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Sample records for function exercise capacity

  1. Lung function and exercise capacity in young adults born prematurely

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    Vrijlandt, EJLE; Gerritsen, J; Boezen, HM; Grevink, RG; Duiverman, EJ

    2006-01-01

    Rationale: Limited information is available about the long-term outcome of lung function and exercise capacity in young adults born prematurely. Objective: To determine long-term effects of prematurity on lung function (volumes, diffusing capacity) and exercise capacity in expreterms compared with

  2. Functional exercise capacity, lung function and chest wall deformity in patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis

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    Evandro Fornias Sperandio

    Full Text Available AbstractIntroduction The adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS causes changes on the compliance of the chest. These changes may be associated with impaired lung function and reduced functional exercise capacity of these adolescents. We aimed to evaluate the correlation between functional exercise capacity, lung function and geometry of the chest at different stages of AIS.Materials and methods The study was carried out in a cross-sectional design which were evaluated 27 AIS patients at different stages of the disease. For chest wall evaluation, were created geometry angles/distances (A/D, which were quantified by Software Postural Assessment. The functional exercise capacity was assessed by a portable gas analyzer during the incremental shuttle walk test (ISWT. Besides that, manovacuometry and spirometry were also performed.Results Linear regressions showed that oxygen uptake (peak VO2 was correlated with distance travelled in the ISWT (R2 = 0.52, maximal respiratory pressures, cough peak flow (R2 = 0.59 and some thoracic deformity markers (D1, D2 and A6.Discussion We observed that the chest wall alterations, lung function and respiratory muscle strength are related to the functional exercise capacity and may impair the physical activity performance in AIS patients.Final considerations There is correlation between functional exercise capacity, lung function and geometry of the chest in AIS patients. Our results point to the possible impact of the AIS in the physical activities of these adolescents. Therefore, efforts to prevent the disease progression are extremely important.

  3. Effect of ventricular function and volumes on exercise capacity in adults with repaired Tetralogy of Fallot

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    Natalia Dłużniewska

    2018-01-01

    Conclusion: Exercise intolerance in adults with repaired ToF is markedly depressed. The decreased exercise capacity is correlated with impaired RV function and may be associated also with LV dysfunction, which suggests right-to-left ventricular interaction.

  4. Do supervised weekly exercise programs maintain functional exercise capacity and quality of life, twelve months after pulmonary rehabilitation in COPD?

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    Alison Jennifer A

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pulmonary rehabilitation programs have been shown to increase functional exercise capacity and quality of life in COPD patients. However, following the completion of pulmonary rehabilitation the benefits begin to decline unless the program is of longer duration or ongoing maintenance exercise is followed. Therefore, the aim of this study is to determine if supervised, weekly, hospital-based exercise compared to home exercise will maintain the benefits gained from an eight-week pulmonary rehabilitation program in COPD subjects to twelve months. Methods Following completion of an eight-week pulmonary rehabilitation program, COPD subjects will be recruited and randomised (using concealed allocation in numbered envelopes into either the maintenance exercise group (supervised, weekly, hospital-based exercise or the control group (unsupervised home exercise and followed for twelve months. Measurements will be taken at baseline (post an eight-week pulmonary rehabilitation program, three, six and twelve months. The exercise measurements will include two six-minute walk tests, two incremental shuttle walk tests, and two endurance shuttle walk tests. Oxygen saturation, heart rate and dyspnoea will be monitored during all these tests. Quality of life will be measured using the St George's Respiratory Questionnaire and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Participants will be excluded if they require supplemental oxygen or have neurological or musculoskeletal co-morbidities that will prevent them from exercising independently. Discussion Pulmonary rehabilitation plays an important part in the management of COPD and the results from this study will help determine if supervised, weekly, hospital-based exercise can successfully maintain functional exercise capacity and quality of life following an eight-week pulmonary rehabilitation program in COPD subjects in Australia.

  5. Iron Status in Chronic Heart Failure: Impact on Symptoms, Functional Class and Submaximal Exercise Capacity.

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    Enjuanes, Cristina; Bruguera, Jordi; Grau, María; Cladellas, Mercé; Gonzalez, Gina; Meroño, Oona; Moliner-Borja, Pedro; Verdú, José M; Farré, Nuria; Comín-Colet, Josep

    2016-03-01

    To evaluate the effect of iron deficiency and anemia on submaximal exercise capacity in patients with chronic heart failure. We undertook a single-center cross-sectional study in a group of stable patients with chronic heart failure. At recruitment, patients provided baseline information and completed a 6-minute walk test to evaluate submaximal exercise capacity and exercise-induced symptoms. At the same time, blood samples were taken for serological evaluation. Iron deficiency was defined as ferritin < 100 ng/mL or transferrin saturation < 20% when ferritin is < 800 ng/mL. Additional markers of iron status were also measured. A total of 538 heart failure patients were eligible for inclusion, with an average age of 71 years and 33% were in New York Heart Association class III/IV. The mean distance walked in the test was 285 ± 101 meters among those with impaired iron status, vs 322 ± 113 meters (P=.002). Symptoms during the test were more frequent in iron deficiency patients (35% vs 27%; P=.028) and the most common symptom reported was fatigue. Multivariate logistic regression analyses showed that increased levels of soluble transferrin receptor indicating abnormal iron status were independently associated with advanced New York Heart Association class (P < .05). Multivariable analysis using generalized additive models, soluble transferrin receptor and ferritin index, both biomarkers measuring iron status, showed a significant, independent and linear association with submaximal exercise capacity (P=.03 for both). In contrast, hemoglobin levels were not significantly associated with 6-minute walk test distance in the multivariable analysis. In patients with chronic heart failure, iron deficiency but not anemia was associated with impaired submaximal exercise capacity and symptomatic functional limitation. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  6. Nutritional status, functional capacity and exercise rehabilitation in end-stage renal disease.

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    Mercer, T H; Koufaki, P; Naish, P F

    2004-05-01

    A significant percentage of patients with end-stage renal disease are malnourished and/or muscle wasted. Uremia is associated with decreased protein synthesis and increased protein degradation. Fortunately, nutritional status has been shown to be a modifiable risk factor in the dialysis population. It has long been proposed that exercise could positively alter the protein synthesis-degradation balance. Resistance training had been considered as the only form of exercise likely to induce anabolism in renal failure patients. However, a small, but growing, body of evidence indicates that for some dialysis patients, favourable improvements in muscle atrophy and fibre hypertrophy can be achieved via predominantly aerobic exercise training. Moreover, some studies tentatively suggest that nutritional status, as measured by SGA, can also be modestly improved by modes and patterns of exercise training that have been shown to also increase muscle fibre cross-sectional area and improve functional capacity. Functional capacity tests can augment the information content of basic nutritional status assessments of dialysis patients and as such are recommended for routine inclusion as a feature of all nutritional status assessments.

  7. Efficacy of isokinetic exercise on functional capacity and pain in patellofemoral pain syndrome.

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    Alaca, Ridvan; Yilmaz, Bilge; Goktepe, A Salim; Mohur, Haydar; Kalyon, Tunc Alp

    2002-11-01

    To assess the effect of an isokinetic exercise program on symptoms and functions of patients with patellofemoral pain syndrome. A total of 22 consecutive patients with the complaint of anterior knee pain who met the inclusion criteria were recruited to assess the efficacy of isokinetic exercise on functional capacity, isokinetic parameters, and pain scores in patients with patellofemoral pain syndrome. A total of 37 knees were examined. Six-meter hopping, three-step hopping, and single-limb hopping course tests were performed for each patient with the measurements of the Lysholm scale and visual analog scale. Tested parameters were peak torque, total work, average power, and endurance ratios. Statistical analyses revealed that at the end of the 6-wk treatment period, functional and isokinetic parameters improved significantly, as did pain scores. There was not statistically significant correlation between different groups of parameters. The isokinetic exercise treatment program used in this study prevented the extensor power loss due to patellofemoral pain syndrome, but the improvement in the functional capacity was not correlated with the gained power.

  8. Effects of exercise on functional aerobic capacity in adults with fibromyalgia syndrome: A systematic review of randomized controlled trials.

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    García-Hermoso, Antonio; Saavedra, Jose M; Escalante, Yolanda

    2015-01-01

    Patients with fibromyalgia present a reduced capacity of upper and lower limb physical performance and affect their independence in performing everyday activities. The purpose of the present systematic review was to summarize evidence for the effectiveness and structure of exercise programs on functional aerobic capacity in patients with fibromyalgia syndrome. Keyword searches were made of seven databases. The systematic review was limited to English language studies of people with FM that evaluated the effects of exercise programs on functional aerobic capacity (6-minute walk test). The criteria for inclusion were satisfied by 12 randomized controlled trial (RCT) studies. The main cumulative evidence indicates that the programs based on aerobic exercise alone and on aquatic exercises have large (effect size = 0.85) and moderate (effect size = 0.44) effects. Aerobic and aquatic exercises at the proper intensity favour the increased functional aerobic capacity of fibromyalgia patients; however, most works do not adequately detail the intensity of the exercises. Moderate intensity exercise (aerobic and aquatic exercise) performed at least two times per week and 30-60 minutes a day is effective for increasing functional aerobic capacity, favouring the daily activities of daily living in this population.

  9. Improved cardiac function and exercise capacity following correction of pectus excavatum: a review of current literature.

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    Maagaard, Marie; Heiberg, Johan

    2016-09-01

    Patients with pectus excavatum (PE) often describe improvements in exercise stamina following corrective surgery. Studies have investigated the surgical effect on physiological parameters; still, no consensus has yet been reached. Therefore, the aim of this literature review was to describe the cardiac outcome after surgical correction, both at rest and during exercise. In February 2016, a detailed search of the databases PubMed, Medline, and EMBASE was performed. We assessed clinical studies that described cardiac outcomes both before and after surgical correction of PE. We only included studies reporting either pre-defined echocardiographic or exercise test parameters. No exclusion criteria or statistical analyses were applied. Twenty-one full-text articles, published between 1972 and 2016, were selected, with cohort-ranges of 3-168 patients, mean age-ranges of 5-33 years, and mean follow-up-ranges from immediately to 4 years after surgery. Twelve studies described resting cardiac parameters. Four studies measured cardiac output, where one described 36% immediate increase after surgery, one reported 15% increase after Nuss-bar removal and two found no difference. Three studies demonstrated improvement in mean stroke volume ranges of 22-34% and two studies found no difference. Fifteen studies investigated exercise capacity, with 11 considering peak O 2 pr. kg, where five studies demonstrated improvements with the mean ranging from 8% to 15% after surgery, five studies demonstrated no difference, and one saw a decrease of 19% 3 months after Nuss-bar implantation. A measurable increase in exercise capacity exists following surgery, which may be caused by multiple factors. This may be owed to the relief of compressed cardiac chambers with the increased anterior-posterior thoracic dimensions, which could facilitate an improved filling of the heart. With these results, the positive physiological impact of the surgery is emphasized and the potential gain in cardiac

  10. Interval and continuous exercise enhances aerobic capacity and hemodynamic function in CHF rats

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    Ramiro B. Nunes

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to compare the effects of continuous versus interval aerobic exercise training on hemodynamic parameters, cardiac remodeling, and maximal exercise capacity (MEC in chronic heart failure (CHF rats.METHOD: Twenty-four male Wistar rats were subjected to myocardial infarction (MI surgery. Five weeks post MI, the animals were assigned to one of three groups: sedentary group (CHF-Sed, n=8, aerobic continuous training group (CHF-ACT, n=8, and aerobic interval training group (CHF-AIT, n=8. Treadmill training was performed five times a week for 8 weeks (ACT: 50 min/day at 15 m/min and AIT: 40 min/day with 8 min of warm-up at 10 m/min and exercise at 15 m/min 4×4 min interspersed with 4×4 min at 23 m/min. MEC was evaluated pre and post exercise program.RESULTS: Left ventricular end-diastolic pressure (LVEDP, left ventricular mass/body mass ratio (LVM:BM, and total collagen volume fraction were lower in the trained groups compared with the sedentary group, but no difference was found between the trained groups. Systolic ventricular pressure (SVP and maximum positive derivative of LV pressure (+dP/dtmax were higher in the trained groups, but CHF-ACT showed higher +dP/dtmax compared to CHF-AIT. Both training regimens were able to increase MEC. However, the aerobic interval training was superior for improving MEC.CONCLUSION: Aerobic training is an important intervention to improve cardiac function and remodeling and physical capacity in CHF rats. Interval training is a potential strategy to maximize the results, but exercise type and intensity are still topics to be explored.

  11. Extrapulmonary features of bronchiectasis: muscle function, exercise capacity, fatigue, and health status

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    Ozalp Ozge

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are limited number of studies investigating extrapulmonary manifestations of bronchiectasis. The purpose of this study was to compare peripheral muscle function, exercise capacity, fatigue, and health status between patients with bronchiectasis and healthy subjects in order to provide documented differences in these characteristics for individuals with and without bronchiectasis. Methods Twenty patients with bronchiectasis (43.5 ± 14.1 years and 20 healthy subjects (43.0 ± 10.9 years participated in the study. Pulmonary function, respiratory muscle strength (maximal expiratory pressure – MIP - and maximal expiratory pressure - MEP, and dyspnea perception using the Modified Medical Research Council Dyspnea Scale (MMRC were determined. A six-minute walk test (6MWT was performed. Quadriceps muscle, shoulder abductor, and hand grip strength (QMS, SAS, and HGS, respectively using a hand held dynamometer and peripheral muscle endurance by a squat test were measured. Fatigue perception and health status were determined using the Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS and the Leicester Cough Questionnaire (LCQ, respectively. Results Number of squats, 6MWT distance, and LCQ scores as well as lung function testing values and respiratory muscle strength were significantly lower and MMRC and FSS scores were significantly higher in patients with bronchiectasis than those of healthy subjects (p p p p p  Conclusions Peripheral muscle endurance, exercise capacity, fatigue and health status were adversely affected by the presence of bronchiectasis. Fatigue was associated with dyspnea and health status. Respiratory muscle strength was related to peripheral muscle strength and health status, but not to fatigue, peripheral muscle endurance or exercise capacity. These findings may provide insight for outcome measures for pulmonary rehabilitation programs for patients with bronchiectasis.

  12. Effectiveness of an educational intervention and physical exercise on the functional capacity of patients on haemodialysis.

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    Molina-Robles, Esmeralda; Colomer-Codinachs, Marta; Roquet-Bohils, Marta; Chirveches-Pérez, Emilia; Ortiz-Jurado, Pep; Subirana-Casacuberta, Mireia

    2018-03-02

    To describe the impact of a standard hospital educational intervention including active physical exercises on personal well-being, functional capacity and knowledge of the benefits of prescribed physical activity for patients undergoing haemodialysis. An uncontrolled, quasi-experimental, before-and-after study with repeated measures of response variables at 4, 8 and 12 weeks after participating in an educational and physical exercise hospital intervention. It was performed at the Nephrology Unit at the Hospital Complex in Vic within september and december 2014. The patients' well-being, functional capacity and knowledge were assessed. Assessment tools: NOC nursing indicators, Barthel index scale, FAC Holden, Timed Get Up and Go test and Daniels scale. We included 68 (80.0%) patients and 58 (85.3%) completed, with a mean age of 70.16±13.5 years; 62.1% were males. After 12 weeks, the patients had better scores of personal well-being (2.33±1.2, 3.88±0.8), more autonomy to perform activities of daily living (Barthel: 92.8±12.8; 93.5±13.9), more muscle strength (Daniels Scale: 3.81±0.7, 4.19±0.6) and walked more briskly (Get Up and Go test: 14.98±8.5; 15.65±10.5). All of the score differences were statistically significant (P<05) except the Barthel Index. The standard educational intervention and active exercise performed at hospital level improved the personal well-being, knowledge and functional capacity of patients on haemodialysis. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  13. Effects of Therapeutic Exercises on Functional Capacities of Patient with Rheumatoid Arthritis

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    E Haji Zadeh

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA is a chronic and systemic inflammatory disease of unknown etiology. It is characterized by symmetric joint involvement with progressive deformities. This leads to limitation of motion and reduction of activity daily living (ADL. Previous reports showed the beneficial effects of therapeutic exercises in these patients in the remission phase. Methods and Materials: A clinical trial as a self-control sequential control study was designed to determine the effectiveness of a range of motion (ROM exercise program in patients with RA, referring to Rheumatology Research Center between 1994-1995. ROM of the selected joints by Goniometer, and ADL by a questionnaire was assessed in all patients in 3 phases: when entering the program, after 6 weeks of observation, and then after another 6 weeks with the therapeutic exercises. The mean difference in these 2 period were compared by student paired t test. The analysis of differences between different subgroups (job, education, etc. was done by one way variance analysis. Results: Forty patients completed the program. The mean ADL increased from 0437±0.252 before exercise to 6.69±3.06 after exercise (P<0.001, and the mean scores of ROM increased from 0.278±0.28 to 8±3.57 (P<0.0001, both statistically significant. This was more pronounced in women and in those with ankle joints involvement. The type of disease onset and duration of the disease did not influence the effects of treatment. No increase in disease activity was seen. Conclusion: This study showed the effectiveness of our ROM exercises in increasing functional capacities of patients with RA in remission phase.

  14. Combined short-arm centrifuge and aerobic exercise training improves cardiovascular function and physical working capacity in humans.

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    Yang, Chang-Bin; Zhang, Shu; Zhang, Yu; Wang, Bing; Yao, Yong-Jie; Wang, Yong-Chun; Wu, Yan-Hong; Liang, Wen-Bin; Sun, Xi-Qing

    2010-12-01

    Musculoskeletal and cardiovascular deconditioning occurring in long-term spaceflight gives rise to the needs to develop new strategies to counteract these adverse effects. Short-arm centrifuge combined with ergometer has been proposed as a strategy to counteract adverse effects of microgravity. This study sought to investigate whether the combination of short-arm centrifuge and aerobic exercise training have advantages over short-arm centrifuge or aerobic exercise training alone. One week training was conducted by 24 healthy men. They were randomly divided into 3 groups: (1) short-arm centrifuge training, (2) aerobic exercise training, 40 W, and (3) combined short-arm centrifuge and aerobic exercise training. Before and after training, the cardiac pump function represented by stroke volume, cardiac output, left ventricular ejection time, and total peripheral resistance was evaluated. Variability of heart rate and systolic blood pressure were determined by spectral analysis. Physical working capacity was surveyed by near maximal physical working capacity test. The 1-week combined short-arm centrifuge and aerobic exercise training remarkably ameliorated the cardiac pump function and enhanced vasomotor sympathetic nerve modulation and improved physical working capacity by 10.9% (Pcentrifuge nor the aerobic exercise group showed improvements in these functions. These results demonstrate that combined short-arm centrifuge and aerobic exercise training has advantages over short-arm centrifuge or aerobic exercise training alone in influencing several physiologically important cardiovascular functions in humans. The combination of short-arm centrifuge and aerobic exercise offers a promising countermeasure to microgravity.

  15. Effects of a multimodal exercise program on the functional capacity of Parkinson's disease patients considering disease severity and gender

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    Diego Orcioli-Silva

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a multimodal exercise program (MEP on the functional capacity of patients with Parkinson's disease (PD according to disease severity and gender. Fourteen patients with PD participated in the study and were distributed into groups according to 1 stage of disease and 2 gender. Functional capacity was evaluated before and after 6 months of intervention. The overall PD patient group improved their coordination and strength. Men and women improved in strength performance after exercise. Men also improved on coordination. For severity of disease, the unilateral group improved in strength, while the bilateral group improved in strength, balance, coordination and the UPDRS-functional score. In conclusion, a MEP is efficient in improving components of functional capacity in patients with PD, especially in strength. Gender may be considered in the exercise program. Individuals in the bilateral disease group appeared to benefit more from exercise.

  16. Respiratory diseases and their effects on respiratory function and exercise capacity.

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    Van Erck-Westergren, E; Franklin, S H; Bayly, W M

    2013-05-01

    Given that aerobic metabolism is the predominant energy pathway for most sports, the respiratory system can be a rate-limiting factor in the exercise capacity of fit and healthy horses. Consequently, respiratory diseases, even in mild forms, are potentially deleterious to any athletic performance. The functional impairment associated with a respiratory condition depends on the degree of severity of the disease and the equestrian discipline involved. Respiratory abnormalities generally result in an increase in respiratory impedance and work of breathing and a reduced level of ventilation that can be detected objectively by deterioration in breathing mechanics and arterial blood gas tensions and/or lactataemia. The overall prevalence of airway diseases is comparatively high in equine athletes and may affect the upper airways, lower airways or both. Diseases of the airways have been associated with a wide variety of anatomical and/or inflammatory conditions. In some instances, the diagnosis is challenging because conditions can be subclinical in horses at rest and become clinically relevant only during exercise. In such cases, an exercise test may be warranted in the evaluation of the patient. The design of the exercise test is critical to inducing the clinical signs of the problem and establishing an accurate diagnosis. Additional diagnostic techniques, such as airway sampling, can be valuable in the diagnosis of subclinical lower airway problems that have the capacity to impair performance. As all these techniques become more widely used in practice, they should inevitably enhance veterinarians' diagnostic capabilities and improve their assessment of treatment effectiveness and the long-term management of equine athletes. © 2013 EVJ Ltd.

  17. Combination of exercise training and diet restriction normalizes limited exercise capacity and impaired skeletal muscle function in diet-induced diabetic mice.

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    Suga, Tadashi; Kinugawa, Shintaro; Takada, Shingo; Kadoguchi, Tomoyasu; Fukushima, Arata; Homma, Tsuneaki; Masaki, Yoshihiro; Furihata, Takaaki; Takahashi, Masashige; Sobirin, Mochamad A; Ono, Taisuke; Hirabayashi, Kagami; Yokota, Takashi; Tanaka, Shinya; Okita, Koichi; Tsutsui, Hiroyuki

    2014-01-01

    Exercise training (EX) and diet restriction (DR) are essential for effective management of obesity and insulin resistance in diabetes mellitus. However, whether these interventions ameliorate the limited exercise capacity and impaired skeletal muscle function in diabetes patients remains unexplored. Therefore, we investigated the effects of EX and/or DR on exercise capacity and skeletal muscle function in diet-induced diabetic mice. Male C57BL/6J mice that were fed a high-fat diet (HFD) for 8 weeks were randomly assigned for an additional 4 weeks to 4 groups: control, EX, DR, and EX+DR. A lean group fed with a normal diet was also studied. Obesity and insulin resistance induced by a HFD were significantly but partially improved by EX or DR and completely reversed by EX+DR. Although exercise capacity decreased significantly with HFD compared with normal diet, it partially improved with EX and DR and completely reversed with EX+DR. In parallel, the impaired mitochondrial function and enhanced oxidative stress in the skeletal muscle caused by the HFD were normalized only by EX+DR. Although obesity and insulin resistance were completely reversed by DR with an insulin-sensitizing drug or a long-term intervention, the exercise capacity and skeletal muscle function could not be normalized. Therefore, improvement in impaired skeletal muscle function, rather than obesity and insulin resistance, may be an important therapeutic target for normalization of the limited exercise capacity in diabetes. In conclusion, a comprehensive lifestyle therapy of exercise and diet normalizes the limited exercise capacity and impaired muscle function in diabetes mellitus.

  18. Dyspnea, pulmonary function and exercise capacity in adult Saudi patients with sickle cell disease

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    Alameri, Hatem F.; Alem, A.; Al-Momen, A.; Kardas, W.; Owais, M.; Jehangir, A.

    2008-01-01

    Objective was to examine pulmonary function, dyspnea, and exercise capacity in adult Saudi patients with sickle cell disease (SCD) patients. The patients were recruited from the hematology clinic at King Khalid University Hospital in Riyadh from January to December 2005. The study involved 39 patients with stable SCD 20 women and 19 men, with a mean age of 22.7+/- 7.1 years, hemoglobin level of 95.5+/-14.6g/L and hemoglobin F level of 13.7+/08.6. Patients underwent pulmonary function tests PFT forced expiratory volume in first second [FEV1], forced vital capacity [FVC], and diffusion capacity of carbon monoxide [DLco] data are presented as a percentage of the normal prediction, a 6- minute walk test 6MWT and echocardiography. Dyspnea was assessed using the Borg score. The 6MWT data were compared to body mass index matched healthy controls. Forty-one percent of SCD patients had mild dyspnea at rest and this increased to 61% at the end of the 6MWT. Pulmonary function tests were abnormal in 51%, 36% of patients had a restrictive pattern, 10% had isolated decrease in DLco and 5% had a mixed restrictive-obstrutive pattern. The 6MWD was shorter in SCD patients compared to the controls 368+/-67 versus 407+/-47m, p=0.005. No hematological variables correlated with outcome variables. Chronic pulmonary complications in adult Saudi SCD patients are relatively mild but common. Pulmonary function in these patients differs from that published for African-origin SCD patients. The difference may reflect a different natural history of SCD in the 2 populations. (author)

  19. Motor Skills and Exercise Capacity Are Associated with Objective Measures of Cognitive Functions and Academic Performance in Preadolescent Children.

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    Svend Sparre Geertsen

    Full Text Available To investigate associations between motor skills, exercise capacity and cognitive functions, and evaluate how they correlate to academic performance in mathematics and reading comprehension using standardised, objective tests.This cross-sectional study included 423 Danish children (age: 9.29±0.35 years, 209 girls. Fine and gross motor skills were evaluated in a visuomotor accuracy-tracking task, and a whole-body coordination task, respectively. Exercise capacity was estimated from the Yo-Yo intermittent recovery level 1 children's test (YYIR1C. Selected tests from the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB were used to assess different domains of cognitive functions, including sustained attention, spatial working memory, episodic and semantic memory, and processing speed. Linear mixed-effects models were used to investigate associations between these measures and the relationship with standard tests of academic performance in mathematics and reading comprehension.Both fine and gross motor skills were associated with better performance in all five tested cognitive domains (all P<0.001, whereas exercise capacity was only associated with better sustained attention (P<0.046 and spatial working memory (P<0.038. Fine and gross motor skills (all P<0.001, exercise capacity and cognitive functions such as working memory, episodic memory, sustained attention and processing speed were all associated with better performance in mathematics and reading comprehension.The data demonstrate that fine and gross motor skills are positively correlated with several aspects of cognitive functions and with academic performance in both mathematics and reading comprehension. Moreover, exercise capacity was associated with academic performance and performance in some cognitive domains. Future interventions should investigate associations between changes in motor skills, exercise capacity, cognitive functions, and academic performance to elucidate the

  20. Improvement of exercise capacity and left ventricular diastolic function with metoprolol XL after acute myocardial infarction

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    Poulsen, S H; Jensen, S E; Egstrup, K

    2000-01-01

    dysfunction after acute myocardial infarction were given metoprolol XL (n = 29) or placebo (n = 30). The effects of metoprolol XL on exercise capacity in relation to effects on LV diastolic filling were studied. Two-dimensional Doppler echocardiography and maximal symptom limited bicycle test were performed...

  1. Coronary microvascular function, insulin sensitivity and body composition in predicting exercise capacity in overweight patients with coronary artery disease

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    Jürs, Anders; Pedersen, Lene Rørholm; Olsen, Rasmus Huan

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Coronary artery disease (CAD) has a negative impact on exercise capacity. The aim of this study was to determine how coronary microvascular function, glucose metabolism and body composition contribute to exercise capacity in overweight patients with CAD and without diabetes. METHODS...... by a cardiopulmonary exercise test. Body composition was determined by whole body dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scan and magnetic resonance imaging. Coronary flow reserve (CFR) assessed by transthoracic Doppler echocardiography was used as a measure of microvascular function. RESULTS: Median BMI was 31.3 and 72...... metabolism and body composition. CFR, EDV and LVEF remained independent predictors of VO2peak in multivariable regression analysis. CONCLUSION: The study established CFR, EDV and LVEF as independent predictors of VO2peak in overweight CAD patients with no or only mild functional symptoms and a LVEF > 35...

  2. Coronary flow reserve as a link between diastolic and systolic function and exercise capacity in heart failure

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    Snoer, Martin; Monk-Hansen, Tea; Olsen, Rasmus Huan

    2012-01-01

    AIMS: In heart failure, a reduced exercise capacity is the prevailing symptom and an important prognostic marker of future outcome. The purpose of the study was to assess the relation of coronary flow reserve (CFR) to diastolic and systolic function in heart failure and to determine which...

  3. Motor Skills and Exercise Capacity Are Associated with Objective Measures of Cognitive Functions and Academic Performance in Preadolescent Children

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    Thomas, Richard; Larsen, Malte Nejst; Dahn, Ida Marie; Andersen, Josefine Needham; Krause-Jensen, Matilde; Korup, Vibeke; Nielsen, Claus Malta; Wienecke, Jacob; Ritz, Christian; Krustrup, Peter; Lundbye-Jensen, Jesper

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate associations between motor skills, exercise capacity and cognitive functions, and evaluate how they correlate to academic performance in mathematics and reading comprehension using standardised, objective tests. Methods This cross-sectional study included 423 Danish children (age: 9.29±0.35 years, 209 girls). Fine and gross motor skills were evaluated in a visuomotor accuracy-tracking task, and a whole-body coordination task, respectively. Exercise capacity was estimated from the Yo-Yo intermittent recovery level 1 children's test (YYIR1C). Selected tests from the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB) were used to assess different domains of cognitive functions, including sustained attention, spatial working memory, episodic and semantic memory, and processing speed. Linear mixed-effects models were used to investigate associations between these measures and the relationship with standard tests of academic performance in mathematics and reading comprehension. Results Both fine and gross motor skills were associated with better performance in all five tested cognitive domains (all Pperformance in mathematics and reading comprehension. Conclusions The data demonstrate that fine and gross motor skills are positively correlated with several aspects of cognitive functions and with academic performance in both mathematics and reading comprehension. Moreover, exercise capacity was associated with academic performance and performance in some cognitive domains. Future interventions should investigate associations between changes in motor skills, exercise capacity, cognitive functions, and academic performance to elucidate the causality of these associations. PMID:27560512

  4. Motor Skills and Exercise Capacity Are Associated with Objective Measures of Cognitive Functions and Academic Performance in Preadolescent Children.

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    Geertsen, Svend Sparre; Thomas, Richard; Larsen, Malte Nejst; Dahn, Ida Marie; Andersen, Josefine Needham; Krause-Jensen, Matilde; Korup, Vibeke; Nielsen, Claus Malta; Wienecke, Jacob; Ritz, Christian; Krustrup, Peter; Lundbye-Jensen, Jesper

    2016-01-01

    To investigate associations between motor skills, exercise capacity and cognitive functions, and evaluate how they correlate to academic performance in mathematics and reading comprehension using standardised, objective tests. This cross-sectional study included 423 Danish children (age: 9.29±0.35 years, 209 girls). Fine and gross motor skills were evaluated in a visuomotor accuracy-tracking task, and a whole-body coordination task, respectively. Exercise capacity was estimated from the Yo-Yo intermittent recovery level 1 children's test (YYIR1C). Selected tests from the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB) were used to assess different domains of cognitive functions, including sustained attention, spatial working memory, episodic and semantic memory, and processing speed. Linear mixed-effects models were used to investigate associations between these measures and the relationship with standard tests of academic performance in mathematics and reading comprehension. Both fine and gross motor skills were associated with better performance in all five tested cognitive domains (all Pmotor skills (all Pmotor skills are positively correlated with several aspects of cognitive functions and with academic performance in both mathematics and reading comprehension. Moreover, exercise capacity was associated with academic performance and performance in some cognitive domains. Future interventions should investigate associations between changes in motor skills, exercise capacity, cognitive functions, and academic performance to elucidate the causality of these associations.

  5. Exercise capacity in the Bidirectional Glenn physiology: Coupling cardiac index, ventricular function and oxygen extraction ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallecilla, Carolina; Khiabani, Reza H; Trusty, Phillip; Sandoval, Néstor; Fogel, Mark; Briceño, Juan Carlos; Yoganathan, Ajit P

    2015-07-16

    In Bi-directional Glenn (BDG) physiology, the superior systemic circulation and pulmonary circulation are in series. Consequently, only blood from the superior vena cava is oxygenated in the lungs. Oxygenated blood then travels to the ventricle where it is mixed with blood returning from the lower body. Therefore, incremental changes in oxygen extraction ratio (OER) could compromise exercise tolerance. In this study, the effect of exercise on the hemodynamic and ventricular performance of BDG physiology was investigated using clinical patient data as inputs for a lumped parameter model coupled with oxygenation equations. Changes in cardiac index, Qp/Qs, systemic pressure, oxygen extraction ratio and ventricular/vascular coupling ratio were calculated for three different exercise levels. The patient cohort (n=29) was sub-grouped by age and pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) at rest. It was observed that the changes in exercise tolerance are significant in both comparisons, but most significant when sub-grouped by PVR at rest. Results showed that patients over 2 years old with high PVR are above or close to the upper tolerable limit of OER (0.32) at baseline. Patients with high PVR at rest had very poor exercise tolerance while patients with low PVR at rest could tolerate low exercise conditions. In general, ventricular function of SV patients is too poor to increase CI and fulfill exercise requirements. The presented mathematical model provides a framework to estimate the hemodynamic performance of BDG patients at different exercise levels according to patient specific data. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. The effect of habitual waterpipe tobacco smoking on pulmonary function and exercise capacity in young healthy males: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawari, F I; Obeidat, N A; Ghonimat, I M; Ayub, H S; Dawahreh, S S

    2017-01-01

    Evidence regarding the health effects of habitual waterpipe smoking is limited, particularly in young smokers. Respiratory health and cardiopulmonary exercise tests were compared in young male habitual waterpipe smokers (WPS) versus non-smokers. 69 WPS (≥3 times/week for three years) and 69 non-smokers were studied. Respiratory health was assessed through the American Thoracic Society and the Division of Lung Diseases (ATS-DLD-78) adult questionnaire. Pulmonary function and cardiopulmonary exercise tests were performed. Self-reported respiratory symptoms, forced expiratory volume in first second (FEV 1 ), forced vital capacity (FVC), FEV 1 /FVC ratio, forced expiratory flow between 25 and 75% of FVC (FEF 25-75% ), peak expiratory flow (PEF), exercise time, peak end-tidal CO 2 tension (PetCO 2 ), subject-reported leg fatigue and dyspnea; peak O 2 uptake (VO 2 max), and end-expiratory lung volume (EELV) change from baseline (at peak exercise) were measured. WPS were more likely than non-smokers to report respiratory symptoms. WPS also demonstrated: shorter exercise time; lower peak VO 2 ; higher perceived dyspnea at mid-exercise; lower values of the following: FEV 1 , FVC, PEF, and EELV change. Habitual waterpipe tobacco smoking in young seemingly healthy individuals is associated with a greater burden of respiratory symptoms and impaired exercise capacity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Cardiopulmonary functional capacity and the role of exercise in improving maximal oxygen consumption in women with PCOS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenarcik, Agnieszka; Bidzińska-Speichert, Bozena

    2010-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is one of the most common reproductive disorder in premenopausal women and is frequently accompanied by the presence of cardiovascular risk factors. It has also been recognized that PCOS women are characterized by cardiopulmonary impairment. Reduced cardiopulmonary functional capacity and the autonomic dysfunction associated with abnormal heart rate recovery might be responsible for the increased cardiovascular risk in patients with PCOS. Exercise training has beneficial effects on cardiopulmonary functional capacity and reduces the risk of cardiovascular disease in PCOS women.

  8. The functional exercise capacity and its correlates in obese treatment-seeking people with binge eating disorder: an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vancampfort, Davy; De Herdt, Amber; Vanderlinden, Johan; Lannoo, Matthias; Adriaens, An; De Hert, Marc; Stubbs, Brendon; Soundy, Andrew; Probst, Michel

    2015-01-01

    The primary aim was to compare the functional exercise capacity between obese treatment-seeking people with and without binge eating disorder (BED) and non-obese controls. The secondary aim was to identify clinical variables including eating and physical activity behaviour, physical complaints, psychopathology and physical self-perception variables in obese people with BED that could explain the variability in functional exercise capacity. Forty people with BED were compared with 20 age-, gender- and body mass index (BMI)-matched obese persons without BED and 40 age and gender matched non-obese volunteers. A 6-minute walk test (6MWT), the Baecke physical activity questionnaire, the Symptom Checklist-90, the Physical Self-Perception Profile and the Eating Disorder Inventory were administered. Physical complaints before and after the 6MWT were also documented. The distance achieved on the 6MWT was significantly lower in obese participants with BED (512.1 ± 75.8 m versus 682.7 ± 98.4, p binge eating disorder should incorporate a functional exercise capacity assessment. Clinicians involved in the rehabilitation of people with binge eating disorder should consider depression and lower self-esteem as potential barriers. Clinicians should take into account the frequently observed physical discomfort when developing rehabilitation programmes for people with binge eating disorder.

  9. Physical exercise modifies the functional capacity of elderly patients on hemodialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moane Marchesan

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Patients on hemodialysis (HD improve functional capacity after physical training. However, little is discussed about these effects in elderly patients, since these are usually excluded of studies, due to their physical disabilities and other deficits. Objective To analyze the effects of aerobic and resistance training in the functional capacity of elderly patients submitted to HD. Methods Studied participants were 15 patients, of both genders, and aged over 60 years. Aerobic and resistance training was carried out during the hemodialysis session, three times per week, during four months. Patients were distributed into control (CG and experimental (EG groups. Functional capacity was assessed by six-minute walk (6MW, sit-to-stand (STS and respiratory muscle strength tests. Results After the physical training, EG presented a significant increase in the distance covered in 6MW (Z = 2.521, p < .012, respiratory muscle strength (inspiratory pressure: Z = 2.533, p < .011; expiratory pressure: Z = 2.536, p < .011; and in number of STS repetitions (2.54; p <.001. Conclusion The training modified the functional capacity of the HD patients, contributing to their rehabilitation.

  10. Improvements in Functional Exercise Capacity after a Residential Behavioural Change, Diet and Fitness Program for Obese Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Errickson, Sadye Paez; Kolotkin, Ronette L; Skidmore, Megan Simmons; Endress, Gerald; Østbye, Truls; Crosby, Ross; Eisenson, Howard

    2016-06-01

    Obese adults are at an increased risk for mobility-related problems. National guidelines recommend calorie restrictions and exercise for obese adults as a means to improve functional fitness capacity and to increase mobility. Yet, lifestyle weight loss interventions often fail to measure fitness changes. The aim of this study was to assess whether a 1-month, intensive behavioural change, diet and fitness intervention for overweight and obese adults would result in statistically significant and clinically meaningful changes in functional exercise. A pre-post test design was used in this study. Seventy-two participants (40 women, 32 men; mean baseline body mass index (BMI) = 42.6 + 9.0; mean age = 45.8 + 16.8) completed a modified 6-minute walk test (6MWT), performed on a treadmill, at baseline and at end of treatment. Significant improvements included decreased BMI (2.7 + 1.7 kg m(-2) , p diet and fitness programme. Physiotherapists are in a prime position to address the physical and motivational challenges participants face while living with severe obesity: targeting functional exercise capacity is one key strategy for addressing immobility associated with obesity. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Effect of physical exercise training on muscle strength and body composition, and their association with functional capacity and quality of life in patients with atrial fibrillation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osbak, Philip Samuel; Mourier, Malene; Henriksen, Jens Henrik

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Atrial fibrillation diminishes cardiac function, exercise tolerance and quality of life. The objective of this study was to determine whether exercise training in atrial fibrillation affects muscle strength, body composition, maximal exercise capacity and walking capacity positively......, thus improving quality of life. Design: Randomized clinical trial. Twelve weeks of physical exercise training or control. Patients: Forty-nine patients in permanent atrial fibrillation were randomized to training or control. Methods: Intervention consisted of aerobic training for 1 h 3 times per week...... at 70% of maximal exercise capacity vs control. Muscle strength, exercise capacity, 6-minute walk test, lean body mass, fat percentage, and quality of life were assessed. Results: Muscle strength increased in the training group (p = 0.01), but no change was observed in controls. Lean body mass...

  12. Antioxidant capacity and physical exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Marciniak

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is a presentation of current knowledge regarding the changes of plasma antioxidant capacity observed in response to physical exercise. Human body created the enzymatic and non-enzymatic systems, which play a protective role in the harmful impact of free radicals. Those two systems constitute what is known as the plasma total antioxidant capacity. The amount of reactive oxygen species (ROS and reactive nitrogen species (NOS in combination with oxidation processes increases in some tissues during physiological response to physical exercise. These changes are observed after single bout of exercise as well as after regular training. The response of human body to physical exercise can be analysed using various models of exercise test. Application of repeated type of exhaustion allows for characterizing the ability of human body to adjust to the increased energy loss and increased oxygen consumption. This article presents the characteristics of components of plasma antioxidant capacity, the mechanisms of free radicals production and their role in human body. It discusses also the currently used methods of detecting changes in total antioxidant capacity and its individual elements in response to single bout of exercise and regular training. It presents the review of literature about research performed in groups of both regularly training and low exercise activity individuals as well as in group of healthy subjects and patients with circulation diseases.

  13. The effects of water-based exercise in combination with blood flow restriction on strength and functional capacity in post-menopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, Joamira P; Neto, Gabriel R; Loenneke, Jeremy P; Bemben, Michael G; Laurentino, Gilberto C; Batista, Gilmário; Silva, Júlio C G; Freitas, Eduardo D S; Sousa, Maria S C

    2015-12-01

    Water-based exercise and low-intensity exercise in combination with blood flow restriction (BFR) are two methods that have independently been shown to improve muscle strength in those of advancing age. The objective of this study was to assess the long-term effect of water-based exercise in combination with BFR on maximum dynamic strength and functional capacity in post-menopausal women. Twenty-eight women underwent an 8-week water-based exercise program. The participants were randomly allocated to one of the three groups: (a) water exercise only, (b) water exercise + BFR, or (c) a non-exercise control group. Functional capacity (chair stand test, timed up and go test, gait speed, and dynamic balance) and strength testing were tested before and after the 8-week aquatic exercise program. The main findings were as follows: (1) water-based exercise in combination with BFR significantly increased the lower limb maximum strength which was not observed with water-based exercise alone and (2) water-based exercise, regardless of the application of BFR, increased functional performance measured by the timed up and go test over a control group. Although we used a healthy population in the current study, these findings may have important implications for those who may be contraindicated to using traditional resistance exercise. Future research should explore this promising modality in these clinical populations.

  14. Beneficial Effects of Physical Exercise on Functional Capacity and Skeletal Muscle Oxidative Stress in Rats with Aortic Stenosis-Induced Heart Failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Janini Gomes

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. We evaluated the influence of exercise on functional capacity, cardiac remodeling, and skeletal muscle oxidative stress, MAPK, and NF-κB pathway in rats with aortic stenosis- (AS- induced heart failure (HF. Methods and Results. Eighteen weeks after AS induction, rats were assigned into sedentary control (C-Sed, exercised control (C-Ex, sedentary AS (AS-Sed, and exercised AS (AS-Ex groups. Exercise was performed on treadmill for eight weeks. Statistical analyses were performed with Goodman and ANOVA or Mann-Whitney. HF features frequency and mortality did not differ between AS groups. Exercise improved functional capacity, assessed by maximal exercise test on treadmill, without changing echocardiographic parameters. Soleus cross-sectional areas did not differ between groups. Lipid hydroperoxide concentration was higher in AS-Sed than C-Sed and AS-Ex. Activity of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase was changed in AS-Sed and restored in AS-Ex. NADPH oxidase activity and gene expression of its subunits did not differ between AS groups. Total ROS generation was lower in AS-Ex than C-Ex. Exercise modulated MAPK in AS-Ex and did not change NF-κB pathway proteins. Conclusion. Exercise improves functional capacity in rats with AS-induced HF regardless of echocardiographic parameter changes. In soleus, exercise reduces oxidative stress, preserves antioxidant enzyme activity, and modulates MAPK expression.

  15. Right ventricular outflow tract systolic function correlates with exercise capacity in patients with severe right ventricle dilatation after repair of tetralogy of Fallot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Shuhua; Li, Jianhua; Yang, Dan; Zhou, Yaxin; An, Qi; Chen, Yucheng

    2017-05-01

    The relationship between exercise capacity and right ventricular (RV) components function in repaired tetralogy of Fallot patients with severely dilated right ventricles is poorly understood. The aim of this study was to characterize the exercise capacity and its relationship to RV global and components function in repaired tetralogy of Fallot patients with RV end-diastolic volume index  >150 ml/m 2 , a currently accepted threshold for pulmonary valve replacement. The medical records and results of cardiac magnetic resonance imaging and cardiopulmonary exercise testing of 25 consecutive eligible patients were reviewed. Twenty age- and gender-matched normal subjects were enrolled as cardiac magnetic resonance control. End-diastolic, end-systolic and stroke volumes, and ejection fraction (EF) were determined for the total RV and its components. Of the 25 patients, 44% maintained normal exercise capacity. RV outlet EF was higher ( P  = 0.02) and RV incisions smaller ( P  = 0.04) in patients with normal exercise capacity than those with subnormal exercise capacity. Predicted peak oxygen consumption correlated better with the RV outflow tract EF than with the EF of other components of the RV or the global EF ( r  = 0.59; P  = 0.002). Multivariate analysis showed the RV outflow tract EF to be the only independent predictor of exercise capacity (ß = 0.442; P  = 0.02). Exercise capacity is preserved in some tetralogy of Fallot patients with severe RV dilatation. RV outflow tract EF is independently associated with exercise capacity in such patients, and could be a reliable determinant of intrinsic RV performance. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. All rights reserved.

  16. Discrepancy between functional exercise capacity and daily physical activity: a cross-sectional study in patients with mild to moderate COPD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fastenau, Annemieke; van Schayck, Onno C P; Gosselink, Rik; Aretz, Karin C P M; Muris, Jean W M

    2013-12-01

    In patients with moderate to severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) the six-minute walk distance reflects the functional exercise level for daily physical activity. It is unknown if this also applies to patients with mild to moderate COPD in primary care. To assess the relationship between functional exercise capacity and physical activity in patients with mild to moderate COPD. A cross-sectional study was performed in 51 patients with mild to moderate COPD in primary care. Functional exercise capacity was assessed by the six-minute walk test and physical activity was measured with an accelerometer-based activity monitor. Functional exercise capacity was close to normal values. However, the daily physical activity of the patients could be classified as 'sedentary' and 'low active'. No significant correlations were observed between six-minute walk distance (% predicted) and any of the physical activity variables (steps per day, movement intensity during walking, total active time, total walking time, physical activity level, and time spent in moderate physical activity). A discrepancy was found between functional exercise capacity and daily physical activity in patients with mild to moderate COPD recruited and assessed in primary care. We conclude that these variables represent two different concepts. Our results reinforce the importance of measuring daily physical activity in order to fine-tune treatment (i.e. focusing on enhancement of exercise capacity or behavioural change, or both).

  17. One year of high-intensity interval training improves exercise capacity, but not left ventricular function in stable heart transplant recipients: a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rustad, Lene A; Nytrøen, Kari; Amundsen, Brage H; Gullestad, Lars; Aakhus, Svend

    2014-02-01

    Heart transplant recipients have lower exercise capacity and impaired cardiac function compared with the normal population. High-intensity interval training (HIIT) improves exercise capacity and cardiac function in patients with heart failure and hypertension, but the effect on cardiac function in stable heart transplant recipients is not known. Thus, we investigated whether HIIT improved cardiac function and exercise capacity in stable heart transplant recipients by use of comprehensive rest- and exercise-echocardiography and cardiopulmonary exercise testing. Fifty-two clinically stable heart transplant recipients were randomised either to HIIT (4 × 4 minutes at 85-95% of peak heart rate three times per week for eight weeks) or to control. Three such eight-week periods were distributed throughout one year. Echocardiography (rest and submaximal exercise) and cardiopulmonary exercise testing were performed at baseline and follow-up. One year of HIIT increased VO 2peak from 27.7 ± 5.5 at baseline to 30.9 ± 5.0 ml/kg/min at follow-up, while the control group remained unchanged (28.5 ± 7.0 vs. 28.0 ± 6.7 ml/kg per min, p HIIT. Whereas HIIT is feasible in heart transplant recipients and effectively improves exercise capacity, it does not alter cardiac systolic and diastolic function significantly. Thus, the observed augmentation in exercise capacity is best explained by extra-cardiac adaptive mechanisms.

  18. Impaired left ventricular systolic function reserve limits cardiac output and exercise capacity in HFpEF patients due to systemic hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henein, Michael; Mörner, Stellan; Lindmark, Krister; Lindqvist, Per

    2013-09-30

    Heart failure (HF) patients with preserved left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction (EF) (HFpEF) due to systemic hypertension (SHT) are known to have limited exercise tolerance. Despite having normal EF at rest, we hypothesize that these patients have abnormal systolic function reserve limiting their exercise capacity. Seventeen patients with SHT (mean age 68 ± 9 years) but no valve disease and 14 healthy individuals (mean age of 65 ± 10 years) underwent resting and peak exercise echocardiography using conventional, tissue Doppler and speckle tracking techniques. The differences between resting and peak exercise values were also analyzed (Δ). Exercise capacity was determined as the workload divided by body surface area. Resting values for left atrial (LA) volume/BSA (r=-0.66, pexercise capacity. LVEF increased during exercise in normals (mean Δ EF=10 ± 8%) but failed to do so in patients (mean Δ EF=0.6 ± 9%, pexercise in patients, to the same extent as it did in normals (0.2 ± 0.2 vs. 0.6 ± 0.3 1/s, pexercise (Δ) in LV lateral wall systolic velocity from tissue Doppler (s') (0.71, pexercise capacity independent of changes in heart rate. HFpEF patients with hypertensive LV disease have significantly limited exercise capacity which is related to left atrial enlargement as well as compromised LV systolic function at the time of the symptoms. The limited myocardial systolic function reserve seems to be underlying important explanation for their limited exercise capacity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Exercise Capacity and Functional Performance in Heart Failure Patients Supported by a Left Ventricular Assist Device at Discharge From Inpatient Rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Thomas; Bjarnason-Wehrens, Birna; Bartsch, Petra; Deniz, Ezin; Schmitto, Jan; Schulte-Eistrup, Sebastian; Willemsen, Detlev; Reiss, Nils

    2018-01-01

    Adequate physical and functional performance is an important prerequisite for renewed participation and integration in self-determined private and (where appropriate) professional lives following left ventricular assist device (LVAD) implantation. During cardiac rehabilitation (CR), individually adapted exercise programs aim to increase exercise capacity and functional performance. A retrospective analysis of cardiopulmonary exercise capacity and functional performance in LVAD patients at discharge from a cardiac rehabilitation program was conducted. The results from 68 LVAD patients (59 males, 9 females; 55.9 ± 11.7 years; 47 HVAD, 2 MVAD, 15 HeartMate II, 4 HeartMate 3, and 4 different implanting centers) were included in the analysis. Exercise capacity was assessed using a cardiopulmonary exercise test on a bicycle ergometer (ramp protocol; 10 W/min). The 6-min walk test was used to determine functional performance. At discharge from CR (53 ± 17 days after implantation), the mean peak work load achieved was 62.2 ± 19.3 W (38% of predicted values) or 0.79 ± 0.25 W/kg body weight. The mean cardiopulmonary exercise capacity (relative peak oxygen uptake) was 10.6 ± 5.3 mL/kg/min (37% of predicted values). The 6-min walk distance improved significantly during CR (325 ± 106 to 405 ± 77 m; P exercise capacity remains considerably restricted. In contrast, functional performance, measured by the 6-min walk distance, reaches an acceptable level. Light everyday tasks seem to be realistically surmountable for patients, making discharge from inpatient rehabilitation possible. Long-term monitoring is required in order to evaluate the situation and how it develops further. © 2017 International Center for Artificial Organs and Transplantation and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Benefits of exercise training and the correlation between aerobic capacity and functional outcomes and quality of life in elderly patients with coronary artery disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Hsin Chen

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Cardiopulmonary exercise training is beneficial to people with coronary artery disease (CAD. Nevertheless, the correlation between aerobic capacity, and functional mobility and quality of life in elderly CAD patients is less addressed. The purpose of the current study is to investigate the beneficial effects of exercise training in elderly people with CAD, integrating exercise stress testing, functional mobility, handgrip strength, and health-related quality of life. Elderly people with CAD were enrolled from the outpatient clinic of a cardiac rehabilitation unit in a medical center. Participants were assigned to the exercise training group (N = 21 or the usual care group (N = 15. A total of 36 sessions of exercise training, completed in 12 weeks, was prescribed. Echocardiography, exercise stress testing, the 6-minute walking test, Timed Up and Go test, and handgrip strength testing were performed, and the Short-Form 36 questionnaire (SF-36 was administered at baseline and at 12-week follow-up. Peak oxygen consumption improved significantly after training. The heart rate recovery improved from 13.90/minute to 16.62/minute after exercise training. Functional mobility and handgrip strength also improved after training. Significant improvements were found in SF-36 physical function, social function, role limitation due to emotional problems, and mental health domains. A significant correlation between dynamic cardiopulmonary exercise testing parameters, the 6-minute walking test, Timed Up and Go test, handgrip strength, and SF-36 physical function and general health domains was also detected. Twelve-week, 36-session exercise training, including moderate-intensity cardiopulmonary exercise training, strengthening exercise, and balance training, is beneficial to elderly patients with CAD, and cardiopulmonary exercise testing parameters correlate well with balance and quality of life.

  1. Benefits of exercise training and the correlation between aerobic capacity and functional outcomes and quality of life in elderly patients with coronary artery disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chia-Hsin; Chen, Yi-Jen; Tu, Hung-Pin; Huang, Mao-Hsiung; Jhong, Jing-Hui; Lin, Ko-Long

    2014-10-01

    Cardiopulmonary exercise training is beneficial to people with coronary artery disease (CAD). Nevertheless, the correlation between aerobic capacity, and functional mobility and quality of life in elderly CAD patients is less addressed. The purpose of the current study is to investigate the beneficial effects of exercise training in elderly people with CAD, integrating exercise stress testing, functional mobility, handgrip strength, and health-related quality of life. Elderly people with CAD were enrolled from the outpatient clinic of a cardiac rehabilitation unit in a medical center. Participants were assigned to the exercise training group (N = 21) or the usual care group (N = 15). A total of 36 sessions of exercise training, completed in 12 weeks, was prescribed. Echocardiography, exercise stress testing, the 6-minute walking test, Timed Up and Go test, and handgrip strength testing were performed, and the Short-Form 36 questionnaire (SF-36) was administered at baseline and at 12-week follow-up. Peak oxygen consumption improved significantly after training. The heart rate recovery improved from 13.90/minute to 16.62/minute after exercise training. Functional mobility and handgrip strength also improved after training. Significant improvements were found in SF-36 physical function, social function, role limitation due to emotional problems, and mental health domains. A significant correlation between dynamic cardiopulmonary exercise testing parameters, the 6-minute walking test, Timed Up and Go test, handgrip strength, and SF-36 physical function and general health domains was also detected. Twelve-week, 36-session exercise training, including moderate-intensity cardiopulmonary exercise training, strengthening exercise, and balance training, is beneficial to elderly patients with CAD, and cardiopulmonary exercise testing parameters correlate well with balance and quality of life. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Taiwan.

  2. Associations between exercise capacity, physical activity, and psychosocial functioning in children with congenital heart disease: a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dulfer, Karolijn; Helbing, Willem A.; Duppen, Nienke; Utens, Elisabeth M. W. J.

    2014-01-01

    Children and adolescents operated upon for congenital heart disease (ConHD) may show reduced exercise capacity and physical activity, possibly associated with lowered self-esteem and quality of life (QoL). The studies into associations between these parameters have not been reviewed before. Review

  3. Comparison of exercise capacity with resting left ventricular function evaluated by various non-invasive methods in patients with old myocardial infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamabe, Hiroshi; Kobayashi, Katsuya; Tajiri, Eiichi; Hayakawa, Masanori; Minamiji, Katsumi

    1982-01-01

    The relationship between exercise capacity and resting left ventricular function assessed by several non-invasive methods in patients with old myocardial infarction was investigated. Subjects were 25 male patients whose endpoint was either dyspnea or general fatigue at the symptom-limited maximal graded treadmill exercise test according to Bruce protocol. The indices obtained by non-invasive cardiac examinations included left ventricular fractional shortening (% FS), scintigraphic infact size (% SIS) by 201 Tl myocardial scintigraphy and PEP/ET. A significant correlation of exercise duration with % FS (r = 0.67, p < 0.001) or with % SIS (r = -0.55, p < 0.02) indicated that the more impaired resting left ventricular function, the more was decreased exercise capacity. Also, a significant correlation of systolic blood pressure at the endpoint in exercise test with % FS (r = 0.58, p < 0.005) or with % SIS (r = 0.69, p < 0.001) indicated that inadequate blood pressure response might be partially attributed to impaired left ventricular function during exercise. The response of heart rate at the Bruce protocol stage I correlated with % FS (r = -0.67, p < 0.001) and with % SIS (r = 0.53, p < 0.02), respectively. These findings may be interpreted as chronotropic compensatory mechanism for limited stroke volume during exercise in patients with impaired left ventricular function. Thus, it was concluded that resting left ventricular function assessed by non-invasive cardiac examinations may predict exercise capacity prior to the test to some extent. These informations can be utilized for the decision of the planning at cardiac rehabilitation and also for the guidance in daily activities. (J.P.N.)

  4. Sudomotor Function as a Tool for Cardiorespiratory Fitness Level Evaluation: Comparison with Maximal Exercise Capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anu Raisanen

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Physical inactivity is a modifiable risk factor for cardiovascular (CV and metabolic disorders. VO2max is the best method to assess cardio-respiratory fitness level but it is poorly adopted in clinical practice. Sudomotor dysfunction may develop early in metabolic diseases. This study aimed at comparing established CV risk evaluation techniques with SUDOSCAN; a quick and non-invasive method to assess sudomotor function. A questionnaire was filled-in; physical examination and VO2max estimation using a maximal test on a bicycle ergometer were performed on active Finish workers. Hand and foot electrochemical skin conductance (ESC were measured to assess sudomotor function. Subjects with the lowest fitness level were involved in a 12 month training program with recording of their weekly physical activity and a final fitness level evaluation. Significant differences in BMI; waist and body fat were seen according to SUDOSCAN risk score classification. Correlation between the risk score and estimated VO2max was r = −0.57, p < 0.0001 for women and −0.48, p < 0.0001 for men. A significant increase in estimated VO2max, in hand and foot ESC and in risk score was observed after lifestyle intervention and was more important in subjects with the highest weekly activity. SUDOSCAN could be used to assess cardio-metabolic disease risk status in a working population and to follow individual lifestyle interventions.

  5. Mild asthma and chronic bronchitis seem to influence functional exercise capacity: a multi-case control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcon, Alessandro; Girardi, Paolo; Ferrari, Marcello; Olivieri, Mario; Accordini, Simone; Bombieri, Cristina; Bortolami, Oscar; Braggion, Marco; Cappa, Veronica; Cazzoletti, Lucia; Locatelli, Francesca; Nicolis, Morena; Perbellini, Luigi; Sembeni, Silvia; Verlato, Giuseppe; Zanolin, Maria Elisabetta; de Marco, Roberto

    2013-01-01

    In the Genes Environment Interaction in Respiratory Diseases population-based multi-case control study, we investigated whether asthma, chronic bronchitis (CB) and rhinitis were associated with a reduced 6-minute walk distance (6MWD), and whether the 6MWD determinants were similar for subjects with/without respiratory diseases. Cases of asthma (n = 360), CB (n = 120), rhinitis (n = 203) and controls (no respiratory diseases: n = 302) were recruited. The variation in the 6MWD across the groups was analyzed by ANCOVA, adjusting for gender, age, height, weight and comorbidity. The 6MWD determinants were studied by linear regression, and heterogeneity across the cases and controls was investigated. The 6MWD differed across cases and controls (p = 0.01). It was shorter for cases of asthma (-17.1, 95% CI -28.3 to -5.8 m) and CB (-20.7, 95% CI: -36.6 to -4.8 m) than for controls (604 ± 68 m on average), but not for cases of rhinitis. The negative association between age and the 6MWD was significant for cases of CB, but not for the other groups (p = 0.001). Even at the level of severity found in the general population, asthma and CB could influence the 6MWD, which seems to reflect the functional exercise level for daily physical activities. The negative association between ageing and the 6MWD was particularly strong in subjects with CB. Our report adds to the mounting evidence that CB is not a trivial condition, especially in the ageing adult population, and it supports the importance of monitoring functional capacity and of physical reconditioning in mild asthma. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. The Effects of Functional Training, Bicycle Exercise, and Exergaming on Walking Capacity of Elderly Patients With Parkinson Disease: A Pilot Randomized Controlled Single-blinded Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraz, Daniel Dominguez; Trippo, Karen Valadares; Duarte, Gabriel Pereira; Neto, Mansueto Gomes; Bernardes Santos, Kionna Oliveira; Filho, Jamary Oliveira

    2018-05-01

    To compare the effects of functional training, bicycle exercise, and exergaming on walking capacity of elderly with Parkinson disease (PD). A pilot randomized, controlled, single-blinded trial. A state reference health care center for elderly, a public reference outpatient clinic for the elderly. Elderly individuals (≥60 years of age; N=62) with idiopathic PD (stage 2 to 3 of modified Hoehn and Yahr staging scale) according to the London Brain Bank. The participants were randomly assigned to three groups. Group 1 (G1) participated in functional training (n=22); group 2 (G2) performed bicycle exercise (n=20), and group 3 (G3) trained with Kinect Adventures (Microsoft, Redmond, WA) exergames (n=20). The primary outcome measure was the 6-minute walk test (6MWT); secondary outcome measures were the 10-m walk test (10MWT), sitting-rising test (SRT), body mass index, Parkinson Disease Questionnaire-39, World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule 2.0 (WHODAS 2.0), and 15-item Geriatric Depression Scale. All groups showed significant improvements in 6MWT (G1 P=.008; G2 P=.001; G3 P=.005), SRT (G1 Ptraining had similar outcomes compared with functional training and bicycle exercise. The three physical exercise modalities presented significant improvements on walking capacity, ability to stand up and sit, and functionality of the participants. Copyright © 2018 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Effects of aerobic training combined with respiratory muscle stretching on the functional exercise capacity and thoracoabdominal kinematics in patients with COPD: a randomized and controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wada JT

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Juliano T Wada,1 Erickson Borges-Santos,1 Desiderio Cano Porras,1 Denise M Paisani,1 Alberto Cukier,2 Adriana C Lunardi,1 Celso RF Carvalho1 1Department of Physical Therapy, 2Department of Cardiopneumology, School of Medicine, University of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil Background: Patients with COPD present a major recruitment of the inspiratory muscles, predisposing to chest incoordination, increasing the degree of dyspnea and impairing their exercise capacity. Stretching techniques could decrease the respiratory muscle activity and improve their contractile capacity; however, the systemic effects of stretching remain unknown.Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of aerobic training combined with respiratory muscle stretching on functional exercise capacity and thoracoabdominal kinematics in patients with COPD.Design: This study was a randomized and controlled trial.Participants: A total of 30 patients were allocated to a treatment group (TG or a control group (CG; n=15, each group.Intervention: The TG was engaged in respiratory muscle stretching and the CG in upper and lower limb muscle stretching. Both groups performed 24 sessions (twice a week, 12 weeks of aerobic training.Evaluations: Functional exercise capacity (6-minute walk test, thoracoabdominal kinematics (optoelectronic plethysmography, and respiratory muscle activity (surface electromyography were evaluated during exercise. Analysis of covariance was used to compare the groups at a significance level of 5%.Results: After the intervention, the TG showed improved abdominal (ABD contribution, compartmental volume, mobility, and functional exercise capacity with decreased dyspnea when compared with the CG (P<0.01. The TG also showed a decreased respiratory muscle effort required to obtain the same pulmonary volume compared to the CG (P<0.001.Conclusion: Our results suggest that aerobic training combined with respiratory muscle stretching increases the functional

  8. The effects of exercise training in addition to energy restriction on functional capacities and body composition in obese adults during weight loss: a systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clint T Miller

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Obesity is associated with impairments of physical function, cardiovascular fitness, muscle strength and the capacity to perform activities of daily living. This review examines the specific effects of exercise training in relation to body composition and physical function demonstrated by changes in cardiovascular fitness, and muscle strength when obese adults undergo energy restriction. METHODS: Electronic databases were searched for randomised controlled trials comparing energy restriction plus exercise training to energy restriction alone. Studies published to May 2013 were included if they used multi-component methods for analysing body composition and assessed measures of fitness in obese adults. RESULTS: Fourteen RCTs met the inclusion criteria. Heterogeneity of study characteristics prevented meta-analysis. Energy restriction plus exercise training was more effective than energy restriction alone for improving cardiovascular fitness, muscle strength, and increasing fat mass loss and preserving lean body mass, depending on the type of exercise training. CONCLUSION: Adding exercise training to energy restriction for obese middle-aged and older individuals results in favourable changes to fitness and body composition. Whilst weight loss should be encouraged for obese individuals, exercise training should be included in lifestyle interventions as it offers additional benefits.

  9. The Effects of Exercise Training in Addition to Energy Restriction on Functional Capacities and Body Composition in Obese Adults during Weight Loss: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Clint T.; Fraser, Steve F.; Levinger, Itamar; Straznicky, Nora E.; Dixon, John B.; Reynolds, John; Selig, Steve E.

    2013-01-01

    Background Obesity is associated with impairments of physical function, cardiovascular fitness, muscle strength and the capacity to perform activities of daily living. This review examines the specific effects of exercise training in relation to body composition and physical function demonstrated by changes in cardiovascular fitness, and muscle strength when obese adults undergo energy restriction. Methods Electronic databases were searched for randomised controlled trials comparing energy restriction plus exercise training to energy restriction alone. Studies published to May 2013 were included if they used multi-component methods for analysing body composition and assessed measures of fitness in obese adults. Results Fourteen RCTs met the inclusion criteria. Heterogeneity of study characteristics prevented meta-analysis. Energy restriction plus exercise training was more effective than energy restriction alone for improving cardiovascular fitness, muscle strength, and increasing fat mass loss and preserving lean body mass, depending on the type of exercise training. Conclusion Adding exercise training to energy restriction for obese middle-aged and older individuals results in favourable changes to fitness and body composition. Whilst weight loss should be encouraged for obese individuals, exercise training should be included in lifestyle interventions as it offers additional benefits. PMID:24409219

  10. Respiratory muscle stretch gymnastics in patients with post coronary artery bypass grafting pain : Impact on respiratory muscle function, activity, mood and exercise capacity

    OpenAIRE

    會田, 信子; 渋谷, 優子; 吉野, 克樹; Komoda, Masaji; 井上, 智子

    2002-01-01

    A new rehabilitation (New-RH) program including respiratory muscle stretch gymnastics (RMSG) was developed to alleviate post-coronary artery bypass grafting pain (PCP). Effects on respiratory muscle function, pain, activities of daily living (ADL), mood and exercise capacity were investigated. Subjects were 16 consecutive patients undergoing median full sternotomy coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG), and were randomly divided into equal New-RH (S-group) and conventional therapy (C-group) g...

  11. Exercise capacity in diabetes mellitus is predicted by activity status and cardiac size rather than cardiac function: a case control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Timothy J; Burns, Andrew T; MacIsaac, Richard J; MacIsaac, Andrew I; Prior, David L; La Gerche, André

    2018-03-23

    The reasons for reduced exercise capacity in diabetes mellitus (DM) remains incompletely understood, although diastolic dysfunction and diabetic cardiomyopathy are often favored explanations. However, there is a paucity of literature detailing cardiac function and reserve during incremental exercise to evaluate its significance and contribution. We sought to determine associations between comprehensive measures of cardiac function during exercise and maximal oxygen consumption ([Formula: see text]peak), with the hypothesis that the reduction in exercise capacity and cardiac function would be associated with co-morbidities and sedentary behavior rather than diabetes itself. This case-control study involved 60 subjects [20 with type 1 DM (T1DM), 20 T2DM, and 10 healthy controls age/sex-matched to each diabetes subtype] performing cardiopulmonary exercise testing and bicycle ergometer echocardiography studies. Measures of biventricular function were assessed during incremental exercise to maximal intensity. T2DM subjects were middle-aged (52 ± 11 years) with a mean T2DM diagnosis of 12 ± 7 years and modest glycemic control (HbA 1c 57 ± 12 mmol/mol). T1DM participants were younger (35 ± 8 years), with a 19 ± 10 year history of T1DM and suboptimal glycemic control (HbA 1c 65 ± 16 mmol/mol). Participants with T2DM were heavier than their controls (body mass index 29.3 ± 3.4 kg/m 2 vs. 24.7 ± 2.9, P = 0.001), performed less exercise (10 ± 12 vs. 28 ± 30 MET hours/week, P = 0.031) and had lower exercise capacity ([Formula: see text]peak = 26 ± 6 vs. 38 ± 8 ml/min/kg, P accounting for age, sex and body surface area in a multivariate analysis, significant positive predictors of [Formula: see text]peak were cardiac size (LV end-diastolic volume, LVEDV) and estimated MET-hours, while T2DM was a negative predictor. These combined factors accounted for 80% of the variance in [Formula: see text

  12. Respiratory muscle stretch gymnastics in patients with post coronary artery bypass grafting pain: impact on respiratory muscle function, activity, mood and exercise capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aida, Nobuko; Shibuya, Masako; Yoshino, Katsuki; Komoda, Masaji; Inoue, Tomoko

    2002-12-01

    A new rehabilitation (New-RH) program including respiratory muscle stretch gymnastics (RMSG) was developed to alleviate post-coronary artery bypass grafting pain (PCP). Effects on respiratory muscle function, pain, activities of daily living (ADL), mood and exercise capacity were investigated. Subjects were 16 consecutive patients undergoing median full sternotomy coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG), and were randomly divided into equal New-RH (S-group) and conventional therapy (C-group) groups. Rib cage dominant breathing was observed postoperatively in both groups. With preoperative tan deltaVrc/deltaVab, increases at 1-week postoperatively and decreases at discharge for S-group tended to exceed those of C-group (p > .05). Decreased maximum inspiratory and expiratory pressure status for functional residual capacity and percent forced expiratory volume in one second at discharge again only tended to be smaller for S-group (p > .05). S-group displayed significantly reduced pain around both scapulas at discharge (p = .049), and increased mean overall ADL and profile of mood states (POMS)/Vigor scores (p = .031 and p = .018, respectively). POMS/Tension-Anxiety scores at discharge for S-group were significantly smaller than those preoperatively (p = .025), and S-group displayed significantly increased distance walked over 6-minutes at discharge than C-group (p = .029). New-RH improves patient participation in exercise therapy and increases exercise capacity by reducing PCP, relieving anxiety and tension, and improving ADL.

  13. Multicomponent Exercise Improves Hemodynamic Parameters and Mobility, but Not Maximal Walking Speed, Transfer Capacity, and Executive Function of Older Type II Diabetic Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélio José Coelho Junior

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to investigate the effects of a 6-month multicomponent exercise program (MCEP on functional, cognitive, and hemodynamic parameters of older Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM patients. Moreover, additional analyses were performed to evaluate if T2DM patients present impaired adaptability in response to physical exercise when compared to nondiabetic volunteers. A total of 72 T2DM patients and 72 age-matched healthy volunteers (CG were recruited and submitted to functional, cognitive, and hemodynamic evaluations before and after six months of a MCEP. The program of exercise was performed twice a week at moderate intensity. Results indicate T2DM and nondiabetic patients present an increase in mobility (i.e., usual walking speed after the MCEP. However, improvements in maximal walking speed, transfer capacity, and executive function were only observed in the CG. On the other hand, only T2DM group reveals a marked decline in blood pressure. In conclusion, data of the current study indicate that a 6-month MCEP improves mobility and reduce blood pressure in T2DM patients. However, maximal walking speed, transfer capacity, and executive function were only improved in CG, indicating that T2DM may present impaired adaptability in response to physical stimulus.

  14. Tissue advanced glycation end products are associated with diastolic function and aerobic exercise capacity in diabetic heart failure patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willemsen, Suzan; Hartog, Jasper W. L.; Hummel, Yoran M.; van Ruijven, Marieke H. I.; van der Horst, Iwan C. C.; van Veldhuisen, Dirk J.; Voors, Adriaan A.

    Aims Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) are increased in patients with diabetes and are associated with diastolic dysfunction through the formation of collagen crosslinks in the heart. The association among AGEs, diastolic function, and aerobic capacity in heart failure (HF) patients with and

  15. The effect of Bosentan on exercise capacity in Fontan patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hebert, Anders; Jensen, Annette S; Idorn, Lars

    2013-01-01

    and longer life expectancy of TCPC patients have raised new challenges. The survivors are often suffering complications such as arrhythmias, myocardial dysfunction, thromboembolic events, neuropsychological deficit, protein-losing enteropathy and reduced exercise capacity. Several causes for the reduced...... exercise capacity may be present e.g. impaired function of the single ventricle, valve dysfunction and chronotropic impairment, and perhaps also increased pulmonary vascular resistance. Thus, plasma endothelin-1 has been shown to correlate with increased pulmonary vascular resistance and the risk...

  16. A randomized trial of the effects of an aquatic exercise program on depression, anxiety levels, and functional capacity in of people who suffered an ischemic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aidar, Felipe J; Jacó de Oliveira, Ricardo; Gama de Matos, Dihogo; Chilibeck, Philip D; de Souza, Raphael F; Carneiro, André L; Machado Reis, Victor

    2017-05-09

    Aquatic exercise programs are used in rehabilitation and might help to reduce disability after stroke. This was a randomized intervention trial to assess the influence of an aquatic exercise program on people suffering from depression and anxiety after ischemic stroke. Participants were randomized to an experimental group (EG) composed of 19 individuals (51.8 ± 8.5 years; ten males and nine females), and a control group (CG) composed of 17 people (52.7 ± 6.7 years; nine males and eight females). The aquatic exercise program consisted of two sessions per week, each lasting between 45 and 60 minutes and divided into 5 to 10 minutes exercise sections during 12 weeks. The State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) was used to determine anxiety levels while the Beck Depression Inventory was used as a self-assessment of depression. EG improved measures of depression, anxiety trait and anxiety state between pre- and post-treatment, with no changes in CG. EG improved in all tests related to functional capacity compared to CG. The practice of aquatic exercises promotes improvements in the levels of depression and anxiety in people who suffered an ischemic stroke.

  17. Early exercise-based rehabilitation improves health-related quality of life and functional capacity after acute myocardial infarction: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peixoto, Thatiana C A; Begot, Isis; Bolzan, Douglas W; Machado, Lais; Reis, Michel S; Papa, Valeria; Carvalho, Antonio C C; Arena, Ross; Gomes, Walter J; Guizilini, Solange

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of an early cardiac rehabilitation (CR) program on health-related quality of life (HRQL) and functional capacity in patients who recently experienced an acute myocardial infarction (AMI). This program was initiated in the inpatient setting and was followed by an unsupervised outpatient intervention. After the same inpatient care plan, low-risk patients who experienced an AMI were randomized into 2 groups: (1) a control group (CG) (n = 43) entailing usual care and (2) an intervention group (IG) (n = 45) entailing outpatient (unsupervised) CR primarily centered on a progressive walking program. Initially, all patients underwent a supervised exercise program with early mobilization beginning 12 hours after an AMI. On hospital discharge, all patients were classified according to cardiovascular risk. Quality of life was evaluated by the MacNew Heart Disease HRQL questionnaire 30 days after discharge. Functional capacity was determined by a 6-minute walk test (6MWT) distance on the day of inpatient discharge as well as 30 days afterward. The HRQL global score was higher in the IG compared with the CG 30 days after discharge (P exercises, initiated by supervised inpatient training and followed by an unsupervised outpatient program, improved HRQL and functional capacity in patients at low cardiovascular risk who recently experienced an AMI. Copyright © 2015 Canadian Cardiovascular Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. [Evaluation of exercise capacity in pulmonary arterial hypertension].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demir, Rengin; Küçükoğlu, Mehmet Serdar

    2010-12-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a life-threatening disease characterized by increased pulmonary vascular resistance that leads to right ventricular failure. The most common clinical features of PAH are dyspnea and exercise intolerance. Measurement of exercise capacity is of considerable importance for the assessment of disease severity as well as routine monitoring of disease. Maximal, symptom-limited, cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET) is the gold standard for the evaluation of exercise capacity, whereby functions of several systems involved in exercise can be assessed, including cardiovascular, respiratory, and metabolic systems. However, in order to derive the most useful diagnostic information on physiologic limitations to exercise, CPET requires maximal effort of the patient, which can be difficult and risky for some severely ill patients. Moreover, it requires specific exercise equipment and measurement systems, and experienced and trained personnel. Thus, routine clinical use of CPET to assess exercise capacity in patients with PAH may not always be feasible. A practical and simple alternative to CPET to determine exercise capacity is the 6-minute walk test (6MWT). It is simple to perform, safe, and reproducible. In contrast to CPET, the 6MWT reflects a submaximal level of exertion that is more consistent with the effort required for daily physical activities. This review focuses on the role of CPET and 6MWT in patients with PAH.

  19. Prehabilitation with Whey Protein Supplementation on Perioperative Functional Exercise Capacity in Patients Undergoing Colorectal Resection for Cancer: A Pilot Double-Blinded Randomized Placebo-Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillis, Chelsia; Loiselle, Sarah-Eve; Fiore, Julio F; Awasthi, Rashami; Wykes, Linda; Liberman, A Sender; Stein, Barry; Charlebois, Patrick; Carli, Francesco

    2016-05-01

    A previous comprehensive prehabilitation program, providing nutrition counseling with whey protein supplementation, exercise, and psychological care, initiated 4 weeks before colorectal surgery for cancer, improved functional capacity before surgery and accelerated functional recovery. Those receiving standard of care deteriorated. The specific role of nutritional prehabilitation alone on functional recovery is unknown. This study was undertaken to estimate the impact of nutrition counseling with whey protein on preoperative functional walking capacity and recovery in patients undergoing colorectal resection for cancer. We conducted a double-blinded randomized controlled trial at a single university-affiliated tertiary center located in Montreal, Quebec, Canada. Colon cancer patients (n=48) awaiting elective surgery for nonmetastatic disease were randomized to receive either individualized nutrition counseling with whey protein supplementation to meet protein needs or individualized nutrition counseling with a nonnutritive placebo. Counseling and supplementation began 4 weeks before surgery and continued for 4 weeks after surgery. The primary outcome was change in functional walking capacity as measured with the 6-minute walk test. The distance was recorded at baseline, the day of surgery, and 4 weeks after surgery. A change of 20 m was considered clinically meaningful. The whey group experienced a mean improvement in functional walking capacity before surgery of +20.8 m, with a standard deviation of 42.6 m, and the placebo group improved by +1.2 (65.5) m (P=0.27). Four weeks after surgery, recovery rates were similar between groups (P=0.81). Clinically meaningful improvements in functional walking capacity were achieved before surgery with whey protein supplementation. These pilot results are encouraging and justify larger-scale trials to define the specific role of nutrition prehabilitation on functional recovery after surgery. Copyright © 2016 Academy of

  20. The effects of Bobath-based trunk exercises on trunk control, functional capacity, balance, and gait: a pilot randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kılınç, Muhammed; Avcu, Fatma; Onursal, Ozge; Ayvat, Ender; Savcun Demirci, Cevher; Aksu Yildirim, Sibel

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of Bobath-based individually designed trunk exercises on trunk control, upper and lower extremity function, and walking and balance in stroke patients. The main aim of treatment was to eliminate individual trunk impairments during various patient functions. The study was planned as an assessor-blinded, randomized controlled trial. A total of 22 patients volunteered to participate in the study. Trunk function, functional capacity, and gait were assessed with the Trunk Impairment Scale (TIS), stroke rehabilitation assessment of movement (STREAM), and a 10-m walking test, respectively. The Berg Balance Test (BBT), functional reach (FR), and timed up-and-go (TUG) tests were used to evaluate balance. After the initial assessment, the patients were divided randomly into two groups, the study group (12 patients) and the control group (10 patients). The mean age of the patients in the study group was 55.91 years (duration of stroke 58.66 months) and that of the control group was 54.00 years (duration of stroke 67.20 months). Individual training programs were determined for the patients in the study group, taking into consideration their evaluation results; and strengthening, stretching, range of motion, and mat exercises were determined for the control group according to their functional level. The participants in both groups were taken into the physiotherapy program for 12 weeks, 3 days a week for 1 hour a day. In group analyses, both groups showed improvement in STREAM, TIS, and TUG tests. Only the study group produced significant gains in the BBT, FR, and 10 m walking tests (P 0.05). Individually developed exercise programs in the Bobath concept improve trunk performance, balance, and walking ability in stroke patients more than do conventional exercises.

  1. Functional outcome in contemporary children with total cavopulmonary connection - Health-related physical fitness, exercise capacity and health-related quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hock, Julia; Reiner, Barbara; Neidenbach, Rhoia C; Oberhoffer, Renate; Hager, Alfred; Ewert, Peter; Müller, Jan

    2018-03-15

    Children and adolescents with an univentricular heart after total cavopulmonary connection (TCPC) have functional impairments. This study assesses health-related physical fitness (HRPF) and exercise capacity, as well as their relation to health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in patients with an univentricular heart after total-pulmonary connection (TCPC). Between July 2014 and October 2016 a total of 78 children and adolescents with TCPC (12.0±3.2years, 21 female) performed a motor test including five tasks for strength and flexibility during their routine follow-up appointment. They also underwent a symptom limited cardio-pulmonary exercise test and filled in a HRQoL questionnaire (KINDL-R). Patients' data were compared to a recent sample of healthy children (n=1650, 12.6±2.4years, 49% female). Multivariable regressions corrected for sex, age and BMI showed that TCPC patients achieved 12.4 repetitions of curl-ups (pflexibility (-4.7cm; pmotor competence and exercise capacity, early screening for HRPF and early treatment, if indicated, is recommended. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The Influence of Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus on Pulmonary Function and Exercise Capacity - Results from the Study of Health in Pomerania (SHIP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stubbe, Beate; Schipf, Sabine; Schäper, Christoph; Felix, Stephan B; Steveling, Antje; Nauck, Matthias; Völzke, Henry; Wallaschofski, Henri; Friedrich, Nele; Ewert, Ralf; Ittermann, Till; Gläser, Sven

    2017-01-01

    Background: Diabetes mellitus Type 1 (T1DM) is associated with metabolic and microvascular diseases as part of a multi-organ and multi-systemic disorder. The dense network of capillary vessels in the lungs may change during the course of the development of microangiopathy. The connective tissue as well as alveoli may be subjected to non-enzymatic glycosylation of proteins which may in turn affect pulmonary function. Previous studies investigating lung function in patients with type 1 diabetes have only been performed on small numbers of patients. Our study is based on population data of the Study of Health in Pomerania (SHIP). Objective: To investigate the influence of metabolic control on pulmonary system function and to establish a decreased pulmonary system function as a late complication of T1DM in a population based setting. Methods: The study is a case matched study with multiple controls based on participants with T1DM (SHIP-DM-1, n=73) and non-diabetics (SHIP-1, n=292) from the population based study of Pomerania. Data on lung function and exercise performance stratified by age, sex, body mass index and smoking habits in participants with T1DM and without diabetes were matched. Results: Participants with T1DM showed a significantly lower total lung capacity, residual volume and forced vital capacity. The transfer factor for carbon monoxide, the maximum power output and oxygen uptake during exercise were significantly decreased in comparison to the general population without diabetes. Conclusion: The pattern of abnormal pulmonary function as observed in the present study with a reduction in lung volume parameters and reduced oxygen uptake in participants with T1DM suggests a restrictive type of lung disease caused by an intrinsic lung tissue derangement as well as pulmonary microangiopathy. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  3. Depressive Symptoms, Exercise Capacity, and Clinical Outcomes After Lung Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Patrick J; Byrd, Rebecca; Lusby, Megan; Clausen, Emily; Snyder, Laurie D

    2018-05-01

    Depressive symptoms are common among lung transplant recipients and have been associated with worse clinical outcomes. However, few studies have examined the association between depressive symptoms assessed at multiple time points or behavioral mechanisms by which posttransplant depressive symptoms may confer greater clinical risk. We therefore examined the associations between depressive symptoms, exercise capacity, chronic lung allograft dysfunction (CLAD), and mortality prospectively in a large sample of lung transplant recipients. Between July 2009 and February 2016, 251 lung transplant recipients were assessed before transplantation and again approximately 3 weeks and 3 months after transplant. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the Centers for Epidemiologic Studies of Depression scale. Functional exercise capacity was assessed using the 6-minute walk test. Cox proportional hazards models were used to examine the associations between depressive symptoms, exercise capacity, CLAD, and mortality. During a median (range) follow-up of 4.5 (0.1 to 6.3) years, 53 participants (21%) died. Greater depressive symptoms (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.39 [95% CI = 1.05 to 1.84], p = .021) and poorer exercise capacity (HR = 0.58 [95% CI = 0.38 to 0.90], p = .021) assessed 3 months after transplant were both independently associated with mortality. Although greater depressive symptoms were associated with lower exercise capacity (β = -0.14, p = .039), exercise capacity did not mediate the association between depressive symptoms and mortality. In secondary analyses, depressive symptoms were independently predictive of CLAD (HR = 1.29 [95% CI = 1.01 to 1.65], p = .045) and the composite outcome of CLAD and mortality in a clustered event model (HR = 1.30 [1.09 to 1.56], p = .005). Depressive symptoms are associated with mortality and CLAD after lung transplantation, independent of exercise capacity.

  4. Effects of exercise training with traditional dancing on functional capacity and quality of life in patients with schizophrenia: a randomized controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaltsatou, A; Kouidi, E; Fountoulakis, K; Sipka, C; Theochari, V; Kandylis, D; Deligiannis, A

    2015-09-01

    To examine the effects of an eight-month exercise training programme with Greek traditional dancing on functional capacity and quality of life in patients with schizophrenia. Randomized controlled trial. Sports Medicine Laboratory. A total of 31 patients, aged 59.9 ± 14.1 years. They were randomly assigned either to a Greek traditional dancing programme (Group A) or to a sedentary control group (Group B). A functional capacity assessment was performed at baseline and the end of the study. Global Assessment of Functioning Scale and Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale were also used. Quality of life was examined using the Quality of Life and Satisfaction questionnaire. After the eight months, Group A increased walking distance in the 6-minute walk test (328.4 ± 35.9 vs. 238.0 ± 47.6 m), sit-to-stand test (19.1 ± 1.8 vs. 25.1 ± 1.4 seconds), Berg Balance Scale score (53.1 ± 2.1 vs. 43.2 ± 6.7), lower limbs maximal isometric force (77.7 ± 25.7 vs. 51.0 ± 29.8 lb), Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale total score (77.0 ± 23.1 vs. 82.0 ± 24.4), Global Assessment of Functioning Scale total score (51.3 ± 15.5 vs. 47.7 ± 13.3) and Quality of Life total score (34.9 ± 5.2 vs. 28 ± 4.5), compared with Group B. Our results demonstrate that Greek traditional dances improve functional capacity and quality of life in patients with schizophrenia. © The Author(s) 2014.

  5. Effect of High-Intensity Interval Versus Continuous Exercise Training on Functional Capacity and Quality of Life in Patients With Coronary Artery Disease: A RANDOMIZED CLINICAL TRIAL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaureguizar, Koldobika Villelabeitia; Vicente-Campos, Davinia; Bautista, Lorena Ruiz; de la Peña, Cesar Hernández; Gómez, María José Arriaza; Rueda, María José Calero; Fernández Mahillo, Ignacio

    2016-01-01

    There is strong evidence that exercise training has beneficial health effects in patients with cardiovascular disease. Most studies have focused on moderate continuous training (MCT); however, a body of evidence has begun to emerge demonstrating that high-intensity interval training (HIIT) has significantly better results in terms of morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of MCT versus HIIT on functional capacity and quality of life and to assess safety. Seventy-two patients with ischemic heart disease were assigned to either HIIT or MCT for 8 weeks. We analyzed cardiopulmonary exercise test data, quality of life, and adverse events. High-intensity interval training resulted in a significantly greater increase in (Equation is included in full-text article.)O2peak (4.5 ± 4.7 mL·kg·min) compared with MCT (2.5 ± 3.6 mL·kg·min) (P HIIT and 14% in MCT. Furthermore, there was a significant (P HIIT group (49.6 ± 6.3 m) when compared with the MCT group (29.6 ± 12.0 m). Both training protocols improved quality of life. No adverse events were reported in either of the groups. On the basis of the results of this study, HIIT should be considered for use in cardiac rehabilitation as it resulted in a greater increase in functional capacity compared with MCT. We also observed greater improvement in quality of life without any increase in cardiovascular risk.

  6. Randomized Controlled Trial to Examine the Impact of Aquatic Exercise Training on Functional Capacity, Balance, and Perceptions of Fatigue in Female Patients With Multiple Sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kargarfard, Mehdi; Shariat, Ardalan; Ingle, Lee; Cleland, Joshua A; Kargarfard, Mina

    2018-02-01

    To assess the effects of an 8-week aquatic exercise training program on functional capacity, balance, and perceptions of fatigue in women with multiple sclerosis (MS). Randomized controlled design. Referral center of an MS society. Women (N=32; mean age ± SD, 36.4±8.2y) with diagnosed relapsing-remitting MS. After undergoing baseline testing by a neurologist, participants were allocated to either an intervention (aquatic training program, n=17) or a control group (n=15). The intervention consisted of an 8-week aquatic training program (3 supervised training sessions per week; session duration, 45-60min; 50%-75% estimated maximum heart rate). Six-minute walk test (6-MWT), balance (Berg Balance Scale [BBS]), and perceptions of fatigue (Modified Fatigue Impact Scale; [MFIS]) at baseline and after the 8-week intervention. Differences over time between the experimental and control groups were assessed by a 2×2 (group by time) repeated-measures analysis of variance. Thirty-two women completed the 8-week aquatic training intervention (experimental group, n=17; control group, n=15). All outcome measures improved in the experimental group: 6-MWT performance (pretest mean ± SD, 451±58m; posttest mean ± SD, 503±57m; Ptraining improved functional capacity, balance, and perceptions of fatigue in women with MS. Copyright © 2017 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. The Impact of a Multidimensional Exercise Intervention on Physical and Functional Capacity, Anxiety, and Depression in Patients With Advanced-Stage Lung Cancer Undergoing Chemotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quist, Morten; Adamsen, Lis; Rørth, Mikael

    2015-01-01

    of the present study was to investigate the benefits of a 6-week supervised group exercise intervention and to outline the effect on aerobic capacity, strength, health-related quality of life (HRQoL), anxiety, and depression. METHODS: VO2peak was assessed using an incremental exercise test. Muscle strength......INTRODUCTION: Patients with advanced-stage lung cancer face poor survival and experience co-occurring chronic physical and psychosocial symptoms. Despite several years of research in exercise oncology, few exercise studies have targeted advanced lung cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy. The aim....... Forty-three patients dropped out. No serious adverse events were reported. Exercise adherence in the group training was 68%. Improvements in VO2peak (P

  8. Supervised exercise improves cutaneous reinnervation capacity in metabolic syndrome patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singleton, J Robinson; Marcus, Robin L; Lessard, Margaret K; Jackson, Justin E; Smith, A Gordon

    2015-01-01

    Unmyelinated cutaneous axons are vulnerable to physical and metabolic injury, but also capable of rapid regeneration. This balance may help determine risk for peripheral neuropathy associated with diabetes or metabolic syndrome. Capsaicin application for 48 hours induces cutaneous fibers to die back into the dermis. Regrowth can be monitored by serial skin biopsies to determine intraepidermal nerve fiber density (IENFD). We used this capsaicin axotomy technique to examine the effects of exercise on cutaneous regenerative capacity in the setting of metabolic syndrome. Baseline ankle IENFD and 30-day cutaneous regeneration after thigh capsaicin axotomy were compared for participants with type 2 diabetes (n = 35) or metabolic syndrome (n = 32) without symptoms or examination evidence of neuropathy. Thirty-six participants (17 with metabolic syndrome) then joined twice weekly observed exercise and lifestyle counseling. Axotomy regeneration was repeated in month 4 during this intervention. Baseline distal leg IENFD was significantly reduced for both metabolic syndrome and diabetic groups. With exercise, participants significantly improved exercise capacity and lower extremity power. Following exercise, 30-day reinnervation rate improved (0.051 ± 0.027 fibers/mm/day before vs 0.072 ± 0.030 after exercise, p = 0.002). Those who achieved improvement in more metabolic syndrome features experienced a greater degree of 30-day reinnervation (p Metabolic syndrome was associated with reduced baseline IENFD and cutaneous regeneration capacity comparable to that seen in diabetes. Exercise-induced improvement in metabolic syndrome features increased cutaneous regenerative capacity. The results underscore the potential benefit to peripheral nerve function of a behavioral modification approach to metabolic improvement. © 2014 American Neurological Association.

  9. Impact of resistance exercise program on functional capacity and muscular strength of knee extensor in pre-frail community-dwelling older women: a randomized crossover trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lustosa, Lygia P; Silva, Juscélio P; Coelho, Fernanda M; Pereira, Daniele S; Parentoni, Adriana N; Pereira, Leani S M

    2011-01-01

    Frailty syndrome in elderly people is characterized by a reduction of energy reserves and also by a decreased of resistance to stressors, resulting in an increase of vulnerability. The aim of this study was to verify the effect of a muscle-strengthening program with load in pre-frail elder women with regards to the functional capacity, knee extensor muscle strength and their correlation. Thrity-two pre-frail community-dwelling women participated in this study. Potential participants with cognitive impairment (MEEM), lower extremities orthopedic surgery, fractures, inability to walk unaided, neurological diseases, acute inflammatory disease, tumor growth, regular physical activity and current use of immunomodulators were excluded. All partcipants were evaluated by a blinded assessor using: Timed up and go (TUG), 10-Meter Walk Test (10MWT) and knee extensor muscle strength (Byodex System 3 Pro® isokinetic dynamometer at angular speeds of 60 and 180(0)/s). The intervention consisted of strengthening exercises of the lower extremities at 70% of 1RM, three times/ week for ten weeks. The statistical analysis was performed using the ANOVA and Spearman tests After the intervention, it was observed statistical significance on the work at 180(0)/s (F=12.71, p=0.02), on the power at 180(0)/s (F=15.40, p=0.02) and on the functional capacity (TUG, F=9.54, p=0.01; TC10, F=3.80, p=0.01). There was a good negative and statistically significant correlation between the TUG and work at 60(0)/s, such as the TUG and work at 180(0)/s (r=-0.65, p=0.01; r=-0.72, p=0.01). The intervention improved the muscular power and the functional capacity. The increase of the power correlated with function, which is an important variable of the quality of life in the pre-frail elders. Article registered in the ISRCT register under number ISRCTN62824599.

  10. Motor skills and exercise capacity are associated with objective measures of cognitive functions and academic performance in preadolescent children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geertsen, Svend Sparre; Thomas, Richard; Larsen, Malte Nejst

    2016-01-01

    the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB) were used to assess different domains of cognitive functions, including sustained attention, spatial working memory, episodic and semantic memory, and processing speed. Linear mixed-effects models were used to investigate associations between...... sustained attention (Pmemory (Pmemory, episodic memory, sustained attention and processing speed were all associated with better performance in mathematics and reading...

  11. Evaluation of functional capacity for exercise in children and adolescents with sickle-cell disease through the six-minute walk test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hostyn, Sandro V; Carvalho, Werther B de; Johnston, Cíntia; Braga, Josefina A P

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate lung functional capacity (FC) for physical exercise in children and adolescents with sickle cell disease (SCD) through the six-minute walk test (6MWT). A cross-sectional prospective study was performed to evaluate the FC of 46 patients with SCD through the 6MWT. The following parameters were assessed: heart rate (HR), respiratory rate (RR), peripheral pulse oxygen saturation (SpO2), peak expiratory flow (PEF), blood pressure (systolic and diastolic), dyspnea, and leg fatigue (modified Borg scale) at rest, in the end of the test, and ten minutes after the 6MWT. The total distance walked was also recorded. For statistical analysis, the parametric variables were analyzed using the paired Student's t-test, analysis of variance (ANOVA), and Bonferroni multiple comparisons, with a significance level set at p ≤ 0.05. The 46 patients were aged age 9.15±3.06 years, presented baseline Hb of 9.49±1.67g/dL, and walked 480.89±68.70 m. SCD diagnosis was as follows: group 1- HbSS (n=20)/HbSβ(0)-thalassemia (n=3) and group 2 - HbSC (n=20)/HbSβ(+)-thalassemia (n=3). Regarding total distance walked, patients in group 1 walked a shorter distance than patients in group 2 (459.39±57.19 vs. 502.39±73.60 m; p=0.032). There was no statistical difference regarding PEF in the three moments of evaluation. The SpO2 in ambient air and SpO2 with O2 differed between groups 1 and 2 (p<0.001 vs. p=0.002), as well as the RR (p=0.001). These patients showed a lower FC for exercise than that predicted for the age range in the literature. Patients diagnosed with HbSS/Sβ0-thalassemia had a lower performance in the test than those with HbSC/Sβ(+)-thalassemia regarding total distance walked, RR, and SpO2 after the 6MWT. Copyright © 2013 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  12. Mechanisms of impaired exercise capacity in short duration experimental hyperthyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, W H; Spina, R J; Korte, E; Yarasheski, K E; Angelopoulos, T J; Nemeth, P M; Saffitz, J E

    1991-01-01

    To investigate the mechanism of reduced exercise tolerance in hyperthyroidism, we characterized cardiovascular function and determinants of skeletal muscle metabolism in 18 healthy subjects aged 26 +/- 1 yr (mean +/- SE) before and after 2 wk of daily ingestion of 100 micrograms of triiodothyronine (T3). Resting oxygen uptake, heart rate, and cardiac output increased and heart rate and cardiac output at the same submaximal exercise intensity were higher in the hyperthyroid state (P less than 0.05). However, maximal oxygen uptake decreased after T3 administration (3.08 +/- 0.17 vs. 2.94 +/- 0.19 l/min; P less than 0.001) despite increased heart rate and cardiac output at maximal exercise (P less than 0.05). Plasma lactic acid concentration at an equivalent submaximal exercise intensity was elevated 25% (P less than 0.01) and the arteriovenous oxygen difference at maximal effort was reduced (P less than 0.05) in the hyperthyroid state. These effects were associated with a 21-37% decline in activities of oxidative (P less than 0.001) and glycolytic (P less than 0.05) enzymes in skeletal muscle and a 15% decrease in type IIA muscle fiber cross-sectional area (P less than 0.05). Lean body mass was reduced (P less than 0.001) and the rates of whole body leucine oxidation and protein breakdown were enhanced (P less than 0.05). Thus, exercise tolerance is impaired in short duration hyperthyroidism because of decreased skeletal muscle mass and oxidative capacity related to accelerated protein catabolism but cardiac pump function is not reduced. PMID:1752962

  13. Predictors of exercise capacity and symptoms in severe aortic stenosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, Morten; Kjaergaard, Jesper; Pecini, Redi

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the association between invasive and non-invasive estimates of left ventricular (LV) filling pressure and exercise capacity, in order to find new potential candidates for risk markers in severe aortic valve stenosis (AS).......This study investigated the association between invasive and non-invasive estimates of left ventricular (LV) filling pressure and exercise capacity, in order to find new potential candidates for risk markers in severe aortic valve stenosis (AS)....

  14. Submaximal exercise capacity and maximal power output in polio subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nollet, F.; Beelen, A.; Sargeant, A. J.; de Visser, M.; Lankhorst, G. J.; de Jong, B. A.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To compare the submaximal exercise capacity of polio subjects with postpoliomyelitis syndrome (PPS) and without (non-PPS) with that of healthy control subjects, to investigate the relationship of this capacity with maximal short-term power and quadriceps strength, and to evaluate

  15. THE EFFECT OF TELE-MONITORING ON EXERCISE TRAINING ADHERENCE, FUNCTIONAL CAPACITY, QUALITY OF LIFE AND GLYCEMIC CONTROL IN PATIENTS WITH TYPE II DIABETES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tracy Marios

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available We used tele-monitoring to attempt to improve exercise adherence (number of hours of exercise completed, peak VO2, HbA1c% and quality of life in an unsupervised, home based exercise program in people with type II diabetes, a cost analysis was also conducted. Thirty-nine patients with type II diabetes were randomized to tele-monitoring (TELE or control (CON groups. All patients were asked to complete 6 months exercise training and complete an exercise activity diary. The TELE group was instructed to record their exercise heart rates using a monitor and received weekly telephone calls from an exercise physiologist. Six TELE patients and seven CON patients did not complete the 6 month testing. TELE patients completed a mean weekly volume of 138 minutes, moderate intensity exercise, while CON patients completed 58 minutes weekly (p < 0.02. Neither group achieved the American Heart Association statement guideline for weekly exercise volume of 150 minutes. TELE patients improved peak VO2 (5.5 %, but neither group improved HbA1c% or quality of life. The CON group showed a 4.9% reduction in peak VO2. While tele-monitored patients completed more hours of exercise and demonstrated improved peak VO2 compared to controls, the exercise volume completed was insufficient to improve glycemic control. There is the potential via tele-monitoring to enable people with diabetes to meet exercise training guidelines.

  16. Lung function profiles and aerobic capacity of adult cigarette and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lung function profiles and aerobic capacity of adult cigarette and hookah smokers after 12 weeks intermittent training. ... All subjects performed 30 min of interval exercise (2 min of work followed by 1 min of rest) three times a week for 12 weeks at an intensity estimated at 70% of the subject's maximum aerobic capacity ...

  17. Exercise training programs to improve hand rim wheelchair propulsion capacity: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwinkels, Maremka; Verschuren, Olaf; Janssen, Thomas Wj; Ketelaar, Marjolijn; Takken, Tim

    2014-09-01

    An adequate wheelchair propulsion capacity is required to perform daily life activities. Exercise training may be effective to gain or improve wheelchair propulsion capacity. This review investigates whether different types of exercise training programs are effective in improving wheelchair propulsion capacity. PubMed and EMBASE databases were searched from their respective inceptions in October 2013. Exercise training studies with at least one outcome measure regarding wheelchair propulsion capacity were included. In this study wheelchair propulsion capacity includes four parameters to reflect functional wheelchair propulsion: cardio-respiratory fitness (aerobic capacity), anaerobic capacity, muscular fitness and mechanical efficiency. Articles were not selected on diagnosis, training type or mode. Studies were divided into four training types: interval, endurance, strength, and mixed training. Methodological quality was rated with the PEDro scale, and the level of evidence was determined. The 21 included studies represented 249 individuals with spinal-cord injury (50%), various diagnoses like spina bifida (4%), cerebral palsy (2%), traumatic injury, (3%) and able-bodied participants (38%). All interval training studies found a significant improvement of 18-64% in wheelchair propulsion capacity. Three out of five endurance training studies reported significant effectiveness. Methodological quality was generally poor and there were only two randomised controlled trials. Exercise training programs seem to be effective in improving wheelchair propulsion capacity. However, there is remarkably little research, particularly for individuals who do not have spinal-cord injury. © The Author(s) 2014.

  18. Cigarette smoking decreases dynamic inspiratory capacity during maximal exercise in patients with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitahara, Yoshihiro; Hattori, Noboru; Yokoyama, Akihito; Yamane, Kiminori; Sekikawa, Kiyokazu; Inamizu, Tsutomu; Kohno, Nobuoki

    2012-06-01

    To investigate the influence of cigarette smoking on exercise capacity, respiratory responses and dynamic changes in lung volume during exercise in patients with type 2 diabetes. Forty-one men with type, 2 diabetes without cardiopulmonary disease were recruited and divided into 28 non-current smokers and 13 current smokers. All subjects received lung function tests and cardiopulmonary exercise testing using tracings of the flow-volume loop. Exercise capacity was compared using the percentage of predicted oxygen uptake at maximal workload (%VO2max). Respiratory variables and inspiratory capacity (IC) were compared between the two groups at rest and at 20%, 40%, 60%, 80% and 100% of maximum workload. Although there was no significant difference in lung function tests between the two groups, venous carboxyhemoglobin (CO-Hb) levels were significantly higher in current smokers. %VO2max was inversely correlated with CO-Hb levels. Changing patterns in respiratory rate, respiratory equivalent and IC were significantly different between the two groups. Current smokers had rapid breathing, a greater respiratory equivalent and a limited increase in IC during exercise. Cigarette smoking diminishes the increase in dynamic IC in patients with type 2 diabetes. As this effect of smoking on dynamic changes in lung volume will exacerbate dynamic hyperinflation in cases complicated by chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, physicians should consider smoking habits and lung function when evaluating exercise capacity in patients with type 2 diabetes.

  19. The predictors of exercise capacity impairment in diabetic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florina Frîngu

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background. The exercise capacity is a key issue in a diabetic patient’s management, due to its well-known beneficial effects in terms of glycemic control, cardiovascular risk reduction and quality of life improvement. However the exercise capacity of diabetic patients is decreased many times and its determinants are sometimes less known. Our study aimed to assess the effort capacity in a cohort of diabetic patients and to find the main causative factors of its impairment. Method: 61 patients with type-2 diabetes mellitus were enrolled and underwent and transthoracic echocardiography and a cycloergometer exercise testing. Exercise performance was calculated and the influence of clinical data and ultrasound parameters was assessed. Sedentary status of each patient was established from total time/week of at least moderate physical activity. Results: the study group consisted of 48.4 % women, mean age 61.4 (±8.4 years. Disease median duration was 5 years and 21.3 % of the patients presented neuropathy, 4.5 % retinopathy and 6.5 % nephropathy. Exercise capacity was moderately and severe decreased (<5 METs in 37.7 % of patients and in this subgroup the diastolic dysfunction, sedentary behavior and old age has a significantly higher prevalence. Interestingly, by multivariate regression, the sedentary lifestyle was the main determinant of decreased effort capacity (beta-coefficient 1.37, p<0.001, suggesting the potential benefits of physical training in these patients. Conclusion. Our study found a decreased effort capacity in at least one third of the patients and this is mainly due to sedentary lifestyle and deconditioning, the diastolic dysfunction also contributes to decreased effort capacity in diabetic patients.

  20. Effect of metformin on exercise capacity in metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Abi Albon; Dkhar, Steven Aibor; Kamalanathan, Sadishkumar; Thabah, Molly Mary; George, Melvin; Chandrasekaran, Indumathi; Gunaseelan, Vikneswaran; Selvarajan, Sandhiya

    2017-11-01

    Metabolic syndrome is a constellation of risk factors with increased predilection towards occurrence of cardiovascular diseases. Currently physical exercise and management with metformin are the prevailing treatment modalities for metabolic syndrome. Patients with metabolic syndrome have been found to have reduced exercise capacity over a period of time. Likewise metformin has been shown to decrease exercise capacity among healthy volunteers. Hence this study aims to evaluate the effect of metformin on the exercise capacity of patients with metabolic syndrome. Prospective study with 6 weeks follow up. Newly diagnosed patients with metabolic syndrome and to be started on Table Metformin 500mg twice a day were recruited for the study after obtaining written informed consent. Cardiopulmonary Exercise Testing (CPET) was done at baseline before the subjects were started on metformin and after 6 weeks of treatment using cardiopulmonary exercise testing apparatus (ZAN600). Fifteen treatment naïve patients with metabolic syndrome completed six weeks of therapy with metformin. In these patients oxygen uptake [VO2] showed statistically significant decrease from 1.10±0.44 at baseline to 0.9±0.39 (l/min) after six weeks of treatment with metformin [mean difference of -0.20 (-0.31 to -0.09); P=0.001]. Similarly oxygen uptake/kg body weight [VO2/Kg] showed a significant decrease from 14.10±4.73 to 11.44±3.81 (mlkg -1 min -1 ) at the end of six weeks of treatment [mean difference of -2.66 (-4.06 to -1.26); P=0.001]. Six weeks of treatment with metformin significantly decreases exercise capacity in newly diagnosed patients with metabolic syndrome. Copyright © 2017 Diabetes India. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Echocardiographic predictors of exercise capacity and mortality in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schoos, Mikkel Malby; Dalsgaard, Morten; Kjærgaard, Jesper

    2013-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) reduces exercise capacity, but lung function parameters do not fully explain functional class and lung-heart interaction could be the explanation. We evaluated echocardiographic predictors of mortality and six minutes walking distance (6MWD), a marker...... for quality of life and mortality in COPD....

  2. Exercise Capacity and the Obesity Paradox in Heart Failure: The FIT (Henry Ford Exercise Testing) Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAuley, Paul A; Keteyian, Steven J; Brawner, Clinton A; Dardari, Zeina A; Al Rifai, Mahmoud; Ehrman, Jonathan K; Al-Mallah, Mouaz H; Whelton, Seamus P; Blaha, Michael J

    2018-05-03

    To assess the influence of exercise capacity and body mass index (BMI) on 10-year mortality in patients with heart failure (HF) and to synthesize these results with those of previous studies. This large biracial sample included 774 men and women (mean age, 60±13 years; 372 [48%] black) with a baseline diagnosis of HF from the Henry Ford Exercise Testing (FIT) Project. All patients completed a symptom-limited maximal treadmill stress test from January 1, 1991, through May 31, 2009. Patients were grouped by World Health Organization BMI categories for Kaplan-Meier survival analyses and stratified by exercise capacity (<4 and ≥4 metabolic equivalents [METs] of task). Associations of BMI and exercise capacity with all-cause mortality were assessed using multivariable-adjusted Cox proportional hazards models. During a mean follow-up of 10.1±4.6 years, 380 patients (49%) died. Kaplan-Meier survival plots revealed a significant positive association between BMI category and survival for exercise capacity less than 4 METs (log-rank, P=.05), but not greater than or equal to 4 METs (P=.76). In the multivariable-adjusted models, exercise capacity (per 1 MET) was inversely associated, but BMI was not associated, with all-cause mortality (hazard ratio, 0.89; 95% CI, 0.85-0.94; P<.001 and hazard ratio, 0.99; 95% CI, 0.97-1.01; P=.16, respectively). Maximal exercise capacity modified the relationship between BMI and long-term survival in patients with HF, upholding the presence of an exercise capacity-obesity paradox dichotomy as observed over the short-term in previous studies. Copyright © 2018 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Bosentan Improves Exercise Capacity in Adolescents and Adults After Fontan Operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hebert, Anders; Mikkelsen, Ulla Ramer; Thilen, Ulf

    2014-01-01

    a crucial role. Elevated pulmonary vascular resistance has been associated with raised levels of endothelin-1, which are common both before and after Fontan operations. Treatment with endothelin-1 receptor antagonists could theoretically improve cardiopulmonary hemodynamics and exercise capacity. The aim......BACKGROUND: The Fontan procedure has improved survival in children with functionally univentricular hearts. With time, however, complications such as reduced exercise capacity are seen more frequently. Exercise intolerance is multifactorial, but pulmonary vascular resistance probably plays...... of this study was therefore to examine the efficacy and safety of bosentan in Fontan patients. METHODS AND RESULTS: Seventy-five adolescents and adults were randomized 1:1 to 14 weeks of treatment with bosentan or placebo. Cardiopulmonary exercise test, functional class, blood samples, and quality...

  4. Size, shape, and stamina: the impact of left ventricular geometry on exercise capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Carolyn S P; Grewal, Jasmine; Borlaug, Barry A; Ommen, Steve R; Kane, Garvan C; McCully, Robert B; Pellikka, Patricia A

    2010-05-01

    Although several studies have examined the cardiac functional determinants of exercise capacity, few have investigated the effects of structural remodeling. The current study evaluated the association between cardiac geometry and exercise capacity. Subjects with ejection fraction > or = 50% and no valvular disease, myocardial ischemia, or arrhythmias were identified from a large prospective exercise echocardiography database. Left ventricular mass index and relative wall thickness were used to classify geometry into normal, concentric remodeling, eccentric hypertrophy, and concentric hypertrophy. All of the subjects underwent symptom-limited treadmill exercise according to standard Bruce protocol. Maximal exercise tolerance was measured in metabolic equivalents. Of 366 (60+/-14 years; 57% male) subjects, 166 (45%) had normal geometry, 106 (29%) had concentric remodeling, 40 (11%) had eccentric hypertrophy, and 54 (15%) had concentric hypertrophy. Geometry was related to exercise capacity: in descending order, the maximum achieved metabolic equivalents were 9.9+/-2.8 in normal, 8.9+/-2.6 in concentric remodeling, 8.6+/-3.1 in eccentric hypertrophy, and 8.0+/-2.7 in concentric hypertrophy (all P<0.02 versus normal). Left ventricular mass index and relative wall thickness were negatively correlated with exercise tolerance in metabolic equivalents (r=-0.14; P=0.009 and r=-0.21; P<0.001, respectively). Augmentation of heart rate and ejection fraction with exercise were blunted in concentric hypertrophy compared with normal, even after adjusting for medications. In conclusion, the pattern of ventricular remodeling is related to exercise capacity among low-risk adults. Subjects with concentric hypertrophy display the greatest limitation, and this is related to reduced systolic and chronotropic reserve. Reverse remodeling strategies may prevent or treat functional decline in patients with structural heart disease.

  5. Inspiratory Capacity during Exercise: Measurement, Analysis, and Interpretation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordan A. Guenette

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET is an established method for evaluating dyspnea and ventilatory abnormalities. Ventilatory reserve is typically assessed as the ratio of peak exercise ventilation to maximal voluntary ventilation. Unfortunately, this crude assessment provides limited data on the factors that limit the normal ventilatory response to exercise. Additional measurements can provide a more comprehensive evaluation of respiratory mechanical constraints during CPET (e.g., expiratory flow limitation and operating lung volumes. These measurements are directly dependent on an accurate assessment of inspiratory capacity (IC throughout rest and exercise. Despite the valuable insight that the IC provides, there are no established recommendations on how to perform the maneuver during exercise and how to analyze and interpret the data. Accordingly, the purpose of this manuscript is to comprehensively examine a number of methodological issues related to the measurement, analysis, and interpretation of the IC. We will also briefly discuss IC responses to exercise in health and disease and will consider how various therapeutic interventions influence the IC, particularly in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Our main conclusion is that IC measurements are both reproducible and responsive to therapy and provide important information on the mechanisms of dyspnea and exercise limitation during CPET.

  6. Effects of dynamic hyperinflation on exercise capacity and quality of life in stable COPD patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Li; Peng, Liyue; Wu, Baomei; Bu, Xiaoning; Wang, Chen

    2016-09-01

    Dynamic hyperinflation (DH) is an important pathophysiological characteristic of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). There is increasing evidence that DH has negative effects on exercise performance and quality of life. The objective of this study was to explore effects of DH on exercise capacity and quality of life in stable COPD patients. Fifty-eight COPD patients and 20 matched healthy individuals underwent pulmonary function test, 6-min walk test and symptom-limited cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET). End-expiratory lung volume/total lung capacity ratio (EELVmax/TLC) at peak exercise of CPET was evaluated, and EELVmax/TLC ≥ 75% was defined as 'severe dynamic hyperinflation (SDH)'. Of the 58 patients studied, 29 (50.0%) presented with SDH (SDH+ group, EELVmax/TLC 79.60 ± 3.60%), having worse maximal exercise capacity reflected by lower peakload, maximal oxygen uptake (VO2 max), maximal carbon dioxide output (VCO2 max) and maximal minute ventilation (VEmax) than did those without SDH (SDH- group, EELVmax/TLC 67.44 ± 6.53%). The EELVmax/TLC ratio at peak exercise had no association with variables of pulmonary function and 6-min walk distance (6MWD), but correlated inversely with peakload, VO2 max, VCO2 max and VEmax (r = -0.300~-0.351, P < 0.05). Although no significant differences were observed, patients with EELVmax/TLC ≥ 75% tended to have higher COPD assessment test score (15.07 ± 6.55 vs 13.28 ± 6.59, P = 0.303). DH develops variably during exercise and has a greater impact on maximal exercise capacity than 6MWD, even in those with the same extent of pulmonary function impairment at rest. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Effects of Detraining on Anthropometry, Aerobic Capacity and Functional Ability in Adults with Down Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boer, P. H.

    2018-01-01

    Background: Structured exercise has shown to improve parameters of functional fitness in adults with Down syndrome (DS). However, few, if any, continue to exercise after exercise intervention studies. Consequently, the purpose of this study was to determine the effects of detraining on anthropometry, aerobic capacity and functional ability of…

  8. Exercise capacity and progression from prehypertension to hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faselis, Charles; Doumas, Michael; Kokkinos, John Peter; Panagiotakos, Demosthenes; Kheirbek, Raya; Sheriff, Helen M; Hare, Katherine; Papademetriou, Vasilios; Fletcher, Ross; Kokkinos, Peter

    2012-08-01

    Prehypertension is likely to progress to hypertension. The rate of progression is determined mostly by age and resting blood pressure but may also be attenuated by increased fitness. A graded exercise test was performed in 2303 men with prehypertension at the Veterans Affairs Medical Centers in Washington, DC. Four fitness categories were defined, based on peak metabolic equivalents (METs) achieved. We assessed the association between exercise capacity and rate of progression to hypertension (HTN). The median follow-up period was 7.8 years (mean (± SD) 9.2±6.1 years). The incidence rate of progression from prehypertension to hypertension was 34.4 per 1000 person-years. Exercise capacity was a strong and independent predictor of the rate of progression. Compared to the High-Fit individuals (>10.0 METs), the adjusted risk for developing HTN was 66% higher (hazard ratio, 1.66; 95% CI, 1.2 to 2.2; P=0.001) for the Low-Fit and, similarly, 72% higher (hazard ratio, 1.72; 95% CI, 1.2 to 2.3; P=0.001) for the Least-Fit individuals, whereas it was only 36% for the Moderate-Fit (hazard ratio, 1.36; 95% CI, 0.99 to 1.80; P=0.056). Significant predictors for the progression to HTN were also age (19% per 10 years), resting systolic blood pressure (16% per 10 mm Hg), body mass index (15.3% per 5 U), and type 2 diabetes mellitus (2-fold). In conclusion, an inverse, S-shaped association was shown between exercise capacity and the rate of progression from prehypertension to hypertension in middle-aged and older male veterans. The protective effects of fitness were evident when exercise capacity exceeded 8.5 METs. These findings emphasize the importance of fitness in the prevention of hypertension.

  9. Effects of exercise training on coronary transport capacity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laughlin, M.H.

    1985-01-01

    Coronary transport capacity was estimated in eight sedentary control and eight exercise-trained anesthetized dogs by determining the differences between base line and the highest coronary blood flow and permeability-surface area product (PS) obtained during maximal adenosine vasodilation with coronary perfusion pressure constant. The anterior descending branch of the left coronary artery was cannulated and pump- perfused under constant-pressure conditions (approximately equal to 100 Torr) while aortic, central venous, and coronary perfusion pressures, heart rate, electrocardiogram, and coronary flow were monitored. Myocardial extraction and PS of 51 Cr-labeled ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid were determined with the single-injection indicator-diffusion method. The efficacy of the 16 +/- 1 wk exercise training program was shown by significant increases in the succinate dehydrogenase activities of the gastrocnemius, gluteus medialis, and long head of triceps brachii muscles. There were no differences between control and trained dogs for either resting coronary blood flow or PS. During maximal vasodilation with adenosine, the trained dogs had significantly lower perfusion pressures with constant flow and, with constant-pressure vasodilation, greater coronary blood flow and PS. It is concluded that exercise training in dogs induces an increased coronary transport capacity that includes increases in coronary blood flow capacity (26% of control) and capillary diffusion capacity (82% of control)

  10. Effects of erythropoietin administration on cerebral metabolism and exercise capacity in men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Peter; Foged, Eva M; Krogh-Madsen, Rikke

    2010-01-01

    administration of EPO. We recorded exercise capacity, transcranial ultrasonography-derived middle cerebral artery blood velocity, and arterial-internal jugular venous concentration differences of glucose and lactate. In addition, cognitive function, ratings of perceived exertion, ventilation and voluntary......Recombinant human erythropoietin (EPO) increases exercise capacity by stimulating erythropoiesis and subsequently enhancing oxygen delivery to the working muscles. In a large dose, EPO cross the blood brain barrier and may reduce central fatigue and improve cognition. In turn, this would augment...... exercise capacity independent of erythropoiesis. To test this hypothesis, 15 healthy young males (18-34 yo., 74 +/- 7 kg) received either 3 days of high dose (30,000 IU day(-1), N=7) double-blinded placebo controlled or 3 months of low dose (5,000 IU week(-1), N=8) counter-balanced open but controlled...

  11. The product of capacities and belief functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendon, Ebbe; Whitta-Jacobsen, Hans Jørgen; Sloth, Birgitte

    1996-01-01

    Capacities (monotone, non-additive set functions) have been suggested to describe situations of uncertainty. We examine the question of how to define the product of two independent capacities. In particular, for the product of two belief functions (totally monotone capacities), there is a unique...... minimal product belief function. This is characterized in several ways...

  12. The product of capacities and belief functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendon, Ebbe; Jacobsen, Hans Jørgen; Sloth, Birgitte

    1996-01-01

    Capacities (monotone, non-additive set functions) have been suggested to describe situations of uncertainty. We examine the question of how to define the product of two independent capacities. In particular, for the product of two belief functions (totally monotone capacities), there is a unique...... minimal product belief function. This is characterized in several ways....

  13. Relationship between daily physical activity and exercise capacity in patients with COPD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwerink, Marlies; van der Palen, Jacobus Adrianus Maria; van der Valk, P.; Brusse-Keizer, M.G.J.; Effing, T.W.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Exercise training programmes for patients with COPD are effective in improving exercise capacity. The few trials that have investigated the effects of exercise programmes on daily physical activity show contradictory results. AIM: To investigate the relation between daily physical

  14. Exercise training programs to improve hand rim wheelchair propulsion capacity: a systematic review.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwinkels, M.; Verschuren, O.; Janssen, T.W.J.; Ketelaar, M.; Takken, T.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: An adequate wheelchair propulsion capacity is required to perform daily life activities. Exercise training may be effective to gain or improve wheelchair propulsion capacity. This review investigates whether different types of exercise training programs are effective in improving

  15. Exercise training programs to improve hand rim wheelchair propulsion capacity: a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwinkels, M.G.J.; Verschuren, O.W.; Janssen, T.; Ketelaar, M.; Takken, T.; Backx, F.J.G.; Groot, J.F. de; Smits, D.W.; Volman, MJM

    2014-01-01

    Objective: An adequate wheelchair propulsion capacity is required to perform daily life activities. Exercise training may be effective to gain or improve wheelchair propulsion capacity. This review investigates whether different types of exercise training programs are effective in improving

  16. Impaired cardiopulmonary exercise capacity in patients with hyperthyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahaly, G; Hellermann, J; Mohr-Kahaly, S; Treese, N

    1996-01-01

    Hyperthyroidism (H) has been implicated as a primary cause of decreased exercise tolerance. To our knowledge, analysis of respiratory gas exchange, an efficient noninvasive method in evaluating cardiopulmonary capacity, has not been performed in patients with H. Using cardiopulmonary exercise testing, 12 consecutive women with Graves' H were examined and controlled in euthyroidism (E). Eighteen women with E, in whom cardiac catheterization had ruled out heart disease, served as control subjects (C). The ventilatory anaerobic threshold was determined by means of the V-slope method. Ergometry was performed with patients in a semisupine position using a continuous ramp protocol of 20 W/min. Echocardiography at rest was performed in all patients. In patients with H, heart rate at rest was higher than in patients with E (p lower increase between rest and anaerobic threshold compared with E patients (p = 0.007) and C (p = 0.009). Work rate was reduced (H, 50% vs E, 70%; p = 0.038). In H patients, the anaerobic threshold occurred at 59.6% of maximal oxygen uptake and 72% in E patients, respectively (p = 0.024). In H patients, the linear regression of the heart rate to oxygen uptake ratio showed a reduced slope in comparison with E patients (p = 0.001) and C (p = 0.004). In patients with H, a reduced tidal volume (p = 0.021) and an increased respiratory rate (p = 0.003) in comparison to patients with E were demonstrated. Echocardiographically, H patients had an increased ejection fraction (p = 0.008) and a higher cardiac index (p = 0.008) in comparison with E patients. Analysis of respiratory gas exchange showed marked alterations of cardiopulmonary exercise capacity in H patients, which are reversible in E patients. The impaired chronotropic response during exercise might be the primary limiting factor of reduced work capacity in patients with H.

  17. Poorer right ventricular systolic function and exercise capacity in women after repair of tetralogy of fallot: a sex comparison of standard deviation scores based on sex-specific reference values in healthy control subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarikouch, Samir; Boethig, Dietmar; Peters, Brigitte; Kropf, Siegfried; Dubowy, Karl-Otto; Lange, Peter; Kuehne, Titus; Haverich, Axel; Beerbaum, Philipp

    2013-11-01

    In repaired congenital heart disease, there is increasing evidence of sex differences in cardiac remodeling, but there is a lack of comparable data for specific congenital heart defects such as in repaired tetralogy of Fallot. In a prospective multicenter study, a cohort of 272 contemporary patients (158 men; mean age, 14.3±3.3 years [range, 8-20 years]) with repaired tetralogy of Fallot underwent cardiac magnetic resonance for ventricular function and metabolic exercise testing. All data were transformed to standard deviation scores according to the Lambda-Mu-Sigma method by relating individual values to their respective 50th percentile (standard deviation score, 0) in sex-specific healthy control subjects. No sex differences were observed in age at repair, type of repair conducted, or overall hemodynamic results. Relative to sex-specific controls, repaired tetralogy of Fallot in women had larger right ventricular end-systolic volumes (standard deviation scores: women, 4.35; men, 3.25; P=0.001), lower right ventricular ejection fraction (women, -2.83; men, -2.12; P=0.011), lower right ventricular muscle mass (women, 1.58; men 2.45; P=0.001), poorer peak oxygen uptake (women, -1.65; men, -1.14; Pstandard deviation scores in repaired tetralogy of Fallot suggest that women perform poorer than men in terms of right ventricular systolic function as tested by cardiac magnetic resonance and exercise capacity. This effect cannot be explained by selection bias. Further outcome data are required from longitudinal cohort studies.

  18. Benefits of pulmonary rehabilitation in patients with COPD and normal exercise capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Chou-Chin; Chu, Wen-Hua; Yang, Mei-Chen; Lee, Chih-Hsin; Wu, Yao-Kuang; Wu, Chin-Pyng

    2013-09-01

    Pulmonary rehabilitation (PR) is beneficial for patients with COPD, with improvement in exercise capacity and health-related quality of life. Despite these overall benefits, the responses to PR vary significantly among different individuals. It is not clear if PR is beneficial for patients with COPD and normal exercise capacity. We aimed to investigate the effects of PR in patients with normal exercise capacity on health-related quality of life and exercise capacity. Twenty-six subjects with COPD and normal exercise capacity were studied. All subjects participated in 12-week, 2 sessions per week, hospital-based, out-patient PR. Baseline and post-PR status were evaluated by spirometry, the St George's Respiratory Questionnaire, cardiopulmonary exercise test, respiratory muscle strength, and dyspnea scores. The mean FEV1 in the subjects was 1.29 ± 0.47 L/min, 64.8 ± 23.0% of predicted. After PR there was significant improvement in maximal oxygen uptake and work rate. Improvements in St George's Respiratory Questionnaire scores of total, symptoms, activity, and impact were accompanied by improvements of exercise capacity, respiratory muscle strength, maximum oxygen pulse, and exertional dyspnea scores (all P exercise after PR. Exercise training can result in significant improvement in health-related quality of life, exercise capacity, respiratory muscle strength, and exertional dyspnea in subjects with COPD and normal exercise capacity. Exercise training is still indicated for patients with normal exercise capacity.

  19. CFTR Genotype and Maximal Exercise Capacity in Cystic Fibrosis: A Cross-sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radtke, Thomas; Hebestreit, Helge; Gallati, Sabina; Schneiderman, Jane E; Braun, Julia; Stevens, Daniel; Hulzebos, Erik Hj; Takken, Tim; Boas, Steven R; Urquhart, Don S; Lands, Larry C; Tejero, Sergio; Sovtic, Aleksandar; Dwyer, Tiffany; Petrovic, Milos; Harris, Ryan A; Karila, Chantal; Savi, Daniela; Usemann, Jakob; Mei-Zahav, Meir; Hatziagorou, Elpis; Ratjen, Felix; Kriemler, Susi

    2018-02-01

    Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) is expressed in human skeletal muscle cells. Variations of CFTR dysfunction among patients with cystic fibrosis may be an important determinant of maximal exercise capacity in cystic fibrosis. Previous studies on the relationship between CFTR genotype and maximal exercise capacity are scarce and contradictory. This study was designed to explore factors influencing maximal exercise capacity, expressed as peak oxygen uptake (V.O2peak), with a specific focus on CFTR genotype in children and adults with cystic fibrosis. In an international, multicenter, cross-sectional study, we collected data on CFTR genotype and cardiopulmonary exercise tests in patients with cystic fibrosis who were ages 8 years and older. CFTR mutations were classified into functional classes I–V. The final analysis included 726 patients (45% females; age range, 8–61 yr; forced expiratory volume in 1 s, 16 to 123% predicted) from 17 cystic fibrosis centers in North America, Europe, Australia, and Asia, all of whom had both valid maximal cardiopulmonary exercise tests and complete CFTR genotype data. Overall, patients exhibited exercise intolerance (V.O2peak, 77.3 ± 19.1% predicted), but values were comparable among different CFTR classes. We did not detect an association between CFTR genotype functional classes I–III and either V.O2peak (percent predicted) (adjusted β = −0.95; 95% CI, −4.18 to 2.29; P = 0.57) or maximum work rate (Wattmax) (adjusted β = −1.38; 95% CI, −5.04 to 2.27; P = 0.46) compared with classes IV–V. Those with at least one copy of a F508del-CFTR mutation and one copy of a class V mutation had a significantly lower V.O2peak (β = −8.24%; 95% CI, −14.53 to −2.99; P = 0.003) and lower Wattmax (adjusted β = −7.59%; 95% CI, −14.21 to −0.95; P = 0.025) than those with two copies of a class II mutation. On the basis of linear regression analysis adjusted for

  20. Reduced exercise capacity in untreated adults with primary growth hormone resistance (Laron syndrome).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Dov, Issahar; Gaides, Mark; Scheinowitz, Mickey; Wagner, Rivka; Laron, Zvi

    2003-12-01

    Primary IGF-I deficiency (Laron syndrome, LS) may decrease exercise capacity as a result of a lack of an IGF-I effect on heart, peripheral muscle or lung structure and/or function. Eight patients (six females) who had never received treatment with IGF-I, with mean age of 36 +/- 10 (SD) years (range 21-48), weight 47 +/- 9 kg (31-61), height 126 +/- 12 cm (112-140) and body mass index of 29 +/- 4 kg/m2 (24-34), and 12 age-matched controls, underwent lung function tests and incremental cycling to the limit of tolerance (CPX, MedGraphics). Predicted values for the patients were derived from adult equations based on height. In LS patients, lung function was near normal; vital capacity was 84 +/- 11% of expected (66-103). Peak exercise O2-uptake and the anaerobic threshold were reduced, 57 +/- 20% of predicted and 33 +/- 9% of predicted peak (P = 0.005 vs. controls), despite normal mean exercise breathing reserve. All parameters were normal in the controls. Exercise capacity in untreated adults with LS is significantly reduced. The limitation for most patients was not ventilatory but resulted either from low cardiac output and/or from dysfunction of the peripheral muscles. However, the relative contribution of each of these elements and/or the role of poor fitness needs further study.

  1. Myogenin regulates exercise capacity and skeletal muscle metabolism in the adult mouse.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesse M Flynn

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Although skeletal muscle metabolism is a well-studied physiological process, little is known about how it is regulated at the transcriptional level. The myogenic transcription factor myogenin is required for skeletal muscle development during embryonic and fetal life, but myogenin's role in adult skeletal muscle is unclear. We sought to determine myogenin's function in adult muscle metabolism. A Myog conditional allele and Cre-ER transgene were used to delete Myog in adult mice. Mice were analyzed for exercise capacity by involuntary treadmill running. To assess oxidative and glycolytic metabolism, we performed indirect calorimetry, monitored blood glucose and lactate levels, and performed histochemical analyses on muscle fibers. Surprisingly, we found that Myog-deleted mice performed significantly better than controls in high- and low-intensity treadmill running. This enhanced exercise capacity was due to more efficient oxidative metabolism during low- and high-intensity exercise and more efficient glycolytic metabolism during high-intensity exercise. Furthermore, Myog-deleted mice had an enhanced response to long-term voluntary exercise training on running wheels. We identified several candidate genes whose expression was altered in exercise-stressed muscle of mice lacking myogenin. The results suggest that myogenin plays a critical role as a high-level transcriptional regulator to control the energy balance between aerobic and anaerobic metabolism in adult skeletal muscle.

  2. The Paroxetine Effect on Exercise Performance Depends on the Aerobic Capacity of Exercising Individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Teixeira-Coelho, João Paulo Uendeles-Pinto, Ana Cláudia Alves Serafim, Samuel Penna Wanner, Márcio de Matos Coelho, Danusa Dias Soares

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the influence of aerobic capacity on the activation of the central serotonergic system and exercise fatigue in young men that ingested a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor and were then subjected to moderate-intensity physical exercise. The maximal oxygen consumption of sixteen volunteers was measured during an incremental test. The volunteers were divided into two groups: subjects with higher (HAC and lower (LAC aerobic capacities. The volunteers were subjected to four experimental trials in which they ingested either placebo or paroxetine (10, 20 or 40 mg and, 4.5 h later, cycled at 60% of their maximal power output until reaching fatigue. None of the three paroxetine doses influenced the total exercise time in the LAC group. However, for the HAC group, the time to fatigue in the 20 mg paroxetine condition was 15% less than that in the placebo condition (76.3 ± 5.1 min vs. 90.0 ± 7.9 min; p < 0.05. The time to fatigue was higher in the HAC group than in the LAC group for all treatments. Our results provide additional evidence that aerobic capacity modulates the activity of the serotonergic system. However, contrary to what would be expected considering previous reports, the activation of the serotonergic system in exercising subjects in the HAC group was not less than that in the LAC group.

  3. Association Between Exercise Capacity and Late Onset of Dementia, Alzheimer Disease, and Cognitive Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Jan; Chan, Khin; Myers, Jonathan N

    2017-02-01

    To address the association between exercise capacity and the onset of dementia, Alzheimer disease, and cognitive impairment. For 6104 consecutive veteran patients (mean ± SD age: 59.2±11.4 years) referred for treadmill exercise testing, the combined end point of dementia, Alzheimer disease, and cognitive impairment was abstracted from the Veterans Affairs computerized patient record system. After mean ± SD follow-up of 10.3±5.5 years, 353 patients (5.8%) developed the composite end point at a mean ± SD age of 76.7±10.3 years. After correction for confounders in multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression, higher age at exercise testing (hazard ratio [HR]=1.08; 95% CI, 1.07-1.09; P<.001), current smoking (HR=1.44; 95% CI, 1.08-1.93; P=.01), and exercise capacity (HR=0.92; 95% CI, 0.89-0.96; P<.001) emerged as predictors of cognitive impairment. Each 1-metabolic equivalent increase in exercise capacity conferred a nearly 8% reduction in the incidence of cognitive impairment. Meeting the recommendations for daily activity was not associated with a delay in onset of cognitive impairment (HR=1.07; 95% CI, 0.86-1.32; P=.55). Exercise capacity is strongly associated with cognitive function; the inverse association between fitness and cognitive impairment provides an additional impetus for health care providers to promote physical activity. Copyright © 2016 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Effects of Growth Hormone Replacement on Peripheral Muscle and Exercise Capacity in Severe Growth Hormone Deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Gonzalez

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveThe aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of growth hormone therapy (rGH on mitochondrial function on peripheral muscle and to correlate with exercise capacity in subjects with severe adult growth hormone deficiency (GHD.DesignSix months, double-blind, randomized, crossover, placebo-controlled trial of subcutaneous rGH in 17 patients with GHD.MeasurementsQuadriceps muscle biopsies were obtained at baseline, 3 months, and 6 months to measure succinate dehydrogenase (SDH to assess mitochondrial activity. Exercise capacity was measured with cardiopulmonary exercise testing. Lipids, glycemic parameters, and body fat levels were also measured.ResultsSerum insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1 levels reduced fat mass by 3.2% (p < 0.05 and normalized with rGH in the active phase (p < 0.005. Patients showed an increase in SDH (p < 0.01 from base line that differed between placebo and rGH therapy treatment groups (p < 0.05: those treated by rGH followed by placebo showed a significant increase in SDH (p < 0.001 followed by a decrease, with a significant between group difference at the end of 6 months (p < 0.05. No significant improvements or correlation with exercise capacity was found.ConclusionShort-term rGH for 3 months normalized IGF1 levels, reduced fat mass, and had a significant effect on mitochondrial function, but exercise capacity was unchanged.Clinical Trial RegistrationNumber ISRCTN94165486.

  5. Exercise training raises daily activity stronger than predicted from exercise capacity in patients with COPD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behnke, Michaela; Wewel, Alexandra R; Kirsten, Detlef; Jörres, Rudolf A; Magnussen, Helgo

    2005-06-01

    The 6-min walking (6MWD) and 6-min treadmill distance (6MTD) are often used as measures of exercise performance in patients with COPD. The aim of our study was to assess their relationship to daily activity in the course of an exercise training program. Eighty-eight patients with stable COPD (71m/17f; mean +/- SD age, 60 +/-8 year; FEV1, 43+/-14% pred) were recruited, 66 of whom performed a hospital-based 10-day walking training, whereas 22 were treated as control. On day 16MTD, and on days 8 and 10, 6MTD and 6MWD were determined. In addition, patients used an accelerometer (TriTrac-R3D) to record 24 h-activity, whereby training sessions were excluded. In both groups there was a linear relationship (r > or = 0.84 and P daily activity did not markedly vary with exercise capacity under baseline conditions. Participation in a training program increased activity significantly stronger than predicted from the gain in exercise capacity. This underlines the importance of non-physiological, patient-centered factors associated with training in COPD.

  6. Effect of pelvic floor muscle exercises on pulmonary function

    OpenAIRE

    Han, DongWook; Ha, Misook

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to determine the correlation between pelvic floor muscle strength and pulmonary function. In particular, we examined whether pelvic floor muscle exercises can improve pulmonary function. [Subjects] Thirty female college students aged 19?21 with no history of nervous or musculoskeletal system injury were randomly divided into experimental and control groups. [Methods] For the pulmonary function test, spirometry items included forced vital capacity and maximal volunta...

  7. Exercise tolerance, lung function abnormalities, anemia, and cardiothoracic ratio in sickle cell patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Beers, Eduard J.; van der Plas, Mart N.; Nur, Erfan; Bogaard, Harm-Jan; van Steenwijk, Reindert P.; Biemond, Bart J.; Bresser, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Many patients with sickle cell disease (SCD) have a reduced exercise capacity and abnormal lung function. Cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) can identify causes of exercise limitation. Forty-four consecutive SCD patients (27 HbSS, 11 HbSC, and 6 HbS-beta thalassemia) with a median age

  8. Functional Capacity Evaluation Research : Report from the Third International Functional Capacity Evaluation Research Meeting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    James, C. L.; Reneman, M. F.; Gross, D. P.

    Introduction Functional capacity evaluations are an important component of many occupational rehabilitation programs and can play a role in facilitating reintegration to work thus improving health and disability outcomes. The field of functional capacity evaluation (FCE) research has continued to

  9. Astrocytic glycogen-derived lactate fuels the brain during exhaustive exercise to maintain endurance capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsui, Takashi; Omuro, Hideki; Liu, Yu-Fan; Soya, Mariko; Shima, Takeru; McEwen, Bruce S; Soya, Hideaki

    2017-06-13

    Brain glycogen stored in astrocytes provides lactate as an energy source to neurons through monocarboxylate transporters (MCTs) to maintain neuronal functions such as hippocampus-regulated memory formation. Although prolonged exhaustive exercise decreases brain glycogen, the role of this decrease and lactate transport in the exercising brain remains less clear. Because muscle glycogen fuels exercising muscles, we hypothesized that astrocytic glycogen plays an energetic role in the prolonged-exercising brain to maintain endurance capacity through lactate transport. To test this hypothesis, we used a rat model of exhaustive exercise and capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry-based metabolomics to observe comprehensive energetics of the brain (cortex and hippocampus) and muscle (plantaris). At exhaustion, muscle glycogen was depleted but brain glycogen was only decreased. The levels of MCT2, which takes up lactate in neurons, increased in the brain, as did muscle MCTs. Metabolomics revealed that brain, but not muscle, ATP was maintained with lactate and other glycogenolytic/glycolytic sources. Intracerebroventricular injection of the glycogen phosphorylase inhibitor 1,4-dideoxy-1,4-imino-d-arabinitol did not affect peripheral glycemic conditions but suppressed brain lactate production and decreased hippocampal ATP levels at exhaustion. An MCT2 inhibitor, α-cyano-4-hydroxy-cinnamate, triggered a similar response that resulted in lower endurance capacity. These findings provide direct evidence for the energetic role of astrocytic glycogen-derived lactate in the exhaustive-exercising brain, implicating the significance of brain glycogen level in endurance capacity. Glycogen-maintained ATP in the brain is a possible defense mechanism for neurons in the exhausted brain.

  10. Short term effects of exercise training on exercise capacity and quality of life in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension: protocol for a randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gain Kevin

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Advances in the understanding and management of pulmonary arterial hypertension have enabled earlier diagnosis and improved prognosis. However, despite best available therapy, symptoms of exertional dyspnoea and fatigue are commonly reported and result in a reduced capacity to perform daily activities and impaired quality of life. Exercise training has demonstrated efficacy in individuals with other respiratory and cardiovascular diseases. Historically, however, exercise training has not been utilised as a form of therapy in pulmonary arterial hypertension due to the perceived risk of sudden cardiac death and the theoretical possibility that exercise would lead to worsening pulmonary vascular haemodynamics and deterioration in right heart function. Now, with the advances in pharmaceutical management, determining the safety and benefits of exercise training in this population has become more relevant. Only three studies of supervised exercise training in pulmonary arterial hypertension have been published. These studies demonstrated improvements in exercise capacity and quality of life, in the absence of adverse events or clinical deterioration. However, these studies have not utilised an outpatient-based, whole body exercise training program, the most common format for exercise programs within Australia. It is uncertain whether this form of training is beneficial and capable of producing sustained benefits in exercise capacity and quality of life in this population. Design/Methods This randomised controlled trial will determine whether a 12 week, outpatient-based, supervised, whole body exercise training program, followed by a home-based exercise program, is safe and improves exercise capacity and quality of life in individuals with pulmonary arterial hypertension. This study aims to recruit 34 subjects who will be randomly allocated to the exercise group (supervised exercise training 3 times a week for 12 weeks, followed by

  11. Exercise capacity before and after an 8-week multidisciplinary inpatient rehabilitation program in lung cancer patients: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spruit, Martijn A; Janssen, Paul P; Willemsen, Sonja C P; Hochstenbag, Monique M H; Wouters, Emiel F M

    2006-05-01

    Although lung cancer is a highly prevalent type of cancer, the effects of an inpatient multidisciplinary rehabilitation program on pulmonary function and exercise capacity have never been studied in these patients. Pulmonary function, 6-min walking distance and peak exercise capacity of 10 patients with a severely impaired pulmonary function following treatment of lung cancer were assessed in this pilot study before and after an 8-week inpatient multidisciplinary rehabilitation program. At baseline, patients had a restrictive pulmonary function and an apparent exercise intolerance (median 6-min walking distance: 63.6% predicted; median peak cycling load: 58.5% predicted). Despite the lack of change in median pulmonary function [FEV1: -0.01L, p = 0.5469], functional exercise capacity [145 m; 43.2% of the initial values, p=0.0020] and peak exercise capacity [26 W; 34.4% of the initial values, p = 0.0078] improved significantly compared to baseline. Future trials have to corroborate the present findings. Nevertheless, patients with lung cancer have a clear indication to start a comprehensive rehabilitation program following intensive treatment of their disease. In fact, based on the results of the present pilot study it appears that these patients are good candidates for pulmonary rehabilitation programs.

  12. Diminished exercise capacity and mitochondrial bc1 complex deficiency in tafazzin-knockdown mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corey ePowers

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The phospholipid, cardiolipin, is essential for maintaining mitochondrial structure and optimal function. Cardiolipin-deficiency in humans, Barth syndrome, is characterized by exercise intolerance, dilated cardiomyopathy, neutropenia and 3-methyl-glutaconic aciduria. The causative gene is the mitochondrial acyl-transferase, tafazzin that is essential for remodeling acyl chains of cardiolipin. We sought to determine metabolic rates in tafazzin-deficient mice during resting and exercise, and investigate the impact of cardiolipin deficiency on mitochondrial respiratory chain activities. Tafazzin knockdown in mice markedly impaired oxygen consumption rates during an exercise, without any significant effect on resting metabolic rates. CL-deficiency resulted in significant reduction of mitochondrial respiratory reserve capacity in neonatal cardiomyocytes that is likely to be caused by diminished activity of complex-III, which requires CL for its assembly and optimal activity. Our results may provide mechanistic insights of Barth syndrome pathogenesis.

  13. Adaptive Capacity: An Evolutionary Neuroscience Model Linking Exercise, Cognition, and Brain Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raichlen, David A; Alexander, Gene E

    2017-07-01

    The field of cognitive neuroscience was transformed by the discovery that exercise induces neurogenesis in the adult brain, with the potential to improve brain health and stave off the effects of neurodegenerative disease. However, the basic mechanisms underlying exercise-brain connections are not well understood. We use an evolutionary neuroscience approach to develop the adaptive capacity model (ACM), detailing how and why physical activity improves brain function based on an energy-minimizing strategy. Building on studies showing a combined benefit of exercise and cognitive challenge to enhance neuroplasticity, our ACM addresses two fundamental questions: (i) what are the proximate and ultimate mechanisms underlying age-related brain atrophy, and (ii) how do lifestyle changes influence the trajectory of healthy and pathological aging? Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Predictors of exercise capacity following exercise-based rehabilitation in patients with coronary heart disease and heart failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uddin, Jamal; Zwisler, Ann-Dorthe; Lewinter, Christian

    2016-01-01

    .76-1.41) standard deviation units higher, and in trials reporting maximum oxygen uptake (VO2max) was 3.3 ml/kg.min(-1) (95% CI: 2.6-4.0) higher. There was evidence of a high level of statistical heterogeneity across trials (I(2) statistic > 50%). In multivariable meta-regression analysis, only exercise intervention......BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to undertake a comprehensive assessment of the patient, intervention and trial-level factors that may predict exercise capacity following exercise-based rehabilitation in patients with coronary heart disease and heart failure. DESIGN: Meta-analysis and meta-regression...... analysis. METHODS: Randomized controlled trials of exercise-based rehabilitation were identified from three published systematic reviews. Exercise capacity was pooled across trials using random effects meta-analysis, and meta-regression used to examine the association between exercise capacity and a range...

  15. Exercise capacity and all-cause mortality in male veterans with hypertension aged ≥70 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faselis, Charles; Doumas, Michael; Pittaras, Andreas; Narayan, Puneet; Myers, Jonathan; Tsimploulis, Apostolos; Kokkinos, Peter

    2014-07-01

    Aging, even in otherwise healthy subjects, is associated with declines in muscle mass, strength, and aerobic capacity. Older individuals respond favorably to exercise, suggesting that physical inactivity plays an important role in age-related functional decline. Conversely, physical activity and improved exercise capacity are associated with lower mortality risk in hypertensive individuals. However, the effect of exercise capacity in older hypertensive individuals has not been investigated extensively. A total of 2153 men with hypertension, aged ≥70 years (mean, 75 ± 4) from the Washington, DC, and Palo Alto Veterans Affairs Medical Centers, underwent routine exercise tolerance testing. Peak workload was estimated in metabolic equivalents (METs). Fitness categories were established based on peak METs achieved, adjusted for age: very-low-fit, 2.0 to 4.0 METs (n=386); low-fit, 4.1 to 6.0 METs (n=1058); moderate-fit, 6.1 to 8.0 METs (n=495); high-fit >8.0 METs (n=214). Cox proportional hazard models were applied after adjusting for age, body mass index, race, cardiovascular disease, cardiovascular medications, and risk factors. All-cause mortality was quantified during a mean follow-up period of 9.0 ± 5.5 years. There were a total of 1039 deaths or 51.2 deaths per 1000 person-years of follow-up. Mortality risk was 11% lower (hazard ratio, 0.89; 95% confidence interval, 0.86-0.93; Pexercise capacity. When compared with those achieving ≤4.0 METs, mortality risk was 18% lower (hazard ratio, 0.82; 95% confidence interval, 0.70-0.95; P=0.011) for the low-fit, 36% for the moderate-fit (hazard ratio, 0.64; 95% confidence interval, 0.52-0.78; Pexercise capacity is associated with lower mortality risk in elderly men with hypertension. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  16. Functional capacity and muscular abnormalities in subclinical hypothyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuters, Vaneska S; Teixeira, Patrícia de Fátima S; Vigário, Patrícia S; Almeida, Cloyra P; Buescu, Alexandre; Ferreira, Márcia M; de Castro, Carmen L N; Gold, Jaime; Vaisman, Mario

    2009-10-01

    Neuromuscular abnormalities and low exercise tolerance are frequently observed in overt hypothyroidism, but it remains controversial if they can also occur in subclinical hypothyroidism (sHT). The aim of this study is to evaluate neuromuscular symptoms, muscle strength, and exercise capacity in sHT, compared with healthy euthyroid individuals. A cross-sectional study was performed with 44 sHT and 24 euthyroid outpatients from a university hospital. Neuromuscular symptoms were questioned. Muscle strength was tested for neck, shoulder, arm, and hip muscle groups, using manual muscle testing (MMT). Quadriceps muscle strength was tested with a chair dynamometer and inspiratory muscle strength (IS) by a manuvacuometer. Functional capacity was estimated based on the peak of oxygen uptake (mL/kg/min), using the Bruce treadmill protocol. Cramps (54.8% versus 25.0%; P muscle strength by MMT and the coexistence of neuromuscular complaints in patients with sHT may indicate neuromuscular dysfunction.

  17. Prognostic value of exercise capacity among patients with treated depression: The Henry Ford Exercise Testing (FIT) Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Amjad M; Qureshi, Waqas T; Sakr, Sherif; Blaha, Michael J; Brawner, Clinton A; Ehrman, Jonathan K; Keteyian, Steven J; Al-Mallah, Mouaz H

    2018-04-01

    Exercise capacity is associated with survival in the general population. Whether this applies to patients with treated depression is not clear. High exercise capacity remains associated with lower risk of all-cause mortality (ACM) and nonfatal myocardial infraction (MI) among patients with treated depression. We included 5128 patients on antidepressant medications who completed a clinically indicated exercise stress test between 1991 and 2009. Patients were followed for a median duration of 9.4 years for ACM and 4.5 years for MI. Exercise capacity was estimated in metabolic equivalents of tasks (METs). Cox proportional hazards regression models were used. Patients with treated depression who achieved ≥12 METs (vs those achieving model, exercise capacity was associated with a lower ACM (HR per 1-MET increase in exercise capacity: 0.82, 95% CI: 0.79-0.85, P capacity had an inverse association with both ACM and nonfatal MI in patients with treated depression, independent of cardiovascular risk factors. These results highlight the potential impact of assessing exercise capacity to identify risk, as well as promoting an active lifestyle among treated depression patients. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Exercise training in older patients with systolic heart failure: Adherence, exercise capacity, inflammation and glycemic control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prescott, Eva; Hjardem-Hansen, Rasmus; Dela, Flemming

    2009-01-01

    markers of glycemic control (glucose, insulin, glycerol, free fatty acids, HbA1c), inflammation and endothelial function (hsCRP, orosomucoid, interleukin 6, TNF-alpha, urine-orosomucoid and -albumin/creatinin), lipid metabolism, NT-proBNP or other regulatory hormones (cortisol, epinephrine and IGF-1......). There were no changes in quality of life. Conclusions. The effect of exercise training in these older CHF-patients was not as impressive as reported in younger and more selected patients. More studies on the efficiency of exercise training that reflect the age- and co-morbidity of the majority of CHF...

  19. The effects of a pilates-aerobic program on maximum exercise capacity of adult women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Mikalački

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Introduction: Physical exercise such as the Pilates method offers clinical benefits on the aging process. Likewise, physiologic parameters may be improved through aerobic exercise. Methods: In order to compare the differences of a Pilates-Aerobic intervention program on physiologic parameters such as the maximum heart rate (HRmax, relative maximal oxygen consumption (relative VO2max and absolute (absolute VOmax, maximum heart rate during maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max-HRmax, maximum minute volume (VE and forced vital capacity (FVC, a total of 64 adult women (active group = 48.1 ± 6.7 years; control group = 47.2 ± 7.4 years participated in the study. The physiological parameters, the maximal speed and total duration of test were measured by maximum exercise capacity testing through Bruce protocol. The HRmax was calculated by a cardio-ergometric software. Pulmonary function tests, maximal speed and total time during the physical test were performed in a treadmill (Medisoft, model 870c. Likewise, the spirometry analyzed the impact on oxygen uptake parameters, including FVC and VE. Results: The VO2max (relative and absolute, VE (all, P<0.001, VO2max-HRmax (P<0.05 and maximal speed of treadmill test (P<0.001 showed significant difference in the active group after a physical exercise interventional program. Conclusion: The present study indicates that the Pilates exercises through a continuous training program might significantly improve the cardiovascular system. Hence, mixing strength and aerobic exercises into a training program is considered the optimal mechanism for healthy aging.

  20. Exercise therapy in multiple sclerosis and its effects on function and the brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgas, Ulrik

    2017-01-01

    to clinically relevant improvements in physical function, but should be considered an adjunct to specific task-based training. Exercise has also shown positive effects on the brain, including improvements in brain volume and cognition. In summary, exercise therapy is a safe and potent nonpharmacological...... intervention in MS, with beneficial effects on both functional capacity and the brain....

  1. Therapeutic validity and effectiveness of supervised physical exercise training on exercise capacity in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: A systematic review and meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vooijs, M.; Siemonsma, P.C.; Heus, I.; Sont, J.K.; Rövekamp, T.A.; Meeteren, N.L. van

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Our aim was to determine the effectiveness of supervised physical exercise training on exercise capacity in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease taken into consideration indices such as therapeutic validity of interventions, methodological quality of studies, and exercise

  2. Patterns of changes in wheelchair exercise capacity after spinal cord injury

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Koppenhagen, C.F.; de Groot, S.; Post, M.W.; Hoekstra, T.; van Asbeck, F.W.; Bongers, H.; Lindeman, E.; van der Woude, L.H.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: (1) To identify different patterns of changes in wheelchair exercise capacity in the period between the start of active spinal cord injury (SCI) rehabilitation and 5 years after discharge; (2) to examine the pattern determinants of the change in wheelchair exercise capacity. Design:

  3. Patterns of Changes in Wheelchair Exercise Capacity After Spinal Cord Injury

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Koppenhagen, Casper F.; de Groot, Sonja; Post, Marcel W.; Hoekstra, Trynke; van Asbeck, Floris W.; Bongers, Helma; Lindeman, Eline; van der Woude, Luc H.

    Objectives: (1) To identify different patterns of changes in wheelchair exercise capacity in the period between the start of active spinal cord injury (SCI) rehabilitation and 5 years after discharge; (2) to examine the pattern determinants of the change in wheelchair exercise capacity. Design:

  4. 14 CFR 385.8 - Exercise of authority in “acting” capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ORGANIZATION STAFF ASSIGNMENTS AND REVIEW OF ACTION UNDER ASSIGNMENTS General Provisions § 385.8 Exercise of authority in “acting” capacity. Unless the assignment provides otherwise, staff members serving in an “acting” capacity may exercise the authority assigned to the staff members...

  5. Exercise training improves exercise capacity in adult patients with a systemic right ventricle : a randomized clinical trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winter, Michiel M.; van der Bom, Teun; de Vries, Leonie C. S.; Balducci, Anna; Bouma, Berto J.; Pieper, Petronella G.; van Dijk, Arie P. J.; van der Plas, Mart N.; Picchio, Fernando M.; Mulder, Barbara J. M.

    To assess whether exercise training in adult patients with a systemic right ventricle (RV) improves exercise capacity and quality of life and lowers serum N-terminal prohormone brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) levels. Multi-centre parallel randomized controlled trial. Patients with a systemic

  6. Effect of Body Mass Index on Exercise Capacity in Patients With Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Carolyn M; Ball, Caroline A; Hebl, Virginia B; Ong, Kevin C; Siontis, Konstantinos C; Olson, Thomas P; Ackerman, Michael J; Ommen, Steve R; Allison, Thomas G; Geske, Jeffrey B

    2018-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the relation between body mass index (BMI), exercise capacity, and symptoms in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HC) and to utilize results of cardiopulmonary exercise tests (CPX) and transthoracic echocardiograms to understand the mechanism(s) of reduced exercise capacity across body mass index groups. Over a 6-year period, 510 consecutive patients with HC seen at a tertiary referral center underwent (CPX) and a transthoracic echocardiogram. Increasing BMI was associated with decreased exercise capacity as assessed by peak VO 2 (ml/kg/min). However, the prevalence of cardiac impairment did not vary by BMI group. In conclusion, these findings suggest that in some patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, cardiac impairment is not the primary cause of exercise limitation and weight loss may result in improved exercise capacity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Obesity impairs skeletal muscle AMPK signaling during exercise: role of AMPKα2 in the regulation of exercise capacity in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee-Young, R S; Ayala, J E; Fueger, P T; Mayes, W H; Kang, L; Wasserman, D H

    2011-07-01

    Skeletal muscle AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK)α2 activity is impaired in obese, insulin-resistant individuals during exercise. We determined whether this defect contributes to the metabolic dysregulation and reduced exercise capacity observed in the obese state. C57BL/6J wild-type (WT) mice and/or mice expressing a kinase dead AMPKα2 subunit in skeletal muscle (α2-KD) were fed chow or high-fat (HF) diets from 3 to 16 weeks of age. At 15 weeks, mice performed an exercise stress test to determine exercise capacity. In WT mice, muscle glucose uptake and skeletal muscle AMPKα2 activity was assessed in chronically catheterized mice (carotid artery/jugular vein) at 16 weeks. In a separate study, HF-fed WT and α2-KD mice performed 5 weeks of exercise training (from 15 to 20 weeks of age) to test whether AMPKα2 is necessary to restore work tolerance. HF-fed WT mice had reduced exercise tolerance during an exercise stress test, and an attenuation in muscle glucose uptake and AMPKα2 activity during a single bout of exercise (Pfeeding further reduced running time ∼25% (Pexercise training, HF-fed WT and α2-KD mice increased maximum running speed ∼35% (PExercise training restored running speed to levels seen in healthy, chow-fed mice. HF feeding impairs AMPKα2 activity in skeletal muscle during exercise in vivo. Although this defect directly contributes to reduced exercise capacity, findings in HF-fed α2-KD mice show that AMPKα2-independent mechanisms are also involved. Importantly, α2-KD mice on a HF-fed diet adapt to regular exercise by increasing exercise tolerance, demonstrating that this adaptation is independent of skeletal muscle AMPKα2 activity.

  8. Skeletal muscle-specific expression of PGC-1α-b, an exercise-responsive isoform, increases exercise capacity and peak oxygen uptake.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miki Tadaishi

    Full Text Available Maximal oxygen uptake (VO(2max predicts mortality and is associated with endurance performance. Trained subjects have a high VO(2max due to a high cardiac output and high metabolic capacity of skeletal muscles. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator 1α (PGC-1α, a nuclear receptor coactivator, promotes mitochondrial biogenesis, a fiber-type switch to oxidative fibers, and angiogenesis in skeletal muscle. Because exercise training increases PGC-1α in skeletal muscle, PGC-1α-mediated changes may contribute to the improvement of exercise capacity and VO(2max. There are three isoforms of PGC-1α mRNA. PGC-1α-b protein, whose amino terminus is different from PGC-1α-a protein, is a predominant PGC-1α isoform in response to exercise. We investigated whether alterations of skeletal muscle metabolism by overexpression of PGC-1α-b in skeletal muscle, but not heart, would increase VO(2max and exercise capacity.Transgenic mice showed overexpression of PGC-1α-b protein in skeletal muscle but not in heart. Overexpression of PGC-1α-b promoted mitochondrial biogenesis 4-fold, increased the expression of fatty acid transporters, enhanced angiogenesis in skeletal muscle 1.4 to 2.7-fold, and promoted exercise capacity (expressed by maximum speed by 35% and peak oxygen uptake by 20%. Across a broad range of either the absolute exercise intensity, or the same relative exercise intensities, lipid oxidation was always higher in the transgenic mice than wild-type littermates, suggesting that lipid is the predominant fuel source for exercise in the transgenic mice. However, muscle glycogen usage during exercise was absent in the transgenic mice.Increased mitochondrial biogenesis, capillaries, and fatty acid transporters in skeletal muscles may contribute to improved exercise capacity via an increase in fatty acid utilization. Increases in PGC-1α-b protein or function might be a useful strategy for sedentary subjects to perform exercise

  9. Comparison of Watermelon and Carbohydrate Beverage on Exercise-Induced Alterations in Systemic Inflammation, Immune Dysfunction, and Plasma Antioxidant Capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Andrew Shanely

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Consuming carbohydrate- and antioxidant-rich fruits during exercise as a means of supporting and enhancing both performance and health is of interest to endurance athletes. Watermelon (WM contains carbohydrate, lycopene, l-citrulline, and l-arginine. WM may support exercise performance, augment antioxidant capacity, and act as a countermeasure to exercise-induced inflammation and innate immune changes. Trained cyclists (n = 20, 48 ± 2 years participated in a randomized, placebo controlled, crossover study. Subjects completed two 75 km cycling time trials after either 2 weeks ingestion of 980 mL/day WM puree or no treatment. Subjects drank either WM puree containing 0.2 gm/kg carbohydrate or a 6% carbohydrate beverage every 15 min during the time trials. Blood samples were taken pre-study and pre-, post-, 1 h post-exercise. WM ingestion versus no treatment for 2-weeks increased plasma l-citrulline and l-arginine concentrations (p < 0.0125. Exercise performance did not differ between WM puree or carbohydrate beverage trials (p > 0.05, however, the rating of perceived exertion was greater during the WM trial (p > 0.05. WM puree versus carbohydrate beverage resulted in a similar pattern of increase in blood glucose, and greater increases in post-exercise plasma antioxidant capacity, l-citrulline, l-arginine, and total nitrate (all p < 0.05, but without differences in systemic markers of inflammation or innate immune function. Daily WM puree consumption fully supported the energy demands of exercise, and increased post-exercise blood levels of WM nutritional components (l-citrulline and l-arginine, antioxidant capacity, and total nitrate, but without an influence on post-exercise inflammation and changes in innate immune function.

  10. Aerobic capacity, orthostatic tolerance, and exercise perceptions at discharge from inpatient spinal cord injury rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelletier, Chelsea A; Jones, Graham; Latimer-Cheung, Amy E; Warburton, Darren E; Hicks, Audrey L

    2013-10-01

    To describe physical capacity, autonomic function, and perceptions of exercise among adults with subacute spinal cord injury (SCI). Cross-sectional. Two inpatient SCI rehabilitation programs in Canada. Participants (N=41; mean age ± SD, 38.9 ± 13.7y) with tetraplegia (TP; n=19), high paraplegia (HP; n=8), or low paraplegia (LP; n=14) completing inpatient SCI rehabilitation (mean ± SD, 112.9 ± 52.5d postinjury). Not applicable. Peak exercise capacity was determined by an arm ergometry test. As a measure of autonomic function, orthostatic tolerance was assessed by a passive sit-up test. Self-efficacy for exercise postdischarge was evaluated by a questionnaire. There was a significant difference in peak oxygen consumption and heart rate between participants with TP (11.2 ± 3.4;mL·kg(-1)·min(-1) 113.9 ± 19.7 beats/min) and LP (17.1 ± 7.5 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1); 142.8 ± 22.7 beats/min). Peak power output was also significantly lower in the TP group (30.0 ± 6.9W) compared with the HP (55.5 ± 7.56W) and LP groups (62.5 ± 12.2W). Systolic blood pressure responses to the postural challenge varied significantly between groups (-3.0 ± 33.5 mmHg in TP, 17.8 ± 14.7 mmHg in HP, 21.6 ± 18.7 mmHg in LP). Orthostatic hypotension was most prevalent among participants with motor complete TP (73%). Results from the questionnaire revealed that although participants value exercise and see benefits to regular participation, they have low confidence in their abilities to perform the task of either aerobic or strengthening exercise. Exercise is well tolerated in adults with subacute SCI. Exercise interventions at this stage should focus on improving task-specific self-efficacy, and attention should be made to blood pressure regulation, particularly in individuals with motor complete TP. Copyright © 2013 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Relationship between nutritional risk and exercise capacity in severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in male patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Xizheng; Liu, Jinming; Luo, Yanrong; Xu, Xiaowen; Han, Zhiqing; Li, Hailing

    2015-01-01

    Objective The nutritional status of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients is associated with their exercise capacity. In the present study, we have explored the relationship between nutritional risk and exercise capacity in severe male COPD patients. Methods A total of 58 severe COPD male patients were enrolled in this study. The patients were assigned to no nutritional risk group (n=33) and nutritional risk group (n=25) according to the Nutritional Risk Screening (NRS, 2002) criteria. Blood gas analysis, conventional pulmonary function testing, and cardiopulmonary exercise testing were performed on all the patients. Results Results showed that the weight and BMI of the patients in the nutritional risk group were significantly lower than in the no nutritional risk group (Pnutritional risk group was significantly higher than that of the nutritional risk group (Pnutritional risk group were significantly lower than those of the no nutritional risk group (Pnutritional risk based on NRS 2002 in severe COPD male patients is supported by these results of this study. PMID:26150712

  12. Pilates Method for Lung Function and Functional Capacity in Obese Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niehues, Janaina Rocha; Gonzáles, Inês; Lemos, Robson Rodrigues; Haas, Patrícia

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is defined as the condition in which the body mass index (BMI) is ≥ 30 kg/m2 and is responsible for decreased quality of life and functional limitations. The harmful effects on ventilatory function include reduced lung capacity and volume; diaphragmatic muscle weakness; decreased lung compliance and stiffness; and weakness of the abdominal muscles, among others. Pilates is a method of resistance training that works with low-impact muscle exercises and is based on isometric exercises. The current article is a review of the literature that aims to investigate the hypothesis that the Pilates method, as a complementary method of training, might be beneficial to pulmonary function and functional capacity in obese adults. The intent of the review was to evaluate the use of Pilates as an innovative intervention in the respiratory dysfunctions of obese adults. In studies with other populations, it has been observed that Pilates can be effective in improving chest capacity and expansion and lung volume. That finding is due to the fact that Pilates works through the center of force, made ​​up of the abdominal muscles and gluteus muscles lumbar, which are responsible for the stabilization of the static and dynamic body that is associated with breath control. It has been observed that different Pilates exercises increase the activation and recruitment of the abdominal muscles. Those muscles are important in respiration, both in expiration and inspiration, through the facilitation of diaphragmatic action. In that way, strengthening the abdominal muscles can help improve respiratory function, leading to improvements in lung volume and capacity. The results found in the current literature review support the authors' observations that Pilates promotes the strengthening of the abdominal muscles and that improvements in diaphragmatic function may result in positive outcomes in respiratory function, thereby improving functional capacity. However, the authors did not

  13. Effect of fuels on exercise capacity in muscle phosphoglycerate mutase deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vissing, John; Quistorff, Bjørn; Haller, Ronald G

    2005-01-01

    , it is unknown whether PGAMD is associated with a second-wind phenomenon during exercise, as in McArdle disease, and whether patients with PGAMD, like patients with PFKD and McArdle disease, benefit from supplementation with fuels that bypass the metabolic block. OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether fuels...... that bypass the metabolic block can improve exercise capacity or whether exercise capacity improves during sustained exercise. DESIGN: Single-blind, placebo-controlled investigation of the effects of glucose, lactate, and intralipid on work capacity in patients with PGAMD. SETTING: National University...... Hospital, University of Copenhagen, and Neuromuscular Center, Institute for Exercise and Environmental Medicine.Patients Two unrelated men (21 and 26 years old) with PGAMD who since their teens had experienced muscle cramps, muscle pain, and episodes of myoglobinuria provoked by brief vigorous exercise, 4...

  14. Normative Values for a Functional Capacity Evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soer, Remko; van der Schans, Cees P.; Geertzen, Jan H.; Groothoff, Johan W.; Brouwer, Sandra; Dijkstra, Pieter U.; Reneman, Michiel F.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To establish normative values for a functional capacity evaluation (FCE) of healthy working subjects. Design: Descriptive. Setting: Rehabilitation center. Participants: Healthy working subjects (N=701; 448 men, 253 women) between 20 and 60 years of age, working in more than 180

  15. Exercise and the Regulation of Immune Functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Richard J; Kunz, Hawley; Agha, Nadia; Graff, Rachel

    2015-01-01

    Exercise has a profound effect on the normal functioning of the immune system. It is generally accepted that prolonged periods of intensive exercise training can depress immunity, while regular moderate intensity exercise is beneficial. Single bouts of exercise evoke a striking leukocytosis and a redistribution of effector cells between the blood compartment and the lymphoid and peripheral tissues, a response that is mediated by increased hemodynamics and the release of catecholamines and glucocorticoids following the activation of the sympathetic nervous system and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. Single bouts of prolonged exercise may impair T-cell, NK-cell, and neutrophil function, alter the Type I and Type II cytokine balance, and blunt immune responses to primary and recall antigens in vivo. Elite athletes frequently report symptoms associated with upper respiratory tract infections (URTI) during periods of heavy training and competition that may be due to alterations in mucosal immunity, particularly reductions in secretory immunoglobulin A. In contrast, single bouts of moderate intensity exercise are "immuno-enhancing" and have been used to effectively increase vaccine responses in "at-risk" patients. Improvements in immunity due to regular exercise of moderate intensity may be due to reductions in inflammation, maintenance of thymic mass, alterations in the composition of "older" and "younger" immune cells, enhanced immunosurveillance, and/or the amelioration of psychological stress. Indeed, exercise is a powerful behavioral intervention that has the potential to improve immune and health outcomes in the elderly, the obese, and patients living with cancer and chronic viral infections such as HIV. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Unique supply function equilibrium with capacity constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmberg, Paer

    2008-01-01

    Consider a market where producers submit supply functions to a procurement auction with uncertain demand, e.g. an electricity auction. In the Supply Function Equilibrium (SFE), every firm commits to the supply function that maximises expected profit in the one-shot game given the supply functions of competitors. A basic weakness of the SFE is the presence of multiple equilibria. This paper shows that with (i) symmetric producers, (ii) perfectly inelastic demand, (iii) a price cap, and (iv) capacity constraints that bind with a positive probability, there exists a unique, symmetric SFE. (author)

  17. Heart Rate Variability Is Associated with Exercise Capacity in Patients with Cardiac Syndrome X.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dai-Yin Lu

    Full Text Available Heart rate variability (HRV reflects the healthiness of autonomic nervous system, which is associated with exercise capacity. We therefore investigated whether HRV could predict the exercise capacity in the adults with cardiac syndrome X (CSX. A total of 238 subjects (57±12 years, 67.8% men, who were diagnosed as CSX by the positive exercise stress test and nearly normal coronary angiogram were enrolled. Power spectrum from the 24-hour recording of heart rate was analyzed in frequency domain using total power (TP and spectral components of the very low frequency (VLF, low frequency (LF and high frequency (HF ranges. Among the study population, 129 subjects with impaired exercise capacity during the treadmill test had significantly lower HRV indices than those with preserved exercise capacity (≥90% of the age predicted maximal heart rate. After accounting for age, sex, and baseline SBP and heart rate, VLF (odds ratio per 1SD and 95% CI: 2.02, 1.19-3.42, LF (1.67, 1.10-2.55, and TP (1.82, 1.17-2.83 remained significantly associated with preserved exercise capacity. In addition, increased HRV indices were also associated with increased exercise duration, rate-pressure product, and heart rate recovery, independent of age, body mass index, and baseline SBP and heart rate. In subgroup analysis, HRV indices demonstrated similar predictive values related to exercise capacity across various subpopulations, especially in the young. In patients with CSX, HRV was independently associated with exercise capacity, especially in young subjects. The healthiness of autonomic nervous system may have a role in modulating the exercise capacity in patients with CSX.

  18. Smoking and Early COPD as Independent Predictors of Body Composition, Exercise Capacity, and Health Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caram, Laura Miranda de Oliveira; Ferrari, Renata; Bertani, André Luís; Garcia, Thaís; Mesquita, Carolina Bonfanti; Knaut, Caroline; Tanni, Suzana Erico; Godoy, Irma

    2016-01-01

    The effects of tobacco smoke, mild/moderate COPD disease and their combined effect on health status (HS), body composition (BC), and exercise capacity (EC) impairment are still unclear. We hypothesized that smoking and early COPD have a joint negative influence on these outcomes. We evaluated 32 smokers (smoking history >10 pack/years), 32 mild/moderate COPD (current smokers or former smokers), and 32 never smokers. All individuals underwent medical and smoking status evaluations, pre and post-bronchodilator spirometry, BC [fat-free mass (FFM) and FFM index (FFMI)], EC [six-minute walk distance (6MWD)] and HS [Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36)]. FFM (p = 0.02) and FFMI (p = 0.008) were lower in COPD than never smokers. 6MWT, as a percentage of reference values for the Brazilian population, was lower in COPD and smokers than never smokers (p = 0.01). Smokers showed worse SF-36 score for functional capacity than never smokers (psmoking were inversely associated with FFMI, 6MWD and HS. Smoking and early COPD have a joint negative influence on body composition, exercise capacity and health status.

  19. The implementation of the functional task exercise programme for elderly people living at home

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fleuren, M.A.H.; Vrijkotte, S.; Jans, M.P.; Pin, R.; Hespen, A. van; Meeteren, N.L.U. van; Siemonsma, P.C.

    2012-01-01

    Background: The Functional Task Exercise programme is an evidence-based exercise programme for elderly people living at home. It enhances physical capacity with sustainable effects. FTE is provided by physiotherapists and remedial therapists. Although the intervention was found to be effective in a

  20. Patterns of changes in wheelchair exercise capacity after spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Koppenhagen, Casper F; de Groot, Sonja; Post, Marcel W; Hoekstra, Trynke; van Asbeck, Floris W; Bongers, Helma; Lindeman, Eline; van der Woude, Luc H

    2013-07-01

    (1) To identify different patterns of changes in wheelchair exercise capacity in the period between the start of active spinal cord injury (SCI) rehabilitation and 5 years after discharge; (2) to examine the pattern determinants of the change in wheelchair exercise capacity. Prospective cohort study. Measurements were recorded at the start of active inpatient rehabilitation, 3 months after the start, at discharge of inpatient rehabilitation, 1 year after discharge, and 5 years after discharge. Eight rehabilitation centers. Persons with SCI (N=130; age range, 18-65y), who were wheelchair-dependent, at least for long distances. Not applicable. Wheelchair exercise capacity: peak power output (W). We found 4 different patterns of the change of peak power output (mean ± SD): (1) a pattern with high and progressive scores (33% of total study group): high progressive scores (start of rehabilitation: 49±15W to 5 years after discharge: 77±17.2W); (2) a pattern of improvement during inpatient rehabilitation and deterioration after inpatient rehabilitation (12%): progressive scores during inpatient rehabilitation with deteriorating scores after discharge (start of rehabilitation: 29±8.7W, to discharge: 60±8.4W, to 5 years after discharge: 39±13.1W); (3) a pattern with low and only slightly progressive scores (52%): low progressive scores (start of rehabilitation: 20±10.1W to 5 years after discharge: 31±15.9W); and (4) a pattern with low scores during inpatient rehabilitation and a sharp rise after discharge (3%): low inpatient scores with strong progressive scores after discharge (start of rehabilitation: 29±15.5W to 5 years after discharge: 82±10.6W). A logistic regression of factors that may distinguish between patterns with high and progressive scores and patterns with low and only slightly progressive scores revealed that older age, being a woman, having a tetraplegic lesion, and low functional status were associated with patterns with low and only slightly

  1. Left ventricular assist device: exercise capacity evolution and rehabilitation added value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamotte, Michel X; Chimenti, Sara; Deboeck, Gael; Gillet, Alexis; Kacelenenbogen, Raymond; Strapart, Jonathan; Vandeneynde, Frédéric; Van Nooten, Guido; Antoine, Martine

    2018-06-01

    With more than 15,000 implanted patients worldwide and a survival rate of 80% at 1-year and 59% at 5-years, left ventricular assist device (LVAD) implantation has become an interesting strategy in the management of heart failure patients who are resistant to other kinds of treatment. There are limited data in the literature on the change over time of exercise capacity in LVAD patients, as well as limited knowledge about the beneficial effects that rehabilitation might have on these patients. Therefore, the aim of our study was to evaluate the evolution of exercise capacity on a cohort of patients implanted with the same device (HeartWare © ) and to analyse the potential impact of rehabilitation. Sixty-two patients implanted with a LVAD between June 2011 and June 2015 were screened. Exercise capacity was evaluated by cardiopulmonary exercise testing at 6 weeks, 6 and 12 months after implantation. We have observed significant differences in the exercise capacity and evolution between the trained and non-trained patients. Some of the trained patients nearly normalised their exercise capacity at the end of the rehabilitation programme. Exercise capacity of patient implanted with a HeartWare © LVAD increased in the early period after implantation. Rehabilitation allowed implanted patients to have a significantly better evolution compared to non-rehabilitated patients.

  2. CETP Expression Protects Female Mice from Obesity-Induced Decline in Exercise Capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappel, David A; Lantier, Louise; Palmisano, Brian T; Wasserman, David H; Stafford, John M

    2015-01-01

    Pharmacological approaches to reduce obesity have not resulted in dramatic reductions in the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). Exercise, in contrast, reduces CHD risk even in the setting of obesity. Cholesteryl Ester Transfer Protein (CETP) is a lipid transfer protein that shuttles lipids between serum lipoproteins and tissues. There are sexual-dimorphisms in the effects of CETP in humans. Mice naturally lack CETP, but we previously reported that transgenic expression of CETP increases muscle glycolysis in fasting and protects against insulin resistance with high-fat diet (HFD) feeding in female but not male mice. Since glycolysis provides an important energy source for working muscle, we aimed to define if CETP expression protects against the decline in exercise capacity associated with obesity. We measured exercise capacity in female mice that were fed a chow diet and then switched to a HFD. There was no difference in exercise capacity between lean, chow-fed CETP female mice and their non-transgenic littermates. Female CETP transgenic mice were relatively protected against the decline in exercise capacity caused by obesity compared to WT. Despite gaining similar fat mass after 6 weeks of HFD-feeding, female CETP mice showed a nearly two-fold increase in run distance compared to WT. After an additional 6 weeks of HFD-feeding, mice were subjected to a final exercise bout and muscle mitochondria were isolated. We found that improved exercise capacity in CETP mice corresponded with increased muscle mitochondrial oxidative capacity, and increased expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha (PGC-1α). These results suggest that CETP can protect against the obesity-induced impairment in exercise capacity and may be a target to improve exercise capacity in the context of obesity.

  3. CETP Expression Protects Female Mice from Obesity-Induced Decline in Exercise Capacity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A Cappel

    Full Text Available Pharmacological approaches to reduce obesity have not resulted in dramatic reductions in the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD. Exercise, in contrast, reduces CHD risk even in the setting of obesity. Cholesteryl Ester Transfer Protein (CETP is a lipid transfer protein that shuttles lipids between serum lipoproteins and tissues. There are sexual-dimorphisms in the effects of CETP in humans. Mice naturally lack CETP, but we previously reported that transgenic expression of CETP increases muscle glycolysis in fasting and protects against insulin resistance with high-fat diet (HFD feeding in female but not male mice. Since glycolysis provides an important energy source for working muscle, we aimed to define if CETP expression protects against the decline in exercise capacity associated with obesity. We measured exercise capacity in female mice that were fed a chow diet and then switched to a HFD. There was no difference in exercise capacity between lean, chow-fed CETP female mice and their non-transgenic littermates. Female CETP transgenic mice were relatively protected against the decline in exercise capacity caused by obesity compared to WT. Despite gaining similar fat mass after 6 weeks of HFD-feeding, female CETP mice showed a nearly two-fold increase in run distance compared to WT. After an additional 6 weeks of HFD-feeding, mice were subjected to a final exercise bout and muscle mitochondria were isolated. We found that improved exercise capacity in CETP mice corresponded with increased muscle mitochondrial oxidative capacity, and increased expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha (PGC-1α. These results suggest that CETP can protect against the obesity-induced impairment in exercise capacity and may be a target to improve exercise capacity in the context of obesity.

  4. Mitochondrial Function and Mitophagy in the Elderly: Effects of Exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osvaldo C. Moreira

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aging is a natural, multifactorial and multiorganic phenomenon wherein there are gradual physiological and pathological changes over time. Aging has been associated with a decrease of autophagy capacity and mitochondrial functions, such as biogenesis, dynamics, and mitophagy. These processes are essential for the maintenance of mitochondrial structural integrity and, therefore, for cell life, since mitochondrial dysfunction leads to an impairment of energy metabolism and increased production of reactive oxygen species, which consequently trigger mechanisms of cellular senescence and apoptotic cell death. Moreover, reduced mitochondrial function can contribute to age-associated disease phenotypes in model organisms and humans. Literature data show beneficial effects of exercise on the impairment of mitochondrial biogenesis and dynamics and on the decrease in the mitophagic capacity associated to aging. Thus, exercise could have effects on the major cell signaling pathways that are involved in the mitochondria quality and quantity control in the elderly. Although it is known that several exercise protocols are able to modify the activity and turnover of mitochondria, further studies are necessary in order to better identify the mechanisms of interaction between mitochondrial functions, aging, and physical activity, as well as to analyze possible factors influencing these processes.

  5. Myogenin regulates exercise capacity but is dispensable for skeletal muscle regeneration in adult mdx mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Meadows

    Full Text Available Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD is the most prevalent inherited childhood muscle disorder in humans. mdx mice exhibit a similar pathophysiology to the human disorder allowing for an in-depth investigation of DMD. Myogenin, a myogenic regulatory factor, is best known for its role in embryonic myogenesis, but its role in adult muscle maintenance and regeneration is still poorly understood. Here, we generated an mdx:Myog(flox/flox mouse harboring a tamoxifen-inducible Cre recombinase transgene, which was used to conditionally delete Myog during adult life. After tamoxifen treatment, three groups of mice were created to study the effects of Myog deletion: mdx:Myog(flox/flox mice (mdx, Myog(flox/flox mice (wild-type, and mdx:Myog(floxΔ/floxΔ:Cre-ER mice (mdx:Myog-deleted. mdx:Myog-deleted mice exhibited no adverse phenotype and behaved normally. When run to exhaustion, mdx:Myog-deleted mice demonstrated an enhanced capacity for exercise compared to mdx mice, running nearly as far as wild-type mice. Moreover, these mice showed the same signature characteristics of muscle regeneration as mdx mice. Unexpectedly, we found that myogenin was dispensable for muscle regeneration. Factors associated with muscle fatigue, metabolism, and proteolysis were significantly altered in mdx:Myog-deleted mice, and this might contribute to their increased exercise capacity. Our results reveal novel functions for myogenin in adult muscle and suggest that reducing Myog expression in other muscle disease models may partially restore muscle function.

  6. Exercise, Cognitive Function, and Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Jill N.

    2015-01-01

    Increasing the lifespan of a population is often a marker of a country's success. With the percentage of the population over 65 yr of age expanding, managing the health and independence of this population is an ongoing concern. Advancing age is associated with a decrease in cognitive function that ultimately affects quality of life. Understanding…

  7. Exercise capacity and cardiac hemodynamic response in female ApoE/LDLR−/− mice: a paradox of preserved V’O2max and exercise capacity despite coronary atherosclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojewoda, M.; Tyrankiewicz, U.; Gwozdz, P.; Skorka, T.; Jablonska, M.; Orzylowska, A.; Jasinski, K.; Jasztal, A.; Przyborowski, K.; Kostogrys, R. B.; Zoladz, J. A.; Chlopicki, S.

    2016-01-01

    We assessed exercise performance, coronary blood flow and cardiac reserve of female ApoE/LDLR−/− mice with advanced atherosclerosis compared with age-matched, wild-type C57BL6/J mice. Exercise capacity was assessed as whole body maximal oxygen consumption (V’O2max), maximum running velocity (vmax) and maximum distance (DISTmax) during treadmill exercise. Cardiac systolic and diastolic function in basal conditions and in response to dobutamine (mimicking exercise-induced cardiac stress) were assessed by Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) in vivo. Function of coronary circulation was assessed in isolated perfused hearts. In female ApoE/LDLR−/− mice V’O2max, vmax and DISTmax were not impaired as compared with C57BL6/J mice. Cardiac function at rest and systolic and diastolic cardiac reserve were also preserved in female ApoE/LDLR−/− mice as evidenced by preserved fractional area change and similar fall in systolic and end diastolic area after dobutamine. Moreover, endothelium-dependent responses of coronary circulation induced by bradykinin (Bk) and acetylcholine (ACh) were preserved, while endothelium-independent responses induced by NO-donors were augmented in female ApoE/LDLR−/− mice. Basal COX-2-dependent production of 6-keto-PGF1α was increased. Concluding, we suggest that robust compensatory mechanisms in coronary circulation involving PGI2- and NO-pathways may efficiently counterbalance coronary atherosclerosis-induced impairment in V’O2max and exercise capacity. PMID:27108697

  8. The relationship between exercise capacity and masked hypertension in sedentary patients with diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akilli, Hakan; Kayrak, Mehmet; Arıbas, Alpay; Tekinalp, Mehmet; Ayhan, Selim Suzi; Gündüz, Mehmet; Alibasic, Hajrudin; Altunbas, Gokhan; Yazıcı, Mehmet

    2014-01-01

    Although exaggerated blood pressure responses (EBPR) to exercise have been related to future hypertension and masked hypertension (MHT), the relationship between exercise capacity and MHT remains unclear. A sedentary life style has been related to increased cardiovascular mortality, diabetes mellitus (DM), and hypertension. In this study, we aimed to examine the relationship between exercise capacity and MHT in sedentary patients with DM. This study included 85 sedentary and normotensive patients with DM. Each patient's daily physical activity level was assessed according to the INTERHEART study. All patients underwent an exercise treadmill test, and exercise duration and capacity were recorded. Blood pressure (BP) was recorded during all exercise stages and BP values ≥ 200/110 mmHg were accepted as EBPR. MHT was diagnosed in patients having an office BP 135/85 mmHg. Patients were divided into two groups according to their ambulatory BP monitoring (MHT and normotensive group). The prevalence of MHT was 28.2%. Exercise duration and capacity were lower in the MHT group than in the normotensive group (page, HbA1c, mean daytime BP, and mean 24 hour BP. Peak exercise systolic BP and the frequency of EBPR were both increased in the MHT group (25.0% and 8.1%, respectively, p=0.03). According to a multivariate regression, exercise capacity (OR: 0.61, CI95%: 0.39-0.95, p=0.03), EBPR (OR: 9.45, CI95%: 1.72-16.90, p=0.01), and the duration of DM (OR: 0.84, CI95%: 0.71-0.96, p=0.03) were predictors of MHT. Exercise capacity, EBPR, and the duration of DM were predictors of MHT in sedentary subjects with DM.

  9. Relation of exercise capacity with lung volumes before and after 6-minute walk test in subjects with COPD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wibmer, Thomas; Rüdiger, Stefan; Kropf-Sanchen, Cornelia; Stoiber, Kathrin M; Rottbauer, Wolfgang; Schumann, Christian

    2014-11-01

    There is growing evidence that exercise-induced variation in lung volumes is an important source of ventilatory limitation and is linked to exercise intolerance in COPD. The aim of this study was to compare the correlations of walk distance and lung volumes measured before and after a 6-min walk test (6MWT) in subjects with COPD. Forty-five subjects with stable COPD (mean pre-bronchodilator FEV1: 47 ± 18% predicted) underwent a 6MWT. Body plethysmography was performed immediately pre- and post-6MWT. Correlations were generally stronger between 6-min walk distance and post-6MWT lung volumes than between 6-min walk distance and pre-6MWT lung volumes, except for FEV1. These differences in Pearson correlation coefficients were significant for residual volume expressed as percent of total lung capacity (-0.67 vs -0.58, P = .043), percent of predicted residual volume expressed as percent of total lung capacity (-0.68 vs -0.59, P = .026), inspiratory vital capacity (0.65 vs 0.54, P = .019), percent of predicted inspiratory vital capacity (0.49 vs 0.38, P = .037), and percent of predicted functional residual capacity (-0.62 vs -0.47, P = .023). In subjects with stable COPD, lung volumes measured immediately after 6MWT are more closely related to exercise limitation than baseline lung volumes measured before 6MWT, except for FEV1. Therefore, pulmonary function testing immediately after exercise should be included in future studies on COPD for the assessment of exercise-induced ventilatory constraints to physical performance that cannot be adequately assessed from baseline pulmonary function testing at rest. Copyright © 2014 by Daedalus Enterprises.

  10. Insulin resistance: vascular function and exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moon-Hyon Hwang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Insulin resistance associated with metabolic syndrome and Type 2 diabetes mellitus is an epidemic metabolic disorder, which increases the risk of cardiovascular complications. Impaired vascular endothelial function is an early marker for atherosclerosis, which causes cardiovascular complications. Both experimental and clinical studies indicate that endothelial dysfunction in vasculatures occurs with insulin resistance. The associated physiological mechanisms are not fully appreciated yet, however, it seems that augmented oxidative stress, a physiological imbalance between oxidants and antioxidants, in vascular cells is a possible mechanism involved in various vascular beds with insulin resistance and hyperglycemia. Regardless of the inclusion of resistance exercise, aerobic exercise seems to be beneficial for vascular endothelial function in both large conduit and small resistance vessels in both clinical and experimental studies with insulin resistance. In clinical cases, aerobic exercise over 8 weeks with higher intensity seems more beneficial than the cases with shorter duration and lower intensity. However, more studies are needed in the future to elucidate the physiological mechanisms by which vascular endothelial function is impaired in insulin resistance and improved with aerobic exercise.

  11. Obesity impairs skeletal muscle AMPK signaling during exercise: role of AMPK?2 in the regulation of exercise capacity in vivo

    OpenAIRE

    Lee-Young, Robert S.; Ayala, Julio E.; Fueger, Patrick T.; Mayes, Wesley H.; Kang, Li; Wasserman, David H.

    2010-01-01

    Objective Skeletal muscle AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK)?2 activity is impaired in obese, insulin resistant individuals during exercise. We determined whether this defect contributes to the metabolic dysregulation and reduced exercise capacity observed in the obese state. Design C57BL/6J wild-type (WT) mice and/or mice expressing a kinase dead AMPK?2 subunit in skeletal muscle (?2-KD) were fed chow or high fat (HF) diets from 3?16 weeks (wks) of age. At 15wks mice performed an exercise s...

  12. Individual optimization of pacing sensors improves exercise capacity without influencing quality of life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erol-Yilmaz, Ayten; Schrama, Tim A.; Tanka, Jutta Schroeder; Tijssen, Jan G.; Wilde, Arthur A.; Tukkie, Raymond

    2005-01-01

    Introduction: Programmable pacemaker sensor features are frequently used in default setting. Limited data are available about the effect of sensor optimization on exercise capacity and quality of life (QOL), Influence of individual optimization of sensors on QOL and exercise tolerance was

  13. Cardiopulmonary exercise capacity, muscle strength, and physical activity in children and adolescents with achondroplasia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Takken, Tim; van Bergen, Monique W. M.; Sakkers, Ralph J. B.; Helders, Paul J. M.; Engelbert, Raoul H. H.

    2007-01-01

    To study in children with achondroplasia the response to exercise and muscle strength compared with healthy peers and to describe the relation between exercise capacity, anthropometric factors, and physical activity. Patients (7 boys and 10 girls; mean age, 11.8 +/- 3.3 years) with achondroplasia

  14. The Influence of Various Types of Water Gymnastics Upon the Exercise Capacity

    OpenAIRE

    BADAU, Dana; BADAU, Adela

    2015-01-01

    Between the components of the physiological capacity and the practice degree of the physical exercise is a direct interrelation, which is influenced by a number of factors, out of which deployment environment with its features has a leading role. Determining the relationship between the effort capacity by heart rate changes during recovery after exercise, determining the body aerobic resistance level, as a result of the entertaining and recreational activities, specifically, pe...

  15. Normative values for a functional capacity evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soer, Remko; van der Schans, Cees P; Geertzen, Jan H; Groothoff, Johan W; Brouwer, Sandra; Dijkstra, Pieter U; Reneman, Michiel F

    2009-10-01

    Soer R, van der Schans CP, Geertzen JH, Groothoff JW, Brouwer S, Dijkstra PU, Reneman MF. Normative values for a functional capacity evaluation. To establish normative values for a functional capacity evaluation (FCE) of healthy working subjects. Descriptive. Rehabilitation center. Healthy working subjects (N=701; 448 men, 253 women) between 20 and 60 years of age, working in more than 180 occupations. Subjects performed a 2-hour FCE consisting of 12 work-related tests. Subjects were classified into categories based on physical demands according to the Dictionary of Occupational Titles. Means, ranges, SDs, and percentiles were provided for normative values of FCE, and a regression analysis for outcome of the 12 tests was performed. Normative FCE values were established for 4 physical demand categories. The normative values enable comparison of patients' performances to these values. If a patient's performance exceeds the lowest scores in his/her corresponding demand category, then the patient's capacity is very likely to be sufficient to meet the workload. Further, clinicians can make more precise return-to-work recommendations and set goals for rehabilitation programs. A comparison of the normative values can be useful to the fields of rehabilitation, occupational, and insurance medicine. Further research is needed to test the validity of the normative values with respect to workplace assessments and return-to-work recommendations.

  16. Effects of exercise training on performance and function in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of exercise training on performance and function in individuals with cerebral palsy: ... performance capabilities, and the effect of exercise training interventions, ... The physiology underlying the functional and physical impairments in CP ...

  17. Statins are related to impaired exercise capacity in males but not females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahls, Martin; Groß, Stefan; Ittermann, Till; Busch, Raila; Gläser, Sven; Ewert, Ralf; Völzke, Henry; Felix, Stephan B; Dörr, Marcus

    2017-01-01

    Exercise and statins reduce cardiovascular disease (CVD). Exercise capacity may be assessed using cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET). Whether statin medication is associated with CPET parameters is unclear. We investigated if statins are related with exercise capacity during CPET in the general population. Cross-sectional data of two independent cohorts of the Study of Health in Pomerania (SHIP) were merged (n = 3,500; 50% males). Oxygen consumption (VO2) at peak exercise (VO2peak) and anaerobic threshold (VO2@AT) was assessed during symptom-limited CPET. Two linear regression models related VO2peak with statin usage were calculated. Model 1 adjusted for age, sex, previous myocardial infarction, and physical inactivity and model 2 additionally for body mass index, smoking, hypertension, diabetes and estimated glomerular filtration rate. Propensity score matching was used for validation. Statin usage was associated with lower VO2peak (no statin: 2336; 95%-confidence interval [CI]: 2287-2,385 vs. statin 2090; 95%-CI: 2,031-2149 ml/min; P exercise capacity in males but not females. Sex specific effects of statins on cardiopulmonary exercise capacity deserve further research.

  18. Pulmonary hypertension in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis - the predictive value of exercise capacity and gas exchange efficiency.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sven Gläser

    Full Text Available Exercise capacity and survival of patients with IPF is potentially impaired by pulmonary hypertension. This study aims to investigate diagnostic and prognostic properties of gas exchange during exercise and lung function in IPF patients with or without pulmonary hypertension. In a multicentre setting, patients with IPF underwent right heart catheterization, cardiopulmonary exercise and lung function testing during their initial evaluation. Mortality follow up was evaluated. Seventy-three of 135 patients [82 males; median age of 64 (56; 72 years] with IPF had pulmonary hypertension as assessed by right heart catheterization [median mean pulmonary arterial pressure 34 (27; 43 mmHg]. The presence of pulmonary hypertension was best predicted by gas exchange efficiency for carbon dioxide (cut off ≥152% predicted; area under the curve 0.94 and peak oxygen uptake (≤56% predicted; 0.83, followed by diffusing capacity. Resting lung volumes did not predict pulmonary hypertension. Survival was best predicted by the presence of pulmonary hypertension, followed by peak oxygen uptake [HR 0.96 (0.93; 0.98]. Pulmonary hypertension in IPF patients is best predicted by gas exchange efficiency during exercise and peak oxygen uptake. In addition to invasively measured pulmonary arterial pressure, oxygen uptake at peak exercise predicts survival in this patient population.

  19. Body mass index, exercise capacity, and mortality risk in male veterans with hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faselis, Charles; Doumas, Michael; Panagiotakos, Demosthenes; Kheirbek, Raya; Korshak, Lauren; Manolis, Athanasios; Pittaras, Andreas; Tsioufis, Costas; Papademetriou, Vasilios; Fletcher, Ross; Kokkinos, Peter

    2012-04-01

    Overweight and obesity are associated with increased risk of chronic diseases and mortality. Exercise capacity is inversely associated with mortality risk. However, little is known on the interaction between fitness, fatness, and mortality risk in hypertensive individuals. Thus, we assessed the interaction between exercise capacity, fatness, and all-cause mortality in hypertensive males. A graded exercise test was performed in 4,183 hypertensive veterans (mean age ± s.d.; 63.3 ± 10.5 years) at the Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Washington, DC. We defined three body weight categories based on body mass index (BMI): normal weight (BMI 7.5 METs). During a median follow-up period of 7.2 years, there were 1,000 deaths. The association between exercise capacity and mortality risk was strong, inverse, and graded. For each 1-MET increase in exercise capacity the adjusted risk was 20% for normal weight, 12% for overweight, and 25% for obese (P exercise capacity is associated with lower mortality risk in hypertensive males regardless of BMI. The risk for overweight and obese but fit individuals was significantly lower when compared to normal weight but unfit. These findings suggest that in older hypertensive men, it may be healthier to be fit regardless of standard BMI category than unfit and normal weight.

  20. Nonparetic Knee Extensor Strength Is the Determinant of Exercise Capacity of Community-Dwelling Stroke Survivors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Te Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To investigate the relationship among walking speed, exercise capacity, and leg strength in community dwelling stroke subjects and to evaluate which one was the leading determinant factor of them. Design. This is a descriptive, cross-sectional study. Thirty-five chronic stroke patients who were able to walk independently in their community were enrolled. Walking speed was evaluated by using the 12-meter walking test. A maximal exercise test was used to determine the stroke subjects’ exercise capacity. Knee extensor strength, measured as isokinetic torque, was assessed by isokinetic dynamometer. Results. The main walking speed of our subjects was 0.52 m/s. Peak oxygen uptake (VO2 peak was 1.21±0.43 L/min. Knee extensor strength, no matter whether paretic or nonparetic side, was significantly correlated to 12-meter walking speed and exercise capacity. Linear regression also showed the strength of the affected knee extensor was the determinant of walking speed and that of the nonparetic knee extensor was the determinant of exercise capacity in community dwelling stroke subjects. Conclusions. Walking speed and peak oxygen uptake were markedly decreased after stroke. Knee extensor strength of nonparetic leg was the most important determinant of exercise capacity of the community-dwelling stroke subjects. Knee extensor strengthening should be emphasized to help stroke patient to achieve optimal community living.

  1. Nonparetic knee extensor strength is the determinant of exercise capacity of community-dwelling stroke survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei-Te; Huang, Ling-Tzu; Chou, Ya-Hui; Wei, Ta-Sen; Lin, Chung-Che

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the relationship among walking speed, exercise capacity, and leg strength in community dwelling stroke subjects and to evaluate which one was the leading determinant factor of them. This is a descriptive, cross-sectional study. Thirty-five chronic stroke patients who were able to walk independently in their community were enrolled. Walking speed was evaluated by using the 12-meter walking test. A maximal exercise test was used to determine the stroke subjects' exercise capacity. Knee extensor strength, measured as isokinetic torque, was assessed by isokinetic dynamometer. The main walking speed of our subjects was 0.52 m/s. Peak oxygen uptake (VO₂ peak) was 1.21 ± 0.43 L/min. Knee extensor strength, no matter whether paretic or nonparetic side, was significantly correlated to 12-meter walking speed and exercise capacity. Linear regression also showed the strength of the affected knee extensor was the determinant of walking speed and that of the nonparetic knee extensor was the determinant of exercise capacity in community dwelling stroke subjects. Walking speed and peak oxygen uptake were markedly decreased after stroke. Knee extensor strength of nonparetic leg was the most important determinant of exercise capacity of the community-dwelling stroke subjects. Knee extensor strengthening should be emphasized to help stroke patient to achieve optimal community living.

  2. Effects of 1-Methylnicotinamide (MNA) on Exercise Capacity and Endothelial Response in Diabetic Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przyborowski, Kamil; Wojewoda, Marta; Sitek, Barbara; Zakrzewska, Agnieszka; Kij, Agnieszka; Wandzel, Krystyna; Zoladz, Jerzy Andrzej; Chlopicki, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    1-Methylnicotinamide (MNA), which was initially considered to be a biologically inactive endogenous metabolite of nicotinamide, has emerged as an anti-thrombotic and anti-inflammatory agent with the capacity to release prostacyclin (PGI2). In the present study, we characterized the effects of MNA on exercise capacity and the endothelial response to exercise in diabetic mice. Eight-week-old db/db mice were untreated or treated with MNA for 4 weeks (100 mg·kg-1), and their exercise capacity as well as NO- and PGI2-dependent response to endurance running were subsequently assessed. MNA treatment of db/db mice resulted in four-fold and three-fold elevation of urine concentrations of MNA and its metabolites (Met-2PY + Met-4PY), respectively (P<0.01), but did not affect HbA1c concentration, fasting glucose concentration or lipid profile. However, insulin sensitivity was improved (P<0.01). In MNA-treated db/db mice, the time to fatigue for endurance exercise was significantly prolonged (P<0.05). Post-exercise Δ6-keto-PGF1α (difference between mean concentration in the sedentary and exercised groups) tended to increase, and post-exercise leukocytosis was substantially reduced in MNA-treated animals. In turn, the post-exercise fall in plasma concentration of nitrate was not affected by MNA. In conclusion, we demonstrated for the first time that MNA improves endurance exercise capacity in mice with diabetes, and may also decrease the cardiovascular risk of exercise.

  3. Effects of 1-Methylnicotinamide (MNA on Exercise Capacity and Endothelial Response in Diabetic Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamil Przyborowski

    Full Text Available 1-Methylnicotinamide (MNA, which was initially considered to be a biologically inactive endogenous metabolite of nicotinamide, has emerged as an anti-thrombotic and anti-inflammatory agent with the capacity to release prostacyclin (PGI2. In the present study, we characterized the effects of MNA on exercise capacity and the endothelial response to exercise in diabetic mice. Eight-week-old db/db mice were untreated or treated with MNA for 4 weeks (100 mg·kg-1, and their exercise capacity as well as NO- and PGI2-dependent response to endurance running were subsequently assessed. MNA treatment of db/db mice resulted in four-fold and three-fold elevation of urine concentrations of MNA and its metabolites (Met-2PY + Met-4PY, respectively (P<0.01, but did not affect HbA1c concentration, fasting glucose concentration or lipid profile. However, insulin sensitivity was improved (P<0.01. In MNA-treated db/db mice, the time to fatigue for endurance exercise was significantly prolonged (P<0.05. Post-exercise Δ6-keto-PGF1α (difference between mean concentration in the sedentary and exercised groups tended to increase, and post-exercise leukocytosis was substantially reduced in MNA-treated animals. In turn, the post-exercise fall in plasma concentration of nitrate was not affected by MNA. In conclusion, we demonstrated for the first time that MNA improves endurance exercise capacity in mice with diabetes, and may also decrease the cardiovascular risk of exercise.

  4. The Benefits of Exercise Training on Aerobic Capacity in Patients with Heart Failure and Preserved Ejection Fraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    do Prado, Danilo Marcelo Leite; Rocco, Enéas Antônio

    2017-01-01

    Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) is defined as an inability of the ventricles to optimally accept blood from atria with blunted end- diastolic volume response by limiting the stroke volume and cardiac output. The HEpEF prevalence is higher in elderly and women and may be associated to hypertension, diabetes mellitus and atrial fibrillation. Severe exercise intolerance, manifested by dyspnea and fatigue during physical effort is the important chronic symptom in HFpEF patients, in which is the major determinant of their reduced quality of life. In this sense, several studies demonstrated reduced aerobic capacity in terms of lower peak oxygen consumption (peak VO 2 ) in patients with HFpEF. In addition, the lower aerobic capacity observed in HFpEF may be due to impaired both convective and diffusive O 2 transport (i.e. reduced cardiac output and arteriovenous oxygen difference, respectively).Exercise training program can help restore physiological function in order to increase aerobic capacity and improve the quality of life in HFpEF patients. Therefore, the primary purpose of this chapter was to clarify the physiological mechanisms associated with reduced aerobic capacity in HFpEF patients. Secondly, special focus was devoted to show how aerobic exercise training can improve aerobic capacity and quality of life in HFpEF patients.

  5. Exercise capacity and selected physiological factors by ancestry and residential altitude

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bianba; Berntsen, Sveinung; Andersen, Lars Bo

    2014-01-01

    AIM: Several physiological compensatory mechanisms have enabled Tibetans to live and work at high altitude, including increased ventilation and pulmonary diffusion capacity, both of which serve to increase oxygen transport in the blood. The aim of the present study was to compare exercise capacity...... Tibetans vs. Han Chinese may reflect a better adaptation to life at high altitude. Tibetans at the lower residential altitude of 3700 m demonstrated a better exercise capacity than residents at a higher altitude of 4300 m when measured at their respective residential altitudes. Such altitude- or ancestry...... (maximal power output) and selected physiological factors (arterial oxygen saturation and heart rate at rest and during maximal exercise, resting hemoglobin concentration, and forced vital capacity) in groups of native Tibetan children living at different residential altitudes (3700 vs. 4300 m above sea...

  6. Divergent outcomes of fructose consumption on exercise capacity of rats: friend or foe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Angela; Huang, An; Kertowidjojo, Elizabeth; Song, Su; Hintze, Thomas H; Sun, Dong

    2017-02-01

    To test the hypothesis that high fructose (HF) consumption divergently affects exercise capability as a function of feeding duration, rats were fed a normal (as control) diet or a normal caloric diet with HF for 3, 6, 10, and 30 days, respectively, and then were run on a treadmill. Results show that running distance and work were significantly increased, which was associated with greater exercise oxygen consumption in rats fed HF for 3 (HF-3D) and 6 days, but were decreased in rats fed HF for 30 days (HF-30D) compared with rats in their respective control groups. Shear stress-induced vasodilation (SSID) in isolated plantaris muscle arterioles was significantly greater in the HF-3D group than the control group. The difference in SSID between the two groups was abolished by N ω -nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME), suggesting a nitric oxide (NO)-mediated response. Expression of phosphorylated/activated endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) and release of nitrite/NO were significantly increased in vessels of animals in the HF-3D group than controls. In contrast, arterioles isolated from the hypertensive rats in the HF-30D group displayed significantly attenuated NO-mediated SSID accompanied with greater production of superoxide compared with vessels of control animals. Additionally, the NO-dependent modulation of myocardial oxygen consumption (MV̇o 2 ) was also impaired in the HF-30D group, and was prevented by blocking superoxide production with apocynin, an inhibitor that also normalized the reduced SSID in the HF-30D group. In conclusion, short-term (3-6 days) HF feeding enhances exercise potential via an increase in endothelial sensitivity to shear stress, which stimulates eNOS to release NO, leading to better tissue perfusion and utilization of oxygen. However, long-term (30 days) HF feeding initiates endothelial dysfunction by superoxide-dependent mechanisms to compromise exercise performance. NEW & NOTEWORTHY The evidence that short-term fructose intake

  7. [Sports medical aspects in cardiac risk stratification--heart rate variability and exercise capacity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banzer, W; Lucki, K; Bürklein, M; Rosenhagen, A; Vogt, L

    2006-12-01

    The present study investigates the association of the predicted CHD-risk (PROCAM) with the individual endurance capacity and heart rate variability (HRV) in a population-based sample of sedentary elderly. After stratification, in 57 men (48.1+/-9.5 yrs.) with an overall PROCAM-risk or =10% (50.8+/-5.6 points) cycle ergometries and short-term HRV analysis of time (RRMEAN, SDNN, RMSSD) and frequency domain parameters (LF, HF, TP, LF/HF) were conducted. Additionally the autonomic stress index (SI) was calculated. Nonparametric tests were used for statistical correlation analysis (Spearman rho) and group comparisons (Mann-Whitney). For endurance capacity [W/kg] (r=-0.469, pHRV analysis in risk stratification and outline the interrelation of a decreased exercise capacity and autonomic function with a raised individual 10-year cardiac risk. As an independent parameter of the vegetative regulatory state the stress index may contribute to an increased practical relevance of short-time HRV analysis.

  8. Functional tasks exercise improves daily function in older women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vreede, P.L. de

    2006-01-01

    Ageing is characterised by a reduction in physical reserve, the physiological capacity in excess of that needed for daily activities, that provides a margin of safety that absorbs age- or disease-related changes without a loss in function. When physical capacity falls below the ability required for

  9. Changes in the lipid composition of blood under the influence of a single submaximal exercise capacity (experimental research.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ermolaeva E.N.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In acute physical exercise, there is a change in oxygen delivery working tissues, blood gas transport function and efficiency of the use of oxygen by cells in the process of metabolism, which is the basis for compensation for physical activities. Lipid metabolism plays an important role in the energy supply of muscle activity. The aim of our research is to study the effect of a single submaximal exercise capacity by changing the lipid profile of peripheral blood. Materials and Methods. The study was performed on 18 white rats. Model of acute exercise: animals swam 4 minutes with a load weighing 20% of body weight. Blood sampling was performed by intracardiac way, right after exercise. The blood lipid profile was determined. Results. In the experiment reported an increase in triglycerides, total cholesterol, very low-density lipoproteins, but the atherogenic ratio is maintained at the control values, due to a significant increase in the level of high-density lipoprotein. Conclusion. Acute submaximal exercise capacity by untrained body has an atherogenic effect. Working muscles during physical activity is a major consumer of free fatty acids, which are the source of atherogenic lipoprotein form of the very low and low density.

  10. Benefits of Exercise on Mind Function

    OpenAIRE

    Nelson, Cindy; Cromwell, Shannon

    2016-01-01

    Regular physical activity is one of the best ways to improve overall health. This fact sheet discusses exercise and the brain, exercise and cognition, exercise and stress, and effective strategies for boosting physical and mental health.

  11. High Intensity Exercise in Multiple Sclerosis: Effects on Muscle Contractile Characteristics and Exercise Capacity, a Randomised Controlled Trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inez Wens

    Full Text Available Low-to-moderate intensity exercise improves muscle contractile properties and endurance capacity in multiple sclerosis (MS. The impact of high intensity exercise remains unknown.Thirty-four MS patients were randomized into a sedentary control group (SED, n = 11 and 2 exercise groups that performed 12 weeks of a high intensity interval (HITR, n = 12 or high intensity continuous cardiovascular training (HCTR, n = 11, both in combination with resistance training. M.vastus lateralis fiber cross sectional area (CSA and proportion, knee-flexor/extensor strength, body composition, maximal endurance capacity and self-reported physical activity levels were assessed before and after 12 weeks.Compared to SED, 12 weeks of high intensity exercise increased mean fiber CSA (HITR: +21 ± 7%, HCTR: +23 ± 5%. Furthermore, fiber type I CSA increased in HCTR (+29 ± 6%, whereas type II (+23 ± 7% and IIa (+23 ± 6%, CSA increased in HITR. Muscle strength improved in HITR and HCTR (between +13 ± 7% and +45 ± 20% and body fat percentage tended to decrease (HITR: -3.9 ± 2.0% and HCTR: -2.5 ± 1.2%. Furthermore, endurance capacity (Wmax +21 ± 4%, time to exhaustion +24 ± 5%, VO2max +17 ± 5% and lean tissue mass (+1.4 ± 0.5% only increased in HITR. Finally self-reported physical activity levels increased 73 ± 19% and 86 ± 27% in HCTR and HITR, respectively.High intensity cardiovascular exercise combined with resistance training was safe, well tolerated and improved muscle contractile characteristics and endurance capacity in MS.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01845896.

  12. The effect of aging and cardiorespiratory fitness on the lung diffusing capacity response to exercise in healthy humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffman, Kirsten E; Carlson, Alex R; Miller, Andrew D; Johnson, Bruce D; Taylor, Bryan J

    2017-06-01

    Aging is associated with deterioration in the structure and function of the pulmonary circulation. We characterized the lung diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide (DL CO ), alveolar-capillary membrane conductance (Dm CO ), and pulmonary-capillary blood volume (Vc) response to discontinuous incremental exercise at 25, 50, 75, and 90% of peak work (W peak ) in four groups: 1 ) Young [27 ± 3 yr, maximal oxygen consumption (V̇o 2max ): 110 ± 18% age predicted]; 2) Young Highly Fit (27 ± 3 yr, V̇o 2max : 147 ± 8% age predicted); 3 ) Old (69 ± 5 yr, V̇o 2max : 116 ± 13% age predicted); and 4 ) Old Highly Fit (65 ± 5 yr, V̇o 2max : 162 ± 18% age predicted). At rest and at 90% W peak , DL CO , Dm CO , and Vc were decreased with age. At 90% W peak , DL CO , Dm CO , and Vc were greater in Old Highly Fit vs. Old adults. The slope of the DL CO -cardiac output (Q̇) relationship from rest to end exercise at 90% W peak was not different between Young, Young Highly Fit, Old, and Old Highly Fit (1.35 vs. 1.44 vs. 1.10 vs. 1.35 ml CO ·mmHg -1 ·liter blood -1 , P = 0.388), with no evidence of a plateau in this relationship during exercise; this was also true for Dm CO -Q̇ and Vc-Q̇. V̇o 2max was positively correlated with 1 ) DL CO , Dm CO , and Vc at rest; and 2 ) the rest to end exercise change in DL CO , Dm CO , and Vc. In conclusion, these data suggest that despite the age-associated deterioration in the structure and function of the pulmonary circulation, expansion of the pulmonary capillary network does not become limited during exercise in healthy individuals regardless of age or cardiorespiratory fitness level. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Healthy aging is a crucial area of research. This article details how differences in age and cardiorespiratory fitness level affect lung diffusing capacity, particularly during high-intensity exercise. We conclude that highly fit older adults do not experience a limit in lung diffusing capacity during

  13. Aerobic exercise capacity in post-polio syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voorn, E.L.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to expand the body of knowledge on the diminished aerobic capacity of individuals with post-polio syndrome (PPS). The studies described in this thesis were based on the assumption that, besides a reduced muscle mass, deconditioning contributes to the severely diminished

  14. Functional tasks exercise improves daily function in older women

    OpenAIRE

    Vreede, P.L. de

    2006-01-01

    Ageing is characterised by a reduction in physical reserve, the physiological capacity in excess of that needed for daily activities, that provides a margin of safety that absorbs age- or disease-related changes without a loss in function. When physical capacity falls below the ability required for the performance of daily tasks, functional limitations and a loss of independence may occur. Approximately 20% of people between 65 and 75 years of age report problems with activities of daily livi...

  15. Carbohydrate- and protein-rich diets in McArdle disease: Effects on exercise capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, S.T.; Vissing, J.

    2008-01-01

    metabolism during exercise, which questions the effect of protein in McArdle disease. METHODS: In a crossover, open design, we studied 7 patients with McArdle disease, who were randomised to follow either a carbohydrate- or protein-rich diet for three days before testing. Caloric intake on each diet...... was identical, and was adjusted to the subject's weight, age and sex. After each diet, exercise tolerance and maximal work capacity were tested on a bicycle ergometer, using a constant workload for 15 minutes followed by an incremental workload to exhaustion. RESULTS: During the constant workload, heart rate...... capacity and exercise tolerance to submaximal workloads by maintaining a diet high in carbohydrate instead of protein. The carbohydrate diet not only improves tolerance to every-day activities, but will likely also help to prevent exercise-induced episodes of muscle injury in McArdle disease Udgivelsesdato...

  16. Benefits of short inspiratory muscle training on exercise capacity, dyspnea, and inspiratory fraction in COPD patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barakat Shahin

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Barakat Shahin1, Michele Germain2, Alzahouri Kazem3, Guy Annat41Department of Physiology, University of Claude Bernard Lyon I, Lyon, France; 2Chef of the Service of EFR, Hospital of the Croix-Rousse at Lyon, France; 3Department of Medical Informatics, Hospital of St. Julien, Nancy, France; 4Department of Physiology, UFR Médecine Lyon Grange-Blanche Université Claude Bernard Lyon I, INSERM ESPRI ERI 22, Lyon, FranceAbstract: Static lung hyperinflation has important clinical consequences in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. Given that most of these patients have respiratory and peripheral muscle weakness, dyspnea and functional exercise capacity may improve as a result of inspiratory muscle training (IMT. The present study is designed to investigate the benefits of a short outpatient program of IMT on inspiratory muscle performance, exercise capacity, perception of dyspnea, and the inspiratory fraction (IF. Thirty patients (24 males, 6 females with significant COPD (forced expiratory volume in one second [FEV1] = 46.21% ± 6.7% predicted, FEV1 = 33.6% ± 8.04% predicted were recruited for this study and had 3 months of IMT (30 minutes/day for 6 days/week in an outpatient clinic. Following IMT, there was a statistically significant increase in inspiratory muscle performance (an increase of the maximal inspiratory pressure from 59% ± 19.1% to 79% ± 21.85% predicted; p = 0.0342, a decrease in dyspnea (from 5.8 ± 0.78 to 1.9 ± 0.57; p = 0.0001, an increase in the distance walked during the 6 minute walk test, from 245 ± 52.37 m to 302 ± 41.30 m, and finally an increase in the IF (the new prognostic factor in COPD from 27.6 ± 9.7% to 31.4% ± 9.8%. The present study concludes that in patients with significant COPD, IMT results in improvement in performance, exercise capacity, sensation of dyspnea, and moreover an improvement in the IF prognostic factor.Keywords: inspiratory muscle training, dyspnea, inspiratory

  17. Nonparetic Knee Extensor Strength Is the Determinant of Exercise Capacity of Community-Dwelling Stroke Survivors

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Wei-Te; Huang, Ling-Tzu; Chou, Ya-Hui; Wei, Ta-Sen; Lin, Chung-Che

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To investigate the relationship among walking speed, exercise capacity, and leg strength in community dwelling stroke subjects and to evaluate which one was the leading determinant factor of them. Design. This is a descriptive, cross-sectional study. Thirty-five chronic stroke patients who were able to walk independently in their community were enrolled. Walking speed was evaluated by using the 12-meter walking test. A maximal exercise test was used to determine the stroke subjects...

  18. Functional role of AMP-activated protein kinase in the heart during exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musi, Nicolas; Hirshman, Michael F; Arad, Michael; Xing, Yanqiu; Fujii, Nobuharu; Pomerleau, Jason; Ahmad, Ferhaan; Berul, Charles I; Seidman, Jon G; Tian, Rong; Goodyear, Laurie J

    2005-04-11

    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) plays a critical role in maintaining energy homeostasis and cardiac function during ischemia in the heart. However, the functional role of AMPK in the heart during exercise is unknown. We examined whether acute exercise increases AMPK activity in mouse hearts and determined the significance of these increases by studying transgenic (TG) mice expressing a cardiac-specific dominant-negative (inactivating) AMPKalpha2 subunit. Exercise increased cardiac AMPKalpha2 activity in the wild type mice but not in TG. We found that inactivation of AMPK did not result in abnormal ATP and glycogen consumption during exercise, cardiac function assessed by heart rhythm telemetry and stress echocardiography, or in maximal exercise capacity.

  19. The effects of dance music jump rope exercise on pulmonary function and body mass index after music jump rope exercise in overweight adults in 20's.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, KyoChul

    2017-08-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of a dance music jump rope exercise on changes Pulmonary Function and body mass index in female overweight subjects in their 20's. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were randomly assigned to the dance music jump rope exercise group and the stationary cycle exercise group. All subjects have conducted the exercises three times a week for four weeks. Pulmonary function was evaluated using a spirometer, and body mass index was evaluated using an InBody 3.0. [Results] The findings of this study showed significant improvements in the voluntary capacity and body mass index of the experimental groups. Vital capacity was higher in the music jump rope exercise group than the stationary cycle exercise group, and body mass index was lower in the music jump rope exercise group than the stationary cycle exercise group. [Conclusion] This study showed that the dance music jump rope exercise can be used to improve vital capacity and body mass index.

  20. Effects of obstructive sleep apnea and obesity on exercise function in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Carla A; Selvadurai, Hiran; Baur, Louise A; Waters, Karen A

    2014-06-01

    Evaluate the relative contributions of weight status and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) to cardiopulmonary exercise responses in children. Prospective, cross-sectional study. Participants underwent anthropometric measurements, overnight polysomnography, spirometry, cardiopulmonary exercise function testing on a cycle ergometer, and cardiac doppler imaging. OSA was defined as ≥ 1 obstructive apnea or hypopnea per hour of sleep (OAHI). The effect of OSA on exercise function was evaluated after the parameters were corrected for body mass index (BMI) z-scores. Similarly, the effect of obesity on exercise function was examined when the variables were adjusted for OAHI. Tertiary pediatric hospital. Healthy weight and obese children, aged 7-12 y. N/A. Seventy-one children were studied. In comparison with weight-matched children without OSA, children with OSA had a lower cardiac output, stroke volume index, heart rate, and oxygen consumption (VO2 peak) at peak exercise capacity. After adjusting for BMI z-score, children with OSA had 1.5 L/min (95% confidence interval -2.3 to -0.6 L/min; P = 0.001) lower cardiac output at peak exercise capacity, but minute ventilation and ventilatory responses to exercise were not affected. Obesity was only associated with physical deconditioning. Cardiac dysfunction was associated with the frequency of respiratory-related arousals, the severity of hypoxia, and heart rate during sleep. Children with OSA are exercise limited due to a reduced cardiac output and VO2 peak at peak exercise capacity, independent of their weight status. Comorbid OSA can further decrease exercise performance in obese children.

  1. Functional capacity and mental state of patients undergoing cardiac surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna Corrêa

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: Cardiovascular diseases are a serious public health problem in Brazil. Myocardial revascularization surgery (MRS as well as cardiac valve replacement and repair are procedures indicated to treat them. Thus, extracorporeal circulation (ECC is still widely used in these surgeries, in which patients with long ECC times may have greater neurological deficits. Neurological damage resulting from MRS can have devastating consequences such as loss of independence and worsening of quality of life. Objective: To assess the effect of cardiac surgery on a patient’s mental state and functional capacity in both the pre- and postoperative periods. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study with convenience sampling of subjects undergoing MRS and valve replacement. Participants were administered the Mini-Mental State Exam (MMSE and the Duke Activity Status Index (DASI in the pre- and postoperative periods, as well as before their hospital discharge. Results: This study assessed nine patients (eight males aged 62.4 ± 6.3 years with a BMI of 29.5 ± 2.3 kg/m2. There was a significant decrease in DASI scores and VO2 from preoperative to postoperative status (p = 0.003 and p = 0.003, respectively. Conclusion: This study revealed a loss of cognitive and exercise capacity after cardiac surgery. A larger sample however is needed to consolidate these findings.

  2. The effects of exercise under hypoxia on cognitive function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soichi Ando

    Full Text Available Increasing evidence suggests that cognitive function improves during a single bout of moderate exercise. In contrast, exercise under hypoxia may compromise the availability of oxygen. Given that brain function and tissue integrity are dependent on a continuous and sufficient oxygen supply, exercise under hypoxia may impair cognitive function. However, it remains unclear how exercise under hypoxia affects cognitive function. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of exercise under different levels of hypoxia on cognitive function. Twelve participants performed a cognitive task at rest and during exercise at various fractions of inspired oxygen (FIO2: 0.209, 0.18, and 0.15. Exercise intensity corresponded to 60% of peak oxygen uptake under normoxia. The participants performed a Go/No-Go task requiring executive control. Cognitive function was evaluated using the speed of response (reaction time and response accuracy. We monitored pulse oximetric saturation (SpO2 and cerebral oxygenation to assess oxygen availability. SpO2 and cerebral oxygenation progressively decreased during exercise as the FIO2 level decreased. Nevertheless, the reaction time in the Go-trial significantly decreased during moderate exercise. Hypoxia did not affect reaction time. Neither exercise nor difference in FIO2 level affected response accuracy. An additional experiment indicated that cognitive function was not altered without exercise. These results suggest that the improvement in cognitive function is attributable to exercise, and that hypoxia has no effects on cognitive function at least under the present experimental condition. Exercise-cognition interaction should be further investigated under various environmental and exercise conditions.

  3. The Impaired Function of Macrophages Induced by Strenuous Exercise Could Not Be Ameliorated by BCAA Supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Weihua; Chen, Peijie; Liu, Xiaoguang; Zhao, Linlin

    2015-10-21

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of strenuous exercise on the functions of peritoneal macrophages in rats and to test the hypothesis that branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) supplementation will be beneficial to the macrophages of rats from strenuous exercise. Forty male Wistar rats were randomly divided into five groups: (C) Control, E) Exercise, (E1) Exercise with one week to recover, (ES) Exercise + Supplementation and (ES1) Exercise + Supplementation with 1 week to recover. All rats except those of the sedentary control were subjected to four weeks of strenuous exercise. Blood hemoglobin, serum testosterone and BCAA levels were tested. Peritoneal macrophages functions were also determined at the same time. The data showed that hemoglobin, testosterone, BCAA levels, and body weight in group E decreased significantly as compared with that of group C. Meanwhile, phagocytosis capacity (decreased by 17.07%, p = 0.031), reactive oxygen species (ROS) production (decreased by 26%, p = 0.003) and MHC II mRNA (decreased by 22%, p = 0.041) of macrophages decreased in the strenuous exercise group as compared with group C. However, the chemotaxis of macrophages did not change significantly. In addition, BCAA supplementation could slightly increase the serum BCAA levels of rats from strenuous exercise (increased by 6.70%, p > 0.05). Moreover, the body weight, the blood hemoglobin, the serum testosterone and the function of peritoneal macrophages in group ES did not change significantly as compared with group E. These results suggest that long-term intensive exercise impairs the function of macrophages, which is essential for microbicidal capability. This may represent a novel mechanism of immunosuppression induced by strenuous exercise. Moreover, the impaired function of macrophage induced by strenuous exercise could not be ameliorated by BCAA supplementation in the dosing and timing used for this study.

  4. The Impaired Function of Macrophages Induced by Strenuous Exercise Could Not Be Ameliorated by BCAA Supplementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weihua Xiao

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of strenuous exercise on the functions of peritoneal macrophages in rats and to test the hypothesis that branched-chain amino acid (BCAA supplementation will be beneficial to the macrophages of rats from strenuous exercise. Forty male Wistar rats were randomly divided into five groups: (C Control, E Exercise, (E1 Exercise with one week to recover, (ES Exercise + Supplementation and (ES1 Exercise + Supplementation with 1 week to recover. All rats except those of the sedentary control were subjected to four weeks of strenuous exercise. Blood hemoglobin, serum testosterone and BCAA levels were tested. Peritoneal macrophages functions were also determined at the same time. The data showed that hemoglobin, testosterone, BCAA levels, and body weight in group E decreased significantly as compared with that of group C. Meanwhile, phagocytosis capacity (decreased by 17.07%, p = 0.031, reactive oxygen species (ROS production (decreased by 26%, p = 0.003 and MHC II mRNA (decreased by 22%, p = 0.041 of macrophages decreased in the strenuous exercise group as compared with group C. However, the chemotaxis of macrophages did not change significantly. In addition, BCAA supplementation could slightly increase the serum BCAA levels of rats from strenuous exercise (increased by 6.70%, p > 0.05. Moreover, the body weight, the blood hemoglobin, the serum testosterone and the function of peritoneal macrophages in group ES did not change significantly as compared with group E. These results suggest that long-term intensive exercise impairs the function of macrophages, which is essential for microbicidal capability. This may represent a novel mechanism of immunosuppression induced by strenuous exercise. Moreover, the impaired function of macrophage induced by strenuous exercise could not be ameliorated by BCAA supplementation in the dosing and timing used for this study.

  5. Restrictive Mitral Annuloplasty Does Not Limit Exercise Capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deja, Marek A; Żak, Aleksandra; Malinowski, Marcin; Pysz, Piotr; Gaszewska-Żurek, Ewa; Turski, Maciej; Janusiewicz, Piotr; Wita, Krystian; Chudek, Jerzy

    2015-10-01

    Restrictive mitral annuloplasty is the preferred method of treating secondary mitral regurgitation. The use of small annuloplasty rings to reduce the high recurrence rates may result in mitral stenosis. Thirty-six patients who underwent restrictive mitral annuloplasty with Carpentier-Edwards classic 26 size ring underwent exercise echocardiography and ergospirometry. Resting catecholamines and N-terminal pro brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) levels were measured. At the time of study, the median time from operation was 16.6 months (interquartile range, 8.5 to 43.3 months). Left ventricular end-systolic volume index (LVESVI) was 67 mL/m(2) (interquartile range, 25 to 92 mL/m(2)), and ejection fraction (EF) was 38.8% (interquartile range, 28.3% to 59.0%). Mitral gradients were higher at the leaflet tips than at the annular level. Continuous wave (CW) Doppler gradients at rest were 3.4 mmHg (interquartile range, 2.4 to 4.9 mmHg) mean and 9.5 mmHg (interquartile range, 7.0 to 14.7 mmHg) maximal. On exertion, they increased to 6.8 mmHg (interquartile range, 5.4 to 8.8 mmHg) (p = 0.001) and 19.7 mmHg (interquartile range, 12.8 to 23.3 mmHg) (p = 0.001), respectively. Maximal VO2 was 18.2 mL/kg/min (interquartile range, 16.3 to 21.5 mL/kg/min), VE/VCO2 slope was 31.1 (interquartile range, 26 to 34). Epinephrine level was 0.024 ng/mL (interquartile range, 0.0098 to 0.043 ng/mL), norepinephrine was 0.61 ng/mL (interquartile range, 0.41 to 0.95 ng/mL), and NT-proBNP was 303 pg/mL (interquartile range, 155 to 553 pg/mL). Maximal VO2 negatively correlated with resting norepinephrine level (r = -0.50, p = 0.003). VE/VCO2 slope positively correlated with NT-proBNP (r = 0.36, p = 0.004) and epinephrine (r = 0.36, p = 0.04) levels and with LV volumes (r = 0.51, p = 0.006) and was negatively correlated with LVEF (r = -0.52, p = 0.004). Neither maximal VO2 nor VE/VCO2 slope correlated with the highest mean (r = 0.24, p = 0.2, and r = -0.20, p = 0.3, respectively) and maximal (r

  6. Benefits of regular aerobic exercise for executive functioning in healthy populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guiney, Hayley; Machado, Liana

    2013-02-01

    Research suggests that regular aerobic exercise has the potential to improve executive functioning, even in healthy populations. The purpose of this review is to elucidate which components of executive functioning benefit from such exercise in healthy populations. In light of the developmental time course of executive functions, we consider separately children, young adults, and older adults. Data to date from studies of aging provide strong evidence of exercise-linked benefits related to task switching, selective attention, inhibition of prepotent responses, and working memory capacity; furthermore, cross-sectional fitness data suggest that working memory updating could potentially benefit as well. In young adults, working memory updating is the main executive function shown to benefit from regular exercise, but cross-sectional data further suggest that task-switching and post error performance may also benefit. In children, working memory capacity has been shown to benefit, and cross-sectional data suggest potential benefits for selective attention and inhibitory control. Although more research investigating exercise-related benefits for specific components of executive functioning is clearly needed in young adults and children, when considered across the age groups, ample evidence indicates that regular engagement in aerobic exercise can provide a simple means for healthy people to optimize a range of executive functions.

  7. Inefficient skeletal muscle oxidative function flanks impaired motor neuron recruitment in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis during exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanfranconi, F; Ferri, A; Corna, G; Bonazzi, R; Lunetta, C; Silani, V; Riva, N; Rigamonti, A; Maggiani, A; Ferrarese, C; Tremolizzo, L

    2017-06-07

    This study aimed to evaluate muscle oxidative function during exercise in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients (pALS) with non-invasive methods in order to assess if determinants of reduced exercise tolerance might match ALS clinical heterogeneity. 17 pALS, who were followed for 4 months, were compared with 13 healthy controls (CTRL). Exercise tolerance was assessed by an incremental exercise test on cycle ergometer measuring peak O 2 uptake ([Formula: see text]O 2peak ), vastus lateralis oxidative function by near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) and breathing pattern ([Formula: see text]E peak ). pALS displayed: (1) 44% lower [Formula: see text]O 2peak vs. CTRL (p motor units recruitment, is a major determinant of pALS clinical heterogeneity and working capacity exercise tolerance. CPET and NIRS are useful tools for detecting early stages of oxidative deficiency in skeletal muscles, disclosing individual impairments in the O 2 transport and utilization chain.

  8. Effect of lifelong resveratrol supplementation and exercise training on skeletal muscle oxidative capacity in aging mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ringholm, Stine; Olesen, Jesper; Pedersen, Jesper Thorhauge

    2013-01-01

    The present study tested the hypothesis that lifelong resveratrol (RSV) supplementation counteracts an age-associated decrease in skeletal muscle oxidative capacity through peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator (PGC)-1α and that RSV combined with lifelong exercise training (ET...

  9. Wheelchair exercise capacity in spinal cord injury up to five years after discharge from inpatient rehabilitation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Koppenhagen, Casper F.; de Groot, Sonja; Post, Marcel W. M.; van Asbeck, Floris W. A.; Spijkerman, Dorien; Faber, Willemijn X. M.; Lindeman, Eline; van der Woude, Lucas H. V.

    Objective: To elucidate the course and determinants of wheelchair exercise capacity in spinal cord injury up to 5 years after discharge from inpatient rehabilitation, and to describe loss to follow-up. Design: Prospective cohort study, with measurements at the start and discharge from inpatient

  10. Effects of formoterol (Oxis (R) Turbuhaler (R)) and ipratropium on exercise capacity in patients with COPD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liesker, JJW; Van de Velde, [No Value; Meysman, M; Vincken, W; Wollmer, P; Hansson, L; Kerstjens, HAM; Qvint, U; Pauwels, RA

    Although long-acting inhaled beta(2)-agonists improve various outcome measures in COPD, no double-blind study has yet shown a significant effect of these drugs on exercise capacity. In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study, patients received formoterol (4.5,9, or 18 mug

  11. Aortic valve prosthesis-patient mismatch and exercise capacity in adult patients with congenital heart disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Slooten, Ymkje J.; Melle, van Joost P.; Freling, Hendrik G.; Bouma, Berto J.; van Dijk, Arie P. J.; Jongbloed, Monique R. M.; Post, Martijn C.; Sieswerda, Gertjan T.; in 't Veld, Anna Huis; Ebels, Tjark; Voors, Adriaan A.; Pieper, Petronella G.

    Objectives To report the prevalence of aortic valve prosthesis patient mismatch (PPM) in an adult population with congenital heart disease (CHD) and its impact on exercise capacity. Adults with congenital heart disease (ACHD) with a history of aortic valve replacement may outgrow their prosthesis

  12. Aortic valve prosthesis-patient mismatch and exercise capacity in adult patients with congenital heart disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Slooten, Ymkje J.; van Melle, Joost P.; Freling, Hendrik G.; Bouma, Berto J.; van Dijk, Arie Pj; Jongbloed, Monique Rm; Post, Martijn C.; Sieswerda, Gertjan T.; Huis In 't Veld, Anna; Ebels, Tjark; Voors, Adriaan A.; Pieper, Petronella G.

    2016-01-01

    To report the prevalence of aortic valve prosthesis-patient mismatch (PPM) in an adult population with congenital heart disease (CHD) and its impact on exercise capacity. Adults with congenital heart disease (ACHD) with a history of aortic valve replacement may outgrow their prosthesis later in

  13. Exercise capacity in Dutch children : New reference values for the Bruce treadmill protocol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.H.M. van der Cammen-van Zijp (Monique); H.J.G. van den Berg-Emons (Rita); S.P. Willemsen (Sten); H.J. Stam (Henk); D. Tibboel (Dick); H. IJsselstijn (Hanneke)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThe Bruce treadmill protocol is suitable for children 4 years of age and older. Dutch reference values were established in 1987. We considered that children's exercise capacity has deteriorated due to changes in physical activity patterns and eating habits. We determined new reference

  14. Feasibility, physical capacity, and health benefits of a multidimensional exercise program for cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adamsen, Lis; Midtgaard, Julie; Rorth, Mikael

    2003-01-01

    Cancer patients frequently experience considerable loss of physical capacity and general wellbeing when diagnosed and treated for their disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility, physical capacity, and health benefits of a multidimensional exercise program for cancer patients...... during advanced stages of disease who are undergoing adjuvant or high-dose chemotherapy. The supervised program included high- and low-intensity activities (physical exercise, relaxation, massage, and body-awareness training). A total of 23 patients between 18 and 65 years of age (median 40 years...... significance. It is concluded that an exercise program, which combines high- and low-intensity physical activities, may be used to prevent and/or minimize physical inactivity, fatigue, muscle wasting and energy loss in cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy....

  15. Relevance of normative values for functional capacity evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soer, R.; Van Der Schans, C.; Geertzen, J.; Groothoff, J.; Brouwer, Sandra; Dijkstra, P.; Reneman, M.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Functional Capacity Evaluations (FCEs) are evaluations designed to measure capacity to perform activities and are used to make recommendations for participation in work. Normative values of healthy working subjects' performances are unavailable, thus patients' performances cannot be

  16. Influence of Two Different Exercise Programs on Physical Fitness and Cognitive Performance in Active Older Adults: Functional Resistance-Band Exercises vs. Recreational Oriented Exercises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernán Ponce-Bravo, Christian Ponce, Belén Feriche, Paulino Padial

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the impact of a resistance-band functional exercise program, compared with a recreational exercise program, on physical fitness and reaction times in persons older than 60 years. Fifty-four community-dwelling volunteers (71.76 ± 6.02 years were assigned to a specific exercise program: Functional activity program (focused on resistance-band multi-joint activities; experimental group, EG, or recreational physical activity program (with gross motor activities of ludic content; control group, CG. Before and after the intervention, we determined cognitive capacity in terms of simple reaction time (S-RT, choice reaction time (C-RT and fitness. In both groups physical performance improved, though this improvement was more marked in the EG for grip strength, arm strength and gross motor abilities (p < 0.05. Reaction times were better only in EG (S-RT = 10.70%, C-RT = 14.34%; p < 0.05 after the corresponding physical training intervention. The training period showed no effect on the moderate relationship between both RT and gross motor abilities in the CG, whereas the EG displayed an enhanced relationship between S-RT and grip-strength as well as the C-RT with arm strength and aerobic capacity (r ~ 0.457; p < 0.05. Our findings indicate that a functional exercise program using a resistance band improves fitness and cognitive performance in healthy older adults.

  17. Estimated Aerobic Capacity Changes in Adolescents with Obesity Following High Intensity Interval Exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brooke E. Starkoff

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Vigorous aerobic exercise may improve aerobic capacity (VO2max and cardiometabolic profiles in adolescents with obesity, independent of changes to weight. Our aim was to assess changes in estimated VO2max in obese adolescents following a 6-week exercise program of varying intensities. Adolescents with obesity were recruited from an American mid-west children’s hospital and randomized into moderate exercise (MOD or high intensity interval exercise (HIIE groups for a 6-week exercise intervention, consisting of cycle ergometry for 40 minutes, 3 days per week. Heart rate was measured every two minutes during each exercise session.  Estimated VO2max measured via Åstrand cycle test, body composition, and physical activity (PA enjoyment evaluated via questionnaire were assessed pre/post-intervention. Twenty-seven adolescents (age 14.7±1.5; 17 female, 10 male completed the intervention. Estimated VO2max increased only in the HIIE group (20.0±5.7 to 22.7±6.5 ml/kg/min, p=0.015. The HIIE group also demonstrated increased PA enjoyment, which was correlated with average heart rate achieved during the intervention (r=0.55; p=0.043. Six weeks of HIIE elicited improvements to estimated VO2max in adolescents with obesity. Furthermore, those exercising at higher heart rates demonstrated greater PA enjoyment, implicating enjoyment as an important determinant of VO2max, specifically following higher intensity activities.

  18. Respiratory muscle function and exercise limitation in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charususin, Noppawan; Dacha, Sauwaluk; Gosselink, Rik; Decramer, Marc; Von Leupoldt, Andreas; Reijnders, Thomas; Louvaris, Zafeiris; Langer, Daniel

    2018-01-01

    Respiratory muscle dysfunction is common and contributes to dyspnea and exercise limitation in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Improving dynamic function of respiratory muscles during exercise might help to reduce symptoms and improve exercise capacity. Areas covered: The aims of this review are to 1) summarize physiological mechanisms linking respiratory muscle dysfunction to dyspnea and exercise limitation; 2) provide an overview of available therapeutic approaches to better maintain load-capacity balance of respiratory muscles during exercise; and 3) to summarize current knowledge on potential mechanisms explaining effects of interventions aimed at optimizing dynamic respiratory muscle function with a special focus on inspiratory muscle training. Expert commentary: Several mechanisms which are potentially linking improvements in dynamic respiratory muscle function to symptomatic and functional benefits have not been studied so far in COPD patients. Examples of underexplored areas include the study of neural processes related to the relief of acute dyspnea and the competition between respiratory and peripheral muscles for limited energy supplies during exercise. Novel methodologies are available to non-invasively study these mechanisms. Better insights into the consequences of dynamic respiratory muscle dysfunction will hopefully contribute to further refine and individualize therapeutic approaches in patients with COPD.

  19. Effects of group exercise on functional abilities: Differences between physically active and physically inactive women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cokorilo, Nebojsa; Mikalacki, Milena; Satara, Goran; Cvetkovic, Milan; Marinkovic, Dragan; Zvekic-Svorcan, Jelena; Obradovic, Borislav

    2018-03-30

    Aerobic exercises to music can have a positive effect on functional and motor skills of an exerciser, their health, as well as an aesthetic and socio-psychological component. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of reactive exercising in a group on functional capabilities in physically active and physically inactive women. A prospective study included 64 healthy women aged 40-60 years. The sample was divided into the experimental group (n= 36), i.e. physically active women who have been engaged in recreational group exercises at the Faculty of Sport and Physical Education, University of Novi Sad, Serbia, and the control group (n= 28), which consisted of physically inactive women. All the participants were monitored using the same protocol before and after the implementation of the research. All women had their height, weight, body mass index measured as well as spiroergometric parameters determined according to the Bruce protocol. A univariate analysis of variance has shown that there is a statistically significant difference between the experimental group and the control group in maximum speed, the total duration of the test, relative oxygen consumption, absolute oxygen consumption and ventilation during the final measurement. After the training intervention, the experimental group showed improvements in all the parameters analyzed compared with pretest values. The recreational group exercise model significantly improves aerobic capacity and functioning of the cardiovascular system. Therefore, it is essential for women to be involved more in any form of recreational group exercising in order to improve functional capacity and health.

  20. The Influence of Various Types of Water Gymnastics Upon the Exercise Capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana BADAU

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Between the components of the physiological capacity and the practice degree of the physical exercise is a direct interrelation, which is influenced by a number of factors, out of which deployment environment with its features has a leading role. Determining the relationship between the effort capacity by heart rate changes during recovery after exercise, determining the body aerobic resistance level, as a result of the entertaining and recreational activities, specifically, performed in different environments: terrestrial and aquatic, using adapted exercises and innovative materials, that require various and specific efforts. The study was conducted during the academic year 2012-2013, with the female students in the first year of the non-profile faculties and comprised two experimental groups of 24 subjects each, from UMF Tg. Mures, who carried out specific water gymnastics activities, during physical education classes and a control group composed of 47 female students from Transilvania University of Brasov, who carried out the following: entertaining and recreational activities, application exercises, overall physical development free exercises or with portable objects. During the research, the Ruffier test was applied with target on the body aerobic resistance level. Following the research performance, the Ruffier index recorded the biggest difference of the averages of 1.75, after practicing aqua-pullpush-gym activities.

  1. An 8-Week Ketogenic Low Carbohydrate, High Fat Diet Enhanced Exhaustive Exercise Capacity in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Sihui; Huang, Qingyi; Yada, Koichi; Liu, Chunhong; Suzuki, Katsuhiko

    2018-05-25

    Current fueling tactics for endurance exercise encourage athletes to ingest a high carbohydrate diet. However, athletes are not generally encouraged to use fat, the largest energy reserve in the human body. A low carbohydrate, high fat ketogenic diet (KD) is a nutritional approach ensuring that the body utilizes lipids. Although KD has been associated with weight-loss, enhanced fat utilization in muscle and other beneficial effects, there is currently no clear proof whether it could lead to performance advantage. To evaluate the effects of KD on endurance exercise capacity, we studied the performance of mice subjected to a running model after consuming KD for eight weeks. Weight dropped dramatically in KD-feeding mice, even though they ate more calories. KD-feeding mice showed enhanced running time without aggravated muscle injury. Blood biochemistry and correlation analysis indicated the potential mechanism is likely to be a keto-adaptation enhanced capacity to transport and metabolize fat. KD also showed a potential preventive effect on organ injury caused by acute exercise, although KD failed to exert protection from muscle injury. Ultimately, KD may contribute to prolonged exercise capacity.

  2. An 8-Week Ketogenic Low Carbohydrate, High Fat Diet Enhanced Exhaustive Exercise Capacity in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sihui Ma

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Current fueling tactics for endurance exercise encourage athletes to ingest a high carbohydrate diet. However, athletes are not generally encouraged to use fat, the largest energy reserve in the human body. A low carbohydrate, high fat ketogenic diet (KD is a nutritional approach ensuring that the body utilizes lipids. Although KD has been associated with weight-loss, enhanced fat utilization in muscle and other beneficial effects, there is currently no clear proof whether it could lead to performance advantage. To evaluate the effects of KD on endurance exercise capacity, we studied the performance of mice subjected to a running model after consuming KD for eight weeks. Weight dropped dramatically in KD-feeding mice, even though they ate more calories. KD-feeding mice showed enhanced running time without aggravated muscle injury. Blood biochemistry and correlation analysis indicated the potential mechanism is likely to be a keto-adaptation enhanced capacity to transport and metabolize fat. KD also showed a potential preventive effect on organ injury caused by acute exercise, although KD failed to exert protection from muscle injury. Ultimately, KD may contribute to prolonged exercise capacity.

  3. Exercise capacity in patients 3 days after acute, uncomplicated myocardial infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burek, K.A.; Kirscht, J.; Topol, E.J.

    1989-01-01

    In a randomized, controlled trial of early hospital discharge after acute myocardial infarction (MI), a heart rate, symptom-limited exercise thallium test was performed after the onset of MI. Patients' exercise capacity was evaluated by the exercise treadmill with accompanying thallium scintigraphy. Of 507 consecutive patients screened, the condition of 179 was classified as uncomplicated, which is defined as the absence of angina, heart failure, or serious arrhythmias at 72 hours from admission. Of the patients with uncomplicated conditions, 126 had an exercise test on day 3 and 53 did not exercise on day 3. Of the 126 patients who exercised on day 3, 36 had a positive test and 90 had a negative test for ischemia. The 36 patients with a positive test result exercised a mean time of 6.71 +/- 2.8 minutes, achieved a mean peak heart rate of 120.9 +/- 21.4 beats/min, reached a peak systolic blood pressure of 144.7 +/- 33.3 mm Hg, and achieved a double product (rate-pressure product) of 183.4 +/- 67.6. The 90 patients with a negative test result for ischemia exercised 9.45 +/- 12.7 minutes, achieved a peak heart rate of 130.2 +/- 14.4 beats/min, reached a mean systolic blood pressure of 155.5 +/- 29.4 mm Hg, and achieved a rate-pressure product of 210.5 +/- 44.0. Of the 90 patients with uncomplicated conditions who had a negative exercise test for ischemia, 85 patients received reperfusion therapy, which included thrombolysis or coronary angioplasty or both

  4. Breathing exercises with vagal biofeedback may benefit patients with functional dyspepsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hjelland, Ina E; Svebak, Sven; Berstad, Arnold; Flatabø, Geir; Hausken, Trygve

    2007-09-01

    Many patients with functional dyspepsia (FD) have postprandial symptoms, impaired gastric accommodation and low vagal tone. The aim of this study was to improve vagal tone, and thereby also drinking capacity, intragastric volume and quality of life, using breathing exercises with vagal biofeedback. Forty FD patients were randomized to either a biofeedback group or a control group. The patients received similar information and care. Patients in the biofeedback group were trained in breathing exercises, 6 breaths/min, 5 min each day for 4 weeks, using specially designed software for vagal biofeedback. Effect variables included maximal drinking capacity using a drink test (Toro clear meat soup 100 ml/min), intragastric volume at maximal drinking capacity, respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA), skin conductance (SC) and dyspepsia-related quality of life scores. Drinking capacity and quality of life improved significantly more in the biofeedback group than in the control group (p=0.02 and p=0.01) without any significant change in baseline autonomic activity (RSA and SC) or intragastric volume. After the treatment period, RSA during breathing exercises was significantly correlated to drinking capacity (r=0.6, p=0.008). Breathing exercises with vagal biofeedback increased drinking capacity and improved quality of life in FD patients, but did not improve baseline vagal tone.

  5. Insulin resistance, exercise capacity and body composition in subjects with two hypertensive parents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, U B; Dige-Petersen, H; Ibsen, H

    1999-01-01

    -ray absorptiometry; (4) an exercise test with gas exchange analysis; and (5) investigation of composition of usual diet by diet registration for 5 days. RESULTS: The 24-h diastolic blood pressure was higher in subjects predisposed to hypertension compared with the controls: 78.1 versus 74.0 mmHg (confidence interval...... for the difference between the means; -0.5; -7.9), but the insulin sensitivity index was similar: 312 versus 362 I(2) min(-1) pmol(-1) kg(-1) (28; -129). The two groups were similar in terms of body composition, exercise capacity and composition of usual diet. Resting and 24-h diastolic blood pressures were...

  6. Relationship between exercise capacity and left ventricular function at rest in patients with heart failure. An ambulatory left ventricular monitoring study; Relazione tra capacita' di esercizio e funzione ventricolare sinistra a riposo nei pazienti con insufficienza cardiaca. Studio mediante monitoraggio continuo radionuclidico della funzione ventricolare sinistra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pace, L.; Cuocolo, A.; Salvatore, M. [Naples Univ. Federico 2., Naples (Italy). Medicina Nucleare; Centro di Medicina Nucleare, Naples (Italy); Nappi, A.; Imbriaco, M; Varrone, A. [Naples Univ. Federico 2., Naples (Italy). Medicina Nucleare; Romano, M.; Trimarco, B. [Naples Univ., Federico 2., Naples (Italy). Medicina Interna

    2000-09-01

    Purpose of this work is to evaluate the relationship of systolic and diastolic function at rest to exercise capacity. Seventeen patients with ischemic heart failure were included in the study. Ambulatory left ventricular monitoring at rest and during upright exercise with combined analysis of pulmonary gas exchange was performed. Ejection fraction, end-diastolic volume, end-systolic volume, stroke volume, cardiac output, and peak filling rate were measured. Significant positive correlations were found between rest ejection fraction and peak oxygen consumption (r=.60, p<.01), peak cardiac output (r=.67, p<.005). On the other hand, peak filling rate at rest showed a significant inverse correlation with peak end-diastolic (r=.48, p<.05) and end-systolic (r=-.66, p<.005) volumes. The patients were then sub grouped into two groups according to their rest ejection fraction (lower or higher than 40%). In the group with ejection fraction less than 40% a significant correlation was observed between rest ejection fraction and both peak stroke volume (r=-.66, p<.05) and peak ejection fraction (r=.69, p<.05). In the same group of patients an inverse correlation was found between peak filling rate and both end-diastolic (r=.65, p<.05) and end-systolic (r=.82, p<.005) volumes. The results of the present study suggest that exercise capacity is related to left ventricular function at rest and that rest diastolic function might be a determinant of left ventricular function during exercise in patients with heart failure. [Italian] Scopo di questo studio e' valutare se la capacita' di esercizio, determinata mediante il consumo di ossigeno e la funzione ventricolare sinistra, sia correlata alla funzione ventricolare sinistra a riposo nei pazienti con insufficienza cardiaca. Sono stati studiati 17 pazienti con insufficienza cardiaca di origine ischemica. Tutti sono stati sottoposti a monitoraggio radionuclidico continuo della funzione ventricolare sinistra in combinazione con

  7. Exercise physiology in chronic mechanical circulatory support patients: vascular function and beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayward, Christopher S; Fresiello, Libera; Meyns, Bart

    2016-05-01

    The majority of patients currently implanted with left ventricular assist devices have the expectation of support for more than 2 years. As a result, survival alone is no longer a sufficient distinctive for this technology, and there have been many studies within the last few years examining functional capacity and exercise outcomes. Despite strong evidence for functional class improvements and increases in simple measures of walking distance, there remains incomplete normalization of exercise capacity, even in the presence of markedly improved resting hemodynamics. Reasons for this remain unclear. Despite current pumps being run at a fixed speed, it is widely recognized that pump outputs significantly increase with exercise. The mechanism of this increase involves the interaction between preload, afterload, and the intrinsic pump function curves. The role of the residual heart function is also important in determining total cardiac output, as well as whether the aortic valve opens with exercise. Interactions with the vasculature, with skeletal muscle blood flow and the state of the autonomic nervous system are also likely to be important contributors to exercise performance. Further studies examining optimization of pump function with active pump speed modulation and options for optimization of the overall patient condition are likely to be needed to allow left ventricular assist devices to be used with the hope of full functional physiological recovery.

  8. Exercise Alters Gut Microbiota Composition and Function in Lean and Obese Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Jacob M; Mailing, Lucy J; Niemiro, Grace M; Moore, Rachel; Cook, Marc D; White, Bryan A; Holscher, Hannah D; Woods, Jeffrey A

    2018-04-01

    Exercise is associated with altered gut microbial composition, but studies have not investigated whether the gut microbiota and associated metabolites are modulated by exercise training in humans. We explored the impact of 6 wk of endurance exercise on the composition, functional capacity, and metabolic output of the gut microbiota in lean and obese adults with multiple-day dietary controls before outcome variable collection. Thirty-two lean (n = 18 [9 female]) and obese (n = 14 [11 female]), previously sedentary subjects participated in 6 wk of supervised, endurance-based exercise training (3 d·wk) that progressed from 30 to 60 min·d and from moderate (60% of HR reserve) to vigorous intensity (75% HR reserve). Subsequently, participants returned to a sedentary lifestyle activity for a 6-wk washout period. Fecal samples were collected before and after 6 wk of exercise, as well as after the sedentary washout period, with 3-d dietary controls in place before each collection. β-diversity analysis revealed that exercise-induced alterations of the gut microbiota were dependent on obesity status. Exercise increased fecal concentrations of short-chain fatty acids in lean, but not obese, participants. Exercise-induced shifts in metabolic output of the microbiota paralleled changes in bacterial genes and taxa capable of short-chain fatty acid production. Lastly, exercise-induced changes in the microbiota were largely reversed once exercise training ceased. These findings suggest that exercise training induces compositional and functional changes in the human gut microbiota that are dependent on obesity status, independent of diet and contingent on the sustainment of exercise.

  9. Sex differences in autonomic function following maximal exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kappus, Rebecca M; Ranadive, Sushant M; Yan, Huimin; Lane-Cordova, Abbi D; Cook, Marc D; Sun, Peng; Harvey, I Shevon; Wilund, Kenneth R; Woods, Jeffrey A; Fernhall, Bo

    2015-01-01

    Heart rate variability (HRV), blood pressure variability, (BPV) and heart rate recovery (HRR) are measures that provide insight regarding autonomic function. Maximal exercise can affect autonomic function, and it is unknown if there are sex differences in autonomic recovery following exercise. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine sex differences in several measures of autonomic function and the response following maximal exercise. Seventy-one (31 males and 40 females) healthy, nonsmoking, sedentary normotensive subjects between the ages of 18 and 35 underwent measurements of HRV and BPV at rest and following a maximal exercise bout. HRR was measured at minute one and two following maximal exercise. Males have significantly greater HRR following maximal exercise at both minute one and two; however, the significance between sexes was eliminated when controlling for VO2 peak. Males had significantly higher resting BPV-low-frequency (LF) values compared to females and did not significantly change following exercise, whereas females had significantly increased BPV-LF values following acute maximal exercise. Although males and females exhibited a significant decrease in both HRV-LF and HRV-high frequency (HF) with exercise, females had significantly higher HRV-HF values following exercise. Males had a significantly higher HRV-LF/HF ratio at rest; however, both males and females significantly increased their HRV-LF/HF ratio following exercise. Pre-menopausal females exhibit a cardioprotective autonomic profile compared to age-matched males due to lower resting sympathetic activity and faster vagal reactivation following maximal exercise. Acute maximal exercise is a sufficient autonomic stressor to demonstrate sex differences in the critical post-exercise recovery period.

  10. Effects of solar radiation on endurance exercise capacity in a hot environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otani, Hidenori; Kaya, Mitsuharu; Tamaki, Akira; Watson, Phillip; Maughan, Ronald J

    2016-04-01

    The present study investigated the effects of variations in solar radiation on endurance exercise capacity and thermoregulatory responses in a hot environment. Eight male volunteers performed four cycle exercise trials at 70 % maximum oxygen uptake until exhaustion in an environmental chamber maintained at 30 °C and 50 % relative humidity. Volunteers were tested under four solar radiation conditions: 800, 500, 250 and 0 W/m(2). Exercise time to exhaustion was less on the 800 W/m(2) trial (23 ± 4 min) than on all the other trials (500 W/m(2) 30 ± 7 min; P 0.05). Mean skin temperature was higher on the 800 W/m(2) trial than the 250 and 0 W/m(2) trials (P solar radiation increases.

  11. Reduced satellite cell numbers and myogenic capacity in aging can be alleviated by endurance exercise.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabi Shefer

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Muscle regeneration depends on satellite cells, myogenic stem cells that reside on the myofiber surface. Reduced numbers and/or decreased myogenic aptitude of these cells may impede proper maintenance and contribute to the age-associated decline in muscle mass and repair capacity. Endurance exercise was shown to improve muscle performance; however, the direct impact on satellite cells in aging was not yet thoroughly determined. Here, we focused on characterizing the effect of moderate-intensity endurance exercise on satellite cell, as possible means to attenuate adverse effects of aging. Young and old rats of both genders underwent 13 weeks of treadmill-running or remained sedentary.Gastrocnemius muscles were assessed for the effect of age, gender and exercise on satellite-cell numbers and myogenic capacity. Satellite cells were identified in freshly isolated myofibers based on Pax7 immunostaining (i.e., ex-vivo. The capacity of individual myofiber-associated cells to produce myogenic progeny was determined in clonal assays (in-vitro. We show an age-associated decrease in satellite-cell numbers and in the percent of myogenic clones in old sedentary rats. Upon exercise, there was an increase in myofibers that contain higher numbers of satellite cells in both young and old rats, and an increase in the percent of myogenic clones derived from old rats. Changes at the satellite cell level in old rats were accompanied with positive effects on the lean-to-fat Gast muscle composition and on spontaneous locomotion levels. The significance of these data is that they suggest that the endurance exercise-mediated boost in both satellite numbers and myogenic properties may improve myofiber maintenance in aging.

  12. Impacto dos exercícios na capacidade funcional e dor em pacientes com osteoartrite de joelhos: ensaio clínico randomizado Impact of exercise on the functional capacity and pain of patients with knee osteoarthritis: a randomized clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Mizusaki Imoto de Oliveira

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: A fraqueza muscular, especialmente do quadríceps, é uma das principais repercussões osteomusculares da osteoartrite de joelho, e os exercícios são considerados uma das principais intervenções no tratamento conservador da doença. OBJETIVO: Avaliar o efeito do fortalecimento do quadríceps femural na capacidade funcional e nos sintomas relacionados à osteoartrite de joelho utilizando o teste Timed Up and Go (TUG, o questionário Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC e o Índice de Lequesne. MÉTODOS: Foram randomizados 100 pacientes, divididos em dois grupos: 1 Grupo Exercício (n = 50, o qual incluiu bicicleta estacionária, alongamento dos músculos isquiotibiais e fortalecimento do músculo quadríceps, e 2 Grupo Orientação (n = 50, que recebeu um manual de orientações a fim de descrever a osteoartrite de joelho e instruir os pacientes a como ajustar o dia a dia de acordo com os sintomas. Os pacientes foram informados sobre os sinais e sintomas da doença e os cuidados durante as atividades de vida diária. O manual não incluiu orientação de exercícios. RESULTADOS: O Grupo Exercício apresentou melhora estatisticamente significante no teste TUG, nos aspectos dor, função e rigidez do questionário WOMAC e no índice Lequesne, quando comparado ao Grupo Orientação. CONCLUSÃO: Exercícios para fortalecimento do quadríceps com duração de oito semanas são efetivos na melhora de dor, função e rigidez em pacientes com osteoartrite de joelho.BACKGROUND: Muscle weakness, especially of the quadriceps muscle, is one of the major musculoskeletal effects of knee osteoarthritis. Exercises are considered one of the main interventions in the conservative treatment of those patients. OBJECTIVE: To assess the effectiveness of quadriceps strengthening exercises on functional capacity and symptoms related of knee osteoarthritis by use of the Timed Up and Go test (TUG, the Western Ontario and

  13. Aortic valve prosthesis-patient mismatch and exercise capacity in adult patients with congenital heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Slooten, Ymkje J; van Melle, Joost P; Freling, Hendrik G; Bouma, Berto J; van Dijk, Arie Pj; Jongbloed, Monique Rm; Post, Martijn C; Sieswerda, Gertjan T; Huis In 't Veld, Anna; Ebels, Tjark; Voors, Adriaan A; Pieper, Petronella G

    2016-01-01

    To report the prevalence of aortic valve prosthesis-patient mismatch (PPM) in an adult population with congenital heart disease (CHD) and its impact on exercise capacity. Adults with congenital heart disease (ACHD) with a history of aortic valve replacement may outgrow their prosthesis later in life. However, the prevalence and clinical consequences of aortic PPM in ACHD are presently unknown. From the national Dutch Congenital Corvitia (CONCOR) registry, we identified 207 ACHD with an aortic valve prosthesis for this cross-sectional cohort study. Severe PPM was defined as an indexed effective orifice area ≤0.65 cm2/m2 and moderate PPM as an indexed orifice area ≤0.85 cm2/m2 measured using echocardiography. Exercise capacity was reported as percentage of predicted exercise capacity (PPEC). Of the 207 patients, 68% was male, 71% had a mechanical prosthesis and mean age at inclusion was 43.9 years ±11.4. The prevalence of PPM was 42%, comprising 23% severe PPM and 19% moderate PPM. Prevalence of PPM was higher in patients with mechanical prostheses (pHeart Association (NYHA) class remained stable in most patients. PPM showed no significant effect on death or hospitalisation during follow-up (p=0.218). In this study we report a high prevalence (42%) of PPM in ACHD with an aortic valve prosthesis and an independent association of PPM with diminished exercise capacity. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  14. Aerobic exercise capacity at long-term follow-up after paediatric allogeneic haematopoietic SCT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, S; Uhlving, H H; Buchvald, F

    2014-01-01

    Peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak), a measure of aerobic exercise capacity, predicts mortality and morbidity in healthy and diseased individuals. Our aim was to determine VO2peak years after paediatric allogeneic haematopoietic SCT (HSCT) and to identify associations with baseline patient and donor...... type or GvHD were found. Although causes for reduced VO2peak may be multiple, our findings stress the need to focus on physical activity post HSCT to prevent lifestyle diseases and improve quality of life....

  15. Effects of insulin resistance on skeletal muscle growth and exercise capacity in type 2 diabetic mouse models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostler, Joseph E; Maurya, Santosh K; Dials, Justin; Roof, Steve R; Devor, Steven T; Ziolo, Mark T; Periasamy, Muthu

    2014-03-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus is associated with an accelerated muscle loss during aging, decreased muscle function, and increased disability. To better understand the mechanisms causing this muscle deterioration in type 2 diabetes, we assessed muscle weight, exercise capacity, and biochemistry in db/db and TallyHo mice at prediabetic and overtly diabetic ages. Maximum running speeds and muscle weights were already reduced in prediabetic db/db mice when compared with lean controls and more severely reduced in the overtly diabetic db/db mice. In contrast to db/db mice, TallyHo muscle size dramatically increased and maximum running speed was maintained during the progression from prediabetes to overt diabetes. Analysis of mechanisms that may contribute to decreased muscle weight in db/db mice demonstrated that insulin-dependent phosphorylation of enzymes that promote protein synthesis was severely blunted in db/db muscle. In addition, prediabetic (6-wk-old) and diabetic (12-wk-old) db/db muscle exhibited an increase in a marker of proteasomal protein degradation, the level of polyubiquitinated proteins. Chronic treadmill training of db/db mice improved glucose tolerance and exercise capacity, reduced markers of protein degradation, but only mildly increased muscle weight. The differences in muscle phenotype between these models of type 2 diabetes suggest that insulin resistance and chronic hyperglycemia alone are insufficient to rapidly decrease muscle size and function and that the effects of diabetes on muscle growth and function are animal model-dependent.

  16. Resistance Exercises for Health and Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Let’s get started… First & Foremost…. “Tie-it-up”! This stabilizes your core and provides a solid foundation for resistance exercises. This is a two step process: 1st – close the pelvic floor. For men… as though you are stopping the flow of urine, it is the same for ladies but more commonly referred to as Kegel exercises. 2nd – While doing the above, tighten the lower abs (like you are preparing to be punched in the stomach). Be sure to “Tie-it-up” before doing all exercises.

  17. Exercise Training Improves Exercise Capacity and Quality of Life in Patients with Inoperable or Residual Chronic Thromboembolic Pulmonary Hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herb, Jochen; Ehlken, Nicola; Fischer, Christine; Reichenberger, Frank; Rosenkranz, Stephan; Seyfarth, Hans-Juergen; Mayer, Eckhard

    2012-01-01

    Background Aim of this prospective study was to evaluate the effects of exercise training in patients with inoperable or residual chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH). Methods Thirty-five consecutive patients with invasively confirmed inoperable or residual CTEPH (16 women;19 men; mean age 61±15 years, mean pulmonary artery pressure, 63±20 mmHg; primary inoperable n = 33, persisting pulmonary hypertension after pulmonary endarterectomy n = 2) on stable disease-targeted medication received exercise training in-hospital for 3 weeks and continued at home for 15 weeks. Medication remained unchanged during the study period. Efficacy parameters have been evaluated at baseline, after 3 and 15 weeks by blinded-observers. Survival rate has been evaluated in a follow-up period of median 36.4 months (interquartile range 26.6–46.6 months). Results All patients tolerated exercise training without severe adverse events. Patients significantly improved the mean distance walked in 6 minutes compared to baseline by 61±54 meters after 3 weeks (p<0.001) and by 71±70 meters after 15 weeks (p = 0.001), as well as scores of quality-of-life questionnaire, peak oxygen consumption and maximal workload. NT-proBNP improved significantly after 3 weeks of exercise training (p = 0.046). The 1-year survival rate was 97%, 2-year survival rate was 94% and the 3-year-survival 86% respectively. Conclusion Training as add-on to medical therapy may be effective in patients with CTEPH to improve work capacity, quality of life and further prognostic relevant parameters and possibly improves the 1-, 2- and 3-year survival rate. Further multicentric randomized controlled studies are needed to confirm these promising results. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01398345 PMID:22848542

  18. Feedback-controlled robotics-assisted treadmill exercise to assess and influence aerobic capacity early after stroke: a proof-of-concept study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoller, Oliver; Schindelholz, Matthias; Bichsel, Lukas; Schuster, Corina; de Bie, Rob A; de Bruin, Eling D; Hunt, Kenneth J

    2014-07-01

    The majority of post-stroke individuals suffer from low exercise capacity as a secondary reaction to immobility. The aim of this study was to prove the concept of feedback-controlled robotics-assisted treadmill exercise (RATE) to assess aerobic capacity and guide cardiovascular exercise in severely impaired individuals early after stroke. Subjects underwent constant load and incremental exercise testing using a human-in-the-loop feedback system within a robotics-assisted exoskeleton (Lokomat, Hocoma AG, CH). Inclusion criteria were: stroke onset ≤8 weeks, stable medical condition, non-ambulatory status, moderate motor control of the lower limbs and appropriate cognitive function. Outcome measures included oxygen uptake kinetics, peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak), gas exchange threshold (GET), peak heart rate (HRpeak), peak work rate (Ppeak) and accuracy of reaching target work rate (P-RMSE). Three subjects (18-42 d post-stroke) were included. Oxygen uptake kinetics during constant load ranged from 42.0 to 60.2 s. Incremental exercise testing showed: VO2peak range 19.7-28.8 ml/min/kg, GET range 11.6-12.7 ml/min/kg, and HRpeak range 115-161 bpm. Ppeak range was 55.2-110.9 W and P-RMSE range was 3.8-7.5 W. The concept of feedback-controlled RATE for assessment of aerobic capacity and guidance of cardiovascular exercise is feasible. Further research is warranted to validate the method on a larger scale. Aerobic capacity is seriously reduced in post-stroke individuals as a secondary reaction to immobility. Robotics-assisted walking devices may have substantial clinical relevance regarding assessment and improvement of aerobic capacity early after stroke. Feedback-controlled robotics-assisted treadmill exercise represents a new concept for cardiovascular assessment and intervention protocols for severely impaired individuals.

  19. Logic functions and equations examples and exercises

    CERN Document Server

    Steinbach, Bernd

    2009-01-01

    With a free, downloadable software package available to help solve the exercises, this book focuses on practical and relevant problems that arise in the field of binary logics, with its two main applications - digital circuit design, and propositional logics.

  20. Capacity Expansion and Reliability Evaluation on the Networks Flows with Continuous Stochastic Functional Capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Hamzezadeh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In many systems such as computer network, fuel distribution, and transportation system, it is necessary to change the capacity of some arcs in order to increase maximum flow value from source s to sink t, while the capacity change incurs minimum cost. In real-time networks, some factors cause loss of arc’s flow. For example, in some flow distribution systems, evaporation, erosion or sediment in pipes waste the flow. Here we define a real capacity, or the so-called functional capacity, which is the operational capacity of an arc. In other words, the functional capacity of an arc equals the possible maximum flow that may pass through the arc. Increasing the functional arcs capacities incurs some cost. There is a certain resource available to cover the costs. First, we construct a mathematical model to minimize the total cost of expanding the functional capacities to the required levels. Then, we consider the loss of flow on each arc as a stochastic variable and compute the system reliability.

  1. Functional Exercise and Physical Fitness Post Stroke: The Importance of Exercise Maintenance for Motor Control and Physical Fitness after Stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birgitta Langhammer

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available It is argued that all stroke patients, indifferent of disability, have the same possibility to improve with training. The aim of the study was to follow and register functional improvements in two groups with different functional capacities at baseline for a period of 36 months. Stroke patients were recruited and divided into groups related to their functional status at baseline. During the acute rehabilitation, both groups received functional task-oriented training, followed by regular self- or therapeutic driven training the first year after stroke and varied exercise patterns the following 24 months. The participants were tested on admission, and at three, six, twelve, and thirty-six months after the onset of stroke. Both groups improved functional activity up to six months which then stabilized up to twelve months to decline somewhat at thirty-six months after stroke. Change scores indicate a greater potential for rehabilitation in the MAS ≤35 in relation to group MAS >35 although the functional capacity was higher in the latter. This indicates the importance of maintaining exercise and training for all persons after stroke.

  2. Relationship of fatigue and exercise capacity with emotional and physical state in patients with coronary artery disease admitted for rehabilitation program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunevicius, Adomas; Stankus, Albinas; Brozaitiene, Julija; Girdler, Susan S; Bunevicius, Robertas

    2011-08-01

    The relationship between subjective fatigue, exercise capacity, and symptoms of depression and anxiety in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) needs to be specified. In this cross-sectional study, a total of 1,470 (64% men; mean age 57 ± 11 years) consecutive CAD patients admitted for cardiac rehabilitation after treatment of acute cardiac events were evaluated for demographic characteristics, for past and current diagnosis and treatment, for New York Heart Association (NYHA) class, for symptoms of depression and for symptoms of anxiety using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, and for subjective fatigue using the Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory. On the next day, all patients underwent exercise capacity evaluation using a standard bicycle ergometer testing procedure. In univariate regression analyses, there was the strongest positive association between scores on all Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory subscales and scores on the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale depression and anxiety subscales and between exercise capacity and NYHA class. Multivariate regression analyses revealed that symptoms of depression were the strongest positive determinants of all dimensions of subjective fatigue and, together with other significant variables, accounted for 17% to 29% of the variance. However, neither depressive nor anxious symptoms were significant determinants of exercise capacity. The association between subjective fatigue and exercise capacity and vice versa was minimal. Subjective fatigue in CAD patients is strongly related to symptoms of depression and symptoms of anxiety. In contrast, exercise capacity in CAD patients is strongly related to NYHA functional class, with no relationship to symptoms of depression and anxiety. Copyright © 2011 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Influence of Two Different Exercise Programs on Physical Fitness and Cognitive Performance in Active Older Adults: Functional Resistance-Band Exercises vs. Recreational Oriented Exercises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponce-Bravo, Hernán; Ponce, Christian; Feriche, Belén; Padial, Paulino

    2015-12-01

    This study examines the impact of a resistance-band functional exercise program, compared with a recreational exercise program, on physical fitness and reaction times in persons older than 60 years. Fifty-four community-dwelling volunteers (71.76 ± 6.02 years) were assigned to a specific exercise program: Functional activity program (focused on resistance-band multi-joint activities; experimental group, EG), or recreational physical activity program (with gross motor activities of ludic content; control group, CG). Before and after the intervention, we determined cognitive capacity in terms of simple reaction time (S-RT), choice reaction time (C-RT) and fitness. In both groups physical performance improved, though this improvement was more marked in the EG for grip strength, arm strength and gross motor abilities (p program using a resistance band improves fitness and cognitive performance in healthy older adults. Key pointsBetter cognitive processes can be achieved as physical condition improvesExercise sessions of a more recreational type do not seem to constitute a stimulus able to improve both physical and cognitive performance in healthy active older adultsThe improvement of cognitive function, as assessed through reaction times, seems more linked to the workload and strength component of the training program.

  4. Exercise interventions in polypathological aging patients that coexist with diabetes mellitus: improving functional status and quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadore, Eduardo Lusa; Izquierdo, Mikel

    2015-06-01

    In elderly populations, diabetes is associated with reduced muscle strength, poor muscle quality, and accelerated loss of muscle mass. In addition, diabetes mellitus increases risk for accelerated aging and for the development of frailty syndrome. This disease is also associated with a polypathological condition, and its complications progressively affect quality of life and survival. Exercise interventions, including resistance training, represent the cornerstones of diabetes management, especially in patients at severe functional decline. This review manuscript aimed to describe the beneficial effects of different exercise interventions on the functional capacity of elderly diabetics, including those at polypathological condition. The SciELO, Science Citation Index, MEDLINE, Scopus, SPORTDiscus, and ScienceDirect databases were searched from 1980 to 2015 for articles published from original scientific investigations. In addition to the beneficial effects of exercise interventions on glycemic control, and on the cardiovascular risk factors associated with diabetes, physical exercise is an effective intervention to improve muscle strength, power output, and aerobic power and functional capacity in elderly diabetic patients. Thus, a combination of resistance and endurance training is the most effective exercise intervention to promote overall physical fitness in these patients. In addition, in diabetic patients with frailty and severe functional decline, a multicomponent exercise program including strength and power training, balance exercises, and gait retraining may be an effective intervention to reduce falls and improve functional capacity and quality of life in these patients.

  5. Exercise capacity is associated with endothelin-1 release during emotional excitement in coronary artery disease patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulppo, Mikko P; Piira, Olli-Pekka; Hautala, Arto J; Kiviniemi, Antti M; Miettinen, Johanna A; Huikuri, Heikki V

    2014-08-01

    Endothelin-1 (ET-1), a potent vasoconstrictor, IL-6, and catecholamines are increased and heart rate variability [SD of normal to normal R-R intervals (SDNN)] decreased during emotional excitement, but individual responses vary. We tested the hypothesis that exercise capacity is associated with physiological responses caused by real-life emotional excitement. We measured the plasma levels of ET-1, IL-6, catecholamines, heart rate, and SDNN in enthusiastic male ice hockey spectators (n = 51; age, 59 ± 9 years) with stable coronary artery disease (CAD) at baseline and during the Finnish National Ice Hockey League's final play-off matches. Maximal exercise capacity (METs) by bicycle exercise test and left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) were measured on a separate day. ET-1 response from baseline to emotional excitement correlated with maximal METs (r = -0.30; P = 0.040). In a linear stepwise regression analysis age, body mass index (BMI), METs, LVEF, basal ET-1, and subjective experience of excitement were entered the model as independent variables to explain ET-1 response. This model explained 27% of ET-1 response (P = 0.003). Maximal METs were most strongly correlated with ET-1 response (β = -0.45; partial correlation r = -0.43; P = 0.002), followed by BMI (β = -0.31; partial correlation r = -0.31; P = 0.033) and LVEF (β = -0.30; partial correlation r = -0.33; P = 0.023). Exercise capacity may protect against further cardiovascular events in CAD patients, because it is associated with reduced ET-1 release during emotional excitement. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  6. Cognitive function at rest and during exercise following breakfast omission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komiyama, Takaaki; Sudo, Mizuki; Okuda, Naoki; Yasuno, Tetsuhiko; Kiyonaga, Akira; Tanaka, Hiroaki; Higaki, Yasuki; Ando, Soichi

    2016-04-01

    It has been suggested that breakfast omission, as opposed to breakfast consumption, has the detrimental effects on cognitive function. However, the effects of acute exercise following breakfast omission on cognitive function are poorly understood, particularly during exercise. The purpose of this study was to examine the interactive effects of breakfast and exercise on cognitive function. Ten participants completed cognitive tasks at rest and during exercise in the breakfast consumption or omission conditions. Blood glucose concentration was measured immediately after each cognitive task. We used cognitive tasks to assess working memory [Spatial Delayed Response (DR) task] and executive function [Go/No-Go (GNG) task]. The participants cycled ergometer for 30 min while keeping their heart rate at 140 beats·min(-1). Accuracy of the GNG task was lower at rest in the breakfast omission condition than that in the breakfast consumption condition (Go trial: P=0.012; No-Go trial: P=0.028). However, exercise improved accuracy of the Go trial in the breakfast omission condition (P=0.013). Reaction time in the Go trial decreased during exercise relative to rest in both conditions (P=0.002), and the degree of decreases in reaction time was not different between conditions (P=0.448). Exercise and breakfast did not affect the accuracy of the Spatial DR task. The present results indicate that breakfast omission impairs executive function, but acute exercise improved executive function even after breakfast omission. It appears that beneficial effects of acute exercise on cognitive function are intact following breakfast omission. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Training improves oxidative capacity, but not function, in spinal muscular atrophy type III

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Karen Lindhardt; Hansen, Regitze Sølling; Preisler, Nicolai

    2015-01-01

    max (17 ± 2 to 21 ± 2 ml/kg/min, P sleep in 3 patients, and led to training modifications in 2 patients. CONCLUSIONS: Cycle exercise improves VO2max in SMA III without causing muscle...... a 12-week training program, performing 42 30-minute sessions exercising at 65-70% of maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max ). VO2max , muscle strength, functional tests, and self-reported activities of daily living were assessed before and after the training. RESULTS: Training induced a 27 ± 3% increase in VO2...... damage, but it also induces significant fatigue. This warrants study into alternative training methods to improve exercise capacity in SMA III patients....

  8. Position statement. Part one: Immune function and exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walsh, Neil P; Gleeson, Michael; Shephard, Roy J

    2011-01-01

    responses and falls in stimulated B cell Ig synthesis. The cause of this apparent depression in acquired immunity appears to be related to elevated circulating stress hormones, and alterations in the pro/anti-inflammatory cytokine balance in response to exercise. The clinical significance of these changes...... and immediately after exercise, proportional to exercise intensity and duration, with numbers of cells (T cells and to a lesser extent B cells) falling below pre-exercise levels during the early stages of recovery, before returning to resting values normally within 24 h. Mobilization of T and B cell subsets...... risk of URTI during heavy training. An important question for exercise immunologists remains: how does one measure immune function in a meaningful way? One approach to assessing immune function that extends beyond blood or salivary measures involves challenging study participants with antigenic stimuli...

  9. The joint impact of smoking and exercise capacity on clinical outcomes among women with suspected myocardial ischemia: the WISE study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linke, Sarah E; Rutledge, Thomas; Johnson, B Delia; Olson, Marian B; Bittner, Vera; Cornell, Carol E; Shaw, Leslee J; Eteiba, Wafia; Parashar, Susmita; Sheps, David S; Vido, Diane A; Mulukutla, Suresh; Bairey Merz, C Noel

    2009-04-01

    Although extensive research has been conducted on both smoking and low exercise capacity alone, few studies have examined the joint impact or interaction of these two risk factors. We examined the joint and interactive effects of smoking and self-reported exercise capacity on subsequent clinical events (heart failure, myocardial infarction [MI], stroke, and cardiovascular-related mortality) among women with suspected myocardial ischemia. At baseline (1996-1999), 789 women completed angiographic testing of coronary artery disease (CAD) severity and provided self-report information about their smoking history and exercise capacity as well as demographic and other risk factor data. Incidence of clinical events among the women was tracked for a median of 5.9 years; this analysis was conducted in 2008. In an adjusted survival analysis, women with a positive smoking history and self-reported low exercise capacity had the greatest risk of experiencing a clinical event (HR = 7.7, 95% CI 2.3, 25.5), followed by women with a positive smoking history and self-reported high exercise capacity (HR = 6.9, 95% CI 2.0, 24.6) and those with a negative smoking history and self-reported low exercise capacity (HR = 4.9, 95% CI 1.5, 15.8), relative to women with a negative smoking history and self-reported high exercise capacity. Additional analyses revealed a significant interaction between smoking history and exercise capacity, such that (1) women with a positive smoking history did not experience an additional significantly greater risk due to low exercise capacity, unlike those with a negative smoking history, and (2) all women experienced a significantly greater risk due to a positive smoking history regardless of their exercise capacity. Among women with suspected myocardial ischemia, the combined protective health effects of self-reported high exercise capacity and a negative smoking history remained significant after controlling for preexisting CAD severity and other established

  10. Survey the effect of aerobic exercise on aerobic capacity in patients with coronary artery disease (cad)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalyani, M. N.; Ebadi, A.

    2007-01-01

    Increased aerobic exercise capacity appears to reduce both all-cause mortality and cardiovascular disease mortality. Physical exercise to improve maximal oxygen consumption (VO/sub 2max/) is thus strongly recommended, however evidence regarding the most efficient training intensity for patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) is still lacking. The purpose of this randomized study was to assess the effects of aerobic exercise for increasing VO/sub 2max/ in stable CAD-patients. Thirty stable CAD-patients were randomized to supervised walking 30 min three times a week for 10 weeks. Before and after training VO/sub 2max/ was predicted from Bruce treadmill test. Before training VO/sub 2max/ was 35.2+-4.32 ml/kg/min and after training the mean VO/sub 2max/ was 43.1+-3.4 ml/kg/min. This difference was significant (p<0.05). Aerobic exercise is effective for increasing VO/sub 2max/ in stable CAD-patients. As VO/sub 2max/ seems to reflect a continuum between health and cardiovascular disease and death, the present data may be useful in designing effective training programmes for improved health in the future. (author)

  11. Exercise reveals impairments in left ventricular systolic function in patients with metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fournier, Sara B; Reger, Brian L; Donley, David A; Bonner, Daniel E; Warden, Bradford E; Gharib, Wissam; Failinger, Conard F; Olfert, Melissa D; Frisbee, Jefferson C; Olfert, I Mark; Chantler, Paul D

    2014-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is the manifestation of a cluster of cardiovascular risk factors and is associated with a threefold increase in the risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, which is suggested to be mediated, in part, by resting left ventricular (LV) systolic dysfunction. However, to what extent resting LV systolic function is impaired in MetS is controversial, and there are no data indicating whether LV systolic function is impaired during exercise. Accordingly, the objective of this study was to examine comprehensively the LV and arterial responses to exercise in individuals with MetS without diabetes and/or overt cardiovascular disease in comparison to a healthy control population. Cardiovascular function was characterized using Doppler echocardiography and gas exchange in individuals with MetS (n = 27) versus healthy control subjects (n = 20) at rest and during peak exercise. At rest, individuals with MetS displayed normal LV systolic function but reduced LV diastolic function compared with healthy control subjects. During peak exercise, individuals with MetS had impaired contractility, pump performance and vasodilator reserve capacity versus control subjects. A blunted contractile reserve response resulted in diminished arterial-ventricular coupling reserve and limited aerobic capacity in individuals with MetS versus control subjects. These findings are of clinical importance, because they provide insight into the pathophysiological changes in MetS that may predispose this population of individuals to an increased risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality.

  12. Human milk metagenome: a functional capacity analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Human milk contains a diverse population of bacteria that likely influences colonization of the infant gastrointestinal tract. Recent studies, however, have been limited to characterization of this microbial community by 16S rRNA analysis. In the present study, a metagenomic approach using Illumina sequencing of a pooled milk sample (ten donors) was employed to determine the genera of bacteria and the types of bacterial open reading frames in human milk that may influence bacterial establishment and stability in this primal food matrix. The human milk metagenome was also compared to that of breast-fed and formula-fed infants’ feces (n = 5, each) and mothers’ feces (n = 3) at the phylum level and at a functional level using open reading frame abundance. Additionally, immune-modulatory bacterial-DNA motifs were also searched for within human milk. Results The bacterial community in human milk contained over 360 prokaryotic genera, with sequences aligning predominantly to the phyla of Proteobacteria (65%) and Firmicutes (34%), and the genera of Pseudomonas (61.1%), Staphylococcus (33.4%) and Streptococcus (0.5%). From assembled human milk-derived contigs, 30,128 open reading frames were annotated and assigned to functional categories. When compared to the metagenome of infants’ and mothers’ feces, the human milk metagenome was less diverse at the phylum level, and contained more open reading frames associated with nitrogen metabolism, membrane transport and stress response (P milk metagenome also contained a similar occurrence of immune-modulatory DNA motifs to that of infants’ and mothers’ fecal metagenomes. Conclusions Our results further expand the complexity of the human milk metagenome and enforce the benefits of human milk ingestion on the microbial colonization of the infant gut and immunity. Discovery of immune-modulatory motifs in the metagenome of human milk indicates more exhaustive analyses of the functionality of the human

  13. Exercise in claudicants increase or decrease walking ability and the response relates to mitochondrial function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Schaardenburgh, Michel; Wohlwend, Martin; Rognmo, Øivind; Mattsson, Erney J R

    2017-06-07

    Exercise of patients with intermittent claudication improves walking performance. Exercise does not usually increase blood flow, but seems to increase muscle mitochondrial enzyme activities. Although exercise is beneficial in most patients, it might be harmful in some. The mitochondrial response to exercise might therefore differ between patients. Our hypothesis was that changes in walking performance relate to changes in mitochondrial function after 8 weeks of exercise. At a subgroup level, negative responders decrease and positive responders increase mitochondrial capacity. Two types of exercise were studied, calf raising and walking (n = 28). We wanted to see whether there were negative and positive responders, independent of type of exercise. Measurements of walking performance, peripheral hemodynamics, mitochondrial respiration and content (citrate synthase activity) were obtained on each patient before and after the intervention period. Multiple linear regression was used to test whether changes in peak walking time relate to mitochondrial function. Subgroups of negative (n = 8) and positive responders (n = 8) were defined as those that either decreased or increased peak walking time following exercise. Paired t test and analysis of covariance was used to test changes within and between subgroups. Changes in peak walking time were related to changes in mitochondrial respiration supported by electron transferring flavoprotein (ETF + CI) P (p = 0.004), complex I (CI + ETF) P (p = 0.003), complex I + complex II (CI + CII + ETF) P (p = 0.037) and OXPHOS coupling efficiency (p = 0.046) in the whole group. Negative responders had more advanced peripheral arterial disease. Mitochondrial respiration supported by electron transferring flavoprotein (ETF + CI) P (p = 0.0013), complex I (CI + ETF) P (p = 0.0005), complex I + complex II (CI + CII + ETF) P (p = 0.011) and electron transfer system capacity (CI + CII + ETF) E (p

  14. Functional residual capacity measurement by heptafluoropropane in ventilated newborn lungs

    OpenAIRE

    Kusztrich, Ariane

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Heptafluoropropane is an inert gas commercially used as propellant for inhalers. Since heptafluoropropane can be detected in low concentrations, it could also be used as a tracer gas to measure functional residual capacity. The aim of the present study was to validate functional residual capacity measurements by heptafluoropropane wash-in/wash-out (0.8%) during mechanical ventilation in small, surfactant-depleted lungs using a newborn piglet model. Design: Prospective laborato...

  15. Sprint-based exercise and cognitive function in adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon B. Cooper

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Moderate intensity exercise has been shown to enhance cognition in an adolescent population, yet the effect of high-intensity sprint-based exercise remains unknown and was therefore examined in the present study. Following ethical approval and familiarisation, 44 adolescents (12.6 ± 0.6 y completed an exercise (E and resting (R trial in a counter-balanced, randomised crossover design. The exercise trial comprised of 10 × 10 s running sprints, interspersed by 50 s active recovery (walking. A battery of cognitive function tests (Stroop, Digit Symbol Substitution (DSST and Corsi blocks tests were completed 30 min pre-exercise, immediately post-exercise and 45 min post-exercise. Data were analysed using mixed effect models with repeated measures. Response times on the simple level of the Stroop test were significantly quicker 45 min following sprint-based exercise (R: 818 ± 33 ms, E: 772 ± 26 ms; p = 0.027 and response times on the complex level of the Stroop test were quicker immediately following the sprint-based exercise (R: 1095 ± 36 ms, E: 1043 ± 37 ms; p = 0.038, while accuracy was maintained. Sprint-based exercise had no immediate or delayed effects on the number of items recalled on the Corsi blocks test (p = 0.289 or substitutions made during the DSST (p = 0.689. The effect of high intensity sprint-based exercise on adolescents' cognitive function was dependant on the component of cognitive function examined. Executive function was enhanced following exercise, demonstrated by improved response times on the Stroop test, whilst visuo-spatial memory and general psycho-motor speed were unaffected. These data support the inclusion of high-intensity sprint-based exercise for adolescents during the school day to enhance cognition.

  16. Effect of individualized worksite exercise training on aerobic capacity and muscle strength among construction workers - a randomized controlled intervention study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gram, Bibi; Holtermann, Andreas; Søgaard, Karen

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The combination of high physical work demands and low physical capacity has been shown to increase the risk for cardiovascular disease and musculoskeletal disorders. The aim of this study was to assess the physical capacity of construction workers and evaluate the effect of individually...... tailored exercise programs on their physical fitness and muscular capacity. METHOD: The study was a randomized controlled trial of male constructions workers allocated to either an exercise or control group. The intervention lasted 12 weeks, and the exercise group trained 3 x 20 minutes a week....... The participants completed health checks before and after the intervention period. Data from the first health check were used to tailor the exercise in the interventions. RESULTS: At baseline, participants had maximal oxygen consumption (VO (2max)) of 2.9 [standard deviation (SD) 0.7L/min] and body mass index (BMI...

  17. Lung function profiles and aerobic capacity of adult cigarette and hookah smokers after 12 weeks intermittent training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdessalem Koubaa

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Pulmonary function is compromised in most smokers. Yet it is unknown whether exercise training improves pulmonary function and aerobic capacity in cigarette and hookah smokers and whether these smokers respond in a similar way as do non-smokers. Aim: To evaluate the effects of an interval exercise training program on pulmonary function and aerobic capacity in cigarette and hookah smokers. Methods: Twelve cigarette smokers, 10 hookah smokers, and 11 non-smokers participated in our exercise program. All subjects performed 30 min of interval exercise (2 min of work followed by 1 min of rest three times a week for 12 weeks at an intensity estimated at 70% of the subject's maximum aerobic capacity (VO2max. Pulmonary function was measured using spirometry, and maximum aerobic capacity was assessed by maximal exercise testing on a treadmill before the beginning and at the end of the exercise training program. Results: As expected, prior to the exercise intervention, the cigarette and hookah smokers had significantly lower pulmonary function than the non-smokers. The 12-week exercise training program did not significantly affect lung function as assessed by spirometry in the non-smoker group. However, it significantly increased both forced expiratory volume in 1 second and peak expiratory flow (PEF in the cigarette smoker group, and PEF in the hookah smoker group. Our training program had its most notable impact on the cardiopulmonary system of smokers. In the non-smoker and cigarette smoker groups, the training program significantly improved VO2max (4.4 and 4.7%, respectively, v VO2max (6.7 and 5.6%, respectively, and the recovery index (7.9 and 10.5%, respectively. Conclusions: After 12 weeks of interval training program, the increase of VO2max and the decrease of recovery index and resting heart rate in the smoking subjects indicated better exercise tolerance. Although the intermittent training program altered pulmonary function only

  18. Effects of breathing exercises on lung capacity and muscle activities of elderly smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, Hyun-Ju; Kim, Ki-Jong; Nam, Ki-Won; Kim, Chang-Heon

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] Elderly smokers have a reduced chest diameter due to weakening of the respiratory muscles, and this results in decreased ventilation, leading to a vicious circle. Therefore, the present study investigated the effects of an intervention program to enhance the pulmonary function and muscle activity of elderly smokers. [Subjects and Methods] Participants were randomly assigned to one of two experimental groups or a control (CG) group. The experimental groups performed exercises three times per week for six weeks, whereas the CG performed no exercises. One of the experimental groups performed a Feedback Breathing Exercise (FBE) for 15 minutes, and the other repeated three sets of Balloon-Blowing Exercises (BBE) with sufficient rest of more than one minute between sets. [Results] In the experimental groups, FVC, FEV1/FVC, PEF and muscle activity of the rectus abdominis significantly improved after four weeks, but no significant differences were observed in FEV1 or VC after six weeks. [Conclusion] The results show that FBE and BBE improved the pulmonary functions of elderly smokers, demonstrating the potential benefits of the development of various training methods using balloons, and group programs, including recreational factors, for increasing respiratory muscles strength. PMID:27390394

  19. Exercise increases the frequency of circulating hematopoietic progenitor cells, but reduces hematopoietic colony-forming capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroepfl, Julia Maria; Pekovits, Karin; Stelzer, Ingeborg; Fuchs, Robert; Zelzer, Sieglinde; Hofmann, Peter; Sedlmayr, Peter; Dohr, Gottfried; Wallner-Liebmann, Sandra; Domej, Wolfgang; Mueller, Wolfram

    2012-11-01

    Circulating hematopoietic progenitor cells (CPCs) may be triggered by physical exercise and/or normobaric hypoxia from the bone marrow. The aim of the study was to investigate the influence of physical exercise and normobaric hypoxia on CPC number and functionality in the peripheral blood as well as the involvement of oxidative stress parameters as possibly active agents. Ten healthy male subjects (25.3±4.4 years) underwent a standardized cycle incremental exercise test protocol (40 W+20 W/min) under either normoxic (FiO2 ∼0.21) or hypoxic conditions (FiO2exercise. The number of CPCs in the peripheral blood was analyzed by flow cytometry (CD34/CD45-positive cells). The functionality of cells present was addressed by secondary colony-forming unit-granulocyte macrophage (CFU-GM) assays. To determine a possible correlation between the mobilization of CPCs and reactive oxygen species, parameters for oxidative stress such as malondialdehyde (MDA) and myeloperoxidase (MPO) were obtained. Data showed a significant increase of CPC release under normoxic as well as hypoxic conditions after 10 min of recovery (Pexercise (Pexercise, possibly due to the influence of increased oxidative stress levels.

  20. Effects of breathing exercises on lung capacity and muscle activities of elderly smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, Hyun-Ju; Kim, Ki-Jong; Nam, Ki-Won; Kim, Chang-Heon

    2016-06-01

    [Purpose] Elderly smokers have a reduced chest diameter due to weakening of the respiratory muscles, and this results in decreased ventilation, leading to a vicious circle. Therefore, the present study investigated the effects of an intervention program to enhance the pulmonary function and muscle activity of elderly smokers. [Subjects and Methods] Participants were randomly assigned to one of two experimental groups or a control (CG) group. The experimental groups performed exercises three times per week for six weeks, whereas the CG performed no exercises. One of the experimental groups performed a Feedback Breathing Exercise (FBE) for 15 minutes, and the other repeated three sets of Balloon-Blowing Exercises (BBE) with sufficient rest of more than one minute between sets. [Results] In the experimental groups, FVC, FEV1/FVC, PEF and muscle activity of the rectus abdominis significantly improved after four weeks, but no significant differences were observed in FEV1 or VC after six weeks. [Conclusion] The results show that FBE and BBE improved the pulmonary functions of elderly smokers, demonstrating the potential benefits of the development of various training methods using balloons, and group programs, including recreational factors, for increasing respiratory muscles strength.

  1. Relation between isokinetic muscle strength and functional capacity in recreational athletes with chondromalacia patellae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildiz, Y; Aydin, T; Sekir, U; Cetin, C; Ors, F; Alp Kalyon, T

    2003-12-01

    To investigate the effects of isokinetic exercise on pain and functional test scores of recreational athletes with chondromalacia patellae (CMP) and to examine the correlation between isokinetic parameters and functional tests or pain score. The functional ability of 30 recreational athletes with unilateral CMP was evaluated using six different tests. Pain scores were assessed during daily activities before and after the treatment protocol. Isokinetic exercise sessions were carried out at angular velocities of 60 degrees /s (25-90 degrees range of flexion) and 180 degrees /s (full range). These sessions were repeated three times a week for six weeks. Quadriceps and hamstring peak torque, total work, and endurance ratios had improved significantly after the treatment, as did the functional parameters and pain scores. There was a poor correlation between the extensor endurance ratio and one leg standing test. A moderate correlation between the visual analogue scale and the extensor endurance ratio or flexion endurance ratio was also found. The isokinetic exercise programme used in this study had a positive effect on muscle strength, pain score, and functional ability of knees with CMP. The improvement in the functional capacity did not correlate with the isokinetic parameters.

  2. Elderly’s Physical-Functional Fitness and Perceived Functional Capacity and Health after Participation in a Hydrotherapy Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsa Cristina Sacramento Pereira

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Several studies have demonstrated how physical activity in older people benefits their physical fitness, health and well-being. The relation between physical activity and perceived functional capacity and health is yet to be considered. This study is a quantitative research design that investigated the improvement of the physical-functional fitness and the perception of the functional capacity and health of an elderly group participating in a waterbased exercise program (hydrotherapy. The data was collected in three different moments of the exercise program through a battery of tests of physical-functional fitness established by Batista and Sardinha (2005 and a questionnaire adapted from SABE project (Lebrão and Duarte, 2003. Twenty-six elderly persons (23 women and 3 men aged between 60 and 84 years old participated in a 31-week hydrotherapy program (twice a week; 45 minutes by session. Friedman test was used for assessing statistical differences between the physical-functional fitness and the questionnaire responses in each of the three evaluation moments. Results revealed that this program was enough to improve the physical-functional fitness of the elderly, as well as the perception they had about their health and ability to perform activities of daily living.

  3. Exercise therapy improves aerobic capacity of inpatients with major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerling, Arno; von Bohlen, Anne; Kück, Momme; Tegtbur, Uwe; Grams, Lena; Haufe, Sven; Gützlaff, Elke; Kahl, Kai G

    2016-06-01

    Unipolar depression is one of the most common diseases worldwide and is associated with a higher cardiovascular risk partly due to reduced aerobic capacity. Therefore, the aim of our study was to examine whether a structured aerobic training program can improve aerobic capacity in inpatients with MDD (major depressive disorder). Overall, 25 patients (13 women, 12 men) diagnosed with MDD were included in the study. Parameters of aerobic capacity, such as maximum performance, maximum oxygen consumption, and VAT (ventilatory anaerobic threshold), were assessed on a bicycle ergometer before and 6 weeks after a training period (three times per week for 45 min on two endurance machines). In addition, a constant load test was carried out at 50% of the maximum performance prior to and after the training period. The performance data were compared with 25 healthy controls matched for sex, age, and body mass index before and after the training period. Compared to controls, patients with MDD had significantly lower aerobic capacity. After training, there was a significant improvement in their performance data. A significant difference remained only for VAT between patients with MDD and healthy controls. With regard to the coincidence of MDD with cardiovascular and cardiometabolic disorders, a structured supervised exercise program carried out during hospitalization is a useful supplement for patients with MDD.

  4. Exhaustive Exercise-induced Oxidative Stress Alteration of Erythrocyte Oxygen Release Capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Yanlian; Xiong, Yanlei; Wang, Yueming; Zhao, Yajin; Li, Yaojin; Ren, Yang; Wang, Ruofeng; Zhao, Mingzi; Hao, Yitong; Liu, Haibei; Wang, Xiang

    2018-05-24

    The aim of the present study is to explore the effect of exhaustive running exercise (ERE) in the oxygen release capacity of rat erythrocytes. Rats were divided into sedentary control (C), moderate running exercise (MRE) and exhaustive running exercise groups. The thermodynamics and kinetics properties of the erythrocyte oxygen release process of different groups were tested. We also determined the degree of band-3 oxidative and phosphorylation, anion transport activity and carbonic anhydrase isoform II(CAII) activity. Biochemical studies suggested that exhaustive running significantly increased oxidative injury parameters in TBARS and methaemoglobin levels. Furthermore, exhaustive running significantly decreased anion transport activity and carbonic anhydrase isoform II(CAII) activity. Thermodynamic analysis indicated that erythrocytes oxygen release ability also significantly increased due to elevated 2,3-DPG level after exhaustive running. Kinetic analysis indicated that exhaustive running resulted in significantly decreased T50 value. We presented evidence that exhaustive running remarkably impacted thermodynamics and kinetics properties of RBCs oxygen release. In addition, changes in 2,3-DPG levels and band-3 oxidation and phosphorylation could be the driving force for exhaustive running induced alterations in erythrocytes oxygen release thermodynamics and kinetics properties.

  5. Acute effects of exercise posture on executive function in transient ischemic attack patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faulkner, James; Stoner, Lee; Grigg, Rebecca; Fryer, Simon; Stone, Keeron; Lambrick, Danielle

    2017-08-01

    In patients with stroke or transient ischemic attacks (TIA), a decline in executive function may limit an individual's ability to process motor tasks and relearn motor skills. The purpose of this study was to assess the acute effect of exercise posture (seated vs. supine cycle ergometry) on executive function and prefrontal cortex perfusion in patients with TIA. Eleven TIA patients (65 ± 10 years) and 15 age-matched, healthy controls (HC; 62 ± 7 years) completed two exercise tests to maximal capacity (one seated, one supine) and two 30-min submaximal exercise tests (one seated, one supine). Executive function was assessed prior to and following (1.5 min post, 15 min post) the submaximal exercise tests using a Stroop task. Prefrontal cortex perfusion (total hemoglobin) was continuously recorded using near-infrared spectroscopy. There was no Posture (seated, supine) × Group (TIA, HC) interaction for the Stroop task (p > .05). HC completed Stroop tasks significantly faster than TIA (51.9[SD = 10.3] vs. 64.2[8.5] s, respectively), while Stroop completion time significantly improved between baseline and 1.5 min post (61.3[10] vs. 58.1[9.4] s, respectively) and 1.5 min post and 15 min post (54.8[8.9] s). Posture and group had no significant influence on prefrontal cortex perfusion (p > .05). In summary, executive function improves to a similar extent in TIA and age-matched, healthy controls following an acute bout of exercise, regardless of exercise posture. As acute improvements in executive function were maintained for 15 min, there could be an important window of opportunity for assigning executive tasks following exercise rehabilitation for patients with TIA. © 2017 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  6. Mechanisms for decreased exercise capacity after bed rest in normal middle-aged men

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hung, J.; Goldwater, D.; Convertino, V.A.; McKillop, J.H.; Goris, M.L.; DeBusk, R.F.

    1983-01-01

    The mechanisms responsible for the decrease in exercise capacity after bed rest were assessed in 12 apparently healthy men aged 50 +/- 4 years who underwent equilibrium gated blood pool scintigraphy during supine and upright multistage bicycle ergometry before and after 10 days of bed rest. After bed rest, echocardiographically measured supine resting left ventricular end-diastolic volume decreased by 16% (p less than 0.05). Peak oxygen uptake during supine effort after bed rest was diminished by 6% (p . not significant [NS]), whereas peak oxygen uptake during upright effort declined by 15% (p less than 0.05). After bed rest, increases in heart rate were also greater during exercise in the upright than in the supine position (p less than 0.05). Values of left ventricular ejection fraction increased normally during both supine and upright effort after bed rest and were higher than corresponding values before bed rest (p less than 0.05). After bed rest, increased left ventricular ejection fraction and heart rate largely compensated for the reduced cardiac volume during supine effort, but these mechanisms were insufficient to maintain oxygen transport capacity at levels during upright effort before bed rest. These results indicate that orthostatically induced cardiac underfilling, not physical deconditioning or left ventricular dysfunction, is the major cause of reduced effort tolerance after 10 days of bed rest in normal middle-aged men

  7. Effect of exercise-induced dehydration on circulatory markers of oxidative damage and antioxidant capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgescu, Vincent P; de Souza Junior, Tacito P; Behrens, Christian; Barros, Marcelo P; Bueno, Carlos Alves; Utter, Alan C; McAnulty, Lisa S; McAnulty, Steven R

    2017-07-01

    Dehydration is a common event associated with exercise. However, few studies have examined the effects of dehydration on plasma redox status in humans. Eighty-two athletes were recruited and baseline anthropometrics and blood samples were obtained. Athletes then engaged in a dehydration protocol, training until 3% of preweight body mass was lost. Athletes returned to the lab and had postdehydration blood collected. Athletes then consumed an isotonic drink until pre-exercise body weight was reestablished. Blood was then recollected (1 h post full rehydration (PFR)). Samples were centrifuged and the plasma snap frozen in liquid nitrogen and stored at -80 °C. Lipid and protein oxidative stress was determined by measuring F 2 -isoprostanes and protein carbonyls (PC), respectively. Antioxidant capacity was determined by the ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) and trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) assays. Plasma osmolality was determined using an osmometer. Statistical analysis utilized a 1-way ANOVA with posthoc testing. Values are reported as mean ± SD. Plasma osmolality was significantly elevated immediately postdehydration (p ≤ 0.001) but decreased to baseline at PFR. Plasma TEAC increased immediately postdehydration and at PFR (p ≤ 0.001). FRAP increased immediately postdehydration (p ≤ 0.001) and decreased to below baseline at PFR (p ≤ 0.05). Conversely, F 2 -isoprostanes declined significantly from baseline to immediately postdehydration and then significantly rose at PFR (p ≤ 0.001), whereas PC declined at PFR (p ≤ 0.01). This study indicates that dehydration and exercise cause a significant increase in plasma osmolality and antioxidant potential immediately postexercise. We propose dehydration significantly elevates antioxidant concentration which suppresses F 2 -isoprostanes and PC.

  8. The work ability index and functional capacity among older workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosimeire S. Padula

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Decreases in functional ability due to aging can impair work capacity and productivity among older workers. OBJECTIVE: This study compares the sociodemographics, health conditions, and physical functioning abilities of young and old workers as well as correlates of physical functioning capacity with the work ability index (WAI. METHOD: This exploratory, cross-sectional study examined employees of a higher education institution (HEI and those of a metallurgical industry. Older workers (50 years old or above were matched for gender and occupation type with younger workers (less than 50 years old. The following evaluations were applied: the multidimensional assessment questionnaire (which included sociodemographic, clinical, health perception, and physical health indices, the WAI, and a battery of physical functional tests. RESULTS: Diseases and regularly used medications were more common among the group of aging workers. The WAI did not differ between groups (p=0.237. Both groups showed similar physical functional capacity performances with regard to walking speed, muscle strength, and lower limb physical functioning. Aging workers showed a poorer performance on a test of right-leg support (p=0.004. The WAI was moderately correlated with the sit-to-stand test among older female workers (r=0.573, p=0.051. CONCLUSIONS: Unfavorable general health conditions did not affect the assessment of work ability or most of the tests of physical functional capacity in the aging group.

  9. Exercise training improves in vivo endothelial repair capacity of early endothelial progenitor cells in subjects with metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonnenschein, Kristina; Horváth, Tibor; Mueller, Maja; Markowski, Andrea; Siegmund, Tina; Jacob, Christian; Drexler, Helmut; Landmesser, Ulf

    2011-06-01

    Endothelial dysfunction and injury are considered to contribute considerably to the development and progression of atherosclerosis. It has been suggested that intense exercise training can increase the number and angiogenic properties of early endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs). However, whether exercise training stimulates the capacity of early EPCs to promote repair of endothelial damage and potential underlying mechanisms remain to be determined. The present study was designed to evaluate the effects of moderate exercise training on in vivo endothelial repair capacity of early EPCs, and their nitric oxide and superoxide production as characterized by electron spin resonance spectroscopy analysis in subjects with metabolic syndrome. Twenty-four subjects with metabolic syndrome were randomized to an 8 weeks exercise training or a control group. Superoxide production and nitric oxide (NO) availability of early EPCs were characterized by using electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy analysis. In vivo endothelial repair capacity of EPCs was examined by transplantation into nude mice with defined carotid endothelial injury. Endothelium-dependent, flow-mediated vasodilation was analysed using high-resolution ultrasound. Importantly, exercise training resulted in a substantially improved in vivo endothelial repair capacity of early EPCs (24.0 vs 12.7%; p exercise training, but not in the control group. Moreover, exercise training reduced superoxide production of EPCs, which was not observed in the control group. The present study suggests for the first time that moderate exercise training increases nitric oxide production of early endothelial progenitor cells and reduces their superoxide production. Importantly, this is associated with a marked beneficial effect on the in vivo endothelial repair capacity of early EPCs in subjects with metabolic syndrome.

  10. Relationship Between Reverse Remodeling and Cardiopulmonary Exercise Capacity in Heart Failure Patients Undergoing Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mastenbroek, Mirjam H; Sant, Jetske Van't; Versteeg, Henneke

    2016-01-01

    -defibrillator (mean age 65 ± 11; 73% male) underwent echocardiography and cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPX) before implantation (baseline) and 6 months after implantation. At baseline, patients also completed a set of questionnaires measuring mental and physical health. The association between echocardiographic...... echocardiographic responders showed improvements in ventilatory efficiency during follow-up. Multivariable repeated measures analyses revealed that, besides reverse remodeling, New York Heart Association functional class II and good patient-reported health status before implantation were the most important...

  11. Sex differences in cardiac function after prolonged strenuous exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cote, Anita T; Phillips, Aaron A; Foulds, Heather J; Charlesworth, Sarah A; Bredin, Shannon S D; Burr, Jamie F; Koehle, Michael S; Warburton, Darren E R

    2015-05-01

    To evaluate sex differences in left ventricular (LV) function after an ultramarathon, and the association of vascular and training indices with the magnitude of exercise-induced cardiac fatigue. Descriptive field study. Fat Dog 100 Ultramarathon Trail Race, Canada. Thirty-four (13 women) recreational runners (aged 28-56 years). A 100-km or 160-km mountain marathon. Baseline baroreceptor sensitivity, heart rate variability, and arterial compliance; Pre-exercise and postexercise echocardiographic evaluations of LV dimensions, volumes, Doppler flow velocities, tissue velocities, strain, and strain rate. Finishers represented 17 men (44.8 ± 6.6 years) and 8 women (45.9 ± 10.2 years; P = 0.758). After ultraendurance exercise, significant reductions (P training status/experience. These findings suggest that vascular health is an important contributor to the degree of cardiovascular strain incurred as the result of an acute bout of prolonged strenuous exercise.

  12. Potential benefits of exercise on blood pressure and vascular function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Sebely; Radavelli-Bagatini, Simone; Ho, Suleen

    2013-01-01

    Physical activity seems to enhance cardiovascular fitness during the course of the lifecycle, improve blood pressure, and is associated with decreased prevalence of hypertension and coronary heart disease. It may also delay or prevent age-related increases in arterial stiffness. It is unclear if specific exercise types (aerobic, resistance, or combination) have a better effect on blood pressure and vascular function. This review was written based on previous original articles, systematic reviews, and meta-analyses indexed on PubMed from years 1975 to 2012 to identify studies on different types of exercise and the associations or effects on blood pressure and vascular function. In summary, aerobic exercise (30 to 40 minutes of training at 60% to 85% of predicted maximal heart rate, most days of the week) appears to significantly improve blood pressure and reduce augmentation index. Resistance training (three to four sets of eight to 12 repetitions at 10 repetition maximum, 3 days a week) appears to significantly improve blood pressure, whereas combination exercise training (15 minutes of aerobic and 15 minutes of resistance, 5 days a week) is beneficial to vascular function, but at a lower scale. Aerobic exercise seems to better benefit blood pressure and vascular function. Copyright © 2013 American Society of Hypertension. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Positive effects of 1-year football and strength training on mechanical muscle function and functional capacity in elderly men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sundstrup, Emil; Jakobsen, Markus Due; Andersen, Lars L.

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: A decline in physical capacity takes place with increasing age that negatively affects overall physical function including work ability and the ability to perform typical activities of daily living (ADL). The overall aim of the present study was to determine the neuromuscular adaptations...... to long-term (1 year) football and strength training in older untrained adults, and to assess the concurrent effect on functional ADL capacity. METHODS: Twenty-seven healthy elderly males (68.2 ± 3.2 years) were randomly assigned to 12 months of either recreational football training (FT: n = 10), strength...... training (ST: n = 9) or served as inactive controls (CON: n = 8). Recreational football training consisted of small-sided training sessions whereas strength training consisted of high intensity exercises targeting the lower extremity and upper body. Maximal thigh muscle strength and rate of force...

  14. Dietary nitrate restores compensatory vasodilation and exercise capacity in response to a compromise in oxygen delivery in the noncompensator phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley, Robert F; Walsh, Jeremy J; Drouin, Patrick J; Velickovic, Aleksandra; Kitner, Sarah J; Fenuta, Alyssa M; Tschakovsky, Michael E

    2017-09-01

    Recently, dietary nitrate supplementation has been shown to improve exercise capacity in healthy individuals through a potential nitrate-nitrite-nitric oxide pathway. Nitric oxide has been shown to play an important role in compensatory vasodilation during exercise under hypoperfusion. Previously, we established that certain individuals lack a vasodilation response when perfusion pressure reductions compromise exercising muscle blood flow. Whether this lack of compensatory vasodilation in healthy, young individuals can be restored with dietary nitrate supplementation is unknown. Six healthy (21 ± 2 yr), recreationally active men completed a rhythmic forearm exercise. During steady-state exercise, the exercising arm was rapidly transitioned from an uncompromised (below heart) to a compromised (above heart) position, resulting in a reduction in local pressure of -31 ± 1 mmHg. Exercise was completed following 5 days of nitrate-rich (70 ml, 0.4 g nitrate) and nitrate-depleted (70 ml, ~0 g nitrate) beetroot juice consumption. Forearm blood flow (in milliliters per minute; brachial artery Doppler and echo ultrasound), mean arterial blood pressure (in millimeters of mercury; finger photoplethysmography), exercising forearm venous effluent (ante-cubital vein catheter), and plasma nitrite concentrations (chemiluminescence) revealed two distinct vasodilatory responses: nitrate supplementation increased (plasma nitrite) compared with placebo (245 ± 60 vs. 39 ± 9 nmol/l; P nitrate supplementation (568 ± 117 vs. 714 ± 139 ml ⋅ min -1 ⋅ 100 mmHg -1 ; P = 0.005) but not in placebo (687 ± 166 vs. 697 ± 171 min -1 ⋅ 100 mmHg -1 ; P = 0.42). As such, peak exercise capacity was reduced to a lesser degree (-4 ± 39 vs. -39 ± 27 N; P = 0.01). In conclusion, dietary nitrate supplementation during a perfusion pressure challenge is an effective means of restoring exercise capacity and enabling compensatory vasodilation. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Previously, we

  15. Dietary Flavanols: A Review of Select Effects on Vascular Function, Blood Pressure, and Exercise Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Dashti, Yousef A; Holt, Roberta R; Stebbins, Charles L; Keen, Carl L; Hackman, Robert M

    2018-05-02

    An individual's diet affects numerous physiological functions and can play an important role in reducing the risk of cardiovascular disease. Epidemiological and clinical studies suggest that dietary flavanols can be an important modulator of vascular risk. Diets and plant extracts rich in flavanols have been reported to lower blood pressure, especially in prehypertensive and hypertensive individuals. Flavanols may act in part through signaling pathways that affect vascular function, nitric oxide availability, and the release of endothelial-derived relaxing and constricting factors. During exercise, flavanols have been reported to modulate metabolism and respiration (e.g., maximal oxygen uptake, O 2 cost of exercise, and energy expenditure), and reduce oxidative stress and inflammation, resulting in increased skeletal muscle efficiency and endurance capacity. Flavanol-induced reductions in blood pressure during exercise may decrease the work of the heart. Collectively, these effects suggest that flavanols can act as an ergogenic aid to help delay the onset of fatigue. More research is needed to better clarify the effects of flavanols on vascular function, blood pressure regulation, and exercise performance and establish safe and effective levels of intake. Flavanol-rich foods and food products can be useful components of a healthy diet and lifestyle program for those seeking to better control their blood pressure or to enhance their physical activity. Key teaching points • Epidemiological and clinical studies indicate that dietary flavanols can reduce the risk of vascular disease. • Diets and plant extracts rich in flavanols have been reported to lower blood pressure and improve exercise performance in humans. • Mechanisms by which flavanols may reduce blood pressure function include alterations in signaling pathways that affect vascular function, nitric oxide availability, and the release of endothelial-derived relaxation and constriction factors.

  16. Whole body hyperthermia, but not skin hyperthermia, accelerates brain and locomotor limb circulatory strain and impairs exercise capacity in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trangmar, Steven J; Chiesa, Scott T; Kalsi, Kameljit K

    2017-01-01

    Cardiovascular strain and hyperthermia are thought to be important factors limiting exercise capacity in heat-stressed humans, however, the contribution of elevations in skin (Tsk) versus whole body temperatures on exercise capacity has not been characterized. To ascertain their relationships...... was associated with a plateau in MCA and two-legged vascular conductance (VC). Mechanistically, the falling MCA VC was coupled to reductions in PaCO2, whereas the plateau in leg vascular conductance was related to markedly elevated plasma [NA] and a plateau in plasma ATP These findings reveal that whole-body...... hyperthermia, but not skin hyperthermia, compromises exercise capacity in heat-stressed humans through the early attenuation of brain and active muscle blood flow....

  17. COMPARATIVE EFFECT OF SPECIFIC YOGIC EXERCISES AND COMBINATION OF SPECIFIC YOGIC EXERCISES WITH AUTOGENIC TRAINING ON VITAL CAPACITY OF THE MIDDLE AGED MEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SURESH KUMAR

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study is to find out the comparative effect of specific yogic exercises and combination of specific yogic exercises with autogenic training on vital capacity of the middle aged men. The study tried to find out type of training program that had a maximum effect on the vital capacity of the subjects. The study has been conducted on sixty middle aged men, in the age group of 30 to 50 years. The subjects (N=60 were at random divided into three equalgroups two experimental Groups and one control group, and group consisting of 20 middle aged men. Two experimental Groups participated in two different training programmes i.e. Specific yogic exercises and Combination of specific yogic exercises with autogenic training for twenty four weeks and control group performed the routine work. The data was collected were collected in beginning ,at the end of twelve week and twenty four week of training program in term of pre, mid and post test respectively by using Wetspirometer. The training schedule was prepared systematically and carefully,keeping the individual differences of the subjects and loading principals in mind. Repeated measures of ANOVA andNewman Keul’s test were applied to find out significance of mean difference among the three tests. ANACOVA andScheffe’s Post Hoc test were applied to determine the significance of mean difference among the three groups. From the results it was found that the Practice of the combination of specific yogic exercises with autogenic training is significantly effective than the specific yogic exercises programme and control group in improving the vital capacityamong the middle aged men. Twelve weeks’ practice of combination of specific yogic exercises with autogenic training significantly improved in the vital capacity among the middle aged men than the twenty four weeks of practice

  18. Effect of low glycemic index food and postprandial exercise on blood glucose level, oxidative stress and antioxidant capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasuya, Noriaki; Ohta, Shoichiro; Takanami, Yoshikazu; Kawai, Yukari; Inoue, Yutaka; Murata, Isamu; Kanamoto, Ikuo

    2015-04-01

    Low glycemic index (GI) food and postprandial exercise are non-drug therapies for improving postprandial hyperglycemia. The present randomized, crossover study investigated the effect of low GI food combined with postprandial exercise on postprandial blood glucose level, oxidative stress and antioxidant capacity. A total of 13 healthy subjects were each used in four experiments: i) rice only (control), ii) salad prior to rice (LGI), iii) exercise following rice (EX) and iv) salad prior to rice and exercise following rice (MIX). The blood glucose level, oxidative stress and antioxidant capacity were then measured. At 60 min after the meal, the blood glucose level was observed to be increased in the MIX group compared with that in the LGI group. Furthermore, at 180 min, the antioxidant capacity was found to be reduced in the MIX group compared with those of the LGI and EX groups. These findings suggest that low GI food combined with postprandial exercise does not improve postprandial hyperglycemia. It may be necessary to establish optimal timing and intensity when combining low GI food with postprandial exercise to improve postprandial hyperglycemia.

  19. Insulin resistance, exercise capacity and body composition in subjects with two hypertensive parents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, U B; Dige-Petersen, H; Ibsen, H

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study insulin resistance in subjects with strong genetic predisposition to essential hypertension, compared with non-disposed subjects. SUBJECTS: Thirty normotensive subjects aged 18-35 years whose parents both had essential hypertension, and 30 age- and sex matched subjects whose...... correlated to abdominal fat mass but not to insulin sensitivity. CONCLUSION: Subjects with a strong genetic predisposition to essential hypertension had increased diastolic blood pressure compared with subjects with normotensive parents, but they were not insulin resistant. This may be due to the subjects...... for the difference between the means; -0.5; -7.9), but the insulin sensitivity index was similar: 312 versus 362 I(2) min(-1) pmol(-1) kg(-1) (28; -129). The two groups were similar in terms of body composition, exercise capacity and composition of usual diet. Resting and 24-h diastolic blood pressures were...

  20. The influence of exercise training on quality of life and psychosocial functioning in children with congenital heart disease:A review of intervention studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dulfer, K.; Helbing, W.A.; Utens, E.M.W.J.

    Children and adolescents operated upon for congenital heart disease may show reduced exercise capacity and physical activity, associated with lowered quality of life. This review presents intervention studies on the influence of an exercise program on quality of life and psychosocial functioning in

  1. Mental Distress Factors and Exercise Capacity in Patients with Coronary Artery Disease Attending Cardiac Rehabilitation Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazukauskiene, Nijole; Burkauskas, Julius; Macijauskiene, Jurate; Duoneliene, Inga; Gelziniene, Vaidute; Jakumaite, Vilija; Brozaitiene, Julija

    2018-02-01

    There is still insufficient data on mental distress factors contributing to exercise capacity (EC) improvement before and after cardiac rehabilitation (CR) in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). The aim of our study was to evaluate the associations between various mental distress factors and EC before and after exercise-based CR (EBCR). Over 12 months, 223 CAD patients (70% men, mean age 58 ± 9 years) were evaluated for socio-demographic, clinical, and mental distress symptoms as measured by the Hospital Anxiety and Depression scale (HADS), Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II), and Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI). Patients were tested for EC at baseline and after EBCR. In a multivariate linear regression model, EC before EBCR was associated with HADS anxiety subscale (β = -.186, p = .002) and BDI-II somatic/affective subscale (β = -.249, p Mental distress and somatic/affective symptoms of depression are strongly associated with EC both at the beginning and after EBCR. Analysis of possible mediating or moderating factors was beyond the scope of our study. Future studies should focus on comprehensive evaluation of EC risk factors including other mental distress characteristics, subjectively experienced fatigue, and post-operative CAD symptoms.

  2. Relationship between kinesiophobia and performance in a functional capacity evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reneman, MF; Jorritsma, W; Dijkstra, SJ; Dijkstra, PU

    2003-01-01

    Fear of movement and (re) injury (kinesiophobia) has been postulated to play an important role in the performance in a Functional Capacity Evaluation (FCE). This study was performed to analyze the relationship between kinesiophobia and performance in an FCE. Kinesiophobia and FCE performance of 54

  3. Decline of functional capacity in healthy aging workers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soer, Remko; Brouwer, Sandra; Geertzen, Jan H; van der Schans, Cees; Groothoff, Johan W.; Reneman, Michiel F

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: (1) To study the natural decline in functional capacity (FC) of healthy aging workers; (2) to compare FC to categories of workload; and (3) to study the differences in decline between men and women. DESIGN: Cross-sectional design. SETTING: A rehabilitation center at a university medical

  4. Left Ventricular Function After Prolonged Exercise in Equine Endurance Athletes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flethøj, M.; Schwarzwald, C. C.; Haugaard, M. M.

    2016-01-01

    Doppler imaging, and two-dimensional speckle tracking. Correlation between echocardiographic variables and cardiac troponin I was evaluated. Results: Early diastolic myocardial velocities decreased significantly in longitudinal (baseline: −17.4 ± 2.4cm/s; end of ride: −15.8 ± 3.2cm/s (P = .013); morning......Background: Prolonged exercise in human athletes is associated with transient impairment of left ventricular (LV) function, known as cardiac fatigue. Cardiac effects of prolonged exercise in horses remain unknown. Objectives :To investigate the effects of prolonged exercise on LV systolic...... and diastolic function in horses. Animals: Twenty-six horses competing in 120–160 km endurance rides. Methods: Cross-sectional field study. Echocardiography was performed before and after rides, and the following morning, and included two-dimensional echocardiography, anatomical M-mode, pulsed-wave tissue...

  5. Functional capacity and postural pain outcomes after reduction mammaplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freire, Marcia; Neto, Miguel Sabino; Garcia, Elvio Bueno; Quaresma, Marina Rodrigues; Ferreira, Lydia Masako

    2007-04-01

    Neck, shoulder, and lower back pain and reduction of functional capacity can be caused by breast hypertrophy. Reduction mammaplasty appears to improve these aspects. After a systematic review of the literature, no scientific evidence was found to confirm this hypothesis. The authors' objective was to evaluate the impact of reduction mammaplasty on pain and functional capacity of patients with mammary hypertrophy. One hundred patients with mammary hypertrophy, between 18 and 55 years old, with no previous mammary surgery, were consecutively selected from the Plastic Surgery Outpatient Clinic of the Universidade Federal de São Paulo-Escola Paulista de Medicina and randomly allocated into two groups. Group A (n = 50) underwent mammaplasty reduction immediately, whereas group B patients (n = 50) were placed on a waiting list (control group). All patients were interviewed for clinical and demographic data and evaluated to measure pain and functional capacity. To measure shoulder, neck, and lower back pain, a visual analogue scale (0 = no pain, 10 = unbearable pain) was used. The Stanford Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ-20), Brazilian validated version (0 = best, 3 = worst), was applied to assess functional capacity. Pain and functional capacity were measured at baseline and 6 months after surgery. Forty-six of 50 patients, from both groups, completed the study. The mean (+/-SD) patient age in groups A and B was 31.6 +/- 11 and 32.3 +/- 10 years, respectively. The mean breast tissue weight was 1052 +/- 188 g. Functional capacity in group A was improved 6 months after reduction mammaplasty, compared with group B (control), in the following aspects: getting dressed, getting up, walking, maintaining personal hygiene, reaching, and grasping objects. The mean pain intensity dropped in the lower back, from 5.7 to 1.3; in the shoulders, from 6.1 to 1.1; and in the neck, from 5.2 to 0.9. Reduction mammaplasty improved functional capacity and relieved pain in the lower back

  6. Exercise training improves endothelial function in resistance arteries of young prehypertensives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, D T; Martin, J S; Casey, D P; Braith, R W

    2014-05-01

    Prehypertension is associated with reduced conduit artery endothelial function and perturbation of oxidant/antioxidant status. It is unknown whether endothelial dysfunction persists to resistance arteries and whether exercise training affects oxidant/antioxidant balance in young prehypertensives. We examined resistance artery function using venous occlusion plethysmography measurement of forearm (FBF) and calf blood flow (CBF) at rest and during reactive hyperaemia (RH), as well as lipid peroxidation (8-iso-PGF2α) and antioxidant capacity (Trolox-equivalent antioxidant capacity; TEAC) before and after exercise intervention or time control. Forty-three unmedicated prehypertensive and 15 matched normotensive time controls met screening requirements and participated in the study (age: 21.1±0.8 years). Prehypertensive subjects were randomly assigned to resistance exercise training (PHRT; n=15), endurance exercise training (PHET; n=13) or time-control groups (PHTC; n=15). Treatment groups exercised 3 days per week for 8 weeks. Peak and total FBF were lower in prehypertensives than normotensives (12.7±1.2 ml min(-1) per100 ml tissue and 89.1±7.7 ml min(-1) per 100 ml tissue vs 16.3±1.0 ml min(-1) per 100 ml tissue and 123.3±6.4 ml min(-1) per 100 ml tissue, respectively; Pendurance training are effective in improving resistance artery endothelial function and oxidant/antioxidant balance in young prehypertensives.

  7. Self-esteem and functional capacity outcomes following reduction mammaplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabino Neto, Miguel; Demattê, Maria Fernanda; Freire, Marcia; Garcia, Elvio Bueno; Quaresma, Marina; Ferreira, Lydia M

    2008-01-01

    Both physical health and psychosocial outcomes are important issues in the evaluation of medical treatment. Women with breast hypertrophy may suffer from low self-esteem and reduced functional capacity because of the size of their breasts. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of reduction mammaplasty on self-esteem and functional capacity in patients with breast hypertrophy. One hundred patients with breast hypertrophy who ranged in age from 18 to 55 years and who had undergone no previous mammary surgery were selected from the Plastic Surgery Outpatient Clinic of the Federal University of São Paulo (UNIFESP-EPM). They were randomly allocated into two groups (A and B) of 50 patients each. Patients from group A were submitted for reduction mammaplasty while those from group B were placed on the waiting list and used as a control group. At the beginning of the study, all patients were interviewed to collect clinical and demographic data and to have their self-esteem and functional capacity measured. Two Brazilian-validated versions of quality of life measurement instruments were chosen: the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale and Rolland-Morris (to assess functional capacity). A visual analog scale (VAS) was used to evaluate pain intensity. Six months after the beginning of the study, these instruments were again administered to both groups. Forty-six out of 50 patients from each group (A and B) completed the study. The mean age of group A was 31.6 years (SD, 11 yrs), and that of group B was 32.3 years (SD, 10 yrs). The mean weight of removed breast tissue from group A patients was 1052 g (SD, 188 g). A decrease on the score of Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale of patients from group A indicated an improvement of self-esteem (P self-esteem and functional capacity and relieved pain in the lower back region in patients with breast hypertrophy.

  8. Wii-Based Exercise Program to Improve Physical Fitness, Motor Proficiency and Functional Mobility in Adults with Down Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, V.; Campos, C.; Sá, A.; Cavadas, M.; Pinto, J.; Simões, P.; Machado, S.; Murillo-Rodríguez, E.; Barbosa-Rocha, N.

    2017-01-01

    Background: People with Down syndrome (DS) usually display reduced physical fitness (aerobic capacity, muscle strength and abnormal body composition), motor proficiency impairments (balance and postural control) and physical functional limitations. Exergames can be an appealing alternative to enhance exercise engagement and compliance, whilst…

  9. Positive effects of 1-year football and strength training on mechanical muscle function and functional capacity in elderly men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundstrup, Emil; Jakobsen, Markus Due; Andersen, Lars Louis; Andersen, Thomas Rostgaard; Randers, Morten Bredsgaard; Helge, Jørn Wulff; Suetta, Charlotte; Schmidt, Jakob Friis; Bangsbo, Jens; Krustrup, Peter; Aagaard, Per

    2016-06-01

    A decline in physical capacity takes place with increasing age that negatively affects overall physical function including work ability and the ability to perform typical activities of daily living (ADL). The overall aim of the present study was to determine the neuromuscular adaptations to long-term (1 year) football and strength training in older untrained adults, and to assess the concurrent effect on functional ADL capacity. Twenty-seven healthy elderly males (68.2 ± 3.2 years) were randomly assigned to 12 months of either recreational football training (FT: n = 10), strength training (ST: n = 9) or served as inactive controls (CON: n = 8). Recreational football training consisted of small-sided training sessions whereas strength training consisted of high intensity exercises targeting the lower extremity and upper body. Maximal thigh muscle strength and rate of force development (RFD) were assessed with isokinetic dynamometry, while postural balance and vertical jumping performance were evaluated using force plate analysis. Furthermore, functional ability was evaluated by stair-ascent and chair-rising testing. A total of nine, nine and seven participants from FT, ST and CON, respectively, were included in the analysis. Both exercise regimens led to substantial gains in functional ability, evidenced by 24 and 18 % reduced stair-ascent time, and 32 and 21 % increased chair-rising performance in FT and ST, respectively (all P football training mainly resulted in enhanced hamstring strength (18 %, P football training mainly included enhanced strength and rapid force capacity of the hamstring muscles. Gains in functional ability were observed in response to both training regimens, evidenced by reduced stair-ascent time and increased chair-rising performance. Long-term football exercise and strength training both appear to be effective interventional strategies to improve factors of importance for ADL by counteracting the age-related decline in lower

  10. Changes in iron levels, total iron binding capacity, transferrin saturation in race horses, before and after of physical exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gláucia Abramovitc

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT. Abramovitc G., Parra A.C. & Fernandes W.R. [Changes in iron levels, total iron binding capacity, transferrin saturation in race horses, before and after of physical exercise]. Variação de níveis séricos de ferro, da capacidade total de ligação do ferro e da saturação da transferrina em equinos de corrida, antes e após exercício físico. Revista Brasileira de Medicina Veterinária, 36(3:289-293, 2014. Departamento de Clínica Médica, Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia, Universidade de São Paulo, Rua Prof. Dr. Orlando Marques de Paiva 87, Cidade Universitária, Butantã, São Paulo, SP 05508-270, Brasil. Email: wilsonrf@usp.br The preparation of the horse for physical activities in competition is directly related to important factors such as nutrition, muscle adaptation and blood profile, related to the concentration of serum iron, total capacity total iron binding capacity (TIBC and saturation of transferrin. This study aimed to evaluate the influence of exercise in iron levels, the total iron and transferrin saturation in race horses. One hundred and eleven samples of blood serum were collected from Thoroughbred horses, from the Jockey Club of São Paulo, aged between 3 and 4 years old, male and female, clinically healthy, practitioners turf competition, in sand or grass. The samples were obtained before exercise (control time and 30 minutes after exercise (post exercise. These animals were submitted to gallop training, of high intensity and short duration for this research. As a result, it was observed that the serum concentration of iron (Fe showed a statistically significant lowering post-exercise, due to organic re-balance of iron, while TIBC (total iron binding capacity showed a clear and significant increase in their serum levels due to increased needs of iron during and after exercise. The percentage of transferrin saturation in serum was shown to be lower post-exercise, probably due to the recruitment of

  11. Fine mapping of a QTL on chromosome 13 for submaximal exercise capacity training response: the HERITAGE Family Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Treva K; Sarzynski, Mark A; Sung, Yun Ju; Argyropoulos, George; Stütz, Adrian M; Teran-Garcia, Margarita; Rao, D C; Bouchard, Claude; Rankinen, Tuomo

    2012-08-01

    Although regular exercise improves submaximal aerobic capacity, there is large variability in its response to exercise training. While this variation is thought to be partly due to genetic differences, relatively little is known about the causal genes. Submaximal aerobic capacity traits in the current report include the responses of oxygen consumption (ΔVO(2)60), power output (ΔWORK60), and cardiac output (ΔQ60) at 60% of VO2max to a standardized 20-week endurance exercise training program. Genome-wide linkage analysis in 475 HERITAGE Family Study Caucasians identified a locus on chromosome 13q for ΔVO(2)60 (LOD = 3.11). Follow-up fine mapping involved a dense marker panel of over 1,800 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in a 7.9-Mb region (21.1-29.1 Mb from p-terminus). Single-SNP analyses found 14 SNPs moderately associated with both ΔVO(2)60 at P ≤ 0.005 and the correlated traits of ΔWORK60 and ΔQ60 at P < 0.05. Haplotype analyses provided several strong signals (P < 1.0 × 10(-5)) for ΔVO(2)60. Overall, association analyses narrowed the target region and included potential biological candidate genes (MIPEP and SGCG). Consistent with maximal heritability estimates of 23%, up to 20% of the phenotypic variance in ΔVO(2)60 was accounted for by these SNPs. These results implicate candidate genes on chromosome 13q12 for the ability to improve submaximal exercise capacity in response to regular exercise. Submaximal exercise at 60% of maximal capacity is an exercise intensity that falls well within the range recommended in the Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans and thus has potential public health relevance.

  12. Functional capacity, physical activity, and quality of life in hypoxemic patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saglam M

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Melda Saglam,1 Naciye Vardar-Yagli,1 Sema Savci,2 Deniz Inal-Ince,1 Ebru Calik Kutukcu,1 Hülya Arikan,1 Lutfi Coplu3 1Department of Physiotherapy and Rehabilitation, Faculty of Health Sciences, Hacettepe University, Ankara, Turkey; 2School of Physiotherapy and Rehabilitation, Dokuz Eylul University, Izmir, Turkey; 3Department of Chest Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Hacettepe University, Ankara, Turkey Background: The risk of hypoxemia increases with the progression of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD and the deterioration of pulmonary function. The aim of this study was to compare functional capacity, physical activity, and quality of life in hypoxemic and non-hypoxemic patients with COPD.Methods: Thirty-nine COPD patients (mean age: 62.0±7.03 years were included in this study. Arterial blood gas tensions were measured, and patients were divided into two groups according to oxygen partial pressure (PaO2, the hypoxemic COPD (PaO2 <60 mmHg (n=18, and the control (PaO2 ≥60 mmHg (n=21 groups. Functional exercise capacity was evaluated using the 6-minute walk test (6MWT. Oxygen saturation, dyspnea, and fatigue perception were measured before and after the 6MWT. Physical activity was assessed using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ and an accelerometer. Quality of life was assessed using the St George’s Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ.Results: The number of emergency visits and hospitalizations were higher in hypoxemic patients (P<0.05. Lung function parameters, 6MWT distance, exercise oxygen saturation, IPAQ total score, and energy expenditure during daily life were significantly lower, but percentage of maximum heart rate reached during the 6MWT was significantly higher, in hypoxemic COPD patients than in controls (P<0.05.Conclusion: Hypoxemia has a profound effect on functional capacity and physical activity in patients with COPD. Keywords: COPD, hypoxemia, 6-minute walk test

  13. Exercise capacity of Saudi with symptoms suggestive of cardiovascular disease in a military hospital in Western Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saleem, T.; Mohammad, Kazim H.; Abdel-Fattah, Moataz M.; Abbasi, Abdul H.

    2008-01-01

    Objective was to analyze the results of exercise tolerance test ETT of Saudi women and assess their exercise capacity. A hospital based retrospective cohort analysis was carried out on all Saudi women referred to the Cardiology Department for ETT from February 2005 to June 2007. They underwent symptom limited treadmill test according to the standard Bruce protocol with exercise electrocardiogram monitoring. One hundred and seventy-six women were included in the study. Fifty-one 31.9% patients did not achieve target heart rate. The mean age +/- SD was 48.3+-9.3 years. There was no association of age, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, positive family history of ischemic heart disease IHD and hyperlipidemia to achieve target heart rate p>0.05. Exercise time was influenced by diabetes mellitus p=0.054 and hyperlipidemia p=0.044. The mean exercise time +/- SD was 5.15+/-2.63 minutes and the mean exercise capacity +/-SD was 6.29+/-2.52 metabolic equivalent. Sensitivity was 36.4%, 95% CI 29.3-44.6, specificity 92.3%, 95% CI 80.5-96.8, positive predictive value 26.7%, 95% CI 21.3-31.4, negative predictive value 95.4%, 95% CI 90.9-98.3, likelihood ratio for positive result was 4.7, 95%CI 3.1-6.2 and likelihood ratio for negative result was 0.69, 95% CI 0.48-0.81. Exercise capacity of Saudi women is less compared to similar studies in women from other regions. Exercise tolerance test can be used to rule out presence of IHD in Saudi women, but value of a positive test is less likely to predict the presence of IHD. (author)

  14. Changes of left ventricular function at exercise after lung resection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujisaki, Takashi; Gomibuchi, Makoto; Shoji, Tasuku

    1992-01-01

    To determine the effect of lung resection on left ventricular function, 29 surgical patients were examined by using a nuclear stethoscope as a non-invasive means for measuring ventricular function at exercise. Pre- and post-operative parameters were obtained at rest and exercise. At rest, postoperative stroke volume (SV), end-diastolic volume (EDV), ejection fraction (EF), and ejection rate (ER) were significantly decreased; heart rate (HR) was significantly increased; and both filling rate (FR) and cardiac output (CO) remained unchanged. At maximum exercise, postoperative EDV, SV, ER and FR were significantly decreased; and there was no significant difference in either HR or EF, resulting in a significantly decreased CO. A ratio of CO and FR at maximum exercise to at rest was significantly decreased after surgery, as compared with that before surgery. According to the number of lobe resection, similar findings for all parameters, except for EF, were observed in the group of two lobe or more resection (n=13); and only two parameters, ER and FR, had the same tendency as those mentioned above in the group of a single lobe resection (n=16). The age group of 60 years or less (n=14) had similar findings for all parameters. In the group of 65 years or more (n=10), resting HR after surgery was not different from that before surgery; and postoperative CO was significantly decreased at rest, but not different from preoperative value at maximum exercise. In conclusion, left ventricular function associated with lung resection is reflected by decreased EDV and SV resulting from reduced pre-load. These changes may be corrected at rest, but not corrected at maximum exercise, resulting in decreased CO. More noticeable decrease in EDV and SV seems to be associated with larger lung resection. In older patients, HR is not corrected well, resulting in a decrease in CO at rest. (N.K.)

  15. Maximal exercise capacity in patients with obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendelson, Monique; Marillier, Mathieu; Bailly, Sébastien; Flore, Patrice; Borel, Jean-Christian; Vivodtzev, Isabelle; Doutreleau, Stéphane; Tamisier, Renaud; Pépin, Jean-Louis; Verges, Samuel

    2018-04-26

    Maximal aerobic capacity is a strong health predictor and peak oxygen consumption (VO 2peak ) is considered a reflection of total body health. No systematic reviews or meta-analysis' to date have synthesised the existing data regarding VO 2peak in patients with obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA).A systematic review of English and French articles using Pubmed/Medline and Embase included studies assessing VO 2peak of OSA patients in mL·kg -1 ·min -1 compared with controls or in % predicted. Two independent reviewers analysed the studies, extracted the data and assessed the quality of evidence.Mean VO 2peak expressed in mL·kg -1 ·min -1 was significantly lower in patients with OSA when compared with controls (mean difference=-2.7 mL·kg -1 ·min -1 ; p<0.001; n=850). This reduction in VO 2peak was found to be larger in non-obese patients (BMI<30 kg·m -2 ). Mean VO 2peak in % predicted was 90.7±21.0% in OSA patients (n=643).OSA patients present reduced maximal aerobic capacity, which can be associated with increased cardiovascular risks and reduced survival in certain patient subgroups. Maximal exercise testing can be useful to characterise functional limitation and to evaluate health status in OSA patients. Registration # CRD42017057319. Copyright ©ERS 2018.

  16. Exercise and cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Idorn, Manja; thor Straten, Per

    2017-01-01

    Exercise improves functional capacity and patient-reported outcomes across a range of cancer diagnoses. The mechanisms behind this protection have been largely unknown, but exercise-mediated changes in body composition, sex hormone levels, systemic inflammation, and immune cell function have been...... hypothesize that this link between exercise and the immune system can be exploited in cancer therapy in particular in combination with immunotherapy. Thus, we believe that exercise may not just be “healthy” but may in fact be therapeutic....

  17. The integrity of persons elected, appointed or exercising public functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agathi Nano

    2017-07-01

    On 17 December 2015, Members of the Albanian Parliament adopt by consensus the constitutional amendments and legislative framework which are necessary to introduce in our country a clear mechanism for the exclusion of criminal offenders from public offices. In this paper we examine regulatory issues relating to the legal framework necessary to guarantee the integrity of public officials, the verification and ascertainment of the prohibition of exercising public functions and the implementation of the prohibitive measures provided for by law no. 138/2015 “On guaranteeing the integrity of the persons elected and/or appointed to, or exercising public functions”, the so called “decriminalisation” law.

  18. The effects of altitude/hypoxic training on oxygen delivery capacity of the blood and aerobic exercise capacity in elite athletes - a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hun-Young; Hwang, Hyejung; Park, Jonghoon; Lee, Seongno; Lim, Kiwon

    2016-03-31

    This study was designed as a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials comparing effectiveness of altitude/hypoxic training (experimental) versus sea-level training (control) on oxygen delivery capacity of the blood and aerobic exercise capacity of elite athletes in Korea. Databases (Research Information Service System, Korean studies Information Service System, National Assembly Library) were for randomized controlled trials comparing altitude/hypoxic training versus sea-level training in elite athletes. Studies published in Korea up to December 2015 were eligible for inclusion. Oxygen delivery capacity of the blood was quantified by red blood cell (RBC), hemoglobin (Hb), hematocrit (Hct), erythropoietin (EPO); and aerobic exercise capacity was quantified by maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max). RBC, Hb, Hct, VO2max represented heterogeneity and compared post-intervention between altitude/hypoxic training and sea-level training in elite athletes by a random effect model meta-analysis. EPO represented homogeneity and meta-analysis performed by a fixed effect model. Eight independent studies with 156 elite athletes (experimental: n = 82, control: n = 74) were included in the metaanalysis. RBC (4.499×10(5) cell/ul, 95 % CI: 2.469 to 6.529), Hb (5.447 g/dl, 95 % CI: 3.028 to 7.866), Hct (3.639 %, 95 % CI: 1.687 to 5.591), EPO (0.711 mU/mL, 95% CI: 0.282 to 1.140), VO2max (1.637 ml/kg/min, 95% CI: 0.599 to 1.400) showed significantly greater increase following altitude/hypoxic training, as compared with sea-level training. For elite athletes in Korea, altitude/ hypoxic training appears more effective than sea-level training for improvement of oxygen delivery capacity of the blood and aerobic exercise capacity.

  19. The effects of altitude/hypoxic training on oxygen delivery capacity of the blood and aerobic exercise capacity in elite athletes – a meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hun-young; Hwang, Hyejung; Park, Jonghoon; Lee, Seongno; Lim, Kiwon

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study was designed as a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials comparing effectiveness of altitude/hypoxic training (experimental) versus sea-level training (control) on oxygen delivery capacity of the blood and aerobic exercise capacity of elite athletes in Korea. [Methods] Databases (Research Information Service System, Korean studies Information Service System, National Assembly Library) were for randomized controlled trials comparing altitude/hypoxic training versus sea-level training in elite athletes. Studies published in Korea up to December 2015 were eligible for inclusion. Oxygen delivery capacity of the blood was quantified by red blood cell (RBC), hemoglobin (Hb), hematocrit (Hct), erythropoietin (EPO); and aerobic exercise capacity was quantified by maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max). RBC, Hb, Hct, VO2max represented heterogeneity and compared post-intervention between altitude/hypoxic training and sea-level training in elite athletes by a random effect model meta-analysis. EPO represented homogeneity and meta-analysis performed by a fixed effect model. Eight independent studies with 156 elite athletes (experimental: n = 82, control: n = 74) were included in the metaanalysis. [Results] RBC (4.499×105 cell/ul, 95 % CI: 2.469 to 6.529), Hb (5.447 g/dl, 95 % CI: 3.028 to 7.866), Hct (3.639 %, 95 % CI: 1.687 to 5.591), EPO (0.711 mU/mL, 95% CI: 0.282 to 1.140), VO2max (1.637 ml/kg/min, 95% CI: 0.599 to 1.400) showed significantly greater increase following altitude/hypoxic training, as compared with sea-level training. [Conclusion] For elite athletes in Korea, altitude/ hypoxic training appears more effective than sea-level training for improvement of oxygen delivery capacity of the blood and aerobic exercise capacity. PMID:27298808

  20. Effects of age on reactive capacity and nigrostriatal dopamine function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilliam, P.E.

    1984-01-01

    This investigation examined the effects of aging on reactive capacity (reaction time), and striatal dopamine function in the same animals. Twenty, 3 month old, and twenty, 24 month old, male Sprague-Dawley rats were trained in a reactive capacity test to quickly release a lever, in response to an auditory and visual stimulus, in order to avoid footshocks. The young animals were tested at 3, 6, and 9 months of age, while the Old animals were tested at 18, 21, and 24 months of age. Twenty-four hours after the last testing session the animals were sacrificed and their striata dissected for biochemical assays. A [ 3 H]-spiperone receptor binding assay was performed to determine the density and affinity of striatial D-2 receptors. It was hypothesized that the improvement in reactive capacity performance of the Old animals over days was due to their ability to compensate for their decrease in receptor density by an increase in the production and utilization of dopamine. Significant positive correlations were also found between reactive capacity performance and receptor density as well as between reactive capacity and the ratio of DOPAC + HVA/DA

  1. Longitudinal relationship between wheelchair exercise capacity and life satisfaction in patients with spinal cord injury: A cohort study in the Netherlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Koppenhagen, Casper Floris; Post, Marcel; de Groot, Sonja; van Leeuwen, Christel; van Asbeck, Floris; Stolwijk-Swüste, Janneke; van der Woude, Lucas; Lindeman, Eline

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine the relationship between wheelchair exercise capacity and life satisfaction in persons with spinal cord injury from the start of active inpatient rehabilitation up to 5 years after discharge. Design Prospective cohort study. Subjects Persons with spinal cord injury, aged 18–65 years, and wheelchair dependent at least for long distances. Method Measurements at the start of active rehabilitation, after 3 months, at discharge from inpatient rehabilitation, and 1 and 5 years after discharge. A peak wheelchair exercise test was performed to record peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak) and peak power output (POpeak). Life satisfaction was measured as current life satisfaction and change of life satisfaction in comparison with life after spinal cord injury. Relationships between (changes in) exercise capacity and (changes in) life satisfaction were analyzed random coefficient analysis, corrected for possible confounders (age, gender, level of lesion, functional status, secondary impairments, pain, and sports activity) if necessary. Results Of 225 persons included, 130 attended two or more peak exercise tests, who were include in the analyses. Mean age at start was 39 years, 75% were male, 73% had paraplegia, and 76% had a traumatic lesion. Mean POpeak increased during the study from 32.9 to 55.9 Watts, mean VO2peak from 1.02  to 1.38 l/minute, and mean life satisfaction from 5.7 to 7.8. An increase of POpeak with 10 W was associated with a 0.3-point increase of life satisfaction (P = 0.01). An increase of VO2peak with 0.1 l/minute was associated with a 0.1-point increase of life satisfaction (P = 0.049). Conclusion High(er) wheelchair exercise capacity is related to high(er) life satisfaction in spinal cord injury patients. PMID:24621019

  2. Longitudinal relationship between wheelchair exercise capacity and life satisfaction in patients with spinal cord injury: A cohort study in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Koppenhagen, Casper Floris; Post, Marcel; de Groot, Sonja; van Leeuwen, Christel; van Asbeck, Floris; Stolwijk-Swüste, Janneke; van der Woude, Lucas; Lindeman, Eline

    2014-05-01

    To examine the relationship between wheelchair exercise capacity and life satisfaction in persons with spinal cord injury from the start of active inpatient rehabilitation up to 5 years after discharge. Prospective cohort study. Persons with spinal cord injury, aged 18-65 years, and wheelchair dependent at least for long distances. Measurements at the start of active rehabilitation, after 3 months, at discharge from inpatient rehabilitation, and 1 and 5 years after discharge. A peak wheelchair exercise test was performed to record peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak) and peak power output (POpeak). Life satisfaction was measured as current life satisfaction and change of life satisfaction in comparison with life after spinal cord injury. Relationships between (changes in) exercise capacity and (changes in) life satisfaction were analyzed random coefficient analysis, corrected for possible confounders (age, gender, level of lesion, functional status, secondary impairments, pain, and sports activity) if necessary. Of 225 persons included, 130 attended two or more peak exercise tests, who were include in the analyses. Mean age at start was 39 years, 75% were male, 73% had paraplegia, and 76% had a traumatic lesion. Mean POpeak increased during the study from 32.9 to 55.9 Watts, mean VO2peak from 1.02 to 1.38 l/minute, and mean life satisfaction from 5.7 to 7.8. An increase of POpeak with 10 W was associated with a 0.3-point increase of life satisfaction (P = 0.01). An increase of VO2peak with 0.1 l/minute was associated with a 0.1-point increase of life satisfaction (P = 0.049). Conclusion High(er) wheelchair exercise capacity is related to high(er) life satisfaction in spinal cord injury patients.

  3. Are substrate use during exercise and mitochondrial respiratory capacity decreased in arm and leg muscle in type 2 diabetes?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Steen; Ara, I; Rabøl, R

    2009-01-01

    and carbohydrate oxidation during both progressive arm-cranking and leg-cycling exercises. Muscle biopsies from arm and leg were obtained. Fibre type, as well as O(2) flux capacity of saponin-permeabilised muscle fibres were measured, the latter by high resolution respirometry, in patients with type 2 diabetes...

  4. Cardiac protein expression patterns are associated with distinct inborn exercise capacity in non-selectively bred rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.P. Ribeiro

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, we successfully demonstrated for the first time the existence of cardiac proteomic differences between non-selectively bred rats with distinct intrinsic exercise capacities. A proteomic approach based on two-dimensional gel electrophoresis coupled to mass spectrometry was used to study the left ventricle (LV tissue proteome of rats with distinct intrinsic exercise capacity. Low running performance (LRP and high running performance (HRP rats were categorized by a treadmill exercise test, according to distance run to exhaustion. The running capacity of HRPs was 3.5-fold greater than LRPs. Protein profiling revealed 29 differences between HRP and LRP rats (15 proteins were identified. We detected alterations in components involved in metabolism, antioxidant and stress response, microfibrillar and cytoskeletal proteins. Contractile proteins were upregulated in the LVs of HRP rats (α-myosin heavy chain-6, myosin light chain-1 and creatine kinase, whereas the LVs of LRP rats exhibited upregulation in proteins associated with stress response (aldehyde dehydrogenase 2, α-crystallin B chain and HSPβ-2. In addition, the cytoskeletal proteins desmin and α-actin were upregulated in LRPs. Taken together, our results suggest that the increased contractile protein levels in HRP rats partly accounted for their improved exercise capacity, and that proteins considered risk factors to the development of cardiovascular disease were expressed in higher amounts in LRP animals.

  5. [Effect of disease severity on upper extremity muscle strength, exercise capacity, and activities of daily living in individuals with pulmonary arterial hypertension].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özcan Kahraman, Buse; Özsoy, İsmail; Acar, Serap; Özpelit, Ebru; Akdeniz, Bahri; Sevinç, Can; Savcı, Sema

    2017-07-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a rare disease. Although muscle strength, exercise capacity, quality of life, and activities of daily living of patients with PAH are affected, it is not known how they are affected by disease severity. The purpose of the present study was to investigate effects of disease severity on upper extremity muscle strength, exercise capacity, and performance of activities of daily living in patients with PAH. Twenty-five patients with disease severity classified according to the New York Heart Association (NYHA) as functional class II (n=14) or class III (n=11) were included in the study. Upper-extremity exercise capacity and limitations in performing activities of daily living were assessed with 6-minute pegboard and ring test (6PBRT) and the Milliken activities of daily living scale (MAS), respectively. Shoulder flexion, elbow extension, elbow flexion muscle strength, and handgrip strength were measured with dynamometer. There were no significant differences in age, gender, body mass index, or mean pulmonary artery pressure between groups (p>0.05). The 6PBRT, MAS, and elbow flexion (right) and grip strength (right and left) results were significantly lower in NYHA III group than in NYHA II group (p=0.004, p=0.002, p=0.043, p=0.002 and p=0.003, respectively). There was no significant difference in shoulder flexion, elbow flexion (left), or elbow extension between groups (p>0.05). Results suggest that upper extremity exercise capacity, elbow flexion muscle strength (right), and handgrip strength decrease and that limitations in activities of daily living grow as disease severity increases in patients with PAH. When planning rehabilitation programs, disease severity should be considered and evaluations and treatments for the upper extremities should be included.

  6. Swimming Improves Pain and Functional Capacity of Patients With Fibromyalgia: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Giovana; Jennings, Fabio; Nery Cabral, Michele Vieira; Pirozzi Buosi, Ana Letícia; Natour, Jamil

    2016-08-01

    To evaluate the effect of swimming on pain, functional capacity, aerobic capacity, and quality of life in patients with fibromyalgia (FM). Randomized controlled trial. Rheumatology outpatient clinics of a university hospital. Women with FM (N=75; age range, 18-60y) randomly assigned to a swimming group (SG) (n=39) or a walking group (WG) (n=36). The SG performed 50 minutes of swimming 3 times a week for 12 weeks, with a heart rate at 11 beats under the anaerobic threshold. The WG performed walking with a heart rate at the anaerobic threshold, with the same duration and frequency as the SG. Participants were evaluated before the exercise protocols (t0), at 6 weeks (t6), and at 12 weeks (t12) after the onset of the protocols. The primary outcome measure was the visual analog scale for pain. The secondary measurements were the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire and the Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey for quality of life; a spiroergometric test for cardiorespiratory variables; and the timed Up & Go test for functional performance. Patients in both groups experienced improvement in pain after the 12-week program, with no difference between groups (P=.658). The same results were found regarding functional capacity and quality of life. Moreover, no statistical difference between groups was found regarding aerobic capacity over time. Swimming, like walking, is an effective method for reducing pain and improving both functional capacity and quality of life in patients with FM. Copyright © 2016 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Alveolar gas exchange and tissue oxygenation during incremental treadmill exercise, and their associations with blood O2 carrying capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antti-Pekka E. Rissanen

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The magnitude and timing of oxygenation responses in highly active leg muscle, less active arm muscle, and cerebral tissue, have not been studied with simultaneous alveolar gas exchange measurement during incremental treadmill exercise. Nor is it known, if blood O2 carrying capacity affects the tissue-specific oxygenation responses. Thus, we investigated alveolar gas exchange and tissue (m. vastus lateralis, m. biceps brachii, cerebral cortex oxygenation during incremental treadmill exercise until volitional fatigue, and their associations with blood O2 carrying capacity in 22 healthy men. Alveolar gas exchange was measured, and near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS was used to monitor relative concentration changes in oxy- (Δ[O2Hb], deoxy- (Δ[HHb] and total hemoglobin (Δ[tHb], and tissue saturation index (TSI. NIRS inflection points (NIP, reflecting changes in tissue-specific oxygenation, were determined and their coincidence with ventilatory thresholds (anaerobic threshold (AT, respiratory compensation point (RC; V-slope method was examined. Blood O2 carrying capacity (total hemoglobin mass (tHb-mass was determined with the CO-rebreathing method. In all tissues, NIPs coincided with AT, whereas RC was followed by NIPs. High tHb-mass associated with leg muscle deoxygenation at peak exercise (e.g., Δ[HHb] from baseline walking to peak exercise vs. tHb-mass: r = 0.64, p < 0.01, but not with arm muscle- or cerebral deoxygenation. In conclusion, regional tissue oxygenation was characterized by inflection points, and tissue oxygenation in relation to alveolar gas exchange during incremental treadmill exercise resembled previous findings made during incremental cycling. It was also found out, that O2 delivery to less active m. biceps brachii may be limited by an accelerated increase in ventilation at high running intensities. In addition, high capacity for blood O2 carrying was associated with a high level of m. vastus lateralis deoxygenation at peak

  8. Skeletal muscle abnormalities and exercise capacity in adults with a Fontan circulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordina, Rachael; O'Meagher, Shamus; Gould, Haslinda; Rae, Caroline; Kemp, Graham; Pasco, Julie A; Celermajer, David S; Singh, Nalin

    2013-10-01

    The peripheral muscle pump is key in promoting cardiac filling during exercise, especially in subjects who lack a subpulmonary ventricle (the Fontan circulation). A muscle-wasting syndrome exists in acquired heart failure but has not been assessed in Fontan subjects. We sought to investigate whether adults with the Fontan circulation exhibit reduced skeletal muscle mass and/or metabolic abnormalities. Sixteen New York Heart Association Class I/II Fontan adults (30±2 years) underwent cardiopulmonary exercise testing and lean mass quantification with dual x-ray absorptiometry (DXA); eight had calf muscle (31)P magnetic resonance spectroscopy as did eight healthy age-matched and sex-matched controls. DXA results were compared with Australian reference data. Single tertiary referral centre. Peak VO2 was 1.9±0.1 L/min (66±3% of predicted values). Skeletal muscle mass assessed by relative appendicular lean mass index was significantly reduced compared with age-matched and sex-matched reference values (Z-score -1.46±0.22, pskeletal muscle mass correlated with poorer VO2 max (r=0.67, p=0.004). Overall, skeletal muscle mass T-score (derived from comparison with young normal reference mean) was -1.47±0.21; 4/16 Fontan subjects had sarcopenic range muscle wasting (T-score Muscle aerobic capacity, measured by the rate constant (k) of postexercise phosphocreatine resynthesis, was significantly impaired in Fontan adults versus controls (1.48±0.13 vs 2.40±0.33 min(-1), p=0.02). Fontan adults have reduced skeletal muscle mass and intrinsic muscle metabolic abnormalities.

  9. Lung function study and diffusion capacity in anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieters, T; Boland, B; Beguin, C; Veriter, C; Stanescu, D; Frans, A; Lambert, M

    2000-08-01

    In humans, malnutrition alters the respiratory system in different ways. It impairs the ventilatory drive, decreases respiratory muscle strength and reduces immune competence. In addition, typical emphysema-like changes were demonstrated in starved animals. The presence of emphysema has never been demonstrated in starved humans. Our objective was to investigate whether pulmonary emphysema occurs in anorexia nervosa by means of a pulmonary function study. We examined 24 women aged between 14 and 38 years (nine smokers). We studied the lung function including lung volumes, ventilatory capacity, maximal respiratory pressures and transfer factor, as well as PaO2. All respiratory tests were within normal limits with the exception of decreased maximal inspiratory (59% of predicted values) and expiratory pressures (35%), and increased residual volume (162%). Diffusion capacity (98.1 +/- 16.2%) and transfer coefficient (98.4 +/- 16.2%) were also normal. The diffusion coefficient was lower in current smokers than in those who had never smoked (P anorexia nervosa, pulmonary function tests are within normal limits with the exception of maximal pressures and residual volume. Diffusion capacity is not decreased. The present results within the limitations of the used method are not compatible with the hypothesis of starvation-induced pulmonary emphysema.

  10. Feasibility and Validity of a Graded One-Legged Cycle Exercise Test to Determine Peak Aerobic Capacity in Older People With a Lower-Limb Amputation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wezenberg, Daphne; de Haan, Arnold; van der Woude, Lucas H.; Houdijk, Han

    Background. Information concerning exercise tolerance and aerobic capacity is imperative for generating effective and safe exercise programs. However, for older people with a lower-limb amputation, a standard exercise test is not available. Objective. The primary aim of the present study was to

  11. Feasibility and Validity of a Graded One-Legged Cycle Exercise Test to Determine Peak Aerobic Capacity in Older People With a Lower-Limb Amputation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wezenberg, D.; de Haan, A.; van der Woude, L.H.V.; Houdijk, J.H.P.

    2011-01-01

    Background. Information concerning exercise tolerance and aerobic capacity is imperative for generating effective and safe exercise programs. However, for older people with a lower-limb amputation, a standard exercise test is not available. Objective. The primary aim of the present study was to

  12. Feasibility and Validity of a Graded One-Legged Cycle Exercise Test to Determine Peak Aerobic Capacity in Older People With a Lower-Limb Amputation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wezenberg, D.; de Haan, A.; van der Woude, L.H.V.; Houdijk, J.H.P.

    2012-01-01

    Background. Information concerning exercise tolerance and aerobic capacity is imperative for generating effective and safe exercise programs. However, for older people with a lower-limb amputation, a standard exercise test is not available. Objective. The primary aim of the present study was to

  13. Functional sympatholysis during exercise in patients with type 2 diabetes with intact response to acetylcholine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thaning, Pia; Bune, Laurids T; Zaar, Morten

    2011-01-01

    Sympathetic vasoconstriction is blunted in contracting human skeletal muscles (functional sympatholysis). In young subjects, infusion of adenosine and ATP increases blood flow, and the latter compound also attenuates α-adrenergic vasoconstriction. In patients with type 2 diabetes and age-matched ......Sympathetic vasoconstriction is blunted in contracting human skeletal muscles (functional sympatholysis). In young subjects, infusion of adenosine and ATP increases blood flow, and the latter compound also attenuates α-adrenergic vasoconstriction. In patients with type 2 diabetes and age......-matched healthy subjects, we tested 1) the sympatholytic capacity during one-legged exercise, 2) the vasodilatory capacity of adenosine and ATP, and 3) the ability to blunt α-adrenergic vasoconstriction during ATP infusion....

  14. Cystatin C a marker for renal function after exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mingels, A; Jacobs, L; Kleijnen, V; Wodzig, W; Dieijen-Visser, M van

    2009-09-01

    Renal impairment is common during and after severe exercise. In clinical practice, renal function is evaluated using serum creatinine, urine parameters, and equations to estimate the Glomular Filtration Rate (GFR). However, creatinine levels may be biased by skeletal muscle damage and the GFR equations, requiring age, gender and body weight, are shown to be inadequate in normals. In the present study, we show that serum cystatin C and creatinine concentrations were elevated after marathon running in 26% and 46% of the 70 recreational male runners, respectively, possibly because of reduction in renal blood flow. The mean cystatin C increase was twice as low as compared to creatinine (21% and 41%, respectively), suggesting that cystatin C is indeed less biased by muscle damage. Future research has to reveal whether training diminishes the elevation in renal markers. Overall, cystatin C seems a more reliable method to establish renal function during and after extensive exercise. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart.

  15. The functional fitness capacity of adults with Down syndrome in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terblanche, E; Boer, P-H

    2013-09-01

    It is well established that there is a relationship between physical inactivity and increased risk for diseases of lifestyle. Persons with Down syndrome (DS) are especially at risk because of physical and health impairments, as well as perceived and real barriers to participation in exercise. The purpose of the study was to establish the functional fitness capacity and predictors of performance of DS adults. Data were collected at various intellectual disability centres and private homes in seven provinces of South Africa. Three hundred and seventy-one DS individuals (199 men and 172 women) from 18 to 66 years were tested for balance, flexibility, coordination, muscular strength and endurance, aerobic capacity and functional ability. Data were categorised according to gender and age groups (18-25, 26-35, 36-45, and >45 years). Multiple regression analysis was performed to determine the relationship between the functional task and physical test items. Down syndrome men performed significantly better on all but two tests compared with the women (P physical attributes contribute to functional performance. Consequently appropriate training programmes can be tailored for this population whom is known to have poor functional fitness. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd, MENCAP & IASSID.

  16. [Impact of exercise on the body composition and aerobic capacity of elderly with obesity through three models of intervention].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieto, Jose Antonio; Del Valle, Miguel; Nistal, Paloma; Méndez, David; Abelairas-Gómez, Cristian; Barcala-Furelos, Roberto

    2014-12-17

    The objective of this study was to analyze the influence of aerobic exercise on body composition and aerobic capacity of a sample of older, sedentary adults with obesity rates by three different models of intervention (recommendation, prescription at home and monitoring). A total of 76 older adults with a mean age 67.1+/-1.2 years, sedentary, with a BMI> 30 kg/ m2 were randomized in to four groups: Control (CON) recommendation (REC), prescription home (PRES) and monitoring in a sports center (MON). The same program of aerobic exercise for groups of home and sports center for 24 weeks, 3 days a week was developed. It was determined before and after the intervention BMI, Waist- Hip-index (ICC), the% fat ( Σ folds) and aerobic capacity (T6M) throughout the sample. MON and PRES groups showed significant improvements in the ICC, Σ folds and T 6M variables, not the case in BMI. However the MON group presented significant differences from group PRES between-group analysis (p exercise programs in adults with obesity methodology. However the exercise prescription at home since early intervention is an important approach for people with physical and/ or psychological reasons such as obesity cannot access the sports centers to participate in activities led by a monitor. Unknowns of aerobic exercise are cleared in the home that are of great impact for social policies regarding the health of the elderly population. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  17. Home-based versus center-based aerobic exercise on cardiopulmonary performance, physical function, quality of life and quality of sleep of overweight patients with chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoike, Danilo Takashi; Baria, Flavia; Kamimura, Maria Ayako; Ammirati, Adriano; Cuppari, Lilian

    2018-02-01

    The association between chronic kidney disease (CKD) and obesity can decrease the patients' cardiopulmonary capacity, physical functioning and quality of life. The search for effective and practical alternative methods of exercise to engage patients in training programs is of great importance. Therefore, we aimed to compare the effects of home-based versus center-based aerobic exercise on the cardiopulmonary and functional capacities, quality of life and quality of sleep of overweight non-dialysis-dependent patients with CKD (NDD-CKD). Forty sedentary overweight patients CKD stages 3 and 4 were randomly assigned to an exercise group [home-based group (n = 12) or center-based exercise group (n = 13)] or to a control group (n = 15) that did not perform any exercise. Cardiopulmonary exercise test, functional capacity tests, quality of life, quality of sleep and clinical parameters were assessed at baseline, 12 and 24 weeks. The VO 2peak and all cardiopulmonary parameters evaluated were similarly improved (p functional capacity tests improved during the follow-up in the home-based group (p training was as effective as center-based training in improving the physical and functional capabilities, quality of life and sleep in overweight NDD-CKD patients.

  18. Aerobic exercise training induces skeletal muscle hypertrophy and age-dependent adaptations in myofiber function in young and older men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konopka, Adam R.; Undem, Miranda K.; Hinkley, James M.; Minchev, Kiril; Kaminsky, Leonard A.; Trappe, Todd A.; Trappe, Scott

    2012-01-01

    To examine potential age-specific adaptations in skeletal muscle size and myofiber contractile physiology in response to aerobic exercise, seven young (YM; 20 ± 1 yr) and six older men (OM; 74 ± 3 yr) performed 12 wk of cycle ergometer training. Muscle biopsies were obtained from the vastus lateralis to determine size and contractile properties of isolated slow [myosin heavy chain (MHC) I] and fast (MHC IIa) myofibers, MHC composition, and muscle protein concentration. Aerobic capacity was higher (P 0.05) with training. Training reduced (P aerobic capacity are similar between YM and OM, while adaptations in myofiber contractile function showed a general improvement in OM. Training-related increases in MHC I and MHC IIa peak power reveal that skeletal muscle of OM is responsive to aerobic exercise training and further support the use of aerobic exercise for improving cardiovascular and skeletal muscle health in older individuals. PMID:22984247

  19. Myocardial functional responses do not contribute to maximal exercise performance in the heat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Denise L; DeBlois, Jacob P; Wharton, Margaret; Rowland, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Both the extent and means by which maximal oxygen uptake ([Formula: see text]) is depressed by elevated ambient temperature are uncertain. Particularly, information is currently unavailable regarding the possible influence of alterations in myocardial function on [Formula: see text] and performance during exercise in the heat. This study investigated the effects of environmental heat on [Formula: see text], peak work capacity, and myocardial function during a standard, progressive cycle test to exhaustion. Twelve euhydrated men (aged 20.7 ± 1.7 years) performed a maximal cycle test in an environmental chamber in both heat stress [35°C, 30% relative humidity (RH)] and temperate (20°C, 30% RH) conditions with measurement of standard gas exchange variables, core temperature, and echocardiographic measures of cardiac function. A small but statistically significant reduction of peak work capacity was observed in the heat stress versus temperate conditions (253 ± 30 and 259 ± 30 W, respectively, p = 0.02). Mean [Formula: see text] was not statistically different in the two conditions (p = 0.16) but values were 3.4% lower in the heat, and 9 of 12 participants demonstrated lower values in the heat stress trial. No differences in responses of heart rate, cardiac output, stroke volume, core temperature, hydration status, or myocardial systolic or diastolic function were observed between the two conditions, but perceived body temperature was higher in the heat. The small, negative impact of heat on exercise performance and [Formula: see text] could not be explained by disturbances in myocardial functional responses to exercise in young adult males.

  20. Nutritional status is related to fat-free mass, exercise capacity and inspiratory strength in severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pollyane Galinari Sabino

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Being overweight or obese is associated with a higher rate of survival in patients with advanced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. This paradoxical relationship indicates that the influence of nutritional status on functional parameters should be further investigated. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the impact of nutritional status on body composition, exercise capacity and respiratory muscle strength in severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients. METHODS: Thirty-two patients (nine women were divided into three groups according to their body mass indices (BMI: overweight/obese (25 < BMI < 34.9 kg/m², n=8, normal weight (18.5 < BMI < 24.9 kg/m², n=17 and underweight (BMI <18.5 kg/m², n=7. Spirometry, bioelectrical impedance, a six-minute walking distance test and maximal inspiratory and expiratory pressures were assessed. RESULTS: Airway obstruction was similar among the groups (p=0.30; however, overweight/obese patients had a higher fat-free mass (FFM index [FFMI=FFM/body weight² (mean±SEM: 17±0.3 vs. 15±0.3 vs. 14±0.5 m/kg², p<0.01], exercise capacity (90±8 vs. 79±6 vs. 57±8 m, p=0.02 and maximal inspiratory pressure (63±7 vs. 57±5 vs. 35±8 % predicted, p=0.03 in comparison to normal weight and underweight patients, respectively. In addition, on backward multiple regression analysis, FFMI was the unique independent predictor of exercise capacity (partial r=0.52, p<0.01. CONCLUSIONS: Severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD patients who were overweight or obese had a greater FFM, exercise capacity and inspiratory muscle strength than patients with the same degree of airflow obstruction who were of normal weight or underweight, and higher FFM was independently associated with higher exercise capacity. These characteristics of overweight or obese patients might counteract the drawbacks of excess weight and lead to an improved prognosis in COPD.

  1. Exercise Training and Recreational Activities to Promote Executive Functions in Chronic Stroke: A Proof-of-Concept Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu-Ambrose, Teresa; Eng, Janice J

    2015-01-01

    Background Stroke survivors represent a target population in need of intervention strategies to promote cognitive function and prevent dementia. Both exercise and recreational activities are promising strategies. We assessed the effect of a six-month exercise and recreation program on executive functions in adults with chronic stroke. Methods A six-month ancillary study within a multi-centre randomized trial. Twenty-eight chronic stroke survivors (i.e., ≥ 12 months since an index stroke) were randomized to one of two experimental groups: intervention (INT; n=12) or delayed intervention (D-INT; n=16). Participants of the INT group received a six-month community-based structured program that included two sessions of exercise training and one session of recreation and leisure activities per week. Participants of the D-INT group received usual care. The primary outcome measure was the Stroop Test, a cognitive test of selective attention and conflict resolution. Secondary cognitive measures included set shifting and working memory. Mood, functional capacity, and general balance and mobility were additional secondary outcome measures. Results Compared with the D-INT group, the INT group significantly improved selective attention and conflict resolution (p=0.02), working memory (p=0.04), and functional capacity (p=0.02) at the end of the six-month intervention period. Improved selective attention and conflict resolution was significantly associated with functional capacity at six months (r=0.39; p=0.04). Conclusions This is the first randomized study to demonstrate that an exercise and recreation program can significantly benefit executive functions in community-dwelling chronic stroke survivors who are mildly cognitively impaired – a population at high-risk for dementia and functional decline. Thus, clinicians should consider prescribing exercise and recreational activities in the cognitive rehabilitation of chronic stroke survivors. Clinical Trial Registration http

  2. Effects of chronic nitric oxide synthase inhibition on V'O2max and exercise capacity in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojewoda, M; Przyborowski, K; Sitek, B; Zakrzewska, A; Mateuszuk, L; Zoladz, J A; Chlopicki, S

    2017-03-01

    Acute inhibition of NOS by L-NAME (N ω -nitro-L-arginine methyl ester) is known to decrease maximal oxygen consumption (V'O 2max ) and impair maximal exercise capacity, whereas the effects of chronic L-NAME treatment on V'O 2max and exercise performance have not been studied so far. In this study, we analysed the effect of L-NAME treatment, (LN2 and LN12, respectively) on V'O 2max and exercise capacity (in maximal incremental running and prolonged sub-maximal incremental running tests), systemic NO bioavailability (plasma nitrite (NO 2 - ) and nitrate (NO 3 - )) and prostacyclin (PGI 2 ) production in C57BL6/J mice. Mice treated with L-NAME for 2 weeks (LN2) displayed higher V'O 2max and better running capacity than age-matched control mice. In LN2 mice, NO bioavailability was preserved, as evidenced by maintained NO 2 - plasma concentration. PGI 2 production was activated (increased 6-keto-PGF 1α plasma concentration) and the number of circulating erythrocytes (RBC) and haemoglobin concentration were increased. In mice treated with L-NAME for 12 weeks (LN12), NO bioavailability was decreased (lower NO 2 - plasma concentration), and 6-keto-PGF 1α plasma concentration and RBC number were not elevated compared to age-matched control mice. However, LN12 mice still performed better during the maximal incremental running test despite having lower V'O 2max . Interestingly, the LN12 mice showed poorer running capacity during the prolonged sub-maximal incremental running test. To conclude, short-term (2 weeks) but not long-term (12 weeks) treatment with L-NAME activated robust compensatory mechanisms involving preservation of NO2- plasma concentration, overproduction of PGI 2 and increased number of RBCs, which might explain the fully preserved exercise capacity despite the inhibition of NOS.

  3. Separate and combined effects of exposure to heat stress and mental fatigue on endurance exercise capacity in the heat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otani, Hidenori; Kaya, Mitsuharu; Tamaki, Akira; Watson, Phillip

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of exposure to pre-exercise heat stress and mental fatigue on endurance exercise capacity in a hot environment. Eight volunteers completed four cycle exercise trials at 80% maximum oxygen uptake until exhaustion in an environmental chamber maintained at 30 °C and 50% relative humidity. The four trials required them to complete a 90 min pre-exercise routine of either a seated rest (CON), a prolonged demanding cognitive task to induce mental fatigue (MF), warm water immersion at 40 °C during the last 30 min to induce increasing core temperature (WI), or a prolonged demanding cognitive task and warm water immersion at 40 °C during the last 30 min (MF + WI). Core temperature when starting exercise was higher following warm water immersion (~38 °C; WI and MF + WI) than with no water immersion (~36.8 °C; CON and MF, P fatigue when commencing exercise was higher following cognitive task (MF and MF + WI) than with no cognitive task (CON and WI; P stress or mental fatigue, and this response is synergistically increased during combined exposure to them.

  4. Social cognition and functional capacity in bipolar disorder and schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaler, Nicholas S; Sutton, Griffin P; Allen, Daniel N

    2014-12-15

    Social cognition is a functionally relevant predictor of capacity in schizophrenia (SZ), though research concerning its value for bipolar disorder (BD) is limited. The current investigation examined the relationship between two social cognitive factors and functional capacity in bipolar disorder. This study included 48 individuals with bipolar disorder (24 with psychotic features) and 30 patients with schizophrenia. Multiple regression controlling for estimated IQ scores was used to assess the predictive value of social cognitive factors on the UCSD Performance-Based Functional Skills Assessment (UPSA). Results found that for the bipolar with psychosis and schizophrenia groups, the social/emotion processing factor predicted the UPSA. The theory of mind factor only predicted the UPSA for the schizophrenia group.. Findings support the clinical utility of evaluating emotion processing in individuals with a history of psychosis. For BD, theory of mind may be better explained by a generalized cognitive deficit. In contrast, social/emotion processing may be linked to distinct neurobiological processes associated with psychosis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Impaired exercise performance and skeletal muscle mitochondrial function in rats with secondary carnitine deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamal BOUITBIR

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The effects of carnitine depletion upon exercise performance and skeletal muscle mitochondrial function remain largely unexplored. We therefore investigated the effect of N-trimethyl-hydrazine-3-propionate (THP, a carnitine analogue inhibiting carnitine biosynthesis and renal carnitine reabsorption, on physical performance and skeletal muscle mitochondrial function in rats.Methods: Male Sprague Dawley rats were treated daily with water (control rats; n=12 or with 20 mg/100 g body weight THP (n=12 via oral gavage for 3 weeks. Following treatment, half of the animals of each group performed an exercise test until exhaustion.Results: Distance covered and exercise performance were lower in THP-treated compared to control rats. In the oxidative soleus muscle, carnitine depletion caused atrophy (-24% and impaired function of complex II and IV of the mitochondrial electron transport chain. The free radical leak (ROS production relative to oxygen consumption was increased and the cellular glutathione pool decreased. Moreover, mRNA expression of markers of mitochondrial biogenesis and mitochondrial DNA were decreased in THP-treated compared to control rats. In comparison, in the glycolytic gastrocnemius muscle, carnitine depletion was associated with impaired function of complex IV and increased free radical leak, whilst muscle weight and cellular glutathione pool were maintained. Markers of mitochondrial proliferation and mitochondrial DNA were unaffected.Conclusions: Carnitine deficiency is associated with impaired exercise capacity in rats treated with THP. THP-induced carnitine deficiency is associated with impaired function of the electron transport chain in oxidative and glycolytic muscle as well as with atrophy and decreased mitochondrial DNA in oxidative muscle.

  6. Effect of exercise-induced enhancement of the leg-extensor muscle-tendon unit capacities on ambulatory mechanics and knee osteoarthritis markers in the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karamanidis, Kiros; Oberländer, Kai Daniel; Niehoff, Anja; Epro, Gaspar; Brüggemann, Gert-Peter

    2014-01-01

    Leg-extensor muscle weakness could be a key component in knee joint degeneration in the elderly because it may result in altered muscular control during locomotion influencing the mechanical environment within the joint. This work aimed to examine whether an exercise-induced enhancement of the triceps surae (TS) and quadriceps femoris (QF) muscle-tendon unit (MTU) capacities would affect mechanical and biological markers for knee osteoarthritis in the elderly. Twelve older women completed a 14-week TS and QF MTU exercise intervention, which had already been established as increasing muscle strength and tendon stiffness. Locomotion mechanics and serum cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP) levels were examined during incline walking. MTU mechanical properties were assessed using simultaneously ultrasonography and dynamometry. Post exercise intervention, the elderly had higher TS and QF contractile strength and tendon-aponeurosis stiffness. Regarding the incline gait task, the subjects demonstrated a lower external knee adduction moment and lower knee adduction angular impulse during the stance phase post-intervention. Furthermore, post-intervention compared to pre-intervention, the elderly showed lower external hip adduction moment, but revealed higher plantarflexion pushoff moment. The changes in the external knee adduction moment were significantly correlated with the improvement in ankle pushoff function. Serum COMP concentration increased in response to the 0.5-h incline walking exercise with no differences in the magnitude of increment between pre- and post-intervention. This work emphasizes the important role played by the ankle pushoff function in knee joint mechanical loading during locomotion, and may justify the inclusion of the TS MTU in prevention programs aiming to positively influence specific mechanical markers for knee osteoarthritis in the elderly. However, the study was unable to show that COMP is amenable to change in the elderly following a

  7. A meta-analysis of the effect of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors on functional capacity in patients with symptomatic left ventricular systolic dysfunction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdulla, Jawdat; Abildstrøm, Steen Zabell; Køber, Lars Valeur

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To determine by meta-analysis whether angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors improve exercise tolerance in patients with symptomatic left ventricular systolic dysfunction (LVSD). METHODS AND RESULTS: After literature search 13 multi-centre double blind parallel group trials that eval......% compared with placebo. CONCLUSION: In addition to the pronounced effect on mortality and morbidity in patients with symptomatic LVSD, ACE inhibitors have improving effect on functional capacity measured as exercise tolerance time....

  8. Living Without Creatine: Unchanged Exercise Capacity and Response to Chronic Myocardial Infarction in Creatine-Deficient Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lygate, Craig A.; Aksentijevic, Dunja; Dawson, Dana; Hove, Michiel ten; Phillips, Darci; de Bono, Joseph P.; Medway, Debra J.; Sebag-Montefiore, Liam; Hunyor, Imre; Channon, Keith M.; Clarke, Kieran; Zervou, Sevasti; Watkins, Hugh; Balaban, Robert S.; Neubauer, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Rationale Creatine is thought to be involved in the spatial and temporal buffering of ATP in energetic organs such as heart and skeletal muscle. Creatine depletion affects force generation during maximal stimulation, while reduced levels of myocardial creatine are a hallmark of the failing heart, leading to the widely held view that creatine is important at high workloads and under conditions of pathological stress. Objective We therefore hypothesised that the consequences of creatine-deficiency in mice would be impaired running capacity, and exacerbation of heart failure following myocardial infarction. Methods and Results Surprisingly, mice with whole-body creatine deficiency due to knockout of the biosynthetic enzyme (guanidinoacetate N-methyltransferase – GAMT) voluntarily ran just as fast and as far as controls (>10km/night) and performed the same level of work when tested to exhaustion on a treadmill. Furthermore, survival following myocardial infarction was not altered, nor was subsequent LV remodelling and development of chronic heart failure exacerbated, as measured by 3D-echocardiography and invasive hemodynamics. These findings could not be accounted for by compensatory adaptations, with no differences detected between WT and GAMT−/− proteomes. Alternative phosphotransfer mechanisms were explored; adenylate kinase activity was unaltered, and although GAMT−/− hearts accumulated the creatine pre-cursor guanidinoacetate, this had negligible energy-transfer activity, while mitochondria retained near normal function. Conclusions Creatine-deficient mice show unaltered maximal exercise capacity and response to chronic myocardial infarction, and no obvious metabolic adaptations. Our results question the paradigm that creatine is essential for high workload and chronic stress responses in heart and skeletal muscle. PMID:23325497

  9. EFFECT OF DANCE EXERCISE ON COGNITIVE FUNCTION IN ELDERLY PATIENTS WITH METABOLIC SYNDROME: A PILOT STUDY

    OpenAIRE

    Sang-Wook Song; Seo-Jin Park; Jung-hyoun Cho; Sung-Goo Kang; Hyun-Kook Lim; Yu-Bae Ahn; Minjeong Kim; Se-Hong Kim

    2011-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome is associated with an increased risk of cognitive impairment. The purpose of this prospective pilot study was to examine the effects of dance exercise on cognitive function in elderly patients with metabolic syndrome. The participants included 38 elderly metabolic syndrome patients with normal cognitive function (26 exercise group and 12 control group). The exercise group performed dance exercise twice a week for 6 months. Cognitive function was assessed in all participants...

  10. Ecology of Exercise in Wild Fish: Integrating Concepts of Individual Physiological Capacity, Behavior, and Fitness Through Diverse Case Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brownscombe, Jacob W; Cooke, Steven J; Algera, Dirk A; Hanson, Kyle C; Eliason, Erika J; Burnett, Nicholas J; Danylchuk, Andy J; Hinch, Scott G; Farrell, Anthony P

    2017-08-01

    Wild animals maximize fitness through certain behaviors (e.g., foraging, mating, predator avoidance) that incur metabolic costs and often require high levels of locomotor activity. Consequently, the ability of animals to achieve high fitness often relies on their physiological capacity for exercise (aerobic scope) and/or their ability to acquire and utilize energy judiciously. Here, we explore how environmental factors and physiological limitations influence exercise and metabolism in fish while foraging, migrating to spawning grounds, and providing parental care. We do so with three case studies that use a number of approaches to studying exercise in wild fish using biologging and biotelemetry platforms. Bonefish (Albula vulpes) selectively use shallow water tropical marine environments to forage when temperatures are near optimal for aerobic scope and exercise capacity. Bonefish energy expenditure at upper thermal extremes is maximal while activity levels diminish, likely caused by reduced aerobic scope. Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) reproductive migrations frequently involve passage through hydraulically challenging areas, and their ability to successfully pass these regions is constrained by their physiological capacity for exercise. Aerobic scope and swim performance are correlated with migration difficulty among sockeye salmon (O. nerka) populations; however, depletion of endogenous energy stores can also limit migration success. In another example, male smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu) allocate a significant amount of energy to nest-guarding behaviors to protect their developing brood. Smallmouth bass body size, endogenous energy reserves, and physiological state influence nest-guarding behaviors and reproductive success. We suggest that in some scenarios (e.g., bonefish foraging, Pacific salmon dam passage) metabolic capacity for exercise may be the strongest determinant of biological fitness, while in others (e.g., long distance salmon migration

  11. Functional Capacity and Levels of Physical Activity in Aging: A 3-Year Follow-up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Teresa Tomás

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the last decades, the world elderly population has increased exponentially and this tendency will continue during the coming years; from 2000 to 2050, people over 60 will double and those over 80 will quadruple. Loss of independence occurs as people age due to mobility restrictions, frailty, and decreased functional fitness and cognitive abilities. Evidence has shown that appropriate programs and policies contribute to keep older adults healthy and independent over time. The purpose of this chapter is to report the results of our 3-year follow-up study designed to characterize functional physical fitness in a sample of Portuguese community-dwelling older adults to propose a set of functional parameters that decline the most. We studied a group of 43 elderly people, aged 60 and over. Variables assessed on the participants were anthropometric measurements, functional capacity with the Senior Fitness Test battery (muscle strength, aerobic endurance, flexibility, agility, and dynamic balance, handgrip strength, levels of physical activity, and balance. Three years after the first assessment, a second assessment of the same variables was conducted. We analyzed what were the variables that, for this group, were related with a healthier aging and the relation with different physical activity levels. Our study showed that the distance covered in 6-min walk test and handgrip strength seem to explain a great amount of variability on functional variables that have changed on this period (68% of balance, lower and upper functional strength, respectively and the active participants showed less decrements with aging in anthropometric and functional variables than those inactive or insufficiently active (p < 0.05. Greater importance should be given to prescription of exercise targeting older adults and, specifically, walking and manual activities should be given more attention as components of a community exercise program.

  12. The effects of cardiac rehabilitation program on exercise capacity and coronary risk factors in CABG Patients aged 45-65

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    rahim Mirnasuri

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background : Cardiovascular diseases (CVD are the most common cause of mortalily and inability. In Iran, one third of mortality causes are coronary heart diseases. So, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of a Cardiac Rehabilitation program (CR on exercise capacity (VO2max and coronary risk factors in CABG patients aged 45-65 . Materials and Methods: Of 36 CABG patients randomly selected from Hamadan Shahid Beheshti hospital, 18 subjects as experimental group (with mean age 54.57±6.26 years and weight 72.14±10.83 kg participated in CR program, and 18 subjects as control group (with mean age 57.64±4.75 years and weight 76.5±12 kg without participation in any exercise and CR program participated in this study based on inclusion and exclusion criteria. CR program was an eight-week involving warm-up, aerobic exercises and cool-down. Variables including: anthropometrics measurements and exercise capacity (VO2max, and also coronary risk factors such as body mass index (BMI, waist-hip ratio (WHR, systolic blood pressure (SBP, diastolic blood pressure (DBP, fasting blood sugar (FBS, total cholesterol (TC, triglyceride (TG, low-density lipoprotein (LDL, high-density lipoprotein (HDL, LDL-HDL ratio (LHR, body fat percent (BFP were determined at the first and the last week of CR program in both groups. Results: Statistical analysis by independent t-test indicated that after program, there was a significant difference between 2 groups in VO2max, BMI, WHR, SBP, DBP, TC, TG, LDL, LHR (P<0.05, but there was no significant difference between the 2 groups in FBS, HDL, BFP. Conclusion: The CR program of the present study indicated a significant effect on exercise capacity and some coronary risk factors profile in CABG patients of 45-65 and can it be considered as a suitable program for CABG patients.

  13. Skeletal myofiber VEGF regulates contraction-induced perfusion and exercise capacity but not muscle capillarity in adult mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapp, Amy E; Goldberg, Daniel; Delavar, Hamid; Trisko, Breanna M; Tang, Kechun; Hogan, Michael C; Wagner, Peter D; Breen, Ellen C

    2016-07-01

    A single bout of exhaustive exercise signals expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in the exercising muscle. Previous studies have reported that mice with life-long deletion of skeletal myofiber VEGF have fewer capillaries and a severe reduction in endurance exercise. However, in adult mice, VEGF gene deletion conditionally targeted to skeletal myofibers limits exercise capacity without evidence of capillary regression. To explain this, we hypothesized that adult skeletal myofiber VEGF acutely regulates skeletal muscle perfusion during muscle contraction. A tamoxifen-inducible skeletal myofiber-specific VEGF gene deletion mouse (skmVEGF-/-) was used to reduce skeletal muscle VEGF protein by 90% in adult mice. Three weeks after inducing deletion of the skeletal myofiber VEGF gene, skmVEGF-/- mice exhibited diminished maximum running speed (-10%, P Contraction-induced perfusion measured by optical imaging during a period of electrically stimulated muscle contraction was 85% lower in skmVEGF-/- than control mice. No evidence of capillary rarefication was detected in the soleus, gastrocnemius, and extensor digitorum longus (EDL) up to 8 wk after tamoxifen-induced VEGF ablation, and contractility and fatigue resistance of the soleus measured ex vivo were also unchanged. The force-frequency of the EDL showed a small right shift, but fatigue resistance did not differ between EDL from control and skmVEGF-/- mice. These data suggest myofiber VEGF is required for regulating perfusion during periods of contraction and may in this manner affect endurance capacity. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  14. Slow loaded breathing training improves blood pressure, lung capacity and arm exercise endurance for older people with treated and stable isolated systolic hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ublosakka-Jones, Chulee; Tongdee, Phailin; Pachirat, Orathai; Jones, David A

    2018-03-28

    Hypertension and reduced lung function are important features of aging. Slow loaded breathing training reduces resting blood pressure and the question is whether this can also improve lung function. Thirty-two people (67 ± 5 years, 16 male) with controlled isolated systolic hypertension undertook an eight weeks randomised controlled training trial with an inspiratory load of 25% maximum inspiratory pressure (MIP) at 6 breaths per minute (slow loaded breathing; SLB) or deep breathing control (CON). Outcome measures were resting blood pressure (BP) and heart rate; MIP; lung capacity; chest and abdominal expansion; arm cranking exercise endurance at 50% heart rate reserve. Home based measurement of resting systolic BP decreased by 20 mm Hg (15 to 25) (Mean and 95%CI) for SLB and by 5 mm Hg (1 to 7) for CON. Heart rate and diastolic BP also decreased significantly for SLB but not CON. MIP increased by 15.8 cm H 2 O (11.8 to 19.8) and slow vital capacity by 0.21 L (0.15 to 0.27) for SLB but not for CON. Chest and abdominal expansion increased by 2.3 cm (2.05 to 2.55) and 2.5 cm (2.15 to 2.85), respectively for SLB and by 0.5 cm (0.26 to 0.74) and 1.7 cm (1.32 to 2.08) for CON. Arm exercise time increased by 4.9 min (3.65 to 5.15) for SLB with no significant change for CON. Slow inspiratory muscle training is not only effective in reducing resting BP, even in older people with well controlled isolated systolic hypertension but also increases inspiratory muscle strength, lung capacity and arm exercise duration. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Functional requirements for an Exercise Evaluation and Simulation Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-04-01

    The Exercise Evaluation and Simulation Facility (EESF) is a computer-based resource that will improve FEMA's capabilities for evaluating radiological emergency plans and preparedness around commercial nuclear sites. The EESF is being designed from the perspective of the organizations involved (i.e., FEMA Regional and National, and state and local response teams) and takes into account the evolution of radiological and other emergency preparedness activities. Like radiological emergency planning, EESF will evolve to suit FEMA (National and Regional) needs and interests and will be increasingly useful as a resource for radiological emergency planning and evaluation. Table ES-1 briefly describes seven functions for which EESF is currently being designed. They are listed in the approximate order in which they will be designed, developed, and implemented. The only exception is the data base function, which will be developed parallel with the other six functions and enhanced to support these functions, as well as be a source of information on sites, plans, exercises, and evaluations

  16. Tocotrienols and Whey Protein Isolates Substantially Increase Exercise Endurance Capacity in Diet -Induced Obese Male Sprague-Dawley Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguila, Jay; McConell, Glenn K.; McAinch, Andrew J.; Mathai, Michael L.

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims Obesity and impairments in metabolic health are associated with reductions in exercise capacity. Both whey protein isolates (WPIs) and vitamin E tocotrienols (TCTs) exert favorable effects on obesity-related metabolic parameters. This research sought to determine whether these supplements improved exercise capacity and increased glucose tolerance in diet-induced obese rats. Methods Six week old male rats (n = 35) weighing 187 ± 32g were allocated to either: Control (n = 9), TCT (n = 9), WPI (n = 8) or TCT + WPI (n = 9) and placed on a high-fat diet (40% of energy from fat) for 10 weeks. Animals received 50mg/kg body weight and 8% of total energy intake per day of TCTs and/or WPIs respectively. Food intake, body composition, glucose tolerance, insulin sensitivity, exercise capacity, skeletal muscle glycogen content and oxidative enzyme activity were determined. Results Both TCT and WPI groups ran >50% longer (2271 ± 185m and 2195 ± 265m respectively) than the Control group (1428 ± 139m) during the run to exhaustion test (Pexercise endurance (2068 ± 104m). WPIs increased the maximum in vitro activity of beta-hydroxyacyl-CoA in the soleus muscle (Pexercise endurance by 50% in sedentary, diet-induced obese rats. These positive effects of TCTs and WPIs were independent of body weight, adiposity or glucose tolerance. PMID:27058737

  17. Effect of an educational intervention to promote intradialysis aerobic exercises on the functional state of hemodialysis patients from Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Enrique Cabrera-Pivaral

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Health education search to influence on persons’ attitude for to improve your health by mean of healthy habits promotion. In patients with hemodialysis your functional capacity usually is diminished for physical inactivity. Objective: To evaluate the effect of a health education intervention for aerobic exercise’s promotion on the functional capacity in hemodialysis patients from Mexico. Methods: Quasi-experimental study beforeafter with control group in Hospital Medical Care Units of the Mexican Institute of Social Security, Jalisco’s Delegation, with a universe of 26 patients with hemodialysis purposively sampled, 14 in Group “A” (experimental and 12 in Group “B” (control. It included variables: age, gender and functional capacity. The intervention consisted of directed dialogue on biopsychosocial factors of renal disease, functional capacity and nutrition, with accompaniment in aerobic exercises of 30 minutes/week for 20 weeks. It evaluated functional capacity with Delta Test and it compared means before and after with Student’s T (p ≤ 0,05. Results: There were no statistically significant differences between age and gender of patients in the “A” and “B” Groups. Mean functional capacity before and after: Group “A” 14 ± 5 vs 8 ± 4 (p < 0,001, Group “B” 16 ± 4 vs 17 ± 5 (p = 0,405. Conclusions: The health education influenced favorably on the physical activity of patients with hemodialysis and improved your functional capacity. To implement aerobic exercise programs during hemodialysis sessions it advisable.

  18. Functional effectiveness of threat appeals in exercise promotion messages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier Mairesse

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available As more than 70% of individuals in Western societies can be categorized as sedentary and inactivity has been recognized to lead to a series of serious physical and psychological disorders, the importance of physical activity promotion is ever more emphasized. Many social marketing campaigns use threat (or fear appeals to promote healthy behaviors. Theoretical models, such as the Extended Parallel Process Model integrate concepts as 'perceived threat' and 'perceived efficacy' to explain how such messages operate and can cause diverse behavioral reactions. It is however still not entirely clear how these different aspects are valuated and combined to determine desired versus undesired response behaviors in individuals. In a functional integration task, threat-appeal based exercise promotion messages varying in psychological threat and efficacy content were shown to sedentary employees in order to assess how they affect their intention to engage in physical exercise. Our results show that individuals can be categorized in 4 different clusters depending on the way they valuate threat and efficacy appeals: i.e. individuals sensitive to both types of cues, those sensitive to either the threat or the efficacy component in the message and those insensitive to either one of them. As different segments of receivers of the message react differently to threat and efficacy combinations, it is concluded that different approaches to designing effective mass media campaigns may be required for effective exercise promotion.

  19. Exercise improves cardiac autonomic function in obesity and diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voulgari, Christina; Pagoni, Stamatina; Vinik, Aaron; Poirier, Paul

    2013-05-01

    Physical activity is a key element in the prevention and management of obesity and diabetes. Regular physical activity efficiently supports diet-induced weight loss, improves glycemic control, and can prevent or delay type 2 diabetes diagnosis. Furthermore, physical activity positively affects lipid profile, blood pressure, reduces the rate of cardiovascular events and associated mortality, and restores the quality of life in type 2 diabetes. However, recent studies have documented that a high percentage of the cardiovascular benefits of exercise cannot be attributed solely to enhanced cardiovascular risk factor modulation. Obesity in concert with diabetes is characterized by sympathetic overactivity and the progressive loss of cardiac parasympathetic influx. These are manifested via different pathogenetic mechanisms, including hyperinsulinemia, visceral obesity, subclinical inflammation and increased thrombosis. Cardiac autonomic neuropathy is an underestimated risk factor for the increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality associated with obesity and diabetes. The same is true for the role of physical exercise in the restoration of the heart cardioprotective autonomic modulation in these individuals. This review addresses the interplay of cardiac autonomic function in obesity and diabetes, and focuses on the importance of exercise in improving cardiac autonomic dysfunction. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. EFFECTS OF A RESPIRATORY PHYSIOTHERAPY PROTOCOL ON PULMONARY CAPACITY, FUNCTIONAL CAPACITY AND QUALITY OF LIFE IN HEMODIALYSIS PATIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna Taynara dos Santos Ribeiro

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Chronic kidney disease and own dialysis can result in changes in almost all body systems. In the respiratory system, the changes affect the respiratory drive, lung mechanics, muscle strength and gas exchange. Respiratory physiotherapy may be an important strategy in improving lung function and welfare and satisfaction of patients. The aim of the study was to determine the effects of a program of respiratory physiotherapy in lung capacity, functional capacity and quality of life of patients with chronic kidney disease on hemodialysis. The lung capacity, functional capacity and quality of life were evaluated by the manovacuometer, chest cirtometry, functional capacity's questionnaire (HAQ-20 and specific questionnaire of quality of life for kidney disease (KDOQOL-SF. Patients were evaluated before and after eight weeks of application of respiratory physiotherapy protocol, performed once a week. The study included five patients, four men and one woman, mean age 60 ± 11,29 and an average of hemodialysis treatment of 24 ± 20.35 months. The values obtained in lung capacity and functional capacity presented unchanged. It was observed that the respiratory physiotherapy influenced the improvement of the KDQOL-SF's scores, of the dimensions "Sleep", "Dialysis Staff Encouragement" and "Physical Functioning".

  1. Effects of a respiratory physiotherapy protocol on pulmonary capacity, functional capacity and quality of life in hemodialysis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna Taynara dos Santos Ribeiro

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Chronic kidney disease and own dialysis can result in changes in almost all body systems. In the respiratory system, the changes affect the respiratory drive, lung mechanics, muscle strength and gas exchange. Respiratory physiotherapy may be an important strategy in improving lung function and welfare and satisfaction of patients. The aim of the study was to determine the effects of a program of respiratory physiotherapy in lung capacity, functional capacity and quality of life of patients with chronic kidney disease on hemodialysis. The lung capacity, functional capacity and quality of life were evaluated by the manovacuometer, chest cirtometry, functional capacity's questionnaire (HAQ-20 and specific questionnaire of quality of life for kidney disease (KDOQOL-SF. Patients were evaluated before and after eight weeks of application of respiratory physiotherapy protocol, performed once a week. The study included five patients, four men and one woman, mean age 60 ± 11,29 and an average of hemodialysis treatment of 24 ± 20.35 months. The values obtained in lung capacity and functional capacity presented unchanged. It was observed that the respiratory physiotherapy influenced the improvement of the KDQOL-SF's scores, of the dimensions "Sleep", "Dialysis Staff Encouragement" and "Physical Functioning".

  2. Effects of yoga on functional capacity and well being

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pooja Akhtar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Yoga has proven beneficial effects on various health domains including musculoskeletal conditions, cardiopulmonary conditions through the practice of asana and pranayamas as well as on mental health, as it is known to enhance the body-and mind coordination. There is paucity of data on the effect of yoga on functional capacity in literature using 6 min walk test. The present study aims to look at the effect of yoga on 6-min walked distance, rating of perceived exertion (RPE, recovery time following the walk and state of well being. This is a hospital-based longitudinal study where 30 physiotherapy students of the age group 18 - 22 years of either sex were enrolled. Subjects having musculoskeletal problems, cardio respiratory disease and those who were not willing to volunteer were excluded They received Yoga intervention in form of Yogic practices which included a combination of asanas, pranayamas and omkar chanting for 1 h for 30 sessions. A baseline 6-min walk test was conducted on subjects and the 6-min walked distance, rating of perceived exertion (RPE on modified Borg′s scale were recorded. The baseline state of well-being was noted using the Warwick- Edinburgh mental well-being scale and similar recording was done post intervention after 30 sessions. Of the 30 subjects, there were no drop outs as these were committed college students. Of them, 24 were females and 6 were males with a mean age of 21.5 years SD 2.38. Statistically significant improvements were observed in 6-min walk distance (P value = 0.000, RPE (P value < 0.000, recovery time (P value < 0.000 and sense of well being score (P value < 0.000. Yoga practices are beneficial in improving the functional capacity in young healthy adults. Yoga can very well be incorporated in medical practice for increasing the patient′s functional capacity, for those who have limitations in performing aerobic training due to various health reasons. The improved state of well being motivates the

  3. Regular voluntary exercise cures stress-induced impairment of cognitive function and cell proliferation accompanied by increases in cerebral IGF-1 and GST activity in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, Sanae; Ohsawa, Ikuroh; Ohta, Shigeo; Ohno, Makoto; Mikami, Toshio

    2010-08-25

    Chronic stress impairs cognitive function and hippocampal neurogenesis. This impairment is attributed to increases in oxidative stress, which result in the accumulation of lipid peroxide. On the other hand, voluntary exercise enhances cognitive function, hippocampal neurogenesis, and antioxidant capacity in normal animals. However, the effects of voluntary exercise on cognitive function, neurogenesis, and antioxidants in stressed mice are unclear. This study was designed to investigate whether voluntary exercise cures stress-induced impairment of cognitive function accompanied by improvement of hippocampal neurogenesis and increases in antioxidant capacity. Stressed mice were exposed to chronic restraint stress (CRS), which consisted of 12h immobilization daily and feeding in a small cage, for 8 weeks. Exercised mice were allowed free access to a running wheel during their exposure to CRS. At the 6th week, cognitive function was examined using the Morris water maze (MWM) test. Daily voluntary exercise restored stress-induced impairment of cognitive function and the hippocampal cell proliferation of newborn cells but not cell survival. Voluntary exercise increased insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) protein and mRNA expression in the cerebral cortex and liver, respectively. In addition, CRS resulted in a significant increase in the number of 4-hydrosynonenal (4-HNE)-positive cells in the hippocampal dentate gyrus; whereas, voluntary exercise inhibited it and enhanced glutathione s-transferases (GST) activity in the brain. These findings suggest that voluntary exercise attenuated the stress-induced impairment of cognitive function accompanied by improvement of cell proliferation in the dentate gyrus. This exercise-induced improvement was attributed to exercise-induced enhancement of IGF-1 protein and GST activity in the brain. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Respiratory Muscle Training and Cognitive Function Exercising at Altitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quackenbush, Joseph; Duquin, Aubrey; Helfer, Samuel; Pendergast, David R

    2016-01-01

    Hiking and trekking often occur at altitudes up to 12,000 ft altitude. The hypoxia-induced hyperventilation at altitude paradoxically reduces arterial CO2 (Paco2). A reduction in Paco2 results in vasoconstriction of the blood vessels of the brain and thus in local hypoxia. The local hypoxia likely affects cognitive function, which may result in reduced performance and altitude accidents. Recent publications have demonstrated that voluntary isocapnic hyperventilatory training of the respiratory muscles (VIHT) can markedly enhance exercise endurance as it is associated with reduced ventilation and its energy cost. VIHT may be useful in blunting the altitude-induced hyperventilation leading to higher Paco2 and improved cognitive function. This study examined the effects of VIHT, compared to control (C) and placebo (PVIHT) groups, on selected measures of executive functioning, including working memory and processing speed (i.e., Stroop Test, Symbol Digit Modalities Test, and Digit Span Forward) at simulated altitude up to 12,000 ft. Associated physiological parameters were also measured. The Digit Span Forward Test did not show improvements after VIHT in any group. The VIHT group, but not C or PVIHT groups, improved significantly (17-30%) on the Stroop Test. Similarly the VIHT group, but not the C and PVIHT groups, improved correct responses (26%) and number of attempts (24%) on the Symbol Digit Modalities Test. In addition, reaction time was also improved (16%). VIHT improved processing speed and working memory during exercise at altitude.

  5. Relationships of exercise with frailty, depression, and cognitive function in older women

    OpenAIRE

    Jeoung, Bog Ja

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to provide basic data to identify which types of exercise promote health of older adults. To this end, this study investigated how exercise affects frailty, depression, and cognitive functions in older adults. Frailty, depression, and cognitive function assessed in the exercise participants, 164 older adult women. Results revealed that participants’ frailty and depression varied according to exercise participation time and frequency. In particular, dancing...

  6. Exercise restores decreased physical activity levels and increases markers of autophagy and oxidative capacity in myostatin/activin-blocked mdx mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulmi, Juha J; Oliveira, Bernardo M; Silvennoinen, Mika; Hoogaars, Willem M H; Pasternack, Arja; Kainulainen, Heikki; Ritvos, Olli

    2013-07-15

    The importance of adequate levels of muscle size and function and physical activity is widely recognized. Myostatin/activin blocking increases skeletal muscle mass but may decrease muscle oxidative capacity and can thus be hypothesized to affect voluntary physical activity. Soluble activin receptor IIB (sActRIIB-Fc) was produced to block myostatin/activins. Modestly dystrophic mdx mice were injected with sActRIIB-Fc or PBS with or without voluntary wheel running exercise for 7 wk. Healthy mice served as controls. Running for 7 wk attenuated the sActRIIB-Fc-induced increase in body mass by decreasing fat mass. Running also enhanced/restored the markers of muscle oxidative capacity and autophagy in mdx mice to or above the levels of healthy mice. Voluntary running activity was decreased by sActRIIB-Fc during the first 3-4 wk correlating with increased body mass. Home cage physical activity of mice, quantified from the force plate signal, was decreased by sActRIIB-Fc the whole 7-wk treatment in sedentary mice. To understand what happens during the first weeks after sActRIIB-Fc administration, when mice are less active, healthy mice were injected with sActRIIB-Fc or PBS for 2 wk. During the sActRIIB-Fc-induced rapid 2-wk muscle growth period, oxidative capacity and autophagy were reduced, which may possibly explain the decreased running activity. These results show that increased muscle size and decreased markers of oxidative capacity and autophagy during the first weeks of myostatin/activin blocking are associated with decreased voluntary activity levels. Voluntary exercise in dystrophic mice enhances the markers of oxidative capacity and autophagy to or above the levels of healthy mice.

  7. Cognitive and clinical predictors of functional capacity in patients with first episode schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vesterager, Lone; Christensen, Torben Ø; Olsen, Birthe B

    2012-01-01

    The predictors of functional capacity in first episode schizophrenia among seven separable cognitive domains and clinical variables are unknown.......The predictors of functional capacity in first episode schizophrenia among seven separable cognitive domains and clinical variables are unknown....

  8. Lung function and functional capacity among foundry workers using effective risk control measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardes, Rosane Andrea Bretas; Chiavegato, Luciana Dias; de Moraes, Mônica Vasconcelos; Negreiros, Alexandher; Padula, Rosimeire Simprini

    2015-01-01

    Inhaled dust in the environment can trigger specific reactions in the airways and cause various respiratory diseases. Evaluate the lung function and functional capacity of foundry workers who are exposed to metals and use effective control measures. A cross-sectional study was realized with 108 workers at a bronze foundry and machining plant and in maintenance at a private university, both in Brazil. The workers were divided into two groups: the study group exposed to metals but using risk control measues and a control group not exposed to metal work. The Medical Research Council Questionnaire on Respiratory Symptoms and the International Physical Activity Questionnaire were administered, and lung function and functional capacity were evaluated. Comparative statistics were used to identify differences in the outcome measures between the two groups. The groups had similar personal and anthropometric characteristics and time on the job. Spirometry and peak expiratory flow presented no significant differences between the groups. And there was also no statistically significant difference between groups in functional capacity as assessed by performance on the six-minute walk test. Foundry industry workers in Brazil who were exposed to metal but used risk control measures had similar lung function and functional capacity when compared to the control group who were not exposed to metal. This is a positive results and maybe related to age, time exposure and control of occupational hazards. However, these workers need to continue being monitored in longitudinal studies.

  9. No effect of artificial gravity on lung function with exercise training during head-down bed rest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Longxiang; Guo, Yinghua; Wang, Yajuan; Wang, Delong; Liu, Changting

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study is to explore the effectiveness of microgravity simulated by head-down bed rest (HDBR) and artificial gravity (AG) with exercise on lung function. Twenty-four volunteers were randomly divided into control and exercise countermeasure (CM) groups for 96 h of 6° HDBR. Comparisons of pulse rate, pulse oxygen saturation (SpO2) and lung function were made between these two groups at 0, 24, 48, 72, 96 h. Compared with the sitting position, inspiratory capacity and respiratory reserve volume were significantly higher than before HDBR (0° position) (P function over the HDBR observation time. Postural changes can lead to variation in lung volume and ventilation function, but a HDBR model induced no changes in pulmonary function and therefore should not be used to study AG countermeasures.

  10. Pain and functional capacity in female fibromyalgia patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbonell-Baeza, Ana; Aparicio, Virginia A; Sjöström, Michael; Ruiz, Jonatan R; Delgado-Fernández, Manuel

    2011-11-01

    To examine the association between pain and functional capacity levels. [corrected] Cross-sectional study. University of Granada. One hundred twenty-three women with fibromyalgia (51.7 ± 7.2 years). We measured weight and height, and body mass index (BMI) was calculated. We assessed tender points by pressure pain and functional capacity by means of the 30-second chair stand, handgrip strength, chair sit and reach, back scratch, blind flamingo, 8-ft up and go and 6-minute walk tests. We observed an association of tender points count with the chair stand and 6-minute walk tests (r = -0.273, P = 0.004 and r = -0.183, P = 0.046, respectively). These associations became nonsignificant once the analyses were adjusted by weight or BMI. We observed an association of algometer score with the back scratch, chair stand, and 6-minute walk tests (r = 0.238, P = 0.009; r = 0.363, P BMI, except the association between algometer score and the 6-minute walk test that became nonsignificant once the analyses were adjusted by weight. Prevalence of overweight and obesity was 39.2 and 33.3%, respectively. There is an inverse association of tender points count with the chair stand and distance walked in the 6-minute walk tests, and a positive association of algometer score with the chair stand, distance walked in the 6-minute walk and back scratch tests, yet, weight status seems to play a role in these associations. Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. The effects of an exercise training program on body composition and aerobic capacity parameters in Tunisian obese children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofien Regaieg

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The prevalence of children obesity is rising alarmingly in both developed and developing countries. Developing effective exercise programs is a strategy for decreasing this prevalence and limiting obesity-associated long-term comorbidities. Objectives: To determine whether a 16-week training program; in addition to the school physical education and without dietary intervention; could have beneficial effects on body composition and aerobic capacity of obese children. Materials and Methods: Twenty-eight obese children (16 boys, 12 girls; aged 12-14 years were enrolled and were divided into either the exercise group (EG, n = 14 or the control group (CG, n = 14. EG participated in a 16-week aerobic exercises (four 60-min sessions per week at 70-85% of HRmax (maximum heart rate, in addition to the school physical education. Fat-Free Mass (FFM and Fat Mass (FM were assessed with bioelectrical impedance equipment. To assess aerobic capacity, maximal metabolic equivalent of task (METmax and maximal workload (Wmax were estimated with an electronically braked cycle ergometer (type Ergoline 500® . Results: At baseline, there were no differences between the two groups. After the training program, only the EG showed significant reduction in BMI (body mass index and waist circumference compared with the baseline values (P < 0.001. Exercise training significantly decreased FM only in the EG. A significant increase in FFM was seen in both groups; more marked in the EG. There was a significant increase in METmax (P < 0.05 and Wmax (P = 0.02 in the EG, and no significant changes in these parameters were seen in the CG. HRmax significantly decreased only in the EG (P < 0.05. Conclusion: This training program has beneficial effects on body composition and aerobic capacity parameters in obese children. Our intervention has the advantage of providing a sustainable and reproducible school and community approach for the management of children obesity.

  12. Exercise-mimetic AICAR transiently benefits brain function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrieri, Davide; van Praag, Henriette

    2015-01-01

    Exercise enhances learning and memory in animals and humans. The role of peripheral factors that may trigger the beneficial effects of running on brain function has been sparsely examined. In particular, it is unknown whether AMP-kinase (AMPK) activation in muscle can predict enhancement of brain plasticity. Here we compare the effects of running and administration of AMPK agonist 5-Aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide 1-β-D-ribofuranoside (AICAR, 500 mg/kg), for 3, 7 or 14 days in one-month-old male C57BL/6J mice, on muscle AMPK signaling. At the time-points where we observed equivalent running- and AICAR-induced muscle pAMPK levels (7 and 14 days), cell proliferation, synaptic plasticity and gene expression, as well as markers of oxidative stress and inflammation in the dentate gyrus (DG) of the hippocampus and lateral entorhinal cortex (LEC) were evaluated. At the 7-day time-point, both regimens increased new DG cell number and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) protein levels. Furthermore, microarray analysis of DG and LEC tissue showed a remarkable overlap between running and AICAR in the regulation of neuronal, mitochondrial and metabolism related gene classes. Interestingly, while similar outcomes for both treatments were stable over time in muscle, in the brain an inversion occurred at fourteen days. The compound no longer increased DG cell proliferation or neurotrophin levels, and upregulated expression of apoptotic genes and inflammatory cytokine interleukin-1β. Thus, an exercise mimetic that produces changes in muscle consistent with those of exercise does not have the same sustainable positive effects on the brain, indicating that only running consistently benefits brain function. PMID:26286955

  13. A randomized trial on the effect of a multimodal intervention on physical capacity, functional performance and quality of life in adult patients undergoing allogeneic SCT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jarden, M; Baadsgaard, M T; Hovgaard, D J

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this randomized controlled trial was to investigate the effect of a 4- to 6-week multimodal program of exercise, relaxation and psychoeducation on physical capacity, functional performance and quality of life (QOL) in allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) adult...

  14. Modulation of vascular function by diet and exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, G L; Chin-Dusting, J P; Kingwell, B A; Dart, A M; Cameron, J; Esler, M; Lewis, T V

    1997-01-01

    Clinical research is conducted in free living individuals who are always subject to the influences on vascular function and the major cardiovascular regulators of their lifestyle. The purpose of this paper is to review some lifestyle influences on cardiovascular function, particularly the sympathetic nervous system and endothelially mediated vasodilatation. There are highly differentiated sympathetic responses to feeding, and to acute exercise. Over a longer period obesity has a typical pattern of sympathetic activity. Reduced dietary salt intake elicits profound localised increases in sympathetic activity to the kidney. Marine oil supplementation attenuates the sympathetic responses to psychological stress and improves endothelially mediated vasodilatation in hypercholesterolaemics. Exercise training reduced total noradrenaline spillover, the major beds affected being the renal and skeletal muscle. These examples illustrate the dynamic nature of vascular dilatation and that, like the sympathetic nervous system, it is modulated by short, medium and long term influences. In both cases there is regulation both at a local and systemic level. Habitual, and recent, lifestyle can exert important cardiovascular effects which must be taken into account in clinical and epidemiological research.

  15. Impact of low-volume, high-intensity interval training on maximal aerobic capacity, health-related quality of life and motivation to exercise in ageing men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowles, Ann-Marie; Herbert, Peter; Easton, Chris; Sculthorpe, Nicholas; Grace, Fergal M

    2015-01-01

    There is a demand for effective training methods that encourage exercise adherence during advancing age, particularly in sedentary populations. This study examined the effects of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) exercise on health-related quality of life (HRQL), aerobic fitness and motivation to exercise in ageing men. Participants consisted of males who were either lifelong sedentary (SED; N = 25; age 63 ± 5 years) or lifelong exercisers (LEX; N = 19; aged 61 ± 5 years). [Formula: see text] and HRQL were measured at three phases: baseline (Phase A), week seven (Phase B) and week 13 (Phase C). Motivation to exercise was measured at baseline and week 13. [Formula: see text] was significantly higher in LEX (39.2 ± 5.6 ml kg min(-1)) compared to SED (27.2 ± 5.2 ml kg min(-1)) and increased in both groups from Phase A to C (SED 4.6 ± 3.2 ml kg min(-1), 95 % CI 3.1 - 6.0; LEX 4.9 ± 3.4 ml kg min(-1), 95 % CI 3.1-6.6) Physical functioning (97 ± 4 LEX; 93 ± 7 SED) and general health (70 ± 11 LEX; 78 ± 11 SED) were significantly higher in LEX but increased only in the SED group from Phase A to C (physical functioning 17 ± 18, 95 % CI 9-26, general health 14 ± 14, 95 % CI 8-21). Exercise motives related to social recognition (2.4 ± 1.2 LEX; 1.5 ± 1.0 SED), affiliation (2.7 ± 1.0 LEX; 1.6 ± 1.2 SED) and competition (3.3 ± 1.3 LEX; 2.2 ± 1.1) were significantly higher in LEX yet weight management motives were significantly higher in SED (2.9 ± 1.1 LEX; 4.3 ± 0.5 SED). The study provides preliminary evidence that low-volume HIIT increases perceptions of HRQL, exercise motives and aerobic capacity in older adults, to varying degrees, in both SED and LEX groups.

  16. Effect of changes in fat availability on exercise capacity in McArdle disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, S.T.; Jeppesen, T.D.; Taivassalo, T.

    2009-01-01

    for oxidation during exercise. DESIGN: Randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover trial. SETTING: Hospitalized care. PATIENTs: Ten patients (8 men and 2 women) with McArdle disease. INTERVENTIONS: Patients cycled at a constant workload corresponding to 70% of their maximum oxygen consumption. In random order......Ardle disease, but maximal rates of fat oxidation seem limited and cannot be increased above physiologically normal rates during exercise. This limitation is probably caused by a metabolic bottleneck in the tricarboxylic acid cycle due to impaired glycolytic flux in McArdle disease. Therapies aimed at enhancing......BACKGROUND: The major fuel for exercising muscle at low exercise intensities is fat. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the role of fat metabolism in McArdle disease (also known as glycogen storage disease type V), an inborn error of muscle glycogenolysis, by manipulating free fatty acid availability...

  17. Depression and its relationship with poor exercise capacity, BODE index and muscle wasting in COPD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Al-shair, Khaled; Dockry, Rachel; Mallia-Milanes, Brendan

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The prevalence of depression in stable COPD patients varies markedly, possibly because of use of different scales. We aimed to assess depression using 2 different depression scales and to examine the association between depression and poor exercise performance, BODE index and muscle...... affect some of the characteristics of depressed patients rather than the prevalence rate of depression. Depression was associated with poor exercise performance and BODE index in COPD....

  18. Effects of caffeine on endurance capacity and psychological state in young females and males exercising in the heat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suvi, Silva; Timpmann, Saima; Tamm, Maria; Aedma, Martin; Kreegipuu, Kairi; Ööpik, Vahur

    2017-01-01

    Acute caffeine ingestion is considered effective in improving endurance capacity and psychological state. However, current knowledge is based on the findings of studies that have been conducted on male subjects mainly in temperate environmental conditions, but some physiological and psychological effects of caffeine differ between the sexes. The purpose of this study was to compare the physical performance and psychological effects of caffeine in young women and men exercising in the heat. Thirteen male and 10 female students completed 2 constant-load walks (60% of thermoneutral peak oxygen consumption on a treadmill until volitional exhaustion) in a hot-dry environment (air temperature, 42 °C; relative humidity, 20%) after caffeine (6 mg·kg -1 ) and placebo (wheat flour) ingestion in a double-blind, randomly assigned, crossover manner. Caffeine, compared with placebo, induced greater increases (p exercise in the heat, but it has no impact on thermoregulation or endurance capacity in either gender. Under exercise-heat stress, caffeine reduces ratings of perceived exertion and fatigue in males but not in females.

  19. The relationship of aerobic capacity, anaerobic peak power and experience to performance in CrossFit exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellar, D; Hatchett, A; Judge, L W; Breaux, M E; Marcus, L

    2015-11-01

    CrossFit is becoming increasingly popular as a method to increase fitness and as a competitive sport in both the Unites States and Europe. However, little research on this mode of exercise has been performed to date. The purpose of the present investigation involving experienced CrossFit athletes and naïve healthy young men was to investigate the relationship of aerobic capacity and anaerobic power to performance in two representative CrossFit workouts: the first workout was 12 minutes in duration, and the second was based on the total time to complete the prescribed exercise. The participants were 32 healthy adult males, who were either naïve to CrossFit exercise or had competed in CrossFit competitions. Linear regression was undertaken to predict performance on the first workout (time) with age, group (naïve or CrossFit athlete), VO2max and anaerobic power, which were all significant predictors (p CrossFit experience as a significant predictor (p CrossFit competition is a key component of performance in CrossFit workouts which are representative of those performed in CrossFit, and that, in at least one these workouts, aerobic capacity and anaerobic power are associated with success.

  20. The relationship of aerobic capacity, anaerobic peak power and experience to performance in in CrossFit exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Bellar

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available CrossFit is becoming increasingly popular as a method to increase fitness and as a competitive sport in both the Unites States and Europe. However, little research on this mode of exercise has been performed to date. The purpose of the present investigation involving experienced CrossFit athletes and naïve healthy young men was to investigate the relationship of aerobic capacity and anaerobic power to performance in two representative CrossFit workouts: the first workout was 12 minutes in duration, and the second was based on the total time to complete the prescribed exercise. The participants were 32 healthy adult males, who were either naïve to CrossFit exercise or had competed in CrossFit competitions. Linear regression was undertaken to predict performance on the first workout (time with age, group (naïve or CrossFit athlete, VO 2 max and anaerobic power, which were all significant predictors (p<0.05 in the model. The second workout (repetitions, when examined similarly using regression, only resulted in CrossFit experience as a significant predictor (p<0.05. The results of the study suggest that a history of participation in CrossFit competition is a key component of performance in CrossFit workouts which are representative of those performed in CrossFit, and that, in at least one these workouts, aerobic capacity and anaerobic power are associated with success.

  1. The Effect of Colostrum along with Aerobic and Anaerobic Exercise on Lipid Peroxidation and Total Antioxidant Capacity of Male Wistar Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Mogharnasi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim: The consumption of food supplements in order to eliminate oxidative damages induced by exercise are common among athletes. Previous studies have shown that bovine colostrum has antioxidant properties, but no study has ever been done to evaluate its effectiveness on Oxidative stress and antioxidant capacity. The aim of study was to investigate the effects of bovine colostrum along with aerobic and anaerobic exercise on Lipid peroxidation and antioxidant capacity in male Wistar rats.   Methods: In the present experimental study, 48 male Wistar rats were randomly divided into six groups (control, colostrum supplement, aerobic exercise, anaerobic exercise, colostrum supplements and aerobic exercise, colostrum supplements and anaerobic exercise. Colostrum group received daily for ten weeks dosing 300 mg /kg bovine colostrum powder orally. Exercising groups worked out three times a week for a period of 10 weeks on a custom-made treadmill for rodents. Blood samples were taken before and 24 hours after the last exercise session on an empty stomach. Data were analyzed using Kolmogorov-Smirnov tests, One Way ANOVA and post hoc Tukey at α<0.05.   Results: The plasma levels of oxidative stress index (MDA in all groups except colostrum supplement and anaerobic exercise compared with the control group was significantly reduced (p<0.05. The antioxidant capacity in all groups except anaerobic exercise group compared with the control group was significant increased (p<0.05.   Conclusions: The results indicated that colostrum supplementation with ten weeks of aerobic exercise had better effect on the control of oxidative stress and antioxidant capacity compared to anaerobic exercise.    

  2. Expected for acquisition movement exercise is more effective for functional recovery than simple exercise in a rat model of hemiplegia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, Satoshi; Ohwatashi, Akihiko; Harada, Katsuhiro; Kamikawa, Yurie; Yoshida, Akira

    2013-01-01

    The use of novel rehabilitative approaches for effecting functional recovery following stroke is controversial. Effects of different but effective rehabilitative interventions in the hemiplegic patient are not clear. We studied the effects of different rehabilitative approaches on functional recovery in the rat photochecmical cerebral infarction model. Twenty-four male Wistar rats aged 8 weeks were used. The cranial bone was exposed under deep anesthesia. Rose bengal (20 mg/kg) was injected intravenously, and the sensorimotor area of the cerebral cortex was irradiated transcranially for 20 min with a light beam of 533-nm wavelength. Animals were divided into 3 groups. In the simple-exercise group, treadmill exercise was performed for 20 min every day. In the expected for acquisition movement-training group, beam-walking exercise was done for 20 min daily. The control group was left to recover without additional intervention. Hindlimb function was evaluated with the beam-walking test. Following cerebral infarction, dysfunction of the contralateral extremities was observed. Functional recovery was observed earlier in the expected for acquisition training group than in the other groups. Although rats in the treadmill group recovered more quickly than controls, the beam-walking group had the shortest overall recovery time. Exercise facilitated functional recovery in the rat hemiplegic model, and expected for acquisition exercise was more effective than simple exercise. These findings are considered to have important implications for the future development of clinical rehabilitation programs.

  3. Effects of elastic band exercise on lean mass and physical capacity in older women with sarcopenic obesity: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Chun-De; Tsauo, Jau-Yih; Huang, Shih-Wei; Ku, Jan-Wen; Hsiao, Dun-Jen; Liou, Tsan-Hon

    2018-02-02

    Sarcopenia is associated with loss of muscle mass as well as an increased risk of physical disability in elderly people. This study was aimed to investigate the effect of elastic band resistance training (ERT) on muscle mass and physical function in older women with sarcopenic obesity. A randomized controlled trial with an intention-to-treat analysis was conducted. A total of 56 women (mean ± SD age 67.3 ± 5.1 years) were randomly assigned to the experimental group receiving 12 weeks of ERT and to the control group receiving no exercise intervention. Lean mass (measured using a dual-energy X-ray absorptiometer), physical capacity (assessed using the global physical capacity score), and a 36-item short form questionnaire were conducted at the baseline examination (T 0 ), as well as the 3-month (T 1 ) and 9-month followups (T 2 ). At T 1 and T 2 , the between-group difference was measured in total skeletal mass relative to T 0 , with mean differences of 0.70 kg (95% CI 0.12-1.28; P physical capacity, and physical function outcomes. The ERT exerted a significant beneficial effect on muscle mass, muscle quality, and physical function in older women with sarcopenic obesity.

  4. Exercise protects from cancer through regulation of immune function and inflammation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hojman, Pernille

    2017-01-01

    Exercise training has been extensively studied in cancer settings as part of prevention or rehabilitation strategies, yet emerging evidence suggests that exercise training can also directly affect tumor-specific outcomes. The underlying mechanisms for this exercise-dependent cancer protection are...... regulation of immune and inflammatory functions, and exercise may be pursued as anticancer treatment through incorporation into standard oncological therapy to the benefit of the cancer patients.......Exercise training has been extensively studied in cancer settings as part of prevention or rehabilitation strategies, yet emerging evidence suggests that exercise training can also directly affect tumor-specific outcomes. The underlying mechanisms for this exercise-dependent cancer protection...... are just starting to be elucidated. To this end, evasion of immune surveillance and tumor-associated inflammation are established as hallmarks of cancer, and exercise may target cancer incidence and progression through regulation of these mechanisms. Here, I review the role of exercise in protection from...

  5. Examining Capacity and Functioning of Bicycle Coalitions: A Descriptive Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Bopp

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundBicycle coalitions represent a strong partner in creating bike-friendly communities through advocacy for physical infrastructure, encouragement for biking, or education about safety. Despite their versatility, little is known about their functioning. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine capacity, strengths, and weaknesses of these organizations.MethodsBicycle coalitions/advocacy groups from English-speaking countries were recruited to take part in an online survey via email invitation. The survey addressed basic information about the coalition (community demographics, location, leadership, communication strategies, coalition priorities, barriers to programming/activities, and partners.ResultsCoalitions (n = 56 from four countries completed the survey. Most coalitions operated as a non-profit (n = 44, 95.7%, 45% (n = 21 have paid staff as leaders, while 37% (n = 17 have volunteers as leaders. The following skills were represented in coalitions’ leadership: fundraising (n = 31, 53.4%, event planning (n = 31, 53.4%, urban planning (n = 26, 44%, and policy/legislation expertise (n = 26, 44.8%. Education (n = 26, 63.4% and encouragement (n = 25, 61.6% were viewed as top priorities and the safety of bicyclists (n = 21, 46.7% and advocacy for infrastructure and policy (n = 22, 48.9% is the focus of most activities. A lack of financial resources (n = 36, 81.8% and capable personnel (n = 25, 56.8% were significant barriers to offering programming in the community and that the availability of grants to address issues (n = 38, 86.4% would be the top motivator for improvements.ConclusionBike coalitions represent a critical partner in creating activity-friendly environments and understanding their capacity allows for creating skill/capacity building intervention programs, development of effective toolkits and fostering strong collaborations to address physical inactivity.

  6. Effects of elastic resistance exercise on body composition and physical capacity in older women with sarcopenic obesity: A CONSORT-compliant prospective randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Chun-De; Tsauo, Jau-Yih; Lin, Li-Fong; Huang, Shih-Wei; Ku, Jan-Wen; Chou, Lin-Chuan; Liou, Tsan-Hon

    2017-06-01

    Sarcopenia is associated with loss of muscle mass and an increased risk of physical disability in elderly people. However, the prevalence of sarcopenia has increased in obese elderly populations. The purpose of this study was to identify the clinical efficacy of elastic resistance exercise training (RET) in patients with sarcopenic obesity. This study was conducted at the rehabilitation center of a university-based teaching hospital and was designed as a prospective and randomized controlled trial with an intention-to-treat analysis. A total of 46 women aged 67.3 (5.2) years were randomly assigned to an experimental group (EG) and control group (CG). The EG underwent elastic RET for 12 weeks, and the CG received no RET intervention. All outcome measures were assessed at the baseline and posttest, including body composition measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, muscle quality (MQ) defined as a ratio of muscular strength to muscle mass, and physical capacity assessed using functional mobility tests. One-way analysis of covariance and Pearson correlation were used to compare outcomes between the 2 groups and to identify the relationship between changes in body composition and physical outcomes, respectively. A chi-square test was performed to identify differences in qualitative data between the 2 groups. At the posttest, a significant between-group difference was observed in fat-free mass, MQ, and physical capacity (all P exercise exerted benefits on the body composition, MQ, and physical function in patients with sarcopenic obesity. Regular exercise incorporating elastic RET should be used to attenuate muscle mass loss and prevent physical difficulty in obese older adults with sarcopenia on reconditioning therapy. Chinese Clinical Trial Registry, ChiCTR-IPR-15006069.

  7. Beneficial effects of dark chocolate on exercise capacity in sedentary subjects: underlying mechanisms. A double blind, randomized, placebo controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taub, Pam R; Ramirez-Sanchez, Israel; Patel, Minal; Higginbotham, Erin; Moreno-Ulloa, Aldo; Román-Pintos, Luis Miguel; Phillips, Paul; Perkins, Guy; Ceballos, Guillermo; Villarreal, Francisco

    2016-09-14

    In heart failure patients the consumption of (-)-epicatechin ((-)-Epi)-rich cocoa can restore skeletal muscle (SkM) mitochondrial structure and decrease biomarkers of oxidative stress. However, nothing is known about its effects on exercise capacity and underlying mechanisms in normal, sedentary subjects. Twenty normal, sedentary subjects (∼50 years old) were randomized to placebo or dark chocolate (DC) groups and consumed 20 g of the products for 3 months. Subjects underwent before and after treatment, bicycle ergometry to assess VO2 max and work, SkM biopsy to assess changes in mitochondrial density, function and oxidative stress and blood sampling to assess metabolic endpoints. Seventeen subjects completed the trial. In the DC group (n = 9), VO2 max increased (17% increase, p = 0.056) as well as maximum work (watts) achieved (p = 0.026) with no changes with placebo (n = 8). The DC group evidenced increases in HDL levels (p = 0.005) and decreased triglycerides (p = 0.07). With DC, SkM evidenced significant increases in protein levels for LKB1, AMPK and PGC1α and in their active forms (phosphorylated AMPK and LKB1) as well as in citrate synthase activity while no changes were observed in mitochondrial density. With DC, significant increases in SkM reduced glutathione levels and decreases in protein carbonylation were observed. Improvements in maximum work achieved and VO2 max may be due to DC activation of upstream control systems and enhancement of SkM mitochondria efficiency. Larger clinical studies are warranted to confirm these observations.

  8. Effects of Aerobic Exercise on Overweight Children's Cognitive Functioning: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Catherine L.; Tomporowski, Phillip D.; Boyle, Colleen A.; Waller, Jennifer L.; Miller, Patricia H.; Naglieri, Jack A.; Gregoski, Mathew

    2007-01-01

    The study tested the effect of aerobic exercise training on executive function in overweight children. Ninety-four sedentary, overweight but otherwise healthy children (mean age = 9.2 years, body mass index [greater than or equal to] 85th percentile) were randomized to a low-dose (20 min/day exercise), high-dose (40 min/day exercise), or control…

  9. Impact of ischemic preconditioning on functional sympatholysis during handgrip exercise in humans.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horiuchi, M.; Endo, J.; Thijssen, D.H.J.

    2015-01-01

    Repeated bouts of ischemia followed by reperfusion, known as ischemic preconditioning (IPC), is found to improve exercise performance. As redistribution of blood from the inactive areas to active skeletal muscles during exercise (i.e., functional sympatholysis) is important for exercise performance,

  10. [Assessment of Functioning when Conducting Occupational Capacity Evaluations--What is "Evidence-Based"?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canela, Carlos; Schleifer, Roman; Dube, Anish; Hengartner, Michael P; Ebner, Gerhard; Seifritz, Erich; Liebrenz, Michael

    2016-03-01

    Occupational capacity evaluations have previously been subject to criticism for lacking in quality and consistency. To the authors' knowledge, there is no clear consensus on the best way to formally assess functioning within capacity evaluations. In this review we investigated different instruments that are used to assess functioning in occupational capacity evaluations. Systematic review of the literature. Though several instruments that assess functional capacity were found in our search, a specific validated instrument assessing occupational capacity as part of a larger psychiatric evaluation was not found. The limitations of the existing instruments on assessing functional capacity are discussed. Medical experts relying on instruments to conduct functional capacity evaluations should be cognizant of their limitations. The findings call for the development and use of an instrument specifically designed to assess the functional and occupational capacity of psychiatric patients, which is also likely to improve the quality of these reports. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  11. Effects of blood transfusion on exercise capacity in thalassemia major patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Benedetto

    Full Text Available Anemia has an important role in exercise performance. However, the direct link between rapid changes of hemoglobin and exercise performance is still unknown.To find out more on this topic, we studied 18 beta-thalassemia major patients free of relevant cardiac dysfunction (age 33.5±7.2 years,males = 10. Patients performed a maximal cardiopulmolmonary exercise test (cycloergometer, personalized ramp protocol, breath-by-breath measurements of expired gases before and the day after blood transfusion (500 cc of red cell concentrates. After blood transfusion, hemoglobin increased from 10.5±0.8 g/dL to 12.1±1.2 (p<0.001, peak VO2 from 1408 to 1546mL/min (p<0.05, and VO2 at anaerobic threshold from 965 to 1024mL/min (p<0.05. No major changes were observed as regards heart and respiratory rates either at peak exercise or at anaerobic threshold. Similarly, no relevant changes were observed in ventilation efficiency, as evaluated by the ventilation vs. carbon dioxide production relationship, or in O2 delivery to the periphery as analyzed by the VO2 vs. workload relationship. The relationship between hemoglobin and VO2 changes showed, for each g/dL of hemoglobin increase, a VO2 increase = 82.5 mL/min and 35 mL/min, at peak exercise and at anaerobic threshold, respectively. In beta-thalassemia major patients, an acute albeit partial anemia correction by blood transfusion determinates a relevant increase of exercise performance, observed both at peak exercise and at anaerobic threshold.

  12. Differential effects of water-based exercise on the cognitive function in independent elderly adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Daisuke; Seko, Chihiro; Hashitomi, Tatsuya; Sengoku, Yasuo; Nomura, Takeo

    2015-04-01

    Physical exercise has been reported to be the most effective method to improve cognitive function and brain health, but there is as yet no research on the effect of water-based exercise. The aim of the present study was to compare the effects of water-based exercise with and without cognitive stimuli on cognitive and physical functions. The design is a single-blind randomized controlled study. Twenty-one participants were randomly assigned to a normal water-based exercise (Nor-WE) group or a cognitive water-based exercise (Cog-WE) group. The exercise sessions were divided into two exercise series: a 10-min series of land-based warm-up, consisting of flexibility exercises, and a 50-min series of exercises in water. The Nor-WE consisted of 10 min of walking, 30 min of strength and stepping exercise, including stride over, and 10 min of stretching and relaxation in water. The Cog-WE consisted of 10 min of walking, 30 min of water-cognitive exercises, and 10 min of stretching and relaxation in water. Cognitive function, physical function, and ADL were measured before the exercise intervention (pre-intervention) and 10 weeks after the intervention (post-intervention). Participation in the Cog-WE performed significantly better on the pegboard test and the choice stepping reaction test and showed a significantly improved attention, memory, and learning, and in the general cognitive function (measured as the total score in the 5-Cog test). Participation in the Nor-WE dramatically improved walking ability and lower limb muscle strength. Our results reveal that the benefits elderly adults may obtain from water-based exercise depend on the characteristics of each specific exercise program. These findings highlight the importance of prescription for personalized water-based exercises to elderly adults to improve cognitive function.

  13. Effect of thyme extract supplementation on lipid peroxidation, antioxidant capacity, PGC-1α content and endurance exercise performance in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khani, Mostafa; Motamedi, Pezhman; Dehkhoda, Mohammad Reza; Dabagh Nikukheslat, Saeed; Karimi, Pouran

    2017-01-01

    Athletes have a large extent of oxidant agent production. In the current study, we aimed to determine the influence of thyme extract on the endurance exercise performance, mitochondrial biogenesis, and antioxidant status in rats. Twenty male Wistar rats were randomly divided into two groups receiving either normal drinking water (non-supplemented group, n  = 10) or thyme extract, 400 mg/kg, (supplemented group, n  = 10). Rats in both groups were subjected to endurance treadmill training (27 m/min, 10% grade, 60 min, and 5 days/week for 8 weeks). Finally, to determine the endurance capacity, time to exhaustion treadmill running at 36 m/min speed was assessed. At the end of the endurance capacity test, serum and soleus muscle samples were collected and their superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity, as well as malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration were measured. Protein expression of PGC-1α, as a marker of mitochondrial biogenesis, was also determined in the soleus muscle tissue by immunoblotting assay. Findings revealed that the exhaustive running time in the treatment group was significantly ( p  extract supplemented group (t 18  = 8.11, p  antioxidant capacity between groups. Furthermore, thyme supplementation significantly ( p  extract supplementation increased endurance exercise tolerance in intact animals, although decrease of oxidative stress and regulation of the PGC-1α protein expression are not considered as underlying molecular mechanisms.

  14. Effects of functional exercise training on performance and muscle strength after meniscectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ericsson, Y B; Dahlberg, L E; Roos, E M

    2008-01-01

    Muscular deficits and functional limitations have been found years after meniscectomy of the knee. The purpose of this randomized controlled trial was to examine the effect of functional exercise training on functional performance and isokinetic thigh muscle strength in middle-aged patients...... subsequent to meniscectomy for a degenerative tear. Four years after meniscectomy, 45 patients (29 men, 16 women) were randomized to functional exercise training, supervised by a physical therapist, three times weekly for 4 months or to no intervention. The exercise program comprised of postural stability...... training and functional strength and endurance exercises for leg and trunk muscles. Outcomes were three functional performance tests and isokinetic muscle strength. Thirty patients (16 exercisers/14 controls) completed the study. Compared with control patients, the exercise group showed significant...

  15. Moderate-Intensity Exercise Affects Gut Microbiome Composition and Influences Cardiac Function in Myocardial Infarction Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuheng Liu

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Physical exercise is commonly regarded as protective against cardiovascular disease (CVD. Recent studies have reported that exercise alters the gut microbiota and that modification of the gut microbiota can influence cardiac function. Here, we focused on the relationships among exercise, the gut microbiota and cardiac function after myocardial infarction (MI. Four-week-old C57BL/6J mice were exercised on a treadmill for 4 weeks before undergoing left coronary artery ligation. Cardiac function was assessed using echocardiography. Gut microbiomes were evaluated post-exercise and post-MI using 16S rRNA gene sequencing on an Illumina HiSeq platform. Exercise training inhibited declines in cardiac output and stroke volume in post-MI mice. In addition, physical exercise and MI led to alterations in gut microbial composition. Exercise training increased the relative abundance of Butyricimonas and Akkermansia. Additionally, key operational taxonomic units were identified, including 24 lineages (mainly from Bacteroidetes, Barnesiella, Helicobacter, Parabacteroides, Porphyromonadaceae, Ruminococcaceae, and Ureaplasma that were closely related to exercise and cardiac function. These results suggested that exercise training improved cardiac function to some extent in addition to altering the gut microbiota; therefore, they could provide new insights into the use of exercise training for the treatment of CVD.

  16. Left ventricular markers of global dyssynchrony predict limited exercise capacity in heart failure, but not in patients with preserved ejection fraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bajraktari Gani

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to prospectively examine echocardiographic parameters that correlate and predict functional capacity assessed by 6 min walk test (6-MWT in patients with heart failure (HF, irrespective of ejection fraction (EF. Methods In 147 HF patients (mean age 61 ± 11 years, 50.3% male, a 6-MWT and an echo-Doppler study were performed in the same day. Global LV dyssynchrony was indirectly assessed by total isovolumic time - t-IVT [in s/min; calculated as: 60 – (total ejection time + total filling time], and Tei index (t-IVT/ejection time. Patients were divided into two groups based on the 6-MWT distance (Group I: ≤300 m and Group II: >300 m, and also in two groups according to EF (Group A: LVEF ≥ 45% and Group B: LVEF  Results In the cohort of patients as a whole, the 6-MWT correlated with t-IVT (r = −0.49, p  Conclusion In patients with HF, the limited exercise capacity, assessed by 6-MWT, is related mostly to severity of global LV dyssynchrony, more than EF or raised filling pressures. The lack of exercise predictors in HFpEF reflects its multifactorial pathophysiology.

  17. Cortical activation pattern during shoulder simple versus vibration exercises: a functional near infrared spectroscopy study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung Ho Jang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available To date, the cortical effect of exercise has not been fully elucidated. Using the functional near infrared spectroscopy, we attempted to compare the cortical effect between shoulder vibration exercise and shoulder simple exercise. Eight healthy subjects were recruited for this study. Two different exercise tasks (shoulder vibration exercise using the flexible pole and shoulder simple exercise were performed using a block paradigm. We measured the values of oxygenated hemoglobin in the four regions of interest: the primary sensory-motor cortex (SM1 total, arm somatotopy, and leg and trunk somatotopy, the premotor cortex, the supplementary motor area, and the prefrontal cortex. During shoulder vibration exercise and shoulder simple exercise, cortical activation was observed in SM1 (total, arm somatotopy, and leg and trunk somatotopy, premotor cortex, supplementary motor area, and prefrontal cortex. Higher oxygenated hemoglobin values were also observed in the areas of arm somatotopy of SM1 compared with those of other regions of interest. However, no significant difference in the arm somatotopy of SM1 was observed between the two exercises. By contrast, in the leg and trunk somatotopy of SM1, shoulder vibration exercise led to a significantly higher oxy-hemoglobin value than shoulder simple exercise. These two exercises may result in cortical activation effects for the motor areas relevant to the shoulder exercise, especially in the arm somatotopy of SM1. However, shoulder vibration exercise has an additional cortical activation effect for the leg and trunk somatotopy of SM1.

  18. Cortical activation pattern during shoulder simple versus vibration exercises: a functional near infrared spectroscopy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Sung Ho; Yeo, Sang Seok; Lee, Seung Hyun; Jin, Sang Hyun; Lee, Mi Young

    2017-08-01

    To date, the cortical effect of exercise has not been fully elucidated. Using the functional near infrared spectroscopy, we attempted to compare the cortical effect between shoulder vibration exercise and shoulder simple exercise. Eight healthy subjects were recruited for this study. Two different exercise tasks (shoulder vibration exercise using the flexible pole and shoulder simple exercise) were performed using a block paradigm. We measured the values of oxygenated hemoglobin in the four regions of interest: the primary sensory-motor cortex (SM1 total, arm somatotopy, and leg and trunk somatotopy), the premotor cortex, the supplementary motor area, and the prefrontal cortex. During shoulder vibration exercise and shoulder simple exercise, cortical activation was observed in SM1 (total, arm somatotopy, and leg and trunk somatotopy), premotor cortex, supplementary motor area, and prefrontal cortex. Higher oxygenated hemoglobin values were also observed in the areas of arm somatotopy of SM1 compared with those of other regions of interest. However, no significant difference in the arm somatotopy of SM1 was observed between the two exercises. By contrast, in the leg and trunk somatotopy of SM1, shoulder vibration exercise led to a significantly higher oxy-hemoglobin value than shoulder simple exercise. These two exercises may result in cortical activation effects for the motor areas relevant to the shoulder exercise, especially in the arm somatotopy of SM1. However, shoulder vibration exercise has an additional cortical activation effect for the leg and trunk somatotopy of SM1.

  19. Magnitude of exercise capacity and quality of life improvement following repeat pulmonary rehabilitation in patients with COPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandoz JS

    2017-04-01

    ; P=0.63. Conclusion: In physician-referred patients who underwent repeat PRP as clinically required, there were clear benefits in functional exercise capacity following each repeat PRP, which was not affected by the time interval between PRPs. Health-related quality of life and mood improved after the first two PRPs, but not after a third. Keywords: exercise therapy, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, quality of life, exercise test

  20. Pulmonary rehabilitation improves exercise capacity and dyspnea in air pollution-related respiratory disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, Naomi; Senjyu, Hideaki; Tanaka, Takako; Asai, Masaharu; Yanagita, Yorihide; Yano, Yudai; Nishinakagawa, Tsuyoshi; Kotaki, Kenji; Kitagawa, Chika; Rikitomi, Naoto; Kozu, Ryo; Honda, Sumihisa

    2014-01-01

    Air pollution in Japan caused respiratory disease, such as chronic bronchitis and asthma, in many individuals in the 1960s. Although air pollution has decreased, many victims of air pollution-related respiratory disease are limited in their activities of daily living because of respiratory symptoms. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of pulmonary rehabilitation in victims of air pollution-related chronic bronchitis or asthma. Subjects were enrolled in a 12-week (2-week inpatient followed by 10-week outpatient) pulmonary rehabilitation program. The program comprised conditioning, strength training, endurance training, and patient education. We assessed the Modified Medical Research Council (MMRC) dyspnea grade, pulmonary function, peripheral muscle force, incremental shuttle walk distance (ISWD), and physical activity at baseline and immediately after the program. Twenty-nine subjects (mean age 74.2 ± 10.1 years, 11 males) completed the program, including 11 subjects with COPD and 18 subjects with asthma. Following rehabilitation, the participants (n = 29) showed significant improvements in MMRC dyspnea grade, vital capacity % predicted, quadriceps force and ISWD (all P pollution-related asthma. In conclusion, we recommend that patients with chronic bronchitis or asthma, resulting from exposure to air pollution, are referred for pulmonary rehabilitation.

  1. Effects of Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation During Hemodialysis on Peripheral Muscle Strength and Exercise Capacity: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brüggemann, Ana Karla; Mello, Carolina Luana; Dal Pont, Tarcila; Hizume Kunzler, Deborah; Martins, Daniel Fernandes; Bobinski, Franciane; Pereira Yamaguti, Wellington; Paulin, Elaine

    2017-05-01

    To evaluate the effects of neuromuscular electrical stimulation of high and low frequency and intensity, performed during hemodialysis, on physical function and inflammation markers in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Randomized clinical trial. Hemodialysis clinic. Patients with CKD (N=51) were randomized into blocks of 4 using opaque sealed envelopes. They were divided into a group of high frequency and intensity neuromuscular electrical stimulation and a group of low frequency and intensity neuromuscular electrical stimulation. The high frequency and intensity neuromuscular electrical stimulation group was submitted to neuromuscular electrical stimulation at a frequency of 50Hz and a medium intensity of 72.90mA, and the low frequency and intensity neuromuscular electrical stimulation group used a frequency of 5Hz and a medium intensity of 13.85mA, 3 times per week for 1 hour, during 12 sessions. Peripheral muscle strength, exercise capacity, levels of muscle trophism marker (insulin growth factor 1) and levels of proinflammatory (tumor necrosis factor α) and anti-inflammatory (interleukin 10) cytokines. The high frequency and intensity neuromuscular electrical stimulation group showed a significant increase in right peripheral muscle strength (155.35±65.32Nm initial vs 161.60±68.73Nm final; P=.01) and left peripheral muscle strength (156.60±66.51Nm initial vs 164.10±69.76Nm final; P=.02) after the training, which did not occur in the low frequency and intensity neuromuscular electrical stimulation group for both right muscle strength (109.40±32.08Nm initial vs 112.65±38.44Nm final; P=.50) and left muscle strength (113.65±37.79Nm initial vs 116.15±43.01Nm final; P=.61). The 6-minute walk test distance (6MWTD) increased in both groups: high frequency and intensity neuromuscular electrical stimulation group (435.55±95.81m initial vs 457.25±90.64m final; P=.02) and low frequency and intensity neuromuscular electrical stimulation group (403.80

  2. Depression in Schizophrenia: Associations With Cognition, Functional Capacity, Everyday Functioning, and Self-Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Philip D; Twamley, Elizabeth W; Pinkham, Amy E; Depp, Colin A; Patterson, Thomas L

    2017-05-01

    Depressed mood has a complex relationship with self-evaluation of personal competence in multiple populations. The absence of depression may be associated with overestimation of abilities, while mild depression seems to lead to accurate self-assessment. Significant depression may lead to underestimation of functioning. In this study, we expand on our previous work by directly comparing the association between different levels of depression, everyday functioning, cognitive and functional capacity performance, and self-assessment of everyday functioning in a large (n = 406) sample of outpatients with schizophrenia. Participants with very low self-reported depression overestimated their everyday functioning compared with informant reports. Higher levels of depression were associated with more accurate self-assessment, but no subgroup of patients underestimated their functioning. Depressive symptom severity was associated with poorer informant-rated social functioning, but there were no differences in vocational functioning, everyday activities, cognitive performance, and functional capacity associated with the severity of self-reported depression. There was minimal evidence of impact of depression on most aspects of everyday functioning and objective test performance and a substantial relationship between depression and accuracy of self-assessment. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Maryland Psychiatric Research Center. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Chronic aerobic exercise training attenuates aortic stiffening and endothelial dysfunction through preserving aortic mitochondrial function in aged rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Qi; Wang, Bing; Zhang, Xiao-Feng; Ma, Yan-Ping; Liu, Jian-Dong; Wang, Xiao-Ze

    2014-08-01

    Aging leads to large vessel arterial stiffening and endothelial dysfunction, which are important determinants of cardiovascular risk. The aim of present work was to assess the effects of chronic aerobic exercise training on aortic stiffening and endothelial dysfunction in aged rats and investigate the underlying mechanism about mitochondrial function. Chronic aerobic exercise training attenuated aortic stiffening with age marked by reduced collagen concentration, increased elastin concentration and reduced pulse wave velocity (PWV), and prevented aging-related endothelial dysfunction marked by improved endothelium-mediated vascular relaxation of aortas in response to acetylcholine. Chronic aerobic exercise training abated oxidative stress and nitrosative stress in aortas of aged rats. More importantly, we found that chronic aerobic exercise training in old rats preserved aortic mitochondrial function marked by reduced reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation and mitochondrial swelling, increased ATP formation and mitochondrial DNA content, and restored activities of complexes I and III and electron-coupling capacity between complexes I and III and between complexes II and III. In addition, it was found that chronic aerobic exercise training in old rats enhanced protein expression of uncoupling protein 2 (UCP-2), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ co-activator 1α (PGC-1α), manganese superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD), aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH-2), prohibitin (PHB) and AMP-activated kinase (AMPK) phosphorylation in aortas. In conclusion, chronic aerobic exercise training preserved mitochondrial function in aortas, which, at least in part, explained the aorta-protecting effects of exercise training in aging. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. An Interactive Exercise To Learn Eukaryotic Cell Structure and Organelle Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klionsky, Daniel J.; Tomashek, John J.

    1999-01-01

    Describes a cooperative, interactive problem-solving exercise for studying eukaryotic cell structure and function. Highlights the dynamic aspects of movement through the cell. Contains 15 references. (WRM)

  5. Physical exercise and osteoporosis: effects of different types of exercises on bone and physical function of postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Linda Denise Fernandes; Oliveira, Mônica Longo de; Lirani-Galvão, Ana Paula; Marin-Mio, Rosângela Villa; Santos, Rodrigo Nolasco dos; Lazaretti-Castro, Marise

    2014-07-01

    Physical exercise is an important stimulus for osteoporosis prevention and treatment. However, it is not clear yet which modality would be better to stimulate bone metabolism and enhance physical function of postmenopausal women. This review paper aims to summarize and update present knowledge on the effects of different kinds of aquatic and ground physical exercises on bone metabolism and physical function of postmenopausal women. Moderate to intense exercises, performed in a high speed during short intervals of time, in water or on the ground, can be part of a program to prevent and treat postmenopausal osteoporosis. Mechanical vibration has proven to be beneficial for bone microarchitecture, improving bone density and bone strength, as well as increasing physical function. Although impact exercises are recognized as beneficial for the stimulation of bone tissue, other variables such as muscle strength, type of muscle contraction, duration and intensity of exercises are also determinants to induce changes in bone metabolism of postmenopausal women. Not only osteoanabolic exercises should be recommended; activities aimed to develop muscle strength and body balance and improve the proprioception should be encouraged to prevent falls and fractures.

  6. FES-assisted Cycling Improves Aerobic Capacity and Locomotor Function Postcerebrovascular Accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaron, Stacey E; Vanderwerker, Catherine J; Embry, Aaron E; Newton, Jennifer H; Lee, Samuel C K; Gregory, Chris M

    2018-03-01

    After a cerebrovascular accident (CVA) aerobic deconditioning contributes to diminished physical function. Functional electrical stimulation (FES)-assisted cycling is a promising exercise paradigm designed to target both aerobic capacity and locomotor function. This pilot study aimed to evaluate the effects of an FES-assisted cycling intervention on aerobic capacity and locomotor function in individuals post-CVA. Eleven individuals with chronic (>6 months) post-CVA hemiparesis completed an 8-wk (three times per week; 24 sessions) progressive FES-assisted cycling intervention. V˙O2peak, self-selected, and fastest comfortable walking speeds, gait, and pedaling symmetry, 6-min walk test (6MWT), balance, dynamic gait movements, and health status were measured at baseline and posttraining. Functional electrical stimulation-assisted cycling significantly improved V˙O2peak (12%, P = 0.006), self-selected walking speed (SSWS, 0.05 ± 0.1 m·s, P = 0.04), Activities-specific Balance Confidence scale score (12.75 ± 17.4, P = 0.04), Berg Balance Scale score (3.91 ± 4.2, P = 0.016), Dynamic Gait Index score (1.64 ± 1.4, P = 0.016), and Stroke Impact Scale participation/role domain score (12.74 ± 16.7, P = 0.027). Additionally, pedal symmetry, represented by the paretic limb contribution to pedaling (paretic pedaling ratio [PPR]) significantly improved (10.09% ± 9.0%, P = 0.016). Although step length symmetry (paretic step ratio [PSR]) did improve, these changes were not statistically significant (-0.05% ± 0.1%, P = 0.09). Exploratory correlations showed moderate association between change in SSWS and 6-min walk test (r = 0.74), and moderate/strong negative association between change in PPR and PSR. These results support FES-assisted cycling as a means to improve both aerobic capacity and locomotor function. Improvements in SSWS, balance, dynamic walking movements, and participation in familial and societal roles are important targets for rehabilitation of individuals

  7. Impact of Prosthesis-Patient Mismatch on Long-term Functional Capacity After Mechanical Aortic Valve Replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petit-Eisenmann, Hélène; Epailly, Eric; Velten, Michel; Radojevic, Jelena; Eisenmann, Bernard; Kremer, Hélène; Kindo, Michel

    2016-12-01

    The impact of prosthesis-patient mismatch (PPM) after aortic valve replacement (AVR) for aortic stenosis on exercise capacity remains controversial. The aim of this study was to analyze the long-term impact of PPM after mechanical AVR on maximal oxygen uptake (VO 2max ). The study included 75 patients who had undergone isolated mechanical AVR for aortic stenosis with normal left ventricular (LV) function between 1994 and 2012. Their functional capacity was evaluated on average 4.6 years after AVR by exercise testing, including measurement of their VO 2max , and by determining their New York Heart Association functional class and Short Form-36 score. Two groups were defined by measuring the patients' indexed effective orifice area (iEOA) by transthoracic echocardiography: a PPM group (iEOA < 0.85 cm 2 /m 2 ) and a no-PPM group (iEOA ≥ 0.85 cm 2 /m 2 ). PPM was present in 37.0% of the patients. The percentage of the predicted VO 2max achieved was significantly lower in the PPM group (86.7 ± 19.5% vs 97.5 ± 23.0% in the no-PPM group; P = 0.04). Compared with the no-PPM group, the PPM group contained fewer patients in New York Heart Association functional class I and their mean Short Form-36 physical component summary score was significantly lower. The mean transvalvular gradient was significantly higher in the PPM group than in the no-PPM group (P < 0.001). Systolic and diastolic function and LV mass had normalized in both groups. PPM is associated in the long term with moderate but significant impairment of functional capacity, despite optimal LV reverse remodelling and normalization of LV systolic and diastolic function. Copyright © 2016 Canadian Cardiovascular Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. A Classroom Exercise to Examine the Trade-off between Mission Capacity and Life Cycle Cost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Keebom; Doerr, Kenneth H.

    2015-01-01

    This article presents a classroom exercise, centered on a simulation that has been used for 4 years in an MBA program to help students develop an understanding of the trade-offs involved in managing capital assets in the public sector. Though often ignored in business schools, "mission" is a key criterion that must be considered when…

  9. Protein synthesis and antioxidant capacity in aging mice : Effects of long-term voluntary exercise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vaanholt, Lobke M.; Speakman, John R.; Garland, Theodore; Lobley, Gerald E.; Visser, G. Henk

    2008-01-01

    Exercise increases metabolic rate and the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) but also elevates protein turnover. ROS cause damage to macromolecules (e. g., proteins) and thereby contribute to aging. Protein turnover removes and replaces damaged proteins. The balance between these two

  10. Effects of the Nordic Hamstring exercise on sprint capacity in male football players

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ishøi, Lasse; Hölmich, Per; Aagaard, Per

    2018-01-01

    This assessor-blinded, randomized controlled superiority trial investigated the efficacy of the 10-week Nordic Hamstring exercise (NHE) protocol on sprint performance in football players. Thirty-five amateur male players (age: 17-26 years) were randomized to a do-as-usual control group (CG; n = 1...

  11. Using molecular classification to predict gains in maximal aerobic capacity following endurance exercise training in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Timmons, James A; Knudsen, Steen; Rankinen, Tuomo

    2010-01-01

    A low maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max) is a strong risk factor for premature mortality. Supervised endurance exercise training increases VO2max with a very wide range of effectiveness in humans. Discovering the DNA variants that contribute to this heterogeneity typically requires substantial s...

  12. Functional Capacity and Levels of Physical Activity in Aging: A 3-Year Follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomás, Maria Teresa; Galán-Mercant, Alejandro; Carnero, Elvis Alvarez; Fernandes, Beatriz

    2017-01-01

    Over the last decades, the world elderly population has increased exponentially and this tendency will continue during the coming years; from 2000 to 2050, people over 60 will double and those over 80 will quadruple. Loss of independence occurs as people age due to mobility restrictions, frailty, and decreased functional fitness and cognitive abilities. Evidence has shown that appropriate programs and policies contribute to keep older adults healthy and independent over time. The purpose of this chapter is to report the results of our 3-year follow-up study designed to characterize functional physical fitness in a sample of Portuguese community-dwelling older adults to propose a set of functional parameters that decline the most. We studied a group of 43 elderly people, aged 60 and over. Variables assessed on the participants were anthropometric measurements, functional capacity with the Senior Fitness Test battery (muscle strength, aerobic endurance, flexibility, agility, and dynamic balance), handgrip strength, levels of physical activity, and balance. Three years after the first assessment, a second assessment of the same variables was conducted. We analyzed what were the variables that, for this group, were related with a healthier aging and the relation with different physical activity levels. Our study showed that the distance covered in 6-min walk test and handgrip strength seem to explain a great amount of variability on functional variables that have changed on this period (68% of balance, lower and upper functional strength, respectively) and the active participants showed less decrements with aging in anthropometric and functional variables than those inactive or insufficiently active ( p  activities should be given more attention as components of a community exercise program.

  13. Exercise capacity in non-specific chronic low back pain patients : A lean body mass-based Astrand bicycle test; Reliability, validity and feasibility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hodselmans, Audy P.; Dijkstra, Pieter U.; Geertzen, Jan H. B.; van der Schans, Cees P.

    Objective Measurement of exercise capacity is essential in patients with non-specific chronic low back pain (CLBP). However, the conventional Astrand bicycle test is not feasible in patients with a very poor aerobic capacity. Therefore the Astrand bicycles test for non-specific CLBP patients based

  14. Functional digital soil mapping for the prediction of available water capacity in Nigeria using legacy data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ugbaje, S.U.; Reuter, H.I.

    2013-01-01

    Soil information, particularly water storage capacity, is of utmost importance for assessing and managing land resources for sustainable land management. We investigated using digital soil mapping (DSM) and digital soil functional mapping (DSFM) procedures to predict available water capacity (AWC)

  15. Effects of different strength training frequencies on maximum strength, body composition and functional capacity in healthy older individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turpela, Mari; Häkkinen, Keijo; Haff, Guy Gregory; Walker, Simon

    2017-11-01

    There is controversy in the literature regarding the dose-response relationship of strength training in healthy older participants. The present study determined training frequency effects on maximum strength, muscle mass and functional capacity over 6months following an initial 3-month preparatory strength training period. One-hundred and six 64-75year old volunteers were randomly assigned to one of four groups; performing strength training one (EX1), two (EX2), or three (EX3) times per week and a non-training control (CON) group. Whole-body strength training was performed using 2-5 sets and 4-12 repetitions per exercise and 7-9 exercises per session. Before and after the intervention, maximum dynamic leg press (1-RM) and isometric knee extensor and plantarflexor strength, body composition and quadriceps cross-sectional area, as well as functional capacity (maximum 7.5m forward and backward walking speed, timed-up-and-go test, loaded 10-stair climb test) were measured. All experimental groups increased leg press 1-RM more than CON (EX1: 3±8%, EX2: 6±6%, EX3: 10±8%, CON: -3±6%, Ptraining frequency would induce greater benefit to maximum walking speed (i.e. functional capacity) despite a clear dose-response in dynamic 1-RM strength, at least when predominantly using machine weight-training. It appears that beneficial functional capacity improvements can be achieved through low frequency training (i.e. 1-2 times per week) in previously untrained healthy older participants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Effect of floorball training on blood lipids, body composition, muscle strength, and functional capacity of elderly men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vorup Petersen, Jacob; Pedersen, Mogens Theisen; Melcher, Pia Grethe Sandfeld

    2017-01-01

    Floorball training consists of intense repeated exercise and may offer a motivating and social stimulating team activity in elderly individuals. However, the effect of floorball training in elderly adults on physiological adaptations important for health is not known. Thus, this study examined...... the effect of floorball training on blood lipids, muscle strength, body composition, and functional capacity of men aged 65-76 years. Thirty-nine recreational active men were randomized into a floorball group (FG; n = 22) or petanque group (PG; n = 17), in which training was performed 1 h twice a week for 12......-IR) was reduced (P performance in four different...

  17. Maximal exercise test is a useful method for physical capacity and oxygen consumption determination in streptozotocin-diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irigoyen Maria-Cláudia

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between speed during maximum exercise test (ET and oxygen consumption (VO2 in control and STZ-diabetic rats, in order to provide a useful method to determine exercise capacity and prescription in researches involving STZ-diabetic rats. Methods Male Wistar rats were divided into two groups: control (CG, n = 10 and diabetic (DG, n = 8. The animals were submitted to ET on treadmill with simultaneous gas analysis through open respirometry system. ET and VO2 were assessed 60 days after diabetes induction (STZ, 50 mg/Kg. Results VO2 maximum was reduced in STZ-diabetic rats (72.5 ± 1 mL/Kg/min-1 compared to CG rats (81.1 ± 1 mL/Kg/min-1. There were positive correlations between ET speed and VO2 (r = 0.87 for CG and r = 0.8 for DG, as well as between ET speed and VO2 reserve (r = 0.77 for CG and r = 0.7 for DG. Positive correlations were also obtained between measured VO2 and VO2 predicted values (r = 0.81 for CG and r = 0.75 for DG by linear regression equations to CG (VO2 = 1.54 * ET speed + 52.34 and DG (VO2 = 1.16 * ET speed + 51.99. Moreover, we observed that 60% of ET speed corresponded to 72 and 75% of VO2 reserve for CG and DG, respectively. The maximum ET speed was also correlated with VO2 maximum for both groups (CG: r = 0.7 and DG: r = 0.7. Conclusion These results suggest that: a VO2 and VO2 reserve can be estimated using linear regression equations obtained from correlations with ET speed for each studied group; b exercise training can be prescribed based on ET in control and diabetic-STZ rats; c physical capacity can be determined by ET. Therefore, ET, which involves a relatively simple methodology and low cost, can be used as an indicator of cardio-respiratory capacity in future studies that investigate the physiological effect of acute or chronic exercise in control and STZ-diabetic male rats.

  18. Maximal exercise test is a useful method for physical capacity and oxygen consumption determination in streptozotocin-diabetic rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Bruno; Figueroa, Diego M; Mostarda, Cristiano T; Heeren, Marcelo V; Irigoyen, Maria-Cláudia; De Angelis, Kátia

    2007-01-01

    Background The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between speed during maximum exercise test (ET) and oxygen consumption (VO2) in control and STZ-diabetic rats, in order to provide a useful method to determine exercise capacity and prescription in researches involving STZ-diabetic rats. Methods Male Wistar rats were divided into two groups: control (CG, n = 10) and diabetic (DG, n = 8). The animals were submitted to ET on treadmill with simultaneous gas analysis through open respirometry system. ET and VO2 were assessed 60 days after diabetes induction (STZ, 50 mg/Kg). Results VO2 maximum was reduced in STZ-diabetic rats (72.5 ± 1 mL/Kg/min-1) compared to CG rats (81.1 ± 1 mL/Kg/min-1). There were positive correlations between ET speed and VO2 (r = 0.87 for CG and r = 0.8 for DG), as well as between ET speed and VO2 reserve (r = 0.77 for CG and r = 0.7 for DG). Positive correlations were also obtained between measured VO2 and VO2 predicted values (r = 0.81 for CG and r = 0.75 for DG) by linear regression equations to CG (VO2 = 1.54 * ET speed + 52.34) and DG (VO2 = 1.16 * ET speed + 51.99). Moreover, we observed that 60% of ET speed corresponded to 72 and 75% of VO2 reserve for CG and DG, respectively. The maximum ET speed was also correlated with VO2 maximum for both groups (CG: r = 0.7 and DG: r = 0.7). Conclusion These results suggest that: a) VO2 and VO2 reserve can be estimated using linear regression equations obtained from correlations with ET speed for each studied group; b) exercise training can be prescribed based on ET in control and diabetic-STZ rats; c) physical capacity can be determined by ET. Therefore, ET, which involves a relatively simple methodology and low cost, can be used as an indicator of cardio-respiratory capacity in future studies that investigate the physiological effect of acute or chronic exercise in control and STZ-diabetic male rats. PMID:18078520

  19. Use of a consumer market activity monitoring and feedback device improves exercise capacity and activity levels in COPD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caulfield, Brian; Kaljo, Indira; Donnelly, Seamas

    2014-01-01

    COPD is associated with a gradual decline in physical activity, which itself contributes to a worsening of the underlying condition. Strategies that improve physical activity levels are critical to halt this cycle. Wearable sensor based activity monitoring and persuasive feedback might offer a potential solution. However it is not clear just how much intervention might be needed in this regard - i.e. whether programmes need to be tailored specifically for the target clinical population or whether more simple activity monitoring and feedback solutions, such as that offered in consumer market devices, might be sufficient. This research was carried out to investigate the impact of 4 weeks of using an off the shelf consumer market activity monitoring and feedback application on measures of physical activity, exercise capacity, and health related quality of life in a population of 10 Stage I and II COPD patients. Results demonstrate a significant and positive effect on exercise capacity (measured using a 6-minute walk test) and activity levels (measured in terms of average number of steps per hour) yet no impact on health related quality of life (St Georges Respiratory Disease Questionnaire).

  20. CETP Expression Protects Female Mice from Obesity-Induced Decline in Exercise Capacity

    OpenAIRE

    Cappel, David A.; Lantier, Louise; Palmisano, Brian T.; Wasserman, David H.; Stafford, John M.

    2015-01-01

    Pharmacological approaches to reduce obesity have not resulted in dramatic reductions in the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). Exercise, in contrast, reduces CHD risk even in the setting of obesity. Cholesteryl Ester Transfer Protein (CETP) is a lipid transfer protein that shuttles lipids between serum lipoproteins and tissues. There are sexual-dimorphisms in the effects of CETP in humans. Mice naturally lack CETP, but we previously reported that transgenic expression of CETP increases mu...

  1. Effects of Vocal Function Exercises: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angadi, Vrushali; Croake, Daniel; Stemple, Joseph

    2017-11-03

    The purpose of the present review was to systematically analyze the evidence for the effectiveness of vocal function exercises (VFEs) in improving voice production. A systematic literature search was performed by two independent reviewers using PubMed and EBSCOHost to access relevant databases and to locate outcome studies that used VFEs as an intervention. Articles that met inclusion criteria were appraised based on the American Speech-Language and Hearing Association's levels of evidence. Effect sizes for outcomes were calculated using Hedge's g. Voice outcomes were categorized according to the five domains of voice assessment: visual perceptual analysis, acoustic analysis, aerodynamic analysis, auditory-perceptual analysis, and patient self-report measures. Twenty-one articles were included for the final appraisal. All studies demonstrated positive effects of VFEs as demonstrated by effect sizes across selected voice parameters. Effect sizes across parameters ranged from -0.59 to 1.55. None of the included studies reported adverse voice outcomes as a result of VFEs. Outcome studies demonstrate that VFEs are efficacious in enhancing vocal function in individuals with normal and disordered voices, presbylaryngeus, and professional voice users. The available research suggests moderate to strong evidence to support the use of VFEs for a variety of voice disorders. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Exercise enhanced functional recovery and expression of GDNF after photochemically induced cerebral infarction in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohwatashi, Akihiko; Ikeda, Satoshi; Harada, Katsuhiro; Kamikawa, Yurie; Yoshida, Akira

    2013-01-01

    Exercise has been considered to affect the functional recovery from central nervous damage. Neurotrophic factors have various effects on brain damage. However, the effects of exercise for expression of GDNF on functional recovery with brain damage are not well known. We investigated the difference in functional recovery between non-exercise and beam-walking exercise groups, and the expression of GDNF in both groups after photochemical infarction. Adult male Wistar rats (N = 64) were used. Animals were divided into two groups: non-exercise (N = 35), and beam-walking exercise (N = 29). All rats underwent surgical photochemical infarction. The rats of the beam-walking group were trained every day to walk on a narrow beam after a one-day recovery period and those of the non-exercise group were left to follow a natural course. Animals were evaluated for hind limb function every day using a beam-walking task with an elevated narrow beam. The number of GDNF-like immunoreactive cells in the temporal cortex surrounding the lesion was counted 1, 3, 5, and 7 days after the infarction. Functional recovery of the beam-walking exercise group was significantly earlier than that of the non-exercise group. At 3 days after infarction, the number of GDNF-positive cells in the temporal cortex surrounding the infarction was significantly increased in the beam-walking exercise group compared with that in the non-exercise group. In the exercise group, motor function was remarkably recovered with the increased expression of GDNF-like immunoreactive cells. Our results suggested that a rehabilitative approach increased the expression of GDNF and facilitated functional recovery from cerebral infarction.

  3. Effects of new sports tennis type exercise on aerobic capacity, follicle stimulating hormone and N-terminal telopeptide in the postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Hyun-Jae; Lee, Ha-Yan; Cho, Hye-Young; Park, Yun-Jin; Moon, Hyung-Hoon; Lee, Sung-Hwan; Lee, Sung-Ki; Kim, Myung-Ki

    2014-04-01

    Menopause is characterized by rapid decreases in bone mineral density, aerobic fitness, muscle strength, and balance. In the present study, we investigated the effects of new sports tennis type exercise on aerobic capacity, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and N-terminal telopeptide (NTX) in the postmenopausal women. Subjects were consisted of 20 postmenopausal women, who had not menstruated for at least 1 yr and had follicle-stimulating hormone levels > 35 mIU/L, estradiol levelssports tennis type exercise group (n= 10). New sports tennis type exercise was consisted of warm up (10 min), new sports tennis type exercise (40 min), cool down (10 min) 3 days a per week for 12 weeks. The aerobic capacities were increased by 12 weeks new sports tennis type exercise. New sports tennis type exercise significantly increased FSH and NTx levels, indicating biochemical markers of bone formation and resorption. These findings indicate that 12 weeks of new sports tennis type exercise can be effective in prevention of bone loss and enhancement of aerobic capacity in postmenopausal women.

  4. Exercise training and artery function in humans: nonresponse and its relationship to cardiovascular risk factors.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Green, D.J.; Eijsvogels, T.M.; Bouts, Y.M.; Maiorana, A.J.; Naylor, L.H.; Scholten, R.R.; Spaanderman, M.E.; Pugh, C.J.; Sprung, V.S.; Schreuder, T.H.; Jones, H.; Cable, T.; Hopman, M.T.E.; Thijssen, D.H.J.

    2014-01-01

    The objectives of our study were to examine 1) the proportion of responders and nonresponders to exercise training in terms of vascular function; 2) a priori factors related to exercise training-induced changes in conduit artery function, and 3) the contribution of traditional cardiovascular risk

  5. Improved functional capacity evaluation performance predicts successful return to work one year after completing a functional restoration rehabilitation program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fore, Lisa; Perez, Yoheli; Neblett, Randy; Asih, Sali; Mayer, Tom G; Gatchel, Robert J

    2015-04-01

    To evaluate whether functional capacity evaluation (FCE) scores are responsive to functional restoration treatment, and to assess the ability of FCEs at program discharge to predict work outcomes. An interdisciplinary cohort study of prospectively collected data. A functional restoration center. A consecutive sample of 354 patients with chronic disabling occupational musculoskeletal disorders (CDOMDs) completed a functional restoration program consisting of quantitatively directed exercise progression and multi-modal disability management with interdisciplinary medical supervision. Each patient participated in an FCE at admission and discharge from treatment. The results of each FCE yielded the physical demand level (PDL) at which patients were functioning. Patients were initially divided into 5 PDL groups, based on job-of-injury lifting, carrying, and pushing/pulling requirements, for the pre- to posttreatment responsiveness analyses. Patients were subsequently divided into 5 PDL groups, based on their performance on the FCE upon program completion. Outcome measures included admission-to-discharge changes in PDLs and 2 specific FCE lifting tasks: isokinetic lifting; and the Progressive Isoinertial Lifting Evaluation (PILE). Socioeconomic outcomes were also evaluated, including post-discharge work return and work retention 1-year after treatment completion. Overall, 96% of the patients demonstrated improvement in their PDLs from admission to discharge. A majority of patients (56%) were able to achieve a discharge PDL that was comparable to their estimated job-of-injury lifting requirement or higher (P work return (P work retention (P work return after treatment completion and work retention 1 year later. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Does recombinant human Epo increase exercise capacity by means other than augmenting oxygen transport?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundby, C; Robach, P; Boushel, R

    2008-01-01

    This study was performed to test the hypothesis that administration of recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEpo) in humans increases maximal oxygen consumption by augmenting the maximal oxygen carrying capacity of blood. Systemic and leg oxygen delivery and oxygen uptake were studied during...... before rHuEpo treatment). Blood buffer capacity remained unaffected by rHuEpo treatment and hemodilution. The augmented hematocrit did not compromise peak cardiac output. In summary, in healthy humans, rHuEpo increases maximal oxygen consumption due to augmented systemic and muscular peak oxygen delivery....

  7. [Effects on salivation, xerostomia and halitosis in elders after oral function improvement exercises].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young Jin; Park, Kyung Min

    2012-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate effects of Oral Function Improvement Exercises on salivation, xerostomia and halitosis in elderly people. The participants in the study were 48 female community-dwelling elders in D city. The Oral Function Improvement Exercises were given 3 times a week, for a total of 24 times from August to October 2011. Spitting method, Visual Analogue Scale, and halimeter (mBA-21) were used to evaluate the effects of Oral Function Improvement Exercises on salivation, xerostomia, and halitosis. The data were analyzed using χ²-test and t-test with the SPSS program. The experimental group had significantly better salivation, and less xerostomia and halitosis than the control group. The results indicate that Oral Function Improvement Exercises were effective for salivation, xerostomia and halitosis in the elders. Therefore, it was suggested that Oral Function Improvement Exercise are applicable in a community nursing intervention program to improve the quality of life for elders.

  8. Changes in plasma volume and baroreflex function following resistance exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ploutz, L. L.; Tatro, D. L.; Dudley, G. A.; Convertino, V. A.

    1993-01-01

    The dynamics of change in plasma volume (PV) and baroreflex responses have been reported over 24 h immediately following maximal cycle exercise. The purpose of this study was to determine if PV and baroreflex showed similar changes for 24 h after resistance exercise. Eight men were studied on 2 test days, 1 week apart. On 1 day, per cent change (% delta) in PV was estimated at 0,3, and 6 h after resistance exercise using haematocrit and haemoglobin. Baseline PV was measured 24 h after exercise using Evans blue dye. The carotid baroreceptor-cardiac reflex response was measured before, and 3, 6, 9, 12, and 24 h post-exercise. Each subject performed six sets of the bench press and leg press with 10 repetitions per set with a load that induced failure within each set. On a control day, the protocol was used without exercise. Plasma volume did not change during the control day. There was a 20% decrease in PV immediately post-exercise; the recovery of the PV was rapid and complete within 3 h. PV was 20% greater 24 h post-exercise than on the control day. There were no differences in any of the baroreflex measurements. Therefore, it is suggested that PV shifts may occur without altering baroreflex sensitivity.

  9. An exploratory study of the effect of regular aquatic exercise on the function of neutrophils from women with fibromyalgia: role of IL-8 and noradrenaline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bote, M E; García, J J; Hinchado, M D; Ortega, E

    2014-07-01

    Fibromyalgia (FM) syndrome is associated with elevated systemic inflammatory and stress biomarkers, and an elevated innate cellular response mediated by monocytes and neutrophils. Exercise is accepted as a good non-pharmacological therapy for FM. We have previously found that regular aquatic exercise decreases the release of inflammatory cytokines by monocytes from FM patients. However, its effects on the functional capacity of neutrophils have not been studied. The aim of the present exploratory study was to evaluate, in 10 women diagnosed with FM, the effect of an aquatic exercise program (8months, 2sessions/week, 60min/session) on their neutrophils' function (phagocytic process), and on IL-8 and NA as potential inflammatory and stress mediators, respectively. A control group of 10 inactive FM patients was included in the study. After 4months of the exercise program, no significant changes were observed in neutrophil function (chemotaxis, phagocytosis, or fungicidal capacity) or in IL-8 and NA. However, at the end of the exercise program (8months), a neuro-immuno-endocrine adaptation was observed, manifested by a significant decrease to values below those in the basal state in neutrophil chemotaxis, IL-8, and NA. No significant seasonal changes in these parameters were observed during the same period in the group of non-exercised FM patients. After the 8months of the exercise program, the FM patients had lower concentrations of IL-8 and NA together with reduced chemotaxis of neutrophils compared with the values determined in the same month in the control group of non-exercised FM women. These results suggest that "anti-inflammatory" and "anti-stress" adaptations may be contributing to the symptomatic benefits that have been attributed to regular aquatic exercise in FM syndrome, as was corroborated in the present study by the scores on the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... decreased bone density with an increased risk of fracture, and shallow, inefficient breathing. An exercise program needs ... and-Soul (Feb. 2013 issue) (.pdf) Download Document Rehabilitation: Recommendations for Persons with MS (.pdf) Download Brochure ...

  11. No effects of functional exercise therapy on walking biomechanics in patients with knee osteoarthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Marius; Klokker, Louise; Bartholdy, Cecilie

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To assess the effects of a functional and individualised exercise programme on gait biomechanics during walking in people with knee OA. METHODS: Sixty participants were randomised to 12 weeks of facility-based functional and individualised neuromuscular exercise therapy (ET), 3 sessions per...... limited confidence in the findings due to multiple statistical tests and lack of biomechanical logics. Therefore we conclude that a 12-week supervised individualised neuromuscular exercise programme has no effects on gait biomechanics. Future studies should focus on exercise programmes specifically...

  12. Flavanol-rich cocoa consumption enhances exercise-induced executive function improvements in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukamoto, Hayato; Suga, Tadashi; Ishibashi, Aya; Takenaka, Saki; Tanaka, Daichi; Hirano, Yoshitaka; Hamaoka, Takafumi; Goto, Kazushige; Ebi, Kumiko; Isaka, Tadao; Hashimoto, Takeshi

    2018-02-01

    Aerobic exercise is known to acutely improve cognitive functions, such as executive function (EF) and memory function (MF). Additionally, consumption of flavanol-rich cocoa has been reported to acutely improve cognitive function. The aim of this study was to determine whether high cocoa flavanol (CF; HCF) consumption would enhance exercise-induced improvement in cognitive function. To test this hypothesis, we examined the combined effects of HCF consumption and moderate-intensity exercise on EF and MF during postexercise recovery. Ten healthy young men received either an HCF (563 mg of CF) or energy-matched low CF (LCF; 38 mg of CF) beverage 70 min before exercise in a single-blind counterbalanced manner. The men then performed moderate-intensity cycling exercise at 60% of peak oxygen uptake for 30 min. The participants performed a color-word Stroop task and face-name matching task to evaluate EF and MF, respectively, during six time periods throughout the experimental session. EF significantly improved immediately after exercise compared with before exercise in both conditions. However, EF was higher after HCF consumption than after LCF consumption during all time periods because HCF consumption improved EF before exercise. In contrast, HCF consumption and moderate-intensity exercise did not improve MF throughout the experiment. The present findings demonstrated that HCF consumption before moderate-intensity exercise could enhance exercise-induced improvement in EF, but not in MF. Therefore, we suggest that the combination of HCF consumption and aerobic exercise may be beneficial for improving EF. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Comparison Between Vocal Function Exercises and Voice Amplification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Letícia Caldas; Behlau, Mara

    2015-11-01

    To compare the effectiveness of vocal function exercises (VFEs) versus voice amplification (VA) after a 6-week therapy for teachers diagnosed with behavioral dysphonia. A total of 162 teachers with behavioral dysphonia were randomly allocated into two intervention groups and one control group (CG). Outcomes were assessed using auditory-perceptual evaluation of voice, laryngeal status assessment, self-ratings of the impact of dysphonia, and acoustic analysis. The VFE group showed effective changes across treatment outcome measures: overall severity of dysphonia relative to the CG, laryngeal evaluation, and self-perceived dysphonia. The VA group showed positive outcomes in some measures of self-rated dysphonia. The CG had poorer outcomes across self-assessment dimensions. The VFE method is effective in treating the behavioral dysphonia of teachers, can change the overall severity and the self-perception of the impact of dysphonia, and the laryngeal evaluation outcomes. The use of a voice amplifier is effective as a preventive measure because it results in an improved self-perception of dysphonia, especially in the work-related dimension. One case of dysphonia aggravation can be prevented in every three patients with behavioral dysphonia engaged in VFE, and one case in every five patients using VA. The lack of a therapeutic intervention worsens teachers' behavioral dysphonia in a period of 6 weeks. Copyright © 2015 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. EXERCISE IMPROVES SEXUAL FUNCTION IN WOMEN TAKING ANTIDEPRESSANTS: RESULTS FROM A RANDOMIZED CROSSOVER TRIAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz, Tierney Ahrold; Meston, Cindy May

    2014-01-01

    Background In laboratory studies, exercise immediately before sexual stimuli improved sexual arousal of women taking antidepressants [1]. We evaluated if exercise improves sexual desire, orgasm, and global sexual functioning in women experiencing antidepressant-induced sexual side effects. Methods Fifty-two women who were reporting antidepressant sexual side effects were followed for 3 weeks of sexual activity only. They were randomized to complete either three weeks of exercise immediately before sexual activity (3×/week) or 3 weeks of exercise separate from sexual activity (3×/week). At the end of the first exercise arm, participants crossed to the other. We measured sexual functioning, sexual satisfaction, depression, and physical health. Results Exercise immediately prior to sexual activity significantly improved sexual desire and, for women with sexual dysfunction at baseline, global sexual function. Scheduling regular sexual activity significantly improved orgasm function; exercise did not increase this benefit. Neither regular sexual activity nor exercise significantly changed sexual satisfaction. Conclusions Scheduling regular sexual activity and exercise may be an effective tool for the behavioral management of sexual side effects of antidepressants. PMID:24754044

  15. Impact of chronic kidney disease on quality of life, lung function, and functional capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Carolina Guimarães; Duarte, Maria do Carmo M B; Prado, Cecília Maciel; Albuquerque, Emídio Cavalcanti de; Andrade, Lívia B

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the impact of the chronic kidney disease (CKD) on quality of life, from the children's and their parents' perspective, respiratory muscle strength, lung function, and functional capacity in children and adolescents. Cross-sectional study of children with CKD aged 8 to 17 years. Those incapable of taking the tests were excluded. After an interview, quality of life by Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory) (PedsQL(TM)), muscular strength, pulmonary function tests, and the 6-minute walking test (6MWT) were applied. Student's t-test, ANOVA (difference in means), and Pearson's coefficient of correlation were used. The level of significance was set at 5%. Of the 40 patients, the mean distance walked at the 6MWT was 396 meters, and the mean final score at the quality of life test as perceived by the children and parents was 50.9 and 51, respectively. From the children's perspective, the transplanted patients had a higher quality of life score when compared to those undergoing hemodialysis (plife when compared to the sedentary children (plife score (plife and the functional capacity was observed in children with CKD, influenced by the type of treatment, gender, and sedentary life style. Copyright © 2014 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  16. Resistance Exercises for Health and Function - NoScript

    Science.gov (United States)

    Let’s get started… First & Foremost…. “Tie-it-up”! This stabilizes your core and provides a solid foundation for resistance exercises. This is a two step process: 1st – close the pelvic floor. For men… as though you are stopping the flow of urine, it is the same for ladies but more commonly referred to as Kegel exercises. 2nd – While doing the above, tighten the lower abs (like you are preparing to be punched in the stomach). Be sure to “Tie-it-up” before doing all exercises.

  17. Impact of chronic kidney disease on quality of life, lung function, and functional capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Guimarães Teixeira

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the impact of the chronic kidney disease (CKD on quality of life, from the children's and their parents' perspective, respiratory muscle strength, lung function, and functional capacity in children and adolescents. METHOD: Cross-sectional study of children with CKD aged 8 to 17 years. Those incapable of taking the tests were excluded. After an interview, quality of life by Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQLTM, muscular strength, pulmonary function tests, and the 6-minute walking test (6MWT were applied. Student's t-test, ANOVA (difference in means, and Pearson's coefficient of correlation were used. The level of significance was set at 5%. RESULTS: Of the 40 patients, the mean distance walked at the 6MWT was 396 meters, and the mean final score at the quality of life test as perceived by the children and parents was 50.9 and 51, respectively. From the children's perspective, the transplanted patients had a higher quality of life score when compared to those undergoing hemodialysis (p < 0.001; those who practiced physical activity had better quality of life when compared to the sedentary children (p < 0.001. From the children's and the parents' perspectives, the male gender had a higher quality of life score (p < 0.05. There was a positive correlation between the distance walked at the 6MWT and age, height, final PedsQLTM, forced vital capacity (FVC, and forced expiratory volume in the first second (FEV1, as well as a negative correlation between FEV1/FVC and the distance walked. CONCLUSION: A significant reduction in the quality of life and the functional capacity was observed in children with CKD, influenced by the type of treatment, gender, and sedentary life style.

  18. The Effects of Core Stabilization Exercise on Dynamic Balance and Gait Function in Stroke Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Chung, Eun-Jung; Kim, Jung-Hee; Lee, Byoung-Hee

    2013-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of core stabilization exercise on dynamic balance and gait function in stroke patients. [Subjects] The subjects were 16 stroke patients, who were randomly divided into two groups: a core stabilization exercise group of eight subjects and control group of eight subjects. [Methods] Subjects in both groups received general training five times per week. Subjects in the core stabilization exercise group practiced an additional core s...

  19. Exercise Improves Immune Function, Antidepressive Response, and Sleep Quality in Patients with Chronic Primary Insomnia

    OpenAIRE

    Passos, Giselle Soares; Poyares, Dalva; Santana, Marcos Gonçalves; Teixeira, Alexandre Abílio de Souza; Lira, Fábio Santos; Youngstedt, Shawn D.; dos Santos, Ronaldo Vagner Thomatieli; Tufik, Sergio; de Mello, Marco Túlio

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of moderate aerobic exercise training on sleep, depression, cortisol, and markers of immune function in patients with chronic primary insomnia. Twenty-one sedentary participants (16 women aged 44.7 +/- 9 years) with chronic primary insomnia completed a 4-month intervention of moderate aerobic exercise. Compared with baseline, polysomnographic data showed improvements following exercise training. Also observed were reductions in depression symp...

  20. High-intensity exercise training increases the diversity and metabolic capacity of the mouse distal gut microbiota during diet-induced obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denou, Emmanuel; Marcinko, Katarina; Surette, Michael G; Steinberg, Gregory R; Schertzer, Jonathan D

    2016-06-01

    Diet and exercise underpin the risk of obesity-related metabolic disease. Diet alters the gut microbiota, which contributes to aspects of metabolic disease during obesity. Repeated exercise provides metabolic benefits during obesity. We assessed whether exercise could oppose changes in the taxonomic and predicted metagenomic characteristics of the gut microbiota during diet-induced obesity. We hypothesized that high-intensity interval training (HIIT) would counteract high-fat diet (HFD)-induced changes in the microbiota without altering obesity in mice. Compared with chow-fed mice, an obesity-causing HFD decreased the Bacteroidetes-to-Firmicutes ratio and decreased the genetic capacity in the fecal microbiota for metabolic pathways such as the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle. After HFD-induced obesity was established, a subset of mice were HIIT for 6 wk, which increased host aerobic capacity but did not alter body or adipose tissue mass. The effects of exercise training on the microbiota were gut segment dependent and more extensive in the distal gut. HIIT increased the alpha diversity and Bacteroidetes/Firmicutes ratio of the distal gut and fecal microbiota during diet-induced obesity. Exercise training increased the predicted genetic capacity related to the TCA cycle among other aspects of metabolism. Strikingly, the same microbial metabolism indexes that were increased by exercise were all decreased in HFD-fed vs. chow diet-fed mice. Therefore, exercise training directly opposed some of the obesity-related changes in gut microbiota, including lower metagenomic indexes of metabolism. Some host and microbial pathways appeared similarly affected by exercise. These exercise- and diet-induced microbiota interactions can be captured in feces. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  1. Acute effects of combined exercise and oscillatory positive expiratory pressure therapy on sputum properties and lung diffusing capacity in cystic fibrosis: a randomized, controlled, crossover trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radtke, Thomas; Böni, Lukas; Bohnacker, Peter; Maggi-Beba, Marion; Fischer, Peter; Kriemler, Susi; Benden, Christian; Dressel, Holger

    2018-06-14

    Regular airway clearance by chest physiotherapy and/or exercise is critical to lung health in cystic fibrosis (CF). Combination of cycling exercise and chest physiotherapy using the Flutter® device on sputum properties has not yet been investigated. This prospective, randomized crossover study compared a single bout of continuous cycling exercise at moderate intensity (experiment A, control condition) vs a combination of interval cycling exercise plus Flutter® (experiment B). Sputum properties (viscoelasticity, yield stress, solids content, spinnability, and ease of sputum expectoration), pulmonary diffusing capacity for nitric oxide (DLNO) and carbon monoxide (DLCO) were assessed at rest, directly and 45 min post-exercise (recovery) at 2 consecutive visits. Primary outcome was change in sputum viscoelasticity (G', storage modulus; G", loss modulus) over a broad frequency range (0.1-100 rad.s - 1 ). 15 adults with CF (FEV 1 range 24-94% predicted) completed all experiments. No consistent differences between experiments were observed for G' and G" and other sputum properties, except for ease of sputum expectoration during recovery favoring experiment A. DLNO, DLCO, alveolar volume (V A ) and pulmonary capillary blood volume (V cap ) increased during experiment A, while DLCO and V cap increased during experiment B (all P < 0.05). We found no differences in absolute changes in pulmonary diffusing capacity and its components between experiments, except a higher V A immediately post-exercise favoring experiment A (P = 0.032). The additional use of the Flutter® to moderate intensity interval cycling exercise has no measurable effect on the viscoelastic properties of sputum compared to moderate intensity continuous cycling alone. Elevations in diffusing capacity represent an acute exercise-induced effect not sustained post-exercise. ClinicalTrials.gov; No.: NCT02750722 ; URL: clinical.trials.gov; Registration date: April 25th, 2016.

  2. Effects of Running Shoes with Abrasion Resistant Rubber Sole on the Exercise Capacity of the Human Body

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Wang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available With the development of industrialization, rubber has been gradually used in the manufacture of sports equipment for its favourable properties. This study involved the addition of C5 petroleum resin into brominated isobutylene-isoprene rubber (BIIR and butadiene rubber (BR while manufacturing the sole of running shoes. The effects of running shoes with abrasion resistant rubber sole on the exercise capacity of the human body were investigated by analysing the skid resistance and abrasion resistance of the running shoes, and conducting biomechanical study on naked feet and feet wearing the shoes. The results demonstrated that the rubber sole had favourable slip resistance property and mechanical properties such as stretching, abrasion resistance, and hardness. Compared to naked feet, the peak pressure intensity of the whole step of feet wearing the newly developed shoes, was significantly lower than that of feet wearing ordinary shoes. In the future, rubber can bring more comfortable experience because of its favourable properties.

  3. EFFECT OF DANCE EXERCISE ON COGNITIVE FUNCTION IN ELDERLY PATIENTS WITH METABOLIC SYNDROME: A PILOT STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang-Wook Song

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic syndrome is associated with an increased risk of cognitive impairment. The purpose of this prospective pilot study was to examine the effects of dance exercise on cognitive function in elderly patients with metabolic syndrome. The participants included 38 elderly metabolic syndrome patients with normal cognitive function (26 exercise group and 12 control group. The exercise group performed dance exercise twice a week for 6 months. Cognitive function was assessed in all participants using the Korean version of the Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's disease (CERAD-K. Repeated-measures ANCOVA was used to assess the effect of dance exercise on cognitive function and cardiometabolic risk factors. Compared with the control group, the exercise group significantly improved in verbal fluency (p = 0.048, word list delayed recall (p = 0.038, word list recognition (p = 0.007, and total CERAD-K score (p = 0.037. However, no significance difference was found in body mass index, blood pressure, waist circumference, fasting plasma glucose, triglyceride, and HDL cholesterol between groups over the 6-month period. In the present study, six months of dance exercise improved cognitive function in older adults with metabolic syndrome. Thus, dance exercise may reduce the risk for cognitive disorders in elderly people with metabolic syndrome.

  4. Zinc Is Indispensable in Exercise-Induced Cardioprotection against Intermittent Hypoxia-Induced Left Ventricular Function Impairment in Rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsung-I Chen

    Full Text Available In obstructive sleep apnea (OSA, recurrent obstruction of the upper airway leads to intermittent hypoxia (IH during sleep, which can result in impairment of cardiac function. Although exercise can have beneficial effects against IH-induced cardiac dysfunction, the mechanism remains unclear. This study aimed to investigate the interactions of zinc and exercise on IH-triggered left ventricular dysfunction in a rat model that mimics IH in OSA patients. Nine-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to either a control group (CON or to a group receiving 10 weeks of exercise training (EXE. During weeks 9 and 10, half the rats in each group were subjected to IH for 8 h per day for 14 days (IHCON, IHEXE, whereas the remainder continued to breathe room air. Rats within each of the CON, IHCON, EXE, and IHEXE groups were further randomly assigned to receive intraperitoneal injections of either zinc chloride, the zinc chelator N,N,N',N'-tetrakis(2-pyridylmethyl ethylenediamine (TPEN, or injection vehicle only. IH induced a lower left ventricular fractional shortening, reduced ejection fraction, higher myocardial levels of inflammatory factors, increased levels oxidative stress, and lower levels of antioxidative capacity, all of which were abolished by zinc treatment. IHEXE rats exhibited higher levels of cardiac function and antioxidant capacity and lower levels of inflammatory factors and oxidative stress than IHCON rats; however, IHEXE rats receiving TPEN did not exhibit these better outcomes. In conclusion, zinc is required for protecting against IH-induced LV functional impairment and likely plays a critical role in exercise-induced cardioprotection by exerting a dual antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effect.

  5. Zinc Is Indispensable in Exercise-Induced Cardioprotection against Intermittent Hypoxia-Induced Left Ventricular Function Impairment in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Michael Yu-Chih

    2016-01-01

    In obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), recurrent obstruction of the upper airway leads to intermittent hypoxia (IH) during sleep, which can result in impairment of cardiac function. Although exercise can have beneficial effects against IH-induced cardiac dysfunction, the mechanism remains unclear. This study aimed to investigate the interactions of zinc and exercise on IH-triggered left ventricular dysfunction in a rat model that mimics IH in OSA patients. Nine-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to either a control group (CON) or to a group receiving 10 weeks of exercise training (EXE). During weeks 9 and 10, half the rats in each group were subjected to IH for 8 h per day for 14 days (IHCON, IHEXE), whereas the remainder continued to breathe room air. Rats within each of the CON, IHCON, EXE, and IHEXE groups were further randomly assigned to receive intraperitoneal injections of either zinc chloride, the zinc chelator N,N,N',N'-tetrakis(2-pyridylmethyl) ethylenediamine (TPEN), or injection vehicle only. IH induced a lower left ventricular fractional shortening, reduced ejection fraction, higher myocardial levels of inflammatory factors, increased levels oxidative stress, and lower levels of antioxidative capacity, all of which were abolished by zinc treatment. IHEXE rats exhibited higher levels of cardiac function and antioxidant capacity and lower levels of inflammatory factors and oxidative stress than IHCON rats; however, IHEXE rats receiving TPEN did not exhibit these better outcomes. In conclusion, zinc is required for protecting against IH-induced LV functional impairment and likely plays a critical role in exercise-induced cardioprotection by exerting a dual antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effect. PMID:27977796

  6. Systemic oxidative-nitrosative-inflammatory stress during acute exercise in hypoxia; implications for microvascular oxygenation and aerobic capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodside, John D S; Gutowski, Mariusz; Fall, Lewis; James, Philip E; McEneny, Jane; Young, Ian S; Ogoh, Shigehiko; Bailey, Damian M

    2014-12-01

    Exercise performance in hypoxia may be limited by a critical reduction in cerebral and skeletal tissue oxygenation, although the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. We examined whether increased systemic free radical accumulation during hypoxia would be associated with elevated microvascular deoxygenation and reduced maximal aerobic capacity (V̇O2 max ). Eleven healthy men were randomly assigned single-blind to an incremental semi-recumbent cycling test to determine V̇O2 max in both normoxia (21% O2) and hypoxia (12% O2) separated by a week. Continuous-wave near-infrared spectroscopy was employed to monitor concentration changes in oxy- and deoxyhaemoglobin in the left vastus lateralis muscle and frontal cerebral cortex. Antecubital venous blood samples were obtained at rest and at V̇O2 max to determine oxidative (ascorbate radical by electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy), nitrosative (nitric oxide metabolites by ozone-based chemiluminescence and 3-nitrotyrosine by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) and inflammatory stress biomarkers (soluble intercellular/vascular cell adhesion 1 molecules by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay). Hypoxia was associated with increased cerebral and muscle tissue deoxygenation and lower V̇O2 max (P exercise-induced increase in oxidative-nitrosative-inflammatory stress, hypoxia per se did not have an additive effect (P > 0.05 versus normoxia). Consequently, we failed to observe correlations between any metabolic, haemodynamic and cardiorespiratory parameters (P > 0.05). Collectively, these findings suggest that altered free radical metabolism cannot explain the elevated microvascular deoxygenation and corresponding lower V̇O2 max in hypoxia. Further research is required to determine whether free radicals when present in excess do indeed contribute to the premature termination of exercise in hypoxia. © 2014 The Authors. Experimental Physiology © 2014 The Physiological Society.

  7. Effectiveness of a programme of exercise on physical function in survivors of critical illness following discharge from the ICU: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial (REVIVE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Brenda; McDowell, Kathryn; Bradley, Judy; Blackwood, Bronagh; Mullan, Brian; Lavery, Gavin; Agus, Ashley; Murphy, Sally; Gardner, Evie; McAuley, Daniel F

    2014-04-27

    Following discharge home from the ICU, patients often suffer from reduced physical function, exercise capacity, health-related quality of life and social functioning. There is usually no support to address these longer term problems, and there has been limited research carried out into interventions which could improve patient outcomes. The aim of this study is to investigate the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a 6-week programme of exercise on physical function in patients discharged from hospital following critical illness compared to standard care. The study design is a multicentre prospective phase II, allocation-concealed, assessor-blinded, randomised controlled clinical trial. Participants randomised to the intervention group will complete three exercise sessions per week (two sessions of supervised exercise and one unsupervised session) for 6 weeks. Supervised sessions will take place in a hospital gymnasium or, if this is not possible, in the participants home and the unsupervised session will take place at home. Blinded outcome assessment will be conducted at baseline after hospital discharge, following the exercise intervention, and at 6 months following baseline assessment (or equivalent time points for the standard care group). The primary outcome measure is physical function as measured by the physical functioning subscale of the Short-Form-36 health survey following the exercise programme. Secondary outcomes are health-related quality of life, exercise capacity, anxiety and depression, self efficacy to exercise and healthcare resource use. In addition, semi-structured interviews will be conducted to explore participants' perceptions of the exercise programme, and the feasibility (safety, practicality and acceptability) of providing the exercise programme will be assessed. A within-trial cost-utility analysis to assess the cost-effectiveness of the intervention compared to standard care will also be conducted. If the exercise programme is

  8. Normal mitochondrial function and increased fat oxidation capacity in leg and arm muscles in obese humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ara, I; Larsen, S; Stallknecht, Bente Merete

    2011-01-01

    was that fat oxidation during exercise might be differentially preserved in leg and arm muscles after weight loss.Methods:Indirect calorimetry was used to calculate fat and carbohydrate oxidation during both progressive arm-cranking and leg-cycling exercises. Muscle biopsy samples were obtained from musculus...... deltoideus (m. deltoideus) and m. vastus lateralis muscles. Fibre-type composition, enzyme activity and O(2) flux capacity of saponin-permeabilized muscle fibres were measured, the latter by high-resolution respirometry.Results:During the graded exercise tests, peak fat oxidation during leg cycling...... and the relative workload at which it occurred (FatMax) were higher in PO and O than in C. During arm cranking, peak fat oxidation was higher in O than in C, and FatMax was higher in O than in PO and C. Similar fibre-type composition was found between groups. Plasma adiponectin was higher in PO than in C and O...

  9. The 1-min sit-to-stand test--A simple functional capacity test in cystic fibrosis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radtke, Thomas; Puhan, Milo A; Hebestreit, Helge; Kriemler, Susi

    2016-03-01

    We aimed to assess the measurement properties and the minimal important difference (MID) of the 1-min sit-to-stand (STS) test in cystic fibrosis (CF). Patients with CF were tested during a pulmonary rehabilitation program. Five STS tests were performed during the program; two tests at the beginning (STS0 and STS1) and three tests at the end (STS2a-2c). Exercise capacity, pulmonary function, and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and patient-reported health status were measured at the beginning and end of the program. We calculated overall mean, standard deviation, coefficient of variation (CV), and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) of the STS test. The MID was calculated using anchor-based and distributional methods. Fourteen participants (8 female, mean age 30.4±6.1years) were included. STS test performance increased significantly from STS0 to STS1 indicative of a learning effect. Test-retest reliability for the subsequent STS2a-2c tests was excellent (ICC 0.98, 95% CI 0.96-0.99). The estimated MID for the STS test was 5 repetitions. STS test performance was responsive to change (effect size of 0.97) and correlated with exercise capacity (r=0.63-0.73) and with the physical functioning HRQoL scale (r=0.72). The 1-min STS test appears to be a reliable, valid, and feasible test to measure functional capacity in patients with CF. Copyright © 2015 European Cystic Fibrosis Society. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Moderate-Load Muscular Endurance Strength Training Did Not Improve Peak Power or Functional Capacity in Older Men and Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Walker

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study determined the effects of muscular endurance strength training on maximum strength and power, functional capacity, muscle activation and hypertrophy in older men and women. Eighty-one men and women acted as an intervention group while 22 acted as non-training controls (age range 64–75 y. Intervention training included super-sets (i.e., paired exercises, immediately performing the second exercises following completion of the first with short rest intervals (30–60 s between sets at an intensity of 50–60% one-repetition maximum (1-RM for 15–20 repetitions. Concentric leg press actions measured maximum strength (1-RM and concentric peak power. Functional capacity was assessed by maximum speed walking tests (i.e., forward walk, backward walk, timed-up-and-go, and stair climb tests. Quadriceps muscle activation was assessed by surface electromyogram and twitch interpolation technique. Vastus lateralis cross-sectional area was measured by panoramic ultrasound. Compared to control, the intervention groups increased maximum strength (1-RM; men: 10 ± 7% vs. 2 ± 3%, women: 14 ± 9% vs. 1 ± 6% both P < 0.01 and vastus lateralis cross-sectional area (men: 6 ± 7% vs. −3 ± 6%, women: 10 ± 10% vs. 0 ± 4% both P < 0.05. But there were no between-group differences in peak power, muscle activation or functional capacity (e.g., stair climb; men: −5 ± 7% vs. −4 ± 3%, women: −5 ± 6% vs. −2 ± 5% both P > 0.05. While benefits occurred during muscular endurance strength training, specific stimuli are probably needed to target all aspects of age-related health.

  11. Effect of floorball training on blood lipids, body composition, muscle strength, and functional capacity of elderly men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorup, J; Pedersen, M T; Melcher, P S; Dreier, R; Bangsbo, J

    2017-11-01

    Floorball training consists of intense repeated exercise and may offer a motivating and social stimulating team activity in elderly individuals. However, the effect of floorball training in elderly adults on physiological adaptations important for health is not known. Thus, this study examined the effect of floorball training on blood lipids, muscle strength, body composition, and functional capacity of men aged 65-76 years. Thirty-nine recreational active men were randomized into a floorball group (FG; n = 22) or petanque group (PG; n = 17), in which training was performed 1 h twice a week for 12 weeks. In FG and PG, average heart rate (HR) during training was 80% and 57%, respectively, of maximal HR. In FG, plasma low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and triglycerides were 11% and 8% lower (P functional capacity tests were better (P training period. No changes were observed in PG. In conclusion, 12 weeks of floorball training resulted in a number of favorable effects important for health and functional capacity, suggesting that floorball training can be used as a health-promoting activity in elderly men. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Effects of eccentric-focused and conventional resistance training on strength and functional capacity of older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Caroline Pieta; Toscan, Rafael; de Camargo, Mainara; Pereira, Evelyn Possobom; Griebler, Nathália; Baroni, Bruno Manfredini; Tiggemann, Carlos Leandro

    2015-10-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the effect of eccentric training using a constant load with longer exposure time at the eccentric phase on knee extensor muscle strength and functional capacity of elderly subjects in comparison with a conventional resistance training program. Twenty-six healthy elderly women (age = 67 ± 6 years) were randomly assigned to an eccentric-focused training group (ETG; n = 13) or a conventional training group (CTG; n = 13). Subjects underwent 12 weeks of resistance training twice a week. For the ETG, concentric and eccentric phases were performed using 1.5 and 4.5 s, respectively, while for CTG, each phase lasted 1.5 s. Maximum dynamic strength was assessed by the one-repetition maximum (1RM) test in the leg press and knee extension exercises, and for functional capacity, subjects performed specific tests (6-m walk test, timed up-and-go test, stair-climbing test, and chair-rising test). Both groups improved knee extension 1RM (24-26 %; p = 0.021), timed up-and-go test (11-16 %; p training volume and intensity does not promote different adaptations in strength or functional capacity compared to conventional resistance training in elderly woman.

  13. Impact of neuromuscular electrical stimulation on functional capacity of patients with chronic kidney disease on hemodialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roxo, Renata Spósito; Xavier, Vivian Bertoni; Miorin, Luiz Antônio; Magalhães, Andrea Olivares; Sens, Yvoty Alves Dos Santos; Alves, Vera Lúcia Dos Santos

    2016-01-01

    Literature shows that patients undergoing hemodialysis present poor physical conditioning and low tolerance to exercise. They may also suffer from respiratory dysfunctions. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of neuromuscular electrical stimulation on pulmonary function and functional capacity of patients with chronic kidney disease on hemodialysis. Forty adult patients with chronic kidney disease on hemodialysis were prospectively studied and randomized into two groups (control n = 20 and treatment n = 20). The treatment group underwent bilateral femoral quadriceps muscles electrical stimulation for 30 minutes during hemodialysis, three times per week, for two months. The patients were evaluated by pulmonary function test, maximum respiratory pressures, maximum one-repetition test, and six-minute walk test (6MWT), before and after the treatment protocol. The treatment group presented increased maximum inspiratory (MIP) (p = 0.02) and expiratory pressures (MEP) (p grupos (controle n = 20 e tratamento n = 20). O grupo tratamento realizou protocolo com estimulação elétrica neuromuscular em quadríceps femoral por 30 minutos durante a hemodiálise, três vezes por semana, durante dois meses. Todos pacientes realizaram espirometria, pressões respiratórias máximas, teste de uma repetição máxima e teste da caminhada dos seis minutos (TC6), antes e após o período de acompanhamento. O grupo tratamento apresentou aumento da pressão inspiratória máxima com p = 0,02 na comparação entre grupos e p grupo de tratamento com p grupo controle. A estimulação elétrica neuromuscular teve impacto positivo sobre a função pulmonar e a capacidade funcional levando ao melhor desempenho físico em pacientes em hemodiálise.

  14. Influence of Sequential vs. Simultaneous Dual-Task Exercise Training on Cognitive Function in Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tait, Jamie L; Duckham, Rachel L; Milte, Catherine M; Main, Luana C; Daly, Robin M

    2017-01-01

    Emerging research indicates that exercise combined with cognitive training may improve cognitive function in older adults. Typically these programs have incorporated sequential training, where exercise and cognitive training are undertaken separately. However, simultaneous or dual-task training, where cognitive and/or motor training are performed simultaneously with exercise, may offer greater benefits. This review summary provides an overview of the effects of combined simultaneous vs. sequential training on cognitive function in older adults. Based on the available evidence, there are inconsistent findings with regard to the cognitive benefits of sequential training in comparison to cognitive or exercise training alone. In contrast, simultaneous training interventions, particularly multimodal exercise programs in combination with secondary tasks regulated by sensory cues, have significantly improved cognition in both healthy older and clinical populations. However, further research is needed to determine the optimal characteristics of a successful simultaneous training program for optimizing cognitive function in older people.

  15. Intradialytic Cognitive and Exercise Training May Preserve Cognitive Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAdams-DeMarco, Mara A; Konel, Jonathan; Warsame, Fatima; Ying, Hao; Fernández, Marlís González; Carlson, Michelle C; Fine, Derek M; Appel, Lawrence J; Segev, Dorry L

    2018-01-01

    Cognitive decline is common and increases mortality risk in hemodialysis patients. Intradialytic interventions like cognitive training (CT) and exercise training (ET) may preserve cognitive function. We conducted a pilot randomized controlled trial of 20 hemodialysis patients to study the impact of 3 months of intradialytic CT (tablet-based brain games) (n = 7), ET (foot peddlers) (n = 6), or standard of care (SC) (n = 7) on cognitive function. Global cognitive function was measured by the Modified Mini Mental Status Exam (3MS), psychomotor speed was measured by Trail Making Tests A and B (TMTA and TMTB), and executive function was assessed by subtracting (TMTB - TMTA). Lower 3MS scores and slower TMTA and TMTB times reflected worse cognitive function. P values for differences were generated using analysis of variance, and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) and P values were generated from linear regression. Patients with SC experienced a decrease in psychomotor speed and executive function by 3 months (TMTA: 15 seconds; P  = 0.055; TMTB: 47.4 seconds; P  = 0.006; TMTB - TMTA; 31.7 seconds; P  = 0.052); this decline was not seen among those with CT or ET (all P > 0.05). Compared with SC, the difference in the mean change in 3MS score was -3.29 points (95% CI: -11.70 to 5.12; P  = 0.42) for CT and 4.48 points (95% CI: -4.27 to 13.22; P  = 0.30) for ET. Compared with SC, the difference in mean change for TMTA was -15.13 seconds (95% CI: -37.64 to 7.39; P  = 0.17) for CT and -17.48 seconds (95% CI: -41.18 to 6.22; P  = 0.14) for ET, for TMTB, the difference was -46.72 seconds (95% CI: -91.12 to -2.31; P  = 0.04) for CT and -56.21 seconds (95% CI: -105.86 to -6.56; P  = 0.03) for ET, and for TMTB - TMTA, the difference was -30.88 seconds (95% CI: -76.05 to 14.28; P  = 0.16) for CT and -34.93 seconds (95% CI: -85.43 to 15.56; P  = 0.16) for ET. Preliminary findings of our pilot study suggested that cognitive decline in psychomotor speed

  16. AMPK controls exercise endurance, mitochondrial oxidative capacity, and skeletal muscle integrity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lantier, Louise; Fentz, Joachim; Mounier, Rémi

    2014-01-01

    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a sensor of cellular energy status that plays a central role in skeletal muscle metabolism. We used skeletal muscle-specific AMPKα1α2 double-knockout (mdKO) mice to provide direct genetic evidence of the physiological importance of AMPK in regulating muscle...... diminished maximal ADP-stimulated mitochondrial respiration, showing an impairment at complex I. This effect was not accompanied by changes in mitochondrial number, indicating that AMPK regulates muscle metabolic adaptation through the regulation of muscle mitochondrial oxidative capacity and mitochondrial...

  17. Can cardiac rehabilitation programs improve functional capacity and left ventricular diastolic function in patients with mechanical reperfusion after ST elevation myocardial infarction?: A double-blind clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allahyar Golabchi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Current guidelines recommend cardiac rehabilitation programs (CRP as a means to improve functional status of patients after coronary revascularization. However, research supporting this recommendation has been limited and positive effects of CRP on diastolic function are controversial. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of an 8-week CRP on left ventricular diastolic function.    METHODS: This randomized, clinical trial included 29 men with ST elevation myocardial infarction (MI who had received reperfusion therapy, i.e. coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG or percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI. They were randomized to a training group (n = 15; mean age: 54.2 ± 9.04 years old and a control group (n = 14; mean age: 51.71 ± 6.98 years old. Patients in the training group performed an 8-week CRP with an intensity of 60-85% of maximum heart rate. Exercise sessions lasted 60-90 minutes and were held three times a week. At the start and end of the study, all patients performed symptom-limited exercise test based on Naughton treadmill protocol. Pulsed-wave Doppler echocardiography was also used to determine peak velocity of early (E and late (A waves, E/A ratios, and the deceleration time of E (DT.    RESULTS: Left ventricular diastolic indices (E, A, E/A ratio, DT did not change significantly after the CRP. Compared to baseline, patients in the training group had significant improvements in functional capacity (8.30 ± 1.30 vs. 9.7 ± 1.7 and maximum heart rate (118.50 ± 24.48 vs. 126.85 ± 22.75. Moreover, resting heart rate of the training group was significantly better than the control group at the end of the study (75.36 ± 7.94 vs. 79.80 ± 7.67; P < 0.001.    CONCLUSION: An 8-week CRP in post-MI patients revascularized with PCI or CABG led to improved exercise capacity. However, the CRP failed to enhance diastolic function.      Keywords: Cardiac Rehabilitation, Diastolic Function, Functional Capacity

  18. Effects of cigarette smoking on cardiac autonomic function during dynamic exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendonca, Goncalo V; Pereira, Fernando D; Fernhall, Bo

    2011-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the acute effect of cigarette smoking on cardiac autonomic function in young adult smokers during dynamic exercise. Fourteen healthy young smokers (21.4 ± 3.4 years) performed peak and submaximal exercise protocols under control and smoking conditions. Resting and submaximal beat-to-beat R-R series were recorded and spectrally decomposed using the fast Fourier transformation. Smoking resulted in a significant decrease in work time, VO(2peak) and peak O(2) pulse (P exercise after smoking (P smoking, both at rest and during exercise (P smoking (P smoking, but only at rest (P smoking is accompanied by acute changes in heart rate spectral components both at rest and during exercise. Therefore, the cardiac autonomic control is altered by smoking not only at rest, but also during exercise, resulting in reduced vagal modulation and increased sympathetic dominance.

  19. Improvement of exercise ventricular function in patients of coronary artery bypass surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawasuji, Michio; Sawa, Shigeharu; Tedoriya, Takeo; Iwa, Takashi; Taki, Jun-ichi; Bunkou, Hisashi

    1989-01-01

    Thirty-five patients underwent exercise blood pool scintigraphy before and 4 weeks after coronary artery bypass graft (CABG). Left ventricular ejection fraction (EF), peak ejection rate (PER), peak filling rate (PFR), and one third peak filling rate (1/3 FR) were calculated. Exercise-induced EF was significantly higher after than before CABG (+2.4±6.1% vs -3.9±7.3%). Irrespective of exercise, preoperative PER was unchanged. Postoperative exercise significantly increased PER from 2.88±0.71 sec -1 to 3.85±0.85 sec -1 (p<0.01). Exercise also significantly increased PFR after GABG when compared with that before GABF. 1/3FR did not differ before and after CABG. Exercise blood pool scintigraphy was useful in evaluating ventricular function before and after CABG. (Namekawa, K)

  20. Exercise training improves selected aspects of daytime functioning in adults with obstructive sleep apnea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kline, Christopher E; Ewing, Gary B; Burch, James B; Blair, Steven N; Durstine, J Larry; Davis, J Mark; Youngstedt, Shawn D

    2012-08-15

    To explore the utility of exercise training for improving daytime functioning in adults with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Forty-three sedentary and overweight/obese adults aged 18-55 years with at least moderate-severity untreated OSA (apnea-hypopnea index ≥ 15) were randomized to 12 weeks of moderate-intensity aerobic and resistance exercise training (n = 27) or low-intensity stretching control treatment (n = 16). As part of a trial investigating the efficacy of exercise training on OSA severity, daytime functioning was assessed before and following the intervention. Sleepiness, functional impairment due to sleepiness, depressive symptoms, mood, and quality of life (QOL) were evaluated with validated questionnaires, and cognitive function was assessed with a neurobehavioral performance battery. OSA severity was measured with one night of laboratory polysomnography before and following the intervention. Compared with stretching control, exercise training resulted in significant improvements in depressive symptoms, fatigue and vigor, and aspects of QOL (p improved following exercise versus control to a similar degree in terms of effect sizes (d > 0.5), though these changes were not statistically significant. No neurobehavioral performance improvements were found. Reduced fatigue following exercise training was mediated by a reduction in OSA severity, but changes in OSA severity did not significantly mediate improvement in any other measure of daytime functioning. These data provide preliminary evidence that exercise training may be helpful for improving aspects of daytime functioning of adults with OSA. Larger trials are needed to further verify the observed improvements.

  1. Exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Idorn, Manja; thor Straten, Eivind Per

    2016-01-01

    We recently demonstrated that voluntary exercise leads to an influx of immune cells in tumors and a greater than 60% reduction in tumor incidence and growth across several mouse models. Improved immunological control of tumor progression may have important clinical implications in the prevention...

  2. Effects of high altitude training on exercise capacity: fact or myth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Paula, Paula; Niebauer, Josef

    2012-03-01

    High altitude training has become a mainstay in endurance sports, with live high-train low as the current protocol of choice. Athletes either live or sleep in artificial or natural hypoxic conditions with the aim to increase serum erythropoietin concentrations, which are thought to improve maximum oxygen uptake and thus exercise performance. Changes, however, are not very striking and only apparent in so-called responders, who are not a well-defined group and may be as little as 50% of the trained study population. Whereas some studies show minor improvement, others report no change or even worsening. Furthermore, the mechanisms behind the proposed beneficial changes remain obscure and are far from being proven. There is an evident lack of sufficiently powered randomized, double-blinded studies, with training protocols that are identical for all groups and groups that are indeed comparable. Several studies discriminate between responders and non-responders, without clearly assessing the characteristics of the so-called responders. Until this has been done, it remains unclear if such a group really exists and how these subjects are characterized. This, however, would be of immense value, so protocols could be tailored to athletes' needs. Taken together, the current literature on natural or artificial hypoxia somewhat documents improved performance at high but not low altitude.

  3. Effects of Combined Training with Breathing Resistance and Sustained Physical Exertion to Improve Endurance Capacity and Respiratory Muscle Function in Healthy Young Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Kido, Satoshi; Nakajima, Yasuhiro; Miyasaka, Tomoya; Maeda, Yusuke; Tanaka, Toshiaki; Yu, Wenwei; Maruoka, Hiroshi; Takayanagi, Kiyomi

    2013-01-01

    [Purpose] In this study, combined training with breathing resistance and sustained physical exertion was carried out to evaluate its physiological effects and its effect on improve endurance capacity. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were nine healthy adults (mean age 20.4, SD ? 1.7?years). The combined training group (n = 5) carried out 6 weeks of combined training using a cycle ergometer, with exercise load tests and respiratory function tests performed before and after the training. The...

  4. Elevated pulmonary arterial and systemic plasma aldosterone levels associate with impaired cardiac reserve capacity during exercise in left ventricular systolic heart failure patients: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maron, Bradley A; Stephens, Thomas E; Farrell, Laurie A; Oldham, William M; Loscalzo, Joseph; Leopold, Jane A; Lewis, Gregory D

    2016-03-01

    Elevated levels of aldosterone are a modifiable contributor to clinical worsening in heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF). Endothelin-1 (ET-1), which is increased in HFrEF, induces pulmonary endothelial aldosterone synthesis in vitro. However, whether transpulmonary aldosterone release occurs in humans or aldosterone relates to functional capacity in HFrEF is not known. Therefore, we aimed to characterize ET-1 and transpulmonary aldosterone levels in HFrEF and determine if aldosterone levels relate to peak volume of oxygen uptake (pVO2). Data from 42 consecutive HFrEF patients and 18 controls referred for invasive cardiopulmonary exercise testing were analyzed retrospectively. Radial ET-1 levels (median [interquartile range]) were higher in HFrEF patients compared with controls (17.5 [11.5-31.4] vs 11.5 [4.4-19.0] pg/ml, p = 0.04). A significant ET-1 transpulmonary gradient (pulmonary arterial [PA] - radial arterial levels) was present in HFrEF (p reserve capacity in HFrEF. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Heightened cortisol response to exercise challenge in women with functional hypothalamic amenorrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Kristen M; Kawwass, Jennifer F; Loucks, Tammy; Berga, Sarah L

    2018-02-01

    Functional hypothalamic amenorrhea is characterized by anovulation caused by reduced gonadotropin-releasing hormone drive and is associated with hypercortisolemia that has been linked to heightened hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal reactivity to common psychological and metabolic challenges. We hypothesized that women with functional hypothalamic amenorrhea would display greater cortisol responses to exercise challenge than ovulatory women with eumenorrhea. We completed a cross-sectional comparison of 9 women with functional hypothalamic amenorrhea and 11 women with eumenorrhea who were of reproductive age, who weighed 90-110% ideal body weight, who did not exercise excessively, and who had no formal psychiatric diagnosis. Subjects completed a 20-minute submaximal exercise challenge using a cycle ergometer in a research exercise laboratory. Heart rate and circulatory cortisol, glucose, and lactate were measured at 10-minute intervals before, during, and after the exercise challenge. Baseline (t= -10 minutes) cortisol, glucose, lactate, and heart rate were comparable between groups. Glucose levels rose modestly during exercise by 2.9% in women with eumenorrhea (P=.4) but declined by 10.6% in functional hypothalamic amenorrhea (P<.03). The nadir in glucose levels in functional hypothalamic amenorrhea occurred at the end of the 20-minute exercise challenge (t= +20 min). Lactate levels rose comparably in both groups (P<.01). Heart rate increased significantly with exercise in both groups (P<.01), but the increase was smaller in subjects with functional hypothalamic amenorrhea (P<.01). Cortisol levels increased during the exercise challenge in both groups (P<.01) and peaked 10 minutes after the exercise ended (t= +30 min). At peak, subjects with functional hypothalamic amenorrhea displayed higher cortisol levels (147±22 [standard error of the mean] ng/mL) than women with eumenorrhea (96±12 ng/mL; P=.05). The mean percent increase over baseline was 62% in women with

  6. The effects of acute exercise on executive functioning, mood and attention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Aims: It is internationally recognised that exercise is beneficial—both physically and mentally. However, only a minority of published research has explored the unique contribution of the exercise task itself. We tested the effect an ‘acute bout of moderate exercise’ had on selective attention, executive function and mood. We hypothesised that acute exercise would improve mood and cognitive performance compared to the controls. Method: 29 females and 11 males aged between 18-50 (M=26.5, SD=8.8 were administered the Stroop Colour-Interference Test, Erikson Flanker Task and Positive and Negative Affect Scale (PANAS.  Participants were randomly assigned to one of two conditions (exercise or relaxation. The experimental group (N=20 performed 20 minutes of exercise on a treadmill. The control group (N=20 relaxed for 20 minutes. Measures were taken before and after the intervention. Results: An independent samples t-test compared the differences between post-test and pre-test for the two groups. Results revealed a significant difference between the exercise group and control group on the measures of mood. The exercise group reported increased positive affect (t(38 = 3.10, p = .004, d = .99 and decreased negative affect (t(38 = -3.24, p = .003, d = 1.0 on the post-test. No significant differences between the exercise and control groups were obtained for the two tasks of cognitive performance. Conclusions: A significant difference in the PANAS ratings following exercise offers strong support to earlier research demonstrating that acute exercise improves mood. Although no significant improvement in performance was observed in the two cognitive tasks following acute exercise, it is possible that fitness levels could be the relevant factor, rather than acute exercise as a task. Our findings did not support the hypothesis that acute exercise improves cognitive performance.

  7. Four weeks of speed endurance training reduces energy expenditure during exercise and maintains muscle oxidative capacity despite a reduction in training volume

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iaia, F. Marcello; Hellsten, Ylva; Nielsen, Jens Jung

    2009-01-01

    We studied the effect of an alteration from regular endurance to speed endurance training on muscle oxidative capacity, capillarization, as well as energy expenditure during submaximal exercise and its relationship to mitochondrial uncoupling protein 3 (UCP3) in humans. Seventeen endurance...... by lowered mitochondrial UCP3 expression. Furthermore, speed endurance training can maintain muscle oxidative capacity, capillarization, and endurance performance in already trained individuals despite significant reduction in the amount of training....

  8. High intensity interval training (HIIT) improves resting blood pressure, metabolic (MET) capacity and heart rate reserve without compromising cardiac function in sedentary aging men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grace, Fergal; Herbert, Peter; Elliott, Adrian D; Richards, Jo; Beaumont, Alexander; Sculthorpe, Nicholas F

    2017-05-13

    This study examined a programme of pre-conditioning exercise with subsequent high intensity interval training (HIIT) on blood pressure, echocardiography, cardiac strain mechanics and maximal metabolic (MET) capacity in sedentary (SED) aging men compared with age matched masters athletes (LEX). Using a STROBE compliant observational design, 39 aging male participants (SED; n=22, aged 62.7±5.2yrs) (LEX; n=17, aged=61.1±5.4yrs) were recruited to a study that necessitated three distinct assessment phases; enrolment (Phase A), following pre-conditioning exercise in SED (Phase B), then following 6weeks of HIIT performed once every five days by both groups before reassessment (Phase C). Hemodynamic, echocardiographic and cardiac strain mechanics were obtained at rest and maximal cardiorespiratory and chronotropic responses were obtained at each measurement phase. The training intervention improved systolic, mean arterial blood pressure, rate pressure product and heart rate reserve (each PHIIT. Echocardiography and cardiac strain measures were unremarkable apart from trivial increase to intra-ventricular septum diastole (IVSd) (PHIIT. A programme of preconditioning exercise with HIIT induces clinically relevant improvements in blood pressure, rate pressure product and encourages recovery of heart rate reserve in SED, while improving maximal MET capacity in both SED and LEX without inducing any pathological cardiovascular remodeling. These data add to the emerging repute of HIIT as a safe and promising exercise prescription to improve cardiovascular function and metabolic capacity in sedentary aging. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Cross-sectional and longitudinal examination of exercise capacity in elite youth badminton players

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Christian Møller; Badault, Benjamin; Nybo, Lars

    2018-01-01

    Badminton-specific speed and endurance performance was evaluated in both cross-sectional and longitudinal studies of elite youth players and compared to the physiological capacities of world top-50 singles players.The cross-sectional study involved ten males in the category U15 (..., nine U19 and four senior elite players. They performed 30-m sprint, counter-movement jump (CMJ) and badminton-specific speed (B-SPEED) and endurance (B-ENDURANCE) tests. The longitudinal data were collected for ten U15 players with 1- and 2-year follow-up measures.Compared to seniors, B...... with ageing from 29±5 % deficit for U15 to 13±6 % deficit for U19 (Pbadminton-specific speed improves markedly with ageing in youth elite players to achieve, by age 19, values matching world-class players. Endurance improved markedly, but with a significant deficit remaining...

  10. Effects of the application of ankle functional rehabilitation exercise on the ankle joint functional movement screen and isokinetic muscular function in patients with chronic ankle sprain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Sung-Bum; Park, Gi Duck

    2017-02-01

    [Purpose] This study was conducted to investigate the effects of ankle functional rehabilitation exercise on ankle joint functional movement screen results and isokinetic muscular function in patients with chronic ankle sprain patients. [Subjects and Methods] In this study, 16 patients with chronic ankle sprain were randomized to an ankle functional rehabilitation exercise group (n=8) and a control group (n=8). The ankle functional rehabilitation exercise centered on a proprioceptive sense exercise program, which was applied 12 times for 2 weeks. To verify changes after the application, ankle joint functional movement screen scores and isokinetic muscular function were measured and analyzed. [Results] The ankle functional rehabilitation exercise group showed significant improvements in all items of the ankle joint functional movement screen and in isokinetic muscular function after the exercise, whereas the control group showed no difference after the application. [Conclusion] The ankle functional rehabilitation exercise program can be effectively applied in patients with chronic ankle sprain for the improvement of ankle joint functional movement screen score and isokinetic muscular function.

  11. The Relationship between Left Atrial Mechanical Function and Functional Capacity in Mitral Stenosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mücahit Yetim

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim: In this study, left atrial functions of patients with rheumatic mitral stenosis and sinus rhythm, which was determined by transthorasic echocardiography, was compared with those of healhty subjects and the association of left atrial functions with functional capacity was investigated in subgroup analyses.   Material and methods: 32 patients with isolated rheumatic mitral stenosis (median age was 39.1±11  (group 1 and 20 patients in the control group ( median age was 37±8,2 (group 2 were enrolled to study. The average mitral valve area of patients was 1.1±0,3 cm2. When patients were divided according to New York Heart Association (NYHA classification ; 16 patients were NYHA 2 (Grup A and 16 patients were NYHA 3 (Grup B. There were not any asymptomatic patients and no patients were NYHA 4. Left atrium diameters, left atrium volume, left atrium fractional area change and left atrium ejection fractions  of patients in these groups were calculated.   Results: The demographic characteristics of patients is shown in table 1. Left atrium ejection fraction (LAEF and left atrium fractional area change (LAFAC that were determined echocardiographycally were significantly lower in patients with mitral stenosis (32 ± 5, 44 ± 3; p<0.001- 25 ± 11, 32 ± 6; p< 0.02.  When patients were divided according to New York Heart Association (NYHA classification ; 16 patients were NYHA 2 (Grup A and 16 patients were NYHA 3 (Grup B. There were not any asymptomatic patients and no patients were NYHA 4. The clinical and echocardiographic data of patients are shown in table 2. Despite of similar mitral valve area and average mitral gradient ,systolic pulmonary artery pressure was found to be higher in symptomatic group. But there was no difference between left atrial functions of the two groups.   Discussion: In this study we have shown that left atrial functions determined echocardiographically  can decline in patients with mitral stenosis but the

  12. Dose-Response Effects of Exercise Duration and Recovery on Cognitive Functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crush, Elizabeth A; Loprinzi, Paul D

    2017-12-01

    We examined the effects of different acute exercise durations and recovery periods on cognitive function in a counterbalanced, cross-over randomized controlled experiment. We placed 352 participants, aged 18 to 35 years into one of 16 experimental groups. Each participant visited the laboratory twice, separated by a 1-week washout period. Either Visit 1 or 2 consisted of an acute bout of moderate-intensity treadmill exercise (10, 20, 30, 45, or 60 minutes) followed by a period of rest (5, 15, or 30 minutes) before taking a set of five cognitive tests; the other visit consisted only of completing the cognitive tests (no exercise). Cognitive tests sampled multiple cognitive parameters, including reasoning, concentration, memory, attention, and planning. We found that a short recovery period (i.e., 5 minutes) may have a less favorable effect on planning ability but may be beneficial for memory. In addition, for various exercise durations and recovery periods, a Group × Time × Resting (nonexercise) A cognitive interaction effect was observed such that for both memory and inhibitory cognitive ability, acute exercise (vs. no exercise) had an enhancement effect for those with lower resting cognitive functioning. The length of the acute exercise recovery period and resting cognitive ability most influenced the association between exercise and cognitive function.

  13. Cardio-respiratory function during exercise in the cobia, Rachycentron canadum: The impact of crude oil exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Derek; Stieglitz, John D; Cox, Georgina K; Heuer, Rachael M; Benetti, Daniel D; Grosell, Martin; Crossley, Dane A

    2017-10-01

    Aerobic exercise capacity is dependent on the cardiorespiratory system's ability to supply oxygen at a rate that meets energetic demands. In teleost fish crude oil exposure, with the associated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH's), reduces exercise performance and this has been hypothesized to be due to compromised cardiovascular function. In this study, we test this hypothesis by simultaneously measuring cardiovascular performance, oxygen consumption, and swim performance in a pelagic teleost, the cobia (Rachycentron canadum). Metabolic rate increased over 300% in both groups during the swim trial but as the fish approached the critical swim speed (U crit ) MO 2 was 12% lower in the oil exposed fish. Further, stroke volume was initially 35% lower while heart rate was 15% higher in the oil exposed compared to control fish. Our findings suggested, while aspects of cardiovascular and metabolic function are altered by oil exposure, additional studies are needed to further understand the homeostatic mechanisms that may sustain cardiovascular function at higher exercise intensities in cobia. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Effects of rehydration and food consumption on salivary flow, pH and buffering capacity in young adult volunteers during ergometer exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanabe, Mai; Takahashi, Toshiyuki; Shimoyama, Kazuhiro; Toyoshima, Yukako; Ueno, Toshiaki

    2013-10-28

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influences of rehydration and food consumption on salivary flow, pH, and buffering capacity during bicycle ergometer exercise in participants. Ten healthy volunteers exercised on a bicycle ergometer at 80% of their maximal heart rate. These sessions lasted for two periods of 20 min separated by 5-min rest intervals. Volunteers were subjected to one of the following conditions: (1) no water (mineral water) or food consumption, (2) only water for rehydration, (3) water and food consumption, (4) a sports drink only for rehydration, and (5) rehydration with a sports drink and food. Statistical significance was assessed using one-way analysis of variance and Dunnett's test (p salivary pH decreased significantly during and after exercise in conditions 4 and 5. The salivary buffering capacity decreased significantly during exercise and/or after the exercise in conditions 1, 3, 4, and 5. The results showed that salivary pH and buffering capacity decreased greatly depending on the combination of a sports drink and food.

  15. EFFICACY OF ADDUCTOR PULL BACK EXERCISE ON PAIN AND FUNCTIONAL DISABILITY FOR SACROILIAC JOINT DYSFUNCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sai Kumar .N

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sacroiliac joint dysfunction (SIJD is a common problem that causes pain and disability. Adductor pull back exercise is widely used for treating sacroiliac joint dysfunction. No yet research has been directly examined the efficacy of adductor pull back exercise for sacroiliac joint dysfunction. The purpose of the study to find the efficacy of adductor pull back exercise on pain and functional disability for subjects with sacroiliac joint dysfunction. Methods: An experimental study design, 40 subjects with unilateral Sacroiliac joint dysfunction were randomized into two groups: study group (n=20, and control group (n=20. Subjects in study group received adductor pull back exercise along with conventional exercise and Subjects in control group received conventional exercise. The duration of treatment was given for two weeks, three times a day, total six days per week. Outcome measures such as pain was measured using Visual analog scale (VAS, and functional disability was measured using Oswestry Disability Index questionnaire (ODI before and after 2 weeks of the treatment in both the groups. Results: When means were analyzed using Independent ‘t’ test as a parametric and Mann Whitney U test as a non-parametric test, there is a statistically significant improvements in means of VAS, and ODI within the groups. When means were compared using Independent ‘t’ and Mann Whitney U test, there is a significant difference in post-means of VAS and ODI between the groups. Conclusion: The present study concludes that the 2 weeks of adductor pull back exercise along with conventional exercise found statistically and clinically significant effect on improving pain, functional disability for subjects with sacroiliac joint dysfunction. Adductors pull back exercise along with conventional exercise techniques shown to have greater percentage of improvement in improving pain and functional disability for subjects with sacroiliac joint dysfunction.

  16. Effect of aerobic exercise on Pancreas Beta-cells function in adult obese males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojtaba Eizadi

    2014-08-01

    Conclusion: Aerobic exercise training increases beta cells function and decreases FBS in obese men. These findings support the hypothesis that regular physical activity postpones the occurrence of type 2 diabetes in adult obese subjects.

  17. Effects of exercise and diet change on cognition function and synaptic plasticity in high fat diet induced obese rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Nutritional imbalance-induced obesity causes a variety of diseases and in particular is an important cause of cognitive function decline. This study was performed on Sprague Dawley (SD) rats with 13-weeks of high fat diet-induced obesity in connection to the effects of regular exercise and dietary control for 8 weeks on the synaptic plasticity and cognitive abilities of brain. Methods Four weeks-old SD rats were adopted classified into normal-normal diet-sedentary (NNS, n = 8), obesity-high fat diet-sedentary (OHS, n = 8), obesity-high fat diet-training (OHT, n = 8), obesity-normal diet-sedentary (ONS, n = 8) and obesity- normal diet-training (ONT, n = 8). The exercise program consisted of a treadmill exercise administered at a speed of 8 m/min for 1–4 weeks, and 14 m/min for 5–8 weeks. The Western blot method was used to measure the expression of NGF, BDNF, p38MAPK and p-p38MAPK proteins in hippocampus of the brain, and expressions of NGF, BDNF, TrkA, TrkB, CREB and synapsin1 mRNA were analyzed through qRT-PCR. Results The results suggest cognitive function-related protein levels and mRNA expression to be significantly decreased in the hippocampus of obese rats, and synaptic plasticity as well as cognitive function signaling sub-pathway factors were also significantly decreased. In addition, 8-weeks exercises and treatment by dietary change had induced significant increase of cognitive function-related protein levels and mRNA expression as well as synaptic plasticity and cognitive function signaling sub-pathway factors in obese rats. In particular, the combined treatment had presented even more positive effect. Conclusions Therefore, it was determined that the high fat diet-induced obesity decreases plasticity and cognitive function of the brain, but was identified as being improved by exercises and dietary changes. In particular, it is considered that regular exercise has positive effects on memory span and learning

  18. Longitudinal changes in functional capacity: effects of socio-economic position among ageing adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sulander Tommi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Health and functional capacity have improved especially in Western countries over the past few decades. Nevertheless, the positive secular trend has not been able to decrease an uneven distribution of health. The main aim of this study was to follow-up changes in functional capacity among the same people in six years time and to detect whether the possible changes vary according to socio-economic position (SEP. In addition, it is of interest whether health behaviours have an effect on these possible changes. Methods This longitudinal follow-up study consisted of 1,898 individuals from three birth cohorts (1926–1930, 1936–40, 1946–50 who took part in clinical check-ups and answered to a survey questionnaire in 2002 and 2008. A sub-scale of physical functioning from the RAND-36 was used to measure functional capacity. Education and adequacy of income were used as indicators of socio-economic position. Repeated-measures ANOVA was used as a main method of analysis. Results Physical functioning in 2002 and 2008 was poorest among those men and women belonging to the oldest cohort. Functional capacity deteriorated in six years among men in the oldest cohort and among women in all three cohorts. Socio-economic disparities in functional capacity among ageing people existed. Especially lower adequacy of income was most consistently associated with poorer functional capacity. However, changes in functional capacity by socio-economic position remained the same or even narrowed independent of health behaviours. Conclusion Socio-economic disparities in physical functioning are mainly incorporated in the level of functioning at the baseline. No widening socioeconomic disparities in functional capacity exist. Partly these disparities even seem to narrow with ageing.

  19. Effect of bosentan on exercise capacity and quality of life in adults with pulmonary arterial hypertension associated with congenital heart disease with and without Down's syndrome.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duffels, M.G.; Vis, J.C.; Loon, R.L. van; Nieuwkerk, P.T.; Dijk, A.P.J. van; Hoendermis, E.S.; Bruin-Bon, R.H. de; Bouma, B.J.; Bresser, P.; Berger, R.M.; Mulder, B.J.

    2009-01-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension associated with congenital heart disease caused by systemic-to-pulmonary shunting was associated with a high risk of morbidity and mortality. In this retrospective study, the longer term treatment effect of bosentan on exercise capacity and quality of life (QoL) were

  20. Longitudinal relationship between wheelchair exercise capacity and life satisfaction in patients with spinal cord injury : A cohort study in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Koppenhagen, Casper Floris; Post, Marcel; de Groot, Sonja; van Leeuwen, Christel; van Asbeck, Floris; Stolwijk-Swüste, Janneke; van der Woude, Lucas; Lindeman, Eline

    Objective: To examine the relationship between wheelchair exercise capacity and life satisfaction in persons with spinal cord injury from the start of active inpatient rehabilitation up to 5 years after discharge. Design: Prospective cohort study. Subjects: Persons with spinal cord injury, aged

  1. Right heart structural changes are independently associated with exercise capacity in non-severe COPD.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J Cuttica

    Full Text Available Pulmonary hypertension (PH occurs frequently and results in functional limitation in advanced COPD. Data regarding the functional consequence of PH in less severe COPD are limited. Whether echocardiographic evidence of right sided heart pathology is associated with functional outcomes in patients with non-severe COPD is unknown.We evaluated pulmonary function, six minute walk distance, and echocardiography in 74 consecutive patients with non-severe COPD. We performed multivariable linear regression to evaluate the association between right heart echocardiographic parameters and six minute walk distance adjusting for lung function, age, sex, race, and BMI.The mean six minute walk distance was 324±106 meters. All subjects had preserved left ventricular (LV systolic function (LV ejection fraction 62.3%±6.1%. 54.1% had evidence of some degree of diastolic dysfunction. 17.6% of subjects had evidence of right ventricular enlargement and 36.5% had right atrial enlargement. In univariate analysis RV wall thickness (β = -68.6; p = 0.002, log right atrial area (β = -297.9; p = 0.004, LV mass index (β = -1.3; p = 0.03, E/E' ratio (β = -5.5; p = 0.02, and degree of diastolic dysfunction (β = -42.8; p = 0.006 were associated with six minute walk distance. After adjustment for co-variables, the associations between right atrial area (log right atrial area β = -349.8; p = 0.003 and right ventricular wall thickness (β = -43.8; p = 0.04 with lower six minute walk distance remained significant independent of forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1. LV mass index, E/E' ratio, and degree of diastolic dysfunction were not independent predictors of six minute walk distance.In patients with non-severe COPD right sided cardiac structural changes are associated with lower six minute walk distance independent of lung function. These findings may indicate that echocardiographic evidence of pulmonary

  2. Whole-body vibration exercise improves functional parameters in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Patients with osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) have abnormal bone modelling and resorption. The bone tissue adaptation and responsivity to dynamic and mechanical loading may be of therapeutic use under controlled circumstances. Improvements due to the wholebody vibration (WBV) exercises have been ...

  3. Using probability density function in the procedure for recognition of the type of physical exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cakić Nikola

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a method for recognition of physical exercises, using only a triaxial accelerometer of a smartphone. The smartphone itself is free to move inside subject's pocket. Exercises for leg muscle strengthening from subject's standing position squat, right knee rise and lunge with right leg were analyzed. All exercises were performed with the accelerometric sensor of a smartphone placed in the pocket next to the leg used for exercises. In order to test the proposed recognition method, the knee rise exercise of the opposite leg with the same position of the sensor was randomly selected. Filtering of the raw accelerometric signals was carried out using Butterworth tenth-order low-pass filter. The filtered signals from each of the three axes were described using three signal descriptors. After the descriptors were calculated, a probability density function was constructed for each of the descriptors. The program that implemented the proposed recognition method was executed online within an Android application of the smartphone. Signals from two male and two female subjects were considered as a reference for exercise recognition. The exercise recognition accuracy was 94.22% for three performed exercises, and 85.33% for all four considered exercises.

  4. Hindlimb Skeletal Muscle Function and Skeletal Quality and Strength in +/G610C Mice With and Without Weight-Bearing Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Youngjae; Carleton, Stephanie M; Gentry, Bettina A; Yao, Xiaomei; Ferreira, J Andries; Salamango, Daniel J; Weis, MaryAnn; Oestreich, Arin K; Williams, Ashlee M; McCray, Marcus G; Eyre, David R; Brown, Marybeth; Wang, Yong; Phillips, Charlotte L

    2015-10-01

    Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a heterogeneous heritable connective tissue disorder associated with reduced bone mineral density and skeletal fragility. Bone is inherently mechanosensitive, with bone strength being proportional to muscle mass and strength. Physically active healthy children accrue more bone than inactive children. Children with type I OI exhibit decreased exercise capacity and muscle strength compared with healthy peers. It is unknown whether this muscle weakness reflects decreased physical activity or a muscle pathology. In this study, we used heterozygous G610C OI model mice (+/G610C), which model both the genotype and phenotype of a large Amish OI kindred, to evaluate hindlimb muscle function and physical activity levels before evaluating the ability of +/G610C mice to undergo a treadmill exercise regimen. We found +/G610C mice hindlimb muscles do not exhibit compromised muscle function, and their activity levels were not reduced relative to wild-type mice. The +/G610C mice were also able to complete an 8-week treadmill regimen. Biomechanical integrity of control and exercised wild-type and +/G610C femora were analyzed by torsional loading to failure. The greatest skeletal gains in response to exercise were observed in stiffness and the shear modulus of elasticity with alterations in collagen content. Analysis of tibial cortical bone by Raman spectroscopy demonstrated similar crystallinity and mineral/matrix ratios regardless of sex, exercise, and genotype. Together, these findings demonstrate +/G610C OI mice have equivalent muscle function, activity levels, and ability to complete a weight-bearing exercise regimen as wild-type mice. The +/G610C mice exhibited increased femoral stiffness and decreased hydroxyproline with exercise, whereas other biomechanical parameters remain unaffected, suggesting a more rigorous exercise regimen or another exercise modality may be required to improve bone quality of OI mice. © 2015 American Society for Bone

  5. The effects of a mid-morning bout of exercise on adolescents' cognitive function

    OpenAIRE

    Cooper, SB; Bandelow, S; Nute, ML; Morris, JG; Nevill, ME

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of a mid-morning bout of exercise on adolescents’ cognitive function in a randomised crossover design where each participant completed two experimental trials. Forty-five adolescents (13.3±0.3 years old), undertook a bout of exercise (ten repeats of level one of the multi-stage fitness test, 30s rest between repeats; exercise trial) or continued to rest (resting trial). A battery of cognitive function tests assessing visuo-motor speed, e...

  6. Aerobic exercise capacity after burn injury in children and adolescentsin the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Disseldorp, Laurien; van Brussel, Marco; Takken, Tim; Beerthuizen, Gerard I,J.M; van der Woude, Lucas; Mouton, Leonora J.; Nieuwenhuis, Marianne; Mouton, Leonora J.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Purpose: Burn injuries have a major impact on the patient’s physical and psychological functioning. The consequences can, especially for pediatric burns, persist long after the injury. Loss of physical fitness after burns seems logical, considering inflammatory and stress responses and a

  7. Effects of isotonic and isometric exercises with mist sauna bathing on cardiovascular, thermoregulatory, and metabolic functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwase, Satoshi; Kawahara, Yuko; Nishimura, Naoki; Nishimura, Rumiko; Sugenoya, Junichi; Miwa, Chihiro; Takada, Masumi

    2014-08-01

    To clarify the effects of isometric and isotonic exercise during mist sauna bathing on the cardiovascular function, thermoregulatory function, and metabolism, six healthy young men (22 ± 1 years old, height 173 ± 4 cm, weight 65.0 ± 5.0 kg) were exposed to a mist sauna for 10 min at a temperature of 40 °C, and relative humidity of 100 % while performing or not performing ˜30 W of isometric or isotonic exercise. The effect of the exercise was assessed by measuring tympanic temperature, heart rate, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, chest sweat rate, chest skin blood flow, and plasma catecholamine and cortisol, glucose, lactate, and free fatty acid levels. Repeated measures ANOVA showed no significant differences in blood pressure, skin blood flow, sweat rate, and total amount of sweating. Tympanic temperature increased more during isotonic exercise, and heart rate increase was more marked during isotonic exercise. The changes in lactate indicated that fatigue was not very great during isometric exercise. The glucose level indicated greater energy expenditure during isometric exercise. The free fatty acid and catecholamine levels indicated that isometric exercise did not result i