proprioceptive strategies for balancing have been found to be more stable. The purpose of this study was to assess the capability of an eyes-closed, dance-specific training program to nurture in dancers proprioceptive mechanisms that may facilitate their dynamic balance control. Eighteen elite pre-professional ballet dancers were randomly assigned to either a control (eyes open) or experimental (eyes closed) group for the intervention. The balance abilities of all subjects were tested using five dance-specific variations of the Star Excursion Balance Test before and after a 4 week balance intervention. Reach distance and time to complete the tests were recorded separately as indirect measurements of dynamic balance. The intervention consisted of dance-specific, eyes-closed exercises integrated into the dancers' daily ballet class and designed progressively to challenge the dancers' balance. During the intervention period, the control group undertook the same exercise program with their eyes open. Results revealed significant improvements in time to complete the three "timed" balance tests, and distances reached significantly improved in one of the two "reach" balance tests. No significant improvements were observed in the control group for any variation of the tests. These results indicate that dancers can be trained to adopt proprioceptive strategies to maintain dynamic balance, which consequently improves their balance performance. Such findings could encourage use of eyes-closed training in daily dance classes due to its potential to improve dancers' balance control.

  11. 静态平衡训练系统对踝关节损伤术后本体感觉的影响%Effects in Sensory Static Balance Training System on Postoperative Proprioception of Ankle Injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈汴生; 蒋拥军; 李克军; 胡敏杰; 陈佳旭

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the effects of sensory static balance training system on postoperative proprioception of ankle injury. Methods:66 patients were randomly divided into observation group and control group, control group with pace movement training, balance board training and elastic belt training, observation group received equilibrium, proprioception, skiing training mode of static balance training system based on the treat-ment of control group, balance function was measured before and after the training with the balance function assessment system. Results:Coverage of 90%ellipse area with eyes closed and LFS index of two groups after training were both less than those before (P<0.05), and those of observation group were lower than control group (P<0.05). Conclusion:There are obvious enhancing effects of static balance training system on efferent ability of postoperative proprioception of ankle injury.%目的:探讨静态平衡训练系统对踝关节损伤术后本体感觉的影响。方法:将66例患者随机分为观察组和对照组,对照组采用步伐移动训练、平衡板训练、弹力带训练,观察组在对照组治疗的基础上进行静态平衡训练系统中的平衡、本体感觉、滑雪运动模式训练,在训练前后均采用平衡功能评定系统进行平衡功能测定。结果:两组患者训练后在闭眼状态下的覆盖90%椭圆区域面积、LFS指数均小于训练前(P<0.05),而观察组均小于对照组(P<0.05)。结论:静态平衡训练系统中的训练模式对踝关节损伤术后本体感觉的传出能力有明显的提高作用。

  12. A gender-based analysis of work patterns, fatigue, and work/life balance among physicians in postgraduate training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gander, Philippa; Briar, Celia; Garden, Alexander; Purnell, Heather; Woodward, Alistair

    2010-09-01

    To document fatigue in New Zealand junior doctors in hospital-based clinical training positions and identify work patterns associated with work/life balance difficulties. This workforce has had a duty limitation of 72 hours/week since 1985. The authors chose a gender-based analytical approach because of the increasing proportion of female medical graduates. The authors mailed a confidential questionnaire to all 2,154 eligible junior doctors in 2003. The 1,412 respondents were working > or = 40 hours/week (complete questionnaires from 1,366: response rate: 63%; 49% women). For each participant, the authors calculated a multidimensional fatigue risk score based on sleep and work patterns. Women were more likely to report never/rarely getting enough sleep (P work/life balance and for part-time work, particularly in relation to parenthood. Limitation of duty hours alone is insufficient to manage fatigue risk and difficulties in maintaining work/life balance. These findings have implications for schedule design, professional training, and workforce planning.

  13. Effects of sit-to-stand training combined with transcutaneous electrical stimulation on spasticity, muscle strength and balance ability in patients with stroke: A randomized controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Kyoung-Sim; In, Tae-Sung; Cho, Hwi-Young

    2017-05-01

    Sit-to-stand is a fundamental movement of human being for performing mobility and independent activity. However, Stroke people symptoms experience difficulty in conducting the sit-to-stand due to paralysis and especially ankle spasticity. Recently, transcutaneouselectrical- stimulation (TENS) is used to reduce pain but also to manage spasticity. The purpose of this study was to determine (1) whether TENS would lead to ankle spasticity reduction and (2) whether sit-to-stand training combined with TENS would improve spasticity, muscle strength and balance ability in stroke patients. Forty-stroke patients were recruited and were randomly divided into two groups: TENS group (n=20) and sham group (n=20). All participants underwent 30-sessions of sit-to-stand training (for 15-min, five-times per week for 6-weeks). Prior to each training session, 30-min of TENS over the peroneal nerve was given in TENS group, whereas sham group received non-electrically stimulated TENS for the same amount of time. Composite-Spasticity-Score was used to assess spasticity level of ankle plantar-flexors. Isometric strength in the extensor of hip, knee and ankle were measured by handheld dynamometer. Postural-sway distance was measured using a force platform. The spasticity score in the TENS group (2.6±0.8) improved significantly greater than the sham group (0.7±0.8, psit-to-stand training combined with TENS may be used to improve the spasticity, balance function and muscle strength in stroke patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Effects of combined training vs aerobic training on cognitive functions in COPD: a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aquino G

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Giovanna Aquino,1 Enzo Iuliano,1 Alessandra di Cagno,2 Angela Vardaro,3 Giovanni Fiorilli,1 Stefano Moffa,1 Alfonso Di Costanzo,1 Giuseppe De Simone,3 Giuseppe Calcagno1 1Department of Medicine and Health Sciences “Vincenzo Tiberio”, University of Molise, Campobasso, 2Department of Health Science, University ForoItalico, Rome, 3“Villa Margherita”, Benevento, Italy Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of high-intensity aerobic training (AT and high-intensity aerobic training combined with resistance training (ie, combined training [CT] on cognitive function in patients with COPD. Methods: Twenty-eight Caucasian male patients (68.35±9.64 years; mean ± SD with COPD were recruited and randomized into two groups, AT and CT. Both groups performed physical reconditioning for 4 weeks, with a frequency of five training sessions per week. The CT group completed two daily sessions of 30 minutes: one aerobic session and one strength session, respectively; The AT group performed two 30-minute aerobic endurance exercise sessions on treadmill. Physical and cognitive function tests were performed before and after the training intervention performances. Results: Exercise training improved the following cognitive functions: long-term memory, verbal fluency, attentional capacity, apraxia, and reasoning skills (P<0.01. Moreover, the improvements in the CT group were significantly greater than those in the AT group in long-term memory, apraxia, and