WorldWideScience

Sample records for function reconstruction role

  1. Discrete Wigner Function Reconstruction and Compressed Sensing

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Jia-Ning; Fang, Lei; Ge, Mo-Lin

    2011-01-01

    A new reconstruction method for Wigner function is reported for quantum tomography based on compressed sensing. By analogy with computed tomography, Wigner functions for some quantum states can be reconstructed with less measurements utilizing this compressed sensing based method.

  2. The impact of mastectomy type on the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI), satisfaction with appearance, and the reconstructed breast's role in intimacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, K; Onstad, M; Raker, C; Clark, M A; Stuckey, A; Gass, J

    2017-06-01

    As mastectomy rates increase and overall survival for early breast cancer improves, a better understanding of the long-term consequences of mastectomy is needed. We sought to explore the correlation of specific mastectomy type with the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI), body image satisfaction, and the reconstructed breast's role in intimacy. This study is a secondary analysis of a cross-sectional survey including a retrospective chart review. Patients at least one year from primary surgery were invited to complete the survey between 2012 and 2014. Baseline characteristics and survey responses were compared between three mastectomy groups: total/modified radical (TMRM), skin-sparing (SSM), and nipple-sparing (NSM). All patients underwent reconstruction. Of 453 invited, 268 (59%) completed the survey. Sixty underwent mastectomy with reconstruction: 16 (27%) TMRM, 36 (60%) SSM, and 8 (13%) NSM. There were no significant differences in median total FSFI scores between groups, yet median FSFI scores for the NSM group indicated sexual dysfunction. After adjusting for receipt of chemotherapy and/or radiation, NSM had the lowest median desire score. There was a trend for the NSM group to be the least satisfied with postoperative appearance, but also more likely to report that the chest was "often" caressed during intimacy. However, nearly 40% of the NSM group reported that caress of the reconstructed breast was unpleasant. NSM offers patients the greatest opportunity for preservation of their native skin envelope and potentially enhanced cosmetic outcome, but our results did not demonstrate superior sexual function or body image outcomes in this group. By highlighting surgical consequences of mastectomy preoperatively, surgeons may better set realistic patient expectations regarding both aesthetic and functional outcomes after breast cancer surgery. With clearer expectations, patients will have a better opportunity for improved surgical decision-making.

  3. Function reconstruction from noisy local averages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Yu; Huang Jianguo; Han Weimin

    2008-01-01

    A regularization method is proposed for the function reconstruction from noisy local averages in any dimension. Error bounds for the approximate solution in L 2 -norm are derived. A number of numerical examples are provided to show computational performance of the method, with the regularization parameters selected by different strategies

  4. Functional reconstruction of ischemic contracture in the

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TANG Hao

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available 【Abstract】Objective: To discuss the method of functional reconstruction of ischemic contracture in the lower limb and propose a classification protocol for ischemic contracture in the lower limb based on its severity and prognosis. Methods: A total of 42 patients with ischemic contracture in the lower limb were included in this study. According to different types of disturbance and degrees of severity, surgical reconstructions consisting of nerve decompression, tendon lengthening or transfer, intrinsic foot muscle release and sural-tibial nerve anastomosis were performed in every patient. Results: Postoperatively, all patients were able to walk on flat ground. Drop foot was corrected in 10 patients, and 5 patients still felt some difficulty during stair activity. Split Achilles tendon transfer to flexor hallucis longus tendon was performed in 12 patients, and their walking stability was improved. Seven patients accepted ipsilateral suraltibial nerve anastomosis, and sensitivity recovery reached to S2 in 2 patients and S3 in 5 patients. Conclusions: Ischemic contracture in the lower limb is a devastating complication after lower limb trauma. The prevention of contracture is much more important than the treatment of an established contracture. Split Achilles tendon transfer to flexor hallucis longus tendon and sural-tibial nerve anastomosis, which was initially implemented by us, could improve the functional recovery of ischemic contracture in lower limbs, and thus provides a new alternative for functional reconstruction of ischemic contracture in the lower limb. Key words: Ischemic contracture; Classification; Recovery of function

  5. Wigner Function Reconstruction in Levitated Optomechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashid, Muddassar; Toroš, Marko; Ulbricht, Hendrik

    2017-10-01

    We demonstrate the reconstruction of theWigner function from marginal distributions of the motion of a single trapped particle using homodyne detection. We show that it is possible to generate quantum states of levitated optomechanical systems even under the efect of continuous measurement by the trapping laser light. We describe the opto-mechanical coupling for the case of the particle trapped by a free-space focused laser beam, explicitly for the case without an optical cavity. We use the scheme to reconstruct the Wigner function of experimental data in perfect agreement with the expected Gaussian distribution of a thermal state of motion. This opens a route for quantum state preparation in levitated optomechanics.

  6. Probability Density Function Method for Observing Reconstructed Attractor Structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆宏伟; 陈亚珠; 卫青

    2004-01-01

    Probability density function (PDF) method is proposed for analysing the structure of the reconstructed attractor in computing the correlation dimensions of RR intervals of ten normal old men. PDF contains important information about the spatial distribution of the phase points in the reconstructed attractor. To the best of our knowledge, it is the first time that the PDF method is put forward for the analysis of the reconstructed attractor structure. Numerical simulations demonstrate that the cardiac systems of healthy old men are about 6 - 6.5 dimensional complex dynamical systems. It is found that PDF is not symmetrically distributed when time delay is small, while PDF satisfies Gaussian distribution when time delay is big enough. A cluster effect mechanism is presented to explain this phenomenon. By studying the shape of PDFs, that the roles played by time delay are more important than embedding dimension in the reconstruction is clearly indicated. Results have demonstrated that the PDF method represents a promising numerical approach for the observation of the reconstructed attractor structure and may provide more information and new diagnostic potential of the analyzed cardiac system.

  7. Defining the Role of Free Flaps in Partial Breast Reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Mark L; Molina, Bianca J; Dayan, Erez; Jablonka, Eric M; Okwali, Michelle; Kim, Julie N; Dayan, Joseph H

    2018-03-01

     Free flaps have a well-established role in breast reconstruction after mastectomy; however, their role in partial breast reconstruction remains poorly defined. We reviewed our experience with partial breast reconstruction to better understand indications for free tissue transfer.  A retrospective review was performed of all patients undergoing partial breast reconstruction at our center between February 2009 and October 2015. We evaluated the characteristics of patients who underwent volume displacement procedures versus volume replacement procedures and free versus pedicled flap reconstruction.  There were 78 partial breast reconstructions, with 52 reductions/tissue rearrangements (displacement group) and 26 flaps (replacement group). Bra cup size and body mass index (BMI) were significantly smaller in the replacement group. Fifteen pedicled and 11 free flaps were performed. Most pedicled flaps (80.0%) were used for lateral or upper pole defects. Most free flaps (72.7%) were used for medial and inferior defects or when there was inadequate donor tissue for a pedicled flap. Complications included hematoma, cellulitis, and one aborted pedicled flap.  Free and pedicled flaps are useful for partial breast reconstruction, particularly in breast cancer patients with small breasts undergoing breast-conserving treatment (BCT). Flap selection depends on defect size, location, and donor tissue availability. Medial defects are difficult to reconstruct using pedicled flaps due to arc of rotation and intervening breast tissue. Free tissue transfer can overcome these obstacles. Confirming negative margins before flap reconstruction ensures harvest of adequate volume and avoids later re-operation. Judicious use of free flaps for oncoplastic reconstruction expands the possibility for breast conservation. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  8. The Functional Impact of Breast Reconstruction: An Overview and Update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonas A. Nelson, MD

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available As rates of bilateral mastectomy and immediate reconstruction rise, the aesthetic and psychosocial benefits of breast reconstruction are increasingly well understood. However, an understanding of functional outcome and its optimization is still lacking. This endpoint is critical to maximizing postoperative quality of life. All reconstructive modalities have possible functional consequences. Studies demonstrate that implant-based reconstruction impacts subjective movement, but patients’ day-to-day function may not be objectively hindered despite self-reported disability. For latissimus dorsi flap reconstruction, patients also report some dysfunction at the donor site, but this does not seem to result in significant, long-lasting limitation of daily activity. Athletic and other vigorous activities are most affected. For abdominal free flaps, patient perception of postoperative disability is generally not significant, despite the varying degrees of objective disadvantage that have been identified depending on the extent of rectus muscle sacrifice. With these functional repercussions in mind, a broader perspective on the attempt to ensure minimal functional decline after breast surgery should focus not only on surgical technique but also on postoperative rehabilitation. Early directed physical therapy may be an instrumental element in facilitating return to baseline function. With the patient’s optimal quality of life as an overarching objective, a multifaceted approach to functional preservation may be the answer to this continued challenge. This review will examine these issues in depth in an effort to better understand postoperative functional outcomes with a focus on the younger, active breast reconstruction patient.

  9. Oral function after maxillectomy and reconstruction with an obturator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kreeft, A.M.; Krap, M.; Wismeijer, D.; Speksnijder, C.M.; Smeele, L.E.; Bosch, S.D.; Muijen, M.S.A.; Balm, A.J.M.

    2012-01-01

    Maxillectomy defects can be reconstructed by a prosthetic obturator or (free) flap transfer, but there is no consensus about the optimal method. This study evaluated 32 maxillectomy patients with prosthetic obturation regarding function (mastication, subjective oral and swallowing complaints and

  10. Universal Spatial Correlation Functions for Describing and Reconstructing Soil Microstructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skvortsova, Elena B.; Mallants, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    Structural features of porous materials such as soil define the majority of its physical properties, including water infiltration and redistribution, multi-phase flow (e.g. simultaneous water/air flow, or gas exchange between biologically active soil root zone and atmosphere) and solute transport. To characterize soil microstructure, conventional soil science uses such metrics as pore size and pore-size distributions and thin section-derived morphological indicators. However, these descriptors provide only limited amount of information about the complex arrangement of soil structure and have limited capability to reconstruct structural features or predict physical properties. We introduce three different spatial correlation functions as a comprehensive tool to characterize soil microstructure: 1) two-point probability functions, 2) linear functions, and 3) two-point cluster functions. This novel approach was tested on thin-sections (2.21×2.21 cm2) representing eight soils with different pore space configurations. The two-point probability and linear correlation functions were subsequently used as a part of simulated annealing optimization procedures to reconstruct soil structure. Comparison of original and reconstructed images was based on morphological characteristics, cluster correlation functions, total number of pores and pore-size distribution. Results showed excellent agreement for soils with isolated pores, but relatively poor correspondence for soils exhibiting dual-porosity features (i.e. superposition of pores and micro-cracks). Insufficient information content in the correlation function sets used for reconstruction may have contributed to the observed discrepancies. Improved reconstructions may be obtained by adding cluster and other correlation functions into reconstruction sets. Correlation functions and the associated stochastic reconstruction algorithms introduced here are universally applicable in soil science, such as for soil classification

  11. Wave-function reconstruction in a graded semiconductor superlattice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyssenko, V. G.; Hvam, Jørn Märcher; Meinhold, D.

    2004-01-01

    We reconstruct a test wave function in a strongly coupled, graded well-width superlattice by resolving the spatial extension of the interband polarisation and deducing the wave function employing non-linear optical spectroscopy. The graded gap superlattice allows us to precisely control the dista...

  12. Effect of object functions on tomographic reconstruction a numerical study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babu Rao, C.; Baldev Raj; Ravichandran, V.S.; Munshi, P.

    1996-01-01

    Convolution back projection is the most widely used algorithm of computed tomography (CT). Theoretical studies show that under ideal conditions, the error in the reconstruction can be correlated with the second fourier space derivative of filter function and with the Laplacian of the object function. This paper looks into the second aspect of the error function. In this paper a systematic numerical study is presented on the effect to object functions on global and local errors. (author)

  13. Psychometric Function Reconstruction from Adaptive Tracking Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-11-29

    reduced variability and length of the track can be shown by the use of the "sweat factor" defined by Taylor and Creelman (1967). This is a measure of...Psychophysics, 35, 385-392. Taylor, M. M., and Creelman , C. D. (1967). PEST: Efficient estimates on probability functions. Journal of the Acoustical Society of

  14. Function after oral oncological intervention, reconstruction and rehabilitation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Speksnijder, C.M.

    2011-01-01

    In the Netherlands, the incidence of oral cancer is increasing. Progress in (reconstructive) surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy, however, has improved survival and loco-regional control while trying to preserve or restore oral function and quality of life. Despite the progress in treatment,

  15. A new algorithm for 3D reconstruction from support functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gardner, Richard; Kiderlen, Markus

    2009-01-01

    We introduce a new algorithm for reconstructing an unknown shape from a finite number of noisy measurements of its support function. The algorithm, based on a least squares procedure, is very easy to program in standard software such as Matlab and allows, for the first time, good 3D reconstructio...

  16. Surgical reconstruction of pelvic floor descent: anatomic and functional aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagenlehner, F M E; Bschleipfer, T; Liedl, B; Gunnemann, A; Petros, P; Weidner, W

    2010-01-01

    The human pelvic floor is a complex structure and pelvic floor dysfunction is seen frequently in females. This review focuses on the surgical reconstruction of the pelvic floor employing recent findings on functional anatomy. A selective literature research was performed by the authors. Pelvic floor activity is regulated by 3 main muscular forces that are responsible for vaginal tension and suspension of the pelvic floor organs, bladder and rectum. A variety of symptoms can derive from pelvic floor dysfunctions, such as urinary urge and stress incontinence, abnormal bladder emptying, fecal incontinence, obstructive bowel disease syndrome and pelvic pain. These symptoms mainly derive, for different reasons, from laxity in the vagina or its supporting ligaments as a result of altered connective tissue. Pelvic floor reconstruction is nowadays driven by the concept that in case of pelvic floor symptoms, restoration of the anatomy will translate into restoration of the physiology and ultimately improve patients' symptoms. The surgical reconstruction of the anatomy is almost exclusively focused on the restoration of the lax pelvic floor ligaments. Exact preoperative identification of the anatomical lesions is necessary to allow for exact anatomical reconstruction with respect to the muscular forces of the pelvic floor. Copyright 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. Generation of Optimal Basis Functions for Reconstruction of Power Distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Moonghu [Sejong Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    This study proposes GMDH to find not only the best functional form but also the optimal parameters those describe the power distribution most accurately. A total of 1,060 cases of axially 1-dimensional core power distributions of 20-nodes are generated by 3-dimensional core analysis code covering BOL to EOL core burnup histories to validate the method. Axially five-point box powers at in-core detectors are considered as measurements. The reconstructed axial power shapes using GMDH method are compared to the reference power shapes. The results show that the proposed method is very robust and accurate compared with spline fitting method. It is shown that the GMDH analysis can give optimal basis functions for core power shape reconstruction. The in-core measurements are the 5 detector snapshots and the 20-node power distribution is successfully reconstructed. The effectiveness of the method is demonstrated by comparing the results of spline fitting for BOL, saddle and top-skewed power shapes.

  18. Oral function after maxillectomy and reconstruction with an obturator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreeft, A M; Krap, M; Wismeijer, D; Speksnijder, C M; Smeele, L E; Bosch, S D; Muijen, M S A; Balm, A J M

    2012-11-01

    Maxillectomy defects can be reconstructed by a prosthetic obturator or (free) flap transfer, but there is no consensus about the optimal method. This study evaluated 32 maxillectomy patients with prosthetic obturation regarding function (mastication, subjective oral and swallowing complaints and maximal mouth opening). Outcomes were related to the extent of the resection (Brown maxillectomy classification), dentition and history of adjuvant radiotherapy. Maxillectomy defects ranged from 2-1 to 4B on the Brown classification, and most had a defect graded as 2-A or 2-B. Mean mixing ability test after 10 chewing strokes was 24.2 and after 20 chewing strokes 19.7, which compares to edentulous healthy individuals. None of the outcomes was influenced by Brown classification. Radiotherapy negatively influenced mean maximal mouth opening (29.1mm versus 40.9 mm, p=0.017) and subjective outcomes. Edentate obturated patients had worse outcomes than dentate patients, measured by mixing ability test and questionnaire. In conclusion, mastication after obturator reconstruction of a maxillectomy defect is comparable to mastication with full dentures. Size of the maxillectomy defect did not significantly influence functional outcome, but adjuvant radiotherapy resulted in worse mouth opening and self-reported oral and swallowing problems. Residual dentition had a positive influence on mastication and subjective outcomes. Copyright © 2012 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Institutional Economic Reconstruction by Optimizing the Role of Middlemen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jajat Sudrajat

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study is aimed to analize the role of middlemen in rural economic institution and formulate the economic development model through optimalization the role of middlemen. This study was done by conducting literature research. Data were analized by using qualitative method. The results of study conclude that middlemen have strategic positions in rural economic development although their role has negative and positive side. In evolving the positive side, there must be other institution which has capability to substitute part of middlemen role. That is microfinance institution (MFIs which also play the role as an empowerment institution. In loan mechanism, the middlemen can be functioned as a credit guarantee institution. Credit guarantee from middlemen is not only as a contract in agriculture product marketing, but also as the supervision way to create obedience in loan repayment by farmers. The implementation of this pattern is purposed to nurture the social capital in rural economic system.

  20. Urogenital function after cloacal reconstruction, two techniques evaluated

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Versteegh, H.P.; Sloots, C.E.J.; Wolffenbuttel, K.P.; Jong, J.R. de; Sleeboom, C.; Feitz, W.F.J.; Heurn, L.W.E. van; Zee, D.C. van der; Wijnen, R.M.H.; Blaauw, I. de

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Current surgical techniques for cloacal reconstruction are posterior sagittal anorecto vagino urethroplasty (PSARVUP) and posterior sagittal anorectoplasty (PSARP) with total urogenital mobilization (TUM). The aim of this study was to explore the results of reconstructive cloaca surgery

  1. Urogenital function after cloacal reconstruction, two techniques evaluated

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Versteegh, Hendt P.; Sloots, Cornelius E. J.; Wolffenbuttel, Katja P.; de Jong, Justin R.; Sleeboom, Christien; Feitz, Wout F.; van Heurn, L. W. Ernest; van der Zee, David C.; Wijnen, Rene M. H.; de Blaauw, Ivo

    2014-01-01

    Current surgical techniques for cloacal reconstruction are posterior sagittal anorecto vagino urethroplasty (PSARVUP) and posterior sagittal anorectoplasty (PSARP) with total urogenital mobilization (TUM). The aim of this study was to explore the results of reconstructive cloaca surgery in the

  2. Quadriceps Function and Knee Joint Ultrasonography after ACL Reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pamukoff, Derek N; Montgomery, Melissa M; Moffit, Tyler J; Vakula, Michael N

    2018-02-01

    Individuals with anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR) are at greater risk for knee osteoarthritis, partially because of chronic quadriceps dysfunction. Articular cartilage is commonly assessed using magnetic resonance imaging and radiography, but these methods are expensive and lack portability. Ultrasound imaging may provide a cost-effective and portable alternative for imaging the femoral cartilage. The purpose of this study was to compare ultrasonography of the femoral cartilage between the injured and uninjured limbs of individuals with unilateral ACLR, and to examine the association between quadriceps function and ultrasonographic measures of femoral cartilage. Bilateral femoral cartilage thickness and quadriceps function were assessed in 44 individuals with unilateral ACLR. Quadriceps function was assessed using peak isometric strength, and early (RTD100) and late (RTD200) rate of torque development. Cartilage thickness at the medial femoral condyle (P accounting for time since ACLR, quadriceps peak isometric strength was associated with cartilage thickness at the medial femoral condyle (r = 0.35, P = 0.02) and femoral cartilage cross-sectional area (r = 0.28, P = 0.04). RTD100 and RTD200 were not associated with femoral cartilage thickness or cross-sectional area. Individuals with ACLR have thinner cartilage in their injured limb compared with uninjured limb, and cartilage thickness is associated with quadriceps function. These results indicate that ultrasonography may be useful for monitoring cartilage health and osteoarthritis progression after ACLR.

  3. Wavefield reconstruction inversion with a multiplicative cost function

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Nuno V.; Yao, Gang

    2018-01-01

    We present a method for the automatic estimation of the trade-off parameter in the context of wavefield reconstruction inversion (WRI). WRI formulates the inverse problem as an optimisation problem, minimising the data misfit while penalising with a wave equation constraining term. The trade-off between the two terms is balanced by a scaling factor that balances the contributions of the data-misfit term and the constraining term to the value of the objective function. If this parameter is too large then it implies penalizing for the wave equation imposing a hard constraint in the inversion. If it is too small, then this leads to a poorly constrained solution as it is essentially penalizing for the data misfit and not taking into account the physics that explains the data. This paper introduces a new approach for the formulation of WRI recasting its formulation into a multiplicative cost function. We demonstrate that the proposed method outperforms the additive cost function when the trade-off parameter is appropriately scaled in the latter, when adapting it throughout the iterations, and when the data is contaminated with Gaussian random noise. Thus this work contributes with a framework for a more automated application of WRI.

  4. The role of 3D Helical CT in the reconstructive treatment of maxillofacial cancers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Rosa, V.; Ziviello, M.; Ionna, F.; Mozzillo, N.; Parascandolo, S.

    2000-01-01

    Purpose of this work is to investigate the role of Helical CT and the usefulness of three-dimensional (3D) imaging for pre-operative planning and follow-up of reconstructive maxillofacial surgery with alloplastic material in neoplastic disease involving this region. From 1996 to 1999 eleven patients were examined with Helical CT and 3D images for planning of maxillofacial plastic and reconstructive surgery for advanced cancer of this anatomically complex region. A 3D-modulated titanium mesh (100%) or micro nets was used to rebuild the anterior surface of maxillary bone and the orbital floor. The mesh was cut to the appropriate size and shape and curved where necessary. Within the residual sinusal cavity a siliconed filling was used surmounting an acrylic prosthesis with dental arch to rebuild the palate. A rehydrated bovine pericardium was affixed and moduled on the borders in two cases only. Three-dimensionally reconstructed CT images were obtained preoperatively and at least 6 months postoperatively in all patients. The images were generated on a computer workstation using the shaded surface display (SSD) software with threshold values ranging 425 to 630 HU, and a more closed window for the imaging of titanium mesh/bone interface in the post surgical follow-up. It was obtained an excellent complete spatial depiction of maxillo facial region both before and after surgery, with no artefacts so important as to affect the 3D reconstruction process and the image quality. Together with the head-neck surgical team it could be worked for preoperative planning through CT scans by different 3D points of view. The 3D reconstructed follow-up scans showed good filling of the defect in the area where the titanium mesh had been used. Then efficacious bone modelling and good biocompatibility of the alloplastic material were seen in all patients, with no inflammatory reactions. Titanium is a well-known material, which is widely used for cranioplasty. It is a radiolucent, non

  5. Three-dimensional reconstruction of functional brain images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, Masato; Shoji, Kazuhiko; Kojima, Hisayoshi; Hirano, Shigeru; Naito, Yasushi; Honjo, Iwao

    1999-01-01

    We consider PET (positron emission tomography) measurement with SPM (Statistical Parametric Mapping) analysis to be one of the most useful methods to identify activated areas of the brain involved in language processing. SPM is an effective analytical method that detects markedly activated areas over the whole brain. However, with the conventional presentations of these functional brain images, such as horizontal slices, three directional projection, or brain surface coloring, makes understanding and interpreting the positional relationships among various brain areas difficult. Therefore, we developed three-dimensionally reconstructed images from these functional brain images to improve the interpretation. The subjects were 12 normal volunteers. The following three types of images were constructed: routine images by SPM, three-dimensional static images, and three-dimensional dynamic images, after PET images were analyzed by SPM during daily dialog listening. The creation of images of both the three-dimensional static and dynamic types employed the volume rendering method by VTK (The Visualization Toolkit). Since the functional brain images did not include original brain images, we synthesized SPM and MRI brain images by self-made C++ programs. The three-dimensional dynamic images were made by sequencing static images with available software. Images of both the three-dimensional static and dynamic types were processed by a personal computer system. Our newly created images showed clearer positional relationships among activated brain areas compared to the conventional method. To date, functional brain images have been employed in fields such as neurology or neurosurgery, however, these images may be useful even in the field of otorhinolaryngology, to assess hearing and speech. Exact three-dimensional images based on functional brain images are important for exact and intuitive interpretation, and may lead to new developments in brain science. Currently, the surface

  6. Three-dimensional reconstruction of functional brain images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inoue, Masato; Shoji, Kazuhiko; Kojima, Hisayoshi; Hirano, Shigeru; Naito, Yasushi; Honjo, Iwao [Kyoto Univ. (Japan)

    1999-08-01

    We consider PET (positron emission tomography) measurement with SPM (Statistical Parametric Mapping) analysis to be one of the most useful methods to identify activated areas of the brain involved in language processing. SPM is an effective analytical method that detects markedly activated areas over the whole brain. However, with the conventional presentations of these functional brain images, such as horizontal slices, three directional projection, or brain surface coloring, makes understanding and interpreting the positional relationships among various brain areas difficult. Therefore, we developed three-dimensionally reconstructed images from these functional brain images to improve the interpretation. The subjects were 12 normal volunteers. The following three types of images were constructed: routine images by SPM, three-dimensional static images, and three-dimensional dynamic images, after PET images were analyzed by SPM during daily dialog listening. The creation of images of both the three-dimensional static and dynamic types employed the volume rendering method by VTK (The Visualization Toolkit). Since the functional brain images did not include original brain images, we synthesized SPM and MRI brain images by self-made C++ programs. The three-dimensional dynamic images were made by sequencing static images with available software. Images of both the three-dimensional static and dynamic types were processed by a personal computer system. Our newly created images showed clearer positional relationships among activated brain areas compared to the conventional method. To date, functional brain images have been employed in fields such as neurology or neurosurgery, however, these images may be useful even in the field of otorhinolaryngology, to assess hearing and speech. Exact three-dimensional images based on functional brain images are important for exact and intuitive interpretation, and may lead to new developments in brain science. Currently, the surface

  7. Scattering amplitudes over finite fields and multivariate functional reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peraro, Tiziano

    2016-01-01

    Several problems in computer algebra can be efficiently solved by reducing them to calculations over finite fields. In this paper, we describe an algorithm for the reconstruction of multivariate polynomials and rational functions from their evaluation over finite fields. Calculations over finite fields can in turn be efficiently performed using machine-size integers in statically-typed languages. We then discuss the application of the algorithm to several techniques related to the computation of scattering amplitudes, such as the four- and six-dimensional spinor-helicity formalism, tree-level recursion relations, and multi-loop integrand reduction via generalized unitarity. The method has good efficiency and scales well with the number of variables and the complexity of the problem. As an example combining these techniques, we present the calculation of full analytic expressions for the two-loop five-point on-shell integrands of the maximal cuts of the planar penta-box and the non-planar double-pentagon topologies in Yang-Mills theory, for a complete set of independent helicity configurations.

  8. Scattering amplitudes over finite fields and multivariate functional reconstruction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peraro, Tiziano [Higgs Centre for Theoretical Physics,School of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Edinburgh,James Clerk Maxwell Building, Peter Guthrie Tait Road, Edinburgh EH9 3FD (United Kingdom)

    2016-12-07

    Several problems in computer algebra can be efficiently solved by reducing them to calculations over finite fields. In this paper, we describe an algorithm for the reconstruction of multivariate polynomials and rational functions from their evaluation over finite fields. Calculations over finite fields can in turn be efficiently performed using machine-size integers in statically-typed languages. We then discuss the application of the algorithm to several techniques related to the computation of scattering amplitudes, such as the four- and six-dimensional spinor-helicity formalism, tree-level recursion relations, and multi-loop integrand reduction via generalized unitarity. The method has good efficiency and scales well with the number of variables and the complexity of the problem. As an example combining these techniques, we present the calculation of full analytic expressions for the two-loop five-point on-shell integrands of the maximal cuts of the planar penta-box and the non-planar double-pentagon topologies in Yang-Mills theory, for a complete set of independent helicity configurations.

  9. Psychological, Functional and Aesthetic Outcome after Nasal Reconstruction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.E. Moolenburgh (Sanne)

    2009-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ The incidence of nasal skin malignancies is increasing worldwide rapidly. As a result of the surgical treatment of these malignancies the demand for reconstructive procedures has also increased enormously. In literature, emphasis exists on technical refinements to

  10. Workflows and the Role of Images for Virtual 3d Reconstruction of no Longer Extant Historic Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Münster, S.

    2013-07-01

    3D reconstruction technologies have gained importance as tools for the research and visualization of no longer extant historic objects during the last decade. Within such reconstruction processes, visual media assumes several important roles: as the most important sources especially for a reconstruction of no longer extant objects, as a tool for communication and cooperation within the production process, as well as for a communication and visualization of results. While there are many discourses about theoretical issues of depiction as sources and as visualization outcomes of such projects, there is no systematic research about the importance of depiction during a 3D reconstruction process and based on empirical findings. Moreover, from a methodological perspective, it would be necessary to understand which role visual media plays during the production process and how it is affected by disciplinary boundaries and challenges specific to historic topics. Research includes an analysis of published work and case studies investigating reconstruction projects. This study uses methods taken from social sciences to gain a grounded view of how production processes would take place in practice and which functions and roles images would play within them. For the investigation of these topics, a content analysis of 452 conference proceedings and journal articles related to 3D reconstruction modeling in the field of humanities has been completed. Most of the projects described in those publications dealt with data acquisition and model building for existing objects. Only a small number of projects focused on structures that no longer or never existed physically. Especially that type of project seems to be interesting for a study of the importance of pictures as sources and as tools for interdisciplinary cooperation during the production process. In the course of the examination the authors of this paper applied a qualitative content analysis for a sample of 26 previously

  11. MR-guided dynamic PET reconstruction with the kernel method and spectral temporal basis functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novosad, Philip; Reader, Andrew J.

    2016-06-01

    Recent advances in dynamic positron emission tomography (PET) reconstruction have demonstrated that it is possible to achieve markedly improved end-point kinetic parameter maps by incorporating a temporal model of the radiotracer directly into the reconstruction algorithm. In this work we have developed a highly constrained, fully dynamic PET reconstruction algorithm incorporating both spectral analysis temporal basis functions and spatial basis functions derived from the kernel method applied to a co-registered T1-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) image. The dynamic PET image is modelled as a linear combination of spatial and temporal basis functions, and a maximum likelihood estimate for the coefficients can be found using the expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm. Following reconstruction, kinetic fitting using any temporal model of interest can be applied. Based on a BrainWeb T1-weighted MR phantom, we performed a realistic dynamic [18F]FDG simulation study with two noise levels, and investigated the quantitative performance of the proposed reconstruction algorithm, comparing it with reconstructions incorporating either spectral analysis temporal basis functions alone or kernel spatial basis functions alone, as well as with conventional frame-independent reconstruction. Compared to the other reconstruction algorithms, the proposed algorithm achieved superior performance, offering a decrease in spatially averaged pixel-level root-mean-square-error on post-reconstruction kinetic parametric maps in the grey/white matter, as well as in the tumours when they were present on the co-registered MR image. When the tumours were not visible in the MR image, reconstruction with the proposed algorithm performed similarly to reconstruction with spectral temporal basis functions and was superior to both conventional frame-independent reconstruction and frame-independent reconstruction with kernel spatial basis functions. Furthermore, we demonstrate that a joint spectral

  12. Absence of sensory function in the reconstructed anterior cruciate ligament

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogsgaard, Michael R; Fischer-Rasmussen, Torsten; Dyhre-Poulsen, Poul

    2011-01-01

    -constructions were stimulated. The sensory threshold was 3.4 times higher in the ACL than in the PCL. Stimulus amplitudes were increased to 1.5-2.0 times the sensory threshold, and a typical inhibitory reflex could be elicited in 9 patients. The latency was the same as for the reflex from the PCL. The stimulus......Cruciate ligaments provide sensory information that cause excitatory as well as inhibitory effects to the activity of the muscles around the knee. The aim of the study was to determine whether these muscular reflexes are reestablished after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) re-construction. Wire...... electrodes were inserted during arthroscopy into the normal posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) and the reconstructed ACL in 11 patients who had a successful ACL re-construction 8 months to 12 years earlier. After the anesthesia had subsided, the PCL was stimulated electrically through the electrodes...

  13. Family roles as family functioning regulators

    OpenAIRE

    STEPANYAN ARMINE

    2015-01-01

    The author examines the problems of formation and functioning of family roles. Having social roots, family roles appear on individual level by performing the social function of the formation of family as a social institute.

  14. Functional outcome after one-stage flap reconstruction of the hypopharynx following tumor ablation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Brederode, Talisa D; Halmos, Gyorgy B.; Stenekes, Martin W.

    The main objective of this study was to evaluate functional outcome in terms of food passage of the three different reconstruction techniques that are currently most often used for hypopharyngeal reconstruction in our institution. A retrospective observational database research was conducted of all

  15. The Role of Synthetic Reconstruction Tests in Seismic Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawlinson, N.; Spakman, W.

    2015-12-01

    Synthetic reconstruction tests are widely used in seismic tomography as a means for assessing the robustness of solutions produced by linear or iterative non-linear inversion schemes. The most common test is the so-called checkerboard resolution test, which uses an alternating pattern of high and low wavespeeds (or some other seismic property such as attenuation). However, checkerboard tests have a number of limitations, including that they (1) only provide indirect evidence of quantitative measures of reliability such as resolution and uncertainty; (2) give a potentially misleading impression of the range of scale-lengths that can be resolved; (3) don't give a true picture of the structural distortion or smearing caused by the data coverage; and (4) result in an inverse problem that is biased towards an accurate reconstruction. The widespread use of synthetic reconstruction tests in seismic tomography is likely to continue for some time yet, so it is important to implement best practice where possible. The goal here is to provide a general set of guidelines, derived from the underlying theory and illustrated by a series of numerical experiments, on their implementation in seismic tomography. In particular, we recommend (1) using a sparse distribution of spikes, rather than the more conventional tightly-spaced checkerboard; (2) using the identical data coverage (e.g. geometric rays) for the synthetic model that was computed for the observation-based model; (3) carrying out multiple tests using anomalies of different scale length; (4) exercising caution when analysing synthetic recovery tests that use anomaly patterns that closely mimic the observation-based model; (5) investigating the trade-off between data noise levels and the minimum wavelength of recovered structure; (6) where possible, test the extent to which preconditioning (e.g. identical parameterization for input and output models) influences the recovery of anomalies.

  16. An Evaluation of Surgical Functional Reconstruction of the Foot Using Kinetic and Kinematic Systems: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordán-Palomar, Elena Irene; Javierre, Etelvina; Rey-Vasalo, José; Alfaro-Santafé, Víctor; Gómez-Benito, María José

    Most pedobarographic studies of microsurgical foot reconstruction have been retrospective. In the present study, we report the results from a prospective pedobarographic study of a patient after microsurgical reconstruction of her foot with a latissimus dorsi flap and a cutaneous paddle, with a 42-month follow-up period. We describe the foot reconstruction plan and the pedobarographic measurements and analyzed its functional outcome. The goal of the present study was to demonstrate that pedobarography could have a role in the treatment of foot reconstruction from a quantitative perspective. The pedobarographic measurements were recorded after the initial coverage surgery and 2 subsequent foot remodeling procedures. A total of 4 pedobarographic measurements and 2 gait analyses were recorded and compared for both the noninvolved foot and the injured foot. Furthermore, the progress of the reconstructed foot was critically evaluated using this method. Both static and dynamic patterns were compared at subsequent follow-up visits after the foot reconstruction. The values and progression of the foot shape, peak foot pressure (kPa), average foot pressure (kPa), total contact surface (cm 2 ), loading time (%), and step time (ms) were recorded. Initially, the pressure distribution of the reconstructed foot showed higher peak values at nonanatomic locations, revealing a greater ulceration risk. Over time, we found an improvement in the shape and values of these factors in the involved foot. To homogenize the pressure distribution and correct the imbalance between the 2 feet, patient-specific insoles were designed and fabricated. In our patient, pedobarography provided an objective, repeatable, and recordable method for the evaluation of the reconstructed foot. Pedobarography can therefore provide valuable insights into the prevention of pressure ulcers and optimization of rehabilitation. Copyright © 2016 American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc

  17. Intra-rater reliability of cervical sensory motor function and cervical reconstruction test in healthy subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatamvand S

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Impairment of cervicocephalic and head joint position sense has an important role in the recurrent and chronic of cervicocephalic pain. The various tools are suggested for evaluating the cervicocephalic joint position sense. Although reconstruction of cervical angle is a clinical criterion for measuring the cervicocephalic proprioception, the reliability of this method has not been completely accepted. The purpose of this study was to evaluate intra-rater reliability of cervical sensory motor function and cervical reconstruction test in healthy subjects. twenty four healthy subjects (25.70±6.08 y through simple non-probability sampling participated in this single-group repeatedmeasures reliability study. Participants were asked to relocate the neck, as accurately as possible, after full active cervical flexion, extension and rotation to the left and right sides. Five trials were performed for each movement. Laser pointer was used in head of patient. The distance between zero spot and joint position which patient had been reconstructed, was measured by centimeter. Intra-class correlation Coefficient (ICCs and Pearson's correlation coefficient test was used to determine intra-rater reliability of variables. The results showed that intra-class correlation Coefficient (ICCs values with 95% confidence interval (CI and the standard error of the measurement (SEM were good to excellent agreement for a single investigator between measurement occasions. Intra-class correlation Coefficient (ICCs values were obtained for flexion movement (ICCs:0.75, good, extension movement (ICCs:0.81, very good, right rotation (ICCs:0.64, good and left rotation (ICCs:0.64, good. The cervicocephalic relocation test to neutral head position by laser pointer is a reliable method to measure cervical sensory motor function. Therefore, it can be used for evaluating cervicocephalic proprioception of patient with cervicocephalic pain.

  18. Institutional Economic Reconstruction by Optimizing the Role of Middlemen

    OpenAIRE

    Sudrajat, Jajat; Arani, Norasari

    2016-01-01

    This study is aimed to analize the role of middlemen in rural economic institution and formulate the economic development model through optimalization the role of middlemen. This study was done by conducting literature research. Data were analized by using qualitative method. The results of study conclude that middlemen have strategic positions in rural economic development although their role has negative and positive side. In evolving the positive side, there must be other institution which...

  19. Absence of sensory function in the reconstructed anterior cruciate ligament

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogsgaard, Michael R; Fischer-Rasmussen, Torsten; Dyhre-Poulsen, Poul

    2011-01-01

    Cruciate ligaments provide sensory information that cause excitatory as well as inhibitory effects to the activity of the muscles around the knee. The aim of the study was to determine whether these muscular reflexes are reestablished after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) re-construction. Wire...... and the sensory threshold was determined. Stimulus amplitudes were increased to 1.5-2.0 times the sensory threshold, and inhibitory reflexes could be elicited from PCL in the quadriceps during active extension and in the hamstrings muscles during active flexion in all patients. Subsequently the ACL re...... amplitudes necessary to elicit reflexes from the ACL re-constructions were 2, 9 times higher than amplitudes that elicited reflexes from the PCL. Sensation and afferent reflex activity required a much stronger stimulus in the ACL graft compared to normal PCL. We suggest that the reason...

  20. Edge Artifacts in Point Spread Function-based PET Reconstruction in Relation to Object Size and Reconstruction Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuji Tsutsui

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: We evaluated edge artifacts in relation to phantom diameter and reconstruction parameters in point spread function (PSF-based positron emission tomography (PET image reconstruction.Methods: PET data were acquired from an original cone-shaped phantom filled with 18F solution (21.9 kBq/mL for 10 min using a Biograph mCT scanner. The images were reconstructed using the baseline ordered subsets expectation maximization (OSEM algorithm and the OSEM with PSF correction model. The reconstruction parameters included a pixel size of 1.0, 2.0, or 3.0 mm, 1-12 iterations, 24 subsets, and a full width at half maximum (FWHM of the post-filter Gaussian filter of 1.0, 2.0, or 3.0 mm. We compared both the maximum recovery coefficient (RCmax and the mean recovery coefficient (RCmean in the phantom at different diameters.Results: The OSEM images had no edge artifacts, but the OSEM with PSF images had a dense edge delineating the hot phantom at diameters 10 mm or more and a dense spot at the center at diameters of 8 mm or less. The dense edge was clearly observed on images with a small pixel size, a Gaussian filter with a small FWHM, and a high number of iterations. At a phantom diameter of 6-7 mm, the RCmax for the OSEM and OSEM with PSF images was 60% and 140%, respectively (pixel size: 1.0 mm; FWHM of the Gaussian filter: 2.0 mm; iterations: 2. The RCmean of the OSEM with PSF images did not exceed 100%.Conclusion: PSF-based image reconstruction resulted in edge artifacts, the degree of which depends on the pixel size, number of iterations, FWHM of the Gaussian filter, and object size.

  1. Bayesian PET image reconstruction incorporating anato-functional joint entropy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Jing; Rahmim, Arman

    2009-01-01

    We developed a maximum a posterior (MAP) reconstruction method for positron emission tomography (PET) image reconstruction incorporating magnetic resonance (MR) image information, with the joint entropy between the PET and MR image features serving as the regularization constraint. A non-parametric method was used to estimate the joint probability density of the PET and MR images. Using realistically simulated PET and MR human brain phantoms, the quantitative performance of the proposed algorithm was investigated. Incorporation of the anatomic information via this technique, after parameter optimization, was seen to dramatically improve the noise versus bias tradeoff in every region of interest, compared to the result from using conventional MAP reconstruction. In particular, hot lesions in the FDG PET image, which had no anatomical correspondence in the MR image, also had improved contrast versus noise tradeoff. Corrections were made to figures 3, 4 and 6, and to the second paragraph of section 3.1 on 13 November 2009. The corrected electronic version is identical to the print version.

  2. Esthetic and functional reconstruction after parotidectomy in pediatric patients - A case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Lucas M; Cognetti, David; Baker, Adam; Roy, Sudeep; Johnston, Douglas R; Curry, Joseph; Krein, Howard

    2015-12-01

    Parotidectomy is a mainstay of treatment for benign and malignant parotid lesions in children and adults. Depending on surgical methods used and tumor size, parotidectomy may result in significant facial disfigurement as well as functional challenges. We describe a series of four pediatric patients, ages 13-16 who presented to our clinic with a parotid mass. All patients underwent parotidectomy with immediate reconstruction by local tissue rearrangement or free fat graft. Esthetic and functional reconstruction after parotidectomy is not well described in pediatric otolaryngology literature. A review of current literature and description of reconstructive methods is included. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Muscle strength and functional performance in patients with anterior cruciate ligament injury treated with training and surgical reconstruction or training only: a two to five-year followup

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ageberg, Eva; Thomeé, Roland; Neeter, Camille

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study muscle strength and functional performance in patients with anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury with or without surgical reconstruction 2 to 5 years after injury. Good muscle function is important in preventing early-onset osteoarthritis (OA), but the role of reconstructiv...

  4. [Using ecology thinking reconstructing traditional agronomy: role of production ecology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Song-Liang

    2012-08-01

    Traditional agronomy, as a discipline or specialty, is originated from the reductionism thinking of neoteric experimental sciences and motivated by the great success of industrialized revolution, but loses the ensemble grasp of the relationships between agricultural organisms and their resources and environment, i.e., agroecosystem mechanism. Moreover, due to the excessively relying on exogenous fossil energy input and the monoculture with a few highly productive crop cultivars, the agricultural interior sustainability has unceasingly lost, making our mankind facing the double crises of grain security and food safety. Therefore, it is imperative to reconstruct the traditional agronomy and its educational system. In this paper, the author proposed to link traditional agronomy with ecology, establishing agroecology as the core subject and agroecosystem management as the core applied system, and in particular, establishing 'production ecology' to fill up the wide gap between the crop cultivation and farming system and the crop genetics and breeding, the two second grade disciplines under agronomy. Ideologically and methodologically, this proposal could provide disciplinary, scientific, and educational bases to authentically implement the strategy of sustainable development of agriculture.

  5. Three-dimensional Reconstruction and Homogenization of Heterogeneous Materials Using Statistical Correlation Functions and FEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baniassadi, Majid; Mortazavi, Behzad; Hamedani, Amani; Garmestani, Hamid; Ahzi, Said; Fathi-Torbaghan, Madjid; Ruch, David; Khaleel, Mohammad A.

    2012-01-31

    In this study, a previously developed reconstruction methodology is extended to three-dimensional reconstruction of a three-phase microstructure, based on two-point correlation functions and two-point cluster functions. The reconstruction process has been implemented based on hybrid stochastic methodology for simulating the virtual microstructure. While different phases of the heterogeneous medium are represented by different cells, growth of these cells is controlled by optimizing parameters such as rotation, shrinkage, translation, distribution and growth rates of the cells. Based on the reconstructed microstructure, finite element method (FEM) was used to compute the effective elastic modulus and effective thermal conductivity. A statistical approach, based on two-point correlation functions, was also used to directly estimate the effective properties of the developed microstructures. Good agreement between the predicted results from FEM analysis and statistical methods was found confirming the efficiency of the statistical methods for prediction of thermo-mechanical properties of three-phase composites.

  6. Reconstructed human epidermis: A model to study the barrier function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbotteau, Y. [CENBG-IN2P3/CNRS, BP 120, 33175 Gradignan cedex (France); Gontier, E. [CENBG-IN2P3/CNRS, BP 120, 33175 Gradignan cedex (France); Barberet, P. [CENBG-IN2P3/CNRS, BP 120, 33175 Gradignan cedex (France); Cappadoro, M. [Institut de recherche Pierre FABRE, 31320 Castanet Tolosan (France); De Wever, B. [Institut de recherche Pierre FABRE, 31320 Castanet Tolosan (France); Habchi, C. [CENBG-IN2P3/CNRS, BP 120, 33175 Gradignan cedex (France); Incerti, S. [CENBG-IN2P3/CNRS, BP 120, 33175 Gradignan cedex (France); Mavon, A. [SkinEthic Laboratories, 45 rue St. Philippe, 06000 Nice (France); Moretto, P. [CENBG-IN2P3/CNRS, BP 120, 33175 Gradignan cedex (France)]. E-mail: moretto@cenbg.in2p3.fr; Pouthier, T. [CENBG-IN2P3/CNRS, BP 120, 33175 Gradignan cedex (France); Smith, R.W. [CENBG-IN2P3/CNRS, BP 120, 33175 Gradignan cedex (France); Ynsa, M.D. [CENBG-IN2P3/CNRS, BP 120, 33175 Gradignan cedex (France)

    2005-04-01

    The use of in vitro reconstructed human epidermis (RHE) by the cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries is increasing because of its similar physiological mechanisms to native human skin. With the advent of ethic laws on animal experimentation, RHE provides an helpful alternative for the test of formulations. The aim of this study is to check that the RHE mineral status is comparable to that of human native skin by investigating the elemental distributions in the epidermis strata. In addition, possible deleterious effects of the transport on the epidermis ionic content were studied by nuclear microscopy.

  7. Reconstructed human epidermis: A model to study the barrier function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbotteau, Y.; Gontier, E.; Barberet, P.; Cappadoro, M.; De Wever, B.; Habchi, C.; Incerti, S.; Mavon, A.; Moretto, P.; Pouthier, T.; Smith, R.W.; Ynsa, M.D.

    2005-01-01

    The use of in vitro reconstructed human epidermis (RHE) by the cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries is increasing because of its similar physiological mechanisms to native human skin. With the advent of ethic laws on animal experimentation, RHE provides an helpful alternative for the test of formulations. The aim of this study is to check that the RHE mineral status is comparable to that of human native skin by investigating the elemental distributions in the epidermis strata. In addition, possible deleterious effects of the transport on the epidermis ionic content were studied by nuclear microscopy

  8. Reconstruction of the 3D representative volume element from the generalized two-point correlation function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staraselski, Y; Brahme, A; Inal, K; Mishra, R K

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the first application of three-dimensional (3D) cross-correlation microstructure reconstruction implemented for a representative volume element (RVE) to facilitate the microstructure engineering of materials. This has been accomplished by developing a new methodology for reconstructing 3D microstructure using experimental two-dimensional electron backscatter diffraction data. The proposed methodology is based on the analytical representation of the generalized form of the two-point correlation function—the distance-disorientation function (DDF). Microstructure reconstruction is accomplished by extending the simulated annealing techniques to perform three term reconstruction with a minimization of the DDF. The new 3D microstructure reconstruction algorithm is employed to determine the 3D RVE containing all of the relevant microstructure information for accurately computing the mechanical response of solids, especially when local microstructural variations influence the global response of the material as in the case of fracture initiation. (paper)

  9. Ancestral sequence reconstruction in primate mitochondrial DNA: compositional bias and effect on functional inference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Neeraja M; Seligmann, Hervé; Stewart, Caro-Beth; De Koning, A P Jason; Pollock, David D

    2004-10-01

    Reconstruction of ancestral DNA and amino acid sequences is an important means of inferring information about past evolutionary events. Such reconstructions suggest changes in molecular function and evolutionary processes over the course of evolution and are used to infer adaptation and convergence. Maximum likelihood (ML) is generally thought to provide relatively accurate reconstructed sequences compared to parsimony, but both methods lead to the inference of multiple directional changes in nucleotide frequencies in primate mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). To better understand this surprising result, as well as to better understand how parsimony and ML differ, we constructed a series of computationally simple "conditional pathway" methods that differed in the number of substitutions allowed per site along each branch, and we also evaluated the entire Bayesian posterior frequency distribution of reconstructed ancestral states. We analyzed primate mitochondrial cytochrome b (Cyt-b) and cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) genes and found that ML reconstructs ancestral frequencies that are often more different from tip sequences than are parsimony reconstructions. In contrast, frequency reconstructions based on the posterior ensemble more closely resemble extant nucleotide frequencies. Simulations indicate that these differences in ancestral sequence inference are probably due to deterministic bias caused by high uncertainty in the optimization-based ancestral reconstruction methods (parsimony, ML, Bayesian maximum a posteriori). In contrast, ancestral nucleotide frequencies based on an average of the Bayesian set of credible ancestral sequences are much less biased. The methods involving simpler conditional pathway calculations have slightly reduced likelihood values compared to full likelihood calculations, but they can provide fairly unbiased nucleotide reconstructions and may be useful in more complex phylogenetic analyses than considered here due to their speed and

  10. Precipitate shape fitting and reconstruction by means of 3D Zernike functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callahan, P. G.; De Graef, M.

    2012-01-01

    3D Zernike functions are defined and used for the reconstruction of precipitate shapes. These functions are orthogonal over the unit ball and allow for an arbitrary shape, scaled to fit inside an embedding sphere, to be decomposed into 3D harmonics. Explicit expressions are given for the general Zernike moments, correcting typographical errors in the literature. Explicit expressions of the Zernike moments for the ellipsoid and the cube are given. The 3D Zernike functions and moments are applied to the reconstruction of γ' precipitate shapes in two Ni-based superalloys, one with nearly cuboidal precipitate shapes, and one with more complex dendritic shapes.

  11. Precipitate shape fitting and reconstruction by means of 3D Zernike functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Callahan, P G; De Graef, M

    2012-01-01

    3D Zernike functions are defined and used for the reconstruction of precipitate shapes. These functions are orthogonal over the unit ball and allow for an arbitrary shape, scaled to fit inside an embedding sphere, to be decomposed into 3D harmonics. Explicit expressions are given for the general Zernike moments, correcting typographical errors in the literature. Explicit expressions of the Zernike moments for the ellipsoid and the cube are given. The 3D Zernike functions and moments are applied to the reconstruction of γ' precipitate shapes in two Ni-based superalloys, one with nearly cuboidal precipitate shapes, and one with more complex dendritic shapes

  12. Relationships of Muscle Function and Subjective Knee Function in Patients After ACL Reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodkin, Stephan; Goetschius, John; Hertel, Jay; Hart, Joe

    2017-07-01

    After anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR), relationships between objective measures of muscle function and patient-reported outcomes may change over time. Examining these measures at different time frames after surgery may help develop individualized approaches to improve post-ALCR analysis. To examine the associations between subjective knee function and lower-extremity muscle function in individual patients at various time points after ACLR. Descriptive laboratory study. Fifty-one participants who underwent primary, unilateral ACLR (15 males, 36 females; mean age, 22.9 ± 4.5 years; mean height, 172.4 ± 10.1 cm; mean weight, 68.7 ± 13.1 kg) were separated into 3 groups depending on time since surgery (early, 5 years). Subjective knee function was quantified using the International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) subjective knee form and the Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS). Isometric knee extension and flexion strength were collected at 90 deg/s. Single-leg hop performance was measured using the single hop, triple hop, cross-over hop, and 6-m timed hop. Coefficient correlations were calculated between subjective knee function and objective measures of muscle function for each group. The early group demonstrated moderate correlations between the KOOS and unilateral measures of flexion peak torque ( r = 0.514, P = .035) and flexion power ( r = 0.54, P = .027). The middle group demonstrated the strongest correlations between the KOOS and symmetry measures of the single hop ( r = 0.69, P = .002) and extension work ( r = 0.71, P = .002) as well as unilateral measures of the triple hop ( r = 0.52, P = .034) and extension work ( r = 0.66, P = .004). The late group demonstrated strong correlations between the 6-m timed hop symmetry and the IKDC ( r = 0.716, P = .001) and KOOS ( r = 0.71, P = .001). Patients with a post-ACLR status of less than 2 years exhibited stronger relationships with unilateral strength measures to subjective

  13. The social roles and functions of emotions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frijda, N.H.; Mesquita, B.; Markus, H.R.; Kitayama, S.

    1994-01-01

    (from the chapter) discuss the ways in which the sociocultural environment can be expected to influence the emotional processes, the roles and functions of these processes in social interaction, and the influences of the sociocultural environment upon those roles and functions / discuss the modes of

  14. Simultaneous bilateral anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: Cost comparison and functional results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matjaž Sajovic

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The ideal treatment for patients presenting with bilateral anterior cruciate ligament (ACL deficiency remains controversial. The purpose was to evaluate cost and mid-term functional results after one-stage bilateral ACL reconstruction using either hamstring or patella tendon autograft.Methods: We compared the mid-term outcome of 7 patients (14 knees who had one-stage bilateral ACL reconstruction with that of a matched group of patients who had unilateral reconstruction (21 patients.Results: The median duration of hospital stay was 4 nights (range 3 to 5 for the bilateral group and 2 nights (range, 1 to 4 for the control group. The duration of rehabilitation process in patients from the control group with unilateral ACL reconstruction was one week shorter (9 versus 8 weeks. In the bilateral group, the median Lysholm score was 96 (range 85–100 and in the control group, the median score was 93 (range 81–100. The median time to return to full-time work and to full sports was 9 weeks and 7 months for the simultaneous bilateral group and 8 weeks and 6 months for the unilateral group. Six patients (86 % in the bilateral group and 17 patients (81 % in the control group were still performing at their pre-injury level of activity. The Health Insurance Institute of Slovenia saves EUR 2,925 when we perform simultaneous bilateral ACL reconstruction instead of two stage ACL reconstruction.Conclusions: Mid-term clinical results suggested that simultaneous bilateral ACL reconstruction using either hamstring or patella tendon autograft is clinically effective. For patients presenting with symptomatic bilateral ACL deficient knees, one stage bilateral ACL reconstruction is reproducible, cost effective, and does not compromise functional results.

  15. Mandibular reconstruction in the radiated patient: the role of osteocutaneous free tissue transfers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duncan, M.J.; Manktelow, R.T.; Zuker, R.M.; Rosen, I.B.

    1985-01-01

    This paper discusses our experience with the second metatarsal and iliac crest osteocutaneous transfers for mandibular reconstruction. The prime indication for this type of reconstruction was for anterior mandibular defects when the patient had been previously resected. Midbody to midbody defects were reconstructed with the metatarsal and larger defects with the iliac crest. In most cases, an osteotomy was done to create a mental angle. The evaluation of speech, oral continence, and swallowing revealed good results in all patients unless lip or tongue resection compromised function. Facial contour was excellent in metatarsal reconstructions. The iliac crest cutaneous flap provided a generous supply of skin for both intraoral reconstruction and external skin coverage but tended to be bulky, particularly when used in the submental area. Thirty three of 36 flaps survived completely. Flap losses were due to anastomosis thrombosis (1), pedicle compression (1), and pedicle destruction during exploration for suspected carotid blowout (1). Ninety three percent of bone junctions developed a solid bony union despite the mandible having had a full therapeutic dose of preoperative radiation. Despite wound infections in 8 patients, and intraoral dehiscence with bone exposure in 12 patients, all but one of these transfers went on to good bony union without infection in the bone graft

  16. Mandibular reconstruction in the radiated patient: the role of osteocutaneous free tissue transfers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duncan, M.J.; Manktelow, R.T.; Zuker, R.M.; Rosen, I.B.

    1985-12-01

    This paper discusses our experience with the second metatarsal and iliac crest osteocutaneous transfers for mandibular reconstruction. The prime indication for this type of reconstruction was for anterior mandibular defects when the patient had been previously resected. Midbody to midbody defects were reconstructed with the metatarsal and larger defects with the iliac crest. In most cases, an osteotomy was done to create a mental angle. The evaluation of speech, oral continence, and swallowing revealed good results in all patients unless lip or tongue resection compromised function. Facial contour was excellent in metatarsal reconstructions. The iliac crest cutaneous flap provided a generous supply of skin for both intraoral reconstruction and external skin coverage but tended to be bulky, particularly when used in the submental area. Thirty three of 36 flaps survived completely. Flap losses were due to anastomosis thrombosis (1), pedicle compression (1), and pedicle destruction during exploration for suspected carotid blowout (1). Ninety three percent of bone junctions developed a solid bony union despite the mandible having had a full therapeutic dose of preoperative radiation. Despite wound infections in 8 patients, and intraoral dehiscence with bone exposure in 12 patients, all but one of these transfers went on to good bony union without infection in the bone graft.

  17. Application of Symmetry Adapted Function Method for Three-Dimensional Reconstruction of Octahedral Biological Macromolecules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Songjun Zeng

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A method for three-dimensional (3D reconstruction of macromolecule assembles, that is, octahedral symmetrical adapted functions (OSAFs method, was introduced in this paper and a series of formulations for reconstruction by OSAF method were derived. To verify the feasibility and advantages of the method, two octahedral symmetrical macromolecules, that is, heat shock protein Degp24 and the Red-cell L Ferritin, were utilized as examples to implement reconstruction by the OSAF method. The schedule for simulation was designed as follows: 2000 random orientated projections of single particles with predefined Euler angles and centers of origins were generated, then different levels of noises that is signal-to-noise ratio (S/N =0.1,0.5, and 0.8 were added. The structures reconstructed by the OSAF method were in good agreement with the standard models and the relative errors of the structures reconstructed by the OSAF method to standard structures were very little even for high level noise. The facts mentioned above account for that the OSAF method is feasible and efficient approach to reconstruct structures of macromolecules and have ability to suppress the influence of noise.

  18. Image reconstruction of computed tomograms using functional algebra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradaczek, M.; Bradaczek, H.

    1997-01-01

    A detailed presentation of the process for calculating computed tomograms from the measured data by means of functional algebra is given and an attempt is made to demonstrate the relationships to those inexperienced in mathematics. Suggestions are also made to the manufacturers for improving tomography software although the authors cannot exclude the possibility that some of the recommendations may have already been realized. An interpolation in Fourier space to right-angled coordinates was not employed so that additional computer time and errors resulting from the interpolation are avoided. The savings in calculation time can only be estimated but should amount to about 25%. The error-correction calculation is merely a suggestion since it depends considerably on the apparatus used. Functional algebra is introduced here because it is not so well known but does provide appreciable simplifications in comparison to an explicit presentation. Didactic reasons as well as the possibility for reducing calculation time provided the foundation for this work. (orig.) [de

  19. Abdominal wall reconstruction for large incisional hernia restores expiratory lung function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kristian K; Backer, Vibeke; Jorgensen, Lars N

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Respiratory complications secondary to intermittent intra-abdominal hypertension and/or atelectasis are common after abdominal wall reconstruction for large incisional hernias. It is unknown if the respiratory function of this patient group is affected long term or impairs activities...... of daily living. We hypothesized that abdominal wall reconstruction for large incisional hernia would not lead to improved, long-term pulmonary function or respiratory quality of life. METHODS: Eighteen patients undergoing open abdominal wall reconstruction with mesh for a large incisional hernia...... (horizontal fascial defect width >10 cm) were compared with 18 patients with an intact abdominal wall who underwent colorectal resection. Patients were examined pre- and 1-year postoperatively. Examined measures included forced vital capacity, forced expiratory volume in first second, peak expiratory flow...

  20. Postmastectomy reconstruction: comparative analysis of the psychosocial, functional, and cosmetic effects of transverse rectus abdominis musculocutaneous flap versus breast implant reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cederna, P S; Yates, W R; Chang, P; Cram, A E; Ricciardelli, E J

    1995-11-01

    Over 40,000 postmastectomy breast reconstructions are performed annually. In this study, we investigated the psychosocial, functional, and cosmetic effects of transverse rectus abdominis musculocutaneous (TRAM) flap versus breast implant reconstruction. Thirty-three women who had undergone postmastectomy breast reconstruction were contacted by telephone and agreed to participate in the study. Twenty-two women completed the self-assessment questionnaires regarding their quality of life, psychological symptoms, functional status, body image, and global satisfaction. The TRAM and implant groups contained 8 and 14 patients, respectively. The groups were well matched for age, employment status, marital status, race, religion, and severity of medical and surgical illnesses. The average follow-up was 36 months. Statistical analysis of the responses revealed that women who had undergone TRAM flap reconstruction were more satisfied with how their reconstructed breast felt to the touch (p = .01), and there was a trend toward greater satisfaction with the appearance of their reconstructed breast (p = .08). However, these same patients identified more difficulties as far as functioning at work or school, performing vigorous physical activities, participating in community or religious activities, visiting with relatives, and interacting with male friends (p physical impairments as a result of their reconstruction.

  1. Reconstructing Regional Ionospheric Electron Density: A Combined Spherical Slepian Function and Empirical Orthogonal Function Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farzaneh, Saeed; Forootan, Ehsan

    2018-03-01

    The computerized ionospheric tomography is a method for imaging the Earth's ionosphere using a sounding technique and computing the slant total electron content (STEC) values from data of the global positioning system (GPS). The most common approach for ionospheric tomography is the voxel-based model, in which (1) the ionosphere is divided into voxels, (2) the STEC is then measured along (many) satellite signal paths, and finally (3) an inversion procedure is applied to reconstruct the electron density distribution of the ionosphere. In this study, a computationally efficient approach is introduced, which improves the inversion procedure of step 3. Our proposed method combines the empirical orthogonal function and the spherical Slepian base functions to describe the vertical and horizontal distribution of electron density, respectively. Thus, it can be applied on regional and global case studies. Numerical application is demonstrated using the ground-based GPS data over South America. Our results are validated against ionospheric tomography obtained from the constellation observing system for meteorology, ionosphere, and climate (COSMIC) observations and the global ionosphere map estimated by international centers, as well as by comparison with STEC derived from independent GPS stations. Using the proposed approach, we find that while using 30 GPS measurements in South America, one can achieve comparable accuracy with those from COSMIC data within the reported accuracy (1 × 1011 el/cm3) of the product. Comparisons with real observations of two GPS stations indicate an absolute difference is less than 2 TECU (where 1 total electron content unit, TECU, is 1016 electrons/m2).

  2. Stability analysis and reconstruction of wave distribution functions in warm plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oscarsson, T.E.

    1989-05-01

    The purpose of this thesis is first to describe stability analysis and reconstruction of the wave distribution function (WDF) separately, and then to show how the two approaches can be combined in an investigation of satellite data. To demonstrate the type of stability investigation that is often used in space physics we study instabilities below the local proton gyrofrequency which are caused by anisotropic proton distributions. Arbitrary angles between the wavevector and the background magnetic field are considered, and effects of warm plasma on the wave propagation properties are included. We also comment briefly given on an often-used scheme for classifying instabilities. In our discussion on WDF analysis we develop a completely new and general method for reconstructing the WDF. Our scheme can be used to reconstruct the distribution function of waves in warm as well as cold plasma. Doppler effects introduced by satellite motion are included, and the reconstructions can be performed over a broad frequency range simultaneously. The applicability of our new WDF reconstruction method is studied in model problems and in an application to observations made by the Swedish satellite Viking. In the application to Viking data we combine stability and WDF analyses in a unique way that promises to become an important tool in future studies of wave-particle interactions in space plasmas. (author)

  3. Quadriceps muscle function after rehabilitation with cryotherapy in patients with anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Joseph M; Kuenze, Christopher M; Diduch, David R; Ingersoll, Christopher D

    2014-01-01

    Persistent muscle weakness after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction may be due to underlying activation failure and arthrogenic muscle inhibition (AMI). Knee-joint cryotherapy has been shown to improve quadriceps function transiently in those with AMI, thereby providing an opportunity to improve quadriceps muscle activation and strength in patients with a reconstructed ACL. To compare quadriceps muscle function in patients with a reconstructed ACL who completed a 2-week intervention including daily cryotherapy (ice bag), daily exercises, or both. Cross-sectional study. Laboratory. A total of 30 patients with reconstructed ACLs who were at least 6 months post-index surgery and had measurable quadriceps AMI. The patients attended 4 supervised visits over a 2-week period. They were randomly assigned to receive 20 minutes of knee-joint cryotherapy, 1 hour of therapeutic rehabilitation exercises, or cryotherapy followed by exercises. We measured quadriceps Hoffmann reflex, normalized maximal voluntary isometric contraction torque, central activation ratio using the superimposed-burst technique, and patient-reported outcomes before and after the intervention period. After the 2-week intervention period, patients who performed rehabilitation exercises immediately after cryotherapy had higher normalized maximal voluntary isometric contraction torques (P = .002, Cohen d effect size = 1.4) compared with those who received cryotherapy alone (P = .16, d = 0.58) or performed exercise alone (P = .16, d = 0.30). After ACL reconstruction, patients with AMI who performed rehabilitation exercises immediately after cryotherapy experienced greater strength gains than those who performed cryotherapy or exercises alone.

  4. Functional Outcome Following Arthroscopic ACL Reconstruction with Rigid Fix: A Retrospective Observational Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satish Shervegar

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: No uniform consensus exists to decide type of fixation for arthroscopic anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. Hypothsis: There is similar functional outcome after rigid fix compared to other methods of fixation which has been published. Study design: Retrospective observational study. Methods: A total of 50 patients underwent arthroscopic anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction with hamstring tendons using femoral Rigid fix cross-pin and interference screw tibial fixation. The evaluation methods were clinical examination, IKDC scores, Lysholm and pre injury and post reconstruction Tegner score. Patients were followed up from minimum of 6 months to 4 year seven months. Results: C In our study of sample size 50 we found that mean age of patients was 30.8 Years with male preponderance. Mean post operative IKDC and Lysholm score has been 75.6 and 84.4 respectively.Mean Tegner pre-injury score and post reconstruction score has been 5.4 and 4.26 .Box plot comparison of pre injury and post operativeTegner score reveals a statistically significant difference with respect to paired t test P Conclusions: Arthroscopic anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction with femoral rigid fix cross pins and tibial interference screws results in comparable short term to midterm functional results compared to other types of fixation

  5. Functional Outcome Following Arthroscopic ACL Reconstruction with Rigid Fix: A Retrospective Observational Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satish Shervegar

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: No uniform consensus exists to decide type of fixation for arthroscopic anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. Hypothsis: There is similar functional outcome after rigid fix compared to other methods of fixation which has been published. Study design: Retrospective observational study. Methods: A total of 50 patients underwent arthroscopic anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction with hamstring tendons using femoral Rigid fix cross-pin and interference screw tibial fixation. The evaluation methods were clinical examination, IKDC scores, Lysholm and pre injury and post reconstruction Tegner score. Patients were followed up from minimum of 6 months to 4 year seven months. Results: C In our study of sample size 50 we found that mean age of patients was 30.8 Years with male preponderance. Mean post operative IKDC and Lysholm score has been 75.6 and 84.4 respectively.Mean Tegner pre-injury score and post reconstruction score has been 5.4 and 4.26 .Box plot comparison of pre injury and post operativeTegner score reveals a statistically significant difference with respect to paired t test P Conclusions: Arthroscopic anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction with femoral rigid fix cross pins and tibial interference screws results in comparable short term to midterm functional results compared to other types of fixation

  6. Intrinsic functional brain mapping in reconstructed 4D magnetic susceptibility (χ) data space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zikuan; Calhoun, Vince

    2015-02-15

    By solving an inverse problem of T2*-weighted magnetic resonance imaging for a dynamic fMRI study, we reconstruct a 4D magnetic susceptibility source (χ) data space for intrinsic functional mapping. A 4D phase dataset is calculated from a 4D complex fMRI dataset. The background field and phase wrapping effect are removed by a Laplacian technique. A 3D χ source map is reconstructed from a 3D phase image by a computed inverse MRI (CIMRI) scheme. A 4D χ data space is reconstructed by repeating the 3D χ source reconstruction for each time point. A functional map is calculated by a temporal correlation between voxel signals in the 4D χ space and the timecourse of the task paradigm. With a finger-tapping experiment, we obtain two 3D functional mappings in the 4D magnitude data space and in the reconstructed 4D χ data space. We find that the χ-based functional mapping reveals co-occurrence of bidirectional responses in a 3D activation map that is different from the conventional magnitude-based mapping. The χ-based functional mapping can also be achieved by a 3D deconvolution of a phase activation map. Based on a subject experimental comparison, we show that the 4D χ tomography method could produce a similar χ activation map as obtained by the 3D deconvolution method. By removing the dipole effect and other fMRI technological contaminations, 4D χ tomography provides a 4D χ data space that allows a more direct and truthful functional mapping of a brain activity. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Experimental characterization of the Green’s function in a room using sparse reconstruction principles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernandez Grande, Efren; Christiansen, Rasmus Ellebæk

    2017-01-01

    Measuring the Green’s function over the entire volume of a room would typically require an unfeasible number of measurements, due to requirements on spatial sampling. To alleviate the need for excessive measurements, sparse reconstruction methods can be employed, as they make it possible to recon...

  8. Carbide induced reconstruction of monatomic steps on Ni(111) - A density functional study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Martin; Abild-Pedersen, Frank

    2007-01-01

    We present density functional calculations for carbon adsorption at the two types of monatomic steps on a Ni(111) surface. We show that it is thermodynamically favourable to make a carbon induced clock-type reconstruction at the close-packed step with a [111] step geometry, which creates fourfold...

  9. Fourier-space TEM reconstructions with symmetry adapted functions for all rotational point groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trapani, Stefano; Navaza, Jorge

    2013-05-01

    A general-purpose and simple expression for the coefficients of symmetry adapted functions referred to conveniently oriented symmetry axes is given for all rotational point groups. The expression involves the computation of reduced Wigner-matrix elements corresponding to an angle specific to each group and has the computational advantage of leading to Fourier-space TEM (transmission electron microscopy) reconstruction procedures involving only real valued unknowns. Using this expression, a protocol for ab initio view and center assignment and reconstruction so far used for icosahedral particles has been tested with experimental data in other point groups. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. PET image reconstruction using multi-parametric anato-functional priors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehranian, Abolfazl; Belzunce, Martin A.; Niccolini, Flavia; Politis, Marios; Prieto, Claudia; Turkheimer, Federico; Hammers, Alexander; Reader, Andrew J.

    2017-08-01

    In this study, we investigate the application of multi-parametric anato-functional (MR-PET) priors for the maximum a posteriori (MAP) reconstruction of brain PET data in order to address the limitations of the conventional anatomical priors in the presence of PET-MR mismatches. In addition to partial volume correction benefits, the suitability of these priors for reconstruction of low-count PET data is also introduced and demonstrated, comparing to standard maximum-likelihood (ML) reconstruction of high-count data. The conventional local Tikhonov and total variation (TV) priors and current state-of-the-art anatomical priors including the Kaipio, non-local Tikhonov prior with Bowsher and Gaussian similarity kernels are investigated and presented in a unified framework. The Gaussian kernels are calculated using both voxel- and patch-based feature vectors. To cope with PET and MR mismatches, the Bowsher and Gaussian priors are extended to multi-parametric priors. In addition, we propose a modified joint Burg entropy prior that by definition exploits all parametric information in the MAP reconstruction of PET data. The performance of the priors was extensively evaluated using 3D simulations and two clinical brain datasets of [18F]florbetaben and [18F]FDG radiotracers. For simulations, several anato-functional mismatches were intentionally introduced between the PET and MR images, and furthermore, for the FDG clinical dataset, two PET-unique active tumours were embedded in the PET data. Our simulation results showed that the joint Burg entropy prior far outperformed the conventional anatomical priors in terms of preserving PET unique lesions, while still reconstructing functional boundaries with corresponding MR boundaries. In addition, the multi-parametric extension of the Gaussian and Bowsher priors led to enhanced preservation of edge and PET unique features and also an improved bias-variance performance. In agreement with the simulation results, the clinical results

  11. The operator's role and safety functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corcoran, W.R.; Finnicum, D.J.; Hubbard, F.R.; Musick, C.R.; Walzer, R.F.

    1980-01-01

    A nuclear power plant can be thought of as a single system with two major subsystems: equipment and people. Both play important roles in nuclear safety. Whereas, in the past, the role of equipment had been emphasized in nuclear safety, the accident at Three Mile Island and its subsequent investigations point out the vital role of the operator. This paper outlines the operator's roles in nuclear safety and suggests how the concept of safety functions can be used to reduce economic losses and increase safety margins. (auth)

  12. WE-FG-207B-02: Material Reconstruction for Spectral Computed Tomography with Detector Response Function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, J; Gao, H

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Different from the conventional computed tomography (CT), spectral CT based on energy-resolved photon-counting detectors is able to provide the unprecedented material composition. However, an important missing piece for accurate spectral CT is to incorporate the detector response function (DRF), which is distorted by factors such as pulse pileup and charge-sharing. In this work, we propose material reconstruction methods for spectral CT with DRF. Methods: The polyenergetic X-ray forward model takes the DRF into account for accurate material reconstruction. Two image reconstruction methods are proposed: a direct method based on the nonlinear data fidelity from DRF-based forward model; a linear-data-fidelity based method that relies on the spectral rebinning so that the corresponding DRF matrix is invertible. Then the image reconstruction problem is regularized with the isotropic TV term and solved by alternating direction method of multipliers. Results: The simulation results suggest that the proposed methods provided more accurate material compositions than the standard method without DRF. Moreover, the proposed method with linear data fidelity had improved reconstruction quality from the proposed method with nonlinear data fidelity. Conclusion: We have proposed material reconstruction methods for spectral CT with DRF, whichprovided more accurate material compositions than the standard methods without DRF. Moreover, the proposed method with linear data fidelity had improved reconstruction quality from the proposed method with nonlinear data fidelity. Jiulong Liu and Hao Gao were partially supported by the NSFC (#11405105), the 973 Program (#2015CB856000), and the Shanghai Pujiang Talent Program (#14PJ1404500).

  13. The Effectiveness of a Functional Knee Brace on Joint-Position Sense in Anterior Cruciate Ligament-Reconstructed Individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimoto, Dai; LeBlanc, Jessica C; Wooley, Sarah E; Micheli, Lyle J; Kramer, Dennis E

    2016-05-01

    It is estimated that approximately 350,000 individuals undergo anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction surgery in each year in the US. Although ACL-reconstruction surgery and postoperative rehabilitation are successfully completed, deficits in postural control remain prevalent in ACL-reconstructed individuals. In order to assist the lack of balance ability and reduce the risk of retear of the reconstructed ACL, physicians often provide a functional knee brace on the patients' return to physical activity. However, it is not known whether use of the functional knee brace enhances knee-joint position sense in individuals with ACL reconstruction. Thus, the effect of a functional knee brace on knee-joint position sense in an ACL-reconstructed population needs be critically appraised. After systematically review of previously published literature, 3 studies that investigated the effect of a functional knee brace in ACL-reconstructed individuals using joint-position-sense measures were found. They were rated as level 2b evidence in the Centre of Evidence Based Medicine Level of Evidence chart. Synthesis of the reviewed studies indicated inconsistent evidence of a functional knee brace on joint-position improvement after ACL reconstruction. More research is needed to provide sufficient evidence on the effect of a functional knee brace on joint-position sense after ACL reconstruction. Future studies need to measure joint-position sense in closed-kinetic-chain fashion since ACL injury usually occurs under weight-bearing conditions.

  14. Reconstruction of Daily Sea Surface Temperature Based on Radial Basis Function Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhihong Liao

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available A radial basis function network (RBFN method is proposed to reconstruct daily Sea surface temperatures (SSTs with limited SST samples. For the purpose of evaluating the SSTs using this method, non-biased SST samples in the Pacific Ocean (10°N–30°N, 115°E–135°E are selected when the tropical storm Hagibis arrived in June 2014, and these SST samples are obtained from the Reynolds optimum interpolation (OI v2 daily 0.25° SST (OISST products according to the distribution of AVHRR L2p SST and in-situ SST data. Furthermore, an improved nearest neighbor cluster (INNC algorithm is designed to search for the optimal hidden knots for RBFNs from both the SST samples and the background fields. Then, the reconstructed SSTs from the RBFN method are compared with the results from the OI method. The statistical results show that the RBFN method has a better performance of reconstructing SST than the OI method in the study, and that the average RMSE is 0.48 °C for the RBFN method, which is quite smaller than the value of 0.69 °C for the OI method. Additionally, the RBFN methods with different basis functions and clustering algorithms are tested, and we discover that the INNC algorithm with multi-quadric function is quite suitable for the RBFN method to reconstruct SSTs when the SST samples are sparsely distributed.

  15. Reconstruction of gastric slow wave from finger photoplethysmographic signal using radial basis function neural network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed Yacin, S; Srinivasa Chakravarthy, V; Manivannan, M

    2011-11-01

    Extraction of extra-cardiac information from photoplethysmography (PPG) signal is a challenging research problem with significant clinical applications. In this study, radial basis function neural network (RBFNN) is used to reconstruct the gastric myoelectric activity (GMA) slow wave from finger PPG signal. Finger PPG and GMA (measured using Electrogastrogram, EGG) signals were acquired simultaneously at the sampling rate of 100 Hz from ten healthy subjects. Discrete wavelet transform (DWT) was used to extract slow wave (0-0.1953 Hz) component from the finger PPG signal; this slow wave PPG was used to reconstruct EGG. A RBFNN is trained on signals obtained from six subjects in both fasting and postprandial conditions. The trained network is tested on data obtained from the remaining four subjects. In the earlier study, we have shown the presence of GMA information in finger PPG signal using DWT and cross-correlation method. In this study, we explicitly reconstruct gastric slow wave from finger PPG signal by the proposed RBFNN-based method. It was found that the network-reconstructed slow wave provided significantly higher (P wave than the correlation obtained (≈0.7) between the PPG slow wave from DWT and the EEG slow wave. Our results showed that a simple finger PPG signal can be used to reconstruct gastric slow wave using RBFNN method.

  16. Bioengineered human IAS reconstructs with functional and molecular properties similar to intact IAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Jagmohan

    2012-01-01

    Because of its critical importance in rectoanal incontinence, we determined the feasibility to reconstruct internal anal sphincter (IAS) from human IAS smooth muscle cells (SMCs) with functional and molecular attributes similar to the intact sphincter. The reconstructs were developed using SMCs from the circular smooth muscle layer of the human IAS, grown in smooth muscle differentiation media under sterile conditions in Sylgard-coated tissue culture plates with central Sylgard posts. The basal tone in the reconstructs and its changes were recorded following 0 Ca2+, KCl, bethanechol, isoproterenol, protein kinase C (PKC) activator phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate, and Rho kinase (ROCK) and PKC inhibitors Y-27632 and Gö-6850, respectively. Western blot (WB), immunofluorescence (IF), and immunocytochemical (IC) analyses were also performed. The reconstructs developed spontaneous tone (0.68 ± 0.26 mN). Bethanechol (a muscarinic agonist) and K+ depolarization produced contraction, whereas isoproterenol (β-adrenoceptor agonist) and Y-27632 produced a concentration-dependent decrease in the tone. Maximal decrease in basal tone with Y-27632 and Gö-6850 (each 10−5 M) was 80.45 ± 3.29 and 17.76 ± 3.50%, respectively. WB data with the IAS constructs′ SMCs revealed higher levels of RhoA/ROCK, protein kinase C-potentiated inhibitor or inhibitory phosphoprotein for myosin phosphatase (CPI-17), phospho-CPI-17, MYPT1, and 20-kDa myosin light chain vs. rectal smooth muscle. WB, IF, and IC studies of original SMCs and redispersed from the reconstructs for the relative distribution of different signal transduction proteins confirmed the feasibility of reconstruction of IAS with functional properties similar to intact IAS and demonstrated the development of myogenic tone with critical dependence on RhoA/ROCK. We conclude that it is feasible to bioengineer IAS constructs using human IAS SMCs that behave like intact IAS. PMID:22790596

  17. Critical node treatment in the analytic function expansion method for Pin Power Reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Z.; Xu, Y.; Downar, T.

    2013-01-01

    Pin Power Reconstruction (PPR) was implemented in PARCS using the eight term analytic function expansion method (AFEN). This method has been demonstrated to be both accurate and efficient. However, similar to all the methods involving analytic functions, such as the analytic node method (ANM) and AFEN for nodal solution, the use of AFEN for PPR also has potential numerical issue with critical nodes. The conventional analytic functions are trigonometric or hyperbolic sine or cosine functions with an angular frequency proportional to buckling. For a critic al node the buckling is zero and the sine functions becomes zero, and the cosine function become unity. In this case, the eight terms of the analytic functions are no longer distinguishable from ea ch other which makes their corresponding coefficients can no longer be determined uniquely. The mode flux distribution of critical node can be linear while the conventional analytic functions can only express a uniform distribution. If there is critical or near critical node in a plane, the reconstructed pin power distribution is often be shown negative or very large values using the conventional method. In this paper, we propose a new method to avoid the numerical problem wit h critical nodes which uses modified trigonometric or hyperbolic sine functions which are the ratio of trigonometric or hyperbolic sine and its angular frequency. If there are no critical or near critical nodes present, the new pin power reconstruction method with modified analytic functions are equivalent to the conventional analytic functions. The new method is demonstrated using the L336C5 benchmark problem. (authors)

  18. Critical node treatment in the analytic function expansion method for Pin Power Reconstruction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Z. [Rice University, MS 318, 6100 Main Street, Houston, TX 77005 (United States); Xu, Y. [Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Case Ave., Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Downar, T. [Department of Nuclear Engineering, University of Michigan, 2355 Bonisteel blvd., Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Pin Power Reconstruction (PPR) was implemented in PARCS using the eight term analytic function expansion method (AFEN). This method has been demonstrated to be both accurate and efficient. However, similar to all the methods involving analytic functions, such as the analytic node method (ANM) and AFEN for nodal solution, the use of AFEN for PPR also has potential numerical issue with critical nodes. The conventional analytic functions are trigonometric or hyperbolic sine or cosine functions with an angular frequency proportional to buckling. For a critic al node the buckling is zero and the sine functions becomes zero, and the cosine function become unity. In this case, the eight terms of the analytic functions are no longer distinguishable from ea ch other which makes their corresponding coefficients can no longer be determined uniquely. The mode flux distribution of critical node can be linear while the conventional analytic functions can only express a uniform distribution. If there is critical or near critical node in a plane, the reconstructed pin power distribution is often be shown negative or very large values using the conventional method. In this paper, we propose a new method to avoid the numerical problem wit h critical nodes which uses modified trigonometric or hyperbolic sine functions which are the ratio of trigonometric or hyperbolic sine and its angular frequency. If there are no critical or near critical nodes present, the new pin power reconstruction method with modified analytic functions are equivalent to the conventional analytic functions. The new method is demonstrated using the L336C5 benchmark problem. (authors)

  19. Creation of Functional Viruses from Non-Functional cDNA Clones Obtained from an RNA Virus Population by the Use of Ancestral Reconstruction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fahnøe, Ulrik; Pedersen, Anders Gorm; Dräger, Carolin

    2015-01-01

    necessarily be the descendant of a functional ancestor, we hypothesized that it should be possible to produce functional clones by reconstructing ancestral sequences. To test this we used phylogenetic methods to infer two ancestral sequences, which were then reconstructed as cDNA clones. Viruses rescued from...... the reconstructed cDNAs were tested in cell culture and pigs. Both reconstructed ancestral genomes proved functional, and displayed distinct phenotypes in vitro and in vivo. We suggest that reconstruction of ancestral viruses is a useful tool for experimental and computational investigations of virulence and viral...... evolution. Importantly, ancestral reconstruction can be done even on the basis of a set of sequences that all correspond to non-functional variants....

  20. Reconstruction of the domain orientation distribution function of polycrystalline PZT ceramics using vector piezoresponse force microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kratzer, Markus; Lasnik, Michael; Röhrig, Sören; Teichert, Christian; Deluca, Marco

    2018-01-11

    Lead zirconate titanate (PZT) is one of the prominent materials used in polycrystalline piezoelectric devices. Since the ferroelectric domain orientation is the most important parameter affecting the electromechanical performance, analyzing the domain orientation distribution is of great importance for the development and understanding of improved piezoceramic devices. Here, vector piezoresponse force microscopy (vector-PFM) has been applied in order to reconstruct the ferroelectric domain orientation distribution function of polished sections of device-ready polycrystalline lead zirconate titanate (PZT) material. A measurement procedure and a computer program based on the software Mathematica have been developed to automatically evaluate the vector-PFM data for reconstructing the domain orientation function. The method is tested on differently in-plane and out-of-plane poled PZT samples, and the results reveal the expected domain patterns and allow determination of the polarization orientation distribution function at high accuracy.

  1. B-Spline potential function for maximum a-posteriori image reconstruction in fluorescence microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shilpa Dilipkumar

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available An iterative image reconstruction technique employing B-Spline potential function in a Bayesian framework is proposed for fluorescence microscopy images. B-splines are piecewise polynomials with smooth transition, compact support and are the shortest polynomial splines. Incorporation of the B-spline potential function in the maximum-a-posteriori reconstruction technique resulted in improved contrast, enhanced resolution and substantial background reduction. The proposed technique is validated on simulated data as well as on the images acquired from fluorescence microscopes (widefield, confocal laser scanning fluorescence and super-resolution 4Pi microscopy. A comparative study of the proposed technique with the state-of-art maximum likelihood (ML and maximum-a-posteriori (MAP with quadratic potential function shows its superiority over the others. B-Spline MAP technique can find applications in several imaging modalities of fluorescence microscopy like selective plane illumination microscopy, localization microscopy and STED.

  2. IMPROVING CORRELATION FUNCTION FITTING WITH RIDGE REGRESSION: APPLICATION TO CROSS-CORRELATION RECONSTRUCTION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matthews, Daniel J.; Newman, Jeffrey A.

    2012-01-01

    Cross-correlation techniques provide a promising avenue for calibrating photometric redshifts and determining redshift distributions using spectroscopy which is systematically incomplete (e.g., current deep spectroscopic surveys fail to obtain secure redshifts for 30%-50% or more of the galaxies targeted). In this paper, we improve on the redshift distribution reconstruction methods from our previous work by incorporating full covariance information into our correlation function fits. Correlation function measurements are strongly covariant between angular or spatial bins, and accounting for this in fitting can yield substantial reduction in errors. However, frequently the covariance matrices used in these calculations are determined from a relatively small set (dozens rather than hundreds) of subsamples or mock catalogs, resulting in noisy covariance matrices whose inversion is ill-conditioned and numerically unstable. We present here a method of conditioning the covariance matrix known as ridge regression which results in a more well behaved inversion than other techniques common in large-scale structure studies. We demonstrate that ridge regression significantly improves the determination of correlation function parameters. We then apply these improved techniques to the problem of reconstructing redshift distributions. By incorporating full covariance information, applying ridge regression, and changing the weighting of fields in obtaining average correlation functions, we obtain reductions in the mean redshift distribution reconstruction error of as much as ∼40% compared to previous methods. We provide a description of POWERFIT, an IDL code for performing power-law fits to correlation functions with ridge regression conditioning that we are making publicly available.

  3. Characterization of adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR) in low contrast helical abdominal imaging via a transfer function based method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Da; Li, Xinhua; Liu, Bob

    2012-03-01

    Since the introduction of ASiR, its potential in noise reduction has been reported in various clinical applications. However, the influence of different scan and reconstruction parameters on the trade off between ASiR's blurring effect and noise reduction in low contrast imaging has not been fully studied. Simple measurements on low contrast images, such as CNR or phantom scores could not explore the nuance nature of this problem. We tackled this topic using a method which compares the performance of ASiR in low contrast helical imaging based on an assumed filter layer on top of the FBP reconstruction. Transfer functions of this filter layer were obtained from the noise power spectra (NPS) of corresponding FBP and ASiR images that share the same scan and reconstruction parameters. 2D transfer functions were calculated as sqrt[NPSASiR(u, v)/NPSFBP(u, v)]. Synthesized ACR phantom images were generated by filtering the FBP images with the transfer functions of specific (FBP, ASiR) pairs, and were compared with the ASiR images. It is shown that the transfer functions could predict the deterministic blurring effect of ASiR on low contrast objects, as well as the degree of noise reductions. Using this method, the influence of dose, scan field of view (SFOV), display field of view (DFOV), ASiR level, and Recon Mode on the behavior of ASiR in low contrast imaging was studied. It was found that ASiR level, dose level, and DFOV play more important roles in determining the behavior of ASiR than the other two parameters.

  4. Reconstructing Late Holocene North Atlantic atmospheric circulation changes using functional paleoclimate networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franke, Jasper G.; Werner, Johannes P.; Donner, Reik V.

    2017-11-01

    Obtaining reliable reconstructions of long-term atmospheric circulation changes in the North Atlantic region presents a persistent challenge to contemporary paleoclimate research, which has been addressed by a multitude of recent studies. In order to contribute a novel methodological aspect to this active field, we apply here evolving functional network analysis, a recently developed tool for studying temporal changes of the spatial co-variability structure of the Earth's climate system, to a set of Late Holocene paleoclimate proxy records covering the last two millennia. The emerging patterns obtained by our analysis are related to long-term changes in the dominant mode of atmospheric circulation in the region, the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO). By comparing the time-dependent inter-regional linkage structures of the obtained functional paleoclimate network representations to a recent multi-centennial NAO reconstruction, we identify co-variability between southern Greenland, Svalbard, and Fennoscandia as being indicative of a positive NAO phase, while connections from Greenland and Fennoscandia to central Europe are more pronounced during negative NAO phases. By drawing upon this correspondence, we use some key parameters of the evolving network structure to obtain a qualitative reconstruction of the NAO long-term variability over the entire Common Era (last 2000 years) using a linear regression model trained upon the existing shorter reconstruction.

  5. Accuracy of fibula reconstruction using patient-specific CAD/CAM reconstruction plates and dental implants : A new modality for functional reconstruction of mandibular defects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schepers, Rutger H.; Raghoebar, Gerry M.; Vissink, Arjan; Stenekes, Martin W.; Kraeima, Joep; Roodenburg, Jan L.; Reintsema, Harry; Witjes, Max J.

    Background: The purpose of this study was to analyze the accuracy of mandibular reconstruction using patient-specific computer-aided designed and computer-aided manufactured (CAD/CAM) reconstruction plates as a guide to place fibula grafts and dental implants in a one-stage procedure using

  6. Managerial Roles and Functions in Negotiation Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Kozina

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper is focused on negotiation processes performed in a company and presents author’s concept of the description of the roles and functions accomplished by managers within those processes and being of significant importance from the point of view of negotiations’ outcomes. Such a concept aims at providing the analysis and conducting of business negotiations with effective support. Firstly (following introduction, the concept, types, and comprehensive model of such negotiations is presented as a useful methodological framework for specifying managerial roles and functions. Secondly, some classic concepts of those roles are reviewed, drawing special attention to the ones that concern negotiation process. Thirdly, general managerial functions within that process are described. Fourthly, those functions are precised by relating them to typical hierarchical levels. Fifthly, peculiar managerial functions within negotiating team are discussed. Finally, specific issue of the role of manager as a mediator is addressed. Summing up the paper, the crucial areas for subsequent research were pointed out. In order to elaborate the presented concept the author carried out the comparative study of negotiation literature as well as developed his original ideas.

  7. Role of rheology in reconstructing slab morphology in global mantle models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bello, Léa; Coltice, Nicolas; Tackley, Paul; Müller, Dietmar

    2015-04-01

    Reconstructing the 3D structure of the Earth's mantle has been a challenge for geodynamicists for about 40 years. Although numerical models and computational capabilities have incredibly progressed, parameterizations used for modeling convection forced by plate motions are far from being Earth-like. Among the set of parameters, rheology is fundamental because it defines in a non-linear way the dynamics of slabs and plumes, and the organization of the lithosphere. Previous studies have employed diverse viscosity laws, most of them being temperature and depth dependent with relatively small viscosity contrasts. In this study, we evaluate the role of the temperature dependence of viscosity (variations up to 6 orders of magnitude) on reconstructing slab evolution in 3D spherical models of convection driven by plate history models. We also investigate the importance of pseudo-plasticity in such models. We show that strong temperature dependence of viscosity combined with pseudo-plasticity produce laterally and vertically continuous slabs, and flat subduction where trench retreat is fast (North, Central and South America). Moreover, pseudo-plasticity allows a consistent coupling between imposed plate motions and global convection, which is not possible with temperature-dependent viscosity only. However, even our most sophisticated model is not able to reproduce unambiguously stagnant slabs probably because of the simplicity of material properties we use here. The differences between models employing different viscosity laws are very large, larger than the differences between two models with the same rheology but using two different plate reconstructions or initial conditions.

  8. Reconstruction of Missing Pixels in Satellite Images Using the Data Interpolating Empirical Orthogonal Function (DINEOF)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, X.; Wang, M.

    2016-02-01

    For coastal and inland waters, complete (in spatial) and frequent satellite measurements are important in order to monitor and understand coastal biological and ecological processes and phenomena, such as diurnal variations. High-frequency images of the water diffuse attenuation coefficient at the wavelength of 490 nm (Kd(490)) derived from the Korean Geostationary Ocean Color Imager (GOCI) provide a unique opportunity to study diurnal variation of the water turbidity in coastal regions of the Bohai Sea, Yellow Sea, and East China Sea. However, there are lots of missing pixels in the original GOCI-derived Kd(490) images due to clouds and various other reasons. Data Interpolating Empirical Orthogonal Function (DINEOF) is a method to reconstruct missing data in geophysical datasets based on Empirical Orthogonal Function (EOF). In this study, the DINEOF is applied to GOCI-derived Kd(490) data in the Yangtze River mouth and the Yellow River mouth regions, the DINEOF reconstructed Kd(490) data are used to fill in the missing pixels, and the spatial patterns and temporal functions of the first three EOF modes are also used to investigate the sub-diurnal variation due to the tidal forcing. In addition, DINEOF method is also applied to the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) on board the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (SNPP) satellite to reconstruct missing pixels in the daily Kd(490) and chlorophyll-a concentration images, and some application examples in the Chesapeake Bay and the Gulf of Mexico will be presented.

  9. Validation of the stream function method used for reconstruction of experimental ionospheric convection patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.L. Israelevich

    Full Text Available In this study we test a stream function method suggested by Israelevich and Ershkovich for instantaneous reconstruction of global, high-latitude ionospheric convection patterns from a limited set of experimental observations, namely, from the electric field or ion drift velocity vector measurements taken along two polar satellite orbits only. These two satellite passes subdivide the polar cap into several adjacent areas. Measured electric fields or ion drifts can be considered as boundary conditions (together with the zero electric potential condition at the low-latitude boundary for those areas, and the entire ionospheric convection pattern can be reconstructed as a solution of the boundary value problem for the stream function without any preliminary information on ionospheric conductivities. In order to validate the stream function method, we utilized the IZMIRAN electrodynamic model (IZMEM recently calibrated by the DMSP ionospheric electrostatic potential observations. For the sake of simplicity, we took the modeled electric fields along the noon-midnight and dawn-dusk meridians as the boundary conditions. Then, the solution(s of the boundary value problem (i.e., a reconstructed potential distribution over the entire polar region is compared with the original IZMEM/DMSP electric potential distribution(s, as well as with the various cross cuts of the polar cap. It is found that reconstructed convection patterns are in good agreement with the original modelled patterns in both the northern and southern polar caps. The analysis is carried out for the winter and summer conditions, as well as for a number of configurations of the interplanetary magnetic field.

    Key words: Ionosphere (electric fields and currents; plasma convection; modelling and forecasting

  10. Morbidity and Functional Outcomes following Free Jejunal Flap Reconstruction for Head and Neck Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Song; Zhu, Yiming; Qu, Dong; Wang, Jian; Li, Dezhi; Zhang, Bin; Xu, Zhengang; Liu, Shaoyan

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the morbidity and fundamental functional outcomes (swallow and speech) after free jejunal flap (FJF) reconstruction following total pharyngolaryngo-esophagectomy (PLE) in China. 18 patients with FJF reconstruction after total PLE were retrospectively reviewed. Scheduled barium swallow test was performed 7-10 days postoperatively. Rehabilitation of swallowing and speech for patients was assessed by the Performance Status Scale for Head and Neck Cancer Patients. 8 patients died of tumor recurrence and 2 patients died of other reasons (cerebrovascular disease and respiratory disease, respectively). The 1-year, 2-year, and 3-year survival rates were 70.5, 49.4, and 33.8%, respectively. 83.3% of all patients could tolerate soft chewable foods, such as cooked vegetables, fish, hamburger, and small pieces of meat. 2 patients with early stenosis at upper anastomotic sites were with good swallowing function; while 2 patients with early stenosis at lower anastomotic sites were found to have difficulty in oral diet. 2 (11.1%) patients with larynx-preserving pharyngo-esophagectomy showed no compromise in speech. Only 2 (11.1%) patients underwent primary tracheoesophageal puncture for inserting an indwelling voice prosthesis for speech, and both patients achieved functional tracheoesophageal speech. The remaining 14 (77.8%) patients with total PLE did not resume functional speech. Postoperative barium swallow examination is helpful to predict long-term anastomotic stenosis. Good functional swallow rehabilitation is achieved following FJF reconstruction after total PLE or a larynx-preserving procedure. However, the speech outcomes are not satisfactory. It raises the demand of enhancement of functional recovery so that quality of life can be improved for these patients in China. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. Role of Polyamines in Immune Cell Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca S. Hesterberg

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The immune system is remarkably responsive to a myriad of invading microorganisms and provides continuous surveillance against tissue damage and developing tumor cells. To achieve these diverse functions, multiple soluble and cellular components must react in an orchestrated cascade of events to control the specificity, magnitude and persistence of the immune response. Numerous catabolic and anabolic processes are involved in this process, and prominent roles for l-arginine and l-glutamine catabolism have been described, as these amino acids serve as precursors of nitric oxide, creatine, agmatine, tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates, nucleotides and other amino acids, as well as for ornithine, which is used to synthesize putrescine and the polyamines spermidine and spermine. Polyamines have several purported roles and high levels of polyamines are manifest in tumor cells as well in autoreactive B- and T-cells in autoimmune diseases. In the tumor microenvironment, l-arginine catabolism by both tumor cells and suppressive myeloid cells is known to dampen cytotoxic T-cell functions suggesting there might be links between polyamines and T-cell suppression. Here, we review studies suggesting roles of polyamines in normal immune cell function and highlight their connections to autoimmunity and anti-tumor immune cell function.

  12. Reconstruction of tissue dynamics in the compressed breast using multiplexed measurements and temporal basis functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boverman, Gregory; Miller, Eric L.; Brooks, Dana H.; Fang, Qianqian; Carp, S. A.; Selb, J. J.; Boas, David A.

    2007-02-01

    In the course of our experiments imaging the compressed breast in conjunction with digital tomosynthesis, we have noted that significant changes in tissue optical properties, on the order of 5%, occur during our imaging protocol. These changes seem to consistent with changes both in total Hemoglobin concentration as well as in oxygen saturation, as was the case for our standalone breast compression study, which made use of reflectance measurements. Simulation experiments show the importance of taking into account the temporal dynamics in the image reconstruction, and demonstrate the possibility of imaging the spatio-temporal dynamics of oxygen saturation and total Hemoglobin in the breast. In the image reconstruction, we make use of spatio-temporal basis functions, specifically a voxel basis for spatial imaging, and a cubic spline basis in time, and we reconstruct the spatio-temporal images using the entire data set simultaneously, making use of both absolute and relative measurements in the cost function. We have modified the sequence of sources used in our imaging acquisition protocol to improve our temporal resolution, and preliminary results are shown for normal subjects.

  13. Functional roles for noise in genetic circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eldar, Avigdor; Elowitz, Michael B

    2010-09-09

    The genetic circuits that regulate cellular functions are subject to stochastic fluctuations, or 'noise', in the levels of their components. Noise, far from just a nuisance, has begun to be appreciated for its essential role in key cellular activities. Noise functions in both microbial and eukaryotic cells, in multicellular development, and in evolution. It enables coordination of gene expression across large regulons, as well as probabilistic differentiation strategies that function across cell populations. At the longest timescales, noise may facilitate evolutionary transitions. Here we review examples and emerging principles that connect noise, the architecture of the gene circuits in which it is present, and the biological functions it enables. We further indicate some of the important challenges and opportunities going forward.

  14. Reconstructed phase spaces of intrinsic mode functions. Application to postural stability analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snoussi, Hichem; Amoud, Hassan; Doussot, Michel; Hewson, David; Duchêne, Jacques

    2006-01-01

    In this contribution, we propose an efficient nonlinear analysis method characterizing postural steadiness. The analyzed signal is the displacement of the centre of pressure (COP) collected from a force plate used for measuring postural sway. The proposed method consists of analyzing the nonlinear dynamics of the intrinsic mode functions (IMF) of the COP signal. The nonlinear properties are assessed through the reconstructed phase spaces of the different IMFs. This study shows some specific geometries of the attractors of some intrinsic modes. Moreover, the volume spanned by the geometric attractors in the reconstructed phase space represents an efficient indicator of the postural stability of the subject. Experiments results corroborate the effectiveness of the method to blindly discriminate young subjects, elderly subjects and subjects presenting a risk of falling.

  15. Simultaneous reconstruction of shape and generalized impedance functions in electrostatic imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cakoni, Fioralba; Hu, Yuqing; Kress, Rainer

    2014-01-01

    Determining the geometry and the physical nature of an inclusion within a conducting medium from voltage and current measurements on the accessible boundary of the medium can be modeled as an inverse boundary value problem for the Laplace equation subject to appropriate boundary conditions on the inclusion. We continue the investigations on the particular inverse problem with a generalized impedance condition started in Cakoni and Kress (2013 Inverse Problems 29 015005) by presenting an inverse algorithm for the simultaneous reconstruction of both the shape of the inclusion and the two impedance functions via a boundary integral equation approach. In addition to describing the reconstruction algorithm and illustrating its feasibility by numerical examples we also provide some extensions to the uniqueness results in Cakoni and Kress (2013 Inverse Problems 29 015005). (paper)

  16. Feeling like me again: a grounded theory of the role of breast reconstruction surgery in self-image.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKean, L N; Newman, E F; Adair, P

    2013-07-01

    The present study aimed to develop a theoretical understanding of the role of breast reconstruction in women's self-image. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 10 women from breast cancer support groups who had undergone breast reconstruction surgery. A grounded theory methodology was used to explore their experiences. The study generated a model of 'breast cancer, breast reconstruction and self-image', with a core category entitled 'feeling like me again' and two principal categories of 'normal appearance' and 'normal life'. A further two main categories, 'moving on' and 'image of sick person' were generated. The results indicated a role of breast reconstruction in several aspects of self-image including the restoration of pre-surgery persona, which further promoted adjustment. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Using the T-scan III system to analyze occlusal function in mandibular reconstruction patients: A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao-Wei Liu

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study was designed to analyze the post-rehabilitation occlusal function of subjects treated with complex mandibular resection and subsequently rehabilitated with fibula osteoseptocutaneous flaps, dental implants, and fixed prostheses utilizing the T-scan system. Methods: Ten mandibular complex resection cases that adopted fibula osteoseptocutaneous flaps, dental implants, and fixed prostheses to reconstruct occlusal function were analyzed. The mandibular reconstructions were divided into three groups based on size: full mandibular reconstructions, mandibular reconstructions larger than half of the arch, and mandibular reconstructions smaller than half of the arch. The T-scan III system was used to measure maximum occlusal force, occlusal time, anterior-posterior as well as left-right occlusal force asymmetries, and anterior-posterior as well as left-right asymmetrical locations of occlusal centers. Results: Subjects with larger mandibular reconstructions and dental implants with fixed partial dentures demonstrated decreased average occlusal force; however, the difference did not reach the statistically significant level (p > 0.05. The most significant asymmetry of occlusal center location occurred among subjects with mandibular reconstructed areas larger than half of the mandibular arch. Conclusions: Comparison of the parameters of T-scan system used to analyze the occlusal function showed that the occlusal force was not an objective reference. Measurements of the location of the occlusal center appeared more repeatable, and were less affected by additional factors. The research results of this study showed that the size of a reconstruction did not affect the occlusal force after reconstruction and larger reconstructed areas did not decrease the average occlusal force. The most significant parameter was left and right asymmetry of the occlusion center (LROC and was measured in subjects with reconstruction areas larger than half

  18. Hemichannels: new roles in astroglial function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jimmy eStehberg

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The role of astrocytes in brain function has evolved over the last decade, from support cells to active participants in the neuronal synapse through the release of gliotransmitters. Astrocytes express receptors for most neurotransmitters and respond to them through Ca2+ intracellular oscillations and propagation of intercellular Ca2+ waves. While such waves are able to propagate among neighboring astrocytes through gap junctions, thereby activating several astrocytes simultaneously, they can also trigger the release of gliotransmitters, including glutamate, d-serine, glycine, ATP, adenosine or GABA. There are several mechanisms by which gliotransmitter release occurs, including functional hemichannels. These gliotransmitters can activate neighboring astrocytes and participate in the propagation of intercellular Ca2+ waves, or activate pre- and post-synaptic receptors, including NMDA, AMPA and purinergic receptors. In consequence, hemichannels could play a pivotal role in astrocyte-to-astrocyte communication and astrocyte-to-neuron cross-talk. Recent evidence suggests that astroglial hemichannels are involved in higher brain functions including memory and glucose sensing. The present review will focus on the role of hemichannels in astrocyte-to-astrocyte and astrocyte-to neuron communication and in brain physiology.

  19. Analysis of limb function after various reconstruction methods according to tumor location following resection of pediatric malignant bone tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tokuhashi Yasuaki

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the reconstruction of the affected limb in pediatric malignant bone tumors, since the loss of joint function affects limb-length discrepancy expected in the future, reconstruction methods that not only maximally preserve the joint function but also maintain good limb function are necessary. We analysis limb function of reconstruction methods by tumor location following resection of pediatric malignant bone tumors. Patients and methods We classified the tumors according to their location into 3 types by preoperative MRI, and evaluated reconstruction methods after wide resection, paying attention to whether the joint function could be preserved. The mean age of the patients was 10.6 years, Osteosarcoma was observed in 26 patients, Ewing's sarcoma in 3, and PNET(primitive neuroectodermal tumor and chondrosarcoma (grade 1 in 1 each. Results Type I were those located in the diaphysis, and reconstruction was performed using a vascularized fibular graft(vascularized fibular graft. Type 2 were those located in contact with the epiphyseal line or within 1 cm from this line, and VFG was performed in 1, and distraction osteogenesis in 1. Type III were those extending from the diaphysis to the epiphysis beyond the epiphyseal line, and a Growing Kotz was mainly used in 10 patients. The mean functional assessment score was the highest for Type I (96%: n = 4 according to the type and for VFG (99% according to the reconstruction method. Conclusion The final functional results were the most satisfactory for Types I and II according to tumor location. Biological reconstruction such as VFG and distraction osteogenesis without a prosthesis are so high score in the MSTS rating system. Therefore, considering the function of the affected limb, a limb reconstruction method allowing the maximal preservation of joint function should be selected after careful evaluation of the effects of chemotherapy and the location of the tumor.

  20. [RECONSTRUCTION OF LOWER EXTREMITY FUNCTION OF COMPLETE SPINAL CORD INJURY RATS BY FIRST NEURON CONNECTION].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fangyong; Yuan, Yuan; Li, Jianjun

    2015-12-01

    To investigate the effects of the first neuron connection for the reconstruction of lower extremity function of complete spinal cord injury rats. Forty adult female Sprague Dawley rats of 300-350 g in weight were selected to prepare the models of L₁ transverse spinal cord injury. After 2 weeks of establishing model, the rats were randomly divided into control group (n = 20) and experimental group (n = 20). In the experimental group, the right hind limb function was reconstructed directly by the first neuron; in the control group, the other treatments were the same to the experimental group except that the distal tibial nerve and the proximal femoral nerve were not sutured. The recovery of motor function of lower extremity was observed by the Basso-Beattie-Bresnahan (BBB) scoring system on bilateral hind limbs at 7, 30, 50, and 70 days after operation. The changes of the spinal cord were observed by HE staining, neurofilament 200 immunohistochemistry staining, and the technique of horseradish peroxidase (HRP) tracing. After establishing models, 6 rats died. The right hind limb had no obvious recovery of the motor function, with the BBB score of 0 in 2 groups; the left hind limb motor function was recovered in different degrees, and there was no significant difference in BBB score between 2 groups (P > 0.05). In the experimental group, HE staining showed that the spinal cord was reconstructed with the sciatic nerve, which was embedded in the spinal cord, and the sciatic nerve membrane was clearly identified, and there was no obvious atrophy in the connecting part of the spinal cord. In the experimental group, the expression of nerve fiber was stained with immunohistochemistry, and the axons of the spinal cord were positively by stained and the peripheral nerve was connected with the spinal cord. HRP labelled synapses were detected by HRP retrograde tracing in the experimental group, while there was no HRP labelled synapse in the control group. Direct reconstruction

  1. Genome-scale reconstruction of the sigma factor network in Escherichia coli: topology and functional states

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cho, Byung-Kwan; Kim, Donghyuk; Knight, Eric M.

    2014-01-01

    Background: At the beginning of the transcription process, the RNA polymerase (RNAP) core enzyme requires a sigma-factor to recognize the genomic location at which the process initiates. Although the crucial role of sigma-factors has long been appreciated and characterized for many individual...... to transcription units (TUs), representing an increase of more than 300% over what has been previously reported. The reconstructed network was used to investigate competition between alternative sigma-factors (the sigma(70) and sigma(38) regulons), confirming the competition model of sigma substitution...

  2. Effects of Lumbar Core Stability Exercise Programme on Knee Pain, Range of Motion, and Function Post Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyanka Panchal

    2017-12-01

    Conclusion: Institutional conventional exercise protocol is effective in reducing pain and improving the ROM post and lumbar core stability exercise programme is effective in improving function, post ACL reconstruction.

  3. Comprehensive approach to functional palatomaxillary reconstruction using regional and free tissue transfer: Report of reconstructive and prosthodontic outcomes of 140 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urken, Mark L; Roche, Ansley M; Kiplagat, Kimberly J; Dewey, Eliza H; Lazarus, Cathy; Likhterov, Ilya; Buchbinder, Daniel; Okay, Devin J

    2018-03-14

    Palatomaxillary defects were historically restored with a prosthetic obturator; however, advances in local and free tissue transfer has provided a viable alternative for appropriately selected patients with palatomaxillary defects. A retrospective chart review of patients who underwent palatomaxillary reconstruction by the lead author between 1998 and 2016 was conducted. Patients who were restored with a palatal obturator were excluded. One hundred forty patients were reconstructed with a total of 159 local, regional, and free flaps with a 96.7% success rate. Seventy-four patients (52.8%) underwent prosthodontic rehabilitation, with 183 implants placed and an 86% success rate. Palatomaxillary reconstruction applying a systematic approach, using a multitude of techniques, is a safe and effective way to restore patients without compromising the ability to maintain surveillance. Prosthodontic rehabilitation can be achieved in a high percentage of patients using dental implants, leading to optimal aesthetic and functional results. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Striving for Normalcy after Lower Extremity Reconstruction with Free Tissue: The Role of Secondary Esthetic Refinements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Jonas A; Fischer, John P; Haddock, Nicholas T; Mackay, Duncan; Wink, Jason D; Newman, Andrew S; Levin, L Scott; Kovach, Stephen J

    2016-02-01

    Many patients with successful lower extremity salvage have postoperative functional and esthetic concerns. Such concerns range from contour irregularity preventing proper shoe-fitting to esthetic concerns involving color, contour, and texture match. The purpose of this study is to determine the overall incidence as well as factors associated with an increased likelihood of undergoing secondary, esthetic refinements of lower extremity free flaps and to review current revision techniques. All patients undergoing lower extremity soft tissue coverage for limb salvage procedures between January 2007 and June 2013 at a single institution were included in the analysis. Patients who underwent secondary refinements for lower extremity free flaps were compared with patients not undergoing secondary procedures. During the study period, 152 patients underwent reconstruction and were eligible for inclusion. Of these, 32 (21.1%) patients underwent secondary, esthetic revisions. Few differences in patient or case characteristics were noted, although revision patients trended toward being younger, having lower body mass index, with defects secondary to acute trauma located below the ankle. The most common revision was complex soft tissue rearrangement or surgical flap debulking/direct excision (87.5% of patients), followed by scar revision (12.5%), suction-assisted lipectomy (3.1%), laser scar revision (3.1%), and tissue expansion with local tissue rearrangement (3.1%). A significant portion of patients desire secondary revisions following the initial procedure. This is especially true of younger patients with below ankle reconstruction. In many patients, an esthetic consideration should not be of secondary concern, but should be part of the ultimate reconstructive algorithm for lower extremity limb salvage. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  5. 概率密度函数法研究重构吸引子的结构%Probability Density Function Method for Observing Reconstructed Attractor Structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆宏伟; 陈亚珠; 卫青

    2004-01-01

    Probability density function (PDF) method is proposed for analysing the structure of the reconstructed attractor in computing the correlation dimensions of RR intervals of ten normal old men.PDF contains important information about the spatial distribution of the phase points in the reconstructed attractor.To the best of our knowledge, it is the first time that the PDF method is put forward for the analysis of the reconstructed attractor structure.Numerical simulations demonstrate that the cardiac systems of healthy old men are about 6-6.5 dimensional complex dynamical systems.It is found that PDF is not symmetrically distributed when time delay is small, while PDF satisfies Gaussian distribution when time delay is big enough.A cluster effect mechanism is presented to explain this phenomenon.By studying the shape of PDFs, that the roles played by time delay are more important than embedding dimension in the reconstruction is clearly indicated.Results have demonstrated that the PDF method represents a promising numerical approach for the observation of the reconstructed attractor structure and may provide more information and new diagnostic potential of the analyzed cardiac system.

  6. Role of developmental factors in hypothalamic function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakob eBiran

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The hypothalamus is a brain region which regulates homeostasis by mediating endocrine, autonomic and behavioral functions. It is comprised of several nuclei containing distinct neuronal populations producing neuropeptides and neurotransmitters that regulate fundamental body functions including temperature and metabolic rate, thirst and hunger, sexual behavior and reproduction, circadian rhythm, and emotional responses. The identity, number and connectivity of these neuronal populations are established during the organism’s development and are of crucial importance for normal hypothalamic function. Studies have suggested that developmental abnormalities in specific hypothalamic circuits can lead to obesity, sleep disorders, anxiety, depression and autism. At the molecular level, the development of the hypothalamus is regulated by transcription factors, secreted growth factors, neuropeptides and their receptors. Recent studies in zebrafish and mouse have demonstrated that some of these molecules maintain their expression in the adult brain and subsequently play a role in the physiological functions that are regulated by hypothalamic neurons. Here, we summarize the involvement of some of the key developmental factors in hypothalamic development and function by focusing on the mouse and zebrafish genetic model organisms.

  7. On a problem of reconstruction of a discontinuous function by its Radon transform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Derevtsov, Evgeny Yu.; Maltseva, Svetlana V.; Svetov, Ivan E. [Sobolev Institute of Mathematics of SB RAS, 630090, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Novosibirsk State University, 630090, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Sultanov, Murat A. [H. A. Yassawe International Kazakh-Turkish University, 161200, Turkestan (Kazakhstan)

    2016-08-10

    A problem of reconstruction of a discontinuous function by its Radon transform is considered. One of the approaches to the numerical solution for the problem consists in the next sequential steps: a visualization of a set of breaking points; an identification of this set; a determination of jump values; an elimination of discontinuities. We consider three of listed problems except the problem of jump values. The problems are investigated by mathematical modeling using numerical experiments. The results of simulation are satisfactory and allow to hope for the further development of the approach.

  8. DYNAMICS OF COGNITIVE FUNCTION OF PATIENTS WITH DEFECTS OF THE SKULL AFTER RECONSTRUCTIVE SURGERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Sinbukhova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to  the  high social significance of traumatic  brain injury and its consequences,  dynamics of cognitive functions  at  the  background  of the reduction of reconstructive and plastic surgery is of interest to researchers in the world, but this topic is not sufficiently studied. A large number of patients with bone defects of the skull due to a traumatic  brain injury and skull defects after surgery for tumors, and as a consequence of possible cognitive deficits of these patients  makes it necessary to study and assess the possibility of its compensation  as a result of reconstructive  plastic surgery of the skull. Material and methods. In our study, we examined 54 patients  (12 women and 42 men in surgical treatment neurotrauma department (reconstructive  surgery after traumatic  brain injury or skull defect after surgical removal of tumors. The average age of patients  is33,09 years. All patients  were examined by a psychologist before surgery, and on the first, third, and seventh-eighth day after the surgery. MoCA, FAB, Schulte tables, HADS, Spielberger-Hanin anxiety test, a set of stimulus materials for neuropsychological diagnosis, all patients were asked to subjectively evaluate their appearance:  until defect acquisition prior to surgery after treatment (see questionnaire  by Sinbukhova E.[8], also was used projective drawing method, where patients were asked to perform a series of drawings on the given topics. In our study to reduce the high level of situational and personal anxiety of the patients they had Art-therapy sessions with a psychologist before surgery and from the second day after it. The purpose of research is to study the changes in cognitive function, level of depression, anxiety of patients  with postoperative bone defects of the skull after a reconstructive-plastic surgery. Keywords cognitive function, depression, anxiety, reconstructive  surgery. Results On the 3 days after surgery, a

  9. Simulation of 4-turn algorithms for reconstructing lattice optic functions from orbit measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koscielniak, S.; Iliev, A.

    1994-06-01

    We describe algorithms for reconstructing tune, closed-orbit, beta-function and phase advance from four individual turns of beam orbit acquisition data, under the assumption of coherent, almost linear and uncoupled betatron oscillations. To estimate the beta-function at, and phase advance between, position monitors, we require at least one anchor location consisting of two monitors separated by a drift. The algorithms were submitted to a Monte Carlo analysis to find the likely measurement accuracy of the optics functions in the KAON Factory Booster ring racetrack lattice, assuming beam position monitors with surveying and reading errors, and assuming an imperfect lattice with gradient and surveying errors. Some of the results of this study are reported. (author)

  10. Abdominal wall reconstruction for incisional hernia optimizes truncal function and quality of life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kristian K.; Munim, Kanzah; Kjaer, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the study was to examine abdominal wall function in patients undergoing abdominal wall reconstruction (AWR) for incisional hernia. Background: The literature on abdominal wall function in patients with incisional hernia is sparse. It has been suggested that AWR leads...... to improvement in function, but it is unknown whether this is specific to the abdominal wall or due to an improvement in overall physical fitness. Methods: We performed a prospective case-control study of 18 consecutive patients with large incisional hernia undergoing AWR with linea alba restoration. Truncal...... flexion and extension strength, hand grip strength, leg extension power, and quality of life (SF-36 and Carolinas Comfort Scale) were assessed preoperatively and 1 year postoperatively. Patients were compared with a control group of patients with an intact abdominal wall undergoing colorectal resection (n...

  11. Validation of a questionnaire assessing patient's aesthetic and functional outcome after nasal reconstruction: the patient NAFEQ-score.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moolenburgh, S E; Mureau, M A M; Duivenvoorden, H J; Hofer, S O P

    2009-05-01

    In determining patient satisfaction with functional and aesthetic outcome after reconstructive surgery, including nasal reconstruction, standardised assessment instruments are very important. These standardised tools are needed to adequately evaluate and compare outcome results. Since no such instrument existed for nasal reconstruction, a standardised evaluation questionnaire was developed to assess aesthetic and functional outcome after nasal reconstruction. Items of the Nasal Appearance and Function Evaluation Questionnaire (NAFEQ) were derived from both the literature and experiences with patients. The NAFEQ was validated on 30 nasal reconstruction patients and a reference group of 175 people. A factor analysis confirmed the arrangement of the questionnaire in two subscales: functional and aesthetic outcome. High Cronbach's alpha values (>0.70) for both subscales showed that the NAFEQ was an internally consistent instrument. This study demonstrated that the NAFEQ can be used as a standardised questionnaire for detailed evaluation of aesthetic and functional outcome after nasal reconstruction. Its widespread use would enable comparison of results achieved by different techniques, surgeons and centres in a standardised fashion.

  12. A Functional Role for Antibodies in Tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Lenette L; Chung, Amy W; Rosebrock, Tracy R; Ghebremichael, Musie; Yu, Wen Han; Grace, Patricia S; Schoen, Matthew K; Tafesse, Fikadu; Martin, Constance; Leung, Vivian; Mahan, Alison E; Sips, Magdalena; Kumar, Manu P; Tedesco, Jacquelynne; Robinson, Hannah; Tkachenko, Elizabeth; Draghi, Monia; Freedberg, Katherine J; Streeck, Hendrik; Suscovich, Todd J; Lauffenburger, Douglas A; Restrepo, Blanca I; Day, Cheryl; Fortune, Sarah M; Alter, Galit

    2016-10-06

    While a third of the world carries the burden of tuberculosis, disease control has been hindered by a lack of tools, including a rapid, point-of-care diagnostic and a protective vaccine. In many infectious diseases, antibodies (Abs) are powerful biomarkers and important immune mediators. However, in Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infection, a discriminatory or protective role for humoral immunity remains unclear. Using an unbiased antibody profiling approach, we show that individuals with latent tuberculosis infection (Ltb) and active tuberculosis disease (Atb) have distinct Mtb-specific humoral responses, such that Ltb infection is associated with unique Ab Fc functional profiles, selective binding to FcγRIII, and distinct Ab glycosylation patterns. Moreover, compared to Abs from Atb, Abs from Ltb drove enhanced phagolysosomal maturation, inflammasome activation, and, most importantly, macrophage killing of intracellular Mtb. Combined, these data point to a potential role for Fc-mediated Ab effector functions, tuned via differential glycosylation, in Mtb control. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Faithful reconstruction of digital holograms captured by FINCH using a Hamming window function in the Fresnel propagation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Nisan; Rosen, Joseph; Brooker, Gary

    2013-10-01

    Recent advances in Fresnel incoherent correlation holography (FINCH) increase the signal-to-noise ratio in hologram recording by interference of images from two diffractive lenses with focal lengths close to the image plane. Holograms requiring short reconstruction distances are created that reconstruct poorly with existing Fresnel propagation methods. Here we show a dramatic improvement in reconstructed fluorescent images when a 2D Hamming window function substituted for the disk window typically used to bound the impulse response in the Fresnel propagation. Greatly improved image contrast and quality are shown for simulated and experimentally determined FINCH holograms using a 2D Hamming window without significant loss in lateral or axial resolution.

  14. Patient-oriented functional results of total femoral endoprosthetic reconstruction following oncologic resection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Kevin B; Griffin, Anthony M; Chandrasekar, Coonoor R; Biau, David; Babinet, Antoine; Deheshi, Benjamin; Bell, Robert S; Grimer, Robert J; Wunder, Jay S; Ferguson, Peter C

    2011-11-01

    Functional outcomes following oncologic total femoral endoprosthetic reconstruction (TFR) are lacking. We compared patient-oriented functional results of TFRs to proximal femur and distal femur reconstructions (PFR and DFR). We also compared function and complications with regard to knee and hip componentry. Fifty-four TFR patients were identified from three institutional prospective databases. Forty-one had fixed- and 13 had rotating-hinge knees, 37 hemiarthroplasty and 17 total hip arthroplasty componentry. Toronto Extremity Salvage Scores (TESS) for n = 27 were compared between groups and to cohorts of PFR (n = 31) and DFR (n = 85) patients using the Mann-Whitney U-test. Follow-up averaged 4 years. Mechanical complications included five hip dislocations and one femoral malrotation. Four dislocations were in fixed-hinge implants, all in those lacking abductor reattachment. TESS averaged 69.3 ± 17.8, statistically decreased from DFR (P = 0.002) and PFR patients (P = 0.036). No significant differences were detected between patients in the fixed-hinge (n = 18) and rotating-hinge (n = 9) groups (P = 0.944), or total hip (n = 8) and hemiarthroplasty (n = 19) groups (P = 0.633). TFR is reserved for extreme cases of limb salvage, portending a poor prognosis overall. Function reflects additive impairments from PFR and DFR. TFR outcomes differ little with rotating- or fixed-hinge, total hip or hemiarthroplasty implants. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Fungal endophytes: diversity and functional roles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, R.J.; White, J.F.; Arnold, A.E.; Redman, R.S.

    2009-01-01

    All plants in natural ecosystems appear to be symbiotic with fungal endophytes. This highly diverse group of fungi can have profound impacts on plant communities through increasing fitness by conferring abiotic and biotic stress tolerance, increasing biomass and decreasing water consumption, or decreasing fitness by altering resource allocation. Despite more than 100 yr of research resulting in thousands of journal articles, the ecological significance of these fungi remains poorly characterized. Historically, two endophytic groups (clavicipitaceous (C) and nonclavicipitaceous (NC)) have been discriminated based on phylogeny and life history traits. Here, we show that NC-endophytes represent three distinct functional groups based on host colonization and transmission, in planta biodiversity and fitness benefits conferred to hosts. Using this framework, we contrast the life histories, interactions with hosts and potential roles in plant ecophysiology of C- and NC-endophytes, and highlight several key questions for future work in endophyte biology.

  16. A novel functional role of collagen glycosylation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jürgensen, Henrik J; Madsen, Daniel H; Ingvarsen, Signe

    2011-01-01

    Collagens make up the most abundant component of interstitial extracellular matrices and basement membranes. Collagen remodeling is a crucial process in many normal physiological events and in several pathological conditions. Some collagen subtypes contain specific carbohydrate side chains......, the function of which is poorly known. The endocytic collagen receptor urokinase plasminogen activator receptor-associated protein (uPARAP)/Endo180 plays an important role in matrix remodeling through its ability to internalize collagen for lysosomal degradation. uPARAP/Endo180 is a member of the mannose...... receptor protein family. These proteins all include a fibronectin type II domain and a series of C-type lectin-like domains, of which only a minor part possess carbohydrate recognition activity. At least two of the family members, uPARAP/Endo180 and the mannose receptor, interact with collagens...

  17. Bone and bone marrow function of reconstructed chest wall after surgical correction of pectus excavatum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Yoh; Magara, Tatsuo; Kobayashi, Hiroaki; Ichihashi, Takumi; Hikishima, Hiroshi

    1984-01-01

    Bone and Bone marrow functions of the reconstructed chest wall after surgical correction of the funnel chest deformities were evaluated by scanning method. In our series, three kinds of operative procedures were employed; strut method for adult cases, sternal turnover method with and without muscle pedicle for infant cases. Bone function was scanned by sup(99m)Tc-methylene-diphosphonate and bone marrow function was evaluated by sup(99m)Tc-sulfur-colloid. For the cases undergone each surgical procedure, bone and bone marrow scan were done at short term after surgery (within 30 days), at intermediate stage (one month to 12 months), and at long term stage (beyond one year). The results were as follows: By the evaluation at the long term stage of the cases undergoing strut method, bone as well as bone marrow scan visualized normal view of the reconstructed sternum. Regarding the cases undergone sternal turnover method without muscle pedicle, or free graft implantation of the plastron, the bone scan at the long term follow-up stage showed abnormal finding, i.e. hypo-, or defect-visualization of the inverted sternum, in 11.5% of the cases. Furthermore, bone marrow scan showed abnormality in 33.3% of the cases. On the other hand, the cases undergone sternal turnover method with muscle pedicle, in which blood supply to the plastron were preserved by the connection from superior epigastric artery to internal mammary artery, showed no abnormality as far as at the long term follow-up study neither in bone scan nor bone marrow scan. However, in the evaluation at short term after surgery, 50% of the cases undergoing bone scan showed abnormality. In addition, in this stage 85.7% of the bone marrow scan showed abnormal finding. These abnormality, however, normalized within 6 months for bone scan and 12 months for bone marrow scan, in contrast to the results of the cases undergone sternal turnover without pedicle. (J.P.N.)

  18. Handling data redundancy in helical cone beam reconstruction with a cone-angle-based window function and its asymptotic approximation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Xiangyang; Hsieh Jiang

    2007-01-01

    A cone-angle-based window function is defined in this manuscript for image reconstruction using helical cone beam filtered backprojection (CB-FBP) algorithms. Rather than defining the window boundaries in a two-dimensional detector acquiring projection data for computed tomographic imaging, the cone-angle-based window function deals with data redundancy by selecting rays with the smallest cone angle relative to the reconstruction plane. To be computationally efficient, an asymptotic approximation of the cone-angle-based window function is also given and analyzed in this paper. The benefit of using such an asymptotic approximation also includes the avoidance of functional discontinuities that cause artifacts in reconstructed tomographic images. The cone-angle-based window function and its asymptotic approximation provide a way, equivalent to the Tam-Danielsson-window, for helical CB-FBP reconstruction algorithms to deal with data redundancy, regardless of where the helical pitch is constant or dynamically variable during a scan. By taking the cone-parallel geometry as an example, a computer simulation study is conducted to evaluate the proposed window function and its asymptotic approximation for helical CB-FBP reconstruction algorithm to handle data redundancy. The computer simulated Forbild head and thorax phantoms are utilized in the performance evaluation, showing that the proposed cone-angle-based window function and its asymptotic approximation can deal with data redundancy very well in cone beam image reconstruction from projection data acquired along helical source trajectories. Moreover, a numerical study carried out in this paper reveals that the proposed cone-angle-based window function is actually equivalent to the Tam-Danielsson-window, and rigorous mathematical proofs are being investigated

  19. Knee functions and a return to sports activity in competitive athletes following anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayama, Y; Shirai, Y; Narita, T; Mori, A; Kobayashi, K

    2000-06-01

    We investigated knee functions and a return to sports in 50 competitive athlete patients treated with arthroscopic anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction using double-looped STG augmented by woven polyester at a 1-year follow-up. There were 25 males and 25 females with a mean age of 24.3 years (range: 19-39 years). The majority of preinjury sports were basketball, volleyball and soccer. Athletic rehabilitation including agility training and sports-specific training was started at 12 weeks. Fourty patients (80%) was rated as normal or nearly normal on the assessment of International Knee Documentation Commitee postoperatively. Fourty-eight patients (96%) obtained full range of motion, and the mean quadriceps muscle strength of the injured side was 91.3%of that of the uninjured side. As for a return to sports, 46 patients (92%) were able to do fully competitive sports at a mean of 8.1 postoperative months. These results suggest that arthroscopic reconstruction using augmented double-looped STG allows early athletic rehabilitation, and lead satisfactory outcome as well as a reliable and early return to preinjury level of sport activity for the majority of the competitive athlete patients.

  20. Functional-analytic and numerical issues in splitting methods for total variation-based image reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hintermüller, Michael; Rautenberg, Carlos N; Hahn, Jooyoung

    2014-01-01

    Variable splitting schemes for the function space version of the image reconstruction problem with total variation regularization (TV-problem) in its primal and pre-dual formulations are considered. For the primal splitting formulation, while existence of a solution cannot be guaranteed, it is shown that quasi-minimizers of the penalized problem are asymptotically related to the solution of the original TV-problem. On the other hand, for the pre-dual formulation, a family of parametrized problems is introduced and a parameter dependent contraction of an associated fixed point iteration is established. Moreover, the theory is validated by numerical tests. Additionally, the augmented Lagrangian approach is studied, details on an implementation on a staggered grid are provided and numerical tests are shown. (paper)

  1. Reconstruction of an input function from a dynamic PET water image using multiple tissue curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudomi, Nobuyuki; Maeda, Yukito; Yamamoto, Yuka; Nishiyama, Yoshihiro

    2016-08-01

    Quantification of cerebral blood flow (CBF) is important for the understanding of normal and pathologic brain physiology. When CBF is assessed using PET with {{\\text{H}}2} 15O or C15O2, its calculation requires an arterial input function, which generally requires invasive arterial blood sampling. The aim of the present study was to develop a new technique to reconstruct an image derived input function (IDIF) from a dynamic {{\\text{H}}2} 15O PET image as a completely non-invasive approach. Our technique consisted of using a formula to express the input using tissue curve with rate constant parameter. For multiple tissue curves extracted from the dynamic image, the rate constants were estimated so as to minimize the sum of the differences of the reproduced inputs expressed by the extracted tissue curves. The estimated rates were used to express the inputs and the mean of the estimated inputs was used as an IDIF. The method was tested in human subjects (n  =  29) and was compared to the blood sampling method. Simulation studies were performed to examine the magnitude of potential biases in CBF and to optimize the number of multiple tissue curves used for the input reconstruction. In the PET study, the estimated IDIFs were well reproduced against the measured ones. The difference between the calculated CBF values obtained using the two methods was small as around  PET imaging. This suggests the possibility of using a completely non-invasive technique to assess CBF in patho-physiological studies.

  2. THE ROLE OF EUROPEAN BANK FOR RECONSTRUCTION AND DEVELOPMENT IN PROMOTING ENVIRONMENTALLY SOUND AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CONSTANTIN BRĂGARU

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important development banks which finances private initiatives in the Central and Eastern Europe countries is the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD. EBRD as international financial institution plays a very important role in the development of many sectors such as agribusiness, energy efficiency, financial institutions, manufacturing, municipal and environmental infrastructure, natural resources, power and energy, property and tourism, telecommunications, information technology and media, transport. Its objectives aim to promote transition to market economies by investing mainly in the private sector, to mobilize significant foreign direct investment, to support privatization, restructuring and better municipal services to improve people’s lives and to encourage environmentally sound and sustainable development. The present scientific article focuses on the last objective respectively the bank commitment to promote environmentally sound and sustainable development and shortly presents EBRD environmental policy because EBRD, unlike other development banks, has strong and imperative regulations regarding this issue. This is why all the EBRD potential beneficiaries must prove that their projects are environmentally sound.

  3. Functional outcome of gastrointestinal tract and quality of life after esophageal reconstruction of esophagus cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manochehr Aghajanzade; Feizollah Safarpour; M Reza Koohsari; Hadi Tozandehgani; Ghanaei, Farborz M; Bodaghi, Sadigheh M

    2009-01-01

    Information about functional outcome and quality of life after esophagectomy and esophageal reconstruction (ER) for the treatment of esophageal cancer, as evaluated by the patients themselves is limited. We aimed to study the post-surgical outcome of such patients to detect for the development of any complications that may arise from the surgery as well as to evaluate their quality of life following the surgery. From 1993 to 2003, 240 patients with stage 1, 2, or 3 esophageal carcinoma underwent esophagectomy at Razi Teaching Hospital located in the north of Iran. Of these, 192 patients filled out a questionnaire during a 2-year period (ranging from 12 to 48 months after surgical reconstruction). Among them, there were 134 men (69%) and 58 women (31%), and the mean age at the time of ER was 48 years (ranging from 22 to 75 years). Transhiatal esophagectomy, extended esophagectomy (three field operation), and Ivor-Lewis resection were done in 142 (73.95%), 30 (15.62%), and 20 patients (10.42%), respectively. Intestinal continuity after esophageal resection was established with stomach in 154 patients (80%), colon in 28 patients (14%), and small bowel in 10 patients (5.2%). Cervical anastomosis was established in 172 patients (89.6%), while intrathoracic anastomosis was performed in 20 patients (10.4%). After ER, 66 patients (34.4%) suffered from dysphagia to solids and 50 patients (26%) required at least one or three postoperative dilatations for alleviation of symptoms. Gastroesophageal reflux was seen in 32 patients (16.66%) and was more common in thoracic anastomosis patients than in cervical anastomosis patients. Heartburn was present in 33 cases (17%), 30 of whom required medication (37%). The number of meals per day was three to four in 116 patients (60%), more than four in 51 patients (29%), and less than three in 19 patients (9.82%). The number of bowel movement per day increased in 52 patients (27%), decreased in 60 cases (31%), and unchanged in 80 patients

  4. Body image dissatisfaction in patients undergoing breast reconstruction: Examining the roles of breast symmetry and appearance investment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teo, Irene; Reece, Gregory P; Huang, Sheng-Cheng; Mahajan, Kanika; Andon, Johnny; Khanal, Pujjal; Sun, Clement; Nicklaus, Krista; Merchant, Fatima; Markey, Mia K; Fingeret, Michelle Cororve

    2018-03-01

    Reconstruction as part of treatment for breast cancer is aimed at mitigating body image concerns after mastectomy. Although algorithms have been developed to objectively assess breast reconstruction outcomes, associations between objectively quantified breast aesthetic appearance and patient-reported body image outcomes have not been examined. Further, the role of appearance investment in explaining a patient's body image is not well understood. We investigated the extent to which objectively quantified breast symmetry and patient-reported appearance investment were associated with body image dissatisfaction in patients undergoing cancer-related breast reconstruction. Breast cancer patients in different stages of reconstruction (n = 190) completed self-report measures of appearance investment and body image dissatisfaction. Vertical extent and horizontal extent symmetry values, which are indicators of breast symmetry, were calculated from clinical photographs. Associations among breast symmetry, appearance investment, body image dissatisfaction, and patient clinical factors were examined. Multi-variable regression was used to evaluate the extent to which symmetry and appearance investment were associated with body image dissatisfaction. Vertical extent symmetry, but not horizontal extent symmetry, was associated with body image dissatisfaction. Decreased vertical extent symmetry (β = -.19, P image dissatisfaction while controlling for clinical factors. Breast symmetry and patient appearance investment both significantly contribute to an understanding of patient-reported body image satisfaction during breast reconstruction treatment. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Some Convex Functions Based Measures of Independence and Their Application to Strange Attractor Reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuyuki Aihara

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The classical information-theoretic measures such as the entropy and the mutual information (MI are widely applicable to many areas in science and engineering. Csiszar generalized the entropy and the MI by using the convex functions. Recently, we proposed the grid occupancy (GO and the quasientropy (QE as measures of independence. The QE explicitly includes a convex function in its definition, while the expectation of GO is a subclass of QE. In this paper, we study the effect of different convex functions on GO, QE, and Csiszar’s generalized mutual information (GMI. A quality factor (QF is proposed to quantify the sharpness of their minima. Using the QF, it is shown that these measures can have sharper minima than the classical MI. Besides, a recursive algorithm for computing GMI, which is a generalization of Fraser and Swinney’s algorithm for computing MI, is proposed. Moreover, we apply GO, QE, and GMI to chaotic time series analysis. It is shown that these measures are good criteria for determining the optimum delay in strange attractor reconstruction.

  6. Edge reconstruction in armchair phosphorene nanoribbons revealed by discontinuous Galerkin density functional theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Wei; Lin, Lin; Yang, Chao

    2015-12-21

    With the help of our recently developed massively parallel DGDFT (Discontinuous Galerkin Density Functional Theory) methodology, we perform large-scale Kohn-Sham density functional theory calculations on phosphorene nanoribbons with armchair edges (ACPNRs) containing a few thousands to ten thousand atoms. The use of DGDFT allows us to systematically achieve a conventional plane wave basis set type of accuracy, but with a much smaller number (about 15) of adaptive local basis (ALB) functions per atom for this system. The relatively small number of degrees of freedom required to represent the Kohn-Sham Hamiltonian, together with the use of the pole expansion the selected inversion (PEXSI) technique that circumvents the need to diagonalize the Hamiltonian, results in a highly efficient and scalable computational scheme for analyzing the electronic structures of ACPNRs as well as their dynamics. The total wall clock time for calculating the electronic structures of large-scale ACPNRs containing 1080-10,800 atoms is only 10-25 s per self-consistent field (SCF) iteration, with accuracy fully comparable to that obtained from conventional planewave DFT calculations. For the ACPNR system, we observe that the DGDFT methodology can scale to 5000-50,000 processors. We use DGDFT based ab initio molecular dynamics (AIMD) calculations to study the thermodynamic stability of ACPNRs. Our calculations reveal that a 2 × 1 edge reconstruction appears in ACPNRs at room temperature.

  7. Advancement in PET quantification using 3D-OP-OSEM point spread function reconstruction with the HRRT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varrone, Andrea; Sjoeholm, Nils; Gulyas, Balazs; Halldin, Christer; Farde, Lars [Karolinska Hospital, Karolinska Institutet, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Psychiatry Section and Stockholm Brain Institute, Stockholm (Sweden); Eriksson, Lars [Karolinska Hospital, Karolinska Institutet, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Psychiatry Section and Stockholm Brain Institute, Stockholm (Sweden); Siemens Molecular Imaging, Knoxville, TN (United States); University of Stockholm, Department of Physics, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2009-10-15

    Image reconstruction including the modelling of the point spread function (PSF) is an approach improving the resolution of the PET images. This study assessed the quantitative improvements provided by the implementation of the PSF modelling in the reconstruction of the PET data using the High Resolution Research Tomograph (HRRT). Measurements were performed on the NEMA-IEC/2001 (Image Quality) phantom for image quality and on an anthropomorphic brain phantom (STEPBRAIN). PSF reconstruction was also applied to PET measurements in two cynomolgus monkeys examined with [{sup 18}F]FE-PE2I (dopamine transporter) and with [{sup 11}C]MNPA (D{sub 2} receptor), and in one human subject examined with [{sup 11}C]raclopride (D{sub 2} receptor). PSF reconstruction increased the recovery coefficient (RC) in the NEMA phantom by 11-40% and the grey to white matter ratio in the STEPBRAIN phantom by 17%. PSF reconstruction increased binding potential (BP{sub ND}) in the striatum and midbrain by 14 and 18% in the [{sup 18}F]FE-PE2I study, and striatal BP{sub ND} by 6 and 10% in the [{sup 11}C]MNPA and [{sup 11}C]raclopride studies. PSF reconstruction improved quantification by increasing the RC and thus reducing the partial volume effect. This method provides improved conditions for PET quantification in clinical studies with the HRRT system, particularly when targeting receptor populations in small brain structures. (orig.)

  8. Functional and Histological Evaluation following Canine Vocal Fold Reconstruction Using Composite Thyroid Ala Perichondrium Flaps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Matthew R; Glab, Rachel; Gunderson, McLean; Maytag, Allison L; Yang, David T; Jiang, Jack J; Dailey, Seth H

    2015-07-01

    We evaluated the effects of vocal fold reconstruction using a composite thyroid ala perichondrium flap (CTAP) after unilateral vocal fold stripping in beagles. We hypothesized that CTAP would improve glottic closure, decrease phonation threshold pressure, and decrease perturbation. In addition, vocal folds with CTAP would exhibit neovascularization and fat with increased von Willebrand factor (vWF) and smooth muscle actin (SMA), reflecting neoangiogenesis and flap viability. Randomized controlled trial using beagles. University laboratory. Ten beagles underwent unilateral vocal fold stripping. Dogs in the scar-only group (n = 5) were sacrificed at 1 month. Dogs in the CTAP group (n = 5) underwent ipsilateral reconstruction with CTAP at 1 month and were sacrificed at 2 months. Excised larynx experiments evaluated vocal fold vibration using aerodynamic, acoustic, and mucosal wave measurements. Qualitative evaluation of vocal fold morphology and quantitative analysis of elastin, collagen, glycosaminoglycans, vWF, SMA, and hyaluronic acid were performed. Phonation threshold pressure (P = .005), percent jitter (P = .010), percent shimmer (P = .007), and open quotient (P = .007) were lower in the CTAP group. Neovascularization (P = .0079) and fat (P = .1667) occurred more with CTAP, although the difference in fat was not significant. von Willebrand factor was higher with CTAP vs contralateral normal fold (P = .110), although not statistically significant. Smooth muscle actin was higher with CTAP vs contralateral normal fold (P = .038) and scarred vocal folds (P = .022). Composite thyroid ala perichondrium flap restored glottic closure and vibratory periodicity following vocal fold scarring. Additional investigation on biologic response is warranted. Composite thyroid ala perichondrium flap offers an autologous, vascularized implant that can improve both vocal fold structure and function. © American Academy of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery Foundation 2015.

  9. The role of the anterolateral ligament in ACL insufficient and reconstructed knees on rotary stability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tavlo, Mette; Eljaja, S; Tranum-Jensen, Jørgen

    2016-01-01

    Studies suggest that the anterolateral ligament (ALL) is important for knee stability. The purpose was to clarify ALL's effect on rotatory and anterior-posterior stability in the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL)-insufficient and reconstructed knees and the effect of reconstruction of an insuffici......Studies suggest that the anterolateral ligament (ALL) is important for knee stability. The purpose was to clarify ALL's effect on rotatory and anterior-posterior stability in the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL)-insufficient and reconstructed knees and the effect of reconstruction...... of an insufficient ALL. Eighteen cadaveric knees were included. Stability was tested for intact (+ALL), detached (-ALL) and reconstructed (+ reALL) ALL, with ACL removed (-ACL) and reconstructed (+ACL) in six combinations. All were tested in 0, 30, 60, and 90 °C flexion. Anterior-posterior stability was measured...... with a rolimeter. Rotation with a torque of 8.85 Nm was measured photographically. The ALL was well defined in 78% of knees. ACL reconstruction had a significant effect on anterior-posterior stability. Detaching the ALL had a significant effect on internal rotatory stability and on anterior-posterior stability...

  10. Geostationary Satellite Observation of Precipitable Water Vapor Using an Empirical Orthogonal Function (EOF based Reconstruction Technique over Eastern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Man Sing Wong

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Water vapor, as one of the most important greenhouse gases, is crucial for both climate and atmospheric studies. Considering the high spatial and temporal variations of water vapor, a timely and accurate retrieval of precipitable water vapor (PWV is urgently needed, but has long been constrained by data availability. Our study derived the vertically integrated precipitable water vapor over eastern China using Multi-functional Transport Satellite (MTSAT data, which is in geostationary orbit with high temporal resolution. The missing pixels caused by cloud contamination were reconstructed using an Empirical Orthogonal Function (EOF decomposition method over both spatial and temporal dimensions. GPS meteorology data were used to validate the retrieval and the reconstructed results. The diurnal variation of PWV over eastern China was analyzed using harmonic analysis, which indicates that the reconstructed PWV data can depict the diurnal cycle of PWV caused by evapotranspiration and local thermal circulation.

  11. Optimizing Functional Outcomes in Mandibular Condyle Reconstruction With the Free Fibula Flap Using Computer-Aided Design and Manufacturing Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Z-Hye; Avraham, Tomer; Monaco, Casian; Patel, Ashish A; Hirsch, David L; Levine, Jamie P

    2018-05-01

    Mandibular defects involving the condyle represent a complex reconstructive challenge for restoring proper function of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) because it requires precise bone graft alignment for full restoration of joint function. The use of computer-aided design and manufacturing (CAD/CAM) technology can aid in accurate reconstruction of mandibular condyle defects with a vascularized free fibula flap without the need for additional adjuncts. The purpose of this study was to analyze clinical and functional outcomes after reconstruction of mandibular condyle defects using only a free fibula graft with the help of virtual surgery techniques. A retrospective review was performed to identify all patients who underwent mandibular reconstruction with only a free fibula flap without any TMJ adjuncts after a total condylectomy. Three-dimensional modeling software was used to plan and execute reconstruction for all patients. From 2009 through 2014, 14 patients underwent reconstruction of mandibular defects involving the condyle with the aid of virtual surgery technology. The average age was 38.7 years (range, 11 to 77 yr). The average follow-up period was 2.6 years (range, 0.8 to 4.2 yr). Flap survival was 100% (N = 14). All patients reported improved facial symmetry, adequate jaw opening, and normal dental occlusion. In addition, they achieved good functional outcomes, including normal intelligible speech and the tolerance of a regular diet with solid foods. Maximal interincisal opening range for all patients was 25 to 38 mm with no lateral deviation or subjective joint pain. No patient had progressive joint hypomobility or condylar migration. One patient had ankylosis, which required release. TMJ reconstruction poses considerable challenges in bone graft alignment for full restoration of joint function. The use of CAD/CAM technology can aid in accurate reconstruction of mandibular condyle defects with a vascularized free fibula flap through precise

  12. Transverse grooved artefacts from southwestern Asia and northern Eurasia: Common traits and the reconstruction of function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Usacheva

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Transverse grooved artefacts (TGA appeared as a new cultural element in Mesolithic-Proto-Neolithic sites in southwestern Asia. We know of similar artefacts from northern Africa. Hundreds of TGA have also been found in northern Eurasia. Some common traits were found in specimens from far apart territories, such as the non-abrasive heat-resistant nature of the raw materials, specificity of fragmentation without any signs of physical impact, the standard size of the grooves, association with a specific type of landscape, the similar economic level of the societies with which the items are associated, and use-wear marks in the grooves. Based on these regularities we can speak of a single main function for these artefacts which support the earlier reconstruction of R.L. and R.S. Solecki, suggesting that grooved stones were used for straightening cane and reed shafts under heating. Other evidence and traces that have been identified on the surface of TGA outside the groove could be associated with a variety of additional functions.

  13. Relationships of Functional Tests Following ACL Reconstruction: Exploratory Factor Analyses of the Lower Extremity Assessment Protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiFabio, Melissa; Slater, Lindsay V; Norte, Grant; Goetschius, John; Hart, Joseph M; Hertel, Jay

    2018-03-01

    After ACL reconstruction (ACLR), deficits are often assessed using a variety of functional tests, which can be time consuming. It is unknown whether these tests provide redundant or unique information. To explore relationships between components of a battery of functional tests, the Lower Extremity Assessment Protocol (LEAP) was created to aid in developing the most informative, concise battery of tests for evaluating ACLR patients. Descriptive, cross-sectional. Laboratory. 76 ACLR patients (6.86±3.07 months postoperative) and 54 healthy participants. Isokinetic knee flexion and extension at 90 and 180 degrees/second, maximal voluntary isometric contraction for knee extension and flexion, single leg balance, 4 hopping tasks (single, triple, crossover, and 6-meter timed hop), and a bilateral drop vertical jump that was scored with the Landing Error Scoring System (LESS). Peak torque, average torque, average power, total work, fatigue indices, center of pressure area and velocity, hop distance and time, and LESS score. A series of factor analyses were conducted to assess grouping of functional tests on the LEAP for each limb in the ACLR and healthy groups and limb symmetry indices (LSI) for both groups. Correlations were run between measures that loaded on retained factors. Isokinetic and isometric strength tests for knee flexion and extension, hopping, balance, and fatigue index were identified as unique factors for all limbs. The LESS score loaded with various factors across the different limbs. The healthy group LSI analysis produced more factors than the ACLR LSI analysis. Individual measures within each factor had moderate to strong correlations. Isokinetic and isometric strength, hopping, balance, and fatigue index provided unique information. Within each category of measures, not all tests may need to be included for a comprehensive functional assessment of ACLR patients due to the high amount of shared variance between them.

  14. Does Veritas® play a role in breast reconstruction? a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Vita F

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Alessandro Borgognone, Tommaso Anniboletti, Francesco De VitaDepartment of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, CTO Hospital, Rome, ItalyAbstract: To reduce operative times and surgical complications in implant-based breast reconstruction, many authors advocate the use of exogenous material (modified xenograft to support tissue regeneration. In this article, a case is presented in which a bovine collagen patch (Veritas® Collagen Matrix; Synovis Surgical Innovations, St Paul, MN was used in the immediate breast reconstruction with an implant. The good results obtained in this case confirm Veritas® as a viable alternative to AlloDerm® Regenerative Tissue Matrix (LifeCell Corporation, Branchburg, NJ and further support its ability to sustain and stimulate recovery of the surrounding tissues.Keywords: Veritas®, implant-based, breast reconstruction, bovine collagen, patch

  15. Evaluation of functional nerve recovery after reconstruction with a new biodegradable poly (DL-lactide-epsilon-caprolactone) nerve guide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meek, MF; denDunnen, WFA; Robinson, PH; Pennings, AJ; Schakenraad, JM

    The aim of this study was to evaluate functional nerve recovery following reconstruction of a 1 cm gap in the sciatic nerve of a rat, using a new biodegradable p (DLLA-epsilon-CL) nerve guide. To evaluate both motor and sensory nerve recovery, walking track analysis and electrostimulation tests were

  16. [Correlation analysis between residual displacement and hip function after reconstruction of acetabular fractures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Kunlong; Fang, Yue; Luan, Fujun; Tu, Chongqi; Yang, Tianfu

    2012-03-01

    To investigate the relationships between residual displacement of weight-bearing and non weight-bearing zones (gap displacement and step displacement) and hip function by analyzing the CT images after reconstruction of acetabular fractures. The CT measures and clinical outcome were retrospectively analyzed from 48 patients with displaced acetabular fracture between June 2004 and June 2009. All patients were treated by open reduction and internal fixation, and were followed up 24 to 72 months (mean, 36 months); all fractures healed after operation. The residual displacement involved the weight-bearing zone in 30 cases (weight-bearing group), and involved the non weight-bearing zone in 18 cases (non weight-bearing group). The clinical outcomes were evaluated by Merle d'Aubigné-Postel criteria, and the reduction of articular surface by CT images, including the maximums of two indexes (gap displacement and step displacement). All the data were analyzed in accordance with the Spearman rank correlation coefficient analysis. There was strong negative correlation between the hip function and the residual displacement values in weight-bearing group (r(s) = -0.722, P = 0.001). But there was no correlation between the hip function and the residual displacement values in non weight-bearing group (r(s) = 0.481, P = 0.059). The results of clinical follow-up were similar to the correlation analysis results. In weight-bearing group, the hip function had strong negative correlation with step displacement (r(s) = 0.825, P = 0.002), but it had no correlation with gap displacement (r(s) = 0.577, P = 0.134). In patients with acetabular fracture, the hip function has correlation not only with the extent of the residual displacement but also with the location of the residual displacement, so the residual displacement of weight-bearing zone is a key factor to affect the hip function. In patients with residual displacement in weight-bearing zone, the bigger the step displacement is, the

  17. Biofabricated Structures Reconstruct Functional Urinary Bladders in Radiation-injured Rat Bladders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imamura, Tetsuya; Shimamura, Mitsuru; Ogawa, Teruyuki; Minagawa, Tomonori; Nagai, Takashi; Silwal Gautam, Sudha; Ishizuka, Osamu

    2018-05-08

    The ability to repair damaged urinary bladders through the application of bone marrow-derived cells is in the earliest stages of development. We investigated the application of bone marrow-derived cells to repair radiation-injured bladders. We used a three-dimensional (3D) bioprinting robot system to biofabricate bone marrow-derived cell structures. We then determined if the biofabricated structures could restore the tissues and functions of radiation-injured bladders. The bladders of female 10-week-old Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were irradiated with 2-Gy once a week for 5 weeks. Adherent and proliferating bone marrow-derived cells harvested from the femurs of male 17-week-old green fluorescence protein-transfected Tg-SD rats were cultured in collagen-coated flasks. Bone marrow-derived cell spheroids were formed in 96-well plates. Three layers of spheroids were assembled by the bioprinter onto a 9x9 microneedle array. The assembled spheroids were perfusion cultured for 7 days, and then the microneedle array was removed. Two weeks after the last radiation treatment, the biofabricated structures were transplanted into an incision on the anterior wall of the bladders (n=10). Control rats received the same surgery but without the biofabricated structures (sham-structure, n=12). At 2 and 4 weeks after surgery, the sham-structure control bladder tissues exhibited disorganized smooth muscle layers, decreased nerve cells, and significant fibrosis with increased presence of fibrosis-marker P4HB-positive cells and hypoxia-marker HIF1α-positive cells. The transplanted structures survived within the recipient tissues, and blood vessels extended within them from the recipient tissues. The bone marrow-derived cells in the structures differentiated into smooth muscle cells and formed smooth muscle clusters. The recipient tissues near the transplanted structures had distinct smooth muscle layers and reconstructed nerve cells, and only minimal fibrosis with decreased presence of P4

  18. Subjective vs objective predictors of functional knee joint performance in anterior cruciate ligament-reconstructed patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holsgaard-Larsen, Anders; Jensen, Carsten; Aagaard, Per

    2014-01-01

    ) subscales (Sport/Rec and QOL) in ACL-reconstructed patients. METHODS: 23 hamstring auto-graft ACL-reconstructed men (mean age: 27.2 standard deviation 7.5years, BMI: 25.4 standard deviation 3.2 time since surgery: 27 standard deviation 7months) completed KOOS-questionnaire and an objective test-battery: (i...

  19. Reconstruction of Single-Grain Orientation Distribution Functions for Crystalline Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Per Christian; Sørensen, Henning Osholm; Sükösd, Zsuzsanna

    2009-01-01

    for individual grains of the material in consideration. We study two iterative large-scale reconstruction algorithms, the algebraic reconstruction technique (ART) and conjugate gradients for least squares (CGLS), and demonstrate that right preconditioning is necessary in both algorithms to provide satisfactory...

  20. Functional and Clinical Outcome of Ileal (Studer) Neo-bladder Reconstruction: Single Centre Experience from Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nazim, S. M.; Ather, M. H.; Abbas, F.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine the medium and long-term outcome of orthotopic continent urinary diversion with ileal (Studer) neo-bladder following radical cystectomy. Study Design: Case series. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Surgery, The Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi, from January 1998 to September 2010. Methodology: Thirty eight patients underwent radical cystectomy for invasive bladder tumor with ileal neo-bladder (Studer type) reconstruction. Peri-operative and late complications, functional outcome of neo-bladder, urinary continence, metabolic and upper urinary tract status and overall survival were evaluated in all patients. Results: A total of 29 patients (23 males and 6 females) with mean age of 59 +- 12 years were included for the final analysis. The mean duration of surgery (both radical cystectomy and urinary diversion) was 520 +- 70 minutes. Perioperative complication rate was 24% (n=7) with surgical site infection in 4 patients, sepsis in 1 patient and 2 had ureteroileal leak. At 6 months follow-up, 22 patients were fully continent while 7 patients had minimal stress / nocturnal incontinence. The continence rate was 93% (n=27) at one year follow-up. The mean capacity of neo-bladder at 6 months was 384 +- 66 mLs. The late complication rate was 17% (n=5). Three patients developed anastomotic stricture requiring transurethral incision of neo bladder neck, one formed stone in neo-bladder and one developed incision hernia. All patients had preserved renal functions on follow-up. The survival rate was 80% (n=23) at a median follow-up of 66.4 +- 36 months. Two patients developed local recurrence and four developed distant metastasis. Conclusion: Studer ileal neo-bladder is a safe and effective option for urinary diversion in select patients with good oncological and functional outcomes comparable to contemporary literature, even in a low volume center. (author)

  1. Frontal Anterior Laryngectomy with Epiglottic Reconstruction (Tucker’s Operation: Oncologic and Functional Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Recep Yağız

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate functional and oncological results of patients who were treated with frontal anterior laryngectomy with epiglottic reconstruction (Tucker’s operation.Material and Methods: From September 1985 to November 2009, 58 patients whose early glottic carcinomas were operated on with Tucker’s operation. The time of decannulation, nasogastric tube removal, hospitalization and oncological results were analyzed. Acoustic analysis and Voice Handicap Index (VHI were used to evaluate vocal function.Results: The mean time for decannulation and nasogastric tube removal were 11.8±7.6 and 15.4±4.4 days, respectively. The mean duration of hospital stay was 19.3±6.1 days. It was found that early decannulation significantly reduced patient decannulation and hospitalization time. The 5-year overall and cause-specific actuarial survival rates were 81.5% and 96.9%, respectively. The 10-year overall and cause-specific survival rates were 67% and 92.3%, respectively. The 5-year local and nodal control rates were 95.4% and 95.2%, respectively. The mean values for jitter, shimmer and noise-to-harmonic ratio were 8.10±5.59%, 16.60±5.81% and 0.51±0.23, respectively, and these scores showed a significant increase. Total VHI score and subscale scores except VHI-emotional noted that patients had a mild level of vocal disability. Conclusion: Tucker’s operation is one of the preferred techniques in the treatment of early glottic carcinoma with its high oncologic success rate and satisfactory functional results.

  2. CT Imaging of facial trauma. Role of different types of reconstruction. Part I - bones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myga-Porosilo, J.; Sraga, W.; Borowiak, H.; Jackowska, Z.; Kluczewska, E.; Skrzelewski, S.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Injury to the facial skeleton and the adjoining soft tissues is a frequently occurring condition. The main aim of this work was to assess the value of multiplanar and three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction computed tomography (CT) images obtained by using multi-detector row technology in spiral data acquisition in patients with facial skeleton injury. The authors attempted to answer the following questions: Are there particular mechanisms and types of injuries or locations of fractures which can be diagnosed significantly more effectively by conducting additional multiplanar image reconstructions? Do 3D image reconstructions contribute to the diagnostic process, to what extent? Compared to other imaging techniques, is the spiral CT data acquisition a more convenient for the patient and a faster investigation method of diagnosing post-injury lesions involving the facial skeleton? Material/Methods: Sixty-seven patients diagnosed with injury to the facial skeleton were referred for emergent CT scanning. Each patient underwent a CT scan with the use of a GE HiSpeed Qx/i scanner. The scans were conducted with the use of spiral data acquisition technique in the transverse plane. The following secondary image reconstructions were conducted for each patient: a two dimensional (2D) multiplanar reconstruction (MPR), maximum intensity projection (MIP), and 3D volume rendering (VR). Post-injury lesions of the facial skeleton were assessed and the presence of any loose displaced bone fragments was taken into consideration. Results: As far as fracture imaging is concerned, the 2D image reconstruction and volume rendering proved to be the most effective in the majority of locations. 3D image reconstructions proved the most sensitive in most cases of loose displaced bone fragments, except for fine structures such as the ethmoid bone and the inferior orbital wall. Conclusions: 1. Multiplanar computer reconstructions increase the effectiveness of visualisation of

  3. Metagenome-based metabolic reconstruction reveals the ecophysiological function of Epsilonproteobacteria in a hydrocarbon-contaminated sulfidic aquifer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Hardy Keller

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The population genome of an uncultured bacterium assigned to the Campylobacterales (Epsilonproteobacteria was reconstructed from a metagenome dataset obtained by whole-genome shotgun pyrosequencing. Genomic DNA was extracted from a sulfate-reducing, m-xylene-mineralizing enrichment culture isolated from groundwater of a benzene-contaminated sulfidic aquifer. The identical epsilonproteobacterial phylotype has previously been detected in toluene- or benzene-mineralizing, sulfate-reducing consortia enriched from the same site. Previous stable isotope probing experiments with 13C6-labeled benzene suggested that this phylotype assimilates benzene-derived carbon in a syntrophic benzene-mineralizing consortium that uses sulfate as terminal electron acceptor. However, the type of energy metabolism and the ecophysiological function of this epsilonproteobacterium within aromatic hydrocarbon-degrading consortia and in the sulfidic aquifer are poorly understood.Annotation of the epsilonproteobacterial population genome suggests that the bacterium plays a key role in sulfur cycling as indicated by the presence of a sqr gene encoding a sulfide quinone oxidoreductase and psr genes encoding a polysulfide reductase. It may gain energy by using sulfide or hydrogen/formate as electron donors. Polysulfide, fumarate, as well as oxygen are potential electron acceptors. Auto- or mixotrophic carbon metabolism seems plausible since a complete reductive citric acid cycle was detected. Thus the bacterium can thrive in pristine groundwater as well as in hydrocarbon-contaminated aquifers. In hydrocarbon-contaminated sulfidic habitats, the epsilonproteobacterium may generate energy by coupling the oxidation of hydrogen or formate and highly abundant sulfide with the reduction of fumarate and/or polysulfide, accompanied by efficient assimilation of acetate produced during fermentation or incomplete oxidation of hydrocarbons. The highly efficient assimilation of acetate was

  4. Metagenome-Based Metabolic Reconstruction Reveals the Ecophysiological Function of Epsilonproteobacteria in a Hydrocarbon-Contaminated Sulfidic Aquifer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Andreas H; Schleinitz, Kathleen M; Starke, Robert; Bertilsson, Stefan; Vogt, Carsten; Kleinsteuber, Sabine

    2015-01-01

    The population genome of an uncultured bacterium assigned to the Campylobacterales (Epsilonproteobacteria) was reconstructed from a metagenome dataset obtained by whole-genome shotgun pyrosequencing. Genomic DNA was extracted from a sulfate-reducing, m-xylene-mineralizing enrichment culture isolated from groundwater of a benzene-contaminated sulfidic aquifer. The identical epsilonproteobacterial phylotype has previously been detected in toluene- or benzene-mineralizing, sulfate-reducing consortia enriched from the same site. Previous stable isotope probing (SIP) experiments with (13)C6-labeled benzene suggested that this phylotype assimilates benzene-derived carbon in a syntrophic benzene-mineralizing consortium that uses sulfate as terminal electron acceptor. However, the type of energy metabolism and the ecophysiological function of this epsilonproteobacterium within aromatic hydrocarbon-degrading consortia and in the sulfidic aquifer are poorly understood. Annotation of the epsilonproteobacterial population genome suggests that the bacterium plays a key role in sulfur cycling as indicated by the presence of an sqr gene encoding a sulfide quinone oxidoreductase and psr genes encoding a polysulfide reductase. It may gain energy by using sulfide or hydrogen/formate as electron donors. Polysulfide, fumarate, as well as oxygen are potential electron acceptors. Auto- or mixotrophic carbon metabolism seems plausible since a complete reductive citric acid cycle was detected. Thus the bacterium can thrive in pristine groundwater as well as in hydrocarbon-contaminated aquifers. In hydrocarbon-contaminated sulfidic habitats, the epsilonproteobacterium may generate energy by coupling the oxidation of hydrogen or formate and highly abundant sulfide with the reduction of fumarate and/or polysulfide, accompanied by efficient assimilation of acetate produced during fermentation or incomplete oxidation of hydrocarbons. The highly efficient assimilation of acetate was recently

  5. CT Imaging of facial trauma. The role of different types of reconstruction. Part II - soft tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myga-Porosilo, J.; Sraga, W.; Borowiak, H.; Jackowska, Z.; Kluczewska, E.; Skrzelewski, S.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Injury to facial soft tissues as a complication of skeleton fractures is an important problem among patients with facial trauma. The aim of this work was to assess the value of multiplanar and three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction computed tomography (CT) images obtained by using multi-detector row technology in spiral data acquisition in patients with facial injuries of soft tissue. Material/Methods: Sixty-seven patients diagnosed with injury to the facial skeleton underwent a CT scan with the use of GE Hispeed Qx/i scanner. For each patient: a two-dimensional (2D) multiplanar reconstruction (MPR), maximum intensity projection (MIP), and 3D volume rendering (VR) were conducted. Post-injury lesions of soft tissues were assessed. During the assessment of the post-injury lesions of soft tissues, the following features were evaluated: Extra ocular muscle and fat tissue herniation through fractures in the medial and inferior orbital walls. Fluid in the sinuses and in the nasal cavity. Subcutaneous tissue emphysema. Results: For subcutaneous emphysema and sinus fluid imaging, both the axial and the 2D image reconstruction proved comparably effective. However, 2D reconstructions were superior to transverse plane images with regard to herniations into fractures of the inferior orbital wall. 3D reconstruction has no importance in diagnosing soft tissue injuries. Conclusions: Multiplanar CT reconstructions increase the effectiveness of imaging of orbital tissue herniations, especially in case of fractures in the inferior orbital wall. In suspected soft tissue herniations, as well as prior to surgical treatment, spiral CT with 2D multiplanar reconstructions should be the method of choice. (authors)

  6. The Role of Resorbable Plate and Artificial Bone Substitute in Reconstruction of Large Orbital Floor Defect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho Kwon

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available It is essential to reduce and reconstruct bony defects adequately in large orbital floor fracture and defect. Among many reconstructive methods, alloplastic materials have attracted attention because of their safety and ease of use. We have used resorbable plates combined with artificial bone substitutes in large orbital floor defect reconstructions and have evaluated their long-term reliability compared with porous polyethylene plate. A total of 147 patients with traumatic orbital floor fracture were included in the study. Surgical results were evaluated by clinical evaluations, exophthalmometry, and computed tomography at least 12 months postoperatively. Both orbital floor height discrepancy and orbital volume change were calculated and compared with preoperative CT findings. The average volume discrepancy and vertical height discrepancies were not different between two groups. Also, exophthalmometric measurements were not significantly different between the two groups. No significant postoperative complication including permanent diplopia, proptosis, and enophthalmos was noted. Use of a resorbable plate with an artificial bone substitute to repair orbital floor defects larger than 2.5 cm2 in size yielded long-lasting, effective reconstruction without significant complications. We therefore propose our approach as an effective alternative method for large orbital floor reconstructions.

  7. Long-term follow-up on total reconstruction of the temporomandibular joint - functional, psychosocial and radiological assessments in a case-series study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Kristian

    Long-term follow-up on total reconstruction of the temporomandibular joint - functional, psychosocial and radiological assessments in a case-series study......Long-term follow-up on total reconstruction of the temporomandibular joint - functional, psychosocial and radiological assessments in a case-series study...

  8. Clinical and functional outcome of anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction in the recreational athlete over the age of 35.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak, P J; Bach, B R; Hager, C A

    1996-01-01

    This study examined the functional, objective, and subjective outcome of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction in recreational athletes > or = 35 years after a minimum of 2 years of follow-up. Patients > or = 35 years who underwent ACL reconstruction by a single surgeon were identified from our surgical database. Nineteen knees in 18 (62% follow-up) patients were available for review by an independent examiner. The patients underwent physical examination, radiographs, functional testing, isokinetic strength testing, and instrumented ligament arthrometer testing. All were seen at a minimum of 2 years of follow-up. The average age was 40 years. Five of 19 underwent reconstruction less than 1 month after injury, and the remainder underwent reconstruction for chronic injuries. All patients preoperatively had at least a grade 2 Lachman and a positive pivot shift noted on physical examination. After a minimum of 2 years of follow-up, 17 of 18 patients had a stable knee on objective testing, including a negative Lachman and pivot shift. Seventeen patients (94%) had 3 cm prone heel height difference, and all patients had > 125 degrees of flexion. Mean thigh circumference difference was 0.5 cm. Isokinetic testing demonstrated a mean 11%, 7%, and 4% quadriceps asymmetry at 60 degrees, 180 degrees, and 240 degrees/second, respectively. However, functional testing revealed only a mean 6% asymmetry on vertical jump, single leg hop, and timed 6 meter hop. Seventeen of 18 patients were satisfied with their results. The mean postoperative Lysholm Rating Scale score was 93. The mean Noyes Sports Activity Scale score was 86, improved from 31 preoperatively. Thirteen of 18 returned to their preinjury level of sports performance. These results indicate that ACL reconstruction in patients over the age of 35 has functional, objective, and subjective results comparable to those of a younger patient population.

  9. Cross disease analysis of co-functional microRNA pairs on a reconstructed network of disease-gene-microRNA tripartite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Hui; Lan, Chaowang; Zheng, Yi; Hutvagner, Gyorgy; Tao, Dacheng; Li, Jinyan

    2017-03-24

    MicroRNAs always function cooperatively in their regulation of gene expression. Dysfunctions of these co-functional microRNAs can play significant roles in disease development. We are interested in those multi-disease associated co-functional microRNAs that regulate their common dysfunctional target genes cooperatively in the development of multiple diseases. The research is potentially useful for human disease studies at the transcriptional level and for the study of multi-purpose microRNA therapeutics. We designed a computational method to detect multi-disease associated co-functional microRNA pairs and conducted cross disease analysis on a reconstructed disease-gene-microRNA (DGR) tripartite network. The construction of the DGR tripartite network is by the integration of newly predicted disease-microRNA associations with those relationships of diseases, microRNAs and genes maintained by existing databases. The prediction method uses a set of reliable negative samples of disease-microRNA association and a pre-computed kernel matrix instead of kernel functions. From this reconstructed DGR tripartite network, multi-disease associated co-functional microRNA pairs are detected together with their common dysfunctional target genes and ranked by a novel scoring method. We also conducted proof-of-concept case studies on cancer-related co-functional microRNA pairs as well as on non-cancer disease-related microRNA pairs. With the prioritization of the co-functional microRNAs that relate to a series of diseases, we found that the co-function phenomenon is not unusual. We also confirmed that the regulation of the microRNAs for the development of cancers is more complex and have more unique properties than those of non-cancer diseases.

  10. [A Patient with Lower Lip Verrucous Carcinoma Treated with a Tongue Flap for Functional and Esthetic Reconstruction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koike, Takashi; Kanno, Takahiro; Karino, Masaaki; Sekine, Joji

    2017-11-01

    Surgery is generally indicated for the treatment of lower lip carcinoma. However, surgery can lead to esthetic as well as functional issues, with disturbances in eating and articulation. If the defect involves less than one-third of the width of the lower lip, primary closure is possible. If the defect is wider, reconstructive local flaps may be necessary for both esthetic and functional recovery. This report describes a case of lower lip verrucous carcinoma in which a tongue flap was used to treat a defect involving more than half the width of the lower lip following resection. The patient was a 91-year-old woman who complained of lower lip discomfort. A biopsy revealed verrucous carcinoma, and we performed resection. After a 3-week waiting period, we performed secondary tongue flap reconstruction. Satisfactory function and cosmetic results were achieved.

  11. IMPROVING FUNCTIONAL PERFORMANCE AND MUSCLE POWER 4-TO-6 MONTHS AFTER ANTERIOR CRUCIATE LIGAMENT RECONSTRUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrine Souissi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of 8-week retraining programs, with either two or three training sessions per week, on measures of functional performance and muscular power in athletes with anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR. Sixteen male athletes were randomly assigned to two groups after ACLR: a functional training group (FTG, n = 8 training 2 intense sessions per week (4hrs/week, and a control group (CG, n = 8 training 3 sessions per week with moderate intensity (6hrs/week. The two groups were assessed at four and six months post-ACLR and the effects of retraining were measured using the following assessments: the functional and the muscular power tests, and the agility T-test. After retraining, the FTG had improved more than the CG in the operated leg in the single leg hop test (+34.64% vs. +10.92%; large effect, the five jump test (+8.87% vs. +5.03%; medium effect, and single leg triple jump (+32.15% vs. +16.05%; medium effect. For the agility T-test, the FTG had larger improvements (+17.26% vs. +13.03%, medium effect as compared to the CG. For the bilateral power tests, no significant training effects were shown for the two groups in the squat jump (SJ, the counter movement jump (CMJ and the free arms CMJ (Arm CMJ. On the other hand, the unilateral CMJ test with the injured and the uninjured legs showed a significant increase for the FTG with respect to CG (p < 0.05. The present study introduces a new training modality in rehabilitation after ACLR that results in good recovery of the operated limb along with the contra-lateral leg. This may allow the athletes to reach good functional and strength performance with only two physical training sessions per week, better preparing them for a return to sport activity at 6 months post- ACLR and eventually sparing time for a possible progressive introduction of the sport specific technical training

  12. Structural-functional lung imaging using a combined CT-EIT and a Discrete Cosine Transformation reconstruction method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schullcke, Benjamin; Gong, Bo; Krueger-Ziolek, Sabine; Soleimani, Manuchehr; Mueller-Lisse, Ullrich; Moeller, Knut

    2016-05-16

    Lung EIT is a functional imaging method that utilizes electrical currents to reconstruct images of conductivity changes inside the thorax. This technique is radiation free and applicable at the bedside, but lacks of spatial resolution compared to morphological imaging methods such as X-ray computed tomography (CT). In this article we describe an approach for EIT image reconstruction using morphologic information obtained from other structural imaging modalities. This leads to recon- structed images of lung ventilation that can easily be superimposed with structural CT or MRI images, which facilitates image interpretation. The approach is based on a Discrete Cosine Transformation (DCT) of an image of the considered transversal thorax slice. The use of DCT enables reduction of the dimensionality of the reconstruction and ensures that only conductivity changes of the lungs are reconstructed and displayed. The DCT based approach is well suited to fuse morphological image information with functional lung imaging at low computational costs. Results on simulated data indicate that this approach preserves the morphological structures of the lungs and avoids blurring of the solution. Images from patient measurements reveal the capabilities of the method and demonstrate benefits in possible applications.

  13. The fusion of craniofacial reconstruction and microsurgery: a functional and aesthetic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broyles, Justin M; Abt, Nicholas B; Shridharani, Sachin M; Bojovic, Branko; Rodriguez, Eduardo D; Dorafshar, Amir H

    2014-10-01

    Reconstruction of large, composite defects in the craniofacial region has evolved significantly over the past half century. During this time, there have been significant advances in craniofacial and microsurgical surgery. These contributions have often been in parallel; however, over the past 10 years, these two disciplines have begun to overlap more frequently, and the techniques of one have been used to advance the other. In the current review, the authors aim to describe the available options for free tissue reconstruction in craniofacial surgery. A review of microsurgical reconstructive options of aesthetic units within the craniofacial region was undertaken with attention directed toward surgeon flap preference. Anatomical areas analyzed included scalp, calvaria, forehead, frontal sinus, nose, maxilla and midface, periorbita, mandible, lip, and tongue. Although certain flaps such as the ulnar forearm flap and lateral circumflex femoral artery-based flaps were used in multiple reconstructive sites, each anatomical location possesses a unique array of flaps to maximize outcomes. Craniofacial surgery, like plastic surgery, has made tremendous advancements in the past 40 years. With innovations in technology, flap design, and training, microsurgery has become safer, faster, and more commonplace than at any time in history. Reconstructive microsurgery allows the surgeon to be creative in this approach, and free tissue transfer has become a mainstay of modern craniofacial reconstruction.

  14. Direct 4D reconstruction of parametric images incorporating anato-functional joint entropy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Jing; Kuwabara, Hiroto; Wong, Dean F; Rahmim, Arman

    2010-08-07

    We developed an anatomy-guided 4D closed-form algorithm to directly reconstruct parametric images from projection data for (nearly) irreversible tracers. Conventional methods consist of individually reconstructing 2D/3D PET data, followed by graphical analysis on the sequence of reconstructed image frames. The proposed direct reconstruction approach maintains the simplicity and accuracy of the expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm by extending the system matrix to include the relation between the parametric images and the measured data. A closed-form solution was achieved using a different hidden complete-data formulation within the EM framework. Furthermore, the proposed method was extended to maximum a posterior reconstruction via incorporation of MR image information, taking the joint entropy between MR and parametric PET features as the prior. Using realistic simulated noisy [(11)C]-naltrindole PET and MR brain images/data, the quantitative performance of the proposed methods was investigated. Significant improvements in terms of noise versus bias performance were demonstrated when performing direct parametric reconstruction, and additionally upon extending the algorithm to its Bayesian counterpart using the MR-PET joint entropy measure.

  15. The Role of the U.S. Army in Health System Reconstruction and Development During Counterinsurgency

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-08

    freedom. — Amartya Sen Development as Freedom Military medical personnel involved in health system reconstruction and development in Iraq and...Afghanistan. New York: W.W. Norton and Company, 2009. Sen , Amartya . Development as Freedom. New York: Anchor Books, 2000. Special Inspector General for

  16. Transcription of tandemly repetitive DNA: functional roles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biscotti, Maria Assunta; Canapa, Adriana; Forconi, Mariko; Olmo, Ettore; Barucca, Marco

    2015-09-01

    A considerable fraction of the eukaryotic genome is made up of satellite DNA constituted of tandemly repeated sequences. These elements are mainly located at centromeres, pericentromeres, and telomeres and are major components of constitutive heterochromatin. Although originally satellite DNA was thought silent and inert, an increasing number of studies are providing evidence on its transcriptional activity supporting, on the contrary, an unexpected dynamicity. This review summarizes the multiple structural roles of satellite noncoding RNAs at chromosome level. Indeed, satellite noncoding RNAs play a role in the establishment of a heterochromatic state at centromere and telomere. These highly condensed structures are indispensable to preserve chromosome integrity and genome stability, preventing recombination events, and ensuring the correct chromosome pairing and segregation. Moreover, these RNA molecules seem to be involved also in maintaining centromere identity and in elongation, capping, and replication of telomere. Finally, the abnormal variation of centromeric and pericentromeric DNA transcription across major eukaryotic lineages in stress condition and disease has evidenced the critical role that these transcripts may play and the potentially dire consequences for the organism.

  17. Relationship between knee kinetic outcome measures in vertical counter movement jumps and self-reported function in ACL reconstructed subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brekke, Anders Falk

    2014-01-01

    Relationship between knee kinetic outcome measures in counter movement jumps and self-reported function in ACL reconstructed subjects Brekke AF1,2, Nielsen DB2, Holsgaard-Larsen A2 1School of physiotherapy, University College Zealand, Denmark 2Orthopaedic Research Unit, Department of Orthopaedics...... and Traumatology, Odense University Hospital, Institute of Clinical Research, University of Southern Denmark Introduction: Altered loading pattern of the medial aspect of the knee has been associated with the development of knee osteoarthritis (OA). Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries are associated...... with early-onset OA with associated pain, functional limitations, and decreased quality of life. However, specific knee loading pattern of the medial aspect has not been investigated during different jump-tasks in ACL-reconstructed patients. The purpose was to investigate potential kinetic differences...

  18. Projected potential profiles across interfaces obtained by reconstructing the exit face wave function from through focal series

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharyya, Somnath; Koch, Christoph T.; Ruehle, Manfred

    2006-01-01

    An iterative method for reconstructing the exit face wave function from a through focal series of transmission electron microscopy image line profiles across an interface is presented. Apart from high-resolution images recorded with small changes in defocus, this method works also well for a large defocus range as used for Fresnel imaging. Using the phase-object approximation the projected electrostatic as well as the absorptive potential profiles across an interface are determined from this exit face wave function. A new experimental image alignment procedure was developed in order to align images with large relative defocus shift. The performance of this procedure is shown to be superior to other image alignment procedures existing in the literature. The reconstruction method is applied to both simulated and experimental images

  19. Predictors of pain and physical function at 12-months in patients with ACL-reconstruction: A retrospective cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Houlind Larsen, Michael; Nissen, Nis; Jensen, Carsten

    , anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction improves patient reported outcome. However, the intensity of pain is rarely used as indication for surgery in patients with anterior cruciate ligaments tear Results The degree of preoperative pain predicted postoperative improvements in both pain and physical......). Surprisingly, patients with near normal to abnormal preoperative knee instability did not improve the postoperative pain and physical function as much as patients with normal preoperative instability. Age, gender and knee pivot shift had no predictive value....

  20. A Systematic Review of the Role of Robotics in Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery—From Inception to the Future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas D. Dobbs

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundThe use of robots in surgery has become commonplace in many specialties. In this systematic review, we report on the current uses of robotics in plastic and reconstructive surgery and looks to future roles for robotics in this arena.MethodsA systematic literature search of Medline, EMBASE, and Scopus was performed using appropriate search terms in order to identify all applications of robot-assistance in plastic and reconstructive surgery. All articles were reviewed by two authors and a qualitative synthesis performed of those articles that met the inclusion criteria. The systematic review and results were conducted and reported in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta Analysis (PRISMA guidelines.ResultsA total of 7,904 articles were identified for title and abstract review. Sixty-eight studies met the inclusion criteria. Robotic assistance in plastic and reconstructive surgery is still in its infancy, with areas such as trans-oral robotic surgery and microvascular procedures the dominant areas of interest currently. A number of benefits have been shown over conventional open surgery, such as improved access and greater dexterity; however, these must be balanced against disadvantages such as the lack of haptic feedback and cost implications.ConclusionThe feasibility of robotic plastic surgery has been demonstrated in several specific indications. As technology, knowledge, and skills in this area improve, these techniques have the potential to contribute positively to patient and provider experience and outcomes.

  1. The role of uncertainty analysis in dose reconstruction and risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffman, F.O.; Simon, S.L.; Thiessen. K.M.

    1996-01-01

    Dose reconstruction and risk assessment rely heavily on the use of mathematical models to extrapolate information beyond the realm of direct observation. Because models are merely approximations of real systems, their predictions are inherently uncertain. As a result, full disclosure of uncertainty in dose and risk estimates is essential to achieve scientific credibility and to build public trust. The need for formal analysis of uncertainty in model predictions was presented during the nineteenth annual meeting of the NCRP. At that time, quantitative uncertainty analysis was considered a relatively new and difficult subject practiced by only a few investigators. Today, uncertainty analysis has become synonymous with the assessment process itself. When an uncertainty analysis is used iteratively within the assessment process, it can guide experimental research to refine dose and risk estimates, deferring potentially high cost or high consequence decisions until uncertainty is either acceptable or irreducible. Uncertainty analysis is now mandated for all ongoing dose reconstruction projects within the United States, a fact that distinguishes dose reconstruction from other types of exposure and risk assessments. 64 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab

  2. J-pouch versus Roux-en-Y reconstruction after gastrectomy: functional assessment and quality of life (randomized trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zonca P

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Pavel Zonča,1,2 Tomáš Malý,3 Peter Ihnát,1,2 Matus Peteja,1,2 Otakar Kraft,4 Kamil Kuca2,5 1Department of Surgery, University Hospital Ostrava, 2Department of Surgical Studies, Faculty of Medicine, University of Ostrava, Ostrava, 3Department of Surgery, University Hospital Olomouc, Olomouc, 4Department of Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital Ostrava, Ostrava, 5Biomedical Research Center, University Hospital Hradec Kralove, Hradec Kralove, Czech Republic Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate the quality of life and functional emptying of J-pouch versus Roux-en-Y reconstruction after total gastrectomy for malignancy. Methods: This study was designed as a prospective, nonblinded, randomized, parallel clinical trial (Trial Number: MN Ostrava, 200604. With informed consent, patients undergoing gastrectomy for malignancy were randomized to J-pouch or Roux-en-Y reconstruction. The time taken for a test semisolid meal labeled with 99mTc-sulfur colloid to exit the reconstructed parts was measured by dynamic scintigraphy 1 year after resection. Quality of life was measured using the Eypasch questionnaire at the same time as functional emptying assessment. This trial was investigator-initiated. Results: In all, 72 patients were included into the study. The time taken for the test meal to exit the postgastrectomy reconstruction was 16.5±10.0 minutes (mean ± standard deviation in the Roux-en-Y group and 89.4±37.8 minutes in the “J-pouch” group; the difference was statistically significant (P<0.001. Emptying of the J-pouch appeared to be a linear decreasing function compared to the exponential pattern seen in the Roux-en-Y group. The quality of life measurement showed scores of 106±18.8 points (mean ± standard deviation in the Roux-en-Y group compared to 122±22.5 points in the J-pouch group; the difference was statistically significant (P=0.0016. There were no important adverse events. Conclusion: After total gastrectomy, a J

  3. The Effects of High-Intensity versus Low-Intensity Resistance Training on Leg Extensor Power and Recovery of Knee Function after ACL-Reconstruction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bieler, Theresa; Sobol, Nanna Aue; Andersen, Lars L

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Persistent weakness is a common problem after anterior cruciate ligament- (ACL-) reconstruction. This study investigated the effects of high-intensity (HRT) versus low-intensity (LRT) resistance training on leg extensor power and recovery of knee function after ACL-reconstruction. METH...

  4. Novel approach for tomographic reconstruction of gas concentration distributions in air: Use of smooth basis functions and simulated annealing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drescher, A. C.; Gadgil, A. J.; Price, P. N.; Nazaroff, W. W.

    Optical remote sensing and iterative computed tomography (CT) can be applied to measure the spatial distribution of gaseous pollutant concentrations. We conducted chamber experiments to test this combination of techniques using an open path Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (OP-FTIR) and a standard algebraic reconstruction technique (ART). Although ART converged to solutions that showed excellent agreement with the measured ray-integral concentrations, the solutions were inconsistent with simultaneously gathered point-sample concentration measurements. A new CT method was developed that combines (1) the superposition of bivariate Gaussians to represent the concentration distribution and (2) a simulated annealing minimization routine to find the parameters of the Gaussian basis functions that result in the best fit to the ray-integral concentration data. This method, named smooth basis function minimization (SBFM), generated reconstructions that agreed well, both qualitatively and quantitatively, with the concentration profiles generated from point sampling. We present an analysis of two sets of experimental data that compares the performance of ART and SBFM. We conclude that SBFM is a superior CT reconstruction method for practical indoor and outdoor air monitoring applications.

  5. Iterative reconstruction of SiPM light response functions in a square-shaped compact gamma camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morozov, A.; Alves, F.; Marcos, J.; Martins, R.; Pereira, L.; Solovov, V.; Chepel, V.

    2017-05-01

    Compact gamma cameras with a square-shaped monolithic scintillator crystal and an array of silicon photomultipliers (SiPMs) are actively being developed for applications in areas such as small animal imaging, cancer diagnostics and radiotracer guided surgery. Statistical methods of position reconstruction, which are potentially superior to the traditional centroid method, require accurate knowledge of the spatial response of each photomultiplier. Using both Monte Carlo simulations and experimental data obtained with a camera prototype, we show that the spatial response of all photomultipliers (light response functions) can be parameterized with axially symmetric functions obtained iteratively from flood field irradiation data. The study was performed with a camera prototype equipped with a 30  ×  30  ×  2 mm3 LYSO crystal and an 8  ×  8 array of SiPMs for 140 keV gamma rays. The simulations demonstrate that the images, reconstructed with the maximum likelihood method using the response obtained with the iterative approach, exhibit only minor distortions: the average difference between the reconstructed and the true positions in X and Y directions does not exceed 0.2 mm in the central area of 22  ×  22 mm2 and 0.4 mm at the periphery of the camera. A similar level of image distortions is shown experimentally with the camera prototype.

  6. The perceived roles and functions of school science subject advisors

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    deals with the perceived roles and functions of science subject ad- visors. .... social control, rather than effective management and professional development at school ..... authority, restrictions on travelling, lack of mobile units and sci- ence kits ...

  7. The effect of anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction on hamstring and quadriceps muscle function outcome ratios in male athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadija Marko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Maximal strength ratios such as the limb symmetry index (LSI and hamstring-to-quadriceps ratio (HQ may be considered the main outcome measures in the monitoring of recovery after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL reconstruction. Although explosive strength is much more important than maximal strength, it is generally disregarded in the follow-up of muscle function recovery. Objective. The purpose of this study was to compare ratios between maximal (Fmax and explosive strength (rate of force development - RFD in individuals with ACL reconstruction. Methods. Fifteen male athletes were enrolled and had maximum voluntary isometric quadriceps and hamstring contractions tested (4.0 ± 0.1 months post reconstruction. In addition to Fmax, RFD was estimated (RFDmax, as well as RFD at 50, 100, and 200 ms from onset of contraction and LSI and HQ ratios were calculated. Results. The involved leg demonstrated significant hamstring and quadriceps deficits compared to uninvolved leg (p < 0.01. Deficits were particularly significant in the involved quadriceps, causing higher HQ ratios (average 0.63, compared to the uninvolved leg (0.44. LSI was significantly lower for RFD variables (average 55% than for Fmax (66%. Conclusion. The assessment of RFD may be considered an objective recovery parameter for one’s readiness to return to sports and should be an integral part of standard follow-up protocol for athletes after ACL reconstruction. Moreover, the combination of indices derived from maximal and explosive strength may provide better insight in muscle strength balance, as well as a clear picture of functional implications. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 175012 i br. 175037

  8. Stabilization and reconstruction operations: the role of the US Army Veterinary Corps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, John C

    2007-01-01

    Stabilization and reconstruction operations in failed or failing states are vital to US security interests. These operations require a bottom-up approach, focusing on the population as the strategic center of gravity. This bottom-up approach must address the population's basic needs, as defined by Dr Abraham Maslow's hierarchy of needs, and provide a long-term means of self-sufficiency, rather than creating an "aid dependent economy." Focusing operations on agricultural projects provides relief from donor dependency, stimulates economic growth, and thwarts the power of spoilers. US Army Veterinary Corps personnel provide essential services ensuring the procurement of safe and wholesome subsistence and provision of medical care to government-owned animals. Veterinary Corps officers are also uniquely qualified to design and implement agricultural stabilization and reconstruction programs in conjunction with host-state ministries and agencies across the full range of military operations. Early, sustained engagement by veterinarians stimulates agricultural productivity, improves animal and human health, directly supports the population's hierarchy of needs on all levels, and accelerates stabilization operations by reducing the population's susceptibility to spoilers.

  9. Orthotopic neobladder reconstruction after radical cystectomy in patients with a solitary functioning kidney: Clinical outcome and evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aly, A.H.; Ezzat, A.; Hamed, A.

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate, in a prospective study, the clinical outcome of orthotopic neobladder reconstruction after radical cystectomy in patients with a solitary functioning kidney at the time of surgery. Patients and methods: This study included a total of 28 patients (25 males and three females) with muscle invasive bladder cancer and a solitary functioning kidney at the time of surgery who underwent radical cystectomy (anterior pelvic excentration for females) and urinary reconstruction using orthotopic neobladder at The National Cancer Institute, Cairo University between February 2004 and April 2009. The surgical procedures included ileocaecal neobladder in 19 patients, ileal neobladder (Studer) in five and sigmoid neobladder in four. All perioperative and long-term complications were recorded. The renal functions were evaluated using mainly serum creatinine level, abdominal ultrasonography and intravenous urography (IVU). Results: The mean age of patients was 51.4 years (range of 38-62 years) while the mean follow-up period was 41.4 months (range 18-62 months). Early complications included wound infections in five patients, urine leakage in six, abdominal dehiscence with deep venous thrombosis in two, intestinal obstruction and prolonged ileus in three. During the follow-up period, 21 renal units (75%) remained stable with normal serum creatinine level and normal radiological configuration of the kidney. The remaining seven patients (25%) developed varying degrees of renal deterioration either due to uretero-intestinal stricture in three patients (10.7%), who were all treated by open surgical revision of the anastomotic sites or due to stricture at the vesico-urethral anastomosis in four patients (14.3%) that had been successfully managed by endoscopic dilatation and internal ure-throtomy with stabilization of renal function. Severe metabolic acidosis occurred in one patient while mild forms occurred in three. These four patients required sodium bicarbonate therapy and

  10. Aesthetic and Functional Outcomes of the Innervated and Thinned Anterolateral Thigh Flap in Reconstruction of Upper Limb Defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto Torres-Ortíz Zermeño

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The anterolateral thigh (ALT flap has been widely described in reconstruction of the upper extremity. However, some details require refinement to improve both functional and aesthetic results. Methods. After reconstruction of upper extremity defects using thinned and innervated ALT flaps, functional and aesthetic outcomes were evaluated with the QuickDASH scale and a Likert scale for aesthetic assessment of free flaps, respectively. Results. Seven patients with a mean follow-up of 11.57 months and average flap thickness of 5 mm underwent innervation by an end-to-end neurorrhaphy. The average percentage of disability (QuickDASH was 21.88% with tenderness, pain, temperature, and two-point discrimination present in 100% of cases, and the aesthetic result gave an overall result of 15.40 (good with the best scores in color and texture. Conclusions. Simultaneous thinning and innervation of the ALT flap lead to a good cosmetic result and functional outcome with a low percentage of disability, which could result in minor surgical procedures and better recovery of motor and sensory function. Level of Evidence. IV.

  11. Passive detection and localization of fatigue cracking in aluminum plates using Green's function reconstruction from ambient noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yang; Xiao, Li; Qu, Wenzhong; Lu, Ye

    2017-11-01

    Recent theoretical and experimental studies have demonstrated that a local Green's function can be retrieved from the cross-correlation of ambient noise field. This technique can be used to detect fatigue cracking in metallic structures, owing to the fact that the presence of crack can lead to a change in Green's function. This paper presents a method of structural fatigue cracking characterization method by measuring Green's function reconstruction from noise excitation and verifies the feasibility of crack detection in poor noise source distribution. Fatigue cracks usually generate nonlinear effects, in which different wave amplitudes and frequency compositions can cause different nonlinear responses. This study also undertakes analysis of the capacity of the proposed approach to identify fatigue cracking under different noise amplitudes and frequency ranges. Experimental investigations of an aluminum plate are conducted to assess the cross-correlations of received noise between sensor pairs and finally to detect the introduced fatigue crack. A damage index is proposed according to the variation between cross-correlations obtained from the pristine crack closed state and the crack opening-closure state when sufficient noise amplitude is used to generate nonlinearity. A probability distribution map of damage is calculated based on damage indices. The fatigue crack introduced in the aluminum plate is successfully identified and oriented, verifying that a fatigue crack can be detected by reconstructing Green's functions from an imperfect diffuse field in which ambient noise sources exist locally. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Image-based point spread function implementation in a fully 3D OSEM reconstruction algorithm for PET.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapisarda, E; Bettinardi, V; Thielemans, K; Gilardi, M C

    2010-07-21

    The interest in positron emission tomography (PET) and particularly in hybrid integrated PET/CT systems has significantly increased in the last few years due to the improved quality of the obtained images. Nevertheless, one of the most important limits of the PET imaging technique is still its poor spatial resolution due to several physical factors originating both at the emission (e.g. positron range, photon non-collinearity) and at detection levels (e.g. scatter inside the scintillating crystals, finite dimensions of the crystals and depth of interaction). To improve the spatial resolution of the images, a possible way consists of measuring the point spread function (PSF) of the system and then accounting for it inside the reconstruction algorithm. In this work, the system response of the GE Discovery STE operating in 3D mode has been characterized by acquiring (22)Na point sources in different positions of the scanner field of view. An image-based model of the PSF was then obtained by fitting asymmetric two-dimensional Gaussians on the (22)Na images reconstructed with small pixel sizes. The PSF was then incorporated, at the image level, in a three-dimensional ordered subset maximum likelihood expectation maximization (OS-MLEM) reconstruction algorithm. A qualitative and quantitative validation of the algorithm accounting for the PSF has been performed on phantom and clinical data, showing improved spatial resolution, higher contrast and lower noise compared with the corresponding images obtained using the standard OS-MLEM algorithm.

  13. Functional and Aesthetic Outcome of Reconstruction of Large Oro-Facial Defects Involving the Lip after Tumor Resection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denewer, A.D.; Setie, A.E.; Hussein, O.A.; Aly, O.F.

    2006-01-01

    Background: Squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck is a challenging disease to both surgeons and radiation oncologists due to proximity of many important anatomical structures. Surgery could be curative as these cancers usually metastasize very late by blood stream. Aim of the Work: This work addresses the oncologic, functional and aesthetic factors affecting reconstruction of large orofacial defects involving the lip following tumor resection. Patients and Methods: The study reviews the surgical outcome of one hundred and twelve patients with invasive tumors at. or extending to, the lip(s). treated at the Mansoura University - Surgical Oncology Department, from January 2000 to January 2005. Tumor stage were T 2 (43), T 3 (56) and T 4 (13). Nodal state was N 0 in 80, N 1 in 29 and N 2 in three cases. AJCC stage grouping was II (T 2 N 0 ) in 33 patients. stage III (T 3 N 0 orT 1-3 N 1 ) in 64 cases and stage IV (T 4 due to bone erosion or N 2 ) in 15 cases. The technique used for lip reconstruction was unilateral or bilateral myocutaneous depressor anguli oris flap (MCDAOF) for isolated lip defect (n=63). Bilateral myocutaneous depressor anguli oris (MCDAOF) plus local cervical rotational flap chin defects (n=3). pectorals major myocutaneous pedicled flap for cheek defects involving the lip together with a tongue flap for mucosal reconstruction (n=35). sternocleidomastoid clavicular myo-osseous flap for concomitant mandibular defects (n=] 2). Results: esthetic and functional results are evaluated regarding appearance, oral incompetence, disabling microstomia and eating difficulties. depressor anguli oris reconstruction allowed functioning static and dynamic oral function in all cases in contrast to the Pectorals major flap. there were 18 cases of oral incompetence (46.1%), nine cases of speech difficulty (23%) and five patients with poor cosmetic appearance within the second group total flap loss was not encountered, Partial nap loss affected thirteen

  14. [Lower limb stump reconstruction with a functional calcaneo-plantar unit free flap. A series of 16 cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malikov, S; Dubert, T; Koupatadze, D; Nabokov, V; Polosov, R

    1999-04-01

    The main objective of surgery, once amputation is inevitable, is to preserve a functional stump. This report describes the immediate reconstruction of 16 leg stumps in children by transfer of a functional calcaneo-plantar unit. Of these, 3 were thigh and 13 were lower leg reconstructions. Amputation was performed for tumor in 4 cases, and was due to accidents in the remaining twelve. The main technical features of flap preparation are preservation of the calcaneum branch and attachment of the heel skin to the greater tuberosity of the calcaneum. One case resulted in failure due to vascular thrombosis. The other 15 cases resulted in bone consolidation after an average of 45 days, sensitive protection by 70 days, and very good trophic and protective results. The provision of good distal pressure area encourages overall development of the child. There was no morbidity at the donor site, and because there is no major muscle mass in the distal fragment, the overall risk is very low compared to that of total proximal leg replantation. The transfer of functional calcaneo-plantar tissue as a single unit is the best strategy for one-step restoration of good distal support area for the stump. All surgeons liable to perform leg amputations should be aware of this technical approach.

  15. Secondary reconstruction of maxillofacial trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Núñez, Jaime; Van Sickels, Joseph E

    2017-08-01

    Craniomaxillofacial trauma is one of the most complex clinical conditions in contemporary maxillofacial surgery. Vital structures and possible functional and esthetic sequelae are important considerations following this type of trauma and intervention. Despite the best efforts of the primary surgery, there are a group of patients that will have poor outcomes requiring secondary reconstruction to restore form and function. The purpose of this study is to review current concepts on secondary reconstruction to the maxillofacial complex. The evaluation of a posttraumatic patient for a secondary reconstruction must include an assessment of the different subunits of the upper face, middle face, and lower face. Virtual surgical planning and surgical guides represent the most important innovations in secondary reconstruction over the past few years. Intraoperative navigational surgery/computed-assisted navigation is used in complex cases. Facial asymmetry can be corrected or significantly improved by segmentation of the computerized tomography dataset and mirroring of the unaffected side by means of virtual surgical planning. Navigational surgery/computed-assisted navigation allows for a more precise surgical correction when secondary reconstruction involves the replacement of extensive anatomical areas. The use of technology can result in custom-made replacements and prebent plates, which are more stable and resistant to fracture because of metal fatigue. Careful perioperative evaluation is the key to positive outcomes of secondary reconstruction after trauma. The advent of technological tools has played a capital role in helping the surgical team perform a given treatment plan in a more precise and predictable manner.

  16. Risk factors for psychosis: impaired social and role functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornblatt, Barbara A; Carrión, Ricardo E; Addington, Jean; Seidman, Larry; Walker, Elaine F; Cannon, Tyronne D; Cadenhead, Kristin S; McGlashan, Thomas H; Perkins, Diana O; Tsuang, Ming T; Woods, Scott W; Heinssen, Robert; Lencz, Todd

    2012-11-01

    Risk for psychosis is currently defined primarily on the basis of attenuated positive symptoms (APS), with no inclusion of the functional deficits characteristic of schizophrenia. Impaired social and role functioning have been of interest for reflecting poor outcome but far less is known about the developmental impact of these deficits as vulnerability or risk factors. Age-appropriate social and role functioning were prospectively assessed in 100 individuals at clinical high risk (CHR) for psychosis included in the 8-site North American Prodromal Longitudinal Study database. A nested case-control design was used to compare changes in social and role functioning in 26 individuals converting to psychosis shortly after baseline assessment and 24 converting over a year later. Individuals in each converter subgroup were directly matched to a non-converter at the same site, controlling for time to conversion, age, gender, and severity of baseline symptoms. At baseline, CHR subjects who later became psychotic were significantly more likely to be impaired socially than matched non-converters. Onset of psychosis did not further disrupt social difficulties. Role functioning showed some of the same trends, but the overall pattern was not as consistent as for the social domain. Controlling for neurocognition did not change the pattern of group differences. Early impaired social functioning appears to be a risk factor for psychosis and, added to APS, could potentially contribute to accurate identification of CHR individuals and provide a new direction for early intervention to reduce long-term disability.

  17. ROLE OF ARCHIVAL DOCUMENTS IN RECONSTRUCTION OF HISTORY OF STUDENT’S DEPARTMENT OF LIBRARY OF THE NOVOROSSIYSK UNIVERSIT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    М. О. Подрезова

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In article, made attempt to unite separate data on history and activity of Student’s library of the Odessa I. I. Mechnikov National University. By means of newly opened archival materials, some moments from history of creation of fund of the Room for reading students in Richelieu Lyceum are reconstructed. The role of the trustee of the Odessa educational district N. I. Pirogov in creation of Student’s library and process of its further transformation in student’s department of library of the Novorossiysk University is shown. The moments of completing of fund of library by donation and purchase of books in different years of its activity are considered. Data on obtaining the books and money according to the will of the university doctor P. A. Ivanov aimed at the development of educational and auxiliary institutions of the Novorossiysk University are in detail stated.

  18. Work happiness among teachers: a day reconstruction study on the role of self-concordance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadić, Maja; Bakker, Arnold B; Oerlemans, Wido G M

    2013-12-01

    Self-concordant work motivation arises from one's authentic choices, personal values, and interests. In the present study, we investigated whether self-concordant motivation may fluctuate from one work-related task to the next. On the basis of self-determination theory, we hypothesized that momentary self-concordance buffers the negative impact of momentary work demands on momentary happiness. We developed a modified version of the day reconstruction method to investigate self-concordance, work demands, and happiness during specific work-related tasks on a within-person and within-day level. In total, 132 teachers completed a daily diary on three consecutive work days as well as a background questionnaire. The daily diary resulted in 792 reported work activities and activity-related work demands, self-concordance, and happiness scores. Multilevel analysis showed that-for most work activities-state self-concordant motivation buffered the negative association of work demands with happiness. These findings add to the literature on motivation and well-being by showing that the levels of self-concordance and happiness experienced by employees vary significantly on a within-day level and show a predictable pattern. We discuss theoretical and practical implications of the findings to increase employees' well-being. © 2013.

  19. Reconstructing the role of landuse change on water yield at the Maya urban center Tikal, Guatemala [700-800 AD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, L.; Duffy, C.; French, K. D.; Murtha, T., Jr.; Garcia-Gonzalez, S. E.

    2014-12-01

    In recent years scientists have been debating the role of climate on the trajectory of Maya culture in the Late Classic period, 600-900 AD. Paleo-climatologists have reconstructed realizations of climate [Haug 2003; Medina-Elizalde 2012; Hodell 1995] that offer evidence for reduced precipitation in the Late Classic period. Recently French et al [2014] proposed that landuse change may also play an important role in the available water supply at Tikal, with the removal of tropical forest and conversion to maize-agriculture and urban landuse leading to extensive development of sophisticated water storage systems and rainfall harvesting for water supply and irrigation. Rapid population growth is a concurrent and compounding factor [Scarborough 2012; Shaw 2003] where landuse impacts the distribution and availability of water storage in the surrounding watershed. Although proposed climate scenarios for the Late Classic offer a quantitative scenario for possible atmospheric conditions at Tikal, the impact of land use change on the distribution and availability of water supply has not been evaluated. In this research we reconstruct the plausible vulnerability of the water supply at Tikal under the combined forces of climatic and land use change. The Penn State Integrated Hydrologic Model (PIHM) [Qu and Duffy 2007] is used to simulate the daily-to-seasonal space and time distribution of soil moisture, groundwater and surface water storage for the period 700-800 AD, the peak of Tikal's population history. The analysis includes a quantitative assessment of the likely changes in available water storage as tropical forest is converted to maize agriculture and urban land. In particular we examine the important control that reduced canopy interception plays in the seasonal availability of water. Preliminary simulations suggest that removing tropical forest increases runoff and available water storage, which may serve to moderate seasonal and long-term drought conditions.

  20. The extent of soft tissue and musculoskeletal injuries after earthquakes; describing a role for reconstructive surgeons in an emergency response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clover, A J P; Jemec, B; Redmond, A D

    2014-10-01

    Earthquakes are the leading cause of natural disaster-related mortality and morbidity. Soft tissue and musculoskeletal injuries are the predominant type of injury seen after these events and a major reason for admission to hospital. Open fractures are relatively common; however, they are resource-intense to manage. Appropriate management is important in minimising amputation rates and preserving function. This review describes the pattern of musculoskeletal and soft-tissue injuries seen after earthquakes and explores the manpower and resource implications involved in their management. A Medline search was performed, including terms "injury pattern" and "earthquake," "epidemiology injuries" and "earthquakes," "plastic surgery," "reconstructive surgery," "limb salvage" and "earthquake." Papers published between December 1992 and December 2012 were included, with no initial language restriction. Limb injuries are the commonest injuries seen accounting for 60 % of all injuries, with fractures in more than 50 % of those admitted to hospital, with between 8 and 13 % of these fractures open. After the first few days and once the immediate lifesaving phase is over, the management of these musculoskeletal and soft-tissue injuries are the commonest procedures required. Due to the predominance of soft-tissue and musculoskeletal injuries, plastic surgeons as specialists in soft-tissue reconstruction should be mobilised in the early stages of a disaster response as part of a multidisciplinary team with a focus on limb salvage.

  1. Image reconstruction for digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) by using projection-angle-dependent filter functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Yeonok; Park, Chulkyu; Cho, Hyosung; Je, Uikyu; Hong, Daeki; Lee, Minsik; Cho, Heemoon; Choi, Sungil; Koo, Yangseo [Yonsei University, Wonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-09-15

    Digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) is considered in clinics as a standard three-dimensional imaging modality, allowing the earlier detection of cancer. It typically acquires only 10-30 projections over a limited angle range of 15 - 60 .deg. with a stationary detector and typically uses a computationally-efficient filtered-backprojection (FBP) algorithm for image reconstruction. However, a common FBP algorithm yields poor image quality resulting from the loss of average image value and the presence of severe image artifacts due to the elimination of the dc component of the image by the ramp filter and to the incomplete data, respectively. As an alternative, iterative reconstruction methods are often used in DBT to overcome these difficulties, even though they are still computationally expensive. In this study, as a compromise, we considered a projection-angle dependent filtering method in which one-dimensional geometry-adapted filter kernels are computed with the aid of a conjugate-gradient method and are incorporated into the standard FBP framework. We implemented the proposed algorithm and performed systematic simulation works to investigate the imaging characteristics. Our results indicate that the proposed method is superior to a conventional FBP method for DBT imaging and has a comparable computational cost, while preserving good image homogeneity and edge sharpening with no serious image artifacts.

  2. FUNCTIONAL OUTCOME OF ACCELERATED REHABILITATION IN ARTHROSCOPIC ANTERIOR CRUCIATE LIGAMENT RECONSTRUCTION WITH BONE PATELLAR TENDON BONE GRAFT A PROSPECTIVE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiranyakumar

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION An ideal rehabilitation program post anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction enables an individual to return to pre injury levels at a faster rate with minimal to no risk of reinjury to the graft. Rehabilitation protocols have changed considerably over time in the past. It has become “aggressive”, meaning an intensive rehabilitation which includes greater variety of exercises and sports related training. AIM OF THE STUDY The aim of our study is to assess the outcome of accelerated rehabilitation post anterior cruciate ligament (ACL reconstruction. METHODOLOGY 106 patients were operated by a single surgeon underwent arthroscopic anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction using bone patella tendon bone graft and partial meniscectomy for associated meniscal tear. Patients were put on an accelerated rehabilitation protocol designed in our institute on first post-operative day, under the guidance of a physical therapist in consultation with the operated surgeon. Patients were followed up at 3 weeks, 6 months and 9 months, post onset of rehabilitation, patients were assessed using KT1000 Arthrometer and Lysholm knee scoring system. RESULTS Out of 106 patients, who were selected, 96(91% were males and 10(9% were females. The mean pre-operative Lysholm score was 55.09. Post operatively, while on accelerated rehabilitation program the Lysholm scores were 69.73 at 3 weeks, 89.13 at 6 months and 89.19 at 9 months. In our pre-operative evaluation mean KT 1000 arthrometer score was 10.53 and post-operative at six months was 3.49. At nine months 105 patients had excellent results whereas 1 patient had good result. CONCLUSION Accelerated rehabilitation protocol enables the patient to functionally recover faster to pre injury levels. A rehabilitation protocol for 6 months is sufficient in enabling a patient to get back to pre-injury levels. Functional outcome is the same with or without associated meniscal injuries.

  3. Functional Testing Differences in Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction Patients Released Versus Not Released to Return to Sport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Stephanie W; Queen, Robin M; Taylor, Dean; Moorman, Claude T; Toth, Allison P; Garrett, William E; Butler, Robert J

    2015-07-01

    No standardized return-to-activity or sport guidelines currently exist after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. Isokinetic testing and unilateral hop testing, which have construct validity, are often used to make the determination of when a patient is ready to return to sport. Neither of these measures has been reported to be predictive of subsequent injuries. To compare the performance on 2 functional tests of ACL reconstruction patients released to return to activity versus those who have not been released based on clinical impairment measures. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. A total of 98 patients were examined by the treating orthopaedic surgeon 6 months after ACL reconstruction for traditional impairment measures, including swelling, range of motion, strength, and graft stability. After this examination, all subjects completed the functional testing, consisting of the Functional Movement Screen (FMS) and the Lower Quarter Y Balance Test (YBT-LQ), by an experienced tester who was blinded to the results of the clinical examination. On the basis of the clinical examination, all patients were grouped as being ready to return to sport or not being ready. Performance on the functional tests, as measured by overall performance and side-to-side asymmetry, was compared between the 2 groups using independent-samples t tests (P < .05). No difference existed between the groups with regard to the descriptive characteristics, with the exception that the group not cleared was younger (21.0 ± 7.4 years) than the group that was cleared (25.6 ± 13.2 years). Performance on the YBT-LQ revealed that no differences existed between groups when examining reach symmetry for any of the reach directions. In addition, no differences were found between groups when looking at the average reach score normalized to limb length for either the surgical or nonsurgical leg. Patients in the cleared group exhibited a similar score on the FMS (12.7 ± 2.9) compared with the

  4. CD147 Immunoglobulin Superfamily Receptor Function and Role in Pathology

    OpenAIRE

    Iacono, Kathryn T.; Brown, Amy L.; Greene, Mark I.; Saouaf, Sandra J.

    2007-01-01

    The immunoglobulin superfamily member CD147 plays an important role in fetal, neuronal, lymphocyte and extracellular matrix development. Here we review the current understanding of CD147 expression and protein interactions with regard to CD147 function and its role in pathologic conditions including heart disease, Alzheimer’s disease, stroke and cancer. A model linking hypoxic conditions found within the tumor microenvironment to up-regulation of CD147 expression and tumor progression is intr...

  5. Revisit of Nasolabial flap in the reconstruction of defects involving ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: Data from this study suggest that NL flap is a reliable option for reconstruction of the oral floor, in form as well as function, without esthetic compromise and has a major role even in this era of free flaps. Keywords: Floor of mouth defects, local flaps, nasolabail flap, oral cavity defects, reconstruction, regional flaps ...

  6. Functional sequelae following bilateral mastectomy and immediate reconstruction with latissimus dorsi flap: medium-term follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paolini, Guido; Amoroso, Matteo; Pugliese, Pierfrancesco; Longo, Benedetto; Santanelli, Fabio

    2014-04-01

    Arm morbidity following unilateral Latissimus Dorsi (LD) flap harvest is controversial and bilateral harvest is considered potentially disabling. Arm and shoulder disability was investigated in patients undergoing bilateral mastectomy and immediate LD flap reconstruction. Thirty consecutive bilateral immediate reconstructions with denervated LD flaps, performed between 2005-2009, were retrospectively analyzed. Patients were assessed for arm function by conducting the Disability of Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH) test, between 12-51 months after surgery (mean 23 months). Disability scores ranged from 1-100%, with 1-25% being regarded as mild dysfunction, 26-50% as moderate dysfunction, 51-75% as severe dysfunction, and 76-100% as total dysfunction. A statistical analysis was performed using the Fisher exact test and the multivariate linear regression model for variables. The Global Mean Dash score was 14.8%. Twenty-four patients presented a mild functional deficit (50%). Five of them presented a score LD flaps (p test is a useful tool in terms of informing patients and helping the surgeon to choose the best surgical option.

  7. A forensic science perspective on the role of images in crime investigation and reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milliet, Quentin; Delémont, Olivier; Margot, Pierre

    2014-12-01

    This article presents a global vision of images in forensic science. The proliferation of perspectives on the use of images throughout criminal investigations and the increasing demand for research on this topic seem to demand a forensic science-based analysis. In this study, the definitions of and concepts related to material traces are revisited and applied to images, and a structured approach is used to persuade the scientific community to extend and improve the use of images as traces in criminal investigations. Current research efforts focus on technical issues and evidence assessment. This article provides a sound foundation for rationalising and explaining the processes involved in the production of clues from trace images. For example, the mechanisms through which these visual traces become clues of presence or action are described. An extensive literature review of forensic image analysis emphasises the existing guidelines and knowledge available for answering investigative questions (who, what, where, when and how). However, complementary developments are still necessary to demystify many aspects of image analysis in forensic science, including how to review and select images or use them to reconstruct an event or assist intelligence efforts. The hypothetico-deductive reasoning pathway used to discover unknown elements of an event or crime can also help scientists understand the underlying processes involved in their decision making. An analysis of a single image in an investigative or probative context is used to demonstrate the highly informative potential of images as traces and/or clues. Research efforts should be directed toward formalising the extraction and combination of clues from images. An appropriate methodology is key to expanding the use of images in forensic science. Copyright © 2014 Forensic Science Society. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Conditioned empirical orthogonal functions for interpolation of runoff time series along rivers: Application to reconstruction of missing monthly records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lingqi; Gottschalk, Lars; Krasovskaia, Irina; Xiong, Lihua

    2018-01-01

    Reconstruction of missing runoff data is of important significance to solve contradictions between the common situation of gaps and the fundamental necessity of complete time series for reliable hydrological research. The conventional empirical orthogonal functions (EOF) approach has been documented to be useful for interpolating hydrological series based upon spatiotemporal decomposition of runoff variation patterns, without additional measurements (e.g., precipitation, land cover). This study develops a new EOF-based approach (abbreviated as CEOF) that conditions EOF expansion on the oscillations at outlet (or any other reference station) of a target basin and creates a set of residual series by removing the dependence on this reference series, in order to redefine the amplitude functions (components). This development allows a transparent hydrological interpretation of the dimensionless components and thereby strengthens their capacities to explain various runoff regimes in a basin. The two approaches are demonstrated on an application of discharge observations from the Ganjiang basin, China. Two alternatives for determining amplitude functions based on centred and standardised series, respectively, are tested. The convergence in the reconstruction of observations at different sites as a function of the number of components and its relation to the characteristics of the site are analysed. Results indicate that the CEOF approach offers an efficient way to restore runoff records with only one to four components; it shows more superiority in nested large basins than at headwater sites and often performs better than the EOF approach when using standardised series, especially in improving infilling accuracy for low flows. Comparisons against other interpolation methods (i.e., nearest neighbour, linear regression, inverse distance weighting) further confirm the advantage of the EOF-based approaches in avoiding spatial and temporal inconsistencies in estimated series.

  9. Investigating the performance of reconstruction methods used in structured illumination microscopy as a function of the illumination pattern's modulation frequency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabani, H.; Sánchez-Ortiga, E.; Preza, C.

    2016-03-01

    Surpassing the resolution of optical microscopy defined by the Abbe diffraction limit, while simultaneously achieving optical sectioning, is a challenging problem particularly for live cell imaging of thick samples. Among a few developing techniques, structured illumination microscopy (SIM) addresses this challenge by imposing higher frequency information into the observable frequency band confined by the optical transfer function (OTF) of a conventional microscope either doubling the spatial resolution or filling the missing cone based on the spatial frequency of the pattern when the patterned illumination is two-dimensional. Standard reconstruction methods for SIM decompose the low and high frequency components from the recorded low-resolution images and then combine them to reach a high-resolution image. In contrast, model-based approaches rely on iterative optimization approaches to minimize the error between estimated and forward images. In this paper, we study the performance of both groups of methods by simulating fluorescence microscopy images from different type of objects (ranging from simulated two-point sources to extended objects). These simulations are used to investigate the methods' effectiveness on restoring objects with various types of power spectrum when modulation frequency of the patterned illumination is changing from zero to the incoherent cut-off frequency of the imaging system. Our results show that increasing the amount of imposed information by using a higher modulation frequency of the illumination pattern does not always yield a better restoration performance, which was found to be depended on the underlying object. Results from model-based restoration show performance improvement, quantified by an up to 62% drop in the mean square error compared to standard reconstruction, with increasing modulation frequency. However, we found cases for which results obtained with standard reconstruction methods do not always follow the same trend.

  10. The role of retinoic acid signaling in thymic function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wendland, Kerstin; Sitnik, Katarzyna; Kotarsky, Knut

    maturation and homeostasis is required for the generation of a functional T cell pool. TEC development and differenti-ation is dependent on crosstalk with immune and stromal cells in the thymus and previous work of our group has suggested RA as a potential key player in this process. To study the role of RA...

  11. Neuronal coherence and its functional role in communication between neurons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeitler-Geurds, M.

    2010-01-01

    Neuronal oscillations are observed in many brain areas in various frequency bands. Each of the frequency bands is associated with a particular functional role. Gamma oscillations (30-80 Hz) are thought to be related to cognitive tasks like memory and attention and possibly also involved in the

  12. The Role of WASp in Podosome Formation and Function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gevrey, Jean-Claude; Dovas, Athanassios; Abou-Kheir, Wassim

    Abstract Podosomes are ventral adhesion structures found mainly in cells of the monocytic lineage. Even though their function remains obscure, it has been proposed that they play roles in cell migration and, through their ability to degrade matrix, ECM remodelling and invasion. Monocyte-derived c...

  13. Mediators of the association between depression and role functioning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buist-Bouwman, M. A.; Ormel, J.; de Graaf, R.; de Jonge, P.; van Sonderen, E.; Alonso, J.; Bruffaerts, R.; Vollebergh, W. A. M.

    2008-01-01

    While the adverse effect of Major Depressive Episode on role functioning is well established, the exact pathways remain unclear. Data from The European Study of the Epidemiology of Mental Disorders, a cross-sectional survey including 21 425 adults from six European countries, were used to assess

  14. The role of triplet correlation function in dense fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rashid, R.I.M.A.

    1993-09-01

    In the theory of dense liquids, one usually introduces various correlation functions for describing properties of such systems. It has proved impossible to solve these correlation functions exactly and as such one often resorts to some meaningful approximations for their solutions. It is well known that unless proper precautions are taken, the approximate solutions will violate some useful sum rules and thermodynamic consistency conditions. Here the general rules for generating thermodynamically consistent approximate correlation functions are discussed. The role of triplet correlation is elucidated further by calculating a residual correction to the vacancy formation energy via three-particle correlation in rare gas solids. (author). 16 refs, 4 figs, 1 tab

  15. An Ecological Study of Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction, Part 2: Functional Performance Tests Correlate With Return-to-Sport Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrath, Timothy M; Waddington, Gordon; Scarvell, Jennie M; Ball, Nick; Creer, Rob; Woods, Kevin; Smith, Damian; Adams, Roger

    2017-02-01

    Additional high-quality prospective studies are needed to better define the objective criteria used in relation to return-to-sport decisions after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction in active populations. To investigate prospectively the relationship between functional performance test results at 24 weeks postoperative and return-to-sport activity (Tegner activity score) at 12 and 24 months, respectively, after synthetic (ligament advanced reinforcement system [LARS]) and autograft (doubled semitendinosus/gracilis [2ST/2GR]) ACL reconstructions. Case series; Level of evidence, 4. A total of 64 patients who underwent ACL reconstruction (32 LARS, 32 2ST/2GR autograft; mean age, 27.9 years; body mass index [BMI], 24.9 kg/m 2 ) were assessed preoperatively and at staged intervals postoperatively up to 24 weeks for isokinetic testing of quadriceps and hamstring average power per repetition at 60 deg/s and 180 deg/s, a battery of hop tests, peak vertical ground-reaction force (vGRF), and time to peak vGRF (in seconds) during a step- and jump-down task onto a force platform and peak speed (m/s) using a global positioning system (GPS unit) during a running task. A cohort of 32 healthy matched participants (mean age, 26.31 years; BMI, 25.7 kg/m 2 ) were also tested to act as reference. Pearson correlation was calculated to assess correlation of each performance measure at 24 weeks postoperative with activity outcomes (Tegner score) at 12 and 24 months. The strongest correlation between physical performance tests and return-to-sport outcomes was observed with peak speed during running. Large correlations were also observed for hamstring isokinetic power and hop test for distance. Moderate correlations were observed for timed hop, peak vGRF during a jump-down task, and quadriceps isokinetic power. No statistical correlations were observed for time to peak vGRF during a step-down and jump-down task as well as peak vGRF during a step-down task. When the performance

  16. Contact-induced change in Dolgan : an investigation into the role of linguistic data for the reconstruction of a people's (pre)history

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stapert, Eugénie

    2013-01-01

    This study explores the role of linguistic data in the reconstruction of Dolgan (pre)history. While most ethno-linguistic groups have a longstanding history and a clear ethnic and linguistic affiliation, the formation of the Dolgans has been a relatively recent development, and their ethnic origins

  17. Surgical Reconstruction with the Remnant Ligament Improves Joint Position Sense as well as Functional Ankle Instability: A 1-Year Follow-Up Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamizato Iwao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Chronic functional instability—characterized by repeated ankle inversion sprains and a subjective sensation of instability—is one of the most common residual disabilities after an inversion sprain. However, whether surgical reconstruction improves sensorimotor control has not been reported to date. The purpose of this study was to assess functional improvement of chronic ankle instability after surgical reconstruction using the remnant ligament. Materials and Methods. We performed 10 cases in the intervention group and 20 healthy individuals as the control group. Before and after surgical reconstruction, we evaluated joint position sense and functional ankle instability by means of a questionnaire. Results and Discussion. There was a statistically significant difference between the control and intervention groups before surgical reconstruction. Three months after surgery in the intervention group, the joint position sense was significantly different from those found preoperatively. Before surgery, the mean score of functional ankle instability in the intervention group was almost twice as low. Three months after surgery, however, the score significantly increased. The results showed that surgical reconstruction using the remnant ligament was effective not only for improving mechanical retensioning but also for ameliorating joint position sense and functional ankle instability.

  18. Twenty Years After Genocide: The Role of Psychology in the Reconciliation and Reconstruction Process in Rwanda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig McGarty

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This Special Thematic Section brings together eight papers that showcase different aspects of the contribution of psychology to the processes of recovery in Rwanda following the 1994 genocide. The Section is noteworthy in part because a majority of the papers have Rwandan authors. In summarizing the contributions I make six observations about the remarkable context of the genocide and its aftermath: a it was distinctive from previous mass violence in its intensity and character; b it has been characterized by bystander inaction and the problems of positioning outsiders to help; c hundreds of thousands of accused or convicted perpetrators have lived alongside survivors; d electronic media played a profound role not only in promoting violence but also in building peace; e Rwanda has been the site of unprecedented societal interventions with political goals that have the character and content of social psychological experiments; and f the role of memorialization in repairing or sustaining harm needs further examination. I conclude by noting that the study of recovery is clear proof that the genocide in Rwanda, as is the case with genocides of the past, failed to achieve its aims.

  19. Restoring a functional and mobile shoulder following reconstruction of the sternoclavicular joint with a free vascularized fibular flap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abby Choke

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Infection of the sternoclavicular joint (SCJ is rare and often missed at early stage. In extensive disease with bony and soft tissue destruction, radical excision is indicated. The loss of SCJ results in exposure of vital structures of the anterior mediastinum and instability of the shoulder girdle. SCJ reconstruction using locoregional muscle flaps like the pectoralis major or latissimus dorsi flap has been well described. While these options can provide soft tissue coverage, they do not restore the structural framework of the SCJ which is important for shoulder excursion and chest wall movement. We describe a case of SCJ reconstruction using a free vascularized fibular flap following the resection of sternoclavicular tubercular osteomyelitis. The fibula bone was used to restore the clavicular strut by anchoring it to the remaining manubrium with a steel wire and by plating the lateral end to the remnant clavicle. The steel wire served as a “defunctioning” cerclage that allowed motion of the joint to induce fibrous union. A strict post-operative rehabilitation protocol keeping the shoulder adducted at the initial phase was prescribed. At one year follow up, the patient achieved good shoulder function with 140 degrees of shoulder abduction and 110 degrees flexion.

  20. Do Knee Bracing and Delayed Weight Bearing Affect Mid-Term Functional Outcome after Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Miceli, Riccardo; Marambio, Carlotta Bustos; Zati, Alessandro; Monesi, Roberta; Benedetti, Maria Grazia

    2017-12-01

    Purpose  The aim of this study was to assess the effect of knee bracing and timing of full weight bearing after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR) on functional outcomes at mid-term follow-up. Methods  We performed a retrospective study on 41 patients with ACLR. Patients were divided in two groups: ACLR group, who received isolated ACL reconstruction and ACLR-OI group who received ACL reconstruction and adjunctive surgery. Information about age at surgery, bracing, full or progressive weight bearing permission after surgery were collected for the two groups. Subjective IKDC score was obtained at follow-up. Statistical analysis was performed to compare the two groups for IKDC score. Subgroup analysis was performed to assess the effect of postoperative regimen (knee bracing and weight bearing) on functional outcomes. Results  The mean age of patients was 30.8 ± 10.6 years. Mean IKDC score was 87.4 ± 13.9. The mean follow-up was 3.5 ± 1.8 years. Twenty-two (53.7%) patients underwent ACLR only, while 19 (46.3%) also received other interventions, such as meniscal repair and/or collateral ligament suture. Analysis of overall data showed no differences between the groups for IKDC score. Patients in the ACLR group exhibited a significantly better IKDC score when no brace and full weight bearing after 4 weeks from surgery was prescribed in comparison with patients who worn a brace and had delayed full weight bearing. No differences were found with respect to the use of brace and postoperative weight bearing regimen in the ACLR-OI group. Conclusion  Brace and delayed weight bearing after ACLR have a negative influence on long-term functional outcomes. Further research is required to explore possible differences in the patients operated on ACLR and other intervention with respect to the use of a brace and the timing of full weight bearing to identify optimal recovery strategies. Level of Evidence  Level III, retrospective observational

  1. Vaginal reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lesavoy, M.A.

    1985-01-01

    Vaginal reconstruction can be an uncomplicated and straightforward procedure when attention to detail is maintained. The Abbe-McIndoe procedure of lining the neovaginal canal with split-thickness skin grafts has become standard. The use of the inflatable Heyer-Schulte vaginal stent provides comfort to the patient and ease to the surgeon in maintaining approximation of the skin graft. For large vaginal and perineal defects, myocutaneous flaps such as the gracilis island have been extremely useful for correction of radiation-damaged tissue of the perineum or for the reconstruction of large ablative defects. Minimal morbidity and scarring ensue because the donor site can be closed primarily. With all vaginal reconstruction, a compliant patient is a necessity. The patient must wear a vaginal obturator for a minimum of 3 to 6 months postoperatively and is encouraged to use intercourse as an excellent obturator. In general, vaginal reconstruction can be an extremely gratifying procedure for both the functional and emotional well-being of patients

  2. Aesthetically and functionally satisfying reconstruction of an Achilles tendon and overlying skin defect in a 15 year old girl: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wurzer, Paul; Eberl, Robert; Kamolz, Lars-Peter; Parvizi, Daryousch; Rappl, Thomas; Spendel, Stephan

    2015-03-01

    Achilles tendon and overlying soft tissue reconstruction presents an interdisciplinary challenge. In the literature many possible procedures are described, but each reconstruction in this region has its specific demands. Single stage reconstruction is normally pursued, but it is not always the best procedure for the patient, either aesthetically or functionally. We present a case of a 15 year old girl who suffered a soft tissue defect of 10cm×6cm in size at the area of the Achilles tendon due to a contact burn by an exhaust pipe during a motorcycle accident. For this case, reconstruction of the soft tissue defect using a free temporoparietal fascial flap (TPFF) and a full-thickness skin autograft was the best means to provide a satisfying result for both the patient and the surgeon. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  3. Speed, not magnitude, of knee extensor torque production is associated with self-reported knee function early after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Chao-Jung; Indelicato, Peter A; Moser, Michael W; Vandenborne, Krista; Chmielewski, Terese L

    2015-11-01

    To examine the magnitude and speed of knee extensor torque production at the initiation of advanced anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction rehabilitation and the associations with self-reported knee function. Twenty-eight subjects who were 12 weeks post-ACL reconstruction and 28 age- and sex-matched physically active controls participated in this study. Knee extensor torque was assessed bilaterally with an isokinetic dynamometer at 60°/s. The variables of interest were peak torque, average rate of torque development, time to peak torque and quadriceps symmetry index. Knee function was assessed with the International Knee Documentation Committee Subjective Knee Form (IKDC-SKF). Peak torque and average rate of torque development were lower on the surgical side compared to the non-surgical side and controls. Quadriceps symmetry index was lower in subjects with ACL reconstruction compared to controls. On the surgical side, average rate of torque development was positively correlated with IKDC-SKF score (r = 0.379) while time to peak torque was negatively correlated with IKDC-SKF score (r = -0.407). At the initiation of advanced ACL reconstruction rehabilitation, the surgical side displayed deficits in peak torque and average rate of torque development. A higher rate of torque development and shorter time to peak torque were associated with better self-reported knee function. The results suggest that the rate of torque development should be addressed during advanced ACL reconstruction rehabilitation and faster knee extensor torque generation may lead to better knee function. III.

  4. The effect of targeted exercise on knee-muscle function in patients with persistent hamstring deficiency following ACL reconstruction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bregenhof, Bo; Jørgensen, Uffe; Aagaard, Per

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction, using hamstring auto-graft is a common surgical procedure, which often leads to persistent hamstring muscle-strength deficiency and reduced function. The purpose of this randomized controlled trial (RCT) is to investigate the effect...... at 12-24 months' post surgery, will be recruited through outpatient clinics and advertisements. Patients will be randomized to a 12-week progressive, strength and neuromuscular exercise group (SNG) with supervised training twice weekly or a control intervention (CON) consisting of a home-based, low......-intensity exercise program. Outcome measures include between-group change in maximal isometric knee-flexor strength (primary outcome) and knee-extensor muscle strength, hamstring-to-quadriceps strength ratios of the leg that has been operated on and Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS) (secondary...

  5. Surgical reconstruction of spinal cord circuit provides functional return in humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Carlstedt

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This mini review describes the current surgical strategy for restoring function after traumatic spinal nerve root avulsion in brachial or lumbosacral plexus injury in man. As this lesion is a spinal cord or central nervous injury functional return depends on spinal cord nerve cell growth within the central nervous system. Basic science, clinical research and human application has demonstrated good and useful motor function after ventral root avulsion followed by spinal cord reimplantation. Recently, sensory return could be demonstrated following spinal cord surgery bypassing the injured primary sensory neuron. Experimental data showed that most of the recovery depended on new growth reinnervating peripheral receptors. Restored sensory function and the return of spinal reflex was demonstrated by electrophysiology and functional magnetic resonance imaging of human cortex. This spinal cord surgery is a unique treatment of central nervous system injury resulting in useful functional return. Further improvements will not depend on surgical improvements. Adjuvant therapy aiming at ameliorating the activity in retinoic acid elements in dorsal root ganglion neurons could be a new therapeutic avenue in restoring spinal cord circuits after nerve root avulsion injury.

  6. Reconstruction of the electron energy distribution function from probe characteristics at intermediate and high pressures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arslanbekov, R.R.; Kolokolov, N.B.; Kudryavtsev, A.A.; Khromov, N.A.

    1991-01-01

    Gorbunov et al. have developed a kinetic theory of the electron current drawn by a probe, which substantially extends the region of applicability of the probe method for determining the electron energy distribution function, enabling probes to be used for intermediate and high pressures (up to p ≤ 0.5 atm for monatomic gases). They showed that for λ var-epsilon >> a + d (where a is the probe radius, d is the sheath thickness, and λ var-epsilon is the electron energy relaxation length) the current density j e (V) drawn by the probe is related to the unperturbed distribution function by an integral equation involving the distribution function. The kernal of the integral equation can be written as a function of the diffusion parameter. In the present paper the method of quadrature sums is employed in order to obtain the electron energy distribution function from probe characteristics at intermediate and high pressures. This technique enables them to recover the distribution function from the integral equation when the diffusion parameter has an arbitrary energy dependence ψ 0 (var-epsilon) in any given energy range. The effectiveness of the method is demonstrated by application to both model problems and experimental data

  7. Ecology of testate amoebae in an Amazonian peatland and development of a transfer function for palaeohydrological reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swindles, Graeme T; Reczuga, Monika; Lamentowicz, Mariusz; Raby, Cassandra L; Turner, T Edward; Charman, Dan J; Gallego-Sala, Angela; Valderrama, Elvis; Williams, Christopher; Draper, Frederick; Honorio Coronado, Euridice N; Roucoux, Katherine H; Baker, Tim; Mullan, Donal J

    2014-08-01

    Tropical peatlands represent globally important carbon sinks with a unique biodiversity and are currently threatened by climate change and human activities. It is now imperative that proxy methods are developed to understand the ecohydrological dynamics of these systems and for testing peatland development models. Testate amoebae have been used as environmental indicators in ecological and palaeoecological studies of peatlands, primarily in ombrotrophic Sphagnum-dominated peatlands in the mid- and high-latitudes. We present the first ecological analysis of testate amoebae in a tropical peatland, a nutrient-poor domed bog in western (Peruvian) Amazonia. Litter samples were collected from different hydrological microforms (hummock to pool) along a transect from the edge to the interior of the peatland. We recorded 47 taxa from 21 genera. The most common taxa are Cryptodifflugia oviformis, Euglypha rotunda type, Phryganella acropodia, Pseudodifflugia fulva type and Trinema lineare. One species found only in the southern hemisphere, Argynnia spicata, is present. Arcella spp., Centropyxis aculeata and Lesqueresia spiralis are indicators of pools containing standing water. Canonical correspondence analysis and non-metric multidimensional scaling illustrate that water table depth is a significant control on the distribution of testate amoebae, similar to the results from mid- and high-latitude peatlands. A transfer function model for water table based on weighted averaging partial least-squares (WAPLS) regression is presented and performs well under cross-validation (r(2)(apparent)= 0.76, RMSE = 4.29; r(2)(jack)= 0.68, RMSEP =5.18). The transfer function was applied to a 1-m peat core, and sample-specific reconstruction errors were generated using bootstrapping. The reconstruction generally suggests near-surface water tables over the last 3,000 years, with a shift to drier conditions at c. cal. 1218-1273 AD.

  8. Singular value decomposition for photon-processing nuclear imaging systems and applications for reconstruction and computing null functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, Abhinav K.; Barrett, Harrison H.; Frey, Eric C.; Clarkson, Eric; Caucci, Luca; Kupinski, Matthew A.

    2015-09-01

    Recent advances in technology are enabling a new class of nuclear imaging systems consisting of detectors that use real-time maximum-likelihood (ML) methods to estimate the interaction position, deposited energy, and other attributes of each photon-interaction event and store these attributes in a list format. This class of systems, which we refer to as photon-processing (PP) nuclear imaging systems, can be described by a fundamentally different mathematical imaging operator that allows processing of the continuous-valued photon attributes on a per-photon basis. Unlike conventional photon-counting (PC) systems that bin the data into images, PP systems do not have any binning-related information loss. Mathematically, while PC systems have an infinite-dimensional null space due to dimensionality considerations, PP systems do not necessarily suffer from this issue. Therefore, PP systems have the potential to provide improved performance in comparison to PC systems. To study these advantages, we propose a framework to perform the singular-value decomposition (SVD) of the PP imaging operator. We use this framework to perform the SVD of operators that describe a general two-dimensional (2D) planar linear shift-invariant (LSIV) PP system and a hypothetical continuously rotating 2D single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) PP system. We then discuss two applications of the SVD framework. The first application is to decompose the object being imaged by the PP imaging system into measurement and null components. We compare these components to the measurement and null components obtained with PC systems. In the process, we also present a procedure to compute the null functions for a PC system. The second application is designing analytical reconstruction algorithms for PP systems. The proposed analytical approach exploits the fact that PP systems acquire data in a continuous domain to estimate a continuous object function. The approach is parallelizable and

  9. Singular value decomposition for photon-processing nuclear imaging systems and applications for reconstruction and computing null functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, Abhinav K; Barrett, Harrison H; Frey, Eric C; Clarkson, Eric; Caucci, Luca; Kupinski, Matthew A

    2015-09-21

    Recent advances in technology are enabling a new class of nuclear imaging systems consisting of detectors that use real-time maximum-likelihood (ML) methods to estimate the interaction position, deposited energy, and other attributes of each photon-interaction event and store these attributes in a list format. This class of systems, which we refer to as photon-processing (PP) nuclear imaging systems, can be described by a fundamentally different mathematical imaging operator that allows processing of the continuous-valued photon attributes on a per-photon basis. Unlike conventional photon-counting (PC) systems that bin the data into images, PP systems do not have any binning-related information loss. Mathematically, while PC systems have an infinite-dimensional null space due to dimensionality considerations, PP systems do not necessarily suffer from this issue. Therefore, PP systems have the potential to provide improved performance in comparison to PC systems. To study these advantages, we propose a framework to perform the singular-value decomposition (SVD) of the PP imaging operator. We use this framework to perform the SVD of operators that describe a general two-dimensional (2D) planar linear shift-invariant (LSIV) PP system and a hypothetical continuously rotating 2D single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) PP system. We then discuss two applications of the SVD framework. The first application is to decompose the object being imaged by the PP imaging system into measurement and null components. We compare these components to the measurement and null components obtained with PC systems. In the process, we also present a procedure to compute the null functions for a PC system. The second application is designing analytical reconstruction algorithms for PP systems. The proposed analytical approach exploits the fact that PP systems acquire data in a continuous domain to estimate a continuous object function. The approach is parallelizable and

  10. Polaron-Driven Surface Reconstructions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Reticcioli

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Geometric and electronic surface reconstructions determine the physical and chemical properties of surfaces and, consequently, their functionality in applications. The reconstruction of a surface minimizes its surface free energy in otherwise thermodynamically unstable situations, typically caused by dangling bonds, lattice stress, or a divergent surface potential, and it is achieved by a cooperative modification of the atomic and electronic structure. Here, we combined first-principles calculations and surface techniques (scanning tunneling microscopy, non-contact atomic force microscopy, scanning tunneling spectroscopy to report that the repulsion between negatively charged polaronic quasiparticles, formed by the interaction between excess electrons and the lattice phonon field, plays a key role in surface reconstructions. As a paradigmatic example, we explain the (1×1 to (1×2 transition in rutile TiO_{2}(110.

  11. Dendroclimatic transfer functions revisited: Little Ice Age and Medieval Warm Period summer temperatures reconstructed using artificial neural networks and linear algorithms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helama, S.; Holopainen, J.; Eronen, M. [Department of Geology, University of Helsinki, (Finland); Makarenko, N.G. [Russian Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation). Pulkovo Astronomical Observatory; Karimova, L.M.; Kruglun, O.A. [Institute of Mathematics, Almaty (Kazakhstan); Timonen, M. [Finnish Forest Research Institute, Rovaniemi Research Unit (Finland); Merilaeinen, J. [SAIMA Unit of the Savonlinna Department of Teacher Education, University of Joensuu (Finland)

    2009-07-01

    Tree-rings tell of past climates. To do so, tree-ring chronologies comprising numerous climate-sensitive living-tree and subfossil time-series need to be 'transferred' into palaeoclimate estimates using transfer functions. The purpose of this study is to compare different types of transfer functions, especially linear and nonlinear algorithms. Accordingly, multiple linear regression (MLR), linear scaling (LSC) and artificial neural networks (ANN, nonlinear algorithm) were compared. Transfer functions were built using a regional tree-ring chronology and instrumental temperature observations from Lapland (northern Finland and Sweden). In addition, conventional MLR was compared with a hybrid model whereby climate was reconstructed separately for short- and long-period timescales prior to combining the bands of timescales into a single hybrid model. The fidelity of the different reconstructions was validated against instrumental climate data. The reconstructions by MLR and ANN showed reliable reconstruction capabilities over the instrumental period (AD 1802-1998). LCS failed to reach reasonable verification statistics and did not qualify as a reliable reconstruction: this was due mainly to exaggeration of the low-frequency climatic variance. Over this instrumental period, the reconstructed low-frequency amplitudes of climate variability were rather similar by MLR and ANN. Notably greater differences between the models were found over the actual reconstruction period (AD 802-1801). A marked temperature decline, as reconstructed by MLR, from the Medieval Warm Period (AD 931-1180) to the Little Ice Age (AD 1601-1850), was evident in all the models. This decline was approx. 0.5 C as reconstructed by MLR. Different ANN based palaeotemperatures showed simultaneous cooling of 0.2 to 0.5 C, depending on algorithm. The hybrid MLR did not seem to provide further benefit above conventional MLR in our sample. The robustness of the conventional MLR over the calibration

  12. Functional dyspepsia: The role of visceral hypersensitivity in its pathogenesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    John Keohane; Eamonn M M Quigley

    2006-01-01

    Functional, or non-ulcer, dyspepsia (FD) is one of the most common reasons for referral to gastroenterologists.It is associated with significant morbidity and impaired quality of life. Many authorities believe that functional dyspepsia and irritable bowel syndrome represent part of the spectrum of the same disease process.The pathophysiology of FD remains unclear but several theories have been proposed including visceral hypersensitivity, gastric motor dysfunction, Helicobacter pylori infection and psychosocial factors. In this review,we look at the evidence, to date, for the role of visceral hypersensitivity in the aetiology of FD.

  13. Functional dyspepsia: the role of visceral hypersensitivity in its pathogenesis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Keohane, John

    2012-02-03

    Functional, or non-ulcer, dyspepsia (FD) is one of the most common reasons for referral to gastroenterologists. It is associated with significant morbidity and impaired quality of life. Many authorities believe that functional dyspepsia and irritable bowel syndrome represent part of the spectrum of the same disease process. The pathophysiology of FD remains unclear but several theories have been proposed including visceral hypersensitivity, gastric motor dysfunction, Helicobacter pylori infection and psychosocial factors. In this review, we look at the evidence, to date, for the role of visceral hypersensitivity in the aetiology of FD.

  14. STAT6: its role in interleukin 4-mediated biological functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, K; Kishimoto, T; Akira, S

    1997-05-01

    Interleukin (IL) 4 is known to be a cytokine which plays a central role in the regulation of immune response. Studies on cytokine signal transduction have clarified the mechanism by which IL4 exerts its functions. Two cytoplasmic proteins, signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) 6 and IL4-induced phosphotyrosine substrate/insulin receptor substrate 2 (4PS/IRS2), are activated in IL4 signal transduction. Recent studies from STAT6-deficient mice have revealed the essential role of STAT6 in IL4-mediated biological actions. In addition, STAT6 has also been demonstrated to be important for the functions mediated by IL13, which is related to IL4. IL4 and IL13 have been shown to induce the production of IgE, which is a major mediator in an allergic response. These findings indicate that STAT6 activation is involved in IL4- and IL13-mediated disorders such as allergy.

  15. Role and functions of beneficial microorganisms in sustainable aquaculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Qunlan; Li, Kangmin; Jun, Xie; Bo, Liu

    2009-08-01

    This paper aims to review the development of scientific concepts of microecology and ecology of microbes and the role and functions of beneficial microorganisms in aquaculture and mariculture. Beneficial microorganisms play a great role in natural and man-made aquatic ecosystems based on the co-evolution theory in living biosphere on earth. Their functions are to adjust algal population in water bodies so as to avoid unwanted algal bloom; to speed up decomposition of organic matter and to reduce CODmn, NH3-N and NO2-N in water and sediments so as to improve water quality; to suppress fish/shrimp diseases and water-borne pathogens; to enhance immune system of cultured aquatic animals and to produce bioactive compounds such as vitamins, hormones and enzymes that stimulate growth, thus to decrease the FCR of feed.

  16. Functional Roles of Syk in Macrophage-Mediated Inflammatory Responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Young-Su; Son, Young-Jin; Ryou, Chongsuk; Sung, Gi-Ho; Kim, Jong-Hoon; Cho, Jae Youl

    2014-01-01

    Inflammation is a series of complex biological responses to protect the host from pathogen invasion. Chronic inflammation is considered a major cause of diseases, such as various types of inflammatory/autoimmune diseases and cancers. Spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk) was initially found to be highly expressed in hematopoietic cells and has been known to play crucial roles in adaptive immune responses. However, recent studies have reported that Syk is also involved in other biological functions, especially in innate immune responses. Although Syk has been extensively studied in adaptive immune responses, numerous studies have recently presented evidence that Syk has critical functions in macrophage-mediated inflammatory responses and is closely related to innate immune response. This review describes the characteristics of Syk-mediated signaling pathways, summarizes the recent findings supporting the crucial roles of Syk in macrophage-mediated inflammatory responses and diseases, and discusses Syk-targeted drug development for the therapy of inflammatory diseases. PMID:25045209

  17. Functional Roles of Syk in Macrophage-Mediated Inflammatory Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Su Yi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Inflammation is a series of complex biological responses to protect the host from pathogen invasion. Chronic inflammation is considered a major cause of diseases, such as various types of inflammatory/autoimmune diseases and cancers. Spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk was initially found to be highly expressed in hematopoietic cells and has been known to play crucial roles in adaptive immune responses. However, recent studies have reported that Syk is also involved in other biological functions, especially in innate immune responses. Although Syk has been extensively studied in adaptive immune responses, numerous studies have recently presented evidence that Syk has critical functions in macrophage-mediated inflammatory responses and is closely related to innate immune response. This review describes the characteristics of Syk-mediated signaling pathways, summarizes the recent findings supporting the crucial roles of Syk in macrophage-mediated inflammatory responses and diseases, and discusses Syk-targeted drug development for the therapy of inflammatory diseases.

  18. The role of attachment styles in team functioning

    OpenAIRE

    Pheiffer, Gary

    2016-01-01

    This research explored the potential influences on team functioning, from the perspective of adult attachment theory. Attachment styles are seen to reflect internal working models of self, others, and relationships, and influence individuals’ motivations, abilities, and perceptions as regards relationships. The research question explored what the role and influence of an individual’s global and team attachment style may have upon an individual’s experience of a work team. It sought to explain...

  19. Return to sport and knee functional scores after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: 2 to 10 years' follow-up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukrom Cheecharern

    2018-04-01

    , and worry about the possibility of re-injury. Overall, total IKDC scores of patients who returned to sport were significantly higher than those of subjects who did not. However, some points such as ability to kneel, ride and bend the knee were not different in the two groups. Bachelor degree education, monthly income lower than 10,000 Thai baht and IKDC score were the factors associated with returning to sport. Conclusions: The rates of return to sport after ACL reconstruction were low compared to those of other reports in the literature. Education, low income and IKDC score were predictive factors of sport re-participation. Further studies should be carried out to assess the impact on treatment indications and rehabilitation. Keywords: Anterior cruciate ligament, Return to sport, ACL outcomes, Knee function

  20. Role of AAA(+)-proteins in peroxisome biogenesis and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimm, Immanuel; Erdmann, Ralf; Girzalsky, Wolfgang

    2016-05-01

    Mutations in the PEX1 gene, which encodes a protein required for peroxisome biogenesis, are the most common cause of the Zellweger spectrum diseases. The recognition that Pex1p shares a conserved ATP-binding domain with p97 and NSF led to the discovery of the extended family of AAA+-type ATPases. So far, four AAA+-type ATPases are related to peroxisome function. Pex6p functions together with Pex1p in peroxisome biogenesis, ATAD1/Msp1p plays a role in membrane protein targeting and a member of the Lon-family of proteases is associated with peroxisomal quality control. This review summarizes the current knowledge on the AAA+-proteins involved in peroxisome biogenesis and function.

  1. Functional and magnetic resonance imaging evaluation after single-tendon rotator cuff reconstruction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, H B; Gelineck, J; Søjbjerg, Jens Ole

    1999-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate tendon integrity after surgical repair of single-tendon rotator cuff lesions. In 31 patients, 31 single-tendon repairs were evaluated. Thirty-one patients were available for clinical assessment and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at follow-up. A standard...... series of MR images was obtained for each. The results of functional assessment were scored according to the system of Constant. According to MRI evaluation, 21 (68%) patients had an intact or thinned rotator cuff and 10 (32%) had recurrence of a full-thickness cuff defect at follow-up. Patients...... with an intact or thinned rotator cuff had a median Constant score of 75.5 points; patients with a full-thickness cuff defect had a median score of 62 points. There was no correlation between tendon integrity on postoperative MR images and functional outcome. Patients with intact or thinned cuffs did not have...

  2. Associations between inadequate knee function detected by KOOS and prospective graft failure in an anterior cruciate ligament-reconstructed knee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granan, Lars-Petter; Baste, Valborg; Engebretsen, Lars; Inacio, Maria C S

    2015-04-01

    First, to evaluate whether the 2 year post-operative Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS) in primary anterior cruciate ligament reconstructions (ACLRs) was significantly different between patients that did not go on to have a subsequent revision after the 2 year post-operative control and the ones that did. Second, to test whether the "clinically failure" value of KOOS quality of life (QoL) < 44 was indicative of a clinically relevant difference in the risk of subsequent revision ACLR. ACLRs reported to the Norwegian Knee Ligament Registry between June 2004 and December 2009. 5,517 primary ACLRs with at least 2-year follow-up with KOOS QoL before revision surgery. There were clinically significant differences, adjusted and unadjusted, in both the KOOS Sport and Recreation and QoL subscales in patients with a later revision surgery compared to those that did not have a revision surgery. In adjusted models, the risk of later ACLR revision was 3.7 (95 % CI 2.2-6.0) higher in patients with a 2-year KOOS QoL < 44 compared to patients with a KOOS QoL ≥ 44. For every 10-point reduction in the KOOS QoL, a 33.6 % (95 % CI 21.2-47.5 %) higher risk for later ACLR revision was observed. This study reveals an association between inadequate knee function, as measured by KOOS, and a prospective ACL-reconstructed graft failure. Prognostic study (prospective cohort study), Level II.

  3. Dieticians' intentions to recommend functional foods: The mediating role of consumption frequency of functional foods

    OpenAIRE

    Cha, Myeong Hwa; Lee, Jiyeon; Song, Mi Jung

    2010-01-01

    This study explored the conceptual framework of dieticians' intentions to recommend functional food and the mediating role of consumption frequency. A web-based survey was designed using a self-administered questionnaire. A sample of Korean dieticians (N=233) responded to the questionnaire that included response efficacy, risk perception, consumption frequency, and recommendation intention for functional foods. A structural equation model was constructed to analyze the data. We found that res...

  4. Role of Pectoralis Major Myocutanuos Flap in Salvage Laryngeal Surgery for Prophylaxis of Pharyngocutaneuos Fistula and Reconstruction of Skin Defect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mebeed, A.; Hussein, H.A.; Saber, T.Kh.; Zohairy, M.A.; Lotayef, M.

    2009-01-01

    This study was carried out to minimize the incidence of pharyngocutaneous fistula (PCF) following salvage laryngeal surgery using vascularized pedicle pectoralis major myocutaneous flap (PMMC) for enhancing wound healing, rapid intake of oral feeding, reconstruction of desqauamated irradiated skin, achieving short hospital stay and protection against catastrophic blow out mortality. Patients and Methods: This case series study of sixteen patients carried out from May 2005 to July 2009, at the National Cancer Institute, Cairo University where we applied PMMC flap in salvage laryngeal surgery for those with high risk to develop complications: Patients of poor general conditions (anemia, hypoproteinaemia, diabetics) and/or poor local conditions for healing (irradiated neck, extensive local or nodal recurrence with skin desquamation, infiltration or tumor fungation which need extensive resection). Five cases had been treated with primary cobalt radiotherapy laryngeal field only and 4 cases laryngeal field with draining neck nodes, while photon therapy was given in 4 cases as laryngeal field only and 3 cases laryngeal field with draining neck nodes. All cases were squamous cell carcinoma (13 cases grade 2, 2 cases grade 3 and one case grade 1) proved before radiotherapy. Supraglottic recurrence was detected in 7 cases (43.75%) and glottis in 9 cases (56.25%). Following salvage surgery, 11 cases were staged T3 NO, Nl and N2, 3 cases were T2 NO or Nl and 2 cases were T4 N2 with skin infiltration. Tracheostomy was there in 4 cases. Results: The study included fifteen males (93.75%) and one female (6.25%), age was between 38-73 years (mean=55.5 years). Five cases were operated on as total laryngectomy with excision of skin flaps + PMMC flap, 4 cases as total laryngectomy with skin flap excision + functional block neck dissection + PMMC flap and 7 cases as total laryngectomy -f block neck dissection with skin, excision (modified radical in 4 cases and radical in 3 cases

  5. A combined technique for acromioclavicular reconstruction after acute dislocation - technical description and functional outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diogo Lino Moura

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: This study aims to describe the surgical approach to such injuries and to present the clinical and functional outcomes obtained in a cohort of patients. Methods: This is an observational retrospective study that included 153 patients with acute acromioclavicular joint dislocation, operated between 1999 and 2015. Clinical evaluation included the following outcomes: Constant functional scale, development of complications, time to return to previous work/sport activities, and satisfaction index. The contra-lateral (uninjured shoulder was used as control in subjective outcomes. Radiological evaluation was performed in order to monitor signs of loss of reduction, degenerative joint changes, and coracoclavicular calcifications. Results: The mean age was 29.20 ± 9.53 (16-71, with a large male predominance (91.5%. Follow-up lasted 55.41 ± 24.87 (12-108 months. The mean Constant score attained was 96.45 ± 4.00 (84-100 on operated shoulders and 98.28 ± 1.81 (93-100 on contralateral ones. Almost all patients (98.69% were satisfied with the surgical results. Worse outcomes were observed in acromioclavicular joint dislocations of increasing grade (from type III to V, but worse for type IV, both concerning the Constant score and return to work or sport. The overall incidence of complications was considered low, with the most prevalent being Kirschner wire failure and isolated coracoclavicular ligament calcifications. Conclusion: The surgical technique described is an excellent option in the treatment of acute acromioclavicular joint dislocations of Rockwood grades III to V. This is corroborated by the excellent clinical and functional outcomes and the low rate of complications.

  6. A combined technique for acromioclavicular reconstruction after acute dislocation - technical description and functional outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moura, Diogo Lino; Reis E Reis, Augusto; Ferreira, João; Capelão, Manuel; Braz Cardoso, José

    2018-01-01

    This study aims to describe the surgical approach to such injuries and to present the clinical and functional outcomes obtained in a cohort of patients. This is an observational retrospective study that included 153 patients with acute acromioclavicular joint dislocation, operated between 1999 and 2015. Clinical evaluation included the following outcomes: Constant functional scale, development of complications, time to return to previous work/sport activities, and satisfaction index. The contra-lateral (uninjured) shoulder was used as control in subjective outcomes. Radiological evaluation was performed in order to monitor signs of loss of reduction, degenerative joint changes, and coracoclavicular calcifications. The mean age was 29.20 ± 9.53 (16-71), with a large male predominance (91.5%). Follow-up lasted 55.41 ± 24.87 (12-108) months. The mean Constant score attained was 96.45 ± 4.00 (84-100) on operated shoulders and 98.28 ± 1.81 (93-100) on contralateral ones. Almost all patients (98.69%) were satisfied with the surgical results. Worse outcomes were observed in acromioclavicular joint dislocations of increasing grade (from type III to V, but worse for type IV), both concerning the Constant score and return to work or sport. The overall incidence of complications was considered low, with the most prevalent being Kirschner wire failure and isolated coracoclavicular ligament calcifications. The surgical technique described is an excellent option in the treatment of acute acromioclavicular joint dislocations of Rockwood grades III to V. This is corroborated by the excellent clinical and functional outcomes and the low rate of complications.

  7. Cartilaginous epiphyses in extant archosaurs and their implications for reconstructing limb function in dinosaurs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casey M Holliday

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Extinct archosaurs, including many non-avian dinosaurs, exhibit relatively simply shaped condylar regions in their appendicular bones, suggesting potentially large amounts of unpreserved epiphyseal (articular cartilage. This "lost anatomy" is often underappreciated such that the ends of bones are typically considered to be the joint surfaces, potentially having a major impact on functional interpretation. Extant alligators and birds were used to establish an objective basis for inferences about cartilaginous articular structures in such extinct archosaur clades as non-avian dinosaurs. Limb elements of alligators, ostriches, and other birds were dissected, disarticulated, and defleshed. Lengths and condylar shapes of elements with intact epiphyses were measured. Limbs were subsequently completely skeletonized and the measurements repeated. Removal of cartilaginous condylar regions resulted in statistically significant changes in element length and condylar breadth. Moreover, there was marked loss of those cartilaginous structures responsible for joint architecture and congruence. Compared to alligators, birds showed less dramatic, but still significant changes. Condylar morphologies of dinosaur limb bones suggest that most non-coelurosaurian clades possessed large cartilaginous epiphyses that relied on the maintenance of vascular channels that are otherwise eliminated early in ontogeny in smaller-bodied tetrapods. A sensitivity analysis using cartilage correction factors (CCFs obtained from extant taxa indicates that whereas the presence of cartilaginous epiphyses only moderately increases estimates of dinosaur height and speed, it has important implications for our ability to infer joint morphology, posture, and the complicated functional movements in the limbs of many extinct archosaurs. Evidence suggests that the sizes of sauropod epiphyseal cartilages surpassed those of alligators, which account for at least 10% of hindlimb length. These data

  8. Cartilaginous epiphyses in extant archosaurs and their implications for reconstructing limb function in dinosaurs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holliday, Casey M; Ridgely, Ryan C; Sedlmayr, Jayc C; Witmer, Lawrence M

    2010-09-30

    Extinct archosaurs, including many non-avian dinosaurs, exhibit relatively simply shaped condylar regions in their appendicular bones, suggesting potentially large amounts of unpreserved epiphyseal (articular) cartilage. This "lost anatomy" is often underappreciated such that the ends of bones are typically considered to be the joint surfaces, potentially having a major impact on functional interpretation. Extant alligators and birds were used to establish an objective basis for inferences about cartilaginous articular structures in such extinct archosaur clades as non-avian dinosaurs. Limb elements of alligators, ostriches, and other birds were dissected, disarticulated, and defleshed. Lengths and condylar shapes of elements with intact epiphyses were measured. Limbs were subsequently completely skeletonized and the measurements repeated. Removal of cartilaginous condylar regions resulted in statistically significant changes in element length and condylar breadth. Moreover, there was marked loss of those cartilaginous structures responsible for joint architecture and congruence. Compared to alligators, birds showed less dramatic, but still significant changes. Condylar morphologies of dinosaur limb bones suggest that most non-coelurosaurian clades possessed large cartilaginous epiphyses that relied on the maintenance of vascular channels that are otherwise eliminated early in ontogeny in smaller-bodied tetrapods. A sensitivity analysis using cartilage correction factors (CCFs) obtained from extant taxa indicates that whereas the presence of cartilaginous epiphyses only moderately increases estimates of dinosaur height and speed, it has important implications for our ability to infer joint morphology, posture, and the complicated functional movements in the limbs of many extinct archosaurs. Evidence suggests that the sizes of sauropod epiphyseal cartilages surpassed those of alligators, which account for at least 10% of hindlimb length. These data suggest that

  9. Functional deltoid muscle reconstruction following an extensive squamous cell carcinoma resection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tang Weng Jun

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Squamous cell carcinoma frequently occurs in an individual with albinism. In this case, the growth of the squamous cell carcinoma was aggressive that it invaded the deltoid muscle. After an oncologic resection, there was a huge defect which required near total resection of the deltoid muscle. Loss of deltoid muscle will lead to the loss of abduction and anterior flexion at the shoulder. This could be debilitating in a person’s normal daily life and activities. Restoration of the shoulder abduction and flexion function with a pedicle bipolar latissimus dorsi flap transfer was chosen in this case due to the versatility and reliability of the flap.

  10. Cosmetic and functional reconstruction achieved using a split myofascial bone flap for pterional craniotomy. Technical note.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, K; Akagi, K; Abekura, M; Ohkawa, M; Tasaki, O; Tomishima, T

    2001-04-01

    Cosmetic deformities that appear following pterional craniotomy are usually caused by temporal muscle atrophy, injury to the frontotemporal branch of the facial nerve, or bone pits in the craniotomy line. To resolve these problems during pterional craniotomy, an alternative method was developed in which a split myofascial bone flap and a free bone flap are used. The authors have used this method in the treatment of 40 patients over the last 3 years. Excellent cosmetic and functional results have been obtained. This method can provide wide exposure similar to that achieved using Yaşargil's interfascial pterional craniotomy, without limiting the operative field with a bulky temporal muscle flap.

  11. Functional and Aesthetic Tragal Reconstruction in the Age of Mobile Electronic Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colleen F. Perez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a method to create a tragus using the patient’s conchal cartilage. It is a simplified, single-stage technique with well-hidden incisions, yet it maintains the rigidity of a natural tragus. This patient did not have a history of radiation to the area, which may compromise healing with this technique. The cosmetic importance of the tragus has been described, but its functionality in accommodating modern technology has not been previously discussed. The main treatment goal for this patient was to gain the ability to wear earphones (clinical question/level of evidence: therapeutic, V.

  12. The role of functional imaging techniques in the dementia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryu, Young Hoon

    2004-01-01

    Evaluation of dementia in patients with early symptoms of cognitive decline is clinically challenging, but the need for early, accurate diagnosis has become more crucial, since several medication for the treatment of mild to moderate Alzheimer' disease are available. Many neurodegenerative diseases produce significant brain function alteration even when structural imaging (CT of MRI) reveal no specific abnormalities. The role of PET and SPECT brain imaging in the initial assessment and differential diagnosis of dementia is beginning to evolve rapidly and growing evidence indicates that appropriate incorporation of PET into the clinical work up can improve diagnostic and prognostic accuracy with respect to Alzheimer's disease, the most common cause of dementia in the geriatric population. In the fast few years, studies comparing neuropathologic examination with PET have established reliable and consistent accuracy for diagnostic evaluations using PET - accuracies substantially exceeding those of comparable studies of diagnostic value of SPECT or of both modalities assessed side by side, or of clinical evaluations done without nuclear imaging. This review deals the role of functional brian imaging techniques in the evaluation of dementias and the role of nuclear neuroimaging in the early detection and diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease

  13. Three-Dimensional Reconstructions Come to Life – Interactive 3D PDF Animations in Functional Morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Kamp, Thomas; dos Santos Rolo, Tomy; Vagovič, Patrik; Baumbach, Tilo; Riedel, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    Digital surface mesh models based on segmented datasets have become an integral part of studies on animal anatomy and functional morphology; usually, they are published as static images, movies or as interactive PDF files. We demonstrate the use of animated 3D models embedded in PDF documents, which combine the advantages of both movie and interactivity, based on the example of preserved Trigonopterus weevils. The method is particularly suitable to simulate joints with largely deterministic movements due to precise form closure. We illustrate the function of an individual screw-and-nut type hip joint and proceed to the complex movements of the entire insect attaining a defence position. This posture is achieved by a specific cascade of movements: Head and legs interlock mutually and with specific features of thorax and the first abdominal ventrite, presumably to increase the mechanical stability of the beetle and to maintain the defence position with minimal muscle activity. The deterministic interaction of accurately fitting body parts follows a defined sequence, which resembles a piece of engineering. PMID:25029366

  14. Functional restoration of diaphragmatic paralysis: an evaluation of phrenic nerve reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, Matthew R; Elkwood, Andrew I; Colicchio, Alan R; CeCe, John; Jarrahy, Reza; Willekes, Lourens J; Rose, Michael I; Brown, David

    2014-01-01

    Unilateral diaphragmatic paralysis causes respiratory deficits and can occur after iatrogenic or traumatic phrenic nerve injury in the neck or chest. Patients are evaluated using spirometry and imaging studies; however, phrenic nerve conduction studies and electromyography are not widely available or considered; thus, the degree of dysfunction is often unknown. Treatment has been limited to diaphragmatic plication. Phrenic nerve operations to restore diaphragmatic function may broaden therapeutic options. An interventional study of 92 patients with symptomatic diaphragmatic paralysis assigned 68 (based on their clinical condition) to phrenic nerve surgical intervention (PS), 24 to nonsurgical (NS) care, and evaluated a third group of 68 patients (derived from literature review) treated with diaphragmatic plication (DP). Variables for assessment included spirometry, the Short-Form 36-Item survey, electrodiagnostics, and complications. In the PS group, there was an average 13% improvement in forced expiratory volume in 1 second (p Phrenic nerve operations for functional restoration of the paralyzed diaphragm should be part of the standard treatment algorithm in the management of symptomatic patients with this condition. Assessment of neuromuscular dysfunction can aid in determining the most effective therapy. Copyright © 2014 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Role of the hippocampus in memory functioning: modern view

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. O. Assonov

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this review was to develop the comprehensive conception of the hippocampus role in the functioning of human memory, based on data obtained by analysis of the latest scientific literature on the topic and make recommendations for further ways of researches in this topic. The scientific literature of the last 5 years on the role of the hippocampus in memory functioning was analyzed. Based on the reviewed literature, we made the next conclusions: the hippocampus is an extremely important for memory structure with various connections for different types of memory; the hippocampus is affected by a variety of substances, most studied now are glucocorticosteroids, whose effect on memory differs depending on the start time of action; the hippocampus volume in mental disorders affecting memory is less than normal, which makes it an important diagnostic criterion; at the moment, various promising methods that can help in the therapy of PTSD, depression, phobias and other disorders associated with memory impairment and based on the knowledge of the hippocampus for the treatment of memory disorders are being developed. Based on these conclusions and data, which were analyzed, we offered the following recommendations: to implement the hippocampal function examination in the diagnostics of mental disorders, which are accompanied by a violation of its work; to use the size of the hippocampus as one of the prognostic factors for the severity of the memory-associated disorders and the therapy progress; to carefully investigate the difference in the effect of various psychotherapies and pharmacotherapies on the hippocampus to determine exactly which of the therapies is the most morphologically reasonable; to find out how significant the decrease in the hippocampal volume is for the memory functioning; to use pathogenetically and morphologically based methods to improve the function of the hippocampus in the treatment of disorders that are

  16. Adenosine Receptor Heteromers and their Integrative Role in Striatal Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergi Ferré

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available By analyzing the functional role of adenosine receptor heteromers, we review a series of new concepts that should modify our classical views of neurotransmission in the central nervous system (CNS. Neurotransmitter receptors cannot be considered as single functional units anymore. Heteromerization of neurotransmitter receptors confers functional entities that possess different biochemical characteristics with respect to the individual components of the heteromer. Some of these characteristics can be used as a “biochemical fingerprint” to identify neurotransmitter receptor heteromers in the CNS. This is exemplified by changes in binding characteristics that are dependent on coactivation of the receptor units of different adenosine receptor heteromers. Neurotransmitter receptor heteromers can act as “processors” of computations that modulate cell signaling, sometimes critically involved in the control of pre- and postsynaptic neurotransmission. For instance, the adenosine A1-A2A receptor heteromer acts as a concentration-dependent switch that controls striatal glutamatergic neurotransmission. Neurotransmitter receptor heteromers play a particularly important integrative role in the “local module” (the minimal portion of one or more neurons and/or one or more glial cells that operates as an independent integrative unit, where they act as processors mediating computations that convey information from diverse volume-transmitted signals. For instance, the adenosine A2A-dopamine D2 receptor heteromers work as integrators of two different neurotransmitters in the striatal spine module.

  17. Versatile functional roles of horizontal cells in the retinal circuit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaya, Taro; Matsumoto, Akihiro; Sugita, Yuko; Watanabe, Satoshi; Kuwahara, Ryusuke; Tachibana, Masao; Furukawa, Takahisa

    2017-07-17

    In the retinal circuit, environmental light signals are converted into electrical signals that can be decoded properly by the brain. At the first synapse of the visual system, information flow from photoreceptors to bipolar cells is modulated by horizontal cells (HCs), however, their functional contribution to retinal output and individual visual function is not fully understood. In the current study, we investigated functional roles for HCs in retinal ganglion cell (RGC) response properties and optokinetic responses by establishing a HC-depleted mouse line. We observed that HC depletion impairs the antagonistic center-surround receptive field formation of RGCs, supporting a previously reported HC function revealed by pharmacological approaches. In addition, we found that HC loss reduces both the ON and OFF response diversities of RGCs, impairs adjustment of the sensitivity to ambient light at the retinal output level, and alters spatial frequency tuning at an individual level. Taken together, our current study suggests multiple functional aspects of HCs crucial for visual processing.

  18. Bayesian Approach to Spectral Function Reconstruction for Euclidean Quantum Field Theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnier, Yannis; Rothkopf, Alexander

    2013-11-01

    We present a novel approach to the inference of spectral functions from Euclidean time correlator data that makes close contact with modern Bayesian concepts. Our method differs significantly from the maximum entropy method (MEM). A new set of axioms is postulated for the prior probability, leading to an improved expression, which is devoid of the asymptotically flat directions present in the Shanon-Jaynes entropy. Hyperparameters are integrated out explicitly, liberating us from the Gaussian approximations underlying the evidence approach of the maximum entropy method. We present a realistic test of our method in the context of the nonperturbative extraction of the heavy quark potential. Based on hard-thermal-loop correlator mock data, we establish firm requirements in the number of data points and their accuracy for a successful extraction of the potential from lattice QCD. Finally we reinvestigate quenched lattice QCD correlators from a previous study and provide an improved potential estimation at T=2.33TC.

  19. Trial of quantitative analysis of cardiac function by 3D reconstruction of multislice cine MR images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Hideki; Sei, Tetsurou; Nakagawa, Tomio; Hiraki, Yoshio.

    1994-01-01

    Non-invasive techniques for measuring the dynamic behavior of the left ventricle (LV) can be invaluable tool in the diagnosis of the heart disease. In this paper we present methods for quantitative analysis of cardiac function using a compact magnetic resonance image processing system. A 256 x 256 magnetic resonance transaxial image of the left ventricle in a normal case is obtained. After gray level thresholding and region segmentation, the boundary of the left ventricular chamber is extracted. Then, the boundaries of the left ventricular chamber are displayed three-dimensionally by using the Z-buffer algorithm. Thus, LV volume and ejection fraction are calculated. Here, the value of LV ejection fraction is 60%. These results agree reasonably well with the corresponding data obtained by the echocardiography. (author)

  20. MicroRNAs in prostate cancer: Functional role as biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanwal, Rajnee; Plaga, Alexis R; Liu, Xiaoqi; Shukla, Girish C; Gupta, Sanjay

    2017-10-28

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small endogenous non-coding molecules that alters gene expression through post-transcriptional regulation of messenger RNA. Compelling evidence suggest the role of miRNA in cancer biology having potential as diagnostic, prognostic and predictive biomarkers. This review summarizes the current knowledge on miRNA deregulated in prostate cancer and their role as oncogene, tumor suppressor and metastasis regulators. The emerging information elucidating the biological function of miRNA is promising and may lead to their potential usefulness as diagnostic/prognostic markers and development as effective therapeutic tools for management of prostate cancer. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Monocular channels have a functional role in endogenous orienting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saban, William; Sekely, Liora; Klein, Raymond M; Gabay, Shai

    2018-03-01

    The literature has long emphasized the role of higher cortical structures in endogenous orienting. Based on evolutionary explanation and previous data, we explored the possibility that lower monocular channels may also have a functional role in endogenous orienting of attention. Sensitive behavioral manipulation was used to probe the contribution of monocularly segregated regions in a simple cue - target detection task. A central spatially informative cue, and its ensuing target, were presented to the same or different eyes at varying cue-target intervals. Results indicated that the onset of endogenous orienting was apparent earlier when the cue and target were presented to the same eye. The data provides converging evidence for the notion that endogenous facilitation is modulated by monocular portions of the visual stream. This, in turn, suggests that higher cortical mechanisms are not exclusively responsible for endogenous orienting, and that a dynamic interaction between higher and lower neural levels, might be involved. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Evaluation of functional nerve recovery after reconstruction with a poly (DL-lactide-epsilon-caprolactone) nerve guide, filled with modified denatured muscle tissue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meek, MF; Den Dunnen, WFA; Schakenraad, JM; Robinson, PH

    1996-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the speed of functional nerve recovery after reconstruction with a biodegradable p(DLLA-epsilon -CL) nerve guide, as filled with either modified denatured muscle tissue (MDMT) or phosphate-buffered saline (PBS). To evaluate both motor and sensory nerve recovery,

  3. Role of stable isotope analyses in reconstructing past life-histories and the provenancing human skeletal remains: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sehrawat Jagmahender Singh

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews the present scenario of use of stable isotopes (mainly δ13C, δ15N, δ18O, 87Sr to trace past life behaviours like breast feeding and weaning practices, the geographic origin, migration history, paleodiet and subsistence patterns of past populations from the chemical signatures of isotopes imprinted in human skeletal remains. This approach is based on the state that food-web isotopic signatures are seen in the human bones and teeth and such signatures can change parallely with a variety of biogeochemical processes. By measuring δ13C and δ15N isotopic values of subadult tissues of different ages, the level of breast milk ingestion at particular ages and the components of the complementary foods can be assessed. Strontium and oxygen isotopic analyses have been used for determining the geographic origins and reconstructing the way of life of past populations as these isotopes can map the isotopic outline of the area from where the person acquired water and food during initial lifetime. The isotopic values of strontium and oxygen values are considered specific to geographical areas and serve as reliable chemical signatures of migration history of past human populations (local or non-local to the site. Previous isotopic studies show that the subsistence patterns of the past human populations underwent extensive changes from nomadic to complete agricultural dependence strategies. The carbon and nitrogen isotopic values of local fauna of any archaeological site can be used to elucidate the prominence of freshwater resources in the diet of the past human populations found near the site. More extensive research covering isotopic descriptions of various prehistoric, historic and modern populations is needed to explore the role of stable isotope analysis for provenancing human skeletal remains and assessing human migration patterns/routes, geographic origins, paleodiet and subsistence practices of past populations.

  4. Functional Outcome and Graft Retention in Patients With Septic Arthritis After Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makhni, Eric C; Steinhaus, Michael E; Mehran, Nima; Schulz, Brian S; Ahmad, Christopher S

    2015-07-01

    To provide a comprehensive review of clinical and functional outcomes after treatment for septic arthritis after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. A systematic review of the literature was performed. Two reviewers assessed and confirmed the methodologic quality of each study. Studies that met the inclusion criteria were assessed for pertinent data, and when available, similar outcomes were combined to generate frequency-weighted means. Nineteen studies met the inclusion and exclusion criteria for this review, reporting on a total of 203 infected knees. The mean age was 27.5 years and the mean length of follow-up was 44.2 months, with male patients comprising 88% of the population. Hamstring and bone-patellar tendon-bone autografts were used in 63% and 33% of patients, respectively, with 78% of patients retaining their grafts. The studies reported mean flexion and extension deficits of 5.8° and 1.0°, respectively, and laxity testing showed a mean difference of 1.9 mm. The studies reported mean Lysholm, International Knee Documentation Committee, and Tegner scores of 82.1, 68.2, and 5.6, respectively. Of the patients, 83% reported an ability to return to activities of daily living whereas 67% reported a return to their preinjury level of athletics. Evidence of new degenerative changes was seen in 22% of patients. Septic arthritis after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction remains a very infrequent event, affecting 0.5% of patients. On average, outcomes in these patients are comparable with those in patients in whom infection does not develop, including postoperative range of motion, residual instability, Lysholm scores, and return to preinjury level of activity. These patients do exhibit decreased International Knee Documentation Committee scores compared with patients without septic arthritis, however. The impact of this differential is not clear, but this scoring difference suggests that septic arthritis may be associated with more severe symptoms

  5. Reconstruction of the yeast Snf1 kinase regulatory network reveals its role as a global energy regulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usaite, Renata; Jewett, Michael C; Oliveira, Ana Paula; Yates, John R; Olsson, Lisbeth; Nielsen, Jens

    2009-01-01

    Highly conserved among eukaryotic cells, the AMP-activated kinase (AMPK) is a central regulator of carbon metabolism. To map the complete network of interactions around AMPK in yeast (Snf1) and to evaluate the role of its regulatory subunit Snf4, we measured global mRNA, protein and metabolite levels in wild type, Δsnf1, Δsnf4, and Δsnf1Δsnf4 knockout strains. Using four newly developed computational tools, including novel DOGMA sub-network analysis, we showed the benefits of three-level ome-data integration to uncover the global Snf1 kinase role in yeast. We for the first time identified Snf1's global regulation on gene and protein expression levels, and showed that yeast Snf1 has a far more extensive function in controlling energy metabolism than reported earlier. Additionally, we identified complementary roles of Snf1 and Snf4. Similar to the function of AMPK in humans, our findings showed that Snf1 is a low-energy checkpoint and that yeast can be used more extensively as a model system for studying the molecular mechanisms underlying the global regulation of AMPK in mammals, failure of which leads to metabolic diseases. PMID:19888214

  6. Reconstruction and analysis of the lncRNA-miRNA-mRNA network based on competitive endogenous RNA reveal functional lncRNAs in rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Hui; Ma, Rong; Zou, Shubiao; Wang, Yongzhong; Li, Zhuqing; Li, Weiping

    2017-06-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune disease with an unknown etiology, occurring in approximately 1.0% of general population. More and more studies have suggested that long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) could play important roles in various biological processes and be associated with the pathogenesis of different kinds of diseases including RA. Although a large number of lncRNAs have been found, our knowledge of their function and physiological/pathological significance is still in its infancy. In order to reveal functional lncRNAs and identify the key lncRNAs in RA, we reconstructed a global triple network based on the competitive endogenous RNA (ceRNA) theory using the data from National Center for Biotechnology Information Gene Expression Omnibus and our previous paper. Meanwhile, Gene Ontology (GO) and pathway analysis were performed using Cytoscape plug-in BinGO and Database for Annotation, Visualization, and Integration Discovery (DAVID), respectively. We found that the lncRNA-miRNA-mRNA network was composed of 7 lncRNA nodes, 90 mRNA nodes, 24 miRNA nodes, and 301 edges. The functional assay showed that 147 GO terms and 23 pathways were enriched. In addition, three lncRNAs (S5645.1, XR_006437.1, J01878) were highly related to RA, and therefore, were selected as key lncRNAs. This study suggests that specific lncRNAs are associated with the development of RA, and three lncRNAs (S5645.1, XR_006437.1, J01878) could be used as potential diagnostic biomarkers and therapeutic targets.

  7. Role of Estrogen in Thyroid Function and Growth Regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Santin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Thyroid diseases are more prevalent in women, particularly between puberty and menopause. It is wellknown that estrogen (E has indirect effects on the thyroid economy. Direct effects of this steroid hormone on thyroid cells have been described more recently; so, the aim of the present paper was to review the evidences of these effects on thyroid function and growth regulation, and its mechanisms. The expression and ratios of the two E receptors, α and β, that mediate the genomic effects of E on normal and abnormal thyroid tissue were also reviewed, as well as nongenomic, distinct molecular pathways. Several evidences support the hypothesis that E has a direct role in thyroid follicular cells; understanding its influence on the growth and function of the thyroid in normal and abnormal conditions can potentially provide new targets for the treatment of thyroid diseases.

  8. Covariant density functional theory: The role of the pion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lalazissis, G. A.; Karatzikos, S.; Serra, M.; Otsuka, T.; Ring, P.

    2009-01-01

    We investigate the role of the pion in covariant density functional theory. Starting from conventional relativistic mean field (RMF) theory with a nonlinear coupling of the σ meson and without exchange terms we add pions with a pseudovector coupling to the nucleons in relativistic Hartree-Fock approximation. In order to take into account the change of the pion field in the nuclear medium the effective coupling constant of the pion is treated as a free parameter. It is found that the inclusion of the pion to this sort of density functionals does not destroy the overall description of the bulk properties by RMF. On the other hand, the noncentral contribution of the pion (tensor coupling) does have effects on single particle energies and on binding energies of certain nuclei.

  9. Sensory nerve function and auto-mutilation after reconstruction of various gap lengths with nerve guides and autologous nerve grafts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    den Dunnen, WFA; Meek, MF

    The aim of this study was to evaluate sensory nerve recovery and auto-mutilation after reconstruction of various lengths of nerve gaps in the sciatic nerve of the rat, using different techniques. Group 4, in which the longest nerve gap (15 mm) was reconstructed with a thin-walled

  10. The functional role of the periphery in emotional language comprehension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A. Havas

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Language can impact emotion, even when it makes no reference to emotion states. For example, reading sentences with positive meanings (The water park is refreshing on the hot summer day induces patterns of facial feedback congruent with the sentence emotionality (smiling, whereas sentences with negative meanings induce a frown. Moreover, blocking facial afference with botox selectively slows comprehension of emotional sentences. Therefore, theories of cognition should account for emotion-language interactions above the level of explicit emotion words, and the role of peripheral feedback in comprehension. For this special issue exploring frontiers in the role of the body and environment in cognition, we propose a theory in which facial feedback provides a context-sensitive constraint on the simulation of actions described in language. Paralleling the role of emotions in real-world behavior, our account proposes that 1 facial expressions accompany sudden shifts in well-being as described in language; 2 facial expressions modulate emotion states during reading; and 3 emotion states prepare the reader for an effective simulation of the ensuing language content. To inform the theory and guide future research, we outline a framework based on internal models for motor control. To support the theory, we assemble evidence from diverse areas of research. Taking a functional view of emotion, we tie the theory to behavioral and neural evidence for a role of facial feedback in cognition. Our theoretical framework provides a detailed account that can guide future research on the role of emotional feedback in language processing, and on interactions of language and emotion. It also highlights the bodily periphery as relevant to theories of embodied cognition.

  11. Functional roles affect diversity-succession relationships for boreal beetles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heloise Gibb

    Full Text Available Species diversity commonly increases with succession and this relationship is an important justification for conserving large areas of old-growth habitats. However, species with different ecological roles respond differently to succession. We examined the relationship between a range of diversity measures and time since disturbance for boreal forest beetles collected over a 285 year forest chronosequence. We compared responses of "functional" groups related to threat status, dependence on dead wood habitats, diet and the type of trap in which they were collected (indicative of the breadth of ecologies of species. We examined fits of commonly used rank-abundance models for each age class and traditional and derived diversity indices. Rank abundance distributions were closest to the Zipf-Mandelbrot distribution, suggesting little role for competition in structuring most assemblages. Diversity measures for most functional groups increased with succession, but differences in slopes were common. Evenness declined with succession; more so for red-listed species than common species. Saproxylic species increased in diversity with succession while non-saproxylic species did not. Slopes for fungivores were steeper than other diet groups, while detritivores were not strongly affected by succession. Species trapped using emergence traps (log specialists responded more weakly to succession than those trapped using flight intercept traps (representing a broader set of ecologies. Species associated with microhabitats that accumulate with succession (fungi and dead wood thus showed the strongest diversity responses to succession. These clear differences between functional group responses to forest succession should be considered in planning landscapes for optimum conservation value, particularly functional resilience.

  12. Hook plate fixation for acute acromioclavicular dislocations without coracoclavicular ligament reconstruction: a functional outcome study in military personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Narinder; Sharma, Vyom

    2015-08-01

    The aim of our study was to evaluate the shoulder function after clavicular hook plate fixation of acute acromioclavicular dislocations (Rockwood type III) in a population group consisting exclusively of high-demand military personnel. This prospective study was carried out at a tertiary care military orthopaedic centre during 2012-2013 using clavicular hook plate for management of acromioclavicular injuries without coracoclavicular ligament reconstruction in 33 patients. All patients underwent routine implant removal after 16 weeks. The functional outcome was assessed at 3, 6 and 12 months after hook plate removal and 2 years from the initial surgery using the Constant Murley and UCLA Scores. All the patients were male serving soldiers and had sustained acromioclavicular joint dislocation (Rockwood type III). Mean age of the patient group was 34.24 years (21-55 years). The mean follow-up period in this study was 23.5 months (20-26 months) after hook plate fixation and an average of 19.9 months (17-22 months) after hook plate removal. The average Constant Score at 3 months after hook plate removal was 60.3 as compared to 83.7 and 90.3 at 6 months and 1 year, respectively, and an average of 91.8 at the last follow-up that was approximately 2 years after initial surgery which was statistically significant (p value acromioclavicular dislocations producing excellent medium-term functional results in high-demand soldiers.

  13. Estimate of the angular dimensions of objects and reconstruction of their shapes from the parameters of the fourth-order radiation correlation function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buryi, E V; Kosygin, A A

    2004-01-01

    It is shown that, when the angular resolution of a receiving optical system is insufficient, the angular dimensions of a located object can be estimated and its shape can be reconstructed by estimating the parameters of the fourth-order correlation function (CF) of scattered coherent radiation. The reliability of the estimates of CF counts obtained by the method of a discrete spatial convolution of the intensity-field counts, the possibility of estimating the CF profile counts by the method of one-dimensional convolution of intensity counts, and the applicability of the method for reconstructing the object shape are confirmed experimentally. (laser applications and other topics in quantum electronics)

  14. Anatomical Reconstruction and Functional Imaging Reveal an Ordered Array of Skylight Polarization Detectors in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weir, Peter T; Henze, Miriam J; Bleul, Christiane; Baumann-Klausener, Franziska; Labhart, Thomas; Dickinson, Michael H

    2016-05-11

    Many insects exploit skylight polarization as a compass cue for orientation and navigation. In the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, photoreceptors R7 and R8 in the dorsal rim area (DRA) of the compound eye are specialized to detect the electric vector (e-vector) of linearly polarized light. These photoreceptors are arranged in stacked pairs with identical fields of view and spectral sensitivities, but mutually orthogonal microvillar orientations. As in larger flies, we found that the microvillar orientation of the distal photoreceptor R7 changes in a fan-like fashion along the DRA. This anatomical arrangement suggests that the DRA constitutes a detector for skylight polarization, in which different e-vectors maximally excite different positions in the array. To test our hypothesis, we measured responses to polarized light of varying e-vector angles in the terminals of R7/8 cells using genetically encoded calcium indicators. Our data confirm a progression of preferred e-vector angles from anterior to posterior in the DRA, and a strict orthogonality between the e-vector preferences of paired R7/8 cells. We observed decreased activity in photoreceptors in response to flashes of light polarized orthogonally to their preferred e-vector angle, suggesting reciprocal inhibition between photoreceptors in the same medullar column, which may serve to increase polarization contrast. Together, our results indicate that the polarization-vision system relies on a spatial map of preferred e-vector angles at the earliest stage of sensory processing. The fly's visual system is an influential model system for studying neural computation, and much is known about its anatomy, physiology, and development. The circuits underlying motion processing have received the most attention, but researchers are increasingly investigating other functions, such as color perception and object recognition. In this work, we investigate the early neural processing of a somewhat exotic sense, called

  15. Human Functions, Machine Tools, and the Role of the Analyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordon R. Middleton

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In an era of rapidly increasing technical capability, the intelligence focus is often on the modes of collection and tools of analysis rather than the analyst themselves. Data are proliferating and so are tools to help analysts deal with the flood of data and the increasingly demanding timeline for intelligence production, but the role of the analyst in such a data-driven environment needs to be understood in order to support key management decisions (e.g., training and investment priorities. This paper describes a model of the analytic process, and analyzes the roles played by humans and machine tools in each process element. It concludes that human analytic functions are as critical in the intelligence process as they have ever been, and perhaps even more so due to the advance of technology in the intelligence business. Human functions performed by analysts are critical in nearly every step in the process, particularly at the front end of the analytic process, in defining and refining the problem statement, and at the end of the process, in generating knowledge, presenting the story in understandable terms, tailoring the presentation of the results of the analysis to various audiences, as well as in determining when to initiate iterative loops in the process. The paper concludes with observations on the necessity of enabling expert analysts, tools to deal with big data, developing analysts with advanced analytic methods as well as with techniques for optimal use of advanced tools, and suggestions for further quantitative research.

  16. Functional roles of DNA polymerases β and γ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huebscher, U.; Kuenzle, C.C.; Spadari, S.

    1979-01-01

    The physiological functions of DNA polymerases (deoxynucleosidetriphosphate:DNA deoxynucleotidyltransferase, EC2.7.7.7)β and γ were investigated by using neuronal nuclei and synaptosomes isolated from rat brain. uv irradiation of neuronal nuclei from 60-day-old rats resulted in a 7- to 10-fold stimulation of DNA repair synthesis attributable to DNA polymerase β which, at this developmental stage, is virtually the only DNA polymerase present in the nuclei. No repair synthesis could be elicited by treating the nuclei with N-methyl-N-nitrosourea, but this was probably due to the inability of brain tissue to excise alkylated bases from DNA. The role of DNA polymerase γ was studied in synaptosomes by using a system mimicking in vivo mitochondrial DNA synthesis. By showing that under these conditions, DNA replication occurs in miatochondria, and exploiting the fact that DNA polymerase γ is the only DNA polymerase present in mitochondria, evidence was obtained for a role of DNA polymerase γ in mitochondrial DNA replication. Based on these results and on the wealth of literature on DNA polymerase α, we conclude that DNA polymerase α is mainly responsible for DNA replication in nuclei, DNA polymerase β is involved in nuclear DNA repair, and DNA polymerase γ is the mitochondrial replicating enzyme. However, minor roles for DNA polymerase α in DNA repair or for DNA polymerase β in DNA replication cannot be excluded

  17. Movement dynamics reflect a functional role for weak coupling and role structure in dyadic problem solving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abney, Drew H; Paxton, Alexandra; Dale, Rick; Kello, Christopher T

    2015-11-01

    Successful interaction requires complex coordination of body movements. Previous research has suggested a functional role for coordination and especially synchronization (i.e., time-locked movement across individuals) in different types of human interaction contexts. Although such coordination has been shown to be nearly ubiquitous in human interaction, less is known about its function. One proposal is that synchrony supports and facilitates communication (Topics Cogn Sci 1:305-319, 2009). However, questions still remain about what the properties of coordination for optimizing communication might look like. In the present study, dyads worked together to construct towers from uncooked spaghetti and marshmallows. Using cross-recurrence quantification analysis, we found that dyads with loosely coupled gross body movements performed better, supporting recent work suggesting that simple synchrony may not be the key to effective performance (Riley et al. 2011). We also found evidence that leader-follower dynamics-when sensitive to the specific role structure of the interaction-impact task performance. We discuss our results with respect to the functional role of coordination in human interaction.

  18. Jet reconstruction and measurement of identified fragmentation functions in Pb-Pb and pp collisions with the ALICE experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Xianguo; Busch, Oliver [Physikalisches Institut, Heidelberg (Germany); Collaboration: ALICE-Collaboration

    2014-07-01

    Jets are defined in QCD as cascades of consecutive emission of partons from an initial hard scattering. The process of parton showering and subsequent hadronisation is broadly known as fragmentation. High energy nucleus-nucleus collisions allow us to probe parton fragmentation within a QCD medium and the properties of this medium via the modification of the jet spectrum and jet structure. Jet reconstruction in pp collisions provides an elementary baseline and allows to investigate perturbative and non-perturbative aspects of particle production. In addition to inclusive probes, identified particles in the final states provide an enhanced sensitivity to the flavor dependence of fragmentation and nuclear modifications. ALICE at the CERN LHC is a general-purpose heavy ion experiment designed to study the physics of strongly interacting matter and the Quark-Gluon-Plasma. It has an excellent tracking and particle identification performance over a wide momentum range. In this talk we present results on inclusive jet observable as well as the novel measurements of identified fragmentation functions in pp and Pb-Pb collisions. The results are confronted with theory predictions.

  19. The CTBT National Data Centre: Roles And Functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faisal Izwan Abdul Rashid; Noriah Jamal; Mohd Azmi Sidid Omar; Azlinda Aziz

    2013-01-01

    Following the signature of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) on 23 July 1998, Malaysian Nuclear Agency (Nuclear Malaysia) was designated as the CTBT National Authority in Malaysia. Subsequently, Malaysia ratified the treaty on 17 January 2008. Following the ratification, a CTBT National Data Centre (CTBT-NDC) was established at Nuclear Malaysia. The objective of this paper is to elaborate the unique roles and functions of CTBT-NDC which provide technical support to the CTBT National Authority in carrying out its roles under CTBT as well as promoting the uses of International Monitoring System (IMS) data and International Data Centre (IDC) products for civil and scientific applications. With regards to the verification of events suspected to be a nuclear weapon test, CTBT-NDC performs waveform data analysis using IMS data and IDC products produced by IDC in order to verify the nature of such event. The waveform data analysis could include seismic, hydro acoustic and infra sound data. In addition, an atmospheric transport modeling on possible release of radionuclide particles originated from the nuclear weapon test location is also performed to forecast the global dispersion of radionuclide smoke. The findings from these analyses will be used as technical advice to the CTBT National Authority. Apart from verification purposes, CTBT-NDC also promotes the benefits of IMS data and IDC products for civil and scientific applications such as earth studies, improvement of disaster management and etc. In summary, CTBT NDC plays a unique role in supporting CTBT National Authority to carried out its functions under CTBT as well as promote the full use of IMS data and IDC products for civil and scientific applications. (author)

  20. Executive Functioning: Relationship with High School Student Role Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donna P. Mann

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND. Student role performance for academic success in secondary education is under represented in the occupational therapy literature, despite the persistently high dropout rate in the United States (Stillwell & Sable, 2013. Executive dysfunction is one of many possible contributors to difficulties in the classroom (Dirette & Kolak, 2004 and is a better indicator of school performance than IQ (Diamond, 2012. This research examined executive functioning of both alternative and traditional high school students to determine if there is a relationship between executive function and academic success as measured by cumulative grade point average. METHOD. 132 high school students from three different school settings were given the Behavioral Rating Inventory of Executive Function-Self Report (BRIEF-SR. The Global Executive Composite (GEC and individual subscale scores were compared to GPA. RESULTS. No significant difference in GEC scores was found among settings. Subscale scores for “inhibition” and “task completion” were significantly different in the alternative school setting. A weak negative correlation was seen between the GEC and GPA. However, academically unsuccessful students scored statistically lower on the GEC. CONCLUSION. Global executive dysfunction was not predicted by setting but was seen in academically unsuccessful students.

  1. Dieticians' intentions to recommend functional foods: The mediating role of consumption frequency of functional foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Myeong Hwa; Lee, Jiyeon; Song, Mi Jung

    2010-02-01

    This study explored the conceptual framework of dieticians' intentions to recommend functional food and the mediating role of consumption frequency. A web-based survey was designed using a self-administered questionnaire. A sample of Korean dieticians (N=233) responded to the questionnaire that included response efficacy, risk perception, consumption frequency, and recommendation intention for functional foods. A structural equation model was constructed to analyze the data. We found that response efficacy was positively related to frequency of consumption of functional foods and to recommendation intention. Consumption frequency also positively influenced recommendation intention. Risk perception had no direct influence on recommendation intention; however, the relationship was mediated completely by consumption frequency. Dieticians' consumption frequency and response efficacy were the crucial factors in recommending functional foods. Dieticians may perceive risks arising from the use of functional foods in general, but the perceived risks do not affect ratings describing dieticians' intentions to recommend them. The results also indicated that when dieticians more frequently consume functional foods, the expression of an intention to recommend functional foods may be controlled by the salience of past behaviors rather than by attitudes.

  2. The Role of Control Functions in Mentalizing: Dual-Task Studies of Theory of Mind and Executive Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bull, Rebecca; Phillips, Louise H.; Conway, Claire A.

    2008-01-01

    Conflicting evidence has arisen from correlational studies regarding the role of executive control functions in Theory of Mind. The current study used dual-task manipulations of executive functions (inhibition, updating and switching) to investigate the role of these control functions in mental state and non-mental state tasks. The "Eyes"…

  3. The Effects of High-Intensity versus Low-Intensity Resistance Training on Leg Extensor Power and Recovery of Knee Function after ACL-Reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theresa Bieler

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Persistent weakness is a common problem after anterior cruciate ligament- (ACL- reconstruction. This study investigated the effects of high-intensity (HRT versus low-intensity (LRT resistance training on leg extensor power and recovery of knee function after ACL-reconstruction. Methods. 31 males and 19 females were randomized to HRT (n=24 or LRT (n=26 from week 8–20 after ACL-reconstruction. Leg extensor power, joint laxity, and self-reported knee function were measured before and 7, 14, and 20 weeks after surgery. Hop tests were assessed before and after 20 weeks. Results. Power in the injured leg was 90% (95% CI 86–94% of the noninjured leg, decreasing to 64% (95% CI 60–69% 7 weeks after surgery. During the resistance training phase there was a significant group by time interaction for power (P=0.020. Power was regained more with HRT compared to LRT at week 14 (84% versus 73% of noninjured leg, resp.; P=0.027 and at week 20 (98% versus 83% of noninjured leg, resp.; P=0.006 without adverse effects on joint laxity. No other between-group differences were found. Conclusion. High-intensity resistance training during rehabilitation after ACL-reconstruction can improve muscle power without adverse effects on joint laxity.

  4. Multireference configuration interaction theory using cumulant reconstruction with internal contraction of density matrix renormalization group wave function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saitow, Masaaki; Kurashige, Yuki; Yanai, Takeshi

    2013-07-28

    We report development of the multireference configuration interaction (MRCI) method that can use active space scalable to much larger size references than has previously been possible. The recent development of the density matrix renormalization group (DMRG) method in multireference quantum chemistry offers the ability to describe static correlation in a large active space. The present MRCI method provides a critical correction to the DMRG reference by including high-level dynamic correlation through the CI treatment. When the DMRG and MRCI theories are combined (DMRG-MRCI), the full internal contraction of the reference in the MRCI ansatz, including contraction of semi-internal states, plays a central role. However, it is thought to involve formidable complexity because of the presence of the five-particle rank reduced-density matrix (RDM) in the Hamiltonian matrix elements. To address this complexity, we express the Hamiltonian matrix using commutators, which allows the five-particle rank RDM to be canceled out without any approximation. Then we introduce an approximation to the four-particle rank RDM by using a cumulant reconstruction from lower-particle rank RDMs. A computer-aided approach is employed to derive the exceedingly complex equations of the MRCI in tensor-contracted form and to implement them into an efficient parallel computer code. This approach extends to the size-consistency-corrected variants of MRCI, such as the MRCI+Q, MR-ACPF, and MR-AQCC methods. We demonstrate the capability of the DMRG-MRCI method in several benchmark applications, including the evaluation of single-triplet gap of free-base porphyrin using 24 active orbitals.

  5. Evaluation of spatial dependence of point spread function-based PET reconstruction using a traceable point-like 22Na source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taisuke Murata

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The point spread function (PSF of positron emission tomography (PET depends on the position across the field of view (FOV. Reconstruction based on PSF improves spatial resolution and quantitative accuracy. The present study aimed to quantify the effects of PSF correction as a function of the position of a traceable point-like 22Na source over the FOV on two PET scanners with a different detector design. Methods We used Discovery 600 and Discovery 710 (GE Healthcare PET scanners and traceable point-like 22Na sources (<1 MBq with a spherical absorber design that assures uniform angular distribution of the emitted annihilation photons. The source was moved in three directions at intervals of 1 cm from the center towards the peripheral FOV using a three-dimensional (3D-positioning robot, and data were acquired over a period of 2 min per point. The PET data were reconstructed by filtered back projection (FBP, the ordered subset expectation maximization (OSEM, OSEM + PSF, and OSEM + PSF + time-of-flight (TOF. Full width at half maximum (FWHM was determined according to the NEMA method, and total counts in regions of interest (ROI for each reconstruction were quantified. Results The radial FWHM of FBP and OSEM increased towards the peripheral FOV, whereas PSF-based reconstruction recovered the FWHM at all points in the FOV of both scanners. The radial FWHM for PSF was 30–50 % lower than that of OSEM at the center of the FOV. The accuracy of PSF correction was independent of detector design. Quantitative values were stable across the FOV in all reconstruction methods. The effect of TOF on spatial resolution and quantitation accuracy was less noticeable. Conclusions The traceable 22Na point-like source allowed the evaluation of spatial resolution and quantitative accuracy across the FOV using different reconstruction methods and scanners. PSF-based reconstruction reduces dependence of the spatial resolution on the

  6. Structures and Functions of Oligosaccharins: The Role of Endoglycanases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergmann, Carl W. [University of Georgia

    2008-12-05

    The research proposed will investigate two projects that involve studies of the chemistry and biology of protein/protein and protein/carbohydrate interactions involved in host/pathogen interactions. Specifically, the projects involve (i) the interactions between fungal endopolygalacturonases and plant polygalacturonase-inhibiting proteins and (ii) the interactions between fungal endoxylanases and plant arabinoxylans. During pathogenesis fungi secrete families of endoglycanases that fragment the cell wall polysaccharides of the plant host. The result of endoglycanase action on cell wall polysaccharides can include weakening of the wall, penetration of host cells by the pathogen, solubilization of carbohydrate nutrients, and formation of oligosaccharins (oligosaccharides with regulatory function) that can stimulate plant defenses. We have made significant advances during the last funding period to support the hypothesis that the outcome of attempted pathogenesis can be influenced by protein/protein and protein/carbohydrate interactions in the extracellular matrices of the host and pathogen. We plan to expand on those successes by further exploring the mechanism of action of the endoglycanases and their plant-derived inhibitors, the expression of the various members of the endoglycanase families at various stages of infection and their role in the release of oligosaccharins and in pathogenicity, as well as the role played by the polysaccharide substrates in both pathogenicity and endoglycanase-inhibitor interactions.

  7. Functional roles of CSPG4/NG2 in chondrosarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamil, Nuor S M; Azfer, Asim; Worrell, Harrison; Salter, Donald M

    2016-04-01

    CSPG4/NG2 is a multifunctional transmembrane protein with limited distribution in adult tissues including articular cartilage. The purpose of this study was to investigate the possible roles of CSPG4/NG2 in chondrosarcomas and to establish whether this molecule may have potential for targeted therapy. Stable knock-down of CSPG4/NG2 in the JJ012 chondrosarcoma cell line by shRNA resulted in decreased cell proliferation and migration as well as a decrease in gene expression of the MMP (matrix metalloproteinase) 3 protease and ADAMTS4 (aggrecanase). Chondrosarcoma cells in which CSPG4/NG2 was knocked down were more sensitive to doxorubicin than wild-type cells. The results indicate that CSPG4/NG2 has roles in regulating chondrosarcoma cell function in relation to growth, spread and resistance to chemotherapy and that anti-CSPG4/NG2 therapies may have potential in the treatment of surgically unresectable chondrosarcoma. © 2016 The Authors. International Journal of Experimental Pathology © 2016 International Journal of Experimental Pathology.

  8. Functional role of cannabinoid receptors in urinary bladder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pradeep Tyagi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Cannabinoids, the active components of Cannabis sativa (marijuana, and their derivatives produce a wide spectrum of central and peripheral effects, some of which may have clinical applications. The discovery of specific cannabinoid receptors and a family of endogenous ligands of those receptors has attracted much attention to the general cannabinoid pharmacology. In recent years, studies on the functional role of cannabinoid receptors in bladder have been motivated by the therapeutic effects of cannabinoids on voiding dysfunction in multiple sclerosis patients. In this review, we shall summarize the literature on the expression of cannabinoid receptors in urinary bladder and the peripheral influence of locally and systemically administered cannabinoids in the bladder. The ongoing search for cannabinoid-based therapeutic strategies devoid of psychotropic effects can be complemented with local delivery into bladder by the intravesical route. A greater understanding of the role of the peripheral CB 1 and CB 2 receptor system in lower urinary tract is necessary to allow the development of new treatment for pelvic disorders.

  9. Development of an item bank and computer adaptive test for role functioning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anatchkova, Milena D; Rose, Matthias; Ware, John E

    2012-01-01

    Role functioning (RF) is a key component of health and well-being and an important outcome in health research. The aim of this study was to develop an item bank to measure impact of health on role functioning.......Role functioning (RF) is a key component of health and well-being and an important outcome in health research. The aim of this study was to develop an item bank to measure impact of health on role functioning....

  10. Functional Gustatory Role of Chemoreceptors in Drosophila Wings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raad, Hussein; Ferveur, Jean-François; Ledger, Neil; Capovilla, Maria; Robichon, Alain

    2016-05-17

    Neuroanatomical evidence argues for the presence of taste sensilla in Drosophila wings; however, the taste physiology of insect wings remains hypothetical, and a comprehensive link to mechanical functions, such as flight, wing flapping, and grooming, is lacking. Our data show that the sensilla of the Drosophila anterior wing margin respond to both sweet and bitter molecules through an increase in cytosolic Ca(2+) levels. Conversely, genetically modified flies presenting a wing-specific reduction in chemosensory cells show severe defects in both wing taste signaling and the exploratory guidance associated with chemodetection. In Drosophila, the chemodetection machinery includes mechanical grooming, which facilitates the contact between tastants and wing chemoreceptors, and the vibrations of flapping wings that nebulize volatile molecules as carboxylic acids. Together, these data demonstrate that the Drosophila wing chemosensory sensilla are a functional taste organ and that they may have a role in the exploration of ecological niches. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Functional neuroimaging of conversion disorder: the role of ancillary activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Matthew J; Ghaffar, Omar; Staines, W Richard; Downar, Jonathan; Feinstein, Anthony

    2014-01-01

    Previous functional neuroimaging studies investigating the neuroanatomy of conversion disorder have yielded inconsistent results that may be attributed to small sample sizes and disparate methodologies. The objective of this study was to better define the functional neuroanatomical correlates of conversion disorder. Ten subjects meeting clinical criteria for unilateral sensory conversion disorder underwent fMRI during which a vibrotactile stimulus was applied to anesthetic and sensate areas. A block design was used with 4 s of stimulation followed by 26 s of rest, the pattern repeated 10 times. Event-related group averages of the BOLD response were compared between conditions. All subjects were right-handed females, with a mean age of 41. Group analyses revealed 10 areas that had significantly greater activation (p conversion symptoms are associated with a pattern of abnormal cerebral activation comprising neural networks implicated in emotional processing and sensory integration. Further study of the roles and potential interplay of these networks may provide a basis for an underlying psychobiological mechanism of conversion disorder.

  12. Executive function in paediatric medulloblastoma: The role of cerebrocerebellar connections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Nicole; Smith, Mary Lou; Greenberg, Mark; Bouffet, Eric; Taylor, Michael D; Laughlin, Suzanne; Malkin, David; Liu, Fang; Moxon-Emre, Iska; Scantlebury, Nadia; Mabbott, Donald

    2017-06-01

    Executive functions (EFs) are involved in the attainment, maintenance, and integration of information; these functions may play a key role in cognitive and behavioural outcomes in children treated for medulloblastoma (MB). At present, it remains unclear which EFs are most sensitive to the treatment effects for MB and whether damage to cerebrocerebellar circuitry is associated with EF. We completed a comprehensive evaluation of EF in 24 children treated for MB and 20 age-matched healthy children (HC) and distilled these measures into components. Six components (C1-C6) were extracted from our model, reflecting dissociable constructs of EF: C1 = cognitive efficiency; C2 = planning/problem-solving; C3 = positive cognitive emotion regulation; C4 = working memory; C5 = negative cognitive emotion regulation; and C6 = mixed cognitive emotion regulation. Group differences were found for C1, C2, C3, and C4; the MB group showed poorer performance on EF tasks and made less use of positive cognitive emotion regulation strategies relative to HC. Compromise to cerebrocerebellar microstructure - cerebro-ponto-cerebellar and cerebello-thalamo-cerebral pathways - was evident in children treated for MB compared to HC. We found that cerebrocerebellar circuitry has a mediating effect on one component of EF following treatment for MB - working memory. © 2015 The British Psychological Society.

  13. Assessment of degree of trauma and levator ani muscle contraction function after pelvic floor reconstruction and traditional surgical treatment of pelvic organ prolapse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Hua Zhu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the degree of trauma and levator ani muscle contraction function after pelvic floor reconstruction and traditional surgical treatment of pelvic organ prolapse. Methods: Patients with III-IV pelvic organ prolapse who received surgical treatment in our hospital between May 2011 and October 2015 were randomly divided into observation group who received vaginal hysterectomy combined with pelvic floor reconstruction and control group who received vaginal hysterectomy combined with colporrhaphy, and then the degree of trauma, urodynamics and levator ani muscle contraction function were compared between two groups of patients. Results: Operating time, intraoperative blood loss as well as serum CRP, IL-1β, TNF-α, Ins, NE and E content were not significantly different between two groups (P>0.05; 2 weeks after operation, maximum bladder volume and QMax of observation group were significantly higher than those of control group, PdetQMax, PdetMax and PVR were significantly lower than those of control group (P0.05, LAT under Valsalva maneuver was significantly more than that of control group while LHS under Valsalva maneuver was significantly less than that of control group (P<0.05. Conclusions: Pelvic floor reconstruction treatment of pelvic organ prolapse has equivalent degree of surgical trauma to traditional surgery, and has better effect on improving the urination function and levator ani muscle contraction function than traditional surgery.

  14. Functional valve assessment: the emerging role of cardiovascular magnetic resonance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Dipan J

    2010-01-01

    The prevalence of valvular heart disease is increasing along with the life span of the population. In assessing individuals with valve disease, echocardiography is the primary imaging modality used by clinicians both for initial assessment and for longitudinal evaluation. Information regarding valve morphology and function, cardiac chamber size, wall thickness, ventricular function, and estimates of pulmonary artery pressures can be readily obtained and integrated to formulate an assessment of valve disease severity. In some instances, body habitus or the presence of coexisting lung disease may result in suboptimal acoustic windows on echocardiography, which may lead to technically difficult studies. Additionally, in some patients, information from clinical history and physical examination or other diagnostic tests may be discordant with echocardiographic findings. In these instances, there is a significant clinical role for cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR). The diagnostic capabilities of CMR have increased substantially over the past 20 years due to hardware and software advances. Today, CMR has a number of unique advantages over other imaging modalities - primarily, it provides a view of the entire heart without limitations from inadequate imaging windows or body habitus. Furthermore, CMR can obtain imaging data in any imaging plane prescribed by the scan operator, which makes it ideal for accurate investigation of all cardiac valves - aortic, mitral, pulmonic, and tricuspid. In addition, CMR for valve assessment is noninvasive, free of ionizing radiation, and in most instances does not require contrast administration. Since a comprehensive review of the role of CMR in all valve lesions is beyond the scope of this article, we will focus on the most common valvular indication for performance of clinical CMR techniques and an overview of selected validation and reproducibility studies. The objectives of a comprehensive CMR study for evaluating mitral

  15. Knee-Extension Torque Variability and Subjective Knee Function in Patients with a History of Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goetschius, John; Hart, Joseph M

    2016-01-01

    When returning to physical activity, patients with a history of anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACL-R) often experience limitations in knee-joint function that may be due to chronic impairments in quadriceps motor control. Assessment of knee-extension torque variability may demonstrate underlying impairments in quadriceps motor control in patients with a history of ACL-R. To identify differences in maximal isometric knee-extension torque variability between knees that have undergone ACL-R and healthy knees and to determine the relationship between knee-extension torque variability and self-reported knee function in patients with a history of ACL-R. Descriptive laboratory study. Laboratory. A total of 53 individuals with primary, unilateral ACL-R (age = 23.4 ± 4.9 years, height = 1.7 ± 0.1 m, mass = 74.6 ± 14.8 kg) and 50 individuals with no history of substantial lower extremity injury or surgery who served as controls (age = 23.3 ± 4.4 years, height = 1.7 ± 0.1 m, mass = 67.4 ± 13.2 kg). Torque variability, strength, and central activation ratio (CAR) were calculated from 3-second maximal knee-extension contraction trials (90° of flexion) with a superimposed electrical stimulus. All participants completed the International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) Subjective Knee Evaluation Form, and we determined the number of months after surgery. Group differences were assessed using independent-samples t tests. Correlation coefficients were calculated among torque variability, strength, CAR, months after surgery, and IKDC scores. Torque variability, strength, CAR, and months after surgery were regressed on IKDC scores using stepwise, multiple linear regression. Torque variability was greater and strength, CAR, and IKDC scores were lower in the ACL-R group than in the control group (P Torque variability and strength were correlated with IKDC scores (P Torque variability, strength, and CAR were correlated with each other (P Torque variability alone

  16. Gap-filling analysis of the iJO1366 Escherichia coli metabolic network reconstruction for discovery of metabolic functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orth Jeffrey D

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The iJO1366 reconstruction of the metabolic network of Escherichia coli is one of the most complete and accurate metabolic reconstructions available for any organism. Still, because our knowledge of even well-studied model organisms such as this one is incomplete, this network reconstruction contains gaps and possible errors. There are a total of 208 blocked metabolites in iJO1366, representing gaps in the network. Results A new model improvement workflow was developed to compare model based phenotypic predictions to experimental data to fill gaps and correct errors. A Keio Collection based dataset of E. coli gene essentiality was obtained from literature data and compared to model predictions. The SMILEY algorithm was then used to predict the most likely missing reactions in the reconstructed network, adding reactions from a KEGG based universal set of metabolic reactions. The feasibility of these putative reactions was determined by comparing updated versions of the model to the experimental dataset, and genes were predicted for the most feasible reactions. Conclusions Numerous improvements to the iJO1366 metabolic reconstruction were suggested by these analyses. Experiments were performed to verify several computational predictions, including a new mechanism for growth on myo-inositol. The other predictions made in this study should be experimentally verifiable by similar means. Validating all of the predictions made here represents a substantial but important undertaking.

  17. Clinical and Functional Outcomes following Primary Repair versus Reconstruction of the Medial Patellofemoral Ligament for Recurrent Patellar Instability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Tompkins

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The purpose of this study was to compare outcomes of medial patellofemoral ligament (MPFL repair or reconstruction. Methods. Fourteen knees that underwent MPFL repair and nine (F5, M4 knees that underwent reconstruction at our institution were evaluated for objective and subjective outcomes. The mean age at operation was 20.1 years for repair and 19.8 years for reconstruction. All patients had a minimum of 2 years of follow-up (range: 24–75 months. Patient subjective outcomes were obtained using the International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC and Kujala patellofemoral subjective evaluations, as well as Visual Analog (VAS and Tegner Activity Scales. Bilateral isometric quadriceps strength and vastus medialis obliquus (VMO and vastus lateralis (VL surface EMG were measured during maximal isometric quadriceps contractions at 30° and 60° of flexion. Results. There were no redislocations in either group. There was no difference in IKDC (P=0.16, Kujala (P=0.43, Tegner (P=0.12, or VAS (P=0.05 scores at follow-up. There were no differences between repair and reconstruction in torque generation of the involved side at 30° (P=0.96 and 60° (P=0.99. In addition, there was no side to side difference in torque generation or surface EMG activation of VL or VMO. Conclusions. There were minimal differences found between patients undergoing MPFL repair and MPFL reconstruction for the objective and subjective evaluations in this study.

  18. Circular RNAs: Biogenesis, Function and Role in Human Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Greene

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Circular RNAs (circRNAs are currently classed as non-coding RNA (ncRNA that, unlike linear RNAs, form covalently closed continuous loops and act as gene regulators in mammals. They were originally thought to represent errors in splicing and considered to be of low abundance, however, there is now an increased appreciation of their important function in gene regulation. circRNAs are differentially generated by backsplicing of exons or from lariat introns. Unlike linear RNA, the 3′ and 5′ ends normally present in an RNA molecule have been joined together by covalent bonds leading to circularization. Interestingly, they have been found to be abundant, evolutionally conserved and relatively stable in the cytoplasm. These features confer numerous potential functions to circRNAs, such as acting as miRNA sponges, or binding to RNA-associated proteins to form RNA-protein complexes that regulate gene transcription. It has been proposed that circRNA regulate gene expression at the transcriptional or post-transcriptional level by interacting with miRNAs and that circRNAs may have a role in regulating miRNA function in cancer initiation and progression. circRNAs appear to be more often downregulated in tumor tissue compared to normal tissue and this may be due to (i errors in the back-splice machinery in malignant tissues, (ii degradation of circRNAs by deregulated miRNAs in tumor tissue, or (iii increasing cell proliferation leading to a reduction of circRNAs. circRNAs have been identified in exosomes and more recently, chromosomal translocations in cancer have been shown to generate aberrant fusion-circRNAs associated with resistance to drug treatments. In addition, though originally thought to be non-coding, there is now increasing evidence to suggest that select circRNAs can be translated into functional proteins. Although much remains to be elucidated about circRNA biology and mechanisms of gene regulation, these ncRNAs are quickly emerging as

  19. Satisfactory knee function after single-stage posterolateral corner reconstruction in the multi-ligament injured/dislocated knee using the anatomic single-graft technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Thomas L; Johnson, Nick R; Pareek, Ayoosh; Krych, Aaron J; Marx, Robert G; Stuart, Michael J; Levy, Bruce A

    2018-04-01

    Increasing importance has been placed on the posterolateral corner (PLC) in maintaining varus and rotational stability of the knee. The goal of this study was to evaluate knee function and clinical stability following a single-graft PLC reconstruction technique and identify factors associated with poor knee function. This study identified patients with a multi-ligament knee injury between 2006 and 2013. Patients who received a single-graft fibular collateral ligament and PLC reconstruction with a single-stage surgery during the study period and had a minimum follow-up of 2 years after surgery were included. Functional outcomes were assessed using Lysholm and IKDC scores. Varus and rotational knee laxity and range of motion were assessed using physical examination. The final study cohort included 61 patients who underwent PLC reconstruction using a single-graft technique. The mean IKDC score was 74.1 (± 22.3) and the mean Lysholm score was 80.3 (± 21.8) at mean follow-up of 3.8 years (range 2-9 years). Mean range of motion at final follow-up measured from 0° to 126° [range flexion: 95-145, range extension: 0-5]. Fifty-eight patients (95%) had grade 0 varus laxity in full knee extension, and 54 patients (88.5%) had grade 0 varus laxity at 30° of knee flexion. Female gender was associated with a lower postoperative IKDC score (p = 0.04). Surgical treatment of the PLC using a single-graft technique can result in satisfactory knee function and stable physical examination findings at minimum 2 years after surgery. Female gender was predictive of poor knee function after PLC reconstruction. Surgical treatment of PLC injuries should be individualized based on the timing of surgery, specific injured knee structures, and physical examination findings. This study helps validate the use of a single-graft technique for PLC reconstruction and can be used to help counsel patients about expected knee function after surgical treatment of PLC injuries. Level of evidence

  20. Functional role of frontal alpha oscillations in creativity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lustenberger, Caroline; Boyle, Michael R; Foulser, A Alban; Mellin, Juliann M; Fröhlich, Flavio

    2015-06-01

    Creativity, the ability to produce innovative ideas, is a key higher-order cognitive function that is poorly understood. At the level of macroscopic cortical network dynamics, recent electroencephalography (EEG) data suggests that cortical oscillations in the alpha frequency band (8-12 Hz) are correlated with creative thinking. However, whether alpha oscillations play a functional role in creativity has remained unknown. Here we show that creativity is increased by enhancing alpha power using 10 Hz transcranial alternating current stimulation (10 Hz-tACS) of the frontal cortex. In a study of 20 healthy participants with a randomized, balanced cross-over design, we found a significant improvement of 7.4% in the Creativity Index measured by the Torrance Test of Creative Thinking (TTCT), a comprehensive and most frequently used assay of creative potential and strengths. In a second similar study with 20 subjects, 40 Hz-tACS was used instead of 10 Hz-tACS to rule out a general "electrical stimulation" effect. No significant change in the Creativity Index was found for such frontal 40 Hz stimulation. Our results suggest that alpha activity in frontal brain areas is selectively involved in creativity; this enhancement represents the first demonstration of specific neuronal dynamics that drive creativity and can be modulated by non-invasive brain stimulation. Our findings agree with the model that alpha recruitment increases with internal processing demands and is involved in inhibitory top-down control, which is an important requirement for creative ideation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Knee functional recovery and limb-to-limb symmetry restoration after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) rupture and ACL reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawasreh, Zakariya Hussein

    Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) rupture is a common sport injury of young athletes who participate in jumping, cutting, and pivoting activities. Although ACL reconstruction (ACLR) surgery has the goal of enabling athletes to return to preinjury activity levels, treatment results often fall short of this goal. The outcomes after ACLR are variable and less than optimal with low rate of return to preinjury activity level and high risk for second ACL injury. Factors related to the knee functional limitations, strength deficits, and limb-to-limb movement asymmetry may be associated with poor outcomes after ACLR. Additionally, the criteria that are used to determine a patient's readiness to return to the preinjury activity level are undefined which may also be associated with poor outcomes after ACLR. The clinical decision-making to clear patients' for safe and successful return to high physical activities should be based on a universal comprehensive set of objective criteria that ensure normal knee function and limb-to-limb symmetry. A battery of return to activity criteria (RTAC) that emphases normal knee function and limb-to-limb movement symmetry has been constituted to better ensure safe and successful return to preinjury activity level. Yet, only variables related to patients' demographics, concomitant injuries, and treatment measures have been used to predict return to preinjury activity levels after ACLR. However, the ability of RTAC variables that ensure normal knee function and limb movement symmetry to predict the return to participate in the same preinjury activity level after ACLR has not been investigated. In light of this background, the first aim of the present study was to compare functional knee performance-based and patient-reported measures of those who PASS and who FAIL on RTAC at 6 months (6-M) following ACLR with those at 12 months (12-M) and 24 months (24-M) following ACLR and to determine how performance-based and patient-reported measures

  2. Overview of image reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marr, R.B.

    1980-04-01

    Image reconstruction (or computerized tomography, etc.) is any process whereby a function, f, on R/sup n/ is estimated from empirical data pertaining to its integrals, ∫f(x) dx, for some collection of hyperplanes of dimension k < n. The paper begins with background information on how image reconstruction problems have arisen in practice, and describes some of the application areas of past or current interest; these include radioastronomy, optics, radiology and nuclear medicine, electron microscopy, acoustical imaging, geophysical tomography, nondestructive testing, and NMR zeugmatography. Then the various reconstruction algorithms are discussed in five classes: summation, or simple back-projection; convolution, or filtered back-projection; Fourier and other functional transforms; orthogonal function series expansion; and iterative methods. Certain more technical mathematical aspects of image reconstruction are considered from the standpoint of uniqueness, consistency, and stability of solution. The paper concludes by presenting certain open problems. 73 references

  3. Editorial Commentary: All-Inside Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction Can Afford Satisfactory Clinical Outcome and Functional Stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshiya, Shinichi

    2016-02-01

    Anatomic all-inside anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction using the autogenous semitendinosus tendon graft can afford satisfactory outcomes, achieving significant postoperative improvement in all clinical parameters. Copyright © 2016 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Iterative image reconstruction for positron emission tomography based on a detector response function estimated from point source measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tohme, Michel S; Qi Jinyi

    2009-01-01

    The accuracy of the system model in an iterative reconstruction algorithm greatly affects the quality of reconstructed positron emission tomography (PET) images. For efficient computation in reconstruction, the system model in PET can be factored into a product of a geometric projection matrix and sinogram blurring matrix, where the former is often computed based on analytical calculation, and the latter is estimated using Monte Carlo simulations. Direct measurement of a sinogram blurring matrix is difficult in practice because of the requirement of a collimated source. In this work, we propose a method to estimate the 2D blurring kernels from uncollimated point source measurements. Since the resulting sinogram blurring matrix stems from actual measurements, it can take into account the physical effects in the photon detection process that are difficult or impossible to model in a Monte Carlo (MC) simulation, and hence provide a more accurate system model. Another advantage of the proposed method over MC simulation is that it can easily be applied to data that have undergone a transformation to reduce the data size (e.g., Fourier rebinning). Point source measurements were acquired with high count statistics in a relatively fine grid inside the microPET II scanner using a high-precision 2D motion stage. A monotonically convergent iterative algorithm has been derived to estimate the detector blurring matrix from the point source measurements. The algorithm takes advantage of the rotational symmetry of the PET scanner and explicitly models the detector block structure. The resulting sinogram blurring matrix is incorporated into a maximum a posteriori (MAP) image reconstruction algorithm. The proposed method has been validated using a 3 x 3 line phantom, an ultra-micro resolution phantom and a 22 Na point source superimposed on a warm background. The results of the proposed method show improvements in both resolution and contrast ratio when compared with the MAP

  5. [Reconstruction of the ear in the burns patient].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrillo-Córdova, Jorge Raúl; Jiménez Murat, Yusef; Apellaniz-Campo, Armando; Bracho-Olvera, Hazel; Carrillo Esper, Raúl

    Face burns are a singular pathology with great functional and psychological impact in the patients suffering them. The ears play a fundamental role in personal interactions and damage to this organ results in physical and emotional distress. The reconstructive treatment of the burned ear is a challenge. Multiple procedures have been described to achieve success in the reconstruction of the burned ear; immediate reconstruction with autologous rib cartilage, secondary reconstruction, alloplastic material reconstruction, tissue expansion, skin grafts and also microvascular flaps are some of the most common procedures used in this patients. All these techniques focus on giving a natural appearance to the patient. Burns to the ears affect 30% of the patients with facial burns, they require an excellent treatment given by a multidisciplinary team. Copyright © 2017 Academia Mexicana de Cirugía A.C. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  6. Reconstruction of spatiotemporal capture data by means of orthogonal functions: the case of skipjack tuna (Katsuwonus pelamis in the central-east Atlantic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Unai Ganzedo

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The information provided by the International Commission for the Conservation of Atlantic Tunas (ICCAT on captures of skipjack tuna (Katsuwonus pelamis in the central-east Atlantic has a number of limitations, such as gaps in the statistics for certain fleets and the level of spatiotemporal detail at which catches are reported. As a result, the quality of these data and their effectiveness for providing management advice is limited. In order to reconstruct missing spatiotemporal data of catches, the present study uses Data INterpolating Empirical Orthogonal Functions (DINEOF, a technique for missing data reconstruction, applied here for the first time to fisheries data. DINEOF is based on an Empirical Orthogonal Functions decomposition performed with a Lanczos method. DINEOF was tested with different amounts of missing data, intentionally removing values from 3.4% to 95.2% of data loss, and then compared with the same data set with no missing data. These validation analyses show that DINEOF is a reliable methodological approach of data reconstruction for the purposes of fishery management advice, even when the amount of missing data is very high.

  7. [Reconstructive methods after Fournier gangrene].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallner, C; Behr, B; Ring, A; Mikhail, B D; Lehnhardt, M; Daigeler, A

    2016-04-01

    Fournier's gangrene is a variant of the necrotizing fasciitis restricted to the perineal and genital region. It presents as an acute life-threatening disease and demands rapid surgical debridement, resulting in large soft tissue defects. Various reconstructive methods have to be applied to reconstitute functionality and aesthetics. The objective of this work is to identify different reconstructive methods in the literature and compare them to our current concepts for reconstructing defects caused by Fournier gangrene. Analysis of the current literature and our reconstructive methods on Fournier gangrene. The Fournier gangrene is an emergency requiring rapid, calculated antibiotic treatment and radical surgical debridement. After the acute phase of the disease, appropriate reconstructive methods are indicated. The planning of the reconstruction of the defect depends on many factors, especially functional and aesthetic demands. Scrotal reconstruction requires a higher aesthetic and functional reconstructive degree than perineal cutaneous wounds. In general, thorough wound hygiene, proper pre-operative planning, and careful consideration of the patient's demands are essential for successful reconstruction. In the literature, various methods for reconstruction after Fournier gangrene are described. Reconstruction with a flap is required for a good functional result in complex regions as the scrotum and penis, while cutaneous wounds can be managed through skin grafting. Patient compliance and tissue demand are crucial factors in the decision-making process.

  8. Functional imaging in the Neuroscience. The role of PET, MR and SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fulham, M.J.

    1998-01-01

    Full text: Functional imaging is commonly used to describe imaging techniques that provide data about aspects of tissue metabolism, such as glucose / protein metabolism, metabolite concentrations, neuro receptor density and blood flow / perfusion / diffusion when compared with the depiction of anatomy obtained with Computed Tomography (CT) and clinical Magnetic Resonance (MR) imaging. In the neuroscience this is a rapidly evolving area and unlike in the past where imaging of the nervous system was carried out by neuroradiologists participants in this dynamic field now come from diverse backgrounds and include basic scientists, clinicians, psychologists, physicists and chemists. PET and SPECT combine the principles of the tracer kinetic method and tomographic (as in CT) image reconstruction. A mathematical model can be derived to describe the biochemical process (in picomolar concentrations) under study and the raw counts of radioactivity that are detected by the scanner can be converted into units of physiological function in-vivo e.g. cerebral metabolic rate for glucose and receptor density. These techniques, using a variety of ligands, have been employed for evaluation of cerebral blood flow / volume, oxygen utilization / metabolism, glucose metabolism, amino acid transport / metabolism, protein synthesis, the dopaminergic, opiate, benzodiazepine, cholinergic and serotonergic systems and for brain mapping in humans. Meanwhile, the term 'functional MR imaging' encompasses MR spectroscopy, echoplanar imaging, diffusion tensor imaging and techniques that rely on the change in blood oxygenation levels to provide an indirect image of neuronal activity (referred to as fMRI). Unlike PET and SPECT, however, these data are obtained without using ionising radiation. In MRS, signals are obtained from nuclei (in mM concentrations) that are constituents of molecules other than water that provide the signal in clinical MR imaging; fibre tract directions have been depicted with

  9. Anatomical basis of the lateral superior gluteal artery perforator (LSGAP) flap and role in bilateral breast reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fade, Geraldine; Gobel, Fabienne; Pele, Eric; Chaput, Benoit; Garrido, Ignacio; Pinsolle, Vincent; Pelissier, Philippe; Sinna, Raphael

    2013-06-01

    Deep inferior epigastric perforator (DIEP) flap is one of the gold standards in autologous breast reconstruction. When the abdominal tissue is not available, the superior gluteal artery perforator (SGAP) is often a second option with its drawback, especially the donor-site deformity. Reports have highlighted that a higher and more lateral SGAP flap can be harvested to overcome several drawbacks of the classical SGAP, allowing in the same procedure a body-contouring procedure. In order to set the anatomical basis of this flap, we proposed to study the characteristics of a reliable and easily identifiable superior and lateral perforator of the superior gluteal artery (lateral SGAP (LSGAP)) situated in the region of the lower body-lift resection allowing to perform bilateral breast reconstruction at the same time. The anatomical study of 50 scans (or 100 buttocks) allows us to set forth a diagnostic assumption on the localisation of the perforator with respect to osseous landmarks (coccyx, iliac crest and great trochanter) which will be verified during the dissection of 10 cadavers (or 20 buttocks) and during the 20 colour Doppler examination (or 40 buttocks). In our computed tomography (CT) scan study, in 96% of cases, the perforator was situated in a circle with a radius≤3 cm with a 95% confidence interval and located at the junction of the proximal third-middle third of the distance summit of the posterior iliac crest (point B), most lateral point of the greater trochanter (point C). This assumption was verified by the cadaveric dissection and in vivo studies. Our study sets the anatomical landmarks of the LSGAP flap. This option allows the raising of an SGAP flap avoiding the main drawbacks of this flap and allows harvesting a flap with the tissue that is often discarded during the body-lift procedure. Copyright © 2013 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Functional Role of Infective Viral Particles on Metal Reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coates, John D.

    2014-04-01

    A proposed strategy for the remediation of uranium (U) contaminated sites was based on the immobilization of U by reducing the oxidized soluble U, U(VI), to form a reduced insoluble end product, U(IV). Previous studies identified Geobacter sp., including G. sulfurreducens and G. metallireducens, as predominant U(VI)-reducing bacteria under acetate-oxidizing and U(VI)-reducing conditions. Examination of the finished genome sequence annotation of the canonical metal reducing species Geobacter sulfurreducens strain PCA and G. metallireduceans strain GS-15 as well as the draft genome sequence of G. uraniumreducens strain Rf4 identified phage related proteins. In addition, the completed genome for Anaeromyxobacter dehalogenans and the draft genome sequence of Desulfovibrio desulfuricans strain G20, two more model metal-reducing bacteria, also revealed phage related sequences. The presence of these gene sequences indicated that Geobacter spp., Anaeromyxobacter spp., and Desulfovibrio spp. are susceptible to viral infection. Furthermore, viral populations in soils and sedimentary environments in the order of 6.4×10{sup 6}–2.7×10{sup 10} VLP’s cm{sup -3} have been observed. In some cases, viral populations exceed bacterial populations in these environments suggesting that a relationship may exist between viruses and bacteria. Our preliminary screens of samples collected from the ESR FRC indicated that viral like particles were observed in significant numbers. The objective of this study was to investigate the potential functional role viruses play in metal reduction specifically Fe(III) and U(VI) reduction, the environmental parameters affecting viral infection of metal reducing bacteria, and the subsequent effects on U transport.

  11. Role of the ectonucleotidase NTPDase2 in taste bud function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenbeuch, Aurelie; Anderson, Catherine B; Parnes, Jason; Enjyoji, Keiichi; Robson, Simon C; Finger, Thomas E; Kinnamon, Sue C

    2013-09-03

    Taste buds are unusual in requiring ATP as a transmitter to activate sensory nerve fibers. In response to taste stimuli, taste cells release ATP, activating purinergic receptors containing the P2X2 and P2X3 subunits on taste nerves. In turn, the released ATP is hydrolyzed to ADP by a plasma membrane nucleoside triphosphate previously identified as nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase-2 (NTPDase2). In this paper we investigate the role of this ectonucleotidase in the function of taste buds by examining gene-targeted Entpd2-null mice globally lacking NTPDase2. RT-PCR confirmed the absence of NTPDase2, and ATPase enzyme histochemistry reveals no reaction product in taste buds of knockout mice, suggesting that NTPDase2 is the dominant form in taste buds. RT-PCR and immunocytochemistry demonstrated that in knockout mice all cell types are present in taste buds, even those cells normally expressing NTPDase2. In addition, the overall number and size of taste buds are normal in Entpd2-null mice. Luciferin/luciferase assays of circumvallate tissue of knockout mice detected elevated levels of extracellular ATP. Electrophysiological recordings from two taste nerves, the chorda tympani and glossopharyngeal, revealed depressed responses to all taste stimuli in Entpd2-null mice. Responses were more depressed in the glossopharyngeal nerve than in the chorda tympani nerve and involved all taste qualities; responses in the chorda tympani were more depressed to sweet and umami stimuli than to other qualities. We suggest that the excessive levels of extracellular ATP in the Entpd2-knockout animals desensitize the P2X receptors associated with nerve fibers, thereby depressing taste responses.

  12. Intraoral Approach and Stereolithographic-guided Large Mandibular Reconstruction with Fibula Free Flap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artur Diaz-Carandell, MD

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Summary: The reconstruction of mandibular defects has always been of great concern, and it still represents a challenge for head-and-neck reconstructive surgeons. The mandible plays a major role in mastication, articulation, swallowing, respiration, and facial contour. Thus, when undertaking mandibular reconstruction, restoration of both function and cosmetics should be considered as the measure of success. Microsurgical reconstruction is the gold-standard method to repair a segmental mandibular defect. Reconstruction of sizeable defects often needs a large neck incision, leading to unsatisfactory cosmetic outcomes. Virtual surgical planning and stereolithographic modeling are new techniques that offer excellent results and can provide precise data for mandibular reconstruction and improve postoperative outcomes. We present a case of complete intraoral resection and reconstruction of a large ameloblastoma of the mandible.

  13. Update on orbital reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chien-Tzung; Chen, Yu-Ray

    2010-08-01

    Orbital trauma is common and frequently complicated by ocular injuries. The recent literature on orbital fracture is analyzed with emphasis on epidemiological data assessment, surgical timing, method of approach and reconstruction materials. Computed tomographic (CT) scan has become a routine evaluation tool for orbital trauma, and mobile CT can be applied intraoperatively if necessary. Concomitant serious ocular injury should be carefully evaluated preoperatively. Patients presenting with nonresolving oculocardiac reflex, 'white-eyed' blowout fracture, or diplopia with a positive forced duction test and CT evidence of orbital tissue entrapment require early surgical repair. Otherwise, enophthalmos can be corrected by late surgery with a similar outcome to early surgery. The use of an endoscope-assisted approach for orbital reconstruction continues to grow, offering an alternative method. Advances in alloplastic materials have improved surgical outcome and shortened operating time. In this review of modern orbital reconstruction, several controversial issues such as surgical indication, surgical timing, method of approach and choice of reconstruction material are discussed. Preoperative fine-cut CT image and thorough ophthalmologic examination are key elements to determine surgical indications. The choice of surgical approach and reconstruction materials much depends on the surgeon's experience and the reconstruction area. Prefabricated alloplastic implants together with image software and stereolithographic models are significant advances that help to more accurately reconstruct the traumatized orbit. The recent evolution of orbit reconstruction improves functional and aesthetic results and minimizes surgical complications.

  14. Friction Regimes of Water-Lubricated Diamond (111): Role of Interfacial Ether Groups and Tribo-Induced Aromatic Surface Reconstructions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuwahara, Takuya; Moras, Gianpietro; Moseler, Michael

    2017-09-01

    Large-scale quantum molecular dynamics of water-lubricated diamond (111) surfaces in sliding contact reveals multiple friction regimes. While water starvation causes amorphization of the tribological interface, small H2O traces are sufficient to preserve crystallinity. This can result in high friction due to cold welding via ether groups or in ultralow friction due to aromatic surface passivation triggered by tribo-induced Pandey reconstruction. At higher water coverage, Grotthuss-type diffusion and H2O dissociation yield dense H /OH surface passivation leading to another ultralow friction regime.

  15. The function of game and role playing in adult education

    OpenAIRE

    Žáková, Zuzana

    2009-01-01

    The subjects of this work are game, role and role playing in upbringing, education and training, and in personnel practice. The work uses knowledge of pedagogy, psychology and sociology, and focuses on social interaction and personality development. It introduces basic educational, training and therapeutic methods and procedures, including methods in the field of adult education, where the core of these methods lies in playing roles. It presents brief characteristics of individual methods, in...

  16. The functional role of Notch signaling in human gliomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stockhausen, Marie-Thérése; Kristoffersen, Karina; Poulsen, Hans Skovgaard

    2010-01-01

    have been referred to as brain cancer stem cells (bCSC), as they share similarities to normal neural stem cells in the brain. The Notch signaling pathway is involved in cell fate decisions throughout normal development and in stem cell proliferation and maintenance. The role of Notch in cancer is now...... firmly established, and recent data implicate a role for Notch signaling also in gliomas and bCSC. In this review, we explore the role of the Notch signaling pathway in gliomas with emphasis on its role in normal brain development and its interplay with pathways and processes that are characteristic...

  17. The role of family functioning in childhood dental caries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duijster, D.; Verrips, G.H.W.; Loveren, C. van

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study investigated the relationship between family functioning and childhood dental caries. Further objectives were (i) to explore whether oral hygiene behaviours could account for a possible association between family functioning dimensions and childhood dental caries and (ii) to

  18. The role of family functioning in childhood dental caries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duijster, D.; Verrips, G.H.W.; van Loveren, C.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives This study investigated the relationship between family functioning and childhood dental caries. Further objectives were (i) to explore whether oral hygiene behaviours could account for a possible association between family functioning dimensions and childhood dental caries and (ii) to

  19. Mastering the leader role : how individuals in leader roles increase leader role efficacy and trust in subordinates, (re)construct leader identities, and attempt to craft leader roles that fit

    OpenAIRE

    Gjerde, Susann

    2018-01-01

    People have a psychological need to master their environment and the roles they enact (Ashforth, 2001). Individuals who take on leader roles are no exception. However, as the leader role is filled with complex, demanding, conflicting and ambiguous role expectations (Conger & Fishel, 2007; Denis, Langley, & Pineault, 2000; Levin, 2010) mastering the leader role may be particularly challenging. This thesis addresses three complementary approaches to mastering the leader role and deals with each...

  20. Neutron energy distribution function reconstructed from time-of-flight signals in deuterium gas-puff Z-pinch

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Klír, D.; Kravárik, J.; Kubeš, J.; Rezac, K.; Ananev, S.S.; Bakshaev, Y. L.; Blinov, P. I.; Chernenko, A. S.; Kazakov, E.D.; Korolev, V. D.; Ustroev, G. I.; Juha, Libor; Krása, Josef; Velyhan, Andriy

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 37, č. 3 (2009), s. 425-432 ISSN 0093-3813 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC528; GA MŠk LA08024 Grant - others:IAEA(XE) RC 14817 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100523 Keywords : deuterium * fusion reaction * gas puff * Monte Carlo reconstruction * neutron energy spectra * neutron s * Z-pinch Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 1.043, year: 2009

  1. Performance of PROMIS Physical Function Compared with KOOS, SF-36, Eq5d And Marx Activity Scale in Patients Who Undergo ACL Reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Elizabeth; Glass, Natalie; Wolf, Brian R.; Hettrich, Carolyn M.; Bollier, Matthew

    2018-01-01

    Objectives: Anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction is a commonly performed orthopaedic procedure. PROMIS (Patient-Reported Outcome Measurement Information System) was developed by the National Institutes of Health in an effort to advance patient-reported outcome (PRO) instruments by developing question banks for major health domains. Our goal was to compare the responsiveness and construct validity of the PROMIS physical function (PF) computer adaptive test (CAT) with current PRO instruments utilized in patients who undergo anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. Methods: A total of 174 patients ages 14-53 scheduled to undergo anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction were asked to complete PROMIS PF-CAT, Short Form-36 Health Survey (SF36-PF and -GH), Marx activity rating scale (Marx), Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Score (KOOS-ADL, -Sport, -QOL), and the EuroQol five dimensions questionnaire (EQ5D) at their preoperative visit. These surveys were repeated at six weeks and six months after surgery. Correlations between PRO instruments was defined as excellent (>0.7), excellent-good (0.61-0.7), good (0.4-0.6), and poor (0.2-0.3) using Spearman Correlation Coefficients. The effect size (Cohen d) and standardized response mean (SRM) were used to describe the responsiveness of each PRO at the 6 week and 6 month follow-up visits and were defined as small (0.2), medium (0.5) and large (0.8). Ceiling and floor effects were defined as present if ≥15% of participants scored the highest or lowest score on a PRO, respectively. Subgroup analyses were performed comparing change in PRO scores at follow-up between participants with and without additional arthroscopic procedures (meniscal debridement and/or repair, microfracture, or OATS vs ACL reconstruction only) using linear mixed models. Results: There were excellent and excellent-good correlations between the PROMIS PF-CAT and physical function PROs including the SF36-PF (r=0.75-0.80, p0.05) to poor correlation with

  2. The Role of Advisory Committees on Regulatory functions: Argentine Experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larcher, A. M.; Arias, C.; Kunst, J. J.; Perez, R. M.; Rudelli, M.

    2004-01-01

    The Argentine Nuclear Regulatory Authority (NRA) has appointed a consultants body that advises its Board of Directors on aspects related to authorization's granting to individuals for the use of radioisotopes and ionizing radiation in medicine, research and industry. Such committee, whose existence goes back to the year 1958, is integrated by prominent professionals knowledgeable about ionizing radiation and radioisotopes applications in the medical, biomedical and industrial fields, representing important professional associations or institutions related to the practices in question. Originally, the committee was conceived as a consultation body to fulfil two important functions: To produce, in a regular way, authorized opinions at experts level to settle down questions relative to the regulation of practices, new at that time in the country, and To submit to a peer review applications for individual authorization for different uses of ionizing radiation previously it's granting by the Regulatory Authority. In this paper the role of the advisory council is analyzed from a historical perspective trying to emphasize an outstanding aspect not sufficiently analyzed linked to the capability that advisory bodies, with representative users' presence, can reach in the interpretation of regulatory standards based on a performance philosophy. Such approach outlines the permanent dilemma about the performance level of the licensee that should satisfy the Regulatory Authority. Once the broad objectives of radiation protection has been defined professional criteria is required for applying them to different practices. Balance between flexibility and avoidance of excessive uncertainty is desirable. In the authors' opinion the inclusion, inside the regulator's structure of consultants bodies giving direct participation to qualified stakeholders, far from harming the necessary independence that should characterize the regulator, on the contrary, allows to have an excellent social

  3. [Case-control study on the effect of core strength training on the function of anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Bin; Zheng, Song; Cai, Zhen-Hai; Wang, Yue-Li; Zeng, Ming

    2017-08-25

    To observe the effect of core strength training on knee joint function and postural stability after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR). A total of 80 ACLR patients were randomly allocated into conventional rehabilitation training group and core strength training group from May 2013 to May 2015 with 40 patients in each group. The patients in conventional rehabilitation training group underwent conventional ACLR rehabilitation training, in which 28 males and 12 females. The mean age was(30.5±5.2) years old(ranged, 22 to 42 years old). The mean BMI was(23.8±2.4) kg/m²(ranged, 18.2 to 25.9 kg/m²). Thirty patients had injuries on the dominant side and 10 patients had injuries on the non-dominant side. The core strength training group received conventional ACLR rehabilitation training and core strength training, in which 31 males and 9 females. The mean age was(31.1±4.8) years old(ranged, 21 to 45 years old). The mean BMI was(24.1±2.7) kg/m²(ranged, 18.5 to 26.1 kg/m²) . Twenty-seven patients had injuries on the dominant side and 13 patients had injuries on the non-dominant side. The Lysholm score, tibial anterior transition measured by KT-1000 before and after treatment, and the Star Excursion Balance Test results after treatment were compared between the two groups. Six months after rehabilitation training, the tibial anterior transition of the conventional rehabilitation training group and the core strength training group were(3.4±1.0) mm and(3.3±1.2) mm respectively, which were less than(12.1±1.8) mm and(12.5±2.0) mm before treatment. But there was no significant difference in anterior tibial translation between two groups( P >0.05). The Lysholm score of the conventional rehabilitation training group and the core strength training group were 91.8±4.3 and 92.1±3.9 individually, which were higher than 69.2±5.8 and 70.2±5.1 before treatment. But there was no significant difference in Lysholm score between two groups( P >0.05). Six months

  4. Locating structures and evolution pathways of reconstructed rutile TiO2(011) using genetic algorithm aided density functional theory calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Pan; Gong, Xue-Qing

    2016-05-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO2) is an important metal oxide that has been used in many different applications. TiO2 has also been widely employed as a model system to study basic processes and reactions in surface chemistry and heterogeneous catalysis. In this work, we investigated the (011) surface of rutile TiO2 by focusing on its reconstruction. Density functional theory calculations aided by a genetic algorithm based optimization scheme were performed to extensively sample the potential energy surfaces of reconstructed rutile TiO2 structures that obey (2 × 1) periodicity. A lot of stable surface configurations were located, including the global-minimum configuration that was proposed previously. The wide variety of surface structures determined through the calculations performed in this work provide insight into the relationship between the atomic configuration of a surface and its stability. More importantly, several analytical schemes were proposed and tested to gauge the differences and similarities among various surface structures, aiding the construction of the complete pathway for the reconstruction process.

  5. Projections onto Convex Sets Super-Resolution Reconstruction Based on Point Spread Function Estimation of Low-Resolution Remote Sensing Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chong Fan

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available To solve the problem on inaccuracy when estimating the point spread function (PSF of the ideal original image in traditional projection onto convex set (POCS super-resolution (SR reconstruction, this paper presents an improved POCS SR algorithm based on PSF estimation of low-resolution (LR remote sensing images. The proposed algorithm can improve the spatial resolution of the image and benefit agricultural crop visual interpolation. The PSF of the highresolution (HR image is unknown in reality. Therefore, analysis of the relationship between the PSF of the HR image and the PSF of the LR image is important to estimate the PSF of the HR image by using multiple LR images. In this study, the linear relationship between the PSFs of the HR and LR images can be proven. In addition, the novel slant knife-edge method is employed, which can improve the accuracy of the PSF estimation of LR images. Finally, the proposed method is applied to reconstruct airborne digital sensor 40 (ADS40 three-line array images and the overlapped areas of two adjacent GF-2 images by embedding the estimated PSF of the HR image to the original POCS SR algorithm. Experimental results show that the proposed method yields higher quality of reconstructed images than that produced by the blind SR method and the bicubic interpolation method.

  6. Speech Function and Speech Role in Carl Fredricksen's Dialogue on Up Movie

    OpenAIRE

    Rehana, Ridha; Silitonga, Sortha

    2013-01-01

    One aim of this article is to show through a concrete example how speech function and speech role used in movie. The illustrative example is taken from the dialogue of Up movie. Central to the analysis proper form of dialogue on Up movie that contain of speech function and speech role; i.e. statement, offer, question, command, giving, and demanding. 269 dialogue were interpreted by actor, and it was found that the use of speech function and speech role.

  7. The Role of Esophageal Hypersensitivity in Functional Esophageal Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, Adam D; Ruffle, James K; Aziz, Qasim

    2017-02-01

    The Rome IV diagnostic criteria delineates 5 functional esophageal disorders which include functional chest pain, functional heartburn, reflux hypersensitivity, globus, and functional dysphagia. These are a heterogenous group of disorders which, despite having characteristic symptom profiles attributable to esophageal pathology, fail to demonstrate any structural, motility or inflammatory abnormalities on standard clinical testing. These disorders are associated with a marked reduction in patient quality of life, not least considerable healthcare resources. Furthermore, the pathophysiology of these disorders is incompletely understood. In this narrative review we provide the reader with an introductory primer to the structure and function of esophageal perception, including nociception that forms the basis of the putative mechanisms that may give rise to symptoms in functional esophageal disorders. We also discuss the provocative techniques and outcome measures by which esophageal hypersensitivity can be established.

  8. The role of family functioning in childhood dental caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duijster, Denise; Verrips, G H W; van Loveren, Cor

    2014-06-01

    This study investigated the relationship between family functioning and childhood dental caries. Further objectives were (i) to explore whether oral hygiene behaviours could account for a possible association between family functioning dimensions and childhood dental caries and (ii) to explore whether family functioning could mediate the relationship between sociodemographic factors and childhood dental caries. A random sample of 630 5- to 6-year-old children was recruited from six large paediatric dental centres in the Netherlands. Children's dmft scores were extracted from personal dental records. A parental questionnaire and the Gezinsvragenlijst (translation: Family Questionnaire) were used to collect data on sociodemographic characteristics, oral hygiene behaviours and family functioning. Family functioning was assessed on five dimensions: responsiveness, communication, organization, partner-relation and social network. Associations with dmft were analysed using multilevel modelling. Bivariate analysis showed that children from normal functioning families on the dimensions responsiveness, communication, organization and social network had significantly lower dmft scores compared with children from dysfunctional families. Poorer family functioning on all dimensions was associated with an increased likelihood of engaging in less favourable oral hygiene behaviours. Children with lower educated mothers, immigrant children and children of higher birth order were more likely to come from poorer functioning families. In multivariate analysis, organization remained a significant predictor of dmft after adjusting for the other family functioning dimensions and the mother's education level, but it lost statistical significance after adjustment for oral hygiene behaviours. A relationship between family functioning and childhood dental caries was found, which may have operated via oral hygiene behaviours. Family functioning modestly explained socioeconomic inequalities in

  9. The Role of RANTES Promoter Polymorphism in Functional Dyspepsia

    OpenAIRE

    Tahara, Tomomitsu; Shibata, Tomoyuki; Yamashita, Hiromi; Hirata, Ichiro; Arisawa, Tomiyasu

    2009-01-01

    Altered inflammatory immune responses have been shown to be associated with functional gastro intestinal disorder. We aimed to clarify the effect of functional promoter polymorphism of RANTES, which is a potent chemoattractant peptide for memory T lymphocytes and eosinophils, on the risk of functional dyspepsia in a Japanese population. RANTES promoter C-28G polymorphism was genotyped in 246 subjects including 134 FD patients according to Roma III criteria and 112 non-symptomatic healthy cont...

  10. Roles, tasks and educational functions of postgraduate programme directors: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frydén, Hanna; Ponzer, Sari; Heikkilä, Kristiina; Kihlström, Lars; Nordquist, Jonas

    2015-10-01

    A programme director is often required to organise postgraduate medical education. This leadership role can include educational as well as managerial duties. Only a few published studies have explored programme directors' own perceptions of their role. There is a need to explore the use of theoretical frameworks to improve the understanding of educational roles. To explore programme directors' own perceptions of their role in terms of tasks and functions, and to relate these roles to the theoretical framework developed by Bolman and Deal. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 17 programme directors between February and August 2013. The data were subjected to content analysis using a deductive approach. The various roles and tasks included by participants in their perceptions of their work could be categorised within the framework of functions described by Bolman and Deal. These included: structuring the education (structural function); supporting individuals and handling relations (human resource function); negotiating between different interests (political function); and influencing the culture at the departmental level (symbolic function). The functions most often emphasised by participants were the structural and human resource functions. Some tasks involved several functions which varied over time. Programme directors' own perceptions of their roles, tasks and functions varied widely. The theoretical framework of Bolman and Deal might be helpful when explaining and developing these roles. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  11. Reconstruction of photon number conditioned states using phase randomized homodyne measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chrzanowski, H M; Assad, S M; Bernu, J; Hage, B; Lam, P K; Symul, T; Lund, A P; Ralph, T C

    2013-01-01

    We experimentally demonstrate the reconstruction of a photon number conditioned state without using a photon number discriminating detector. By using only phase randomized homodyne measurements, we reconstruct up to the three photon subtracted squeezed vacuum state. The reconstructed Wigner functions of these states show regions of pronounced negativity, signifying the non-classical nature of the reconstructed states. The techniques presented allow for complete characterization of the role of a conditional measurement on an ensemble of states, and might prove useful in systems where photon counting still proves technically challenging. (paper)

  12. The role of rabbit meat as functional food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalle Zotte, Antonella; Szendro, Zsolt

    2011-07-01

    Increasing consumer knowledge of the link between diet and health has raised the awareness and demand for functional food ingredients. Meat and its derivatives may be considered functional foods to the extent that they contain numerous compounds thought to be functional. This review will attempt to outline the excellent nutritional and dietetic properties of rabbit meat and offer an overview of the studies performed on the strategies adopted to improve the functional value of rabbit meat. Dietary manipulation has been seen to be very effective in increasing the levels of essential FA, EPA, DHA, CLA, branched chain FA, vitamin E, and selenium in rabbit meat. Dietary fortification with vitamin E or natural products such as oregano essential oil, chia seed oil, and Spirulina platensis microalga seem promising in improving the oxidative stability of rabbit meat while also adding functional ingredients. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Roles for text mining in protein function prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verspoor, Karin M

    2014-01-01

    The Human Genome Project has provided science with a hugely valuable resource: the blueprints for life; the specification of all of the genes that make up a human. While the genes have all been identified and deciphered, it is proteins that are the workhorses of the human body: they are essential to virtually all cell functions and are the primary mechanism through which biological function is carried out. Hence in order to fully understand what happens at a molecular level in biological organisms, and eventually to enable development of treatments for diseases where some aspect of a biological system goes awry, we must understand the functions of proteins. However, experimental characterization of protein function cannot scale to the vast amount of DNA sequence data now available. Computational protein function prediction has therefore emerged as a problem at the forefront of modern biology (Radivojac et al., Nat Methods 10(13):221-227, 2013).Within the varied approaches to computational protein function prediction that have been explored, there are several that make use of biomedical literature mining. These methods take advantage of information in the published literature to associate specific proteins with specific protein functions. In this chapter, we introduce two main strategies for doing this: association of function terms, represented as Gene Ontology terms (Ashburner et al., Nat Genet 25(1):25-29, 2000), to proteins based on information in published articles, and a paradigm called LEAP-FS (Literature-Enhanced Automated Prediction of Functional Sites) in which literature mining is used to validate the predictions of an orthogonal computational protein function prediction method.

  14. Functional Outcomes and Return to Sports After Acute Repair, Chronic Repair, and Allograft Reconstruction for Proximal Hamstring Ruptures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rust, David A; Giveans, M Russell; Stone, Rebecca M; Samuelson, Kathryn M; Larson, Christopher M

    2014-06-01

    There are limited data regarding outcomes and return to sports after surgery for acute versus chronic proximal hamstring ruptures. Surgery for chronic proximal hamstring ruptures leads to improved outcomes and return to sports but at a lower level than with acute repair. Proximal hamstring reconstruction with an Achilles allograft for chronic ruptures is successful when direct repair is not possible. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. Between 2002 and 2012, a total of 72 patients with a traumatic proximal hamstring rupture (51 acute, 21 chronic) underwent either direct tendon repair with suture anchors (n = 58) or Achilles allograft tendon reconstruction (n = 14). Results from the Single Assessment Numeric Evaluation (SANE) for activities of daily living (ADL) and sports-related activities, Short Form-12 (SF-12), visual analog scale (VAS), and a patient satisfaction questionnaire were obtained. The mean time to surgery in the chronic group was 441.4 days versus 17.8 days in the acute group. At a mean follow-up of 45 months, patients with chronic tears had inferior sports activity scores (70.2% vs 80.3%, respectively; P = .026) and a trend for decreased ADL scores (86.5% vs 93.3%, respectively; P = .085) compared with those with acute tears. Patients with chronic tears, however, reported significant improvements postoperatively for both sports activity scores (30.3% to 70.2%; P sports activity scores equal to those of chronic repair (P = .507 and P = .904, respectively). There were no significant differences between groups in SF-12, VAS, or patient satisfaction outcomes (mean, 85.2% satisfaction overall). Acute repair was superior to chronic surgery with regard to return to sports. Acute and chronic proximal hamstring repair and allograft reconstruction had favorable results for ADL. For low-demand patients or those with medical comorbidities, delayed repair or reconstruction might be considered with an expected 87% return to normal ADL. For patients who desire to

  15. Contour interpolated radial basis functions with spline boundary correction for fast 3D reconstruction of the human articular cartilage from MR images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Javaid, Zarrar; Unsworth, Charles P.; Boocock, Mark G.; McNair, Peter J.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this work is to demonstrate a new image processing technique that can provide a “near real-time” 3D reconstruction of the articular cartilage of the human knee from MR images which is user friendly. This would serve as a point-of-care 3D visualization tool which would benefit a consultant radiologist in the visualization of the human articular cartilage. Methods: The authors introduce a novel fusion of an adaptation of the contour method known as “contour interpolation (CI)” with radial basis functions (RBFs) which they describe as “CI-RBFs.” The authors also present a spline boundary correction which further enhances volume estimation of the method. A subject cohort consisting of 17 right nonpathological knees (ten female and seven male) is assessed to validate the quality of the proposed method. The authors demonstrate how the CI-RBF method dramatically reduces the number of data points required for fitting an implicit surface to the entire cartilage, thus, significantly improving the speed of reconstruction over the comparable RBF reconstruction method of Carr. The authors compare the CI-RBF method volume estimation to a typical commercial package (3D DOCTOR), Carr’s RBF method, and a benchmark manual method for the reconstruction of the femoral, tibial, and patellar cartilages. Results: The authors demonstrate how the CI-RBF method significantly reduces the number of data points (p-value < 0.0001) required for fitting an implicit surface to the cartilage, by 48%, 31%, and 44% for the patellar, tibial, and femoral cartilages, respectively. Thus, significantly improving the speed of reconstruction (p-value < 0.0001) by 39%, 40%, and 44% for the patellar, tibial, and femoral cartilages over the comparable RBF model of Carr providing a near real-time reconstruction of 6.49, 8.88, and 9.43 min for the patellar, tibial, and femoral cartilages, respectively. In addition, it is demonstrated how the CI-RBF method matches the volume

  16. Contour interpolated radial basis functions with spline boundary correction for fast 3D reconstruction of the human articular cartilage from MR images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Javaid, Zarrar; Unsworth, Charles P., E-mail: c.unsworth@auckland.ac.nz [Department of Engineering Science, The University of Auckland, Auckland 1010 (New Zealand); Boocock, Mark G.; McNair, Peter J. [Health and Rehabilitation Research Center, Auckland University of Technology, Auckland 1142 (New Zealand)

    2016-03-15

    Purpose: The aim of this work is to demonstrate a new image processing technique that can provide a “near real-time” 3D reconstruction of the articular cartilage of the human knee from MR images which is user friendly. This would serve as a point-of-care 3D visualization tool which would benefit a consultant radiologist in the visualization of the human articular cartilage. Methods: The authors introduce a novel fusion of an adaptation of the contour method known as “contour interpolation (CI)” with radial basis functions (RBFs) which they describe as “CI-RBFs.” The authors also present a spline boundary correction which further enhances volume estimation of the method. A subject cohort consisting of 17 right nonpathological knees (ten female and seven male) is assessed to validate the quality of the proposed method. The authors demonstrate how the CI-RBF method dramatically reduces the number of data points required for fitting an implicit surface to the entire cartilage, thus, significantly improving the speed of reconstruction over the comparable RBF reconstruction method of Carr. The authors compare the CI-RBF method volume estimation to a typical commercial package (3D DOCTOR), Carr’s RBF method, and a benchmark manual method for the reconstruction of the femoral, tibial, and patellar cartilages. Results: The authors demonstrate how the CI-RBF method significantly reduces the number of data points (p-value < 0.0001) required for fitting an implicit surface to the cartilage, by 48%, 31%, and 44% for the patellar, tibial, and femoral cartilages, respectively. Thus, significantly improving the speed of reconstruction (p-value < 0.0001) by 39%, 40%, and 44% for the patellar, tibial, and femoral cartilages over the comparable RBF model of Carr providing a near real-time reconstruction of 6.49, 8.88, and 9.43 min for the patellar, tibial, and femoral cartilages, respectively. In addition, it is demonstrated how the CI-RBF method matches the volume

  17. Emerging role of autophagy in kidney function, diseases and aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Tobias B.; Edelstein, Charles L.; Hartleben, Björn; Inoki, Ken; Jiang, Man; Koya, Daisuke; Kume, Shinji; Lieberthal, Wilfred; Pallet, Nicolas; Quiroga, Alejandro; Ravichandran, Kameswaran; Susztak, Katalin; Yoshida, Sei; Dong, Zheng

    2012-01-01

    Autophagy is a highly conserved process that degrades cellular long-lived proteins and organelles. Accumulating evidence indicates that autophagy plays a critical role in kidney maintenance, diseases and aging. Ischemic, toxic, immunological, and oxidative insults can cause an induction of autophagy in renal epithelial cells modifying the course of various kidney diseases. This review summarizes recent insights on the role of autophagy in kidney physiology and diseases alluding to possible novel intervention strategies for treating specific kidney disorders by modifying autophagy. PMID:22692002

  18. Bone-anchored hearing aid (BAHA: indications, functional results, and comparison with reconstructive surgery of the ear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bento, Ricardo Ferreira

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The bone-anchored hearing aid (BAHA is a bone conduction hearing device that transmits sound directly into the inner ear. It is mainly used in patients with conductive hearing loss associated with aural atresia, but it is also used in those with mixed and sensorineural hearing loss. Goals: To review the main indications for BAHA, to analyze the audiometric results and its benefits for patients and compare them with other treatment modalities, and to compare the literature data with our sample of 13 patients. Method: The research was performed using a database covering works in English, Spanish, and Portuguese, with no limitations in the years when the procedures were performed. We compared the literature data with our results for the 13 patients who underwent BAHA implantation between the years 2000 and 2009. Results: Most of the studies showed that BAHA has great advantages over reconstructive surgery in terms of hearing results, complications, and disease recurrence. The postoperative results for our 13 patients were satisfactory and comparable with the results from the literature, with closure of the air-bone gap in 7 patients and achieving an air-bone gap of 10 dB in 6 patients. No postoperative complications were observed. Conclusion: BAHA is a better treatment option than reconstructive surgery for patients with bilateral deafness. It is a relatively simple surgical procedure with few complications and good hearing results. Recent studies have examined its use in conductive and unilateral sensorineural hearing loss.

  19. The perceived roles and functions of school science subject advisors

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The science subject advisor can play an important role in upgrading ... literature study highlighted practices in the UK and the US that are ... South Africa has recently adopted a strate- ... (North West Province) felt that a solution to their teaching problems ..... teachers, clustering of schools, practical work, cross teaching,.

  20. Role of T-type channels in vasomotor function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuo, Ivana Y-T; Howitt, Lauren; Sandow, Shaun L

    2014-01-01

    Low-voltage-activated T-type calcium channels play an important role in regulating cellular excitability and are implicated in conditions, such as epilepsy and neuropathic pain. T-type channels, especially Cav3.1 and Cav3.2, are also expressed in the vasculature, although patch clamp studies of i...

  1. Hazard identification by extended multilevel flow modelling with function roles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Jing; Zhang, Laibin; Jørgensen, Sten Bay

    2014-01-01

    ) is extended with functi on roles to complete HAZOP studies in principle. A graphical MFM editor, which is combined with the reasoning engine (MFM Workbench) developed by DTU is applied to automate HAZOP studies. The method is proposed to suppor t the ‘brain-storming’ sessions in traditional HAZOP analysis...

  2. Hybrid spectral CT reconstruction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darin P Clark

    Full Text Available Current photon counting x-ray detector (PCD technology faces limitations associated with spectral fidelity and photon starvation. One strategy for addressing these limitations is to supplement PCD data with high-resolution, low-noise data acquired with an energy-integrating detector (EID. In this work, we propose an iterative, hybrid reconstruction technique which combines the spectral properties of PCD data with the resolution and signal-to-noise characteristics of EID data. Our hybrid reconstruction technique is based on an algebraic model of data fidelity which substitutes the EID data into the data fidelity term associated with the PCD reconstruction, resulting in a joint reconstruction problem. Within the split Bregman framework, these data fidelity constraints are minimized subject to additional constraints on spectral rank and on joint intensity-gradient sparsity measured between the reconstructions of the EID and PCD data. Following a derivation of the proposed technique, we apply it to the reconstruction of a digital phantom which contains realistic concentrations of iodine, barium, and calcium encountered in small-animal micro-CT. The results of this experiment suggest reliable separation and detection of iodine at concentrations ≥ 5 mg/ml and barium at concentrations ≥ 10 mg/ml in 2-mm features for EID and PCD data reconstructed with inherent spatial resolutions of 176 μm and 254 μm, respectively (point spread function, FWHM. Furthermore, hybrid reconstruction is demonstrated to enhance spatial resolution within material decomposition results and to improve low-contrast detectability by as much as 2.6 times relative to reconstruction with PCD data only. The parameters of the simulation experiment are based on an in vivo micro-CT experiment conducted in a mouse model of soft-tissue sarcoma. Material decomposition results produced from this in vivo data demonstrate the feasibility of distinguishing two K-edge contrast agents with

  3. Hybrid spectral CT reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Darin P.

    2017-01-01

    Current photon counting x-ray detector (PCD) technology faces limitations associated with spectral fidelity and photon starvation. One strategy for addressing these limitations is to supplement PCD data with high-resolution, low-noise data acquired with an energy-integrating detector (EID). In this work, we propose an iterative, hybrid reconstruction technique which combines the spectral properties of PCD data with the resolution and signal-to-noise characteristics of EID data. Our hybrid reconstruction technique is based on an algebraic model of data fidelity which substitutes the EID data into the data fidelity term associated with the PCD reconstruction, resulting in a joint reconstruction problem. Within the split Bregman framework, these data fidelity constraints are minimized subject to additional constraints on spectral rank and on joint intensity-gradient sparsity measured between the reconstructions of the EID and PCD data. Following a derivation of the proposed technique, we apply it to the reconstruction of a digital phantom which contains realistic concentrations of iodine, barium, and calcium encountered in small-animal micro-CT. The results of this experiment suggest reliable separation and detection of iodine at concentrations ≥ 5 mg/ml and barium at concentrations ≥ 10 mg/ml in 2-mm features for EID and PCD data reconstructed with inherent spatial resolutions of 176 μm and 254 μm, respectively (point spread function, FWHM). Furthermore, hybrid reconstruction is demonstrated to enhance spatial resolution within material decomposition results and to improve low-contrast detectability by as much as 2.6 times relative to reconstruction with PCD data only. The parameters of the simulation experiment are based on an in vivo micro-CT experiment conducted in a mouse model of soft-tissue sarcoma. Material decomposition results produced from this in vivo data demonstrate the feasibility of distinguishing two K-edge contrast agents with a spectral

  4. Reconstructing random media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeong, C.L.; Torquato, S.

    1998-01-01

    We formulate a procedure to reconstruct the structure of general random heterogeneous media from limited morphological information by extending the methodology of Rintoul and Torquato [J. Colloid Interface Sci. 186, 467 (1997)] developed for dispersions. The procedure has the advantages that it is simple to implement and generally applicable to multidimensional, multiphase, and anisotropic structures. Furthermore, an extremely useful feature is that it can incorporate any type and number of correlation functions in order to provide as much morphological information as is necessary for accurate reconstruction. We consider a variety of one- and two-dimensional reconstructions, including periodic and random arrays of rods, various distribution of disks, Debye random media, and a Fontainebleau sandstone sample. We also use our algorithm to construct heterogeneous media from specified hypothetical correlation functions, including an exponentially damped, oscillating function as well as physically unrealizable ones. copyright 1998 The American Physical Society

  5. On the role of general system theory for functional neuroimaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephan, Klaas Enno

    2004-12-01

    One of the most important goals of neuroscience is to establish precise structure-function relationships in the brain. Since the 19th century, a major scientific endeavour has been to associate structurally distinct cortical regions with specific cognitive functions. This was traditionally accomplished by correlating microstructurally defined areas with lesion sites found in patients with specific neuropsychological symptoms. Modern neuroimaging techniques with high spatial resolution have promised an alternative approach, enabling non-invasive measurements of regionally specific changes of brain activity that are correlated with certain components of a cognitive process. Reviewing classic approaches towards brain structure-function relationships that are based on correlational approaches, this article argues that these approaches are not sufficient to provide an understanding of the operational principles of a dynamic system such as the brain but must be complemented by models based on general system theory. These models reflect the connectional structure of the system under investigation and emphasize context-dependent couplings between the system elements in terms of effective connectivity. The usefulness of system models whose parameters are fitted to measured functional imaging data for testing hypotheses about structure-function relationships in the brain and their potential for clinical applications is demonstrated by several empirical examples.

  6. Influence of melanocytes in the ex-vivo reconstructed epidermal melanin unit following an acute UV irradiation; Role des melanocytes dans l'unite epidermique de melanisation reconstruite ex-vivo apres une irradiation UV aigue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cario-Andre, M

    2000-11-15

    Influence of melanocytes in skin pigmentation is well documented, however its photo-protective role has given rise to controversy. The role of melanocytes have been investigated on reconstructed epidermis with 100 % of keratinocytes or 95 % of keratinocytes and 5 % of melanocytes. In a first time, the effect of an acute UVB dose has been studied on both reconstructed epidermis, next we have investigated UVA and UVA+B effects on these epidermis. Following irradiation, the presence of melanocytes in reconstructed epidermis protects against apoptosis without protecting significantly against DNA damage formation (CPD, 6-4PP) and protects against UV-induced unbalance of the SOD/catalase ratio (antioxidants enzymes). On the contrary, the presence of melanocytes in reconstructed epidermis amplifies lipids and proteins oxidations but seems to protect against DNA oxidations. Melanocytes differ from keratinocytes by their melanin content and their more important concentration in polyunsaturated fatty acids. To evaluate what is the part of melanin and the part of polyunsaturated fatty acids in epidermal UV responses, reconstructed epidermis with keratinocytes have been supplemented with polyunsaturated fatty acid. This study indicates that polyunsaturated fatty acids are responsible for lipids and proteins oxidations and that melanin protect against DNA oxidation induced by lipid peroxidation. All these studies demonstrate that, model of reconstructed epidermis and epidermis in-vivo have the same behaviour following UV irradiation. In the last part, sunscreens and antioxidants have been tested on reconstructed epidermis and have demonstrated that model of reconstructed epidermis is suitable for photo-protective molecules screening. (author)

  7. Influence of melanocytes in the ex-vivo reconstructed epidermal melanin unit following an acute UV irradiation; Role des melanocytes dans l'unite epidermique de melanisation reconstruite ex-vivo apres une irradiation UV aigue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cario-Andre, M

    2000-11-15

    Influence of melanocytes in skin pigmentation is well documented, however its photo-protective role has given rise to controversy. The role of melanocytes have been investigated on reconstructed epidermis with 100 % of keratinocytes or 95 % of keratinocytes and 5 % of melanocytes. In a first time, the effect of an acute UVB dose has been studied on both reconstructed epidermis, next we have investigated UVA and UVA+B effects on these epidermis. Following irradiation, the presence of melanocytes in reconstructed epidermis protects against apoptosis without protecting significantly against DNA damage formation (CPD, 6-4PP) and protects against UV-induced unbalance of the SOD/catalase ratio (antioxidants enzymes). On the contrary, the presence of melanocytes in reconstructed epidermis amplifies lipids and proteins oxidations but seems to protect against DNA oxidations. Melanocytes differ from keratinocytes by their melanin content and their more important concentration in polyunsaturated fatty acids. To evaluate what is the part of melanin and the part of polyunsaturated fatty acids in epidermal UV responses, reconstructed epidermis with keratinocytes have been supplemented with polyunsaturated fatty acid. This study indicates that polyunsaturated fatty acids are responsible for lipids and proteins oxidations and that melanin protect against DNA oxidation induced by lipid peroxidation. All these studies demonstrate that, model of reconstructed epidermis and epidermis in-vivo have the same behaviour following UV irradiation. In the last part, sunscreens and antioxidants have been tested on reconstructed epidermis and have demonstrated that model of reconstructed epidermis is suitable for photo-protective molecules screening. (author)

  8. Embedding beyond electrostatics-The role of wave function confinement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nåbo, Lina J; Olsen, Jógvan Magnus Haugaard; Holmgaard List, Nanna; Solanko, Lukasz M; Wüstner, Daniel; Kongsted, Jacob

    2016-09-14

    We study excited states of cholesterol in solution and show that, in this specific case, solute wave-function confinement is the main effect of the solvent. This is rationalized on the basis of the polarizable density embedding scheme, which in addition to polarizable embedding includes non-electrostatic repulsion that effectively confines the solute wave function to its cavity. We illustrate how the inclusion of non-electrostatic repulsion results in a successful identification of the intense π → π(∗) transition, which was not possible using an embedding method that only includes electrostatics. This underlines the importance of non-electrostatic repulsion in quantum-mechanical embedding-based methods.

  9. Climate Reconstructions

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Paleoclimatology Program archives reconstructions of past climatic conditions derived from paleoclimate proxies, in addition to the Program's large holdings...

  10. Morphological evolution and reconstruction of silver nanoparticles in aquatic environments: The roles of natural organic matter and light irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zou, Xiaoyan; Shi, Junpeng [Key Laboratory of Urban Pollutant Conversion, Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiamen (China); Zhang, Hongwu, E-mail: hwzhang@iue.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Urban Pollutant Conversion, Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiamen (China); Ningbo Research Center for Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ningbo (China)

    2015-07-15

    Highlights: • In the dark, AgNPs formed chain-like structures through bridging effects with NOM. • NOM decelerated the photoreaction of AgNPs but did not stop the photoconversion. • Under extended irradiation, NOM substituted for citrate as a stabilizer. • In different aquatic systems AgNPs would suffer distinct environmental behavior. - Abstract: With the proliferation of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs), their potential entry into the environment has attracted increasing concern. Although photochemical transformation is an important fate of AgNPs in aquatic environments due to their strong light absorption, little is known about the evolution and transformation mechanisms of AgNPs. This study investigated the morphological evolution and reconstruction of AgNPs during photoconversion in the presence of natural organic matter (NOM). In the dark, the AgNPs formed chain-like structures through bridging effects with NOM at concentrations of 0.1 and 1 mg/L, and the proportion of Ag{sup +} in solution in the presence of 10 mg/L NOM was reduced by roughly half compared with that in the absence of NOM. Under irradiation, NOM participated in the photoreaction of AgNPs and can decelerate the photoreaction of AgNPs via several mechanisms, including light attenuation, the formation of a NOM coating, and competing with Ag for photons. Additionally, NOM can substitute for citrate as a stabilizing agent to compensate for the loss of AgNP stability due to citrate mineralization under extended irradiation, producing stable triangular nanosilver in aquatic environments. This study sheds light on the behavioral differences of AgNPs in different aquatic systems, which create uncertainties and difficulties in assessing the environmental risks of AgNPs.

  11. Reconstruction of the yeast Snf1 kinase regulatory network reveals its role as a global energy regulator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Usaite, Renata; Jewett, Michael Christopher; Soberano de Oliveira, Ana Paula

    2009-01-01

    Highly conserved among eukaryotic cells, the AMP-activated kinase (AMPK) is a central regulator of carbon metabolism. To map the complete network of interactions around AMPK in yeast (Snf1) and to evaluate the role of its regulatory subunit Snf4, we measured global mRNA, protein and metabolite...

  12. ROLE OF PREBIOTICS IN TREATMENT OF FUNCTIONAL CONSTIPATIONS IN CHILDREN

    OpenAIRE

    E.V. Komarova; O.S. Gundobina

    2009-01-01

    The article is devoted to the functional disorders of the large bowel motility among children. The authors examine the reasons for the given pathology and opportunities for the lactulose application as a prebiotic within the comprehensive therapy.Key words: constipation, treatment, prebiotics, children.

  13. The role of anxiety in stuttering: Evidence from functional connectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yang; Jia, Fanlu; Siok, Wai Ting; Tan, Li Hai

    2017-03-27

    Persistent developmental stuttering is a neurologically based speech disorder associated with cognitive-linguistic, motor and emotional abnormalities. Previous studies investigating the relationship between anxiety and stuttering have yielded mixed results, but it has not yet been examined whether anxiety influences brain activity underlying stuttering. Here, using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we investigated the functional connectivity associated with state anxiety in a syllable repetition task, and trait anxiety during rest in adults who stutter (N=19) and fluent controls (N=19). During the speech task, people who stutter (PWS) showed increased functional connectivity of the right amygdala with the prefrontal gyrus (the left ventromedial frontal gyrus and right middle frontal gyrus) and the left insula compared to controls. During rest, PWS showed stronger functional connectivity between the right hippocampus and the left orbital frontal gyrus, and between the left hippocampus and left motor areas than controls. Taken together, our results suggest aberrant bottom-up and/or top-down interactions for anxiety regulation, which might be responsible for the higher level of state anxiety during speech and for the anxiety-prone trait in PWS. To our knowledge, this is the first study to examine the neural underpinnings of anxiety in PWS, thus yielding new insight into the causes of stuttering which might aid strategies for the diagnosis and treatment of stuttering. Copyright © 2017 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Evaluating the role of functional impairment in personality psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boland, Jennifer K; Damnjanovic, Tatjana; Anderson, Jaime L

    2018-03-22

    DSM-5's Section III Alternative Model for Personality Disorder (AMPD) model states that an individual must show impairment in self and interpersonal functioning for PD diagnosis. The current study investigated dimensional personality trait associations with impairment, including differential patterns of impairment across specific PDs, and whether traits have improved our assessment of functional impairment in PDs. Two-hundred and seventy-seven participants were administered measures of Antisocial PD, Avoidant PD, Borderline PD, Narcissistic PD, Obsessive-Compulsive PD, and Schizotypal PD from the perspectives of Section II (PDQ-4) and Section III (PID-5) PD models, as well as measures of functional impairment in interpersonal and intrapersonal domains. Pearson correlations showed associations between ratings of impairment and most Section II and Section III PDs and trait facets, with the exception of narcissistic PD. Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that Section III PDs added predictive validity beyond Section II PDs in predicting impairment, except narcissistic PD. These findings provide support both for the impairment criterion in the AMPD and for the association between trait-based PDs and impairment, and suggest that this trait-based measurement adds uniquely to the understanding of functional impairment. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Role of glabridin in maintaining residual kidney function in dialysis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The baseline parameters for serum high-sensitivity C-reactive protein. (hs-CRP) ... with kidney injury [5]. Some of ... experiment to investigate the protective effects of glabridin on peritoneal function and RRF in PD patients. Figure 1: ... were recommended regular diet containing 1.0 - .... We are thankful to head department of.

  16. Functional role of the herbaceous layer in eastern deciduous forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katherine J. Elliott; James M. Vose; Jennifer D. Knoepp; Barton D. Clinton; Brian D. Kloeppel

    2014-01-01

    The importance of the herbaceous layer in regulating ecosystem processes in deciduous forests is generally unknown. We use a manipulative study in a rich, mesophytic cove forest in the southern Appalachians to test the following hypotheses: (i) the herbaceous functional group (HFG) in mesophytic coves accelerates carbon and nutrient cycling, (ii) high litter quality...

  17. The emerging role of transport systems in liver function tests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stieger, Bruno; Heger, Michal; de Graaf, Wilmar; Paumgartner, Gustav; van Gulik, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Liver function tests are of critical importance for the management of patients with severe or terminal liver disease. They are also used as prognostic tools for planning liver resections. In recent years many transport systems have been identified that also transport substances employed in liver

  18. Dynamic restraint capacity of the hamstring muscles has important functional implications after anterior cruciate ligament injury and anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Adam L; Creaby, Mark W; Newton, Robert U; Steele, Julie R

    2008-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relation between knee functionality of anterior cruciate ligament deficient (ACLD) and anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR) patients and hamstring antagonist torque generated during resisted knee extension. Cross-sectional. Laboratory based. Male ACLD subjects (n=10) (18-35 y) and 27 matched males who had undergone ACLR (14 patella tendon [PT] grafts and 13 combined semitendinosus/gracilis tendon grafts). Not applicable. Knee functionality was rated (0- to 100-point scale) by using the Cincinnati Knee Rating System. Using electromyography data from the semitendinosus (ST) and biceps femoris muscles, we created a mathematical model to estimate the opposing torque generated by the hamstrings during isokinetic knee extension in 10 degrees intervals from 80 degrees to 10 degrees knee flexion. Pearson product-moment correlations revealed that more functional ACLD subjects generated significantly (Phamstring antagonist torque throughout knee extension. In contrast, more functional PT subjects produced significantly lower hamstring antagonist torque at 80 degrees to 70 degrees knee flexion, whereas no significant associations were found between hamstring antagonist torque and knee functionality for the ST/gracilis tendon subjects. An increased hamstring antagonist torque generated by the more functional ACLD subjects, reflective of increased hamstring contractile force, is thought to represent a protective mechanism to compensate for mechanical instability. The restoration of anterior knee stability through ACLR negates the need for augmented hamstring antagonist torque.

  19. A retrospective 3- to 5-year study of the reconstruction of oral function using implant-supported prostheses in patients with hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Duohong; Wu, Yiqun; Wang, Xu Dong; Huang, Wei; Zhang, Zhiyong; Zhang, Zhiyuan

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate oral function rehabilitation in patients with hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (HED) using implant-supported prostheses based on bone augmentation. From September 2005 and March 2009, 25 HED patients were chosen for clinical data analysis in this study. The criteria for patient selection included the following: the display of clinical features of HED, the number of congenitally missing teeth (>5), the patient age (>16 years), the patient's willingness, and the patient's tolerance for bone graft surgery and implant placement. Follow-up evaluations were initiated from the time of implant prosthetic placement and scheduled annually for 3-5 years. The effects of oral function reconstruction were assessed based on the cumulative survival and success rates of implants, the health of the peri-implant area, and the degree of patient satisfaction. Twenty-five HED patients received 169 conventional implants and 10 zygomatic implants (179 total implants). During 3-5 years of post-loading evaluations, 5 of the 179 implants failed and 3 implants were removed. The 3-year success and cumulative survival rates were 97.2% and 98.3%, respectively. Furthermore, periodontal probing and radiographic assessments showed that the 3-year incidence of peri-implantitis was 4.5%. Finally, HED patients expressed high degrees of satisfaction with their facial contours, masticatory function, pronunciation ability, and comfort with the implant-supported prostheses. The results of this 3- to 5-year retrospective study indicate that the oral function of HED patients can be effectively reconstructed using bone augmentation and implant-supported prostheses; however, longer term results are warranted in the future.

  20. The Role of Frontal Executive Functions in Hypnosis and Hypnotic Suggestibility

    OpenAIRE

    Parris, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    There is both theoretical and empirical evidence supporting a role for frontal executive functions (FEFs) in hypnosis and hypnotic suggestibility. However, the precise nature of this involvement is debated. While there is clear evidence that FEFs are impaired under hypnosis, the cause of this decreased function is unclear. Theories make differing predictions as to the role of FEFs in hypnotic suggestibility, with some arguing that decreased baseline (normal function outside of the hypnotic co...

  1. Critical role of bicarbonate and bicarbonate transporters in cardiac function

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Hong-Sheng; Chen, Yamei; Vairamani, Kanimozhi; Shull, Gary E

    2014-01-01

    Bicarbonate is one of the major anions in mammalian tissues and extracellular fluids. Along with accompanying H+, HCO3- is generated from CO2 and H2O, either spontaneously or via the catalytic activity of carbonic anhydrase. It serves as a component of the major buffer system, thereby playing a critical role in pH homeostasis. Bicarbonate can also be utilized by a variety of ion transporters, often working in coupled systems, to transport other ions and organic substrates across cell membrane...

  2. Multi-slice CT (MSCT) in cardiac function imaging: threshold-value-supported 3D volume reconstructions to determine the left ventricular ejection fraction in comparison to MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehrhard, K.; Oberholzer, K.; Gast, K.; Mildenberger, P.; Kreitner, K.F.; Thelen, M.

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: To assess MSCT of the heart to determining left ventricular ejection fraction (EF) based on threshold-value-supported 3D volume reconstructions compared to MRI. Methods: Cardiac MSCT was performed in 7 patients. Images were reconstructed during end-systolic and end-diastolic phases of the cardiac cycle and transformed to 3D volumes to determine end-systolic (ESV) and end-diastolic volume (EDV) by using different lower threshold values: besides fixed lower threshold values, identical for each image sequence, individual lower threshold values dependent on contrast enhancement of the left ventricle were applied. The latter represent the mean value calculated by combining the average CT-density of the myocardium and the contrast-enhanced blood in the left ventricle. The EF derived from ESV and EDV. Results: The best correlation with MR imaging was obtained for ESV and EDV by using the individual lower threshold values for the respective sequence. The correlation coefficient for ESV was 0.95 and for EDV it was 0.93. On average, the ESV was overestimated by 3.72 ml, while the ESD was underestimated by 2.85 ml. The respective standard deviation for the ESV was 14,87 ml, for the EDV it was 26.83 ml. On average, the EF was underestimated by 3.57% with a standard deviation of 9.43% and a correlation coefficient of 0.83 in comparison to MRI. Conclusion: The threshold-value-supported 3D volume reconstruction of the left ventricle represents a good method to determine the left ventricular function parameters. Due to the differences in the contrast enhancement, the use of an individual lower threshold value for every image sequence is of particular importance. (orig.) [de

  3. Functional Roles and Therapeutic Applications of Exosomes in Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Santangelo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Exosomes are important in intercellular communication. They assure the horizontal transfer of specific functional contents (i.e., proteins, lipids, RNA molecules, and circulating DNA from donor to recipient cells. Notably, tumor-derived exosomes (TDEs appear to be an important vehicle of specific signals in cancer, impacting on tumor growth and metastasis. Recent researches point to the characterization of exosomes in Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC, the major adult liver malignancy. In this review, we summarize current findings on HCC exosomes, focusing on the identification of noncoding RNAs as exosome-enriched functional regulators and new potential biomarkers. The great potential of exosomes in future HCC diagnostic and therapeutic approaches is underlined.

  4. Functional genomics and proteomics - the role of nuclear medicine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haberkorn, U. [Heidelberg Univ. (Germany). Abt. fuer Klinische Nuklearmedizin; German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg (Germany); Altmann, A. [German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg (Germany); Eisenhut, M. [German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg (Germany). Dept. of Radiopharmacy

    2002-01-01

    Now that the sequencing of the human genome has been completed, the basic challenges are finding the genes, locating their coding regions and predicting their functions. This will result in a new understanding of human biology as well as in the design of new molecular structures as potential novel diagnostic or drug discovery targets. The assessment of gene function may be performed using the tools of the genome program. These tools represent high-throughput methods used to evaluate changes in the expression of many or all genes of an organism at the same time in order to investigate genetic pathways for normal development and disease. This will lead to a shift in the scientific paradigm: In the pre-proteomics era, functional assignments were derived from hypothesis-driven experiments designed to understand specific cellular processes. The new tools describe proteins on a proteome-wide scale, thereby creating a new way of doing cell research which results in the determination of three-dimensional protein structures and the description of protein networks. These descriptions may then be used for the design of new hypotheses and experiments in the traditional physiological, biochemical and pharmacological sense. The evaluation of genetically manipulated animals or newly designed biomolecules will require a thorough understanding of physiology, biochemistry and pharmacology and the experimental approaches will involve many new technologies, including in vivo imaging with single-photon emission tomography and positron emission tomography. Nuclear medicine procedures may be applied for the determination of gene function and regulation using established and new tracers or using in vivo reporter genes such as enzymes, receptors, antigens or transporters. Pharmacogenomics will identify new surrogate markers for therapy monitoring which may represent potential new tracers for imaging. Also, drug distribution studies for new therapeutic biomolecules are needed, at least

  5. Functional genomics and proteomics - the role of nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haberkorn, U.; Altmann, A.; Eisenhut, M.

    2002-01-01

    Now that the sequencing of the human genome has been completed, the basic challenges are finding the genes, locating their coding regions and predicting their functions. This will result in a new understanding of human biology as well as in the design of new molecular structures as potential novel diagnostic or drug discovery targets. The assessment of gene function may be performed using the tools of the genome program. These tools represent high-throughput methods used to evaluate changes in the expression of many or all genes of an organism at the same time in order to investigate genetic pathways for normal development and disease. This will lead to a shift in the scientific paradigm: In the pre-proteomics era, functional assignments were derived from hypothesis-driven experiments designed to understand specific cellular processes. The new tools describe proteins on a proteome-wide scale, thereby creating a new way of doing cell research which results in the determination of three-dimensional protein structures and the description of protein networks. These descriptions may then be used for the design of new hypotheses and experiments in the traditional physiological, biochemical and pharmacological sense. The evaluation of genetically manipulated animals or newly designed biomolecules will require a thorough understanding of physiology, biochemistry and pharmacology and the experimental approaches will involve many new technologies, including in vivo imaging with single-photon emission tomography and positron emission tomography. Nuclear medicine procedures may be applied for the determination of gene function and regulation using established and new tracers or using in vivo reporter genes such as enzymes, receptors, antigens or transporters. Pharmacogenomics will identify new surrogate markers for therapy monitoring which may represent potential new tracers for imaging. Also, drug distribution studies for new therapeutic biomolecules are needed, at least

  6. Role of the ECM in notochord formation, function and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trapani, Valeria; Bonaldo, Paolo; Corallo, Diana

    2017-10-01

    The notochord is a midline structure common to all chordate animals; it provides mechanical and signaling cues for the developing embryo. In vertebrates, the notochord plays key functions during embryogenesis, being a source of developmental signals that pattern the surrounding tissues. It is composed of a core of vacuolated cells surrounded by an epithelial-like sheath of cells that secrete a thick peri-notochordal basement membrane made of different extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins. The correct deposition and organization of the ECM is essential for proper notochord morphogenesis and function. Work carried out in the past two decades has allowed researchers to dissect the contribution of different ECM components to this embryonic tissue. Here, we will provide an overview of these genetic and mechanistic studies. In particular, we highlight the specific functions of distinct matrix molecules in regulating notochord development and notochord-derived signals. Moreover, we also discuss the involvement of ECM synthesis and its remodeling in the pathogenesis of chordoma, a malignant bone cancer that originates from remnants of notochord remaining after embryogenesis. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  7. Role of glutathione transport processes in kidney function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lash, Lawrence H.

    2005-01-01

    The kidneys are highly dependent on an adequate supply of glutathione (GSH) to maintain normal function. This is due, in part, to high rates of aerobic metabolism, particularly in the proximal tubules. Additionally, the kidneys are potentially exposed to high concentrations of oxidants and reactive electrophiles. Renal cellular concentrations of GSH are maintained by both intracellular synthesis and transport from outside the cell. Although function of specific carriers has not been definitively demonstrated, it is likely that multiple carriers are responsible for plasma membrane transport of GSH. Data suggest that the organic anion transporters OAT1 and OAT3 and the sodium-dicarboxylate 2 exchanger (SDCT2 or NaDC3) mediate uptake across the basolateral plasma membrane (BLM) and that the organic anion transporting polypeptide OATP1 and at least one of the multidrug resistance proteins mediate efflux across the brush-border plasma membrane (BBM). BLM transport may be used pharmacologically to provide renal proximal tubular cells with exogenous GSH to protect against oxidative stress whereas BBM transport functions physiologically in turnover of cellular GSH. The mitochondrial GSH pool is derived from cytoplasmic GSH by transport into the mitochondrial matrix and is mediated by the dicarboxylate and 2-oxoglutarate exchangers. Maintenance of the mitochondrial GSH pool is critical for cellular and mitochondrial redox homeostasis and is important in determining susceptibility to chemically induced apoptosis. Hence, membrane transport processes are critical to regulation of renal cellular and subcellular GSH pools and are determinants of susceptibility to cytotoxicity induced by oxidants and electrophiles

  8. Dissecting carboxypeptidase E: properties, functions and pathophysiological roles in disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Ji

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Since discovery in 1982, carboxypeptidase E (CPE has been shown to be involved in the biosynthesis of a wide range of neuropeptides and peptide hormones in endocrine tissues, and in the nervous system. This protein is produced from pro-CPE and exists in soluble and membrane forms. Membrane CPE mediates the targeting of prohormones to the regulated secretory pathway, while soluble CPE acts as an exopeptidase and cleaves C-terminal basic residues from peptide intermediates to generate bioactive peptides. CPE also participates in protein internalization, vesicle transport and regulation of signaling pathways. Therefore, in two types of CPE mutant mice, Cpefat/Cpefat and Cpe knockout, loss of normal CPE leads to a lot of disorders, including diabetes, hyperproinsulinemia, low bone mineral density and deficits in learning and memory. In addition, the potential roles of CPE and ΔN-CPE, an N-terminal truncated form, in tumorigenesis and diagnosis were also addressed. Herein, we focus on dissecting the pathophysiological roles of CPE in the endocrine and nervous systems, and related diseases.

  9. Functional roles for Rad9 in prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lieberman, H.B.; Broustas, C.G.

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this work is to understand the mechanistic relationship between high levels of Rad9 protein and prostate cancer. The study is based on several findings suggesting a role for Rad9 in this disease. Rad9 has all the hallmark features of an oncogene or tumor suppressor. It regulates genomic stability, multiple cell cycle checkpoints, apoptosis and DNA repair. In addition, it can transactivate downstream target genes via direct interaction with promoter DNA sequences. We found Rad9 protein levels were very high in prostate cancer cell lines. Furthermore, we examined 52 primary normal prostate and 339 prostate cancer specimens for Rad9 protein by immunohistochemical staining. Statistical significance for Rad9 positive staining versus cancer, and stain intensity versus Stage were tested. We get a p-value of <0.001 when comparing percentage positive by cancer Stage, or stain intensity by cancer Stage. Based on these data, we sought to define the nature of the relationship between Rad9 and prostate cancer. We demonstrate that Rad9 acts as an oncogene in prostate cancer by playing a critical role in tumor formation in a mouse xenograph model. We also show that Rad9 is important for cellular phenotypes essential for metastasis, including tumor cell migration, invasion and resistance to programmed cell death after detachment from extracellular matrix. Therefore, Rad9 is critical for several aspects of prostate tumor progression, and could serve as a novel target for anti-cancer therapy

  10. Mandibular reconstruction in adults: a review.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goh, B.T.; Lee, S.; Tideman, H.; Stoelinga, P.J.W.

    2008-01-01

    Mandibular defects may result from trauma, inflammatory disease and benign or malignant tumours. Mastication, speech and facial aesthetics are often severely compromised without reconstruction. The goal of mandibular reconstruction is to restore facial form and function, implying repair of

  11. Role of metallothioneins in peripheral nerve function and regeneration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ceballos, D; Lago, N; Verdú, E

    2003-01-01

    The physiological role of the metallothionein (MT) family of proteins during peripheral nerve injury and regeneration was examined in Mt1+ 2 and Mt3 knockout (KO) mice. To this end, the right sciatic nerve was crushed, and the regeneration distance was evaluated by the pinch test 2-7 days....... The improved regeneration observed with the Mt3 KO mice was confirmed by compound nerve action potentials that were recorded from digital nerves at 14 dpl only in this group. We conclude that Mt3 normally inhibits peripheral nerve regeneration........ Moreover, the number of regenerating axons in the distal tibial nerve was significantly higher in Mt3KO mice than in the other two strains at 14 dpl. Immunoreactive profiles to protein gene product 9.5 were present in the epidermis and the sweat glands of the plantar skin of the hindpaw of the Mt3 KO group...

  12. Diabetes and mitochondrial function: Role of hyperglycemia and oxidative stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rolo, Anabela P.; Palmeira, Carlos M.

    2006-01-01

    Hyperglycemia resulting from uncontrolled glucose regulation is widely recognized as the causal link between diabetes and diabetic complications. Four major molecular mechanisms have been implicated in hyperglycemia-induced tissue damage: activation of protein kinase C (PKC) isoforms via de novo synthesis of the lipid second messenger diacylglycerol (DAG), increased hexosamine pathway flux, increased advanced glycation end product (AGE) formation, and increased polyol pathway flux. Hyperglycemia-induced overproduction of superoxide is the causal link between high glucose and the pathways responsible for hyperglycemic damage. In fact, diabetes is typically accompanied by increased production of free radicals and/or impaired antioxidant defense capabilities, indicating a central contribution for reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the onset, progression, and pathological consequences of diabetes. Besides oxidative stress, a growing body of evidence has demonstrated a link between various disturbances in mitochondrial functioning and type 2 diabetes. Mutations in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and decreases in mtDNA copy number have been linked to the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes. The study of the relationship of mtDNA to type 2 diabetes has revealed the influence of the mitochondria on nuclear-encoded glucose transporters, glucose-stimulated insulin secretion, and nuclear-encoded uncoupling proteins (UCPs) in β-cell glucose toxicity. This review focuses on a range of mitochondrial factors important in the pathogenesis of diabetes. We review the published literature regarding the direct effects of hyperglycemia on mitochondrial function and suggest the possibility of regulation of mitochondrial function at a transcriptional level in response to hyperglycemia. The main goal of this review is to include a fresh consideration of pathways involved in hyperglycemia-induced diabetic complications

  13. Functional aging impairs the role of feedback in motor learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yu; Cao, Chunmei; Yan, Jin H

    2013-10-01

    Optimal motor skill acquisition frequently requires augmented feedback or knowledge of results (KR). However, the effect of functional declines on the benefits of KR remains to be determined. The objective of this research was to examine how cognitive and motor deficits of older adults influence the use of KR for motor skill learning. A total of 57 older adults (mean 73.1 years; SD 4.2) received both cognitive and eye-hand coordination assessments, whereas 55 young controls (mean 25.8 years; SD 3.8) took only the eye-hand coordination test. All young and older participants learned a time-constrained arm movement through KR in three pre-KR and post-KR intervals. In the subsequent no-KR skill retests, absolute and variable time errors were not significantly reduced for the older learners who had KR during skill practice, especially for those with cognitive and motor dysfunctions. The finding suggests that KR results in no measureable improvement for older adults with cognitive and motor functional deficiencies. More importantly, for the older adults, longer post-KR intervals showed greater detrimental effects on feedback-based motor learning than shorter pauses after KR delivery. The findings support the hypothesis about the effects of cognitive and motor deficits on KR in motor skill learning of older adults. The dynamics of cognitive and motor aging, external feedback and internal control mechanisms collectively explain the deterioration in the sensory-motor learning of older adults. The theoretical implications and practical relevance of functional aging for motor skill learning are discussed. © 2013 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  14. The Role of Routine Whole Volume SPECT Reconstruction in Comparison to Cine Raw Data in the Detection of Extracardiac Uptake on Myocardial Perfusion Scans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maharaj, M.; Korowlay, N.A.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the role of routine whole volume reconstructed single-photon emission tomography (rSPECT) compared to cine raw data to detect extracardiac uptake of Sestamibi (MIBI). In a retrospective study, the myocardial perfusion studies of 426 patients were inspected separately for extracardiac uptake on cine raw data and rSPECT. The acquisition parameters for all the images were done according to departmental protocol. The whole volume SPECT data was selected and processed by HOSEM iterative reconstruction using the HERMES computer software system. The images were assessed by two observers, a student in training and a senior consultant nuclear medicine physician. The overall mean age and standard deviation of the 426 patients at the time of the study was 60 ± 12 years. Statistical analysis was performed using the Kappa and McNemars tests. The clinical significance of the extracardiac uptake was evaluated using hospital folders and /or laboratory results after viewing images. rSPECT detected 25 patients (5.9%) and cine raw data identified 18 patients (4.2%) with extracardiac uptake. All the areas of extracardiac uptake noted on cine raw data were seen on the rSPECT images. Only 21 of the 25 patients had complete 5-year clinical follow-up. The value of the clinical significance of the extracardiac uptake was limited due to the study being retrospective. The proportion of positives identified by rSPECT was significantly larger than those identified by cine raw data (P = 0.0082). Although our study demonstrates that rSPECT is more sensitive than cine raw data in detecting extracardiac uptake, it also shows that there is no benefit in routine whole volume rSPECT in daily clinical practice

  15. Going outdoors and cognitive function among community-dwelling older adults: Moderating role of physical function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, Kazuhiro; Lee, Sangyoon; Park, Hyuntae; Shimada, Hiroyuki; Makizako, Hyuma; Doi, Takehiko; Yoshida, Daisuke; Tsutsumimoto, Kota; Anan, Yuya; Uemura, Kazuki; Suzuki, Takao

    2016-01-01

    Identifying the risk factors of cognitive impairment is essential for implementing effective prevention strategies for dementia. Previous studies have shown that the frequency of going outdoors is inversely associated with cognitive decline. Little research has examined whether the relationship between going outdoors and cognitive decline varies with physical functioning in older adults. The aim of the present study was to examine the relationship between going outdoors and cognitive function in older adults with and without physical function limitations. The present study analyzed the data of 4450 individuals (aged 65 years or older) who participated in the Obu Study of Health Promotion for the Elderly. The measures were the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), going outdoors (at least once a week or not), self-reported physical function limitations (with or without), and demographic and health-related factors as potential confounders. Analysis of covariance and post-hoc comparisons showed that although going outdoors at least once a week was associated with higher MMSE scores among older adults with limited physical function, it was not significantly associated with the MMSE scores among older adults without limited physical function. Similarly, logistic regression analyses, stratified by physical function, showed a significant association between going outdoors and MMSE (older adults with limited physical function. The results show that going outdoors less than once a week is associated with decreased cognitive function among older adults with limited physical function, but it is not associated with cognitive function among older adults without limited physical function. © 2015 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  16. Everyday psychological functioning in children with unilateral cerebral palsy: does executive functioning play a role?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittingham, Koa; Bodimeade, Harriet L; Lloyd, Owen; Boyd, Roslyn N

    2014-06-01

    To identify whether executive functioning mediates the effect of having unilateral cerebral palsy (CP) on executive functioning in everyday life, psychological functioning, and social functioning. A cross-sectional cohort of 46 children with unilateral CP (25 males, 21 females; mean age 11y 1mo, SD 2y 5mo; 24 right-sided, 22 left-sided) and 20 children with typical development (nine males, 11 females; mean age 10y 10mo, SD 2y 4mo). Cognitive executive functioning was tested using a neuropsychological battery. Executive functioning in everyday life was measured with the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF; teacher and parent reports) and psychological and social functioning by the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). Analysis included analysis of covariance and bootstrapping. Children with unilateral CP were found to have significantly decreased functioning, compared with children with typical development, on the BRIEF Behavioral Regulation Index, the BRIEF Metacognition Index, and on the SDQ emotion, conduct, hyperactivity, and peer problems subscales. Group differences were mediated by cognitive executive functioning for the BRIEF Metacognition Index (teacher and parent report), the BRIEF Behavioral Regulation Index (parent report only), the SDQ conduct subscale, and the SDQ hyperactivity subscale. This study suggests that the increased risk of children with unilateral CP experiencing executive functioning difficulties in everyday life, conduct problems, and hyperactivity can be partly explained by decreased cognitive executive functioning abilities relative to children with typical development. © 2014 Mac Keith Press.

  17. The edge artifact in the point-spread function-based PET reconstruction at different sphere-to-background ratios of radioactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidera, Daisuke; Kihara, Ken; Akamatsu, Go; Mikasa, Shohei; Taniguchi, Takafumi; Tsutsui, Yuji; Takeshita, Toshiki; Maebatake, Akira; Miwa, Kenta; Sasaki, Masayuki

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to quantitatively evaluate the edge artifacts in PET images reconstructed using the point-spread function (PSF) algorithm at different sphere-to-background ratios of radioactivity (SBRs). We used a NEMA IEC body phantom consisting of six spheres with 37, 28, 22, 17, 13 and 10 mm in inner diameter. The background was filled with (18)F solution with a radioactivity concentration of 2.65 kBq/mL. We prepared three sets of phantoms with SBRs of 16, 8, 4 and 2. The PET data were acquired for 20 min using a Biograph mCT scanner. The images were reconstructed with the baseline ordered subsets expectation maximization (OSEM) algorithm, and with the OSEM + PSF correction model (PSF). For the image reconstruction, the number of iterations ranged from one to 10. The phantom PET image analyses were performed by a visual assessment of the PET images and profiles, a contrast recovery coefficient (CRC), which is the ratio of SBR in the images to the true SBR, and the percent change in the maximum count between the OSEM and PSF images (Δ % counts). In the PSF images, the spheres with a diameter of 17 mm or larger were surrounded by a dense edge in comparison with the OSEM images. In the spheres with a diameter of 22 mm or smaller, an overshoot appeared in the center of the spheres as a sharp peak in the PSF images in low SBR. These edge artifacts were clearly observed in relation to the increase of the SBR. The overestimation of the CRC was observed in 13 mm spheres in the PSF images. In the spheres with a diameter of 17 mm or smaller, the Δ % counts increased with an increasing SBR. The Δ % counts increased to 91 % in the 10-mm sphere at the SBR of 16. The edge artifacts in the PET images reconstructed using the PSF algorithm increased with an increasing SBR. In the small spheres, the edge artifact was observed as a sharp peak at the center of spheres and could result in overestimation.

  18. Brain Energy and Oxygen Metabolism: Emerging Role in Normal Function and Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle E. Watts

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Dynamic metabolic changes occurring in neurons are critically important in directing brain plasticity and cognitive function. In other tissue types, disruptions to metabolism and the resultant changes in cellular oxidative state, such as increased reactive oxygen species (ROS or induction of hypoxia, are associated with cellular stress. In the brain however, where drastic metabolic shifts occur to support physiological processes, subsequent changes to cellular oxidative state and induction of transcriptional sensors of oxidative stress likely play a significant role in regulating physiological neuronal function. Understanding the role of metabolism and metabolically-regulated genes in neuronal function will be critical in elucidating how cognitive functions are disrupted in pathological conditions where neuronal metabolism is affected. Here, we discuss known mechanisms regulating neuronal metabolism as well as the role of hypoxia and oxidative stress during normal and disrupted neuronal function. We also summarize recent studies implicating a role for metabolism in regulating neuronal plasticity as an emerging neuroscience paradigm.

  19. [Role of aerodynamic parameters in voice function assessment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yong-qing; Lin, Sheng-zhi; Xu, Xin-lin; Zhou, Li; Zhuang, Pei-yun; Jiang, Jack J

    2012-10-01

    To investigate the application and significance of aerodynamic parameters in voice function assessment. The phonatory aerodynamic system (PAS) was used to collect aerodynamic parameters from subjects with normal voice, vocal fold polyp, vocal fold cyst, and vocal fold immobility. Multivariate statistical analysis was used to compare measurements across groups. Phonation threshold flow (PTF), mean flow rate (MFR), maximum phonation time (MPT), and glottal resistance (GR) in one hundred normal subjects were significantly affected by sex (P efficiency (VE) were not (P > 0.05). PTP, PTF, MFR, SGP, and MPT were significantly different between normal voice and voice disorders (P 0.05). Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis found that PTP, PTF, SGP, MFR, MPT, and VE in one hundred thirteen voice dis orders had similar diagnostic utility (P aerodynamic parameters of the three degrees of voice dysfunction due to vocal cord polyps were compared and found to have no significant differences (P > 0.05). PTP, PTF, MFR, SGP and MPT in forty one patients with vocal polyps were significantly different after surgical resection of vocal cord polyps (P aerodynamic parameters can objectively and effectively evaluate the variations of vocal function, and have good auxiliary diagnostic value.

  20. The Role of Esophageal Hypersensitivity in Functional Heartburn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Takashi; Miwa, Hiroto

    2017-08-01

    Functional heartburn (FH) is defined as a functional esophageal disorder characterized by symptoms of chronic heartburn with no apparent correlation to acid or nonacid reflux. In addition, its symptoms persist despite the lack of organic abnormalities or inflammation, esophageal motility disorders, or metabolic disorders. Although conditions presenting with esophageal symptoms without endoscopic abnormalities were previously categorized as nonerosive reflux disease, such conditions are now classified into 3 categories under Rome IV criteria: nonerosive reflux disease, reflux hypersensitivity, and FH. Although many aspects of FH remain unclear, its onset mechanism is considered to be strongly associated with peripheral or central sensitization, given the fact that its symptoms seem to be unrelated to gastroesophageal reflux. In addition, the cause of such hypersensitivity is an interesting topic in itself, and psychological factors, such as stress followed by increasing esophageal permeability are gaining attention as factors that can potentially influence this condition. There is a great unmet clinical need for therapeutic drugs that can be used to treat FH, and the development of novel drugs, diagnostic tests and biomarkers is eagerly awaited.

  1. The auxiliary of the Romanian conditional: semantic and functional arguments concerning the reconstruction of a disputed grammaticalization process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodica Zafiu

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at demonstrating the explanatory advantages of the old hypothesis concerning the origins of the auxiliary of the Romanian analytic conditional (aș + infinitive as deriving from the imperfect tense form of the verb (a vrea ‘(to want’ < *volere (< VELLE. The grammaticalization process, reconstructed through the comparison with the other Romance languages and by relating it to typical directions of the linguistic change, presupposes intermediary semantic phases (the future-in-the-past value, the hypothetical value which is mostly counter-factual, whose traces may be found in the first Romanian (translated texts, but which have been generally considered a consequence of the simple loan translation from the language source. The uses of the conditional with a reduced auxiliary (aș, ai, etc. + infinitive are related to those (co-occurring in the old texts of the conditional with a recognisable auxiliary (vrea ‘wanted’ + infinitive, for which the value specific to the first grammaticalization stage is still strong—that of a future-in-the past. The text also puts forth an explanation for the atypical forms within the paradigm of the conditional auxiliary—aș(i, ar(ă—through the overlap between the forms of the imperfect and the simple past of the verb (a vrea ‘(to want’.

  2. DEM RECONSTRUCTION USING LIGHT FIELD AND BIDIRECTIONAL REFLECTANCE FUNCTION FROM MULTI-VIEW HIGH RESOLUTION SPATIAL IMAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. de Vieilleville

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a method for dense DSM reconstruction from high resolution, mono sensor, passive imagery, spatial panchromatic image sequence. The interest of our approach is four-fold. Firstly, we extend the core of light field approaches using an explicit BRDF model from the Image Synthesis community which is more realistic than the Lambertian model. The chosen model is the Cook-Torrance BRDF which enables us to model rough surfaces with specular effects using specific material parameters. Secondly, we extend light field approaches for non-pinhole sensors and non-rectilinear motion by using a proper geometric transformation on the image sequence. Thirdly, we produce a 3D volume cost embodying all the tested possible heights and filter it using simple methods such as Volume Cost Filtering or variational optimal methods. We have tested our method on a Pleiades image sequence on various locations with dense urban buildings and report encouraging results with respect to classic multi-label methods such as MIC-MAC, or more recent pipelines such as S2P. Last but not least, our method also produces maps of material parameters on the estimated points, allowing us to simplify building classification or road extraction.

  3. Role of Partner Novelty in Sexual Functioning: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Heather; Gorzalka, Boris B

    2015-01-01

    This review investigates whether sexual desire and arousal decline in response to partner familiarity, increase in response to partner novelty, and show differential responding in men and women. These questions were considered through the perspective of two leading evolutionary theories regarding human mating strategies: sexual strategies theory and attachment fertility theory. The hypotheses emerging from these theories were evaluated through a critical analysis of several areas of research including habituation of arousal to erotic stimuli, preferences regarding number of sexual partners, the effect of long-term monogamous relationships on sexual arousal and desire, and prevalence and risk factors associated with extradyadic behavior. The current literature best supports the predictions made by sexual strategies theory in that sexual functioning has evolved to promote short-term mating. Sexual arousal and desire appear to decrease in response to partner familiarity and increase in response to partner novelty in men and women. Evidence to date suggests this effect may be greater in men.

  4. The role of whey in functional dairy food production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljubica Tratnik

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Modern life style also enhances a need for creation of better dairyproducts, in comparison with traditional ones, possessing functionalcharacteristics. Whey is consisted primarily of lactose, proteins of high nutritive value, important minerals and imunoactive compounds, as well as vitamins of B group. It can be used for fermented probiotic drinks and albumin cheese production. Using new methods of pressure membrane filtration and demineralisation the economic manufacture of whey, as a valuable source of nutrients, is enabled. The aim of this paper is to give an overview on the possibilities of sweet whey, especially whey protein concentrates, use in functional dairy products manufacture from cow’s and goat’s milk. The paper is based on the published scientific research performed in the Laboratory for Technology of Milk and Dairy Products of the Faculty of Food Technology and Biotechnology University of Zagreb.

  5. Hantaviral proteins: structure, functions and role in hantavirus infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musalwa eMuyangwa

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Hantaviruses are the members of the family Bunyaviridae that are naturally maintained in the populations of small mammals, mostly rodents. Most of these viruses can easily infect humans through contact with aerosols or dust generated by contaminated animal waste products. Depending on the particular hantavirus involved, human infection could result in either Hemorrhagic Fever with Renal Syndrome (HFRS or in Hantavirus Cardiopulmonary Syndrome (HCPS. In the past few years, clinical cases of the hantavirus caused diseases have been on the rise. Understanding structure of the hantavirus genome and the functions of the key viral proteins is critical for the therapeutic agents’ research. This paper gives a brief overview of the current knowledge on the structure and properties of the hantavirus nucleoprotein and the glycoproteins.

  6. The Functional Role of Reactive Stroma in Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schauer, Isaiah G.; Rowley, David R.

    2011-01-01

    The human prostate gland is one of the only internal organs that continue to enlarge throughout adulthood. The specific mechanisms that regulate this growth, as well as the pathological changes leading to the phenotype observed in the disease benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), are essentially unknown. Recent studies and their associated findings have made clear that many complex alterations occur, involving persistent and chronic inflammation, circulating hormonal level deregulation, and aberrant wound repair processes. BPH has been etiologically characterized as a progressive, albeit discontinuous, hyperplasia of both the glandular epithelial and stromal cell compartments coordinately yielding an expansion of the prostate gland and clinical symptoms. Interestingly, the inflammatory and repair responses observed in BPH are also key components of general wound repair in post-natal tissues. These responses include altered expression of chemokines, cytokines, matrix remodeling factors, chronic inflammatory processes, altered immune surveillance and recognition, as well as the formation of a prototypical ‘reactive’ stroma which is similar to that observed across various fibroplasias and malignancies of a variety of tissue sites. Stromal tissue, both embryonic mesenchyme, and adult reactive stroma myofibroblasts, has been shown to exert potent and functional regulatory control over epithelial proliferation and differentiation as well as immunoresponsive modulation. Thus, the functional biology of a reactive stroma, within the context of an adult disease typified by epithelial and stromal aberrant hyperplasia, is critical to understand within the context of prostate disease and beyond. The mechanisms that regulate reactive stroma biology in BPH represent targets of opportunity for new therapeutic approaches that may extend to other tissue contexts. Accordingly, this review seeks to address the dissection of important factors, signaling pathways, genes, and other

  7. Hyperglycemia decreases mitochondrial function: The regulatory role of mitochondrial biogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmeira, Carlos M.; Rolo, Anabela P.; Berthiaume, Jessica; Bjork, James A.; Wallace, Kendall B.

    2007-01-01

    Increased generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is implicated in 'glucose toxicity' in diabetes. However, little is known about the action of glucose on the expression of transcription factors in hepatocytes, especially those involved in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) replication and transcription. Since mitochondrial functional capacity is dynamically regulated, we hypothesized that stressful conditions of hyperglycemia induce adaptations in the transcriptional control of cellular energy metabolism, including inhibition of mitochondrial biogenesis and oxidative metabolism. Cell viability, mitochondrial respiration, ROS generation and oxidized proteins were determined in HepG2 cells cultured in the presence of either 5.5 mM (control) or 30 mM glucose (high glucose) for 48 h, 96 h and 7 days. Additionally, mtDNA abundance, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), mitochondrial transcription factor A (TFAM) and nuclear respiratory factor-1 (NRF-1) transcripts were evaluated by real time PCR. High glucose induced a progressive increase in ROS generation and accumulation of oxidized proteins, with no changes in cell viability. Increased expression of PAI-1 was observed as early as 96 h of exposure to high glucose. After 7 days in hyperglycemia, HepG2 cells exhibited inhibited uncoupled respiration and decreased MitoTracker Red fluorescence associated with a 25% decrease in mtDNA and 16% decrease in TFAM transcripts. These results indicate that glucose may regulate mtDNA copy number by modulating the transcriptional activity of TFAM in response to hyperglycemia-induced ROS production. The decrease of mtDNA content and inhibition of mitochondrial function may be pathogenic hallmarks in the altered metabolic status associated with diabetes

  8. Organisation and functional role of the brain angiotensin system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Llorens-Cortes

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available The discovery that all components of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS are present in the brain led investigators to postulate the existence of a local brain RAS. Supporting this, angiotensin immunoreactive neurones have been visualised in the brain. Two major pathways were described: a forebrain pathway which connects circumventricular organs to the median preoptic nucleus, paraventricular and supraoptic nuclei, and a second pathway connecting the hypothalamus to the medulla oblongata. Blood-brain-barrier deficient circumventricular organs are rich in angiotensin II (Ang II receptors. By activating these receptors, circulating Ang II may act on central cardiovascular centres via angiotensinergic neurones, providing a link between peripheral and central Ang II systems. Among the effector peptides of the brain RAS, Ang II and angiotensin III (Ang III have the same affinity for type 1 and type 2 Ang II receptors. When injected into the brain, both peptides increase blood pressure (BP, water intake and pituitary hormone release and may modify learning and memory. Since Ang II is converted in vivo to Ang III, the nature of the true effector is unknown. This review summarises new insights into the predominant role of brain Ang III in the control of BP and underlines the fact that brain aminopeptidase A, the enzyme forming central Ang III, could constitute a putative central therapeutic target for the treatment of hypertension.

  9. The multiple roles and functions of English in South Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gene Vasilopoulos

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In the field of language and identity, the subcategory of gender has been an area of growing interest (Pavlenko, 2001; Norton & Pavlenko, 2004; Menard-Warwick, 2008; and Higgins, 2010. Adopting the view of gender as “a system of social relationships and discursive practices” (Norton & Pavlenko, 2004, p. 504, social context is fundamental in understanding how gender relates to foreign language learning. This qualitative study focused on the extent to which gender impacts English language learning and English language use in the context of teaching English as a foreign language in South Korea. More specifically, it investigates how gender shapes self and social identity, and how these identities relate to English language learning and English language use, at present and/or in the future, in both real and/or imagined communities. Four male and four female participants were selected using purposive homogenous sampling techniques based on the criteria of having lived abroad in an English speaking community for over 5 years—a criterion which assumes the formation of self and social identity in addition to their native Korean L1. Data was collected through multiple methods including open-ended questionnaires, in-depth interviews, and focus group discussions. Interview and questionnaire data reveals gender differences in the symbolic meaning of English language, the relevance of English in self and social positioning, and the role of English in shaping future professional trajectories with males situating themselves in international contexts and females in the local.

  10. Reconstruction of structure and function in tissue engineering of solid organs: Toward simulation of natural development based on decellularization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Chen-Xi; Sui, Bing-Dong; Hu, Cheng-Hu; Qiu, Xin-Yu; Zhao, Pan; Jin, Yan

    2018-04-27

    Failure of solid organs, such as the heart, liver, and kidney, remains a major cause of the world's mortality due to critical shortage of donor organs. Tissue engineering, which uses elements including cells, scaffolds, and growth factors to fabricate functional organs in vitro, is a promising strategy to mitigate the scarcity of transplantable organs. Within recent years, different construction strategies that guide the combination of tissue engineering elements have been applied in solid organ tissue engineering and have achieved much progress. Most attractively, construction strategy based on whole-organ decellularization has become a popular and promising approach, because the overall structure of extracellular matrix can be well preserved. However, despite the preservation of whole structure, the current constructs derived from decellularization-based strategy still perform partial functions of solid organs, due to several challenges, including preservation of functional extracellular matrix structure, implementation of functional recellularization, formation of functional vascular network, and realization of long-term functional integration. This review overviews the status quo of solid organ tissue engineering, including both advances and challenges. We have also put forward a few techniques with potential to solve the challenges, mainly focusing on decellularization-based construction strategy. We propose that the primary concept for constructing tissue-engineered solid organs is fabricating functional organs based on intact structure via simulating the natural development and regeneration processes. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Comparison of physical impairment, functional, and psychosocial measures based on fear of reinjury/lack of confidence and return-to-sport status after ACL reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lentz, Trevor A; Zeppieri, Giorgio; George, Steven Z; Tillman, Susan M; Moser, Michael W; Farmer, Kevin W; Chmielewski, Terese L

    2015-02-01

    Fear of reinjury and lack of confidence influence return-to-sport outcomes after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. The physical, psychosocial, and functional recovery of patients reporting fear of reinjury or lack of confidence as their primary barrier to resuming sports participation is unknown. To compare physical impairment, functional, and psychosocial measures between subgroups based on return-to-sport status and fear of reinjury/lack of confidence in the return-to-sport stage and to determine the association of physical impairment and psychosocial measures with function for each subgroup at 6 months and 1 year after surgery. Case-control study; Level of evidence, 3. Physical impairment (quadriceps index [QI], quadriceps strength/body weight [QSBW], hamstring:quadriceps strength ratio [HQ ratio], pain intensity), self-report of function (International Knee Documentation Committee [IKDC]), and psychosocial (Tampa Scale for Kinesiophobia-shortened form [TSK-11]) measures were collected at 6 months and 1 year after surgery in 73 patients with ACL reconstruction. At 1 year, subjects were divided into "return-to-sport" (YRTS) or "not return-to-sport" (NRTS) subgroups based on their self-reported return to preinjury sport status. Patients in the NRTS subgroup were subcategorized as NRTS-Fear/Confidence if fear of reinjury/lack of confidence was the primary reason for not returning to sports, and all others were categorized as NRTS-Other. A total of 46 subjects were assigned to YRTS, 13 to NRTS-Other, and 14 to NRTS-Fear/Confidence. Compared with the YRTS subgroup, the NRTS-Fear/Confidence subgroup was older and had lower QSBW, lower IKDC score, and higher TSK-11 score at 6 months and 1 year; however, they had similar pain levels. In the NRTS-Fear/Confidence subgroup, the IKDC score was associated with QSBW and pain at 6 months and QSBW, QI, pain, and TSK-11 scores at 1 year. Elevated pain-related fear of movement/reinjury, quadriceps weakness, and

  12. Expression and functional role of sprouty-2 in breast morphogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigurdsson, Valgardur; Ingthorsson, Saevar; Hilmarsdottir, Bylgja; Gustafsdottir, Sigrun M; Franzdottir, Sigridur Rut; Arason, Ari Jon; Steingrimsson, Eirikur; Magnusson, Magnus K; Gudjonsson, Thorarinn

    2013-01-01

    Branching morphogenesis is a mechanism used by many species for organogenesis and tissue maintenance. Receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs), including epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and the sprouty protein family are believed to be critical regulators of branching morphogenesis. The aim of this study was to analyze the expression of Sprouty-2 (SPRY2) in the mammary gland and study its role in branching morphogenesis. Human breast epithelial cells, breast tissue and mouse mammary glands were used for expression studies using immunoblotting, real rime PCR and immunohistochemistry. Knockdown of SPRY2 in the breast epithelial stem cell line D492 was done by lentiviral transduction of shRNA constructs targeting SPRY2. Three dimensional culture of D492 with or without endothelial cells was done in reconstituted basement membrane matrix. We show that in the human breast, SPRY2 is predominantly expressed in the luminal epithelial cells of both ducts and lobuli. In the mouse mammary gland, SPRY2 expression is low or absent in the virgin state, while in the pregnant mammary gland SPRY2 is expressed at branching epithelial buds with increased expression during lactation. This expression pattern is closely associated with the activation of the EGFR pathway. Using D492 which generates branching structures in three-dimensional (3D) culture, we show that SPRY2 expression is low during initiation of branching with subsequent increase throughout the branching process. Immunostaining locates expression of phosphorylated SPRY2 and EGFR at the tip of lobular-like, branching ends. SPRY2 knockdown (KD) resulted in increased migration, increased pERK and larger and more complex branching structures indicating a loss of negative feedback control during branching morphogenesis. In D492 co-cultures with endothelial cells, D492 SPRY2 KD generates spindle-like colonies that bear hallmarks of epithelial to mesenchymal transition. These data indicate that SPRY2 is an important regulator of

  13. Expression and functional role of sprouty-2 in breast morphogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valgardur Sigurdsson

    Full Text Available Branching morphogenesis is a mechanism used by many species for organogenesis and tissue maintenance. Receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs, including epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR and the sprouty protein family are believed to be critical regulators of branching morphogenesis. The aim of this study was to analyze the expression of Sprouty-2 (SPRY2 in the mammary gland and study its role in branching morphogenesis. Human breast epithelial cells, breast tissue and mouse mammary glands were used for expression studies using immunoblotting, real rime PCR and immunohistochemistry. Knockdown of SPRY2 in the breast epithelial stem cell line D492 was done by lentiviral transduction of shRNA constructs targeting SPRY2. Three dimensional culture of D492 with or without endothelial cells was done in reconstituted basement membrane matrix. We show that in the human breast, SPRY2 is predominantly expressed in the luminal epithelial cells of both ducts and lobuli. In the mouse mammary gland, SPRY2 expression is low or absent in the virgin state, while in the pregnant mammary gland SPRY2 is expressed at branching epithelial buds with increased expression during lactation. This expression pattern is closely associated with the activation of the EGFR pathway. Using D492 which generates branching structures in three-dimensional (3D culture, we show that SPRY2 expression is low during initiation of branching with subsequent increase throughout the branching process. Immunostaining locates expression of phosphorylated SPRY2 and EGFR at the tip of lobular-like, branching ends. SPRY2 knockdown (KD resulted in increased migration, increased pERK and larger and more complex branching structures indicating a loss of negative feedback control during branching morphogenesis. In D492 co-cultures with endothelial cells, D492 SPRY2 KD generates spindle-like colonies that bear hallmarks of epithelial to mesenchymal transition. These data indicate that SPRY2 is an

  14. Modification of UO2 grain re-crystallization temperature in function of burn-up as a base for Vitanza experimental curve reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szuta, M.; Dąbrowski, L.

    2013-01-01

    Crossing the experimental critical fuel temperature dependent on burn-up, an onset of fission gas burst release is observed. This observed phenomena can be explained by assumption that the fission gas immobilization in the uranium dioxide irradiated to a fluency of greater than 10 19 fissions/cm 3 is mainly due to radiation induced chemical activity. Application of the “ab initio” method show that the bond energy of Xenon and Krypton is equal to –1.23 eV, and –3.42 eV respectively. Assuming further that the gas chemically bound can be released mainly in the process of re-crystallization and modifying the differential equation of Ainscough of grain growth by including the burn-up dependence and the experimental data of limiting grain size in function of the fuel temperature for the un-irradiated and irradiated fuel we can re-construct the experimental curve of Vitanza. (authors)

  15. Plasmacytoid dendritic cells: Development, functions, and role in atherosclerotic inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitry A Chistiakov

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs are a specialized subset of DCs that links innate and adaptive immunity. They sense viral and bacterial pathogens and release high levels of Type I interferons (IFN-I in response to infection. pDCs were shown to contribute to inflammatory responses in the steady state and in pathology. In atherosclerosis, pDCs are involved in priming vascular inflammation and atherogenesis through production of IFN-I and chemokines that attract inflammatory cells to inflamed sites. pDCs also contribute to the proinflammatory activation of effector T cells, cytotoxic T cells, and conventional DCs. However, tolerogenic populations of pDCs are found that suppress atherosclerosis-associated inflammation through down-regulation of function and proliferation of proinflammatory T cell subsets and induction of regulatory T cells with potent immunomodulatory properties. Notably, atheroprotective tolerogenic DCs could be induced by certain self-antigens or bacterial antigens that suggests for great therapeutic potential of these DCs for development of DC-based anti-atherogenic vaccines.

  16. A surprising role for conformational entropy in protein function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wand, A. Joshua; Moorman, Veronica R.; Harpole, Kyle W.

    2014-01-01

    Formation of high-affinity complexes is critical for the majority of enzymatic reactions involving proteins. The creation of the family of Michaelis and other intermediate complexes during catalysis clearly involves a complicated manifold of interactions that are diverse and complex. Indeed, computing the energetics of interactions between proteins and small molecule ligands using molecular structure alone remains a grand challenge. One of the most difficult contributions to the free energy of protein-ligand complexes to experimentally access is that due to changes in protein conformational entropy. Fortunately, recent advances in solution nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) relaxation methods have enabled the use of measures-of-motion between conformational states of a protein as a proxy for conformational entropy. This review briefly summarizes the experimental approaches currently employed to characterize fast internal motion in proteins, how this information is used to gain insight into conformational entropy, what has been learned and what the future may hold for this emerging view of protein function. PMID:23478875

  17. The role of leptin in nutritional status and reproductive function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keisler, D H; Daniel, J A; Morrison, C D

    1999-01-01

    Infertility associated with suboptimal nutrition is a major concern among livestock producers. Undernourished prepubertal animals will not enter puberty until they are well fed; similarly, adult, normally cyclic females will stop cycling when faced with extreme undernutrition. Work in our laboratory has focused on how body fat (or adiposity) of an animal can communicate to the brain and regulate reproductive competence. In 1994, the discovery in rodents of the obese (ob) gene product leptin, secreted as a hormone from adipocytes, provided a unique opportunity to understand and hence regulate whole body compositional changes. There is now evidence that similar mechanisms are functioning in livestock species in which food intake, body composition, and reproductive performance are of considerable economic importance. Leptin has been reported to be a potent regulator of food intake and reproduction in rodents. There is evidence indicating that at least some of the effects of leptin occur through receptor-mediated regulation of the hypothalamic protein neuropeptide Y (NPY). NPY is a potent stimulator of food intake, is present at high concentrations in feed-restricted cattle and ewes, and is an inhibitor of LH secretion in these livestock species. In our investigations in sheep, we have cloned a partial cDNA corresponding to the ovine long-form leptin receptor, presumably the only fully active form, and have localized the long-form leptin receptor in the ventromedial and arcuate nuclei of the hypothalamus. Leptin receptor mRNA expression was colocalized with NPY mRNA-containing cell bodies in those regions. We have also determined that hypothalamic leptin receptor expression is greater in feed-restricted ewes than in well-fed ewes. These observations provide a foundation for future investigations into the nutritional modulators of reproduction in livestock.

  18. Mechanisms and functional roles of glutamatergic synapse diversity in a cerebellar circuit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zampini, Valeria; Liu, Jian K; Diana, Marco A; Maldonado, Paloma P; Brunel, Nicolas; Dieudonné, Stéphane

    2016-01-01

    Synaptic currents display a large degree of heterogeneity of their temporal characteristics, but the functional role of such heterogeneities remains unknown. We investigated in rat cerebellar slices synaptic currents in Unipolar Brush Cells (UBCs), which generate intrinsic mossy fibers relaying

  19. HEEL BONE RECONSTRUCTIVE OSTEOSYNTHESIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Svetashov

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available To detect the most appropriate to heel bone injury severity variants of reconstructive osteosynthesis it was analyzed treatment results of 56 patients. In 15 (26.8% patients classic methods of surgical service were applied, in 41 (73.2% cases to restore the defect porous implants were used. Osteosynthesis without heel bone plastic restoration accomplishment was ineffective in 60% patients from control group. Reconstructive osteosynthesis method ensures long-term good functional effect of rehabilitation in 96.4% patients from the basic group.

  20. ACL Reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in moderate exercise and recreational activities, or play sports that put less stress on the knees. ACL reconstruction is generally recommended if: You're an athlete and want to continue in your sport, especially if the sport involves jumping, cutting or ...

  1. The Inexpressive Male: Functional-Conflict and Role Theory as Contrasting Explanations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balswick, Jack

    1979-01-01

    Compares functional-conflict and role theory perspectives in their ability to explain male inexpressiveness. The role theory approach incorporates the individual and the social structure in explaining male inexpressiveness. Change in male expressiveness can be expected if males are encouraged to devote more time and energy to emotionally laden…

  2. European bank for reconstruction and development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kastratović Radovan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available European Bank for Reconstruction and Development - EBRD was established in the year 1991 and commenced operations in 1991. The objective of the Bank was to instigate market oriented approach to business in the countries of Central and Eastern Europe. This comprises support offered to structural reforms, privatisation, and development of entrepreneurship and legal system through financing of project conducive to the achievement of the aimed targets. The Bank approves loans both to the nation states and to the private sector. European Bank for Reconstruction and Development often appears in the role of investor. In addition, the Bank has also its consultative function. Owners of the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development are the developed countries and those that participate in the distribution of the Bank's profit. The Bank invests in the countries of Central, Eastern and South-East Europe, but also in those of Central Asia and Southern Mediterranean. The importance that the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development has for our country is best illustrated by the fact that this Bank is our largest institutional investor, with investments exceeding 3.5 billion EUR. This work begins with presentation of general information on the work of the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development, its objectives, activities, background history, ownership and organisational structure. It proceeds by giving relevant data on the Bank's business operations - the manner of project financing, the Bank's funds distribution per geographic criteria and activities, and the operative and financial results of the Bank's business activities. Brief description is also offered of the cooperation that the European Bank has with other international financial institutions. Finally, data is given bearing witness on the importance that the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development has for Serbia.

  3. Impact of neurocognition on social and role functioning in individuals at clinical high risk for psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrión, Ricardo E; Goldberg, Terry E; McLaughlin, Danielle; Auther, Andrea M; Correll, Christoph U; Cornblatt, Barbara A

    2011-08-01

    Cognitive deficits have been well documented in schizophrenia and have been shown to impair quality of life and to compromise everyday functioning. Recent studies of adolescents and young adults at high risk for developing psychosis show that neurocognitive impairments are detectable before the onset of psychotic symptoms. However, it remains unclear how cognitive impairments affect functioning before the onset of psychosis. The authors assessed cognitive impairment in adolescents at clinical high risk for psychosis and examined its impact on social and role functioning. A sample of 127 treatment-seeking patients at clinical high risk for psychosis and a group of 80 healthy comparison subjects were identified and recruited for research in the Recognition and Prevention Program. At baseline, participants were assessed with a comprehensive neurocognitive battery as well as measures of social and role functioning. Relative to healthy comparison subjects, clinical high-risk patients showed significant impairments in the domains of processing speed, verbal memory, executive function, working memory, visuospatial processing, motor speed, sustained attention, and language. Clinical high-risk patients also displayed impaired social and role functioning at baseline. Among patients with attenuated positive symptoms, processing speed was related to social and role functioning at baseline. These findings demonstrate that cognitive and functional impairments are detectable in patients at clinical high risk for psychosis before the onset of psychotic illness and that processing speed appears to be an important cognitive predictor of poor functioning.

  4. Translational Perspective on the Role of Testosterone in Sexual Function and Dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podlasek, Carol A; Mulhall, John; Davies, Kelvin; Wingard, Christopher J; Hannan, Johanna L; Bivalacqua, Trinity J; Musicki, Biljana; Khera, Mohit; González-Cadavid, Nestor F; Burnett, Arthur L

    2016-08-01

    The biological importance of testosterone is generally accepted by the medical community; however, controversy focuses on its relevance to sexual function and the sexual response, and our understanding of the extent of its role in this area is evolving. To provide scientific evidence examining the role of testosterone at the cellular and molecular levels as it pertains to normal erectile physiology and the development of erectile dysfunction and to assist in guiding successful therapeutic interventions for androgen-dependent sexual dysfunction. In this White Paper, the Basic Science Committee of the Sexual Medicine Society of North America assessed the current basic science literature examining the role of testosterone in sexual function and dysfunction. Testosterone plays an important role in sexual function through multiple processes: physiologic (stimulates activity of nitric oxide synthase), developmental (establishes and maintains the structural and functional integrity of the penis), neural (development, maintenance, function, and plasticity of the cavernous nerve and pelvic ganglia), therapeutically for dysfunctional regulation (beneficial effect on aging, diabetes, and prostatectomy), and phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibition (testosterone supplement to counteract phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitor resistance). Despite controversies concerning testosterone with regard to sexual function, basic science studies provide incontrovertible evidence for a significant role of testosterone in sexual function and suggest that properly administered testosterone therapy is potentially advantageous for treating male sexual dysfunction. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Left Ventricular Function Improves after Pulmonary Valve Replacement in Patients with Previous Right Ventricular Outflow Tract Reconstruction and Biventricular Dysfunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Colin; Kogon, Brian; Pernetz, Maria; McConnell, Michael; Kirshbom, Paul; Rodby, Katherine; Book, Wendy M.

    2011-01-01

    Congenital heart defects that have a component of right ventricular outflow tract obstruction, such as tetralogy of Fallot, are frequently palliated in childhood by disruption of the pulmonary valve. Although this can provide an initial improvement in quality of life, these patients are often left with severe pulmonary valve insufficiency. Over time, this insufficiency can lead to enlargement of the right ventricle and to the deterioration of right ventricular systolic and diastolic function. Pulmonary valve replacement in these patients decreases right ventricular volume overload and improves right ventricular performance. To date, few studies have examined the effects of pulmonary valve replacement on left ventricular function in patients with biventricular dysfunction. We sought to perform such an evaluation. Records of adult patients who had undergone pulmonary valve replacement from January 2003 through November 2006 were analyzed retrospectively. We reviewed preoperative and postoperative echocardiograms and calculated left ventricular function in 38 patients. In the entire cohort, the mean left ventricular ejection fraction increased by a mean of 0.07 after pulmonary valve replacement, which was a statistically significant change (P < 0.01). In patients with preoperative ejection fractions of less than 0.50, mean ejection fractions increased by 0.10. We conclude that pulmonary valve replacement in patients with biventricular dysfunction arising from severe pulmonary insufficiency and right ventricular enlargement can improve left ventricular function. Prospective studies are needed to verify this finding. PMID:21720459

  6. Reconstruction of the gene regulatory network involved in the sonic hedgehog pathway with a potential role in early development of the mouse brain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinhua Liu

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The Sonic hedgehog (Shh signaling pathway is crucial for pattern formation in early central nervous system development. By systematically analyzing high-throughput in situ hybridization data of E11.5 mouse brain, we found that Shh and its receptor Ptch1 define two adjacent mutually exclusive gene expression domains: Shh+Ptch1- and Shh-Ptch1+. These two domains are associated respectively with Foxa2 and Gata3, two transcription factors that play key roles in specifying them. Gata3 ChIP-seq experiments and RNA-seq assays on Gata3-knockdown cells revealed that Gata3 up-regulates the genes that are enriched in the Shh-Ptch1+ domain. Important Gata3 targets include Slit2 and Slit3, which are involved in the process of axon guidance, as well as Slc18a1, Th and Qdpr, which are associated with neurotransmitter synthesis and release. By contrast, Foxa2 both up-regulates the genes expressed in the Shh+Ptch1- domain and down-regulates the genes characteristic of the Shh-Ptch1+ domain. From these and other data, we were able to reconstruct a gene regulatory network governing both domains. Our work provides the first genome-wide characterization of the gene regulatory network involved in the Shh pathway that underlies pattern formation in the early mouse brain.

  7. Measurement of cardiovascular function using a novel view-sharing PET reconstruction method and tracer kinetic analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul R. Territo

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Recent advancements in PET instrumentation have made the non-invasive assessment of cardiovascular function in small animals a reality. The majority of small animal PET systems use stationary detector gantries, thus affording high temporal resolution imaging of cardiac function. Systems designed to maximize spatial resolution and detection sensitivity employing rotating gantry designs are suboptimal when high temporal resolution imaging is needed. To overcome this limitation, the current work developed a novel view-sharing data analysis scheme suitable for dynamic cardiac PET imaging using 18F-NaF as the tracer and tracer kinetic model analysis. This scheme was tested in a rat model of cardiovascular function where the relationship between direct transonic flow measures of cardiac output were highly correlated (f(x = 1.0216x − 24.233, R = 0.9158, p < 0.001 with the new model. Similarly, derived measures of stroke volume were also highly correlated (f(x = 0.9655x − 0.0428, R = 0.9453, p < 0.001 with the current approach. Administration of xylazine caused a statistically significant increase in stroke volume (0.32 ± 0.07 ml, p = 0.003, n = 4 and a significant decrease in both heart rate (−155 ± 7.1 beats/min, p < 0.001, n = 4 and cardiac output (−75.9 ± 23.0 ml/kg min, p = 0.01, n = 4. These findings suggest that the new sinogram binning and kinetic modeling methods produce reliable cardiac function measures suitable for longitudinal monitoring of cardiovascular function.

  8. Complex Reconstruction After Sarcoma Resection and the Role of the Plastic Surgeon: A Case Series of 298 Patients Treated at a Single Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leckenby, Jonathan I; Deegan, Rachel; Grobbelaar, Adriaan O

    2018-01-01

    More than 1000 new patients present to the London Sarcoma Unit each year and between 5% and 10% require plastic surgery intervention. Advancements in radiotherapy and chemotherapy protocols combined with higher expectations for limb preservation has led to increased reconstructive challenges. Frequently, primary closure is achievable; however, larger tumors often require specialist reconstruction. A retrospective chart review of all referred patients from the London Sarcoma Unit requiring reconstruction between February 2006 and January 2015 was performed. Patients who underwent primary amputation were excluded. The total number of operations performed was 298 and the mean follow-up was 16 months (12-46 months). 51% of patients had major comorbidities. Patients could be separated into early (0-1 week postoperatively, n = 167) and late reconstructions (>1 week postoperatively, n = 131). 32 patients were reconstructed with skin grafts, 137 patients were managed with regional flaps and 129 patients were treated with free flaps. A patient with 3 or more major comorbidities resulted in a significantly increased risk of reconstructive failure (P < 0.05). Our experience has lead us to adhere to the following guidelines: (1) All patients should be reviewed in a multidisciplinary team meeting. (2) After primary excision, patients should be managed with a vacuum dressing until margins are clear. (3) Definitive reconstruction should be performed by a specialist reconstructive surgeon.

  9. Exploring the role of the human resource function in the South African information technology industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caron Hall

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The Information Technology (IT industry is one that is characterised by rapid change and a heavy reliance on human skills. A study was conducted to qualitatively explore the role of the Human Resource (HR function in the South African IT industry. Semi-structured individual and focus group interviews with professionals in this function highlighted many opportunities for HR to render a more strategic role in an environment where a skills shortage and many related problem areas exist. The implications of these findings are discussed and proposals for redefining the role of HR in the specific industry are offered.

  10. A View of Man's Role and Function in a Complex System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Francis H.

    In this paper the roles and functions of man in the evolution and development of two complex specific systems within the Army operational environment are discussed. It is pointed out that throughout the course of historical development, the basic system functions and objectives have remained unchanged even though the system equipments have varied.…

  11. Lipid polymorphism and the functional roles of lipids in biological membranes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cullis, P.R.; Kruijff, B. de

    1979-01-01

    The reasons for the great variety of lipids found in biological membranes, and the relations between lipid composition and membrane function pose major unsolved problems in membrane biology. Perhaps the only major functional role of lipids which may be regarded as firmly established involves the

  12. Phospholipid metabolism and nuclear function: roles of the lipin family of phosphatidic acid phosphatases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siniossoglou, Symeon

    2013-03-01

    Phospholipids play important roles in nuclear function as dynamic building blocks for the biogenesis of the nuclear membrane, as well as signals by which the nucleus communicates with other organelles, and regulate a variety of nuclear events. The mechanisms underlying the nuclear roles of phospholipids remain poorly understood. Lipins represent a family of phosphatidic acid (PA) phosphatases that are conserved from yeasts to humans and perform essential functions in lipid metabolism. Several studies have identified key roles for lipins and their regulators in nuclear envelope organization, gene expression and the maintenance of lipid homeostasis in yeast and metazoans. This review discusses recent advances in understanding the roles of lipins in nuclear structure and function. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Phospholipids and Phospholipid Metabolism. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. On an image reconstruction method for ECT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasamoto, Akira; Suzuki, Takayuki; Nishimura, Yoshihiro

    2007-04-01

    An image by Eddy Current Testing(ECT) is a blurred image to original flaw shape. In order to reconstruct fine flaw image, a new image reconstruction method has been proposed. This method is based on an assumption that a very simple relationship between measured data and source were described by a convolution of response function and flaw shape. This assumption leads to a simple inverse analysis method with deconvolution.In this method, Point Spread Function (PSF) and Line Spread Function(LSF) play a key role in deconvolution processing. This study proposes a simple data processing to determine PSF and LSF from ECT data of machined hole and line flaw. In order to verify its validity, ECT data for SUS316 plate(200x200x10mm) with artificial machined hole and notch flaw had been acquired by differential coil type sensors(produced by ZETEC Inc). Those data were analyzed by the proposed method. The proposed method restored sharp discrete multiple hole image from interfered data by multiple holes. Also the estimated width of line flaw has been much improved compared with original experimental data. Although proposed inverse analysis strategy is simple and easy to implement, its validity to holes and line flaw have been shown by many results that much finer image than original image have been reconstructed.

  14. Examining the Roles of Work Autonomous and Controlled Motivations on Satisfaction and Anxiety as a Function of Role Ambiguity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillet, Nicolas; Fouquereau, Evelyne; Lafrenière, Marc-André K; Huyghebaert, Tiphaine

    2016-07-03

    Past research in the self-determination theory has shown that autonomous motivation is associated with positive outcomes (e.g., work satisfaction), whereas controlled motivation is related to negative outcomes (e.g., anxiety). The purpose of the present research was to examine the moderating function of role ambiguity on the relationships between work autonomous and controlled motivations on the one hand, and work satisfaction and anxiety on the other. Six hundred and ninety-eight workers (449 men and 249 women) participated in this study. Results revealed that autonomous motivation was most strongly related to satisfaction when ambiguity was low. In addition, controlled motivation was most strongly related to anxiety when ambiguity was high. In other words, the present findings suggest that the outcomes associated with each form of motivation may vary as a function of role ambiguity. The present study thus offers meaningful insights for organizations, managers, and employees.

  15. Suprafascial versus traditional harvesting technique for free antero lateral thigh flap: A case-control study to assess the best functional and aesthetic result in extremity reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruccia, Michele; Fallico, Nefer; Cigna, Emanuele; Ciudad, Pedro; Nicoli, Fabio; Trignano, Emilio; Nacchiero, Eleonora; Giudice, Giuseppe; Ribuffo, Diego; Chen, Hung-Chi

    2017-11-01

    Clinical applications of ALT flap have currently extended to extremity (hand and foot) as well as oral cavity reconstruction. In these anatomical areas, the traditional harvesting technique presents a few disadvantages such as bulkiness of the recipient site and potential donor site morbidity including damage to the deep fascia and skin graft adhesions. The purpose of the present study was to compare the functional and aesthetic outcomes of upper and lower extremity reconstruction with either suprafascial or subfascial harvested anterolateral (ALT) flaps. Sixty patients who underwent hand or foot reconstruction with an ALT flap between January 2013 and January 2015 were included in the study (34 flaps elevated on a subfascial plane and 26 on a suprafascial plane). Group 1 (subfascial harvested ALT flap) was composed of 23 male and 11 female patients with an average age of 53.4 years (range, 36-72 years). Group 2 (suprafascial harvested ALT flap) was composed of 18 male and 8 female patients with an average age of 48.7 years (range, 32-69 years). Surgical indication was tumor resection for 20 patients in group 1 and 16 patients in group 2, chronic ulcer for 8 patients in group 1 and 6 patients in group 2, and trauma for 6 patients in group 1 and 4 patients in group 2. Complications were documented. Aesthetic outcomes were considered in terms of bulkiness of the recipient site, subsequent request for a debulking procedure, and donor site morbidity. Donor site scars were evaluated for cosmesis using a modified Hollander Wound Evaluation Scale (HWES). Skin grafts outcomes were assessed according to the modified Vancouver Scar Scale (VSS). Functional outcome at the recipient site was measured using the Enneking functional outcome score (ESS). Total range of motion (ROM) was recorded. All flaps were successfully elevated with at least one viable perforator with both approaches. The survival rates of suprafascial and subfascial harvested ALT flaps were 96.2 and 97

  16. Industrial dynamic tomographic reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Eric Ferreira de

    2016-01-01

    The state of the art methods applied to industrial processes is currently based on the principles of classical tomographic reconstructions developed for tomographic patterns of static distributions, or is limited to cases of low variability of the density distribution function of the tomographed object. Noise and motion artifacts are the main problems caused by a mismatch in the data from views acquired in different instants. All of these add to the known fact that using a limited amount of data can result in the presence of noise, artifacts and some inconsistencies with the distribution under study. One of the objectives of the present work is to discuss the difficulties that arise from implementing reconstruction algorithms in dynamic tomography that were originally developed for static distributions. Another objective is to propose solutions that aim at reducing a temporal type of information loss caused by employing regular acquisition systems to dynamic processes. With respect to dynamic image reconstruction it was conducted a comparison between different static reconstruction methods, like MART and FBP, when used for dynamic scenarios. This comparison was based on a MCNPx simulation as well as an analytical setup of an aluminum cylinder that moves along the section of a riser during the process of acquisition, and also based on cross section images from CFD techniques. As for the adaptation of current tomographic acquisition systems for dynamic processes, this work established a sequence of tomographic views in a just-in-time fashion for visualization purposes, a form of visually disposing density information as soon as it becomes amenable to image reconstruction. A third contribution was to take advantage of the triple color channel necessary to display colored images in most displays, so that, by appropriately scaling the acquired values of each view in the linear system of the reconstruction, it was possible to imprint a temporal trace into the regularly

  17. The cerebellum: its role in language and related cognitive and affective functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Smet, Hyo Jung; Paquier, Philippe; Verhoeven, Jo; Mariën, Peter

    2013-12-01

    The traditional view on the cerebellum as the sole coordinator of motor function has been substantially redefined during the past decades. Neuroanatomical, neuroimaging and clinical studies have extended the role of the cerebellum to the modulation of cognitive and affective processing. Neuroanatomical studies have demonstrated cerebellar connectivity with the supratentorial association areas involved in higher cognitive and affective functioning, while functional neuroimaging and clinical studies have provided evidence of cerebellar involvement in a variety of cognitive and affective tasks. This paper reviews the recently acknowledged role of the cerebellum in linguistic and related cognitive and behavioral-affective functions. In addition, typical cerebellar syndromes such as the cerebellar cognitive affective syndrome (CCAS) and the posterior fossa syndrome (PFS) will be briefly discussed and the current hypotheses dealing with the presumed neurobiological mechanisms underlying the linguistic, cognitive and affective modulatory role of the cerebellum will be reviewed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Position reconstruction in LUX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akerib, D. S.; Alsum, S.; Araújo, H. M.; Bai, X.; Bailey, A. J.; Balajthy, J.; Beltrame, P.; Bernard, E. P.; Bernstein, A.; Biesiadzinski, T. P.; Boulton, E. M.; Brás, P.; Byram, D.; Cahn, S. B.; Carmona-Benitez, M. C.; Chan, C.; Currie, A.; Cutter, J. E.; Davison, T. J. R.; Dobi, A.; Druszkiewicz, E.; Edwards, B. N.; Fallon, S. R.; Fan, A.; Fiorucci, S.; Gaitskell, R. J.; Genovesi, J.; Ghag, C.; Gilchriese, M. G. D.; Hall, C. R.; Hanhardt, M.; Haselschwardt, S. J.; Hertel, S. A.; Hogan, D. P.; Horn, M.; Huang, D. Q.; Ignarra, C. M.; Jacobsen, R. G.; Ji, W.; Kamdin, K.; Kazkaz, K.; Khaitan, D.; Knoche, R.; Larsen, N. A.; Lenardo, B. G.; Lesko, K. T.; Lindote, A.; Lopes, M. I.; Manalaysay, A.; Mannino, R. L.; Marzioni, M. F.; McKinsey, D. N.; Mei, D.-M.; Mock, J.; Moongweluwan, M.; Morad, J. A.; Murphy, A. St. J.; Nehrkorn, C.; Nelson, H. N.; Neves, F.; O'Sullivan, K.; Oliver-Mallory, K. C.; Palladino, K. J.; Pease, E. K.; Rhyne, C.; Shaw, S.; Shutt, T. A.; Silva, C.; Solmaz, M.; Solovov, V. N.; Sorensen, P.; Sumner, T. J.; Szydagis, M.; Taylor, D. J.; Taylor, W. C.; Tennyson, B. P.; Terman, P. A.; Tiedt, D. R.; To, W. H.; Tripathi, M.; Tvrznikova, L.; Uvarov, S.; Velan, V.; Verbus, J. R.; Webb, R. C.; White, J. T.; Whitis, T. J.; Witherell, M. S.; Wolfs, F. L. H.; Xu, J.; Yazdani, K.; Young, S. K.; Zhang, C.

    2018-02-01

    The (x, y) position reconstruction method used in the analysis of the complete exposure of the Large Underground Xenon (LUX) experiment is presented. The algorithm is based on a statistical test that makes use of an iterative method to recover the photomultiplier tube (PMT) light response directly from the calibration data. The light response functions make use of a two dimensional functional form to account for the photons reflected on the inner walls of the detector. To increase the resolution for small pulses, a photon counting technique was employed to describe the response of the PMTs. The reconstruction was assessed with calibration data including 83mKr (releasing a total energy of 41.5 keV) and 3H (β- with Q = 18.6 keV) decays, and a deuterium-deuterium (D-D) neutron beam (2.45 MeV) . Within the detector's fiducial volume, the reconstruction has achieved an (x, y) position uncertainty of σ = 0.82 cm and σ = 0.17 cm for events of only 200 and 4,000 detected electroluminescence photons respectively. Such signals are associated with electron recoils of energies ~0.25 keV and ~10 keV, respectively. The reconstructed position of the smallest events with a single electron emitted from the liquid surface (22 detected photons) has a horizontal (x, y) uncertainty of 2.13 cm.

  19. Maxillary reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brown James

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to discuss the various defects that occur with maxillectomy with a full review of the literature and discussion of the advantages and disadvantages of the various techniques described. Reconstruction of the maxilla can be relatively simple for the standard low maxillectomy that does not involve the orbital floor (Class 2. In this situation the structure of the face is less damaged and the there are multiple reconstructive options for the restoration of the maxilla and dental alveolus. If the maxillectomy includes the orbit (Class 4 then problems involving the eye (enopthalmos, orbital dystopia, ectropion and diplopia are avoided which simplifies the reconstruction. Most controversy is associated with the maxillectomy that involves the orbital floor and dental alveolus (Class 3. A case is made for the use of the iliac crest with internal oblique as an ideal option but there are other methods, which may provide a similar result. A multidisciplinary approach to these patients is emphasised which should include a prosthodontist with a special expertise for these defects.

  20. The role of 3D Helical CT in the reconstructive treatment of maxillofacial cancers; Tomografia Computerizzata spirale con elaborazioni tridimensionali di superficie nel trattamento ricostruttivo dei tumori maligni del massiccio facciale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Rosa, V.; Ziviello, M. [Ospedale Cardarelli, Servizio di Radiodiagnostica, Naples (Italy); Ionna, F.; Mozzillo, N. [Ospedale Cardarelli, Div. di Chirurgia B, Ist. Nazionale Tumori Fondazione G. Pascale, Naples (Italy); Parascandolo, S. [Ospedale Cardarelli, Div. di Chirurgia Maxillo-Facciale, Naples (Italy)

    2000-12-01

    Purpose of this work is to investigate the role of Helical CT and the usefulness of three-dimensional (3D) imaging for pre-operative planning and follow-up of reconstructive maxillofacial surgery with alloplastic material in neoplastic disease involving this region. From 1996 to 1999 eleven patients were examined with Helical CT and 3D images for planning of maxillofacial plastic and reconstructive surgery for advanced cancer of this anatomically complex region. A 3D-modulated titanium mesh (100%) or micronets was used to rebuild the anterior surface of maxillary bone and the orbital floor. The mesh was cut to the appropriate size and shape and curved where necessary. Within the residual sinusal cavity a siliconed filling was used surmounting an acrylic prosthesis with dental arch to rebuild the palate. A rehydrated bovine pericardium was affixed and moduled on the borders in two cases only. Three-dimensionally reconstructed CT images were obtained preoperatively and at least 6 months postoperatively in all patients. The images were generated on a computer workstation using the shaded surface display (SSD) software with threshold values ranging 425 to 630 HU, and a more closed window for the imaging of titanium mesh/bone interface in the post surgical follow-up. It was obtained an excellent complete spatial depiction of maxillo facial region both before and after surgery, with no artefacts so important as to affect the 3D reconstruction process and the image quality. Together with the head-neck surgical team it could be worked for preoperative planning through CT scans by different 3D points of view. The 3D reconstructed follow-up scans showed good filling of the defect in the area where the titanium mesh had been used. Then efficacious bone modelling and good biocompatibility of the alloplastic material were seen in all patients, with no inflammatory reactions. Titanium is a well-known material, which is widely used for cranioplasty. It is a radiolucent, non

  1. Effects of common mental disorders and physical conditions on role functioning in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbaglia, Gabriela; Duran, Núria; Vilagut, Gemma; Forero, Carlos García; Haro, Josep Maria; Alonso, Jordi

    2013-01-01

    To examine the effects of common mental disorders and physical conditions on role functioning in Spain. Cross-sectional study of the general adult population of Spain (n = 2,121). Non-psychotic mental disorders were assessed with the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI 3.0) and physical conditions with a checklist. The role functioning dimension of the WHO-Disability Assessment Schedule (WHODAS) was used to asses the number of days in the past month in which respondents were fully or partially limited to perform daily activities. Generalized linear models were used to estimate individual-level associations of specific conditions and role functioning, controlling for co-morbidity. Societal level estimates were calculated using population attributable risk proportions (PARP). Mental disorders and physical conditions showed similar number of days with full role limitation (about 20 days per year); in contrast mental disorders were responsible for twice as many days with partial role limitation than physical conditions (42 vs 21 days, respectively). If the population were entirely unexposed to mental and physical conditions, days with full limitation would be reduced by 73% and days with partial limitation by 41%. Common health conditions in Spain are associated with considerably more days with role limitation than other Western countries. There is need of mainstreaming disability in the Spanish public health agenda in order to reduce role limitation among individuals with common conditions. Copyright © 2013 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  2. Supporting women with advanced breast cancer: the impact of altered functional status on their social roles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bai Qi Peggy; Parmar, Monica P; Gartshore, Kimberley

    2014-01-01

    Despite early detection of breast cancer and the progress of treatment modalities, metastasis-specific symptoms continue to impact women's functional status and daily living. The aim of this study was to explore the experience of altered functional status and social roles of women with advanced breast cancer. Using qualitative descriptive methodology, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 10 women diagnosed with advanced breast cancer and altered functional status attending a tertiary care cancer centre. Results illustrated the adaptive experience of women living with their illness as they reshaped their social roles to fit with their altered functional status and advanced disease. These findings highlight the opportunity for supportive care nursing interventions to facilitate the behavioural and cognitive transitions that are experienced by women with advanced breast cancer and altered functional status. These results may have implications for women with other advanced chronic diseases, though more research is required.

  3. Ruminant Metabolic Systems Biology: Reconstruction and Integration of Transcriptome Dynamics Underlying Functional Responses of Tissues to Nutrition and Physiological Statea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bionaz, Massimo; Loor, Juan J.

    2012-01-01

    High-throughput ‘omics’ data analysis via bioinformatics is one key component of the systems biology approach. The systems approach is particularly well-suited for the study of the interactions between nutrition and physiological state with tissue metabolism and functions during key life stages of organisms such as the transition from pregnancy to lactation in mammals, ie, the peripartal period. In modern dairy cows with an unprecedented genetic potential for milk synthesis, the nature of the physiologic and metabolic adaptations during the peripartal period is multifaceted and involves key tissues such as liver, adipose, and mammary. In order to understand such adaptation, we have reviewed several works performed in our and other labs. In addition, we have used a novel bioinformatics approach, Dynamic Impact Approach (DIA), in combination with partly previously published data to help interpret longitudinal biological adaptations of bovine liver, adipose, and mammary tissue to lactation using transcriptomics datasets. Use of DIA with transcriptomic data from those tissues during normal physiological adaptations and in animals fed different levels of energy prepartum allowed visualization and integration of most-impacted metabolic pathways around the time of parturition. The DIA is a suitable tool for applying the integrative systems biology approach. The ultimate goal is to visualize the complexity of the systems at study and uncover key molecular players involved in the tissue’s adaptations to physiological state or nutrition. PMID:22807626

  4. The physiological functions of central nervous system pericytes and a potential role in pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beazley-Long, Nicholas; Durrant, Alexandra M; Swift, Matthew N; Donaldson, Lucy F

    2018-01-01

    Central nervous system (CNS) pericytes regulate critical functions of the neurovascular unit in health and disease. CNS pericytes are an attractive pharmacological target for their position within the neurovasculature and for their role in neuroinflammation. Whether the function of CNS pericytes also affects pain states and nociceptive mechanisms is currently not understood. Could it be that pericytes hold the key to pain associated with CNS blood vessel dysfunction? This article reviews recent findings on the important physiological functions of CNS pericytes and highlights how these neurovascular functions could be linked to pain states. PMID:29623199

  5. Micro-engineering a platform to reconstruct physiology and functionality of the human brain microvasculature in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daghighi, Yasaman; Heidari, Hossein; Taylor, Hayden

    2018-02-01

    A predominant unsolved challenge in tissue engineering is the need of a robust technique for producing vascular networks, particularly when modeling human brain tissue. The availability of reliable in vitro human brain microvasculature models would advance our understanding of its function and would provide a platform for highthroughput drug screening. Current strategies for modeling vascularized brain tissue suffer from limitations such as (1) culturing non-human cell lines, (2) limited multi-cell co-culture, and (3) the effects of neighboring physiologically unrealistic rigid polymeric surfaces, such as solid membranes. We demonstrate a new micro-engineered platform that can address these shortcomings. Specifically, we have designed and prototyped a molding system to enable the precise casting of 100μm-diameter coaxial hydrogel structures laden with the requisite cells to mimic a vascular lumen. Here we demonstrate that a fine wire with diameter 130 μm or a needle with outer diameter 300 μm can be used as a temporary mold insert, and agarose-collagen composite matrix can be cast around these inserts and thermally gelled. When the wire or needle is retracted under the precise positional control afforded by our system, a microchannel is formed which is then seeded with human microvascular endothelial cells. After seven days of culture these cells produce an apparently confluent monolayer on the channel walls. In principle, this platform could be used to create multilayered cellular structures. By arranging a fine wire and a hollow needle coaxially, three distinct zones could be defined in the model: first, the bulk gel surrounding the needle; then, after needle retraction, a cylindrical shell of matrix; and finally, after retraction of the wire, a lumen. Each zone could be independently cell-seeded. To this end, we have also successfully 3D cultured human astrocytes and SY5Y glial cells in our agarose-collagen matrix. Our approach ultimately promises scalable

  6. Y BALANCE TEST™ ANTERIOR REACH SYMMETRY AT THREE MONTHS IS RELATED TO SINGLE LEG FUNCTIONAL PERFORMANCE AT TIME OF RETURN TO SPORTS FOLLOWING ANTERIOR CRUCIATE LIGAMENT RECONSTRUCTION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrison, J Craig; Bothwell, James M; Wolf, Gina; Aryal, Subhash; Thigpen, Charles A

    2015-10-01

    Restoration of symmetrical strength, balance, and power following anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACL-R) are thought to be important factors for successful return to sports. Little information is available regarding early rehabilitation outcomes and achieving suggested limb indices of 90% on functional performance measures at the time of return to sports (RTS). To examine the relationship between symmetry of the anterior reach of the Y Balance Test™ at 12 weeks and functional performance measures at time of return to sports after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. Retrospective Cohort. Forty subjects (mean ± SD age, 17.2 ± 3.8 years) who were in the process of rehabilitation following ACL reconstruction. Each subject volunteered and was enrolled in the study during physical therapy following ACL-R. Participants averaged two visits per week in physical therapy until the time of testing for RTS. The Y Balance Test™ was assessed at 12 weeks. Participants completed a battery of tests at RTS (6.4 ± 1.1 months) including triple hop distance (THD), single hop distance (SHD), isometric knee extension strength (KE), and the Vail Sport Test™. Side to side difference was calculated for the Y Balance Test™ anterior reach and limb symmetry indices (LSI) were computed for THD, SHD, and KE. Multiple regression models were used to study the relationship between variables at 12 weeks and RTS while controlling for age, gender, type of graft, and pain score. In addition, subjects were dichotomized based on a side-to-side Y Balance anterior reach difference into high risk (>4 cm) or low risk (≤4 cm) categories. A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was used to identify individuals at 12 weeks who do not achieve 90% limb symmetry indices at time of RTS testing. . A statistically significant association was seen between Y Balance ANT at 12 weeks and SHD at RTS (β = -1.46, p = 0.0005, R(2) = 0.395), THD at RTS

  7. Young Athletes After Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction With Single-Leg Landing Asymmetries at the Time of Return to Sport Demonstrate Decreased Knee Function 2 Years Later.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ithurburn, Matthew P; Paterno, Mark V; Ford, Kevin R; Hewett, Timothy E; Schmitt, Laura C

    2017-09-01

    Previous work shows that young athletes after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR) demonstrate single-leg (SL) landing movement asymmetries at the time of return to sport (RTS); however, the effect of movement asymmetries on longitudinal knee-related function after ACLR has not been examined. Hypothesis/Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of SL drop-landing movement symmetry at the time of RTS on knee-related function 2 years later in young athletes after ACLR. The first hypothesis was that young athletes who demonstrated SL drop-landing asymmetries at RTS would demonstrate decreased knee function 2 years later compared with those who demonstrated symmetric SL drop-landing mechanics. The second hypothesis was that SL drop-landing movement symmetry at RTS would be associated with knee functional recovery 2 years later. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 2. This study included 48 young athletes who had undergone ACLR and were assessed at the time of RTS (77% female; mean [±SD] age at RTS, 17.6 ± 2.6 years) and followed for 2 years after RTS. Three sagittal-plane landing variables of interest were calculated using 3-dimensional motion analysis during an SL drop-landing task at the time of RTS: knee flexion excursion, peak internal knee extension moment, and peak trunk flexion. The limb symmetry index (LSI) was calculated for each landing variable using the following: LSI = (involved/uninvolved) × 100%. The LSI was used to divide the cohort into symmetric (SYM) and asymmetric (ASYM) groups for each landing variable: knee flexion excursion (SYM: LSI ≥ 90% [n = 23]; ASYM: LSI 115% [n = 19]). At 2 years after RTS, knee-related function was evaluated using the Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS), International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) subjective knee form, and performance on SL hop tests. Functional recovery was defined based on literature cutoffs for knee-related functional measures. Differences in 2-year

  8. Roles, Functions, and Mechanisms of Long Non-coding RNAs in Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiwen Fang

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs play important roles in cancer. They are involved in chromatin remodeling, as well as transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation, through a variety of chromatin-based mechanisms and via cross-talk with other RNA species. lncRNAs can function as decoys, scaffolds, and enhancer RNAs. This review summarizes the characteristics of lncRNAs, including their roles, functions, and working mechanisms, describes methods for identifying and annotating lncRNAs, and discusses future opportunities for lncRNA-based therapies using antisense oligonucleotides.

  9. RECONSTRUCCIÓN TRIDIMENSIONAL DE ROSTROS A PARTIR DE IMÁGENES DE RANGO POR MEDIO DE FUNCIONES DE BASE RADIAL DE SOPORTE COMPACTO TRI-DIMENSIONAL RECONSTRUCTION OF FACES FROM RANGE IMAGES THROUGH COMPACT SUPPORT RADIAL BASIS FUNCTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime A. Echeverri A.

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se muestra la utilización de funciones de base radial de soporte compacto para la reconstrucción tridimensional de rostros. En trabajos anteriores se habían explorado diferentes técnicas y diferentes funciones de base radial para reconstrucción de superficies; ahora presentamos los algoritmos y los resultados de la utilización de funciones de base radial de soporte compacto las cuales presentan ventajas comparativas en términos del tiempo de construcción de un interpolante para la reconstrucción. Se presentan comparaciones con técnicas ampliamente utilizadas en este campo y se detalla el proceso global de reconstrucción de superficies.In previous works, we have explored several radial basis techniques and functions for the reconstruction of surfaces. We now present the use of compact support radial basis functions for the tri-dimensional reconstruction of human faces. Therefore, we present algorithms and results coming from the application of compact support radial basis functions which have revealed comparative advantages in terms of the amount of time needed for the construction of an interpolant to be used in the reconstruction. We are also presenting some comparisons with techniques widely used in this field and we explain in detail the global process for the surfaces reconstruction.

  10. Role of Placental VDR Expression and Function in Common Late Pregnancy Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Knabl

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin D, besides its classical role in bone metabolism, plays a distinct role in multiple pathways of the feto-maternal unit. Calcitriol is the major active ligand of the nuclear vitamin D receptor (VDR. The vitamin D receptor (VDR is expressed in different uteroplacental parts and exerts a variety of functions in physiologic pregnancy. It regulates decidualisation and implantation, influences hormone secretion and placental immune modulations. This review highlights the role of the vitamin D receptor in physiologic and disturbed pregnancy, as preeclampsia, fetal growth restriction, gestational diabetes and preterm birth. We discuss the existing literature regarding common VDR polymorphisms in these pregnancy disorders.

  11. A modified false vocal fold flap for functional reconstruction after frontolateral partial laryngectomy: a comparison with conventional open resection and laser cordectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenz, Kai J.

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To describe a modified flap technique (MFT involving the use of a false vocal fold flap for glottic reconstruction and the removal of arytenoid cartilage and to compare it with conventional frontolateral partial laryngectomy (FLPL and laser cordectomy (LC.Methods: Twenty-eight MFT, 13 FLPL and 12 LC patients completed a standardised questionnaire for assessing aspiration, respiration, quality of life, and subjective voice quality. We analysed vocal function in terms of roughness, breathiness and hoarseness, measured voice range profiles, and performed videoendoscopy. Results: No patient reported respiratory problems. Aspiration occurred in 33.3% (MFT, 41.6% (FLPL and 16.6% (LC. Voice quality was rated as good/satisfactory by 17 MFT patients (62%, satisfactory/sufficient by 69% of FLKT patients, and sufficient/poor by 75% of LC patients.Conclusions: The modified false vocal fold flap effectively covers defects and creates a neocord that ensures good phonatory rehabilitation and has positive effects on postoperative quality of life.

  12. Free-breathing Sparse Sampling Cine MR Imaging with Iterative Reconstruction for the Assessment of Left Ventricular Function and Mass at 3.0 T.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudarski, Sonja; Henzler, Thomas; Haubenreisser, Holger; Dösch, Christina; Zenge, Michael O; Schmidt, Michaela; Nadar, Mariappan S; Borggrefe, Martin; Schoenberg, Stefan O; Papavassiliu, Theano

    2017-01-01

    Purpose To prospectively evaluate the accuracy of left ventricle (LV) analysis with a two-dimensional real-time cine true fast imaging with steady-state precession (trueFISP) magnetic resonance (MR) imaging sequence featuring sparse data sampling with iterative reconstruction (SSIR) performed with and without breath-hold (BH) commands at 3.0 T. Materials and Methods Ten control subjects (mean age, 35 years; range, 25-56 years) and 60 patients scheduled to undergo a routine cardiac examination that included LV analysis (mean age, 58 years; range, 20-86 years) underwent a fully sampled segmented multiple BH cine sequence (standard of reference) and a prototype undersampled SSIR sequence performed during a single BH and during free breathing (non-BH imaging). Quantitative analysis of LV function and mass was performed. Linear regression, Bland-Altman analysis, and paired t testing were performed. Results Similar to the results in control subjects, analysis of the 60 patients showed excellent correlation with the standard of reference for single-BH SSIR (r = 0.93-0.99) and non-BH SSIR (r = 0.92-0.98) for LV ejection fraction (EF), volume, and mass (P 3.0 T is noninferior to the standard of reference irrespective of BH commands. LV mass, however, is overestimated with SSIR. © RSNA, 2016 Online supplemental material is available for this article.

  13. Immediate functional loading of provisional implants in the reconstructed atrophic maxilla: preliminary results of a prospective study after 6 months of loading with a provisional bridge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenssen, O; Barbier, L; De Clercq, C

    2011-09-01

    Implant-prosthetic rehabilitation of atrophic maxillae remains a challenging problem. The aim of this paper is to describe a novel treatment for functional rehabilitation of the atrophic maxilla and to discuss preliminary results of this treatment protocol. A prospective pilot study was carried out in 10 patients who underwent bony reconstruction of atrophic maxillae under general anaesthesia, with autologous calvarial bone grafts and simultaneous placement of six provisional implants. The provisional implants were loaded with a provisional acrylic bridge 1 day after surgery. After 6 months, the provisional implants were removed and final implants were placed under local anaesthesia, again in an immediate loading concept with a provisional bridge, followed by a final bridge after another 6 months of healing. The bone grafts integrated well in all 10 patients without infectious complications. The prosthetic survival of the provisional bridge at the time of placing the implants was 100%. All final implants could be placed and immediately loaded with a second provisional bridge. Patient satisfaction was high due to limited postoperative inconvenience and immediate fixed prosthetic rehabilitation. The preliminary results of this pilot study demonstrate that this treatment protocol is a well tolerated treatment for patients with maxillary atrophy desiring dental rehabilitation. Copyright © 2011 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Role of the hippocampus on learning and memory functioning and pain modulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Haimei Wang

    2008-01-01

    The hippocampus, an important part of the limbic system, is considered to be an important region of the brain for learning and memory functioning. Recent studies have demonstrated that synaptic plasticity is thought to be the basis of learning and memory functioning. A series of studies report that similar synaptic plasticity also exists in the spinal cord in the conduction pathway of pain sensation, which may contribute to hyperalgesia, abnormal pain, and analgesia. The synaptic plasticity of learning and memory functioning and that of the pain conduction pathway have similar mechanisms, which are related to the N-methyl-D-aspartic acid receptor. The hippocampus also has a role in pain modulation. As pain signals can reach the hippocampus, the precise correlation between synaptic plasticity of the pain pathway and that of learning and memory functioning deserves further investigation. The role of the hippocampus in processing pain information requires to be identified.

  15. Origin, functional role, and clinical impact of Fanconi anemia FANCA mutations

    OpenAIRE

    Castella, Maria; Pujol, Roser; Callén, Elsa; Trujillo, Juan P.; Casado, José A.; Gille, Hans; Lach, Francis P.; Auerbach, Arleen D.; Schindler, Detlev; Benítez, Javier; Porto, Beatriz; Ferro, Teresa; Muñoz, Arturo; Sevilla, Julián; Madero, Luis

    2011-01-01

    Fanconi anemia is characterized by congenital abnormalities, bone marrow failure, and cancer predisposition. To investigate the origin, functional role, and clinical impact of FANCA mutations, we determined a FANCA mutational spectrum with 130 pathogenic alleles. Some of these mutations were further characterized for their distribution in populations, mode of emergence, or functional consequences at cellular and clinical level. The world most frequent FANCA mutation is not the result of a mut...

  16. Benefits of Simulation and Role-Playing to Teach Performance of Functional Assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trail Ross, Mary Ellen; Otto, Dorothy A; Stewart Helton, Anne

    The use of simulation is an innovative teaching strategy that has proven to be valuable in nursing education. This article describes the benefits of a simulation lab involving faculty role-play to teach baccalaureate nursing students how to properly assess the functional status of older adults. Details about the simulation lab, which involved functional assessments of two elderly community-dwelling residents, are presented, along with student and faculty evaluations of this teaching modality.

  17. Cognitive profile in Duchenne muscular dystrophy boys without intellectual disability: The role of executive functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battini, R; Chieffo, D; Bulgheroni, S; Piccini, G; Pecini, C; Lucibello, S; Lenzi, S; Moriconi, F; Pane, M; Astrea, G; Baranello, G; Alfieri, P; Vicari, S; Riva, D; Cioni, G; Mercuri, E

    2018-02-01

    The aim of our prospective observational study was to assess profiles of cognitive function and a possible impairment of executive functions in a cohort of boys with Duchenne muscular dystrophy without intellectual and behavior disability. Forty Duchenne boys (range of age: 6 years to 11 years and 6 months) were assessed by Wechsler Intelligence scale and battery of tests including tasks assessing working memory and executive functions (inhibition and switching, problem solving and planning). In our cohort some aspects of cognitive function were often impaired. These included multitasking, problem solving, inhibition and working memory necessary to plan and direct goal oriented behavior. Our results support the suggestion that aspects of cognitive function could be impaired even in boys without intellectual disability and support the hypothesis that executive functions may play an important role in specific aspects of cognitive impairment in Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. The Role of Vitamin D in Blood Pressure, Endothelial and Renal Function in Postmenopausal Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanne C. Ho

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Vitamin D is a pro-hormone that plays an essential role in the vasculature and in kidney function. Aims: To review the extra-skeletal effects of vitamin D on blood pressure, endothelial and renal function with emphasis on recent findings in postmenopausal women. Methods: Included in this review was a PubMed database search for English language articles through March 2013. This review discussed the physiology and definition of vitamin D deficiency, the recent evidence for the role vitamin D in blood pressure, vascular and renal function. Results: Experimental and epidemiological data suggest that vitamin D plays an important role in the vasculature and in kidney function. Low vitamin D concentrations appear to significantly associate with hypertension, endothelial and renal dysfunction. However, the results of clinical trials have generally been mixed. Studies specifically conducted among postmenopausal women are limited and findings are still inconsistent. Conclusions: Definitive studies are warranted to elucidate the effects of vitamin D supplementation on vascular and renal function and a more detailed work is needed to outline the route, duration and optimal dose of supplementation. It is premature to recommend vitamin D as a therapeutic option in the improvement of vascular and renal function at the current stage.

  19. SU-G-IeP3-08: Image Reconstruction for Scanning Imaging System Based On Shape-Modulated Point Spreading Function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Ruixing; Yang, LV [College of Optoelectronic Science and Engineering, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha, Hunan (China); Xu, Kele [College of Electronical Science and Engineering, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha, Hunan (China); Zhu, Li [Institute of Electrostatic and Electromagnetic Protection, Mechanical Engineering College, Shijiazhuang, Hebei (China)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Deconvolution is a widely used tool in the field of image reconstruction algorithm when the linear imaging system has been blurred by the imperfect system transfer function. However, due to the nature of Gaussian-liked distribution for point spread function (PSF), the components with coherent high frequency in the image are hard to restored in most of the previous scanning imaging system, even the relatively accurate PSF is acquired. We propose a novel method for deconvolution of images which are obtained by using shape-modulated PSF. Methods: We use two different types of PSF - Gaussian shape and donut shape - to convolute the original image in order to simulate the process of scanning imaging. By employing deconvolution of the two images with corresponding given priors, the image quality of the deblurred images are compared. Then we find the critical size of the donut shape compared with the Gaussian shape which has similar deconvolution results. Through calculation of tightened focusing process using radially polarized beam, such size of donut is achievable under same conditions. Results: The effects of different relative size of donut and Gaussian shapes are investigated. When the full width at half maximum (FWHM) ratio of donut and Gaussian shape is set about 1.83, similar resolution results are obtained through our deconvolution method. Decreasing the size of donut will favor the deconvolution method. A mask with both amplitude and phase modulation is used to create a donut-shaped PSF compared with the non-modulated Gaussian PSF. Donut with size smaller than our critical value is obtained. Conclusion: The utility of donutshaped PSF are proved useful and achievable in the imaging and deconvolution processing, which is expected to have potential practical applications in high resolution imaging for biological samples.

  20. Design and biological functionality of a novel hybrid Ti-6Al-4V/hydrogel system for reconstruction of bone defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Alok; Nune, K C; Misra, R D K

    2018-04-01

    We have designed a unique injectable bioactive hydrogel comprising of alginate, gelatin, and nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite and loaded with osteoblasts, with the ability to infiltrate into three-dimensional Ti-6Al-4V scaffolds with interconnected porous architecture, fabricated by electron beam melting. A two-step crosslinking process using the EDC/NHS and CaCl 2 was adopted and found to be effective in the fabrication of cell-loaded hydrogel/Ti-6Al-4V scaffold system. This hybrid Ti-6Al-4V scaffold/hydrogel system was designed for the reconstruction of bone defects, which are difficult to heal in the absence of suitable support materials. The hybrid Ti-6Al-4V/hydrogel system favourably modulated the biological functions, namely, adhesion, proliferation, cell-to-cell, and cell-material communication because of the presence of extracellular matrix-like hydrogel in the interconnected porous structure of 3D printed Ti-6Al-4V scaffold. The hydrogel was cytocompatible, which was proven through live/dead assay, the expression level of prominent proteins for cell adhesion and cytoskeleton, including 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-Diphenyltetrazolium Bromide (MTT) assay. Furthermore, the high bone formation ability of the hydrogel was confirmed using alkaline phosphatase assay. A high equilibrium water content (~97%) in the hydrogel enables the delivery of cells and bioactive molecules, necessary for bone tissue growth. Although not studied, the presence of hydrogel in the pores of the scaffold can provide the space for the cell migration as well as vascularization through it, required for the effective exchange of nutrients. In conclusion, we underscore that the 3D-printed Ti-6Al-4V scaffold-loaded with bioactive hydrogel to treat the bone defects significantly impacted cellular functions and cell-material interaction. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. The role of cognitive impairment in psychosocial functioning in remitted depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Mattew J; Air, Tracy; Baune, Bernhard T

    2018-08-01

    Cognitive dysfunction is a prevalent and disabling symptom of Major Depressive Disorder (MDD), and is often retained in the remitted stage of illness. Emerging evidence suggests that cognitive impairment may be associated with dysfunction in a number of psychosocial domains (e.g., workplace productivity, social relationships). The current study explored the relationship between cognition and psychosocial functioning in remitted MDD and in healthy controls. Data were obtained from 182 participants of the Cognitive Function and Mood Study (CoFaM-S), a cross-sectional study of cognition, mood, and social cognition in mood disorders. Participants' (Remitted MDD n = 72, Healthy n = 110) cognition was assessed with a battery of cognitive tests including the Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Function (RBANS) and other standard measures of cognition (e.g., The Tower of London task). Psychosocial functioning was clinically evaluated with the Functioning Assessment Short Test (FAST). The results indicated that executive functioning was the strongest independent predictor of functioning in remitted MDD patients, whereas various cognitive domains predicted psychosocial functioning in healthy individuals. Psychosocial functioning was measured with a clinical interview, and was therefore reliant on clinicians' judgement of impairment, as opposed to more objective measures of functioning. These findings suggest that executive cognition plays an important role in functional recovery in remitted depression, and may be a crucial target in adjunctive treatment. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Outcome of different facial nerve reconstruction techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamed, Aboshanif; Omi, Eigo; Honda, Kohei; Suzuki, Shinsuke; Ishikawa, Kazuo

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: There is no technique of facial nerve reconstruction that guarantees facial function recovery up to grade III. Objective: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of different facial nerve reconstruction techniques. Methods: Facial nerve reconstruction was performed in 22 patients (facial nerve interpositional graft in 11 patients and hypoglossal-facial nerve transfer in another 11 patients). All patients had facial function House-Brackmann (HB) grade VI, either caused by...

  3. Self-Reported Fear Predicts Functional Performance and Second ACL Injury After ACL Reconstruction and Return to Sport: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paterno, Mark V; Flynn, Kaitlyn; Thomas, Staci; Schmitt, Laura C

    Outcomes after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR) are highly variable. Previous studies have failed to report the relationship between fear, objective measures of function, and reinjury rates. The purpose of this study was to determine whether fear was related to functional performance measures and risk of second ACL injury after ACLR and return to sport (RTS). Fear will be associated with performance on functional testing and second ACL injury rate. Prospective cohort study. Level 2. A total of 40 patients cleared to RTS after ACLR completed the Tampa Scale of Kinesiophobia (TSK-11), hop testing, and quadriceps strength testing, bilaterally. Patients were tracked for 12 months after RTS to identify the incidence of second ACL injury. Chi-square analyses determined whether patients with high fear (TSK-11, ≥17) were more likely to have lower levels of activity, greater asymmetry on functional testing, and higher reinjury rates. Patients with greater fear on the TSK-11 (≥17) at RTS were 4 times (odds ratio [OR], 3.73; 95% CI, 0.98-14.23) more likely to report lower levels of activity, 7 times (OR, 7.1; 95% CI, 1.5-33.0) more likely to have a hop limb symmetry lower than 95%, and 6 times (OR, 6.0; 95% CI, 1.3-27.8) more likely to have quadriceps strength symmetry lower than 90%. Patients who went on to suffer an ipsilateral second ACL injury had a greater TSK-11 score at the time of RTS (mean, 19.8 ± 4.0) than those who did not suffer a second ACL injury (mean, 16.4 ± 3.6) ( P = 0.03). Patients with a TSK-11 score of 19 or greater at the time of RTS were 13 times (relative risk, 13.0; 95% CI, 2.1-81.0) more likely to suffer a second ACL tear within 24 months after RTS. Patients with greater self-reported fear were less active, presented with lower single-leg hop performance and isometric quadriceps strength, and had an increased risk of suffering a second ACL injury in the 24 months after RTS. Self-reported fear of movement/reinjury after ACLR at

  4. THE ROLE OF ENDOTHELIUM FUNCTIONAL STATUS IN PULMONARY HYPERTENSION DEVELOPMENT AMONG CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.N. Ivanov

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The background paper approaches the problems of functional status of endothelium, significance of vasоactive substances as markers of endothelial dysfunction and reason of its development, role of endothelial dysfunction in the pathogenesis of primary and secondary pulmonary hypertension.Key words: pulmonary hypertension, endothelial dysfunction, vasoactive substances.

  5. Functional roles of wetlands: a case study of the coastal wetlands of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Coastal Wetland of the study area is used extensively for a large number of activities. It is also threatened because of their vulnerability and attractiveness for development. These therefore prompted a study of the Wetlands for a period of 18 months (July 1997 – December 1998) to identify the functional roles that ...

  6. Game Changers: The Quest to Rethink Institutional Roles and Functions at U.S. Community Colleges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Bob

    2014-01-01

    When the 10 members of the American Association of Community College's (AACC's) 21st-Century Implementation Team 7 (nine of whom are community college presidents) sat down in 2013 to talk about reforming institutional roles and functions at the nation's two-year career and technical colleges, everyone in the room knew the work before them would be…

  7. Development of Affective Theory of Mind Across Adolescence: Disentangling the Role of Executive Functions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vetter, N.C.; Altgassen, A.M.; Phillips, L.H.; Mahy, C.E.V.; Kliegel, M.

    2013-01-01

    Theory of mind, the ability to understand mental states, involves inferences about others' cognitive (cognitive theory of mind) and emotional (affective theory of mind) mental states. The current study explored the role of executive functions in developing affective theory of mind across

  8. Role of executive functioning and home environment in early reading development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Segers, P.C.J.; Damhuis, C.M.P.; Sande, E. van de; Verhoeven, L.T.W.

    2016-01-01

    We examined the role of executive functioning (EF) and home environment in the prediction of early reading development. In a longitudinal design, we followed 101 Dutch children from kindergarten to second grade. EF (attentional control, action control, short-term memory (STM)) and home factors

  9. Transcatheter aortic valve implantation: emerging role in poor left ventricular function severe aortic stenosis?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. M. John Chan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI has become an established treatment option for high risk elderly patients with symptomatic severe aortic stenosis. Its role in less high risk patients is being evaluated in clinical trials. Patients with severely impaired left ventricular function may be another group who may benefit from this emerging percutaneous treatment option.

  10. INVESTIGATING THE ROLE OF PDZ-DOMAIN INTERACTIONS FOR DOPAMINE TRANSPORTER FUNCTION

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fog, Jacob; Vægter, Christian Bjerggaard; Gether, Ulrik

    canonical PDZ domain interactions with proteins such as PICK1. To clarify the actual role of PDZ domain interactions for DAT function we have expressed the wild type DAT and a number of C-terminal mutants either alone or together with PICK1 in HEK293, N2A neuroblastoma and PC12 cells. Data obtained from...

  11. Role of corticosteroids in Functional Endoscopic Sinus Surgery--a systematic review and meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pundir, Vishal; Pundir, Jyotsna; Lancaster, Gillian; Baer, Simon; Kirkland, Paul; Cornet, Marjolein; Lourijsen, E. S.; Georgalas, Christos; Fokkens, W. J.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of our study is to systematically review the existing evidence on the role of corticosteroids in patients undergoing functional endoscopic sinus surgery (FESS). Systematic search of MEDLINE (1950- 2014), EMBASE (1980-2014), metaRegister, Cochrane Library and ISI conference proceedings was

  12. ROLE OF TYROSINE-SULFATED PROTEINS IN RETINAL STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanan, Y.; Al-Ubaidi, M.R.

    2014-01-01

    The extracellular matrix (ECM) plays a significant role in cellular and retinal health. The study of retinal tyrosine-sulfated proteins is an important first step toward understanding the role of ECM in retinal health and diseases. These secreted proteins are members of the retinal ECM. Tyrosine sulfation was shown to be necessary for the development of proper retinal structure and function. The importance of tyrosine sulfation is further demonstrated by the evolutionary presence of tyrosylprotein sulfotransferases, enzymes that catalyze proteins’ tyrosine sulfation, and the compensatory abilities of these enzymes. Research has identified four tyrosine-sulfated retinal proteins: fibulin 2, vitronectin, complement factor H (CFH), and opticin. Vitronectin and CFH regulate the activation of the complement system and are involved in the etiology of some cases of age-related macular degeneration. Analysis of the role of tyrosine sulfation in fibulin function showed that sulfation influences the protein's ability to regulate growth and migration. Although opticin was recently shown to exhibit anti-angiogenic properties, it is not yet determined what role sulfation plays in that function. Future studies focusing on identifying all of the tyrosine-sulfated retinal proteins would be instrumental in determining the impact of sulfation on retinal protein function in retinal homeostasis and diseases. PMID:25819460

  13. Development of affective theory of mind across adolescence: disentangling the role of executive functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetter, Nora C; Altgassen, Mareike; Phillips, Louise; Mahy, Caitlin E V; Kliegel, Matthias

    2013-01-01

    Theory of mind, the ability to understand mental states, involves inferences about others' cognitive (cognitive theory of mind) and emotional (affective theory of mind) mental states. The current study explored the role of executive functions in developing affective theory of mind across adolescence. Affective theory of mind and three subcomponents of executive functions (inhibition, updating, and shifting) were measured. Affective theory of mind was positively related to age, and all three executive functions. Specifically, inhibition explained the largest amount of variance in age-related differences in affective theory of mind.

  14. The role of food in the functional gastrointestinal disorders: introduction to a manuscript series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chey, William D

    2013-05-01

    Functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs) are characterized by the presence of chronic or recurrent symptoms that are felt to originate from the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, which cannot be attributed to an identifiable structural or biochemical cause. Food is associated with symptom onset or exacerbation in a significant proportion of FGID patients. Despite this, the role of food in the pathogenesis of the FGIDs has remained poorly understood. For this reason, diet has largely played an adjunctive rather than a primary role in the management of FGID patients. In recent years, there has been a rapid expansion in our understanding of the role of food in GI function and sensation and how food relates to GI symptoms in FGID patients. In a series of evidence-based manuscripts produced by the Rome Foundation Working Group on the role of food in FGIDs, comprehensive reviews of the physiological changes associated with nutrient intake, and the respective roles of carbohydrates, fiber, protein, and fats are provided. The series concludes with a manuscript that provides guidance on proper clinical trial design when considering the role of food in FGIDs.

  15. Evidence-Based ACL Reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Carlos RODRIGUEZ-MERCHAN

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available There is controversy in the literature regarding a number of topics related to anterior cruciate ligament (ACLreconstruction. The purpose of this article is to answer the following questions: 1 Bone patellar tendon bone (BPTB reconstruction or hamstring reconstruction (HR; 2 Double bundle or single bundle; 3 Allograft or authograft; 4 Early or late reconstruction; 5 Rate of return to sports after ACL reconstruction; 6 Rate of osteoarthritis after ACL reconstruction. A Cochrane Library and PubMed (MEDLINE search of systematic reviews and meta-analysis related to ACL reconstruction was performed. The key words were: ACL reconstruction, systematic reviews and meta-analysis. The main criteria for selection were that the articles were systematic reviews and meta-analysesfocused on the aforementioned questions. Sixty-nine articles were found, but only 26 were selected and reviewed because they had a high grade (I-II of evidence. BPTB-R was associated with better postoperative knee stability but with a higher rate of morbidity. However, the results of both procedures in terms of functional outcome in the long-term were similar. The double-bundle ACL reconstruction technique showed better outcomes in rotational laxity, although functional recovery was similar between single-bundle and double-bundle. Autograft yielded better results than allograft. There was no difference between early and delayed reconstruction. 82% of patients were able to return to some kind of sport participation. 28% of patients presented radiological signs of osteoarthritis with a follow-up of minimum 10 years.

  16. A systematic review of functional outcome and quality of life following reconstruction of maxillofacial defects using vascularized free fibula flaps and dental rehabilitation reveals poor data quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijbenga, Johan G.; Schepers, Rutger H.; Werker, Paul M. N.; Witjes, Max J. H.; Dijkstra, Pieter U.

    Background: Reconstruction and oral rehabilitation of segmental maxillofacial defects resulting from ablative surgery is commonly achieved by osteocutaneous vascularized free fibula (VFFF) transplantation combined with implant-supported dental prostheses. We systematically reviewed the literature

  17. PET reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Sullivan, F.; Pawitan, Y.; Harrison, R.L.; Lewellen, T.K.

    1990-01-01

    In statistical terms, filtered backprojection can be viewed as smoothed Least Squares (LS). In this paper, the authors report on improvement in LS resolution by: incorporating locally adaptive smoothers, imposing positivity and using statistical methods for optimal selection of the resolution parameter. The resulting algorithm has high computational efficiency relative to more elaborate Maximum Likelihood (ML) type techniques (i.e. EM with sieves). Practical aspects of the procedure are discussed in the context of PET and illustrations with computer simulated and real tomograph data are presented. The relative recovery coefficients for a 9mm sphere in a computer simulated hot-spot phantom range from .3 to .6 when the number of counts ranges from 10,000 to 640,000 respectively. The authors will also present results illustrating the relative efficacy of ML and LS reconstruction techniques

  18. Transition, Reconstruction and Stability in South-Eastern Europe. The Role of Vocational Education and Training. Working Document. [European Training Foundation and Kulturkontakt Austria Joint Workshop on "Civil Society and Vocational Education Training. The Role of Democratic Citizenship and Diversity Education" (Mavrovo, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, September 9-11, 1999)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    European Training Foundation, Turin (Italy).

    This document includes the following papers: "The European Training Foundation's Experience in Supporting Human Resource Development in South-Eastern Europe" (Peter de Rooij); "Transition, Reconstruction and Stability in South-Eastern Europe; The Role of Vocational Education and Training" (Cesar Birzea, Peter Grootings, Tzako…

  19. DMPD: The interrelated role of fibronectin and interleukin-1 in biomaterial-modulatedmacrophage function. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 16978691 The interrelated role of fibronectin and interleukin-1 in biomaterial-modulatedmacrophage function...(.svg) (.html) (.csml) Show The interrelated role of fibronectin and interleukin-1 in biomaterial-modulatedmacrophage function...and interleukin-1 in biomaterial-modulatedmacrophage function. Authors Schmidt DR, Kao WJ. Publication Bioma

  20. DMPD: The role of the interferon regulatory factor (IRF) family in dendritic celldevelopment and function. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 17702640 The role of the interferon regulatory factor (IRF) family in dendritic celldevelopment and function...in dendritic celldevelopment and function. PubmedID 17702640 Title The role of th...e interferon regulatory factor (IRF) family in dendritic celldevelopment and function. Authors Gabriele L, O

  1. Complement factor H family proteins in their non-canonical role as modulators of cellular functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Józsi, Mihály; Schneider, Andrea E; Kárpáti, Éva; Sándor, Noémi

    2018-01-04

    Complement factor H is a major regulator of the alternative pathway of the complement system. The factor H-related proteins are less characterized, but recent data indicate that they rather promote complement activation. These proteins have some common ligands with factor H and have both overlapping and distinct functions depending on domain composition and the degree of conservation of amino acid sequence. Factor H and some of the factor H-related proteins also appear in a non-canonical function that is beyond their role in the modulation of complement activation. This review covers our current understanding on this emerging role of factor H family proteins in modulating the activation and function of various cells by binding to receptors or receptor ligands. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Functional role of AMP-activated protein kinase in the heart during exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musi, Nicolas; Hirshman, Michael F; Arad, Michael; Xing, Yanqiu; Fujii, Nobuharu; Pomerleau, Jason; Ahmad, Ferhaan; Berul, Charles I; Seidman, Jon G; Tian, Rong; Goodyear, Laurie J

    2005-04-11

    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) plays a critical role in maintaining energy homeostasis and cardiac function during ischemia in the heart. However, the functional role of AMPK in the heart during exercise is unknown. We examined whether acute exercise increases AMPK activity in mouse hearts and determined the significance of these increases by studying transgenic (TG) mice expressing a cardiac-specific dominant-negative (inactivating) AMPKalpha2 subunit. Exercise increased cardiac AMPKalpha2 activity in the wild type mice but not in TG. We found that inactivation of AMPK did not result in abnormal ATP and glycogen consumption during exercise, cardiac function assessed by heart rhythm telemetry and stress echocardiography, or in maximal exercise capacity.

  3. The functional role of long non-coding RNA in digestive system carcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guang-Yu; Zhu, Yuan-Yuan; Zhang, Yan-Qiao

    2014-09-01

    In recent years, long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are emerging as either oncogenes or tumor suppressor genes. Recent evidences suggest that lncRNAs play a very important role in digestive system carcinomas. However, the biological function of lncRNAs in the vast majority of digestive system carcinomas remains unclear. Recently, increasing studies has begun to explore their molecular mechanisms and regulatory networks that they are implicated in tumorigenesis. In this review, we highlight the emerging functional role of lncRNAs in digestive system carcinomas. It is becoming clear that lncRNAs will be exciting and potentially useful for diagnosis and treatment of digestive system carcinomas, some of these lncRNAs might function as both diagnostic markers and the treatment targets of digestive system carcinomas.

  4. A modulatory role of the Rax homeobox gene in mature pineal gland function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rohde, Kristian; Bering, Tenna; Furukawa, Takahisa

    2017-01-01

    The retinal and anterior neural fold homeobox gene (Rax) controls development of the eye and the forebrain. Postnatal expression of Rax in the brain is restricted to the pineal gland, a forebrain structure devoted to melatonin synthesis. The role of Rax in pineal function is unknown. In order...... to investigate the role of Rax in pineal function while circumventing forebrain abnormalities of the global Rax knockout, we generated an eye and pineal-specific Rax conditional knockout mouse. Deletion of Rax in the pineal gland did not affect morphology of the gland, suggesting that Rax is not essential...... for the nucleus to develop. Telemetric analyses confirmed the lack of a functional circadian clock. Arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase (Aanat) transcripts, encoding the melatonin rhythm-generating enzyme, were undetectable in the pineal gland of the Rax conditional knockout under normal conditions, whereas...

  5. Microbial functional diversity plays an important role in the degradation of polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) in soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, Samrat; Tribedi, Prosun

    2018-03-01

    Towards bioremediation of recalcitrant materials like synthetic polymer, soil has been recognized as a traditional site for disposal and subsequent degradation as some microorganisms in soil can degrade the polymer in a non-toxic, cost-effective, and environment friendly way. Microbial functional diversity is a constituent of biodiversity that includes wide range of metabolic activities that can influence numerous aspects of ecosystem functioning like ecosystem stability, nutrient availability, ecosystem dynamics, etc. Thus, in the current study, we assumed that microbial functional diversity could play an important role in polymer degradation in soil. To verify this hypothesis, we isolated soil from five different sites of landfill and examined several microbiological parameters wherein we observed a significant variation in heterotrophic microbial count as well as microbial activities among the soil microcosms tested. Multivariate analysis (principle component analysis) based on the carbon sources utilization pattern revealed that soil microcosms showed different metabolic patterns suggesting the variable distribution of microorganisms among the soil microcosms tested. Since microbial functional diversity depends on both microbial richness and evenness, Shannon diversity index was determined to measure microbial richness and Gini coefficient was determined to measure microbial evenness. The tested soil microcosms exhibited variation in both microbial richness and evenness suggesting the considerable difference in microbial functional diversity among the tested microcosms. We then measured polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) degradation in soil microcosms after desired period of incubation of PHB in soil wherein we found that soil microcosms having higher functional diversity showed enhanced PHB degradation and soil microcosms having lower functional diversity showed reduced PHB degradation. We also noticed that all the tested soil microcosms showed similar pattern in both

  6. The role of neuropsychological performance in the relationship between chronic pain and functional physical impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulles, Wiesje L J A; Oosterman, Joukje M

    2011-12-01

      In this study, the relationship between pain intensity, neuropsychological, and physical function in adult chronic pain patients was examined.   Thirty participants with chronic pain completed neuropsychological tests tapping mental processing speed, memory, and executive function. Pain intensity was measured with three visual analog scales and the Pain Rating Index of the McGill Pain Questionnaire. A grip strength test, the 6-minute walk test, the Unipedal Stance Test and the Lifting Low Test were administered in order to obtain a performance-based measure of physical capacity. Self-reported physical ability was assessed with the Disability Rating Index and the Short Form-36 Physical Functioning, and Role Physical scales. Psychosocial function was examined using the Mental Health and Role Emotional subscales of the Short Form-36.   The study was set in two outpatient physical therapy clinics in The Netherlands.   The analysis showed that a lower mental processing speed was related to a higher level of pain, as well as to a lower performance-based and self-reported physical functioning. In addition, both performance-based and self-reported physical function revealed an inverse correlation with pain intensity. Psychosocial function turned out to be an important mediator of the relationship between pain and self-reported, but not performance-based, physical function. Mental processing speed, on the other hand, was found to mediate the relationship between pain and performance-based physical functioning.   The results suggest that in chronic pain patients, mental processing speed mediates the relationship between pain and physical function. Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Reconstructing warm inflation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, Ramón

    2018-03-01

    The reconstruction of a warm inflationary universe model from the scalar spectral index n_S(N) and the tensor to scalar ratio r( N) as a function of the number of e-folds N is studied. Under a general formalism we find the effective potential and the dissipative coefficient in terms of the cosmological parameters n_S and r considering the weak and strong dissipative stages under the slow roll approximation. As a specific example, we study the attractors for the index n_S given by nS-1∝ N^{-1} and for the ratio r∝ N^{-2}, in order to reconstruct the model of warm inflation. Here, expressions for the effective potential V(φ ) and the dissipation coefficient Γ (φ ) are obtained.

  8. Single center outcomes after reconstructive surgical correction of adult acquired buried penis: measurements of erectile function, depression, and quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rybak, James; Larsen, Stephen; Yu, Michelle; Levine, Laurence A

    2014-04-01

    Management of adult acquired buried penis is a troublesome situation for both patient and surgeon. The buried penis has been associated with significant erectile and voiding dysfunction, depression, and overall poor quality of life (QOL). To identify outcomes following reconstructive surgery with release of buried penis, escutcheonectomy, and circumcision with or without skin grafting. We retrospectively identified 11 patients treated by a single surgeon between 2007 and 2011, patient ages were 44-69; complete data review was available on all 11. Validated European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer 15 QOL, Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D), and International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF) surveys assessed patient QOL, depression, and erectile function pre- and postoperatively. Mean body mass index (BMI) was 48.8 (42.4-64.6). Mean operative time was 191 minutes (139-272). Mean length of stay was 2.1 days. Ten of 11 patients required phallic skin grafting. There was one perioperative complication resulting in respiratory failure and overnight stay in the intensive care unit. Wound complications were seen in 2/11 patients, and 1 needed surgical debridement for superficial wound infection. Skin graft take was seen in 100% of the patients. Ninety-one percent of patients noted significant improvement in voiding postoperatively. Ninety-one percent of patients reported significant erectile dysfunction preoperatively. Subsequently, IIEF scores improved post surgery by an average of 7.7 points. Clinical depression was noted to be present in 7/11 patients preoperatively and 2/11 postoperatively based on CES-D surveys. QOL improved significantly in 10/11 compared with preoperative baseline; however, many patients noted significant difficulties based on their weight and other comorbidities. Management of adult acquired buried penis is a challenging, yet correctable problem. In our series it appears that by using established surgical

  9. Three-dimensional inversion recovery manganese-enhanced MRI of mouse brain using super-resolution reconstruction to visualize nuclei involved in higher brain function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poole, Dana S; Plenge, Esben; Poot, Dirk H J; Lakke, Egbert A J F; Niessen, Wiro J; Meijering, Erik; van der Weerd, Louise

    2014-07-01

    The visualization of activity in mouse brain using inversion recovery spin echo (IR-SE) manganese-enhanced MRI (MEMRI) provides unique contrast, but suffers from poor resolution in the slice-encoding direction. Super-resolution reconstruction (SRR) is a resolution-enhancing post-processing technique in which multiple low-resolution slice stacks are combined into a single volume of high isotropic resolution using computational methods. In this study, we investigated, first, whether SRR can improve the three-dimensional resolution of IR-SE MEMRI in the slice selection direction, whilst maintaining or improving the contrast-to-noise ratio of the two-dimensional slice stacks. Second, the contrast-to-noise ratio of SRR IR-SE MEMRI was compared with a conventional three-dimensional gradient echo (GE) acquisition. Quantitative experiments were performed on a phantom containing compartments of various manganese concentrations. The results showed that, with comparable scan times, the signal-to-noise ratio of three-dimensional GE acquisition is higher than that of SRR IR-SE MEMRI. However, the contrast-to-noise ratio between different compartments can be superior with SRR IR-SE MEMRI, depending on the chosen inversion time. In vivo experiments were performed in mice receiving manganese using an implanted osmotic pump. The results showed that SRR works well as a resolution-enhancing technique in IR-SE MEMRI experiments. In addition, the SRR image also shows a number of brain structures that are more clearly discernible from the surrounding tissues than in three-dimensional GE acquisition, including a number of nuclei with specific higher brain functions, such as memory, stress, anxiety and reward behavior. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. The important role of stratum corneum lipids for the cutaneous barrier function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Smeden, J; Janssens, M; Gooris, G S; Bouwstra, J A

    2014-03-01

    The skin protects the body from unwanted influences from the environment as well as excessive water loss. The barrier function of the skin is located in the stratum corneum (SC). The SC consists of corneocytes embedded in a lipid matrix. This lipid matrix is crucial for the lipid skin barrier function. This paper provides an overview of the reported SC lipid composition and organization mainly focusing on healthy and diseased human skin. In addition, an overview is provided on the data describing the relation between lipid modulations and the impaired skin barrier function. Finally, the use of in vitro lipid models for a better understanding of the relation between the lipid composition, lipid organization and skin lipid barrier is discussed. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled The Important Role of Lipids in the Epidermis and their Role in the Formation and Maintenance of the Cutaneous Barrier. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled The Important Role of Lipids in the Epidermis and their Role in the Formation and Maintenance of the Cutaneous Barrier. Guest Editors: Kenneth R. Feingold and Peter Elias. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Preventive and Therapeutic Role of Functional Ingredients of Barley Grass for Chronic Diseases in Human Beings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yawen Zeng

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Barley grass powder is the best functional food that provides nutrition and eliminates toxins from cells in human beings; however, its functional ingredients have played an important role as health benefit. In order to better cognize the preventive and therapeutic role of barley grass for chronic diseases, we carried out the systematic strategies for functional ingredients of barley grass, based on the comprehensive databases, especially the PubMed, Baidu, ISI Web of Science, and CNKI, between 2008 and 2017. Barley grass is rich in functional ingredients, such as gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA, flavonoids, saponarin, lutonarin, superoxide dismutase (SOD, K, Ca, Se, tryptophan, chlorophyll, vitamins (A, B1, C, and E, dietary fiber, polysaccharide, alkaloid, metallothioneins, and polyphenols. Barley grass promotes sleep; has antidiabetic effect; regulates blood pressure; enhances immunity; protects liver; has anti-acne/detoxifying and antidepressant effects; improves gastrointestinal function; has anticancer, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, hypolipidemic, and antigout effects; reduces hyperuricemia; prevents hypoxia, cardiovascular diseases, fatigue, and constipation; alleviates atopic dermatitis; is a calcium supplement; improves cognition; and so on. These results support that barley grass may be one of the best functional foods for preventive chronic diseases and the best raw material of modern diet structure in promoting the development of large health industry and further reveal that GABA, flavonoids, SOD, K-Ca, vitamins, and tryptophan mechanism of barley grass have preventive and therapeutic role for chronic diseases. This paper can be used as a scientific evidence for developing functional foods and novel drugs for barley grass for preventive chronic diseases.

  12. Role of brain orexin in the pathophysiology of functional gastrointestinal disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okumura, Toshikatsu; Nozu, Tsukasa

    2011-04-01

    Orexins are neuropeptides that are localized in neurons within the lateral hypothalamic area and regulate feeding behavior. The lateral hypothalamic area plays an important role in not only feeding but the central regulation of other functions including gut physiology. Accumulating evidence have shown that orexins acts in the brain to regulate a wide variety of body functions including gastrointestinal functions. The purpose of this review is to summarize relevant findings on brain orexins and a digestive system, and discuss the pathophysiological roles of the peptides with special reference to functional gastrointestinal disorders. Exogenously administered orexin or endogenously released orexin in the brain potently stimulates gastric acid secretion in pylorus-ligated conscious rats. The vagal cholinergic pathway is involved in the orexin-induced stimulation of acid secretion, suggesting that orexin-containing neurons in lateral hypothalamic area activates neurons in the dorsal motor nucleus in medulla oblongata, followed by increasing vagal outflow, thereby stimulating gastric acid secretion. In addition, brain orexin stimulates gastric motility, pancreatic secretion and induce gastroprotective action. On the other hand, brain orexin is involved in a number of physiological functions other than gut physiology, such as control of sleep/awake cycle and anti-depressive action in addition to increase in appetite. From these evidence, we would like to make a hypothesis that decreased orexin signaling in the brain may play a role in the pathophysiology in a part of patients with functional gastrointestinal disorders who are frequently accompanied with appetite loss, sleep disturbance, depressive state and the inhibition of gut function. © 2011 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  13. The role of executive functioning in children's attentional pain control: an experimental analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhoeven, Katrien; Dick, Bruce; Eccleston, Christopher; Goubert, Liesbet; Crombez, Geert

    2014-02-01

    Directing attention away from pain is often used in children's pain treatment programs to control pain. However, empirical evidence concerning its effectiveness is inconclusive. We therefore sought to understand other influencing factors, including executive function and its role in the pain experience. This study investigates the role of executive functioning in the effectiveness of distraction. School children (n=164) completed executive functioning tasks (inhibition, switching, and working memory) and performed a cold-pressor task. One half of the children simultaneously performed a distracting tone-detection task; the other half did not. Results showed that participants in the distraction group were engaged in the distraction task and were reported to pay significantly less attention to pain than controls. Executive functioning influenced distraction task engagement. More specifically, participants with good inhibition and working memory abilities performed the distraction task better; participants with good switching abilities reported having paid more attention to the distraction task. Furthermore, distraction was found to be ineffective in reducing pain intensity and affect. Executive functioning did not influence the effectiveness of distraction. However, a relationship was found between executive functioning and pain affect, indicating that participants with good inhibition and working memory abilities experienced the cold-pressor task as less stressful and unpleasant. Our findings suggest that distraction as a process for managing pain is complex. While it appears that executive function may play a role in adult distraction, in this study it did not direct attention away from pain. It may instead be involved in the overall pain experience. Copyright © 2013 International Association for the Study of Pain. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Breast Reconstruction After Mastectomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer Prevention Genetics of Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Breast Reconstruction After Mastectomy On This Page What is breast reconstruction? How do surgeons use implants to reconstruct a woman’s breast? How do surgeons ...

  15. Breast reconstruction - implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breast implants surgery; Mastectomy - breast reconstruction with implants; Breast cancer - breast reconstruction with implants ... harder to find a tumor if your breast cancer comes back. Getting breast implants does not take as long as breast reconstruction ...

  16. Functional analysis of the global repressor Tup1 for maltose metabolism in Saccharomyces cerevisiae: different roles of the functional domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xue; Yu, Ai-Qun; Zhang, Cui-Ying; Pi, Li; Bai, Xiao-Wen; Xiao, Dong-Guang

    2017-11-09

    Tup1 is a general transcriptional repressor of diverse gene families coordinately controlled by glucose repression, mating type, and other mechanisms in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Several functional domains of Tup1 have been identified, each of which has differing effects on transcriptional repression. In this study, we aim to investigate the role of Tup1 and its domains in maltose metabolism of industrial baker's yeast. To this end, a battery of in-frame truncations in the TUP1 gene coding region were performed in the industrial baker's yeasts with different genetic background, and the maltose metabolism, leavening ability, MAL gene expression levels, and growth characteristics were investigated. The results suggest that the TUP1 gene is essential to maltose metabolism in industrial baker's yeast. Importantly, different domains of Tup1 play different roles in glucose repression and maltose metabolism of industrial baker's yeast cells. The Ssn6 interaction, N-terminal repression and C-terminal repression domains might play roles in the regulation of MAL transcription by Tup1 for maltose metabolism of baker's yeast. The WD region lacking the first repeat could influence the regulation of maltose metabolism directly, rather than indirectly through glucose repression. These findings lay a foundation for the optimization of industrial baker's yeast strains for accelerated maltose metabolism and facilitate future research on glucose repression in other sugar metabolism.

  17. Predictors of improved functioning in patients with psychosis: The role of amotivation and defeatist performance beliefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillny, Matthias; Lincoln, Tania M

    2016-10-30

    Defeatist performance beliefs (DPBs) are associated with the severe impairments in functioning of patients with negative symptoms of schizophrenia. This association has been found to be mediated by amotivation, a core aspect of negative symptoms. Although causality is assumed, longitudinal evidence for this is lacking. The current study aimed to extend previous findings by investigating both cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between DPBs, motivational impairments and functioning in a sample of patients with psychotic disorders (N=58). We hypothesized, that DPBs would be related to functioning in cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses and that this link would be mediated by motivational impairments. Data was assessed at baseline and post-treatment in a trial on the effects of cognitive behavior therapy for psychosis. At baseline, amotivation mediated the association between DPBs and functioning. From baseline to post-treatment, reduction of amotivation was associated with improvement of functioning significantly, whereas reduction of DPBs was unrelated to improvements in functioning or amotivation. The findings suggest that improvement in amotivation accounts for favorable treatment outcomes in regard to functioning but question the causal role of DPBs in negative symptoms and functioning. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Predictors of Hospitalization Among Newly Admitted Skilled Nursing Facility Residents: Rethinking the Role of Functional Decline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun J. Kim

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Hospital transfer from a skilled nursing facility (SNF is costly, and many are potentially preventable. This study examines: 1 whether functional decline is a predictor of hospital transfer, and 2 the magnitude of relationships between predictors (functional impairment and chronic medical illness and hospital transfer from SNFs. Methods: We used Minimum Data Set (MDS Version 2.0 in the state of Michigan between 2007 and 2009. In total, 196,662 new SNF admissions were observed. Multilevel generalized estimating equations and regression models were performed for each functional and clinical domain while adjusting for demographic variables and change in activities of daily living (ADL. Results: 65% of recently admitted SNF residents experienced functional decline after SNF admission, and 58% were readmitted to a hospital. Residents who needed extensive assistance or were completely dependent in their functional domains had pressure ulcers, deteriorated mood or lower cognitive performance scale scores. These residents experienced higher chances of hospital transfer. However, a deteriorated ADL played a significant role in all multivariate models, indicating that a decline in ADL is a stronger predictor of hospital transfer than other functional or clinical predictors. Conclusion: Although all functional impairments and chronic medical illness can be associated with hospital transfer, functional decline may be the most important predictor of hospital transfer in patients newly admitted to an SNF.

  19. Teachers' Understanding of the Role of Executive Functions in Mathematics Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmore, Camilla; Cragg, Lucy

    2014-09-01

    Cognitive psychology research has suggested an important role for executive functions, the set of skills that monitor and control thought and action, in learning mathematics. However, there is currently little evidence about whether teachers are aware of the importance of these skills and, if so, how they come by this information. We conducted an online survey of teachers' views on the importance of a range of skills for mathematics learning. Teachers rated executive function skills, and in particular inhibition and shifting, to be important for mathematics. The value placed on executive function skills increased with increasing teaching experience. Most teachers reported that they were aware of these skills, although few knew the term "executive functions." This awareness had come about through their teaching experience rather than from formal instruction. Researchers and teacher educators could do more to highlight the importance of these skills to trainee or new teachers.

  20. The role of acculturation and family functioning in predicting HIV risk behaviors among Hispanic delinquent youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrelly, Colleen; Cordova, David; Huang, Shi; Estrada, Yannine; Prado, Guillermo

    2013-06-01

    The present study examined the relationship between Berry's acculturation typology and HIV risk behaviors and whether family functioning mediated any such effects. A total of 235 high risk Hispanic adolescents were categorized into one of Berry's four acculturation typologies through the use of cut-off scores on measures of Hispanicism and Americanism. Structural equation modeling was used to examine the effects of acculturation typology on HIV risk behaviors and the indirect effects of acculturation typology on HIV risk behaviors through family functioning. Acculturation typology was related to HIV risk behaviors. Family functioning partially mediated the effects of acculturation typology on the HIV risk behavior outcomes. These findings suggest that both Americanism and Hispanicism play an important role in the etiology of HIV risk behaviors among Hispanic youth and that both, along with family functioning, are important to consider when designing preventive interventions for this population.

  1. Teachers' Understanding of the Role of Executive Functions in Mathematics Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmore, Camilla; Cragg, Lucy

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive psychology research has suggested an important role for executive functions, the set of skills that monitor and control thought and action, in learning mathematics. However, there is currently little evidence about whether teachers are aware of the importance of these skills and, if so, how they come by this information. We conducted an online survey of teachers' views on the importance of a range of skills for mathematics learning. Teachers rated executive function skills, and in particular inhibition and shifting, to be important for mathematics. The value placed on executive function skills increased with increasing teaching experience. Most teachers reported that they were aware of these skills, although few knew the term “executive functions.” This awareness had come about through their teaching experience rather than from formal instruction. Researchers and teacher educators could do more to highlight the importance of these skills to trainee or new teachers. PMID:25674156

  2. A shape-based quality evaluation and reconstruction method for electrical impedance tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antink, Christoph Hoog; Pikkemaat, Robert; Malmivuo, Jaakko; Leonhardt, Steffen

    2015-06-01

    Linear methods of reconstruction play an important role in medical electrical impedance tomography (EIT) and there is a wide variety of algorithms based on several assumptions. With the Graz consensus reconstruction algorithm for EIT (GREIT), a novel linear reconstruction algorithm as well as a standardized framework for evaluating and comparing methods of reconstruction were introduced that found widespread acceptance in the community. In this paper, we propose a two-sided extension of this concept by first introducing a novel method of evaluation. Instead of being based on point-shaped resistivity distributions, we use 2759 pairs of real lung shapes for evaluation that were automatically segmented from human CT data. Necessarily, the figures of merit defined in GREIT were adjusted. Second, a linear method of reconstruction that uses orthonormal eigenimages as training data and a tunable desired point spread function are proposed. Using our novel method of evaluation, this approach is compared to the classical point-shaped approach. Results show that most figures of merit improve with the use of eigenimages as training data. Moreover, the possibility of tuning the reconstruction by modifying the desired point spread function is shown. Finally, the reconstruction of real EIT data shows that higher contrasts and fewer artifacts can be achieved in ventilation- and perfusion-related images.

  3. A shape-based quality evaluation and reconstruction method for electrical impedance tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antink, Christoph Hoog; Pikkemaat, Robert; Leonhardt, Steffen; Malmivuo, Jaakko

    2015-01-01

    Linear methods of reconstruction play an important role in medical electrical impedance tomography (EIT) and there is a wide variety of algorithms based on several assumptions. With the Graz consensus reconstruction algorithm for EIT (GREIT), a novel linear reconstruction algorithm as well as a standardized framework for evaluating and comparing methods of reconstruction were introduced that found widespread acceptance in the community.In this paper, we propose a two-sided extension of this concept by first introducing a novel method of evaluation. Instead of being based on point-shaped resistivity distributions, we use 2759 pairs of real lung shapes for evaluation that were automatically segmented from human CT data. Necessarily, the figures of merit defined in GREIT were adjusted. Second, a linear method of reconstruction that uses orthonormal eigenimages as training data and a tunable desired point spread function are proposed.Using our novel method of evaluation, this approach is compared to the classical point-shaped approach. Results show that most figures of merit improve with the use of eigenimages as training data. Moreover, the possibility of tuning the reconstruction by modifying the desired point spread function is shown. Finally, the reconstruction of real EIT data shows that higher contrasts and fewer artifacts can be achieved in ventilation- and perfusion-related images. (paper)

  4. Functional profiles reveal unique ecological roles of various biological soil crust organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowker, M.A.; Mau, R.L.; Maestre, F.T.; Escolar, C.; Castillo-Monroy, A. P.

    2011-01-01

    1. At the heart of the body of research on biodiversity effects on ecosystem function is the debate over whether different species tend to be functionally singular or redundant. When we consider ecosystem multi-function, the provision of multiple ecosystem functions simultaneously, we may find that seemingly redundant species may in fact play unique roles in ecosystems. 2. Over the last few decades, the significance of biological soil crusts (BSCs) as ecological boundaries and ecosystem engineers, and their multi-functional nature, has become increasingly well documented. We compiled 'functional profiles' of the organisms in this understudied community, to determine whether functional singularity emerges when multiple ecosystem functions are considered. 3. In two data sets, one representing multiple sites around the semi-arid regions of Spain (regional scale), and another from a single site in central Spain (local scale), we examined correlations between the abundance or frequency of BSC species in a community, and multiple surrogates of ecosystem functioning. There was a wide array of apparent effects of species on specific functions. 4. Notably, in gypsiferous soils and at regional scale, we found that indicators of carbon (C) and phosphorus cycling were apparently suppressed and promoted by the lichens Diploschistes diacapsis and Squamarina lentigera, respectively. The moss Pleurochaete squarrosa appears to promote C cycling in calcareous soils at this spatial scale. At the local scale in gypsiferous soils, D. diacapsis positively correlated with carbon cycling, but negatively with nitrogen cycling, whereas numerous lichens exhibited the opposite profile. 5. We found a high degree of functional singularity, i.e. that species were highly individualistic in their effects on multiple functions. Many functional attributes were not easily predictable from existing functional grouping systems based primarily on morphology. 6. Our results suggest that maintaining

  5. The role of function analysis in the ACR control centre design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leger, R.P.; Davey, E.C.

    2006-01-01

    An essential aspect of control centre design is the need to characterize: plant functions and their inter-relationships to support the achievement of operational goals, and roles for humans and automation in sharing and exchanging the execution of functions across all operational phases. Function analysis is a design activity that has been internationally accepted as an approach to satisfy this need. It is recognized as a fundamental and necessary component in the systematic approach to control centre design and is carried out early in the design process. A function analysis can provide a clear basis for: the control centre design for the purposes of design team communication, and customer or regulatory review, the control centre display and control systems, the staffing and layout requirements of the control centre, assessing the completeness of control centre displays and controls prior and supplementary to mock-up walkthroughs or simulator evaluations, and the design of operating procedures and training programs. This paper will explore the role for function analysis in supporting the design of the control centre. The development of the ACR control room will be used as an illustrative context for the discussion. The paper will also discuss the merits of using function analysis in a goal-or function-based approach resulting in a more robust, operationally compatible, and cost-effective design over the life of the plant. Two former papers have previously outlined, the evolution in AECL's application approach and lessons learned in applying function analysis in support of control room design. This paper provides the most recent update to this progression in application refinement. (author)

  6. The Role of Diacylglycerol Acyltransferase (DGAT) 1 and 2 in Cardiac Metabolism and Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roe, Nathan D; Handzlik, Michal K; Li, Tao; Tian, Rong

    2018-03-21

    It is increasingly recognized that synthesis and turnover of cardiac triglyceride (TG) play a pivotal role in the regulation of lipid metabolism and function of the heart. The last step in TG synthesis is catalyzed by diacylglycerol:acyltransferase (DGAT) which esterifies the diacylglycerol with a fatty acid. Mammalian heart has two DGAT isoforms, DGAT1 and DGAT2, yet their roles in cardiac metabolism and function remain poorly defined. Here, we show that inactivation of DGAT1 or DGAT2 in adult mouse heart results in a moderate suppression of TG synthesis and turnover. Partial inhibition of DGAT activity increases cardiac fatty acid oxidation without affecting PPARα signaling, myocardial energetics or contractile function. Moreover, coinhibition of DGAT1/2 in the heart abrogates TG turnover and protects the heart against high fat diet-induced lipid accumulation with no adverse effects on basal or dobutamine-stimulated cardiac function. Thus, the two DGAT isoforms in the heart have partially redundant function, and pharmacological inhibition of one DGAT isoform is well tolerated in adult hearts.

  7. Drawing a dog: The role of working memory and executive function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panesi, Sabrina; Morra, Sergio

    2016-12-01

    Previous research suggests that young children draw animals by adapting their scheme for the human figure. This can be considered an early form of drawing flexibility. This study investigated preschoolers' ability to draw a dog that is different from the human figure. The role of working memory capacity and executive function was examined. The participants were 123 children (36-73 months old) who were required to draw both a person and a dog. The dog figure was scored on a list of features that could render it different from the human figure. Regression analyses showed that both working memory capacity and executive function predicted development in the dog drawing; the dog drawing score correlated with working memory capacity and executive function, even partialling out age, motor coordination, and drawing ability (measured with Goodenough's Draw-a-Man test). These results suggest that both working memory capacity and executive function play an important role in the early development of drawing flexibility. The implications regarding executive functions and working memory are also discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. The role of species functional traits for distribuitional patterns in lowland stream vegetation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cavalli, Giulia; Baattrup-Pedersen, Annette; Riis, Tenna

    Freshwater ecosystems provide goods and service to human society and invasion is a major threat to them. Plant invasion affect community dynamics, threatens biodiversity and promote biological homogenization. In this study we explore functional traits in three groups of species e.g. invasive...... species, disturbance-tolerant species and rare species in lowland streams. In order to investigate the role of functional traits for species distributional patterns we investigate relationships between a range of species features and species abundance in app. 1,200 stream sites in Denmark covering...

  9. Strengthening the role and functions of nursing staff in inpatient stroke rehabilitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loft, Mia Ingerslev; Martinsen, Bente; Esbensen, Bente Appel

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: Over the past two decades, attempts have been made to describe the nurse's role and functions in the inpatient stroke rehabilitation; however, the nursing contribution is neither clear nor well-defined. Previous studies have highlighted the need for research aimed at developing...... interventions in the neuro-nursing area. The objective of this paper was to describe the development of a nursing intervention aimed at optimising the inpatient rehabilitation of stroke patients by strengthening the role and functions of nursing staff. METHOD: A systematic approach was used, consistent...... analysis to explain why nursing staff were or were not engaged in these behaviours. The nursing staff's Capability, Opportunity and Motivation were analysed with regard to working systematically with a rehabilitative approach and working deliberately and systematically with the patient's goals. CONCLUSION...

  10. Beyond triglyceride synthesis: the dynamic functional roles of MGAT and DGAT enzymes in energy metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yuguang; Cheng, Dong

    2009-07-01

    Monoacyglycerol acyltransferases (MGATs) and diacylglycerol acyltransferases (DGATs) catalyze two consecutive steps of enzyme reactions in the synthesis of triacylglycerols (TAGs). The metabolic complexity of TAG synthesis is reflected by the presence of multiple isoforms of MGAT and DGAT enzymes that differ in catalytic properties, subcellular localization, tissue distribution, and physiological functions. MGAT and DGAT enzymes play fundamental roles in the metabolism of monoacylglycerol (MAG), diacylglycerol (DAG), and triacylglycerol (TAG) that are involved in many aspects of physiological functions, such as intestinal fat absorption, lipoprotein assembly, adipose tissue formation, signal transduction, satiety, and lactation. The recent progress in the phenotypic characterization of mice deficient in MGAT and DGAT enzymes and the development of chemical inhibitors have revealed important roles of these enzymes in the regulation of energy homeostasis and insulin sensitivity. Consequently, selective inhibition of MGAT or DGAT enzymes by synthetic compounds may provide novel treatment for obesity and its related metabolic complications.

  11. Nuclear Power : The roles, functions and opportunities for research institutes - An overview and recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheriffah Noor Khamseah Al-Idid Syed Ahmad Idid

    2010-01-01

    Shifting nuclear power from being the Last Option to a new energy mix for Malaysia has significant implications and requires specific actions, responses and support from critical stake holders including Government, Utility, Education Sectors and Research Institutes. This paper aims to briefly outline the roles and functions of these stake holders, but spotlighting on that of research institute. Presently the role of research and development (R and D) within a nuclear power programme is a controversial subject. Opinions range from assigning a continuing priority role in this area, to considering it a somewhat questionable effort at the present state of development of proven reactor types, in particular for countries which have not yet started or are at the earlier stages of the nuclear power programmes. As such Nuclear Malaysia may be facing a similar challenge in its quest to identify the most effective role and function for the agency to undertake for the 1st NPP. Thus it is within this context that his paper aims offer an overview of the activities and work scope required to support a Nuclear Power Programme (NPP) with the view that this will enable management and the scientific and research community to formulate strategies and work plan, in particular in terms of HRD and R and D plans, to further enhance its readiness to support Malaysia's first Nuclear Power programme, earmarked by the Government for the year 2020. Additionally it is hoped that this would contribute to the identification of an effective role, function and opportunities for Nuclear Malaysia in supporting Malaysia's first NPP. (author)

  12. Identifying thematic roles from neural representations measured by functional magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Cherkassky, Vladimir L; Yang, Ying; Chang, Kai-Min Kevin; Vargas, Robert; Diana, Nicholas; Just, Marcel Adam

    2016-01-01

    The generativity and complexity of human thought stem in large part from the ability to represent relations among concepts and form propositions. The current study reveals how a given object such as rabbit is neurally encoded differently and identifiably depending on whether it is an agent ("the rabbit punches the monkey") or a patient ("the monkey punches the rabbit"). Machine-learning classifiers were trained on functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data evoked by a set of short videos that conveyed agent-verb-patient propositions. When tested on a held-out video, the classifiers were able to reliably identify the thematic role of an object from its associated fMRI activation pattern. Moreover, when trained on one subset of the study participants, classifiers reliably identified the thematic roles in the data of a left-out participant (mean accuracy = .66), indicating that the neural representations of thematic roles were common across individuals.

  13. The roles and functions of occupational health nurses in Brazil and in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marziale, Maria Helena Palucci; Hong, Oi Saeng; Morris, Judy A; Rocha, Fernanda Ludmilla Rossi

    2010-01-01

    Cross-sectional exploratory research developed to outline the roles and functions of occupational health nurses (OHNs) in Brazil and compare them with those in the United States. The sample consisted of 154 Brazilian occupational health nurses. First, the instrument Job Analysis Survey of Occupational Health Nursing Practice was translated into Portuguese, followed by data collection and data analysis, comparing the results of the proposed study in Brazil with the findings of a job delineation study conducted in the United States. It was found that most were women, white, between 41 and 50 years of age and working primarily at hospitals or medical centers as clinicians and managers/administrators. Besides, it was found that most Brazilian OHNs spend more time in managerial roles, followed by consultant and educator responsibilities while, in the United States, OHNs spend significantly more time in education/advisory roles.

  14. Nursing Roles And Functions In The Inpatient Neurorehabilitation Of Stroke Patients: A Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fariba Tabari

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Stroke is the third largest cause of death and largest cause of adult disability in the United Kingdom and United States. The World Health Organization (WHO[1] estimates 15 million people worldwide will have a stroke annually; this represents a major health burden. The purpose was to explore the nursing roles and functions in the Inpatient Neurorehabilitation of Stroke Patients. Method: In this review study, an online search among articles published from 2000 to 2016 was conducted through CINAHL, PubMed, Science Direct, Elsevier, SID, Iran Medex, Magiran and Google scholar databases using key words; “Inpatient Neurorehabilitation of Stroke Patients”, “Nursing Roles and Functions”. The protocol of York University Guide was used to select the articles. Results: In total, 15 articles were used from 40 articles that were initially obtained from the search, from which, 6 were Iranian articles and the rest were non-Iranian articles. The articles indicated that, nursing roles and functions in the Inpatient Neurorehabilitation of Stroke Patients can be divided into the factors related to patient role, interdisciplinary cooperation, feedback to the staff about the patient’s progress, to provide emotional Support for patients and relatives. Conclusions: The contribution that nurses with stroke rehabilitation skills can make to effective stroke care was understood. However, The nurse considers the individual’s needs  working collaboratively with the patient and their families to involve them in a meaningful way with decision making and their recovery.

  15. Metabolomics analysis reveals the metabolic and functional roles of flavonoids in light-sensitive tea leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qunfeng; Liu, Meiya; Ruan, Jianyun

    2017-03-20

    As the predominant secondary metabolic pathway in tea plants, flavonoid biosynthesis increases with increasing temperature and illumination. However, the concentration of most flavonoids decreases greatly in light-sensitive tea leaves when they are exposed to light, which further improves tea quality. To reveal the metabolism and potential functions of flavonoids in tea leaves, a natural light-sensitive tea mutant (Huangjinya) cultivated under different light conditions was subjected to metabolomics analysis. The results showed that chlorotic tea leaves accumulated large amounts of flavonoids with ortho-dihydroxylated B-rings (e.g., catechin gallate, quercetin and its glycosides etc.), whereas total flavonoids (e.g., myricetrin glycoside, epigallocatechin gallate etc.) were considerably reduced, suggesting that the flavonoid components generated from different metabolic branches played different roles in tea leaves. Furthermore, the intracellular localization of flavonoids and the expression pattern of genes involved in secondary metabolic pathways indicate a potential photoprotective function of dihydroxylated flavonoids in light-sensitive tea leaves. Our results suggest that reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging and the antioxidation effects of flavonoids help chlorotic tea plants survive under high light stress, providing new evidence to clarify the functional roles of flavonoids, which accumulate to high levels in tea plants. Moreover, flavonoids with ortho-dihydroxylated B-rings played a greater role in photo-protection to improve the acclimatization of tea plants.

  16. Functional roles of lower-limb joint moments while walking in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyoshi, Tasuku; Shirota, Takashi; Yamamoto, Shin-Ichiro; Nakazawa, Kimitaka; Akai, Masami

    2005-02-01

    To clarify the functional roles of lower-limb joint moments and their contribution to support and propulsion tasks while walking in water compared with that on land. Sixteen healthy, young subjects walked on land and in water at several different speeds with and without additional loads. Walking in water is a major rehabilitation therapy for patients with orthopedic disorders. However, the functional role of lower-limb joint moments while walking in water is still unclear. Kinematics, electromyographic activities in biceps femoris and gluteus maximums, and ground reaction forces were measured under the following conditions: walking on land and in water at a self-determined pace, slow walking on land, and fast walking in water with or without additional loads (8 kg). The hip, knee, and ankle joint moments were calculated by inverse dynamics. The contribution of the walking speed increased the hip extension moment, and the additional weight increased the ankle plantar flexion and knee extension moment. The major functional role was different in each lower-limb joint muscle. That of the muscle group in the ankle is to support the body against gravity, and that of the muscle group involved in hip extension is to contribute to propulsion. In addition, walking in water not only reduced the joint moments but also completely changed the inter-joint coordination. It is of value for clinicians to be aware that the greater the viscosity of water produces a greater load on the hip joint when fast walking in water.

  17. The role of a topologically conserved isoleucine in glutathione transferase structure, stability and function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Achilonu, Ikechukwu; Gildenhuys, Samantha; Fisher, Loren; Burke, Jonathan; Fanucchi, Sylvia; Sewell, B. Trevor; Fernandes, Manuel; Dirr, Heini W.

    2010-01-01

    The role of a topologically conserved isoleucine in the structure of glutathione transferase was investigated by replacing the Ile71 residue in human GSTA1-1 by alanine or valine. The common fold shared by members of the glutathione-transferase (GST) family has a topologically conserved isoleucine residue at the N-terminus of helix 3 which is involved in the packing of helix 3 against two β-strands in domain 1. The role of the isoleucine residue in the structure, function and stability of GST was investigated by replacing the Ile71 residue in human GSTA1-1 by alanine or valine. The X-ray structures of the I71A and I71V mutants resolved at 1.75 and 2.51 Å, respectively, revealed that the mutations do not alter the overall structure of the protein compared with the wild type. Urea-induced equilibrium unfolding studies using circular dichroism and tryptophan fluorescence suggest that the mutation of Ile71 to alanine or valine reduces the stability of the protein. A functional assay with 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene shows that the mutation does not significantly alter the function of the protein relative to the wild type. Overall, the results suggest that conservation of the topologically conserved Ile71 maintains the structural stability of the protein but does not play a significant role in catalysis and substrate binding

  18. Expression and functional roles of G-protein-coupled estrogen receptor (GPER) in human eosinophils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamaki, Mami; Konno, Yasunori; Kobayashi, Yoshiki; Takeda, Masahide; Itoga, Masamichi; Moritoki, Yuki; Oyamada, Hajime; Kayaba, Hiroyuki; Chihara, Junichi; Ueki, Shigeharu

    2014-07-01

    Sexual dimorphism in asthma links the estrogen and allergic immune responses. The function of estrogen was classically believed to be mediated through its nuclear receptors, i.e., estrogen receptors (ERs). However, recent studies established the important roles of G-protein-coupled estrogen receptor (GPER/GPR30) as a novel membrane receptor for estrogen. To date, the role of GPER in allergic inflammation is poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to examine whether GPER might affect the functions of eosinophils, which play an important role in the pathogenesis of asthma. Here, we demonstrated that GPER was expressed in purified human peripheral blood eosinophils both at the mRNA and protein levels. Although GPER agonist G-1 did not induce eosinophil chemotaxis or chemokinesis, preincubation with G-1 enhanced eotaxin (CCL11)-directed eosinophil chemotaxis. G-1 inhibited eosinophil spontaneous apoptosis and caspase-3 activities. The anti-apoptotic effect was not affected by the cAMP-phospodiesterase inhibitor rolipram or phosphoinositide 3-kinase inhibitors. In contrast to resting eosinophils, G-1 induced apoptosis and increased caspase-3 activities when eosinophils were co-stimulated with IL-5. No effect of G-1 was observed on eosinophil degranulation in terms of release of eosinophil-derived neurotoxin (EDN). The current study indicates the functional capacities of GPER on human eosinophils and also provides the previously unrecognized mechanisms of interaction between estrogen and allergic inflammation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Role of Probiotics and Prebiotics in Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Sabbaghian

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGID are non-fatal, unknown etiology disorders with absence of a structural or biochemical explanation and accounting for up to 50% of gastroenterology referrals. Infant regurgitation, rumination and cyclic vomiting constitute the vomiting disorders. Abdominal pain disorders are classified as: functional dyspepsia, irritable bowel syndrome (IBS, functional abdominal pain, abdominal migraine and aerophagia. Disorders of defecation include: infant dyschezia, functional constipation, functional fecal retention and functional non-retentive fecal soiling. Current researches suggest a role of gut microbiota in pathogenesis of FGID and qualitative and quantitative alterations in the normal gut flora in some functional disorder such as IBS, chronic constipation and formula-fed infants which suffering colic or regurgitation  have been described. Probiotics are nonpathogenic microorganisms, when they are ingested, have positive effects on the host’s health. They influence intestinal physiology by different ways. Prebiotics are non-digestible carbohydrates which promote the growth and/or activity of probiotic bacteria. Evidences for the therapeutic or preventive effect of particular probiotic strains with or without prebiotics in FGID are available in many of articles. Results are encouraging in symptomatic alleviation and improvement in quality of life in IBS, functional constipation, functional abdominal pain,   infantile colic, aerophagia and infantile regurgitation.   Conclusion: Different probiotic strains have different effects, so selection of strains with specific health benefits is important. In general according to review of articles, although some of specific probiotic strains can provide a health benefit in these disorders, it seems, more high-quality and long-duration placebo-con-trolled trials are required.   Keywords: Functional gastrointestinal disorders, Probiotic.  

  20. Ulysses S. Grant and Reconstruction.