Sample records for fully hydrated dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine

  1. Effect of Anion Triiodide on the Main Phase Transition of Fully Hydrated Dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine Bilayers


    Hobai, S.; Fazakas, Z.


    The paper describes the effect of anion I-3 on thermotropic mesomorphism of fully hydrated dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine bilayers. The biphasic behaviour of melting temperature - I-3 concentration dependence and the increase of DELTA T values with I-3 concentration (DELTA T = melting temperature - freezing temperature) suggest the appearance of interdigitated phase of bilayers induced by I-3 ions.

  2. Molecular dynamics simulations of a fully hydrated dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine bilayer with different macroscopic boundary conditions and parameters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tieleman, D.P; Berendsen, H.J.C.


    We compared molecular dynamics simulations of a bilayer of 128 fully hydrated phospholipid (DPPC) molecules, using different parameters and macroscopic boundary conditions. The same system was studied under constant pressure, constant volume, and constant surface tension boundary conditions, with

  3. X-ray structure determination of fully hydrated L alpha phase dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine bilayers. (United States)

    Nagle, J F; Zhang, R; Tristram-Nagle, S; Sun, W; Petrache, H I; Suter, R M


    Bilayer form factors obtained from x-ray scattering data taken with high instrumental resolution are reported for multilamellar vesicles of L alpha phase lipid bilayers of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine at 50 degrees C under varying osmotic pressure. Artifacts in the magnitudes of the form factors due to liquid crystalline fluctuations have been eliminated by using modified Caillé theory. The Caillé fluctuation parameter eta 1 increases systematically with increasing lamellar D spacing and this explains why some higher order peaks are unobservable for the larger D spacings. The corrected form factors fall on one smooth continuous transform F(q); this shows that the bilayer does not change shape as D decreases from 67.2 A (fully hydrated) to 60.9 A. The distance between headgroup peaks is obtained from Fourier reconstruction of samples with four orders of diffraction and from electron density models that use 38 independent form factors. By combining these results with previous gel phase results, area AF per lipid molecule and other structural quantities are obtained for the fluid L alpha phase. Comparison with results that we derived from previous neutron diffraction data is excellent, and we conclude from diffraction studies that AF = 62.9 +/- 1.3 A2, which is in excellent agreement with a previous estimate from NMR data.

  4. Dynamics of protein and its hydration water: neutron scattering studies on fully deuterated GFP. (United States)

    Nickels, Jonathan D; O'Neill, Hugh; Hong, Liang; Tyagi, Madhusudan; Ehlers, Georg; Weiss, Kevin L; Zhang, Qiu; Yi, Zheng; Mamontov, Eugene; Smith, Jeremy C; Sokolov, Alexei P


    We present a detailed analysis of the picosecond-to-nanosecond motions of green fluorescent protein (GFP) and its hydration water using neutron scattering spectroscopy and hydrogen/deuterium contrast. The analysis reveals that hydration water suppresses protein motions at lower temperatures (high temperatures. Experimental data demonstrate that the hydration water is harmonic at temperatures high temperatures: on the picosecond-to-nanosecond timescale, the hydration water exhibits diffusive dynamics, while the protein motions are localized to temperatures appears to be stronger in GFP than in other globular proteins. We ascribe this observation to the barrellike structure of GFP. Copyright © 2012 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Self-assembled nanostructures of fully hydrated monoelaidin-elaidic acid and monoelaidin-oleic acid systems. (United States)

    Yaghmur, Anan; Sartori, Barbara; Rappolt, Michael


    In recent years, there has been a surge of interest in exploring the effect of trans-fatty acids (TFAs) on biological membrane properties. The research studies are motivated by an increasing body of evidence suggesting that the consumption of TFAs increases the risk of developing negative health effects such as coronary heart disease and cancer. The ultimate goal of studying the lipid-fatty acid interactions at the molecular level is to predict the biological role of fatty acids in cells. In this regard, it is interesting to elucidate the effect of loading TFAs and their counterpart cis-fatty acids (CFAs) on the physical properties of lipid model membranes. Here, the present study focuses on discussing the following: (1) the effect of mixing monoelaidin (ME, TFA-containing lipid) with its counterpart monoolein (MO, CFA-containing lipid) on modulating the fully hydrated self-assembled structure, and (2) the influence of solubilizing oleic acid (OA) and its trans counterpart elaidic acid (EA) on the fully hydrated ME system. The ME model membrane was selected due to its sensitivity to variations in lipid composition and temperature. Synchrotron small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) was applied for studying the temperature-dependent structural behavior of the fully hydrated ME/MO-based system prepared with an equal ME/MO weight ratio and also for characterizing the fully hydrated OA- and EA-loaded ME systems. Wide-angle X-ray (WAXS) experiments were also performed for characterizing the formed crystalline lamellar phases at ambient temperatures. The results demonstrate the significant influence of the partial replacement of ME by MO on the phase behavior. The addition of MO induces the lamellar-nonlamellar phase transitions at ambient temperatures and promotes the formation of the inverted type hexagonal (H(2)) phase above 72 °C. The fully hydrated ME/EA and ME/OA systems with their rich polymorphism exhibit an interesting temperature-dependent complex behavior. The

  6. Small-angle scattering studies of the fully hydrated phospholipid DPPC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mason, P.C.; Gaulin, B.D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, L8S 4M1 (CANADA); Epand, R.M. [Department of Biochemistry, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, L8N 3Z5 (CANADA); Wignall, G.D.; Lin, J.S. [Center for Small-Angle Scattering Research, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States)


    Small-angle neutron and x-ray scattering studies have been carried out on fully hydrated dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) multilamellar vesicles. This system is known to exhibit two distinct ripple (P{sub {beta}{sup {prime}}}) phases, which depend on sample history, at temperatures intermediate to its high-temperature liquid crystalline (L{sub {alpha}}), phase, and its low-temperature gel (L{sub {beta}{sup {prime}}}), phase. On cooling from the L{sub {alpha}} phase, the P{sub {beta}{sup {prime}}} phase displays a complex multipeak diffraction pattern that differs significantly from the diffraction pattern seen in the P{sub {beta}{sup {prime}}} phase obtained on warming from the L{sub {beta}{sup {prime}}} phase. Examining the P{sub {beta}{sup {prime}}} phase on cooling using small-angle neutron scattering and x-ray diffraction techniques leads to the conclusion that this phase is characterized by a long wavelength ripple ({lambda}{sub r}{approximately}330thinsp{Angstrom}) and a highly monoclinic unit cell ({gamma}{approximately}125{degree}). As the P{sub {beta}{sup {prime}}} phase is traversed in temperature, the ripple wavelength changes significantly while the monoclinicity remains unchanged. Ripples from the P{sub {beta}{sup {prime}}} phase are seen to persist into the L{sub {beta}{sup {prime}}} phase on cooling, leading to increased small-angle scattering characteristic of a disordered stacking of the lamellae. {copyright} {ital 1999} {ital The American Physical Society}

  7. Pretransitional effects in dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine vesicle membranes: optical dynamometry study.


    Dimova, R; Pouligny, B; Dietrich, C


    We used micron-sized latex spheres to probe the phase state and the viscoelastic properties of dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC) bilayers as a function of temperature. One or two particles were manipulated and stuck to a DMPC giant vesicle by means of an optical trap. Above the fluid-gel main transition temperature, T(m) congruent with 23.4 degrees C, the particles could move on the surface of the vesicle, spontaneously (Brownian motion) or driven by an external force, either gravity or t...

  8. The effect of furazolidone on the physico-chemical properties of dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine bilayers: Relevance to anti-leishmanial therapy (United States)

    Martins, Victor Hugo Giendruczak; Rodrigues, Marisa Raquel; Mascarenhas, Layoan Dantas; de Azambuja, Carla Roberta Lopes; Londoño, Julian Londoño; de Lima, Vânia Rodrigues


    In this study, the influence of furazolidone, an anti-leishmanial drug, on dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC) liposome hydration degree, mobility and thermodynamics was investigated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). FTIR results showed that furazolidone was responsible for an increase in the hydrogen bound number and mobility of the lipid phosphate group. Furazolidone also affected the lipid choline group by increasing its motional freedom, as shown by FTIR and 1H NMR spin-lattice relaxation time measurements. At the DMPC interfacial region, FTIR results showed a drug-induced reduction of the carbonyl hydration and order degrees. Very weak interaction among furazolidone and the hydrophobic lipid chains was also observed. However, no furazolidone-induced changes on thermodynamical parameters, such as phase transition temperature (Tm) and enthalpy variation (ΔH), were detected by the DSC technique. Thus, furazolidone seems to interact preferentially with lipid polar and interfacial regions, enhancing the freedom for gauche-trans isomerization of the first methylene groups of DMPC acyl chains. Responses described in this paper may explain the improved activity of furazolidone-encapsulated liposomes by comparison with the effect of the free drug, described in literature. The findings can also improve further strategies for the potential therapeutic application of liposomal furazolidone as a drug delivery system and minimize the risk of drug resistance and collateral effects related to high toxicity.

  9. Interaction of melittin with mixed phospholipid membranes composed of dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine and dimyristoylphosphatidylserine studied by deuterium NMR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dempsey, C.; Bitbol, M.; Watts, A. (Oxford Univ. (England))


    The interaction of bee venom melittin with mixed phospholipid bilayers composed of dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine deuterated in the {alpha}- and {beta}-methylenes of the choline head group (DMPC-d{sub 4}) and dimyristoylphosphatidylserine deuterated in the {alpha}-methylene and {beta}-CH positions of the serine head group (DMPS-d{sub 3}) was studied in ternary mixtures by using deuterium NMR spectroscopy. The changes in the deuterium quadrupole splittings of the head-group deuteriomethylenes of DMPC-d{sub 4} induced by DMPS in binary mixtures were systematically reversed by increasing concentrations of melittin, so that at a melittin concentration of 4 mol % relative to total lipid the deuterium NMR spectrum from DMPC-d{sub 4} in the ternary mixture was similar to the spectrum from pure DMPC-d{sub 4} bilayers. The absence of deuterium NMR signals arising from melittin-bound DMPS in ternary mixtures containing DMPS-d{sub 3} indicates that the reversal by melittin of the effects of DMPS on the quadrupole splittings of DMPC-d{sub 4} results from the response of the choline head group to the net surface charge rather than from phase separation of melittin-DMPS complexes. The similarity in the effects of the two cationic but otherwise dissimilar peptides indicates that the DMPS head group responds to the surface charge resulting from the presence in the bilayer of charged amphiphiles, in a manner analogous to the response of the choline head group of phosphatidylcholine to the bilayer surface charge. The presence of DMPS greatly stabilized DMPC bilayers with respect to melittin-induced micellization, indicating that the latter effect of melittin may not be important for the hemolytic activity of the peptide.

  10. Interaction of melittin with mixed phospholipid membranes composed of dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine and dimyristoylphosphatidylserine studied by deuterium NMR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dempsey, C.; Bitbol, M.; Watts, A.


    The interaction of bee venom melittin with mixed phospholipid bilayers composed of dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine deuterated in the α- and β-methylenes of the choline head group (DMPC-d 4 ) and dimyristoylphosphatidylserine deuterated in the α-methylene and β-CH positions of the serine head group (DMPS-d 3 ) was studied in ternary mixtures by using deuterium NMR spectroscopy. The changes in the deuterium quadrupole splittings of the head-group deuteriomethylenes of DMPC-d 4 induced by DMPS in binary mixtures were systematically reversed by increasing concentrations of melittin, so that at a melittin concentration of 4 mol % relative to total lipid the deuterium NMR spectrum from DMPC-d 4 in the ternary mixture was similar to the spectrum from pure DMPC-d 4 bilayers. The absence of deuterium NMR signals arising from melittin-bound DMPS in ternary mixtures containing DMPS-d 3 indicates that the reversal by melittin of the effects of DMPS on the quadrupole splittings of DMPC-d 4 results from the response of the choline head group to the net surface charge rather than from phase separation of melittin-DMPS complexes. The similarity in the effects of the two cationic but otherwise dissimilar peptides indicates that the DMPS head group responds to the surface charge resulting from the presence in the bilayer of charged amphiphiles, in a manner analogous to the response of the choline head group of phosphatidylcholine to the bilayer surface charge. The presence of DMPS greatly stabilized DMPC bilayers with respect to melittin-induced micellization, indicating that the latter effect of melittin may not be important for the hemolytic activity of the peptide

  11. Differential scanning calorimetry study on the binding of nucleic acids to dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine-sphingosine liposomes. (United States)

    Kõiv, A; Mustonen, P; Kinnunen, P K


    Binding of DNA and RNA to sphingosine-containing dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC) liposomes was characterized by differential scanning calorimetry. The thermal phase behaviour of neat DMPC liposomes was unaffected by the presence of the nucleic acids. However, significant alterations in the melting profiles of the DMPC/sphingosine composite membranes were produced by DNA and RNA, thus revealing their binding to the liposomes. For example, for 79:21 (molar ratio) DMPC/sphingosine liposomes a single endotherm at 29.1 degrees C with an enthalpy of 6.3 kcal/mol lipid was observed. In the presence of DNA at the nucleotide/sphingosine ratio of 0.6 this endotherm separated into three distinct peaks at 28.0, 31.4 and 35.1 degrees C, together with an approximately 22% reduction in the total enthalpy. Further increase in DNA concentration up to 1.5 nucleotides per sphingosine led to complete loss of the original heat absorption peak of the DMPC/sphingosine liposomes, while an endotherm at 34.3 degrees C with delta H of 2.7 kcal/mol developed. By visual inspection, rapid and extensive aggregation of the liposomes due to DNA was evident. Evidence for DNA-induced phase separation was also provided by compression isotherms of sphingosine containing DMPC monolayers recorded over an aqueous buffer both in the presence and absence of DNA. The effects of RNA on the thermal phase behaviour of the composite liposomes were qualitatively similar to those described above for DNA. Notably, the presence of eggPA abolished the nucleic acid induced heat capacity changes for DMPC/sphingosine liposomes probably because of neutralization of the positive charge of sphingosine. The binding of DNA to DMPC/sphingosine liposomes occurred both below and above the lipid phase transition temperature, as shown by fluorescence resonance energy transfer utilizing adriamycin-labelled DNA as a quencher and membrane incorporated pyrene-labelled phospholipid as a donor. However, the apparent binding to

  12. Historical methane hydrate project review (United States)

    Collett, Timothy; Bahk, Jang-Jun; Frye, Matt; Goldberg, Dave; Husebo, Jarle; Koh, Carolyn; Malone, Mitch; Shipp, Craig; Torres, Marta


    which have been effectively used to collect invaluable geologic and engineering data on the occurrence of methane hydrates throughout the world. Technologies designed specifically for the collection and analysis of undisturbed methane hydrate samples have included the development of a host of pressure core systems and associated specialty laboratory apparatus. The study and use of both wireline conveyed and logging-­‐while-­‐drilling technologies have also contributed greatly to our understanding of the in-­‐situ nature of hydrate-­‐bearing sediments. Recent developments in borehole instrumentation specifically designed to monitor changes associated with hydrates in nature through time or to evaluate the response of hydrate accumulations to production have also contributed greatly to our understanding of the complex nature and evolution of methane hydrate systems.Our understanding of how methane hydrates occur and behave in nature is still growing and evolving – we do not yet know if methane hydrates can be economically produced, nor do we know fully the role of hydrates as an agent of climate change or as a geologic hazard. But it is known for certain that scientific drilling has contributed greatly to our understanding of hydrates in nature and will continue to be a critical source of the information to advance our understanding of methane hydrates.

  13. Chloral Hydrate (United States)

    ... if you are allergic to chloral hydrate, aspirin, tartrazine (a yellow dye in some processed foods and ... in, tightly closed, and out of reach of children. Store it at room temperature, away from excess ...

  14. Gas hydrates

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ramprasad, T.

    Fuels in India’s Energy Future. Workshop on “Alternate Fuels in India’s Energy Future”, held at Hotel International, New Delhi,19 Sept 2006 , Jointly organised by CII,ERM and British High Commission Bangs, N.L., D.S. Sawyer, X. Golovchenko... hydrates: relevance to world margin stability and climatic change, Tutorial book: Gent, Belgium, pp. 1-37. Sloan, E. D., 1998, Clathrate hydrates of natural gases. 2 nd edition: Marcel Dekker, Inc., New York, pp705. Stakes...

  15. Fully quantal calculation of H{sub 2} translation-rotation states in the (p-H{sub 2}){sub 2}@5{sup 12}6{sup 4} clathrate hydrate inclusion compound

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Felker, Peter M., E-mail: [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095-1569 (United States)


    The quantal translation-rotation (TR) states of the (p-H{sub 2}){sub 2}@5{sup 12}6{sup 4} clathrate hydrate inclusion compound have been computed. The ten-dimensional problem (in the rigid-cage and rigid-H{sub 2} approximation) is solved by first approximating the H{sub 2} moieties as spherically symmetric and solving for their 6D translational eigenstates. These are then combined with H{sub 2} free rotational states in a product basis that is used to diagonalize the full TR hamiltonian. The computed low-energy eigenstates have translational components that are essentially identical to the 6D translational eigenstates and rotational components that are 99.9% composed of rotationally unexcited H{sub 2} moieties. In other words, TR coupling is minimal for the low-energy states of the species. The low-energy level structure is found to be substantially more congested than that of the more tightly packed (p-H{sub 2}){sub 4}@5{sup 12}6{sup 4} clathrate species. The level structure is also shown to be understandable in terms of a model of (H{sub 2}){sub 2} as a semirigid diatomic species consisting of two spherically symmetric H{sub 2} pseudo-atoms.

  16. Geologic implications of gas hydrates in the offshore of India: results of the National Gas Hydrate Program Expedition 01 (United States)

    Collett, Timothy S.; Boswell, Ray; Cochran, J.R.; Kumar, Pushpendra; Lall, Malcolm; Mazumdar, Aninda; Ramana, Mangipudi Venkata; Ramprasad, Tammisetti; Riedel, Michael; Sain, Kalachand; Sathe, Arun Vasant; Vishwanath, Krishna


    The Indian National Gas Hydrate Program Expedition 01 (NGHP-01) is designed to study the occurrence of gas hydrate along the passive continental margin of the Indian Peninsula and in the Andaman convergent margin, with special emphasis on understanding the geologic and geochemical controls on the occurrence of gas hydrate in these two diverse settings. The NGHP-01 expedition established the presence of gas hydrates in the Krishna-Godavari and Mahanadi Basins, and the Andaman Sea. The expedition discovered in the Krishna-Godavari Basin one of the thickest gas hydrate accumulations ever documented, in the Andaman Sea one of the thickest and deepest gas hydrate stability zones in the world, and established the existence of a fully developed gas hydrate petroleum system in all three basins.

  17. Artificial Hydration and Nutrition (United States)

    ... Crisis Situations Pets and Animals myhealthfinder Food and Nutrition Healthy Food Choices Weight Loss and Diet Plans ... Your Health Resources Healthcare Management Artificial Hydration and Nutrition Artificial Hydration and Nutrition Share Print Patients who ...

  18. Gas hydrate and humans (United States)

    Kvenvolden, K.A.


    The potential effects of naturally occurring gas hydrate on humans are not understood with certainty, but enough information has been acquired over the past 30 years to make preliminary assessments possible. Three major issues are gas hydrate as (1) a potential energy resource, (2) a factor in global climate change, and (3) a submarine geohazard. The methane content is estimated to be between 1015 to 1017 m3 at STP and the worldwide distribution in outer continental margins of oceans and in polar regions are significant features of gas hydrate. However, its immediate development as an energy resource is not likely because there are various geological constraints and difficult technological problems that must be solved before economic recovery of methane from hydrate can be achieved. The role of gas hydrate in global climate change is uncertain. For hydrate methane to be an effective greenhouse gas, it must reach the atmosphere. Yet there are many obstacles to the transfer of methane from hydrate to the atmosphere. Rates of gas hydrate dissociation and the integrated rates of release and destruction of the methane in the geo/hydro/atmosphere are not adequately understood. Gas hydrate as a submarine geohazard, however, is of immediate and increasing importance to humans as our industrial society moves to exploit seabed resources at ever-greater depths in the waters of our coastal oceans. Human activities and installations in regions of gas-hydrate occurrence must take into account the presence of gas hydrate and deal with the consequences of its presence.

  19. Nanoscale imaging and analysis of fully hydrated materials (United States)

    Jungjohann, Katherine Leigh

    The study of nanomaterials in a liquid environment can provide insight to processes and dynamics with applications to energy storage materials, catalysis, nanomaterial growth and biological structures. For these applications we have developed techniques for the use of a dedicated in situ fluid holder in combination with aberration corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) and dynamic transmission electron microscopy for imaging nanomaterials at atomic-scale resolution within a fluid layer. The abilities of the in situ fluid holder for STEM have been tested by comparing the SiN window thicknesses to optimize imaging conditions and the use electron energy loss spectroscopy to accurately measure the fluid path length within the cell and provide chemical analysis. The imaging artifacts caused by the high energy scanning electron beam have been investigated to determine the causes of bubbling, contamination and charging within the fluid cell for strategies to mitigate these effects. The use of the DTEM has demonstrated the growth of lead sulfide nanoparticles from a precursor solution by the sample drive laser separate from the imaging electrons. These techniques present the ideal platform for future studies of biological structures and dynamics at physiological conditions under low dose imaging with high temporal and spatial resolution.

  20. Electrical properties of polycrystalline methane hydrate (United States)

    Du Frane, W. L.; Stern, L.A.; Weitemeyer, K.A.; Constable, S.; Pinkston, J.C.; Roberts, J.J.


    Electromagnetic (EM) remote-sensing techniques are demonstrated to be sensitive to gas hydrate concentration and distribution and complement other resource assessment techniques, particularly seismic methods. To fully utilize EM results requires knowledge of the electrical properties of individual phases and mixing relations, yet little is known about the electrical properties of gas hydrates. We developed a pressure cell to synthesize gas hydrate while simultaneously measuring in situ frequency-dependent electrical conductivity (σ). Synthesis of methane (CH4) hydrate was verified by thermal monitoring and by post run cryogenic scanning electron microscope imaging. Impedance spectra (20 Hz to 2 MHz) were collected before and after synthesis of polycrystalline CH4 hydrate from polycrystalline ice and used to calculate σ. We determined the σ of CH4 hydrate to be 5 × 10−5 S/m at 0°C with activation energy (Ea) of 30.6 kJ/mol (−15 to 15°C). After dissociation back into ice, σ measurements of samples increased by a factor of ~4 and Ea increased by ~50%, similar to the starting ice samples.

  1. Detection and Production of Methane Hydrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George Hirasaki; Walter Chapman; Gerald Dickens; Colin Zelt; Brandon Dugan; Kishore Mohanty; Priyank Jaiswal


    This project seeks to understand regional differences in gas hydrate systems from the perspective of as an energy resource, geohazard, and long-term climate influence. Specifically, the effort will: (1) collect data and conceptual models that targets causes of gas hydrate variance, (2) construct numerical models that explain and predict regional-scale gas hydrate differences in 2-dimensions with minimal 'free parameters', (3) simulate hydrocarbon production from various gas hydrate systems to establish promising resource characteristics, (4) perturb different gas hydrate systems to assess potential impacts of hot fluids on seafloor stability and well stability, and (5) develop geophysical approaches that enable remote quantification of gas hydrate heterogeneities so that they can be characterized with minimal costly drilling. Our integrated program takes advantage of the fact that we have a close working team comprised of experts in distinct disciplines. The expected outcomes of this project are improved exploration and production technology for production of natural gas from methane hydrates and improved safety through understanding of seafloor and well bore stability in the presence of hydrates. The scope of this project was to more fully characterize, understand, and appreciate fundamental differences in the amount and distribution of gas hydrate and how this would affect the production potential of a hydrate accumulation in the marine environment. The effort combines existing information from locations in the ocean that are dominated by low permeability sediments with small amounts of high permeability sediments, one permafrost location where extensive hydrates exist in reservoir quality rocks and other locations deemed by mutual agreement of DOE and Rice to be appropriate. The initial ocean locations were Blake Ridge, Hydrate Ridge, Peru Margin and GOM. The permafrost location was Mallik. Although the ultimate goal of the project was to understand

  2. Gas hydrate in nature (United States)

    Ruppel, Carolyn D.


    Gas hydrate is a naturally occurring, ice-like substance that forms when water and gas combine under high pressure and at moderate temperatures. Methane is the most common gas present in gas hydrate, although other gases may also be included in hydrate structures, particularly in areas close to conventional oil and gas reservoirs. Gas hydrate is widespread in ocean-bottom sediments at water depths greater than 300–500 meters (m; 984–1,640 feet [ft]) and is also present in areas with permanently frozen ground (permafrost). Several countries are evaluating gas hydrate as a possible energy resource in deepwater or permafrost settings. Gas hydrate is also under investigation to determine how environmental change may affect these deposits.

  3. Origins of hydration lubrication. (United States)

    Ma, Liran; Gaisinskaya-Kipnis, Anastasia; Kampf, Nir; Klein, Jacob


    Why is friction in healthy hips and knees so low? Hydration lubrication, according to which hydration shells surrounding charges act as lubricating elements in boundary layers (including those coating cartilage in joints), has been invoked to account for the extremely low sliding friction between surfaces in aqueous media, but not well understood. Here we report the direct determination of energy dissipation within such sheared hydration shells. By trapping hydrated ions in a 0.4-1 nm gap between atomically smooth charged surfaces as they slide past each other, we are able to separate the dissipation modes of the friction and, in particular, identify the viscous losses in the subnanometre hydration shells. Our results shed light on the origins of hydration lubrication, with potential implications both for aqueous boundary lubricants and for biolubrication.

  4. Gas hydrate nucleation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The overall aim of the project was to gain more knowledge about the kinetics of gas hydrate formation especially the early growth phase. Knowledge of kinetics of gas hydrate formation is important and measurements of gas hydrate particle size and concentration can contribute to improve this knowledge. An experimental setup for carrying out experimental studies of the nucleation and growth of gas hydrates has been constructed and tested. Multi wavelength extinction (MWE) was the experimental technique selected for obtaining particle diameter and concentration. The principle behind MWE is described as well as turbidity spectrum analysis that in an initial stage of the project was considered as an alternative experimental technique. Details of the experimental setup and its operation are outlined. The measuring cell consists of a 1 litre horizontal tube sustaining pressures up to 200 bar. Laser light for particle size determination can be applied through sapphire windows. A description of the various auxiliary equipment and of another gas hydrate cell used in the study are given. A computer program for simulation and analysis of gas hydrate experiments is based on the gas hydrate kinetics model proposed by Skovborg and Rasmussen (1993). Initial measurements showed that knowledge of the refractive index of gas hydrates was important in order to use MWE. An experimental determination of the refractive index of methane and natural gas hydrate is described. The test experiments performed with MWE on collectives of gas hydrate particles and experiments with ethane, methane and natural gas hydrate are discussed. Gas hydrate particles initially seem to grow mainly in size and at latter stages in number. (EG) EFP-94; 41 refs.

  5. Deuterium and phosphorus-31 nuclear magnetic resonance study of the interaction of melittin with dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine bilayers and the effects of contaminating phospholipase A2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dempsey, C.E.; Watts, A.


    The interaction of bee venom melittin with dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC) selectively deuteriated in the choline head group has been studied by deuterium and phosphorus-31 nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. The action of residual phospholipase A 2 in melittin samples resulted in mixtures of DMPC and its hydrolytic products that underwent reversible transitions at temperatures between 30 and 35 0 C from extended bilayers to micellar particles which gave narrow single-line deuterium and phosphorus-31 NMR spectra. Similar transitions were observed in DMPC-myristoyllysophosphatidylcholine (lysoPC)-myristic acid mixtures containing melittin but not in melittin-free mixtures, indicating that melittin is able to stabilize extended bilayers containing DMPC and its hydrolytic products in the liquid-crystalline phase. Melittin, free of phospholipase A 2 activity, and at 3-5 mol % relative to DMPC, induced reversible transitions between extended bilayers and micellar particles on passing through the liquid-crystalline to gel phase transition temperature of the lipid, effects similar to those observed in melittin-acyl chain deuteriated dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) mixtures. LysoPC at concentrations of 20 mol % or greater relative to DMPC induced transitions between extended bilayers and micellar particles with characteristics similar to those induced by melittin. It is proposed that these melittin- and lysoPC-induced transitions share similar mechanisms. The effects of melittin on the quadrupole splittings and T 1 relaxation times of head-group-deuteriated DMPC in the liquid-crystalline phase share features similar to the effects of metal ions on DPPC head groups, indicating that the conformational properties of the choline head group in PC bilayers may be affected by melittin and by metal ions in a similar manner

  6. Deuterium and phosphorus-31 nuclear magnetic resonance study of the interaction of melittin with dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine bilayers and the effects of contaminating phospholipase A/sub 2/

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dempsey, C.E.; Watts, A.


    The interaction of bee venom melittin with dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC) selectively deuteriated in the choline head group has been studied by deuterium and phosphorus-31 nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. The action of residual phospholipase A/sub 2/ in melittin samples resulted in mixtures of DMPC and its hydrolytic products that underwent reversible transitions at temperatures between 30 and 35/sup 0/C from extended bilayers to micellar particles which gave narrow single-line deuterium and phosphorus-31 NMR spectra. Similar transitions were observed in DMPC-myristoyllysophosphatidylcholine (lysoPC)-myristic acid mixtures containing melittin but not in melittin-free mixtures, indicating that melittin is able to stabilize extended bilayers containing DMPC and its hydrolytic products in the liquid-crystalline phase. Melittin, free of phospholipase A/sub 2/ activity, and at 3-5 mol % relative to DMPC, induced reversible transitions between extended bilayers and micellar particles on passing through the liquid-crystalline to gel phase transition temperature of the lipid, effects similar to those observed in melittin-acyl chain deuteriated dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) mixtures. LysoPC at concentrations of 20 mol % or greater relative to DMPC induced transitions between extended bilayers and micellar particles with characteristics similar to those induced by melittin. It is proposed that these melittin- and lysoPC-induced transitions share similar mechanisms. The effects of melittin on the quadrupole splittings and T/sub 1/ relaxation times of head-group-deuteriated DMPC in the liquid-crystalline phase share features similar to the effects of metal ions on DPPC head groups, indicating that the conformational properties of the choline head group in PC bilayers may be affected by melittin and by metal ions in a similar manner.

  7. Micromechanical cohesion force measurements to determine cyclopentane hydrate interfacial properties. (United States)

    Aman, Zachary M; Joshi, Sanjeev E; Sloan, E Dendy; Sum, Amadeu K; Koh, Carolyn A


    Hydrate aggregation and deposition are critical factors in determining where and when hydrates may plug a deepwater flowline. We present the first direct measurement of structure II (cyclopentane) hydrate cohesive forces in the water, liquid hydrocarbon and gas bulk phases. For fully annealed hydrate particles, gas phase cohesive forces were approximately twice that obtained in a liquid hydrocarbon phase, and approximately six times that obtained in the water phase. Direct measurements show that hydrate cohesion force in a water-continuous bulk may be only the product of solid-solid cohesion. When excess water was present on the hydrate surface, gas phase cohesive forces increased by a factor of three, suggesting the importance of the liquid or quasi-liquid layer (QLL) in determining cohesive force. Hydrate-steel adhesion force measurements show that, when the steel surface is coated with hydrophobic wax, forces decrease up to 96%. As the micromechanical force technique is uniquely capable of measuring hydrate-surface forces with variable contact time, the present work contains significant implications for hydrate applications in flow assurance. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Site Selection for DOE/JIP Gas Hydrate Drilling in the Northern Gulf of Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collett, T.S. (USGS); Riedel, M. (McGill Univ., Montreal, Quebec, Canada); Cochran, J.R. (Columbia Univ., Palisades, NY); Boswell, R.M.; Kumar, Pushpendra (Oil and Natural Gas Corporation Ltd., Navi Mumbai, India); Sathe, A.V. (Oil and Natural Gas Corporation Ltd., Uttaranchal, INDIA)


    Studies of geologic and geophysical data from the offshore of India have revealed two geologically distinct areas with inferred gas hydrate occurrences: the passive continental margins of the Indian Peninsula and along the Andaman convergent margin. The Indian National Gas Hydrate Program (NGHP) Expedition 01 was designed to study the occurrence of gas hydrate off the Indian Peninsula and along the Andaman convergent margin with special emphasis on understanding the geologic and geochemical controls on the occurrence of gas hydrate in these two diverse settings. NGHP Expedition 01 established the presence of gas hydrates in Krishna- Godavari, Mahanadi and Andaman basins. The expedition discovered one of the richest gas hydrate accumulations yet documented (Site 10 in the Krishna-Godavari Basin), documented the thickest and deepest gas hydrate stability zone yet known (Site 17 in Andaman Sea), and established the existence of a fully-developed gas hydrate system in the Mahanadi Basin (Site 19).

  9. First-principles elasticity of monocarboaluminate hydrates

    KAUST Repository

    Moon, J.


    The elasticity of monocarboaluminate hydrates, 3CaO·Al2O3·CaCO3·xH2O (x = 11 or 8), has been investigated by first-principles calculations. Previous experimental study revealed that the fully hydrated monocarboaluminate (x = 11) exhibits exceptionally low compressibility compared to other reported calcium aluminate hydrates. This stiff hydration product can contribute to the strength of concrete made with Portland cements containing calcium carbonates. In this study, full elastic tensors and mechanical properties of the crystal structures with different water contents (x = 11 or 8) are computed by first-principles methods based on density functional theory. The results indicate that the compressibility of monocarboaluminate is highly dependent on the water content in the interlayer region. The structure also becomes more isotropic with the addition of water molecules in this region. Since the monocarboaluminate is a key hydration product of limestone added cement, elasticity of the crystal is important to understand its mechanical impact on concrete. Besides, it is put forth that this theoretical calculation will be useful in predicting the elastic properties of other complex cementitous materials and the influence of ion exchange on compressibility.

  10. Methane Hydrates: Chapter 8 (United States)

    Boswell, Ray; Yamamoto, Koji; Lee, Sung-Rock; Collett, Timothy S.; Kumar, Pushpendra; Dallimore, Scott


    Gas hydrate is a solid, naturally occurring substance consisting predominantly of methane gas and water. Recent scientific drilling programs in Japan, Canada, the United States, Korea and India have demonstrated that gas hydrate occurs broadly and in a variety of forms in shallow sediments of the outer continental shelves and in Arctic regions. Field, laboratory and numerical modelling studies conducted to date indicate that gas can be extracted from gas hydrates with existing production technologies, particularly for those deposits in which the gas hydrate exists as pore-filling grains at high saturation in sand-rich reservoirs. A series of regional resource assessments indicate that substantial volumes of gas hydrate likely exist in sand-rich deposits. Recent field programs in Japan, Canada and in the United States have demonstrated the technical viability of methane extraction from gas-hydrate-bearing sand reservoirs and have investigated a range of potential production scenarios. At present, basic reservoir depressurisation shows the greatest promise and can be conducted using primarily standard industry equipment and procedures. Depressurisation is expected to be the foundation of future production systems; additional processes, such as thermal stimulation, mechanical stimulation and chemical injection, will likely also be integrated as dictated by local geological and other conditions. An innovative carbon dioxide and methane swapping technology is also being studied as a method to produce gas from select gas hydrate deposits. In addition, substantial additional volumes of gas hydrate have been found in dense arrays of grain-displacing veins and nodules in fine-grained, clay-dominated sediments; however, to date, no field tests, and very limited numerical modelling, have been conducted with regard to the production potential of such accumulations. Work remains to further refine: (1) the marine resource volumes within potential accumulations that can be

  11. Methods for Additive Hydration Allowing Observation of Fully Hydrated State of Wet Samples in Environmental SEM

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Neděla, Vilém


    Roč. 70, č. 2 (2007), s. 95-100 ISSN 1059-910X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA102/05/0886; GA AV ČR KJB200650602 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20650511 Keywords : agar * natural structure * biological specimens * environmental SEM Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering Impact factor: 1.644, year: 2007

  12. Protein hydration and dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakagawa, Hiroshi; Kataoka, Mikio


    Inelastic neutron scattering can measure the protein thermal fluctuations under the physiological aqueous environment, especially it is powerful to observe the low-energy protein dynamics in THz region, which are revealed theoretically to be coupled with solvations. Neutron enables the selective observation of protein and hydration water by deuteration. The complementary analysis with molecular dynamics simulation is also effective for the study of protein hydration. Some examples of the application toward the understanding of molecular basis of protein functions will be introduced. (author)

  13. Phosphate vibrations as reporters of DNA hydration (United States)

    Corcelli, Steven

    The asymmetric phosphate stretch vibrational frequency is extraordinarily sensitive to its local solvent environment. Using density functional theory calculations on the model compound dimethyl phosphate, the asymmetric phosphate stretch vibrational frequency was found to shift linearly with the magnitude of an electric field along the symmetry axis of the PO2 moiety (i.e. the asymmetric phosphate stretch is an excellent linear vibrational Stark effect probe). With this linear relationship established, asymmetric phosphate stretch vibrational frequencies were computed during the course of a molecular dynamics simulation of fully hydrated DNA. Moreover, contributions to shifts in the frequencies from subpopulations of water molecules (e.g. backbone, minor groove, major groove, etc.) were calculated to reveal how phosphate vibrations report the onset of DNA hydration in experiments that vary the relative humidity of non-condensing (dry) DNA samples.

  14. Aluminum Sulfate 18 Hydrate (United States)

    Young, Jay A.


    A chemical laboratory information profile (CLIP) of the chemical, aluminum sulfate 18 hydrate, is presented. The profile lists physical and harmful properties, exposure limits, reactivity risks, and symptoms of major exposure for the benefit of teachers and students using the chemical in the laboratory.

  15. Mesostructure from hydration gradients in demosponge biosilica. (United States)

    Neilson, James R; George, Nathan C; Murr, Meredith M; Seshadri, Ram; Morse, Daniel E


    Organisms of the phylum Porifera, that is, sponges, utilize enzymatic hydrolysis to concatenate bioavailable inorganic silicon to produce lightweight, strong, and often flexible skeletal elements called spicules. In their optical transparency, these remarkable biomaterials resemble fused silica, despite having been formed under ambient marine biological conditions. Although previous studies have elucidated the chemical mechanisms of spicule formation and revealed the extensive hydration of these glasses, their precise composition and local and medium-range structures had not been determined. We have employed a combination of compositional analysis, (1) H and (29) Si solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and synchrotron X-ray total scattering to characterize spicule-derived silica produced by the demosponge Tethya aurantia. These studies indicate that the materials are highly hydrated, but in an inhomogeneous manner. The spicule-derived silica is, on average, perfectly dense for the given extent of hydration and regions of fully condensed and unstrained SiO networks persist throughout each monolithic spicule. To accommodate chemical strain and defects, the extensive hydration is concentrated in distinct regions that give rise to mesostructural features. The chemistry responsible for producing spicule silica resembles hydrolytic sol-gel processing, which offers exceptional control over the precise local atomic arrangement of materials. However, the specific processing involved in forming the sponge spicule silica further results in regions of fully condensed silica coexisting with regions of incomplete condensation. This mesostructure suggests a mechanism for atomistic defect tolerance and strain relief that may account for the unusual mechanical properties of the biogenic spicules. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. The Methane Hydrate Reservoir System (United States)

    Flemings, P. B.; Liu, X.


    We use multi phase flow modeling and field examples (Hydrate Ridge, offshore Oregon and Blake Ridge, offshore North Carolina) to demonstrate that the methane hydrate reservoir system links traditional and non- traditional hydrocarbon system components: free gas flow is a fundamental control on this system. As in a traditional hydrocarbon reservoir, gas migrates into the hydrate reservoir as a separate phase (secondary migration) where it is trapped in a gas column beneath the base of the hydrate layer. With sufficient gas supply, buoyancy forces exceed either the capillary entry pressure of the cap rock or the fracture strength of the cap rock, and gas leaks into the hydrate stability zone, or cap rock. When gas enters the hydrate stability zone and forms hydrate, it becomes a very non traditional reservoir. Free gas forms hydrate, depletes water, and elevates salinity until pore water is too saline for further hydrate formation: salinity and hydrate concentration increase upwards from the base of the regional hydrate stability zone (RHSZ) to the seafloor and the base of the hydrate stability zone has significant topography. Gas chimneys couple the free gas zone to the seafloor through high salinity conduits that are maintained at the three-phase boundary by gas flow. As a result, significant amounts of gaseous methane can bypass the RHSZ, which implies a significantly smaller hydrate reservoir than previously envisioned. Hydrate within gas chimneys lie at the three-phase boundary and thus small increases in temperature or decreases in pressure can immediately transport methane into the ocean. This type of hydrate deposit may be the most economical for producing energy because it has very high methane concentrations (Sh > 70%) located near the seafloor, which lie on the three-phase boundary.

  17. The Hydrated Electron (United States)

    Herbert, John M.; Coons, Marc P.


    Existence of a hydrated electron as a byproduct of water radiolysis was established more than 50 years ago, yet this species continues to attract significant attention due to its role in radiation chemistry, including DNA damage, and because questions persist regarding its detailed structure. This work provides an overview of what is known in regards to the structure and spectroscopy of the hydrated electron, both in liquid water and in clusters [Formula: see text], the latter of which provide model systems for how water networks accommodate an excess electron. In clusters, the existence of both surface-bound and internally bound states of the excess electron has elicited much debate, whereas in bulk water there are questions regarding how best to understand the structure of the excess electron's spin density. The energetics of the equilibrium species e-(aq) and its excited states, in bulk water and at the air/water interface, are also addressed.

  18. Modeling Hydrates and the Gas Hydrate Markup Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weihua Wang


    Full Text Available Natural gas hydrates, as an important potential fuels, flow assurance hazards, and possible factors initiating the submarine geo-hazard and global climate change, have attracted the interest of scientists all over the world. After two centuries of hydrate research, a great amount of scientific data on gas hydrates has been accumulated. Therefore the means to manage, share, and exchange these data have become an urgent task. At present, metadata (Markup Language is recognized as one of the most efficient ways to facilitate data management, storage, integration, exchange, discovery and retrieval. Therefore the CODATA Gas Hydrate Data Task Group proposed and specified Gas Hydrate Markup Language (GHML as an extensible conceptual metadata model to characterize the features of data on gas hydrate. This article introduces the details of modeling portion of GHML.

  19. Overview: Nucleation of clathrate hydrates (United States)

    Warrier, Pramod; Khan, M. Naveed; Srivastava, Vishal; Maupin, C. Mark; Koh, Carolyn A.


    Molecular level knowledge of nucleation and growth of clathrate hydrates is of importance for advancing fundamental understanding on the nature of water and hydrophobic hydrate formers, and their interactions that result in the formation of ice-like solids at temperatures higher than the ice-point. The stochastic nature and the inability to probe the small length and time scales associated with the nucleation process make it very difficult to experimentally determine the molecular level changes that lead to the nucleation event. Conversely, for this reason, there have been increasing efforts to obtain this information using molecular simulations. Accurate knowledge of how and when hydrate structures nucleate will be tremendously beneficial for the development of sustainable hydrate management strategies in oil and gas flowlines, as well as for their application in energy storage and recovery, gas separation, carbon sequestration, seawater desalination, and refrigeration. This article reviews various aspects of hydrate nucleation. First, properties of supercooled water and ice nucleation are reviewed briefly due to their apparent similarity to hydrates. Hydrate nucleation is then reviewed starting from macroscopic observations as obtained from experiments in laboratories and operations in industries, followed by various hydrate nucleation hypotheses and hydrate nucleation driving force calculations based on the classical nucleation theory. Finally, molecular simulations on hydrate nucleation are discussed in detail followed by potential future research directions.

  20. Rapid gas hydrate formation process (United States)

    Brown, Thomas D.; Taylor, Charles E.; Unione, Alfred J.


    The disclosure provides a method and apparatus for forming gas hydrates from a two-phase mixture of water and a hydrate forming gas. The two-phase mixture is created in a mixing zone which may be wholly included within the body of a spray nozzle. The two-phase mixture is subsequently sprayed into a reaction zone, where the reaction zone is under pressure and temperature conditions suitable for formation of the gas hydrate. The reaction zone pressure is less than the mixing zone pressure so that expansion of the hydrate-forming gas in the mixture provides a degree of cooling by the Joule-Thompson effect and provides more intimate mixing between the water and the hydrate-forming gas. The result of the process is the formation of gas hydrates continuously and with a greatly reduced induction time. An apparatus for conduct of the method is further provided.

  1. Hydrate-CASM for modeling Methane Hydrate-Bearing Sediments (United States)

    De La Fuente Ruiz, M.; Vaunat, J.; Marin Moreno, H.


    A clear understanding of the geomechanical behavior of methane hydrate-bearing sediments (MHBS) is crucial to assess the stability of the seafloor and submarine infrastructures to human and natural loading changes. Here we present the Hydrate-CASM, a new elastoplastic constitutive model to predict the geomechanical behavior of MHBS. Our model employs the critical state model CASM (Clay and Sand Model) because of its flexibility in describing the shape of the yield surface and its proven ability to predict the mechanical behavior of sands, the most commercially viable hydrate reservoirs. The model considers MHBS as a deformable elastoplastic continuum, and hydrate-related changes in the stress-strain behavior are predicted by a densification mechanism. The densification attributes the mechanical contribution of hydrate to; a reduction of the available void ratio; a decrease of the swelling line slope; and an increase of the volumetric yield stress. It is described by experimentally derived physical parameters except from the swelling slope coefficient that requires empirical calibration. The Hydrate-CASM is validated against published triaxial laboratory tests performed at different confinement stresses, hydrate saturations, and hydrate morphologies. During the validation, we focused on capturing the mechanical behavior of the host sediment and consider perturbations of the sediment's mechanical properties that could result from the sample preparation. Our model successfully captures the experimentally observed influence of hydrate saturation in the magnitude and trend of the stiffness, shear strength, and dilatancy of MHBS. Hence, we propose that hydrate-related densification changes might be a major factor controlling the geomechanical response of MHBS.

  2. Parametric study of the physical properties of hydrate-bearing sand, silt, and clay sediments: 2. Small-strain mechanical properties (United States)

    Lee, J.Y.; Francisca, F.M.; Santamarina, J.C.; Ruppel, C.


    The small-strain mechanical properties (e.g., seismic velocities) of hydrate-bearing sediments measured under laboratory conditions provide reference values for calibration of logging and seismic exploration results acquired in hydrate-bearing formations. Instrumented cells were designed for measuring the compressional (P) and shear (S) velocities of sand, silts, and clay with and without hydrate and subject to vertical effective stresses of 0.01 to 2 MPa. Tetrahydrofuran (THF), which is fully miscible in water, was used as the hydrate former to permit close control over the hydrate saturation Shyd and to produce hydrate from dissolved phase, as methane hydrate forms in most natural marine settings. The results demonstrate that laboratory hydrate formation technique controls the pattern of P and S velocity changes with increasing Shyd and that the small-strain properties of hydrate-bearing sediments are governed by effective stress, δ'v and sediment specific surface. The S velocity increases with hydrate saturation owing to an increase in skeletal shear stiffness, particularly when hydrate saturation exceeds Shyd≈ 0.4. At very high hydrate saturations, the small strain shear stiffness is determined by the presence of hydrates and becomes insensitive to changes in effective stress. The P velocity increases with hydrate saturation due to the increases in both the shear modulus of the skeleton and the bulk modulus of pore-filling phases during fluid-to-hydrate conversion. Small-strain Poisson's ratio varies from 0.5 in soft sediments lacking hydrates to 0.25 in stiff sediments (i.e., subject to high vertical effective stress or having high Shyd). At Shyd ≥ 0.5, hydrate hinders expansion and the loss of sediment stiffness during reduction of vertical effective stress, meaning that hydrate-rich natural sediments obtained through pressure coring should retain their in situ fabric for some time after core retrieval if the cores are maintained within the hydrate

  3. Ductile flow of methane hydrate (United States)

    Durham, W.B.; Stern, L.A.; Kirby, S.H.


    Compressional creep tests (i.e., constant applied stress) conducted on pure, polycrystalline methane hydrate over the temperature range 260-287 K and confining pressures of 50-100 MPa show this material to be extraordinarily strong compared to other icy compounds. The contrast with hexagonal water ice, sometimes used as a proxy for gas hydrate properties, is impressive: over the thermal range where both are solid, methane hydrate is as much as 40 times stronger than ice at a given strain rate. The specific mechanical response of naturally occurring methane hydrate in sediments to environmental changes is expected to be dependent on the distribution of the hydrate phase within the formation - whether arranged structurally between and (or) cementing sediments grains versus passively in pore space within a sediment framework. If hydrate is in the former mode, the very high strength of methane hydrate implies a significantly greater strain-energy release upon decomposition and subsequent failure of hydrate-cemented formations than previously expected.

  4. TOUGH+Hydrate v1.0 User's Manual: A Code for the Simulation of System Behavior in Hydrate-Bearing Geologic Media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moridis, George; Moridis, George J.; Kowalsky, Michael B.; Pruess, Karsten


    TOUGH+HYDRATE v1.0 is a new code for the simulation of the behavior of hydrate-bearing geologic systems. By solving the coupled equations of mass and heat balance, TOUGH+HYDRATE can model the non-isothermal gas release, phase behavior and flow of fluids and heat under conditions typical of common natural CH{sub 4}-hydrate deposits (i.e., in the permafrost and in deep ocean sediments) in complex geological media at any scale (from laboratory to reservoir) at which Darcy's law is valid. TOUGH+HYDRATE v1.0 includes both an equilibrium and a kinetic model of hydrate formation and dissociation. The model accounts for heat and up to four mass components, i.e., water, CH{sub 4}, hydrate, and water-soluble inhibitors such as salts or alcohols. These are partitioned among four possible phases (gas phase, liquid phase, ice phase and hydrate phase). Hydrate dissociation or formation, phase changes and the corresponding thermal effects are fully described, as are the effects of inhibitors. The model can describe all possible hydrate dissociation mechanisms, i.e., depressurization, thermal stimulation, salting-out effects and inhibitor-induced effects. TOUGH+HYDRATE is the first member of TOUGH+, the successor to the TOUGH2 [Pruess et al., 1991] family of codes for multi-component, multiphase fluid and heat flow developed at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. It is written in standard FORTRAN 95, and can be run on any computational platform (workstation, PC, Macintosh) for which such compilers are available.

  5. Flow assurance intervention, hydrates remediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mancini, Christopher S. [Oceaneering International Inc., Houston, TX (United States)


    This paper addresses the issues of removing hydrates in sub sea flow lines and associated equipment with an Remotely Operated Vehicle (ROV) of opportunity and a multi-service-vessel (MSV). The paper is split into three topics: the equipment used with the ROV, assessing the interface points and handling fluids produced from drawing down the pressure. Each section is explained thoroughly and backed up with real world experience. The equipment section details information from actual jobs performed and why the particular components were utilized. The system is generally contained in an ROV mounted skid. Pumps are utilized to draw down the pressure inside the hydrated section of equipment, removing one of the three necessary components for hydrates formation. Once the section is pumped down, several options exist for handling the fluids pumped out of the system: pumping to surface, re-injection into the well, or injection into an operating flow line. This method of hydrates remediation is both economical and timely. Hydrate blockages form in low temperatures and high pressures. Reducing the pressure or increasing the temperature so the conditions lie to the right of the hydrate dissociation curve will slowly decompose the blockage. Depressurization and the use of MEG or methanol will give favorable conditions to remove the hydrate plug. Oceaneering has the capabilities to remove hydrates using the FRS in conjunction with an installation vessel to dispose of the gas and fluid removed from the flow line. Hydrate remediation techniques should be implemented into the initial design to reduce costs later. The cost of stopped production combined with the day rate for equipment needed for hydrate removal outweighs the costs if no technique is utilized. (author)

  6. Shifting Focus: From Hydration for Performance to Hydration for Health. (United States)

    Perrier, Erica T


    Over the past 10 years, literature on hydration biomarkers has evolved considerably - from (de)hydration assessment towards a more global definition of biomarkers of hydration in daily life. This shift in thinking about hydration markers was largely driven by investigating the differences that existed between otherwise healthy individuals whose habitual, ad-libitum drinking habits differ, and by identifying physiological changes in low-volume drinkers who subsequently increase their water intake. Aside from obvious differences in urinary volume and concentration, a growing body of evidence is emerging that links differences in fluid intake with small, but biologically significant, differences in vasopressin (copeptin), glomerular filtration rate, and markers of metabolic dysfunction or disease. Taken together, these pieces of the puzzle begin to form a picture of how much water intake should be considered adequate for health, and represent a shifting focus from hydration for performance, toward hydration for health outcomes. This narrative review outlines the key areas of research in which the global hydration process - including water intake, urinary hydration markers, and vasopressin - has been associated with health outcomes, focusing on kidney and metabolic endpoints. It will also provide a commentary on how various hydration biomarkers may be used in hydration for health assessment. Finally, if adequate water intake can play a role in maintaining health, how might we tell if we are drinking enough? Urine output is easily measured, and can take into account differences in daily physical activity, climate, dietary solute load, and other factors that influence daily water needs. Today, targets have been proposed for urine osmolality, specific gravity, and color that may be used by researchers, clinicians, and individuals as simple indicators of optimal hydration. However, there remain a large number of incomplete or unanswered research questions regarding the

  7. Android Fully Loaded

    CERN Document Server

    Huddleston, Rob


    Fully loaded with the latest tricks and tips on your new Android! Android smartphones are so hot, they're soaring past iPhones on the sales charts. And the second edition of this muscular little book is equally impressive--it's packed with tips and tricks for getting the very most out of your latest-generation Android device. Start Facebooking and tweeting with your Android mobile, scan barcodes to get pricing and product reviews, download your favorite TV shows--the book is positively bursting with practical and fun how-tos. Topics run the gamut from using speech recognition, location-based m

  8. Fully nonlinear elliptic equations

    CERN Document Server

    Caffarelli, Luis A


    The goal of the book is to extend classical regularity theorems for solutions of linear elliptic partial differential equations to the context of fully nonlinear elliptic equations. This class of equations often arises in control theory, optimization, and other applications. The authors give a detailed presentation of all the necessary techniques. Instead of treating these techniques in their greatest generality, they outline the key ideas and prove the results needed for developing the subsequent theory. Topics discussed in the book include the theory of viscosity solutions for nonlinear equa

  9. The structure of deuterated methane-hydrate (United States)

    Gutt, C.; Asmussen, B.; Press, W.; Johnson, M. R.; Handa, Y. P.; Tse, J. S.


    We present the results of a high-resolution neutron diffraction experiment with a fully deuterated methane hydrate type I at temperatures of 2, 100, and 150 K. Precise crystallographic parameters of the ice-like D2O lattice and the thermal parameters of the encaged methane molecules have been obtained. The parameters of the host lattice differ only slightly from values found for hydrates with asymmetric guests included, which leads to the conclusion that the host lattice of structure I is only a little adaptive. At low temperatures (2 K) the methane molecules in both types of cages present in structure I occupy positions in the center of the cages. At higher temperatures the thermal parameters in both types of cages reflect the surrounding cage geometries or more precisely the translational potentials of the cages. The orientational scattering length density of the CD4 molecules has been analyzed in terms of a multipole expansion with symmetry adapted functions [Press and Hüller, Acta Crystallogr., Sect. A: Cryst. Phys., Diffr., Theor. Gen. Crystallogr. A29, 252 (1972); Press, ibid. A29, 257 (1972)]. In both types of cages we found only small modulations of a spherically symmetric scattering density accounting for almost free rotations of the methane molecules. The large and asymmetric cage leads to a somewhat more pronounced modulation of the orientational density than in the small dodecahedral cage. The orientational probability distribution function (PDF) remains nearly unchanged from 2 to 150 K. At 200 K we observed the time-resolved decomposition of the hydrate structure I into hexagonal ice Ih.

  10. TOUGH+HYDRATE v1.2 User's Manual: A Code for the Simulation of System Behavior in Hydrate-Bearing Geologic Media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moridis, George J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Kowalsky, Michael B. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Pruess, Karsten [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)


    TOUGH+HYDRATE v1.2 is a code for the simulation of the behavior of hydratebearing geologic systems, and represents the second update of the code since its first release [Moridis et al., 2008]. By solving the coupled equations of mass and heat balance, TOUGH+HYDRATE can model the non-isothermal gas release, phase behavior and flow of fluids and heat under conditions typical of common natural CH4-hydrate deposits (i.e., in the permafrost and in deep ocean sediments) in complex geological media at any scale (from laboratory to reservoir) at which Darcy’s law is valid. TOUGH+HYDRATE v1.2 includes both an equilibrium and a kinetic model of hydrate formation and dissociation. The model accounts for heat and up to four mass components, i.e., water, CH4, hydrate, and water-soluble inhibitors such as salts or alcohols. These are partitioned among four possible phases (gas phase, liquid phase, ice phase and hydrate phase). Hydrate dissociation or formation, phase changes and the corresponding thermal effects are fully described, as are the effects of inhibitors. The model can describe all possible hydrate dissociation mechanisms, i.e., depressurization, thermal stimulation, salting-out effects and inhibitor-induced effects. TOUGH+HYDRATE is a member of TOUGH+, the successor to the TOUGH2 [Pruess et al., 1991] family of codes for multi-component, multiphase fluid and heat flow developed at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. It is written in standard FORTRAN 95/2003, and can be run on any computational platform (workstation, PC, Macintosh) for which such compilers are available.

  11. Gas Hydrate Research Site Selection and Operational Research Plans (United States)

    Collett, T. S.; Boswell, R. M.


    comprehensive set of logging-while-drilling (LWD) data through expected gas-hydrate-bearing sand reservoirs in seven wells at three sites in the Gulf of Mexico. The discovery of thick hydrate-bearing sands at two of the sites drilled in the Gulf Mexico validated the integrated geological and geophysical approach used in the pre-drill site selection process to identify gas hydrate reservoirs that may be conducive to energy production. The results of the GOM JIP Leg II LWD expedition are also being used to support the selection of sites for a future drilling, logging, and coring program. Operationally, recent drilling programs, such as ODP Leg 204, IODP Expedition 311, the Japanese Toaki-oki to Kumano-nada drilling leg, the Indian NGHP Expedition 01, and the South Korean Gas Hydrate Research and Development Organization Expedition 01 have demonstrated the great benefit of a multi-leg drilling approach, including the initial acquisition of LWD data that was used to then select sites for the drilling of complex core and wireline logging test holes. It is obvious that a fully integrated site selection approach and a “goal based” operational plan, possibly including numerous drill sites and drilling legs, are required considerations for any future gas hydrate research project.

  12. Hydration water and microstructure in calcium silicate and aluminate hydrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fratini, Emiliano; Ridi, Francesca; Chen, Sow-Hsin; Baglioni, Piero


    Understanding the state of the hydration water and the microstructure development in a cement paste is likely to be the key for the improvement of its ultimate strength and durability. In order to distinguish and characterize the reacted and unreacted water, the single-particle dynamics of water molecules in hydrated calcium silicates (C 3 S, C 2 S) and aluminates (C 3 A, C 4 AF) were studied by quasi-elastic neutron scattering, QENS. The time evolution of the immobile fraction represents the hydration kinetics and the mobile fraction follows a non-Debye relaxation. Less sophisticated, but more accessible and cheaper techniques, like differential scanning calorimetry, DSC, and near-infrared spectroscopy, NIR, were validated through QENS results and they allow one to easily and quantitatively follow the cement hydration kinetics and can be widely applied on a laboratory scale to understand the effect of additives (i.e., superplasticizers, cellulosic derivatives, etc) on the thermodynamics of the hydration process. DSC provides information on the free water index and on the activation energy involved in the hydration process while the NIR band at 7000 cm -1 monitors, at a molecular level, the increase of the surface-interacting water. We report as an example the effect of two classes of additives widely used in the cement industry: superplasticizers, SPs, and cellulose derivatives. SPs interact at the solid surface, leading to a consistent increment of the activation energy for the processes of nucleation and growth of the hydrated phases. In contrast, the cellulosic additives do not affect the nucleation and growth activation energy, but cause a significant increment in the water availability: in other words the hydration process is more efficient without any modification of the solid/liquid interaction, as also evidenced by the 1 H-NMR. Additional information is obtained by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), ultra small angle neutron scattering (USANS) and wide

  13. Hydration water and microstructure in calcium silicate and aluminate hydrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fratini, Emiliano [Department of Chemistry and CSGI, University of Florence, via della Lastruccia 3-Sesto Fiorentino, I-50019 Florence (Italy); Ridi, Francesca [Department of Chemistry and CSGI, University of Florence, via della Lastruccia 3-Sesto Fiorentino, I-50019 Florence (Italy); Chen, Sow-Hsin [Department of Nuclear Science and Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Baglioni, Piero [Department of Chemistry and CSGI, University of Florence, via della Lastruccia 3-Sesto Fiorentino, I-50019 Florence (Italy)


    Understanding the state of the hydration water and the microstructure development in a cement paste is likely to be the key for the improvement of its ultimate strength and durability. In order to distinguish and characterize the reacted and unreacted water, the single-particle dynamics of water molecules in hydrated calcium silicates (C{sub 3}S, C{sub 2}S) and aluminates (C{sub 3}A, C{sub 4}AF) were studied by quasi-elastic neutron scattering, QENS. The time evolution of the immobile fraction represents the hydration kinetics and the mobile fraction follows a non-Debye relaxation. Less sophisticated, but more accessible and cheaper techniques, like differential scanning calorimetry, DSC, and near-infrared spectroscopy, NIR, were validated through QENS results and they allow one to easily and quantitatively follow the cement hydration kinetics and can be widely applied on a laboratory scale to understand the effect of additives (i.e., superplasticizers, cellulosic derivatives, etc) on the thermodynamics of the hydration process. DSC provides information on the free water index and on the activation energy involved in the hydration process while the NIR band at 7000 cm{sup -1} monitors, at a molecular level, the increase of the surface-interacting water. We report as an example the effect of two classes of additives widely used in the cement industry: superplasticizers, SPs, and cellulose derivatives. SPs interact at the solid surface, leading to a consistent increment of the activation energy for the processes of nucleation and growth of the hydrated phases. In contrast, the cellulosic additives do not affect the nucleation and growth activation energy, but cause a significant increment in the water availability: in other words the hydration process is more efficient without any modification of the solid/liquid interaction, as also evidenced by the {sup 1}H-NMR. Additional information is obtained by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), ultra small angle neutron

  14. Coupled numerical modeling of gas hydrates bearing sediments from laboratory to field-scale conditions (United States)

    Sanchez, M. J.; Santamarina, C.; Gai, X., Sr.; Teymouri, M., Sr.


    Stability and behavior of Hydrate Bearing Sediments (HBS) are characterized by the metastable character of the gas hydrate structure which strongly depends on thermo-hydro-chemo-mechanical (THCM) actions. Hydrate formation, dissociation and methane production from hydrate bearing sediments are coupled THCM processes that involve, amongst other, exothermic formation and endothermic dissociation of hydrate and ice phases, mixed fluid flow and large changes in fluid pressure. The analysis of available data from past field and laboratory experiments, and the optimization of future field production studies require a formal and robust numerical framework able to capture the very complex behavior of this type of soil. A comprehensive fully coupled THCM formulation has been developed and implemented into a finite element code to tackle problems involving gas hydrates sediments. Special attention is paid to the geomechanical behavior of HBS, and particularly to their response upon hydrate dissociation under loading. The numerical framework has been validated against recent experiments conducted under controlled conditions in the laboratory that challenge the proposed approach and highlight the complex interaction among THCM processes in HBS. The performance of the models in these case studies is highly satisfactory. Finally, the numerical code is applied to analyze the behavior of gas hydrate soils under field-scale conditions exploring different features of material behavior under possible reservoir conditions.

  15. Mechanism of gypsum hydration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pacheco, G.


    Full Text Available There is an hypothesis that the mechanism o f gypsum hydration and dehydration is performed through two simultaneous phenomena. In this study we try to clear up this phenomenon using chlorides as accelerators or a mixture of ethanol-methanol as retarders to carry out the gypsum setting. Natural Mexican gypsum samples and a hemihydrate prepared in the laboratory are used. The following analytical techniques are used: MO, DRX, DTA, TG and DTG. In agreement with the obtained results, it can be concluded: that colloid formation depends on the action of accelerators or retarders and the crystals are a consequence of the quantity of hemihydrate formed.

    En el mecanismo de hidratación y deshidratación del yeso existe la hipótesis de que éste se efectúa por dos fenómenos simultáneos. Este estudio intenta esclarecer estos fenómenos, empleando: cloruros como aceleradores o mezcla etanol-metanol como retardadores para efectuar el fraguado del yeso. Se emplean muestras de yeso de origen natural mexicano y hemihydrate preparado en laboratorio; se utilizan técnicas analíticas: MO, DRX, DTA, TG y DTG. De acuerdo a los resultados obtenidos se puede deducir: que la formación del coloide depende de la acción de los agentes aceleradores o retardadores y que los cristales son consecuencia de la cantidad de hemihidrato formado.

  16. Fully electric waste collection

    CERN Document Server

    Anaïs Schaeffer


    Since 15 June, Transvoirie, which provides waste collection services throughout French-speaking Switzerland, has been using a fully electric lorry for its collections on the CERN site – a first for the region!   Featuring a motor powered by electric batteries that charge up when the brakes are used, the new lorry that roams the CERN site is as green as can be. And it’s not only the motor that’s electric: its waste compactor and lifting mechanism are also electrically powered*, making it the first 100% electric waste collection vehicle in French-speaking Switzerland. Considering that a total of 15.5 tonnes of household waste and paper/cardboard are collected each week from the Meyrin and Prévessin sites, the benefits for the environment are clear. This improvement comes as part of CERN’s contract with Transvoirie, which stipulates that the firm must propose ways of becoming more environmentally friendly (at no extra cost to CERN). *The was...

  17. Fully reflective photon sieve (United States)

    Sun, Wenbo; Hu, Yongxiang; MacDonnell, David G.; Kim, Hyun Jung; Weimer, Carl; Baize, Rosemary R.


    Photon sieves (PS) have many applications and various designs in focusing light. However, a traditional PS only has a light transmissivity up to ∼25% and a focusing efficiency up to ∼7%, which hinder the application of them in many fields, especially for satellite remote sensing. To overcome these inherent drawbacks of traditional PSs, a concept of reflective photon sieve is developed in this work. This reflective photon sieve is based on a transparent membrane backed by a mirror. The transparent membrane is optimally a fully transparent material sheet with given refractive index and designed geometric thickness which has an optical thickness of a quarter incident wavelength (i.e. an anti-reflective coating). The PS-patterned pinholes are made on the transparent membrane. The design makes the light reflected from pinholes and that from zones of membrane material have 180° phase difference. Thus, light incident on this optical device is reflected and focused on its focal point. This device can have a reflectivity of ∼100% and a focusing efficiency of ∼50% based on numerical simulation. This device functions similar to a concave focusing mirror but can preserve the phase feature of light (such as that for the light with orbital angular momentum). It also has excellent wavelength-dependent property, which can exclude most of the undesired light from the focal point. A thin sheet of this component can perform the joint function of lenses and gratings/etalons in the optical path of a remote sensing system, thus is suitable for controling/filtering light in compact instruments such as satellite sensors. This concept is validated by the finite-difference time domain (FDTD) modeling and a lab prototype in this study.

  18. Reconsideration on Hydration of Sodium Ion: From Micro-Hydration to Bulk Hydration (United States)

    Yongquan, Zhou; Chunhui, Fang; Yan, Fang; Fayan, Zhu; Haiwen, Ge; Hongyan, Liu


    Micro hydration structures of the sodium ion, [Na(H2O) n ]+, n = 1-12, were probed by density functional theory (DFT) at B3LYP/aug-cc-pVDZ level in both gaseous and aqueous phase. The predicted equilibrium sodium-oxygen distance of 0.240 nm at the present level of theory. The four-, five- and six-coordinated cluster can transform from each other at the ambient condition. The analysis of the successive water binding energy and natural charge population (NBO) on Na+ clearly shows that the influence of Na+ on the surrounding water molecules goes beyond the first hydration shell with the hydration number of 6. The Car-Parrinello molecular dynamic simulation shows that only the first hydration sphere can be found, and the hydration number of Na+ is 5.2 and the hydration distance ( r Na-O) is 0.235 nm. All our simulations mentioned in the present paper show an excellent agreement with the diffraction result from X-ray scattering study.

  19. Protons in hydrated protein powders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Careri, G.; Bruni, F.; Consolini, G.


    Previous work from this laboratory has shown that hydrated lysozyme powders exhibit a dielectric behaviour, due to proton conductivity, explainable within the frame of percolation theory. Long range proton displacement appears only above the critical hydration for percolation, when the 2-dimensional motion takes place on fluctuating clusters of hydrogen-bonded water molecules adsorbed on the protein surface. The emergence of biological function, enzyme catalysis, was found to coincide with the critical hydration for percolation. More recently, we have evaluated the protonic conductivity of hydrated lysozyme powders, from room down to liquid N 2 temperature. In the high temperature limit a classical isotopic effect can be detected, and the conductivity follows the familiar Arrhenius law for thermally activated hopping. In the low temperature region the conductivity shows a temperature dependence in agreement with prediction by the theory of dissipative quantum tunneling. Below room temperature the static dielectric constant, and the dielectric relaxation time for charge transport showed an increase likely to be identified with the formation of a polaronic-solitonic species as predicted by the theory of proton transport in water chains, a species which displays a larger effective mass and a larger dipole moment that the usual hydrated protonic defects. The purpose of this paper is twofold. In the first section we present a tutorial report of some previous experimental results on proton displacement in slightly hydrated biological systems at room temperature, to show that in these systems the emergence of biological systems at room temperature, to show that in these systems the emergence of biological function coincides with the onset of percolative pathways in the water molecules network adsorbed on the surface of biomolecules. In the second section, we report on preliminary data on the dielectric relaxation of hydrated lysozyme below room temperature, to suggest

  20. Energy resource potential of natural gas hydrates (United States)

    Collett, T.S.


    The discovery of large gas hydrate accumulations in terrestrial permafrost regions of the Arctic and beneath the sea along the outer continental margins of the world's oceans has heightened interest in gas hydrates as a possible energy resource. However, significant to potentially insurmountable technical issues must be resolved before gas hydrates can be considered a viable option for affordable supplies of natural gas. The combined information from Arctic gas hydrate studies shows that, in permafrost regions, gas hydrates may exist at subsurface depths ranging from about 130 to 2000 m. The presence of gas hydrates in offshore continental margins has been inferred mainly from anomalous seismic reflectors, known as bottom-simulating reflectors, that have been mapped at depths below the sea floor ranging from about 100 to 1100 m. Current estimates of the amount of gas in the world's marine and permafrost gas hydrate accumulations are in rough accord at about 20,000 trillion m3. Disagreements over fundamental issues such as the volume of gas stored within delineated gas hydrate accumulations and the concentration of gas hydrates within hydrate-bearing strata have demonstrated that we know little about gas hydrates. Recently, however, several countries, including Japan, India, and the United States, have launched ambitious national projects to further examine the resource potential of gas hydrates. These projects may help answer key questions dealing with the properties of gas hydrate reservoirs, the design of production systems, and, most important, the costs and economics of gas hydrate production.

  1. Clinker mineral hydration at reduced relative humidities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole Mejlhede; Hansen, Per Freiesleben; Lachowski, Eric E.


    Vapour phase hydration of purl cement clinker minerals at reduced relative humidities is described. This is relevant to modern high performance concrete that may self-desiccate during hydration and is also relevant to the quality of the cement during storage. Both the oretical considerations...... and experimental data are presented showing that C(3)A can hydrate at lower humidities than either C3S or C2S. It is suggested that the initiation of hydration during exposure to water vapour is nucleation controlled. When C(3)A hydrates at low humidity, the characteristic hydration product is C(3)AH(6...

  2. Gas hydrates forming and decomposition conditions analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А. М. Павленко


    Full Text Available The concept of gas hydrates has been defined; their brief description has been given; factors that affect the formation and decomposition of the hydrates have been reported; their distribution, structure and thermodynamic conditions determining the gas hydrates formation disposition in gas pipelines have been considered. Advantages and disadvantages of the known methods for removing gas hydrate plugs in the pipeline have been analyzed, the necessity of their further studies has been proved. In addition to the negative impact on the process of gas extraction, the hydrates properties make it possible to outline the following possible fields of their industrial use: obtaining ultrahigh pressures in confined spaces at the hydrate decomposition; separating hydrocarbon mixtures by successive transfer of individual components through the hydrate given the mode; obtaining cold due to heat absorption at the hydrate decomposition; elimination of the open gas fountain by means of hydrate plugs in the bore hole of the gushing gasser; seawater desalination, based on the hydrate ability to only bind water molecules into the solid state; wastewater purification; gas storage in the hydrate state; dispersion of high temperature fog and clouds by means of hydrates; water-hydrates emulsion injection into the productive strata to raise the oil recovery factor; obtaining cold in the gas processing to cool the gas, etc.

  3. Hydration dynamics of a lipid membrane: Hydrogen bond networks and lipid-lipid associations (United States)

    Srivastava, Abhinav; Debnath, Ananya


    Dynamics of hydration layers of a dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC) bilayer are investigated using an all atom molecular dynamics simulation. Based upon the geometric criteria, continuously residing interface water molecules which form hydrogen bonds solely among themselves and then concertedly hydrogen bonded to carbonyl, phosphate, and glycerol head groups of DMPC are identified. The interface water hydrogen bonded to lipids shows slower relaxation rates for translational and rotational dynamics compared to that of the bulk water and is found to follow sub-diffusive and non-diffusive behaviors, respectively. The mean square displacements and the reorientational auto-correlation functions are slowest for the interfacial waters hydrogen bonded to the carbonyl oxygen since these are buried deep in the hydrophobic core among all interfacial water studied. The intermittent hydrogen bond auto-correlation functions are calculated, which allows breaking and reformations of the hydrogen bonds. The auto-correlation functions for interfacial hydrogen bonded networks develop humps during a transition from cage-like motion to eventual power law behavior of t-3/2. The asymptotic t-3/2 behavior indicates translational diffusion dictated dynamics during hydrogen bond breaking and formation irrespective of the nature of the chemical confinement. Employing reactive flux correlation analysis, the forward rate constant of hydrogen bond breaking and formation is calculated which is used to obtain Gibbs energy of activation of the hydrogen bond breaking. The relaxation rates of the networks buried in the hydrophobic core are slower than the networks near the lipid-water interface which is again slower than bulk due to the higher Gibbs energy of activation. Since hydrogen bond breakage follows a translational diffusion dictated mechanism, chemically confined hydrogen bond networks need an activation energy to diffuse through water depleted hydrophobic environments. Our calculations

  4. Evaluation of superpave mixtures containing hydrated lime. (United States)


    The use of hydrated lime in Hot-Mix Asphalt (HMA) mixtures can reduce permanent deformation, long-term aging, and moisture : susceptibility of mixtures. In addition, hydrated lime increases the stiffness and fatigue resistance of mixtures. This study...

  5. Novel understanding of calcium silicate hydrate from dilute hydration

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Lina


    The perspective of calcium silicate hydrate (C-S-H) is still confronting various debates due to its intrinsic complicated structure and properties after decades of studies. In this study, hydration at dilute suspension of w/s equaling to 10 was conducted for tricalcium silicate (C3S) to interpret long-term hydration process and investigate the formation, structure and properties of C-S-H. Based on results from XRD, IR, SEM, NMR and so forth, loose and dense clusters of C-S-H with analogous C/S ratio were obtained along with the corresponding chemical formulae proposed as Ca5Si4O13∙6.2H2O. Crystalline structure inside C-S-H was observed by TEM, which was allocated at the foil-like proportion as well as the edge of wrinkles of the product. The long-term hydration process of C3S in dilute suspension could be sketchily described as migration of calcium hydroxide and in-situ growth of C-S-H with equilibrium silicon in aqueous solution relatively constant and calcium varied.

  6. Evaluation of hydration indexes in kale leaves


    Calbo, Adonai G.; Ferreira, Marcos D.


    Hydration indexes are practical variables for quantifying plant water stress and can be useful for agronomic purposes. Three adapted hydration indexes based on relative water content, volumetric hydration, and leaf turgor pressure were evaluated in kale (Brassica oleracea var. acephala) leaf segments. Relative water content and volumetric hydration were measured in leaf segments after a water infiltration procedure with the aim of filling its large intercellular volumes (@18%v/v). The infiltr...

  7. Rejuvenating Hydrator: Restoring Epidermal Hyaluronic Acid Homeostasis With Instant Benefits. (United States)

    Narurkar, Vic A; Fabi, Sabrina G; Bucay, Vivian W; Tedaldi, Ruth; Downie, Jeanine B; Zeichner, Joshua A; Butterwick, Kimberly; Taub, Amy; Kadoya, Kuniko; Makino, Elizabeth T; Mehta, Rahul C; Vega, Virginia L


    Skin aging is a combination of multifactorial mechanisms that are not fully understood. Intrinsic and extrinsic factors modulate skin aging, activating distinctive processes that share similar molecular pathways. One of the main characteristics of youthful skin is its large capacity to retain water, and this decreases significantly as we age. A key molecule involved in maintaining skin hydration is hyaluronic acid (HA). Concentration of HA in the skin is determined by the complex balance between its synthesis, deposition, association with cellular structures, and degradation. HA bio-equivalency and bio-compatibility have been fundamental in keeping this macromolecule as the favorite of the skincare industry for decades. Scientific evidence now shows that topically applied HA is unable to penetrate the skin and is rapidly degraded on the skin surface. SkinMedica's HA5 Rejuvenating Hydrator (SkinMedica Inc., an Allergan company, Irvine, CA) promotes restoration of endogenous epidermal HA homeostasis and provides instant smoothing and hydration of the skin. These dual benefits are accomplished through the combination of 2 breakthrough technologies: 1) a unique blend of actives powered by SkinMedica proprietary flower-derived stem cell extract that restores the endogenous production of HA; and 2) a proprietary mix of 5 HA forms that plump the skin, decreasing the appearance of fine lines/wrinkles. Pre-clinical studies demonstrated that HA5 induces expression of key epidermal differentiation and barrier markers as well as epidermal HA synthases. A decrease expression of hyaluronidases was also observed upon HA5 application. Initial clinical studies showed that within 15 minutes of application, HA5 instantly improves the appearance of fine lines/wrinkles and skin hydration. Subjects that continue using HA5 (for 8 weeks) demonstrated significant improvements in fine lines/wrinkles, tactile roughness, and skin hydration. In summary, the blend of these 2 key technologies

  8. Hydration modeling of calcium sulphates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Korte, A.C.J.; Brouwers, H.J.H.; Al-Mattarneh, Hashem; Mustapha, Kamal N.; Nuruddin, Muhd Fadhil


    The CEMHYD3D model has been extended at the University of Twente in the last ten years [1,2]. At present the cement hydration model is extended for the use of gypsum. Although gypsum was present in the model already, the model was not suitable for high contents of gypsum and did not include the

  9. Is Br2 hydration hydrophobic? (United States)

    Alcaraz-Torres, A; Gamboa-Suárez, A; Bernal-Uruchurtu, M I


    The spectroscopic properties of bromine in aqueous systems suggest it can behave as either hydrophilic or hydrophobic solute. In small water clusters, the halogen bond and the hydrogen-halogen interaction are responsible for its specific way of binding. In water hydrates, it is efficiently hosted by two different cages forming the crystal structure and it has been frequently assumed that there is little or no interaction between the guest and the host. Bromine in liquid solution poses a challenging question due to its non-negligible solubility and the large blue shift measured in its absorption spectra. Using a refined semi-empirical force field, PM3-PIF, we performed a Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics study of bromine in liquid water. Here we present a detailed study in which we retrieved the most representative hydration structures in terms of the most frequent positions around bromine and the most common water orientations. Albeit being an approximate description of the total hydration phenomenon, it captures the contribution of the leading molecular interactions in form of the recurrent structures. Our findings confirm that the spectroscopic signature is mainly caused by the closest neighbors. The dynamics of the whole first hydration shell strongly suggests that the external molecules in that structure effectively isolate the bulk from the presence of bromine. The solvation structure fluctuates from a hydrophilic to a hydrophobic-like environment along the studied trajectory.

  10. Fluids and hydration in prolonged endurance performance. (United States)

    Von Duvillard, Serge P; Braun, William A; Markofski, Melissa; Beneke, Ralph; Leithäuser, Renate


    Numerous studies have confirmed that performance can be impaired when athletes are dehydrated. Endurance athletes should drink beverages containing carbohydrate and electrolyte during and after training or competition. Carbohydrates (sugars) favor consumption and Na(+) favors retention of water. Drinking during competition is desirable compared with fluid ingestion after or before training or competition only. Athletes seldom replace fluids fully due to sweat loss. Proper hydration during training or competition will enhance performance, avoid ensuing thermal stress, maintain plasma volume, delay fatigue, and prevent injuries associated with dehydration and sweat loss. In contrast, hyperhydration or overdrinking before, during, and after endurance events may cause Na(+) depletion and may lead to hyponatremia. It is imperative that endurance athletes replace sweat loss via fluid intake containing about 4% to 8% of carbohydrate solution and electrolytes during training or competition. It is recommended that athletes drink about 500 mL of fluid solution 1 to 2 h before an event and continue to consume cool or cold drinks in regular intervals to replace fluid loss due to sweat. For intense prolonged exercise lasting longer than 1 h, athletes should consume between 30 and 60 g/h and drink between 600 and 1200 mL/h of a solution containing carbohydrate and Na(+) (0.5 to 0.7 g/L of fluid). Maintaining proper hydration before, during, and after training and competition will help reduce fluid loss, maintain performance, lower submaximal exercise heart rate, maintain plasma volume, and reduce heat stress, heat exhaustion, and possibly heat stroke.

  11. Hydration mechanisms of mineral trioxide aggregate. (United States)

    Camilleri, J


    To report the hydration mechanism of white mineral trioxide aggregate (White MTA, Dentsply, Tulsa Dental Products, Tulsa, OK, USA). The chemical constitution of white MTA was studied by viewing the powder in polished sections under the scanning electron microscope (SEM). The hydration of both white MTA and white Portland cement (PC) was studied by characterizing cement hydrates viewed under the SEM, plotting atomic ratios, performing quantitative energy dispersive analyses with X-ray (EDAX) and by calculation of the amount of anhydrous clinker minerals using the Bogue calculation. Un-hydrated MTA was composed of impure tri-calcium and di-calcium silicate and bismuth oxide. The aluminate phase was scarce. On hydration the white PC produced a dense structure made up of calcium silicate hydrate, calcium hydroxide, monosulphate and ettringite as the main hydration products. The un-reacted cement grain was coated with a layer of hydrated cement. In contrast MTA produced a porous structure on hydration. Levels of ettringite and monosulphate were low. Bismuth oxide was present as un-reacted powder but also incorporated with the calcium silicate hydrate. White MTA was deficient in alumina suggesting that the material was not prepared in a rotary kiln. On hydration this affected the production of ettringite and monosulphate usually formed on hydration of PC. The bismuth affected the hydration mechanism of MTA; it formed part of the structure of C-S-H and also affected the precipitation of calcium hydroxide in the hydrated paste. The microstructure of hydrated MTA would likely be weaker when compared with that of PC.

  12. Apparatus investigates geological aspects of gas hydrates (United States)

    Booth, J.S.; Winters, W.J.; Dillon, William P.


    The US Geological Survey (USGS), in response to potential geohazards, energy resource potential, and climate issues associated with marine gas hydrates, has developed a laboratory research system that permits hydrate genesis and dissociation under deep-sea conditions, employing user-selected sediment types and pore fluids.The apparatus, GHASTI (gas hydrate and sediment test laboratory instrument), provides a means to link field studies and theory and serves as a tool to improve gas hydrate recognition and assessment, using remote sensing techniques.GHASTLI's use was proven in an exploration well project led by the Geological Survey of Canada and the Japanese National Oil Corp., collaborating with Japan Petroleum Exploration Co. and the USGS. The site was in the Mackenzie Delta region of the Northwest Territories (Mallik 2L-38 drillsite).From tests on natural methane hydrate-bearing sand recovered at about 1,000 m subsurface, the in situ quantity of hydrate was estimated from acoustic properties, and a substantial increase in shear strength due to the presence of the hydrate was measured.1 2GHASTI can mimic a wide range of geologic settings and processes. Initial goals involve improved recognition and mapping of gas hydrate-bearing sediments, understanding factors that control the occurrence and concentration of gas hydrates, knowledge of hydrate's significance to slope failure and foundation problems, and analysis of gas hydrate's potential use as an energy resource.

  13. Influence of fluorosurfactants on hydrate formation rates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, C.U.; Jeong, K.E.; Chae, H.J.; Jeong, S.Y. [Korea Reasearch Inst. of Chemical Technology, Alternative Chemicals/Fuel Research Center, Yuseong-Gu, Daejon (Korea, Republic of)


    Gas hydrates, or clathrates, are ice-like solids that forms when natural gas is in contact with liquid water or ice under high pressure and low temperature. There is significant interest in studying the storage and transportation of gas in the form of hydrates. However, a critical problem impacting the industrial application of gas hydrates for storage and transportation of natural gas is the slow formation rate of natural gas hydrate. Researchers have previously reported on the promotion effect of some additives on gas hydrate formation and hydrate gas content. Fluorosurfactants are significantly superior to nonfluorinated surfactants in wetting action, as well as stability in harsh environments, both thermal and chemical. This paper discussed an experimental investigation into the effects of fluorosurfactants with different ionic types on the formation of methane hydrate. The surfactants used were FSN-100 of DuPont Zonyl as non-ionic surfactant and FC-143 of DuPont as anionic surfactant. The paper discussed the experimental apparatus for methane hydrate formation. It also discussed hydrate formation kinetics and the series of hydrate formation experiments that were conducted in the presence of fluorosurfactants. Last, the paper explored the results of the study. It was concluded that anionic fluorosurfactant of FC-143 had a better promoting effect on methane hydrate formation compared with nonionic surfactant of FSN-100. 8 refs., 2 tabs., 2 figs.

  14. Terahertz Time Domain Spectroscopy for Structure-II Gas Hydrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Takeya, Kei; Zhang, Caihong; Kawayama, Iwao


    For the nondestructive inspection of gas hydrates, terahertz (THz) time-domain spectroscopy (TDS) was applied to tetrahydrofuran (THF) hydrate and propane hydrate. The absorption of propane hydrate monotonically increases with frequency, similar to the case of ice, while THF hydrate has a charact......For the nondestructive inspection of gas hydrates, terahertz (THz) time-domain spectroscopy (TDS) was applied to tetrahydrofuran (THF) hydrate and propane hydrate. The absorption of propane hydrate monotonically increases with frequency, similar to the case of ice, while THF hydrate has...

  15. Handbook of gas hydrate properties and occurrence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuustraa, V.A.; Hammershaimb, E.C.


    This handbook provides data on the resource potential of naturally occurring hydrates, the properties that are needed to evaluate their recovery, and their production potential. The first two chapters give data on the naturally occurring hydrate potential by reviewing published resource estimates and the known and inferred occurrences. The third and fourth chapters review the physical and thermodynamic properties of hydrates, respectively. The thermodynamic properties of hydrates that are discussed include dissociation energies and a simplified method to calculate them; phase diagrams for simple and multi-component gases; the thermal conductivity; and the kinetics of hydrate dissociation. The final chapter evaluates the net energy balance of recovering hydrates and shows that a substantial positive energy balance can theoretically be achieved. The Appendices of the Handbook summarize physical and thermodynamic properties of gases, liquids and solids that can be used in designing and evaluating recovery processes of hydrates. 158 references, 67 figures, 47 tables.

  16. Glacial Cycles Influence Marine Methane Hydrate Formation (United States)

    Malinverno, A.; Cook, A. E.; Daigle, H.; Oryan, B.


    Methane hydrates in fine-grained continental slope sediments often occupy isolated depth intervals surrounded by hydrate-free sediments. As they are not connected to deep gas sources, these hydrate deposits have been interpreted as sourced by in situ microbial methane. We investigate here the hypothesis that these isolated hydrate accumulations form preferentially in sediments deposited during Pleistocene glacial lowstands that contain relatively large amounts of labile particulate organic carbon, leading to enhanced microbial methanogenesis. To test this hypothesis, we apply an advection-diffusion-reaction model with a time-dependent organic carbon deposition controlled by glacioeustatic sea level variations. In the model, hydrate forms in sediments with greater organic carbon content deposited during the penultimate glacial cycle ( 120-240 ka). The model predictions match hydrate-bearing intervals detected in three sites drilled on the northern Gulf of Mexico continental slope, supporting the hypothesis of hydrate formation driven by enhanced organic carbon burial during glacial lowstands.

  17. Is the Surface of Gas Hydrates Dry?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobuo Maeda


    Full Text Available Adhesion (cohesion and agglomeration properties of gas hydrate particles have been a key to hydrate management in flow assurance in natural gas pipelines. Despite its importance, the relevant data in the area, such as the surface energy and the interfacial energy of gas hydrates with gas and/or water, are scarce; presumably due to the experimental difficulties involved in the measurements. Here we review what is known about the surface energy and the interfacial energy of gas hydrates to date. In particular, we ask a question as to whether pre-melting can occur on the surface of gas hydrates. Surface thermodynamic analyses show that pre-melting is favoured to occur on the surface of gas hydrates, however, not sufficient data are available to assess its thickness. The effects of the existence of pre-melting layers on the cohesion and friction forces between gas hydrate particles are also discussed.

  18. Lattice constants of pure methane and carbon dioxide hydrates at low temperatures. Implementing quantum corrections to classical molecular dynamics studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costandy, Joseph; Michalis, Vasileios K.; Economou, Ioannis G., E-mail:, E-mail: [Chemical Engineering Program, Texas A& M University at Qatar, P.O. Box 23874, Doha (Qatar); Tsimpanogiannis, Ioannis N., E-mail:, E-mail: [Chemical Engineering Program, Texas A& M University at Qatar, P.O. Box 23874, Doha (Qatar); Environmental Research Laboratory, National Center for Scientific Research NCSR “Demokritos,” 15310 Aghia Paraskevi, Attikis (Greece); Stubos, Athanassios K. [Environmental Research Laboratory, National Center for Scientific Research NCSR “Demokritos,” 15310 Aghia Paraskevi, Attikis (Greece)


    We introduce a simple correction to the calculation of the lattice constants of fully occupied structure sI methane or carbon dioxide pure hydrates that are obtained from classical molecular dynamics simulations using the TIP4PQ/2005 water force field. The obtained corrected lattice constants are subsequently used in order to obtain isobaric thermal expansion coefficients of the pure gas hydrates that exhibit a trend that is significantly closer to the experimental behavior than previously reported classical molecular dynamics studies.

  19. Parametric study of the physical properties of hydrate-bearing sand, silt, and clay sediments: 1. Electromagnetic properties (United States)

    Lee, J.Y.; Santamarina, J.C.; Ruppel, C.


    The marked decrease in bulk electrical conductivity of sediments in the presence of gas hydrates has been used to interpret borehole electrical resistivity logs and, to a lesser extent, the results of controlled source electromagnetic surveys to constrain the spatial distribution and predicted concentration of gas hydrate in natural settings. Until now, an exhaustive laboratory data set that could be used to assess the impact of gas hydrate on the electromagnetic properties of different soils (sand, silt, and clay) at different effective stress and with different saturations of hydrate has been lacking. The laboratory results reported here are obtained using a standard geotechnical cell and the hydrate-formed tetrahydrofuran (THF), a liquid that is fully miscible in water and able to produce closely controlled saturations of hydrate from dissolved phase. Both permittivity and electrical conductivity are good indicators of the volume fraction of free water in the sediment, which is in turn dependent on hydrate saturation. Permittivity in the microwave frequency range is particularly predictive of free water content since it is barely affected by ionic concentration, pore structure, and surface conduction. Electrical conductivity (or resistivity) is less reliable for constraining water content or hydrate saturation: In addition to fluid-filled porosity, other factors, such as the ionic concentration of the pore fluid and possibly other conduction effects (e.g., surface conduction in high specific surface soils having low conductivity pore fluid), also influence electrical conductivity.

  20. Interrelation of Hydration, Collagen Cross-Linking Treatment, and Biomechanical Properties of the Cornea. (United States)

    Hatami-Marbini, Hamed; Rahimi, Abdolrasol


    The present study was designed to investigate the effects of hydration and collagen cross-linking treatment on biomechanical properties of the cornea. The original corneal collagen cross-linking protocol was used to induce cross-links in bovine corneas. The thickness of samples was used as a measure of their hydration and five different thickness groups (n = 5 each) were considered. The cross-linked corneal strips were allowed to hydrate/dehydrate until their thickness reached 500, 700, 900, 1100, and 1500 μm. The tensile behavior of specimens in each thickness group was characterized by conducting uniaxial tensile experiments. The experiments were done in mineral oil in order to keep the thickness of samples constant and minimize hydration changes. It was observed that collagen cross-linking treatment significantly increased both the maximum tensile stress and the equilibrium (relaxed) stress of the bovine cornea (p  0.99), respectively. Hydration and collagen cross-linking treatment concomitantly affect biomechanical properties of the cornea. Therefore, an accurate estimate of stiffening effects of collagen cross-linking treatment option using uniaxial tensile experiments is only possible if the hydration of specimens is fully controlled.

  1. Study of Formation Mechanisms of Gas Hydrate (United States)

    Yang, Jia-Sheng; Wu, Cheng-Yueh; Hsieh, Bieng-Zih


    Gas hydrates, which had been found in subsurface geological environments of deep-sea sediments and permafrost regions, are solid crystalline compounds of gas molecules and water. The estimated energy resources of hydrates are at least twice of that of the conventional fossil fuel in the world. Gas hydrates have a great opportunity to become a dominating future energy. In the past years, many laboratory experiments had been conducted to study chemical and thermodynamic characteristics of gas hydrates in order to investigate the formation and dissociation mechanisms of hydrates. However, it is difficult to observe the formation and dissociation of hydrates in a porous media from a physical experiment directly. The purpose of this study was to model the dynamic formation mechanisms of gas hydrate in porous media by reservoir simulation. Two models were designed for this study: 1) a closed-system static model with separated gas and water zones; this model was a hydrate equilibrium model to investigate the behavior of the formation of hydrates near the initial gas-water contact; and 2) an open-system dynamic model with a continuous bottom-up gas flow; this model simulated the behavior of gas migration and studied the formation of hydrates from flowed gas and static formation water in porous media. A phase behavior module was developed in this study for reservoir simulator to model the pressure-volume-temperature (PVT) behavior of hydrates. The thermodynamic equilibriums and chemical reactions were coupled with the phase behavior module to have functions modelling the formation and dissociation of hydrates from/to water and gas. The simulation models used in this study were validated from the code-comparison project proposed by the NETL. According to the modelling results of the closed-system static model, we found that predominated location for the formation of hydrates was below the gas-water contact (or at the top of water zone). The maximum hydrate saturation

  2. Fundamentals and applications of gas hydrates. (United States)

    Koh, Carolyn A; Sloan, E Dendy; Sum, Amadeu K; Wu, David T


    Fundamental understanding of gas hydrate formation and decomposition processes is critical in many energy and environmental areas and has special importance in flow assurance for the oil and gas industry. These areas represent the core of gas hydrate applications, which, albeit widely studied, are still developing as growing fields of research. Discovering the molecular pathways and chemical and physical concepts underlying gas hydrate formation potentially can lead us beyond flowline blockage prevention strategies toward advancing new technological solutions for fuel storage and transportation, safely producing a new energy resource from natural deposits of gas hydrates in oceanic and arctic sediments, and potentially facilitating effective desalination of seawater. The state of the art in gas hydrate research is leading us to new understanding of formation and dissociation phenomena that focuses on measurement and modeling of time-dependent properties of gas hydrates on the basis of their well-established thermodynamic properties.

  3. Investigation into the Formation and Adhesion of Cyclopentane Hydrates on Mechanically Robust Vapor-Deposited Polymeric Coatings. (United States)

    Sojoudi, Hossein; Walsh, Matthew R; Gleason, Karen K; McKinley, Gareth H


    Blockage of pipelines by formation and accumulation of clathrate hydrates of natural gases (also called gas hydrates) can compromise project safety and economics in oil and gas operations, particularly at high pressures and low temperatures such as those found in subsea or arctic environments. Cyclopentane (CyC5) hydrate has attracted interest as a model system for studying natural gas hydrates, because CyC5, like typical natural gas hydrate formers, is almost fully immiscible in water; and thus CyC5 hydrate formation is governed not only by thermodynamic phase considerations but also kinetic factors such as the hydrocarbon/water interfacial area, as well as mass and heat transfer constraints, as for natural gas hydrates. We present a macroscale investigation of the formation and adhesion strength of CyC5 hydrate deposits on bilayer polymer coatings with a range of wettabilities. The polymeric bilayer coatings are developed using initiated chemical vapor deposition (iCVD) of a mechanically robust and densely cross-linked polymeric base layer (polydivinylbenzene or pDVB) that is capped with a covalently attached thin hydrate-phobic fluorine-rich top layer (poly(perfluorodecyl acrylate) or pPFDA). The CyC5 hydrates are formed from CyC5-in-water emulsions, and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) is used to confirm the thermal dissociation properties of the solid hydrate deposits. We also investigate the adhesion of the CyC5 hydrate deposits on bare and bilayer polymer-coated silicon and steel substrates. Goniometric measurements with drops of CyC5-in-water emulsions on the coated steel substrates exhibit advancing contact angles of 148.3 ± 4.5° and receding contact angles of 142.5 ± 9.8°, indicating the strongly emulsion-repelling nature of the iCVD coatings. The adhesion strength of the CyC5 hydrate deposits is reduced from 220 ± 45 kPa on rough steel substrates to 20 ± 17 kPa on the polymer-coated steel substrates. The measured strength of CyC5 hydrate

  4. Separation of water through gas hydrate formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boch Andersen, Torben; Thomsen, Kaj


    Gas hydrate is normally recognized as a troublemaker in the oil and gas industry. However, gas hydrate has some interesting possibilities when used in connection with separation of water. Nordic Sugar has investigated the possibility of using gas hydrates for concentration of sugar juice. The goa...... volumes and the needs for high pressure. The process could be interesting for concentration of heat sensitive, high value products...

  5. Natural gas hydrate occurrence and issues (United States)

    Kvenvolden, K.A.


    Naturally occurring gas hydrate is found in sediment of two regions: (1) continental, including continental shelves, at high latitudes where surface temperatures are very cold, and (2) submarine outer continental margins where pressures are very high and bottom-water temperatures are near 0??C. Continental gas hydrate is found in association with onshore and offshore permafrost. Submarine gas hydrate is found in sediment of continental slopes and rises. The amount of methane present in gas hydrate is thought to be very large, but the estimates that have been made are more speculative than real. Nevertheless, at the present time there has been a convergence of ideas regarding the amount of methane in gas hydrate deposits worldwide at about 2 x 1016 m3 or 7 x 1017 ft3 = 7 x 105 Tcf [Tcf = trillion (1012) ft3]. The potentially large amount of methane in gas hydrate and the shallow depth of gas hydrate deposits are two of the principal factors driving research concerning this substance. Such a large amount of methane, if it could be commercially produced, provides a potential energy resource for the future. Because gas hydrate is metastable, changes of surface pressure and temperature affect its stability. Destabilized gas hydrate beneath the sea floor leads to geologic hazards such as submarine mass movements. Examples of submarine slope failures attributed to gas hydrate are found worldwide. The metastability of gas hydrate may also have an effect on climate. The release of methane, a 'greenhouse' gas, from destabilized gas hydrate may contribute to global warming and be a factor in global climate change.

  6. Thermal conductivity of hydrate-bearing sediments (United States)

    Cortes, Douglas D.; Martin, Ana I.; Yun, Tae Sup; Francisca, Franco M.; Santamarina, J. Carlos; Ruppel, Carolyn D.


    A thorough understanding of the thermal conductivity of hydrate-bearing sediments is necessary for evaluating phase transformation processes that would accompany energy production from gas hydrate deposits and for estimating regional heat flow based on the observed depth to the base of the gas hydrate stability zone. The coexistence of multiple phases (gas hydrate, liquid and gas pore fill, and solid sediment grains) and their complex spatial arrangement hinder the a priori prediction of the thermal conductivity of hydrate-bearing sediments. Previous studies have been unable to capture the full parameter space covered by variations in grain size, specific surface, degree of saturation, nature of pore filling material, and effective stress for hydrate-bearing samples. Here we report on systematic measurements of the thermal conductivity of air dry, water- and tetrohydrofuran (THF)-saturated, and THF hydrate–saturated sand and clay samples at vertical effective stress of 0.05 to 1 MPa (corresponding to depths as great as 100 m below seafloor). Results reveal that the bulk thermal conductivity of the samples in every case reflects a complex interplay among particle size, effective stress, porosity, and fluid-versus-hydrate filled pore spaces. The thermal conductivity of THF hydrate–bearing soils increases upon hydrate formation although the thermal conductivities of THF solution and THF hydrate are almost the same. Several mechanisms can contribute to this effect including cryogenic suction during hydrate crystal growth and the ensuing porosity reduction in the surrounding sediment, increased mean effective stress due to hydrate formation under zero lateral strain conditions, and decreased interface thermal impedance as grain-liquid interfaces are transformed into grain-hydrate interfaces.

  7. Microscopic Characterization of Brevundimonas diminuta in the Hydrated State. (United States)

    Harp, Gary; Cho, Seok-Jun; Lester, Elisabeth; Rose, David; Sabanyagam, Chandran; Ross, Scott F


    Brevundimonas diminuta is the organism most commonly used for challenge testing of sterilizing-grade filter membranes. ASTM F838-05 and PDA Technical Report 26 rely on B. diminuta ATCC #19146 for standard challenge tests used to designate sterilizing-grade filter performance. Despite the importance and widespread use of B. diminuta in filter testing and validation, information about this microorganism in its native hydrated state is limited. In this work, we measure, for the first time, the mechanical property of modulus for B. diminuta cultured in saline lactose broth (as described in ASTM F838-05) via wet atomic force microscopy. For comparison, we also imaged B. diminuta by the traditional method of electron microscopy after capture on a filter and chemical fixation. The modulus of hydrated B. diminuta cells was ∼193 mPa. To put this result into context, a simple model for pore penetration that correlates the role of the Young's modulus of hydrated cells to the penetration of sterilizing-grade filters is proposed. The model confirms the industry experience that pore size is an essential parameter in preventing the penetration of B. diminuta into sterilizing-grade filters. The small microorganism Brevundimonas diminuta is used to characterize the performance of sterilizing-grade filter membranes used in the manufacturing of sterile drug products. Little is known about the size, shape, or elasticity of living bacterial cells, as it is easier to characterize bacteria after chemical fixation in a dry state. In this work, we use atomic force microscopy to determine the size, shape, and deformability of this important microorganism while it is alive and fully hydrated. Additionally, we compare the physical and mechanical properties of B. diminuta measured in wet and dry states. This information can be used to advance our understanding of how filter membranes remove these organisms from fluid streams. © PDA, Inc. 2015.

  8. Accelerated hydration of high silica cements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, Colin; Yui, Mikazu


    Current Japanese designs for high level radioactive waste (HLW) repositories anticipate the use of both bentonite (buffer and backfill material) and cement based materials. Using hydrated Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) as a grouting material is undesirable because the associated high pH buffer will have an undisputed detrimental effect on the performance of the bentonite buffer and backfill and of the host rock by changing its porosity. Instead, hydrated low pH cement (LopHC) grouting materials are being developed to provide a pH inferior or equal to 11 to reduce these detrimental effects. LopHC grouting materials use mixtures of superfine OPC (SOPC) clinker and silica fume (SF), and are referred as high silica cements (HSC). The focus of the present study was to identify the development of the unhydrated and hydrated mineral assemblage and the solution chemistry during the hydration of HSC. Since hydration experiments of cementitious materials are notably slow, a ball mill was used to accelerate hydration. This was done for two reasons. Firstly, to develop a method to rapidly hydrate cement based materials without the need for higher temperatures (which can alter the mineral assemblage), and secondly, to ensure that the end point of hydration was reached in a reasonable time frame and so to realize the final mineralogy and solution chemistry of hydrated HSC

  9. Waters of Hydration of Cupric Hydrates: A Comparison between Heating and Absorbance Methods (United States)

    Barlag, Rebecca; Nyasulu, Frazier


    The empirical formulas of four cupric hydrates are determined by measuring the absorbance in aqueous solution. The Beer-Lambert Law is verified by constructing a calibration curve of absorbance versus known Cu[superscript 2+](aq) concentration. A solution of the unknown hydrate is prepared by using 0.2-0.3 g of hydrate, and water is added such…

  10. Methane hydrates as potential energy resource: Part 2 - Methane production processes from gas hydrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demirbas, Ayhan


    Three processes have been proposed for dissociation of methane hydrates: thermal stimulation, depressurization, and inhibitor injection. The obvious production approaches involve depressurization, heating and their combinations. The depressurization method is lowering the pressure inside the well and encouraging the methane hydrate to dissociate. Its objective is to lower the pressure in the free-gas zone immediately beneath the hydrate stability zone, causing the hydrate at the base of the hydrate stability zone to decompose. The thermal stimulation method is applied to the hydrate stability zone to raise its temperature, causing the hydrate to decompose. In this method, a source of heat provided directly in the form of injected steam or hot water or another heated liquid, or indirectly via electric or sonic means. This causes methane hydrate to decompose and generates methane gas. The methane gas mixes with the hot water and returns to the surface, where the gas and hot water are separated. The chemical inhibition method seeks to displace the natural-gas hydrate equilibrium condition beyond the hydrate stability zone's thermo-dynamic conditions through injection of a liquid inhibitor chemical adjacent to the hydrate. In this method, inhibitor such as methanol is injected from surface down to methane hydrate-bearing layers. The thermal stimulation method is quite expensive. The chemical inhibitor injection method is also expensive. The depressurization method may prove useful to apply more than one production.

  11. Hydration in soccer: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monteiro Cristiano Ralo


    Full Text Available Hydration should be considered before, during and after the exercise. This review intends to approach the main points of hydration process in soccer. The replacement of fluids during exercise is proportional to some factors, such as: exercise intensity; climatic conditions; the athlete's acclimatization; the athlete's physical conditioning; physiologic individual characteristics and the player's biomechanics. Performance is improved when players ingest not only water but also carbohydrate. The rates that carbohydrate and water are absorbed by the organism are limited by the rates of gastric emptying and intestinal absorption. The composition of drinks offered to the players should be influenced by the relative importance of the need of supplying carbohydrates or water; it should be remembered that the depletion of carbohydrate can result in fatigue and decrease of performance, but it is not usually a life-threatening condition. The addition of carbohydrate in these drinks increases the concentrations of blood glucose, increases the use of external fuel through the increase of the glucose oxidation in the muscles and it spares muscle glycogen. So, the ingestion of carbohydrate before and during the exercise can delay the emergence of fatigue and increase the players' performance. Several tactics can be used to avoid dehydration, like hyperhydration before exercise and player's acclimatization. The ideal situation to restore the player's fluid losses is between the sessions of exercises. Since soccer is a sport with quite peculiar characteristics related to hydration, the players should be concerned and educated about the importance of fluid ingestion before, during and after the exercise.

  12. Protein dynamics: hydration and cavities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heremans K.


    Full Text Available The temperature-pressure behavior of proteins seems to be unique among the biological macromolecules. Thermodynamic as well as kinetic data show the typical elliptical stability diagram. This may be extended by assuming that the unfolded state gives rise to volume and enthalpy-driven liquid-liquid transitions. A molecular interpretation follows from the temperature and the pressure dependence of the hydration and cavities. We suggest that positron annihilation spectroscopy can provide additional quantitative evidence for the contributions of cavities to the dynamics of proteins. Only mature amyloid fibrils that form from unfolded proteins are very resistant to pressure treatment.

  13. Physics of fully ionized regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flower, D.


    In this paper the term fully ionised regions is taken to embrace both planetary nebulae and the so-called 'H II' regions referred to as H + regions. Whilst these two types of gaseous nebulae are very different from an evolutionary standpoint, they are physically very similar, being characterised by photoionisation of a low-density plasma by a hot star. (Auth.)

  14. Formation rate of natural gas hydrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mork, Marit


    The rate of methane hydrate and natural gas hydrate formation was measured in a 9.5 litre stirred tank reactor of standard design. The experiments were performed to better understand the performance and scale-up of a reactor for continuous production of natural gas hydrates. The hydrate formation rate was measured at steady-state conditions at pressures between 70 and 90 bar and temperatures between 7 and 15 deg C. Between 44 and 56 % of the gas continuously supplied to the reactor was converted to hydrate. The experimental results show that the rate of hydrate formation is strongly influenced by gas injection rate and pressure. The effect of stirring rate is less significant and subcooling has no observable effect on the formation rate. Hydrate crystal concentration and gas composition do not influence the hydrate formation rate. Observations of produced hydrate crystals indicate that the crystals are elongated, about 5 micron in diameter and 10 micron long. Analysis of the results shows that the rate of hydrate formation is dominated by gas-liquid mass transfer. A mass transfer model, the bubble-to-crystal model, was developed for the hydrate formation rate in a continuous stirred tank reactor, given in terms of concentration driving force and an overall mass transfer coefficient. The driving force is the difference between the gas concentration at the gas-liquid interface and at the hydrate crystal surface. These concentrations correspond to the solubility of gas in water at experimental temperature and pressure and the solubility of gas at hydrate equilibrium temperature and experimental pressure, respectively. The overall mass transfer coefficient is expressed in terms of superficial gas velocity and impeller power consumption, parameters commonly used in study of stirred tank reactors. Experiments and modeling show that the stirred tank reactor has a considerable potential for increased production capacity. However, at higher hydrate production rates the

  15. Simulation and Characterization of Methane Hydrate Formation (United States)

    Dhakal, S.; Gupta, I.


    The ever rising global energy demand dictates human endeavor to explore and exploit new and innovative energy sources. As conventional oil and gas reserves deplete, we are constantly looking for newer sources for sustainable energy. Gas hydrates have long been discussed as the next big energy resource to the earth. Its global occurrence and vast quantity of natural gas stored is one of the main reasons for such interest in its study and exploration. Gas hydrates are solid crystalline substances with trapped molecules of gas inside cage-like crystals of water molecules. Gases such as methane, ethane, propane and carbon dioxide can form hydrates but in natural state, methane hydrates are the most common. Subsurface geological conditions with high pressure and low temperature favor the formation and stability of gas hydrates. While the occurrence and potential of gas hydrates as energy source has long been studied, there are still gaps in knowledge, especially in the quantitative research of gas hydrate formation and reservoir characterization. This study is focused on exploring and understanding the geological setting in which gas hydrates are formed and the subsequent changes in rock characteristics as they are deposited. It involves the numerical simulation of methane gas flow through fault to form hydrates. The models are representative of the subsurface geologic setting of Gulf of Mexico with a fault through layers of shale and sandstone. Hydrate formation simulated is of thermogenic origin. The simulations are conducted using TOUGH+HYDRATE, a numerical code developed at the Lawrence Berkley National Laboratory for modeling multiphase flow through porous medium. Simulation results predict that as the gas hydrates form in the pores of the model, the porosity, permeability and other rock properties are altered. Preliminary simulation results have shown that hydrates begin to form in the fault zone and gradually in the sandstone layers. The increase in hydrate

  16. Clinker mineral hydration at reduced relative humidities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole Mejlhede


    This report deals with gas phase hydration of pure cement clinker minerals at reduced relative humidities. This is an important subject in relation to modern high performance concrete which may self-desiccate during hydration. In addition the subject has relevance to storage stability where...

  17. Raman Spectroscopic Studies of Methane Gas Hydrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Susanne Brunsgaard; Berg, Rolf W.


    A brief review of the Raman spectroscopic studies of methane gas hydrates is given, supported by some new measurements done in our laboratory.......A brief review of the Raman spectroscopic studies of methane gas hydrates is given, supported by some new measurements done in our laboratory....

  18. Investigations into surfactant/gas hydrate relationship

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, Rudy; Zhang, Guochang; Dearman, Jennifer; Woods, Charles [Swalm School of Chemical Engineering, Mississippi State University, Mississippi State, MS 39762 (United States)


    Gas hydrates have unique physical properties portending useful industrial applications of gas storage, gas separation, or water desalination. When gas hydrates were found in the early 1990s to occur naturally and abundantly in seafloors, three other primary interests and concerns emerged: potential new energy source, climate threat from their greenhouse gases, and seafloor instabilities. This paper presents research showing how anionic synthetic surfactants helped develop an industrial gas hydrate storage process for natural gas and how naturally-occurring in-situ anionic biosurfactants influence the formation and placement of gas hydrates in ocean sediments. The catalytic effects, mechanisms, and surface specificities imparted by synthetic surfactants in the gas storage process and imparted by biosurfactants in porous media are discussed. The Bacillus subtilis bacterium that is indigenous to gas hydrate mounds in the Gulf of Mexico was cultured in the laboratory. Its biosurfactant was separated and found to catalyze gas hydrates in porous media. The experiments indicate that seafloor-biosurfactants can be produced rapidly in-situ to achieve threshold concentrations whereby hydrates are promoted. The biosurfactants accumulate and promote hydrate formation on specific mineral surfaces such as sodium montmorillonite. (author)

  19. Free energy of hydration of niobium oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plodinec, M.J.


    Some of the glasses being formulated by SRTC researchers contain niobium oxide. In this report, the free energy of hydration of the oxide is calculated from the free energies of formation of the oxide, the hydroxide, and water. This value can be used in calculations of the free energy of hydration of glasses containing niobium

  20. Pentagonal dodecahedron methane hydrate cage and methanol ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Density functional theory based studies have been performed to elucidate the role of methanol as an methane hydrate inhibitor. A methane hydrate pentagonal dodecahedron cage's geometry optimization, natural bond orbital (NBO) analysis, Mullikan charge determination, electrostatic potential evaluation and ...

  1. Multicomponent modelling of Portland cement hydration reactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ukrainczyk, N.; Koenders, E.A.B.; Van Breugel, K.


    The prospect of cement and concrete technologies depends on more in depth understanding of cement hydration reactions. Hydration reaction models simulate the development of the microstructures that can finally be used to estimate the cement based material properties that influence performance and

  2. 78 FR 26337 - Methane Hydrate Advisory Committee (United States)


    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Methane Hydrate Advisory Committee AGENCY: Office of Fossil Energy, Department of Energy. ACTION: Notice of Open Meeting. SUMMARY: This notice announces a meeting of the Methane.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Purpose of the Committee: The purpose of the Methane Hydrate Advisory Committee is to...

  3. 75 FR 9886 - Methane Hydrate Advisory Committee (United States)


    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Methane Hydrate Advisory Committee AGENCY: Department of Energy, Office of Fossil Energy. ACTION: Notice of open meeting. SUMMARY: This notice announces a meeting of the Methane... the Committee: The purpose of the Methane Hydrate Advisory Committee is to provide advice on potential...

  4. 76 FR 59667 - Methane Hydrate Advisory Committee (United States)


    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Methane Hydrate Advisory Committee AGENCY: Office of Fossil Energy, Department of Energy. ACTION: Notice of Open Meeting. SUMMARY: This notice announces a meeting of the Methane...-5600. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Purpose of the Committee: The purpose of the Methane Hydrate Advisory...

  5. 78 FR 37536 - Methane Hydrate Advisory Committee (United States)


    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Methane Hydrate Advisory Committee AGENCY: Office of Fossil Energy, Department of Energy. ACTION: Notice of open meeting. SUMMARY: This notice announces a meeting of the Methane... Committee: The purpose of the Methane Hydrate Advisory Committee is to provide advice on potential...

  6. 77 FR 40032 - Methane Hydrate Advisory Committee (United States)


    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Methane Hydrate Advisory Committee AGENCY: Office of Fossil Energy, Department of Energy. ACTION: Notice of open meeting. SUMMARY: This notice announces a meeting of the Methane... of the Methane Hydrate Advisory Committee is to provide advice on potential applications of methane...

  7. Methane Production and Carbon Capture by Hydrate Swapping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mu, Liang; von Solms, Nicolas


    There are essentially two different approaches to producing methane from natural gas hydrate reservoirs, either bring the hydrate out of its thermodynamic stability region or expose the hydrate to a substance that will form a more stable hydrate structure, forcing an in situ swapping of the trapped...... in small hydrate cages, as long as the equilibrium formation pressure of (CO2 + N2) binary gas hydrate is below that of methane hydrate, even though adding nitrogen to carbon dioxide reduces the thermodynamic driving force for the formation of a new hydrate. When other conditions are similar, the methane...


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donn McGuire; Steve Runyon; Richard Sigal; Bill Liddell; Thomas Williams; George Moridis


    Natural-gas hydrates have been encountered beneath the permafrost and considered a nuisance by the oil and gas industry for years. Engineers working in Russia, Canada and the USA have documented numerous drilling problems, including kicks and uncontrolled gas releases, in arctic regions. Information has been generated in laboratory studies pertaining to the extent, volume, chemistry and phase behavior of gas hydrates. Scientists studying hydrate potential agree that the potential is great--on the North Slope of Alaska alone, it has been estimated at 590 TCF. However, little information has been obtained on physical samples taken from actual rock containing hydrates. This gas-hydrate project is in the final stages of a cost-shared partnership between Maurer Technology, Noble Corporation, Anadarko Petroleum, and the U.S. Department of Energy's Methane Hydrate R&D program. The purpose of the project is to build on previous and ongoing R&D in the area of onshore hydrate deposition to identify, quantify and predict production potential for hydrates located on the North Slope of Alaska. Hot Ice No. 1 was planned to test the Ugnu and West Sak sequences for gas hydrates and a concomitant free gas accumulation on Anadarko's 100% working interest acreage in section 30 of Township 9N, Range 8E of the Harrison Bay quadrangle of the North Slope of Alaska. The Ugnu and West Sak intervals are favorably positioned in the hydrate-stability zone over an area extending from Anadarko's acreage westward to the vicinity of the aforementioned gas-hydrate occurrences. This suggests that a large, north-to-south trending gas-hydrate accumulation may exist in that area. The presence of gas shows in the Ugnu and West Sak reservoirs in wells situated eastward and down dip of the Hot Ice location indicate that a free-gas accumulation may be trapped by gas hydrates. The Hot Ice No. 1 well was designed to core from the surface to the base of the West Sak interval using the

  9. Experimental Setup to Characterize Bentonite Hydration Processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bru, A.; Casero, D.; Pastor, J. M.


    We present an experimental setup to follow-up the hydration process of a bentonite. Clay samples, of 2 cm x 12 cm x 12 cm, were made and introduced in a Hele-Shaw cell with two PMM windows and two steel frames. In hydration experiments, a fluid enters by an orifice in the frame, located both at the top and the bottom of the cell, to perform hydration in both senses. To get a uniform hydration we place a diffuser near the orifice. Volume influxes in hydration cells are registered in time. The evolution of the developed interface was recorded on a videotape. The video cameras was fixed to a holder so that the vertical direction in the monitor was the same as the direction of the larger extension of the cell. (Author) 6 refs

  10. Hydration shells exchange charge with their protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abitan, Haim; Lindgård, Per-Anker; Nielsen, Bjørn Gilbert


    . In our experiments, the amplitude of an ultrasonic pressure wave is gradually increased (0–20 atm) while we simultaneously measure the Raman spectra from the hydrated protein (β-lactoglobulin and lysozyme). We detected two types of spectral changes: first, up to 70% increase in the intensity......Investigation of the interaction between a protein and its hydration shells is an experimental and theoretical challenge. Here, we used ultrasonic pressure waves in aqueous solutions of a protein to explore the conformational states of the protein and its interaction with its hydration shells...... the presence of an ultrasonic pressure, a protein and its hydration shells are in thermodynamic and charge equilibrium, i.e. a protein and its hydration shells exchange charges. The ultrasonic wave disrupts these equilibria which are regained within 30–45 min after the ultrasonic pressure is shut off....

  11. Overview on Hydrate Coring, Handling and Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jon Burger; Deepak Gupta; Patrick Jacobs; John Shillinglaw


    Gas hydrates are crystalline, ice-like compounds of gas and water molecules that are formed under certain thermodynamic conditions. Hydrate deposits occur naturally within ocean sediments just below the sea floor at temperatures and pressures existing below about 500 meters water depth. Gas hydrate is also stable in conjunction with the permafrost in the Arctic. Most marine gas hydrate is formed of microbially generated gas. It binds huge amounts of methane into the sediments. Worldwide, gas hydrate is estimated to hold about 1016 kg of organic carbon in the form of methane (Kvenvolden et al., 1993). Gas hydrate is one of the fossil fuel resources that is yet untapped, but may play a major role in meeting the energy challenge of this century. In June 2002, Westport Technology Center was requested by the Department of Energy (DOE) to prepare a ''Best Practices Manual on Gas Hydrate Coring, Handling and Analysis'' under Award No. DE-FC26-02NT41327. The scope of the task was specifically targeted for coring sediments with hydrates in Alaska, the Gulf of Mexico (GOM) and from the present Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) drillship. The specific subjects under this scope were defined in 3 stages as follows: Stage 1: Collect information on coring sediments with hydrates, core handling, core preservation, sample transportation, analysis of the core, and long term preservation. Stage 2: Provide copies of the first draft to a list of experts and stakeholders designated by DOE. Stage 3: Produce a second draft of the manual with benefit of input from external review for delivery. The manual provides an overview of existing information available in the published literature and reports on coring, analysis, preservation and transport of gas hydrates for laboratory analysis as of June 2003. The manual was delivered as draft version 3 to the DOE Project Manager for distribution in July 2003. This Final Report is provided for records purposes.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas E. Williams; Keith Millheim; Bill Liddell


    Natural-gas hydrates have been encountered beneath the permafrost and considered a nuisance by the oil and gas industry for years. Oil-field engineers working in Russia, Canada and the USA have documented numerous drilling problems, including kicks and uncontrolled gas releases, in Arctic regions. Information has been generated in laboratory studies pertaining to the extent, volume, chemistry and phase behavior of gas hydrates. Scientists studying hydrates agree that the potential is great--on the North Slope of Alaska alone, it has been estimated at 590 TCF. However, little information has been obtained on physical samples taken from actual rock containing hydrates. This gas-hydrate project is a cost-shared partnership between Maurer Technology, Anadarko Petroleum, Noble Corporation, and the U.S. Department of Energy's Methane Hydrate R&D program. The purpose of the project is to build on previous and ongoing R&D in the area of onshore hydrate deposition to help identify, quantify and predict production potential for hydrates located on the North Slope of Alaska. As part of the project work scope, team members drilled and cored the HOT ICE No. 1 on Anadarko leases beginning in January 2003 and completed in March 2004. Due to scheduling constraints imposed by the Arctic drilling season, operations at the site were suspended between April 21, 2003 and January 30, 2004. An on-site core analysis laboratory was designed, constructed and used for determining physical characteristics of frozen core immediately after it was retrieved from the well. The well was drilled from a new and innovative Anadarko Arctic Platform that has a greatly reduced footprint and environmental impact. Final efforts of the project were to correlate geology, geophysics, logs, and drilling and production data and provide this information to scientists for future hydrate operations. Unfortunately, no gas hydrates were encountered in this well; however, a wealth of information was generated

  13. Gas-phase hydration of glyoxylic acid: Kinetics and atmospheric implications. (United States)

    Liu, Ling; Zhang, Xiuhui; Li, Zesheng; Zhang, Yunhong; Ge, Maofa


    Oxocarboxylic acids are one of the most important organic species found in secondary organic aerosols and can be detected in diverse environments. But the hydration of oxocarboxylic acids in the atmosphere has still not been fully understood. Neglecting the hydration of oxocarboxylic acids in atmospheric models may be one of the most important reasons for the significant discrepancies between field measurements and abundance predictions of atmospheric models for oxocarboxylic acids. In the present paper, glyoxylic acid, as the most abundant oxocarboxylic acids in the atmosphere, has been selected as an example to study whether the hydration process can occur in the atmosphere and what the kinetic process of hydration is. The gas-phase hydration of glyoxylic acid to form the corresponding geminal diol and those catalyzed by atmospheric common substances (water, sulfuric acid and ammonia) have been investigated at the CCSD(T)-F12/cc-pVDZ-F12//M06-2X/6-311++G(3df,3pd) level of theory. The contour map of electron density difference of transition states have been further analyzed. It is indicated that these atmospheric common substances can all catalyze on the hydration to some extent and sulfuric acid is the most effective reducing the Gibbs free energy of activation to 9.48 kcal/mol. The effective rate constants combining the overall rate constants and concentrations of the corresponding catalysts have shown that water and sulfuric acid are both important catalysts and the catalysis of sulfuric acid is the most effective for the gas-phase hydration of glyoxylic acid. This catalyzed processes are potentially effective in coastal regions and polluted regions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Methane Recovery from Hydrate-bearing Sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Carlos Santamarina; Costas Tsouris


    Gas hydrates are crystalline compounds made of gas and water molecules. Methane hydrates are found in marine sediments and permafrost regions; extensive amounts of methane are trapped in the form of hydrates. Methane hydrate can be an energy resource, contribute to global warming, or cause seafloor instability. This study placed emphasis on gas recovery from hydrate bearing sediments and related phenomena. The unique behavior of hydrate-bearing sediments required the development of special research tools, including new numerical algorithms (tube- and pore-network models) and experimental devices (high pressure chambers and micromodels). Therefore, the research methodology combined experimental studies, particle-scale numerical simulations, and macro-scale analyses of coupled processes. Research conducted as part of this project started with hydrate formation in sediment pores and extended to production methods and emergent phenomena. In particular, the scope of the work addressed: (1) hydrate formation and growth in pores, the assessment of formation rate, tensile/adhesive strength and their impact on sediment-scale properties, including volume change during hydrate formation and dissociation; (2) the effect of physical properties such as gas solubility, salinity, pore size, and mixed gas conditions on hydrate formation and dissociation, and it implications such as oscillatory transient hydrate formation, dissolution within the hydrate stability field, initial hydrate lens formation, and phase boundary changes in real field situations; (3) fluid conductivity in relation to pore size distribution and spatial correlation and the emergence of phenomena such as flow focusing; (4) mixed fluid flow, with special emphasis on differences between invading gas and nucleating gas, implications on relative gas conductivity for reservoir simulations, and gas recovery efficiency; (5) identification of advantages and limitations in different gas production strategies with

  15. Gas Hydrate Storage of Natural Gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudy Rogers; John Etheridge


    Environmental and economic benefits could accrue from a safe, above-ground, natural-gas storage process allowing electric power plants to utilize natural gas for peak load demands; numerous other applications of a gas storage process exist. A laboratory study conducted in 1999 to determine the feasibility of a gas-hydrates storage process looked promising. The subsequent scale-up of the process was designed to preserve important features of the laboratory apparatus: (1) symmetry of hydrate accumulation, (2) favorable surface area to volume ratio, (3) heat exchanger surfaces serving as hydrate adsorption surfaces, (4) refrigeration system to remove heat liberated from bulk hydrate formation, (5) rapid hydrate formation in a non-stirred system, (6) hydrate self-packing, and (7) heat-exchanger/adsorption plates serving dual purposes to add or extract energy for hydrate formation or decomposition. The hydrate formation/storage/decomposition Proof-of-Concept (POC) pressure vessel and supporting equipment were designed, constructed, and tested. This final report details the design of the scaled POC gas-hydrate storage process, some comments on its fabrication and installation, checkout of the equipment, procedures for conducting the experimental tests, and the test results. The design, construction, and installation of the equipment were on budget target, as was the tests that were subsequently conducted. The budget proposed was met. The primary goal of storing 5000-scf of natural gas in the gas hydrates was exceeded in the final test, as 5289-scf of gas storage was achieved in 54.33 hours. After this 54.33-hour period, as pressure in the formation vessel declined, additional gas went into the hydrates until equilibrium pressure/temperature was reached, so that ultimately more than the 5289-scf storage was achieved. The time required to store the 5000-scf (48.1 hours of operating time) was longer than designed. The lower gas hydrate formation rate is attributed to a

  16. Clathrate hydrate tuning for technological purposes (United States)

    di Profio, Pietro; Germani, Raimondo; Savelli, Gianfranco


    Gas hydrates are being increasingly considered as convenient media for gas storage and transportation as the knowledge of their properties increases, in particular as relates to methane and hydrogen. Clathrate hydrates may also represent a feasible sequestration technology for carbon dioxide, due to a well defined P/T range of stability, and several research programs are addressing this possibility. Though the understanding of the molecular structure and supramolecular interactions which are responsible of most properties of hydrates have been elucitated in recent years, the underlying theoretical physico-chemical framework is still poor, especially as relates to the role of "conditioners" (inhibitors and promoters) from the molecular/supramolecular point of view. In the present communication we show some results from our research approach which is mainly focused on the supramolecular properties of clathrate hydrate systems - and their conditioners - as a way to get access to a controlled modulation of the formation, dissociation and stabilization of gas hydrates. In particular, this communication will deal with: (a) a novel, compact apparatus for studying the main parameters of formation and dissociation of gas hydrates in a one-pot experiment, which can be easily and rapidly carried out on board of a drilling ship;[1] (b) the effects of amphiphile molecules (surfactants) as inhibitors or promoters of gas hydrate formation;[2] (c) a novel nanotechnology for a reliable and quick production of hydrogen hydrates, and its application to fuel cells;[3,4] and (d) the development of a clathrate hydrate tecnology for the sequestration and geological storage of man-made CO2, possibly with concomitant recovery of natural gas from NG hydrate fields. Furthermore, the feasibility of catalyzing the reduction of carbon dioxide to energy-rich species by hydrates is being investigated. [1] Di Profio, P., Germani, R., Savelli, G., International Patent Application PCT/IT2006

  17. Material Research on Salt Hydrates for Seasonal Heat Storage Application in a Residential Environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferchaud, C.J.; Zondag, H.A.; De Boer, R. [ECN Biomass and Energy Efficiency, Petten (Netherlands)


    Water vapor sorption in salt hydrates is a promising method to realize seasonal solar heat storage in the residential sector. Several materials already showed promising performance for this application. However, the stability of these materials needs to be improved for long-term (30 year) application in seasonal solar heat storages. The purpose of this article is to identify the influence of the material properties of the salt hydrates on the performance and the reaction kinetics of the sorption process. The experimental investigation presented in this article shows that the two salt hydrates Li2SO4.H2O and CuSO4.5H2O can store and release heat under the operating conditions of a seasonal solar heat storage in a fully reversible way. However, these two materials show differences in terms of energy density and reaction kinetics. Li2SO4.H2O can release heat with an energy density of around 0.80 GJ/m{sup 3} within 4 hours of rehydration at 25C, while CuSO4.5H2O needs around 130 hours at the same temperature to be fully rehydrated and reaches an energy density of 1.85 GJ/m{sup 3}. Since the two salts are dehydrated and hydrated under the same conditions, this difference in behavior is directly related to the intrinsic properties of the materials.

  18. Calcium and magnesium silicate hydrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lothenbach, B.; L'Hopital, E.; Nied, D.; Achiedo, G.; Dauzeres, A.


    Deep geological disposals are planed to discard long-lived intermediate-level and high-level radioactive wastes. Clay-based geological barriers are expected to limit the ingress of groundwater and to reduce the mobility of radioelements. In the interaction zone between the cement and the clay based material alteration can occur. Magnesium silicate hydrates (M-S-H) have been observed due to the reaction of magnesium sulfate containing groundwater with cements or in the interaction zone between low-pH type cement and clays. M-S-H samples synthesized in the laboratory showed that M-S-H has a variable composition within 0.7 ≤ Mg/Si ≤ 1.5. TEM/EDS analyses show an homogeneous gel with no defined structure. IR and 29 Si NMR data reveal a higher polymerization degree of the silica network in M-S-H compared to calcium silicate hydrates (C-S-H). The presence of mainly Q 3 silicate tetrahedrons in M-S-H indicates a sheet like or a triple-chain silica structure while C-S-H is characterised by single chain-structure. The clear difference in the silica structure and the larger ionic radius of Ca 2+ (1.1 Angstrom) compared to Mg 2+ (0.8 Angstrom) make the formation of an extended solid solution between M-S-H and C-S-H gel improbable. In fact, the analyses of synthetic samples containing both magnesium and calcium in various ratios indicate the formation of separate M-S-H and C-S-H gels with no or very little uptake of magnesium in CS-H or calcium in M-S-H

  19. Hydration Properties of Ground Granulated Blast-Furnace Slag (GGBS Under Different Hydration Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuhua LIU


    Full Text Available The hydration properties of various cementitious materials containing Ground Granulated Blast-furnace Slag (GGBS, two alkali-activated slag cements (AAS-1 and AAS-2 in which sodium silicate and sodium hydroxide act as alkaline activators respectively, supersulfated cement (SSC and slag Portland cement(PSC, are compared with ordinary Portland cement (OPC to investigate the effect of activating environment on the hydration properties in this study by determining the compressive strength of the pastes, the hydration heat of binders within 96 hours, and the hydration products at age of 28 days. The results show that C-S-H gels are the main hydrated products for all cementitious systems containing GGBS. Ca(OH2 is the hydration products of OPC and PSC paste. However, ettringite and gypsum crystals instead of Ca(OH2 are detected in SSC paste. Additionally, tobermorite, a crystalline C-S-H, and calcite are hydrated products in AAS-1. Tobermorite, cowlesite and calcite are hydrated products of AAS-2 as well. Based on strength results, AAS-1 paste exhibits the highest compressive strength followed by POC, PSC, SSC in order at all testing ages and AAS-2 give the lowest compressive strength except for the early age at 3 days, which is higher than SSC but still lower than PSC. From hydration heat analysis, alkalinity in the reaction solution is a vital factor influencing the initial hydration rate and the initial hydration rate from higher to lower is AAS-2, AAS-1, OPC, PSC and SSC. Although AAS possesses a faster reaction rate in the initial hours, cumulative hydration heat of AAS is comparably lower than that of OPC, but higher than those of PSC and SSC in turn, which indicates that the hydration heat of clinkers is much higher than that of slag.DOI:

  20. Gas Hydrates Research Programs: An International Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jorge Gabitto; Maria Barrufet


    Gas hydrates sediments have the potential of providing a huge amount of natural gas for human use. Hydrate sediments have been found in many different regions where the required temperature and pressure conditions have been satisfied. Resource exploitation is related to the safe dissociation of the gas hydrate sediments. Basic depressurization techniques and thermal stimulation processes have been tried in pilot efforts to exploit the resource. There is a growing interest in gas hydrates all over the world due to the inevitable decline of oil and gas reserves. Many different countries are interested in this valuable resource. Unsurprisingly, developed countries with limited energy resources have taken the lead in worldwide gas hydrates research and exploration. The goal of this research project is to collect information in order to record and evaluate the relative strengths and goals of the different gas hydrates programs throughout the world. A thorough literature search about gas hydrates research activities has been conducted. The main participants in the research effort have been identified and summaries of their past and present activities reported. An evaluation section discussing present and future research activities has also been included.

  1. Electrical properties of methane hydrate + sediment mixtures (United States)

    Du Frane, Wyatt L.; Stern, Laura A.; Weitemeyer, Karen A.; Constable, Steven; Roberts, Jeffery J.


    As part of our DOE-funded proposal to characterize gas hydrate in the Gulf of Mexico using marine electromagnetic methods, a collaboration between SIO, LLNL, and USGS with the goal of measuring the electrical properties of lab-created methane (CH4) hydrate and sediment mixtures was formed. We examined samples with known characteristics to better relate electrical properties measured in the field to specific gas hydrate concentration and distribution patterns. Here we discuss first-ever electrical conductivity (σ) measurements on unmixed CH4 hydrate (Du Frane et al., 2011): 6 x 10-5 S/m at 5 °C, which is ~5 orders of magnitude lower than seawater. This difference allows electromagnetic (EM) techniques to distinguish highly resistive gas hydrate deposits from conductive water saturated sediments in EM field surveys. More recently, we performed measurements on CH4 hydrate mixed with sediment and we also discuss those initial findings here. Our results on samples free of liquid water are important for predicting conductivity of sediments with pores highly saturated with gas hydrate, and are an essential starting point for comprehensive mixing models.

  2. Prospecting for marine gas hydrate resources (United States)

    Boswell, Ray; Shipp, Craig; Reichel, Thomas; Shelander, Dianna; Saeki, Tetsuo; Frye, Matthew; Shedd, William; Collett, Timothy S.; McConnell, Daniel R.


    As gas hydrate energy assessment matures worldwide, emphasis has evolved away from confirmation of the mere presence of gas hydrate to the more complex issue of prospecting for those specific accumulations that are viable resource targets. Gas hydrate exploration now integrates the unique pressure and temperature preconditions for gas hydrate occurrence with those concepts and practices that are the basis for conventional oil and gas exploration. We have aimed to assimilate the lessons learned to date in global gas hydrate exploration to outline a generalized prospecting approach as follows: (1) use existing well and geophysical data to delineate the gas hydrate stability zone (GHSZ), (2) identify and evaluate potential direct indications of hydrate occurrence through evaluation of interval of elevated acoustic velocity and/or seismic events of prospective amplitude and polarity, (3) mitigate geologic risk via regional seismic and stratigraphic facies analysis as well as seismic mapping of amplitude distribution along prospective horizons, and (4) mitigate further prospect risk through assessment of the evidence of gas presence and migration into the GHSZ. Although a wide range of occurrence types might ultimately become viable energy supply options, this approach, which has been tested in only a small number of locations worldwide, has directed prospect evaluation toward those sand-hosted, high-saturation occurrences that were presently considered to have the greatest future commercial potential.

  3. Axiomatisation of fully probabilistic design

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kárný, Miroslav; Kroupa, Tomáš


    Roč. 186, č. 1 (2012), s. 105-113 ISSN 0020-0255 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 2C06001; GA ČR GA102/08/0567 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : Bayesian decision making * Fully probabilistic design * Kullback–Leibler divergence * Unified decision making Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research Impact factor: 3.643, year: 2012

  4. Aspects of Hydrate Management - Deposition Phenomena


    Langen, Heidi


    The purpose of this thesis has been to investigate the factors with the largest influence on the adhesion strength of a hydrate deposit on a solid surface. This has been done through a literature study on the subject, and a thorough experimental project in a laboratory. The experiments involved forming hydrate deposits on a pipe of steel, before removing the deposits and finding the pressure required to do so. The hydrate was formed by a solution of tetrahydrofuran and water in a tank where t...

  5. Methane hydrate morphology of natural hydrate-bearing sediment from Nankai trough, Japan (United States)

    Konno, Y.; Jin, Y.; Yoneda, J.; Kida, M.; Nagao, J.


    As a part of MH21, the Research Consortium for Methane Hydrate Resources in Japan, who initiated Japan's Methane Hydrate R&D Program (managed by the Ministry of Economy, Trade, and Industry (METI)), we developed newly pressured hydrate sediment analyzing apparatus (Pressured Non-destructive Analysis Tools, here after PNATs) including an X-ray computed-tomography (CT) system, gamma-ray density measurement system, an instrumented pressure testing chamber (IPTC). The Japanese IPTC was developed with strong cooperation from Georgia Tech and the U.S. Geological Survey. In this study, we investigated the hydrate morphology in natural gas hydrate-bearing (GH) sediment recovered from eastern Nankai trough area under hydro-pressurized condition using PNATs. In addition to P-wave measurement via the IPTC, we assessed hydrate saturation Sh in sediment sample by using our newly ATR-IR probe for the IPTC. Our analysis reveals that the pressurized sample shows load-bearing GH sediment.

  6. Hydrate formation in heterogeneous sediments: To what extent does hydrate distribution record the local environmental history? (United States)

    Rempel, A. W.; VanderBeek, B. P.


    The distribution of methane hydrate in marine sediments reflects the interplay between supply by methanogenesis and far-field transport, and the environmental conditions that set the local methane solubility, which is modulated by the physical properties of the host sediments. We explore the extent to which detailed observations of hydrate distribution and models of hydrate growth, especially in the vicinity of dipping sand layers, can be used to infer the environmental conditions that prevailed during emplacement. Anomalously high hydrate saturations found in association with relatively more coarse-grained strata have been attributed to both enhanced fluid focusing through more permeable sediment layers and to perturbations in phase equilibrium related to pore-space geometry. In order to achieve more accurate predictions of hydrate occurrence, we incorporate treatments for the influence of pore architecture on growth dynamics that have been validated using analog ice-water and water-vapor systems. We demonstrate how pore-size effects on methane solubility and permeability-driven variations in fluid flux can be parameterized into a 1D model for hydrate growth along dipping, coarse-grained layers embedded in a finer-grained sediment package. We show how the vertical distribution of hydrate varies in response to changes in grain size and rates of fluid advection, sedimentation, and in situ methane production. Our modeling shows that sharp gradients in methane solubility, which occur along stratigraphic boundaries, promote the diffusive growth of localized regions of high hydrate saturation while enhanced fluid advection favors more distributed growth throughout high permeability layers. Sedimentation tends to suppress the growth of diffusive hydrate saturation anomalies and can lead to steady-state hydrate saturation profiles. In situ methane production increases hydrate concentrations at shallow depths relative to models where methane is supplied advectively from a

  7. Hydration and nutrition knowledge in adolescent swimmers. Does water intake affect urine hydration markers after swimming?


    Cesare Altavilla; Maria Soledad Prats Moya; Pablo Caballero Pérez


    Little data exists regarding nutritional knowledge and hydration in adolescent swimmers. The aim of this study was to assess the level of nutrition and hydration knowledge and to describe the fluid balance in adolescent swimmers during training. A study was carried out with a cross-sectional descriptive part and a longitudinal part with repeated measurements over five swimming sessions. Eighty-six adolescent swimmers completed a questionnaire to assess their sport nutrition and hydration know...

  8. Experimental Investigation of Effect on Hydrate Formation in Spray Reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianzhong Zhao


    Full Text Available The effects of reaction condition on hydrate formation were conducted in spray reactor. The temperature, pressure, and gas volume of reaction on hydrate formation were measured in pure water and SDS solutions at different temperature and pressure with a high-pressure experimental rig for hydrate formation. The experimental data and result reveal that additives could improve the hydrate formation rate and gas storage capacity. Temperature and pressure can restrict the hydrate formation. Lower temperature and higher pressure can promote hydrate formation, but they can increase production cost. So these factors should be considered synthetically. The investigation will promote the advance of gas storage technology in hydrates.

  9. Geomechanical property of gas hydrate sediment in the Nankai trough

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hato, M. [Earth Remote Sensing Data Analysis Center, Tokyo (Japan); Matsuoka, T.; Ikeda, H. [Kyoto Univ., Kyoto (Japan). Dept. of Civil and Earth Resources Engineering; Inamori, T.; Saeki, T. [Japan Oil, Gas and Metals National Corp., Chiba (Japan). Technology Research Center


    Well logging data and core samples from the Nankai trough area were used to investigate the geomechanical properties and geological history of gas hydrate-bearing sediments. The Coulomb-Mohr failure criterion was used to calculate the mechanical strength of the hydrate sediments. The dynamic Young's modulus was calculated using theoretical and experimental data. The study showed that sediments below the gas hydrate later are mechanically weaker than sediments within the gas hydrate layer. The mechanical strength of the core samples was then measured both before and after dissociation. The study showed that saturated gas hydrates are 4 times stronger than gas hydrate-dissociated cores. It was concluded that hydrate-bearing sediments are mechanically stronger than non-hydrate-bearing sediments. Results of the study will be used to develop methods of predicting risk factors for sea floor deformations and well-bore collapse during gas hydrate extraction processes in hydrate reservoirs. 6 refs., 5 figs.

  10. Exogenous origin of hydration on asteroid (16) Psyche: the role of hydrated asteroid families (United States)

    Avdellidou, C.; Delbo', M.; Fienga, A.


    Asteroid (16) Psyche, which for a long time was the largest M-type with no detection of hydration features in its spectrum, was recently discovered to have a weak 3-μm band and thus it was eventually added to the group of hydrated asteroids. Its relatively high density, in combination with the high radar albedo, led researchers to classify the asteroid as a metallic object. It is believed that it is possibly a core of a differentiated body, a remnant of `hit-and-run' collisions. The detection of hydration is, in principle, inconsistent with a pure metallic origin for this body. Here, we consider the scenario in which the hydration on its surface is exogenous and was delivered by hydrated impactors. We show that impacting asteroids that belong to families whose members have the 3-μm band can deliver hydrated material to Psyche. We developed a collisional model with which we test all dark carbonaceous asteroid families, which contain hydrated members. We find that the major source of hydrated impactors is the family of Themis, with a total implanted mass on Psyche of the order of ˜1014 kg. However, the hydrated fraction could be only a few per cent of the implanted mass, as the water content in carbonaceous chondrite meteorites, the best analogue for the Themis asteroid family, is typically a few per cent of their mass.

  11. Separation of water through gas hydrate formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boch Andersen, Torben; Thomsen, Kaj


    Gas hydrate is normally recognized as a troublemaker in the oil and gas industry. However, gas hydrate has some interesting possibilities when used in connection with separation of water. Nordic Sugar has investigated the possibility of using gas hydrates for concentration of sugar juice. The goal...... of the project was to formulate an alternative separation concept, which can replace the traditional water evaporation process in the sugar production. Work with the separation concept showed that gas hydrates can be used for water separation. The process is not suitable for sugar production because of large...... volumes and the needs for high pressure. The process could be interesting for concentration of heat sensitive, high value products...

  12. Proton NMR relaxation of hydrated insulin powder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanches, R.; Donoso, J.P.; Mascarenhas, S.; Panepucci, H.C.


    Water proton nuclear magnetic relaxation measurements were obtained for hydrated insulin powder as a function of the water content. For samples containing enough water to complete the hydration shell, the data for the spin-lattice and spin-spin relaxation times are consistent with a model in which water molecules exist in two phases, one exhibiting restricted motion and identified with water of hydration and another identified as free water with motions similar to ordinary water. For samples containing only water of hydration, a model for the spin-spin relaxation time is discussed, in which the water molecules relaxation is described in terms for four relaxation times. Estimates are obtained for these relaxation times, in good agreement with the experimental data. (Author) [pt

  13. Polyethylene oxide hydration in grafted layers (United States)

    Dormidontova, Elena; Wang, Zilu

    Hydration of water soluble polymers is one of the key-factors defining their conformation and properties, similar to biopolymers. Polyethylene oxide (PEO) is one of the most important biomedical-applications polymers and is known for its reverse temperature solubility due to hydrogen bonding with water. As in many practical applications PEO chains are grafted to surfaces, e.g. of nanoparticles or planar surfaces, it is important to understand PEO hydration in such grafted layers. Using atomistic molecular dynamic simulations we investigate the details of molecular conformation and hydration of PEO end-grafted to gold surfaces. We analyze polymer and water density distribution as a function of distance from the surface for different grafting densities. Based on a detailed analysis of hydrogen bonding between polymer and water in grafted PEO layers, we will discuss the extent of PEO hydration and its implication for polymer conformation, mobility and layer properties. This research is supported by NSF (DMR-1410928).

  14. Oceanic hydrates: more questions than answers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laherrere, Jean


    Methane hydrates create problems by blocking pipelines and casing; they are also accused of contributing to environmental problems (e.g. global warming). Methane hydrates are also found in permafrost areas and in oceanic sediments where the necessary temperature and pressure for stability occur. Claims for the widespread occurrence in thick oceanic deposits are unfounded: apparently indirect evidence from seismic reflectors, seismic hydrocarbon indicators, logs and free samples is unreliable. At one time, hydrate was seen as a static, biogenic, continuous, huge resource but that view is changing to one of a dynamic, overpressurised, discontinuous and unreliable resource. Only Japan and India are currently showing any serious interest in hydrates. Academic research has raised more questions than answers. It is suggested that more hard exploratory evidence rather than theoretical study is required

  15. ConocoPhillips Gas Hydrate Production Test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoderbek, David [ConocoPhillips Co., Houston, TX (United States); Farrell, Helen [ConocoPhillips Co., Houston, TX (United States); Howard, James [ConocoPhillips Co., Houston, TX (United States); Raterman, Kevin [ConocoPhillips Co., Houston, TX (United States); Silpngarmlert, Suntichai [ConocoPhillips Co., Houston, TX (United States); Martin, Kenneth [ConocoPhillips Co., Houston, TX (United States); Smith, Bruce [ConocoPhillips Co., Houston, TX (United States); Klein, Perry [ConocoPhillips Co., Houston, TX (United States)


    Work began on the ConocoPhillips Gas Hydrates Production Test (DOE award number DE-NT0006553) on October 1, 2008. This final report summarizes the entire project from January 1, 2011 to June 30, 2013.

  16. Vibrational dynamics of hydration water in amylose

    CERN Document Server

    Cavatorta, F; Albanese, G; Angelini, N


    We present a study of the dynamical properties of hydration water associated with amylose helices, based on low-temperature vibrational spectra collected using the TOSCA inelastic spectrometer at ISIS. The structural constraints of the polysaccharidic chains favour the formation of a high-density structure for water, which has been suggested by Imberty and Perez on the basis of conformational analysis. According to this model, hydration water can only enter the pores formed by six adjacent helices and completely fills the pores at a hydration level of about 0.27-g water/g dry amylose. Our measurements show that the dynamical behaviour of hydration water is similar to that observed in high-density amorphous ice. (orig.)

  17. Hydration states of AFm cement phases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baquerizo, Luis G., E-mail: [Innovation, Holcim Technology Ltd., CH-5113 Holderbank (Switzerland); Matschei, Thomas [Innovation, Holcim Technology Ltd., CH-5113 Holderbank (Switzerland); Scrivener, Karen L. [Laboratory of Construction Materials, Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Saeidpour, Mahsa; Wadsö, Lars [Building Materials, Lund University, Box 124, 221 000 Lund (Sweden)


    The AFm phase, one of the main products formed during the hydration of Portland and calcium aluminate cement based systems, belongs to the layered double hydrate (LDH) family having positively charged layers and water plus charge-balancing anions in the interlayer. It is known that these phases present different hydration states (i.e. varying water content) depending on the relative humidity (RH), temperature and anion type, which might be linked to volume changes (swelling and shrinkage). Unfortunately the stability conditions of these phases are insufficiently reported. This paper presents novel experimental results on the different hydration states of the most important AFm phases: monocarboaluminate, hemicarboaluminate, strätlingite, hydroxy-AFm and monosulfoaluminate, and the thermodynamic properties associated with changes in their water content during absorption/desorption. This data opens the possibility to model the response of cementitious systems during drying and wetting and to engineer systems more resistant to harsh external conditions.

  18. Hydrate Control for Gas Storage Operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeffrey Savidge


    The overall objective of this project was to identify low cost hydrate control options to help mitigate and solve hydrate problems that occur in moderate and high pressure natural gas storage field operations. The study includes data on a number of flow configurations, fluids and control options that are common in natural gas storage field flow lines. The final phase of this work brings together data and experience from the hydrate flow test facility and multiple field and operator sources. It includes a compilation of basic information on operating conditions as well as candidate field separation options. Lastly the work is integrated with the work with the initial work to provide a comprehensive view of gas storage field hydrate control for field operations and storage field personnel.

  19. Atomistic simulations of cation hydration in sodium and calcium montmorillonite nanopores (United States)

    Yang, Guomin; Neretnieks, Ivars; Holmboe, Michael


    During the last four decades, numerous studies have been directed to the swelling smectite-rich clays in the context of high-level radioactive waste applications and waste-liners for contaminated sites. The swelling properties of clay mineral particles arise due to hydration of the interlayer cations and the diffuse double layers formed near the negatively charged montmorillonite (MMT) surfaces. To accurately study the cation hydration in the interlayer nanopores of MMT, solvent-solute and solvent-clay surface interactions (i.e., the solvation effects and the shape effects) on the atomic level should be taken into account, in contrast to many recent electric double layer based methodologies using continuum models. Therefore, in this research we employed fully atomistic simulations using classical molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, the software package GROMACS along with the CLAYFF forcefield and the SPC/E water model. We present the ion distributions and the deformation of the hydrated coordination structures, i.e., the hydration shells of Na+ and Ca2+ in the interlayer, respectively, for MMT in the first-layer, the second-layer, the third-layer, the fourth-layer, and the fifth-layer (1W, 2W, 3W, 4W, and 5W) hydrate states. Our MD simulations show that Na+ in Na-MMT nanopores have an affinity to the ditrigonal cavities of the clay layers and form transient inner-sphere complexes at about 3.8 Å from clay midplane at water contents less than the 5W hydration state. However, these phenomena are not observed in Ca-MMT regardless of swelling states. For Na-MMT, each Na+ is coordinated to four water molecules and one oxygen atom of the clay basal-plane in the first hydration shell at the 1W hydration state, and with five to six water molecules in the first hydration shell within a radius of 3.1 Å at all higher water contents. In Ca-MMT, however each Ca2+ is coordinated to approximately seven water molecules in the first hydration shell at the 1W hydration state and


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ali Kadaster; Bill Liddell; Tommy Thompson; Thomas Williams; Michael Niedermayr


    Natural-gas hydrates have been encountered beneath the permafrost and considered a nuisance by the oil and gas industry for years. Engineers working in Russia, Canada and the USA have documented numerous drilling problems, including kicks and uncontrolled gas releases, in arctic regions. Information has been generated in laboratory studies pertaining to the extent, volume, chemistry and phase behavior of gas hydrates. Scientists studying hydrate potential agree that the potential is great--on the North Slope of Alaska alone, it has been estimated at 590 TCF. However, little information has been obtained on physical samples taken from actual rock containing hydrates. This gas-hydrate project was a cost-shared partnership between Maurer Technology, Noble Corporation, Anadarko Petroleum, and the U.S. Department of Energy's Methane Hydrate R&D program. The purpose of the project is to build on previous and ongoing R&D in the area of onshore hydrate deposition to identify, quantify and predict production potential for hydrates located on the North Slope of Alaska. The work scope included drilling and coring a well (Hot Ice No. 1) on Anadarko leases beginning in FY 2003 and completed in 2004. During the first drilling season, operations were conducted at the site between January 28, 2003 to April 30, 2003. The well was spudded and drilled to a depth of 1403 ft. Due to the onset of warmer weather, work was then suspended for the season. Operations at the site were continued after the tundra was re-opened the following season. Between January 12, 2004 and March 19, 2004, the well was drilled and cored to a final depth of 2300 ft. An on-site core analysis laboratory was built and implemented for determining physical characteristics of the hydrates and surrounding rock. The well was drilled from a new Anadarko Arctic Platform that has a minimal footprint and environmental impact. Final efforts of the project are to correlate geology, geophysics, logs, and drilling and


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steve Runyon; Mike Globe; Kent Newsham; Robert Kleinberg; Doug Griffin


    Natural-gas hydrates have been encountered beneath the permafrost and considered a nuisance by the oil and gas industry for years. Engineers working in Russia, Canada and the USA have documented numerous drilling problems, including kicks and uncontrolled gas releases, in arctic regions. Information has been generated in laboratory studies pertaining to the extent, volume, chemistry and phase behavior of gas hydrates. Scientists studying hydrate potential agree that the potential is great--on the North Slope of Alaska alone, it has been estimated at 590 TCF. However, little information has been obtained on physical samples taken from actual rock containing hydrates. This gas-hydrate project was a cost-shared partnership between Maurer Technology, Noble Corporation, Anadarko Petroleum, and the U.S. Department of Energy's Methane Hydrate R&D program. The purpose of the project is to build on previous and ongoing R&D in the area of onshore hydrate deposition to identify, quantify and predict production potential for hydrates located on the North Slope of Alaska. The work scope included drilling and coring a well (Hot Ice No. 1) on Anadarko leases beginning in FY 2003 and completed in 2004. During the first drilling season, operations were conducted at the site between January 28, 2003 to April 30, 2003. The well was spudded and drilled to a depth of 1403 ft. Due to the onset of warmer weather, work was then suspended for the season. Operations at the site were continued after the tundra was re-opened the following season. Between January 12, 2004 and March 19, 2004, the well was drilled and cored to a final depth of 2300 ft. An on-site core analysis laboratory was built and utilized for determining the physical characteristics of the hydrates and surrounding rock. The well was drilled from a new Anadarko Arctic Platform that has a minimal footprint and environmental impact. The final efforts of the project are to correlate geology, geophysics, logs, and drilling

  2. Spectroscopic methods in gas hydrate research. (United States)

    Rauh, Florian; Mizaikoff, Boris


    Gas hydrates are crystalline structures comprising a guest molecule surrounded by a water cage, and are particularly relevant due to their natural occurrence in the deep sea and in permafrost areas. Low molecular weight molecules such as methane and carbon dioxide can be sequestered into that cage at suitable temperatures and pressures, facilitating the transition to the solid phase. While the composition and structure of gas hydrates appear to be well understood, their formation and dissociation mechanisms, along with the dynamics and kinetics associated with those processes, remain ambiguous. In order to take advantage of gas hydrates as an energy resource (e.g., methane hydrate), as a sequestration matrix in (for example) CO(2) storage, or for chemical energy conservation/storage, a more detailed molecular level understanding of their formation and dissociation processes, as well as the chemical, physical, and biological parameters that affect these processes, is required. Spectroscopic techniques appear to be most suitable for analyzing the structures of gas hydrates (sometimes in situ), thus providing access to such information across the electromagnetic spectrum. A variety of spectroscopic methods are currently used in gas hydrate research to determine the composition, structure, cage occupancy, guest molecule position, and binding/formation/dissociation mechanisms of the hydrate. To date, the most commonly applied techniques are Raman spectroscopy and solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Diffraction methods such as neutron and X-ray diffraction are used to determine gas hydrate structures, and to study lattice expansions. Furthermore, UV-vis spectroscopic techniques and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) have assisted in structural studies of gas hydrates. Most recently, waveguide-coupled mid-infrared spectroscopy in the 3-20 μm spectral range has demonstrated its value for in situ studies on the formation and dissociation of gas

  3. Supramolecular Organization of Nonstoichiometric Drug Hydrates: Dapsone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doris E. Braun


    Full Text Available The observed moisture- and temperature dependent transformations of the dapsone (4,4′-diaminodiphenyl sulfone, DDS 0. 33-hydrate were correlated to its structure and the number and strength of the water-DDS intermolecular interactions. A combination of characterization techniques was used, including thermal analysis (hot-stage microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry and thermogravimetric analysis, gravimetric moisture sorption/desorption studies and variable humidity powder X-ray diffraction, along with computational modeling (crystal structure prediction and pair-wise intermolecular energy calculations. Depending on the relative humidity the hydrate contains between 0 and 0.33 molecules of water per molecule DDS. The crystal structure is retained upon dehydration indicating that DDS hydrate shows a non-stoichiometric (dehydration behavior. Unexpectedly, the water molecules are not located in structural channels but at isolated-sites of the host framework, which is counterintuitively for a hydrate with non-stoichiometric behavior. The water-DDS interactions were estimated to be weaker than water-host interactions that are commonly observed in stoichiometric hydrates and the lattice energies of the isomorphic dehydration product (hydrate structure without water molecules and (form III differ only by ~1 kJ mol−1. The computational generation of hypothetical monohydrates confirms that the hydrate with the unusual DDS:water ratio of 3:1 is more stable than a feasible monohydrate structure. Overall, this study highlights that a deeper understanding of the formation of hydrates with non-stoichiometric behavior requires a multidisciplinary approach including suitable experimental and computational methods providing a firm basis for the development and manufacturing of high quality drug products.

  4. Exploitation of subsea gas hydrate reservoirs (United States)

    Janicki, Georg; Schlüter, Stefan; Hennig, Torsten; Deerberg, Görge


    Natural gas hydrates are considered to be a potential energy resource in the future. They occur in permafrost areas as well as in subsea sediments and are stable at high pressure and low temperature conditions. According to estimations the amount of carbon bonded in natural gas hydrates worldwide is two times larger than in all known conventional fossil fuels. Besides technical challenges that have to be overcome climate and safety issues have to be considered before a commercial exploitation of such unconventional reservoirs. The potential of producing natural gas from subsea gas hydrate deposits by various means (e.g. depressurization and/or injection of carbon dioxide) is numerically studied in the frame of the German research project »SUGAR«. The basic mechanisms of gas hydrate formation/dissociation and heat and mass transport in porous media are considered and implemented into a numerical model. The physics of the process leads to strong non-linear couplings between hydraulic fluid flow, hydrate dissociation and formation, hydraulic properties of the sediment, partial pressures and seawater solution of components and the thermal budget of the system described by the heat equation. This paper is intended to provide an overview of the recent development regarding the production of natural gas from subsea gas hydrate reservoirs. It aims at giving a broad insight into natural gas hydrates and covering relevant aspects of the exploitation process. It is focused on the thermodynamic principles and technological approaches for the exploitation. The effects occurring during natural gas production within hydrate filled sediment layers are identified and discussed by means of numerical simulation results. The behaviour of relevant process parameters such as pressure, temperature and phase saturations is described and compared for different strategies. The simulations are complemented by calculations for different safety relevant problems.

  5. Hydrate Shell Growth Measured Using NMR. (United States)

    Haber, Agnes; Akhfash, Masoumeh; Loh, Charles K; Aman, Zachary M; Fridjonsson, Einar O; May, Eric F; Johns, Michael L


    Benchtop nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) pulsed field gradient (PFG) and relaxation measurements were used to monitor the clathrate hydrate shell growth occurring in water droplets dispersed in a continuous cyclopentane phase. These techniques allowed the growth of hydrate inside the opaque exterior shell to be monitored and, hence, information about the evolution of the shell's morphology to be deduced. NMR relaxation measurements were primarily used to monitor the hydrate shell growth kinetics, while PFG NMR diffusion experiments were used to determine the nominal droplet size distribution (DSD) of the unconverted water inside the shell core. A comparison of mean droplet sizes obtained directly via PFG NMR and independently deduced from relaxation measurements showed that the assumption of the shell model-a perfect spherical core of unconverted water-for these hydrate droplet systems is correct, but only after approximately 24 h of shell growth. Initially, hydrate growth is faster and heat-transfer-limited, leading to porous shells with surface areas larger than that of spheres with equivalent volumes. Subsequently, the hydrate growth rate becomes mass-transfer-limited, and the shells become thicker, spherical, and less porous.

  6. Raman spectroscopic measurements on fluoromethane clathrate hydrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uchida, T. [Hokkaido Univ., Sapporo (Japan). Graduate School of Engineering, Div. of Applied Physics; Ohmura, R. [Keio Univ., Kohoku-ku, Yokohama (Japan). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Hori, A. [Kitami Inst. of Technology, Kitami (Japan). Course of Civil Engineering


    The occupation of guest molecules in clathrate-structure cages is of interest to researchers, since this property is involved in the estimation of guest molecule density, the stability of clathrate hydrates, and other features. However, such occupation is known to be non-stoichiometric. It remains difficult to accurately estimate the total amount of natural gases in the hydrates located in the deep ocean or in permafrost. This paper discussed the systematic observations of fluoromethane clathrate hydrates using Raman spectroscopy in conjunction with previously obtained Raman spectra for methane (CH{sub 4}) hydrate. Four types of fluoromethane were utilized as standard guest molecules to investigate cage occupation in the hydrates, as all of them were included in the same crystal structure and shared similar functional groups. The types of fluoromethane that were used included fluoromethane (CH{sub 3}F), difluoromethane (CH{sub 2}F{sub 2}), trifluoromethane (CHF{sub 3}), and tetrafluoromethane (CF{sub 4}). The paper discussed the experimental methods including the temperature and pressure conditions of fluorocarbon hydrate formation. It was concluded that the summary of the Raman peak positions of fluoromethane molecules indicate that the influence of deuterized host molecules on the intramolecular vibration frequencies is less than that suggested by experimental error. The obtained data were confirmed to agree with the empirical model for the Raman peak positions on guest molecules, when the relative position of the guest molecule in a host cage structure is considered. 28 refs., 1 tab., 7 figs.

  7. Hydration induced stress on DNA monolayers grafted on microcantilevers. (United States)

    Domínguez, Carmen M; Kosaka, Priscila M; Mokry, Guillermo; Pini, Valerio; Malvar, Oscar; del Rey, Mercedes; Ramos, Daniel; San Paulo, Alvaro; Tamayo, Javier; Calleja, Montserrat


    Surface tethered single-stranded DNA films are relevant biorecognition layers for oligonucleotide sequence identification. Also, hydration induced effects on these films have proven useful for the nanomechanical detection of DNA hybridization. Here, we apply nanomechanical sensors and atomic force microscopy to characterize in air and upon varying relative humidity conditions the swelling and deswelling of grafted single stranded and double stranded DNA films. The combination of these techniques validates a two-step hybridization process, where complementary strands first bind to the surface tethered single stranded DNA probes and then slowly proceed to a fully zipped configuration. Our results also demonstrate that, despite the slow hybridization kinetics observed for grafted DNA onto microcantilever surfaces, ex situ sequence identification does not require hybridization times typically longer than 1 h, while quantification is a major challenge.

  8. Hydration during intense exercise training. (United States)

    Maughan, R J; Meyer, N L


    Hydration status has profound effects on both physical and mental performance, and sports performance is thus critically affected. Both overhydration and underhydration - if sufficiently severe - will impair performance and pose a risk to health. Athletes may begin exercise in a hypohydrated state as a result of incomplete recovery from water loss induced in order to achieve a specific body mass target or due to incomplete recovery from a previous competition or training session. Dehydration will also develop in endurance exercise where fluid intake does not match water loss. The focus has generally been on training rather than on competition, but sweat loss and fluid replacement in training may have important implications. Hypohydration may impair training quality and may also increase stress levels. It is unclear whether this will have negative effects (reduced training quality, impaired immunity) or whether it will promote a greater adaptive response. Hypohydration and the consequent hyperthermia, however, can enhance the effectiveness of a heat acclimation program, resulting in improved endurance performance in warm and temperate environments. Drinking in training may be important in enhancing tolerance of the gut when athletes plan to drink in competition. The distribution of water between body water compartments may also be important in the initiation and promotion of cellular adaptations to the training stimulus. Copyright © 2013 Nestec Ltd., Vevey/S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. Fast parametric relationships for the large-scale reservoir simulation of mixed CH4-CO2 gas hydrate systems (United States)

    Reagan, Matthew T.; Moridis, George J.; Seim, Katie S.


    A recent Department of Energy field test on the Alaska North Slope has increased interest in the ability to simulate systems of mixed CO2-CH4 hydrates. However, the physically realistic simulation of mixed-hydrate simulation is not yet a fully solved problem. Limited quantitative laboratory data leads to the use of various ab initio, statistical mechanical, or other mathematic representations of mixed-hydrate phase behavior. Few of these methods are suitable for inclusion in reservoir simulations, particularly for systems with large number of grid elements, 3D systems, or systems with complex geometric configurations. In this work, we present a set of fast parametric relationships describing the thermodynamic properties and phase behavior of a mixed methane-carbon dioxide hydrate system. We use well-known, off-the-shelf hydrate physical properties packages to generate a sufficiently large dataset, select the most convenient and efficient mathematical forms, and fit the data to those forms to create a physical properties package suitable for inclusion in the TOUGH+ family of codes. The mapping of the phase and thermodynamic space reveals the complexity of the mixed-hydrate system and allows understanding of the thermodynamics at a level beyond what much of the existing laboratory data and literature currently offer.

  10. The relation between hydration and mechanical behavior of bovine cornea in tension. (United States)

    Hatami-Marbini, Hamed; Rahimi, Abdolrasol


    The cornea is a transparent soft tissue covering the front of the eye. The biomechanical properties of the cornea have been commonly investigated by uniaxial tensile and inflation testing methods. The cornea like many other hydrated tissue swells when immersed in an ionic solution. Previous studies on hydrated tissues have shown that mechanical properties and hydration are closely related. The present study was designed to investigate the effects of thickness (hydration) variation due to swelling/dehydration on non-linear stress-strain response of the bovine cornea. Corneal strips were first air-dried and then soaked in a bathing solution until they reached an average thickness ranging from 0.3mm to 1.1mm. Based on their thickness, the samples were divided into different groups and uniaxial tests were performed to measure tensile properties. All experiments were done in mineral oil to prevent any hydration gain or loss during the tests. It was observed that swollen corneas had softer tensile properties in comparison with dehydrated ones. In particular, there was a significant difference between elastic tangent modulus of different groups (P<0.05). It was also shown that tensile behavior of bovine strips at any thickness within the range of 0.4-1.1mm can be obtained from a single experiment conducted on samples with known thickness (hydration). The findings of the present study confirm that mechanical properties obtained from uniaxial tensile experiments are strongly dependent on thickness (water amount) of samples; therefore, careful attention must be taken in interpreting previous studies which did not fully control the thickness of specimens. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Restaurant No. 1 fully renovated

    CERN Multimedia


    The Restaurant No. 1 team. After several months of patience and goodwill on the part of our clients, we are delighted to announce that the major renovation work which began in September 2006 has now been completed. From 21 May 2007 we look forward to welcoming you to a completely renovated restaurant area designed with you in mind. The restaurant team wishes to thank all its clients for their patience and loyalty. Particular attention has been paid in the new design to creating a spacious serving area and providing a wider choice of dishes. The new restaurant area has been designed as an open-plan space to enable you to view all the dishes before making your selection and to move around freely from one food access point to another. It comprises user-friendly areas that fully comply with hygiene standards. From now on you will be able to pick and choose to your heart's content. We invite you to try out wok cooking or some other speciality. Or select a pizza or a plate of pasta with a choice of two sauces fr...

  12. Controls on Gas Hydrate Formation and Dissociation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miriam Kastner; Ian MacDonald


    The main objectives of the project were to monitor, characterize, and quantify in situ the rates of formation and dissociation of methane hydrates at and near the seafloor in the northern Gulf of Mexico, with a focus on the Bush Hill seafloor hydrate mound; to record the linkages between physical and chemical parameters of the deposits over the course of one year, by emphasizing the response of the hydrate mound to temperature and chemical perturbations; and to document the seafloor and water column environmental impacts of hydrate formation and dissociation. For these, monitoring the dynamics of gas hydrate formation and dissociation was required. The objectives were achieved by an integrated field and laboratory scientific study, particularly by monitoring in situ formation and dissociation of the outcropping gas hydrate mound and of the associated gas-rich sediments. In addition to monitoring with the MOSQUITOs, fluid flow rates and temperature, continuously sampling in situ pore fluids for the chemistry, and imaging the hydrate mound, pore fluids from cores, peepers and gas hydrate samples from the mound were as well sampled and analyzed for chemical and isotopic compositions. In order to determine the impact of gas hydrate dissociation and/or methane venting across the seafloor on the ocean and atmosphere, the overlying seawater was sampled and thoroughly analyzed chemically and for methane C isotope ratios. At Bush hill the pore fluid chemistry varies significantly over short distances as well as within some of the specific sites monitored for 440 days, and gas venting is primarily focused. The pore fluid chemistry in the tub-warm and mussel shell fields clearly documented active gas hydrate and authigenic carbonate formation during the monitoring period. The advecting fluid is depleted in sulfate, Ca Mg, and Sr and is rich in methane; at the main vent sites the fluid is methane supersaturated, thus bubble plumes form. The subsurface hydrology exhibits both

  13. Distinguishing between hydrated, partially hydrated or unhydrated clinker in hardened concrete using microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valcke, S.L.A.; Rooij, M.R. de; Visser, J.H.M.; Nijland, T.G.


    Hydration of clinker particles is since long a topic of interest in both designing and optimizing cement composition and its quantity used in concrete. The interest for carefully observing and also quantifying the type or stage of clinker hydration in hardened cement paste is twofold. Firstly, the

  14. Three-dimensional distribution of gas hydrate beneath southern Hydrate Ridge: Constraints from ODP Leg 204 (United States)

    Trehu, A.M.; Long, P.E.; Torres, M.E.; Bohrmann, G.; Rack, F.R.; Collett, T.S.; Goldberg, D.S.; Milkov, A.V.; Riedel, M.; Schultheiss, P.; Bangs, N.L.; Barr, S.R.; Borowski, W.S.; Claypool, G.E.; Delwiche, M.E.; Dickens, G.R.; Gracia, E.; Guerin, G.; Holland, M.; Johnson, J.E.; Lee, Y.-J.; Liu, C.-S.; Su, X.; Teichert, B.; Tomaru, H.; Vanneste, M.; Watanabe, M. E.; Weinberger, J.L.


    Large uncertainties about the energy resource potential and role in global climate change of gas hydrates result from uncertainty about how much hydrate is contained in marine sediments. During Leg 204 of the Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) to the accretionary complex of the Cascadia subduction zone, we sampled the gas hydrate stability zone (GHSZ) from the seafloor to its base in contrasting geological settings defined by a 3D seismic survey. By integrating results from different methods, including several new techniques developed for Leg 204, we overcome the problem of spatial under-sampling inherent in robust methods traditionally used for estimating the hydrate content of cores and obtain a high-resolution, quantitative estimate of the total amount and spatial variability of gas hydrate in this structural system. We conclude that high gas hydrate content (30-40% of pore space or 20-26% of total volume) is restricted to the upper tens of meters below the seafloor near the summit of the structure, where vigorous fluid venting occurs. Elsewhere, the average gas hydrate content of the sediments in the gas hydrate stability zone is generally change. ?? 2004 Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Hydrate-phobic surfaces: fundamental studies in clathrate hydrate adhesion reduction. (United States)

    Smith, J David; Meuler, Adam J; Bralower, Harrison L; Venkatesan, Rama; Subramanian, Sivakumar; Cohen, Robert E; McKinley, Gareth H; Varanasi, Kripa K


    Clathrate hydrate formation and subsequent plugging of deep-sea oil and gas pipelines represent a significant bottleneck for deep-sea oil and gas operations. Current methods for hydrate mitigation are expensive and energy intensive, comprising chemical, thermal, or flow management techniques. In this paper, we present an alternate approach of using functionalized coatings to reduce hydrate adhesion to surfaces, ideally to a low enough level that hydrodynamic shear stresses can detach deposits and prevent plug formation. Systematic and quantitative studies of hydrate adhesion on smooth substrates with varying solid surface energies reveal a linear trend between hydrate adhesion strength and the practical work of adhesion (γ(total)[1 + cos θ(rec)]) of a suitable probe liquid, that is, one with similar surface energy properties to those of the hydrate. A reduction in hydrate adhesion strength by more than a factor of four when compared to bare steel is achieved on surfaces characterized by low Lewis acid, Lewis base, and van der Waals contributions to surface free energy such that the practical work of adhesion is minimized. These fundamental studies provide a framework for the development of hydrate-phobic surfaces, and could lead to passive enhancement of flow assurance and prevention of blockages in deep-sea oil and gas operations.

  16. Hydration of urea and alkylated urea derivatives (United States)

    Kaatze, Udo


    Compressibility data and broadband dielectric spectra of aqueous solutions of urea and some of its alkylated derivatives have been evaluated to yield their numbers Nh of hydration water molecules per molecule of solute. Nh values in a broad range of solute concentrations are discussed and are compared to hydration numbers of other relevant molecules and organic ions. Consistent with previous results, it is found that urea differs from other solutes in its unusually small hydration number, corresponding to just one third of the estimated number of nearest neighbor molecules. This remarkable hydration behavior is explained by the large density φH of hydrogen bonding abilities offered by the urea molecule. In terms of currently discussed models of reorientational motions and allied dynamics in water and related associating liquids, the large density φH causes a relaxation time close to that of undisturbed water with most parts of water encircling the solute. Therefore only a small part of disturbed ("hydration") water is left around each urea molecule. Adding alkyl groups to the basic molecule leads to Nh values which, within the series of n-alkylurea derivatives, progressively increase with the number of methyl groups per solute. With n-butylurea, Nh from dielectric spectra, in conformity with many other organic solutes, slightly exceeds the number of nearest neighbors. Compared to such Nh values, hydration numbers from compressibility data are substantially smaller, disclosing incorrect assumptions in the formula commonly used to interpret the experimental compressibilities. Similar to other series of organic solutes, effects of isomerization have been found with alkylated urea derivatives, indicating that factors other than the predominating density φH of hydrogen bond abilities contribute also to the hydration properties.

  17. Mechanisms Leading to Co-Existence of Gas Hydrate in Ocean Sediments [Part 2 of 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bryant, Steven; Juanes, Ruben


    laboratory experiments in a radial cell. We collapse the behavior in the form of a phase diagram fully characterized by two dimensionless groups: a modified capillary number and a ?fracturing number? that reflects the balance between the pressure forces that act to open conduits in the granular pack, and frictional forces that resist it. We use all this small-scale knowledge to propose simple mechanistic models of gas migration and hydrate formation at the geologic bed scale. We propose that methane transport in lake and oceanic sediments is controlled by dynamic conduits, which dilate and release gas as the falling hydrostatic pressure reduces the effective stress below the tensile strength of the sediments. We test our model against a four-month record of hydrostatic load and methane flux in Upper Mystic Lake, Mass., USA, and show that it captures the complex episodicity of methane ebullition. Our quantitative conceptualization opens the door to integrated modeling of methane transport to constrain global methane release from lakes and other methane-rich sediment systems, and to assess its climate feedbacks.

  18. Mechanisms Leading to Co-Existence of Gas Hydrate in Ocean Sediments [Part 1 of 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bryant, Steven; Juanes, Ruben


    laboratory experiments in a radial cell. We collapse the behavior in the form of a phase diagram fully characterized by two dimensionless groups: a modified capillary number and a ?fracturing number? that reflects the balance between the pressure forces that act to open conduits in the granular pack, and frictional forces that resist it. We use all this small-scale knowledge to propose simple mechanistic models of gas migration and hydrate formation at the geologic bed scale. We propose that methane transport in lake and oceanic sediments is controlled by dynamic conduits, which dilate and release gas as the falling hydrostatic pressure reduces the effective stress below the tensile strength of the sediments. We test our model against a four-month record of hydrostatic load and methane flux in Upper Mystic Lake, Mass., USA, and show that it captures the complex episodicity of methane ebullition. Our quantitative conceptualization opens the door to integrated modeling of methane transport to constrain global methane release from lakes and other methane-rich sediment systems, and to assess its climate feedbacks.

  19. The fully Mobile City Government Project (MCity)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scholl, Hans; Fidel, Raya; Mai, Jens Erik


    The Fully Mobile City Government Project, also known as MCity, is an interdisciplinary research project on the premises, requirements, and effects of fully mobile, wirelessly connected applications (FWMC). The project will develop an analytical framework for interpreting the interaction...


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richard Sigal; Kent Newsham; Thomas Williams; Barry Freifeld; Timothy Kneafsey; Carl Sondergeld; Shandra Rai; Jonathan Kwan; Stephen Kirby; Robert Kleinberg; Doug Griffin


    Natural-gas hydrates have been encountered beneath the permafrost and considered a nuisance by the oil and gas industry for years. Engineers working in Russia, Canada and the USA have documented numerous drilling problems, including kicks and uncontrolled gas releases, in arctic regions. Information has been generated in laboratory studies pertaining to the extent, volume, chemistry and phase behavior of gas hydrates. Scientists studying hydrate potential agree that the potential is great--on the North Slope of Alaska alone, it has been estimated at 590 TCF. However, little information has been obtained on physical samples taken from actual rock containing hydrates. The work scope drilled and cored a well The Hot Ice No. 1 on Anadarko leases beginning in FY 2003 and completed in 2004. An on-site core analysis laboratory was built and utilized for determining the physical characteristics of the hydrates and surrounding rock. The well was drilled from a new Anadarko Arctic Platform that has a minimal footprint and environmental impact. The final efforts of the project are to correlate geology, geophysics, logs, and drilling and production data and provide this information to scientists developing reservoir models. No gas hydrates were encountered in this well; however, a wealth of information was generated and is contained in this report. The Hot Ice No. 1 well was drilled from the surface to a measured depth of 2300 ft. There was almost 100% core recovery from the bottom of surface casing at 107 ft to total depth. Based on the best estimate of the bottom of the methane hydrate stability zone (which used new data obtained from Hot Ice No. 1 and new analysis of data from adjacent wells), core was recovered over its complete range. Approximately 580 ft of porous, mostly frozen, sandstone and 155 of conglomerate were recovered in the Ugnu Formation and approximately 215 ft of porous sandstone were recovered in the West Sak Formation. There were gas shows in the bottom

  1. Development of hydrate risk quantification in oil and gas production (United States)

    Chaudhari, Piyush N.

    Subsea flowlines that transport hydrocarbons from wellhead to the processing facility face issues from solid deposits such as hydrates, waxes, asphaltenes, etc. The solid deposits not only affect the production but also pose a safety concern; thus, flow assurance is significantly important in designing and operating subsea oil and gas production. In most subsea oil and gas operations, gas hydrates form at high pressure and low temperature conditions, causing the risk of plugging flowlines, with a undesirable impact on production. Over the years, the oil and gas industry has shifted their perspective from hydrate avoidance to hydrate management given several parameters such as production facility, production chemistry, economic and environmental concerns. Thus, understanding the level of hydrate risk associated with subsea flowlines is an important in developing efficient hydrate management techniques. In the past, hydrate formation models were developed for various flow-systems (e.g., oil dominated, water dominated, and gas dominated) present in the oil and gas production. The objective of this research is to extend the application of the present hydrate prediction models for assessing the hydrate risk associated with subsea flowlines that are prone to hydrate formation. It involves a novel approach for developing quantitative hydrate risk models based on the conceptual models built from the qualitative knowledge obtained from experimental studies. A comprehensive hydrate risk model, that ranks the hydrate risk associated with the subsea production system as a function of time, hydrates, and several other parameters, which account for inertial, viscous, interfacial forces acting on the flow-system, is developed for oil dominated and condensate systems. The hydrate plugging risk for water dominated systems is successfully modeled using The Colorado School of Mines Hydrate Flow Assurance Tool (CSMHyFAST). It is found that CSMHyFAST can be used as a screening tool in

  2. Complex admixtures of clathrate hydrates in a water desalination method (United States)

    Simmons, Blake A [San Francisco, CA; Bradshaw, Robert W [Livermore, CA; Dedrick, Daniel E [Berkeley, CA; Anderson, David W [Riverbank, CA


    Disclosed is a method that achieves water desalination by utilizing and optimizing clathrate hydrate phenomena. Clathrate hydrates are crystalline compounds of gas and water that desalinate water by excluding salt molecules during crystallization. Contacting a hydrate forming gaseous species with water will spontaneously form hydrates at specific temperatures and pressures through the extraction of water molecules from the bulk phase followed by crystallite nucleation. Subsequent dissociation of pure hydrates yields fresh water and, if operated correctly, allows the hydrate-forming gas to be efficiently recycled into the process stream.

  3. Irrigation port hydration in phacoemulsification surgery. (United States)

    Suzuki, Hisaharu; Masuda, Yoichiro; Hamajima, Yuki; Takahashi, Hiroshi


    In most cases, hydration is performed by water injection into the stromal tissue with a needle. The technique is simple, however it is sometimes troublesome. We describe a simple technique for hydrating the corneal stroma in cataract surgery using an irrigation port. The technique began by pushing the irrigation port against the corneal stroma for a few seconds during phacoemulsification, which generated edema in the corneal incision that subsequently prevented leakage. This procedure is called the hydration using irrigation port (HYUIP) technique. A total of 60 eyes were randomized and placed in two groups, 30 eyes underwent surgeries using the HYUIP technique (HYUIP group) and 30 eyes underwent surgeries without the HYUIP technique (control). The three points evaluated during each surgery included 1) the occurrence of anterior chamber collapse during the pulling out of the I/A tip after inserting the intraocular lens, 2) the need for conventional hydration, and 3) watertight completion at the end stage of surgery. The anterior chamber collapse and the need for conventional hydration were significantly smaller in the HYUIP group compared to the control group. Regarding the self-sealing completion, no significant difference was observed between the two groups. The HYUIP technique is an effective method for creating self-sealing wound. In addition, this technique helps to prevent anterior chamber collapse.

  4. Blue LED irradiation to hydration of skin (United States)

    Menezes, Priscila F. C.; Requena, Michelle B.; Lizarelli, Rosane F., Z.; Bagnato, Vanderlei S.


    Blue LED system irradiation shows many important properties on skin as: bacterial decontamination, degradation of endogenous skin chromophores and biostimulation. In this clinical study we prove that the blue light improves the skin hydration. In the literature none authors reports this biological property on skin. Then this study aims to discuss the role of blue light in the skin hydration. Twenty patients were selected to this study with age between 25-35 years old and phototype I, II and III. A defined area from forearm was pre determined (A = 4.0 cm2). The study was randomized in two treatment groups using one blue light device (power of 5.3mW and irradiance of 10.8mW/cm2). The first treatment group was irradiated with 3J/cm2 (277seconds) and the second with 6J/cm2 (555 seconds). The skin hydration evaluations were done using a corneometer. The measurements were collected in 7, 14, 21 and 30 days, during the treatment. Statistical test of ANOVA, Tukey and T-Student were applied considering 5% of significance. In conclusion, both doses were able to improve the skin hydration; however, 6J/cm2 has kept this hydration for 30 days.

  5. Thermodynamic Stability of Ettringite Formed by Hydration of Ye’elimite Clinker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Fridrichová


    Full Text Available In order to save limited natural resources by utilising industrial by-products, this paper focuses on an entirely new application of fluidized bed combustion fly ash (FBCFA into Portland composite cements. It is not currently used because undesirable ettringite, 3CaO·Al2O3·3CaSO4·32H2O, is formed during the hydration of FBCFA. Although the stability of ettringite has been the subject of much research, the solution is not yet fully clear. Ettringite is generally considered to be stable up to a temperature of 110°C; however, some investigators claimed that ettringite may already decompose at even ambient temperatures. To prove these statements, ettringite was prepared by the hydration of ye’elimite, 3CaO·3Al2O3·CaSO4, and the system stored at laboratory temperature in two environments: in laboratory settings and in an environment of saturated water vapour. The mineralogical composition of ettringite was long term (up to 160 days of hydration and was analysed by X-ray diffraction (XRD and differential thermal analysis (DTA. The hydration of ye’elimite is a relatively complex process. Only approximately 30% of ettringite was formed under laboratory conditions that appeared to gradually convert into metaettringite. Within an environment of saturated water vapour, we observed the conversion of ettringite into monosulfate. Original ye’elimite was indicated as the dominant phase of both storages.

  6. Effects of Nanosilica on Early Age Stages of Cement Hydration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Forood Torabian Isfahani


    Full Text Available Effects of nanosilica on cement hydration have been broadly investigated in the literature and early age cement hydration, as a whole, has been mainly considered, disregarding the substages of the hydration. The hydration of cement is characterized by different substages and nanosilica effect on the hydration could be a result of diverse, even contradictory, behavior of nanosilica in individual stages of the hydration. In this study, effects of nanosilica on different substages of cement hydration are investigated. Isothermal calorimetry results show that at early ages (initial 72 hours the effects of nanosilica depend on the phenomenon by which the hydration is governed: when the hydration is chemically controlled, that is, during initial reaction, dormant period, and acceleratory period, the hydration rate is accelerated by adding nanosilica; when the hydration is governed by diffusion process, that is, during postacceleratory period, the hydration rate is decelerated by adding nanosilica. The Thermal Gravimetric Analysis on the samples at the hardened state (after 28 days of curing reveals that, after adding nanosilica, the hydration degree slightly increased compared to the plain paste.

  7. Predicting hydration energies for multivalent ions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Martin Peter; Stipp, Susan Louise Svane


    We have predicted the free energy of hydration for 40 monovalent and multivalent cations and anions using density functional theory and the implicit solvent model COnductor like Screening MOdel for Real Solvents (COSMO-RS) at the Becke-Perdew (BP)/Triple zeta valence with polarization functions...... errors. Our results indicate that quantum chemical calculations combined with COSMO-RS solvent treatment is a reliable method for treating multivalent ions in solution, provided one hydration shell of explicit water molecules is included for metal cations. The accuracy is not high enough to allow...... absolute predictions of hydration energies but could be used to investigate trends for several ions, thanks to the low computational cost, in particular for ligand exchange reactions....

  8. THz characterization of hydrated and anhydrous materials (United States)

    Sokolnikov, Andre


    The characterization of anhydrous and hydrated forms of materials is of great importance to science and industry. Water content poses difficulties for successful identification of the material structure by THz radiation. However, biological tissues and hydrated forms of nonorganic substances still may be investigated by THz radiation. This paper outlines the range of possibilities of the above characterization, as well as provides analysis of the physical mechanism that allows or prevents penetration of THz waves through the substance. THz-TDS is used to measure the parameters of the characterization of anhydrous and hydrated forms of organic and nonorganic samples. Mathematical methods (such as prediction models of time-series analysis) are used to help identifying the absorption coefficient and other parameters of interest. The discovered dependencies allow designing techniques for material identification/characterization (e.g. of drugs, explosives, etc. that may have water content). The results are provided.

  9. Method for production of hydrocarbons from hydrates (United States)

    McGuire, Patrick L.


    A method of recovering natural gas entrapped in frozen subsurface gas hydrate formations in arctic regions. A hot supersaturated solution of CaCl.sub.2 or CaBr.sub.2, or a mixture thereof, is pumped under pressure down a wellbore and into a subsurface hydrate formation so as to hydrostatically fracture the formation. The CaCl.sub.2 /CaBr.sub.2 solution dissolves the solid hydrates and thereby releases the gas entrapped therein. Additionally, the solution contains a polymeric viscosifier, which operates to maintain in suspension finely divided crystalline CaCl.sub.2 /CaBr.sub.2 that precipitates from the supersaturated solution as it is cooled during injection into the formation.

  10. Hydration dynamics of hyaluronan and dextran. (United States)

    Hunger, Johannes; Bernecker, Anja; Bakker, Huib J; Bonn, Mischa; Richter, Ralf P


    Hyaluronan is a polysaccharide, which is ubiquitous in vertebrates and has been reported to be strongly hydrated in a biological environment. We study the hydration of hyaluronan in solution using the rotational dynamics of water as a probe. We measure these dynamics with polarization-resolved femtosecond-infrared and terahertz time-domain spectroscopies. Both experiments reveal that a subensemble of water molecules is slowed down in aqueous solutions of hyaluronan amounting to ∼15 water molecules per disaccharide unit. This quantity is consistent with what would be expected for the first hydration shell. Comparison of these results to the water dynamics in aqueous dextran solution, a structurally similar polysaccharide, yields remarkably similar results. This suggests that the observed interaction with water is a common feature for hydrophilic polysaccharides and is not specific to hyaluronan. Copyright © 2012 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Methane hydrates in nature - Current knowledge and challenges (United States)

    Collett, Timothy S.


    Recognizing the importance of methane hydrate research and the need for a coordinated effort, the United States Congress enacted the Methane Hydrate Research and Development Act of 2000. At the same time, the Ministry of International Trade and Industry in Japan launched a research program to develop plans for a methane hydrate exploratory drilling project in the Nankai Trough. India, China, the Republic of Korea, and other nations also have established large methane hydrate research and development programs. Government-funded scientific research drilling expeditions and production test studies have provided a wealth of information on the occurrence of methane hydrates in nature. Numerous studies have shown that the amount of gas stored as methane hydrates in the world may exceed the volume of known organic carbon sources. However, methane hydrates represent both a scientific and technical challenge, and much remains to be learned about their characteristics and occurrence in nature. Methane hydrate research in recent years has mostly focused on: (1) documenting the geologic parameters that control the occurrence and stability of methane hydrates in nature, (2) assessing the volume of natural gas stored within various methane hydrate accumulations, (3) analyzing the production response and characteristics of methane hydrates, (4) identifying and predicting natural and induced environmental and climate impacts of natural methane hydrates, (5) analyzing the methane hydrate role as a geohazard, (6) establishing the means to detect and characterize methane hydrate accumulations using geologic and geophysical data, and (7) establishing the thermodynamic phase equilibrium properties of methane hydrates as a function of temperature, pressure, and gas composition. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the Consortium for Ocean Leadership (COL) combined their efforts in 2012 to assess the contributions that scientific drilling has made and could continue to make to advance

  12. Simulation of Methane Recovery from Gas Hydrates Combined with Storing Carbon Dioxide as Hydrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georg Janicki


    Full Text Available In the medium term, gas hydrate reservoirs in the subsea sediment are intended as deposits for carbon dioxide (CO2 from fossil fuel consumption. This idea is supported by the thermodynamics of CO2 and methane (CH4 hydrates and the fact that CO2 hydrates are more stable than CH4 hydrates in a certain P-T range. The potential of producing methane by depressurization and/or by injecting CO2 is numerically studied in the frame of the SUGAR project. Simulations are performed with the commercial code STARS from CMG and the newly developed code HyReS (hydrate reservoir simulator especially designed for hydrate processing in the subsea sediment. HyReS is a nonisothermal multiphase Darcy flow model combined with thermodynamics and rate kinetics suitable for gas hydrate calculations. Two scenarios are considered: the depressurization of an area 1,000 m in diameter and a one/two-well scenario with CO2 injection. Realistic rates for injection and production are estimated, and limitations of these processes are discussed.

  13. Ground movements associated with gas hydrate production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siriwardane, H.J.; Kutuk, B.


    This report deals with a study directed towards a modeling effort on production related ground movements and subsidence resulting from hydrate dissociation. The goal of this research study was to evaluate whether there could be subsidence related problems that could be an impediment to hydrate production. During the production of gas from a hydrate reservoir, it is expected that porous reservoir matrix becomes more compressible which may cause reservoir compression (compaction) under the influence of overburden weight. The overburden deformations can propagate its influence upwards causing subsidence near the surface where production equipment will be located. In the present study, the reservoir compaction is modeled by using the conventional ''stress equilibrium'' approach. In this approach, the overburden strata move under the influence of body force (i.e. self weight) in response to the ''cavity'' generated by reservoir depletion. The present study is expected to provide a ''lower bound'' solution to the subsidence caused by hydrate reservoir depletion. The reservoir compaction anticipated during hydrate production was modeled by using the finite element method, which is a powerful computer modeling technique. The ground movements at the reservoir roof (i.e. reservoir compression) cause additional stresses and disturbance in the overburden strata. In this study, the reservoir compaction was modeled by using the conventional ''stress equilibrium'' approach. In this approach, the overburden strata move under the influence of body force (i.e. self weight) in response to the ''cavity'' generated by reservoir depletion. The resulting stresses and ground movements were computed by using the finite element method. Based on the parameters used in this investigation, the maximum ground subsidence could vary anywhere from 0.50 to 6.50 inches depending on the overburden depth and the size of the depleted hydrate reservoir

  14. Hydration and nutrition knowledge in adolescent swimmers. Does water intake affect urine hydration markers after swimming?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesare Altavilla


    Full Text Available Little data exists regarding nutritional knowledge and hydration in adolescent swimmers. The aim of this study was to assess the level of nutrition and hydration knowledge and to describe the fluid balance in adolescent swimmers during training. A study was carried out with a cross-sectional descriptive part and a longitudinal part with repeated measurements over five swimming sessions. Eighty-six adolescent swimmers completed a questionnaire to assess their sport nutrition and hydration knowledge. Fluid balance and urine hydration markers were studied during training. Swimmers showed a limited nutrition knowledge (33.26 % ± SD 12.59 and meagre hydration knowledge (28.61 % ± SD 28.59. Females showed lower scores than male swimmers in nutrition and hydration knowledge. Based on urine specific gravity, swimmers started the training close to the euhydrated threshold (1.019 g/mL ± SD 0.008. Although urine specific gravity and urine colour were reduced after the training, there were minimal changes in body mass (-0.12 Kg ± SD 0.31. Sweat loss (2.67 g/min ± SD 3.23 and the net changes in the fluid balance (-0.22 % ± SD 0.59 were low. The poor knowledge in nutrition and hydration encountered in the swimmers can justify the development of a strategy to incorporate nutritional education programmes for this group. Body water deficit from swimming activity seems to be easily replaced with the water intake to maintain hydration. After the training, the urine of swimmers was diluted regardless of their water intake. Dilution of urine did not reflect real hydration state in swimming.

  15. Nanostructure of Calcium Silicate Hydrates in Cements

    KAUST Repository

    Skinner, L. B.


    Calcium silicate hydrate (CSH) is the major volume phase in the matrix of Portland cement concrete. Total x-ray scattering measurements with synchrotron x rays on synthetic CSH(I) shows nanocrystalline ordering with a particle diameter of 3.5(5) nm, similar to a size-broadened 1.1 nm tobermorite crystal structure. The CSH component in hydrated tricalcium silicate is found to be similar to CSH(I). Only a slight bend and additional disorder within the CaO sheets is required to explain its nanocrystalline structure. © 2010 The American Physical Society.

  16. Morphology of methane hydrate host sediments (United States)

    Jones, K.W.; Feng, H.; Tomov, S.; Winters, W.J.; Eaton, M.; Mahajan, D.


    The morphological features including porosity and grains of methane hydrate host sediments were investigated using synchrotron computed microtomography (CMT) technique. The sediment sample was obtained during Ocean Drilling Program Leg 164 on the Blake Ridge at water depth of 2278.5 m. The CMT experiment was performed at the Brookhaven National Synchrotron Light Source facility. The analysis gave ample porosity, specific surface area, mean particle size, and tortuosity. The method was found to be highly effective for the study of methane hydrate host sediments.

  17. Arctic Gas hydrate, Environment and Climate (United States)

    Mienert, Jurgen; Andreassen, Karin; Bünz, Stefan; Carroll, JoLynn; Ferre, Benedicte; Knies, Jochen; Panieri, Giuliana; Rasmussen, Tine; Myhre, Cathrine Lund


    Arctic methane hydrate exists on land beneath permafrost regions and offshore in shelf and continental margins sediments. Methane or gas hydrate, an ice-like substrate, consists mainly of light hydrocarbons (mostly methane from biogenic sources but also ethane and propane from thermogenic sources) entrapped by a rigid cage of water molecules. The pressure created by the overlying water and sediments offshore stabilizes the CH4 in continental margins at a temperature range well above freezing point; consequently CH4 exists as methane ice beneath the seabed. Though the accurate volume of Arctic methane hydrate and thus the methane stored in hydrates throughout the Quaternary is still unknown it must be enormous if one considers the vast regions of Arctic continental shelves and margins as well as permafrost areas offshore and on land. Today's subseabed methane hydrate reservoirs are the remnants from the last ice age and remain elusive targets for both unconventional energy and as a natural methane emitter influencing ocean environments and ecosystems. It is still contentious at what rate Arctic warming may govern hydrate melting, and whether the methane ascending from the ocean floor through the hydrosphere reaches the atmosphere. As indicated by Greenland ice core records, the atmospheric methane concentration rose rapidly from ca. 500 ppb to ca. 750 ppb over a short time period of just 150 years at the termination of the younger Dryas period ca. 11600 years ago, but the dissociation of large quantities of methane hydrates on the ocean floor have not been documented yet (Brook et al., 2014 and references within). But with the major projected warming and sea ice melting trend (Knies et al., 2014) one may ask, for how long will CH4 stay trapped in methane hydrates if surface and deep-ocean water masses will warm and permafrost continuous to melt (Portnov et al. 2014). How much of the Arctic methane will be consumed by the micro- and macrofauna, how much will

  18. Hydrate Technology For Transporting Natural Gas


    Dawe, R. A.


    Natural gas hydrate (NGH) is a viable alternative to LNG (Liquefied Natural Gas) or pipelines for the transportation of natural gas from source to demand. It involves three stages: production, transportation and re-gasification. The production of the hydrate occurs at pressures >50 bar at temperatures ~10oC in the presence of water and natural gas (particularly methane, ethane, propane). Transportation is by insulated bulk carrier at around –5 oC and atmospheric pressure or 0 oC at 10 bar, an...

  19. What are gas hydrates?: Chapter 1 (United States)

    Beaudoin, Y.C.; Waite, W.; Boswell, R.; Dallimore, Scott


    The English chemistry pioneer Sir Humphry Davy first combined gas and water to produce a solid substance in his lab in 1810. For more than a century after that landmark moment, a small number of scientists catalogued various solid “hydrates” formed by combining water with an assortment of gases and liquids. Sloan and Koh (2007) review this early research, which was aimed at discerning the chemical structures of gas hydrates (Fig. 1.1), as well as the pressures and temperatures at which they are stable. Because no practical applications were found for these synthetic gas hydrates, they remained an academic curiosity.

  20. Dehydration of plutonium or neptunium trichloride hydrate (United States)

    Foropoulos, J. Jr.; Avens, L.R.; Trujillo, E.A.


    A process is described for preparing anhydrous actinide metal trichlorides of plutonium or neptunium by reacting an aqueous solution of an actinide metal trichloride selected from the group consisting of plutonium trichloride or neptunium trichloride with a reducing agent capable of converting the actinide metal from an oxidation state of +4 to +3 in a resultant solution, evaporating essentially all the solvent from the resultant solution to yield an actinide trichloride hydrate material, dehydrating the actinide trichloride hydrate material by heating the material in admixture with excess thionyl chloride, and recovering anhydrous actinide trichloride.

  1. Experimental Study of Gas Hydrate Dynamics (United States)

    Fandino, O.; Ruffine, L.


    Important quantities of methane and other gases are trapped below the seafloor and in the permafrost by an ice-like solid, called gas hydrates or clathrate hydrates. The latter is formed when water is mixing with different gases at high pressures and low temperatures. Due to a their possible use as a source of energy [1] or the problematic related to flow assurance failure in pipelines [2] the understanding of their processes of formation/destabilisation of these structures becomes a goal for many laboratories research as well as industries. In this work we present an experimental study on the stochastic behaviour of hydrate formation from a bulk phase. The method used here for the experiments was to repeat several time the same hydrate formation procedure and to notice the different from one experiment to another. A variable-volume type high-pressure apparatus with two sapphire windows was used. This device, already presented by Ruffine et al.[3], allows us to perform both kinetics and phase equilibrium measurements. Three initial pressure conditions were considered here, 5.0 MPa, 7.5 MPa and 10.0 MPa. Hydrates have been formed, then allowed to dissociate by stepwise heating. The memory effect has also been investigated after complete dissociation. It turned out that, although the thermodynamics conditions of formation and/or destabilization were reproducible. An attempt to determine the influence of pressure on the nucleation induction time will be discussed. References 1. Sum, A. K.; Koh, C. A.; Sloan, E. D., Clathrate Hydrates: From Laboratory Science to Engineering Practice. Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research 2009, 48, 7457-7465. 2. Sloan, E. D., A changing hydrate paradigm-from apprehension to avoidance to risk management. Fluid Phase Equilibria 2005, 228, 67-74. 3. Ruffine, L.; Donval, J. P.; Charlou, J. L.; Cremière, A.; Zehnder, B. H., Experimental study of gas hydrate formation and destabilisation using a novel high-pressure apparatus. Marine

  2. Thermal Conductivity of Methane-Hydrate


    Krivchikov, A. I.; Gorodilov, B. Ya.; Korolyuk, O. A.; Manzhelii, V. G.; Conrad, H.; Press, W.


    The thermal conductivity of the methane hydrate CH4 (5.75 H2O) was measured in the interval 2-140 K using the steady-state technique. The thermal conductivity corresponding to a homogeneous substance was calculated from the measured effective thermal conductivity obtained in the experiment. The temperature dependence of the thermal conductivity is typical for the thermal conductivity of amorphous solids. It is shown that after separation of the hydrate into ice and methane, at 240 K, the ther...

  3. Simulation of subsea gas hydrate exploitation (United States)

    Janicki, Georg; Schlüter, Stefan; Hennig, Torsten; Deerberg, Görge


    The recovery of methane from gas hydrate layers that have been detected in several subsea sediments and permafrost regions around the world is a promising perspective to overcome future shortages in natural gas supply. Being aware that conventional natural gas resources are limited, research is going on to develop technologies for the production of natural gas from such new sources. Thus various research programs have started since the early 1990s in Japan, USA, Canada, India, and Germany to investigate hydrate deposits and develop required technologies. In recent years, intensive research has focussed on the capture and storage of CO2 from combustion processes to reduce climate impact. While different natural or man-made reservoirs like deep aquifers, exhausted oil and gas deposits or other geological formations are considered to store gaseous or liquid CO2, the storage of CO2 as hydrate in former methane hydrate fields is another promising alternative. Due to beneficial stability conditions, methane recovery may be well combined with CO2 storage in the form of hydrates. Regarding technological implementation many problems have to be overcome. Especially mixing, heat and mass transfer in the reservoir are limiting factors causing very long process times. Within the scope of the German research project »SUGAR« different technological approaches for the optimized exploitation of gas hydrate deposits are evaluated and compared by means of dynamic system simulations and analysis. Detailed mathematical models for the most relevant chemical and physical processes are developed. The basic mechanisms of gas hydrate formation/dissociation and heat and mass transport in porous media are considered and implemented into simulation programs. Simulations based on geological field data have been carried out. The studies focus on the potential of gas production from turbidites and their fitness for CO2 storage. The effects occurring during gas production and CO2 storage within

  4. Structure and composition analysis of natural gas hydrates: 13C NMR spectroscopic and gas uptake measurements of mixed gas hydrates. (United States)

    Seo, Yutaek; Kang, Seong-Pil; Jang, Wonho


    Gas hydrates are becoming an attractive way of storing and transporting large quantities of natural gas, although there has been little effort to understand the preferential occupation of heavy hydrocarbon molecules in hydrate cages. In this work, we present the formation kinetics of mixed hydrate based on a gas uptake measurement during hydrate formation, and how the compositions of the hydrate phase are varied under corresponding formation conditions. We also examine the effect of silica gel pores on the physical properties of mixed hydrate, including thermodynamic equilibrium, formation kinetics, and hydrate compositions. It is expected that the enclathration of ethane and propane is faster than that of methane early stage hydrate formation, and later methane becomes the dominant component to be enclathrated due to depletion of heavy hydrocarbons in the vapor phase. The composition of the hydrate phase seems to be affected by the consumed amount of natural gas, which results in a variation of heating value of retrieved gas from mixed hydrates as a function of formation temperature. 13C NMR experiments were used to measure the distribution of hydrocarbon molecules over the cages of hydrate structure when it forms either from bulk water or water in silica gel pores. We confirm that 70% of large cages of mixed hydrate are occupied by methane molecules when it forms from bulk water; however, only 19% of large cages of mixed hydrate are occupied by methane molecules when it forms from water in silica gel pores. This result indicates that the fractionation of the hydrate phase with heavy hydrocarbon molecules is enhanced in silica gel pores. In addition when heavy hydrocarbon molecules are depleted in the vapor phase during the formation of mixed hydrate, structure I methane hydrate forms instead of structure II mixed hydrate and both structures coexist together, which is also confirmed by 13C NMR spectroscopic analysis.

  5. Spectral Decomposition and Other Seismic Attributes for Gas Hydrate Prospecting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McConnell, Dan


    Studying the sediments at the base of gas hydrate stability is ideal for determining the seismic response to gas hydrate saturation. First, assuming gas migration to the shallow section, this area is more likely to have concentrated gas hydrate because it encompasses the zone in which upward moving buoyant gas transitions to form immobile gas hydrate deposits. Second, this zone is interesting because these areas have the potential to show a hydrate filled zone and a gas filled zone within the same sediments. Third, the fundamental measurement within seismic data is impedance contrasts between velocity*density layers. High saturation gas hydrates and free gas inhabit opposite ends of these measurements making the study of this zone ideal for investigating the seismic characteristics of gas hydrate and, hence, the investigation of other seismic attributes that may indicate gas hydrate fill.

  6. Hydration behaviors of calcium silicate-based biomaterials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan-Ling Lee


    Conclusion: Mineral oxides might not result in significant changes in the crystal phases or microstructures during the hydration of CS-based biomaterials, but these compounds affected the hydration behavior at the molecular level.

  7. Polymer hydration and stiffness at biointerfaces and related cellular processes. (United States)

    Kerch, Garry


    The direct and indirect (by changing mechanical properties) effects of hydration at interfaces on cellular processes and tissue diseases are reviewed. The essential effect of substrate stiffness on cellular processes was demonstrated in the last decade. The combined effect of surface stiffness and hydration at interfaces has garnered much less attention, though hydration and dehydration play important roles in biological processes. This review focuses on the studies that demonstrate how hydration affects biological processes at interfaces. Elevated sodium and dehydration stimulate inflammatory signaling in endothelial cells and promote atherosclerosis. Various types of implant and blood contacting device coatings with varied surface stiffness and hydration have been reported. Effect of hydration on polymer modulus of elasticity and viscoelasticity was discussed taking into account cells adhesion, migration, proliferation, differentiation on surfaces with various degree of hydration. Future directions of research were considered, including the use of nanotechnology to regulate the hydration degree. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Methane hydrates in marine sediments - Untapped source of energy

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Jauhari, P.

    will be required to turn this potential resource into gas reserves while developing technologies to conduct safe petroleum operation in hydrate areas, and defining the role of methane hydrates in global climate....

  9. Risk factors of methane hydrate resource development in the concentrated zones distributed in the eastern Nankai Trough (United States)

    Yamamoto, K.; Nagakubo, S.


    Some environmental and safety concerns on the offshore methane hydrate development have been raised, but the ground of such allegations are sometime not fully reasonable. The risks of methane hydrate resource development to environment and safety should be discussed upon methane hydrate occurrences condition, the production methods, and the designs of production system, under comprehensively scientific manners. In the Phase 1 of the Methane Hydrate Exploitation Program in Japan (FY2001-2008), the Research Consortium for Methane Hydrate Resources in Japan (MH21 Research Consortium) found methane hydrate concentrated zones in the eastern Nankai Trough that are potential prospects for resource development. The concentrated zones are consisted of turbidite-derived sandy sediments and hydrate crystals in pore spaces of sand grains (pore-filling type structure). The MH21 Research Consortium proposed the depressurization method as prime technique due to its efficiency of gas production in such concentrated zones, and has tried to develop conceptual designs of production systems based on the information of existing devices and facilities. Under the condition and circumstances described above, the authors tried to extract and evaluate some risk factors concerning methane hydrate development using depressurization in the area. Leakage of methane gas, that is less harmful substance to ecosystem than heavier hydrocarbons, from production system can be one possible risk. However, in the case of gas production through wellbore, even if catastrophic damages happen in the subsea production system during gas production, the leakages do not continue because the borehole could be filled by seawater and depressurization is stopped immediately. Another possible risk is a leakage of produced gas through seafloor. If methane hydrate production makes high pressure or temperature zones in sediments, the risk should be considered. However, depressurization method makes opposite condition

  10. Marine Gas Hydrates - An Untapped Non-conventional Energy ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Table of contents. Marine Gas Hydrates - An Untapped Non-conventional Energy Resource · Slide 2 · Slide 3 · Slide 4 · Gas Hydrate Stability Zone · Slide 6 · Slide 7 · Exploration of gas hydrates (seismic) · Characteristics of BSR · Slide 10 · Slide 11 · Slide 12 · Slide 13 · Slide 14 · Slide 15 · Distribution of Gas Hydrates in KG ...

  11. Hydrate bearing clayey sediments: Formation and gas production concepts

    KAUST Repository

    Jang, Jaewon


    Hydro-thermo-chemo and mechanically coupled processes determine hydrate morphology and control gas production from hydrate-bearing sediments. Force balance, together with mass and energy conservation analyses anchored in published data provide robust asymptotic solutions that reflect governing processes in hydrate systems. Results demonstrate that hydrate segregation in clayey sediments results in a two-material system whereby hydrate lenses are surrounded by hydrate-free water-saturated clay. Hydrate saturation can reach ≈2% by concentrating the excess dissolved gas in the pore water and ≈20% from metabolizable carbon. Higher hydrate saturations are often found in natural sediments and imply methane transport by advection or diffusion processes. Hydrate dissociation is a strongly endothermic event; the available latent heat in a reservoir can sustain significant hydrate dissociation without triggering ice formation during depressurization. The volume of hydrate expands 2-to-4 times upon dissociation or CO2single bondCH4 replacement. Volume expansion can be controlled to maintain lenses open and to create new open mode discontinuities that favor gas recovery. Pore size is the most critical sediment parameter for hydrate formation and gas recovery and is controlled by the smallest grains in a sediment. Therefore any characterization must carefully consider the amount of fines and their associated mineralogy.

  12. Application of various water soluble polymers in gas hydrate inhibition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamal, Muhammad Shahzad; Hussein, Ibnelwaleed A.; Sultan, Abdullah S.


    Formation of hydrates in gas transmission lines due to high pressures and low temperatures is a serious problem in the oil and gas industry with potential hazards and/or economic losses. Kinetic hydrate inhibitors are water soluble polymeric compounds that prevent or delay hydrate formation. This...

  13. Small angle X-ray scattering from hydrating tricalcium silicate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vollet, D.


    The small-angle X-ray scattering technique was used to study the structural evolution of hydrated tricalcium silicate at room temperature. The changes in specific area of the associated porosity and the evolution of density fluctuations in the solid hydrated phase were deduced from the scattering data. A correlation of these variations with the hydration mechanism is tried. (Author) [pt

  14. Anaerobic oxidation of methane above gas hydrates at Hydrate Ridge, NE Pacific Ocean

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Treude, T.; Boetius, A.; Knittel, K.


    At Hydrate Ridge (HR), Cascadia convergent margin, surface sediments contain massive gas hydrates formed from methane that ascends together with fluids along faults from deeper reservoirs. Anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM), mediated by a microbial consortium of archaea and sulfate-reducing bac......At Hydrate Ridge (HR), Cascadia convergent margin, surface sediments contain massive gas hydrates formed from methane that ascends together with fluids along faults from deeper reservoirs. Anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM), mediated by a microbial consortium of archaea and sulfate...... oxidation was extremely low (2.1 mmol m(-2) d(-1)) and was probably due to aerobic oxidation of methane. SR was fueled largely by methane at flow-impacted sites, but exceeded AOM in some cases, most likely due to sediment heterogeneity. At the Acharax field, SR was decoupled from methane oxidation...

  15. Hydration status assessment by multi-frequency bioimpedance in patients with advanced chronic kidney disease. (United States)

    Caravaca, F; Martínez del Viejo, C; Villa, J; Martínez Gallardo, R; Ferreira, F


    Body composition assessment has the potential to improve the care of patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Whole-body multiple-frequency bioimpedance spectroscopy (BIS) appears to be a useful and appropriate technique for assessing hydration status and body composition in CKD patients. The aims of this study were to determine the hydration status by BIS in patients with advanced CKD, and to analyse the association of body fluid status with common clinical and biochemical characteristics. The prognostic value of the phase angle at 50 KHz (PA) was also evaluated. The study group consisted of 175 patients (66 ± 14 year, 77 females) with eGFR < 40 ml/min not yet on dialysis. Body composition was assessed by BIS (BCM, Fresenius). Hydration status was expressed as a percentage of the total body water (TBW). Patients were prospectively followed-up for a median of 481 days, and the main determinants of mortality were estimated by Cox regression analysis. The majority of patients (85%) showed a hydration status within ± 5% TBW. Patients with oedemas or uncontrolled arterial hypertension showed mean estimate fluid overload significantly higher than that of the other study patients. Fluid overload was negatively associated with serum albumin levels, body mass index and urinary sodium/potassium ratio; and positively with male gender and diabetes. During the follow-up period, 16 patients died (9%). The main determinants of mortality adjusted for other potential covariates were: Davies comorbidity index (HR = 4.304; P = .001), and PA (per each °; HR = 0.491; P = .026). BIS may help identify changes in hydration status in CKD patients not fully appreciated by clinical or biochemical assessment. PA was a significant predictor of mortality in these patients.

  16. Gel phase in hydrated calcium dipicolinate (United States)

    Rajak, Pankaj; Mishra, Ankit; Sheng, Chunyang; Tiwari, Subodh; Krishnamoorthy, Aravind; Kalia, Rajiv K.; Nakano, Aiichiro; Vashishta, Priya


    The mineralization of dipicolinic acid (DPA) molecules in bacterial spore cores with Ca2+ ions to form Ca-DPA is critical to the wet-heat resistance of spores. This resistance to "wet-heat" also depends on the physical properties of water and DPA in the hydrated Ca-DPA-rich protoplasm. Using reactive molecular dynamics simulations, we have determined the phase diagram of hydrated Ca-DPA as a function of temperature and water concentration, which shows the existence of a gel phase along with distinct solid-gel and gel-liquid phase transitions. Simulations reveal monotonically decreasing solid-gel-liquid transition temperatures with increasing hydration, which explains the experimental trend of wet-heat resistance of bacterial spores. Our observation of different phases of water also reconciles previous conflicting experimental findings on the state of water in bacterial spores. Further comparison with an unmineralized hydrated DPA system allows us to quantify the importance of Ca mineralization in decreasing diffusivity and increasing the heat resistance of the spore.

  17. A positron annihilation study of hydrated DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warman, J. M.; Eldrup, Morten Mostgaard


    Positron annihilation measurements are reported for hydrated DNA as a function of water content and as a function of temperature (20 to C) for samples containing 10 and 50% wt of water. The ortho-positronium mean lifetime and its intensity show distinct variations with the degree of ...

  18. Unraveling halide hydration: A high dilution approach (United States)

    Migliorati, Valentina; Sessa, Francesco; Aquilanti, Giuliana; D'Angelo, Paola


    The hydration properties of halide aqua ions have been investigated combining classical Molecular Dynamics (MD) with Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy. Three halide-water interaction potentials recently developed [M. M. Reif and P. H. Hünenberger, J. Chem. Phys. 134, 144104 (2011)], along with three plausible choices for the value of the absolute hydration free energy of the proton (Δ G^{ominus }_{hyd}[H^+]), have been checked for their capability to properly describe the structural properties of halide aqueous solutions, by comparing the MD structural results with EXAFS experimental data. A very good agreement between theory and experiment has been obtained with one parameter set, namely LE, thus strengthening preliminary evidences for a Δ G^{ominus }_{hyd}[H^+] value of -1100 kJ mol-1 [M. M. Reif and P. H. Hünenberger, J. Chem. Phys. 134, 144104 (2011)]. The Cl-, Br-, and I- ions have been found to form an unstructured and disordered first hydration shell in aqueous solution, with a broad distribution of instantaneous coordination numbers. Conversely, the F- ion shows more ordered and defined first solvation shell, with only two statistically relevant coordination geometries (six and sevenfold complexes). Our thorough investigation on the effect of halide ions on the microscopic structure of water highlights that the perturbation induced by the Cl-, Br-, and I- ions does not extend beyond the ion first hydration shell, and the structure of water in the F- second shell is also substantially unaffected by the ion.

  19. Gypsum hydration: a theoretical and experimental study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yu, Qingliang; Brouwers, Jos; de Korte, A.C.J.; Fischer, H.B; Bode, K.A.


    Calcium sulphate dihydrate (CaSO4·2H2O or gypsum) is used widely as building material because of its excellent fire resistance, aesthetics, and low price. Hemihydrate occurs in two formations of α- and β-type. Among them β-hemihydrate is mainly used to produce gypsum plasterboard since the hydration

  20. Gas hydrate resource quantification in Uruguay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomasini, J.; De Santa Ana, H.; Veroslavsky, G.


    The gas hydrates are crystalline solids formed by natural gas (mostly methane) and water, which are stable in thermobaric conditions given under high pressures and low temperatures. These conditions are given in permafrost zones and continental margin basins offshore in the nature

  1. Gold(III)-Catalyzed Hydration of Phenylacetylene (United States)

    Leslie, J. Michelle; Tzeel, Benjamin A.


    A guided inquiry-based experiment exploring the regioselectivity of the hydration of phenylacetylene is described. The experiment uses an acidic gold(III) catalyst in a benign methanol/water solvent system to introduce students to alkyne chemistry and key principles of green chemistry. The experiment can be easily completed in approximately 2 h,…

  2. A new approach to model mixed hydrates

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hielscher, S.; Vinš, Václav; Jäger, A.; Hrubý, Jan; Breitkopf, C.; Span, R.


    Roč. 459, March (2018), s. 170-185 ISSN 0378-3812 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA17-08218S Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : gas hydrate * mixture * modeling Subject RIV: BJ - Thermodynamics Impact factor: 2.473, year: 2016 https://www. science science /article/pii/S0378381217304983

  3. [Terminal phase hydration, pain and delirium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heick, A.


    Hydration of the terminal patient may relieve confusion and complaints of "dry mouth". But it may worsen oedema of the brain, lungs, and extremities, worsen terminal rattling and cause a need for frequent changing of diapers. The decision of whether and how to treat a dying patient with fluids sh...

  4. Alkali binding in hydrated Portland cement paste

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, Wei; Brouwers, Jos


    The alkali-binding capacity of C–S–H in hydrated Portland cement pastes is addressed in this study. The amount of bound alkalis in C–S–H is computed based on the alkali partition theories firstly proposed by Taylor (1987) and later further developed by Brouwers and Van Eijk (2003). Experimental data

  5. A positron annihilation study of hydrated DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warman, J. M.; Eldrup, Morten Mostgaard


    Positron annihilation measurements are reported for hydrated DNA as a function of water content and as a function of temperature (20 to C) for samples containing 10 and 50% wt of water. The ortho-positronium mean lifetime and its intensity show distinct variations with the degree...

  6. Clathrate Hydrates for Thermal Energy Storage in Buildings: Overview of Proper Hydrate-Forming Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatrice Castellani


    Full Text Available Increasing energy costs are at the origin of the great progress in the field of phase change materials (PCMs. The present work aims at studying the application of clathrate hydrates as PCMs in buildings. Clathrate hydrates are crystalline structures in which guest molecules are enclosed in the crystal lattice of water molecules. Clathrate hydrates can form also at ambient pressure and present a high latent heat, and for this reason, they are good candidates for being used as PCMs. The parameter that makes a PCM suitable to be used in buildings is, first of all, a melting temperature at about 25 °C. The paper provides an overview of groups of clathrate hydrates, whose physical and chemical characteristics could meet the requirements needed for their application in buildings. Simulations with a dynamic building simulation tool are carried out to evaluate the performance of clathrate hydrates in enhancing thermal comfort through the moderation of summer temperature swings and, therefore, in reducing energy consumption. Simulations suggest that clathrate hydrates have a potential in terms of improvement of indoor thermal comfort and a reduction of energy consumption for cooling. Cooling effects of 0.5 °C and reduced overheating hours of up to 1.1% are predicted.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Results from simulated experiments in several laboratories show that host sediments influence hydrate formation in accord with known heterogeneity of host sediments at sites of gas hydrate occurrence (1). For example, in Mackenzie Delta, NWT Canada (Mallik 2L-38 well), coarser-grained units (pore-filling model) are found whereas in the Gulf of Mexico, the found hydrate samples do not appear to be lithologically controlled. We have initiated a systematic study of sediments, initially focusing on samples from various depths at a specific site, to establish a correlation with hydrate occurrence (or variations thereof) to establish differences in their microstructure, porosity, and other associated properties. The synchrotron computed microtomography (CMT) set-up at the X-27A tomography beam line at the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS), Brookhaven National Laboratory was used as a tool to study sediments from Blake Ridge at three sub bottom depths of 0.2, 50, and 667 meters. Results from the tomographic analysis of the deepest sample (667 m) are presented here to illustrate how tomography can be used to obtain new insights into the structures of methane hydrate host sediments. The investigation shows the internal grain/pore space resolution in the microstructure and a 3-D visualization of the connecting pathways obtained following data segmentation into pore space and grains within the sediment sample. The analysis gives the sample porosity, specific surface area, mean particle size, and tortuosity, as well. An earlier report on the experimental program has been given by Mahajan et al. (2).

  8. Evolution of a gas bubble in porous matrix filled by methane hydrate (United States)

    Tsiberkin, Kirill; Lyubimov, Dmitry; Lyubimova, Tatyana; Zikanov, Oleg


    Behavior of a small isolated hydrate-free inclusion (a bubble) within hydrate-bearing porous matrix is studied analytically and numerically. An infinite porous matrix of uniform properties with pores filled by methane hydrates and either water (excessive water situation) or methane gas (excessive gas situation) is considered. A small spherical hydrate-free bubble of radius R0 exists at initial moment within the matrix due to overheating relative to the surrounding medium. There is no continuing heat supply within the bubble, so new hydrate forms on its boundary, and its radius decreases with time. The process is analysed in the framework of the model that takes into account the phase transition and accompanying heat and mass transport processes and assumes spherical symmetry. It is shown that in the case of small (~ 10-2-10-1 m) bubbles, convective fluxes are negligible and the process is fully described by heat conduction and phase change equations. A spherically symmetric Stefan problem for purely conduction-controlled evolution is solved analytically for the case of equilibrium initial temperature and pressure within the bubble. The self-similar solution is verified, with good results, in numerical simulations based on the full filtration and heat transfer model and using the isotherm migration method. Numerical simulations are also conducted for a wide range of cases not amenable to analytical solution. It is found that, except for initial development of an overheated bubble, its radius evolves with time following the self-similar formula: R(t) ( t)1-2 R0-= 1 - tm- , (1) where tm is the life-time of bubble (time of its complete freezing). The analytical solution shows that tm follows 2 tm ~ (R0-?) , (2) where ? is a constant determined by the temperature difference ΔT between the bubble's interior and far field. We consider implications for natural hydrate deposits. As an example, for a bubble with R0 = 4 cm and ΔT = 0.001 K, we find tm ~ 5.7 ? 106 s (2

  9. Molecular simulation of non-equilibrium methane hydrate decomposition process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bagherzadeh, S.Alireza; Englezos, Peter [Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, V6T 1Z3 (Canada); Alavi, Saman, E-mail: [Steacie Institute for Molecular Sciences, National Research Council of Canada, 100 Sussex Dr., Ottawa, Ontario, K1A 0R6 (Canada); Ripmeester, John A., E-mail: [Steacie Institute for Molecular Sciences, National Research Council of Canada, 100 Sussex Dr., Ottawa, Ontario, K1A 0R6 (Canada)


    Graphical abstract: Highlights: > Decomposition of methane hydrate is studied with molecular dynamics simulations. > Simulations are performed under adiabatic conditions (no thermostats). > The effects of heat and mass transfer during the decomposition are observed. > Temperature gradients are established as the hydrate decomposes. > Intrinsic reaction kinetics picture of hydrate dissociation is revisited. - Abstract: We recently performed constant energy molecular dynamics simulations of the endothermic decomposition of methane hydrate in contact with water to study phenomenologically the role of mass and heat transfer in the decomposition rate [S. Alavi, J.A. Ripmeester, J. Chem. Phys. 132 (2010) 144703]. We observed that with the progress of the decomposition front temperature gradients are established between the remaining solid hydrate and the solution phases. In this work, we provide further quantitative macroscopic and molecular level analysis of the methane hydrate decomposition process with an emphasis on elucidating microscopic details and how they affect the predicted rate of methane hydrate decomposition in natural methane hydrate reservoirs. A quantitative criterion is used to characterize the decomposition of the hydrate phase at different times. Hydrate dissociation occurs in a stepwise fashion with rows of sI cages parallel to the interface decomposing simultaneously. The correlations between decomposition times of subsequent layers of the hydrate phase are discussed.

  10. Solid state interconversion between anhydrous norfloxacin and its hydrates. (United States)

    Chongcharoen, Wanchai; Byrn, Stephen R; Sutanthavibul, Narueporn


    This work is focused on characterizing and evaluating the solid state interconversion of norfloxacin (NF) hydrates. Four stoichiometric NF hydrates, dihydrate, hemipentahydrate, trihydrate, pentahydrate and a disordered NF state, were generated by various methods and characterized by X-ray powder diffractometry (XRPD), thermal analysis and Karl Fisher titrimetry. XRPD patterns of all NF hydrates exhibited crystalline structures. NF hydrate conversion was studied with respect to mild elevated temperature and various degrees of moisture levels. NF hydrates transformed to anhydrous NF Form A after gentle heating at 60 degrees C for 48 h except dihydrate and trihydrate where mixture in XRPD patterns between anhydrous NF Form A and former structures existed. Desiccation of NF hydrates at 0% RH for 7 days resulted in only partial removal of water molecules from the hydrated structures. The hydrated transitional phase and the disordered NF state were obtained from the incomplete dehydration of NF hydrates after thermal treatment and pentahydrate NF after desiccation, respectively. Anhydrous NF Form A and NF hydrates transformed to pentahydrate NF when exposed to high moisture environment except dihydrate. In conclusion, surrounding moisture levels, temperatures and the duration of exposure strongly influenced the interconversion pathways and stoichiometry of anhydrous NF and its hydrates. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  11. Indian National Gas Hydrate Program Expedition 01 report (United States)

    Collett, Timothy S.; Riedel, M.; Boswell, R.; Presley, J.; Kumar, P.; Sathe, A.; Sethi, A.; Lall, M.V.; ,


    Gas hydrate is a naturally occurring “ice-like” combination of natural gas and water that has the potential to serve as an immense resource of natural gas from the world’s oceans and polar regions. However, gas-hydrate recovery is both a scientific and a technical challenge and much remains to be learned about the geologic, engineering, and economic factors controlling the ultimate energy resource potential of gas hydrate. The amount of natural gas contained in the world’s gas-hydrate accumulations is enormous, but these estimates are speculative and range over three orders of magnitude from about 2,800 to 8,000,000 trillion cubic meters of gas. By comparison, conventional natural gas accumulations (reserves and undiscovered, technically recoverable resources) for the world are estimated at approximately 440 trillion cubic meters. Gas recovery from gas hydrate is hindered because the gas is in a solid form and because gas hydrate commonly occurs in remote Arctic and deep marine environments. Proposed methods of gas recovery from gas hydrate generally deal with disassociating or “melting” in situ gas hydrate by heating the reservoir beyond the temperature of gas-hydrate formation, or decreasing the reservoir pressure below hydrate equilibrium. The pace of energy-related gas hydrate assessment projects has accelerated over the past several years.

  12. A method of harvesting gas hydrates from marine sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, H.Q.; Brill, J.P.; Sarica, C. [Tulsa Univ., Tulsa, OK (United States). Dept. of Petroleum Engineering


    Methane is known to exist in gas hydrates, but low productivity is expected for gas production from gas hydrates in marine sediments because of the shallow depths, low hydrate concentration, low permeability of the gas hydrate stability zone, lack of driving pressure and the slow melting process. This paper presented a newly developed methane harvesting method which aims to overcome technical barriers, maintain cost and energy efficiencies and minimize safety and environmental concerns. The method is based on the concept of capturing the gas released from hydrate dissociation in the sediments. The captured gases can reform hydrates inside and overhead receiver, which once full, can be lifted to shallow warm water for gas collection. This simple and open production system does not require high pressure and does not involve any flow assurance issues. As such, technical difficulties, safety issues and environmental concerns are minimized. The proposed gas harvesting method makes the best use of the nature of hydrates and the subsea pressure and temperature profiles. It combines many new concepts, including electrically adding heat inside the hydrate rich sediments to release gas, using an overhead receiver to capture the gas, allowing the gas to reform hydrates again in the overhead receiver, and lifting produced hydrates to warm water where it can be released and collected. It was concluded that this newly proposed production system enables the development of massive hydrate production fields on the sea bed with high production rates that are economically viable. 4 refs., 7 figs.

  13. Methane hydrate in the global organic carbon cycle (United States)

    Kvenvolden, K.A.


    The global occurrence of methane hydrate in outer continental margins and in polar regions, and the magnitude of the amount of methane sequestered in methane hydrate suggest that methane hydrate is an important component in the global organic carbon cycle. Various versions of this cycle have emphasized the importance of methane hydrate, and in the latest version the role of methane hydrate is considered to be analogous to the workings of an electrical circuit. In this circuit the methane hydrate is a condenser and the consequences of methane hydrate dissociation are depicted as a resistor and inductor, reflecting temperature change and changes in earth surface history. These consequences may have implications for global change including global climate change.

  14. Comparative Assessment of Advanced Gay Hydrate Production Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. D. White; B. P. McGrail; S. K. Wurstner


    Displacing natural gas and petroleum with carbon dioxide is a proven technology for producing conventional geologic hydrocarbon reservoirs, and producing additional yields from abandoned or partially produced petroleum reservoirs. Extending this concept to natural gas hydrate production offers the potential to enhance gas hydrate recovery with concomitant permanent geologic sequestration. Numerical simulation was used to assess a suite of carbon dioxide injection techniques for producing gas hydrates from a variety of geologic deposit types. Secondary hydrate formation was found to inhibit contact of the injected CO{sub 2} regardless of injectate phase state, thus diminishing the exchange rate due to pore clogging and hydrate zone bypass of the injected fluids. Additional work is needed to develop methods of artificially introducing high-permeability pathways in gas hydrate zones if injection of CO{sub 2} in either gas, liquid, or micro-emulsion form is to be more effective in enhancing gas hydrate production rates.

  15. In-situ gas hydrate hydrate saturation estimated from various well logs at the Mount Elbert Gas Hydrate Stratigraphic Test Well, Alaska North Slope (United States)

    Lee, M.W.; Collett, T.S.


    In 2006, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) completed detailed analysis and interpretation of available 2-D and 3-D seismic data and proposed a viable method for identifying sub-permafrost gas hydrate prospects within the gas hydrate stability zone in the Milne Point area of northern Alaska. To validate the predictions of the USGS and to acquire critical reservoir data needed to develop a long-term production testing program, a well was drilled at the Mount Elbert prospect in February, 2007. Numerous well log data and cores were acquired to estimate in-situ gas hydrate saturations and reservoir properties.Gas hydrate saturations were estimated from various well logs such as nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), P- and S-wave velocity, and electrical resistivity logs along with pore-water salinity. Gas hydrate saturations from the NMR log agree well with those estimated from P- and S-wave velocity data. Because of the low salinity of the connate water and the low formation temperature, the resistivity of connate water is comparable to that of shale. Therefore, the effect of clay should be accounted for to accurately estimate gas hydrate saturations from the resistivity data. Two highly gas hydrate-saturated intervals are identified - an upper ???43 ft zone with an average gas hydrate saturation of 54% and a lower ???53 ft zone with an average gas hydrate saturation of 50%; both zones reach a maximum of about 75% saturation. ?? 2009.


    KAUST Repository

    Lei, L.


    Fine‐grained sediments limit hydrate nucleation, shift the phase boundary and hinder gas supply. Laboratory experiments in this study explore different strategies to overcome these challenges, including the use of a more soluble guest molecule rather than methane, grain‐scale gas‐storage within porous diatoms, ice‐to‐hydrate transformation to grow lenses at predefined locations, forced gas injection into water saturated sediments, and long‐term guest molecule transport. Tomographic images, thermal and pressure data provide rich information on hydrate formation and morphology. Results show that hydrate formation is inherently displacive in fine‐grained sediments; lenses are thicker and closer to each other in compressible, high specific surface area sediments subjected to low effective stress. Temperature and pressure trajectories follow a shifted phase boundary that is consistent with capillary effects. Exo‐pore growth results in freshly formed hydrate with a striped and porous structure; this open structure becomes an effective pathway for gas transport to the growing hydrate front. Ice‐to‐hydrate transformation goes through a liquid stage at pre‐melt temperatures; then, capillarity and cryogenic suction compete, and some water becomes imbibed into the sediment faster than hydrate reformation. The geometry of hydrate lenses and the internal hydrate structure continue evolving long after the exothermal response to hydrate formation has completely decayed. Multiple time‐dependent processes occur during hydrate formation, including gas, water and heat transport, sediment compressibility, reaction rate and the stochastic nucleation process. Hydrate formation strategies conceived for this study highlight the inherent difficulties in emulating hydrate formation in fine‐grained sediments within the relatively short time‐scale available for laboratory experiments.

  17. Spectroscopic determination of gas-water interactions in clathrate hydrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richardson, H.H. Jr.


    The technique of forming clathrate hydrates by first forming the amorphous deposits of gas-water mixture and, secondly, annealing this deposit was used to form the clathrate hydrates of ethylene oxide, hydrogen sulfide and sulfur dioxide. Once the clathrate hydrate formed as a thin film on the CsI substrate, the infrared spectrum of these hydrates could be obtained. The clathrate hydrates could be irradiated with 1.7 MeV electrons to promote high proton concentrations in the clathrate hydrate lattice at low temperatures (approx.30K) where the Bjerrum defects in the lattice are not mobile. The ring breathing model of ethylene oxide in the clathrate hydrate can be assigned. It was possible to incorporate D 2 O into the hydrogen bonded lattice of the ethylene oxide clathrate hydrate by growing the clathrate hydrate epitaxially on a thin film of clathrate hydrate at 100 K. The half-life of the D 2 O molecules in the ethylene oxide clathrate hydrate was only 9 minutes at 120 K. The activation energy determined from the hopping rate constant in ethylene oxide clathrate hydrate was 4.5 +/- 1.8 Kcal/mole. Irradiation of the ethylene oxide clathrate hydrate with 1.7 MeV electrons transformed some of the ethylene oxide molecules in the cages to (a) CH 2 = CH 2 , (b) CH 2 = C = O, (c) CH 3 -CH 2 -OH, (d) CO 2 , and (e) CO. A steady state concentration of coupled HOD was maintained in irradiated samples of ethylene oxide clathrate hydrates at a temperature around 80 K. The enclathrated H 2 S molecule in the small cages had a different infrared spectrum (broad band complex centered at 2600 cm -1 ) from the H 2 S molecules which had been enclathrated in the large cages (broad band complex centered at 2550 cm -1 )

  18. Computational Material Modeling of Hydrated Cement Paste Calcium Silicate Hydrate (C-S-H) Chemistry Structure - Influence of Magnesium Exchange on Mechanical Stiffness: C-S-H Jennite (United States)


    hydrated cement paste constituent - calcium silicate hydrate (C-S-H) based on its material chemistry structure are studied following a molecular dynamics...2015 Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Computational Material Modeling of Hydrated Cement Paste Calcium Silicate Hydrate (C-S-H...1601 East Market Street Greensboro, NC 27411 -0001 ABSTRACT Computational Material Modeling of Hydrated Cement Paste Calcium Silicate Hydrate (C-S-H

  19. Methane hydrates and contemporary climate change (United States)

    Ruppel, Carolyn D.


    As the evidence for warming climate became better established in the latter part of the 20th century (IPCC 2001), some scientists raised the alarm that large quantities of methane (CH4) might be liberated by widespread destabilization of climate-sensitive gas hydrate deposits trapped in marine and permafrost-associated sediments (Bohannon 2008, Krey et al. 2009, Mascarelli 2009). Even if only a fraction of the liberated CH4 were to reach the atmosphere, the potency of CH4 as a greenhouse gas (GHG) and the persistence of its oxidative product (CO2) heightened concerns that gas hydrate dissociation could represent a slow tipping point (Archer et al. 2009) for Earth's contemporary period of climate change.

  20. Experimental techniques for cement hydration studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Luttge


    Full Text Available Cement hydration kinetics is a complex problem of dissolution, nucleation and growth that is still not well understood, particularly in a quantitative way. While cement systems are unique in certain aspects they are also comparable to natural mineral systems. Therefore, geochemistry and particularly the study of mineral dissolution and growth may be able to provide insight and methods that can be utilized in cement hydration research. Here, we review mainly what is not known or what is currently used and applied in a problematic way. Examples are the typical Avrami approach, the application of Transition State Theory (TST to overall reaction kinetics and the problem of reactive surface area. Finally, we suggest an integrated approach that combines vertical scanning interferometry (VSI with other sophisticated analytical techniques such as atomic force microscopy (AFM and theoretical model calculations based on a stochastic treatment.

  1. Modelling porewater chemistry in hydrated Portland cement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berner, U.R.


    Extensive employment of concrete is foreseen in radioactive waste repositories. A prerequisite for modelling the interactions between concrete and formation waters is characterization of the concrete system. Available experimental data from high pressure squeezing of cement pore-water indicate that, besides the high pH due to alkali hydroxide dissolution, cement composition itself influences the solubility determining solid phases. A model which simulates the hydration of Portland cement assuming complete hydration of the main clinker minerals is presented. The model also includes parameters describing the reactions between the cement and blending agents. Comparison with measured pore-water data generally gives a consistent picture and, as expected, the model gives correct predictions for pure Portland cements. For blended cements, the required additional parameters can, to some extent, be derived from pore-water analysis. 14 references, 1 figure, 4 tables

  2. Effects of hydration on blood rheology. (United States)

    Vlastos, George A; Tangney, Christine C; Rosenson, Robert S


    This study investigated the impact of oral fluid intake on blood rheology of 17 healthy adults following a 12-14 hour overnight fast from food and drink. An oral fluid load of 500 ml was consumed every 30 minutes for 2 hours. Blood viscosity values at shear rates of 1, 10 and 100 s(-1) were reduced (p<0.05 to p<0.01) at 30 and 120 minutes following hydration; however, these differences were not significant after hematocrit correction. With fluid intake, both uncorrected and corrected viscous component of blood viscoelasticity at oscillatory shear rate of 1 s(-1) and at a constant frequency of 2 Hz were reduced (p<0.05 to p<0.001) at all time points as compared to fasting values. The corrected elastic component of blood viscoelasticity increased 90 minutes after hydration (p<0.05). An overnight fast is accompanied by rheological abnormalities that are altered by fluid intake.

  3. The Role of Bottom Simulating Reflectors in Gas Hydrate Assessment (United States)

    Majumdar, U.; Shedd, W. W.; Cook, A.; Frye, M.


    In this research we test the viability of using a bottom simulating reflector (BSR) to detect gas hydrate. Bottom simulating reflectors (BSRs) occur at many gas hydrate sites near the thermodynamic base of the gas hydrate stability zone (GHSZ), and are frequently used to identify possible presence of gas hydrate on a regional scale. To find if drilling a BSR actually increases the chances of finding gas hydrate, we combine an updated dataset of BSR distribution from the Bureau of Ocean Energy Management with a comprehensive dataset of natural gas hydrate distribution as appraised from well logs, covering an area of around 200,000 square kilometers in the northern Gulf of Mexico. The BSR dataset compiles industry 3-D seismic data, and includes mostly good-quality and high-confidence traditional and non-traditional BSRs. Resistivity well logs were used to identify the presence of gas hydrate from over 700 existing industry wells and we have found over 110 wells with likely gas hydrate occurrences. By integrating the two datasets, our results show that the chances of encountering gas hydrate when drilling through a BSR is ~ 42%, while that when drilling outside the BSR is ~15%. Our preliminary analysis indicates that a positive relationship exists between BSRs and gas hydrate accumulations, and the chances of encountering gas hydrate increases almost three-fold when drilling through a BSR. One interesting observation is that ~ 58% of the wells intersecting a BSR show no apparent evidence of gas hydrate. In this case, a BSR may occur at sites with no gas hydrate accumulations due to the presence of very low concentration of free gas that is not detected on resistivity logs. On the other hand, in a few wells, accumulations of gas hydrate were observed where no BSR is present. For example in a well in Atwater Valley Block 92, two intervals of gas hydrate accumulation in fractures have been identified on resistivity logs, of which, the deeper interval has 230 feet thick

  4. Fully Depleted Charge-Coupled Devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holland, Stephen E.


    We have developed fully depleted, back-illuminated CCDs thatbuild upon earlier research and development efforts directed towardstechnology development of silicon-strip detectors used inhigh-energy-physics experiments. The CCDs are fabricated on the same typeof high-resistivity, float-zone-refined silicon that is used for stripdetectors. The use of high-resistivity substrates allows for thickdepletion regions, on the order of 200-300 um, with corresponding highdetection efficiency for near-infrared andsoft x-ray photons. We comparethe fully depleted CCD to thep-i-n diode upon which it is based, anddescribe the use of fully depleted CCDs in astronomical and x-ray imagingapplications.

  5. Sherbet natural gas resources. ; Gas hydrate. Sherbet jo no tennen gas shigen. ; Gas hydrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okuda, Y. (Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba (Japan))


    The present of methane hydrate exploration is reviewed. Methane hydrate contains more than 95% methane in cages composed of water molecules, and it was probably formed from saturated methane in water and excess methane under specific temperature and pressure by biofermentation or pyrolysis of petroleum. It is found only under the sea bottom around continents or permanent frozen soil districts, and nearly 40 expected sites have been found at 500-5,000 m in depth of water, while 8 ones in Siberia, Canada and Alaska. In Japan, the Nankai trough, Kurile trench and Okushiri ridge are expected sites. Control of hydrate decomposition rates is essential for exploitation, while promotion of hydrate decomposition for methane gas production. The estimated amount of methane hydrate is larger in sea area than land area, and it is estimated to be 2.5-5 [times] 10[sup 14] m[sup 3] in the whole sea area of the globe, while 6 [times] 10[sup 12] m[sup 3] in the sea area around Japan. 17 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs.

  6. Intermolecular Hydrogen Transfer in Isobutane Hydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeshi Sugahara


    Full Text Available Electron spin resonance (ESR spectra of butyl radicals induced with γ-ray irradiation in the simple isobutane (2-methylpropane hydrate (prepared with deuterated water were investigated. Isothermal annealing results of the γ-ray-irradiated isobutane hydrate reveal that the isobutyl radical in a large cage withdraws a hydrogen atom from the isobutane molecule through shared hexagonal-faces of adjacent large cages. During this “hydrogen picking” process, the isobutyl radical is apparently transformed into a tert-butyl radical, while the sum of isobutyl and tert-butyl radicals remains constant. The apparent transformation from isobutyl to tert-butyl radicals is an irreversible first-order reaction and the activation energy was estimated to be 35 ± 3 kJ/mol, which was in agreement with the activation energy (39 ± 5 kJ/mol of hydrogen picking in the γ-ray-irradiated propane hydrate with deuterated water.

  7. Gas Hydrate Growth Kinetics: A Parametric Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Remi-Erempagamo Tariyemienyo Meindinyo


    Full Text Available Gas hydrate growth kinetics was studied at a pressure of 90 bars to investigate the effect of temperature, initial water content, stirring rate, and reactor size in stirred semi-batch autoclave reactors. The mixing energy during hydrate growth was estimated by logging the power consumed. The theoretical model by Garcia-Ochoa and Gomez for estimation of the mass transfer parameters in stirred tanks has been used to evaluate the dispersion parameters of the system. The mean bubble size, impeller power input per unit volume, and impeller Reynold’s number/tip velocity were used for analyzing observed trends from the gas hydrate growth data. The growth behavior was analyzed based on the gas consumption and the growth rate per unit initial water content. The results showed that the growth rate strongly depended on the flow pattern in the cell, the gas-liquid mass transfer characteristics, and the mixing efficiency from stirring. Scale-up effects indicate that maintaining the growth rate per unit volume of reactants upon scale-up with geometric similarity does not depend only on gas dispersion in the liquid phase but may rather be a function of the specific thermal conductance, and heat and mass transfer limitations created by the limit to the degree of the liquid phase dispersion is batched and semi-batched stirred tank reactors.

  8. Polymorphism in Br2 clathrate hydrates. (United States)

    Goldschleger, I U; Kerenskaya, G; Janda, K C; Apkarian, V A


    The structure and composition of bromine clathrate hydrate has been controversial for more than 170 years due to the large variation of its observed stoichiometries. Several different crystal structures were proposed before 1997 when Udachin et al. (Udachin, K. A.; Enright, G. D.; Ratcliffe, C. I.; Ripmeester, J. A. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1997, 119, 11481) concluded that Br2 forms only the tetragonal structure (TS-I). We show polymorphism in Br2 clathrate hydrates by identifying two distinct crystal structures through optical microscopy and resonant Raman spectroscopy on single crystals. After growing TS-I crystals from a liquid bromine-water solution, upon dropping the temperature slightly below -7 degrees C, new crystals of cubic morphology form. The new crystals, which have a limited thermal stability range, are assigned to the CS-II structure. The two structures are clearly distinguished by the resonant Raman spectra of the enclathrated Br2, which show long overtone progressions and allow the extraction of accurate vibrational parameters: omega(e) = 321.2 +/- 0.1 cm(-1) and omega(e)x(e) = 0.82 +/- 0.05 cm(-1) in TS-I and omega(e) = 317.5 +/- 0.1 cm(-1) and omega(e)x(e) = 0.70 +/- 0.1 cm(-1) in CS-II. On the basis of structural analysis, the discovery of the CS-II crystals implies stability of a large class of bromine hydrate structures and, therefore, polymorphism.

  9. The role of hydration in vocal fold physiology. (United States)

    Sivasankar, Mahalakshmi; Leydon, Ciara


    Increased vocal fold hydration is a popular target in the prevention and management of voice disorders. Current intervention strategies focus on enhancing both systemic (internal) and superficial (surface) hydration. We review relevant bench and human research on the role of hydration in vocal fold physiology. Bench and human studies provide converging evidence that systemic and superficial dehydration are detrimental to vocal fold physiology. Dehydration challenges increase the viscous properties of excised vocal fold tissue. Systemic, superficial, and combined drying challenges increase aerodynamic and acoustic measures of voice production in speakers. Emerging theoretical and clinical data suggest that increasing both systemic and superficial hydration levels may benefit voice production; however, robust evidence for positive outcomes of hydration treatments is lacking. Increased systemic and superficial vocal fold hydration as a component of vocal hygiene may improve overall health and efficiency of the vocal apparatus. However, continued exploration of biological mechanisms regulating vocal fold hydration is needed to optimize clinical hydration interventions. Specifically, the development of hydration treatments that maximize positive phonatory outcomes will necessitate understanding of the signaling pathways linking systemic and superficial hydration.

  10. The interaction of climate change and methane hydrates (United States)

    Ruppel, Carolyn D.; Kessler, John D.


    Gas hydrate, a frozen, naturally-occurring, and highly-concentrated form of methane, sequesters significant carbon in the global system and is stable only over a range of low-temperature and moderate-pressure conditions. Gas hydrate is widespread in the sediments of marine continental margins and permafrost areas, locations where ocean and atmospheric warming may perturb the hydrate stability field and lead to release of the sequestered methane into the overlying sediments and soils. Methane and methane-derived carbon that escape from sediments and soils and reach the atmosphere could exacerbate greenhouse warming. The synergy between warming climate and gas hydrate dissociation feeds a popular perception that global warming could drive catastrophic methane releases from the contemporary gas hydrate reservoir. Appropriate evaluation of the two sides of the climate-methane hydrate synergy requires assessing direct and indirect observational data related to gas hydrate dissociation phenomena and numerical models that track the interaction of gas hydrates/methane with the ocean and/or atmosphere. Methane hydrate is likely undergoing dissociation now on global upper continental slopes and on continental shelves that ring the Arctic Ocean. Many factors—the depth of the gas hydrates in sediments, strong sediment and water column sinks, and the inability of bubbles emitted at the seafloor to deliver methane to the sea-air interface in most cases—mitigate the impact of gas hydrate dissociation on atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations though. There is no conclusive proof that hydrate-derived methane is reaching the atmosphere now, but more observational data and improved numerical models will better characterize the climate-hydrate synergy in the future.

  11. Effects of Incorporating High-Volume Fly Ash into Tricalcium Silicate on the Degree of Silicate Polymerization and Aluminum Substitution for Silicon in Calcium Silicate Hydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sungchul Bae


    Full Text Available This study assesses the quantitative effects of incorporating high-volume fly ash (HVFA into tricalcium silicate (C3S paste on the hydration, degree of silicate polymerization, and Al substitution for Si in calcium silicate hydrate (C–S–H. Thermogravimetric analysis and isothermal conduction calorimetry showed that, although the induction period of C3S hydration was significantly extended, the degree of hydration of C3S after the deceleration period increased due to HVFA incorporation. Synchrotron-sourced soft X-ray spectromicroscopy further showed that most of the C3S in the C3S-HVFA paste was fully hydrated after 28 days of hydration, while that in the pure C3S paste was not. The chemical shifts of the Si K edge peaks in the near-edge X-ray fine structure of C–S–H in the C3S-HVFA paste directly indicate that Al substitutes for Si in C–S–H and that the additional silicate provided by the HVFA induces an enhanced degree of silicate polymerization. This new spectromicroscopic approach, supplemented with 27Al and 29Si magic-angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy, turned out to be a powerful characterization tool for studying a local atomic binding structure of C–S–H in C3S-HVFA system and presented results consistent with previous literature.

  12. NEW RSW & Wall Medium Fully Tetrahedral Grid (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — New Medium Fully Tetrahedral RSW Grid with viscous wind tunnel wall at the root. This grid is for a node-based unstructured solver. Medium Tet: Quad Surface Faces= 0...

  13. NEW RSW & Wall Fine Fully Tetrahedral Grid (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NEW RSW Fine Fully Tetrahedral Grid with Viscous Wind Tunnel wall at the root. This grid is for a node-based unstructured solver. Note that the CGNS file is very...

  14. High-voltage-compatible, fully depleted CCDs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holland, Stephen E.; Bebek, Chris J.; Dawson, Kyle S.; Emes, JohnE.; Fabricius, Max H.; Fairfield, Jessaym A.; Groom, Don E.; Karcher, A.; Kolbe, William F.; Palaio, Nick P.; Roe, Natalie A.; Wang, Guobin


    We describe charge-coupled device (CCD) developmentactivities at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL).Back-illuminated CCDs fabricated on 200-300 mu m thick, fully depleted,high-resistivity silicon substrates are produced in partnership with acommercial CCD foundry.The CCDs are fully depleted by the application ofa substrate bias voltage. Spatial resolution considerations requireoperation of thick, fully depleted CCDs at high substrate bias voltages.We have developed CCDs that are compatible with substrate bias voltagesof at least 200V. This improves spatial resolution for a given thickness,and allows for full depletion of thicker CCDs than previously considered.We have demonstrated full depletion of 650-675 mu m thick CCDs, withpotential applications in direct x-ray detection. In this work we discussthe issues related to high-voltage operation of fully depleted CCDs, aswell as experimental results on high-voltage-compatible CCDs.

  15. Recent results on hydrogen and hydration in biology studied by neutron macromolecular crystallography. (United States)

    Niimura, N; Arai, S; Kurihara, K; Chatake, T; Tanaka, I; Bau, R


    Neutron diffraction provides an experimental method of directly locating hydrogen atoms in proteins, a technique complimentary to ultra-high-resolution [1, 2] X-ray diffraction. Three different types of neutron diffractometers for biological macromolecules have been constructed in Japan, France and the United States, and they have been used to determine the crystal structures of proteins up to resolution limits of 1.5-2.5 A. Results relating to hydrogen positions and hydration patterns in proteins have been obtained from these studies. Examples include the geometrical details of hydrogen bonds, H/D exchange in proteins and oligonucleotides, the role of hydrogen atoms in enzymatic activity and thermostability, and the dynamical behavior of hydration structures, all of which have been extracted from these structural results and reviewed. Other techniques, such as the growth of large single crystals, the preparation of fully deuterated proteins, the use of cryogenic techniques, and a data base of hydrogen and hydration in proteins, will be described.

  16. Fully Adaptive Radar Modeling and Simulation Development (United States)



  17. Influence of Physical Activity and Ambient Temperature on Hydration: The European Hydration Research Study (EHRS) (United States)

    Mora-Rodriguez, Ricardo; Ortega, Juan F.; Fernandez-Elias, Valentin E.; Kapsokefalou, Maria; Malisova, Olga; Athanasatou, Adelais; Husemann, Marlien; Domnik, Kirsten; Braun, Hans


    This study explored the effects of physical activity (PA) and ambient temperature on water turnover and hydration status. Five-hundred seventy three healthy men and women (aged 20–60 years) from Spain, Greece and Germany self-reported PA, registered all food and beverage intake, and collected 24-h urine during seven consecutive days. Fasting blood samples were collected at the onset and end of the study. Food moisture was assessed using nutritional software to account for all water intake which was subtracted from daily urine volume to allow calculation of non-renal water loss (i.e., mostly sweating). Hydration status was assessed by urine and blood osmolality. A negative association was seen between ambient temperature and PA (r = −0.277; p hydration status (i.e., lower urine and blood osmolality). PMID:27128938

  18. Stabilization of ammonia-rich hydrate inside icy planets. (United States)

    Naden Robinson, Victor; Wang, Yanchao; Ma, Yanming; Hermann, Andreas


    The interior structure of the giant ice planets Uranus and Neptune, but also of newly discovered exoplanets, is loosely constrained, because limited observational data can be satisfied with various interior models. Although it is known that their mantles comprise large amounts of water, ammonia, and methane ices, it is unclear how these organize themselves within the planets-as homogeneous mixtures, with continuous concentration gradients, or as well-separated layers of specific composition. While individual ices have been studied in great detail under pressure, the properties of their mixtures are much less explored. We show here, using first-principles calculations, that the 2:1 ammonia hydrate, (H 2 O)(NH 3 ) 2 , is stabilized at icy planet mantle conditions due to a remarkable structural evolution. Above 65 GPa, we predict it will transform from a hydrogen-bonded molecular solid into a fully ionic phase O 2- ([Formula: see text]) 2 , where all water molecules are completely deprotonated, an unexpected bonding phenomenon not seen before. Ammonia hemihydrate is stable in a sequence of ionic phases up to 500 GPa, pressures found deep within Neptune-like planets, and thus at higher pressures than any other ammonia-water mixture. This suggests it precipitates out of any ammonia-water mixture at sufficiently high pressures and thus forms an important component of icy planets.

  19. Highly hydrated cations: deficiency, mobility, and coordination of water in crystalline nonahydrated scandium(III), yttrium(III), and lanthanoid(III) trifluoromethanesulfonates. (United States)

    Abbasi, Alireza; Lindqvist-Reis, Patric; Eriksson, Lars; Sandström, Dick; Lidin, Sven; Persson, Ingmar; Sandström, Magnus


    Trivalent lanthanide-like metal ions coordinate nine water oxygen atoms, which form a tricapped trigonal prism in a large number of crystalline hydrates. Water deficiency, randomly distributed over the capping positions, was found for the smallest metal ions in the isomorphous nonahydrated trifluoromethanesulfonates, [M(H2O)n](CF3SO3)3, in which M = Sc(III), Lu(III), Yb(III), Tm(III) or Er(III). The hydration number n increases (n = 8.0(1), 8.4(1), 8.7(1), 8.8(1) and 8.96(5), respectively) with increasing ionic size. Deuterium (2H) solid-state NMR spectroscopy revealed fast positional exchange between the coordinated capping and prism water molecules; this exchange started at temperatures higher than about 280 K for lutetium(III) and below 268 K for scandium(III). Similar positional exchange for the fully nonahydrated yttrium(III) and lanthanum(III) compounds started at higher temperatures, over about 330 and 360 K, respectively. An exchange mechanism is proposed that can exchange equatorial and capping water molecules within the restrictions of the crystal lattice, even for fully hydrated lanthanoid(III) ions. Phase transitions occurred for all the water-deficient compounds at approximately 185 K. The hydrated scandium(III) trifluoromethanesulfonate transforms reversibly (DeltaH degrees = -0.80(1) kJ mol(-1) on cooling) to a trigonal unit cell that is almost nine times larger, with the scandium ion surrounded by seven fully occupied and two partly occupied oxygen atom positions in a distorted capped trigonal prism. The hydrogen bonding to the trifluoromethanesulfonate anions stabilises the trigonal prism of water ligands, even for the crowded hydration sphere of the smallest metal ions in the series. Implications for the Lewis acid catalytic activity of the hydrated scandium(III) and lanthanoid(III) trifluoromethanesulfonates for organic syntheses performed in aqueous media are discussed.

  20. Particle size and hydration medium effects on hydration properties and sugar release of wheat straw fibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lara-Vázquez, Anibal R.; Quiroz-Figueroa, Francisco R.; Sánchez, Arturo; Valdez-Vazquez, Idania


    Wheat straw is gaining importance as a feedstock for the production of biofuels and high value-added bioproducts. Several pretreatments recover the fermentable fraction involving the use of water or aqueous solutions. Therefore, hydration properties of wheat straw fibers play an important role in improving pretreatment performance. In this study, the water retention capacity (WRC) and swelling of wheat straw fibers were studied using water, propylene glycol (PPG) and an effluent from a H 2 -producing reactor as the hydration media with three particle sizes (3.35, 2.00 and 0.212 mm). The effects of swelling were analyzed by optical and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). The highest WRC was reached with the effluent medium (9.84 ± 0.87 g g −1 in 4 h), followed by PPG (8.52 ± 0.18 g g −1 in 1 h) and water (8.74 ± 0.76 g g −1 in 10 h). The effluent hydration treatment had a synergic effect between the enzymes present and the water. The particle size had a significant effect on the WRC (P < 0.01), the highest values were reached with 3.35 mm fibers. The CLSM images showed that finer fibers were subjected to a shaving effect due to the grinding affecting its capacity to absorb the hydration medium. The microscopic analysis showed the increase in the width of the epidermal cells after the hydration and a more undulating cell wall likely due to the hydration of the amorphous regions in the cellulose microfibrils. The sugar release was determined, achieving the highest glucose content with the effluent hydration treatment. - Highlights: • Water retention capacity (WRC) and swelling of wheat straw fibers were studied. • The highest WRC was achieved with a biological effluent. • The enzymatic activity in the biological effluent yielded the highest sugar release. • Finer fibers showed a shaving effect that affected its capacity to absorb water. • A more undulating cell wall was visualized after the hydration

  1. Finite difference modelling of scattered hydrates and its implications in gas-hydrate exploration

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Dewangan, P.; Ramprasad, T.; Ramana, M.V.

    having larger Fresnel zone show continuous BSR from the scat- tered hydrates 6 . Moreover, BSRs appear weak in high- frequency seismic data in contrast to strong reflection observed in the low-frequency seismics. This frequency dependence of BSR... distribution of the hydrates was modelled using one-sided Gaussian membership function with maximum concentra- tion at BHSZ and reducing to zero at a distance of 15 m from the BHSZ. In a similar fashion, the free gas below the BHSZ was modelled. The Gaussian...

  2. Glucose and Mannose: A Link between Hydration and Sweetness. (United States)

    Rhys, N H; Bruni, F; Imberti, S; McLain, S E; Ricci, M A


    Glucose and mannose have a different degree of sweetness, implying different affinity to the sweet taste receptor. While the receptor structure is still undefined, there are several geometrical models for their binding mechanism. A detailed study of the hydration structure of sugars with known degree of sweetness is bound to provide information on the accuracy of such models. Our neutron diffraction study on the hydration of glucose and mannose show that both α- and β-glucose form strong hydrogen bonds with water, and that the steric hindrance of their first hydration shell matches the receptor geometrical model. The α-anomer of mannose has a similar, well-defined first hydration shell, but with fewer and weaker hydrogen bonds compared to glucose. Conversely, the hydration shell of β-mannose (reported as bitter) does not match the receptor geometrical model. These findings suggest a link between the hydration shell of sugars and their degree of sweetness.

  3. Focus on the Development of Natural Gas Hydrate in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongfu Tan


    Full Text Available Natural gas hydrate, also known as combustible ice, and mainly composed of methane, is identified as a potential clean energy for the 21st century. Due to its large reserves, gas hydrate can ease problems caused by energy resource shortage and has gained attention around the world. In this paper, we focus on the exploration and development of gas hydrate as well as discussing its status and future development trend in China and abroad. We then analyze its opportunities and challenges in China from four aspects, resource, technology, economy and policy, with five forces model and Politics Economics Society Technology method. The results show China has abundance gas hydrate resource; however, backward technologies and inadequate investment have seriously hindered the future development of gas hydrate; thus, China should establish relevant cooperation framework and intuitional arrangement to attract more investment as well as breaking through technical difficulties to commercialization gas hydrate as soon as possible.

  4. Thermal conductivity measurements in unsaturated hydrate-bearing sediments (United States)

    Dai, Sheng; Cha, Jong-Ho; Rosenbaum, Eilis J.; Zhang, Wu; Seol, Yongkoo


    Current database on the thermal properties of hydrate-bearing sediments remains limited and has not been able to capture their consequential changes during gas production where vigorous phase changes occur in this unsaturated system. This study uses the transient plane source (TPS) technique to measure the thermal conductivity of methane hydrate-bearing sediments with various hydrate/water/gas saturations. We propose a simplified method to obtain thermal properties from single-sided TPS signatures. Results reveal that both volume fraction and distribution of the pore constituents govern the thermal conductivity of unsaturated specimens. Thermal conductivity hysteresis is observed due to water redistribution and fabric change caused by hydrate formation and dissociation. Measured thermal conductivity increases evidently when hydrate saturation Sh > 30-40%, shifting upward from the geometric mean model prediction to a Pythagorean mixing model. These observations envisage a significant drop in sediment thermal conductivity when residual hydrate/water saturation falls below ~40%, hindering further gas production.

  5. Enzyme hydration, activity and flexibility : A neutron scattering approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurkal-Siebert, V.; Finney, J.L.; Daniel, R.M.; Smith, Jeremy C.


    Recent measurements have demonstrated enzyme activity at hydrations as low as 3%. The question of whether the hydration-induced enzyme flexibility is important for activity is addressed by performing picosecond dynamic neutron scattering experiments on pig liver esterase powders at various temperatures as well as solutions. At all temperatures and hydrations investigated here, significant quasielastic scattering intensity is found in the protein, indicating the presence of anharmonic, diffusive motion. As the hydration increases a temperature-dependent dynamical transition appears and strengthens involving additional diffusive motion. At low temperature, increasing hydration resulted in lower flexibility of the enzyme. At higher temperatures, systems containing sufficient number of water molecules interacting with the protein exhibit increased flexibility. The implication of these results is that, although the additional hydration-induced diffusive motion and flexibility at high temperatures in the enzyme detected here may be related to increased activity, they are not required for the enzyme to function

  6. Fracturing Behavior of Methane-Hydrate-Bearing Sediment (United States)

    Konno, Y.; Jin, Y.; Yoneda, J.; Uchiumi, T.; Shinjou, K.; Nagao, J.


    As a part of a Japanese national hydrate research program (MH21, funded by the Ministry of Economy, Trade, and Industry), we performed laboratory experiments of hydraulic fracturing in methane-hydrate-bearing sediment. Distilled water was injected into methane-hydrate-bearing sand which was artificially made in a tri-axial pressure cell. X-ray computed tomography revealed that tensile failure was occurred after a rapid drop in the injection pressure. It was found that generated fractures cause a significant increase in the effective water permeability of hydrate-bearing sand. The result contributes fundamental understanding of the accumulation mechanism of gas hydrates in sediments and shows that hydraulic fracturing is one of promising enhanced recovery methods for low-permeable gas hydrate reservoirs.

  7. Methods of gas hydrate concentration estimation with field examples

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Kumar, D.; Dash, R.; Dewangan, P.

    accuracy, sensitivity and cost issue. Seismic methods are the most common but the estimated gas hydrate concentration can be less accurate than coring method. Although coring method has certain difficulty such as the core sampling, preserving samples... general. The gas saturation is ignored for simplification, but in the case of free gas and gas hydrate coexisting both can be simultaneously estimated. The steps for hydrate saturation estimation in method 1 are: 1) first create a table of modeled seismic...

  8. A coupled THMC model of a heating and hydration laboratory experiment in unsaturated compacted FEBEX bentonite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, L.; Samper, J.; Montenegro, L.; Fernandez, A.M.


    Unsaturated compacted bentonite is foreseen by several countries as a backfill and sealing material in high-level radioactive waste repositories. The strong interplays between thermal (T), hydrodynamic (H), mechanical (M) and chemical (C) processes during the hydration stage of a repository call for fully coupled THMC models. Validation of such THMC models is prevented by the lack of comprehensive THMC experiments and the difficulties of experimental methods to measure accurately the chemical composition of bentonite porewater. We present here a non-isothermal multiphase flow and multicomponent reactive solute transport model for a deformable medium of a heating and hydration experiment performed on a sample of compacted FEBEX bentonite. Besides standard solute transport and geochemical processes, the model accounts for solute cross diffusion and thermal and chemical osmosis. Bentonite swelling is solved with a state-surface approach. The THM model is calibrated with transient temperature, water content and porosity data measured at the end of the experiment. The reactive transport model is calibrated with porewater chemical data derived from aqueous extract data. Model results confirm that thermal osmosis is relevant for the hydration of FEBEX bentonite while chemical osmosis can be safely neglected. Dilution and evaporation are the main processes controlling the concentration of conservative species. Dissolved cations are mostly affected by calcite dissolution-precipitation and cation exchange reactions. Dissolved sulphate is controlled by gypsum/anhydrite dissolution-precipitation. pH is mostly buffered by protonation/deprotonation via surface complexation. Computed concentrations agree well with inferred aqueous extract data at all sections except near the hydration boundary where cation data are affected by a sampling artifact. The fit of Cl{sup -} data is excellent except for the data near the heater. The largest deviations of the model from inferred aqueous

  9. Geomechanical Performance of Hydrate-Bearing Sediment in Offshore Environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephen Holditch; Tad Patzek; Jonny Rutqvist; George Moridis; Richard Plumb


    The objective of this multi-year, multi-institutional research project was to develop the knowledge base and quantitative predictive capability for the description of geomechanical performance of hydrate-bearing sediments (hereafter referred to as HBS) in oceanic environments. The focus was on the determination of the envelope of hydrate stability under conditions typical of those related to the construction and operation of offshore platforms. We have developed a robust numerical simulator of hydrate behavior in geologic media by coupling a reservoir model with a commercial geomechanical code. We also investigated the geomechanical behavior of oceanic HBS using pore-scale models (conceptual and mathematical) of fluid flow, stress analysis, and damage propagation. The objective of the UC Berkeley work was to develop a grain-scale model of hydrate-bearing sediments. Hydrate dissociation alters the strength of HBS. In particular, transformation of hydrate clusters into gas and liquid water weakens the skeleton and, simultaneously, reduces the effective stress by increasing the pore pressure. The large-scale objective of the study is evaluation of geomechanical stability of offshore oil and gas production infrastructure. At Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), we have developed the numerical model TOUGH + Hydrate + FLAC3D to evaluate how the formation and disassociation of hydrates in seafloor sediments affects seafloor stability. Several technical papers were published using results from this model. LBNL also developed laboratory equipment and methods to produce realistic laboratory samples of sediments containing gas hydrates so that mechanical properties could be measured in the laboratory. These properties are required to run TOUGH + Hydrate + FLAC3D to evaluate seafloor stability issues. At Texas A&M University we performed a detailed literature review to determine what gas hydrate formation properties had been measured and reported in the literature. We

  10. Critical pressure and multiphase flow in Blake Ridge gas hydrates (United States)

    Flemings, P.B.; Liu, Xiuying; Winters, W.J.


    We use core porosity, consolidation experiments, pressure core sampler data, and capillary pressure measurements to predict water pressures that are 70% of the lithostatic stress, and gas pressures that equal the lithostatic stress beneath the methane hydrate layer at Ocean Drilling Program Site 997, Blake Ridge, offshore North Carolina. A 29-m-thick interconnected free-gas column is trapped beneath the low-permeability hydrate layer. We propose that lithostatic gas pressure is dilating fractures and gas is migrating through the methane hydrate layer. Overpressured gas and water within methane hydrate reservoirs limit the amount of free gas trapped and may rapidly export methane to the seafloor.

  11. Ethylene Separation via Hydrate Formation in W/O Emulsions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Pan


    Full Text Available An hybrid absorption-hydration method was adopted to recover C2H4 from C2H4/CH4 binary gas mixtures and the hydrate formation conditions of C2H4/CH4 mixtures was studied experimentally in diesel in water (w/o emulsions. Span 20 at a concentration of 1.0 wt% in the aqueous phase was added to form water in diesel emulsions before hydrate formation and then hydrate in diesel slurry was separated after hydrate formation. The influences of initial gas-liquid volume ratio (53–142, pressure (3.4–5.4 MPa, temperature (274.15–278.15 K, water cuts (10–30 vol%, and the mole fraction of C2H4 in feed gas (13.19–80.44 mol% upon the C2H4 separation efficiency were systematically investigated. The experimental results show that ethylene can be enriched in hydrate slurry phase with high separation factor (S and recovery ratio (R. Most hydrate formation finished in 20 min, after that, the hydrate formation rate became very slow. The conclusion is useful for determining the suitable operation conditions when adopting an absorption-hydration method to separate C2H4/CH4.

  12. Hydration, fluid regulation and the eye: in health and disease. (United States)

    Sherwin, Justin C; Kokavec, Jan; Thornton, Simon N


    Variation in systemic hydration status, namely chronic systemic hypohydration or dehydration, can influence the development of several chronic non-ophthalmic diseases. Owing to the eye's high water content and unique system of fluid regulation, we hypothesized that hydration status may affect the eye in health and disease states. Therefore, we performed a systematic review of the current evidence implicating changes in hydration and their association with ocular physiology and morphological characteristics. We also reviewed relevant clinical correlations of changes in hydration and major common eye diseases. Our findings suggest that systemic hydration status broadly affects a variety of ocular pathophysiologic processes and disease states. For example, dehydration may be associated with development of dry eye syndrome, cataract, refractive changes and retinal vascular disease. On the other hand, excessive hydration is associated with some ocular diseases. Tear fluid osmolarity may be an effective marker of systemic hydration status. Recent studies implicate chronic renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system activation in the pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy and glaucoma but also suggest its antagonism may be a useful therapeutic target. Our findings indicate that assessment of hydration status may be an important consideration in the management of patients with chronic eye diseases and undergoing eye surgery. Further research investigating the role of acute and chronic changes in hydration in individuals with and without ocular disease is warranted. © 2015 Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Ophthalmologists.

  13. Nuclear Well Log Properties of Natural Gas Hydrate Reservoirs (United States)

    Burchwell, A.; Cook, A.


    Characterizing gas hydrate in a reservoir typically involves a full suite of geophysical well logs. The most common method involves using resistivity measurements to quantify the decrease in electrically conductive water when replaced with gas hydrate. Compressional velocity measurements are also used because the gas hydrate significantly strengthens the moduli of the sediment. At many gas hydrate sites, nuclear well logs, which include the photoelectric effect, formation sigma, carbon/oxygen ratio and neutron porosity, are also collected but often not used. In fact, the nuclear response of a gas hydrate reservoir is not known. In this research we will focus on the nuclear log response in gas hydrate reservoirs at the Mallik Field at the Mackenzie Delta, Northwest Territories, Canada, and the Gas Hydrate Joint Industry Project Leg 2 sites in the northern Gulf of Mexico. Nuclear logs may add increased robustness to the investigation into the properties of gas hydrates and some types of logs may offer an opportunity to distinguish between gas hydrate and permafrost. For example, a true formation sigma log measures the thermal neutron capture cross section of a formation and pore constituents; it is especially sensitive to hydrogen and chlorine in the pore space. Chlorine has a high absorption potential, and is used to determine the amount of saline water within pore spaces. Gas hydrate offers a difference in elemental composition compared to water-saturated intervals. Thus, in permafrost areas, the carbon/oxygen ratio may vary between gas hydrate and permafrost, due to the increase of carbon in gas hydrate accumulations. At the Mallik site, we observe a hydrate-bearing sand (1085-1107 m) above a water-bearing sand (1107-1140 m), which was confirmed through core samples and mud gas analysis. We observe a decrease in the photoelectric absorption of ~0.5 barnes/e-, as well as an increase in the formation sigma readings of ~5 capture units in the water-bearing sand as

  14. Formation of hydrate plug within rectangular natural gas passage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seong, K.; Song, M.H.; Ahn, J.H.; Yoo, K.S. [Dong Guk Univ., Joong-ku, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    Oil and gas reservoirs in off-shore shallow areas are being depleted. At the same time, the industry is expanding its production sites into deeper waters resulting in higher pressure and lower temperature and more isolated locations. In response, connecting pipelines have been extended, but because of these pressure, temperature and distance changes in pipelines, a more favorable condition for hydrate formation is created, making the problem of flow assurance more critical for safe and economic operations at deep off-shore oil and gas production sites. Another challenge in flow assurance lies in hydrate formation and potential blockage due to hydrate plugs in gas pipelines, where no free water phase is present. This paper presented an experimental study that examined the formation and the growth of hydrates from a gas mixture of methane and propane with different moisture concentrations. The hydrates were formed in a rectangular passage cooled to temperatures below equilibrium hydrate formation temperature. The paper described the experimental procedure and apparatus that was designed and fabricated for the study. A schematic layout of the hydrate formation and plug test experimental apparatus was illustrated. The paper also described the results of two sets of experiments that were conducted. It was concluded that with enough moisture content, hydrates formed without a fresh water phase under equilibrium conditions. It was also concluded that the results of the study could be used in verifying numerical models developed to predict hydrate plugging of natural gas pipelines. 4 refs., 6 figs.

  15. Mineralogy of Gas Hydrate Bearing Sediment in Green Canyon Block 955 Northern Gulf of Mexico (United States)

    Heber, R.; Kinash, N.; Cook, A.; Sawyer, D.; Sheets, J.; Johnson, J. E.


    Natural gas hydrates are of interest as a future hydrocarbon source, however, the formation and physical properties of such systems are not fully understood. In May 2017, the University of Texas drilled two holes in Green Canyon Block 955, northern Gulf of Mexico to collect pressurized core from a thick, 100 m accumulation of gas hydrate in a silt dominated submarine canyon levee system. The expedition, known as UT-GOM2-01, collected 21, 10-m pressure cores from Holes H002 and H005. Approximately half of the cores successfully pressurized and were fully recovered. Unsuccessful cores that did not pressurize generally had low core recovery. By analyzing the sediment composition in known gas hydrate reservoirs, we can construct a more detailed picture of how and why gas hydrates accumulate, as mineralogy can affect physical properties such as porosity and permeability as well as geophysical measurements such as resistivity. Using X-ray diffraction (XRD) on bulk sediment powders, we determined the bulk mineralogy of the samples. Moreover, we investigated drilling mud contamination using XRD and light optical analysis. In some cores, contamination was easily recognized visually as dense sludge between the core barrel and the recovered sediment core, however drilling mud is best observed both along the liner and interbedded within the sediment on X-ray computed tomography scans. To fully identify the presence and influence of drilling mud, we use XRD to analyze samples on cores collected both while drilling mud was used in hole and when only seawater was used in hole and consider the density anomalies observed on the XCT scans. The preliminary XRD light optical microscopy results show that the silt-dominated reservoir is primarily composed of quartz, with minor alkali feldspar, amphibole, muscovite, dolomite, and calcite. Samples from intervals with suspected drilling mud contamination show a similar composition, but with the addition of barite, a common component in

  16. Life Origination Hydrate Hypothesis (LOH-Hypothesis). (United States)

    Ostrovskii, Victor; Kadyshevich, Elena


    The paper develops the Life Origination Hydrate Hypothesis (LOH-hypothesis), according to which living-matter simplest elements (LMSEs, which are N-bases, riboses, nucleosides, nucleotides), DNA- and RNA-like molecules, amino-acids, and proto-cells repeatedly originated on the basis of thermodynamically controlled, natural, and inevitable processes governed by universal physical and chemical laws from CH4, niters, and phosphates under the Earth's surface or seabed within the crystal cavities of the honeycomb methane-hydrate structure at low temperatures; the chemical processes passed slowly through all successive chemical steps in the direction that is determined by a gradual decrease in the Gibbs free energy of reacting systems. The hypothesis formulation method is based on the thermodynamic directedness of natural movement and consists ofan attempt to mentally backtrack on the progression of nature and thus reveal principal milestones alongits route. The changes in Gibbs free energy are estimated for different steps of the living-matter origination process; special attention is paid to the processes of proto-cell formation. Just the occurrence of the gas-hydrate periodic honeycomb matrix filled with LMSEs almost completely in its final state accounts for size limitation in the DNA functional groups and the nonrandom location of N-bases in the DNA chains. The slowness of the low-temperature chemical transformations and their "thermodynamic front" guide the gross process of living matter origination and its successive steps. It is shown that the hypothesis is thermodynamically justified and testable and that many observed natural phenomena count in its favor.

  17. Life Origination Hydrate Hypothesis (LOH-Hypothesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Ostrovskii


    Full Text Available The paper develops the Life Origination Hydrate Hypothesis (LOH-hypothesis, according to which living-matter simplest elements (LMSEs, which are N-bases, riboses, nucleosides, nucleotides, DNA- and RNA-like molecules, amino-acids, and proto-cells repeatedly originated on the basis of thermodynamically controlled, natural, and inevitable processes governed by universal physical and chemical laws from CH4, niters, and phosphates under the Earth's surface or seabed within the crystal cavities of the honeycomb methane-hydrate structure at low temperatures; the chemical processes passed slowly through all successive chemical steps in the direction that is determined by a gradual decrease in the Gibbs free energy of reacting systems. The hypothesis formulation method is based on the thermodynamic directedness of natural movement and consists ofan attempt to mentally backtrack on the progression of nature and thus reveal principal milestones alongits route. The changes in Gibbs free energy are estimated for different steps of the living-matter origination process; special attention is paid to the processes of proto-cell formation. Just the occurrence of the gas-hydrate periodic honeycomb matrix filled with LMSEs almost completely in its final state accounts for size limitation in the DNA functional groups and the nonrandom location of N-bases in the DNA chains. The slowness of the low-temperature chemical transformations and their “thermodynamic front” guide the gross process of living matter origination and its successive steps. It is shown that the hypothesis is thermodynamically justified and testable and that many observed natural phenomena count in its favor.

  18. Fully Depleted Charge-Coupled Devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holland, Stephen E.


    We have developed fully depleted, back-illuminated CCDs that build upon earlier research and development efforts directed towards technology development of silicon-strip detectors used in high-energy-physics experiments. The CCDs are fabricated on the same type of high-resistivity, float-zone-refined silicon that is used for strip detectors. The use of high-resistivity substrates allows for thick depletion regions, on the order of 200-300 um, with corresponding high detection efficiency for near-infrared and soft x-ray photons. We compare the fully depleted CCD to the p-i-n diode upon which it is based, and describe the use of fully depleted CCDs in astronomical and x-ray imaging applications

  19. Models of a partially hydrated Titan interior with clathrate crust (United States)

    Lunine, J. I.; Castillo-Rogez, J.


    We present an updated model of the interior evolution of Titan over time, assuming the silicate core was hydrated early in Titan's history and is dehydrating over time. The original model presented in Castillo-Rogez and Lunine (2010) was motivated by a Cassini-derived moment of inertia (Iess et al., 2010) for Titan too large to be accommodated by classical fully differentiated models in which an anhydrous silicate core was overlain by a water ice (with possible perched ocean) mantle. Our model consisted of a silicate core still in the process of dehydrating today, a situation made possible by the leaching of radiogenic potassium from the silicates into the liquid water ocean. The crust of Titan was assumed to be pure water ice I. The model was consistent with the moment of inertia of Titan, but neglected the presence of large amounts of methane in the upper crust invoked to explain methane's persistence at present and through geologic time (Tobie et al. 2006). We have updated our model with such a feature. We have also improved our modeling with a better physical model for the dehydration of antigorite and other hydrated minerals. In particular our modeling now simulates heat advection resulting from water circulation (e.g., Seipold and Schilling 2003), rather than the purely conductive heat transfer regime assumed in the first version of our model. The modeling proceeds as in Castillo-Rogez and Lunine (2010), with the thermal conductivity of the methane clathrate crust rather than that of ice I. The former is several times lower than that of the latter, and the two have rather different temperature dependences (English and Tse, 2009). The crust turns out to have essentially no bearing on the temperature of the silicate core and hence the timing of dehydration, but it profoundly affects the thickness of the high-pressure ice layer beneath the ocean. Indeed, with the insulating methane clathrate crust, there must be a liquid water ocean beneath the methane clathrate

  20. A new calcium sulfate hemi-hydrate. (United States)

    Christensen, Axel Nørlund; Jensen, Torben R; Nonat, André


    Calcium sulfate hydrates receive significant attention due to numerous large scale industrial applications. There has been a long debate on the possible existence of two gypsum hemi-hydrate polymorphs, denoted alpha- and beta-CaSO(4).0.5H(2)O. In this work, a new crystal structure of calcium sulfate hemi-hydrates is presented, denoted beta-CaSO(4).0.5H(2)O. The structure was solved using powder neutron diffraction data, the space group is P3(1) and the unit cell in a hexagonal setting a = 6.9268(1), c = 12.7565(3) A. The structure has two calcium-oxygen coordination polyhedra: Ca1 is eight coordinated and has Ca-O bond lengths in the range 2.31(3) to 2.89(2) A and Ca2 is nine coordinated and has one Ca-O(water) bond length of 2.43(3) A, and eight Ca-O bonds in the range 2.30(4) to 2.86(4) A. Two sulfate ions have S-O bonds in the range 1.47(3) to 1.49(4) A, and 1.47(3) to 1.50(3) A, respectively. The water molecule forms a hydrogen bond of 2.55(4) A to an oxygen atom in one of the sulfate ions. The structure of the hemi-hydrate beta-CaSO(4).0.5H(2)O has one-dimensional channels running parallel to the c-axis where the water molecules are located. This relates the structures of alpha- and beta-CaSO(4).0.5H(2)O and soluble anhydrite AIII-CaSO(4), which all have similar channel structures. The water molecules in the structure of beta-CaSO(4).0.5H(2)O are packed in the channels with a three fold (3(1)) symmetry in a different way as compared to the pseudo hexagonal found in the structure of alpha-CaSO(4).0.5H(2)O.

  1. The Relative Rates of Secondary Hydration in Basalt and Rhyolite, and the use of δD as a Paleoclimate Indicator: Implications for Paleoenvironmental and Volcanic Degassing Studies (United States)

    Seligman, A. N.; Bindeman, I. N.


    The δD-H2O correlation is important for volcanic degassing and secondary hydration trends. We utilize the caibration of the TC/EA - MAT 253 continuous flow system, which permits us to analyze wt.% H2O and its δD extracted from 1-8 mg of glass with as little as 0.1 wt% H2O. Tephra that has been secondarily hydrated with meteoric water is widely used as a paleoenvironmental tool, but the rate of secondary hydration, the relative amounts of primary magmatic (degassed) and secondary meteoric water, and the retention of primary and secondary δD values are not well understood. To quantify these processes, we use a natural experiment involving dated Holocene tepha in Kamchatka and Oregon. Our research illustrates the drastic difference in hydration rates between silicic (hydrated after ~1.5 ka) and mafic tephra, which is not hydrated in the Holocene (similar to results for submarine volcanic glasses), and andesitic tephra with intermediate degrees of hydration. The 0.05-7.3 ka basaltic scoria from Klyuchevskoy volcano retains ≤0.45 wt.% primary magmatic H2O, with δD values from -99 to -121 ‰. Four other 0.05-7.6 ka basaltic tephra units from Kamchatka with 65 wt.% have higher (1.5 -3.4) wt.% H2O and δD values between -115 - -160 ‰. We interpret the lower δD values and higher water contents (opposite of the magmatic degassing trend) to be a characteristic of secondary hydration in regions of higher latitude such as Kamchatka and Oregon. We are also investigating 7.7 ka Mt. Mazama tephra in Oregon that are known to be fully hydrated and cover nearly 5000 km2 northeast of Crater Lake and range in elevation from ~1.3-1.9 km to understand the δD and δ18O details of the hydrated water's correspondence with local Holocene meteoric waters. In the future, we plan to use a combination of δD in mid-high latitude precipitation to delineate δD-H2O hydration trends to better understand the distinction between primary magmatic and secondary meteoric water in volcanic

  2. Characteristics of SF{sub 6} gas hydrate formation mechanisms (kinetics) and surfactants effects on hydrate formation rate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, B.; Lee, H.; Kim, Y.D. [Pusan National Univ., Busan (Korea, Republic of). School of Materials Science and Engineering; Kim, Y.S.; Lee, J.D. [Korea Inst. of Industrial Technology, Busan (Korea, Republic of). Advanced Energy Resource Development Team


    Sulfur hexafluoride (SF{sub 6}) is used as an insulating gas in a variety of industrial applications, and is a potent greenhouse gas (GHG). Gas hydrates are stable crystalline compounds formed by water and natural gas molecules that have relatively large cavities that can be occupied by guest molecules. SF{sub 6} gas is able to form hydrates at relatively mild conditions. This study investigated the hydrate formation mechanisms of SF{sub 6} gas, and presented a potential hydration treatment for the gas. The effects of surface active agents on SF{sub 6} gas hydrate formation were examined experimentally using Tween 20, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and linear alkyl benzene sulfonate (LABS). The surfactants showed promoter behaviour for SF{sub 6} gas hydrate formation. Formation rates occurred in 2 stages, with rates rapidly increasing during the second phase. The inflection point occurred approximately 30 minutes after the hydrate nucleation point. Results indicated the existence of a critical concentration of surfactants. It was concluded that SF{sub 6} gas hydrate formation rates were increased by the addition of surfactants. Further studies are needed to investigate 2-stage hydrate formation rates. 18 refs., 4 figs.

  3. Increasing Gas Hydrate Formation Temperature for Desalination of High Salinity Produced Water with Secondary Guests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cha, Jong-Ho; Seol, Yongkoo


    We suggest a new gas hydrate-based desalination process using water-immiscible hydrate formers; cyclopentane (CP) and cyclohexane (CH) as secondary hydrate guests to alleviate temperature requirements for hydrate formation. The hydrate formation reactions were carried out in an isobaric condition of 3.1 MPa to find the upper temperature limit of CO2 hydrate formation. Simulated produced water (8.95 wt % salinity) mixed with the hydrate formers shows an increased upper temperature limit from -2 °C for simple CO2 hydrate to 16 and 7 °C for double (CO2 + CP) and (CO2 + CH) hydrates, respectively. The resulting conversion rate to double hydrate turned out to be similar to that with simple CO2 hydrate at the upper temperature limit. Hydrate formation rates (Rf) for the double hydrates with CP and CH are shown to be 22 and 16 times higher, respectively, than that of the simple CO2 hydrate at the upper temperature limit. Such mild hydrate formation temperature and fast formation kinetics indicate increased energy efficiency of the double hydrate system for the desalination process. Dissociated water from the hydrates shows greater than 90% salt removal efficiency for the hydrates with the secondary guests, which is also improved from about 70% salt removal efficiency for the simple hydrates.

  4. CMOS current controlled fully balanced current conveyor (United States)

    Chunhua, Wang; Qiujing, Zhang; Haiguang, Liu


    This paper presents a current controlled fully balanced second-generation current conveyor circuit (CF-BCCII). The proposed circuit has the traits of fully balanced architecture, and its X-Y terminals are current controllable. Based on the CFBCCII, two biquadratic universal filters are also proposed as its applications. The CFBCCII circuits and the two filters were fabricated with chartered 0.35-μm CMOS technology; with ±1.65 V power supply voltage, the total power consumption of the CFBCCII circuit is 3.6 mW. Comparisons between measured and HSpice simulation results are also given.

  5. Investigating the Metastability of Clathrate Hydrates for Energy Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koh, Carolyn Ann [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States)


    Important breakthrough discoveries have been achieved from the DOE award on the key processes controlling the synthesis and structure-property relations of clathrate hydrates, which are critical to the development of clathrate hydrates as energy storage materials. Key achievements include: (i) the discovery of key clathrate hydrate building blocks (stable and metastable) leading to clathrate hydrate nucleation and growth; (ii) development of a rapid clathrate hydrate synthesis route via a seeding mechanism; (iii) synthesis-structure relations of H2 + CH4/CO2 binary hydrates to control thermodynamic requirements for energy storage and sequestration applications; (iv) discovery of a new metastable phase present during clathrate hydrate structural transitions. The success of our research to-date is demonstrated by the significant papers we have published in high impact journals, including Science, Angewandte Chemie, J. Am. Chem. Soc. Intellectual Merits of Project Accomplishments: The intellectual merits of the project accomplishments are significant and transformative, in which the fundamental coupled computational and experimental program has provided new and critical understanding on the key processes controlling the nucleation, growth, and thermodynamics of clathrate hydrates containing hydrogen, methane, carbon dioxide, and other guest molecules for energy storage. Key examples of the intellectual merits of the accomplishments include: the first discovery of the nucleation pathways and dominant stable and metastable structures leading to clathrate hydrate formation; the discovery and experimental confirmation of new metastable clathrate hydrate structures; the development of new synthesis methods for controlling clathrate hydrate formation and enclathration of molecular hydrogen. Broader Impacts of Project Accomplishments: The molecular investigations performed in this project on the synthesis (nucleation & growth)-structure-stability relations of clathrate

  6. Antifreeze proteins: Adsorption to ice, silica and gas hydrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeng, Huang; Brown, Alan; Wathen, Brent; Ripmeester, John A.; Walker, VIrginia K.


    Certain organisms survive under freezing conditions that could otherwise prove fatal by the synthesis of antifreeze proteins (AFPs). AFPs adsorb to the surface of microscopic ice crystals and prevent further ice growth, resulting in a noncolligative freezing point depression. Type I AFP from the winter flounder (wfAFP) is an alfa-helical, alanine-rich serum protein that helps protect against innoculative freezing from ice-laden seas. The AFP of a moth from the boreal forest, Choristoneura fumiferana (Cf), is a beta-helical threonine-rich protein that helps prevent freezing at the overwintering, caterpillar stage. In contrast, the beta-roll AFP from the grass, Lolium perenne (Lp), confers little freezing point depression and the plants readily freeze. Remarkably, AFPs also adsorb to tetrahyrofuran (THF) hydrate, changing the hydrate's octahedral morphology and, as well, inhibiting the growth of THF and gas hydrates. The hyperactive CfAFP, with 30-100 times the activity of wfAFP toward ice, showed far greater nucleation inhibition for THF hydrate than did a commercial hydrate inhibitor, poly(N-vinylpyrrolidone) (PVP). Active AFPs were also judged to be superior to PVP in that they inhibited the memory effect, a phenomenon whereby hydrate reforms at a faster rate soon after melting. An inactive mutant wfAFP, with an amino acid substitution at the ice-binding site, also reduced the growth of THF hydrate but was ineffective at suppressing hydrate reformation. These results suggest that the molecular properties important for ice adsorption and inhibition of hydrate reformation may be similar, and are distinct from those required for hydrate growth inhibition. The different AFPs also show markedly different aggregations on a third hydrophilic substrate, silica. Together these studies suggest that AFP adsorption to ice, hydrates and silica depends on the overall structure, specific residues and protein-protein interactions. (Author)

  7. Equipment for fully automatic radiographic pipe inspection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basler, G.; Sperl, H.; Weinschenk, K.


    The patent describes a device for fully automatic radiographic testing of large pipes with longitudinal welds. Furthermore the invention enables automatic marking of films in radiographic inspection with regard to a ticketing of the test piece and of that part of it where testing took place. (RW) [de

  8. Surfactant process for promoting gas hydrate formation and application of the same (United States)

    Rogers, Rudy E.; Zhong, Yu


    This invention relates to a method of storing gas using gas hydrates comprising forming gas hydrates in the presence of a water-surfactant solution that comprises water and surfactant. The addition of minor amounts of surfactant increases the gas hydrate formation rate, increases packing density of the solid hydrate mass and simplifies the formation-storage-decomposition process of gas hydrates. The minor amounts of surfactant also enhance the potential of gas hydrates for industrial storage applications.

  9. Excess pore pressure and slope failures resulting from gas-hydrates dissociation and dissolution


    Sultan, Nabil


    Parameters affecting gas hydrate formation include temperature, pore pressure, gas chemistry, and pore-water salinity. Any change in the equilibrium of these parameters may result in dissociation (gas-hydrate turns into free gas/water mixture) and/or dissolution (gas-hydrate becomes mixture of water and dissolved gas) of the gas hydrate. While, gas-hydrate dissociation at the base of the Gas Hydrate Occurrence Zone (GHOZ) is often considered as a major cause of sediment deformation and submar...

  10. Calcium bromide hydration for heat storage systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ai Niwa


    Full Text Available A chemical reaction is a common and simple way to produce heat for a heat storage system. The reaction produces heat energy without the use of electricity or fuel. The goal of this study was to develop a heat storage system for use in automobiles, which is able to provide heat rapidly via a hydration reaction. A heat storage system without an evaporator stores high-density heat and has a high heat output rate since the solid–liquid product that is formed is transferred as a heat medium to the object that requires heat. The exothermic heat produced from the solid–liquid reaction was measured, and the relationship between the equivalence ratio and the reaction heat was evaluated. The heat output and heat recovered by the heat storage system, which comprised a reaction vessel and a heat exchanger, were measured. We selected solid CaBr2 because it was the best metal halide for a hydration reaction and had a high heat yield from the dissolution reaction. With this system, we were able to achieve a heat recovery rate of 582 kJ/L-H2O. We found no degradation in the chemical composition of CaBr2 after it being recycled 100 times.

  11. [NMF and cosmetology of cutaneous hydration]. (United States)

    Marty, J-P


    In the stratum corneum, the water binds to the intracellular hygroscopic and hydrosoluble substances called "natural moisturizing factors" or NMF. These "natural moisturizing factors" contained in the corneocytes are formed during epidermal differentiation and may represent up to 10 p. cent of the corneocyte mass. They are principally amino acids, carboxylic pyrrolidone acid, lactic acid, urea, glucose and mineral ions. Keratinization plays an important part in the formation of NMF that exhibit strong osmotic potential attracting the water molecules. The binding of water to NMF is the static aspect of cutaneous hydration. The second, dynamic, aspect is related to the selective permeability of the stratum corneum and to its lipid barrier properties, the permeability of which depends on the integrity and nature of the inter-corneocyte lipids and their lamellar organization between the cells. In these conditions, hydration cosmetics rely on two concepts that can be isolated or associated: the supply of hydrophilic substances to the stratum corneum, capable of attracting and retaining water (moisturizer) or capable of restoring the barrier in order to restore normal water loss or of protecting it against aggression (occlusive).

  12. Severe Oligohydramnios at Mid trimester: Maternal hydration- A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mainstay of management was combined intravenous/oral maternal hydration, bed rest, modification of antihypertensive regimen and close fetal surveillance. The amniotic fluid index returned to normal range and fetal growth has remained satisfactory. The emphasis of the case presentation is the role of maternal hydration ...

  13. Hydration kinetics and textural properties of pigeon peas (Cajanus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Soaking at high temperatures increased the hydration rate constant and decreased the soaking time to achieve equilibrium moisture content (EMC)).The activation energy value (Ea) of the hydration process was 12.95kcal/mole. Texturalstudies revealed that the hardness of the grain was a function of the soaking time, ...

  14. Unexpected Hydration of a Triple Bond During DNA Synthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fatthalla, Maha I.; Pedersen, Erik B.


    acidic conditions, polarizes the triple bond in the intercalator and this makes hydration of the triple bond possible during the DNA synthesis and an oligonucleotide with 1-(indol-3-yl)-2-(pyren-1-yl)ethanone as the intercalator is formed. Insertion of the unhydrated and hydrated linker systems gave...

  15. Effect of isotopy and temperature on hydration of alkanols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korolev, V.P.; Batov, D.V.; Krestov, G.A.


    The authors determine isotope and temperature effects on the hydration of alkanols at a temperature of 278.15 K in solutions of water and heavy water. Aspects of isotopic exchange between hydrogen and deuterium are given as are enthalpies of hydration, evaporation, and dissolution for the alkanols. The possibility of weak hydrogen bond formation was examined.

  16. Ice method for production of hydrogen clathrate hydrates (United States)

    Lokshin, Konstantin [Santa Fe, NM; Zhao, Yusheng [Los Alamos, NM


    The present invention includes a method for hydrogen clathrate hydrate synthesis. First, ice and hydrogen gas are supplied to a containment volume at a first temperature and a first pressure. Next, the containment volume is pressurized with hydrogen gas to a second higher pressure, where hydrogen clathrate hydrates are formed in the process.

  17. Putting the Deep Biosphere and Gas Hydrates on the Map (United States)

    Sikorski, Janelle J.; Briggs, Brandon R.


    Microbial processes in the deep biosphere affect marine sediments, such as the formation of gas hydrate deposits. Gas hydrate deposits offer a large source of natural gas with the potential to augment energy reserves and affect climate and seafloor stability. Despite the significant interdependence between life and geology in the ocean, coverage…

  18. The effect of stereochemistry on carbohydrate hydration in aqueous solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Galema, Saskia Alexandra


    Although-carbohydrates are widely used, not much is known about the stereochemical aspects of hydration of carbohydrates. For D-aldohexoses, for example, there are eight different stereoisomers. Just how the hydroxy topology of a carbohydrate molecule influences the hydration behaviour in water is

  19. Gas hydrate inhibition by perturbation of liquid water structure. (United States)

    Sa, Jeong-Hoon; Kwak, Gye-Hoon; Han, Kunwoo; Ahn, Docheon; Lee, Kun-Hong


    Natural gas hydrates are icy crystalline materials that contain hydrocarbons, which are the primary energy source for this civilization. The abundance of naturally occurring gas hydrates leads to a growing interest in exploitation. Despite their potential as energy resources and in industrial applications, there is insufficient understanding of hydrate kinetics, which hinders the utilization of these invaluable resources. Perturbation of liquid water structure by solutes has been proposed to be a key process in hydrate inhibition, but this hypothesis remains unproven. Here, we report the direct observation of the perturbation of the liquid water structure induced by amino acids using polarized Raman spectroscopy, and its influence on gas hydrate nucleation and growth kinetics. Amino acids with hydrophilic and/or electrically charged side chains disrupted the water structure and thus provided effective hydrate inhibition. The strong correlation between the extent of perturbation by amino acids and their inhibition performance constitutes convincing evidence for the perturbation inhibition mechanism. The present findings bring the practical applications of gas hydrates significantly closer, and provide a new perspective on the freezing and melting phenomena of naturally occurring gas hydrates.

  20. Evaluation of Nutritional Status and Hydration in Patients on Chronic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Nutrition and hydration of the dialysis patients have major influences on the outcomes of chronic hemodialysis. Purpose: To characterize the states of nutrition and hydration in patients on chronic hemodialysis at Jos University Teaching Hospital (JUTH) and to evaluate the usefulness of measurements by ...

  1. Spectroscopic determination of optimal hydration time of zircon surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ordonez R, E. [ININ, Departamento de Quimica, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Garcia R, G. [Instituto Tecnologico de Toluca, Division de Estudios del Posgrado, Av. Tecnologico s/n, Ex-Rancho La Virgen, 52140 Metepec, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Garcia G, N., E-mail: eduardo.ordonez@inin.gob.m [Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Mexico, Facultad de Quimica, Av. Colon y Av. Tollocan, 50180 Toluca, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)


    When a mineral surface is immersed in an aqueous solution, it develops and electric charge produced by the amphoteric dissociation of hydroxyl groups created by the hydration of the solid surface. This is one influential surface property. The complete hydration process takes a time which is specific for each mineral species. The knowledge of the aqueous solution contact time for complete surface hydration is mandatory for further surface phenomena studies. This study deals with the optimal hydration time of the raw zircon (ZrSiO{sub 4}) surface comparing the classical potentiometric titrations with a fluorescence spectroscopy technique. The latter is easy and rea liable as it demands only one sample batch to determine the optimal time to ensure a total hydration of the zircon surface. The analytical results of neutron activation analysis showed the presence of trace quantities of Dy{sup 3+}, Eu{sup 3+} and Er{sup 3} in the bulk of zircon. The Dy{sup 3+} is structured in the zircon crystalline lattice and undergoes the same chemical reactions as zircon. Furthermore, the Dy{sup 3+} has a good fluorescent response whose intensity is enhanced by hydration molecules. The results show that, according to the potentiometric analysis, the hydration process for each batch (at least 8 sample batches) takes around 2 h, while the spectrometric method indicates only 5 minutes from only one batch. Both methods showed that the zircon surface have a 16 h optimal hydration time. (Author)

  2. Spectroscopic determination of optimal hydration time of zircon surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ordonez R, E.; Garcia R, G.; Garcia G, N.


    When a mineral surface is immersed in an aqueous solution, it develops and electric charge produced by the amphoteric dissociation of hydroxyl groups created by the hydration of the solid surface. This is one influential surface property. The complete hydration process takes a time which is specific for each mineral species. The knowledge of the aqueous solution contact time for complete surface hydration is mandatory for further surface phenomena studies. This study deals with the optimal hydration time of the raw zircon (ZrSiO 4 ) surface comparing the classical potentiometric titrations with a fluorescence spectroscopy technique. The latter is easy and rea liable as it demands only one sample batch to determine the optimal time to ensure a total hydration of the zircon surface. The analytical results of neutron activation analysis showed the presence of trace quantities of Dy 3+ , Eu 3+ and Er 3 in the bulk of zircon. The Dy 3+ is structured in the zircon crystalline lattice and undergoes the same chemical reactions as zircon. Furthermore, the Dy 3+ has a good fluorescent response whose intensity is enhanced by hydration molecules. The results show that, according to the potentiometric analysis, the hydration process for each batch (at least 8 sample batches) takes around 2 h, while the spectrometric method indicates only 5 minutes from only one batch. Both methods showed that the zircon surface have a 16 h optimal hydration time. (Author)

  3. and Di-hydration on the Intramolecular Proton Transfers and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    of the isomers did not change the stability trend, so that the tri-keto isomer was the most stable isomer among the hydrated and non-hydrated isomers. The activation energies (Ea) of the intramolecular proton transfers. (tautomerisms) and energy barriers of H-rotations around its C-O axis in enolic isomers were calculated.

  4. Hydration behaviour of synthetic saponite at variable relative humidity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Hydration behaviour of synthetic saponite was examined by X-ray powder diffraction simulation at various relative humidities (RH). The basal spacing of the Ca-saponite increased stepwise with increase in RH. The (00) reflections observed reflect single or dual hydration states of smectite. Quasi-rational, intermediate, or ...

  5. Entrapment of Hydrate-coated Gas Bubbles into Oil and Separation of Gas and Hydrate-film; Seafloor Experiments with ROV (United States)

    Hiruta, A.; Matsumoto, R.


    We trapped gas bubbles emitted from the seafloor into oil-containing collector and observed an unique phenomena. Gas hydrate formation needs water for the crystal lattice; however, gas hydrates in some areas are associated with hydrophobic crude oil or asphalt. In order to understand gas hydrate growth in oil-bearing sediments, an experiment with cooking oil was made at gas hydrate stability condition. We collected venting gas bubbles into a collector with canola oil during ROV survey at a gas hydrate area in the eastern margin of the Sea of Japan. When the gas bubbles were trapped into collector with oil, gas phase appeared above the oil and gas hydrates, between oil and gas phase. At this study area within gas hydrate stability condition, control experiment with oil-free collector suggested that gas bubbles emitted from the seafloor were quickly covered with gas hydrate film. Therefore it is improbable that gas bubbles entered into the oil phase before hydrate skin formation. After the gas phase formation in oil-containing collector, the ROV floated outside of hydrate stability condition for gas hydrate dissociation and re-dived to the venting site. During the re-dive within hydrate stability condition, gas hydrate was not formed. The result suggests that moisture in the oil is not enough for hydrate formation. Therefore gas hydrates that appeared at the oil/gas phase boundary were already formed before bubbles enter into the oil. Hydrate film is the only possible origin. This observation suggests that hydrate film coating gas hydrate was broken at the sea water/oil boundary or inside oil. Further experiments may contribute for revealing kinetics of hydrate film and formation. This work was a part of METI (Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry)'s project entitled "FY2014 Promoting research and development of methane hydrate". We also appreciate support of AIST (National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology).

  6. NMR Studies of Protein Hydration and Protein-Ligand Interactions (United States)

    Chong, Yuan

    Water on the surface of a protein is called hydration water. Hydration water is known to play a crucial role in a variety of biological processes including protein folding, enzymatic activation, and drug binding. Although the significance of hydration water has been recognized, the underlying mechanism remains far from being understood. This dissertation employs a unique in-situ nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) technique to study the mechanism of protein hydration and the role of hydration in alcohol-protein interactions. Water isotherms in proteins are measured at different temperatures via the in-situ NMR technique. Water is found to interact differently with hydrophilic and hydrophobic groups on the protein. Water adsorption on hydrophilic groups is hardly affected by the temperature, while water adsorption on hydrophobic groups strongly depends on the temperature around 10 C, below which the adsorption is substantially reduced. This effect is induced by the dramatic decrease in the protein flexibility below 10 C. Furthermore, nanosecond to microsecond protein dynamics and the free energy, enthalpy, and entropy of protein hydration are studied as a function of hydration level and temperature. A crossover at 10 C in protein dynamics and thermodynamics is revealed. The effect of water at hydrophilic groups on protein dynamics and thermodynamics shows little temperature dependence, whereas water at hydrophobic groups has stronger effect above 10 C. In addition, I investigate the role of water in alcohol binding to the protein using the in-situ NMR detection. The isotherms of alcohols are first measured on dry proteins, then on proteins with a series of controlled hydration levels. The free energy, enthalpy, and entropy of alcohol binding are also determined. Two distinct types of alcohol binding are identified. On the one hand, alcohols can directly bind to a few specific sites on the protein. This type of binding is independent of temperature and can be

  7. Exploitation of marine gas hydrates: Benefits and risks (Invited) (United States)

    Wallmann, K. J.


    Vast amounts of natural gas are stored in marine gas hydrates deposited at continental margins. The global inventory of carbon bound as methane in gas hydrates is currently estimated as 1000 × 500 Gt. Large-scale national research projects located mostly in South-East Asia but also in North America and Europe are aiming to exploit these ice-like solids as new unconventional resource of natural gas. Japan, South Korea and other Asian countries are taking the lead because their national waters harbor exploitable gas hydrate deposits which could be developed to reduce the dependency of these nations on costly LGN imports. In 2013, the first successful production test was performed off Japan at water depths of ca. 1000 m demonstrating that natural gas can be released and produced from marine hydrates by lowering the pressure in the sub-seabed hydrate reservoirs. In an alternative approach, CO2 from coal power plans and other industrial sources is used to release natural gas (methane) from hydrates while CO2 is bound and stored in the sub-surface as solid hydrate. These new approaches and technologies are still in an early pre-commercial phase; the costs of field development and gas production exceed the value of natural gas being produced from the slowly dissociating hydrates. However, new technologies are currently under development in the German SUGAR project and elsewhere to reduce costs and enhance gas production rates such that gas hydrates may become commercially exploitable over the coming decade(s). The exploitation of marine gas hydrates may help to reduce CO2 emissions from the fossil fuel sector if the produced natural gas is used to replace coal and/or LNG. Hydrate development could also provide important incentives for carbon capture technologies since CO2 can be used to produce natural gas from hydrates. However, leakage of gas may occur during the production process while slope failure may be induced by the accompanying dissociation/conversion of gas

  8. 76 FR 36176 - Fully Developed Claim (Fully Developed Claims-Applications for Compensation, Pension, DIC, Death... (United States)


    ... DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS [OMB Control No. 2900-0747] Fully Developed Claim (Fully Developed Claims--Applications for Compensation, Pension, DIC, Death Pension, and/or Accrued Benefits); Correction AGENCY: Veterans Benefits Administration, Department of Veterans Affairs. ACTION: Notice; correction...

  9. Seismic-Scale Rock Physics of Methane Hydrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amos Nur


    We quantify natural methane hydrate reservoirs by generating synthetic seismic traces and comparing them to real seismic data: if the synthetic matches the observed data, then the reservoir properties and conditions used in synthetic modeling might be the same as the actual, in-situ reservoir conditions. This approach is model-based: it uses rock physics equations that link the porosity and mineralogy of the host sediment, pressure, and hydrate saturation, and the resulting elastic-wave velocity and density. One result of such seismic forward modeling is a catalogue of seismic reflections of methane hydrate which can serve as a field guide to hydrate identification from real seismic data. We verify this approach using field data from known hydrate deposits.

  10. Hydration of Portoguese cements, measurement and modelling of chemical shrinkage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maia, Lino; Geiker, Mette Rica; Figueiras, Joaquim A.


    form of the dispersion model. The development of hydration varied between the investigated cements; based on the measured data the degree of hydration after 24 h hydration at 20 C varied between 40 and 50%. This should be taken into account when comparing properties of concrete made from the different......Development of cement hydration was studied by measuring the chemical shrinkage of pastes. Five types of Portuguese Portland cement were used in cement pastes with . Chemical shrinkage was measured by gravimetry and dilatometry. In gravimeters results were recorded automatically during at least...... seven days, dilatometers were manually recorded during at least 56 days. The dispersion model was applied to fit chemical shrinkage results and to estimate the maximum (or ultimate) value for calculation of degree of hydration. Except for a pure Portland cement best fits were obtained by the general...

  11. Fundamental challenges to methane recovery from gas hydrates (United States)

    Servio, P.; Eaton, M.W.; Mahajan, D.; Winters, W.J.


    The fundamental challenges, the location, magnitude, and feasibility of recovery, which must be addressed to recover methane from dispersed hydrate sources, are presented. To induce dissociation of gas hydrate prior to methane recovery, two potential methods are typically considered. Because thermal stimulation requires a large energy input, it is less economically feasible than depressurization. The new data will allow the study of the effect of pressure, temperature, diffusion, porosity, tortuosity, composition of gas and water, and porous media on gas-hydrate production. These data also will allow one to improve existing models related to the stability and dissociation of sea floor hydrates. The reproducible kinetic data from the planned runs together with sediment properties will aid in developing a process to economically recover methane from a potential untapped hydrate source. The availability of plentiful methane will allow economical and large-scale production of methane-derived clean fuels to help avert future energy crises.

  12. Inhibition of Methane Hydrate Formation by Ice-Structuring Proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lars; Ramløv, Hans; Thomsen, Kaj


    , assumed biodegradable, are capable of inhibiting the growth of methane hydrate (a structure I hydrate). The ISPs investigated were type III HPLC12 (originally identified in ocean pout) and ISP type III found in meal worm (Tenebrio molitor). These were compared to polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) a well......-known kinetic hydrate inhibitor. The results revealed that adding ISP in sufficient amounts caused the appearance of an initial nonlinear growth period. At a certain point during the growth process the growth pattern changed to linear which is identical to the growth observed for methane hydrate in the absence...... of inhibitors. The profile of the nonlinear growth was concentration-dependent but also dependent on the stirring rate. ISP type III HPLC12 decreased the growth rate of methane hydrate during the linear growth period by 17−75% at concentrations of 0.01−0.1 wt % (0.014−0.14 mM) while ISP from Tenebrio molitor...

  13. Hydration of Portland cement with additions of calcium sulfoaluminates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Saoût, Gwenn; Lothenbach, Barbara; Hori, Akihiro; Higuchi, Takayuki; Winnefeld, Frank


    The effect of mineral additions based on calcium aluminates on the hydration mechanism of ordinary Portland cement (OPC) was investigated using isothermal calorimetry, thermal analysis, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, solid state nuclear magnetic resonance and pore solution analysis. Results show that the addition of a calcium sulfoaluminate cement (CSA) to the OPC does not affect the hydration mechanism of alite but controls the aluminate dissolution. In the second blend investigated, a rapid setting cement, the amorphous calcium aluminate reacts very fast to ettringite. The release of aluminum ions strongly retards the hydration of alite but the C–S–H has a similar composition as in OPC with no additional Al to Si substitution. As in CSA–OPC, the aluminate hydration is controlled by the availability of sulfates. The coupling of thermodynamic modeling with the kinetic equations predicts the amount of hydrates and pore solution compositions as a function of time and validates the model in these systems.

  14. Theoretical description of biomolecular hydration - Application to A-DNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, A.E.; Hummer, G.; Soumpasis, D.M.


    The local density of water molecules around a biomolecule is constructed from calculated two- and three-points correlation functions of polar solvents in water using a Potential-of-Mean-Force (PMF) expansion. As a simple approximation, the hydration of all polar (including charged) groups in a biomolecule is represented by the hydration of water oxygen in bulk water, and the effect of non-polar groups on hydration are neglected, except for excluded volume effects. Pair and triplet correlation functions are calculated by molecular dynamics simulations. We present calculations of the structural hydration for ideal A-DNA molecules with sequences [d(CG) 5 ] 2 and [d(C 5 G 5 )] 2 . We find that this method can accurately reproduce the hydration patterns of A-DNA observed in neutron diffraction experiments on oriented DNA fibers

  15. Reflective terahertz (THz) imaging: system calibration using hydration phantoms (United States)

    Bajwa, Neha; Garritano, James; Lee, Yoon Kyung; Tewari, Priyamvada; Sung, Shijun; Maccabi, Ashkan; Nowroozi, Bryan; Babakhanian, Meghedi; Sanghvi, Sajan; Singh, Rahul; Grundfest, Warren; Taylor, Zachary


    Terahertz (THz) hydration sensing continues to gain traction in the medical imaging community due to its unparalleled sensitivity to tissue water content. Rapid and accurate detection of fluid shifts following induction of thermal skin burns as well as remote corneal hydration sensing have been previously demonstrated in vivo using reflective, pulsed THz imaging. The hydration contrast sensing capabilities of this technology were recently confirmed in a parallel 7 Tesla Magnetic Resonance (MR) imaging study, in which burn areas are associated with increases in local mobile water content. Successful clinical translation of THz sensing, however, still requires quantitative assessments of system performance measurements, specifically hydration concentration sensitivity, with tissue substitutes. This research aims to calibrate the sensitivity of a novel, reflective THz system to tissue water content through the use of hydration phantoms for quantitative comparisons of THz hydration imagery.Gelatin phantoms were identified as an appropriate tissue-mimicking model for reflective THz applications, and gel composition, comprising mixtures of water and protein, was varied between 83% to 95% hydration, a physiologically relevant range. A comparison of four series of gelatin phantom studies demonstrated a positive linear relationship between THz reflectivity and water concentration, with statistically significant hydration sensitivities (p hydration). The THz-phantom interaction is simulated with a three-layer model using the Transfer Matrix Method with agreement in hydration trends. Having demonstrated the ability to accurately and noninvasively measure water content in tissue equivalent targets with high sensitivity, reflective THz imaging is explored as a potential tool for early detection and intervention of corneal pathologies.

  16. Geologic implications of gas hydrates in the offshore of India: Results of the National Gas Hydrate Program Expedition 01

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Collett, T.S.; Boswell, R.; Cochran, J.R.; Kumar, P.; Lall, M.; Mazumdar, A.; Ramana, M.V.; Ramprasad, T.; Riedel, M.; Sain, K.; Sathe, A.V.; Vishwanath, K.; NGHP Expedition 01 Scientific Party

    on understanding the geologic and geochemical controls on the occurrence of gas hydrate in these two diverse settings. The NGHP-01 expedition established the presence of gas hydrates in the Krishna–Godavari and Mahanadi Basins, and the Andaman Sea. The expedition...

  17. Ultrasonic sound speed of hydrating calcium sulphate hemihydrate; part 2, the correlation of sound velocity to hydration degree

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Korte, A.C.J.; Brouwers, Jos; Fischer, H.B; Matthes, C.; Beuthan, C.


    In this article the sound velocity through a mix is correlated to the hydration degree of the mix. Models are presented predicting the sound velocity through fresh slurries and hardened products. These two states correspond to the starting and finishing point of the hydration process. The present

  18. A new aluminium-hydrate species in hydrated Portland cements characterized by 27Al and 29Si MAS NMR spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersen, Morten Daugaard; Jakobsen, Hans J.; Skibsted, Jorgen


    Recent 27 Al MAS NMR studies of hydrated Portland cements and calcium-silicate-hydrate (C-S-H) phases have shown a resonance from Al in octahedral coordination, which cannot be assigned to the well-known aluminate species in hydrated Portland cements. This resonance, which exhibits the isotropic chemical shift δ iso = 5.0 ppm and the quadrupole product parameter P Q = 1.2 MHz, has been characterized in detail by 27 Al MAS and 27 Al{ 1 H} CP/MAS NMR for different hydrated white Portland cements and C-S-H phases. These experiments demonstrate that the resonance originates from an amorphous or disordered aluminate hydrate which contains Al(OH) 6 3- or O x Al(OH) 6-x (3+x)- units. The formation of the new aluminate hydrate is related to the formation of C-S-H at ambient temperatures, however, it decomposes by thermal treatment at temperatures of 70-90 o C. From the experiments in this work it is proposed that the new aluminate hydrate is either an amorphous/disordered aluminate hydroxide or a calcium aluminate hydrate, produced as a separate phase or as a nanostructured surface precipitate on the C-S-H phase. Finally, the possibilities of Al 3+ for Ca 2+ substitution in the principal layers and interlayers of the C-S-H structure are discussed

  19. Development of fully automatic pipe welding system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanioka, Shin-ichi; Nakano, Mitsuhiro; Tejima, Akio; Yamada, Minoru; Saito, Tatsuo; Saito, Yoshiyuki; Abe, Rikio


    We have succeeded in developing a fully automatic TIG welding system; namely CAPTIG that enables unmanned welding operations from the initial layer to the final finishing layer continuously. This welding system is designed for continuous, multilayered welding of thick and large diameter fixed pipes of nuclear power plants and large-size boiler plants where high-quality welding is demanded. In the tests conducted with this welding system, several hours of continuous unmanned welding corroborated that excellent beads are formed, good results are obtained in radiographic inspection and that quality welding is possible most reliably. This system incorporates a microcomputer for fully automatic controls by which it features a seam tracking function, wire feed position automatic control function, a self-checking function for inter-pass temperature, cooling water temperature and wire reserve. (author)

  20. A fully reconfigurable photonic integrated signal processor (United States)

    Liu, Weilin; Li, Ming; Guzzon, Robert S.; Norberg, Erik J.; Parker, John S.; Lu, Mingzhi; Coldren, Larry A.; Yao, Jianping


    Photonic signal processing has been considered a solution to overcome the inherent electronic speed limitations. Over the past few years, an impressive range of photonic integrated signal processors have been proposed, but they usually offer limited reconfigurability, a feature highly needed for the implementation of large-scale general-purpose photonic signal processors. Here, we report and experimentally demonstrate a fully reconfigurable photonic integrated signal processor based on an InP-InGaAsP material system. The proposed photonic signal processor is capable of performing reconfigurable signal processing functions including temporal integration, temporal differentiation and Hilbert transformation. The reconfigurability is achieved by controlling the injection currents to the active components of the signal processor. Our demonstration suggests great potential for chip-scale fully programmable all-optical signal processing.

  1. Developments towards a fully automated AMS system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steier, P.; Puchegger, S.; Golser, R.; Kutschera, W.; Priller, A.; Rom, W.; Wallner, A.; Wild, E.


    The possibilities of computer-assisted and automated accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) measurements were explored. The goal of these efforts is to develop fully automated procedures for 'routine' measurements at the Vienna Environmental Research Accelerator (VERA), a dedicated 3-MV Pelletron tandem AMS facility. As a new tool for automatic tuning of the ion optics we developed a multi-dimensional optimization algorithm robust to noise, which was applied for 14 C and 10 Be. The actual isotope ratio measurements are performed in a fully automated fashion and do not require the presence of an operator. Incoming data are evaluated online and the results can be accessed via Internet. The system was used for 14 C, 10 Be, 26 Al and 129 I measurements

  2. Fully differential VBF Higgs production at NNLO

    CERN Document Server

    Cacciari, Matteo; Karlberg, Alexander; Salam, Gavin P.; Zanderighi, Giulia


    We calculate the fully differential next-to-next-to-leading-order (NNLO) corrections to vector-boson fusion (VBF) Higgs production at proton colliders, in the limit in which there is no cross-talk between the hadronic systems associated with the two protons. We achieve this using a new "projection-to-Born" method that combines an inclusive NNLO calculation in the structure-function approach and a suitably factorised next-to-leading-order (NLO) VBF Higgs plus 3-jet calculation, using appropriate Higgs plus 2-parton counter events. An earlier calculation of the fully inclusive cross section had found small NNLO corrections, at the 1% level. In contrast, the cross section after typical experimental VBF cuts receives NNLO contributions of about 5-6%, while differential distributions show corrections of up to 10-12% for some standard observables. The corrections are often outside the NLO scale-uncertainty band.

  3. Randomized trial of one-hour sodium bicarbonate vs standard periprocedural saline hydration in chronic kidney disease patients undergoing cardiovascular contrast procedures. (United States)

    Kooiman, Judith; de Vries, Jean-Paul P M; Van der Heyden, Jan; Sijpkens, Yvo W J; van Dijkman, Paul R M; Wever, Jan J; van Overhagen, Hans; Vahl, Antonie C; Aarts, Nico; Verberk-Jonkers, Iris J A M; Brulez, Harald F H; Hamming, Jaap F; van der Molen, Aart J; Cannegieter, Suzanne C; Putter, Hein; van den Hout, Wilbert B; Kilicsoy, Inci; Rabelink, Ton J; Huisman, Menno V


    Guidelines advise periprocedural saline hydration for prevention of contrast induced-acute kidney injury (CI-AKI). We analysed whether 1-hour sodium bicarbonate hydration administered solely prior to intra-arterial contrast exposure is non-inferior to standard periprocedural saline hydration in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients undergoing elective cardiovascular diagnostic or interventional contrast procedures. We performed an open-label multicentre non-inferiority trial between 2011-2014. Patients were randomized to 1 hour pre-procedure sodium bicarbonate hydration (250 ml 1.4%, N = 168) or 4-12 hours saline hydration (1000 ml 0.9%, N = 165) prior to and following contrast administration (2000 ml of saline total). Primary outcome was the relative serum creatinine increase (%) 48-96 hours post contrast exposure. Secondary outcomes were: incidence of CI-AKI (serum creatinine increase>25% or >44μmol/L), recovery of renal function, the need for dialysis, and hospital costs within two months follow-up. Mean relative creatinine increase was 3.1% (95%CI 0.9 to 5.2%) in the bicarbonate and 1.1% (95%CI -1.2 to 3.5%) in the saline arm, mean difference 1.9% (95%CI -1.2 to 5.1%, p-non-inferiority sodium bicarbonate and 12 (7.5%) to saline (p = 0.79). Renal function did not fully recover in 40.0% and 44.4% of CI-AKI patients, respectively (p = 0.84). No patient required dialysis. Mean costs for preventive hydration and clinical preparation for the contrast procedure were $1158 for sodium bicarbonate vs. $1561 for saline (p sodium bicarbonate prior to elective cardiovascular diagnostic or therapeutic contrast procedures is non-inferior to standard periprocedural saline hydration in CKD patients with respect to renal safety and results in considerable healthcare savings. Netherlands Trial Register (, Nr NTR2699.

  4. Investigation of C3S hydration mechanism by transmission electron microscope (TEM) with integrated Super-XTMEDS system. (United States)

    Sakalli, Y; Trettin, R


    Tricalciumsilicate (C 3 S, Alite) is the major component of the Portland cement clinker. Hydration of Alite is decisive in influencing the properties of the resulting material. This is due to its high content in cement. The mechanism of the hydration of C 3 S is very complicated and not yet fully understood. There are different models describing the hydration of C 3 S in various ways. In this work for a better understanding of hydration mechanism, the hydrated C 3 S was investigated by using the transmission electron microscope (TEM) and for the first time, the samples for the investigations were prepared by using of focused ion beam from sintered pellets of C 3 S. Also, an FEI Talos F200x with an integrated Super-X EDS system was used for the investigations. FEI Talos F200X combines outstanding high-resolution S/TEM and TEM imaging with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy signal detection, and 3D chemical characterization with compositional mapping. TEM is a very powerful tool for material science. A high energy beam of electrons passes through a very thin sample, and the interactions between the electrons and the atoms can be used to observe the structure of the material and other features in the structure. TEM can be used to study the growth of layers and their composition. TEM produces high-resolution, two-dimensional images and will be used for a wide range of educational, science and industry applications. Chemical analysis can also be performed. The purpose of these investigations was to get the information about the composition of the C-S-H phases and some details of the nanostructure of the C-S-H phases. © 2017 The Authors Journal of Microscopy © 2017 Royal Microscopical Society.

  5. FMFT: fully massive four-loop tadpoles (United States)

    Pikelner, Andrey


    We present FMFT - a package written in FORM that evaluates four-loop fully massive tadpole Feynman diagrams. It is a successor of the MATAD package that has been successfully used to calculate many renormalization group functions at three-loop order in a wide range of quantum field theories especially in the Standard Model. We describe an internal structure of the package and provide some examples of its usage.

  6. Fully probabilistic design of hierarchical Bayesian models

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Quinn, A.; Kárný, Miroslav; Guy, Tatiana Valentine


    Roč. 369, č. 1 (2016), s. 532-547 ISSN 0020-0255 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-13502S Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : Fully probabilistic design * Ideal distribution * Minimum cross- entropy principle * Bayesian conditioning * Kullback-Leibler divergence * Bayesian nonparametric modelling Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research Impact factor: 4.832, year: 2016

  7. Fully NLO Parton Shower in QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skrzypek, M.; Jadach, S.; Slawinska, M.; Gituliar, O.; Kusina, A.; Placzek, W.


    The project of constructing a complete NLO-level Parton Shower Monte Carlo for the QCD processes developed in IFJ PAN in Krakow is reviewed. Four issues are discussed: (1) the extension of the standard inclusive collinear factorization into a new, fully exclusive scheme; (2) reconstruction of the LO Parton Shower in the new scheme; (3) inclusion of the exclusive NLO corrections into the hard process and (4) inclusion of the exclusive NLO corrections into the evolution (ladder) part. (authors)

  8. Fully Passive Wireless Acquisition of Neuropotentials (United States)

    Schwerdt, Helen N.

    The ability to monitor electrophysiological signals from the sentient brain is requisite to decipher its enormously complex workings and initiate remedial solutions for the vast amount of neurologically-based disorders. Despite immense advancements in creating a variety of instruments to record signals from the brain, the translation of such neurorecording instrumentation to real clinical domains places heavy demands on their safety and reliability, both of which are not entirely portrayed by presently existing implantable recording solutions. In an attempt to lower these barriers, alternative wireless radar backscattering techniques are proposed to render the technical burdens of the implant chip to entirely passive neurorecording processes that transpire in the absence of formal integrated power sources or powering schemes along with any active circuitry. These radar-like wireless backscattering mechanisms are used to conceive of fully passive neurorecording operations of an implantable microsystem. The fully passive device potentially manifests inherent advantages over current wireless implantable and wired recording systems: negligible heat dissipation to reduce risks of brain tissue damage and minimal circuitry for long term reliability as a chronic implant. Fully passive neurorecording operations are realized via intrinsic nonlinear mixing properties of the varactor diode. These mixing and recording operations are directly activated by wirelessly interrogating the fully passive device with a microwave carrier signal. This fundamental carrier signal, acquired by the implant antenna, mixes through the varactor diode along with the internal targeted neuropotential brain signals to produce higher frequency harmonics containing the targeted neuropotential signals. These harmonics are backscattered wirelessly to the external interrogator that retrieves and recovers the original neuropotential brain signal. The passive approach removes the need for internal power

  9. Fully implicit kinetic modelling of collisional plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mousseau, V.A.


    This dissertation describes a numerical technique, Matrix-Free Newton Krylov, for solving a simplified Vlasov-Fokker-Planck equation. This method is both deterministic and fully implicit, and may not have been a viable option before current developments in numerical methods. Results are presented that indicate the efficiency of the Matrix-Free Newton Krylov method for these fully-coupled, nonlinear integro-differential equations. The use and requirement for advanced differencing is also shown. To this end, implementations of Chang-Cooper differencing and flux limited Quadratic Upstream Interpolation for Convective Kinematics (QUICK) are presented. Results are given for a fully kinetic ion-electron problem with a self consistent electric field calculated from the ion and electron distribution functions. This numerical method, including advanced differencing, provides accurate solutions, which quickly converge on workstation class machines. It is demonstrated that efficient steady-state solutions can be achieved to the non-linear integro-differential equation, obtaining quadratic convergence, without incurring the large memory requirements of an integral operator. Model problems are presented which simulate plasma impinging on a plate with both high and low neutral particle recycling typical of a divertor in a Tokamak device. These model problems demonstrate the performance of the new solution method

  10. Evaluation of a rapid hydration protocol: Safety and effectiveness. (United States)

    Meredith, Sean; Hilliard, Jane; Vaillancourt, Regis


    Background The Children's Hospital of Eastern Ontario (CHEO) has implemented a rapid hydration protocol that may reduce the time required to achieve urine specific gravity and pH targets prior to chemotherapy. Objective The aim of this study was to determine if a rapid hydration protocol resulted in a shorter time to chemotherapy administration and during peak staffing levels without increasing adverse effects. Methods A retrospective chart review was conducted using data from electronic and paper medical charts, the hematology/oncology whiteboard, and video recordings. Patients who received cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, cisplatin and ifosfamide during the study period were included in the chart review. A urine specific gravity of ≤1.01, and in most cases a urine pH ≥7 was required to begin chemotherapy. Differences in time parameters between the standard and rapid hydration protocols were measured. Comparable parameters included the time from the start of pre-chemotherapy hydration to meeting urine targets, time from starting hydration to administration of chemotherapy, length of hospital stay and the number of chemotherapy administrations that were initiated prior to the nursing shift change at 19:30 h. Results Data were collected from 116 pre-chemotherapy intravenous hydration events administered to 25 different patients. There was a shorter time required to reach urine specific gravity and pH targets with the rapid hydration protocol compared to the standard hydration protocol, which translated into initiating chemotherapy sooner. There was also a shorter overall length of hospital stay and administration of chemotherapy occurred before the nursing shift change more often in the rapid hydration cohort compared to those patients who received the standard hydration protocol. There were no significant differences in adverse effects between the groups. Conclusion Patients receiving rapid hydration had a shorter time to chemotherapy administration and had a

  11. Manufacture of Methane Hydrate using Carbon Nano Tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Sung Seek


    Methane hydrate is formed by physical binding between water molecule and gas such as methane, ethane, propane, or carbon dioxide, etc., which is captured in the cavities of water molecule under the specific temperature and pressure. More than 99% of naturally produced methane hydrate consists of methane, and is widely dispersed in the continental slope and continental Shelf of the Pacific and the Atlantic, the Antarctica etc. The reserve of fossil fuel is 500 billion carbon ton and the reserve of methane is 360 million carbon ton. The reserve of gas hydrate is more than 1 trillion carbon ton, which is twice the fossil fuel. Therefore, natural gas hydrate as a kind of gas hydrate is expected to replace fossil fuel as new energy source of 21st century. Also 1 m 3 hydrate of pure methane can be decomposed to the maximum of 216 m 3 methane at standard condition. If these characteristics of hydrate are reversely utilized, natural gas is fixed into water in the form of hydrate solid. Therefore, the hydrate is considered to be a great way to transport and store natural gas in large quantity. Especially the transportation cost is known to be 18∼25% less than the liquefied transportation. However, when natural gas hydrate is artificially formed, its reaction time may be too long and the gas consumption in water becomes relatively low, because the reaction rate between water and gas is low. Therefore, for the practical purpose in the application, the present investigation focuses on the rapid production of hydrates and increases gas consumption by adding MWCNT and NaCl into pure water. The results show that the equilibrium pressure in seawater is more higher than that in pure water, and methane hydrate could be formed rapidly during pressurization if the subcooling is maintained at 9K or above in seawater and 8K or above in pure water, respectively. Also, amount of consumed gas volume in pure water is more higher that in seawater at the same experimental conditions

  12. Water Intake and Hydration Indices in Healthy European Adults: The European Hydration Research Study (EHRS) (United States)

    Malisova, Olga; Athanasatou, Adelais; Pepa, Alex; Husemann, Marlien; Domnik, Kirsten; Braun, Hans; Mora-Rodriguez, Ricardo; Ortega, Juan F.; Fernandez-Elias, Valentin E.; Kapsokefalou, Maria


    Hydration status is linked with health, wellness, and performance. We evaluated hydration status, water intake, and urine output for seven consecutive days in healthy adults. Volunteers living in Spain, Germany, or Greece (n = 573, 39 ± 12 years (51.1% males), 25.0 ± 4.6 kg/m2 BMI) participated in an eight-day study protocol. Total water intake was estimated from seven-day food and drink diaries. Hydration status was measured in urine samples collected over 24 h for seven days and in blood samples collected in fasting state on the mornings of days 1 and 8. Total daily water intake was 2.75 ± 1.01 L, water from beverages 2.10 ± 0.91 L, water from foods 0.66 ± 0.29 L. Urine parameters were: 24 h volume 1.65 ± 0.70 L, 24 h osmolality 631 ± 221 mOsmol/kg Η2Ο, 24 h specific gravity 1.017 ± 0.005, 24 h excretion of sodium 166.9 ± 54.7 mEq, 24 h excretion of potassium 72.4 ± 24.6 mEq, color chart 4.2 ± 1.4. Predictors for urine osmolality were age, country, gender, and BMI. Blood indices were: haemoglobin concentration 14.7 ± 1.7 g/dL, hematocrit 43% ± 4% and serum osmolality 294 ± 9 mOsmol/kg Η2Ο. Daily water intake was higher in summer (2.8 ± 1.02 L) than in winter (2.6 ± 0.98 L) (p = 0.019). Water intake was associated negatively with urine specific gravity, urine color, and urine sodium and potassium concentrations (p hydration level. PMID:27058557

  13. High-pressure structures of methane hydrate

    CERN Document Server

    Hirai, H; Fujihisa, H; Sakashita, M; Katoh, E; Aoki, K; Yamamoto, Y; Nagashima, K; Yagi, T


    Three high-pressure structures of methane hydrate, a hexagonal structure (str. A) and two orthorhombic structures (str. B and str. C), were found by in situ x-ray diffractometry and Raman spectroscopy. The well-known structure I (str. I) decomposed into str. A and fluid at 0.8 GPa. Str. A transformed into str. B at 1.6 GPa, and str. B further transformed into str. C at 2.1 GPa which survived above 7.8 GPa. The fluid solidified as ice VI at 1.4 GPa, and the ice VI transformed to ice VII at 2.1 GPa. The bulk moduli, K sub 0 , for str. I, str. A, and str. C were calculated to be 7.4, 9.8, and 25.0 GPa, respectively.

  14. Hydration Structure of the Quaternary Ammonium Cations

    KAUST Repository

    Babiaczyk, Wojtek Iwo


    Two indicators of the hydropathicity of small solutes are introduced and tested by molecular dynamics simulations. These indicators are defined as probabilities of the orientation of water molecules\\' dipoles and hydrogen bond vectors, conditional on a generalized distance from the solute suitable for arbitrarily shaped molecules. Using conditional probabilities, it is possible to distinguish features of the distributions in close proximity of the solute. These regions contain the most significant information on the hydration structure but cannot be adequately represented by using, as is usually done, joint distance-angle probability densities. Our calculations show that using our indicators a relative hydropathicity scale for the interesting test set of the quaternary ammonium cations can be roughly determined. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

  15. DNA under Force: Mechanics, Electrostatics, and Hydration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingqiang Li


    Full Text Available Quantifying the basic intra- and inter-molecular forces of DNA has helped us to better understand and further predict the behavior of DNA. Single molecule technique elucidates the mechanics of DNA under applied external forces, sometimes under extreme forces. On the other hand, ensemble studies of DNA molecular force allow us to extend our understanding of DNA molecules under other forces such as electrostatic and hydration forces. Using a variety of techniques, we can have a comprehensive understanding of DNA molecular forces, which is crucial in unraveling the complex DNA functions in living cells as well as in designing a system that utilizes the unique properties of DNA in nanotechnology.

  16. Neutron powder diffraction study of methane hydrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishii, Yoshinobu


    Neutron powder diffraction study of methane hydrate has been conducted in the temperature range of 7 K to 185 K. The diffraction data were analyzed by the Rietveld refinement and the Maximum Entropy Method (MEM). From MEM analysis, we obtained the scattering-length density distributions in a 3-dimensional image. The scattering-length density corresponding to C atom of the methane molecule was appeared and no density of H atoms was found in the small cage over the measured temperature range. On the other hand, in the large cage the scattering-length densities related to both H atom and C atom were observed at low temperature. The scattering-length density of H atom disappeared with increasing temperature, and then the scattering-length density of methane was almost gone at high temperature. These results show the motion of methane molecules differ in the small cage as compared to the large cage

  17. Influence of Physical Activity and Ambient Temperature on Hydration: The European Hydration Research Study (EHRS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Mora-Rodriguez


    Full Text Available This study explored the effects of physical activity (PA and ambient temperature on water turnover and hydration status. Five-hundred seventy three healthy men and women (aged 20–60 years from Spain, Greece and Germany self-reported PA, registered all food and beverage intake, and collected 24-h urine during seven consecutive days. Fasting blood samples were collected at the onset and end of the study. Food moisture was assessed using nutritional software to account for all water intake which was subtracted from daily urine volume to allow calculation of non-renal water loss (i.e., mostly sweating. Hydration status was assessed by urine and blood osmolality. A negative association was seen between ambient temperature and PA (r = −0.277; p < 0.001. Lower PA with high temperatures did not prevent increased non-renal water losses (i.e., sweating and elevated urine and blood osmolality (r = 0.218 to 0.163 all p < 0.001. When summer and winter data were combined PA was negatively associated with urine osmolality (r = −0.153; p = 0.001. Our data suggest that environmental heat acts to reduce voluntary PA but this is not sufficient to prevent moderate dehydration (increased osmolality. On the other hand, increased PA is associated with improved hydration status (i.e., lower urine and blood osmolality.

  18. Precise structural analysis of methane hydrate by neutron diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Igawa, Naoki; Hoshikawa, Akinori; Ishii, Yoshinobu


    Methane hydrate has attracted great interest as an energy resource to replace natural gas since this material is deposited in the seafloor and the deposits are estimated to exceed those of natural gas. Understanding the physical proprieties, such as the temperature dependence of the crystal structure, helps to specify the optimum environmental temperature and pressure during drilling, transport, and storage of methane hydrate. Clathrate hydrates consisted of encaging atomic and/or molecular species as a guest and host water formed by a hydrogen bonding. Although many studies on the clathrate hydrate including methane hydrate were reported, no detailed crystallographic property has yet been cleared. We focused on the motion of methane in the clathrate hydrate by the neutron diffraction. The crystal structure of the methane hydrate was analyzed by the applying the combination of the Rietveld refinement and the maximum entropy method (MEM) to neutron powder diffraction. Temperature dependence of the scattering-length density distribution maps revealed that the motion of methane molecules differs between the shapes of dodecahedron and tetrakaidecahedron. (author)

  19. Influence of Lithium Carbonate on C3A Hydration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiwei Han


    Full Text Available Lithium salts, known to ameliorate the effects of alkali-silica reaction, can make significant effects on cement setting. However, the mechanism of effects on cement hydration, especially the hydration of C3A which is critical for initial setting time of cement, is rarely reported. In this study, the development of pH value of pore solution, conductivity, thermodynamics, and mineralogical composition during hydration of C3A with or without Li2CO3 are investigated. The results demonstrate that Li2CO3 promotes C3A hydration through high alkalinity, due to higher activity of lithium ion than that of calcium ion in the solution and carbonation of C3A hydration products resulted from Li2CO3. Li2CO3 favors the C3A hydration in C3A-CaSO4·2H2O-Ca(OH2-H2O hydration system and affects the mineralogical variation of the ettringite phase(s.

  20. The effect of hydrate promoters on gas uptake. (United States)

    Xu, Chun-Gang; Yu, Yi-Song; Ding, Ya-Long; Cai, Jing; Li, Xiao-Sen


    Gas hydrate technology is considered as a promising technology in the fields of gas storage and transportation, gas separation and purification, seawater desalination, and phase-change thermal energy storage. However, to date, the technology is still not commercially used mainly due to the low gas hydrate formation rate and the low gas uptake. In this study, the effect of hydrate promoters on gas uptake was systematically studied and analyzed based on hydrate-based CH 4 storage and CO 2 capture from CO 2 /H 2 gas mixture experiments. Raman spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and gas chromatography (GC) were employed to analyze the microstructures and gas compositions. The results indicate that the effect of the hydrate promoter on the gas uptake depends on the physical and chemical properties of the promoter and gas. A strong polar ionic promoter is not helpful towards obtaining the ideal gas uptake because a dense hydrate layer is easily formed at the gas-liquid interface, which hinders gas diffusion from the gas phase to the bulk solution. For a weak polar or non-polar promoter, the gas uptake depends on the dissolution characteristics among the different substances in the system. The lower the mutual solubility among the substances co-existing in the system, the higher the independence among the substances in the system; this is so that each phase has an equal chance to occupy the hydrate cages without or with small interactions, finally leading to a relatively high gas uptake.

  1. Influence of limestone on the hydration of Portland cements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lothenbach, Barbara; Le Saout, Gwenn; Gallucci, Emmanuel; Scrivener, Karen


    The influence of the presence of limestone on the hydration of Portland cement was investigated. Blending of Portland cement with limestone was found to influence the hydrate assemblage of the hydrated cement. Thermodynamic calculations as well as experimental observations indicated that in the presence of limestone, monocarbonate instead of monosulfate was stable. Thermodynamic modelling showed that the stabilisation of monocarbonate in the presence of limestone indirectly stabilised ettringite leading to a corresponding increase of the total volume of the hydrate phase and a decrease of porosity. The measured difference in porosity between the 'limestone-free' cement, which contained less than 0.3% CO 2 , and a cement containing 4% limestone, however, was much smaller than calculated. Coupling of thermodynamic modelling with a set of kinetic equations which described the dissolution of the clinker, predicted quantitatively the amount of hydrates. The quantities of ettringite, portlandite and amorphous phase as determined by TGA and XRD agreed well with the calculated amounts of these phases after different periods of time. The findings in this paper show that changes in the bulk composition of hydrating cements can be followed by coupled thermodynamic models. Comparison between experimental and modelled data helps to understand in more detail the dominating processes during cement hydration

  2. Adhesion force between cyclopentane hydrate and mineral surfaces. (United States)

    Aman, Zachary M; Leith, William J; Grasso, Giovanny A; Sloan, E Dendy; Sum, Amadeu K; Koh, Carolyn A


    Clathrate hydrate adhesion forces play a critical role in describing aggregation and deposition behavior in conventional energy production and transportation. This manuscript uses a unique micromechanical force apparatus to measure the adhesion force between cyclopentane hydrate and heterogeneous quartz and calcite substrates. The latter substrates represent models for coproduced sand and scale often present during conventional energy production and transportation. Micromechanical adhesion force data indicate that clathrate hydrate adhesive forces are 5-10× larger for calcite and quartz minerals than stainless steel. Adhesive forces further increased by 3-15× when increasing surface contact time from 10 to 30 s. In some cases, liquid water from within the hydrate shell contacted the mineral surface and rapidly converted to clathrate hydrate. Further measurements on mineral surfaces with physical control of surface roughness showed a nonlinear dependence of water wetting angle on surface roughness. Existing adhesive force theory correctly predicted the dependence of clathrate hydrate adhesive force on calcite wettability, but did not accurately capture the dependence on quartz wettability. This comparison suggests that the substrate surface may not be inert, and may contribute positively to the strength of the capillary bridge formed between hydrate particles and solid surfaces.

  3. The investigation of lithium formate hydrate, sodium dithionate and N-methyl taurine as clinical EPR dosimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lelie, S.; Hole, E.O.; Duchateau, M.; Schroeyers, W.; Schreurs, S.; Verellen, D.


    Introduction: EPR-dosimetry using L-α-alanine is an established method for measuring high doses of ionizing radiation. However, since a minimum dose of approximately 4 Gy is required to achieve sufficient low uncertainties (1–2%) for clinical application, alternative dosimeter materials are being inquired. Lithium formate (LiFo) monohydrate has been studied by several groups and has revealed several promising properties in the low dose region (<4 Gy). The fading properties, however, are somewhat unpredictable, and depend on properties not yet fully uncovered. This paper reports the results from a study of lithium formate hydrate and N-methyl taurine as potential low dose EPR dosimeters. Methods and materials: Pellet shaped dosimeters of lithium formate monohydrate, lithium formate hydrate, sodium dithionate and N-methyl taurine were produced using a manual Weber press, L-α-alanine was obtained from Harwell dosimeters and irradiated using 60 kV and 6 MV X-ray beams, and Co-60 gamma-rays to a dose of 30 Gy and dose ranges of 0.5–100 Gy and 2–20 Gy respectively. The dosimeters were measured using an Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR)-spectrometer. The detector responses for 6 MV and Co-60 radiation beams, the fading behaviors and signal shape in time were investigated. Results: Lithium formate monohydrate and lithium formate hydrate are apparently associated with near identical EPR-spectra (mainly one broad line), and the same spectrum arises for all radiation energies investigated. The shape of the EPR resonance remains constant with time, but the intensities decreases, and the fading is more prominent for the monohydrate than for the hydrate. The EPR resonance associated with N-methyl taurine is more complex than the resonance associated with LiFo and it changes with time, implying radical transitions and growth. Conclusions: The study showed that lithium formate hydrate is a strong candidate for EPR dosimetry with slightly better fading characteristics

  4. Modelling Changes in the Global Methane Hydrate Inventory (United States)

    Hunter, S. J.; Goldobin, D.; Haywood, A. M.; Rees, J. G.; Ridgwell, A. J.; Brilliantov, N.; Jackson, P.; Rochelle, C.; Lovell, M.; Levesley, J.


    We present initial results from a study designed to investigate how the global methane hydrate reservoir has changed during the last interglacial-glacial cycle. Bottom water conditions through the last 120 kyr are derived from a series of long-integration snapshot-type HadCM3 GCM experiments (Singarayer and Valdes, 2009), these are then used to drive a modified 1-d time-dependent hydrate model (Davie and Buffett, 2003). The hydrate model is first evaluated using sensitivity experiments against a number of hydrate bearing ODP/DSDP sites. We then explore the potential initial-state hydrate inventory using Pliocene boundary conditions and compare against a modelled and previously published modern-day inventories. Using modelled bottom water conditions and a thermal diffusion model, changes in the hydrate stability zone thickness though the last 120 kyr are investigated. We consider the timing and potential role of hydrate disassociation in the triggering of submarine landslides. Finally, the glacial cycle modelling strategy is discussed and preliminary results of the transient hydrate model run are presented. We aim to use these models and simulations to investigate potential changes in the volume and stability of the marine reservoir through many pseudo glacial-cycles as a precursor to running the model forward through potential climate change scenarios. References: J. S. Singarayer, P. J. Valdes, (2009) High-latitude climate sensitivity to ice-sheet forcing over the last 120 kyr, QSR v. 29 (1-2), p. 43-55 M. K. Davie, B. A. Buffett, (2003) Sources of methane for marine gas hydrate: inferences from a comparison of observations and numerical models, EPSL v. 206, p. 51-63

  5. Swelling pressure and hydration behavior of porcine corneal stroma. (United States)

    Hatami-Marbini, Hamed; Etebu, Ebitimi; Rahimi, Abdolrasol


    The aim of this study was to characterize swelling pressure-thickness, swelling pressure-hydration and hydration-thickness relations of porcine cornea. Mechanical compression tests and free swelling experiments were performed on porcine cornea. A rheometer (DHR-2, TA Instruments) with a thermally controlled fluid chamber filled with 0.9% NaCl solution was used to measure the equilibrium swelling pressure of (n = 17) corneal stromal specimens. The samples were compressed incrementally and their swelling pressure-thickness relations were obtained. In parallel to this investigation, a transient digital imaging microscope (H800-CL, American Scope Inc.), a USB autofocus camera (UM05, ViTiny), and a precision weighing scale (AGZN100, Torbal) were simultaneously used to measure the weight-thickness relation of (n = 8) corneal specimens. This experimental study gave the thickness-hydration relationship required for expressing swelling pressure measurements as a function of hydration. At the in vivo 666 ± 68 µm central corneal thickness, an average swelling pressure of 52 ± 13 mmHg and hydration of 3.36 ± 0.25 mg H2O/mg dry tissue were found. The swelling pressure was reported as functions of both tissue thickness and hydration. The average fixed charge density of ρF/F ~ 42.8 mM and dry density of 1.47±0.15 g/cm3 were found. The thickness-hydration relationship was only linear when the tissue thickness was within the range of physiological thickness. Overall, the physiological hydration and swelling pressure of the porcine cornea were within the same range of those reported previously for other mammalian corneas such as steers, rabbits and humans. Nevertheless, the thickness-hydration behavior of the porcine cornea was only similar to that of the human cornea.

  6. Detecting gas hydrate behavior in crude oil using NMR. (United States)

    Gao, Shuqiang; House, Waylon; Chapman, Walter G


    Because of the associated experimental difficulties, natural gas hydrate behavior in black oil is poorly understood despite its grave importance in deep-water flow assurance. Since the hydrate cannot be visually observed in black oil, traditional methods often rely on gas pressure changes to monitor hydrate formation and dissociation. Because gases have to diffuse through the liquid phase for hydrate behavior to create pressure responses, the complication of gas mass transfer is involved and hydrate behavior is only indirectly observed. This pressure monitoring technique encounters difficulties when the oil phase is too viscous, the amount of water is too small, or the gas phase is absent. In this work we employ proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy to observe directly the liquid-to-solid conversion of the water component in black oil emulsions. The technique relies on two facts. The first, well-known, is that water becomes essentially invisible to liquid state NMR as it becomes immobile, as in hydrate or ice formation. The second, our recent finding, is that in high magnetic fields of sufficient homogeneity, it is possible to distinguish water from black oil spectrally by their chemical shifts. By following changes in the area of the water peak, the process of hydrate conversion can be measured, and, at lower temperatures, the formation of ice. Taking only seconds to accomplish, this measurement is nearly direct in contrast to conventional techniques that measure the pressure changes of the whole system and assume these changes represent formation or dissociation of hydrates - rather than simply changes in solubility. This new technique clearly can provide accurate hydrate thermodynamic data in black oils. Because the technique measures the total mobile water with rapidity, extensions should prove valuable in studying the dynamics of phase transitions in emulsions.

  7. Molecular mechanisms responsible for hydrate anti-agglomerant performance. (United States)

    Phan, Anh; Bui, Tai; Acosta, Erick; Krishnamurthy, Pushkala; Striolo, Alberto


    Steered and equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations were employed to study the coalescence of a sI hydrate particle and a water droplet within a hydrocarbon mixture. The size of both the hydrate particle and the water droplet is comparable to that of the aqueous core in reverse micelles. The simulations were repeated in the presence of various quaternary ammonium chloride surfactants. We investigated the effects due to different groups on the quaternary head group (e.g. methyl vs. butyl groups), as well as different hydrophobic tail lengths (e.g. n-hexadecyl vs. n-dodecyl tails) on the surfactants' ability to prevent coalescence. Visual inspection of sequences of simulation snapshots indicates that when the water droplet is not covered by surfactants it is more likely to approach the hydrate particle, penetrate the protective surfactant film, reach the hydrate surface, and coalesce with the hydrate than when surfactants are present on both surfaces. Force-distance profiles obtained from steered molecular dynamics simulations and free energy profiles obtained from umbrella sampling suggest that surfactants with butyl tripods on the quaternary head group and hydrophobic tails with size similar to the solvent molecules can act as effective anti-agglomerants. These results qualitatively agree with macroscopic experimental observations. The simulation results provide additional insights, which could be useful in flow assurance applications: the butyl tripod provides adhesion between surfactants and hydrates; when the length of the surfactant tail is compatible with that of the hydrocarbon in the liquid phase a protective film can form on the hydrate; however, once a molecularly thin chain of water molecules forms through the anti-agglomerant film, connecting the water droplet and the hydrate, water flows to the hydrate and coalescence is inevitable.

  8. On the hydration and conformation of cocaine in solution (United States)

    Gillams, Richard J.; Lorenz, Christian D.; McLain, Sylvia E.


    In order to develop theories relating to the mechanism through which cocaine can diffuse across the blood-brain barrier, it is important to understand the interplay between the hydration of the molecule and the adopted conformation. Here key differences in the hydration of cocaine hydrochloride (CHC) and freebase cocaine (CFB) are highlighted on the atomic scale in solution, through the use of molecular dynamics simulations. By adopting different conformations, CHC and CFB experience differing hydration environments. The interplay between these two factors may account for the vast difference in solubility of these two molecules.

  9. Fully Coupled FE Analyses of Buried Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James T. Baylot


    Full Text Available Current procedures for determining the response of buried structures to the effects of the detonation of buried high explosives recommend decoupling the free-field stress analysis from the structure response analysis. A fully coupled (explosive–soil structure finite element analysis procedure was developed so that the accuracies of current decoupling procedures could be evaluated. Comparisons of the results of analyses performed using this procedure with scale-model experiments indicate that this finite element procedure can be used to effectively evaluate the accuracies of the methods currently being used to decouple the free-field stress analysis from the structure response analysis.

  10. A Fully Automated Penumbra Segmentation Tool

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nagenthiraja, Kartheeban; Ribe, Lars Riisgaard; Hougaard, Kristina Dupont


    salavageable tissue, quickly and accurately. We present a fully Automated Penumbra Segmentation (APS) algorithm using PWI and DWI images. We compare automatically generated PWI-DWI mismatch mask to mask outlined manually by experts, in 168 patients. Method: The algorithm initially identifies PWI lesions......) at 600∙10-6 mm2/sec. Due to the nature of thresholding, the ADC mask overestimates the DWI lesion volume and consequently we initialized level-set algorithm on DWI image with ADC mask as prior knowledge. Combining the PWI and inverted DWI mask then yield the PWI-DWI mismatch mask. Four expert raters...

  11. Examination of Hydrate Formation Methods: Trying to Create Representative Samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kneafsey, T.J.; Rees, E.V.L.; Nakagawa, S.; Kwon, T.-H.


    Forming representative gas hydrate-bearing laboratory samples is important so that the properties of these materials may be measured, while controlling the composition and other variables. Natural samples are rare, and have often experienced pressure and temperature changes that may affect the property to be measured [Waite et al., 2008]. Forming methane hydrate samples in the laboratory has been done a number of ways, each having advantages and disadvantages. The ice-to-hydrate method [Stern et al., 1996], contacts melting ice with methane at the appropriate pressure to form hydrate. The hydrate can then be crushed and mixed with mineral grains under controlled conditions, and then compacted to create laboratory samples of methane hydrate in a mineral medium. The hydrate in these samples will be part of the load-bearing frame of the medium. In the excess gas method [Handa and Stupin, 1992], water is distributed throughout a mineral medium (e.g. packed moist sand, drained sand, moistened silica gel, other porous media) and the mixture is brought to hydrate-stable conditions (chilled and pressurized with gas), allowing hydrate to form. This method typically produces grain-cementing hydrate from pendular water in sand [Waite et al., 2004]. In the dissolved gas method [Tohidi et al., 2002], water with sufficient dissolved guest molecules is brought to hydrate-stable conditions where hydrate forms. In the laboratory, this is can be done by pre-dissolving the gas of interest in water and then introducing it to the sample under the appropriate conditions. With this method, it is easier to form hydrate from more soluble gases such as carbon dioxide. It is thought that this method more closely simulates the way most natural gas hydrate has formed. Laboratory implementation, however, is difficult, and sample formation is prohibitively time consuming [Minagawa et al., 2005; Spangenberg and Kulenkampff, 2005]. In another version of this technique, a specified quantity of gas

  12. Gas hydrate saturations estimated from pore-and fracture-filling gas hydrate reservoirs in the Qilian Mountain permafrost, China. (United States)

    Xiao, Kun; Zou, Changchun; Lu, Zhenquan; Deng, Juzhi


    Accurate calculation of gas hydrate saturation is an important aspect of gas hydrate resource evaluation. The effective medium theory (EMT model), the velocity model based on two-phase medium theory (TPT model), and the two component laminated media model (TCLM model), are adopted to investigate the characteristics of acoustic velocity and gas hydrate saturation of pore- and fracture-filling reservoirs in the Qilian Mountain permafrost, China. The compressional wave (P-wave) velocity simulated by the EMT model is more consistent with actual log data than the TPT model in the pore-filling reservoir. The range of the gas hydrate saturation of the typical pore-filling reservoir in hole DKXX-13 is 13.0~85.0%, and the average value of the gas hydrate saturation is 61.9%, which is in accordance with the results by the standard Archie equation and actual core test. The P-wave phase velocity simulated by the TCLM model can be transformed directly into the P-wave transverse velocity in a fracture-filling reservoir. The range of the gas hydrate saturation of the typical fracture-filling reservoir in hole DKXX-19 is 14.1~89.9%, and the average value of the gas hydrate saturation is 69.4%, which is in accordance with actual core test results.

  13. Hydration structure and water exchange dynamics of Fe(II) ion in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Computer simulation studies of the hydration structure and water exchange dynamics in the first hydration shell for Fe(II) in water are presented. The structure of the hydrated ion is discussed in terms of radial distribution functions, coordination numbers, and angular distributions. The average first-shell hydration structure is ...

  14. Experimental studies for the cyclability of salt hydrates for thermochemical heat storage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donkers, P.A.J.; Pel, L.; Adan, O.C.G.


    Salt hydrates have promising potential as heat storage materials by use of their hydration/dehydration reaction. These hydration/dehydration reactions are studied in this paper for CuCl2, CuSO4, MgCl2 and MgSO4. During a hydration/dehydration reaction, the salt shrinks and expands as a result of the

  15. Formation of natural gas hydrates in marine sediments 1. Conceptual model of gas hydrate growth conditioned by host sediment properties (United States)

    Clennell, M.B.; Hovland, M.; Booth, J.S.; Henry, P.; Winters, W.J.


    The stability of submarine gas hydrates is largely dictated by pressure and temperature, gas composition, and pore water salinity. However, the physical properties and surface chemistry of deep marine sediments may also affect the thermodynamic state, growth kinetics, spatial distributions, and growth forms of clathrates. Our conceptual model presumes that gas hydrate behaves in a way analogous to ice in a freezing soil. Hydrate growth is inhibited within fine-grained sediments by a combination of reduced pore water activity in the vicinity of hydrophilic mineral surfaces, and the excess internal energy of small crystals confined in pores. The excess energy can be thought of as a "capillary pressure" in the hydrate crystal, related to the pore size distribution and the state of stress in the sediment framework. The base of gas hydrate stability in a sequence of fine sediments is predicted by our model to occur at a lower temperature (nearer to the seabed) than would be calculated from bulk thermodynamic equilibrium. Capillary effects or a build up of salt in the system can expand the phase boundary between hydrate and free gas into a divariant field extending over a finite depth range dictated by total methane content and pore-size distribution. Hysteresis between the temperatures of crystallization and dissociation of the clathrate is also predicted. Growth forms commonly observed in hydrate samples recovered from marine sediments (nodules, and lenses in muds; cements in sands) can largely be explained by capillary effects, but kinetics of nucleation and growth are also important. The formation of concentrated gas hydrates in a partially closed system with respect to material transport, or where gas can flush through the system, may lead to water depletion in the host sediment. This "freeze-drying" may be detectable through physical changes to the sediment (low water content and overconsolidation) and/or chemical anomalies in the pore waters and metastable

  16. Fully CMOS-compatible titanium nitride nanoantennas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Briggs, Justin A., E-mail: [Department of Applied Physics, Stanford University, 348 Via Pueblo Mall, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Stanford University, 496 Lomita Mall, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Naik, Gururaj V.; Baum, Brian K.; Dionne, Jennifer A. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Stanford University, 496 Lomita Mall, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Petach, Trevor A.; Goldhaber-Gordon, David [Department of Physics, Stanford University, 382 Via Pueblo Mall, Stanford, California 94305 (United States)


    CMOS-compatible fabrication of plasmonic materials and devices will accelerate the development of integrated nanophotonics for information processing applications. Using low-temperature plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition (PEALD), we develop a recipe for fully CMOS-compatible titanium nitride (TiN) that is plasmonic in the visible and near infrared. Films are grown on silicon, silicon dioxide, and epitaxially on magnesium oxide substrates. By optimizing the plasma exposure per growth cycle during PEALD, carbon and oxygen contamination are reduced, lowering undesirable loss. We use electron beam lithography to pattern TiN nanopillars with varying diameters on silicon in large-area arrays. In the first reported single-particle measurements on plasmonic TiN, we demonstrate size-tunable darkfield scattering spectroscopy in the visible and near infrared regimes. The optical properties of this CMOS-compatible material, combined with its high melting temperature and mechanical durability, comprise a step towards fully CMOS-integrated nanophotonic information processing.

  17. Fully populated VCM or the hidden parameter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kermarrec G.


    Full Text Available Least-squares estimates are trustworthy with minimal variance if the correct stochastic model is used. Due to computational burden, diagonal models that neglect correlations are preferred to describe the elevation dependency of the variance of GPS observations. In this contribution, an improved stochastic model based on a parametric function to take correlations between GPS phase observations into account is presented. Built on an adapted and flexible Mátern function accounting for spatiotemporal variabilities, its parameters can be fixed thanks to Maximum Likelihood Estimation or chosen apriori to model turbulent tropospheric refractivity fluctuations. In this contribution, we will show in which cases and under which conditions corresponding fully populated variance covariance matrices (VCM replace the estimation of a tropospheric parameter. For this equivalence “augmented functional versus augmented stochastic model” to hold, the VCM should be made sufficiently largewhich corresponds to computing small batches of observations. A case study with observations from a medium baseline of 80 km divided into batches of 600 s shows improvement of up to 100 mm for the 3Drms when fully populated VCM are used compared with an elevation dependent diagonal model. It confirms the strong potential of such matrices to improve the least-squares solution, particularly when ambiguities are let float.

  18. Fully 3D GPU PET reconstruction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herraiz, J.L., E-mail: [Grupo de Fisica Nuclear, Departmento Fisica Atomica, Molecular y Nuclear, Universidad Complutense de Madrid (Spain); Espana, S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Cal-Gonzalez, J. [Grupo de Fisica Nuclear, Departmento Fisica Atomica, Molecular y Nuclear, Universidad Complutense de Madrid (Spain); Vaquero, J.J. [Departmento de Bioingenieria e Ingenieria Espacial, Universidad Carlos III, Madrid (Spain); Desco, M. [Departmento de Bioingenieria e Ingenieria Espacial, Universidad Carlos III, Madrid (Spain); Unidad de Medicina y Cirugia Experimental, Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Maranon, Madrid (Spain); Udias, J.M. [Grupo de Fisica Nuclear, Departmento Fisica Atomica, Molecular y Nuclear, Universidad Complutense de Madrid (Spain)


    Fully 3D iterative tomographic image reconstruction is computationally very demanding. Graphics Processing Unit (GPU) has been proposed for many years as potential accelerators in complex scientific problems, but it has not been used until the recent advances in the programmability of GPUs that the best available reconstruction codes have started to be implemented to be run on GPUs. This work presents a GPU-based fully 3D PET iterative reconstruction software. This new code may reconstruct sinogram data from several commercially available PET scanners. The most important and time-consuming parts of the code, the forward and backward projection operations, are based on an accurate model of the scanner obtained with the Monte Carlo code PeneloPET and they have been massively parallelized on the GPU. For the PET scanners considered, the GPU-based code is more than 70 times faster than a similar code running on a single core of a fast CPU, obtaining in both cases the same images. The code has been designed to be easily adapted to reconstruct sinograms from any other PET scanner, including scanner prototypes.

  19. Energy from gas hydrates - assessing the opportunities and challenges for Canada: report of the expert panel on gas hydrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    Gas hydrates form when water and natural gas combine at low temperatures and high pressures in regions of permafrost and in marine subseafloor sediments. Estimates suggest that the total amount of natural gas bound in hydrate form may exceed all conventional gas resources, or even the amount of all combined hydrocarbon energy. Gas from gas hydrate could provide a potentially vast new source of energy to offset declining supplies of conventional natural gas in North America and to provide greater energy security for countries such as Japan and India that have limited domestic sources. However, complex issues would need to be addressed if gas hydrate were to become a large part of the energy future of Canada. Natural Resources Canada asked the Council of Canadian Academies to assemble a panel of experts to examine the challenges for an acceptable operational extraction of gas hydrates in Canada. This report presented an overview of relevant contextual background, including some basic science; the medium-term outlook for supply and demand in markets for natural gas; broad environmental issues related to gas hydrate in its natural state and as a fuel; and an overview of Canada's contribution to knowledge about gas hydrate in the context of ongoing international research activity. The report also presented current information on the subject and what would be required to delineate and quantify the resource. Techniques for extracting gas from gas hydrate were also outlined. The report also addressed safety issues related to gas hydrate dissociation during drilling operations or release into the atmosphere; the environmental issues associated with potential leakage of methane into the atmosphere and with the large volumes of water produced during gas hydrate dissociation; and jurisdictional and local community issues that would need to be resolved in order to proceed with the commercial exploitation of gas hydrate. It was concluded that there does not appear to be

  20. Hydrate-Bearing Clayey Sediments: Morphology, Physical Properties, Production and Engineering/Geological Implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dai, Sheng [Georgia Tech Research Corporation, Atlanta, GA (United States); Santamarina, J. Carlos [King Abdulaziz Univ., Jeddah (Saudi Arabia)


    Fine-grained sediments host more than 90 percent of global gas hydrate accumulation. However, hydrate formation in clay-dominated sediments is less understood and characterized than other types of hydrate occurrence. There is an inadequate understanding of hydrate formation mechanisms, segregation structures, hydrate lens topology, system connectivity, and physical macro-scale properties of clay-dominated hydrate-bearing sediments. This situation hinders further analyses of the global carbon budget as well as engineering challenges/solutions related to hydrate instability and production. This project studies hydrate-bearing clay-dominated sediments with emphasis on the enhanced fundamental understanding of hydrate formation and resulting morphology, the development laboratory techniques to emulate natural hydrate formations, the assessment of analytical tools to predict physical properties, the evaluation of engineering and geological implications, and the advanced understanding of gas production potential from finegrained sediments.

  1. Early hydration cement Effect of admixtures superplasticizers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puertas, F.


    Full Text Available Early hydration of portland cement with superplasticizer admixtures of different nature has been studied. These admixtures were: one based on melamine synthetic, other based on vinyl copolymer and other based on polyacrylate copolymers. The dosage of the formers were constant (1% weigth of cement and for the third, the influence of admixture dosage was also evaluated, giving dosage values among 1-0.3%. The pastes obtained were studied by conduction calorimetry, XRD and FTIR. Also the apparent fluidity was determined by "Minislump" test. The main results obtained were: a superplasticizers admixtures used, regardless of their nature and for the polycarboxilate one the dosage, retard the silicate hydration (specially, alite phase, b The ettringite formation is affected by the nature of the admixture. cA relationship between the dosage of admixture based on polycarboxilates and the time at the acceleration has been established. A lineal relation (y = 11.03 + 16.05x was obtained. From these results is possible to know, in function of dosage admixture, the time when the masive hydration products and the setting times are produced. Also the total heat releases in these reactions is independent of the nature and dosage of admixture, saying that in all cases the reactions are the same.

    En el presente trabajo se ha estudiado la hidratación inicial de un cemento portland aditivado con superplastificantes de diferente naturaleza. Dichos aditivos fueron: uno basado en melaminas sintéticas, otro en copolímeros vinilicos y otro en policarboxilatos. La dosificación de los dos primeros se fijó constante en 1% en peso con relación al cemento, mientras que para el tercero se evaluó, también, la influencia de la dosificación, tomando proporciones desde el 1% hasta el 0,3%. Las pastas obtenidas se estudiaron por: calorimetría de conducción, DRX y FTIR. También se determinó la fluidez de la pasta a través del ensayo del "Minislump ". Los

  2. A Review of the Methane Hydrate Program in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ai Oyama


    Full Text Available In this paper, methane hydrate R&D in Japan was examined in the context of Japan’s evolving energy policies. Methane hydrates have been studied extensively in Japanese national R&D programs since 1993, with the goal of utilizing them as an energy resource. Currently, the Research Consortium for Methane Hydrate Resources in Japan (MH 21 is in the third phase of a project that began in early 2002. Based on publicly available reports and other publications, and presentations made at the ten International Workshops for Methane Hydrate Research and Development, we have attempted to provide a timeline and a succinct summary of the major technical accomplishments of MH 21 during project Phases 1, 2, and 3.

  3. Clinical study on orofacial photonic hydration using phototherapy and biomaterials (United States)

    Lizarelli, Rosane F. Z.; Grandi, Natália D. P.; Florez, Fernando L. E.; Grecco, Clovis; Lopes, Luciana A.


    Skin hydration is important to prevent aging and dysfunction of orofacial system. Nowadays, it is known that cutaneous system is linked to muscle system, then every dentist need to treat healthy facial skin, as lips, keeping orofacial functions healthy. Thirty-two patients were treated using laser and led therapy single or associated to biomaterials (dermo-cosmetics) searching for the best protocol to promote skin hydration. Using a peace of equipment to measure electric impedance, percentage of water and oil from skin, before and after different treatments were analyzed. Statistic tests using 5% and 0.1% of significance were applied and results showed that light could improve hydration of epidermis layer of facial skin. Considering just light effect, using infrared laser followed by blue led system is more effective to hydration than just blue led system application. Considering dermo-cosmetic and light, the association between both presented the best result.

  4. Methane hydrates and the future of natural gas (United States)

    Ruppel, Carolyn


    For decades, gas hydrates have been discussed as a potential resource, particularly for countries with limited access to conventional hydrocarbons or a strategic interest in establishing alternative, unconventional gas reserves. Methane has never been produced from gas hydrates at a commercial scale and, barring major changes in the economics of natural gas supply and demand, commercial production at a large scale is considered unlikely to commence within the next 15 years. Given the overall uncertainty still associated with gas hydrates as a potential resource, they have not been included in the EPPA model in MITEI’s Future of Natural Gas report. Still, gas hydrates remain a potentially large methane resource and must necessarily be included in any consideration of the natural gas supply beyond two decades from now.

  5. Geo-scientific investigations of gas-hydrates in India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sain, K.; Gupta, H.; Mazumdar, A.; Bhaumik, A.K.; Bhowmick, P.K.

    . We have evaluated the resouce potential of gas-hydrates to boost the development of viable production technology. Approximately, 1900 trillion cubic meter of methane has been prognosticated within the vast exclusive economic zone (EEZ) of India...

  6. Thermal Regeneration of Sulfuric Acid Hydrates after Irradiation (United States)

    Loeffler, Mark J.; Hudson, Reggie L.


    In an attempt to more completely understand the surface chemistry of the jovian icy satellites, we have investigated the effect of heating on two irradiated crystalline sulfuric acid hydrates, H2SO4 4H2O and H2SO4 H2O. At temperatures relevant to Europa and the warmer jovian satellites, post-irradiation heating recrystallized the amorphized samples and increased the intensities of the remaining hydrate's infrared absorptions. This thermal regeneration of the original hydrates was nearly 100% efficient, indicating that over geological times, thermally-induced phase transitions enhanced by temperature fluctuations will reform a large fraction of crystalline hydrated sulfuric acid that is destroyed by radiation processing. The work described is the first demonstration of the competition between radiation-induced amorphization and thermally-induced recrystallization in icy ionic solids relevant to the outer Solar System.

  7. Influence of Liquid Paraffin, White Soft Paraffin and Initial Hydration ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hydrated white soft paraffin on the viscosity of a cream formulated with a corticosteroid. Methods: The formulations were prepared via homogenization with variable velocity in the range 3300 - 4000 rpm. Individual series of preparations contained the ...

  8. Chemical characteristics of mineral trioxide aggregate and its hydration reaction (United States)


    Mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) was developed in early 1990s and has been successfully used for root perforation repair, root end filling, and one-visit apexification. MTA is composed mainly of tricalcium silicate and dicalcium silicate. When MTA is hydrated, calcium silicate hydrate (CSH) and calcium hydroxide is formed. Formed calcium hydroxide interacts with the phosphate ion in body fluid and form amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP) which finally transforms into calcium deficient hydroxyapatite (CDHA). These mineral precipitate were reported to form the MTA-dentin interfacial layer which enhances the sealing ability of MTA. Clinically, the use of zinc oxide euginol (ZOE) based materials may retard the setting of MTA. Also, the use of acids or contact with excessive blood should be avoided before complete set of MTA, because these conditions could adversely affect the hydration reaction of MTA. Further studies on the chemical nature of MTA hydration reaction are needed. PMID:23429542

  9. Maximum Recoverable Gas from Hydrate Bearing Sediments by Depressurization

    KAUST Repository

    Terzariol, Marco


    The estimation of gas production rates from hydrate bearing sediments requires complex numerical simulations. This manuscript presents a set of simple and robust analytical solutions to estimate the maximum depressurization-driven recoverable gas. These limiting-equilibrium solutions are established when the dissociation front reaches steady state conditions and ceases to expand further. Analytical solutions show the relevance of (1) relative permeabilities between the hydrate free sediment, the hydrate bearing sediment, and the aquitard layers, and (2) the extent of depressurization in terms of the fluid pressures at the well, at the phase boundary, and in the far field. Close form solutions for the size of the produced zone allow for expeditious financial analyses; results highlight the need for innovative production strategies in order to make hydrate accumulations an economically-viable energy resource. Horizontal directional drilling and multi-wellpoint seafloor dewatering installations may lead to advantageous production strategies in shallow seafloor reservoirs.

  10. Development of a CB Resistant Durable, Flexible Hydration System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hall, Peyton W; Zeller, Frank T; Bulluck, John W; Dingus, Michael L


    A durable, flexible hydration system resistant to contamination by contact with VX, GD, and HD chemical agents, as well as damage by the decontaminants sodium hypochlorite and DS-2 is being developed for aviator use...

  11. A study on dehydration of rare earth chloride hydrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Yong Zun; Eun, Hee Chul; Son, Sung Mo; Lee, Tae Kyo; Hwang, Taek Sung


    The dehydration schemes of rare earth (La, Ce, Nd, Pr, Sm. Eu, Gd, Y) chloride hydrates was investigated by using a dehydration apparatus. To prevent the formation of the rare earth oxychlorides, the operation temperature was changed step by step (80→150→230 degree C) based on the TGA (thermo-gravimetric analysis) results of the rare earth chloride hydrates. A vacuum pump and preheated Ar gas were used to effectively remove the evaporated moisture and maintain an inert condition in the dehydration apparatus. The dehydration temperature of the rare earth chloride hydrate was increased when the atomic number of the rare earth nuclide was increased. The content of the moisture in the rare earth chloride hydrate was decreased below 10% in the dehydration apparatus.

  12. Thermal Stability and Proton Conductivity of Rare Earth Orthophosphate Hydrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anfimova, Tatiana; Li, Qingfeng; Jensen, Jens Oluf


    Hydrated orthophosphate powders of three rare earth metals, lanthanum, neodymium and gadolinium, were prepared and studied as potential proton conducting materials for intermediate temperature electrochemical applications. The phosphates undergo a transformation from the rhabdophane structure...

  13. Biomimetic hydration lubrication with various polyelectrolyte layers on cross-linked polyethylene orthopedic bearing materials. (United States)

    Kyomoto, Masayuki; Moro, Toru; Saiga, Kenichi; Hashimoto, Masami; Ito, Hideya; Kawaguchi, Hiroshi; Takatori, Yoshio; Ishihara, Kazuhiko


    Natural joints rely on fluid thin-film lubrication by the hydrated polyelectrolyte layer of cartilage. However, current artificial joints with polyethylene (PE) surfaces have considerably less efficient lubrication and thus much greater wear, leading to osteolysis and aseptic loosening. This is considered a common factor limiting prosthetic longevity in total hip arthroplasty (THA). However, such wear could be mitigated by surface modification to mimic the role of cartilage. Here we report the development of nanometer-scale hydrophilic layers with varying charge (nonionic, cationic, anionic, or zwitterionic) on cross-linked PE (CLPE) surfaces, which could fully mimic the hydrophilicity and lubricity of the natural joint surface. We present evidence to support two lubrication mechanisms: the primary mechanism is due to the high level of hydration in the grafted layer, where water molecules act as very efficient lubricants; and the secondary mechanism is repulsion of protein molecules and positively charged inorganic ions by the grafted polyelectrolyte layer. Thus, such nanometer-scaled hydrophilic polymers or polyelectrolyte layers on the CLPE surface of acetabular cup bearings could confer high durability to THA prosthetics. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Notes on hydrated cement fractals investigated by SANS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ficker, T; Len, A; Nemec, P


    Hydrated cement pastes with different water-to-cement ratios have been investigated by the small-angle scattering neutron technique. Special attention has been paid to the fractal nanostructure of the calcium silicate hydrate (C-S-H solid gel) and its basic building particles, i.e. nanometric globules. The inner stability of these particles has been tested and shown to be sufficiently persistent to withstand all spatial regroupings of the overall nanostructure caused by variations of w/c ratios

  15. Synergistic kinetic inhibition of natural gas hydrate formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daraboina, Nagu; Malmos, Christine; von Solms, Nicolas


    Rocking cells were used to investigate the natural gas hydrate formation and decomposition in the presence of kinetic inhibitor, Luvicap. In addition, the influence of poly ethylene oxide (PEO) and NaCl on the performance of Luvicap was investigated using temperature ramping and isothermal...... to decompose completely. One should consider this complex inhibitor-mediated hydrate formation and decomposition kinetics when screening and designing kinetic inhibitors for field applications....

  16. Hydration process of nuclear-waste glass: an interim report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bates, J.K.; Jardine, L.J.; Steindler, M.J.


    Aging of simulated nuclear waste glass by contact with a controlled-temperature, humid atmosphere results in the formation of a double hydration layer penetrating the glass, as well as the formation of minerals on the glass surface. The hydration process can be described by Arrhenius behavior between 120 and 240 0 C. Results suggest that simulated aging reactions are necessary for demonstrating that nuclear waste forms can meet projected Nuclear Regulatory Commission regulations. 16 figures, 4 tables

  17. Formation of nitric acid hydrates - A chemical equilibrium approach (United States)

    Smith, Roland H.


    Published data are used to calculate equilibrium constants for reactions of the formation of nitric acid hydrates over the temperature range 190 to 205 K. Standard enthalpies of formation and standard entropies are calculated for the tri- and mono-hydrates. These are shown to be in reasonable agreement with earlier calorimetric measurements. The formation of nitric acid trihydrate in the polar stratosphere is discussed in terms of these equilibrium constants.

  18. Chemical characteristics of mineral trioxide aggregate and its hydration reaction


    Chang, Seok-Woo


    Mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) was developed in early 1990s and has been successfully used for root perforation repair, root end filling, and one-visit apexification. MTA is composed mainly of tricalcium silicate and dicalcium silicate. When MTA is hydrated, calcium silicate hydrate (CSH) and calcium hydroxide is formed. Formed calcium hydroxide interacts with the phosphate ion in body fluid and form amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP) which finally transforms into calcium deficient hydroxyap...

  19. Gas hydrates in Krishna-Godavari offshore basin

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ramprasad, T.; Mazumdar, A.; Dewangan, P.

     geography and you T Ramprasad, A Mazumdar and P Dewangan Gas hydrates in Krishna- Godavari offshore basin Earth science technologies geography and you  july - august 2013  45 Methane from gas hydrate deposits could be a viable energy alternative... areas get buried deep under few kilometres of thick ocean sediments and is degraded by the bacterial activity for eons under very high temperatures. The methane molecules thus generated find their way into the overlying sediments through...

  20. Life Origination Hydrate Theory (LOH-Theory) and Mitosis and Replication Hydrate Theory (MRH-Theory): three-dimensional PC validation (United States)

    Kadyshevich, E. A.; Dzyabchenko, A. V.; Ostrovskii, V. E.


    Size compatibility of the CH4-hydrate structure II and multi-component DNA fragments is confirmed by three-dimensional simulation; it is validation of the Life Origination Hydrate Theory (LOH-Theory).

  1. Gas hydrates of the Black sea sediment section

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byakov, Y.A.; Kruglyakova, R.P.; Kruglyakova, M.V.


    Full text : This article shows how gas formation and its genesis in the Black sea sediments forms two types of gas hydrates. The first is diagenetic, formed from biochemical methane. The second type is thermogenic, formed from the thermogenic gases and represented not only by methane, but also by its light homologues, like ethane and propane. The most favourable area for formation of the gas hydrates of the first type in the Black sea is the foot of the continental slope and areas of underwater cones of paleorivers drift-over. Gas hydrates of the second type are accumulated in the areas of underwater mud volcanoes. In accordance with the results of seismic and seismoacoustic studies in deposited thickness of the Black sea the specific anomalies of the BSR and VAMP's types are revealed that associate with the foot of gas hydrate deposits. Two gas hydrates are distinguished according to sources of gas supply and genesis : type 1 - diagenetic, type 2 - thermogenic. When some critique is reached the gas hydrate trap breaks and volcanic eruption occurs. Thus, occurrence of underwater volcanism may testify the presence of deposits.

  2. Structure and Hydration of Highly-Branched, Monodisperse Phytoglycogen Nanoparticles. (United States)

    Nickels, Jonathan D; Atkinson, John; Papp-Szabo, Erzsebet; Stanley, Christopher; Diallo, Souleymane O; Perticaroli, Stefania; Baylis, Benjamin; Mahon, Perry; Ehlers, Georg; Katsaras, John; Dutcher, John R


    Phytoglycogen is a naturally occurring polysaccharide nanoparticle made up of extensively branched glucose monomers. It has a number of unusual and advantageous properties, such as high water retention, low viscosity, and high stability in water, which make this biomaterial a promising candidate for a wide variety of applications. In this study, we have characterized the structure and hydration of aqueous dispersions of phytoglycogen nanoparticles using neutron scattering. Small angle neutron scattering results suggest that the phytoglycogen nanoparticles behave similar to hard sphere colloids and are hydrated by a large number of water molecules (each nanoparticle contains between 250% and 285% of its mass in water). This suggests that phytoglycogen is an ideal sample in which to study the dynamics of hydration water. To this end, we used quasielastic neutron scattering (QENS) to provide an independent and consistent measure of the hydration number, and to estimate the retardation factor (or degree of water slow-down) for hydration water translational motions. These data demonstrate a length-scale dependence in the measured retardation factors that clarifies the origin of discrepancies between retardation factor values reported for hydration water using different experimental techniques. The present approach can be generalized to other systems containing nanoconfined water.

  3. Impact of Hydration Media on Ex Vivo Corneal Elasticity Measurements. (United States)

    Dias, Janice; Ziebarth, Noël M


    To determine the effect of hydration media on ex vivo corneal elasticity. Experiments were conducted on 40 porcine eyes retrieved from an abattoir (10 eyes each for phosphate-buffered saline (PBS), balanced salt solution, Optisol, 15% dextran). The epithelium was removed, and the cornea was excised with an intact scleral rim and placed in 20% dextran overnight to restore its physiological thickness. For each hydration media, corneas were evenly divided into two groups: one with an intact scleral rim and the other without. Corneas were mounted onto a custom chamber and immersed in a hydration medium for elasticity testing. Although in each medium, corneal elasticity measurements were performed for 2 hr: at 5-min intervals for the first 30 min and then 15-min intervals for the remaining 90 min. Elasticity testing was performed using nanoindentation with spherical indenters, and Young modulus was calculated using the Hertz model. Thickness measurements were taken before and after elasticity testing. The percentage change in corneal thickness and elasticity was calculated for each hydration media group. Balanced salt solution, PBS, and Optisol showed an increase in thickness and Young moduli for corneas with and without an intact scleral rim. Fifteen percent dextran exhibited a dehydrating effect on corneal thickness and provided stable maintenance of corneal elasticity for both groups. Hydration media affects the stability of corneal thickness and elasticity measurements over time. Fifteen percent dextran was most effective in maintaining corneal hydration and elasticity, followed by Optisol.

  4. Microstructure of hydrated cement pastes as determined by SANS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabine, T.; Bertram, W.; Aldridge, L.


    Full text: Technologists have known how to make concrete for over 2000 years but despite painstaking research no one has been able to show how and why concrete sets. Part of the problem is that the calcium silicate hydrate (the gel produced by hydrating cement) is amorphous and cannot be characterised by x-ray crystallographic techniques. Small angle neutron scattering on instrument V12a at BENSC was used to characterise the hydration reactions and show the growth of the calcium silicate hydrates during initial hydration and the substantial differences in the rate of growth and structure as different additives are used. SANS spectra were measured as a function of the hydration from three different types of cement paste: 1) Ordinary Portland Cement made with a water to cement ratio of about 0.4; 2) A blend of Ordinary Portland Cement(25%) and Ground Granulated Blast Furnace Slag (75%) with a water to cement ration of about 0.4; 3) A dense paste made from silica fume(24%), Ordinary Portland Cement (76%) at a water to powder ratio of 0.18. The differences in the spectra are interpreted in terms of differences between the microstructure of the pastes

  5. Hydrate plugging or slurry flow : effect of key variables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dellecase, E.; Geraci, G.; Barrios, L.; Estanga, D.; Domingues, R.; Volk, M. [Tulsa Univ., Tulsa, OK (United States)


    Although oil and gas companies have proven design criteria and proper operating procedures to prevent hydrate plugs from forming, hydrates remain the primary issue in flow assurance. The costs associated with hydrate prevention affect project economics, particularly in deepwater pipelines. As such, there is an interest in developing a technology that allows hydrates to be transported as a slurry, while avoiding plugs. The feasibility of managing such hydrate flow was investigated. This study used a hydrate flow loop to investigate the effects of flow conditions on the transportability of a slurry in both steady-state and restart conditions. For most cases, uninhibited steady-state slurry flow conditions above 25 per cent water-cut were marginal, and most likely not feasible at 50 per cent water-cut or above. Liquid loading and velocity appeared to have a marginal effect on plugging tendency. However, minimum velocity may be needed to guarantee slurry transportation. Some of the important parameters and key variables that determine if a plug will form, particularly in restart conditions, include oil-water dispersion properties; oil-water phase segregation on the plugging tendency of model fluids; the location and state of the water; and the flow pattern. It was concluded that the plugging behaviour of oil systems changes with these variables, and with the oil-water chemistry. As such, specific strategies must be developed for each field. 4 refs., 1 tab., 14 figs.

  6. Quantum Fully Homomorphic Encryption with Verification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alagic, Gorjan; Dulek, Yfke; Schaffner, Christian


    Fully-homomorphic encryption (FHE) enables computation on encrypted data while maintaining secrecy. Recent research has shown that such schemes exist even for quantum computation. Given the numerous applications of classical FHE (zero-knowledge proofs, secure two-party computation, obfuscation, etc.......) it is reasonable to hope that quantum FHE (or QFHE) will lead to many new results in the quantum setting. However, a crucial ingredient in almost all applications of FHE is circuit verification. Classically, verification is performed by checking a transcript of the homomorphic computation. Quantumly, this strategy...... is impossible due to no-cloning. This leads to an important open question: can quantum computations be delegated and verified in a non-interactive manner? In this work, we answer this question in the affirmative, by constructing a scheme for QFHE with verification (vQFHE). Our scheme provides authenticated...

  7. Water Intake and Hydration Indices in Healthy European Adults: The European Hydration Research Study (EHRS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Malisova


    Full Text Available Hydration status is linked with health, wellness, and performance. We evaluated hydration status, water intake, and urine output for seven consecutive days in healthy adults. Volunteers living in Spain, Germany, or Greece (n = 573, 39 ± 12 years (51.1% males, 25.0 ± 4.6 kg/m2 BMI participated in an eight-day study protocol. Total water intake was estimated from seven-day food and drink diaries. Hydration status was measured in urine samples collected over 24 h for seven days and in blood samples collected in fasting state on the mornings of days 1 and 8. Total daily water intake was 2.75 ± 1.01 L, water from beverages 2.10 ± 0.91 L, water from foods 0.66 ± 0.29 L. Urine parameters were: 24 h volume 1.65 ± 0.70 L, 24 h osmolality 631 ± 221 mOsmol/kg Η2Ο, 24 h specific gravity 1.017 ± 0.005, 24 h excretion of sodium 166.9 ± 54.7 mEq, 24 h excretion of potassium 72.4 ± 24.6 mEq, color chart 4.2 ± 1.4. Predictors for urine osmolality were age, country, gender, and BMI. Blood indices were: haemoglobin concentration 14.7 ± 1.7 g/dL, hematocrit 43% ± 4% and serum osmolality 294 ± 9 mOsmol/kg Η2Ο. Daily water intake was higher in summer (2.8 ± 1.02 L than in winter (2.6 ± 0.98 L (p = 0.019. Water intake was associated negatively with urine specific gravity, urine color, and urine sodium and potassium concentrations (p < 0.01. Applying urine osmolality cut-offs, approximately 60% of participants were euhydrated and 20% hyperhydrated or dehydrated. Most participants were euhydrated, but a substantial number of people (40% deviated from a normal hydration level.

  8. Structure-driven CO2 selectivity and gas capacity of ionic clathrate hydrates. (United States)

    Hashimoto, Hidenori; Yamaguchi, Tsutomu; Ozeki, Hiroyuki; Muromachi, Sanehiro


    Ionic clathrate hydrates can selectively capture small gas molecules such as CO 2 , N 2 , CH 4 and H 2 . We investigated CO 2  + N 2 mixed gas separation properties of ionic clathrate hydrates formed with tetra-n-butylammonium bromide (TBAB), tetra-n-butylammonium chloride (TBAC), tetra-n-butylphosphonium bromide (TBPB) and tetra-n-butylphosphonium chloride (TBPC). The results showed that CO 2 selectivity of TBAC hydrates was remarkably higher than those of the other hydrates despite less gas capacity of TBAC hydrates. The TBAB hydrates also showed irregularly high CO 2 selectivity at a low pressure. X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopic analyses clarified that TBAC stably formed the tetragonal hydrate structure, and TBPB and TBPC formed the orthorhombic hydrate structure. The TBAB hydrates showed polymorphic phases which may consist of the both orthorhombic and tetragonal hydrate structures. These results showed that the tetragonal hydrate captured CO 2 more efficiently than the orthorhombic hydrate, while the orthorhombic hydrate has the largest gas capacity among the basic four structures of ionic clathrate hydrates. The present study suggests new potential for improving gas capacity and selectivity of ionic clathrate hydrates by choosing suitable ionic guest substances for guest gas components.

  9. Simulations of fully deformed oscillating flux tubes (United States)

    Karampelas, K.; Van Doorsselaere, T.


    Context. In recent years, a number of numerical studies have been focusing on the significance of the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability in the dynamics of oscillating coronal loops. This process enhances the transfer of energy into smaller scales, and has been connected with heating of coronal loops, when dissipation mechanisms, such as resistivity, are considered. However, the turbulent layer is expected near the outer regions of the loops. Therefore, the effects of wave heating are expected to be confined to the loop's external layers, leaving their denser inner parts without a heating mechanism. Aim. In the current work we aim to study the spatial evolution of wave heating effects from a footpoint driven standing kink wave in a coronal loop. Methods: Using the MPI-AMRVAC code, we performed ideal, three dimensional magnetohydrodynamic simulations of footpoint driven transverse oscillations of a cold, straight coronal flux tube, embedded in a hotter environment. We have also constructed forward models for our simulation using the FoMo code. Results: The developed transverse wave induced Kelvin-Helmholtz (TWIKH) rolls expand throughout the tube cross-section, and cover it entirely. This turbulence significantly alters the initial density profile, leading to a fully deformed cross section. As a consequence, the resistive and viscous heating rate both increase over the entire loop cross section. The resistive heating rate takes its maximum values near the footpoints, while the viscous heating rate at the apex. Conclusions: We conclude that even a monoperiodic driver can spread wave heating over the whole loop cross section, potentially providing a heating source in the inner loop region. Despite the loop's fully deformed structure, forward modelling still shows the structure appearing as a loop. A movie attached to Fig. 1 is available at http://

  10. Lidar Cloud Detection with Fully Convolutional Networks (United States)

    Cromwell, E.; Flynn, D.


    The vertical distribution of clouds from active remote sensing instrumentation is a widely used data product from global atmospheric measuring sites. The presence of clouds can be expressed as a binary cloud mask and is a primary input for climate modeling efforts and cloud formation studies. Current cloud detection algorithms producing these masks do not accurately identify the cloud boundaries and tend to oversample or over-represent the cloud. This translates as uncertainty for assessing the radiative impact of clouds and tracking changes in cloud climatologies. The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program has over 20 years of micro-pulse lidar (MPL) and High Spectral Resolution Lidar (HSRL) instrument data and companion automated cloud mask product at the mid-latitude Southern Great Plains (SGP) and the polar North Slope of Alaska (NSA) atmospheric observatory. Using this data, we train a fully convolutional network (FCN) with semi-supervised learning to segment lidar imagery into geometric time-height cloud locations for the SGP site and MPL instrument. We then use transfer learning to train a FCN for (1) the MPL instrument at the NSA site and (2) for the HSRL. In our semi-supervised approach, we pre-train the classification layers of the FCN with weakly labeled lidar data. Then, we facilitate end-to-end unsupervised pre-training and transition to fully supervised learning with ground truth labeled data. Our goal is to improve the cloud mask accuracy and precision for the MPL instrument to 95% and 80%, respectively, compared to the current cloud mask algorithms of 89% and 50%. For the transfer learning based FCN for the HSRL instrument, our goal is to achieve a cloud mask accuracy of 90% and a precision of 80%.

  11. Quinolinium 8-hy-droxy-7-iodo-quinoline-5-sulfonate 0.8-hydrate. (United States)

    Smith, Graham


    In the crystal structure of the title hydrated quinolinium salt of ferron (8-hy-droxy-7-iodo-quinoline-5-sulfonic acid), C9H7N(+)·C9H5INO4S(-)·0.8H2O, the quinolinium cation is fully disordered over two sites (occupancy factors fixed at 0.63 and 0.37) lying essentially within a common plane and with the ferron anions forming π-π-associated stacks down the b axis [minimum ring centroid separation = 3.462 (6) Å]. The cations and anions are linked into chains extending along c through hy-droxy O-H⋯O and quinolinium N-H⋯O hydrogen bonds to sulfonate O-atom acceptors which are also involved in water O-H⋯O hydrogen-bonding inter-actions along b, giving a two-dimensional network.

  12. Quinolinium 8-hydroxy-7-iodoquinoline-5-sulfonate 0.8-hydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graham Smith


    Full Text Available In the crystal structure of the title hydrated quinolinium salt of ferron (8-hydroxy-7-iodoquinoline-5-sulfonic acid, C9H7N+·C9H5INO4S−·0.8H2O, the quinolinium cation is fully disordered over two sites (occupancy factors fixed at 0.63 and 0.37 lying essentially within a common plane and with the ferron anions forming π–π-associated stacks down the b axis [minimum ring centroid separation = 3.462 (6 Å]. The cations and anions are linked into chains extending along c through hydroxy O—H...O and quinolinium N—H...O hydrogen bonds to sulfonate O-atom acceptors which are also involved in water O—H...O hydrogen-bonding interactions along b, giving a two-dimensional network.

  13. Seismic model of Mars: Effects of hydration (United States)

    Zharkov, V. N.; Gudkova, T. V.


    The arguments according to which the Martian minerals are assumed to contain large amount of water in the mantle minerals are given. As for the Earth, these minerals may constitute about 60 wt% of the Martian mantle, and can be considered as main components in their zones. In the mantle of the Earth the molecular concentration of Fe is about 10%, and for the mantle of Mars - about 20%. Taking into account twofold increase of Fe in Martian silicates in comparison with the terrestrial minerals, we have extrapolated the available partial experimental data of the hydration effect on the compressional and shear velocities of seismic waves in forsterite (olivine) and its high pressure phases - wadsleyite and ringwoodite for Martian conditions. The presence of water in the mantle of Mars may lead to the noticeable widening of the olivine-wadsleite phase transition zone, thus the determination of the olivine-wadsleite phase transition width by seismological methods could get a direct indication on the presence of water in the mantle of Mars. To find out real estimates of water content in the mantle of Mars is a task for the future seismic missions. The results of this article are important for InSight mission that will land a geophysical station on Mars in 2016.

  14. Effect of cations on the hydrated proton. (United States)

    Ottosson, Niklas; Hunger, Johannes; Bakker, Huib J


    We report on a strong nonadditive effect of protons and other cations on the structural dynamics of liquid water, which is revealed using dielectric relaxation spectroscopy in the frequency range of 1-50 GHz. For pure acid solutions, protons are known to have a strong structuring effect on water, leading to a pronounced decrease of the dielectric response. We observe that this structuring is reduced when protons are cosolvated with salts. This reduction is exclusively observed for combinations of protons with other ions; for all studied solutions of cosolvated salts, the effect on the structural dynamics of water is observed to be purely additive, even up to high concentrations. We derive an empirical model that quantitatively describes the nonadditive effect of cosolvated protons and cations. We argue that the effect can be explained from the special character of the proton in water and that Coulomb fields exerted by other cations, in particular doubly charged cations like Mg(2+)aq and Ca(2+)aq, induce a localization of the H(+)aq hydration structures.

  15. Environmental Impact of Natural Gas Hydrate Production (United States)

    Max, M. D.; Johnson, A. H.


    Unmet conventional energy demand is encouraging a number of deep energy importing nations closer to production of their potentially very large Natural Gas Hydrate (NGH) resources. As methane and other natural gases are potent greenhouse gases, concerns exist about the possible environmental risks associated NGH development. Accidental of natural gas would have environmental consequences. However, the special characteristics of NGH and production models indicate a very low environmental risk from the reservoir to the deepwater wellhead that is much lower than for conventional deepwater gas. NGH is naturally stable in its solid form in the reservoir and shutting in the gas can be achieved by stopping NGH conversion and gas production in the reservoir. Rapid shut down results in re-crystallization of gas and stabilization of the reservoir through NGH reformation. In addition, new options for innovative technologies have the potential to allow safe development of NGH at a fraction of the current estimated cost. Gas produced from NGH is about the same as processed conventional gas, although almost certainly more pure. Leakage of gas during transport is not a production issue. Gas transport leakage is a matter for best practices regulation that is rigorously enforced.

  16. DNA hydration studied by neutron fiber diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuller, W.; Forsyth, V.T.; Mahendrasingam, A.; Langan, P.; Pigram, W.J.


    The development of neutron high angle fiber diffraction to investigate the location of water around the deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) double-helix is described. The power of the technique is illustrated by its application to the D and A conformations of DNA using the single crystal diffractometer, D19, at the Institute Laue-Langevin, Grenoble and the time of flight diffractometer, SXD, at the Rutherford Appleton ISIS Spallation Neutron Source. These studies show the existence of bound water closely associated with the DNA. The patterns of hydration in these two DNA conformations are quite distinct and are compared to those observed in X-ray single crystal studies of two-stranded oligodeoxynucleotides. Information on the location of water around the DNA double-helix from the neutron fiber diffraction studies is combined with that on the location of alkali metal cations from complementary X-ray high angle fiber diffraction studies at the Daresbury Laboratory SRS using synchrotron radiation. These analyses emphasize the importance of viewing DNA, water and ions as a single system with specific interactions between the three components and provide a basis for understanding the effect of changes in the concentration of water and ions in inducing conformations] transitions in the DNA double-helix

  17. Phonon density of states in different clathrate hydrates measured by inelastic neutron scattering (United States)

    Celli, M.; Colognesi, D.; Ulivi, L.; Zoppi, M.; Ramirez-Cuesta, A. J.


    Clathrate hydrates, depending on the guest molecule type, generally exhibit one out of three different crystal structures: two cubic structures, sI and sII and one hexagonal structure, sH. In the past, our inelastic neutron scattering measurements on hydrogen clathrates have provided information on the quantum dynamics of the guest molecules in the water cages. Besides the guest dynamics, the dynamics of the water lattice itself has a large interest, due to the analogy with ice (e.g. proton disorder), and to the existence of various possible structures. Additionally, in these inclusion compounds, a coupling between the host and the guest motions is generally observed, and is considered to be relevant to explain the anomalous features of some macroscopic properties, such as thermal conductivity. Here, we present a systematic study of the H-projected phonon density of states (H-PDoS) of the lattice modes in clathrate hydrates. We have experimentally investigated the three existing structures (i.e. sI, sII, and sH) through inelastic neutron scattering measurements, and we have extracted the acoustic-optic and the librational H-PDoS's. By using proper isotopic substitutions, we have been able to tune the host scattering intensity with respect to the guest one. The studied samples consisted in three clathrates made of light water (namely, simple sI structure with Xe, simple sII structure with fully deuterated THF, and binary sH structure with MTBE and D2), and two made of heavy water (namely, simple sII structure with Ne, and simple sII structure with fully deuterated THF). The experimental results have been compared with lattice dynamics simulations performed by us.

  18. Study on molecular controlled mining system of methane hydrate; Methane hydrate no bunshi seigyo mining ni kansuru kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuriyagawa, M.; Saito, T.; Kobayashi, H.; Karasawa, H.; Kiyono , F.; Nagaoki, R.; Yamamoto, Y.; Komai, T.; Haneda, H.; Takahashi, Y. [National Institute for Resources and Environment, Tsukuba (Japan); Nada, H. [Science and Technology Agency, Tokyo (Japan)


    Basic studies are conducted for the collection of methane from the methane hydrate that exists at levels deeper than 500m in the sea. The relationship between the hydrate generation mechanism and water cluster structure is examined by use of mass spectronomy. It is found that, among the stable liquid phase clusters, the (H2O)21H{sup +} cluster is the most stable. Stable hydrate clusters are in presence in quantities, and participate in the formation of hydrate crystal nuclei. For the elucidation of the nucleus formation mechanism, a kinetic simulation is conducted of molecules in the cohesion system consisting of water and methane molecules. Water molecules that array near methane molecules at the normal pressure is disarrayed under a higher pressure for rearray into a hydrate structure. Hydrate formation and breakdown in the three-phase equilibrium state of H2O, CH4, and CO2 at a low temperature and high pressure are tested, which discloses that supercooling is required for formation, that it is possible to extract CH4 first for replacement by guest molecule CO2 since CO2 is stabler than CH4 at a lower pressure or higher temperature, and that formation is easier to take place when the grain diameter is larger at the formation point since larger grain diameters result in a higher formation temperature. 3 figs.

  19. Hydrate Evolution in Response to Ongoing Environmental Shifts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rempel, Alan [Univ. of Oregon, Eugene, OR (United States)


    Natural gas hydrates have the potential to become a vital domestic clean-burning energy source. However, past changes in environmental conditions have caused hydrates to become unstable and trigger both massive submarine landslides and the development of crater-like pockmarks, thereby releasing methane into the overlying seawater and atmosphere, where it acts as a powerful greenhouse gas. This project was designed to fill critical gaps in our understanding of domestic hydrate resources and improve forecasts for their response to environmental shifts. Project work can be separated into three interrelated components, each involving the development of predictive mathematical models. The first project component concerns the role of sediment properties on the development and dissociation of concentrated hydrate anomalies. To this end, we developed numerical models to predict equilibrium solubility of methane in twophase equilibrium with hydrate as a function of measureable porous medium characteristics. The second project component concerned the evolution of hydrate distribution in heterogeneous reservoirs. To this end, we developed numerical models to predict the growth and decay of anomalies in representative physical environments. The third project component concerned the stability of hydrate-bearing slopes under changing environmental conditions. To this end, we developed numerical treatments of pore pressure evolution and consolidation, then used "infinite-slope" analysis to approximate the landslide potential in representative physical environments, and developed a "rate-and-state" frictional formulation to assess the stability of finite slip patches that are hypothesized to develop in response to the dissociation of hydrate anomalies. The increased predictive capabilities that result from this work provide a framework for interpreting field observations of hydrate anomalies in terms of the history of environmental forcing that led to their development. Moreover

  20. Cryopegs as destabilization factor of intra-permafrost gas hydrates (United States)

    Chuvilin, Evgeny; Bukhanov, Boris; Istomin, Vladimir


    A characteristic feature of permafrost soils in the Arctic is widespread intra-permafrost unfrozen brine lenses - cryopegs. They are often found in permafrost horizons in the north part of Western Siberia, in particular, on the Yamal Peninsula. Cryopegs depths in permafrost zone can be tens and hundreds of meters from the top of frozen strata. The chemical composition of natural cryopegs is close to sea waters, but is characterized by high mineralization. They have a sodium-chloride primary composition with a minor amount of sulphate. Mineralization of cryopegs brine is often hundreds of grams per liter, and the temperature is around -6…-8 °C. The formation of cryopegs in permafrost is associated with processes of long-term freezing of sediments and cryogenic concentration of salts and salt solutions in local areas. The cryopegs' formation can take place in the course of permafrost evolution at the sea transgressions and regressions during freezing of saline sea sediments. Very important feature of cryopegs in permafrost is their transformation in the process of changing temperature and pressure conditions. As a result, the salinity and chemical composition are changed and in addition the cryopegs' location can be changed during their migration. The cryopegs migration violates the thermodynamic conditions of existence intra-permafrost gas hydrate formations, especially the relic gas hydrates deposits, which are situated in the shallow permafrost up to 100 meters depth in a metastable state [1]. The interaction cryopegs with gas hydrates accumulations can cause decomposition of intra-permafrost hydrates. Moreover, the increasing of salt and unfrozen water content in sedimentary rocks sharply reduce the efficiency of gas hydrates self-preservation in frozen soils. It is confirmed by experimental investigations of interaction of frozen gas hydrate bearing sediments with salt solutions [2]. So, horizons with elevated pressure can appear, as a result of gas hydrate

  1. Low-δD hydration rinds in Yellowstone perlites record rapid syneruptive hydration during glacial and interglacial conditions (United States)

    Bindeman, Ilya N.; Lowenstern, Jacob B.


    Hydration of silicic volcanic glass forms perlite, a dusky, porous form of altered glass characterized by abundant “onion-skin” fractures. The timing and temperature of perlite formation are enigmatic and could plausibly occur during eruption, during post-eruptive cooling, or much later at ambient temperatures. To learn more about the origin of natural perlite, and to fingerprint the hydration waters, we investigated perlitic glass from several synglacial and interglacial rhyolitic lavas and tuffs from the Yellowstone volcanic system. Perlitic cores are surrounded by a series of conchoidal cracks that separate 30- to 100-µm-thick slivers, likely formed in response to hydration-induced stress. H2O and D/H profiles confirm that most D/H exchange happens together with rapid H2O addition but some smoother D/H variations may suggest separate minor exchange by deuterium atom interdiffusion following hydration. The hydrated rinds (2–3 wt% H2O) transition rapidly (within 30 µm, or by 1 wt% H2O per 10 µm) to unhydrated glass cores. This is consistent with quenched “hydration fronts” where H2O diffusion coefficients are strongly dependent on H2O concentrations. The chemical, δ18O, and δD systematics of bulk glass records last equilibrium between ~110 and 60 °C without chemical exchange but with some δ18O exchange. Similarly, the δ18O of water extracted from glass by rapid heating suggests that water was added to the glass during cooling at higher rates of diffusion at 60–110 °C temperatures, compared with values expected from extrapolation of high-temperature (>400 °C) experimental data. The thick hydration rinds in perlites, measuring hundreds of microns, preserve the original D/H values of hydrating water as a recorder of paleoclimate conditions. Measured δD values in perlitic lavas are −150 to −191 or 20–40 ‰ lower than glass hydrated by modern Yellowstone waters. This suggests that Yellowstone perlites record the low-δD signature

  2. Electron density analysis of the effects of sugars on the structure of lipid bilayers at low hydration - a preliminary study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lenné, T.; Kent, B.; Koster, K.L.; Garvey, C.J.; Bryant, G. (ANSTO); (USD); (ANU); (RMIT)


    Small angle X-ray scattering is used to study the effects of sugars on membranes during dehydration. Previous work has shown that the bilayer and chain-chain repeat spacings of DPPC bilayers are relatively unaffected by the presence of sugars. In this work we present a preliminary analysis of the electron density profiles of DPPC in the presence of sugars at low hydration. The difficulties of determining the correct phasing are discussed. Sugars and other small solutes have been shown to have an important role in improving the tolerance of a range of species to desiccation and freezing. In particular it has been shown that sugars can stabilize membranes in the fluid membrane phase during dehydration, and in the fully dehydrated state. Equivalently, at a particular hydration, the presence of sugars lowers the transition temperature between the fluid and gel phases. There are two competing models for explaining the effects of sugars on membrane phase transition temperatures. One, designated the water replacement hypothesis (WRH) states that sugars hydrogen bond to phospholipid headgroups, thus hindering the fluid-gel phase transition. One version of this model suggests that certain sugars (such as trehalose) achieve the measured effects by inserting between the phospholipid head groups. An alternative model explains the observed effects of sugars in terms of the sugars effect on the hydration repulsion that develops between opposing membranes during dehydration. The hydration repulsion leads to a lateral compressive stress in the bilayer which squeezes adjacent lipids more closely together, resulting in a transition to the gel phase. When sugars are present, their osmotic and volumetric effects reduce the hydration repulsion, reduce the compressive stress in the membranes, and therefore tend to maintain the average lateral separation between lipids. This model is called the hydration forces explanation (HFE). We recently showed that neither mono- nor di

  3. Fully 3D refraction correction dosimetry system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manjappa, Rakesh; Makki, S Sharath; Kanhirodan, Rajan; Kumar, Rajesh; Vasu, Ram Mohan


    The irradiation of selective regions in a polymer gel dosimeter results in an increase in optical density and refractive index (RI) at those regions. An optical tomography-based dosimeter depends on rayline path through the dosimeter to estimate and reconstruct the dose distribution. The refraction of light passing through a dose region results in artefacts in the reconstructed images. These refraction errors are dependant on the scanning geometry and collection optics. We developed a fully 3D image reconstruction algorithm, algebraic reconstruction technique-refraction correction (ART-rc) that corrects for the refractive index mismatches present in a gel dosimeter scanner not only at the boundary, but also for any rayline refraction due to multiple dose regions inside the dosimeter. In this study, simulation and experimental studies have been carried out to reconstruct a 3D dose volume using 2D CCD measurements taken for various views. The study also focuses on the effectiveness of using different refractive-index matching media surrounding the gel dosimeter. Since the optical density is assumed to be low for a dosimeter, the filtered backprojection is routinely used for reconstruction. We carry out the reconstructions using conventional algebraic reconstruction (ART) and refractive index corrected ART (ART-rc) algorithms. The reconstructions based on FDK algorithm for cone-beam tomography has also been carried out for comparison. Line scanners and point detectors, are used to obtain reconstructions plane by plane. The rays passing through dose region with a RI mismatch does not reach the detector in the same plane depending on the angle of incidence and RI. In the fully 3D scanning setup using 2D array detectors, light rays that undergo refraction are still collected and hence can still be accounted for in the reconstruction algorithm. It is found that, for the central region of the dosimeter, the usable radius using ART-rc algorithm with water as RI matched

  4. The U.S. Geological Survey’s Gas Hydrates Project (United States)

    Ruppel, Carolyn D.


    The Gas Hydrates Project at the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) focuses on the study of methane hydrates in natural environments. The project is a collaboration between the USGS Energy Resources and the USGS Coastal and Marine Geology Programs and works closely with other U.S. Federal agencies, some State governments, outside research organizations, and international partners. The USGS studies the formation and distribution of gas hydrates in nature, the potential of hydrates as an energy resource, and the interaction between methane hydrates and the environment. The USGS Gas Hydrates Project carries out field programs and participates in drilling expeditions to study marine and terrestrial gas hydrates. USGS scientists also acquire new geophysical data and sample sediments, the water column, and the atmosphere in areas where gas hydrates occur. In addition, project personnel analyze datasets provided by partners and manage unique laboratories that supply state-of-the-art analytical capabilities to advance national and international priorities related to gas hydrates.

  5. A Circuit Model of Real Time Human Body Hydration. (United States)

    Asogwa, Clement Ogugua; Teshome, Assefa K; Collins, Stephen F; Lai, Daniel T H


    Changes in human body hydration leading to excess fluid losses or overload affects the body fluid's ability to provide the necessary support for healthy living. We propose a time-dependent circuit model of real-time human body hydration, which models the human body tissue as a signal transmission medium. The circuit model predicts the attenuation of a propagating electrical signal. Hydration rates are modeled by a time constant τ, which characterizes the individual specific metabolic function of the body part measured. We define a surrogate human body anthropometric parameter θ by the muscle-fat ratio and comparing it with the body mass index (BMI), we find theoretically, the rate of hydration varying from 1.73 dB/min, for high θ and low τ to 0.05 dB/min for low θ and high τ. We compare these theoretical values with empirical measurements and show that real-time changes in human body hydration can be observed by measuring signal attenuation. We took empirical measurements using a vector network analyzer and obtained different hydration rates for various BMI, ranging from 0.6 dB/min for 22.7 [Formula: see text] down to 0.04 dB/min for 41.2 [Formula: see text]. We conclude that the galvanic coupling circuit model can predict changes in the volume of the body fluid, which are essential in diagnosing and monitoring treatment of body fluid disorder. Individuals with high BMI would have higher time-dependent biological characteristic, lower metabolic rate, and lower rate of hydration.

  6. Formation of methane hydrate from polydisperse ice powders. (United States)

    Kuhs, Werner F; Staykova, Doroteya K; Salamatin, Andrey N


    Neutron diffraction runs and gas-consumption experiments based on pressure-volume-temperature measurements are conducted to study the kinetics of methane hydrate formation from hydrogenated and deuterated ice powder samples in the temperature range of 245-270 K up to high degrees of transformation. An improved theory of the hydrate growth in a polydisperse ensemble of randomly packed ice spheres is developed to provide a quantitative interpretation of the data in terms of kinetic model parameters. This paper continues the research line of our earlier study which was limited to the monodisperse case and shorter reaction times (Staykova et al., 2003). As before, we distinguish the process of initial hydrate film spreading over the ice particle surface (stage I) and the subsequent hydrate shell growth (stage II) which includes two steps, i.e., an interfacial clathration reaction and the gas and water transport (diffusion) through the hydrate layer surrounding the shrinking ice cores. Although kinetics of hydrate formation at stage II is clearly dominated by the diffusion mechanism which becomes the limiting step at temperatures above 263 K, both steps are shown to be essential at lower temperatures. The permeation coefficient D is estimated as (1.46 +/- 0.44) x 10(-12) m2/h at 263 K with an activation energy Q(D) approximately 52.1 kJ/mol. This value is close to the energy of breaking hydrogen bonds in ice Ih and suggests that this process is the rate-limiting step in hydrate formation from ice in the slower diffusion-controlled part of the reaction.

  7. PVT Panels. Fully renewable and competitive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakker, M.; Strootman, K.J.; Jong, M.J.M.


    A photovoltaic/thermal (PVT) panel is a combination of photovoltaic cells with a solar thermal collector, generating solar electricity and solar heat simultaneously. PVT panels generate more solar energy per unit surface area than a combination of separate PV panels and solar thermal collectors, and share the aesthetic advantage of PV. After several years of research, PVT panels have been developed into a product that is now ready for market introduction. One of the most promising system concepts, consisting of 25 m 2 of PVT panels and a ground coupled heat pump, has been simulated in TRNSYS, and has been found to be able to fully cover both the building related electricity and heat consumption, while keeping the long-term average ground temperature constant. The cost and payback time of such a system have been determined; it has been found that the payback time of this system is approximately two-thirds of the payback time of an identical system but with 21 m 2 of PV panels and 4 m 2 of solar thermal collectors. Finally, by looking at the expected growth in the PV and solar thermal collector market, the market potential for for PVT panels has been found to be very large

  8. The first LHC sector is fully interconnected

    CERN Multimedia


    Sector 7-8 is the first sector of the LHC to become fully operational. All the magnets, cryogenic line, vacuum chambers and services are interconnected. The cool down of this sector can soon commence. LHC project leader Lyn Evans, the teams from CERN's AT/MCS, AT/VAC and AT/MEL groups, and the members of the IEG consortium celebrate the completion of the first LHC sector. The 10th of November was a red letter day for the LHC accelerator teams, marking the completion of the first sector of the machine. The magnets of sector 7-8, together with the cryogenic line, the vacuum chambers and the distribution feedboxes (DFBs) are now all completely interconnected. Sector 7-8 has thus been closed and is the first LHC sector to become operational. The interconnection work required several thousand electrical, cryogenic and insulating connections to be made on the 210 interfaces between the magnets in the arc, the 30 interfaces between the special magnets and the interfaces with the cryogenic line. 'This represent...

  9. A fully relativistic definition of the geoid (United States)

    Laemmerzahl, C.; Hackmann, E.; Perlick, V.; Philipp, D.; Puetzfeld, D.


    The present definition of the geoid is based on the Newtonian potential together with the potential related to centrifugal force of the rotating Earth. All time-dependencies due to, e.g., seasonal variations are removed from this definition. The geoid is defined as to be related to the rigid part of the rotating Earth. Upcoming high precision gravimeters and gradiometers as well as optical clocks and clock networks make it necessary to propose a definition of the geoid solely in terms of General Relativity.The new definition of the geoid will be stated within the framework of General Relativity. In this framework we model atomic clocks by standard clocks showing the proper time along their worldline, and we model the Earth in terms of a rigidly rotating gravitating body. The second assumption gives that space-time is equipped with a time-like Killing vector. The norm of this Killing vector is a scalar function which (i) describes the acceleration of freely falling bodies on the surface of the Earth, and (ii) gives the redshift of atomic clocks whose ticking rate can be compared using connecting light rays or optical fibers. It can be shown that in the nonrelativistic limit this generalized potential gives the usual Newtonian potential. Therefore, this scalar function can be taken as the basis for a natural and fully general relativistic generalization of the geoid based on Newtonian gravitational physics. Finally, for certain space-times we will present examples for the geoid.

  10. Fully Resolved Simulations of 3D Printing (United States)

    Tryggvason, Gretar; Xia, Huanxiong; Lu, Jiacai


    Numerical simulations of Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM) (or Fused Filament Fabrication) where a filament of hot, viscous polymer is deposited to ``print'' a three-dimensional object, layer by layer, are presented. A finite volume/front tracking method is used to follow the injection, cooling, solidification and shrinking of the filament. The injection of the hot melt is modeled using a volume source, combined with a nozzle, modeled as an immersed boundary, that follows a prescribed trajectory. The viscosity of the melt depends on the temperature and the shear rate and the polymer becomes immobile as its viscosity increases. As the polymer solidifies, the stress is found by assuming a hyperelastic constitutive equation. The method is described and its accuracy and convergence properties are tested by grid refinement studies for a simple setup involving two short filaments, one on top of the other. The effect of the various injection parameters, such as nozzle velocity and injection velocity are briefly examined and the applicability of the approach to simulate the construction of simple multilayer objects is shown. The role of fully resolved simulations for additive manufacturing and their use for novel processes and as the ``ground truth'' for reduced order models is discussed.

  11. Fully inkjet-printed microwave passive electronics

    KAUST Repository

    McKerricher, Garret


    Fully inkjet-printed three-dimensional (3D) objects with integrated metal provide exciting possibilities for on-demand fabrication of radio frequency electronics such as inductors, capacitors, and filters. To date, there have been several reports of printed radio frequency components metallized via the use of plating solutions, sputtering, and low-conductivity pastes. These metallization techniques require rather complex fabrication, and do not provide an easily integrated or versatile process. This work utilizes a novel silver ink cured with a low-cost infrared lamp at only 80 °C, and achieves a high conductivity of 1×107 S m−1. By inkjet printing the infrared-cured silver together with a commercial 3D inkjet ultraviolet-cured acrylic dielectric, a multilayer process is demonstrated. By using a smoothing technique, both the conductive ink and dielectric provide surface roughness values of <500 nm. A radio frequency inductor and capacitor exhibit state-of-the-art quality factors of 8 and 20, respectively, and match well with electromagnetic simulations. These components are implemented in a lumped element radio frequency filter with an impressive insertion loss of 0.8 dB at 1 GHz, proving the utility of the process for sensitive radio frequency applications.

  12. Quantum Optimization of Fully Connected Spin Glasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davide Venturelli


    Full Text Available Many NP-hard problems can be seen as the task of finding a ground state of a disordered highly connected Ising spin glass. If solutions are sought by means of quantum annealing, it is often necessary to represent those graphs in the annealer’s hardware by means of the graph-minor embedding technique, generating a final Hamiltonian consisting of coupled chains of ferromagnetically bound spins, whose binding energy is a free parameter. In order to investigate the effect of embedding on problems of interest, the fully connected Sherrington-Kirkpatrick model with random ±1 couplings is programmed on the D-Wave Two^{TM} annealer using up to 270 qubits interacting on a Chimera-type graph. We present the best embedding prescriptions for encoding the Sherrington-Kirkpatrick problem in the Chimera graph. The results indicate that the optimal choice of embedding parameters could be associated with the emergence of the spin-glass phase of the embedded problem, whose presence was previously uncertain. This optimal parameter setting allows the performance of the quantum annealer to compete with (and potentially outperform, in the absence of analog control errors optimized simulated annealing algorithms.

  13. Exploring and Monitoring of Methane Hydrate Deposits (United States)

    Sudac, D.; Obhođaš, J.; Nađ, K.; Valković, V.


    Relatively recently, in the last 20 years, it was discovered that methane hydrate (MH) deposits are globally distributed in the permafrost and oceans. Before 1965 when first deposits were discovered in nature, it was believed that MH can occur only in laboratory conditions or in vast parts of the Universe. Presently it is presumed that this solid crystalline compounds in which CH4 molecules occupies the water ice lattices (nominal chemical formula of MH is C4H62O23) can serve as an energy source favorably to the all of the world remaining conventional hydrocarbon sources. The worldwide estimates of MH deposits range from 2x1014 m3 to 3.053x1018 cubic meters. This uncertainty partly results from our limitations in geological understanding of the MH deposits, which is due to the relatively bad quality of data obtained by presently available seismic and electromagnetic techniques. Moreover, MH deposits can become vulnerable to climate changes, which were already occurring in geological past whit tremendous consequences for the global life on Earth. Thus, further development of advanced techniques is needed to enhance our abilities to better characterize, quantify and monitor the MH deposits. In the work presented 14 MeV neutrons and associated alpha particle imaging (API) where used to quantify the amount of MH in the sample. Samples were prepared from sea sediment, quartz sand and MH simulant. MH simulant with chemical formula C4H46O23 was made from sucrose (25 % by mass) and water. MH quantity was measured by measuring the carbon content in the sample [1-8].

  14. Hydration Status of Adult Population of Yazd

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MH Lotfi


    Full Text Available Introduction: Water is an essential nutrient for life. It comprises 75% of total body weight in infants,60% in adult males and 50% in adult females. Decrease in body water is commonly known as dehydration. Acute or chronic dehydration is a common condition in some population groups, especialy the elderly and those who participate in physical activity in warm enviroments. Potential consequences of dehydration include constipation,urinary tract and respiratory infection,urinary stone disease and there might also be an association between a low habitual fluid intake and some carcinomas,cardiovascular disease and diabetes. Many indices have been investigated to establish their role as markers of dehydration status. Body mass changes,blood indices,urine indices and bioelectrical impedance analysis have been used most widely, but current evidence and opinion tend to favour urine indices as the most convenient and sensitive methods. Methods: This cross sectional study was done for estimating the prevalence of dehydration in adult population(students,nurses,officials,workersin Yazd. These persons were selected randomly. Urine samples of two hundred and thirty persons were obtained at 10-12 AM,and urine specific gravity measured by refractometer (all of the samplesand dip stick (some samples. Finding: According to this study,96.7% of our population had some degree of dehydration.69.7% of them were significantly dehydrated(urine SG>1020 and 4.8% of them were severely dehydrated (urine SG>1030 and the mean specific gravity was 1021±5/65. This study evaluated other factors that could probably indicate hydration status like urine colour, type of drink,frequency of urination and frequency of thirst per day. Conclusion: High percentage of our population were dehydrated which was not correlated to the type of drink but was correlated to urine colour, frequency of urination and frequency of thirst. So, regular monitoring of urine to keep if clear or light


    Ning, F.; Wu, N.; Jiang, G.; Zhang, L.


    Under the condition of over-pressure drilling, the solid-phase and liquid-phase in drilling fluids immediately penetrate into the oceanic gas hydrates-bearing sediment, which causes the water content surrounding the borehole to increase largely. At the same time, the hydrates surrounding borehole maybe quickly decompose into water and gas because of the rapid change of temperature and pressure. The drilling practices prove that this two factors may change the rock characteristics of wellbore, such as rock strength, pore pressure, resistivity, etc., and then affect the logging response and evaluation, wellbore stability and well safty. The invasion of filtrate can lower the angle of friction and weaken the cohesion of hydrates-bearing sediment,which is same to the effect of invading into conventional oil and gas formation on borehole mechnical properties. The difference is that temperature isn’t considered in the invasion process of conventional formations while in hydrates-bearing sediments, it is a factor that can not be ignored. Temperature changes can result in hydrates dissociating, which has a great effect on mechanical properties of borehole. With the application of numerical simulation method, we studied the changes of pore pressure and variation of water content in the gas hydrates-bearing sediment caused by drilling fluid invasion under pressure differential and gas hydrate dissociation under temperature differential and analyzed their influence on borehole stability.The result of simulation indicated that the temperature near borehole increased quickly and changed hardly any after 6 min later. About 1m away from the borehole, the temperature of formation wasn’t affected by the temperature change of borehole. At the place near borehole, as gas hydrate dissociated dramatically and drilling fluid invaded quickly, the pore pressure increased promptly. The degree of increase depends on the permeability and speed of temperature rise of formation around

  16. Hydration study of ordinary portland cement in the presence of zinc ions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Adriana Trezza


    Full Text Available Hydration products of Portland cement pastes, hydrated in water and in the presence of zinc ions were studied comparatively at different ages. Hydration products were studied by X ray diffractions (XRD and infrared spectroscopy (IR. Although IR is not frequently used in cement chemistry, it evidenced a new phase Ca(Zn(OH32. 2H2O formed during cement hydration in the presence of zinc. The significant retardation of early cement hydration in the presence of zinc is assessed in detail by differential calorimetry as a complement to the study carried out by IR and XRD, providing evidence that permits to evaluate the kinetic of the early hydration.

  17. Hydrocarbon characterization experiments in fully turbulent fires.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ricks, Allen; Blanchat, Thomas K.


    As the capabilities of numerical simulations increase, decision makers are increasingly relying upon simulations rather than experiments to assess risks across a wide variety of accident scenarios including fires. There are still, however, many aspects of fires that are either not well understood or are difficult to treat from first principles due to the computational expense. For a simulation to be truly predictive and to provide decision makers with information which can be reliably used for risk assessment the remaining physical processes must be studied and suitable models developed for the effects of the physics. The model for the fuel evaporation rate in a liquid fuel pool fire is significant because in well-ventilated fires the evaporation rate largely controls the total heat release rate from the fire. A set of experiments are outlined in this report which will provide data for the development and validation of models for the fuel regression rates in liquid hydrocarbon fuel fires. The experiments will be performed on fires in the fully turbulent scale range (> 1 m diameter) and with a number of hydrocarbon fuels ranging from lightly sooting to heavily sooting. The importance of spectral absorption in the liquid fuels and the vapor dome above the pool will be investigated and the total heat flux to the pool surface will be measured. The importance of convection within the liquid fuel will be assessed by restricting large scale liquid motion in some tests. These data sets will provide a sound, experimentally proven basis for assessing how much of the liquid fuel needs to be modeled to enable a predictive simulation of a fuel fire given the couplings between evaporation of fuel from the pool and the heat release from the fire which drives the evaporation.

  18. Stability Analysis of Methane Hydrate-Bearing Soils Considering Dissociation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiromasa Iwai


    Full Text Available It is well known that the methane hydrate dissociation process may lead to unstable behavior such as large ground deformations, uncontrollable gas production, etc. A linear instability analysis was performed in order to investigate which variables have a significant effect on the onset of the instability behavior of methane hydrate-bearing soils subjected to dissociation. In the analysis a simplified viscoplastic constitutive equation is used for the soil sediment. The stability analysis shows that the onset of instability of the material system mainly depends on the strain hardening-softening parameter, the degree of strain, and the permeability for water and gas. Then, we conducted a numerical analysis of gas hydrate-bearing soil considering hydrate dissociation in order to investigate the effect of the parameters on the system. The simulation method used in the present study can describe the chemo-thermo-mechanically coupled behaviors such as phase changes from hydrates to water and gas, temperature changes and ground deformation. From the numerical results, we found that basically the larger the permeability for water and gas is, the more stable the simulation results are. These results are consistent with those obtained from the linear stability analysis.

  19. Integrating Natural Gas Hydrates in the Global Carbon Cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Archer; Bruce Buffett


    We produced a two-dimensional geological time- and basin-scale model of the sedimentary margin in passive and active settings, for the simulation of the deep sedimentary methane cycle including hydrate formation. Simulation of geochemical data required development of parameterizations for bubble transport in the sediment column, and for the impact of the heterogeneity in the sediment pore fluid flow field, which represent new directions in modeling methane hydrates. The model is somewhat less sensitive to changes in ocean temperature than our previous 1-D model, due to the different methane transport mechanisms in the two codes (pore fluid flow vs. bubble migration). The model is very sensitive to reasonable changes in organic carbon deposition through geologic time, and to details of how the bubbles migrate, in particular how efficiently they are trapped as they rise through undersaturated or oxidizing chemical conditions and the hydrate stability zone. The active margin configuration reproduces the elevated hydrate saturations observed in accretionary wedges such as the Cascadia Margin, but predicts a decrease in the methane inventory per meter of coastline relative to a comparable passive margin case, and a decrease in the hydrate inventory with an increase in the plate subduction rate.

  20. Acoustical method of whole-body hydration status monitoring (United States)

    Sarvazyan, A. P.; Tsyuryupa, S. N.; Calhoun, M.; Utter, A.


    An acoustical handheld hydration monitor (HM) for assessing the water balance of the human body was developed. Dehydration is a critical public health problem. Many elderly over age of 65 are particularly vulnerable as are infants and young children. Given that dehydration is both preventable and reversible, the need for an easy-to-perform method for the detection of water imbalance is of the utmost clinical importance. The HM is based on an experimental fact that ultrasound velocity in muscle is a linear function of water content and can be referenced to the hydration status of the body. Studies on the validity of HM for the assessment of whole-body hydration status were conducted in the Appalachian State University, USA, on healthy young adults and on elderly subjects residing at an assisted living facility. The HM was able to track changes in total body water during periods of acute dehydration and rehydration in athletes and day-to-day and diurnal variability of hydration in elderly. Results of human studies indicate that HM has a potential to become an efficient tool for detecting abnormal changes in the body hydration status.

  1. Dynamics of hydrated saccharides of interest in food science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Bari, M.; Albanese, G.; Cavatorta, F.; Deriu, A.


    Complete text of publication follows. Hydration processes play a relevant role in many fields of fundamental food science, and in industrial food processing. Water determines the presence of dynamic transitions similar to the ones observed in synthetic polymers. The glass transition temperature, T G , in particular, is an important parameter in determining the stability of food systems. A systematic study of the influence of hydration was made on the dynamics of starch and of its main saccharide constituents, amylose and amylopectine, by X-ray, neutron, and Moessbauer γ-ray scattering. Here we report the results of neutron elastic scattering measurements performed on amylose and amylopectine from 20 K to 320 K using the backscattering spectrometer IN13 at the ILL. In the dry samples the temperature dependence of the proton mean square displacement, (u 2 ), shows a harmonic behaviour up to 320 K. For the hydrated samples we observe a low temperature regime (up to ∼230 K for amylose, and ∼250 K for amylopectine) where (u 2 ) is harmonic and almost hydration independent. A 'glass-like' kinetic transition then shows up with a large increase in (u 2 ). The anharmonic contribution to (u 2 ) can be described in terms of conformational transitions in a double well potential. The observed transition temperatures markedly vary with hydration, and they are systematically higher than those observed in globular proteins. (author)

  2. Systemic hydration: relating science to clinical practice in vocal health. (United States)

    Hartley, Naomi A; Thibeault, Susan L


    To examine the current state of the science regarding the role of systemic hydration in vocal function and health. Literature review. Literature search spanning multiple disciplines, including speech-language pathology, nutrition and dietetics, medicine, sports and exercise science, physiology, and biomechanics. The relationship between hydration and physical function is an area of common interest among multiple professions. Each discipline provides valuable insight into the connection between performance and water balance, as well as complimentary methods of investigation. Existing voice literature suggests a relationship between hydration and voice production; however, the underlying mechanisms are not yet defined and a treatment effect for systemic hydration remains to be demonstrated. Literature from other disciplines sheds light on methodological shortcomings and, in some cases, offers an alternative explanation for observed phenomena. A growing body of literature in the field of voice science is documenting a relationship between hydration and vocal function; however, greater understanding is required to guide best practice in the maintenance of vocal health and management of voice disorders. Integration of knowledge and technical expertise from multiple disciplines facilitates analysis of existing literature and provides guidance as to future research. Copyright © 2014 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Hydrate prevention in petroleum production sub sea system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigues, Paula L.F.; Rocha, Humberto A.R. [Universidade Estacio de Sa (UNESA), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Rodrigues, Antonio P. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil)


    In spite of the merits of the several hydrate prevention techniques used nowadays, such as: chemical product injection for inhibition and use of thick thermal insulate lines; hydrates per times happen and they are responsible for considerable production losses. Depressurization techniques can be used so much for prevention as in the remediation. Some hydrate removal techniques need a rig or vessel, resources not readily available and with high cost, reason that limits such techniques just for remediation and not for prevention. In the present work it is proposed and described an innovative depressurization system, remote and resident, for hydrate prevention and removal, applicable as for individual sub sea wells as for grouped wells by manifold. Based on low cost jet pumps, without movable parts and with a high reliability, this technique allows hydrate prevention or remediation in a fast and remote way, operated from the production unit. The power fluid line and fluid return line can be integrated in the same umbilical or annulus line structure, without significant increase in the construction costs and installation. It is not necessary to wait for expensive resource mobilization, sometimes not available quickly, such as: vessels or rigs. It still reduces the chemical product consumption and permits to depressurized stopped lines. Other additional advantage, depressurization procedure can be used in the well starting, removing fluid until riser emptying. (author)

  4. Modelling the incongruent dissolution of hydrated cement minerals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berner, U.R.


    Hydrated calciumsilicates are the main constituents of hydrated portland cements. Their chemistry will strongly influence the longterm behaviour of a concrete system envisioned in use in radioactive waste repositories. Experimental data show that hydrated calciumsilicates dissolve incongruently, depending on the calcium/silicon ratio of the solid. A model that simulates the incongruent dissolution behaviour of these hydrated calciumsilicates is presented. In the model the hydrated calciumcilicates are represented as a mixture of two congruently soluble components. The dissolution of the particular components is described using the concept of variable activities in the solid state. Each component's activity in the solid state is obtained from a large body of solubility data by applying the Gibbs-Duhem equation for nonideal mixtures. Using this approach a simplified set of equations, which describe the solubility of the components as a function of the calcium/silicon ratio of the solid, is derived. As an application, the degradation of a standard portland cement in pure water and in a carbonate-rich groundwater is modelled. (orig.)

  5. The use of hydrated lime in acid mine drainage treatment (United States)

    Othman, Anuar; Sulaiman, Azli; Sulaiman, Shamsul Kamal


    Hydrated lime also known as calcium hydroxide with chemical formula Ca(OH)2 was used in this study as neutralization agent in acid mine drainage (AMD) treatment. Hydrated lime that is used to treat pool water samples from tin tailings located in Pengkalan Hulu, Perak was obtained from Simpang Pulai, Perak. The pH of water sample was around 2.6 to 2.8. Ten different variables of hydrated lime weights were used to treat 1 L of water sample. The weights of hydrated lime used were 0.2 g, 0.4 g, 0.6 g, 0.8 g, 1.0 g, 1.2 g, 1.4 g, 1.6 g, 1.8 g and 2.0 g. Time interval used was every 5 minutes up to minutes 30. Jar test method was used in this study. The maximum pH value of 5.93 ± 0.03 most approaches standard A and had complied standard B have been obtained using 2.0 g hydrated lime in 30-minute time interval. The concentration of arsenic, cadmium and chromium had decreased but only cadmium concentration did not comply with Standards A and B.

  6. Gas Hydrate Research Database and Web Dissemination Channel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Micheal Frenkel; Kenneth Kroenlein; V Diky; R.D. Chirico; A. Kazakow; C.D. Muzny; M. Frenkel


    To facilitate advances in application of technologies pertaining to gas hydrates, a United States database containing experimentally-derived information about those materials was developed. The Clathrate Hydrate Physical Property Database (NIST Standard Reference Database {number_sign} 156) was developed by the TRC Group at NIST in Boulder, Colorado paralleling a highly-successful database of thermodynamic properties of molecular pure compounds and their mixtures and in association with an international effort on the part of CODATA to aid in international data sharing. Development and population of this database relied on the development of three components of information-processing infrastructure: (1) guided data capture (GDC) software designed to convert data and metadata into a well-organized, electronic format, (2) a relational data storage facility to accommodate all types of numerical and metadata within the scope of the project, and (3) a gas hydrate markup language (GHML) developed to standardize data communications between 'data producers' and 'data users'. Having developed the appropriate data storage and communication technologies, a web-based interface for both the new Clathrate Hydrate Physical Property Database, as well as Scientific Results from the Mallik 2002 Gas Hydrate Production Research Well Program was developed and deployed at

  7. Methane Hydrate Field Program. Development of a Scientific Plan for a Methane Hydrate-Focused Marine Drilling, Logging and Coring Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collett, Tim [U.S. Geological Survey, Boulder, CO (United States); Bahk, Jang-Jun [Korea Inst. of Geoscience and Mineral Resources, Daejeon (Korea); Frye, Matt [U.S. Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Sterling, VA (United States); Goldberg, Dave [Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, Palisades, NY (United States); Husebo, Jarle [Statoil ASA, Stavenger (Norway); Koh, Carolyn [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States); Malone, Mitch [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States); Shipp, Craig [Shell International Exploration and Production Inc., Anchorage, AK (United States); Torres, Marta [Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States); Myers, Greg [Consortium For Ocean Leadership Inc., Washington, DC (United States); Divins, David [Consortium For Ocean Leadership Inc., Washington, DC (United States); Morell, Margo [Consortium For Ocean Leadership Inc., Washington, DC (United States)


    This topical report represents a pathway toward better understanding of the impact of marine methane hydrates on safety and seafloor stability and future collection of data that can be used by scientists, engineers, managers and planners to study climate change and to assess the feasibility of marine methane hydrate as a potential future energy resource. Our understanding of the occurrence, distribution and characteristics of marine methane hydrates is incomplete; therefore, research must continue to expand if methane hydrates are to be used as a future energy source. Exploring basins with methane hydrates has been occurring for over 30 years, but these efforts have been episodic in nature. To further our understanding, these efforts must be more regular and employ new techniques to capture more data. This plan identifies incomplete areas of methane hydrate research and offers solutions by systematically reviewing known methane hydrate “Science Challenges” and linking them with “Technical Challenges” and potential field program locations.

  8. Towards a Scalable Fully-Implicit Fully-coupled Resistive MHD Formulation with Stabilized FE Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shadid, J N; Pawlowski, R P; Banks, J W; Chacon, L; Lin, P T; Tuminaro, R S


    This paper presents an initial study that is intended to explore the development of a scalable fully-implicit stabilized unstructured finite element (FE) capability for low-Mach-number resistive MHD. The discussion considers the development of the stabilized FE formulation and the underlying fully-coupled preconditioned Newton-Krylov nonlinear iterative solver. To enable robust, scalable and efficient solution of the large-scale sparse linear systems generated by the Newton linearization, fully-coupled algebraic multilevel preconditioners are employed. Verification results demonstrate the expected order-of-acuracy for the stabilized FE discretization of a 2D vector potential form for the steady and transient solution of the resistive MHD system. In addition, this study puts forth a set of challenging prototype problems that include the solution of an MHD Faraday conduction pump, a hydromagnetic Rayleigh-Bernard linear stability calculation, and a magnetic island coalescence problem. Initial results that explore the scaling of the solution methods are presented on up to 4096 processors for problems with up to 64M unknowns on a CrayXT3/4. Additionally, a large-scale proof-of-capability calculation for 1 billion unknowns for the MHD Faraday pump problem on 24,000 cores is presented.

  9. An effective medium inversion algorithm for gas hydrate quantification and its application to laboratory and borehole measurements of gas hydrate-bearing sediments (United States)

    Chand, S.; Minshull, T.A.; Priest, J.A.; Best, A.I.; Clayton, C.R.I.; Waite, W.F.


    The presence of gas hydrate in marine sediments alters their physical properties. In some circumstances, gas hydrate may cement sediment grains together and dramatically increase the seismic P- and S-wave velocities of the composite medium. Hydrate may also form a load-bearing structure within the sediment microstructure, but with different seismic wave attenuation characteristics, changing the attenuation behaviour of the composite. Here we introduce an inversion algorithm based on effective medium modelling to infer hydrate saturations from velocity and attenuation measurements on hydrate-bearing sediments. The velocity increase is modelled as extra binding developed by gas hydrate that strengthens the sediment microstructure. The attenuation increase is modelled through a difference in fluid flow properties caused by different permeabilities in the sediment and hydrate microstructures. We relate velocity and attenuation increases in hydrate-bearing sediments to their hydrate content, using an effective medium inversion algorithm based on the self-consistent approximation (SCA), differential effective medium (DEM) theory, and Biot and squirt flow mechanisms of fluid flow. The inversion algorithm is able to convert observations in compressional and shear wave velocities and attenuations to hydrate saturation in the sediment pore space. We applied our algorithm to a data set from the Mallik 2L–38 well, Mackenzie delta, Canada, and to data from laboratory measurements on gas-rich and water-saturated sand samples. Predictions using our algorithm match the borehole data and water-saturated laboratory data if the proportion of hydrate contributing to the load-bearing structure increases with hydrate saturation. The predictions match the gas-rich laboratory data if that proportion decreases with hydrate saturation. We attribute this difference to differences in hydrate formation mechanisms between the two environments.

  10. A DFT-based comparative equilibrium study of thermal dehydration and hydrolysis of CaCl₂ hydrates and MgCl₂ hydrates for seasonal heat storage. (United States)

    Pathak, Amar Deep; Nedea, Silvia; Zondag, Herbert; Rindt, Camilo; Smeulders, David


    Salt hydrates store solar energy in chemical form via a reversible dehydration-hydration reaction. However, as a side reaction to dehydration, hydrolysis (HCl formation) may occur in chloride based salt hydrates (specially in MgCl2 hydrates), affecting the durability of the storage system. The mixture of CaCl2 and MgCl2 hydrates has been shown experimentally to have exceptional cycle stability and improved kinetics. However, the optimal operating conditions for the mixture are unknown. To understand the appropriate balance between dehydration and hydrolysis kinetics in the mixtures, it is essential to gain in-depth insight into the mixture components. We present a GGA-DFT level study to investigate the various gaseous structures of CaCl2 hydrates and to understand the relative stability of their conformers. The hydration strength and relative stability of conformers are dominated by electrostatic interactions. A wide network of intramolecular homonuclear and heteronuclear hydrogen bonds is observed in CaCl2 hydrates. Equilibrium product concentrations are obtained during dehydration and hydrolysis reactions under various temperature and pressure conditions. The trend of the dehydration curve with temperature in CaCl2 hydrates is similar to the experiments. Comparing these results to those of MgCl2 hydrates, we find that CaCl2 hydrates are more resistant towards hydrolysis in the temperature range of 273-800 K. Specifically, the present study reveals that the onset temperatures of HCl formation, a crucial design parameter for MgCl2 hydrates, are lower than for CaCl2 hydrates except for the mono-hydrate.

  11. Assessment of beverage intake and hydration status. (United States)

    Nissensohn, Mariela; López-Ufano, Marisa; Castro-Quezada, Itandehui; Serra-Majem, Lluis


    Water is the main constituent of the human body. It is involved in practically all its functions. It is particularly important for thermoregulation and in the physical and cognitive performance. Water balance reflects water intake and loss. Intake of water is done mainly through consumption of drinking water and beverages (70 to 80%) plus water containing foods (20 to 30%). Water loss is mainly due to excretion of water in urine, faeces and sweat. The interest in the type and quantity of beverage consumption is not new, and numerous approaches have been used to assess beverage intake, but the validity of these approaches has not been well established. There is no standardized questionnaire developed as a research tool for the evaluation of water intake in the general population. Sometimes, the information comes from different sources or from different methodological characteristics which raises problems of the comparability. In the European Union, current epidemiological studies that focus exclusively on beverage intake are scarce. Biomarkers of intake are able to objectively assess dietary intake/status without the bias of self-reported dietary intake errors and also overcome the problem of intra-individual diet variability. Furthermore, some methods of measuring dietary intake used biomarkers to validate the data it collects. Biological markers may offer advantages and be able to improve the estimates of dietary intake assessment, which impact into the statistical power of the study. There is a surprising paucity of studies that systematically examine the correlation of beverages intake and hydration biomarker in different populations. A pilot investigation was developed to evaluate the comparative validity and reliability of newly developed interactive multimedia (IMM) versions compared to validated paper-administered (PP) versions of the Hedrick et al. beverage questionnaire. The study showed that the IMM appears to be a valid and reliable measure to assess

  12. 42 CFR 412.340 - Fully prospective payment methodology. (United States)


    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fully prospective payment methodology. 412.340...-Related Costs § 412.340 Fully prospective payment methodology. A hospital paid under the fully prospective payment methodology receives a payment per discharge based on a proportion of the hospital-specific rate...

  13. Soluble salts addition modifies MgO hydration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, A.M.; Pandolfelli, V.C.; Salomao, R.


    Magnesium oxide (MgO) show great technological interest on refractories due to its high refractoriness, basic slag corrosion resistance and competitive cost. However, the hydration reaction of MgO produces magnesium hydroxide. This reaction generates a significant volumetric expansion that can lead to material breakdown inhibiting its use in refractory castables. This reaction can be affected by several factors such as magnesia source, purity, calcination temperature, pH, CaO/SiO 2 ratio and agitation speed. In the present work, soluble salts (CaCl 2 and MgCl 2 ) were used in MgO aqueous suspensions (caustic and sinter). The results were evaluated by means of techniques of degree of hydration (termogravimetric), Scanning electron microscopy, apparent volumetric expansion and x-ray Diffraction which showed that the degree of hydration was noticeably less to sinter aqueous and the expansive effects were less with the addition of CaCl 2 . (author)

  14. Natural gas hydrates and the mystery of the Bermuda Triangle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruy, H.J.


    Natural gas hydrates occur on the ocean floor in such great volumes that they contain twice as much carbon as all known coal, oil and conventional natural gas deposits. Releases of this gas caused by sediment slides and other natural causes have resulted in huge slugs of gas saturated water with density too low to float a ship, and enough localized atmospheric contamination to choke air aspirated aircraft engines. The unexplained disappearances of ships and aircraft along with their crews and passengers in the Bermuda Triangle may be tied to the natural venting of gas hydrates. The paper describes what gas hydrates are, their formation and release, and their possible link to the mystery of the Bermuda Triangle.

  15. Hydration Phase Diagram of Clay Particles from Molecular Simulations. (United States)

    Honorio, Tulio; Brochard, Laurent; Vandamme, Matthieu


    Adsorption plays a fundamental role in the behavior of clays. Because of the confinement between solid clay layers on the nanoscale, adsorbed water is structured in layers, which can occupy a specific volume. The transition between these states is intimately related to key features of clay thermo-hydro-mechanical behavior. In this article, we consider the hydration states of clays as phases and the transition between these states as phase changes. The thermodynamic formulation supporting this idea is presented. Then, the results from grand canonical Monte Carlo simulations of sodium montmorillonite are used to derive hydration phase diagrams. The stability analysis presented here explains the coexistence of different hydration states at clay particle scale and improves our understanding of the irreversibilities of clay thermo-hydro-mechanical behavior. Our results provide insights into the mechanics of the elementary constituents of clays, which is crucial for a better understanding of the macroscopic behavior of clay-rich rocks and soils.

  16. Halting of the calcium aluminate cement hydration process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luz, A.P.; Borba, N.Z; Pandolfelli, V.C.


    The calcium aluminate cement reactions with water lead to the anhydrous phases dissolution resulting a saturated solution, followed by nucleation and crystal growth of the hydrate compounds. This is a dynamic process, therefore, it is necessary to use suitable methods to halt the hydration in order to study the phase transformations kinetics of such materials. In this work two methods are evaluated: use of acetone and microwave drying, aiming to withdraw the free water and inhibit further reactions. X ray diffraction and thermogravimetric tests were used to quantify the phases generated in the cement samples which were kept at 37 deg C for 1 to 15 days. The advantages and disadvantages of those procedures are presented and discussed. The use of microwave to halt the hydration process seems to be effective to withdraw the cement free water, and it can further be used in researches of the refractory castables area, endodontic cements, etc. (author)

  17. Gas hydrate accumulation at the Hakon Mosby Mud Volcano (United States)

    Ginsburg, G.D.; Milkov, A.V.; Soloviev, V.A.; Egorov, A.V.; Cherkashev, G.A.; Vogt, P.R.; Crane, K.; Lorenson, T.D.; Khutorskoy, M.D.


    Gas hydrate (GH) accumulation is characterized and modeled for the Hakon Mosby mud volcano, ca. 1.5 km across, located on the Norway-Barents-Svalbard margin. Pore water chemical and isotopic results based on shallow sediment cores as well as geothermal and geomorphological data suggest that the GH accumulation is of a concentric pattern controlled by and formed essentially from the ascending mud volcano fluid. The gas hydrate content of sediment peaks at 25% by volume, averaging about 1.2% throughout the accumulation. The amount of hydrate methane is estimated at ca. 108 m3 STP, which could account for about 1-10% of the gas that has escaped from the volcano since its origin.

  18. Structure and Hydration of Highly Branched, Monodisperse Phytoglycogen Nanoparticles (United States)

    Atkinson, John; Nickels, Jonathan; Stanley, Christopher; Diallo, Souleymane; Katsaras, John; Dutcher, John

    Monodisperse phytoglycogen nanoparticles are a promising, new soft colloidal nanomaterial with many applications in the personal care, food, nutraceutical and pharmaceutical industries. These applications rely on exceptional properties that emerge from the highly branched structure of phytoglycogen and its interaction with water, such as extraordinarily high water retention, and low viscosity and exceptional stability in water. The structure and hydration of the nanoparticles was characterized using small angle neutron scattering (SANS) and quasielastic neutron scattering (QENS). SANS allowed us to determine the size of the nanoparticles, evaluate their radial density profile, quantify the particle-to-particle spacing, and determine their water content. The results show clearly that the nanoparticles are highly hydrated, with each nanoparticle containing 250% of its mass in water, and that aqueous dispersions approach a jamming transition at ~ 25% (w/w). QENS experiments provided an independent and consistent measure of the high level of hydration of the particles.

  19. Behavior of gas seep bubbles below the hydrate stability zone (United States)

    Wang, B.; Jun, I.; Hutschenreuter, K.; Socolofsky, S. A.; Kessler, J. D.; Lavery, A.; Breier, J. A., Jr.; Seewald, J.


    Two research cruises (GISR G07 and G08) have been carried out during 2014-2015 to study the behavior of natural gas seep plumes escaping on the seafloor below the hydrate stability zone at MC 118 and GC 600 in the Gulf of Mexico. Quantitative image measurements suggest both temporal and spatial variation of the bubble size and gas flow rate. Hydrate formation on the natural gas seep bubbles was a very fast process in the deep sea environment (890 and 1200 m depth), where the measured methane concentration in water close to the source was also saturated. The measured rise velocities of the bubbles differed significantly from the predicted terminal velocities using empirical equations in Clift et al. (1978). The measured bubble characteristics (size distribution and flow rate) were provided as input to a bubble dissolution model, which accounts for the effect of hydrate on the mass transfer coefficient. The model shows results consistent with the measurements.

  20. Impact of admixtures on the hydration kinetics of Portland cement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheung, J.; Jeknavorian, A.; Roberts, L.; Silva, D.


    Most concrete produced today includes either chemical additions to the cement, chemical admixtures in the concrete, or both. These chemicals alter a number of properties of cementitious systems, including hydration behavior, and it has been long understood by practitioners that these systems can differ widely in response to such chemicals. In this paper the impact on hydration of several classes of chemicals is reviewed with an emphasis on the current understanding of interactions with cement chemistry. These include setting retarders, accelerators, and water reducing dispersants. The ability of the chemicals to alter the aluminate-sulfate balance of cementitious systems is discussed with a focus on the impact on silicate hydration. As a key example of this complex interaction, unusual behavior sometimes observed in systems containing high calcium fly ash is highlighted.

  1. Formation of natural gas hydrates in marine sediments. Gas hydrate growth and stability conditioned by host sediment properties (United States)

    Clennell, M.B.; Henry, P.; Hovland, M.; Booth, J.S.; Winters, W.J.; Thomas, M.


    The stability conditions of submarine gas hydrates (methane clathrates) are largely dictated by pressure, temperature, gas composition, and pore water salinity. However, the physical properties and surface chemistry of the host sediments also affect the thermodynamic state, growth kinetics, spatial distributions, and growth forms of clathrates. Our model presumes that gas hydrate behaves in a way analogous to ice in the pores of a freezing soil, where capillary forces influence the energy balance. Hydrate growth is inhibited within fine-grained sediments because of the excess internal phase pressure of small crystals with high surface curvature that coexist with liquid water in small pores. Therefore, the base of gas hydrate stability in a sequence of fine sediments is predicted by our model to occur at a lower temperature, and so nearer to the seabed than would be calculated from bulk thermodynamic equilibrium. The growth forms commonly observed in hydrate samples recovered from marine sediments (nodules, sheets, and lenses in muds; cements in sand and ash layers) can be explained by a requirement to minimize the excess of mechanical and surface energy in the system.

  2. Dynamic morphology of gas hydrate on a methane bubble in water: Observations and new insights for hydrate film models (United States)

    Warzinski, Robert P.; Lynn, Ronald; Haljasmaa, Igor; Leifer, Ira; Shaffer, Frank; Anderson, Brian J.; Levine, Jonathan S.


    Predicting the fate of subsea hydrocarbon gases escaping into seawater is complicated by potential formation of hydrate on rising bubbles that can enhance their survival in the water column, allowing gas to reach shallower depths and the atmosphere. The precise nature and influence of hydrate coatings on bubble hydrodynamics and dissolution is largely unknown. Here we present high-definition, experimental observations of complex surficial mechanisms governing methane bubble hydrate formation and dissociation during transit of a simulated oceanic water column that reveal a temporal progression of deep-sea controlling mechanisms. Synergistic feedbacks between bubble hydrodynamics, hydrate morphology, and coverage characteristics were discovered. Morphological changes on the bubble surface appear analogous to macroscale, sea ice processes, presenting new mechanistic insights. An inverse linear relationship between hydrate coverage and bubble dissolution rate is indicated. Understanding and incorporating these phenomena into bubble and bubble plume models will be necessary to accurately predict global greenhouse gas budgets for warming ocean scenarios and hydrocarbon transport from anthropogenic or natural deep-sea eruptions.

  3. Hydrated-ion ordering in electrical double layers. (United States)

    Espinosa-Marzal, Rosa M; Drobek, Tanja; Balmer, Tobias; Heuberger, Manfred P


    In this work we revisit the surface forces measured between two atomically flat mica surfaces submerged in a reservoir of potassium nitrate (KNO(3)) solution. We consider a comprehensive range of concentrations from 0.08 mM to 2.6 M. The significantly improved resolution available from the extended surface force apparatus (eSFA) allows the distinction of hydration structures and hydrated-ion correlations. Above concentrations of 0.3 mM, hydrated-ion correlations give rise to multiple collective transitions (4 ± 1 Å) in the electrical double layers upon interpenetration. These features are interpreted as the result of hydrated-ion ordering (e.g. layering), in contrast to the traditional interpretation invoking water layering. The hydrated-ion layer adjacent to the surface (i.e. outer Helmholtz layer) is particularly well defined and plays a distinctive role. It can be either collectively expelled in a 5.8 ± 0.3 Å film-thickness transition or collectively forced to associate with the surface by external mechanical work. The latter is observed as a characteristic 2.9 ± 0.3 Å film-thickness transition along with an abrupt decrease of surface adhesion at concentrations above 1 mM. At concentrations as low as 20 mM, attractive surface forces are measured in deviation to the DLVO theory. The hydration number in the confined electrolyte seems to be significantly below that of the bulk. A 1-3 nm thick ionic layer solidifies at the surfaces at concentrations >100 mM, i.e. below bulk saturation.

  4. Hydration-controlled bacterial motility and dispersal on surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dechesne, Arnaud; Wang, G.; Gulez, Gamze


    Flagellar motility, a mode of active motion shared by many prokaryotic species, is recognized as a key mechanism enabling population dispersal and resource acquisition in microbial communities living in marine, freshwater, and other liquid-replete habitats. By contrast, its role in variably...... resume motility in response to periodic increases in hydration. We propose a biophysical model that captures key effects of hydration and liquid-film thickness on individual cell velocity and use a simple roughness network model to simulate colony expansion. Model predictions match experimental results...... the costs associated with flagella synthesis and explain the sustained presence of flagellated prokaryotes in partially saturated habitats such as soil surfaces....

  5. Effects of microcomplexity on hydrophobic hydration in amphiphiles. (United States)

    Tan, Ming-Liang; Cendagorta, Joseph R; Ichiye, Toshiko


    Hydrophobic hydration is critical in biology as well as many industrial processes. Here, computer simulations of ethanol/water mixtures show that a three-stage mechanism of dehydration of ethanol explains the anomalous concentration dependence of the thermodynamic partial molar volumes, as well as recent data from neutron diffraction and Raman scattering. Moreover, the simulations show that the breakdown of hydrophobic hydration shells, whose structure is determined by the unique molecular properties of water, is caused by the microcomplexity of the environment and may be representative of early events in protein folding and structure stabilization in aqueous solutions.

  6. Experimental study on combustion of a methane hydrate sphere (United States)

    Yoshioka, Tomoki; Yamamoto, Yuji; Yokomori, Takeshi; Ohmura, Ryo; Ueda, Toshihisa


    The combustion behavior of a methane hydrate sphere under normal gravity is experimentally investigated. The initial diameter of the sphere is 20 mm. Variation in temperature at the center of the sphere ( T c) is measured with a K-type thermocouple at ignition temperatures ( T c,i) from 193 to 253 K at 20 K intervals. Variation in the near-surface temperature of the sphere ( T s) is measured at ignition temperatures ( T s,i) from 233 to 263 K at 10 K intervals. Two combustion phases are observed. When the hydrate is ignited, a stable flame envelope is formed around the sphere (phase 1). In phase 1, the surface of the sphere is dry. After a few seconds, water formed by dissociation of the methane hydrate appears on the surface and methane bubbles are formed by methane ejected from inside the sphere (phase 2), thus destabilizing the flame and causing local extinction. Methane bubbles move down along the surface and merge into a large methane bubble at the bottom of the sphere. This bubble bursts, releasing methane to form a temporary flame, and the water drops from the hydrate sphere. Water on the surface is cooled by the hydrate inside, and an ice shell confines the methane gas that dissociated inside the sphere. Because the dissociation occurs continuously inside the hydrate, the inner pressure gradually increases and at some instant, the ice cracks and methane gas is ejected from the cracks, which results in a micro-explosion with a flame. In phase 1, the surface temperature is below the freezing point of water, and so the surface remains dry and a stable flame envelope is formed; in phase 2, the surface temperature is above the freezing point, and so water appears on the surface. When the temperature at the center of the sphere is lower (193, 213, or 233 K), some methane hydrate remains even after flame extinction because heat transfer from the flame decreases in phase 2 as a result of local extinction. The diameter of the sphere decreases during combustion in

  7. Compositional characteristics and hydration behavior of mineral trioxide aggregates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Hsi Wang


    Full Text Available Mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA was one of most popular biomaterials for endodontic treatment in the past decade. Its superb biocompatibility, sealing ability and surface for tissue adhesion all make MTA a potential candidate for many dental applications, such as apexification, perforation repair, repair of root resorption, and as a root-end filling material. There are many review articles regarding the physical, chemical and biological properties of MTA. However, there are few reviews discussing the relationship between the composition and hydration behavior of MTA. The aim of this article was to provide a systematic review regarding the compositional characteristics and hydration behavior of MTA.

  8. Hydration of ammonia, methylamine, and methanol in amorphous solid water (United States)

    Souda, Ryutaro


    Interactions of polar protic molecules with amorphous solid water (ASW) have been investigated using temperature-programmed desorption and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry. The ammonia and methylamine are incorporated into the interior of porous ASW films. They are caged by water molecules and are released during water crystallization. In contrast, the methanol-water interaction is not influenced by pores of ASW. The methanol additives tend to survive water crystallization and are released during ASW film evaporation. The hydration of n-hexane in ASW is influenced significantly by methanol additives because n-hexane is accommodated in a methanol-induced hydration shell.

  9. Investigation of phonon-like excitation in hydrated protein powders by neutron scattering (United States)

    Chu, Xiang-Qiang (Rosie); Mamontov, Eugene; O'Neill, Hugh; Zhang, Qiu; Kolesnikov, Alexander


    Detecting the phonon dispersion relations in proteins is essential for understanding the intra-protein dynamical behavior. Such study has been attempted by X-ray in recent years. However, for such detections, neutrons have significant advantages in resolution and time-efficiency compare to X-rays. Traditionally the collective motions of atoms in protein molecules are hard to detect using neutrons, because of high incoherent scattering background from intrinsic hydrogen atoms in the protein molecules. The recent availability of a fully deuterated green fluorescent protein (GFP) synthesized by the Bio-deuteration Lab at ORNL opens new possibilities to probe collective excitations in proteins using inelastic neutron scattering. Using a direct time-of-flight Fermi chopper neutron spectrometer, we obtained a full map of the meV phonon-like excitations in the fully deuterated protein. The Q range of the observed excitations corresponds to the length scale close to the size of the secondary structures of proteins and reflects the collective intra-protein motions. Our results show that hydration of GFP seems to harden, not soften, the collective motions. This result is counterintuitive but in agreement with the observations by previous neutron scattering experiments. Sample preparation was supported by facilities operated by the Center for Structural Molecular Biology at ORNL which is supported by the U.S. DOE, Office of Science, Office of Biological and Environmental Research Project ERKP291.

  10. Reservoir controls on the occurrence and production of gas hydrates in nature (United States)

    Collett, Timothy Scott


    Gas hydrates in both arctic permafrost regions and deep marine settings can occur at high concentrations in sand-dominated reservoirs, which have been the focus of gas hydrate exploration and production studies in

  11. Detailed inner structure of methane hydrate concentrated zone of lobe type

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobayashi, T.; Saeki, T.; Inamori, T.; Fujii, T.; Shimoda, N. [Japan Oil, Gas and Metals National Corp., Chiba (Japan)


    Large gas hydrate deposits are located in ocean regions close to Japan. This paper discussed a research project conducted by a Japanese company as part of a national program to assess gas hydrates as energy sources. Seismic data from drilling surveys and velocity analyses were used to determine methane hydrate zones. Seismic geomorphology analyses showed that the hydrates were concentrated within turbidite sand layers in channels and lobes. A detailed analysis of the methane hydrate-concentrated zone of a lobe configuration was conducted using waves from methane hydrate-concentrated zones identified in the seismic studies. Reflectors at wells were correlated to the tops of the methane hydrate-bearing sand layers. The amplitude variation of the reflected waves was correlated to the sand layers. Results from the study will be used to characterize the distribution of sand layers and determine their relationship to methane hydrates. 11 figs.

  12. Artificial hydration at the end of life in an oncology ward in Singapore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lalit Kumar Radha Krishna


    Conclusion: Artificial hydration during the last 48 h of life did not have any significant impact on symptoms related to hydration status, medication use or on survival in terminally ill cancer patients under palliative care.

  13. Gas-hydrates in Krishna-Godavari and Mahanadi basins: New data

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sain, K.; Ojha, M.; Satyavani, N.; Ramadass, G.A.; Ramprasad, T.; Das, S.K.; Gupta, H.

    . The CDP interval is 12.5 m. References BOSWELL, R. and SAEKI, T. (2010) Motivations for the geophysical investigation of gas hydrates. In: M. Riedel, E. Willoughby, and S. Chopra (Eds.), Geophysical Characterization of Gas Hydrates. Society of Exploration...

  14. Potential impact on climate of the exploitation of methane hydrate deposits offshore

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Glasby, G.P.

    Considerable attention has focussed on methane hydrates as a potential energy resource but much less on the potential environmental problems of exploiting these deposits. In fact, methane hydrate deposits represent a dynamic system formed as a...

  15. Study of Agglomeration Characteristics of Hydrate Particles in Oil/Gas Pipelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wuchang Wang


    Full Text Available The force acting on hydrate particles is the critical factor to hydrate slurry stability which serves as fundamental basis for slurry flow assurance. A comprehensive analysis of forces acting on the hydrate particles was executed to determine the major agglomeration forces and separation forces, and comparison of forces reveals that the main agglomeration force is capillary force and the main separation force is shear force. Furthermore, four main influencing factors deciding the hydrate particle agglomeration were also analyzed and calculated, which shows contacting angle of capillary bridge is the most important factor for hydrate particles agglomeration, while interface tension of oil and water is the least important one. Some methods must be adopted to change the surface of hydrate agglomerates from hydrophile to lipophilicity so as to control the agglomeration of hydrate particle, which is the significant guarantee for safe flow of oil and gas transporting pipeline with hydrate particles.

  16. Faulting of Gas-Hydrate-Bearing Marine Sediments - Contribution to Permeability

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dillon, William P


    .... We infer that the faulting resulted from excess pore pressure in gas trapped beneath the gas hydrate-bearing layer and/or weakening and mobilization of sediments in the region just below the gas-hydrate stability zone...

  17. Analysis of Decomposition for Structure I Methane Hydrate by Molecular Dynamics Simulation (United States)

    Wei, Na; Sun, Wan-Tong; Meng, Ying-Feng; Liu, An-Qi; Zhou, Shou-Wei; Guo, Ping; Fu, Qiang; Lv, Xin


    Under multi-nodes of temperatures and pressures, microscopic decomposition mechanisms of structure I methane hydrate in contact with bulk water molecules have been studied through LAMMPS software by molecular dynamics simulation. Simulation system consists of 482 methane molecules in hydrate and 3027 randomly distributed bulk water molecules. Through analyses of simulation results, decomposition number of hydrate cages, density of methane molecules, radial distribution function for oxygen atoms, mean square displacement and coefficient of diffusion of methane molecules have been studied. A significant result shows that structure I methane hydrate decomposes from hydrate-bulk water interface to hydrate interior. As temperature rises and pressure drops, the stabilization of hydrate will weaken, decomposition extent will go deep, and mean square displacement and coefficient of diffusion of methane molecules will increase. The studies can provide important meanings for the microscopic decomposition mechanisms analyses of methane hydrate.

  18. Hydration of swelling clays: multi-scale sequence of hydration and determination of macroscopic energies from microscopic properties; Hydratation des argiles gonflantes: sequence d'hydratation multi-echelle determination des energies macroscopiques a partir des proprietes microscopiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salles, F


    Smectites have interesting properties which make them potential candidates for engineered barriers in deep geological nuclear waste repository: low permeability, swelling and cations retention. The subject of this thesis consists in the determination of the relationship between hydration properties, swelling properties and cations mobility in relation with confinement properties of clayey materials. The aim is to understand and to predict the behaviour of water in smectites, following two research orientations: the mechanistic aspects and the energetic aspects of the hydration of smectites. We worked on the Na-Ca montmorillonite contained in the MX80 bentonite, with the exchanged homo ionic structure (saturated with alkaline cations and calcium cations). The approach crosses the various scales (microscopic, mesoscopic and macroscopic) and implied the study of the various components of the system (layer-cation-water), by using original experimental methods (thermo-poro-metry and electric conductivity for various relative humidities (RH) and electrostatic calculations. Initially, the dry state is defined by SCTA (scanning calorimetry thermal analysis). Then a classical characterization of the smectite porosity for the dry state is carried out using mercury intrusion and nitrogen adsorption. We evidenced the existence of a meso-porosity which radius varies from 2 to 10 nm depending on the compensating cation. The thermo-poro-metry and conductivity experiments performed at various hydration states made it possible to follow the increase in the pore sizes and the cations mobility as a function of the hydration state. We highlight in particular the existence of an osmotic mesoscopic swelling for low RH (approximately 50-60%RH for Li and Na). By combining the results of thermo-poro-metry, X-ray diffraction and electric conductivity, we are able to propose a complete hydration sequence for each cation, showing the crucial role of the compensating cation in the hydration of

  19. Submarine methane hydrates - Potential fuel resource of the 21st century

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Desa, E.

    of gas hydrate at standard temperature and pressure produces about 164 units of gas (Kvenvoiden, 1993). In appearance, hydrates are inter-grown, transparent-to-translucent, white-to-grey and yellow crystals, with poorly defined crystal form. Hydrates... of the hydrate zone [within sediments] does not produce a sharp reflection as it has no such precisely defined boundary. Non-geophysical proxies Apart from the acoustic geo-physical signatures, several geological and biological parameters may be useful tools...

  20. Numerical analysis of wellbore instability in gas hydrate formation during deep-water drilling (United States)

    Zhang, Huaiwen; Cheng, Yuanfang; Li, Qingchao; Yan, Chuanliang; Han, Xiuting


    Gas hydrate formation may be encountered during deep-water drilling because of the large amount and wide distribution of gas hydrates under the shallow seabed of the South China Sea. Hydrates are extremely sensitive to temperature and pressure changes, and drilling through gas hydrate formation may cause dissociation of hydrates, accompanied by changes in wellbore temperatures, pore pressures, and stress states, thereby leading to wellbore plastic yield and wellbore instability. Considering the coupling effect of seepage of drilling fluid into gas hydrate formation, heat conduction between drilling fluid and formation, hydrate dissociation, and transformation of the formation framework, this study established a multi-field coupling mathematical model of the wellbore in the hydrate formation. Furthermore, the influences of drilling fluid temperatures, densities, and soaking time on the instability of hydrate formation were calculated and analyzed. Results show that the greater the temperature difference between the drilling fluid and hydrate formation is, the faster the hydrate dissociates, the wider the plastic dissociation range is, and the greater the failure width becomes. When the temperature difference is greater than 7°C, the maximum rate of plastic deformation around the wellbore is more than 10%, which is along the direction of the minimum horizontal in-situ stress and associated with instability and damage on the surrounding rock. The hydrate dissociation is insensitive to the variation of drilling fluid density, thereby implying that the change of the density of drilling fluids has a minimal effect on the hydrate dissociation. Drilling fluids that are absorbed into the hydrate formation result in fast dissociation at the initial stage. As time elapses, the hydrate dissociation slows down, but the risk of wellbore instability is aggravated due to the prolonged submersion in drilling fluids. For the sake of the stability of the wellbore in deep

  1. Investigation of hydrate formation and transportability in multiphase flow systems (United States)

    Grasso, Giovanny A.

    The oil and gas industry is moving towards offshore developments in more challenging environments, where evaluating hydrate plugging risks to avoid operational/safety hazards becomes more difficult (Sloan, 2005). Even though mechanistic models for hydrate plug formation have been developed, components for a full comprehensive model are still missing. Prior to this work, research efforts were focused on flowing hydrate particles with relatively little research on hydrate accumulation, leaving hydrate deposition in multiphase flow an unexplored subject. The focus of this thesis was to better understand hydrate deposition as a form of accumu- lation in pipelines. To incorporate the multiphase flow effect, hydrate formation experiments were carried out at varying water cut (WC) from 15 to 100 vol.%, liquid loading (LL) from 50 to 85 vol.%, mixture velocity (vmix) from 0.75 to 3 m/s, for three fluids systems (100 % WC, water in Conroe crude oil emulsions and King Ranch condensate + water) on the ExxonMobil flowloop (4 in. nominal size and 314 ft. long) at Friendswood, TX. For the 100 % WC flowloop tests, hydrate particle distribution transitions beyond a critical hydrate volume concentration, observed values were between 8.2 to 29.4 vol.%, causing a sudden increase in pressure drop (DP). A revised correlation of the transition as a function of Reynolds number and liquid loading was developed. For Conroe emulsions, DP starts increasing at higher hydrate concentrations than King Ranch condensate, many times at 10 vol.%. Experiments with King Ranch show higher relative DP (10 to 25) than Conroe (2 to 10) performed at the same vmix and LL. Cohesive force measurements between cyclopentane hydrate particles were reduced from a value of 3.32 mN/m to 1.26 mN/m when 6 wt.% Conroe was used and to 0.41 mN/m when 5 wt.% Caratinga crude oil was used; similar values were obtained when extracted asphaltenes were used. King Ranch condensate (11 wt.%) did not significantly change the

  2. Rates and mechanisms of conversion of ice nanocrystals to hydrates of HCl and HBr: acid diffusion in the ionic hydrates. (United States)

    Devlin, J Paul; Gulluru, Dheeraj B; Buch, Victoria


    This FTIR study focuses on solid-state chemistry associated with formation and interconversion of the ionic HX (X = Cl, Br) hydrates. Kinetic data are reported for conversions of ice nanocrystal arrays exposed to the saturation pressure of the acids in the 110 approximately 125 K range. The product is amorphous acid dihydrate in the case of HBr, and amorphous monohydrate for HCl. The rate-determining step is identified as HX diffusion through the hydrate product crust toward the interfacial reaction zone, rather than diffusion through ice, as commonly believed. Slowing of the conversion process is thus observed with increasing thickness of the crust. The diffusion coefficient (D(e)) and activation energy values for HX diffusion through the hydrates were evaluated with the help of the shrinking-core model. Hydrate crystallization occurs as a separate step, upon heating above 130 K. Subsequently, rates of reversible transitions between crystal di- and monohydrates were observed upon exposure to acid vapor and acid evacuation. In conversion from di- to monohydrate, the rate slows after fast formation of several layers; subsequently, diffusion through the product crust appears to be the rate-controlling step. The activation energy for HBr diffusion through crystal dihydrate is found to be significantly higher than that for the amorphous analogue. Conjecture is offered for a molecular mechanism of HX transport through the crystal hydrate, based on (i) spectroscopic/computational evidence for the presence of molecular HX bonded to X(-) in each of the ionic hydrate phases and (ii) the relative E(a) values found for HBr and HCl diffusion. Monte Carlo modeling suggests acid transport to the reaction zone along boundaries between "nanocrystallites" generated by multiple hydrate nucleation events at the particle surfaces. The reverse conversion, of crystalline monohydrate particles to the dihydrate phase, as well as dihydrate to trihydrate, displays nearly constant rate

  3. The hydration of slag, part 1: reaction models for blended cement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, Wei; Brouwers, Jos


    Reaction models are proposed to quantify the hydration products and to determine the composition of C–S–H from alkali-activated slags (AAS). Products of the slag hydration are first summarized from observations in literature. The main hydration products include C–S–H, hydrotalcite, hydrogarnet, AFm

  4. 40 CFR 721.4668 - Hydrated alkaline earth metal salts of metalloid oxyanions. (United States)


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hydrated alkaline earth metal salts of... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.4668 Hydrated alkaline earth metal salts of metalloid oxyanions. (a... hydrated alkaline earth metal salts of metalloid oxyanions (PMN P-94-1557) is subject to reporting under...

  5. Molecular analysis of petroleum derived compounds that adsorb onto gas hydrate surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borgund, Anna E.; Hoiland, Sylvi; Barth, Tanja; Fotland, Per; Askvik, Kjell M.


    Field observations have shown that some streams of water, gas and crude oil do not form gas hydrate plugs during petroleum production even when operating within thermodynamic conditions for hydrate formation. Also, when studied under controlled laboratory conditions, some oils are found to form hydrate dispersed systems whereas others form plugs. Oils with low tendency to form hydrate plugs are believed to contain natural hydrate plug inhibiting components (NICs) that adsorb onto the hydrate surface, making them less water-wet and preventing the particles from agglomerating into large hydrate clusters. The molecular structure of the NICs is currently unknown. In this work, hydrate adsorbing components were extracted from crude oils using freon hydrates as an extraction phase. The fractions were found to be enriched in polar material, and more polar material is associated with hydrates generated in biodegraded crude oils than in non-biodegraded oils. Various fractionation schemes and analytical techniques have been applied in the search for molecular characterisation. The average molecular weights were found to be approximately 500 g/mole. GC-MS chromatograms show a large UCM (Unresolved Complex Mixture). Thus, GC-MS has a limited potential for identification of compounds. A commercial biosurfactant was used as a model compound in the search for similar structures in the extracts. The results from analysis of the hydrate adsorbing components suggest that the type and structure are more important for hydrate morphology than the amount of material adsorbed.

  6. Detection of Occupancy Differences in Methane Gas Hydrates by Raman Spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Susanne Brunsgaard; Berg, Rolf W.; Stenby, Erling Halfdan


    of reservoir fluids due to plugging. Methods to prevent hydrate formation are in use, e.g. by injection of inhibitors. From environmental and security points of view an easy way to detect hydrate formation is of interest. We have tried to detect methane hydrate formation by use of Raman spectroscopy....

  7. Study on small-strain behaviours of methane hydrate sandy sediments using discrete element method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu Yanxin; Cheng Yipik [Department of Civil, Environmental and Geomatic Engineering, University College London (UCL), Gower Street, London, WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Xu Xiaomin; Soga, Kenichi [Geotechnical and Environmental Research Group, Department of Engineering, University of Cambridge, Trumpington Street, Cambridge, CB2 1PZ (United Kingdom)


    Methane hydrate bearing soil has attracted increasing interest as a potential energy resource where methane gas can be extracted from dissociating hydrate-bearing sediments. Seismic testing techniques have been applied extensively and in various ways, to detect the presence of hydrates, due to the fact that hydrates increase the stiffness of hydrate-bearing sediments. With the recognition of the limitations of laboratory and field tests, wave propagation modelling using Discrete Element Method (DEM) was conducted in this study in order to provide some particle-scale insights on the hydrate-bearing sandy sediment models with pore-filling and cementation hydrate distributions. The relationship between shear wave velocity and hydrate saturation was established by both DEM simulations and analytical solutions. Obvious differences were observed in the dependence of wave velocity on hydrate saturation for these two cases. From the shear wave velocity measurement and particle-scale analysis, it was found that the small-strain mechanical properties of hydrate-bearing sandy sediments are governed by both the hydrate distribution patterns and hydrate saturation.

  8. Phase I (CATTS Theory), Phase II (Milne Point), Phase III (Hydrate Ridge)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None


    This study introduces a new type of cumulative seismic attribute (CATT) which quantifies gas hydrates resources in Hydrate Ridge offshore Oregon. CATT is base on case-specific transforms that portray hydrated reservoir properties. In this study we used a theoretical rock physics model to correct measured velocity log data.

  9. Hydration for the prevention of contrast medium-induced nephropathy. An update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinrich, M.; Uder, M.


    Contrast medium-induced nephropathy (CIN) continues to be one of the most common causes of hospital-acquired acute renal failure. Since most of the clinical studies on the prophylactic use of different drugs to prevent CIN produced disappointing results, hydration remains the mainstay of prophylaxis. A number of recent prospective randomized trials provided further evidence of the effectiveness of hydration and relevant information regarding the optimization of hydration protocols. It was shown that a bolus hydration solely during examination is not sufficient to prevent CIN. In addition, isotonic 0.9% saline was superior to the commonly used halfisotonic 0.45% saline in another trial. An outpatient hydration protocol including oral hydration before the examination followed by forced intravenous hydration over 6 hrs. beginning 30 to 60 min. prior to examination seems to be comparable to the usual hydration over 24 hrs. Another hydration protocol, which could also be very attractive especially for outpatients, included the infusion of sodium bicarbonate. In a recent trial, hydration with sodium bicarbonate, given as a bolus for 1 hr. prior to examination followed by an infusion for 6 hrs. after examination, was more effective than hydration with sodium chloride for the prophylaxis of CIN. However, there is still a lack of large-scale, multi-center trials comparing different hydration protocols and investigating their influence on clinically relevant endpoints such as mortality or the need for dialysis. (orig.)

  10. Controls on evolution of gas-hydrate system in the Krishna-Godavari basin, offshore India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Badesab, F.K.; Dewangan, P.; Usapkar, A.; Kocherla, M.; Peketi, A.; Mohite, K.; Sangode, S.J.; Deenadayalan, K.

    to constrain the evolution of gas hydrate system in marine environments.  2    1. Introduction Methane hydrate is the most common and natural form of gas hydrates, and is distributed worldwide along the oceanic and permafrost environments [Kvenvolden, 1993...

  11. Features of methane hydrate-bearing sandy-sediments near NE-Nankai Trough: effect on methane hydrate accumulating mechanisn in turbidite (United States)

    Suzuki, K.; Narita, H.


    The gas-hydrate bearing sediments, which were taken by a Pressure Temperature Core Sampler (PTCS), were sampled near North-East Nankai Trough, off central Japan. We analyzed the sediments to clarify the accumulating mechanisms of gas-hydrate in pore space of sandy sediments: i.e. pore-filling type gas-hydrate. The sediments were the sand and mud alternation layer, which were turbidities and hemi-pelagic mud respectively. Their sediment features such as grain size, porosity, and gas hydrate saturation of pore space were analyzed systematically. Relationships among grain size distribution, Bouma’s sequence and hydrocarbon gas-volume produced by gas-hydrate dissociation was confirmed. Based on these results, we had grasped each Bouma's sequence feature of turbidite and tendency of gas hydrate saturation. The tendency indicates that lower sequences of turbidite contain a large amount of gas hydrate but upper sequence of turbidite had a little amount of gas hydrate. Based on gas-hydrate nature, when pores had been filled with gas-saturated water and pressure/temperature condition was enough for gas-hydrate, the gas-hydrate begins to precipitate homogeneously in sandy sediments at the beginning of their accumulation. Precipitation of gas-hydrate in pore would have caused pore volume reduction, which had been making sediments impermeable during gas-hydrate accumulation at the same time. These considerations reach conclusion that only coarser-sandy relative-permeable layer could keep gas-hydrate accumulating of gas-hydrate accumulation. Thus, we consider that lower sequences of turbidite were important for gas-hydrate accumulation system in NE-Nankai Trough. This mechanism does not need any cap rock or some trap system in sediments, and it is quite different mechanism from conventional oil and gas accumulation. Acknowledgment: This study was funded by the Research Consortium for Methane Hydrate Resources in Japan (MH21 Research Consortium). The authors express great

  12. Hydration of swelling clays: multi-scale sequence of hydration and determination of macroscopic energies from microscopic properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salles, F.


    Smectites have interesting properties which make them potential candidates for engineered barriers in deep geological nuclear waste repository: low permeability, swelling and cations retention. The subject of this thesis consists in the determination of the relationship between hydration properties, swelling properties and cations mobility in relation with confinement properties of clayey materials. The aim is to understand and to predict the behaviour of water in smectites, following two research orientations: the mechanistic aspects and the energetic aspects of the hydration of smectites. We worked on the Na-Ca montmorillonite contained in the MX80 bentonite, with the exchanged homo ionic structure (saturated with alkaline cations and calcium cations). The approach crosses the various scales (microscopic, mesoscopic and macroscopic) and implied the study of the various components of the system (layer-cation-water), by using original experimental methods (thermo-poro-metry and electric conductivity for various relative humidities (RH) and electrostatic calculations. Initially, the dry state is defined by SCTA (scanning calorimetry thermal analysis). Then a classical characterization of the smectite porosity for the dry state is carried out using mercury intrusion and nitrogen adsorption. We evidenced the existence of a meso-porosity which radius varies from 2 to 10 nm depending on the compensating cation. The thermo-poro-metry and conductivity experiments performed at various hydration states made it possible to follow the increase in the pore sizes and the cations mobility as a function of the hydration state. We highlight in particular the existence of an osmotic mesoscopic swelling for low RH (approximately 50-60%RH for Li and Na). By combining the results of thermo-poro-metry, X-ray diffraction and electric conductivity, we are able to propose a complete hydration sequence for each cation, showing the crucial role of the compensating cation in the hydration of

  13. Modelling the effects of waste components on cement hydration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Eijk, R.J.; Brouwers, Jos


    Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) is often used for the Solidification/Stabilization (S/S) of waste containing heavy metals and salts. These waste componenents will precipitate in the form of insoluble compounds onto unreacted cement clinker grains preventing further hydration. In this study the long

  14. Toward a Simple Molecular Theory of Hydrophobic Hydration.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jirsák, Jan; Škvor, J.; Nezbeda, Ivo


    Roč. 189, SI (2014), s. 13-19 ISSN 0167-7322 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA200760905 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : perturbation theory * primitive models * hydrophobic hydration Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry OBOR OECD: Physical chemistry Impact factor: 2.515, year: 2014

  15. Fitness professionals' knowledge and perceptions on hydration and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fourty fitness professionals were asked to complete a questionnaire about their perspectives on hydration, thirst and fluid intake pattern. Water was the most preferred drink before (75.0%), during (72.5%) and after exercise (60.0%) as well as generally during the day (75.0%). Most participants rated plain tap water and plain ...

  16. Is Obsidian Hydration Dating Affected by Relative Humidity? (United States)

    Friedman, I.; Trembour, F.W.; Smith, G.I.; Smith, F.L.


    Experiments carried out under temperatures and relative humidities that approximate ambient conditions show that the rate of hydration of obsidian is a function of the relative humidity, as well as of previously established variables of temperature and obsidian chemical composition. Measurements of the relative humidity of soil at 25 sites and at depths of between 0.01 and 2 m below ground show that in most soil environments, at depths below about 0.25 m, the relative humidity is constant at 100%. We have found that the thickness of the hydrated layer developed on obsidian outcrops exposed to the sun and to relative humidities of 30-90% is similar to that formed on other portions of the outcrop that were shielded from the sun and exposed to a relative humidity of approximately 100%. Surface samples of obsidian exposed to solar heating should hydrate more rapidly than samples buried in the ground. However, the effect of the lower mean relative humidity experiences by surface samples tends to compensate for the elevated temperature, which may explain why obsidian hydration ages of surface samples usually approximate those derived from buried samples.

  17. Hydration behaviour of synthetic saponite at variable relative humidity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    6, October 2011, pp. 1263–1266. c Indian Academy of Sciences. Hydration behaviour of synthetic saponite at variable relative humidity. KARMOUS MOHAMED SALAH. ∗ and JEAN LOUIS ROBERT†. Département de physique, faculté des sciences de Bizerte, 7021 Zarzouna, Tunisia. †IMPMC Campus Boucicaut, 140 rue ...

  18. Predictions of hydrate plug dissociation with electrical heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davies, S.R.; Ivanic, J.; Sloan, E.D.


    The rate of dissociation for cylindrical hydrate plugs by the application of radial electrical heating was investigated for structure I and structure II hydrates for pressures of 7 MPa (1000 psia) and 14 MPa (2000 psia). Heating rates of 2.3 kWm{sup -3}, 4.5 kWm-3 and 6.8 kWm{sup -3} were investigated for a plug 91.4 cm (36 inches) in length and 2.54 cm (1 inch) in diameter. A heat transfer model was developed in cylindrical coordinates based on Fourier's Law with a boundary condition of constant heat flux at the pipe wall. The equation set was solved numerically using a finite difference grid and the standard explicit scheme. The model was found to replicate well the experimental observations with no fitted parameters. A computer program was formulated to allow the practicing engineer to simulate the dissociation of industrial hydrates with minimal complexity. This program was incorporated into the latest version of our CSMPlug program which has been used by a number of energy companies to predict hydrate plug dissociation rates in the field. (Author)

  19. Hydration dynamics of protein molecules in aqueous solution: Unity ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Aug 26, 2016 ... Dielectric dispersion and NMRD experiments have revealed that a significant fraction of water molecules in the hydration shell of various proteins do not exhibit any slowing down of dynamics. This is usually attributed to the presence of the hydrophobic residues (HBR) on the surface, although HBRs alone ...

  20. Embedded Cluster Models for Reactivity of the Hydrated Electron

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Uhlig, Frank; Jungwirth, Pavel


    Roč. 227, č. 11 (2013), s. 1583-1593 ISSN 0942-9352 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP208/12/G016 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : hydrated electron * clusters * reactivity * ab initio molecular dynamics Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 1.178, year: 2013

  1. Gas hydrates in gas storage caverns; Gashydrate bei der Gaskavernenspeicherung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groenefeld, P. [Kavernen Bau- und Betriebs-GmbH, Hannover (Germany)


    Given appropriate pressure and temperature conditions the storage of natural gas in salt caverns can lead to the formation of gas hydrates in the producing well or aboveground operating facilities. This is attributable to the stored gas becoming more or less saturated with water vapour. The present contribution describes the humidity, pressure, and temperature conditions conducive to gas hydrate formation. It also deals with the reduction of the gas removal capacity resulting from gas hydrate formation, and possible measures for preventing hydrate formation such as injection of glycol, the reduction of water vapour absorption from the cavern sump, and dewatering of the cavern sump. (MSK) [Deutsch] Bei der Speicherung von Erdgas in Salzkavernen kann es unter entsprechenden Druck- und Temperaturverhaeltnissen zur Gashydratbildung in den Foerdersonden oder obertaegigen Betriebseinrichtungen kommen, weil sich das eingelagerte Gas mehr oder weniger mit Wasserdampf aufsaettigt. Im Folgenden werden die Feuchtigkeits-, Druck- und Temperaturbedingungen, die zur Hydratbildung fuehren erlaeutert. Ebenso werden die Verringerung der Auslagerungskapazitaet durch die Hydratbildung, Massnahmen zur Verhinderung der Hydratbildung wie die Injektion von Glykol, die Verringerung der Wasserdampfaufnahme aus dem Kavernensumpf und die Entwaesserung der Kavernensumpfs selbst beschrieben.

  2. Reaction of Hydrazine Hydrate with Oxalic Acid: Synthesis and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The reaction of oxalic acid with hydrazine hydrate (in appropriate mole ratio) forms the dihydrazinium oxalate under specific experimental condition. The title compound is a molecular salt containing two discrete hydrazinium cations and an oxalate anion. The oxalate anion is perfectly planar and there is a crystallographic ...

  3. Function of magnesium aluminate hydrate and magnesium nitrate ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    MgO was added both as spinel (MgAl2O4) forming precursor i.e. magnesium aluminate hydrate, and magnesium nitrate. Sintering investigations were conducted in the temperature range 1500–1600°C with 2 h soaking. Structural study of sintered pellets was carried out by extensive XRD analysis. Scanning electron mode ...

  4. Lipid Hydration: Headgroup CH Moieties Are Involved in Water Binding

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pohle, W.; Gauger, D. R.; Bohl, M.; Mrázková, Eva; Hobza, Pavel


    Roč. 74, č. 1 (2004), s. 27-31 ISSN 0006-3525 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA4040904 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4040901 Keywords : phospholipids * IR spectroscopy * hydration Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 2.863, year: 2004

  5. Gas hydrate dissociation prolongs acidification of the Anthropocene oceans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boudreau, B.P.; Luo, Y.; Meysman, F.J.R.; Middelburg, J


    Anthropogenic warming of the oceans can release methane (CH4) currently stored in sediments as gas hydrates. This CH4 will be oxidized to CO2, thus increasing the acidification of the oceans. We employ a biogeochemical model of the multimillennial carbon cycle to determine the evolution of the

  6. Study of Hydrated Lime in Environmental Scanning Electron Microscopy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tihlaříková, Eva; Neděla, Vilém; Rovnaníková, P.


    Roč. 19, S2 (2013), s. 1644-1645 ISSN 1431-9276 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP102/10/1410; GA MŠk ED0017/01/01 Institutional support: RVO:68081731 Keywords : Hydrated Lime * Environmental Scanning Electron Microscopy Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering Impact factor: 1.757, year: 2013

  7. Hydration of Cd(II): molecular dynamics study | M. Mohammed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The inclusion of the three-body correction was found to be crucial for the description of the system, and results thus obtained are in good agreement with experimental values. Radial ... KEY WORDS: Molecular dynamics, Umbrella sampling, Hydration structure, Cd(II), Water exchange, Three-body corrections. Bull. Chem.

  8. Gas hydrate contribution to Late Permian global warming

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Majorowicz, J.; Grasby, S. E.; Šafanda, Jan; Beauchamp, B.


    Roč. 393, May (2014), s. 243-253 ISSN 0012-821X Institutional support: RVO:67985530 Keywords : Latest Permian extinction * gas hydrates * carbon isotope shift Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure Impact factor: 4.734, year: 2014

  9. Enhancement of Hydrogen Storage Capacity in Hydrate Lattices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, Soohaeng; Xantheas, Sotiris S.


    First principles electronic structure calculations of the gas phase pentagonal dodecahedron (H2O)20 (D-cage) and tetrakaidecahedron (H2O)24 (T-cage), which are building blocks of structure I (sI) hydrate lattice, suggest that these can accommodate up to a maximum of 5 and 7 guest hydrogen molecules, respectively. For the pure hydrogen hydrate, Born-Oppenheimer Molecular Dynamics (BOMD) simulations of periodic (sI) hydrate lattices indicate that the guest molecules are released into the vapor phase via the hexagonal phases of the larger T-cages. An additional mechanism for the migration between neighboring D- and T-cages was found to occur through a shared pentagonal face via the breaking and reforming of a hydrogen bond. This molecular mechanism is also found for the expulsion of a CH4 molecule from the D-cage. The presence of methane in the larger T-cages was found to block this release, therefore suggesting possible scenarios for the stabilization of these mixed guest clathrate hydrates and the potential enhancement of their hydrogen storage capacity.

  10. Hydration Kinetics of Cassava Chips | Ekwu | Nigerian Food Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The drying characteristics of these samples were evaluated, while the hydration kinetics of the chips was studied using Peleg's model. The circular shaped chips lost moisture faster than others. This was followed by the semi-circular shaped samples, while the rectangular shaped samples lost the least at any time. The result ...

  11. Epidermal hydration levels in rosacea patients improve after minocycline therapy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ní Raghallaigh, S


    Patients with rosacea frequently report increased skin sensitivity, with features suggestive of an abnormal stratum corneum (SC) permeability barrier. Sebum, pH and hydration levels influence epidermal homeostasis. The correlation of the change in these parameters with clinically effective treatment has not been previously analysed.

  12. Hydrate Phase Assemblages in Calcium Sulfoaluminate - Metakaolin - Limestone Blends

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Malene Thostrup; Lothenbach, Barbara; Winnefeld, Frank


    as 27Al and 29Si NMR and compared with predictions from thermodynamic modelling. The results show almost full degrees of reaction for ye’elimite in all blends and that the degrees of reaction for belite and MK have an important impact on the hydrate phases and their quantities formed in the ternary...... systems....

  13. Hydration Structures and Water Chemistry at Zirconia-Water Interfaces (United States)

    Hou, Binyang; Park, Changyong; Kim, Seunghyun; Kim, Taeho; Kim, Ji Hyun; Kim, Jongjin; Hong, Seungbum; Bahn, Chi Bum

    Zirconia is an important material in numerous applications, such as gas sensors, solid oxide fuel cell electrolytes, and bio-medical materials. It also plays a key role on protecting zirconium alloys in highly corrosive environments found in pressurized water reactors. The degradation of the metal/oxide is primarily due to the interactions of surface oxide with water. Here we study the interactions of zirconia with water in terms of interfacial hydration structures at the 8 mol% yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) surfaces using synchrotron-based X-ray reflectivity techniques. Interfacial hydration structures on three crystallographic orientations were determined with sub-angstrom resolution and compared with each other to identify common features and different surface chemistry effects on the interfacial processes. Meanwhile, zinc injection into the reactor coolant system has been known to be effective in both reducing radioactive wastes and stabilizing crud oxide layers of the metal alloys. We also studied the effect of zinc adsorption on the interfacial hydration structures of YSZs. Our X-ray reflectivity data reveal obvious hydration structure changes at (100) and (111) surfaces, but only minor changes at (110) surface. We further confirmed the detailed element specific adsorption profiles of Zn2+ ions near (110) and (111) surfaces with resonant anomalous X-ray reflectivity measurements.

  14. Development of the Methane Hydrate Burning Experimental Equipment (United States)

    Aoyama, S.


    There is a need to increase understanding among Japanese citizens about the importance as a potential future energy source of the great quantity of methane hydrate deposits sleeping on the sea bed around Japan. With cooperation from the Japan Oil, Gas and Metals National Corporation (JOGMEC), the National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), and the Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology (JAMSTEC) we studied the possibility of using presentations where it was possible to handle actual methane hydrate, videos and active presentations such as experiments in order to increase the public interest in and understanding of methane hydrate. Furthermore, for the benefit of those people who would like to visit the exhibition but are unable to do so due to distance or other physical barriers, we looked into making the presentation materials portable and having a moving exhibition. Currently methane hydrate combustion experiments and exhibition performances are being held at the Hidaka Port New Energy Park (The Kansai Electric Power Co., Inc.) in Gobo, Wakayama with approximately 3,000 visitors monthly.

  15. Failure of cement hydrates: freeze-thaw and fracture (United States)

    Ioannidou, Katerina; Del Gado, Emanuela; Ulm, Franz-Josef; Pellenq, Roland

    Mechanical and viscoelastic behavior of concrete crucially depends on cement hydrates, the ``glue'' of cement. Even more than the atomistic structure, the mesoscale amorphous texture of cement hydrates over hundreds of nanometers plays a crucial role for material properties. We use simulations that combine information of the nano-scale building units of cement hydrates and on their effective interactions, obtained from atomistic simulations and experiments, into a statistical physics framework for aggregating nanoparticles.Our mesoscale model was able to reconcile different experimental results ranging from small-angle neutron scattering, SEM, adsorption/desorption of N2, and water to nanoindentation and gain the new fundamental insights into the microscopic origin of the properties measured. Our results suggest that heterogeneities developed during the early stages of hydration persist in the structure of C-S-H, impacting the rheological and mechanical performance of the hardened cement paste. In this talk I discuss recent investigation on failure mechanism at the mesoscale of hardened cement paste such as freeze-thaw and fracture. Using correlations between local volume fractions and local stress we provide a link between structural and mechanical heterogeneities during the failure mechanisms.

  16. Animated molecular dynamics simulations of hydrated Cesium-smectite interlayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutton, Rebecca; Sposito, Garrison


    Computer animation of center of mass coordinates obtained from 800 ps molecular dynamics simulations of Cs-smectite hydrates (1/3 and 2/3 water monolayers) provided information concerning the structure and dynamics of the interlayer region that could not be obtained through traditional analytical methods. Cs+ could be seen to jump from one attracting location near a layer charge site to the next, and water molecules were observed to migrate from the hydration shell of one ion to that of another. Neighboring ions maintained a partial hydration shell by sharing water molecules, such that a single water molecule hydrated two ions simultaneously for hundreds of picoseconds. The extent of this sharing interaction in the interlayer was determined by the smectite charge distribution, but increased with increasing water content. Water molecules also could be seen to interact directly with the mineral surface, entering its ditrigonal cavities to approach attracting charge sites. The frequency and duration of cavity habitation increased with increasing water content and tetrahedral charge, and was inhibited the more perpendicular was the structural hydroxyl orientation relative to the mineral surface. Competition between Cs+ and water molecules for surface sites was evident. These important cooperative and competitive features of interlayer molecular behavior were uniquely revealed by animation of an otherwise highly complex simulation output

  17. Dietary water seems to improve skin hydration without influencing hemodynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federica Tomasino


    Full Text Available The various studies on the importance of water in the hydration of human skin have suggested that an increased dietary intake might positively impact the physiology of normal skin. We evaluated the consequences of increasing water intake through drinking in skin hydration in vivo. Eating habits were maintained, evaluated by a Food Frequency Questionnaire and based on total water consumption. In two groups with different total water consumption, we evaluated the impact of 2L/day water after 30 days,. This increase produced no hemodynamic changes or weight changes but an improvement in the epidermal hydration was suggested. The magnitude of the impact on skin hydration was higher in the group that regularly consumed less water, suggesting that the increase in water consumption has more beneficial effects on those individuals who habitually consume less water per day. These data are consistent with the published literature, justifying interest in looking further into this topic, in order to better understand the importance of dietary water in the context of cutaneous physiology, especially in the group of subjects with reduced consumption habits.

  18. Dynamics and hydration explain failed functional transformation in dehalogenase design

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sýkora, Jan; Brezovský, J.; Koudeláková, T.; Lahoda, M.; Fořtová, A.; Chernovets, Tatsiana; Chaloupková, R.; Štěpánková, V.; Prokop, Z.; Kutá-Smatanová, Ivana; Hof, Martin; Damborský, J.


    Roč. 10, č. 6 (2014), s. 428-430 ISSN 1552-4450 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP208/12/G016 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 ; RVO:67179843 Keywords : fluorescence * dynamics * hydration Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry; CE - Biochemistry (UEK-B) Impact factor: 12.996, year: 2014

  19. A Hydration of an Alkyne Illustrating Steam and Vacuum Distillation. (United States)

    Wasacz, J. P.; Badding, V. G.


    Reports on the conversion 2,5-dimethylhexyne-2,5-diol(I) to 2,2,5,5-tetramethyltetrahydrofuran-3-one(II) using aqueous mercuric sulfate without the use of acid. The experiment has been successfully performed in introductory organic chemistry laboratories demonstrating alkyne hydration, steam distillation, vacuum distillation, drying of organic…

  20. A Galvanic Coupling Method for Assessing Hydration Rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clement Ogugua Asogwa


    Full Text Available Recent advances in biomedical sensors, data acquisition techniques, microelectronics and wireless communication systems opened up the use of wearable technology for ehealth monitoring. We introduce a galvanic coupled intrabody communication for monitoring human body hydration. Studies in hydration provide the information necessary for understanding the desired fluid levels for optimal performance of the body’s physiological and metabolic processes during exercise and activities of daily living. Current measurement techniques are mostly suitable for laboratory purposes due to their complexity and technical requirements. Less technical methods such as urine color observation and skin turgor testing are subjective and cannot be integrated into a wearable device. Bioelectrical impedance methods are popular but mostly used for estimating total body water with limited accuracy and sensitive to 800 mL–1000 mL change in body fluid levels. We introduce a non-intrusive and simple method of tracking hydration rates that can detect up to 1.30 dB reduction in attenuation when as little as 100 mL of water is consumed. Our results show that galvanic coupled intrabody signal propagation can provide qualitative hydration and dehydration rates in line with changes in an individual’s urine specific gravity and body mass. The real-time changes in galvanic coupled intrabody signal attenuation can be integrated into wearable electronic devices to evaluate body fluid levels on a particular area of interest and can aid diagnosis and treatment of fluid disorders such as lymphoedema.

  1. Dynamics of water and hydrated gelatin in partially crystallized mixtures (United States)

    Sasaki, K.; Panagopoulou, A.; Miyara, M.; Fujita, K.; Yamamoto, W.; Pissis, P.; Kyritsis, A.; Kita, R.; Shinyashiki, N.; Yagihara, S.


    Gelatin-water mixtures with gelatin concentrations in a range of 10 - 40 wt% were investigated by broadband dielectric spectroscopy measurements in wide frequency (1 mHz - 50 GHz) and temperature (113 - 298 K) ranges. Three dielectric relaxation processes were observed. The temperature dependences of the three relaxation processes observed for the gelatin-water mixtures are similar to those observed for the BSA-water mixtures. The fastest relaxation process is originated from the uncrystallized water (UCW) in hydration shell and its relaxation time is the same to that of the UCW in various uncrystallized binary water mixtures. The intermediate relaxation process is originated from ice and its temperature dependence of the relaxation time and strength resemble pure ice relaxation process especially above 240 K. The slowest relaxation process is originated from hydrated gelatin. The strength of the slowest relaxation process is large, and it is similar to that of the relaxation process of hydrated BSA. The characteristic property of the gelatin-water mixture is the change of the temperature dependences of the relaxation times of the UCW and hydrated gelatin at around 260 K, above which the melting of ice occurs.

  2. Methane Hydrate Field Program: Development of a Scientific Plan for a Methane Hydrate-Focused Marine Drilling, Logging and Coring Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myers, Greg [Consortium for Ocean Leadership, Washington, DC (United States)


    This final report document summarizes the activities undertaken and the output from three primary deliverables generated during this project. This fifteen month effort comprised numerous key steps including the creation of an international methane hydrate science team, determining and reporting the current state of marine methane hydrate research, convening an international workshop to collect the ideas needed to write a comprehensive Marine Methane Hydrate Field Research Plan and the development and publication of that plan. The following documents represent the primary deliverables of this project and are discussed in summary level detail in this final report: Historical Methane Hydrate Project Review Report; Methane Hydrate Workshop Report; Topical Report: Marine Methane Hydrate Field Research Plan; and Final Scientific/Technical Report.

  3. The Potential Socio-economic Impacts of Gas Hydrate Exploitation (United States)

    Riley, David; Schaafsma, Marije; Marin-Moreno, Héctor; Minshull, Tim A.


    Gas hydrate has garnered significant interest as a possible clean fossil fuel resource, especially in countries with limited energy supplies. Whilst the sector is still in its infancy, there has been escalating development towards commercial production. To the best of our knowledge it appears that, despite its potential, existing analyses of the social and economic impacts of hydrate exploitation have been very limited. Before any viable commercial production commences, the potential impacts across society must be considered. It is likely that such impact assessments will become a legislative requirement for hydrate exploitation, similar to their requirement in conventional oil and gas projects. Social impact analysis should guide hydrate development to have the highest possible net benefits to the human and natural environment. Without active commercial hydrate operations, potential socio-economic impacts can only be inferred from other fossil fuel resource focused communities, including those directly or indirectly affected by the oil and gas industry either in the vicinity of the well or further afield. This review attempts to highlight potential impacts by synthesising current literature, focusing on social impacts at the extraction stage of operation, over time. Using a DPSIR (Driving forces; Pressures; States; Impacts; Responses) framework, we focus on impacts upon: health and wellbeing, land use and access, services and infrastructure, population, employment opportunities, income and lifestyles. Human populations directly or indirectly related with fossil fuel extraction activities often show boom and bust dynamics, and so any impacts may be finite or change temporally. Therefore potential impacts have to be reassessed throughout the lifetime of the exploitation. Our review shows there are a wide range of possible positive and negative socio-economic impacts from hydrate development. Exploitation can bring jobs and infrastructure to remote areas, although

  4. Hydration and temperature in tennis - a practical review. (United States)

    Kovacs, Mark S


    Competitive tennis is typically played in warm and hot environments. Because hypohydration will impair tennis performance and increases the risk of heat injury, consumption of appropriate fluid levels is necessary to prevent dehydration and enhance performance. The majority of research in this area has focused on continuous aerobic activity - unlike tennis, which has average points lasting less than ten seconds with rest periods dispersed between each work period. For this reason, hydration and temperature regulation methods need to be specific to the activity. Tennis players can sweat more than 2.5 L·h(-1) and replace fluids at a slower rate during matches than in practice. Latter stages of matches and tournaments are when tennis players are more susceptible to temperature and hydration related problems. Sodium (Na(+)) depletion, not potassium (K(+)), is a key electrolyte in tennis related muscle cramps. However, psychological and competitive factors also contribute. CHO drinks have been shown to promote fluid absorption to a greater degree than water alone, but no performance benefits have been shown in tennis players in short matches. It is advisable to consume a CHO beverage if practice or matches are scheduled longer than 90-120 minutes. Key PointsAlthough substantial research has been performed on temperature and hydration concerns in aerobic activities, there is little information with regard to tennis performance and safetyTennis athletes should be on an individualized hydration schedule, consuming greater than 200ml of fluid every changeover (approximately 15 minutes).Optimum hydration and temperature regulation will reduce the chance of tennis related muscle cramps and performance decrements.

  5. Animated molecular dynamics simulations of hydrated caesium-smectite interlayers (United States)

    Sutton, Rebecca; Sposito, Garrison


    Computer animation of center of mass coordinates obtained from 800 ps molecular dynamics simulations of Cs-smectite hydrates (1/3 and 2/3 water monolayers) provided information concerning the structure and dynamics of the interlayer region that could not be obtained through traditional simulation analysis methods. Cs+ formed inner sphere complexes with the mineral surface, and could be seen to jump from one attracting location near a layer charge site to the next, while water molecules were observed to migrate from the hydration shell of one ion to that of another. Neighboring ions maintained a partial hydration shell by sharing water molecules, such that a single water molecule hydrated two ions simultaneously for hundreds of picoseconds. Cs-montmorillonite hydrates featured the largest extent of this sharing interaction, because interlayer ions were able to inhabit positions near surface cavities as well as at their edges, close to oxygen triads. The greater positional freedom of Cs+ within the montmorillonite interlayer, a result of structural hydroxyl orientation and low tetrahedral charge, promoted the optimization of distances between cations and water molecules required for water sharing. Preference of Cs+ for locations near oxygen triads was observed within interlayer beidellite and hectorite. Water molecules also could be seen to interact directly with the mineral surface, entering its surface cavities to approach attracting charge sites and structural hydroxyls. With increasing water content, water molecules exhibited increased frequency and duration of both cavity habitation and water sharing interactions. Competition between Cs+ and water molecules for surface sites was evident. These important cooperative and competitive features of interlayer molecular behavior were uniquely revealed by animation of an otherwise highly complex simulation output.

  6. Field Data and the Gas Hydrate Markup Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralf Löwner


    Full Text Available Data and information exchange are crucial for any kind of scientific research activities and are becoming more and more important. The comparison between different data sets and different disciplines creates new data, adds value, and finally accumulates knowledge. Also the distribution and accessibility of research results is an important factor for international work. The gas hydrate research community is dispersed across the globe and therefore, a common technical communication language or format is strongly demanded. The CODATA Gas Hydrate Data Task Group is creating the Gas Hydrate Markup Language (GHML, a standard based on the Extensible Markup Language (XML to enable the transport, modeling, and storage of all manner of objects related to gas hydrate research. GHML initially offers an easily deducible content because of the text-based encoding of information, which does not use binary data. The result of these investigations is a custom-designed application schema, which describes the features, elements, and their properties, defining all aspects of Gas Hydrates. One of the components of GHML is the "Field Data" module, which is used for all data and information coming from the field. It considers international standards, particularly the standards defined by the W3C (World Wide Web Consortium and the OGC (Open Geospatial Consortium. Various related standards were analyzed and compared with our requirements (in particular the Geographic Markup Language (ISO19136, GML and the whole ISO19000 series. However, the requirements demanded a quick solution and an XML application schema readable for any scientist without a background in information technology. Therefore, ideas, concepts and definitions have been used to build up the modules of GHML without importing any of these Markup languages. This enables a comprehensive schema and simple use.

  7. Animated molecular dynamics simulations of hydrated caesium-smectite interlayers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sposito Garrison


    Full Text Available Computer animation of center of mass coordinates obtained from 800 ps molecular dynamics simulations of Cs-smectite hydrates (1/3 and 2/3 water monolayers provided information concerning the structure and dynamics of the interlayer region that could not be obtained through traditional simulation analysis methods. Cs+ formed inner sphere complexes with the mineral surface, and could be seen to jump from one attracting location near a layer charge site to the next, while water molecules were observed to migrate from the hydration shell of one ion to that of another. Neighboring ions maintained a partial hydration shell by sharing water molecules, such that a single water molecule hydrated two ions simultaneously for hundreds of picoseconds. Cs-montmorillonite hydrates featured the largest extent of this sharing interaction, because interlayer ions were able to inhabit positions near surface cavities as well as at their edges, close to oxygen triads. The greater positional freedom of Cs+ within the montmorillonite interlayer, a result of structural hydroxyl orientation and low tetrahedral charge, promoted the optimization of distances between cations and water molecules required for water sharing. Preference of Cs+ for locations near oxygen triads was observed within interlayer beidellite and hectorite. Water molecules also could be seen to interact directly with the mineral surface, entering its surface cavities to approach attracting charge sites and structural hydroxyls. With increasing water content, water molecules exhibited increased frequency and duration of both cavity habitation and water sharing interactions. Competition between Cs+ and water molecules for surface sites was evident. These important cooperative and competitive features of interlayer molecular behavior were uniquely revealed by animation of an otherwise highly complex simulation output.

  8. Experimental measurements and thermodynamic modeling of refrigerant hydrates dissociation conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashemi, Hamed; Babaee, Saeedeh; Mohammadi, Amir H.; Naidoo, Paramespri; Ramjugernath, Deresh


    Highlights: • Dissociation conditions of refrigerant hydrates are studied experimentally and theoretically. • Refrigerants R23, R134a, R125a, R22, R410A, R407C and R507C are studied experimentally. • A thermodynamic model able to predict refrigerant hydrates dissociation conditions is proposed. • The results show good agreement between the experimental and predicted values. - Abstract: This study aims to investigate dissociation conditions of refrigerant hydrates both experimentally and theoretically. For this purpose, dissociation conditions of refrigerants R23, R134a, R125a, R22, R410A, R407C and R507C have been measured experimentally. A thermodynamic model that is able to predict refrigerant hydrates dissociation conditions in the various phase equilibrium regions has been proposed as well. Refrigerants modeled in this study include pure refrigerants: R11, R12, R13, R22, R23, R32, R134a, R141b, R143a, R125a, R152a, and mixed refrigerants: R11 + R12, R11 + R114, R12 + R114, R32 + R125a + R134a (R407C), R32 + R125a (R410A). For the modeling of the fluid and hydrate phases, the Peng-Robinson equation of state modified by Stryjek and Vera and the MHV2 G E -EoS mixing rule along with the UNIFAC (original) activity coefficient and van der Waals–Platteeuw (vdW–P) models were employed. The results show good agreement between the experimental and predicted values

  9. Fragmentation of pure and hydrated clusters of 5Br-uracil by low energy carbon ions: observation of hydrated fragments

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Castrovilli, M. C.; Markush, P.; Bolognesi, P.; Rousseau, P.; Maclot, S.; Cartoni, A.; Delaunay, R.; Domaracka, A.; Kočišek, Jaroslav; Huber, B. A.; Avaldi, L.


    Roč. 19, č. 30 (2017), s. 19807-19814 ISSN 1463-9076 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : fragmentation * nano-hydrated 5BrU clusters * low energy carbon ions Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry OBOR OECD: Physical chemistry Impact factor: 4.123, year: 2016

  10. Fragmentation of pure and hydrated clusters of 5Br-uracil by low energy carbon ions: observation of hydrated fragments

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Castrovilli, M. C.; Markush, P.; Bolognesi, P.; Rousseau, P.; Maclot, S.; Cartoni, A.; Delaunay, R.; Domaracka, A.; Kočišek, Jaroslav; Huber, B. A.; Avaldi, L.


    Roč. 19, č. 30 (2017), s. 19807-19814 ISSN 1463-9076 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : fragmentation * nano -hydrated 5BrU clusters * low energy carbon ions Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry OBOR OECD: Physical chemistry Impact factor: 4.123, year: 2016

  11. Influences of additives on the gas hydrate cool storage process in a new gas hydrate cool storage system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bi Yuehong; Guo Tingwei; Zhu Tingying; Zhang Liang; Chen Lingen


    Experimental research on the crystallization process of the gas hydrate HCFC141b is performed for this paper. The influences of different proportions of calcium hypochlorite or benzenesulfonic acid sodium salt on the crystallization process are studied. The results show that the degree of subcooling of formation is obviously decreased, and the formation rate of the gas hydrate is greatly accelerated by adding reasonable proportions of the additives. The degree of subcooling of formation decreases 0.78 deg. C by adding benzenesulfonic acid sodium salt of 0.03%, and the formation rate of the gas hydrate increases 0.2 g/s by adding calcium hypochlorite of 0.08%. In the cool storage system, clathrate hydrates can be formed effectively, and thermal energy can be stored efficiently. When adding benzenesulfonic acid sodium salt of 0.03%, the cold energy stored is 4.74 MJ, and the cool storage density is 206.07 MJ/m 3 . The performance of this cool storage system can meet the needs of practical air conditioning engineering

  12. Method of purifying uranium tetrafluoride hydrate and preparing uranium (VI) peroxide hydrate using a fluoride complexing agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barreiro, A.J.; Lowe, C.M.T.; Lefever, J.A.; Pyman, R.L.


    The annual production of phosphate rock, on the order of about 30-40 million tons yearly, represents several million pounds of uranium. The present invention provides a process of purifying uranium tetrafluoride hydrate to produce a uranium (VI) peroxide product meeting 'yellow cake' standards using a double precipitation procedure. A fluoride complexing agent is used in the precipitation

  13. Direct Observations of Three Dimensional Growth of Hydrates Hosted in Porous Media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerkar, P.; Jones, K; Kleinberg, R; Lindquist, W; Tomov, S; Feng, H; Mahajan, D


    The visualization of time-resolved three-dimensional growth of tetrahydrofuran hydrates with glass spheres of uniform size as porous media using synchrotron x-ray computed microtomography is presented. The images of hydrate patches, formed from excess tetrahydrofuran in aqueous solution, show random nucleation and growth concomitant with grain movement but independent of container-wall effect. Away from grain surfaces, hydrate surface curvature was convex showing that liquid, not hydrate, was the wetting phase, similar to ice growth in porous media. The extension of the observed behavior to methane hydrates could have implications in understanding their role in seafloor stability and climate change.

  14. Effect of bubble size and density on methane conversion to hydrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leske, J.; Taylor, C.E.; Ladner, E.P.


    Research is underway at NETL to understand the physical properties of methane hydrates. One area of investigation is the storage of methane as methane hydrates. An economical and efficient means of storing methane in hydrates opens many commercial opportunities such as transport of stranded gas, off-peak storage of line gas, etc.We have observed during our investigations that the ability to convert methane to methane hydrate is enhanced by foaming of the methane–water solution using a surfactant. The density of the foam, along with the bubble size, is important in the conversion of methane to methane hydrate.

  15. Surface Assisted Formation of methane Hydrates on Ice and Na Montmorillonite Clay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gordon, Margaret Ellen [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Teich-McGoldrick, Stephanie [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Cygan, Randall Timothy [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Meserole, Stephen P. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Rodriguez, Mark A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)


    Methane hydrates are extremely important naturally-occurring crystalline materials that impact climate change, energy resources, geological hazards, and other major environmental issues. Whereas significant experimental effort has been completed to understanding the bulk thermodynamics of methane hydrate assemblies, little is understood on heterogeneous nucleation and growth of methane hydrates in clay-rich environments. Controlled synthesis experiments were completed at 265-285 K and 6.89 MPa to examine the impact of montmorillonite surfaces in clay-ice mixtures to nucleate and form methane hydrate. The results suggest that the hydrophilic and methane adsorbing properties of Namontmorillonite reduce the nucleation period of methane hydrate formation in pure ice systems.

  16. Portland cement hydration in the presence of admixtures: black gram pulse and superplasticizer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viveka Nand Dwivedi


    Full Text Available Effect of admixtures such as black gram pulse (BGP and sulfonated naphthalene based superplasticizer (SP on the hydration of Portland cement has been studied. The hydration characteristics of OPC in the presence of BGP and SP were studied with the help of non evaporable water content determinations, calorimetric method, Mössbauer spectroscopic and atomic force microscopic techniques. Results have shown that both BGP and SP get adsorbed at the surface of cement and its hydration products. The hydration of Portland cement is retarded in the presence of both the admixtures and nanosize hydration products are formed.

  17. Three types of gas hydrate reservoirs in the Gulf of Mexico identified in LWD data (United States)

    Lee, Myung Woong; Collett, Timothy S.


    High quality logging-while-drilling (LWD) well logs were acquired in seven wells drilled during the Gulf of Mexico Gas Hydrate Joint Industry Project Leg II in the spring of 2009. These data help to identify three distinct types of gas hydrate reservoirs: isotropic reservoirs in sands, vertical fractured reservoirs in shale, and horizontally layered reservoirs in silty shale. In general, most gas hydratebearing sand reservoirs exhibit isotropic elastic velocities and formation resistivities, and gas hydrate saturations estimated from the P-wave velocity agree well with those from the resistivity. However, in highly gas hydrate-saturated sands, resistivity-derived gas hydrate-saturation estimates appear to be systematically higher by about 5% over those estimated by P-wave velocity, possibly because of the uncertainty associated with the consolidation state of gas hydrate-bearing sands. Small quantities of gas hydrate were observed in vertical fractures in shale. These occurrences are characterized by high formation resistivities with P-wave velocities close to those of water-saturated sediment. Because the formation factor varies significantly with respect to the gas hydrate saturation for vertical fractures at low saturations, an isotropic analysis of formation factor highly overestimates the gas hydrate saturation. Small quantities of gas hydrate in horizontal layers in shale are characterized by moderate increase in P-wave velocities and formation resistivities and either measurement can be used to estimate gas hydrate saturations.

  18. Synchrotron X-ray computed microtomography study on gas hydrate decomposition in a sedimentary matrix (United States)

    Yang, Lei; Falenty, Andrzej; Chaouachi, Marwen; Haberthür, David; Kuhs, Werner F.


    In-situ synchrotron X-ray computed microtomography with sub-micrometer voxel size was used to study the decomposition of gas hydrates in a sedimentary matrix. Xenon-hydrate was used instead of methane hydrate to enhance the absorption contrast. The microstructural features of the decomposition process were elucidated indicating that the decomposition starts at the hydrate-gas interface; it does not proceed at the contacts with quartz grains. Melt water accumulates at retreating hydrate surface. The decomposition is not homogeneous and the decomposition rates depend on the distance of the hydrate surface to the gas phase indicating a diffusion-limitation of the gas transport through the water phase. Gas is found to be metastably enriched in the water phase with a concentration decreasing away from the hydrate-water interface. The initial decomposition process facilitates redistribution of fluid phases in the pore space and local reformation of gas hydrates. The observations allow also rationalizing earlier conjectures from experiments with low spatial resolutions and suggest that the hydrate-sediment assemblies remain intact until the hydrate spacers between sediment grains finally collapse; possible effects on mechanical stability and permeability are discussed. The resulting time resolved characteristics of gas hydrate decomposition and the influence of melt water on the reaction rate are of importance for a suggested gas recovery from marine sediments by depressurization.

  19. Hydration of gas-phase ytterbium ion complexes studied by experiment and theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rutkowski, Philip X; Michelini, Maria C.; Bray, Travis H.; Russo, Nino; Marcalo, Joaquim; Gibson, John K.


    Hydration of ytterbium (III) halide/hydroxide ions produced by electrospray ionization was studied in a quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometer and by density functional theory (DFT). Gas-phase YbX{sub 2}{sup +} and YbX(OH){sup +} (X = OH, Cl, Br, or I) were found to coordinate from one to four water molecules, depending on the ion residence time in the trap. From the time dependence of the hydration steps, relative reaction rates were obtained. It was determined that the second hydration was faster than both the first and third hydrations, and the fourth hydration was the slowest; this ordering reflects a combination of insufficient degrees of freedom for cooling the hot monohydrate ion and decreasing binding energies with increasing hydration number. Hydration energetics and hydrate structures were computed using two approaches of DFT. The relativistic scalar ZORA approach was used with the PBE functional and all-electron TZ2P basis sets; the B3LYP functional was used with the Stuttgart relativistic small-core ANO/ECP basis sets. The parallel experimental and computational results illuminate fundamental aspects of hydration of f-element ion complexes. The experimental observations - kinetics and extent of hydration - are discussed in relationship to the computed structures and energetics of the hydrates. The absence of pentahydrates is in accord with the DFT results, which indicate that the lowest energy structures have the fifth water molecule in the second shell.

  20. Simulating the effect of hydrate dissociation on wellhead stability during oil and gas development in deepwater (United States)

    Li, Qingchao; Cheng, Yuanfang; Zhang, Huaiwen; Yan, Chuanliang; Liu, Yuwen


    It is well known that methane hydrate has been identified as an alternative resource due to its massive reserves and clean property. However, hydrate dissociation during oil and gas development (OGD) process in deep water can affect the stability of subsea equipment and formation. Currently, there is a serious lack of studies over quantitative assessment on the effects of hydrate dissociation on wellhead stability. In order to solve this problem, ABAQUS finite element software was used to develop a model and to evaluate the behavior of wellhead caused by hydrate dissociation. The factors that affect the wellhead stability include dissociation range, depth of hydrate formation and mechanical properties of dissociated hydrate region. Based on these, series of simulations were carried out to determine the wellhead displacement. The results revealed that, continuous dissociation of hydrate in homogeneous and isotropic formations can causes the non-linear increment in vertical displacement of wellhead. The displacement of wellhead showed good agreement with the settlement of overlying formations under the same conditions. In addition, the shallower and thicker hydrate formation can aggravate the influence of hydrate dissociation on the wellhead stability. Further, it was observed that with the declining elastic modulus and Poisson's ratio, the wellhead displacement increases. Hence, these findings not only confirm the effect of hydrate dissociation on the wellhead stability, but also lend support to the actions, such as cooling the drilling fluid, which can reduce the hydrate dissociation range and further make deepwater operations safer and more efficient.