WorldWideScience

Sample records for fully depleted sige-on-insulator

  1. High-voltage-compatible, fully depleted CCDs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holland, Stephen E.; Bebek, Chris J.; Dawson, Kyle S.; Emes, JohnE.; Fabricius, Max H.; Fairfield, Jessaym A.; Groom, Don E.; Karcher, A.; Kolbe, William F.; Palaio, Nick P.; Roe, Natalie A.; Wang, Guobin

    2006-05-15

    We describe charge-coupled device (CCD) developmentactivities at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL).Back-illuminated CCDs fabricated on 200-300 mu m thick, fully depleted,high-resistivity silicon substrates are produced in partnership with acommercial CCD foundry.The CCDs are fully depleted by the application ofa substrate bias voltage. Spatial resolution considerations requireoperation of thick, fully depleted CCDs at high substrate bias voltages.We have developed CCDs that are compatible with substrate bias voltagesof at least 200V. This improves spatial resolution for a given thickness,and allows for full depletion of thicker CCDs than previously considered.We have demonstrated full depletion of 650-675 mu m thick CCDs, withpotential applications in direct x-ray detection. In this work we discussthe issues related to high-voltage operation of fully depleted CCDs, aswell as experimental results on high-voltage-compatible CCDs.

  2. Fully Depleted Charge-Coupled Devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holland, Stephen E.

    2006-05-15

    We have developed fully depleted, back-illuminated CCDs thatbuild upon earlier research and development efforts directed towardstechnology development of silicon-strip detectors used inhigh-energy-physics experiments. The CCDs are fabricated on the same typeof high-resistivity, float-zone-refined silicon that is used for stripdetectors. The use of high-resistivity substrates allows for thickdepletion regions, on the order of 200-300 um, with corresponding highdetection efficiency for near-infrared andsoft x-ray photons. We comparethe fully depleted CCD to thep-i-n diode upon which it is based, anddescribe the use of fully depleted CCDs in astronomical and x-ray imagingapplications.

  3. Fully Depleted Charge-Coupled Devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holland, Stephen E.

    2006-01-01

    We have developed fully depleted, back-illuminated CCDs that build upon earlier research and development efforts directed towards technology development of silicon-strip detectors used in high-energy-physics experiments. The CCDs are fabricated on the same type of high-resistivity, float-zone-refined silicon that is used for strip detectors. The use of high-resistivity substrates allows for thick depletion regions, on the order of 200-300 um, with corresponding high detection efficiency for near-infrared and soft x-ray photons. We compare the fully depleted CCD to the p-i-n diode upon which it is based, and describe the use of fully depleted CCDs in astronomical and x-ray imaging applications

  4. Fabrication and characterization of fully depleted surface barrier detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ray, A.

    2010-01-01

    Fabrication of fully depleted surface barrier type thin detectors needs thin silicon wafer of 20 - 30 μm thickness and flatness of ± 1 μm. Process has been developed for thinning silicon wafers to achieve thickness up to 20 - 30 μm from thicker (0.5 - 0.8 mm) silicon samples. These samples were used to fabricate fully depleted surface barrier detectors using Au contacts on n-type silicon. The detectors were characterized by measuring forward and reverse I-V characteristics and alpha energy spectra of Am-Pu source. (author)

  5. A new memory effect (MSD) in fully depleted SOI MOSFETs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bawedin, M.; Cristoloveanu, S.; Yun, J. G.; Flandre, D.

    2005-09-01

    We demonstrate that the transconductance and drain current of fully depleted MOSFETs can display an interesting time-dependent hysteresis. This new memory effect, called meta-stable dip (MSD), is mainly due to the long carrier generation lifetime in the silicon film. Our parametric analysis shows that the memory window can be adjusted in view of practical applications. Various measurement conditions and devices with different doping, front oxide and silicon film thicknesses are systematically explored. The MSD effect can be generalized to several fully depleted CMOS technologies. The MSD mechanism is discussed and validated by two-dimensional simulations results.

  6. Fully depleted back-illuminated p-channel CCD development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bebek, Chris J.; Bercovitz, John H.; Groom, Donald E.; Holland, Stephen E.; Kadel, Richard W.; Karcher, Armin; Kolbe, William F.; Oluseyi, Hakeem M.; Palaio, Nicholas P.; Prasad, Val; Turko, Bojan T.; Wang, Guobin

    2003-07-08

    An overview of CCD development efforts at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory is presented. Operation of fully-depleted, back-illuminated CCD's fabricated on high resistivity silicon is described, along with results on the use of such CCD's at ground-based observatories. Radiation damage and point-spread function measurements are described, as well as discussion of CCD fabrication technologies.

  7. Special Issue: Planar Fully-Depleted SOI technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allibert, F.; Hiramoto, T.; Nguyen, B. Y.

    2016-03-01

    We are in the era of mobile computing with smart handheld devices and remote data storage "in the cloud," with devices that are almost always on and driven by needs of high data transmission rate, instant access/connection and long battery life. With all the ambitious requirements for better performance with lower power consumption, the SoC solution must also be cost-effective in order to capture the large, highly-competitive consumer mobile and wearable markets. The Fully-Depleted SOI device/circuit is a unique option that can satisfy all these requirements and has made tremendous progress in development for various applications and adoption by foundries, integrated device manufacturers (IDM), and fabless companies in the last 3 years.

  8. Development of fully depleted scientific CCDs for astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boggs, Kasey; Bredthauer, Richard; Lesser, Michael

    2007-02-01

    Due to aggressive scientific specifications, Semiconductor Technology Associates and the University of Arizona's Imaging Technology Laboratory have collaborated to develop a fully depleted back illuminated CCD for scientific imaging. These devices are designed to target increased quantum efficiency into the near-infrared, without reduction in the modulation transfer function, charge transfer efficiency, or rms noise. The STA1700 series imagers are back illuminated 100 micron thick devices with a 10 micron pixel pitch targeted to meet the requirements of the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST). Recent characterization results will be presented including the point spread function of a 2 micron spot. Also discussed will be the thinning and packaging developments for the STA1700. These efforts include the addition of a backside bias contact, invar package design with high density connectors, as well as etching and backside coating optimization for high resistivity silicon.

  9. Study of Pixel Area Variations in Fully Depleted Thick CCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotov, I.V.; O'Connor, P.; Kotov, A.I.; Frank, J.; Kubanek, P.; Prouza, M.; Radeka, V.; Takacs, P.

    2010-01-01

    Future wide field astronomical surveys, like Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST), require photometric precision on the percent level. The accuracy of sensor calibration procedures should match these requirements. Pixel size variations found in CCDs from different manufacturers are the source of systematic errors in the flat field calibration procedure. To achieve the calibration accuracy required to meet the most demanding science goals this effect should be taken into account. The study of pixel area variations was performed for fully depleted, thick CCDs produced in a technology study for LSST. These are n-channel, 100 (micro)m thick devices. We find pixel size variations in both row and column directions. The size variation magnitude is smaller in the row direction. In addition, diffusion is found to smooth out electron density variations. It is shown that the characteristic diffusion width can be extracted from the flat field data. Results on pixel area variations and diffusion, data features, analysis technique and modeling technique are presented and discussed.

  10. Fully depleted CMOS pixel sensor development and potential applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baudot, J.; Kachel, M. [Universite de Strasbourg, IPHC, 23 rue du Loess 67037 Strasbourg (France); CNRS, UMR7178, 67037 Strasbourg (France)

    2015-07-01

    CMOS pixel sensors are often opposed to hybrid pixel sensors due to their very different sensitive layer. In standard CMOS imaging processes, a thin (about 20 μm) low resistivity epitaxial layer acts as the sensitive volume and charge collection is mostly driven by thermal agitation. In contrast, the so-called hybrid pixel technology exploits a thick (typically 300 μm) silicon sensor with high resistivity allowing for the depletion of this volume, hence charges drift toward collecting electrodes. But this difference is fading away with the recent availability of some CMOS imaging processes based on a relatively thick (about 50 μm) high resistivity epitaxial layer which allows for full depletion. This evolution extents the range of applications for CMOS pixel sensors where their known assets, high sensitivity and granularity combined with embedded signal treatment, could potentially foster breakthrough in detection performances for specific scientific instruments. One such domain is the Xray detection for soft energies, typically below 10 keV, where the thin sensitive layer was previously severely impeding CMOS sensor usage. Another application becoming realistic for CMOS sensors, is the detection in environment with a high fluence of non-ionizing radiation, such as hadron colliders. However, when considering highly demanding applications, it is still to be proven that micro-circuits required to uniformly deplete the sensor at the pixel level, do not mitigate the sensitivity and efficiency required. Prototype sensors in two different technologies with resistivity higher than 1 kΩ, sensitive layer between 40 and 50 μm and featuring pixel pitch in the range 25 to 50 μm, have been designed and fabricated. Various biasing architectures were adopted to reach full depletion with only a few volts. Laboratory investigations with three types of sources (X-rays, β-rays and infrared light) demonstrated the validity of the approach with respect to depletion, keeping a

  11. New Insights into Fully-Depleted SOI Transistor Response During Total Dose Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burns, J.A.; Dodd, P.E.; Keast, C.L.; Schwank, J.R.; Shaneyfelt, M.R.; Wyatt, P.W.

    1999-01-01

    Worst-case bias configuration for total-dose testing fully-depleted SOI transistors was found to be process dependent. No evidence was found for total-dose induced snap back. These results have implications for hardness assurance testing

  12. Fully-depleted, back-illuminated charge-coupled devices fabricated on high-resistivity silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holland, Stephen E.; Groom, Donald E.; Palaio, Nick P.; Stover, Richard J.; Wei, Mingzhi

    2002-03-28

    Charge-coupled devices (CCD's) have been fabricated on high-resistivity silicon. The resistivity, on the order of 10,000 {Omega}-cm, allows for depletion depths of several hundred microns. Fully-depleted, back-illuminated operation is achieved by the application of a bias voltage to a ohmic contact on the wafer back side consisting of a thin in-situ doped polycrystalline silicon layer capped by indium tin oxide and silicon dioxide. This thin contact allows for good short wavelength response, while the relatively large depleted thickness results in good near-infrared response.

  13. Estimation of background carrier concentration in fully depleted GaN films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandrasekar, Hareesh; Singh, Manikant; Raghavan, Srinivasan; Bhat, Navakanta

    2015-01-01

    Buffer leakage is an important parasitic loss mechanism in AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) and hence various methods are employed to grow semi-insulating buffer layers. Quantification of carrier concentration in such buffers using conventional capacitance based profiling techniques is challenging due to their fully depleted nature even at zero bias voltages. We provide a simple and effective model to extract carrier concentrations in fully depleted GaN films using capacitance–voltage (C–V) measurements. Extensive mercury probe C–V profiling has been performed on GaN films of differing thicknesses and doping levels in order to validate this model. Carrier concentrations as extracted from both the conventional C–V technique for partially depleted films having the same doping concentration, and Hall measurements show excellent agreement with those predicted by the proposed model thus establishing the utility of this technique. This model can be readily extended to estimate background carrier concentrations from the depletion region capacitances of HEMT structures and fully depleted films of any class of semiconductor materials. (paper)

  14. Estimation of background carrier concentration in fully depleted GaN films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrasekar, Hareesh; Singh, Manikant; Raghavan, Srinivasan; Bhat, Navakanta

    2015-11-01

    Buffer leakage is an important parasitic loss mechanism in AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) and hence various methods are employed to grow semi-insulating buffer layers. Quantification of carrier concentration in such buffers using conventional capacitance based profiling techniques is challenging due to their fully depleted nature even at zero bias voltages. We provide a simple and effective model to extract carrier concentrations in fully depleted GaN films using capacitance-voltage (C-V) measurements. Extensive mercury probe C-V profiling has been performed on GaN films of differing thicknesses and doping levels in order to validate this model. Carrier concentrations as extracted from both the conventional C-V technique for partially depleted films having the same doping concentration, and Hall measurements show excellent agreement with those predicted by the proposed model thus establishing the utility of this technique. This model can be readily extended to estimate background carrier concentrations from the depletion region capacitances of HEMT structures and fully depleted films of any class of semiconductor materials.

  15. Dielectric response of fully and partially depleted ferroelectric thin films and inversion of the thickness effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Misirlioglu, I B; Yildiz, M

    2013-01-01

    We study the effect of full and partial depletion on the dielectric response characteristics of ferroelectric thin films with impurities via a computational approach. Using a thermodynamic approach along with the fundamental equations for semiconductors, we show that films with partial depletion display unique features and an enhanced dielectric response compared with those fully depleted. We find that the capacitance peak at switching can be significantly suppressed in the case of high impurity densities (>10 25 m −3 ) with relatively low ionization energy, of the order of 0.5 eV. For conserved number of species in films, electromigration of ionized impurities at room temperature is negligible and has nearly no effect on the dielectric response. In films with high impurity density, the dielectric response at zero bias is enhanced with respect to charge-free films or those with relatively low impurity density ( 24 m −3 ). We demonstrate that partially depleted films should be expected to exhibit peculiar capacitance–voltage characteristics at low and high bias and that the thickness effect probed in experiments in ferroelectric thin films could be entirely inverted in thin films with depletion charges where a higher dielectric response can be measured in thicker films. Therefore, depletion charge densities in ferroelectric thin films should be estimated before size-effect-related studies. Finally, we noted that these findings are in good qualitative agreement with dielectric measurements carried out on PbZr x Ti 1−x O 3 . (paper)

  16. New insights into fully-depleted SOI transistor response during total-dose irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwank, J.R.; Shaneyfelt, M.R.; Dodd, P.E.; Burns, J.A.; Keast, C.L.; Wyatt, P.W.

    1999-01-01

    In this paper, we present irradiation results on 2-fully depleted processes (HYSOI6, RKSOI) that show SOI (silicon on insulator) device response can be more complicated than originally suggested by others. The major difference between the 2 process versions is that the RKSOI process incorporates special techniques to minimize pre-irradiation parasitic leakage current from trench sidewalls. Transistors were irradiated at room temperature using 10 keV X-ray source. Worst-case bias configuration for total-dose testing fully-depleted SOI transistors was found to be process dependent. It appears that the worst-case bias for HYPOI6 process is the bias that causes the largest increase in sidewall leakage. The RKSOI process shows a different response during irradiation, the transition response appears to be dominated by charge trapping in the buried oxide. These results have implications for hardness assurance testing. (A.C.)

  17. Improved Spatial Resolution in Thick, Fully-Depleted CCDs withEnhanced Red Sensitivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fairfield, Jessamyn A.

    2005-11-10

    The point spread function (PSF) is an important measure ofspatial resolution in CCDs for point-like objects, since it can affectuse in imaging and spectroscopic applications. We present new data andtheoretical developments in the study of lateral charge diffusion inthick, fully-depleted charge-coupled devices (CCDs) developed at LawrenceBerkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). Because they are fully depleted, theLBNL devices have no field-free region, and diffusion can be controlledthrough the application of an external bias voltage. We give results fora 3512x3512 format, 10.5 ?m pixel back-illuminated p-channel CCDdeveloped for the SuperNova/ Acceleration Probe (SNAP), a proposedsatellite-based experiment designed to study dark energy. The PSF wasmeasured at substrate bias voltages between 3 V and 115 V. At a biasvoltage of 115V, we measure an rms diffusion of 3.7 +- 0.2 ?m. Lateralcharge diffusion in LBNL CCDs is thus expected to meet the SNAPrequirements.

  18. Improved Spatial Resolution in Thick, Fully-Depleted CCDs with Enhanced Red Sensitivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fairfield, Jessamyn A.

    2005-01-01

    The point spread function (PSF) is an important measure of spatial resolution in CCDs for point-like objects, since it can affect use in imaging and spectroscopic applications. We present new data and theoretical developments in the study of lateral charge diffusion in thick, fully-depleted charge-coupled devices (CCDs) developed at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). Because they are fully depleted, the LBNL devices have no field-free region, and diffusion can be controlled through the application of an external bias voltage. We give results for a 3512x3512 format, 10.5 ?m pixel back-illuminated p-channel CCD developed for the SuperNova/Acceleration Probe (SNAP), a proposed satellite-based experiment designed to study dark energy. The PSF was measured at substrate bias voltages between 3 V and 115 V. At a bias voltage of 115V, we measure an rms diffusion of 3.7 ± 0.2 (micro)m. Lateral charge diffusion in LBNL CCDs is thus expected to meet the SNAP requirements

  19. Depleted fully monolithic CMOS pixel detectors using a column based readout architecture for the ATLAS Inner Tracker upgrade

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, T.; Barbero, M.; Berdalovic, I.; Bespin, C.; Bhat, S.; Breugnon, P.; Caicedo, I.; Cardella, R.; Chen, Z.; Degerli, Y.; Egidos, N.; Godiot, S.; Guilloux, F.; Hemperek, T.; Hirono, T.

    2017-01-01

    Depleted monolithic active pixel sensors (DMAPS), which exploit high voltage and/or high resistivity add-ons of modern CMOS technologies to achieve substantial depletion in the sensing volume, have proven to have high radiation tolerance towards the requirements of ATLAS in the high-luminosity LHC era. Depleted fully monolithic CMOS pixels with fast readout architectures are currently being developed as promising candidates for the outer pixel layers of the future ATLAS Inner Tracker, which w...

  20. Improved Spatial Resolution in Thick, Fully-Depleted CCDs withEnhanced Red Sensitivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fairfield, Jessamyn A.; Groom, Donald E.; Bailey, Stephen J.; Bebek, Christopher J.; Holland, Stephen E.; Karcher, Armin; Kolbe,William F.; Lorenzon, Wolfgang; Roe, Natalie A.

    2006-03-09

    The point spread function (PSF) is an important measure of spatial resolution in CCDs for point-like objects, since it affects image quality and spectroscopic resolution. We present new data and theoretical developments for lateral charge diffusion in thick, fully-depleted charge-coupled devices (CCDs) developed at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). Because they can be over-depleted, the LBNL devices have no field-free region and diffusion is controlled through the application of an external bias voltage. We give results for a 3512 x 3512 format, 10.5 {micro}m pixel back-illuminated p-channel CCD developed for the SuperNova/Acceleration Probe (SNAP), a proposed satellite-based experiment designed to study dark energy. The PSF was measured at substrate bias voltages between 3 V and 115 V. At a bias voltage of 115 V, we measure an rms diffusion of 3.7 {+-} 0.2 {micro}m. Lateral charge diffusion in LBNL CCDs will meet the SNAP requirements.

  1. Performance evaluation of a fully depleted monolithic pixel detector chip in 150 nm CMOS technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obermann, Theresa

    2017-06-01

    The depleted monolithic active pixel sensor (DMAPS) is a new concept integrating full CMOS circuitry onto a (fully) depletable silicon substrate wafer. The realization of prototypes of the DMAPS concept relies on the availability of multiple well CMOS processes and highly resistive substrates. The CMOS foundry ESPROS Photonics offers both and was chosen for prototyping. Two prototypes, EPCB01 and EPCB02, developed in a 150 nm process on a highly resistive n-type wafer of 50 μm thickness, were characterized. The prototypes have 352 square pixels of 40 μm pitch and a small n-well charge collection node with very low capacitance of 5 fF (n + -implantation size: 5 μm x 5 μm) and about 150 transistors per pixel (CSA and discriminator plus a small digital part). The characterization of the prototypes demonstrates the proof of principle of the concept. Prior to irradiation the prototypes show a signal from a minimum ionizing particle ranging from 2400 e - to 3000 e - while the noise is 30 e - due to the low capacitance. After the irradiation of the prototypes with neutrons up to a fluence of 5 x 10 14 neutrons/cm 2 the performance suffers from the radiation damage leading to a signal of 1000 e - and a higher noise of 60 e - due to the increase of the leakage current. The detection efficiency of the prototypes reduces from 94 % to 26 % after the fluence of 5 x 10 14 particles/cm 2 . Due to the small fill factor the detection efficiency shows are strong dependence on the position within the pixel after irradiation. Thus the DMAPS concept with low fill factor can be used for precise vertex reconstruction in High Energy Physics experiments without severe performance loss up to moderate fluences (< 1 x 10 14 particles/cm 2 ). The expected particle fluences inside of the volume of the upgrade of the ATLAS pixel detector exceed this limit. However, possible applications could be at future linear collider (ILC or CLIC) experiments and B-factories where the low material budget

  2. R and D of a pixel sensor based on 0.15μm fully depleted SOI technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuboyama, Toru; Arai, Yasuo; Fukuda, Koichi; Hara, Kazuhiko; Hayashi, Hirokazu; Hazumi, Masashi; Ida, Jiro; Ikeda, Hirokazu; Ikegami, Yoichi; Ishino, Hirokazu; Kawasaki, Takeo; Kohriki, Takashi; Komatsubara, Hirotaka; Martin, Elena; Miyake, Hideki; Mochizuki, Ai; Ohno, Morifumi; Saegusa, Yuuji; Tajima, Hiro; Tajima, Osamu

    2007-01-01

    Development of a monolithic pixel detector based on SOI (silicon on insulator) technology was started at KEK in 2005. The substrate of the SOI wafer is used as a radiation sensor. At end of 2005, we submitted several test-structure group (TEG) chips for the 150 nm, fully depleted CMOS process. The TEG designs and preliminary results are presented

  3. Back-illuminated, fully-depleted CCD image sensors for use in optical and near-IR astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Groom, D E; Levi, M E; Palaio, N P; Perlmutter, S; Stover, R J; Wei, M

    2000-01-01

    Charge-coupled devices (CCDs) of novel design have been fabricated at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), and the first large-format science-grade chips for astronomical imaging are now being characterized at Lick Observatory. They are made on 300-mu m thick n-type high-resistivity (approx 10 000 OMEGA cm) silicon wafers, using a technology developed at LBNL to fabricate low-leakage silicon microstrip detectors for high-energy physics. A bias voltage applied via a transparent contact on the back side fully depletes the substrate, making the entire volume photosensitive and ensuring that charge reaches the potential wells with minimal lateral diffusion. The development of a thin, transparent back-side contact compatible with fully depleted operation permits blue response comparable to that obtained with thinned CCDs. Since the entire region is active, high quantum efficiency is maintained to nearly lambda=1000 nm, above which the silicon band gap effectively truncates photoproduction. Early character...

  4. LePix—A high resistivity, fully depleted monolithic pixel detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giubilato, P.; Bisello, D.; Chalmet, P.; Denes, P.; Kloukinas, K.; Mattiazzo, S.; Marchioro, A.; Mugnier, H.; Pantano, D.; Potenza, A.; Rivetti, A.; Rousset, J.; Snoeys, W.; Tindall, C.

    2013-01-01

    The LePix project explores monolithic pixel sensors fabricated in a 90 nm CMOS technology built over a lightly doped substrate. This approach keeps the advantages usually offered by Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors (MAPS), like a low input capacitance, having a single piece detector and using a standard CMOS production line, and adds the benefit of charge collection by drift from a depleted region several tens of microns deep into the substrate, therefore providing an excellent signal to noise ratio and a radiation tolerance superior to conventional un-depleted MAPS. Such sensors are expected to offer significant cost savings and reduction of power consumption for the same performance, leading to the use of much less material in the detector (less cooling and less copper), addressing one of the main limitations of present day particle tracking systems. The latest evolution of the project uses detectors thinned down to 50 μm to obtain back illuminated sensors operated in full depletion mode. By back-processing the chip and collecting the charge from the full substrate it is hence possible to efficiently detect soft X-rays up to 10 keV. Test results from first successfully processed detectors will be presented and discussed

  5. LePix-A high resistivity, fully depleted monolithic pixel detector

    CERN Document Server

    Giubilato, P; Mugnier, H; Bisello, D; Marchioro, A; Snoeys, W; Denes, P; Pantano, D; Rousset, J; Mattiazzo, S; Kloukinas, K; Potenza, A; Rivetti, A; Chalmet, P

    2013-01-01

    The LePix project explores monolithic pixel sensors fabricated in a 90 nm CMOS technology built over a lightly doped substrate. This approach keeps the advantages usually offered by Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors (MAPS), like a low input capacitance, having a single piece detector and using a standard CMOS production line, and adds the benefit of charge collection by drift from a depleted region several tens of microns deep into the substrate, therefore providing an excellent signal to noise ratio and a radiation tolerance superior to conventional un-depleted MAPS. Such sensors are expected to offer significant cost savings and reduction of power consumption for the same performance, leading to the use of much less material in the detector (less cooling and less copper), addressing one of the main limitations of present day particle tracking systems. The latest evolution of the project uses detectors thinned down to 50 mu m to obtain back illuminated sensors operated in full depletion mode. By back processin...

  6. Measurement of lateral charge diffusion in thick, fully depleted, back-illuminated CCDs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karcher, Armin; Bebek, Christopher J.; Kolbe, William F.; Maurath, Dominic; Prasad, Valmiki; Uslenghi, Michela; Wagner, Martin

    2004-06-30

    Lateral charge diffusion in back-illuminated CCDs directly affects the point spread function (PSF) and spatial resolution of an imaging device. This can be of particular concern in thick, back-illuminated CCDs. We describe a technique of measuring this diffusion and present PSF measurements for an 800 x 1100, 15 mu m pixel, 280 mu m thick, back-illuminated, p-channel CCD that can be over-depleted. The PSF is measured over a wavelength range of 450 nm to 650 nm and at substrate bias voltages between 6 V and 80 V.

  7. Temperature influence on the gate-induced floating body effect parameters in fully depleted SOI nMOSFETs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agopian, Paula Ghedini Der; Martino, João Antonio; Simoen, Eddy; Claeys, Cor

    2008-11-01

    The temperature influence on the gate-induced floating body effect (GIFBE) in fully depleted (FD) silicon-on-insulator (SOI) nMOSFETs is investigated, based on experimental results and two-dimensional numerical simulations. The GIFBE behavior will be evaluated taking into account the impact of carrier recombination and of the effective electric field mobility degradation on the second peak in the transconductance (gm). This floating body effect is also analyzed as a function of temperature. It is shown that the variation of the studied parameters with temperature results in a "C" shape of the threshold voltage corresponding with the second peak in the gm curve.

  8. Unified analytical threshold voltage model for non-uniformly doped dual metal gate fully depleted silicon-on-insulator MOSFETs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Rathnamala; Katti, Guruprasad; Havaldar, Dnyanesh S.; DasGupta, Nandita; DasGupta, Amitava

    2009-03-01

    The paper describes the unified analytical threshold voltage model for non-uniformly doped, dual metal gate (DMG) fully depleted silicon-on-insulator (FDSOI) MOSFETs based on the solution of 2D Poisson's equation. 2D Poisson's equation is solved analytically for appropriate boundary conditions using separation of variables technique. The solution is then extended to obtain the threshold voltage of the FDSOI MOSFET. The model is able to handle any kind of non-uniform doping, viz. vertical, lateral as well as laterally asymetric channel (LAC) profile in the SOI film in addition to the DMG structure. The analytical results are validated with the numerical simulations using the device simulator MEDICI.

  9. Modeling and analysis of surface potential of single gate fully depleted SOI MOSFET using 2D-Poisson's equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mani, Prashant; Tyagi, Chandra Shekhar; Srivastav, Nishant

    2016-03-01

    In this paper the analytical solution of the 2D Poisson's equation for single gate Fully Depleted SOI (FDSOI) MOSFET's is derived by using a Green's function solution technique. The surface potential is calculated and the threshold voltage of the device is minimized for the low power consumption. Due to minimization of threshold voltage the short channel effect of device is suppressed and after observation we obtain the device is kink free. The structure and characteristics of SingleGate FDSOI MOSFET were matched by using MathCAD and silvaco respectively.

  10. Precision astronomy with imperfect fully depleted CCDs — an introduction and a suggested lexicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stubbs, C. W.

    2014-03-01

    This paper summarizes the introductory presentation for a workshop (held Nov 18, 19 2013 at Brookhaven National Laboratory) that explored the challenges associated with making precision astronomical measurements using deeply depleted = ``thick" =``high-ρ'' CCDs. While thick CCDs do provide definite advantages in terms of increased quantum efficiency at wavelengths 700 nm lateral electrical fields within the detector, that produce charge transport anomalies that have been previously misinterpreted as quantum efficiency variations. Performing simplistic flat-fielding therefore introduces systematic errors in the image processing pipeline. One measurement challenge we face is devising a combination of calibration methods and algorithms that can distinguish genuine quantum efficiency variations from charge transport effects. These device imperfections also confront spectroscopic applications, such as line centroid determination for precision radial velocity studies. Given the scientific benefits of improving both the precision and accuracy of astronomical measurements, we need to identify, characterize, and overcome these various detector artifacts. In retrospect, many of the detector features first identified in thick CCDs also afflict measurements made with more traditional CCD detectors, albeit often at a reduced level since the photocharge is subject to the perturbing influence of lateral electric fields for a shorter time interval. I provide a qualitative overview of the physical effects we think are responsible for the observed device properties, and provide some perspective for the work that lies ahead. Finally, I take this opportunity to make a plea for establishing a clear and consistent vocabulary when describing these various detector features, and make some suggestions for a standard lexicon based on discussions at the workshop. A more refined understanding of the device imperfections we are working to circumvent lies ahead, and this workshop was convened

  11. Depleted fully monolithic CMOS pixel detectors using a column based readout architecture for the ATLAS Inner Tracker upgrade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, T.; Barbero, M.; Berdalovic, I.; Bespin, C.; Bhat, S.; Breugnon, P.; Caicedo, I.; Cardella, R.; Chen, Z.; Degerli, Y.; Egidos, N.; Godiot, S.; Guilloux, F.; Hemperek, T.; Hirono, T.; Krüger, H.; Kugathasan, T.; Hügging, F.; Marin Tobon, C. A.; Moustakas, K.; Pangaud, P.; Schwemling, P.; Pernegger, H.; Pohl, D.-L.; Rozanov, A.; Rymaszewski, P.; Snoeys, W.; Wermes, N.

    2018-03-01

    Depleted monolithic active pixel sensors (DMAPS), which exploit high voltage and/or high resistivity add-ons of modern CMOS technologies to achieve substantial depletion in the sensing volume, have proven to have high radiation tolerance towards the requirements of ATLAS in the high-luminosity LHC era. DMAPS integrating fast readout architectures are currently being developed as promising candidates for the outer pixel layers of the future ATLAS Inner Tracker, which will be installed during the phase II upgrade of ATLAS around year 2025. In this work, two DMAPS prototype designs, named LF-Monopix and TJ-Monopix, are presented. LF-Monopix was fabricated in the LFoundry 150 nm CMOS technology, and TJ-Monopix has been designed in the TowerJazz 180 nm CMOS technology. Both chips employ the same readout architecture, i.e. the column drain architecture, whereas different sensor implementation concepts are pursued. The paper makes a joint description of the two prototypes, so that their technical differences and challenges can be addressed in direct comparison. First measurement results for LF-Monopix will also be shown, demonstrating for the first time a fully functional fast readout DMAPS prototype implemented in the LFoundry technology.

  12. Generation of alloreactivity-reduced donor lymphocyte products retaining memory function by fully automatic depletion of CD45RA-positive cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Nina; Landwehr, Katharina; Langeveld, Kirsten; Stenzel, Joanna; Pouwels, Walter; van der Hoorn, Menno A W G; Seifried, Erhard; Bonig, Halvard

    2018-02-28

    For patients needing allogeneic stem cell transplantation but lacking a major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-matched donor, haplo-identical (family) donors may be an alternative. Stringent T-cell depletion required in these cases to avoid lethal graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) can delay immune reconstitution, thus impairing defense against virus reactivation and attenuating graft-versus-leukemia (GVL) activity. Several groups reported that GVHD is caused by cells residing within the naive (CD45RA + ) T-cell compartment and proposed use of CD45RA-depleted donor lymphocyte infusion (DLI) to accelerate immune reconstitution. We developed and tested the performance of a CD45RA depletion module for the automatic cell-processing device CliniMACS Prodigy and investigated quality attributes of the generated products. Unstimulated apheresis products from random volunteer donors were depleted of CD45RA + cells on CliniMACS Prodigy, using Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP)-compliant reagents and methods throughout. Using phenotypic and functional in vitro assays, we assessed the cellular constitution of CD45RA-depleted products, including T-cell subset analyses, immunological memory function and allo-reactivity. Selections were technically uneventful and proceeded automatically with minimal hands-on time beyond tubing set installation. Products were near-qualitatively CD45RA + depleted, that is, largely devoid of CD45RA + T cells but also of almost all B and natural killer cells. Naive and effector as well as γ/δ T cells were greatly reduced. The CD4:CD8 ratio was fivefold increased. Mixed lymphocyte reaction assays of the product against third-party leukocytes revealed reduced allo-reactivity compared to starting material. Anti-pathogen responses were retained. The novel, closed, fully GMP-compatible process on Prodigy generates highly CD45RA-depleted cellular products predicted to be clinically meaningfully depleted of GvH reactivity. Copyright © 2018 International

  13. New Analytical Model for Short-Channel Fully Depleted Dual-Material-Gate Silicon-on-Insulator Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Field-Effect Transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Te-Kuang Chiang,

    2010-07-01

    Using the exact solution of the two-dimensional Poisson equation, a new analytical model comprising two-dimensional potential and threshold voltage for short-channel fully depleted dual-material-gate silicon-on-insulator (SOI) metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs) is developed. The model shows that the minimum acceptable channel length can be sustained while repressing the short-channel effects if a thin gate oxide and a thin silicon body are employed in the device. Moreover, by increasing the ratio of the screen gate length to control gate length, the threshold voltage roll-off can be more effectively reduced. The model is verified by the close agreement of its results with those of a numerical simulation using the device simulator MEDICI. The model not only offers an insight into the device physics but is also an efficient model for circuit simulation.

  14. Analytical Subthreshold Current and Subthreshold Swing Models for a Fully Depleted (FD) Recessed-Source/Drain (Re-S/D) SOI MOSFET with Back-Gate Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saramekala, Gopi Krishna; Tiwari, Pramod Kumar

    2017-08-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) analytical models for the subthreshold current and subthreshold swing of the back-gated fully depleted recessed-source/drain (Re-S/D) silicon-on-insulator (SOI) metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) are presented. The surface potential is determined by solving the 2D Poisson equation in both channel and buried-oxide (BOX) regions, considering suitable boundary conditions. To derive closed-form expressions for the subthreshold characteristics, the virtual cathode potential expression has been derived in terms of the minimum of the front and back surface potentials. The effect of various device parameters such as gate oxide and Si film thicknesses, thickness of source/drain penetration into BOX, applied back-gate bias voltage, etc. on the subthreshold current and subthreshold swing has been analyzed. The validity of the proposed models is established using the Silvaco ATLAS™ 2D device simulator.

  15. Mechanism of floating body effect mitigation via cutting off source injection in a fully-depleted silicon-on-insulator technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Pengcheng; Chen Shuming; Chen Jianjun

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, the effect of floating body effect (FBE) on a single event transient generation mechanism in fully depleted (FD) silicon-on-insulator (SOI) technology is investigated using three-dimensional technology computer-aided design (3D-TCAD) numerical simulation. The results indicate that the main SET generation mechanism is not carrier drift/diffusion but floating body effect (FBE) whether for positive or negative channel metal oxide semiconductor (PMOS or NMOS). Two stacking layout designs mitigating FBE are investigated as well, and the results indicate that the in-line stacking (IS) layout can mitigate FBE completely and is area penalty saving compared with the conventional stacking layout. (paper)

  16. An Analytical Threshold Voltage Model of Fully Depleted (FD) Recessed-Source/Drain (Re-S/D) SOI MOSFETs with Back-Gate Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saramekala, Gopi Krishna; Tiwari, Pramod Kumar

    2016-10-01

    This paper presents an analytical threshold voltage model for back-gated fully depleted (FD), recessed-source drain silicon-on-insulator metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs). Analytical surface potential models have been developed at front and back surfaces of the channel by solving the two-dimensional (2-D) Poisson's equation in the channel region with appropriate boundary conditions assuming a parabolic potential profile in the transverse direction of the channel. The strong inversion criterion is applied to the front surface potential as well as on the back one in order to find two separate threshold voltages for front and back channels of the device, respectively. The device threshold voltage has been assumed to be associated with the surface that offers a lower threshold voltage. The developed model was analyzed extensively for a variety of device geometry parameters like the oxide and silicon channel thicknesses, the thickness of the source/drain extension in the buried oxide, and the applied bias voltages with back-gate control. The proposed model has been validated by comparing the analytical results with numerical simulation data obtained from ATLAS™, a 2-D device simulator from SILVACO.

  17. Carrier transport and collection in fully depleted semiconductors by a combined action of the space charge field and the field due to electrode voltages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehak, P.; Gatti, E.

    1984-02-24

    A semiconductor charge transport device and method for making same, characterized by providing a thin semiconductor wafer having rectifying functions on its opposing major surfaces and including a small capacitance ohmic contact, in combination with bias voltage means and associated circuit means for applying a predetermined voltage to effectively deplete the wafer in regions thereof between the rectifying junctions and the ohmic contact. A charge transport device of the invention is usable as a drift chamber, a low capacitance detector, or a charge coupled device each constructed according to the methods of the invention for making such devices. Detectors constructed according to the principles of the invention are characterized by having significantly higher particle position indicating resolution than is attainable with prior art detectors, while at the same time requiring substantially fewer readout channels to realize such high resolution.

  18. Depleted uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huffer, E.; Nifenecker, H.

    2001-02-01

    This document deals with the physical, chemical and radiological properties of the depleted uranium. What is the depleted uranium? Why do the military use depleted uranium and what are the risk for the health? (A.L.B.)

  19. Study of fully-depleted Ge double-gate n-type Tunneling Field-Effect Transistors for improvement in on-state current and sub-threshold swing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiangyu; Hu, Huiyong; Wang, Meng; Zhang, Heming; Cui, Shimin; Shu, Bin; Wang, Bin

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, a fully-depleted (FD) Ge double-gate (DG) n-type Tunneling Field-Effect Transistors (TFET) structure is studied in detail by two-dimensional numerical simulation. The simulation results indicated that the on-state current Ion and on-off ratio of the FD Ge DG-TFET increases about 1 order of magnitude comparing with the Conventional Ge DG-TFET, and Ion=3.95×10-5 A/μm and the below 60 mV/decade subthreshold swing S=26.4 mV/decade are achieved with the length of gate LD=20 nm, the workfuntion of metal gate Φm=0.2 eV and the doping concentration of n+-type-channel ND=1×1018 cm-3. Moreover, the impacts of Φm, ND and LD are investigated. The simulation results indicated that the off-state current Ioff includes the tunneling current at the middle of channel IB the gated-induced drain leakage (GIDL) current IGIDL. With optimized Φm and ND, Ioff is reduced about 2 orders of magnitude to 2.5×10-13 A/μm with LD increasing from 40 nm to 100 nm, and on-off ratio is increased to 1.58×107.

  20. Addressing Ozone Layer Depletion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Access information on EPA's efforts to address ozone layer depletion through regulations, collaborations with stakeholders, international treaties, partnerships with the private sector, and enforcement actions under Title VI of the Clean Air Act.

  1. Revisiting The Depleted Self.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Reggie

    2018-04-01

    This article revisits Donald Capps's book The Depleted Self (The depleted self: sin in a narcissistic age. Fortress Press, Minneapolis, 1993), which grew out of his 1990 Schaff Lectures at Pittsburgh Theological Seminary. In these lectures Capps proposed that the theology of guilt had dominated much of post-Reformation discourse. But with the growing prevalence of the narcissistic personality in the late twentieth century, the theology of guilt no longer adequately expressed humanity's sense of "wrongness" before God. Late twentieth-century persons sense this disjunction between God and self through shame dynamics. Narcissists are not "full" of themselves, as popular perspectives might indicate. Instead, they are empty, depleted selves. Psychologists suggest this stems from lack of emotional stimulation and the absence of mirroring in the early stages of life. The narcissist's search for attention and affirmation takes craving, paranoid, manipulative, or phallic forms and is essentially a desperate attempt to fill the internal emptiness. Capps suggests that two narratives from the Gospels are helpful here: the story of the woman with the alabaster jar and the story of Jesus's dialogue with Mary and John at Calvary. These stories provide us with clues as to how depleted selves experienced mirroring and the potential for internal peace in community with Jesus.

  2. Ozone depletion update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coldiron, B M

    1996-03-01

    Stratospheric ozone depletion due to chlorofluorocarbons an d increased ultraviolet radiation penetration has long been predicted. To determine if predictions of ozone depletion are correct and, if so, the significance of this depletion. Review of the English literature regarding ozone depletion and solar ultraviolet radiation. The ozone layer is showing definite thinning. Recently, significantly increased ultraviolet radiation transmission has been detected at ground level at several metering stations. It appears that man-made aerosols (air pollution) block increased UVB transmission in urban areas. Recent satellite measurements of stratospheric fluorine levels more directly implicate chlorofluorocarbons as a major source of catalytic stratospheric chlorine, although natural sources may account for up to 40% of stratospheric chlorine. Stratospheric chlorine concentrations, and resultant increased ozone destruction, will be enhanced for at least the next 70 years. The potential for increased transmission of ultraviolet radiation will exist for the next several hundred years. While little damage due to increased ultraviolet radiation has occurred so far, the potential for long-term problems is great.

  3. Intrinsic Depletion or Not

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klösgen, Beate; Bruun, Sara; Hansen, Søren

      The presence of a depletion layer of water along extended hydrophobic interfaces, and a possibly related formation of nanobubbles, is an ongoing discussion. The phenomenon was initially reported when we, years ago, chose thick films (~300-400Å) of polystyrene as cushions between a crystalline...... carrier and biomimetic membranes deposited thereupon and exposed to bulk water. While monitoring the sequential build-up of the sandwiched composite structure by continuous neutron reflectivity experiments the formation of an unexpected additional layer was detected (1). Located at the polystyrene surface...... in between he polymer cushion and bulk water the layer was attributed to water of reduced density and was called "depletion layer".  Impurities or preparative artefacts were excluded as its origin. Later on, the formation of nanobubbles from this vapour-like water phase was initiated by tipping the surface...

  4. Capital expenditure and depletion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rech, O.; Saniere, A.

    2003-01-01

    In the future, the increase in oil demand will be covered for the most part by non conventional oils, but conventional sources will continue to represent a preponderant share of the world oil supply. Their depletion represents a complex challenge involving technological, economic and political factors. At the same time, there is reason for concern about the decrease in exploration budgets at the major oil companies. (author)

  5. Ozone-depleting Substances (ODS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This site includes all of the ozone-depleting substances (ODS) recognized by the Montreal Protocol. The data include ozone depletion potentials (ODP), global warming...

  6. Consequences of biome depletion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salvucci, Emiliano

    2013-01-01

    The human microbiome is an integral part of the superorganism together with their host and they have co-evolved since the early days of the existence of the human species. The modification of the microbiome as a result changes in food and social habits of human beings throughout their life history has led to the emergence of many diseases. In contrast with the Darwinian view of nature of selfishness and competence, new holistic approaches are rising. Under these views, the reconstitution of the microbiome comes out as a fundamental therapy for emerging diseases related to biome depletion.

  7. Depleted uranium management alternatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hertzler, T.J.; Nishimoto, D.D.

    1994-08-01

    This report evaluates two management alternatives for Department of Energy depleted uranium: continued storage as uranium hexafluoride, and conversion to uranium metal and fabrication to shielding for spent nuclear fuel containers. The results will be used to compare the costs with other alternatives, such as disposal. Cost estimates for the continued storage alternative are based on a life-cycle of 27 years through the year 2020. Cost estimates for the recycle alternative are based on existing conversion process costs and Capital costs for fabricating the containers. Additionally, the recycle alternative accounts for costs associated with intermediate product resale and secondary waste disposal for materials generated during the conversion process.

  8. Android Fully Loaded

    CERN Document Server

    Huddleston, Rob

    2012-01-01

    Fully loaded with the latest tricks and tips on your new Android! Android smartphones are so hot, they're soaring past iPhones on the sales charts. And the second edition of this muscular little book is equally impressive--it's packed with tips and tricks for getting the very most out of your latest-generation Android device. Start Facebooking and tweeting with your Android mobile, scan barcodes to get pricing and product reviews, download your favorite TV shows--the book is positively bursting with practical and fun how-tos. Topics run the gamut from using speech recognition, location-based m

  9. Fully nonlinear elliptic equations

    CERN Document Server

    Caffarelli, Luis A

    1995-01-01

    The goal of the book is to extend classical regularity theorems for solutions of linear elliptic partial differential equations to the context of fully nonlinear elliptic equations. This class of equations often arises in control theory, optimization, and other applications. The authors give a detailed presentation of all the necessary techniques. Instead of treating these techniques in their greatest generality, they outline the key ideas and prove the results needed for developing the subsequent theory. Topics discussed in the book include the theory of viscosity solutions for nonlinear equa

  10. Riddle of depleted uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussein, A.S.

    2005-01-01

    Depleted Uranium (DU) is the waste product of uranium enrichment from the manufacturing of fuel rods for nuclear reactors in nuclear power plants and nuclear power ships. DU may also results from the reprocessing of spent nuclear reactor fuel. Potentially DU has both chemical and radiological toxicity with two important targets organs being the kidney and the lungs. DU is made into a metal and, due to its availability, low price, high specific weight, density and melting point as well as its pyrophoricity; it has a wide range of civilian and military applications. Due to the use of DU over the recent years, there appeared in some press on health hazards that are alleged to be due to DU. In these paper properties, applications, potential environmental and health effects of DU are briefly reviewed

  11. The Toxicity of Depleted Uranium

    OpenAIRE

    Briner, Wayne

    2010-01-01

    Depleted uranium (DU) is an emerging environmental pollutant that is introduced into the environment primarily by military activity. While depleted uranium is less radioactive than natural uranium, it still retains all the chemical toxicity associated with the original element. In large doses the kidney is the target organ for the acute chemical toxicity of this metal, producing potentially lethal tubular necrosis. In contrast, chronic low dose exposure to depleted uranium may not produce a c...

  12. Fully electric waste collection

    CERN Document Server

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2015-01-01

    Since 15 June, Transvoirie, which provides waste collection services throughout French-speaking Switzerland, has been using a fully electric lorry for its collections on the CERN site – a first for the region!   Featuring a motor powered by electric batteries that charge up when the brakes are used, the new lorry that roams the CERN site is as green as can be. And it’s not only the motor that’s electric: its waste compactor and lifting mechanism are also electrically powered*, making it the first 100% electric waste collection vehicle in French-speaking Switzerland. Considering that a total of 15.5 tonnes of household waste and paper/cardboard are collected each week from the Meyrin and Prévessin sites, the benefits for the environment are clear. This improvement comes as part of CERN’s contract with Transvoirie, which stipulates that the firm must propose ways of becoming more environmentally friendly (at no extra cost to CERN). *The was...

  13. Fully reflective photon sieve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wenbo; Hu, Yongxiang; MacDonnell, David G.; Kim, Hyun Jung; Weimer, Carl; Baize, Rosemary R.

    2018-02-01

    Photon sieves (PS) have many applications and various designs in focusing light. However, a traditional PS only has a light transmissivity up to ∼25% and a focusing efficiency up to ∼7%, which hinder the application of them in many fields, especially for satellite remote sensing. To overcome these inherent drawbacks of traditional PSs, a concept of reflective photon sieve is developed in this work. This reflective photon sieve is based on a transparent membrane backed by a mirror. The transparent membrane is optimally a fully transparent material sheet with given refractive index and designed geometric thickness which has an optical thickness of a quarter incident wavelength (i.e. an anti-reflective coating). The PS-patterned pinholes are made on the transparent membrane. The design makes the light reflected from pinholes and that from zones of membrane material have 180° phase difference. Thus, light incident on this optical device is reflected and focused on its focal point. This device can have a reflectivity of ∼100% and a focusing efficiency of ∼50% based on numerical simulation. This device functions similar to a concave focusing mirror but can preserve the phase feature of light (such as that for the light with orbital angular momentum). It also has excellent wavelength-dependent property, which can exclude most of the undesired light from the focal point. A thin sheet of this component can perform the joint function of lenses and gratings/etalons in the optical path of a remote sensing system, thus is suitable for controling/filtering light in compact instruments such as satellite sensors. This concept is validated by the finite-difference time domain (FDTD) modeling and a lab prototype in this study.

  14. Depletable resources and the economy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijman, W.J.M.

    1991-01-01

    The subject of this thesis is the depletion of scarce resources. The main question to be answered is how to avoid future resource crises. After dealing with the complex relation between nature and economics, three important concepts in relation with resource depletion are discussed: steady state,

  15. The Toxicity of Depleted Uranium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wayne Briner

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Depleted uranium (DU is an emerging environmental pollutant that is introduced into the environment primarily by military activity. While depleted uranium is less radioactive than natural uranium, it still retains all the chemical toxicity associated with the original element. In large doses the kidney is the target organ for the acute chemical toxicity of this metal, producing potentially lethal tubular necrosis. In contrast, chronic low dose exposure to depleted uranium may not produce a clear and defined set of symptoms. Chronic low-dose, or subacute, exposure to depleted uranium alters the appearance of milestones in developing organisms. Adult animals that were exposed to depleted uranium during development display persistent alterations in behavior, even after cessation of depleted uranium exposure. Adult animals exposed to depleted uranium demonstrate altered behaviors and a variety of alterations to brain chemistry. Despite its reduced level of radioactivity evidence continues to accumulate that depleted uranium, if ingested, may pose a radiologic hazard. The current state of knowledge concerning DU is discussed.

  16. Hsp90 depletion goes wild

    OpenAIRE

    Siegal, Mark L; Masel, Joanna

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Hsp90 reveals phenotypic variation in the laboratory, but is Hsp90 depletion important in the wild? Recent work from Chen and Wagner in BMC Evolutionary Biology has discovered a naturally occurring Drosophila allele that downregulates Hsp90, creating sensitivity to cryptic genetic variation. Laboratory studies suggest that the exact magnitude of Hsp90 downregulation is important. Extreme Hsp90 depletion might reactivate transposable elements and/or induce aneuploidy, in addition to r...

  17. Anxiety, ego depletion, and sports performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Englert, Chris; Bertrams, Alex

    2012-10-01

    In the present article, we analyzed the role of self-control strength and state anxiety in sports performance. We tested the hypothesis that self-control strength and state anxiety interact in predicting sports performance on the basis of two studies, each using a different sports task (Study 1: performance in a basketball free throw task, N = 64; Study 2: performance in a dart task, N = 79). The patterns of results were as expected in both studies: Participants with depleted self-control strength performed worse in the specific tasks as their anxiety increased, whereas there was no significant relation for participants with fully available self-control strength. Furthermore, different degrees of available self-control strength did not predict performance in participants who were low in state anxiety, but did in participants who were high in state anxiety. Thus increasing self-control strength could reduce the negative anxiety effects in sports and improve athletes' performance under pressure.

  18. A modern depleted uranium manufacturing facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zagula, T.A.

    1995-07-01

    The Specific Manufacturing Capabilities (SMC) Project located at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) and operated by Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies Co. (LMIT) for the Department of Energy (DOE) manufactures depleted uranium for use in the U.S. Army MIA2 Abrams Heavy Tank Armor Program. Since 1986, SMC has fabricated more than 12 million pounds of depleted uranium (DU) products in a multitude of shapes and sizes with varying metallurgical properties while maintaining security, environmental, health and safety requirements. During initial facility design in the early 1980's, emphasis on employee safety, radiation control and environmental consciousness was gaining momentum throughout the DOE complex. This fact coupled with security and production requirements forced design efforts to focus on incorporating automation, local containment and computerized material accountability at all work stations. The result was a fully automated production facility engineered to manufacture DU armor packages with virtually no human contact while maintaining security, traceability and quality requirements. This hands off approach to handling depleted uranium resulted in minimal radiation exposures and employee injuries. Construction of the manufacturing facility was complete in early 1986 with the first armor package certified in October 1986. Rolling facility construction was completed in 1987 with the first certified plate produced in the fall of 1988. Since 1988 the rolling and manufacturing facilities have delivered more than 2600 armor packages on schedule with 100% final product quality acceptance. During this period there was an annual average of only 2.2 lost time incidents and a single individual maximum radiation exposure of 150 mrem. SMC is an example of designing and operating a facility that meets regulatory requirements with respect to national security, radiation control and personnel safety while achieving production schedules and product quality

  19. Hsp90 depletion goes wild

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siegal Mark L

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Hsp90 reveals phenotypic variation in the laboratory, but is Hsp90 depletion important in the wild? Recent work from Chen and Wagner in BMC Evolutionary Biology has discovered a naturally occurring Drosophila allele that downregulates Hsp90, creating sensitivity to cryptic genetic variation. Laboratory studies suggest that the exact magnitude of Hsp90 downregulation is important. Extreme Hsp90 depletion might reactivate transposable elements and/or induce aneuploidy, in addition to revealing cryptic genetic variation. See research article http://wwww.biomedcentral.com/1471-2148/12/25

  20. X-ray analysis of fully depleted CCDs with small pixel size

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kotov, I.V.; Haupt, J.; Kubánek, Petr; O'Connor, P.; Takacs, P.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 787, Jul (2015), s. 12-19 ISSN 0168-9002 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : charge diffusion * Charge transfer efficiency * CTE * CCD Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics OBOR OECD: Astronomy (including astrophysics,space science) Impact factor: 1.200, year: 2015

  1. Impact of mineral resource depletion

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Brent, AC

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available In a letter to the editor, the authors comment on BA Steen's article on "Abiotic Resource Depletion: different perceptions of the problem with mineral deposits" published in the special issue of the International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment...

  2. Physics of fully ionized regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flower, D.

    1975-01-01

    In this paper the term fully ionised regions is taken to embrace both planetary nebulae and the so-called 'H II' regions referred to as H + regions. Whilst these two types of gaseous nebulae are very different from an evolutionary standpoint, they are physically very similar, being characterised by photoionisation of a low-density plasma by a hot star. (Auth.)

  3. Comparative Analysis of VERA Depletion Problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jinsu; Kim, Wonkyeong; Choi, Sooyoung; Lee, Hyunsuk; Lee, Deokjung

    2016-01-01

    Each code has its own solver for depletion, which can produce different depletion calculation results. In order to produce reference solutions for depletion calculation comparison, sensitivity studies should be preceded for each depletion solver. The sensitivity tests for burnup interval, number of depletion zones, and recoverable energy per fission (Q-value) were performed in this paper. For the comparison of depletion calculation results, usually the multiplication factors are compared as a function of burnup. In this study, new comparison methods have been introduced by using the number density of isotope or element, and a cumulative flux instead of burnup. In this paper, optimum depletion calculation options are determined through the sensitivity study of the burnup intervals and the number of depletion intrazones. Because the depletion using CRAM solver performs well for large burnup intervals, smaller number of burnup steps can be used to produce converged solutions. It was noted that the depletion intra-zone sensitivity is only pin-type dependent. The 1 and 10 depletion intra-zones for the normal UO2 pin and gadolinia rod, respectively, are required to obtain the reference solutions. When the optimized depletion calculation options are used, the differences of Q-values are found to be a main cause of the differences of solutions. In this paper, new comparison methods were introduced for consistent code-to-code comparisons even when different kappa libraries were used in the depletion calculations

  4. Comparative Analysis of VERA Depletion Problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jinsu; Kim, Wonkyeong; Choi, Sooyoung; Lee, Hyunsuk; Lee, Deokjung [Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    Each code has its own solver for depletion, which can produce different depletion calculation results. In order to produce reference solutions for depletion calculation comparison, sensitivity studies should be preceded for each depletion solver. The sensitivity tests for burnup interval, number of depletion zones, and recoverable energy per fission (Q-value) were performed in this paper. For the comparison of depletion calculation results, usually the multiplication factors are compared as a function of burnup. In this study, new comparison methods have been introduced by using the number density of isotope or element, and a cumulative flux instead of burnup. In this paper, optimum depletion calculation options are determined through the sensitivity study of the burnup intervals and the number of depletion intrazones. Because the depletion using CRAM solver performs well for large burnup intervals, smaller number of burnup steps can be used to produce converged solutions. It was noted that the depletion intra-zone sensitivity is only pin-type dependent. The 1 and 10 depletion intra-zones for the normal UO2 pin and gadolinia rod, respectively, are required to obtain the reference solutions. When the optimized depletion calculation options are used, the differences of Q-values are found to be a main cause of the differences of solutions. In this paper, new comparison methods were introduced for consistent code-to-code comparisons even when different kappa libraries were used in the depletion calculations.

  5. Spearfishing to depletion: evidence from temperate reef fishes in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godoy, Natalio; Gelcich, L Stefan; Vásquez, Julio A; Castilla, Juan Carlos

    2010-09-01

    Unreliable and data-poor marine fishery landings can lead to a lack of regulatory action in fisheries management. Here we use official Chilean landing reports and non-conventional indicators, such as fishers' perceptions and spearfishing competition results, to provide evidence of reef fishes depletions caused by unregulated spearfishing. Results show that the three largest and most emblematic reef fishes targeted mainly by spearfishers (> 98% of landings) [Graus nigra (vieja negra), Semicossyphus darwini (sheephead or pejeperro), and Medialuna ancietae (acha)] show signs of depletion in terms of abundance and size and that overall the catches of reef fishes have shifted from large carnivore species toward smaller-sized omnivore and herbivore species. Information from two snorkeling speargun world championships (1971 and 2004, Iquique, Chile) and from fishers' perceptions shows the mean size of reef fish to be declining. Although the ecological consequences of reef fish depletion are not fully understood in Chile, evidence of spearfishing depleting temperate reef fishes must be explicitly included in policy debates. This would involve bans or strong restrictions on the use of SCUBA and hookah diving gear for spearfishing, and minimum size limits. It may also involve academic and policy discussions regarding conservation and fisheries management synergies within networks of no-take and territorial user-rights fisheries areas, as a strategy for the sustainable management of temperate and tropical reef fisheries.

  6. Uranium, depleted uranium, biological effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    Physicists, chemists and biologists at the CEA are developing scientific programs on the properties and uses of ionizing radiation. Since the CEA was created in 1945, a great deal of research has been carried out on the properties of natural, enriched and depleted uranium in cooperation with university laboratories and CNRS. There is a great deal of available data about uranium; thousands of analyses have been published in international reviews over more than 40 years. This presentation on uranium is a very brief summary of all these studies. (author)

  7. Axiomatisation of fully probabilistic design

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kárný, Miroslav; Kroupa, Tomáš

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 186, č. 1 (2012), s. 105-113 ISSN 0020-0255 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 2C06001; GA ČR GA102/08/0567 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : Bayesian decision making * Fully probabilistic design * Kullback–Leibler divergence * Unified decision making Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research Impact factor: 3.643, year: 2012 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2011/AS/karny-0367271.pdf

  8. Sidewall depletion in nano-patterned LAO/STO heterostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minhas, M. Z.; Blaschek, H. H. [Institut für Physik, Martin-Luther-Universität Halle-Wittenberg, Von-Danckelmann-Platz 3, D-06120 Halle (Germany); Heyroth, F. [Interdisziplinäres Zentrum für Materialwissenschaften, Martin-Luther-Universität Halle-Wittenberg, Heinrich-Damerow-Str. 4, 06120 Halle (Germany); Schmidt, G., E-mail: georg.schmidt@physik.uni-halle.de [Institut für Physik, Martin-Luther-Universität Halle-Wittenberg, Von-Danckelmann-Platz 3, D-06120 Halle (Germany); Interdisziplinäres Zentrum für Materialwissenschaften, Martin-Luther-Universität Halle-Wittenberg, Heinrich-Damerow-Str. 4, 06120 Halle (Germany)

    2016-03-15

    We have investigated the conductance of nanostructures fabricated from the quasi-two-dimensional electron gas (q2DEG) formed at the LaAlO{sub 3}/ SrTiO{sub 3} (LAO/STO) interface. Measurements were done at room temperature and at T=4.2 K. Our findings show that the fully industry compatible nano-patterning process conserves the conductivity except for a small temperature dependent sidewall depletion which we attribute to etch damage induced by the dry etching process.

  9. Depleted uranium disposal options evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hertzler, T.J.; Nishimoto, D.D.; Otis, M.D. [Science Applications International Corp., Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Waste Management Technology Div.

    1994-05-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management, has chartered a study to evaluate alternative management strategies for depleted uranium (DU) currently stored throughout the DOE complex. Historically, DU has been maintained as a strategic resource because of uses for DU metal and potential uses for further enrichment or for uranium oxide as breeder reactor blanket fuel. This study has focused on evaluating the disposal options for DU if it were considered a waste. This report is in no way declaring these DU reserves a ``waste,`` but is intended to provide baseline data for comparison with other management options for use of DU. To PICS considered in this report include: Retrievable disposal; permanent disposal; health hazards; radiation toxicity and chemical toxicity.

  10. Depleted uranium disposal options evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hertzler, T.J.; Nishimoto, D.D.; Otis, M.D.

    1994-05-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management, has chartered a study to evaluate alternative management strategies for depleted uranium (DU) currently stored throughout the DOE complex. Historically, DU has been maintained as a strategic resource because of uses for DU metal and potential uses for further enrichment or for uranium oxide as breeder reactor blanket fuel. This study has focused on evaluating the disposal options for DU if it were considered a waste. This report is in no way declaring these DU reserves a ''waste,'' but is intended to provide baseline data for comparison with other management options for use of DU. To PICS considered in this report include: Retrievable disposal; permanent disposal; health hazards; radiation toxicity and chemical toxicity

  11. In situ depletion of CD4(+) T cells in human skin by Zanolimumab

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villadsen, L.S.; Skov, L.; Dam, T.N.

    2007-01-01

    -driving T cells in situ may therefore be a useful approach in the treatment of inflammatory and malignant skin diseases. Depletion of CD4(+) T cells in intact inflamed human skin tissue by Zanolimumab, a fully human therapeutic monoclonal antibody (IgG1, kappa) against CD4, was studied in a human psoriasis...

  12. Is gas in the Orion nebula depleted

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aiello, S.; Guidi, I.

    1978-01-01

    Depletion of heavy elements has been recognized to be important in the understanding of the chemical composition of the interstellar medium. This problem is also relevant to the study of H II regions. In this paper the gaseous depletion in the physical conditions of the Orion nebula is investigated. The authors reach the conclusion that very probably no depletion of heavy elements, due to sticking on dust grains, took place during the lifetime of the Orion nebula. (Auth.)

  13. [Nutritional depletion in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yan; Yao, Wan-zhen

    2004-10-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is one of the major diseases worldwide. Nutritional depletion is a common problem in COPD patients and also an independant predictor of survival in these patients. Many data are helpful for determining nutritional depletion, including anthropometric measurement, laboratory markers, body composition analysis (fat-free mass and lean mass), and body weight. The mechanism of nutritional depletion in patients with COPD is still uncertain. It may be associated with energy/metabolism imbalance, tissue hypoxia, systemic inflammation, and leptin/orexin disorders. In patients with nutritional depletion, growth hormone and testosterone can be used for nutritional therapy in addition to nutrition supplementation.

  14. Depletion of solar wind plasma near a planetary boundary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zwan, B.J.; Wolf, R.A.

    1976-01-01

    A mathematical model is presented that describes the squeezing of solar wind plasma out along interplanetary magnetic field lines in the region between the bow shock and the effective planetary boundary (in the case of the earth, the magnetopause). In the absence of local magnetic merging the squeezing process should create a 'depletion layer,' a region of very low plasma density just outside the magnetopause. Numerical solutions are obtained for the dimensionless magnetohydrodynamic equations describing this depletion process for the case where the solar wind magnetic field is perpendicular to the solar wind flow direction. For the case of the earth with a magnetopause standoff distance of 10 R/subE/, the theory predicts that the density should be reduced by a factor > or =2 in a layer about 700--1300 km thick if M/subA/, the Alfven Mach number in the solar wind, is equal to 8. The layer thickness should vary as M/subA/ -2 and should be approximately uniform for a large area of the magnetopause around the subsolar point. Computed layer thicknesses are somewhat smaller than those derived from Lees' axisymmetric model. Depletion layers should develop fully only where magnetic merging is locally unimportant. Scaling of the model calculations to Venus and Mars suggest layer thicknesses about 1/10 and 1/15 those of the earth, respectively, neglecting diffusion and ionospheric effects

  15. Restaurant No. 1 fully renovated

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    The Restaurant No. 1 team. After several months of patience and goodwill on the part of our clients, we are delighted to announce that the major renovation work which began in September 2006 has now been completed. From 21 May 2007 we look forward to welcoming you to a completely renovated restaurant area designed with you in mind. The restaurant team wishes to thank all its clients for their patience and loyalty. Particular attention has been paid in the new design to creating a spacious serving area and providing a wider choice of dishes. The new restaurant area has been designed as an open-plan space to enable you to view all the dishes before making your selection and to move around freely from one food access point to another. It comprises user-friendly areas that fully comply with hygiene standards. From now on you will be able to pick and choose to your heart's content. We invite you to try out wok cooking or some other speciality. Or select a pizza or a plate of pasta with a choice of two sauces fr...

  16. Plutonium in depleted uranium penetrators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLaughlin, J.P.; Leon-Vintro, L.; Smith, K.; Mitchell, P.I.; Zunic, Z.S.

    2002-01-01

    Depleted Uranium (DU) penetrators used in the recent Balkan conflicts have been found to be contaminated with trace amounts of transuranic materials such as plutonium. This contamination is usually a consequence of DU fabrication being carried out in facilities also using uranium recycled from spent military and civilian nuclear reactor fuel. Specific activities of 239+240 Plutonium generally in the range 1 to 12 Bq/kg have been found to be present in DU penetrators recovered from the attack sites of the 1999 NATO bombardment of Kosovo. A DU penetrator recovered from a May 1999 attack site at Bratoselce in southern Serbia and analysed by University College Dublin was found to contain 43.7 +/- 1.9 Bq/kg of 239+240 Plutonium. This analysis is described. An account is also given of the general population radiation dose implications arising from both the DU itself and from the presence of plutonium in the penetrators. According to current dosimetric models, in all scenarios considered likely ,the dose from the plutonium is estimated to be much smaller than that due to the uranium isotopes present in the penetrators. (author)

  17. The fully Mobile City Government Project (MCity)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scholl, Hans; Fidel, Raya; Mai, Jens Erik

    2006-01-01

    The Fully Mobile City Government Project, also known as MCity, is an interdisciplinary research project on the premises, requirements, and effects of fully mobile, wirelessly connected applications (FWMC). The project will develop an analytical framework for interpreting the interaction...

  18. The Chemistry and Toxicology of Depleted Uranium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidney A. Katz

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Natural uranium is comprised of three radioactive isotopes: 238U, 235U, and 234U. Depleted uranium (DU is a byproduct of the processes for the enrichment of the naturally occurring 235U isotope. The world wide stock pile contains some 1½ million tons of depleted uranium. Some of it has been used to dilute weapons grade uranium (~90% 235U down to reactor grade uranium (~5% 235U, and some of it has been used for heavy tank armor and for the fabrication of armor-piercing bullets and missiles. Such weapons were used by the military in the Persian Gulf, the Balkans and elsewhere. The testing of depleted uranium weapons and their use in combat has resulted in environmental contamination and human exposure. Although the chemical and the toxicological behaviors of depleted uranium are essentially the same as those of natural uranium, the respective chemical forms and isotopic compositions in which they usually occur are different. The chemical and radiological toxicity of depleted uranium can injure biological systems. Normal functioning of the kidney, liver, lung, and heart can be adversely affected by depleted uranium intoxication. The focus of this review is on the chemical and toxicological properties of depleted and natural uranium and some of the possible consequences from long term, low dose exposure to depleted uranium in the environment.

  19. Depleted UF6 programmatic environmental impact statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The US Department of Energy has developed a program for long-term management and use of depleted uranium hexafluoride, a product of the uranium enrichment process. As part of this effort, DOE is preparing a Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (PEIS) for the depleted UF 6 management program. This report duplicates the information available at the web site (http://www.ead.anl.gov/web/newduf6) set up as a repository for the PEIS. Options for the web site include: reviewing recent additions or changes to the web site; learning more about depleted UF 6 and the PEIS; browsing the PEIS and related documents, or submitting official comments on the PEIS; downloading all or part of the PEIS documents; and adding or deleting one's name from the depleted UF 6 mailing list

  20. A definition of depletion of fish stocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Oosten, John

    1949-01-01

    Attention was focused on the need of a common and better understanding of the term depletion as applied to the fisheries in order to eliminate if possible the existing inexactness of thought on the subject. Depletion has been confused at various times with at least ten different ideas associated with it but which, as has has heen pointed out, are not synonymous at all. In defining depletion we must recognize that the term represents a condition and must not he confounded with the cause (overfishing) that leads to this condition or with the symptoms that identify it. Depletion was defined as a reduction, through overfishing, in the level of abundance of the exploitable segment of a stock that prevents the realization of the maximum productive capacity.

  1. Real depletion in nodal diffusion codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petkov, P.T.

    2002-01-01

    The fuel depletion is described by more than one hundred fuel isotopes in the advanced lattice codes like HELIOS, but only a few fuel isotopes are accounted for even in the advanced steady-state diffusion codes. The general assumption that the number densities of the majority of the fuel isotopes depend only on the fuel burnup is seriously in error if high burnup is considered. The real depletion conditions in the reactor core differ from the asymptotic ones at the stage of lattice depletion calculations. This study reveals which fuel isotopes should be explicitly accounted for in the diffusion codes in order to predict adequately the real depletion effects in the core. A somewhat strange conclusion is that if the real number densities of the main fissionable isotopes are not explicitly accounted for in the diffusion code, then Sm-149 should not be accounted for either, because the net error in k-inf is smaller (Authors)

  2. Ecological considerations of natural and depleted uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanson, W.C.

    1980-01-01

    Depleted 238 U is a major by-product of the nuclear fuel cycle for which increasing use is being made in counterweights, radiation shielding, and ordnance applications. This paper (1) summarizes the pertinent literature on natural and depleted uranium in the environment, (2) integrates results of a series of ecological studies conducted at Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory (LASL) in New Mexico where 70,000 kg of depleted and natural uranium has been expended to the environment over the past 34 years, and (3) synthesizes the information into an assessment of the ecological consequences of natural and depleted uranium released to the environment by various means. Results of studies of soil, plant, and animal communities exposed to this radiation and chemical environment over a third of a century provide a means of evaluating the behavior and effects of uranium in many contexts

  3. Plasmonic Nanoprobes for Stimulated Emission Depletion Nanoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortés, Emiliano; Huidobro, Paloma A; Sinclair, Hugo G; Guldbrand, Stina; Peveler, William J; Davies, Timothy; Parrinello, Simona; Görlitz, Frederik; Dunsby, Chris; Neil, Mark A A; Sivan, Yonatan; Parkin, Ivan P; French, Paul M W; Maier, Stefan A

    2016-11-22

    Plasmonic nanoparticles influence the absorption and emission processes of nearby emitters due to local enhancements of the illuminating radiation and the photonic density of states. Here, we use the plasmon resonance of metal nanoparticles in order to enhance the stimulated depletion of excited molecules for super-resolved nanoscopy. We demonstrate stimulated emission depletion (STED) nanoscopy with gold nanorods with a long axis of only 26 nm and a width of 8 nm. These particles provide an enhancement of up to 50% of the resolution compared to fluorescent-only probes without plasmonic components irradiated with the same depletion power. The nanoparticle-assisted STED probes reported here represent a ∼2 × 10 3 reduction in probe volume compared to previously used nanoparticles. Finally, we demonstrate their application toward plasmon-assisted STED cellular imaging at low-depletion powers, and we also discuss their current limitations.

  4. Depleted uranium: A DOE management guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has a management challenge and financial liability in the form of 50,000 cylinders containing 555,000 metric tons of depleted uranium hexafluoride (UF 6 ) that are stored at the gaseous diffusion plants. The annual storage and maintenance cost is approximately $10 million. This report summarizes several studies undertaken by the DOE Office of Technology Development (OTD) to evaluate options for long-term depleted uranium management. Based on studies conducted to date, the most likely use of the depleted uranium is for shielding of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) or vitrified high-level waste (HLW) containers. The alternative to finding a use for the depleted uranium is disposal as a radioactive waste. Estimated disposal costs, utilizing existing technologies, range between $3.8 and $11.3 billion, depending on factors such as applicability of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and the location of the disposal site. The cost of recycling the depleted uranium in a concrete based shielding in SNF/HLW containers, although substantial, is comparable to or less than the cost of disposal. Consequently, the case can be made that if DOE invests in developing depleted uranium shielded containers instead of disposal, a long-term solution to the UF 6 problem is attained at comparable or lower cost than disposal as a waste. Two concepts for depleted uranium storage casks were considered in these studies. The first is based on standard fabrication concepts previously developed for depleted uranium metal. The second converts the UF 6 to an oxide aggregate that is used in concrete to make dry storage casks

  5. Seasonal total methane depletion in limestone caves

    OpenAIRE

    Waring Chris L; Hankin Stuart I; Griffith David W T; Kertesz Michael A; Kobylski Victoria; Wilson Neil L; Coleman Nicholas V; Kettlewell Graham; Zlot Robert; Bosse Michael; Bell Graham

    2017-01-01

    Methane concentration in caves is commonly much lower than the external atmosphere, yet the cave CH4 depletion causal mechanism is contested and dynamic links to external diurnal and seasonal temperature cycles unknown. Here, we report a continuous 3-year record of cave methane and other trace gases in Jenolan Caves, Australia which shows a seasonal cycle of extreme CH4 depletion, from ambient ~1,775?ppb to near zero during summer and to ~800?ppb in winter. Methanotrophic bacteria, some newly...

  6. Depleted Bulk Heterojunction Colloidal Quantum Dot Photovoltaics

    KAUST Repository

    Barkhouse, D. Aaron R.

    2011-05-26

    The first solution-processed depleted bulk heterojunction colloidal quantum dot solar cells are presented. The architecture allows for high absorption with full depletion, thereby breaking the photon absorption/carrier extraction compromise inherent in planar devices. A record power conversion of 5.5% under simulated AM 1.5 illumination conditions is reported. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Depleted CMOS pixels for LHC proton–proton experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wermes, N.

    2016-01-01

    While so far monolithic pixel detectors have remained in the realm of comparatively low rate and radiation applications outside LHC, new developments exploiting high resistivity substrates with three or four well CMOS process options allow reasonably large depletion depths and full CMOS circuitry in a monolithic structure. This opens up the possibility to target CMOS pixel detectors also for high radiation pp-experiments at the LHC upgrade, either in a hybrid-type fashion or even fully monolithic. Several pixel matrices have been prototyped with high ohmic substrates, high voltage options, and full CMOS electronics. They were characterized in the lab and in test beams. An overview of the necessary development steps and different approaches as well as prototype results are presented in this paper.

  8. The new MCNP6 depletion capability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fensin, M. L.; James, M. R.; Hendricks, J. S.; Goorley, J. T.

    2012-01-01

    The first MCNP based in-line Monte Carlo depletion capability was officially released from the Radiation Safety Information and Computational Center as MCNPX 2.6.0. Both the MCNP5 and MCNPX codes have historically provided a successful combinatorial geometry based, continuous energy, Monte Carlo radiation transport solution for advanced reactor modeling and simulation. However, due to separate development pathways, useful simulation capabilities were dispersed between both codes and not unified in a single technology. MCNP6, the next evolution in the MCNP suite of codes, now combines the capability of both simulation tools, as well as providing new advanced technology, in a single radiation transport code. We describe here the new capabilities of the MCNP6 depletion code dating from the official RSICC release MCNPX 2.6.0, reported previously, to the now current state of MCNP6. NEA/OECD benchmark results are also reported. The MCNP6 depletion capability enhancements beyond MCNPX 2.6.0 reported here include: (1) new performance enhancing parallel architecture that implements both shared and distributed memory constructs; (2) enhanced memory management that maximizes calculation fidelity; and (3) improved burnup physics for better nuclide prediction. MCNP6 depletion enables complete, relatively easy-to-use depletion calculations in a single Monte Carlo code. The enhancements described here help provide a powerful capability as well as dictate a path forward for future development to improve the usefulness of the technology. (authors)

  9. Depletion sensitivity predicts unhealthy snack purchases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmon, Stefanie J; Adriaanse, Marieke A; Fennis, Bob M; De Vet, Emely; De Ridder, Denise T D

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present research is to examine the relation between depletion sensitivity - a novel construct referring to the speed or ease by which one's self-control resources are drained - and snack purchase behavior. In addition, interactions between depletion sensitivity and the goal to lose weight on snack purchase behavior were explored. Participants included in the study were instructed to report every snack they bought over the course of one week. The dependent variables were the number of healthy and unhealthy snacks purchased. The results of the present study demonstrate that depletion sensitivity predicts the amount of unhealthy (but not healthy) snacks bought. The more sensitive people are to depletion, the more unhealthy snacks they buy. Moreover, there was some tentative evidence that this relation is more pronounced for people with a weak as opposed to a strong goal to lose weight, suggesting that a strong goal to lose weight may function as a motivational buffer against self-control failures. All in all, these findings provide evidence for the external validity of depletion sensitivity and the relevance of this construct in the domain of eating behavior. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Taurine depletion alters vascular reactivity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abebe, Worku; Mozaffari, Mahmood S

    2003-09-01

    We recently showed that chronic taurine supplementation is associated with attenuation of contractile responses of rat aorta to norepinephrine and potassium chloride. However, the potential involvement of endogenous taurine in modulation of vascular reactivity is not known. Therefore, we examined the effect of beta-alanine-induced taurine depletion on the in vitro reactivity of rat aorta to selected vasoactive agents. The data indicate that both norepinephrine- and potassium-chloride-induced maximum contractile responses of endothelium-denuded aortae were enhanced in taurine-depleted rats compared with control animals. However, taurine depletion did not affect tissue sensitivity to either norepinephrine or potassium chloride. By contrast, sensitivity of the endothelium-denuded aortae to sodium nitroprusside was attenuated by taurine depletion. Similarly, taurine deficiency reduced the relaxant responses of endothelium-intact aortic rings elicited by submaximal concentrations of acetylcholine, and this effect was associated with decreased nitric oxide production. Taken together, the data suggest that taurine depletion augments contractility but attenuates relaxation of vascular smooth muscle in a nonspecific manner. Impairment of endothelium-dependent responses, which is at least in part associated with reduced nitric oxide generation, may contribute to the attenuation of the vasorelaxant responses. These vascular alterations could be of potential consequence in pathological conditions associated with taurine deficiency.

  11. Groundwater depletion embedded in international food trade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalin, Carole; Wada, Yoshihide; Kastner, Thomas; Puma, Michael J.

    2017-03-01

    Recent hydrological modelling and Earth observations have located and quantified alarming rates of groundwater depletion worldwide. This depletion is primarily due to water withdrawals for irrigation, but its connection with the main driver of irrigation, global food consumption, has not yet been explored. Here we show that approximately eleven per cent of non-renewable groundwater use for irrigation is embedded in international food trade, of which two-thirds are exported by Pakistan, the USA and India alone. Our quantification of groundwater depletion embedded in the world’s food trade is based on a combination of global, crop-specific estimates of non-renewable groundwater abstraction and international food trade data. A vast majority of the world’s population lives in countries sourcing nearly all their staple crop imports from partners who deplete groundwater to produce these crops, highlighting risks for global food and water security. Some countries, such as the USA, Mexico, Iran and China, are particularly exposed to these risks because they both produce and import food irrigated from rapidly depleting aquifers. Our results could help to improve the sustainability of global food production and groundwater resource management by identifying priority regions and agricultural products at risk as well as the end consumers of these products.

  12. The New MCNP6 Depletion Capability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fensin, Michael Lorne; James, Michael R.; Hendricks, John S.; Goorley, John T.

    2012-01-01

    The first MCNP based inline Monte Carlo depletion capability was officially released from the Radiation Safety Information and Computational Center as MCNPX 2.6.0. Both the MCNP5 and MCNPX codes have historically provided a successful combinatorial geometry based, continuous energy, Monte Carlo radiation transport solution for advanced reactor modeling and simulation. However, due to separate development pathways, useful simulation capabilities were dispersed between both codes and not unified in a single technology. MCNP6, the next evolution in the MCNP suite of codes, now combines the capability of both simulation tools, as well as providing new advanced technology, in a single radiation transport code. We describe here the new capabilities of the MCNP6 depletion code dating from the official RSICC release MCNPX 2.6.0, reported previously, to the now current state of MCNP6. NEA/OECD benchmark results are also reported. The MCNP6 depletion capability enhancements beyond MCNPX 2.6.0 reported here include: (1) new performance enhancing parallel architecture that implements both shared and distributed memory constructs; (2) enhanced memory management that maximizes calculation fidelity; and (3) improved burnup physics for better nuclide prediction. MCNP6 depletion enables complete, relatively easy-to-use depletion calculations in a single Monte Carlo code. The enhancements described here help provide a powerful capability as well as dictate a path forward for future development to improve the usefulness of the technology.

  13. Sensibility analysis of fuel depletion using different nuclear fuel depletion codes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martins, F.; Velasquez, C.E.; Castro, V.F.; Pereira, C.; Silva, C. A. Mello da, E-mail: felipmartins94@gmail.com, E-mail: carlosvelcab@hotmail.com, E-mail: victorfariascastro@gmail.com, E-mail: claubia@nuclear.ufmg.br, E-mail: clarysson@nuclear.ufmg.br [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Departamento de Engenharia Nuclear

    2017-07-01

    Nowadays, the utilization of different nuclear codes to perform the depletion and criticality calculations has been used to simulated nuclear reactors problems. Therefore, the goal is to analyze the sensibility of the fuel depletion of a PWR assembly using three different nuclear fuel depletion codes. The burnup calculations are performed using the codes MCNP5/ORIGEN2.1 (MONTEBURNS), KENO-VI/ORIGEN-S (TRITONSCALE6.0) and MCNPX (MCNPX/CINDER90). Each nuclear code performs the burnup using different depletion codes. Each depletion code works with collapsed energies from a master library in 1, 3 and 63 groups, respectively. Besides, each code uses different ways to obtain neutron flux that influences the depletions calculation. The results present a comparison of the neutronic parameters and isotopes composition such as criticality and nuclides build-up, the deviation in results are going to be assigned to features of the depletion code in use, such as the different radioactive decay internal libraries and the numerical method involved in solving the coupled differential depletion equations. It is also seen that the longer the period is and the more time steps are chosen, the larger the deviation become. (author)

  14. Ozone depletion and chlorine loading potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyle, John A.; Wuebbles, Donald J.; Solomon, Susan; Zvenigorodsky, Sergei; Connell, Peter; Ko, Malcolm K. W.; Fisher, Donald A.; Stordal, Frode; Weisenstein, Debra

    1991-01-01

    The recognition of the roles of chlorine and bromine compounds in ozone depletion has led to the regulation or their source gases. Some source gases are expected to be more damaging to the ozone layer than others, so that scientific guidance regarding their relative impacts is needed for regulatory purposes. Parameters used for this purpose include the steady-state and time-dependent chlorine loading potential (CLP) and the ozone depletion potential (ODP). Chlorine loading potentials depend upon the estimated value and accuracy of atmospheric lifetimes and are subject to significant (approximately 20-50 percent) uncertainties for many gases. Ozone depletion potentials depend on the same factors, as well as the evaluation of the release of reactive chlorine and bromine from each source gas and corresponding ozone destruction within the stratosphere.

  15. Self-regulation, ego depletion, and inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumeister, Roy F

    2014-12-01

    Inhibition is a major form of self-regulation. As such, it depends on self-awareness and comparing oneself to standards and is also susceptible to fluctuations in willpower resources. Ego depletion is the state of reduced willpower caused by prior exertion of self-control. Ego depletion undermines inhibition both because restraints are weaker and because urges are felt more intensely than usual. Conscious inhibition of desires is a pervasive feature of everyday life and may be a requirement of life in civilized, cultural society, and in that sense it goes to the evolved core of human nature. Intentional inhibition not only restrains antisocial impulses but can also facilitate optimal performance, such as during test taking. Self-regulation and ego depletion- may also affect less intentional forms of inhibition, even chronic tendencies to inhibit. Broadly stated, inhibition is necessary for human social life and nearly all societies encourage and enforce it. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Depleted uranium hexafluoride: Waste or resource?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwertz, N.; Zoller, J.; Rosen, R.; Patton, S.; Bradley, C.; Murray, A.

    1995-07-01

    The US Department of Energy is evaluating technologies for the storage, disposal, or re-use of depleted uranium hexafluoride (UF 6 ). This paper discusses the following options, and provides a technology assessment for each one: (1) conversion to UO 2 for use as mixed oxide duel, (2) conversion to UO 2 to make DUCRETE for a multi-purpose storage container, (3) conversion to depleted uranium metal for use as shielding, (4) conversion to uranium carbide for use as high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) fuel. In addition, conversion to U 3 O 8 as an option for long-term storage is discussed

  17. Elasticity and clustering in concentrated depletion gels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramakrishnan, S; Chen, Y-L; Schweizer, K S; Zukoski, C F

    2004-10-01

    X-ray scattering and rheology are employed to study the volume fraction dependence of the collective structure and elastic moduli of concentrated nanoparticle-polymer depletion gels. The nonequilibrium gel structure consists of locally densified nonfractal clusters and narrow random interfaces. The elastic moduli display a power law dependence on volume fraction with effective exponents that decrease with increasing depletion attraction strength. A microscopic theory that combines local structural information with a dynamic treatment of gelation is in good agreement with the observations.

  18. NEW RSW & Wall Medium Fully Tetrahedral Grid

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — New Medium Fully Tetrahedral RSW Grid with viscous wind tunnel wall at the root. This grid is for a node-based unstructured solver. Medium Tet: Quad Surface Faces= 0...

  19. NEW RSW & Wall Fine Fully Tetrahedral Grid

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NEW RSW Fine Fully Tetrahedral Grid with Viscous Wind Tunnel wall at the root. This grid is for a node-based unstructured solver. Note that the CGNS file is very...

  20. Fully Adaptive Radar Modeling and Simulation Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-01

    AFRL-RY-WP-TR-2017-0074 FULLY ADAPTIVE RADAR MODELING AND SIMULATION DEVELOPMENT Kristine L. Bell and Anthony Kellems Metron, Inc...SMALL BUSINESS INNOVATION RESEARCH (SBIR) PHASE I REPORT. Approved for public release; distribution unlimited. See additional restrictions...2017 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE FULLY ADAPTIVE RADAR MODELING AND SIMULATION DEVELOPMENT 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER FA8650-16-M-1774 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c

  1. Serial reversal learning and acute tryptophan depletion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Plasse, G.; Feenstra, M.G.P.

    2008-01-01

    Cognitive flexibility (i.e. the ability to adapt goal-directed behaviour in response to changed environmental demands) has repeatedly been shown to depend on the prefrontal cortex (PFC). Recent data from primate studies moreover show that depletion of prefrontal 5-HT impairs reversal learning of

  2. Global Warming: Lessons from Ozone Depletion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobson, Art

    2010-01-01

    My teaching and textbook have always covered many physics-related social issues, including stratospheric ozone depletion and global warming. The ozone saga is an inspiring good-news story that's instructive for solving the similar but bigger problem of global warming. Thus, as soon as students in my physics literacy course at the University of…

  3. Seasonal total methane depletion in limestone caves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waring, Chris L; Hankin, Stuart I; Griffith, David W T; Kertesz, Michael A; Kobylski, Victoria; Wilson, Neil L; Coleman, Nicholas V; Kettlewell, Graham; Zlot, Robert; Bosse, Michael; Bell, Graham

    2017-08-16

    Methane concentration in caves is commonly much lower than the external atmosphere, yet the cave CH 4 depletion causal mechanism is contested and dynamic links to external diurnal and seasonal temperature cycles unknown. Here, we report a continuous 3-year record of cave methane and other trace gases in Jenolan Caves, Australia which shows a seasonal cycle of extreme CH 4 depletion, from ambient ~1,775 ppb to near zero during summer and to ~800 ppb in winter. Methanotrophic bacteria, some newly-discovered, rapidly consume methane on cave surfaces and in external karst soils with lifetimes in the cave of a few hours. Extreme bacterial selection due to the absence of alternate carbon sources for growth in the cave environment has resulted in an extremely high proportion 2-12% of methanotrophs in the total bacteria present. Unexpected seasonal bias in our cave CH 4 depletion record is explained by a three-step process involving methanotrophy in aerobic karst soil above the cave, summer transport of soil-gas into the cave through epikarst, followed by further cave CH 4 depletion. Disentangling cause and effect of cave gas variations by tracing sources and sinks has identified seasonal speleothem growth bias, with implied palaeo-climate record bias.

  4. Ozone depleting substances management inventory system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix Ivan Romero Rodríguez

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Context: The care of the ozone layer is an activity that contributes to the planet's environmental stability. For this reason, the Montreal Protocol is created to control the emission of substances that deplete the ozone layer and reduce its production from an organizational point of view. However, it is also necessary to have control of those that are already circulating and those present in the equipment that cannot be replaced yet because of the context of the companies that keep it. Generally, the control mechanisms for classifying the type of substances, equipment and companies that own them, are carried in physical files, spreadsheets and text documents, which makes it difficult to control and manage the data stored in them. Method: The objective of this research is to computerize the process of control of substances that deplete the ozone layer. An evaluation and description of all process to manage Ozone-Depleting Substances (ODS, and its alternatives, is done. For computerization, the agile development methodology SCRUM is used, and for the technological solution tools and free open source technologies are used. Result: As a result of the research, a computer tool was developed that automates the process of control and management of substances that exhaust the ozone layer and its alternatives. Conclusions: The developed computer tool allows to control and manage the ozone-depleting substances and the equipment that use them. It also manages the substances that arise as alternatives to be used for the protection of the ozone layer.

  5. Nitrogen depletion in field red giants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Masseron, T.; Lagarde, N.; Miglio, A.

    2017-01-01

    , the behaviour of nitrogen data along the evolution confirms the existence of non-canonical extramixing on the red giant branch (RGB) for all low-mass stars in the field. But more surprisingly, the data indicate that nitrogen has been depleted between the RGB tip and the red clump. This may suggest that some...

  6. [Acute tryptophan depletion in eating disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Marsa, M; Lozano, C; Herranz, A S; Asensio-Vegas, M J; Martín, O; Revert, L; Saiz-Ruiz, J; Carrasco, J L

    2006-01-01

    This work describes the rational bases justifying the use of acute tryptophan depletion technique in eating disorders (ED) and the methods and design used in our studies. Tryptophan depletion technique has been described and used in previous studies safely and makes it possible to evaluate the brain serotonin activity. Therefore it is used in the investigation of hypotheses on serotonergic deficiency in eating disorders. Furthermore, and given the relationship of the dysfunctions of serotonin activity with impulsive symptoms, the technique may be useful in biological differentiation of different subtypes, that is restrictive and bulimic, of ED. 57 female patients with DSM-IV eating disorders and 20 female controls were investigated with the tryptophan depletion test. A tryptophan-free amino acid solution was administered orally after a two-day low tryptophan diet to patients and controls. Free plasma tryptophan was measured at two and five hours following administration of the drink. Eating and emotional responses were measured with specific scales for five hours following the depletion. A study of the basic characteristics of the personality and impulsivity traits was also done. Relationship of the response to the test with the different clinical subtypes and with the temperamental and impulsive characteristics of the patients was studied. The test was effective in considerably reducing plasma tryptophan in five hours from baseline levels (76%) in the global sample. The test was well tolerated and no severe adverse effects were reported. Two patients withdrew from the test due to gastric intolerance. The tryptophan depletion test could be of value to study involvement of serotonin deficits in the symptomatology and pathophysiology of eating disorders.

  7. Health and environmental impact of depleted uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furitsu, Katsumi

    2010-01-01

    Depleted Uranium (DU) is 'nuclear waste' produced from the enrichment process and is mostly made up of 238 U and is depleted in the fissionable isotope 235 U compared to natural uranium (NU). Depleted uranium has about 60% of the radioactivity of natural uranium. Depleted uranium and natural uranium are identical in terms of the chemical toxicity. Uranium's high density gives depleted uranium shells increased range and penetrative power. This density, combined with uranium's pyrophoric nature, results in a high-energy kinetic weapon that can punch and burn through armour plating. Striking a hard target, depleted uranium munitions create extremely high temperatures. The uranium immediately burns and vaporizes into an aerosol, which is easily diffused in the environment. People can inhale the micro-particles of uranium oxide in an aerosol and absorb them mainly from lung. Depleted uranium has both aspects of radiological toxicity and chemical toxicity. The possible synergistic effect of both kinds of toxicities is also pointed out. Animal and cellular studies have been reported the carcinogenic, neurotoxic, immuno-toxic and some other effects of depleted uranium including the damage on reproductive system and foetus. In addition, the health effects of micro/ nano-particles, similar in size of depleted uranium aerosols produced by uranium weapons, have been reported. Aerosolized DU dust can easily spread over the battlefield spreading over civilian areas, sometimes even crossing international borders. Therefore, not only the military personnel but also the civilians can be exposed. The contamination continues after the cessation of hostilities. Taking these aspects into account, DU weapon is illegal under international humanitarian laws and is considered as one of the inhumane weapons of 'indiscriminate destruction'. The international society is now discussing the prohibition of DU weapons based on 'precautionary principle'. The 1991 Gulf War is reportedly the first

  8. Mantle depletion and metasomatism recorded in orthopyroxene in highly depleted peridotites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scott, James; Liu, Jingao; Pearson, D. Graham

    2016-01-01

    Although trace element concentrations in clinopyroxene serve as a useful tool for assessing the depletion and enrichment history of mantle peridotites, this is not applicable for peridotites in which the clinopyroxene component has been consumed (~ 25% partial melting). Orthopyroxene persists...

  9. Clinical and physiological consequences of rapid tryptophan depletion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, P; Landolt, H P; Seifritz, E; Clark, C; Bhatti, T; Kelsoe, J; Rapaport, M; Gillin, J C

    2000-12-01

    We review here the rapid tryptophan depletion (RTD) methodology and its controversial association with depressive relapse. RTD has been used over the past decade to deplete serotonin (5-hydroxy-tryptamine, or 5-HT) in humans and to probe the role of the central serotonin system in a variety of psychiatric conditions. Its current popularity was stimulated by reports that RTD reversed the antidepressant effects of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) in remitted patients with a history of depression but not in patients treated with antidepressants which promote catecholaminergic rather than serotonergic neurotransmission (such as tricyclic antidepressants or buproprion). However, RTD has inconsistent effects in terms of full clinical relapse in depressed patients. Pooling the data from all published reports, patients who are either unmedicated and/or fully remitted are much less likely to experience relapse (7 of 61, or approximately 9%) than patients who are recently medicated and partially remitted (63 of 133, or approximately 47%; although, the numbers here may reflect patient overlap between reports). Recently remitted patients who have been treated with non-pharmacological therapies such as total sleep deprivation, electroconvulsive therapy, or bright light therapy also do not commonly show full clinical relapse with RTD. We briefly review RTD effects in other psychiatric disorders, many of which are treated with SSRIs. There is accumulating evidence to suggest that RTD affects central serotonergic neurotransmission. Nevertheless, many questions remain about the ability of RTD to reverse the beneficial effects of SSRIs or MAOIs, or to induce symptoms in unmedicated symptomatic or asymptomatic patients.

  10. CMOS current controlled fully balanced current conveyor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chunhua, Wang; Qiujing, Zhang; Haiguang, Liu

    2009-07-01

    This paper presents a current controlled fully balanced second-generation current conveyor circuit (CF-BCCII). The proposed circuit has the traits of fully balanced architecture, and its X-Y terminals are current controllable. Based on the CFBCCII, two biquadratic universal filters are also proposed as its applications. The CFBCCII circuits and the two filters were fabricated with chartered 0.35-μm CMOS technology; with ±1.65 V power supply voltage, the total power consumption of the CFBCCII circuit is 3.6 mW. Comparisons between measured and HSpice simulation results are also given.

  11. Reactor fuel depletion benchmark of TINDER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, W.J.; Oliveira, C.R.E. de; Hecht, A.A.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A reactor burnup benchmark of TINDER, coupling MCNP6 to CINDER2008, was performed. • TINDER is a poor candidate for fuel depletion calculations using its current libraries. • Data library modification is necessary if fuel depletion is desired from TINDER. - Abstract: Accurate burnup calculations are key to proper nuclear reactor design, fuel cycle modeling, and disposal estimations. The TINDER code, originally designed for activation analyses, has been modified to handle full burnup calculations, including the widely used predictor–corrector feature. In order to properly characterize the performance of TINDER for this application, a benchmark calculation was performed. Although the results followed the trends of past benchmarked codes for a UO 2 PWR fuel sample from the Takahama-3 reactor, there were obvious deficiencies in the final result, likely in the nuclear data library that was used. Isotopic comparisons versus experiment and past code benchmarks are given, as well as hypothesized areas of deficiency and future work

  12. Depleted uranium hexafluoride: Waste or resource?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwertz, N.; Zoller, J.; Rosen, R.; Patton, S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Bradley, C. [USDOE Office of Nuclear Energy, Science, Technology, Washington, DC (United States); Murray, A. [SAIC (United States)

    1995-07-01

    the US Department of Energy is evaluating technologies for the storage, disposal, or re-use of depleted uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}). This paper discusses the following options, and provides a technology assessment for each one: (1) conversion to UO{sub 2} for use as mixed oxide duel, (2) conversion to UO{sub 2} to make DUCRETE for a multi-purpose storage container, (3) conversion to depleted uranium metal for use as shielding, (4) conversion to uranium carbide for use as high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) fuel. In addition, conversion to U{sub 3}O{sub 8} as an option for long-term storage is discussed.

  13. The depletion of the stratospheric ozone layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabogal Nelson

    2000-01-01

    The protection of the Earth's ozone layer is of the highest importance to mankind. The dangers of its destruction are by now well known. The depletion of that layer has reached record levels. The Antarctic ozone hole covered this year a record area. The ozone layer is predicted to begin recovery in the next one or two decades and should be restored to pre-1980 levels by 2050. This is the achievement of the regime established by the 1985 Vienna Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer and the 1987 Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer. The regime established by these two agreements has been revised, and made more effective in London (1990), Copenhagen (1992), Vienna (1995), and Beijing (1999)

  14. Depleted uranium plasma reduction system study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rekemeyer, P.; Feizollahi, F.; Quapp, W.J.; Brown, B.W.

    1994-12-01

    A system life-cycle cost study was conducted of a preliminary design concept for a plasma reduction process for converting depleted uranium to uranium metal and anhydrous HF. The plasma-based process is expected to offer significant economic and environmental advantages over present technology. Depleted Uranium is currently stored in the form of solid UF 6 , of which approximately 575,000 metric tons is stored at three locations in the U.S. The proposed system is preconceptual in nature, but includes all necessary processing equipment and facilities to perform the process. The study has identified total processing cost of approximately $3.00/kg of UF 6 processed. Based on the results of this study, the development of a laboratory-scale system (1 kg/h throughput of UF6) is warranted. Further scaling of the process to pilot scale will be determined after laboratory testing is complete

  15. Improvements in EBR-2 core depletion calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finck, P.J.; Hill, R.N.; Sakamoto, S.

    1991-01-01

    The need for accurate core depletion calculations in Experimental Breeder Reactor No. 2 (EBR-2) is discussed. Because of the unique physics characteristics of EBR-2, it is difficult to obtain accurate and computationally efficient multigroup flux predictions. This paper describes the effect of various conventional and higher order schemes for group constant generation and for flux computations; results indicate that higher-order methods are required, particularly in the outer regions (i.e. the radial blanket). A methodology based on Nodal Equivalence Theory (N.E.T.) is developed which allows retention of the accuracy of a higher order solution with the computational efficiency of a few group nodal diffusion solution. The application of this methodology to three-dimensional EBR-2 flux predictions is demonstrated; this improved methodology allows accurate core depletion calculations at reasonable cost. 13 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs

  16. Depletion zones and crystallography on pinched spheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jingyuan; Xing, Xiangjun; Yao, Zhenwei

    2018-03-01

    Understanding the interplay between ordered structures and substrate curvature is an interesting problem with versatile applications, including functionalization of charged supramolecular surfaces and modern microfluidic technologies. In this work, we investigate the two-dimensional packing structures of charged particles confined on a pinched sphere. By continuously pinching the sphere, we observe cleavage of elongated scars into pleats, proliferation of disclinations, and subsequently, emergence of a depletion zone at the negatively curved waist that is completely void of particles. We systematically study the geometrics and energetics of the depletion zone, and reveal its physical origin as a finite size effect, due to the interplay between Coulomb repulsion and concave geometry of the pinched sphere. These results further our understanding of crystallography on curved surfaces, and have implications in design and manipulation of charged, deformable interfaces in various applications.

  17. Molten-Salt Depleted-Uranium Reactor

    OpenAIRE

    Dong, Bao-Guo; Dong, Pei; Gu, Ji-Yuan

    2015-01-01

    The supercritical, reactor core melting and nuclear fuel leaking accidents have troubled fission reactors for decades, and greatly limit their extensive applications. Now these troubles are still open. Here we first show a possible perfect reactor, Molten-Salt Depleted-Uranium Reactor which is no above accident trouble. We found this reactor could be realized in practical applications in terms of all of the scientific principle, principle of operation, technology, and engineering. Our results...

  18. The ultimate disposition of depleted uranium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemons, T.R. [Uranium Enrichment Organization, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1991-12-31

    Depleted uranium (DU) is produced as a by-product of the uranium enrichment process. Over 340,000 MTU of DU in the form of UF{sub 6} have been accumulated at the US government gaseous diffusion plants and the stockpile continues to grow. An overview of issues and objectives associated with the inventory management and the ultimate disposition of this material is presented.

  19. Optical assessment of phytoplankton nutrient depletion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heath, M.R.; Richardson, Katherine; Kiørboe, Thomas

    1990-01-01

    The ratio of light absorption at 480 and 665 nm by 90% acetone extracts of marine phytoplankton pigments has been examined as a potential indicator of phytoplankton nutritional status in both laboratory and field studies. The laboratory studies demonstrated a clear relationship between nutritiona......-replete and nutrient-depleted cells. The field data suggest that the absorption ratio may be a useful indicator of nutritional status of natural phytoplankton populations, and can be used to augment the interpretation of other data....

  20. Heatstroke Pathophysiology: The Energy Depletion Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-06-12

    metabolic acidosis suggested preexisting whole body K* deficiency. In Kt-depleted dogs (49), muscle weakness occurred when animals had lost...and A.C. Issekutz. Lactate metabolism in resting and exercising dogs . J. ADDI. Physiol. 40:312-319, 1976. 43. Jacobs, I. Brod lactate: Implications...31 50. Kreisberg, R.A., L.F. Pennington, and B.R. Boshell. Lactate turnover and gluconeogenesis in normal and obese humans. Diabetes 19:53-63, 1970

  1. Carbon sequestration in depleted oil shale deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnham, Alan K; Carroll, Susan A

    2014-12-02

    A method and apparatus are described for sequestering carbon dioxide underground by mineralizing the carbon dioxide with coinjected fluids and minerals remaining from the extraction shale oil. In one embodiment, the oil shale of an illite-rich oil shale is heated to pyrolyze the shale underground, and carbon dioxide is provided to the remaining depleted oil shale while at an elevated temperature. Conditions are sufficient to mineralize the carbon dioxide.

  2. Study of Gaussian Doped Double Gate JunctionLess (GD-DG-JL) transistor including source drain depletion length: Model for sub-threshold behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, Vandana; Kumar, Ayush; Saxena, Manoj; Gupta, Mridula

    2018-01-01

    The sub-threshold model formulation of Gaussian Doped Double Gate JunctionLess (GD-DG-JL) FET including source/drain depletion length is reported in the present work under the assumption that the ungated regions are fully depleted. To provide deeper insight into the device performance, the impact of gaussian straggle, channel length, oxide and channel thickness and high-k gate dielectric has been studied using extensive TCAD device simulation.

  3. Equipment for fully automatic radiographic pipe inspection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basler, G.; Sperl, H.; Weinschenk, K.

    1977-01-01

    The patent describes a device for fully automatic radiographic testing of large pipes with longitudinal welds. Furthermore the invention enables automatic marking of films in radiographic inspection with regard to a ticketing of the test piece and of that part of it where testing took place. (RW) [de

  4. First tests of a novel radiation hard CMOS sensor process for Depleted Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pernegger, H.; Bates, R.; Buttar, C.; Dalla, M.; van Hoorne, J. W.; Kugathasan, T.; Maneuski, D.; Musa, L.; Riedler, P.; Riegel, C.; Sbarra, C.; Schaefer, D.; Schioppa, E. J.; Snoeys, W.

    2017-06-01

    The upgrade of the ATLAS [1] tracking detector for the High-Luminosity Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN requires novel radiation hard silicon sensor technologies. Significant effort has been put into the development of monolithic CMOS sensors but it has been a challenge to combine a low capacitance of the sensing node with full depletion of the sensitive layer. Low capacitance brings low analog power. Depletion of the sensitive layer causes the signal charge to be collected by drift sufficiently fast to separate hits from consecutive bunch crossings (25 ns at the LHC) and to avoid losing the charge by trapping. This paper focuses on the characterization of charge collection properties and detection efficiency of prototype sensors originally designed in the framework of the ALICE Inner Tracking System (ITS) upgrade [2]. The prototypes are fabricated both in the standard TowerJazz 180nm CMOS imager process [3] and in an innovative modification of this process developed in collaboration with the foundry, aimed to fully deplete the sensitive epitaxial layer and enhance the tolerance to non-ionizing energy loss. Sensors fabricated in standard and modified process variants were characterized using radioactive sources, focused X-ray beam and test beams before and after irradiation. Contrary to sensors manufactured in the standard process, sensors from the modified process remain fully functional even after a dose of 1015neq/cm2, which is the the expected NIEL radiation fluence for the outer pixel layers in the future ATLAS Inner Tracker (ITk) [4].

  5. 76 FR 36176 - Fully Developed Claim (Fully Developed Claims-Applications for Compensation, Pension, DIC, Death...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-21

    ... DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS [OMB Control No. 2900-0747] Fully Developed Claim (Fully Developed Claims--Applications for Compensation, Pension, DIC, Death Pension, and/or Accrued Benefits); Correction AGENCY: Veterans Benefits Administration, Department of Veterans Affairs. ACTION: Notice; correction...

  6. Teratogenicity of depleted uranium aerosols: A review from an epidemiological perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panikkar Bindu

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Depleted uranium is being used increasingly often as a component of munitions in military conflicts. Military personnel, civilians and the DU munitions producers are being exposed to the DU aerosols that are generated. Methods We reviewed toxicological data on both natural and depleted uranium. We included peer reviewed studies and gray literature on birth malformations due to natural and depleted uranium. Our approach was to assess the "weight of evidence" with respect to teratogenicity of depleted uranium. Results Animal studies firmly support the possibility that DU is a teratogen. While the detailed pathways by which environmental DU can be internalized and reach reproductive cells are not yet fully elucidated, again, the evidence supports plausibility. To date, human epidemiological data include case examples, disease registry records, a case-control study and prospective longitudinal studies. Discussion The two most significant challenges to establishing a causal pathway between (human parental DU exposure and the birth of offspring with defects are: i distinguishing the role of DU from that of exposure to other potential teratogens; ii documentation on the individual level of extent of parental DU exposure. Studies that use biomarkers, none yet reported, can help address the latter challenge. Thoughtful triangulation of the results of multiple studies (epidemiological and other of DU teratogenicity contributes to disentangling the roles of various potentially teratogenic parental exposures. This paper is just such an endeavor. Conclusion In aggregate the human epidemiological evidence is consistent with increased risk of birth defects in offspring of persons exposed to DU.

  7. Methylphenidate blocks effort-induced depletion of regulatory control in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sripada, Chandra; Kessler, Daniel; Jonides, John

    2014-06-01

    A recent wave of studies--more than 100 conducted over the last decade--has shown that exerting effort at controlling impulses or behavioral tendencies leaves a person depleted and less able to engage in subsequent rounds of regulation. Regulatory depletion is thought to play an important role in everyday problems (e.g., excessive spending, overeating) as well as psychiatric conditions, but its neurophysiological basis is poorly understood. Using a placebo-controlled, double-blind design, we demonstrated that the psychostimulant methylphenidate (commonly known as Ritalin), a catecholamine reuptake blocker that increases dopamine and norepinephrine at the synaptic cleft, fully blocks effort-induced depletion of regulatory control. Spectral analysis of trial-by-trial reaction times revealed specificity of methylphenidate effects on regulatory depletion in the slow-4 frequency band. This band is associated with the operation of resting-state brain networks that produce mind wandering, which raises potential connections between our results and recent brain-network-based models of control over attention. © The Author(s) 2014.

  8. Development of fully automatic pipe welding system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanioka, Shin-ichi; Nakano, Mitsuhiro; Tejima, Akio; Yamada, Minoru; Saito, Tatsuo; Saito, Yoshiyuki; Abe, Rikio

    1985-01-01

    We have succeeded in developing a fully automatic TIG welding system; namely CAPTIG that enables unmanned welding operations from the initial layer to the final finishing layer continuously. This welding system is designed for continuous, multilayered welding of thick and large diameter fixed pipes of nuclear power plants and large-size boiler plants where high-quality welding is demanded. In the tests conducted with this welding system, several hours of continuous unmanned welding corroborated that excellent beads are formed, good results are obtained in radiographic inspection and that quality welding is possible most reliably. This system incorporates a microcomputer for fully automatic controls by which it features a seam tracking function, wire feed position automatic control function, a self-checking function for inter-pass temperature, cooling water temperature and wire reserve. (author)

  9. A fully reconfigurable photonic integrated signal processor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Weilin; Li, Ming; Guzzon, Robert S.; Norberg, Erik J.; Parker, John S.; Lu, Mingzhi; Coldren, Larry A.; Yao, Jianping

    2016-03-01

    Photonic signal processing has been considered a solution to overcome the inherent electronic speed limitations. Over the past few years, an impressive range of photonic integrated signal processors have been proposed, but they usually offer limited reconfigurability, a feature highly needed for the implementation of large-scale general-purpose photonic signal processors. Here, we report and experimentally demonstrate a fully reconfigurable photonic integrated signal processor based on an InP-InGaAsP material system. The proposed photonic signal processor is capable of performing reconfigurable signal processing functions including temporal integration, temporal differentiation and Hilbert transformation. The reconfigurability is achieved by controlling the injection currents to the active components of the signal processor. Our demonstration suggests great potential for chip-scale fully programmable all-optical signal processing.

  10. Developments towards a fully automated AMS system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steier, P.; Puchegger, S.; Golser, R.; Kutschera, W.; Priller, A.; Rom, W.; Wallner, A.; Wild, E.

    2000-01-01

    The possibilities of computer-assisted and automated accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) measurements were explored. The goal of these efforts is to develop fully automated procedures for 'routine' measurements at the Vienna Environmental Research Accelerator (VERA), a dedicated 3-MV Pelletron tandem AMS facility. As a new tool for automatic tuning of the ion optics we developed a multi-dimensional optimization algorithm robust to noise, which was applied for 14 C and 10 Be. The actual isotope ratio measurements are performed in a fully automated fashion and do not require the presence of an operator. Incoming data are evaluated online and the results can be accessed via Internet. The system was used for 14 C, 10 Be, 26 Al and 129 I measurements

  11. Fully differential VBF Higgs production at NNLO

    CERN Document Server

    Cacciari, Matteo; Karlberg, Alexander; Salam, Gavin P.; Zanderighi, Giulia

    2015-08-21

    We calculate the fully differential next-to-next-to-leading-order (NNLO) corrections to vector-boson fusion (VBF) Higgs production at proton colliders, in the limit in which there is no cross-talk between the hadronic systems associated with the two protons. We achieve this using a new "projection-to-Born" method that combines an inclusive NNLO calculation in the structure-function approach and a suitably factorised next-to-leading-order (NLO) VBF Higgs plus 3-jet calculation, using appropriate Higgs plus 2-parton counter events. An earlier calculation of the fully inclusive cross section had found small NNLO corrections, at the 1% level. In contrast, the cross section after typical experimental VBF cuts receives NNLO contributions of about 5-6%, while differential distributions show corrections of up to 10-12% for some standard observables. The corrections are often outside the NLO scale-uncertainty band.

  12. 26 CFR 1.642(e)-1 - Depreciation and depletion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Depreciation and depletion. 1.642(e)-1 Section 1... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Estates, Trusts, and Beneficiaries § 1.642(e)-1 Depreciation and depletion. An estate or trust is allowed the deductions for depreciation and depletion, but only to the extent the...

  13. Characterizing the transcriptome upon depletion of RNA processing factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herudek, Jan

    consequences of protein depletion. Hence, immediate depletion phenotypes might be shielded due to complementing mechanisms. Here I adopted an auxin inducible degron approach for the rapid protein depletion in mammalian cells, which results in robust protein reduction in a few hours. Moreover, I combined...

  14. 26 CFR 1.613-1 - Percentage depletion; general rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Natural Resources § 1.613-1 Percentage depletion; general rule. (a) In general. In the case of a taxpayer computing the deduction for depletion under section 611... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Percentage depletion; general rule. 1.613-1...

  15. The depletion potential in one, two and three dimensions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. We study the behavior of the depletion potential in binary mixtures of hard particles in one, two, and three dimensions within the framework of a general theory for depletion potential using density functional theory. By doing so we extend earlier studies of the depletion potential in three dimensions to the cases of d ...

  16. Children's Models of the Ozone Layer and Ozone Depletion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christidou, Vasilia; Koulaidis, Vasilis

    1996-01-01

    The views of 40 primary students on ozone and its depletion were recorded through individual, semi-structured interviews. The data analysis resulted in the formation of a limited number of models concerning the distribution and role of ozone in the atmosphere, the depletion process, and the consequences of ozone depletion. Identifies five target…

  17. The depletion potential in one, two and three dimensions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We study the behavior of the depletion potential in binary mixtures of hard particles in one, two, and three dimensions within the framework of a general theory for depletion potential using density functional theory. By doing so we extend earlier studies of the depletion potential in three dimensions to the cases of = 1 and 2 ...

  18. FMFT: fully massive four-loop tadpoles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pikelner, Andrey

    2018-03-01

    We present FMFT - a package written in FORM that evaluates four-loop fully massive tadpole Feynman diagrams. It is a successor of the MATAD package that has been successfully used to calculate many renormalization group functions at three-loop order in a wide range of quantum field theories especially in the Standard Model. We describe an internal structure of the package and provide some examples of its usage.

  19. Fully probabilistic design of hierarchical Bayesian models

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Quinn, A.; Kárný, Miroslav; Guy, Tatiana Valentine

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 369, č. 1 (2016), s. 532-547 ISSN 0020-0255 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-13502S Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : Fully probabilistic design * Ideal distribution * Minimum cross- entropy principle * Bayesian conditioning * Kullback-Leibler divergence * Bayesian nonparametric modelling Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research Impact factor: 4.832, year: 2016 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2016/AS/karny-0463052.pdf

  20. Fully NLO Parton Shower in QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skrzypek, M.; Jadach, S.; Slawinska, M.; Gituliar, O.; Kusina, A.; Placzek, W.

    2011-01-01

    The project of constructing a complete NLO-level Parton Shower Monte Carlo for the QCD processes developed in IFJ PAN in Krakow is reviewed. Four issues are discussed: (1) the extension of the standard inclusive collinear factorization into a new, fully exclusive scheme; (2) reconstruction of the LO Parton Shower in the new scheme; (3) inclusion of the exclusive NLO corrections into the hard process and (4) inclusion of the exclusive NLO corrections into the evolution (ladder) part. (authors)

  1. Fully Passive Wireless Acquisition of Neuropotentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwerdt, Helen N.

    The ability to monitor electrophysiological signals from the sentient brain is requisite to decipher its enormously complex workings and initiate remedial solutions for the vast amount of neurologically-based disorders. Despite immense advancements in creating a variety of instruments to record signals from the brain, the translation of such neurorecording instrumentation to real clinical domains places heavy demands on their safety and reliability, both of which are not entirely portrayed by presently existing implantable recording solutions. In an attempt to lower these barriers, alternative wireless radar backscattering techniques are proposed to render the technical burdens of the implant chip to entirely passive neurorecording processes that transpire in the absence of formal integrated power sources or powering schemes along with any active circuitry. These radar-like wireless backscattering mechanisms are used to conceive of fully passive neurorecording operations of an implantable microsystem. The fully passive device potentially manifests inherent advantages over current wireless implantable and wired recording systems: negligible heat dissipation to reduce risks of brain tissue damage and minimal circuitry for long term reliability as a chronic implant. Fully passive neurorecording operations are realized via intrinsic nonlinear mixing properties of the varactor diode. These mixing and recording operations are directly activated by wirelessly interrogating the fully passive device with a microwave carrier signal. This fundamental carrier signal, acquired by the implant antenna, mixes through the varactor diode along with the internal targeted neuropotential brain signals to produce higher frequency harmonics containing the targeted neuropotential signals. These harmonics are backscattered wirelessly to the external interrogator that retrieves and recovers the original neuropotential brain signal. The passive approach removes the need for internal power

  2. Fully implicit kinetic modelling of collisional plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mousseau, V.A.

    1996-05-01

    This dissertation describes a numerical technique, Matrix-Free Newton Krylov, for solving a simplified Vlasov-Fokker-Planck equation. This method is both deterministic and fully implicit, and may not have been a viable option before current developments in numerical methods. Results are presented that indicate the efficiency of the Matrix-Free Newton Krylov method for these fully-coupled, nonlinear integro-differential equations. The use and requirement for advanced differencing is also shown. To this end, implementations of Chang-Cooper differencing and flux limited Quadratic Upstream Interpolation for Convective Kinematics (QUICK) are presented. Results are given for a fully kinetic ion-electron problem with a self consistent electric field calculated from the ion and electron distribution functions. This numerical method, including advanced differencing, provides accurate solutions, which quickly converge on workstation class machines. It is demonstrated that efficient steady-state solutions can be achieved to the non-linear integro-differential equation, obtaining quadratic convergence, without incurring the large memory requirements of an integral operator. Model problems are presented which simulate plasma impinging on a plate with both high and low neutral particle recycling typical of a divertor in a Tokamak device. These model problems demonstrate the performance of the new solution method

  3. Transpassive electrodissolution of depleted uranium in alkaline electrolytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weisbrod, K.R.; Schake, A.R.; Morgan, A.N.; Purdy, G.M.; Martinez, H.E.; Nelson, T.O.

    1998-03-01

    To aid in removal of oralloy from the nuclear weapons stockpile, scientists at the Los Alamos National Laboratory Plutonium Facility are decontaminating oralloy parts by electrodissolution in neutral to alkaline electrolytes composed of sodium nitrate and sodium sulfate. To improve the process, electrodissolution experiments were performed with depleted uranium to understand the effects of various operating parameters. Sufficient precipitate was also produced to evaluate the feasibility of using ultrafiltration to separate the uranium oxide precipitates from the electrolyte before it enters the decontamination fixture. In preparation for the experiments, a potential-pH diagram for uranium was constructed from thermodynamic data for fully hydrated species. Electrodissolution in unstirred solutions showed that uranium dissolution forms two layers, an acidic bottom layer rich in uranium and an alkaline upper layer. Under stirred conditions results are consistent with the formation of a yellow precipitate of composition UO 3 ·2H 2 O, a six electron process. Amperometric experiments showed that current efficiency remained near 100% over a wide range of electrolytes, electrolyte concentrations, pH, and stirring conditions

  4. Ozone depletion and solar ultraviolet radiation: ocular effects, a United nations environment programme perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullen, Anthony P

    2011-07-01

    To describe he role played by the United Nations Environmental Effects Panel with respect to the ocular effects of stratospheric ozone depletion and present the essence of the Health Chapter of the 2010 Assessment. A consideration of solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR) at the Earth's surface as it is affected by atmospheric changes and how these influence sunlight-related eye diseases. A review of the current Assessment with emphasis on pterygium, cataract, ocular melanoma, and age-related macular degeneration. Although the ozone layer is projected to recover slowly in the coming decades, continuing vigilance is required regarding exposure to the sun. Evidence implicating solar UVR, especially UVB, in every tissue of the eye continues to be amassed. The need for ocular UV protection existed before the discovery of the depletion of the ozone layer and will continue even when the layer fully recovers in approximately 2100.

  5. Ozone depletion: implications for the veterinarian.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopecky, K E

    1978-09-15

    Man has inadvertently modified the stratosphere. There is a good possibility that the ozone layer is being depleted by the use of jet aircraft (SST), chlorofluoromethane propellants, and nitrogen fertilizers. Under unpolluted conditions, the production of ozone equals its destruction. By man's intervention, however, the destruction may exceed the production. The potential outcome is increased intensity of solar ultraviolet (280-400 nm) radiation and penetration to the earth's surface of previously absorbed wavelengths below about 280 nm. The increased ultraviolet radiation would increase the likelihood of skin cancer in man and ocular squamous cell carcinoma in cattle. The climate also might be modified, possibly in an undesirable way.

  6. Capstone Depleted Uranium Aerosols: Generation and Characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parkhurst, MaryAnn; Szrom, Fran; Guilmette, Ray; Holmes, Tom; Cheng, Yung-Sung; Kenoyer, Judson L.; Collins, John W.; Sanderson, T. Ellory; Fliszar, Richard W.; Gold, Kenneth; Beckman, John C.; Long, Julie

    2004-10-19

    In a study designed to provide an improved scientific basis for assessing possible health effects from inhaling depleted uranium (DU) aerosols, a series of DU penetrators was fired at an Abrams tank and a Bradley fighting vehicle. A robust sampling system was designed to collect aerosols in this difficult environment and continuously monitor the sampler flow rates. Aerosols collected were analyzed for uranium concentration and particle size distribution as a function of time. They were also analyzed for uranium oxide phases, particle morphology, and dissolution in vitro. The resulting data provide input useful in human health risk assessments.

  7. Methods to examine reproductive biology in free-ranging, fully-marine mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanyon, Janet M; Burgess, Elizabeth A

    2014-01-01

    Historical overexploitation of marine mammals, combined with present-day pressures, has resulted in severely depleted populations, with many species listed as threatened or endangered. Understanding breeding patterns of threatened marine mammals is crucial to assessing population viability, potential recovery and conservation actions. However, determining reproductive parameters of wild fully-marine mammals (cetaceans and sirenians) is challenging due to their wide distributions, high mobility, inaccessible habitats, cryptic lifestyles and in many cases, large body size and intractability. Consequently, reproductive biologists employ an innovative suite of methods to collect useful information from these species. This chapter reviews historic, recent and state-of-the-art methods to examine diverse aspects of reproduction in fully-aquatic mammals.

  8. The influence of the Calbuco eruption on the 2015 Antarctic ozone hole in a fully coupled chemistry-climate model

    OpenAIRE

    Ivy, D; Solomon, S; Kinnison, D; Mills, M; Schmidt, A; Neely III, RR

    2017-01-01

    Recent research has demonstrated that the concentrations of anthropogenic halocarbons have decreased in response to the worldwide phaseout of ozone depleting substances. Yet in 2015 the Antarctic ozone hole reached a historical record daily average size in October. Model simulations with specified dynamics and temperatures based on a reanalysis suggested that the record size was likely due to the eruption of Calbuco but did not allow for fully coupled dynamical or thermal feedbacks. We presen...

  9. Revealing water's secrets: deuterium depleted water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goncharuk, Vladyslav V; Kavitskaya, Alina A; Romanyukina, Iryna Yu; Loboda, Oleksandr A

    2013-06-17

    The anomalous properties of water have been of great interest for generations of scientists. However the impact of small amount of deuterium content which is always present in water has never been explored before. For the first time the fundamental properties of deuterium depleted (light) water at 4°C and 20°C are here presented. The obtained results show the important role of the deuterium in the properties of bulk water. At 4°C the lowest value of the kinematic viscosity (1.46 mm2/s) has been found for 96.5 ppm D/H ratio. The significant deviation in surface tension values has been observed in deuterium depleted water samples at the both temperature regimes. The experimental data provides direct evidence that density, surface tension and viscosity anomalies of water are caused by the presence of variable concentration of deuterium which leads to the formation of water clusters of different size and quantity. The investigated properties of light water reveal the origin of the water anomalies. The new theoretical model of cluster formation with account of isotope effect is proposed.

  10. Microscopic to macroscopic depletion model development for FORMOSA-P

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noh, J.M.; Turinsky, P.J.; Sarsour, H.N.

    1996-01-01

    Microscopic depletion has been gaining popularity with regard to employment in reactor core nodal calculations, mainly attributed to the superiority of microscopic depletion in treating spectral history effects during depletion. Another trend is the employment of loading pattern optimization computer codes in support of reload core design. Use of such optimization codes has significantly reduced design efforts to optimize reload core loading patterns associated with increasingly complicated lattice designs. A microscopic depletion model has been developed for the FORMOSA-P pressurized water reactor (PWR) loading pattern optimization code. This was done for both fidelity improvements and to make FORMOSA-P compatible with microscopic-based nuclear design methods. Needless to say, microscopic depletion requires more computational effort compared with macroscopic depletion. This implies that microscopic depletion may be computationally restrictive if employed during the loading pattern optimization calculation because many loading patterns are examined during the course of an optimization search. Therefore, the microscopic depletion model developed here uses combined models of microscopic and macroscopic depletion. This is done by first performing microscopic depletions for a subset of possible loading patterns from which 'collapsed' macroscopic cross sections are obtained. The collapsed macroscopic cross sections inherently incorporate spectral history effects. Subsequently, the optimization calculations are done using the collapsed macroscopic cross sections. Using this approach allows maintenance of microscopic depletion level accuracy without substantial additional computing resources

  11. Fully Coupled FE Analyses of Buried Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James T. Baylot

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available Current procedures for determining the response of buried structures to the effects of the detonation of buried high explosives recommend decoupling the free-field stress analysis from the structure response analysis. A fully coupled (explosive–soil structure finite element analysis procedure was developed so that the accuracies of current decoupling procedures could be evaluated. Comparisons of the results of analyses performed using this procedure with scale-model experiments indicate that this finite element procedure can be used to effectively evaluate the accuracies of the methods currently being used to decouple the free-field stress analysis from the structure response analysis.

  12. A Fully Automated Penumbra Segmentation Tool

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nagenthiraja, Kartheeban; Ribe, Lars Riisgaard; Hougaard, Kristina Dupont

    2012-01-01

    salavageable tissue, quickly and accurately. We present a fully Automated Penumbra Segmentation (APS) algorithm using PWI and DWI images. We compare automatically generated PWI-DWI mismatch mask to mask outlined manually by experts, in 168 patients. Method: The algorithm initially identifies PWI lesions......) at 600∙10-6 mm2/sec. Due to the nature of thresholding, the ADC mask overestimates the DWI lesion volume and consequently we initialized level-set algorithm on DWI image with ADC mask as prior knowledge. Combining the PWI and inverted DWI mask then yield the PWI-DWI mismatch mask. Four expert raters...

  13. Development of a Depleted Monolithic CMOS Sensor in a 150 nm CMOS Technology for the ATLAS Inner Tracker Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, T.

    2017-01-01

    The recent R&D focus on CMOS sensors with charge collection in a depleted zone has opened new perspectives for CMOS sensors as fast and radiation hard pixel devices. These sensors, labelled as depleted CMOS sensors (DMAPS), have already shown promising performance as feasible candidates for the ATLAS Inner Tracker (ITk) upgrade, possibly replacing the current passive sensors. A further step to exploit the potential of DMAPS is to investigate the suitability of equipping the outer layers of the ATLAS ITk upgrade with fully monolithic CMOS sensors. This paper presents the development of a depleted monolithic CMOS pixel sensor designed in the LFoundry 150 nm CMOS technology, with the focus on design details and simulation results.

  14. Fully CMOS-compatible titanium nitride nanoantennas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Briggs, Justin A., E-mail: jabriggs@stanford.edu [Department of Applied Physics, Stanford University, 348 Via Pueblo Mall, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Stanford University, 496 Lomita Mall, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Naik, Gururaj V.; Baum, Brian K.; Dionne, Jennifer A. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Stanford University, 496 Lomita Mall, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Petach, Trevor A.; Goldhaber-Gordon, David [Department of Physics, Stanford University, 382 Via Pueblo Mall, Stanford, California 94305 (United States)

    2016-02-01

    CMOS-compatible fabrication of plasmonic materials and devices will accelerate the development of integrated nanophotonics for information processing applications. Using low-temperature plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition (PEALD), we develop a recipe for fully CMOS-compatible titanium nitride (TiN) that is plasmonic in the visible and near infrared. Films are grown on silicon, silicon dioxide, and epitaxially on magnesium oxide substrates. By optimizing the plasma exposure per growth cycle during PEALD, carbon and oxygen contamination are reduced, lowering undesirable loss. We use electron beam lithography to pattern TiN nanopillars with varying diameters on silicon in large-area arrays. In the first reported single-particle measurements on plasmonic TiN, we demonstrate size-tunable darkfield scattering spectroscopy in the visible and near infrared regimes. The optical properties of this CMOS-compatible material, combined with its high melting temperature and mechanical durability, comprise a step towards fully CMOS-integrated nanophotonic information processing.

  15. Fully populated VCM or the hidden parameter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kermarrec G.

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Least-squares estimates are trustworthy with minimal variance if the correct stochastic model is used. Due to computational burden, diagonal models that neglect correlations are preferred to describe the elevation dependency of the variance of GPS observations. In this contribution, an improved stochastic model based on a parametric function to take correlations between GPS phase observations into account is presented. Built on an adapted and flexible Mátern function accounting for spatiotemporal variabilities, its parameters can be fixed thanks to Maximum Likelihood Estimation or chosen apriori to model turbulent tropospheric refractivity fluctuations. In this contribution, we will show in which cases and under which conditions corresponding fully populated variance covariance matrices (VCM replace the estimation of a tropospheric parameter. For this equivalence “augmented functional versus augmented stochastic model” to hold, the VCM should be made sufficiently largewhich corresponds to computing small batches of observations. A case study with observations from a medium baseline of 80 km divided into batches of 600 s shows improvement of up to 100 mm for the 3Drms when fully populated VCM are used compared with an elevation dependent diagonal model. It confirms the strong potential of such matrices to improve the least-squares solution, particularly when ambiguities are let float.

  16. Fully 3D GPU PET reconstruction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herraiz, J.L., E-mail: joaquin@nuclear.fis.ucm.es [Grupo de Fisica Nuclear, Departmento Fisica Atomica, Molecular y Nuclear, Universidad Complutense de Madrid (Spain); Espana, S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Cal-Gonzalez, J. [Grupo de Fisica Nuclear, Departmento Fisica Atomica, Molecular y Nuclear, Universidad Complutense de Madrid (Spain); Vaquero, J.J. [Departmento de Bioingenieria e Ingenieria Espacial, Universidad Carlos III, Madrid (Spain); Desco, M. [Departmento de Bioingenieria e Ingenieria Espacial, Universidad Carlos III, Madrid (Spain); Unidad de Medicina y Cirugia Experimental, Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Maranon, Madrid (Spain); Udias, J.M. [Grupo de Fisica Nuclear, Departmento Fisica Atomica, Molecular y Nuclear, Universidad Complutense de Madrid (Spain)

    2011-08-21

    Fully 3D iterative tomographic image reconstruction is computationally very demanding. Graphics Processing Unit (GPU) has been proposed for many years as potential accelerators in complex scientific problems, but it has not been used until the recent advances in the programmability of GPUs that the best available reconstruction codes have started to be implemented to be run on GPUs. This work presents a GPU-based fully 3D PET iterative reconstruction software. This new code may reconstruct sinogram data from several commercially available PET scanners. The most important and time-consuming parts of the code, the forward and backward projection operations, are based on an accurate model of the scanner obtained with the Monte Carlo code PeneloPET and they have been massively parallelized on the GPU. For the PET scanners considered, the GPU-based code is more than 70 times faster than a similar code running on a single core of a fast CPU, obtaining in both cases the same images. The code has been designed to be easily adapted to reconstruct sinograms from any other PET scanner, including scanner prototypes.

  17. Deuterium-depleted water. Romanian achievements and perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stefanescu, Ion; Saros-Rogobete, Irina; Titescu, Gheorghe

    2001-01-01

    Deuterium-depleted water has an isotopic content smaller than 145 ppm D/(D+H) which is the natural isotopic content of water. Beginning with 1996 ICSI Rm. Valcea, deuterium-depleted water producer, co-operated with Romanian specialized institutes for biological effect's evaluation of deuterium-depleted water. These investigations lead to the following conclusions: - Deuterium-depleted water caused a tendency towards the increase of the basal tonus, accompanied by the intensification of the vasoconstrictor effects of phenylefrine, noradrenaline and angiotensin; the increase of the basal tonus and vascular reactivity produced by the deuterium-depleted water persist after the removal of the vascular endothelium; - Animals treated with deuterium-depleted water showed an increase of the resistance both to sublethal and to lethal gamma radiation doses, suggesting a radioprotective action; - Deuterium-depleted water stimulates immune defence reactions and increases the numbers of polymorphonuclear neutrophils; - Investigations regarding artificial reproduction of fish with deuterium-depleted water fecundated solutions confirmed favourable influence in embryo growth stage and resistance in subsequent growth stages; - It was studied germination, growth and quantitative character's variability in plants; one can remark the favourable influence of deuterium-depleted water on biological process in plants in various ontogenetic stages; - The deuterium depletion in seawater produces the diminution of the water spectral energy related to an increased metabolism of Tetraselmis Suecica. (authors)

  18. Tryptophan depletion affects compulsive behaviour in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Merchán, A; Navarro, S V; Klein, A B

    2017-01-01

    RATIONALE: Compulsive behaviour, present in different psychiatric disorders, such as obsessive-compulsive disorder, schizophrenia and drug abuse, is associated with altered levels of monoamines, particularly serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine) and its receptor system. OBJECTIVES: The present study...... evaluated, as well as the 5-HT2A and 5-HT1A receptor binding, in different brain regions. METHODS: Wistar rats were selected as high (HD) or low (LD) drinkers according to their SIP behaviour, while Lister hooded rats did not show SIP acquisition. Both strains were fed for 14 days with either a TRP...... in the striatum was significantly reduced in the TRP-depleted HD Wistar rats. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that alterations of the serotonergic system could be involved in compulsive behaviour in vulnerable populations....

  19. Directional depletion interactions in shaped particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Scala

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Entropic forces in colloidal suspensions and in polymer-colloid systems are of long-standing and continuing interest. Experiments show how entropic forces can be used to control the self-assembly of colloidal particles. Significant advances in colloidal synthesis made in the past two decades have enabled the preparation of high quality nano-particles with well-controlled sizes, shapes, and compositions, indicating that such particles can be utilized as "artificial atoms" to build new materials. To elucidate the effects of the shape of particles upon the magnitude of entropic interaction, we analyse the entropic interactions of two cut-spheres. We show that the solvent induces a strong directional depletion attraction among flat faces of the cut-spheres. Such an effect highlights the possibility of using the shape of particles to control directionality and strength of interaction.

  20. Design optimization using depletion perturbation theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Worley, B.A.

    1984-06-01

    Analysis of the fuel cycle performance of a reactor requires knowledge of the entire fuel burnup history. The optimal design depends upon the desired performance parameter or combination of parameters to be minimized (or maximized). The emphasis to date has been to use some combination of iterations involving a number of direct calculations, static perturbation theory, binary exchange methods, and empirical relationships. The object of this study is to demonstrate an approach to optimization based upon Depletion Perturbation Theory (DPT). The DPT equations directly couple the nuclide burnup equations and the neutron balance equations. The equations require the calculation of forward and adjoint solutions for the neutron flux and nuclide transmutations. The application is for analysis of a modular HTGR. The reactor has axially dependent fuel loadings in order to achieve an axial power shape that keeps fuel temperatures below a specified maximum

  1. Kinetic depletion model for pellet ablation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuteev, Boris V. [State Technical Univ., St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    2001-11-01

    A kinetic model for depletion effect, which determines pellet ablation when the pellet passes a rational magnetic surface, is formulated. The model predicts a moderate decrease of the ablation rate compared with the earlier considered monoenergy versions [1, 2]. For typical T-10 conditions the ablation rate reduces by a reactor of 2.5 when the 1-mm pellet penetrates through the plasma center. A substantial deceleration of pellets -about 15% per centimeter of low shire rational q region; is predicted. Penetration for Low Field Side and High Field Side injections is considered taking into account modification of the electron distribution function by toroidal magnetic field. It is shown that Shafranov shift and toroidal effects yield the penetration length for HFS injection higher by a factor of 1.5. This fact should be taken into account when plasma-shielding effects on penetration are considered. (author)

  2. TURTLE 24.0 diffusion depletion code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altomare, S.; Barry, R.F.

    1971-09-01

    TURTLE is a two-group, two-dimensional (x-y, x-z, r-z) neutron diffusion code featuring a direct treatment of the nonlinear effects of xenon, enthalpy, and Doppler. Fuel depletion is allowed. TURTLE was written for the study of azimuthal xenon oscillations, but the code is useful for general analysis. The input is simple, fuel management is handled directly, and a boron criticality search is allowed. Ten thousand space points are allowed (over 20,000 with diagonal symmetry). TURTLE is written in FORTRAN IV and is tailored for the present CDC-6600. The program is core-contained. Provision is made to save data on tape for future reference. (auth)

  3. Modelling chemical depletion profiles in regolith

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brantley, S.L.; Bandstra, J.; Moore, J.; White, A.F.

    2008-01-01

    Chemical or mineralogical profiles in regolith display reaction fronts that document depletion of leachable elements or minerals. A generalized equation employing lumped parameters was derived to model such ubiquitously observed patterns:C = frac(C0, frac(C0 - Cx = 0, Cx = 0) exp (??ini ?? over(k, ??) ?? x) + 1)Here C, Cx = 0, and Co are the concentrations of an element at a given depth x, at the top of the reaction front, or in parent respectively. ??ini is the roughness of the dissolving mineral in the parent and k???? is a lumped kinetic parameter. This kinetic parameter is an inverse function of the porefluid advective velocity and a direct function of the dissolution rate constant times mineral surface area per unit volume regolith. This model equation fits profiles of concentration versus depth for albite in seven weathering systems and is consistent with the interpretation that the surface area (m2 mineral m- 3 bulk regolith) varies linearly with the concentration of the dissolving mineral across the front. Dissolution rate constants can be calculated from the lumped fit parameters for these profiles using observed values of weathering advance rate, the proton driving force, the geometric surface area per unit volume regolith and parent concentration of albite. These calculated values of the dissolution rate constant compare favorably to literature values. The model equation, useful for reaction fronts in both steady-state erosional and quasi-stationary non-erosional systems, incorporates the variation of reaction affinity using pH as a master variable. Use of this model equation to fit depletion fronts for soils highlights the importance of buffering of pH in the soil system. Furthermore, the equation should allow better understanding of the effects of important environmental variables on weathering rates. ?? 2008.

  4. Quantum Fully Homomorphic Encryption with Verification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alagic, Gorjan; Dulek, Yfke; Schaffner, Christian

    2017-01-01

    Fully-homomorphic encryption (FHE) enables computation on encrypted data while maintaining secrecy. Recent research has shown that such schemes exist even for quantum computation. Given the numerous applications of classical FHE (zero-knowledge proofs, secure two-party computation, obfuscation, etc.......) it is reasonable to hope that quantum FHE (or QFHE) will lead to many new results in the quantum setting. However, a crucial ingredient in almost all applications of FHE is circuit verification. Classically, verification is performed by checking a transcript of the homomorphic computation. Quantumly, this strategy...... is impossible due to no-cloning. This leads to an important open question: can quantum computations be delegated and verified in a non-interactive manner? In this work, we answer this question in the affirmative, by constructing a scheme for QFHE with verification (vQFHE). Our scheme provides authenticated...

  5. Simulations of fully deformed oscillating flux tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karampelas, K.; Van Doorsselaere, T.

    2018-02-01

    Context. In recent years, a number of numerical studies have been focusing on the significance of the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability in the dynamics of oscillating coronal loops. This process enhances the transfer of energy into smaller scales, and has been connected with heating of coronal loops, when dissipation mechanisms, such as resistivity, are considered. However, the turbulent layer is expected near the outer regions of the loops. Therefore, the effects of wave heating are expected to be confined to the loop's external layers, leaving their denser inner parts without a heating mechanism. Aim. In the current work we aim to study the spatial evolution of wave heating effects from a footpoint driven standing kink wave in a coronal loop. Methods: Using the MPI-AMRVAC code, we performed ideal, three dimensional magnetohydrodynamic simulations of footpoint driven transverse oscillations of a cold, straight coronal flux tube, embedded in a hotter environment. We have also constructed forward models for our simulation using the FoMo code. Results: The developed transverse wave induced Kelvin-Helmholtz (TWIKH) rolls expand throughout the tube cross-section, and cover it entirely. This turbulence significantly alters the initial density profile, leading to a fully deformed cross section. As a consequence, the resistive and viscous heating rate both increase over the entire loop cross section. The resistive heating rate takes its maximum values near the footpoints, while the viscous heating rate at the apex. Conclusions: We conclude that even a monoperiodic driver can spread wave heating over the whole loop cross section, potentially providing a heating source in the inner loop region. Despite the loop's fully deformed structure, forward modelling still shows the structure appearing as a loop. A movie attached to Fig. 1 is available at http://https://www.aanda.org

  6. Lidar Cloud Detection with Fully Convolutional Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cromwell, E.; Flynn, D.

    2017-12-01

    The vertical distribution of clouds from active remote sensing instrumentation is a widely used data product from global atmospheric measuring sites. The presence of clouds can be expressed as a binary cloud mask and is a primary input for climate modeling efforts and cloud formation studies. Current cloud detection algorithms producing these masks do not accurately identify the cloud boundaries and tend to oversample or over-represent the cloud. This translates as uncertainty for assessing the radiative impact of clouds and tracking changes in cloud climatologies. The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program has over 20 years of micro-pulse lidar (MPL) and High Spectral Resolution Lidar (HSRL) instrument data and companion automated cloud mask product at the mid-latitude Southern Great Plains (SGP) and the polar North Slope of Alaska (NSA) atmospheric observatory. Using this data, we train a fully convolutional network (FCN) with semi-supervised learning to segment lidar imagery into geometric time-height cloud locations for the SGP site and MPL instrument. We then use transfer learning to train a FCN for (1) the MPL instrument at the NSA site and (2) for the HSRL. In our semi-supervised approach, we pre-train the classification layers of the FCN with weakly labeled lidar data. Then, we facilitate end-to-end unsupervised pre-training and transition to fully supervised learning with ground truth labeled data. Our goal is to improve the cloud mask accuracy and precision for the MPL instrument to 95% and 80%, respectively, compared to the current cloud mask algorithms of 89% and 50%. For the transfer learning based FCN for the HSRL instrument, our goal is to achieve a cloud mask accuracy of 90% and a precision of 80%.

  7. Failure to Replicate Depletion of Self-Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaomeng; Demos, Kathryn E.; Leahey, Tricia M.; Hart, Chantelle N.; Trautvetter, Jennifer; Coward, Pamela; Middleton, Kathryn R.; Wing, Rena R.

    2014-01-01

    The limited resource or strength model of self-control posits that the use of self-regulatory resources leads to depletion and poorer performance on subsequent self-control tasks. We conducted four studies (two with community samples, two with young adult samples) utilizing a frequently used depletion procedure (crossing out letters protocol) and the two most frequently used dependent measures of self-control (handgrip perseverance and modified Stroop). In each study, participants completed a baseline self-control measure, a depletion or control task (randomized), and then the same measure of self-control a second time. There was no evidence for significant depletion effects in any of these four studies. The null results obtained in four attempts to replicate using strong methodological approaches may indicate that depletion has more limited effects than implied by prior publications. We encourage further efforts to replicate depletion (particularly among community samples) with full disclosure of positive and negative results. PMID:25333564

  8. Failure to replicate depletion of self-control.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaomeng Xu

    Full Text Available The limited resource or strength model of self-control posits that the use of self-regulatory resources leads to depletion and poorer performance on subsequent self-control tasks. We conducted four studies (two with community samples, two with young adult samples utilizing a frequently used depletion procedure (crossing out letters protocol and the two most frequently used dependent measures of self-control (handgrip perseverance and modified Stroop. In each study, participants completed a baseline self-control measure, a depletion or control task (randomized, and then the same measure of self-control a second time. There was no evidence for significant depletion effects in any of these four studies. The null results obtained in four attempts to replicate using strong methodological approaches may indicate that depletion has more limited effects than implied by prior publications. We encourage further efforts to replicate depletion (particularly among community samples with full disclosure of positive and negative results.

  9. Depletion-induced biaxial nematic states of boardlike particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belli, S; Van Roij, R; Dijkstra, M

    2012-01-01

    With the aim of investigating the stability conditions of biaxial nematic liquid crystals, we study the effect of adding a non-adsorbing ideal depletant on the phase behavior of colloidal hard boardlike particles. We take into account the presence of the depletant by introducing an effective depletion attraction between a pair of boardlike particles. At fixed depletant fugacity, the stable liquid-crystal phase is determined through a mean-field theory with restricted orientations. Interestingly, we predict that for slightly elongated boardlike particles a critical depletant density exists, where the system undergoes a direct transition from an isotropic liquid to a biaxial nematic phase. As a consequence, by tuning the depletant density, an easy experimental control parameter, one can stabilize states of high biaxial nematic order even when these states are unstable for pure systems of boardlike particles. (paper)

  10. Technological change, population dynamics, and natural resource depletion

    OpenAIRE

    Schaefer, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we integrate fertility and educational choices into a scale-invariant model of directed technological change with non-renewable natural resources, in order to reveal the interaction between population dynamics, technological change, and natural resource depletion. In line with empirical regularities, skill-biased technological change induces a decline in population growth and a transitory increase in the depletion rate of natural resources. In the long-run, the depletion rate a...

  11. Analytical Modeling of Unsteady Aluminum Depletion in Thermal Barrier Coatings

    OpenAIRE

    YEŞİLATA, Bülent

    2014-01-01

    The oxidation behavior of thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) in aircraft turbines is studied. A simple, unsteady and one-dimensional, diffusion model based on aluminum depletion from a bond-coat to form an oxide layer of Al2O3 is introduced. The model is employed for a case study with currently available experimental data. The diffusion coefficient of the depleted aluminum in the alloy, the concentration profiles at different oxidation times, and the thickness of Al-depleted region are...

  12. Gas generation matrix depletion quality assurance project plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) is to provide the necessary expertise, experience, equipment and instrumentation, and management structure to: Conduct the matrix depletion experiments using simulated waste for quantifying matrix depletion effects; and Conduct experiments on 60 cylinders containing simulated TRU waste to determine the effects of matrix depletion on gas generation for transportation. All work for the Gas Generation Matrix Depletion (GGMD) experiment is performed according to the quality objectives established in the test plan and under this Quality Assurance Project Plan (QAPjP)

  13. Producing, Importing, and Exporting Ozone-Depleting Substances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overview page provides links to information on producing, importing, and exporting ozone-depleting substances, including information about the HCFC allowance system, importing, labeling, recordkeeping and reporting.

  14. Gas generation matrix depletion quality assurance project plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-05-01

    The Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) is to provide the necessary expertise, experience, equipment and instrumentation, and management structure to: Conduct the matrix depletion experiments using simulated waste for quantifying matrix depletion effects; and Conduct experiments on 60 cylinders containing simulated TRU waste to determine the effects of matrix depletion on gas generation for transportation. All work for the Gas Generation Matrix Depletion (GGMD) experiment is performed according to the quality objectives established in the test plan and under this Quality Assurance Project Plan (QAPjP).

  15. How Ego Depletion Affects Sexual Self-Regulation: Is It More Than Resource Depletion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolet, Kevin; Rouleau, Joanne-Lucine; Benbouriche, Massil; Carrier Emond, Fannie; Renaud, Patrice

    2015-12-21

    Rational thinking and decision making are impacted when in a state of sexual arousal. The inability to self-regulate arousal can be linked to numerous problems, like sexual risk taking, infidelity, and sexual coercion. Studies have shown that most men are able to exert voluntary control over their sexual excitation with various levels of success. Both situational and dispositional factors can influence self-regulation achievement. The goal of this research was to investigate how ego depletion, a state of low self-control capacity, interacts with personality traits-propensities for sexual excitation and inhibition-and cognitive absorption, to cause sexual self-regulation failure. The sexual responses of 36 heterosexual males were assessed using penile plethysmography. They were asked to control their sexual arousal in two conditions, with and without ego depletion. Results suggest that ego depletion has opposite effects based on the trait sexual inhibition, as individuals moderately inhibited showed an increase in performance while highly inhibited ones showed a decrease. These results challenge the limited resource model of self-regulation and point to the importance of considering how people adapt to acute and high challenging conditions.

  16. Fully 3D refraction correction dosimetry system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manjappa, Rakesh; Makki, S Sharath; Kanhirodan, Rajan; Kumar, Rajesh; Vasu, Ram Mohan

    2016-01-01

    The irradiation of selective regions in a polymer gel dosimeter results in an increase in optical density and refractive index (RI) at those regions. An optical tomography-based dosimeter depends on rayline path through the dosimeter to estimate and reconstruct the dose distribution. The refraction of light passing through a dose region results in artefacts in the reconstructed images. These refraction errors are dependant on the scanning geometry and collection optics. We developed a fully 3D image reconstruction algorithm, algebraic reconstruction technique-refraction correction (ART-rc) that corrects for the refractive index mismatches present in a gel dosimeter scanner not only at the boundary, but also for any rayline refraction due to multiple dose regions inside the dosimeter. In this study, simulation and experimental studies have been carried out to reconstruct a 3D dose volume using 2D CCD measurements taken for various views. The study also focuses on the effectiveness of using different refractive-index matching media surrounding the gel dosimeter. Since the optical density is assumed to be low for a dosimeter, the filtered backprojection is routinely used for reconstruction. We carry out the reconstructions using conventional algebraic reconstruction (ART) and refractive index corrected ART (ART-rc) algorithms. The reconstructions based on FDK algorithm for cone-beam tomography has also been carried out for comparison. Line scanners and point detectors, are used to obtain reconstructions plane by plane. The rays passing through dose region with a RI mismatch does not reach the detector in the same plane depending on the angle of incidence and RI. In the fully 3D scanning setup using 2D array detectors, light rays that undergo refraction are still collected and hence can still be accounted for in the reconstruction algorithm. It is found that, for the central region of the dosimeter, the usable radius using ART-rc algorithm with water as RI matched

  17. PVT Panels. Fully renewable and competitive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakker, M.; Strootman, K.J.; Jong, M.J.M.

    2003-10-01

    A photovoltaic/thermal (PVT) panel is a combination of photovoltaic cells with a solar thermal collector, generating solar electricity and solar heat simultaneously. PVT panels generate more solar energy per unit surface area than a combination of separate PV panels and solar thermal collectors, and share the aesthetic advantage of PV. After several years of research, PVT panels have been developed into a product that is now ready for market introduction. One of the most promising system concepts, consisting of 25 m 2 of PVT panels and a ground coupled heat pump, has been simulated in TRNSYS, and has been found to be able to fully cover both the building related electricity and heat consumption, while keeping the long-term average ground temperature constant. The cost and payback time of such a system have been determined; it has been found that the payback time of this system is approximately two-thirds of the payback time of an identical system but with 21 m 2 of PV panels and 4 m 2 of solar thermal collectors. Finally, by looking at the expected growth in the PV and solar thermal collector market, the market potential for for PVT panels has been found to be very large

  18. The first LHC sector is fully interconnected

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    Sector 7-8 is the first sector of the LHC to become fully operational. All the magnets, cryogenic line, vacuum chambers and services are interconnected. The cool down of this sector can soon commence. LHC project leader Lyn Evans, the teams from CERN's AT/MCS, AT/VAC and AT/MEL groups, and the members of the IEG consortium celebrate the completion of the first LHC sector. The 10th of November was a red letter day for the LHC accelerator teams, marking the completion of the first sector of the machine. The magnets of sector 7-8, together with the cryogenic line, the vacuum chambers and the distribution feedboxes (DFBs) are now all completely interconnected. Sector 7-8 has thus been closed and is the first LHC sector to become operational. The interconnection work required several thousand electrical, cryogenic and insulating connections to be made on the 210 interfaces between the magnets in the arc, the 30 interfaces between the special magnets and the interfaces with the cryogenic line. 'This represent...

  19. A fully relativistic definition of the geoid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laemmerzahl, C.; Hackmann, E.; Perlick, V.; Philipp, D.; Puetzfeld, D.

    2016-12-01

    The present definition of the geoid is based on the Newtonian potential together with the potential related to centrifugal force of the rotating Earth. All time-dependencies due to, e.g., seasonal variations are removed from this definition. The geoid is defined as to be related to the rigid part of the rotating Earth. Upcoming high precision gravimeters and gradiometers as well as optical clocks and clock networks make it necessary to propose a definition of the geoid solely in terms of General Relativity.The new definition of the geoid will be stated within the framework of General Relativity. In this framework we model atomic clocks by standard clocks showing the proper time along their worldline, and we model the Earth in terms of a rigidly rotating gravitating body. The second assumption gives that space-time is equipped with a time-like Killing vector. The norm of this Killing vector is a scalar function which (i) describes the acceleration of freely falling bodies on the surface of the Earth, and (ii) gives the redshift of atomic clocks whose ticking rate can be compared using connecting light rays or optical fibers. It can be shown that in the nonrelativistic limit this generalized potential gives the usual Newtonian potential. Therefore, this scalar function can be taken as the basis for a natural and fully general relativistic generalization of the geoid based on Newtonian gravitational physics. Finally, for certain space-times we will present examples for the geoid.

  20. Fully Resolved Simulations of 3D Printing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tryggvason, Gretar; Xia, Huanxiong; Lu, Jiacai

    2017-11-01

    Numerical simulations of Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM) (or Fused Filament Fabrication) where a filament of hot, viscous polymer is deposited to ``print'' a three-dimensional object, layer by layer, are presented. A finite volume/front tracking method is used to follow the injection, cooling, solidification and shrinking of the filament. The injection of the hot melt is modeled using a volume source, combined with a nozzle, modeled as an immersed boundary, that follows a prescribed trajectory. The viscosity of the melt depends on the temperature and the shear rate and the polymer becomes immobile as its viscosity increases. As the polymer solidifies, the stress is found by assuming a hyperelastic constitutive equation. The method is described and its accuracy and convergence properties are tested by grid refinement studies for a simple setup involving two short filaments, one on top of the other. The effect of the various injection parameters, such as nozzle velocity and injection velocity are briefly examined and the applicability of the approach to simulate the construction of simple multilayer objects is shown. The role of fully resolved simulations for additive manufacturing and their use for novel processes and as the ``ground truth'' for reduced order models is discussed.

  1. Fully inkjet-printed microwave passive electronics

    KAUST Repository

    McKerricher, Garret

    2017-01-30

    Fully inkjet-printed three-dimensional (3D) objects with integrated metal provide exciting possibilities for on-demand fabrication of radio frequency electronics such as inductors, capacitors, and filters. To date, there have been several reports of printed radio frequency components metallized via the use of plating solutions, sputtering, and low-conductivity pastes. These metallization techniques require rather complex fabrication, and do not provide an easily integrated or versatile process. This work utilizes a novel silver ink cured with a low-cost infrared lamp at only 80 °C, and achieves a high conductivity of 1×107 S m−1. By inkjet printing the infrared-cured silver together with a commercial 3D inkjet ultraviolet-cured acrylic dielectric, a multilayer process is demonstrated. By using a smoothing technique, both the conductive ink and dielectric provide surface roughness values of <500 nm. A radio frequency inductor and capacitor exhibit state-of-the-art quality factors of 8 and 20, respectively, and match well with electromagnetic simulations. These components are implemented in a lumped element radio frequency filter with an impressive insertion loss of 0.8 dB at 1 GHz, proving the utility of the process for sensitive radio frequency applications.

  2. Quantum Optimization of Fully Connected Spin Glasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davide Venturelli

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Many NP-hard problems can be seen as the task of finding a ground state of a disordered highly connected Ising spin glass. If solutions are sought by means of quantum annealing, it is often necessary to represent those graphs in the annealer’s hardware by means of the graph-minor embedding technique, generating a final Hamiltonian consisting of coupled chains of ferromagnetically bound spins, whose binding energy is a free parameter. In order to investigate the effect of embedding on problems of interest, the fully connected Sherrington-Kirkpatrick model with random ±1 couplings is programmed on the D-Wave Two^{TM} annealer using up to 270 qubits interacting on a Chimera-type graph. We present the best embedding prescriptions for encoding the Sherrington-Kirkpatrick problem in the Chimera graph. The results indicate that the optimal choice of embedding parameters could be associated with the emergence of the spin-glass phase of the embedded problem, whose presence was previously uncertain. This optimal parameter setting allows the performance of the quantum annealer to compete with (and potentially outperform, in the absence of analog control errors optimized simulated annealing algorithms.

  3. Too Depleted to Try? Testing the Process Model of Ego Depletion in the Context of Unhealthy Snack Consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haynes, Ashleigh; Kemps, Eva; Moffitt, Robyn

    2016-11-01

    The process model proposes that the ego depletion effect is due to (a) an increase in motivation toward indulgence, and (b) a decrease in motivation to control behaviour following an initial act of self-control. In contrast, the reflective-impulsive model predicts that ego depletion results in behaviour that is more consistent with desires, and less consistent with motivations, rather than influencing the strength of desires and motivations. The current study sought to test these alternative accounts of the relationships between ego depletion, motivation, desire, and self-control. One hundred and fifty-six undergraduate women were randomised to complete a depleting e-crossing task or a non-depleting task, followed by a lab-based measure of snack intake, and self-report measures of motivation and desire strength. In partial support of the process model, ego depletion was related to higher intake, but only indirectly via the influence of lowered motivation. Motivation was more strongly predictive of intake for those in the non-depletion condition, providing partial support for the reflective-impulsive model. Ego depletion did not affect desire, nor did depletion moderate the effect of desire on intake, indicating that desire may be an appropriate target for reducing unhealthy behaviour across situations where self-control resources vary. © 2016 The International Association of Applied Psychology.

  4. Observed and simulated depletion layers with southward IMF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. C. Maynard

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available We present observations from the Polar satellite that confirm the existence of two types of depletion layers predicted under southward interplanetary magnetic field (IMF conditions in magnetohydrodynamic simulations. The first depletion type occurs along the stagnation line when IMF BX and/or dipole tilt are/is present. Magnetic merging occurred away from the equator (Maynard et al., 2003 and flux pile-ups developed while the field lines drape to the high-latitude merging sites. This high-shear type of depletion is consistent with the depletion layer model suggested by Zwan and Wolf (1976 for low-shear northward IMF conditions. Expected sites for depletion layers are associated with places where IMF tubes of force first impinge upon the magnetopause. The second depletion type develops poleward of the cusp. Under strongly driven conditions, magnetic fields from Region 1 current closure over the lobes (Siscoe et al., 2002c cause the high-latitude magnetopause to bulge outward, creating a shoulder above the cusp. These shoulders present the initial obstacle with which the IMF interacts. Flow is impeded, causing local flux pile-ups and low-shear depletion layers to form poleward of the cusps. Merging at the high-shear dayside magnetopause is consequently delayed. In both low- and high-shear cases, we show that the depletion layer structure is part of a slow mode wave standing in front of the magnetopause. As suggested by Southwood and Kivelson (1995, the depletions are rarefactions on the magnetopause side of slow-mode density compressions. While highly sheared magnetic fields are often used as proxies for ongoing local magnetic merging, depletion layers are prohibited at merging locations. Therefore, the existence of a depletion layer is evidence that the location of merging must be remote relative to the observation.

  5. Observed and simulated depletion layers with southward IMF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. C. Maynard

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available We present observations from the Polar satellite that confirm the existence of two types of depletion layers predicted under southward interplanetary magnetic field (IMF conditions in magnetohydrodynamic simulations. The first depletion type occurs along the stagnation line when IMF BX and/or dipole tilt are/is present. Magnetic merging occurred away from the equator (Maynard et al., 2003 and flux pile-ups developed while the field lines drape to the high-latitude merging sites. This high-shear type of depletion is consistent with the depletion layer model suggested by Zwan and Wolf (1976 for low-shear northward IMF conditions. Expected sites for depletion layers are associated with places where IMF tubes of force first impinge upon the magnetopause. The second depletion type develops poleward of the cusp. Under strongly driven conditions, magnetic fields from Region 1 current closure over the lobes (Siscoe et al., 2002c cause the high-latitude magnetopause to bulge outward, creating a shoulder above the cusp. These shoulders present the initial obstacle with which the IMF interacts. Flow is impeded, causing local flux pile-ups and low-shear depletion layers to form poleward of the cusps. Merging at the high-shear dayside magnetopause is consequently delayed. In both low- and high-shear cases, we show that the depletion layer structure is part of a slow mode wave standing in front of the magnetopause. As suggested by Southwood and Kivelson (1995, the depletions are rarefactions on the magnetopause side of slow-mode density compressions. While highly sheared magnetic fields are often used as proxies for ongoing local magnetic merging, depletion layers are prohibited at merging locations. Therefore, the existence of a depletion layer is evidence that the location of merging must be remote relative to the observation.

  6. Depletion-induced biaxial nematic states of boardlike particles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belli, S; Dijkstra, M.; van Roij, R.H.H.G.

    2012-01-01

    With the aim of investigating the stability conditions of biaxial nematic liquid crystals, we study the effect of adding a non-adsorbing ideal depletant on the phase behavior of colloidal hard boardlike particles. We take into account the presence of the depletant by introducing an effective

  7. Effect of greenhouse gas emissions on stratospheric ozone depletion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velders GJM; LLO

    1997-01-01

    The depletion of the ozone layer is caused mainly by the increase in emissions of chlorine- and bromine-containing compounds like CFCs, halons, carbon tetrachloride, methyl chloroform and methyl bromide. Emissions of greenhouse gases can affect the depletion of the ozone layer through atmospheric

  8. Optimizing the Benefits of Conversion of Depleted Oil Reservoirs for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Optimizing the Benefits of Conversion of Depleted Oil Reservoirs for Underground Natural Gas Storage in Nigeria. ... (1) utilization of the abandoned oil wells of known production histories; (2) recovery of substantial quantities of oil that otherwise might not have been recovered; (3) converting partially depleted oil reservoirs ...

  9. Hydrocarbon characterization experiments in fully turbulent fires.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ricks, Allen; Blanchat, Thomas K.

    2007-05-01

    As the capabilities of numerical simulations increase, decision makers are increasingly relying upon simulations rather than experiments to assess risks across a wide variety of accident scenarios including fires. There are still, however, many aspects of fires that are either not well understood or are difficult to treat from first principles due to the computational expense. For a simulation to be truly predictive and to provide decision makers with information which can be reliably used for risk assessment the remaining physical processes must be studied and suitable models developed for the effects of the physics. The model for the fuel evaporation rate in a liquid fuel pool fire is significant because in well-ventilated fires the evaporation rate largely controls the total heat release rate from the fire. A set of experiments are outlined in this report which will provide data for the development and validation of models for the fuel regression rates in liquid hydrocarbon fuel fires. The experiments will be performed on fires in the fully turbulent scale range (> 1 m diameter) and with a number of hydrocarbon fuels ranging from lightly sooting to heavily sooting. The importance of spectral absorption in the liquid fuels and the vapor dome above the pool will be investigated and the total heat flux to the pool surface will be measured. The importance of convection within the liquid fuel will be assessed by restricting large scale liquid motion in some tests. These data sets will provide a sound, experimentally proven basis for assessing how much of the liquid fuel needs to be modeled to enable a predictive simulation of a fuel fire given the couplings between evaporation of fuel from the pool and the heat release from the fire which drives the evaporation.

  10. Analysis and Application of Whey Protein Depleted Skim Milk Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Hanne

    homogenisation (UHPH). The microfiltration will result in a milk fraction more or less depleted from whey protein, and could probably in combination with UHPH treatment contribute to milk fractions and cheeses with novel micro and macrostructures. These novel fractions could be used as new ingredients to improve......-destructive methods for this purpose. A significant changed structure was observed in skim milk depleted or partly depleted for whey protein, acidified and UHPH treated. Some of the properties of the UHPH treated skim milk depleted from whey protein observed in this study support the idea, that UHPH treatment has...... this. LF-NMR relaxation were utilised to obtain information about the water mobility (relaxation time), in diluted skim milk systems depleted from whey protein. Obtained results indicate that measuring relaxation times with LF-NMR could be difficult to utilize, since no clear relationship between...

  11. The Abiotic Depletion Potential: Background, Updates, and Future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauran van Oers

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Depletion of abiotic resources is a much disputed impact category in life cycle assessment (LCA. The reason is that the problem can be defined in different ways. Furthermore, within a specified problem definition, many choices can still be made regarding which parameters to include in the characterization model and which data to use. This article gives an overview of the problem definition and the choices that have been made when defining the abiotic depletion potentials (ADPs for a characterization model for abiotic resource depletion in LCA. Updates of the ADPs since 2002 are also briefly discussed. Finally, some possible new developments of the impact category of abiotic resource depletion are suggested, such as redefining the depletion problem as a dilution problem. This means taking the reserves in the environment and the economy into account in the reserve parameter and using leakage from the economy, instead of extraction rate, as a dilution parameter.

  12. Clinical case of Mitochondrial DNA Depletion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Degtyareva

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article reports clinical case of early neonatal manifestation of a rare genetic disease – mitochondrial DNA depletion syndrome, confirmed in laboratory in Russia. Mutations of FBXL4, which encodes an orphan mitochondrial F-box protein, involved in the maintenance of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA, ultimately leading to disruption of mtDNA replication and decreased activity of mitochondrial respiratory chain complexes. It’s a reason of abnormalities in clinically affected tissues, most of all the muscular system and the brain. In our case hydronephrosis on the right, subependimal cysts of the brain, partial intestinal obstruction accompanied by polyhydramnios were diagnosed antenatal. Baby’s condition at birth was satisfactory and worsened dramatically towards the end of the first day of life. Clinical presentation includes sepsis-like symptom complex, neonatal depression, muscular hypotonia, persistent decompensated lactic acidosis, increase in the concentration of mitochondrial markers in blood plasma and urine, and changes in the basal ganglia of the brain. Imaging of the brain by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI demonstrated global volume loss particularly the subcortical and periventricular white matter with significant abnormal signal in bilateral basal ganglia and brainstem with associated delayed myelination. Differential diagnosis was carried out with hereditary diseases that occur as a «sepsis-like» symptom complex, accompanied by lactic acidosis: a group of metabolic disorders of amino acids, organic acids, β-oxidation defects of fatty acids, respiratory mitochondrial chain disorders and glycogen storage disease. The diagnosis was confirmed after sequencing analysis of 62 mytochondrial genes by NGS (Next Generation Sequencing. Reported disease has an unfavorable prognosis, however, accurate diagnosis is very important for genetic counseling and helps prevent the re-birth of a sick child in the family.

  13. Interstellar Silicon Depletion and the Ultraviolet Extinction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Ajay; Li, Aigen

    2018-01-01

    Spinning small silicate grains were recently invoked to account for the Galactic foreground anomalous microwave emission. These grains, if present, will absorb starlight in the far ultraviolet (UV). There is also renewed interest in attributing the enigmatic 2175 Å interstellar extinction bump to small silicates. To probe the role of silicon in the UV extinction, we explore the relations between the amount of silicon required to be locked up in silicates [Si/H]dust and the 2175 Å bump or the far-UV extinction rise, based on an analysis of the extinction curves along 46 Galactic sightlines for which the gas-phase silicon abundance [Si/H]gas is known. We derive [Si/H]dust either from [Si/H]ISM - [Si/H]gas or from the Kramers- Kronig relation which relates the wavelength-integrated extinction to the total dust volume, where [Si/H]ISM is the interstellar silicon reference abundance and taken to be that of proto-Sun or B stars. We also derive [Si/H]dust from fi�tting the observed extinction curves with a mixture of amorphous silicates and graphitic grains. We fi�nd that in all three cases [Si/H]dust shows no correlation with the 2175 Å bump, while the carbon depletion [C/H]dust tends to correlate with the 2175 Å bump. This supports carbon grains instead of silicates as the possible carrier of the 2175 Å bump. We also �find that neither [Si/H]dust nor [C/H]dust alone correlates with the far-UV extinction, suggesting that the far-UV extinction is a combined effect of small carbon grains and silicates.

  14. Barium Depletion in Hollow Cathode Emitters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polk, James E.; Capece, Angela M.; Mikellides, Ioannis G.; Katz, Ira

    2009-01-01

    The effect of tungsten erosion, transport and redeposition on the operation of dispenser hollow cathodes was investigated in detailed examinations of the discharge cathode inserts from an 8200 hour and a 30,352 hour ion engine wear test. Erosion and subsequent re-deposition of tungsten in the electron emission zone at the downstream end of the insert reduces the porosity of the tungsten matrix, preventing the ow of barium from the interior. This inhibits the interfacial reactions of the barium-calcium-aluminate impregnant with the tungsten in the pores. A numerical model of barium transport in the internal xenon discharge plasma shows that the barium required to reduce the work function in the emission zone can be supplied from upstream through the gas phase. Barium that flows out of the pores of the tungsten insert is rapidly ionized in the xenon discharge and pushed back to the emitter surface by the electric field and drag from the xenon ion flow. This barium ion flux is sufficient to maintain a barium surface coverage at the downstream end greater than 0.6, even if local barium production at that point is inhibited by tungsten deposits. The model also shows that the neutral barium pressure exceeds the equilibrium vapor pressure of the impregnant decomposition reaction over much of the insert length, so the reactions are suppressed. Only a small region upstream of the zone blocked by tungsten deposits is active and supplies the required barium. These results indicate that hollow cathode failure models based on barium depletion rates in vacuum dispenser cathodes are very conservative.

  15. Deuterium depleted water. Romanian achievements and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stefanescu, Ioan; Steflea, Dumitru; Titescu, Gheorghe; Tamaian, Radu

    2002-01-01

    The deuterium depleted water (DDW) is microbiologically pure distilled water with a deuterium content lower than that of natural waters which amounts to 140 - 150 ppm D/(D+H); variations depend on geographical zone and altitude. The procedure of obtaining DDW is based on isotopic separation of natural water by vacuum distillation. Isotope concentration can be chosen within 20 to 120 ppm D/(D+H). The ICSI at Rm. Valcea has patented the procedure and equipment for the production of DDW. According to the document SF-01-2002/INC-DTCI - ICSI Rm. Valcea, the product has a D/(D+H) isotope concentration of 25 ± 5. Studies and research for finding the effects and methods of application in different fields were initiated and developed in collaboration with different institutes in Romania. The following important results obtained so far could be mentioned: - absence of toxicity upon organisms; - activation of vascular reactivity; - enhancement of defence capacity of the organism through non-specific immunity activation; - increase of salmonid reproduction capacity and enhancement of the adaptability of alevins to the environmental conditions; - radioprotective effect to ionizing radiation; - maintaining meat freshness through osmotic shock; - stimulation of growth of aquatic macrophytes; - enhancement of culture plant development in certain ontogenetic stages. Mostly, the results and practical applications of the research were patented and awarded with gold medals at international invention fairs. At present, research-development programmes are undergoing to find active biological features of DDW in fighting cancer, on one hand, and its applicability as food additive of pets or performing animals, on the other hand

  16. Towards a Scalable Fully-Implicit Fully-coupled Resistive MHD Formulation with Stabilized FE Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shadid, J N; Pawlowski, R P; Banks, J W; Chacon, L; Lin, P T; Tuminaro, R S

    2009-06-03

    This paper presents an initial study that is intended to explore the development of a scalable fully-implicit stabilized unstructured finite element (FE) capability for low-Mach-number resistive MHD. The discussion considers the development of the stabilized FE formulation and the underlying fully-coupled preconditioned Newton-Krylov nonlinear iterative solver. To enable robust, scalable and efficient solution of the large-scale sparse linear systems generated by the Newton linearization, fully-coupled algebraic multilevel preconditioners are employed. Verification results demonstrate the expected order-of-acuracy for the stabilized FE discretization of a 2D vector potential form for the steady and transient solution of the resistive MHD system. In addition, this study puts forth a set of challenging prototype problems that include the solution of an MHD Faraday conduction pump, a hydromagnetic Rayleigh-Bernard linear stability calculation, and a magnetic island coalescence problem. Initial results that explore the scaling of the solution methods are presented on up to 4096 processors for problems with up to 64M unknowns on a CrayXT3/4. Additionally, a large-scale proof-of-capability calculation for 1 billion unknowns for the MHD Faraday pump problem on 24,000 cores is presented.

  17. 42 CFR 412.340 - Fully prospective payment methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fully prospective payment methodology. 412.340...-Related Costs § 412.340 Fully prospective payment methodology. A hospital paid under the fully prospective payment methodology receives a payment per discharge based on a proportion of the hospital-specific rate...

  18. ISOGEN: Interactive isotope generation and depletion code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venkata Subbaiah, Kamatam

    2016-01-01

    ISOGEN is an interactive code for solving first order coupled linear differential equations with constant coefficients for a large number of isotopes, which are produced or depleted by the processes of radioactive decay or through neutron transmutation or fission. These coupled equations can be written in a matrix notation involving radioactive decay constants and transmutation coefficients, and the eigenvalues of thus formed matrix vary widely (several tens of orders), and hence no single method of solution is suitable for obtaining precise estimate of concentrations of isotopes. Therefore, different methods of solutions are followed, namely, matrix exponential method, Bateman series method, and Gauss-Seidel iteration method, as was followed in the ORIGEN-2 code. ISOGEN code is written in a modern computer language, VB.NET version 2013 for Windows operating system version 7, which enables one to provide many interactive features between the user and the program. The output results depend on the input neutron database employed and the time step involved in the calculations. The present program can display the information about the database files, and the user has to select one which suits the current need. The program prints the 'WARNING' information if the time step is too large, which is decided based on the built-in convergence criterion. Other salient interactive features provided are (i) inspection of input data that goes into calculation, (ii) viewing of radioactive decay sequence of isotopes (daughters, precursors, photons emitted) in a graphical format, (iii) solution of parent and daughter products by direct Bateman series solution method, (iv) quick input method and context sensitive prompts for guiding the novice user, (v) view of output tables for any parameter of interest, and (vi) output file can be read to generate new information and can be viewed or printed since the program stores basic nuclide concentration unlike other batch jobs. The

  19. Development of the point-depletion code DEPTH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    She, Ding [Department of Engineering Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Wang, Kan, E-mail: wangkan@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn [Department of Engineering Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Yu, Ganglin [Department of Engineering Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2013-05-15

    Highlights: ► The DEPTH code has been developed for the large-scale depletion system. ► DEPTH uses the data library which is convenient to couple with MC codes. ► TTA and matrix exponential methods are implemented and compared. ► DEPTH is able to calculate integral quantities based on the matrix inverse. ► Code-to-code comparisons prove the accuracy and efficiency of DEPTH. -- Abstract: The burnup analysis is an important aspect in reactor physics, which is generally done by coupling of transport calculations and point-depletion calculations. DEPTH is a newly-developed point-depletion code of handling large burnup depletion systems and detailed depletion chains. For better coupling with Monte Carlo transport codes, DEPTH uses data libraries based on the combination of ORIGEN-2 and ORIGEN-S and allows users to assign problem-dependent libraries for each depletion step. DEPTH implements various algorithms of treating the stiff depletion systems, including the Transmutation trajectory analysis (TTA), the Chebyshev Rational Approximation Method (CRAM), the Quadrature-based Rational Approximation Method (QRAM) and the Laguerre Polynomial Approximation Method (LPAM). Three different modes are supported by DEPTH to execute the decay, constant flux and constant power calculations. In addition to obtaining the instantaneous quantities of the radioactivity, decay heats and reaction rates, DEPTH is able to calculate the integral quantities by a time-integrated solver. Through calculations compared with ORIGEN-2, the validity of DEPTH in point-depletion calculations is proved. The accuracy and efficiency of depletion algorithms are also discussed. In addition, an actual pin-cell burnup case is calculated to illustrate the DEPTH code performance in coupling with the RMC Monte Carlo code.

  20. It is chloride depletion alkalosis, not contraction alkalosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luke, Robert G; Galla, John H

    2012-02-01

    Maintenance of metabolic alkalosis generated by chloride depletion is often attributed to volume contraction. In balance and clearance studies in rats and humans, we showed that chloride repletion in the face of persisting alkali loading, volume contraction, and potassium and sodium depletion completely corrects alkalosis by a renal mechanism. Nephron segment studies strongly suggest the corrective response is orchestrated in the collecting duct, which has several transporters integral to acid-base regulation, the most important of which is pendrin, a luminal Cl/HCO(3)(-) exchanger. Chloride depletion alkalosis should replace the notion of contraction alkalosis.

  1. Depletion and Development: Natural Resource Supply with Endogenous Field Opening

    OpenAIRE

    Anthony J. Venables

    2014-01-01

    Supply of a nonrenewable resource adjusts through two margins: the rate at which new fields are opened and the rate of depletion of open fields. The paper combines these margins in a model in which there is a continuum of fields with varying capital costs. Opening a new field involves sinking a capital cost, and the date of opening is chosen to maximize the present value of the field. Depletion of each open field follows a Hotelling rule, modified by the fact that faster depletion reduces the...

  2. Depletion interaction of casein micelles and an exocellular polysaccharide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuinier, R.; Ten Grotenhuis, E.; Holt, C.; Timmins, P. A.; de Kruif, C. G.

    1999-07-01

    Casein micelles become mutually attractive when an exocellular polysaccharide produced by Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris NIZO B40 (hereafter called EPS) is added to skim milk. The attraction can be explained as a depletion interaction between the casein micelles induced by the nonadsorbing EPS. We used three scattering techniques (small-angle neutron scattering, turbidity measurements, and dynamic light scattering) to measure the attraction. In order to connect the theory of depletion interaction with experiment, we calculated structure factors of hard spheres interacting by a depletion pair potential. Theoretical predictions and all the experiments showed that casein micelles became more attractive upon increasing the EPS concentration.

  3. Time-on-task effects in children with and without ADHD: depletion of executive resources or depletion of motivation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekkers, Tycho J; Agelink van Rentergem, Joost A; Koole, Alette; van den Wildenberg, Wery P M; Popma, Arne; Bexkens, Anika; Stoffelsen, Reino; Diekmann, Anouk; Huizenga, Hilde M

    2017-12-01

    Children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are characterized by deficits in their executive functioning and motivation. In addition, these children are characterized by a decline in performance as time-on-task increases (i.e., time-on-task effects). However, it is unknown whether these time-on-task effects should be attributed to deficits in executive functioning or to deficits in motivation. Some studies in typically developing (TD) adults indicated that time-on-task effects should be interpreted as depletion of executive resources, but other studies suggested that they represent depletion of motivation. We, therefore, investigated, in children with and without ADHD, whether there were time-on-task effects on executive functions, such as inhibition and (in)attention, and whether these were best explained by depletion of executive resources or depletion of motivation. The stop-signal task (SST), which generates both indices of inhibition (stop-signal reaction time) and attention (reaction time variability and errors), was administered in 96 children (42 ADHD, 54 TD controls; aged 9-13). To differentiate between depletion of resources and depletion of motivation, the SST was administered twice. Half of the participants was reinforced during second task performance, potentially counteracting depletion of motivation. Multilevel analyses indicated that children with ADHD were more affected by time-on-task than controls on two measures of inattention, but not on inhibition. In the ADHD group, reinforcement only improved performance on one index of attention (i.e., reaction time variability). The current findings suggest that time-on-task effects in children with ADHD occur specifically in the attentional domain, and seem to originate in both depletion of executive resources and depletion of motivation. Clinical implications for diagnostics, psycho-education, and intervention are discussed.

  4. Macrophage Depletion in Hypertensive Rats Accelerates Development of Cardiomyopathy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zandbergen, H.R.; Sharma, U.C.; Gupta, S.; Verjans, J.W.H.; van den Borne, S.; Pokharel, S.; Brakel, T.; Duijvestijn, A.; van Rooijen, N.; Maessen, J.G.; Reutelingsperger, C.P.M.; Pinto, Y.; Narula, J.; Hofstra, L.

    2009-01-01

    Inflammation contributes to the process of ventricular remodeling after acute myocardial injury. To investigate the role of macrophages in the chronic process of cardiac remodeling, they were selectively depleted by intravenous administration of liposomal clodronate in heart failure-prone

  5. AFSC/REFM: Pacific cod Localized Depletion Study

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from Localized Depletion study for Pacific cod 2001-2005. Study was conducted using cod pot gear to measure localized abundance of Pacific cod inside and...

  6. Adding trend data to Depletion-Based Stock Reduction Analysis

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A Bayesian model of Depletion-Based Stock Reduction Analysis (DB-SRA), informed by a time series of abundance indexes, was developed, using the Sampling Importance...

  7. Large-Scale Physical Separation of Depleted Uranium from Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    unweathered depleted uranium rods illustrating the formation of uranyl oxides and salts . Unfired penetrator rods can range from 10 to 50 cm in length...specific area ratio (as thin sections, fine particles, or molten states). Uranium in finely divided form is prone to ignition. Uranium also has an...ER D C/ EL T R -1 2 -2 5 Army Range Technology Program Large-Scale Physical Separation of Depleted Uranium from Soil E nv ir on m en ta l

  8. Metabolite Depletion Affects Flux Profiling of Cell Lines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, A.; Haanstra, J. R.; Teusink, B.

    2018-01-01

    Quantifying the rate of consumption and release of metabolites (i.e., flux profiling) has become integral to the study of cancer. The fluxes as well as the growth of the cells may be affected by metabolite depletion during cultivation.......Quantifying the rate of consumption and release of metabolites (i.e., flux profiling) has become integral to the study of cancer. The fluxes as well as the growth of the cells may be affected by metabolite depletion during cultivation....

  9. Cholinergic depletion and basal forebrain volume in primary progressive aphasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolien Schaeverbeke

    2017-01-01

    In the PPA group, only LV cases showed decreases in AChE activity levels compared to controls. Surprisingly, a substantial number of SV cases showed significant AChE activity increases compared to controls. BF volume did not correlate with AChE activity levels in PPA. To conclude, in our sample of PPA patients, LV but not SV was associated with cholinergic depletion. BF atrophy in PPA does not imply cholinergic depletion.

  10. Retrieval of buried depleted uranium from the T-1 trench

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burmeister, M.; Castaneda, N.; Hull, C.; Barbour, D.; Quapp, W.J.

    1998-01-01

    The Trench 1 remediation project will be conducted this year to retrieve depleted uranium and other associated materials from a trench at Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site. The excavated materials will be segregated and stabilized for shipment. The depleted uranium will be treated at an offsite facility which utilizes a novel approach for waste minimization and disposal through utilization of a combination of uranium recycling and volume efficient uranium stabilization

  11. NKT cell depletion in humans during early HIV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Caroline S; Kelleher, Anthony D; Finlayson, Robert; Godfrey, Dale I; Kent, Stephen J

    2014-08-01

    Natural killer T (NKT) cells bridge across innate and adaptive immune responses and have an important role in chronic viral infections such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). NKT cells are depleted during chronic HIV infection, but the timing, drivers and implications of this NKT cell depletion are poorly understood. We studied human peripheral blood NKT cell levels, phenotype and function in 31 HIV-infected subjects not on antiretroviral treatment from a mean of 4 months to 2 years after HIV infection. We found that peripheral CD4(+) NKT cells were substantially depleted and dysfunctional by 4 months after HIV infection. The depletion of CD4(+) NKT cells was more marked than the depletion of total CD4(+) T cells. Further, the early depletion of NKT cells correlated with CD4(+) T-cell decline, but not HIV viral levels. Levels of activated CD4(+) T cells correlated with the loss of NKT cells. Our studies suggest that the early loss of NKT cells is associated with subsequent immune destruction during HIV infection.

  12. Inositol depletion restores vesicle transport in yeast phospholipid flippase mutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamagami, Kanako; Yamamoto, Takaharu; Sakai, Shota; Mioka, Tetsuo; Sano, Takamitsu; Igarashi, Yasuyuki; Tanaka, Kazuma

    2015-01-01

    In eukaryotic cells, type 4 P-type ATPases function as phospholipid flippases, which translocate phospholipids from the exoplasmic leaflet to the cytoplasmic leaflet of the lipid bilayer. Flippases function in the formation of transport vesicles, but the mechanism remains unknown. Here, we isolate an arrestin-related trafficking adaptor, ART5, as a multicopy suppressor of the growth and endocytic recycling defects of flippase mutants in budding yeast. Consistent with a previous report that Art5p downregulates the inositol transporter Itr1p by endocytosis, we found that flippase mutations were also suppressed by the disruption of ITR1, as well as by depletion of inositol from the culture medium. Interestingly, inositol depletion suppressed the defects in all five flippase mutants. Inositol depletion also partially restored the formation of secretory vesicles in a flippase mutant. Inositol depletion caused changes in lipid composition, including a decrease in phosphatidylinositol and an increase in phosphatidylserine. A reduction in phosphatidylinositol levels caused by partially depleting the phosphatidylinositol synthase Pis1p also suppressed a flippase mutation. These results suggest that inositol depletion changes the lipid composition of the endosomal/TGN membranes, which results in vesicle formation from these membranes in the absence of flippases.

  13. In situ depletion of CD4(+) T cells in human skin by Zanolimumab

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villadsen, L.S.; Skov, L.; Dam, T.N.

    2007-01-01

    CD4(+) T cells, in activated or malignant form, are involved in a number of diseases including inflammatory skin diseases such as psoriasis, and T cell lymphomas such as the majority of cutaneous T cell lymphomas (CTCL). Targeting CD4 with an antibody that inhibits and/or eliminates disease......-driving T cells in situ may therefore be a useful approach in the treatment of inflammatory and malignant skin diseases. Depletion of CD4(+) T cells in intact inflamed human skin tissue by Zanolimumab, a fully human therapeutic monoclonal antibody (IgG1, kappa) against CD4, was studied in a human psoriasis...... xenograft mouse model. Zanolimumab treatment was shown to induce a significant reduction in the numbers of inflammatory mononuclear cells in upper dermis. This reduction in inflammatory mononuclear cells in situ was primarily due to a significant reduction in the numbers of skin-infiltrating CD4...

  14. Halogens and their role in polar boundary-layer ozone depletion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. R. Simpson

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available During springtime in the polar regions, unique photochemistry converts inert halide salt ions (e.g. Br into reactive halogen species (e.g. Br atoms and BrO that deplete ozone in the boundary layer to near zero levels. Since their discovery in the late 1980s, research on ozone depletion events (ODEs has made great advances; however many key processes remain poorly understood. In this article we review the history, chemistry, dependence on environmental conditions, and impacts of ODEs. This research has shown the central role of bromine photochemistry, but how salts are transported from the ocean and are oxidized to become reactive halogen species in the air is still not fully understood. Halogens other than bromine (chlorine and iodine are also activated through incompletely understood mechanisms that are probably coupled to bromine chemistry. The main consequence of halogen activation is chemical destruction of ozone, which removes the primary precursor of atmospheric oxidation, and generation of reactive halogen atoms/oxides that become the primary oxidizing species. The different reactivity of halogens as compared to OH and ozone has broad impacts on atmospheric chemistry, including near complete removal and deposition of mercury, alteration of oxidation fates for organic gases, and export of bromine into the free troposphere. Recent changes in the climate of the Arctic and state of the Arctic sea ice cover are likely to have strong effects on halogen activation and ODEs; however, more research is needed to make meaningful predictions of these changes.

  15. Depletion of tumor associated macrophages slows the growth of chemically-induced mouse lung adenocarcinomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason M. Fritz

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Chronic inflammation is a risk factor for lung cancer, and low dose aspirin intake reduces lung cancer risk. However, the roles that specific inflammatory cells and their products play in lung carcinogenesis have yet to be fully elucidated. In mice, alveolar macrophage numbers increase as lung tumors progress, and pulmonary macrophage programming changes within 2 weeks of carcinogen exposure. To examine how macrophages specifically affect lung tumor progression, they were depleted in mice bearing urethane-induced lung tumors using clodronate-encapsulated liposomes. Alveolar macrophage populations decreased to ≤ 50% of control levels after 4-6 weeks of liposomal clodronate treatment. Tumor burden decreased by 50% compared to vehicle treated mice, and tumor cell proliferation, as measured by Ki67 staining, was also attenuated. Pulmonary fluid levels of IGF-I, CXCL1, IL-6 and CCL2 diminished with clodronate liposome treatment. Tumor associated macrophages expressed markers of both M1 and M2 programming in vehicle and clodronate liposome treated mice. Mice lacking CCR2 (the receptor for macrophage chemotactic factor CCL2 had comparable numbers of alveolar macrophages and showed no difference in tumor growth rates when compared to similarly treated wild-type mice suggesting that while CCL2 may recruit macrophages to lung tumor microenvironments, redundant pathways can compensate when CCL2/CCR2 signaling is inactivated. Depletion of pulmonary macrophages rather than inhibition of their recruitment may be an advantageous strategy for attenuating lung cancer progression.

  16. Simulation of the depletion voltage evolution of the ATLAS Pixel Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Beyer, Julien-christopher; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The ATLAS Pixel detector has been operating since 2010 and consists of hybrid pixel modules where the sensitive elements are planar n-in-n sensors. In order to investigate and predict the evolution of the depletion voltage and of the leakage current in the different layers, a fully analytical implementation of the Hamburg model was derived. The parameters of the model, describing the dependence of the depletion voltage (U_depl) on fluence, temperature and time were tuned with a fit to the available measurements of Udepl in the last years of operation. A particular emphasis is put on the B-Layer, where the highest fluence has been accumulated up to now. A precise input of temperature and radiation dose is generated from the on-module temperature monitoring and the luminosity data. The analysis is then also extended to the Insertable B-Layer (IBL), installed at the end of Run-1, where we expect the fastest evolution of the radiation damage with luminosity, due to its closer position to the interaction point. Di...

  17. Ego depletion decreases trust in economic decision making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ainsworth, Sarah E.; Baumeister, Roy F.; Vohs, Kathleen D.; Ariely, Dan

    2014-01-01

    Three experiments tested the effects of ego depletion on economic decision making. Participants completed a task either requiring self-control or not. Then participants learned about the trust game, in which senders are given an initial allocation of $10 to split between themselves and another person, the receiver. The receiver receives triple the amount given and can send any, all, or none of the tripled money back to the sender. Participants were assigned the role of the sender and decided how to split the initial allocation. Giving less money, and therefore not trusting the receiver, is the safe, less risky response. Participants who had exerted self-control and were depleted gave the receiver less money than those in the non-depletion condition (Experiment 1). This effect was replicated and moderated in two additional experiments. Depletion again led to lower amounts given (less trust), but primarily among participants who were told they would never meet the receiver (Experiment 2) or who were given no information about how similar they were to the receiver (Experiment 3). Amounts given did not differ for depleted and non-depleted participants who either expected to meet the receiver (Experiment 2) or were led to believe that they were very similar to the receiver (Experiment 3). Decreased trust among depleted participants was strongest among neurotics. These results imply that self-control facilitates behavioral trust, especially when no other cues signal decreased social risk in trusting, such as if an actual or possible relationship with the receiver were suggested. PMID:25013237

  18. Global storm time depletion of the outer electron belt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ukhorskiy, A Y; Sitnov, M I; Millan, R M; Kress, B T; Fennell, J F; Claudepierre, S G; Barnes, R J

    2015-04-01

    The outer radiation belt consists of relativistic (>0.5 MeV) electrons trapped on closed trajectories around Earth where the magnetic field is nearly dipolar. During increased geomagnetic activity, electron intensities in the belt can vary by orders of magnitude at different spatial and temporal scales. The main phase of geomagnetic storms often produces deep depletions of electron intensities over broad regions of the outer belt. Previous studies identified three possible processes that can contribute to the main-phase depletions: adiabatic inflation of electron drift orbits caused by the ring current growth, electron loss into the atmosphere, and electron escape through the magnetopause boundary. In this paper we investigate the relative importance of the adiabatic effect and magnetopause loss to the rapid depletion of the outer belt observed at the Van Allen Probes spacecraft during the main phase of 17 March 2013 storm. The intensities of >1 MeV electrons were depleted by more than an order of magnitude over the entire radial extent of the belt in less than 6 h after the sudden storm commencement. For the analysis we used three-dimensional test particle simulations of global evolution of the outer belt in the Tsyganenko-Sitnov (TS07D) magnetic field model with an inductive electric field. Comparison of the simulation results with electron measurements from the Magnetic Electron Ion Spectrometer experiment shows that magnetopause loss accounts for most of the observed depletion at L >5, while at lower L shells the depletion is adiabatic. Both magnetopause loss and the adiabatic effect are controlled by the change in global configuration of the magnetic field due to storm time development of the ring current; a simulation of electron evolution without a ring current produces a much weaker depletion.

  19. Design of a statically balanced fully compliant grasper

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lamers, A.J.; Gallego Sanchez, J.A.; Herder, Justus Laurens

    2015-01-01

    Monolithic and thus fully compliant surgical graspers are promising when they provide equal or better force feedback than conventional graspers. In this work for the first time a fully compliant grasper is designed to exhibit zero stiffness and zero operation force. The design problem is addressed

  20. Depletion of the Complex Multiple Aquifer System of Jordan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rödiger, T.; Siebert, C.; Geyer, S.; Merz, R.

    2017-12-01

    In many countries worldwide water scarcity pose a significant risk to the environment and the socio-economy. Particularly in countries where the available water resources are strongly limited by climatic conditions an accurate determination of the available water resources is of high priority, especially when water supply predominantly rely oon groundwater resources and their recharge. If groundwater abstraction exceeds the natural groundwater recharge in heavily used well field areas, overexploitation or persistent groundwater depletion occurs. This is the case in the Kingdom of Jordan, where a multi-layer aquifer complex forms the eastern subsurface catchment of the Dead Sea basin. Since the begin of the industrial and agricultural development of the country, dramatically falling groundwater levels, the disappearance of springs and saltwater intrusions from deeper aquifers is documented nation-wide. The total water budget is influenced by (i) a high climatic gradient from hyperarid to semiarid and (ii) the intnese anthropogenic abstraction. For this multi-layered aquifer system we developed a methodology to evaluate groundwater depletion by linking a hydrological and a numerical flow model including estimates of groundwater abstraction. Hence, we define groundwater depletion as the rate of groundwater abstraction in excess of natural recharge rate. Restricting our analysis, we calculated a range of groundwater depletion from 0% in the eastern Hamad basin to around 40% in the central part of Jordan and to extreme values of 100% of depletion in the Azraq and Disi basin.

  1. Examining depletion theories under conditions of within-task transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Gene A; Lau, Kevin K H; Wingert, Kimberly M; Ball, B Hunter; Blais, Chris

    2017-07-01

    In everyday life, mental fatigue can be detrimental across many domains including driving, learning, and working. Given the importance of understanding and accounting for the deleterious effects of mental fatigue on behavior, a growing body of literature has studied the role of motivational and executive control processes in mental fatigue. In typical laboratory paradigms, participants complete a task that places demand on these self-control processes and are later given a subsequent task. Generally speaking, decrements to subsequent task performance are taken as evidence that the initial task created mental fatigue through the continued engagement of motivational and executive functions. Several models have been developed to account for negative transfer resulting from this "ego depletion." In the current study, we provide a brief literature review, specify current theoretical approaches to ego-depletion, and report an empirical test of current models of depletion. Across 4 experiments we found minimal evidence for executive control depletion along with strong evidence for motivation mediated ego depletion. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. OZONE DEPLETING SUBSTANCES ELIMINATION MANAGEMENT: THE SUCCESS STORY OF MACEDONIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita Matlievska

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Man, with its activities, produces and uses substances that have negative impact on the environment and the human health, and can cause an economic damage. Consequently, they have a great impact on quality of life. Among the most harmful chemicals are Ozone Depleting Substances that are subject of regulation with international conventions. This Paper supports the fact that each country has to undertake national efforts for ozone depleting substances reduction and elimination. In that respect, the general objective of the Paper is to present the Macedonian unique experience regarding its efforts to reduce or eliminate these substances. The following two aspects were subject to the research: national legislation which regulates the Ozone Depleting Substances import and export as well as the implementation of the projects that resulted with the elimination of Ozone Depleting Substances quantities in the period 1995 – 2010. The research outcomes confirm the starting research hypothesis i.e. that with adequately created and implemented national action, the amount of Ozone Depleting Substances consumption can dramatically fall.

  3. The Physical Origin of Long Gas Depletion Times in Galaxies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Semenov, Vadim A.; Kravtsov, Andrey V.; Gnedin, Nickolay Y.

    2017-08-18

    We present a model that elucidates why gas depletion times in galaxies are long compared to the time scales of the processes driving the evolution of the interstellar medium. We show that global depletion times are not set by any "bottleneck" in the process of gas evolution towards the star-forming state. Instead, depletion times are long because star-forming gas converts only a small fraction of its mass into stars before it is dispersed by dynamical and feedback processes. Thus, complete depletion requires that gas transitions between star-forming and non-star-forming states multiple times. Our model does not rely on the assumption of equilibrium and can be used to interpret trends of depletion times with the properties of observed galaxies and the parameters of star formation and feedback recipes in galaxy simulations. In particular, the model explains the mechanism by which feedback self-regulates star formation rate in simulations and makes it insensitive to the local star formation efficiency. We illustrate our model using the results of an isolated $L_*$-sized disk galaxy simulation that reproduces the observed Kennicutt-Schmidt relation for both molecular and atomic gas. Interestingly, the relation for molecular gas is close to linear on kiloparsec scales, even though a non-linear relation is adopted in simulation cells. This difference is due to stellar feedback, which breaks the self-similar scaling of the gas density PDF with the average gas surface density.

  4. Compressible ferrimagnetism in the depleted periodic Anderson model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, N. C.; Araújo, M. V.; Lima, J. P.; Paiva, T.; dos Santos, R. R.; Scalettar, R. T.

    2018-02-01

    Tight-binding Hamiltonians with single and multiple orbitals exhibit an intriguing array of magnetic phase transitions. In most cases the spin ordered phases are insulating, while the disordered phases may be either metallic or insulating. In this paper we report a determinant quantum Monte Carlo study of interacting electrons in a geometry which can be regarded as a two-dimensional periodic Anderson model with depleted interacting (f ) orbitals. For a single depletion, we observe an enhancement of antiferromagnetic correlations and formation of localized states. For half of the f orbitals regularly depleted, the system exhibits a ferrimagnetic ground state. We obtain a quantitative determination of the nature of magnetic order, which we discuss in the context of Tsunetsugu's theorem, and show that, although the dc conductivity indicates insulating behavior at half filling, the compressibility remains finite.

  5. Tuning of depletion interaction in nanoparticle-surfactant systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ray, D.; Aswal, V. K.

    2014-01-01

    The interaction of anionic silica nanoparticles (Ludox LS30) and non-ionic surfactants decaethylene glycol monododecylether (C12E10) without and with anionic sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) in aqueous electrolyte solution has been studied by small-angle neutron scattering (SANS). The measurements have been carried out for fixed concentrations of nanoparticle (1 wt%), surfactants (1 wt%) and electrolyte (0.1 M NaCl). Each of these nanoparticlesurfactant systems has been examined for different contrast conditions where individual components (nanoparticle or surfactant) are made visible. It is observed that the nanoparticle-C12E10 system leads to the depletion-induced aggregation of nanoparticles. The system however behaves very differently on addition of SDS where depletion interaction gets suppressed and aggregation of nanoparticles can be prevented. We show that C12E10 and SDS form mixed micelles and the charge on these micelles plays important role in tuning the depletion interaction

  6. Tuning of depletion interaction in nanoparticle-surfactant systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ray, D., E-mail: debes@barc.gov.in; Aswal, V. K., E-mail: debes@barc.gov.in [Solid State Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai-400085 (India)

    2014-04-24

    The interaction of anionic silica nanoparticles (Ludox LS30) and non-ionic surfactants decaethylene glycol monododecylether (C12E10) without and with anionic sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) in aqueous electrolyte solution has been studied by small-angle neutron scattering (SANS). The measurements have been carried out for fixed concentrations of nanoparticle (1 wt%), surfactants (1 wt%) and electrolyte (0.1 M NaCl). Each of these nanoparticlesurfactant systems has been examined for different contrast conditions where individual components (nanoparticle or surfactant) are made visible. It is observed that the nanoparticle-C12E10 system leads to the depletion-induced aggregation of nanoparticles. The system however behaves very differently on addition of SDS where depletion interaction gets suppressed and aggregation of nanoparticles can be prevented. We show that C12E10 and SDS form mixed micelles and the charge on these micelles plays important role in tuning the depletion interaction.

  7. Tuning of depletion interaction in nanoparticle-surfactant systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, D.; Aswal, V. K.

    2014-04-01

    The interaction of anionic silica nanoparticles (Ludox LS30) and non-ionic surfactants decaethylene glycol monododecylether (C12E10) without and with anionic sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) in aqueous electrolyte solution has been studied by small-angle neutron scattering (SANS). The measurements have been carried out for fixed concentrations of nanoparticle (1 wt%), surfactants (1 wt%) and electrolyte (0.1 M NaCl). Each of these nanoparticlesurfactant systems has been examined for different contrast conditions where individual components (nanoparticle or surfactant) are made visible. It is observed that the nanoparticle-C12E10 system leads to the depletion-induced aggregation of nanoparticles. The system however behaves very differently on addition of SDS where depletion interaction gets suppressed and aggregation of nanoparticles can be prevented. We show that C12E10 and SDS form mixed micelles and the charge on these micelles plays important role in tuning the depletion interaction.

  8. International aspects of restrictions of ozone-depleting substances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDonald, S.C.

    1989-10-01

    This report summarizes international efforts to protect stratospheric ozone. Also included in this report is a discussion of activities in other countries to meet restrictions in the production and use of ozone-depleting substances. Finally, there is a brief presentation of trade and international competitiveness issues relating to the transition to alternatives for the regulated chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and halons. The stratosphere knows no international borders. Just as the impact of reduced stratospheric ozone will be felt internationally, so protection of the ozone layer is properly an international effort. Unilateral action, even by a country that produces and used large quantities of ozone-depleting substances, will not remedy the problem of ozone depletion if other countries do not follow suit. 32 refs., 7 tabs.

  9. Depletion of energy or depletion of knowledge alternative use of energy resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arslan, M.

    2011-01-01

    This research paper is about the depletion of Energy resources being a huge problem facing the world at this time. As available energy sources are coming to a shortage and measures are be taken in order to conserve the irreplaceable energy resources that leads to sustainability and fair use of energy sources for future generations. Alternative energy sources are being sought; however no other energy source is able to provide even a fraction of energy as that of fossil fuels. Use of the alternative energy resources like wind corridors (Sindh and Baluchistan), fair use of Hydro energy (past monsoon flooding can produce enough energy that may available for next century). Uranium Resources which are enough for centuries energy production in Pakistan (Dhok Pathan Formation) lying in Siwalick series from Pliocene to Pleistocene. Among all of these, my focus is about energy from mineral fuels like Uranium from Sandstone hosted deposits in Pakistan (Siwalik Series in Pakistan). A number of uranium bearing mineralized horizons are present in the upper part of the Dhok Pathan Formation. These horizons have secondary uranium mineral carnotite and other ores. Uranium mineralization is widely distributed throughout the Siwaliks The purpose of this paper was to introduce the use of alternative energy sources in Pakistan which are present in enough amounts by nature. Pakistan is blessed with wealth of natural resources. Unfortunately, Pakistan is totally depending on non renewable energy resource. There are three main types of fossil fuels: coal, oil and natural gas. After food, fossil fuel is humanity's most important source of energy. Pakistan is among the most gas dependent economies of the world. Use of fossil fuel for energy will not only increase the demand of more fossils but it has also extreme effects on climate as well as direct and indirect effects to humans. These entire remedial thinking can only be possible if you try to use alternative energy resources rather than

  10. The manufacturing of depleted uranium biological shield components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metelkin, J.A.

    1998-01-01

    The unique combination of the physical and mechanical properties of uranium made it possible to manufacture biological shield components of transport package container (TPC) for transportation nuclear power plant irradiated fuel and radionuclides of radiation diagnostic instruments. Protective properties are substantially dependent on the nature radionuclide composition of uranium, that why I recommended depleted uranium after radiation chemical processing. Depleted uranium biological shield (DUBS) has improved specific mass-size characteristics compared to a shield made of lead, steel or tungsten. Technological achievements in uranium casting and machining made it possible to manufacture DUBS components of TPC up to 3 tons of mass and up to 2 metres of the maximum size. (authors)

  11. Risks associated to the depleted uranium in the piercing shells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    Following the complaints lodged by military personnel against the consequences of the utilization of depleted uranium in weapons during the Balkans war (1995-1999), the governments of six concerned countries asked information to the NATO. In this paper the IPSN gives its own opinion on this problem: the characteristics of the uranium and the depleted uranium, the impacts of the shell fires on the human and the environment. To establish the risks in terms of leukemia and the liabilities the IPSN advises more biological tests and more information on the shells utilization. (A.L.B.)

  12. Towards a complete propagation uncertainties in depletion calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, J.S. [Universidad Politecnica de Madrid (Spain). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering; Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit mbH (GRS), Garching (Germany); Zwermann, W.; Gallner, L.; Puente-Espel, Federico; Velkov, K.; Hannstein, V. [Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit mbH (GRS), Garching (Germany); Cabellos, O. [Universidad Politecnica de Madrid (Spain). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering

    2013-07-01

    Propagation of nuclear data uncertainties to calculated values is interesting for design purposes and libraries evaluation. XSUSA, developed at GRS, propagates cross section uncertainties to nuclear calculations. In depletion simulations, fission yields and decay data are also involved and are a possible source of uncertainty that should be taken into account. We have developed tools to generate varied fission yields and decay libraries and to propagate uncertainties through depletion in order to complete the XSUSA uncertainty assessment capabilities. A generic test to probe the methodology is defined and discussed. (orig.)

  13. Summer time Fe depletion in the Antarctic mesopause region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viehl, T. P.; Höffner, J.; Lübken, F.-J.; Plane, J. M. C.; Kaifler, B.; Morris, R. J.

    2015-05-01

    We report common volume measurements of Fe densities, temperatures and ice particle occurrence in the mesopause region at Davis Station, Antarctica (69°S) in the years 2011-2012. Our observations show a strong correlation of the Fe-layer summer time depletion with temperature, but no clear causal relation with the onset or occurrence of ice particles measured as noctilucent clouds (NLC) or polar mesosphere summer echoes (PMSE). The combination of these measurements indicates that the strong summer depletion can be explained by gas-phase chemistry alone and does not require heterogeneous removal of Fe and its compounds on ice particles.

  14. The depletion of aqueous nitrous acid in packed towers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Counce, R.M.; Crawford, D.B.

    1987-01-01

    The depletion of aqueous nitrous acid was studied at 298 0 K and at slightly greater than atmospheric pressure. Solutions containing nitrous and nitric acids were contacted with nitrogen in towers packed with 6- and 13-mm Intalox saddles. The results indicate the existence of two depletion mechanisms for the conditions studied - liquid-phase decomposition and direct desorption of nitrous acid. Models based on mass-transfer and chemical-kinetic information are presented to explain the experimental results. 24 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs

  15. Depletion of abiotic resources in the steel production in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Burchart-Korol

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Steelmaking processes consume a lot of energy and materials, therefore researchers are constantly looking for new ways of reducing the consumption of resources in the production processes. The main purpose of the article is to present abiotic resource depletion the in steel production in the case of integrated steelmaking route in Poland and its role in life cycle assessment. There are different methods of life cycle assessment for abiotic resources, the use of which affects the quality of the obtained information. The article presents some results of life cycle assessment of abiotic depletion.

  16. Growth hormone response to catecholamine depletion in unmedicated, remitted subjects with major depressive disorder and healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homan, Philipp; Drevets, Wayne C; Hasler, Gregor

    2013-10-01

    We investigated whether the human growth hormone (HGH) response to catecholamine depletion differs between fully remitted patients with major depressive disorder and healthy control subjects. Fourteen unmedicated subjects with remitted major depressive disorder (RMDD) and 11 healthy control subjects underwent catecholamine depletion with oral α-methylparatyrosine (AMPT) in a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind crossover study. The main outcome measure was the serum level of HGH. The diagnosis × drug interaction for HGH serum concentration was significant (F₁,₂₃ = 7.66, P depressive symptoms as measured by the BDI (r = -0.53, P = 0.05). Following catecholamine depletion, the RMDD subjects were differentiated from control subjects by their HGH responses. This finding, together with the negative correlation between HGH response and AMPT-induced anxiety symptoms in RMDD subjects, suggests that AMPT administration results in a deeper nadir in central catecholaminergic transmission, as reflected by a greater disinhibition of HGH secretion, in RMDD subjects versus control subjects.

  17. Age shall not weary us: deleterious effects of self-regulation depletion are specific to younger adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theresa Dahm

    Full Text Available Self-regulation depletion (SRD, or ego-depletion, refers to decrements in self-regulation performance immediately following a different self-regulation-demanding activity. There are now over a hundred studies reporting SRD across a broad range of tasks and conditions. However, most studies have used young student samples. Because prefrontal brain regions thought to subserve self-regulation do not fully mature until 25 years of age, it is possible that SRD effects are confined to younger populations and are attenuated or disappear in older samples. We investigated this using the Stroop color task as an SRD induction and an autobiographical memory task as the outcome measure. We found that younger participants (<25 years were susceptible to depletion effects, but found no support for such effects in an older group (40-65 years. This suggests that the widely-reported phenomenon of SRD has important developmental boundary conditions casting doubt on claims that it represents a general feature of human cognition.

  18. School Starts Soon - Is Your Child Fully Vaccinated?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Past Emails School Starts Soon—Is Your Child Fully Vaccinated? Language: ... on their vaccines before sending them back to school. School-age children – from preschoolers to college students – ...

  19. A Fully Automated Mesh Generation Tool, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This SBIR Phase I project proposes to develop a fully automated mesh generation tool which contains two parts: surface mesh generation from the imported Computer...

  20. RSW Fully Tet Cell-Centered Fine Mesh

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This is the RSW dataset for a fine fully tetrahedral grid designed for a cell-centered unstructured solver. UG3 : Grid File Name = rsw_fine_tetcc.b8.ugrid UG3 : Quad...

  1. RSW Fully Tet Medium Cell-Centered Mesh

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This is the RSW Fully tetrahedral medium cell-centered unstructured grid with a viscous wall. UG3 : Grid File Name = rsw_med_tetcc.b8.ugrid UG3 : Quad Surface Faces=...

  2. Fully deuterated microorganisms: Tools in magnetic resonance and neutron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crespi, H.L.

    1988-01-01

    Current work at Argonne emphasizes the use of fully deuterated algae and cyanobacteria as tools in the study of photosynthesis and as a source of complex substrates for the culture of engineered overproducing bacteria. 17 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  3. Fully deuterated microorganisms: Tools in magnetic resonance and neutron scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crespi, H.L.

    1988-01-01

    Current work at Argonne emphasizes the use of fully deuterated algae and cyanobacteria as tools in the study of photosynthesis and as a source of complex substrates for the culture of engineered overproducing bacteria. 17 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  4. Fully differential cross sections for heavy particle impact ionization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGovern, M; Walters, H R J [Department of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics, Queen' s University, Belfast BT7 1NN (United Kingdom); Assafrao, D; Mohallem, J R [Laboratorio de Atomos e Moleculas Especiais, Departamento de Fisica, ICEx, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, P.O Box 702, 30123-970 Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Whelan, Colm T, E-mail: mmcgovern06@qub.ac.u [Department of Physics, Old Dominion University, Norfolk, VA 23529-0116 (United States)

    2009-11-15

    We describe a procedure for extracting fully differential ionization cross sections from an impact parameter coupled pseudostate treatment of the collision. Some examples from antiproton impact ionization of atomic Hydrogen are given.

  5. Measles: Make Sure Your Child Is Fully Immunized

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Past Emails Measles: Make Sure Your Child is Fully Immunized Language: ... also become infected if they are not protected. Measles in the U.S. From January 2 to March ...

  6. Fully-distributed randomized cooperation in wireless sensor networks

    KAUST Repository

    Bader, Ahmed

    2015-01-07

    When marrying randomized distributed space-time coding (RDSTC) to geographical routing, new performance horizons can be created. In order to reach those horizons however, routing protocols must evolve to operate in a fully distributed fashion. In this letter, we expose a technique to construct a fully distributed geographical routing scheme in conjunction with RDSTC. We then demonstrate the performance gains of this novel scheme by comparing it to one of the prominent classical schemes.

  7. Combining Semi-Endogenous and Fully Endogenous Growth: a Generalization.

    OpenAIRE

    Cozzi, Guido

    2017-01-01

    This paper shows that combining the semi-endogenous and the fully endogenous growth mechanisms with a general CES aggregator, either growth process can prevail in the balanced growth path depending on their degree of complementarity/substitutability. Policy-induced long-run economic switches to the fully endogenous steady state as the R&D employment ratio surpasses a positive threshold are possible if the two growth engines are gross substitutes.

  8. Is R2P a Fully-Fledged International Norm?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Ralph

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This commentary examines whether R2P is a fully-fledged norm. As a normative aspiration R2P is almost universally accepted. However as a standard of behaviour that states implement as a matter of course R2P is far from fully-fledged. By examining state responses to refugee crises in Syria it is argued that powerful states are failing in their special responsibility to protect.

  9. A Fully Symmetric and Completely Decoupled MEMS-SOI Gyroscope

    OpenAIRE

    Abdelhameed SHARAF; Sherif SEDKY; Mohamed SERRY; Amro ELSHURAFA; Mahmoud ASHOUR; S. E.-D. HABIB

    2011-01-01

    This paper introduces a novel MEMS gyroscope that is capable of exciting the drive mode differentially. The structure also decouples the drive and sense modes via an intermediate mass and decoupling beams. Both drive and sense modes are fully differential enabling control over the zero-rate-output for the former and maximizing output sensitivity using a bridge circuit for the latter. Further, the structure is fully symmetric about the x- and y- axes which results in minimizing the temperature...

  10. Avoidance goal pursuit depletes self-regulatory resources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oertig, Daniela; Schüler, Julia; Schnelle, Jessica; Brandstätter, Veronika; Roskes, Marieke; Elliot, Andrew J.

    Objective: Research on the strength model of self-regulation is burgeoning, but little empirical work has focused on the link between distinct types of daily goal pursuit and the depletion of self-regulatory resources. The authors conducted two studies on the link between avoidance goals and

  11. Avoidance goal pursuit depletes self-regulatory resources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oertig, D.; Schüler, J.; Schnelle, J.; Brandstätter, V.; Roskes, M.; Elliot, A.J.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Research on the strength model of self-regulation is burgeoning, but little empirical work has focused on the link between distinct types of daily goal pursuit and the depletion of self-regulatory resources. Here we conducted two studies on the link between avoidance goals and resource

  12. Rapid fish stock depletion in previously unexploited seamounts: the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rapid fish stock depletion in previously unexploited seamounts: the case of Beryx splendens from the Sierra Leone Rise (Gulf of Guinea) ... A spectral analysis and red-noise spectra procedure (REDFIT) algorithm was used to identify the red-noise spectrum from the gaps in the observed time-series of catch per unit effort by ...

  13. Depletion of heterogeneous source species pools predicts future invasion rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew M. Liebhold; Eckehard G. Brockerhoff; Mark Kimberley; Jacqueline Beggs

    2017-01-01

    Predicting how increasing rates of global trade will result in new establishments of potentially damaging invasive species is a question of critical importance to the development of national and international policies aimed at minimizing future invasions. Centuries of historical movement and establishment of invading species may have depleted the supply of species...

  14. Depletion analysis of the UMLRR reactor core using MCNP6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odera, Dim Udochukwu

    Accurate knowledge of the neutron flux and temporal nuclide inventory in reactor physics calculations is necessary for a variety of application in nuclear engineering such as criticality safety, safeguards, and spent fuel storage. The Monte Carlo N- Particle (MCNP6) code with integrated buildup depletion code (CINDER90) provides a high-fidelity tool that can be used to perform 3D, full core simulation to evaluate fissile material utilization, and nuclide inventory calculations as a function of burnup. The University of Massachusetts Lowell Research Reactor (UMLRR) reactor has been modeled with the deterministic based code, VENTURE and with an older version of MCNP (MCNP5). The MIT developed MCODE (MCNP ORIGEN DEPLETION CODE) was used previously to perform some limited depletion calculations. This work chronicles the use of MCNP6, released in June 2013, to perform coupled neutronics and depletion calculation. The results are compared to previously benchmarked results. Furthermore, the code is used to determine the ratio of fission products 134Cs and 137Cs (burnup indicators), and the resultant ratio is compared to the burnup of the UMLRR.

  15. Depleted Uranium | RadTown USA | US EPA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-12

    Depleted uranium is the material left after most of the highly radioactive uranium-235 is removed from uranium ore for nuclear power and weapons. DU is used for tank armor, armor-piercing bullets and as weights to help balance aircraft. DU is both a toxic chemical and radiation health hazard when inside the body.

  16. Range and Battery Depletion Concerns with Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomio Miwa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the effects of the range of a battery electric vehicle (EV by using questionnaire data. The concern about battery depletion changes according to charging station deployment. Firstly, the methodology for deriving the probabilistic distribution of the daily travel distance is developed, which enables us to analyze people’s tolerance of the risk of battery depletion. Secondly, the desired range of an EV is modeled. This model considers the effect of changing charging station deployment and can analyze the variation in the desired range. Then, the intention of a household to purchase an EV is analyzed by incorporating range-related variables. The results show that people can live with a risk of battery depletion of around 2% to 5%. The deployment of charging stations at large retail facilities and/or workplace parking spaces reduces the desired range of an EV. Finally, the answers to the questionnaire show that the probability of battery depletion on a driving day has little effect on the intention to purchase an EV. Instead, people tend to evaluate the range by itself or directly compare it with their desired range.

  17. Hyperoxia and glutathione depletion in the isolated perfused rat liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shattuck, K E; Grinnell, C D; Keeney, S E; Noworyta, K; Rassin, D K

    1997-12-01

    Hepatic stores of glutathione may be depleted by hyperoxic exposure or poor nutritional status. We studied the effects of hyperoxia or hepatic glutathione depletion on bile flow rates, and on biliary concentrations of glutathione and amino acids. Glutathione depletion was induced in vivo by 1) hyperoxic exposure (O2) for 48 hours, 2) inhibition of glutathione synthesis by treatment with buthionine sulfoximine (BSO), 3) a combination of BSO + O2, or 4) inhibition of cysteine synthesis by propargyglycine (PPG). Livers were then isolated and perfused. Glutathione concentrations in bile, liver, and perfusate were significantly decreased by all treatments. Bile flow was significantly decreased in groups treated with BSO or O2 + BSO, and perfusate LDH was increased by O2 + BSO or PPG. Significant changes in biliary amino acid concentrations included decreased sulfur-containing amino acids and increased branched-chain amino acids in groups treated with BSO, PPG, or O2; and increased essential amino acids in groups treated with O2 or PPG. Oxygen exposure or inhibition of glutathione synthesis results in significant decreases in hepatic, perfusate and biliary glutathione concentrations, and increases in biliary amino acids. A decrease in bile flow rate was associated only with the most severe glutathione depletion.

  18. Efficient characterization of fuel depletion in boiling water reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, S.H.

    1980-01-01

    An efficient fuel depletion method for boiling water reactor (BWR) fuel assemblies has been developed for fuel cycle analysis. A computer program HISTORY based on this method was designed to carry out accurate and rapid fuel burnup calculation for the fuel assembly. It has been usefully employed to study the depletion characteristics of the fuel assemblies for the preparation of nodal code input data and the fuel management study. The adequacy and the effectiveness of the assessment of this method used in HISTORY were demonstrated by comparing HISTORY results with more detailed CASMO results. The computing cost of HISTORY typically has been less than one dollar for the fuel assembly-level depletion calculations over the full life of the assembly, in contrast to more than $1000 for CASMO. By combining CASMO and HISTORY, a large number of expensive CASMO calculations can be replaced by inexpensive HISTORY. For the depletion calculations via CASMO/HISTORY, CASMO calculations are required only for the reference conditions and just at the beginning of life for other cases such as changes in void fraction, control rod condition and temperature. The simple and inexpensive HISTORY is sufficienty accurate and fast to be used in conjunction with CASMO for fuel cycle analysis and some BWR design calculations

  19. Vitamin D depletion aggravates hypertension and target-organ damage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Louise Bjørkholt; Przybyl, Lukasz; Haase, Nadine

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We tested the controversial hypothesis that vitamin D depletion aggravates hypertension and target-organ damage by influencing renin. METHODS AND RESULTS: Four-week-old double-transgenic rats (dTGR) with excess angiotensin (Ang) II production due to overexpression of the human renin (h......REN) and angiotensinogen (hAGT) genes received vitamin D-depleted (n=18) or standard chow (n=15) for 3 weeks. The depleted group had very low serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels (mean±SEM; 3.8±0.29 versus 40.6±1.19 nmol/L) and had higher mean systolic BP at week 5 (158±3.5 versus 134.6±3.7 mm Hg, P....6±3.3 versus 162.3±3.8 mm Hg, PVitamin D depletion led to increased relative heart weights and increased serum creatinine concentrations. Furthermore, the mRNAs of natriuretic peptides, neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin, hREN, and r...

  20. Monte Carlo simulation in UWB1 depletion code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lovecky, M.; Prehradny, J.; Jirickova, J.; Skoda, R.

    2015-01-01

    U W B 1 depletion code is being developed as a fast computational tool for the study of burnable absorbers in the University of West Bohemia in Pilsen, Czech Republic. In order to achieve higher precision, the newly developed code was extended by adding a Monte Carlo solver. Research of fuel depletion aims at development and introduction of advanced types of burnable absorbers in nuclear fuel. Burnable absorbers (BA) allow the compensation of the initial reactivity excess of nuclear fuel and result in an increase of fuel cycles lengths with higher enriched fuels. The paper describes the depletion calculations of VVER nuclear fuel doped with rare earth oxides as burnable absorber based on performed depletion calculations, rare earth oxides are divided into two equally numerous groups, suitable burnable absorbers and poisoning absorbers. According to residual poisoning and BA reactivity worth, rare earth oxides marked as suitable burnable absorbers are Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Dy, Ho and Er, while poisoning absorbers include Sc, La, Lu, Y, Ce, Pr and Tb. The presentation slides have been added to the article

  1. Ozone Layer Depletion: A Review | Eze | Nigerian Journal of Health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There are many situations where human activities have significant effects on the environment. Ozone layer damage is one of them. The objective of this paper is to review the origin, causes, mechanisms and bioeffects of ozone layer depletion as well as the protective measures of this vanishing layer. The chlorofluorocarbon ...

  2. ISODEP, A Fuel Depletion Analysis Code for Predicting Isotopic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The trend of results was found to be consistent with those obtained by analytical and other numerical methods. Discovery and Innovation Vol. 13 no. 3/4 December (2001) pp. 184-195. KEY WORDS: depletion analysis, code, research reactor, simultaneous equations, decay of nuclides, radionuclitides, isotope. Résumé

  3. Ozone Depleting Chemical (ODC) Replacement - Alternative Cleaning Solvents and Lubricants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-02-01

    propylene carbonate and d- limonene ) cleaned better than the existing TCA. This project was demonstrative in not only eliminating chemicals known to deplete...34* Compatible with propellants. "* Compliant with safety and environmental requirements. "* Meets minimum cleanliness requirements of governing...compatibility, propellant compatibility, and low residue upon cleaner removal. In addition, the use of the cleaner should not impose any safety or

  4. Phosphorus resources, their depletion and conservation, a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijnders, L.

    2014-01-01

    Yearly, about 22 × 1012 g phosphorus (P) from mined fossil phosphate resources are added to the world economy. The size of remaining fossil phosphate resources is uncertain but practically finite. Thus, fossil P resources may become depleted by ongoing mining. Despite calls for resource

  5. Contribution of some ozone depleting substances (ODS) and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science; Volume 122; Issue 1. Contribution of some ozone depleting substances (ODS) and greenhouse gases (GHGs) on total column zone growth at Srinagar (34°N, 74.8°), India. P K Jana D K Saha D Sarkar. Volume 122 Issue 1 February 2013 pp 239-252 ...

  6. The depletion potential in one, two and three dimensions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    little is known, despite their importance for experiments. ... simulations. Here we want to fill the gap and present a study of the depletion potential in one, two and three dimensions within the same approach. This allows us to understand ..... negative than the potential in one dimension, i.e. W(3d)(h = 0) < W(2d)(h = 0) <.

  7. 5.0. Depletion, activation, and spent fuel source terms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wieselquist, William A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-04-01

    SCALE’s general depletion, activation, and spent fuel source terms analysis capabilities are enabled through a family of modules related to the main ORIGEN depletion/irradiation/decay solver. The nuclide tracking in ORIGEN is based on the principle of explicitly modeling all available nuclides and transitions in the current fundamental nuclear data for decay and neutron-induced transmutation and relies on fundamental cross section and decay data in ENDF/B VII. Cross section data for materials and reaction processes not available in ENDF/B-VII are obtained from the JEFF-3.0/A special purpose European activation library containing 774 materials and 23 reaction channels with 12,617 neutron-induced reactions below 20 MeV. Resonance cross section corrections in the resolved and unresolved range are performed using a continuous-energy treatment by data modules in SCALE. All nuclear decay data, fission product yields, and gamma-ray emission data are developed from ENDF/B-VII.1 evaluations. Decay data include all ground and metastable state nuclides with half-lives greater than 1 millisecond. Using these data sources, ORIGEN currently tracks 174 actinides, 1149 fission products, and 974 activation products. The purpose of this chapter is to describe the stand-alone capabilities and underlying methodology of ORIGEN—as opposed to the integrated depletion capability it provides in all coupled neutron transport/depletion sequences in SCALE, as described in other chapters.

  8. Mitochondrial DNA depletion syndrome presenting with ataxia and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Laila Selim

    2012-07-24

    Jul 24, 2012 ... Abstract The mitochondrial DNA depletion syndromes are autosomal recessive disorders character- ized by decreased mitochondrial DNA copy number in affected tissues. Mutations in 2 genes involved in deoxyribonucleotide metabolism, the deoxyguanosine kinase gene and the thymidine kinase 2 gene,.

  9. A2AR Binding Kinetics in the Ligand Depletion Regime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeely, Patrick M; Naranjo, Andrea N; Forsten-Williams, Kimberly; Robinson, Anne Skaja

    2017-02-01

    Ligand binding plays a fundamental role in stimulating the downstream signaling of membrane receptors. Here, ligand-binding kinetics of the full-length human adenosine A 2A receptor (A 2A R) reconstituted in detergent micelles were measured using a fluorescently labeled ligand via fluorescence anisotropy. Importantly, to optimize the signal-to-noise ratio, these experiments were conducted in the ligand depletion regime. In the ligand depletion regime, the assumptions used to determine analytical solutions for one-site binding models for either one or two ligands in competition are no longer valid. We therefore implemented a numerical solution approach to analyze kinetic binding data as experimental conditions approach the ligand depletion regime. By comparing the results from the numerical and the analytical solutions, we highlight the ligand-receptor ratios at which the analytical solution begins to lose predictive accuracy. Using the numerical solution approach, we determined the kinetic rate constants of the fluorescent ligand, FITC-APEC, and those for three unlabeled ligands using competitive association experiments. The association and dissociation rate constants of the unlabeled ligands determined from the competitive association experiments were then independently validated using competitive dissociation data. Based on this study, a numerical solution is recommended to determine kinetic ligand-binding parameters for experiments conducted in the ligand-depletion regime.

  10. Newly detected ozone-depleting substances in the atmosphere

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laube, Johannes C.; Newland, Mike J.; Hogan, Christopher; Brenninkmeijer, Carl A M; Fraser, Paul J.; Martinerie, Patricia; Oram, David E.; Reeves, Claire E.; Röckmann, Thomas|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304838233; Schwander, Jakob; Witrant, Emmanuel; Sturges, William T.

    2014-01-01

    Ozone-depleting substances emitted through human activities cause large-scale damage to the stratospheric ozone layer, and influence global climate. Consequently, the production of many of these substances has been phased out; prominent examples are the chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), and their

  11. Development of depletion perturbation theory for a reactor nodal code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowman, S.M.

    1981-09-01

    A generalized depletion perturbation (DPT) theory formulation for light water reactor (LWR) depletion problems is developed and implemented into the three-dimensional LWR nodal code SIMULATE. This development applies the principles of the original derivation by M.L. Williams to the nodal equations solved by SIMULATE. The present formulation is first described in detail, and the nodal coupling methodology in SIMULATE is used to determine partial derivatives of the coupling coefficients. The modifications to the original code and the new DPT options available to the user are discussed. Finally, the accuracy and the applicability of the new DPT capability to LWR design analysis are examined for several LWR depletion test cases. The cases range from simple static cases to a realistic PWR model for an entire fuel cycle. Responses of interest included K/sub eff/, nodal peaking, and peak nodal exposure. The nonlinear behavior of responses with respect to perturbations of the various types of cross sections was also investigated. The time-dependence of the sensitivity coefficients for different responses was examined and compared. Comparison of DPT results for these examples to direct calculations reveals the limited applicability of depletion perturbation theory to LWR design calculations at the present. The reasons for these restrictions are discussed, and several methods which might improve the computational accuracy of DPT are proposed for future research.

  12. American big dirty secret. About the depleted uranium weapons reality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parsons, R.J.

    2002-01-01

    From International organizations point of view, as the WHO, the hazard of the depleted uranium weapons use, is more and more obvious for the environment and the people health. The author shows how the USA military Government seems not really ''clean'' on this situation and denounces the danger of such a policy. (A.L.B.)

  13. Ozone depletion, related UVB changes and increased skin cancer incidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, R. P.

    1998-03-01

    Stratospheric ozone at middle latitudes shows a seasonal variation of about +/-20%, a quasi-biennial oscillation of 1-10% range and a long-term variation in which the level was almost steady up to about 1979 and declined thereafter to the present day by about 10%. These variations are expected to be reflected in solar UVB observed at the ground, but in an opposite direction. Thus UVB should have had a long-term increase of about 10-20%, which should cause an increase in skin cancer incidence of about 20-40%. Skin cancer incidence has increased all over the world, e.g. about 90% in USA during 1974-1990. It is popularly believed that this increase in skin cancer incidence is related to the recent ozone depletion. This seems to be incorrect, for two reasons. Firstly, the observed skin cancer increase is too large (90%) compared with the expected value (40%) from ozone depletion. Secondly, cancer does not develop immediately after exposure to solar UVB. The sunburns may occur within hours; but cancer development and detection may take years, even decades. Hence the observed skin cancer increase since 1974 (no data available for earlier periods) must have occurred due to exposure to solar UVB in the 1950s and 1960s, when there was no ozone depletion. Thus, the skin cancer increase must be attributed to harmful solar UVB levels existing even in the 1960s, accentuated later not by ozone depletion (which started only much later, by 1979) but by other causes, such as a longer human life span, better screening, increasing tendencies of sunbathing at beaches, etc., in affluent societies. On the other hand, the recent ozone depletion and the associated UVB increases will certainly take their toll; only that the effects will not be noticed now but years or decades from now. The concern for the future expressed in the Montreal Protocol for reducing ozone depletion by controlling CFC production is certainly justified, especially because increased UVB is harmful to animal and

  14. Radiosensitization of mouse skin by oxygen and depletion of glutathione

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevens, Graham; Joiner, Michael; Joiner, Barbara; Johns, Helen; Denekamp, Juliana

    1995-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the oxygen enhancement ratio (OER) and shape of the oxygen sensitization curve of mouse foot skin, the extent to which glutathione (GSH) depletion radiosensitized skin, and the dependence of such sensitization on the ambient oxygen tension. Methods and Materials: The feet of WHT mice were irradiated with single doses of 240 kVp x-rays while mice were exposed to carbogen or gases with oxygen/nitrogen mixtures containing 8-100% O 2 . The anoxic response was obtained by occluding the blood supply to the leg of anesthetized mice with a tourniquet, surrounding the foot with nitrogen, and allowing the mice to breathe 10% O 2 . Further experiments were performed to assess the efficacy of this method to obtain an anoxic response. Radiosensitivity of skin was assessed using the acute skin-reaction assay. Glutathione levels were modified using two schedules of dl-buthionine sulphoximine (BSO) and diethylmaleate (DEM), which were considered to produce extensive and intermediate levels of GSH depletion in the skin of the foot during irradiation. Results: Carbogen caused the greatest radiosensitization of skin, with a reproducible enhancement of 2.2 relative to the anoxic response. The OER of 2.2 is lower than other reports for mouse skin. This may indicate that the extremes of oxygenation were not produced, although there was no direct evidence for this. When skin radiosensitivity was plotted against the logarithm of the oxygen tension in the ambient gas, a sigmoid curve with a K value of 17-21% O 2 in the ambient gas was obtained. Depletion of GSH caused minimal radiosensitization when skin was irradiated under anoxic or well-oxygenated conditions. Radiosensitization by GSH depletion was maximal at intermediate oxygen tensions of 10-21% O 2 in the ambient gas. Increasing the extent of GSH depletion led to increasing radiosensitization, with sensitization enhancement ratios of 1.2 and 1.1, respectively, for extensive and intermediate levels of GSH

  15. MCOR - Monte Carlo depletion code for reference LWR calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puente Espel, Federico, E-mail: fup104@psu.edu [Department of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, Pennsylvania State University (United States); Tippayakul, Chanatip, E-mail: cut110@psu.edu [Department of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, Pennsylvania State University (United States); Ivanov, Kostadin, E-mail: kni1@psu.edu [Department of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, Pennsylvania State University (United States); Misu, Stefan, E-mail: Stefan.Misu@areva.com [AREVA, AREVA NP GmbH, Erlangen (Germany)

    2011-04-15

    Research highlights: > Introduction of a reference Monte Carlo based depletion code with extended capabilities. > Verification and validation results for MCOR. > Utilization of MCOR for benchmarking deterministic lattice physics (spectral) codes. - Abstract: The MCOR (MCnp-kORigen) code system is a Monte Carlo based depletion system for reference fuel assembly and core calculations. The MCOR code is designed as an interfacing code that provides depletion capability to the LANL Monte Carlo code by coupling two codes: MCNP5 with the AREVA NP depletion code, KORIGEN. The physical quality of both codes is unchanged. The MCOR code system has been maintained and continuously enhanced since it was initially developed and validated. The verification of the coupling was made by evaluating the MCOR code against similar sophisticated code systems like MONTEBURNS, OCTOPUS and TRIPOLI-PEPIN. After its validation, the MCOR code has been further improved with important features. The MCOR code presents several valuable capabilities such as: (a) a predictor-corrector depletion algorithm, (b) utilization of KORIGEN as the depletion module, (c) individual depletion calculation of each burnup zone (no burnup zone grouping is required, which is particularly important for the modeling of gadolinium rings), and (d) on-line burnup cross-section generation by the Monte Carlo calculation for 88 isotopes and usage of the KORIGEN libraries for PWR and BWR typical spectra for the remaining isotopes. Besides the just mentioned capabilities, the MCOR code newest enhancements focus on the possibility of executing the MCNP5 calculation in sequential or parallel mode, a user-friendly automatic re-start capability, a modification of the burnup step size evaluation, and a post-processor and test-matrix, just to name the most important. The article describes the capabilities of the MCOR code system; from its design and development to its latest improvements and further ameliorations. Additionally

  16. MCOR - Monte Carlo depletion code for reference LWR calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puente Espel, Federico; Tippayakul, Chanatip; Ivanov, Kostadin; Misu, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Introduction of a reference Monte Carlo based depletion code with extended capabilities. → Verification and validation results for MCOR. → Utilization of MCOR for benchmarking deterministic lattice physics (spectral) codes. - Abstract: The MCOR (MCnp-kORigen) code system is a Monte Carlo based depletion system for reference fuel assembly and core calculations. The MCOR code is designed as an interfacing code that provides depletion capability to the LANL Monte Carlo code by coupling two codes: MCNP5 with the AREVA NP depletion code, KORIGEN. The physical quality of both codes is unchanged. The MCOR code system has been maintained and continuously enhanced since it was initially developed and validated. The verification of the coupling was made by evaluating the MCOR code against similar sophisticated code systems like MONTEBURNS, OCTOPUS and TRIPOLI-PEPIN. After its validation, the MCOR code has been further improved with important features. The MCOR code presents several valuable capabilities such as: (a) a predictor-corrector depletion algorithm, (b) utilization of KORIGEN as the depletion module, (c) individual depletion calculation of each burnup zone (no burnup zone grouping is required, which is particularly important for the modeling of gadolinium rings), and (d) on-line burnup cross-section generation by the Monte Carlo calculation for 88 isotopes and usage of the KORIGEN libraries for PWR and BWR typical spectra for the remaining isotopes. Besides the just mentioned capabilities, the MCOR code newest enhancements focus on the possibility of executing the MCNP5 calculation in sequential or parallel mode, a user-friendly automatic re-start capability, a modification of the burnup step size evaluation, and a post-processor and test-matrix, just to name the most important. The article describes the capabilities of the MCOR code system; from its design and development to its latest improvements and further ameliorations

  17. Depleted uranium - influence on the health and environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosskopfova, O.

    2002-01-01

    The uranium as radioactive element occurs in low concentrations in all components of environment. In the sample of natural uranium the isotope U-235 has the highest share (99.27 weight per cent). Chemical toxicity of uranium is comparable with toxicity of the elements like As and Pb. Depleted uranium is adjoining product in the production of enriched uranium, which is required in the production of the nuclear fuel and in the production of material used in nuclear arms. It mainly includes isotope U-238, and the content of isotopes U-235 and U-234 is sharply lowered. According to NRC depleted uranium is defined like uranium, in which percentile share of isotope U-235 is less than 0.711 weight percent. The activity of depleted uranium from viewpoint of external irradiation does not represent higher risk. Much higher risk for man represent the neurotoxic effects of uranium, which can get into human body by inhaling of dispersed particles, of contaminated dust and aerosols from atmosphere or by consumption of contaminated foodstuffs and water. Basic dangerous of irradiation by depleted uranium are mainly aerosols, which increase the probability of occurrence of lung cancer. The next dangerous is the damage of another organs like kidneys, liver and bones, where these aerosols are transported by blood like oxides from the lungs. In the environmental parts because of presence of natural uranium the depleted uranium is difficultly identifiably by standard detective methods. Thus it is necessary to use suitable radiochemical separative methods in combination with suitable detective method. (author)

  18. Evaluation of acute tryptophan depletion and sham depletion with a gelatin-based collagen peptide protein mixture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenbæk, Dea Siggaard; Einarsdottir, H S; Goregliad-Fjaellingsdal, T

    2016-01-01

    Acute Tryptophan Depletion (ATD) is a dietary method used to modulate central 5-HT to study the effects of temporarily reduced 5-HT synthesis. The aim of this study is to evaluate a novel method of ATD using a gelatin-based collagen peptide (CP) mixture. We administered CP-Trp or CP+Trp mixtures...

  19. Fully Kinetic Ion Models for Magnetized Plasma Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturdevant, Benjamin J.

    This thesis focuses on the development of simulation models, based on fully resolving the gyro-motion of ions with the Lorentz force equations of motion, for studying low-frequency phenomena in well-magnetized plasma systems. Such models, known as fully kinetic ion models, offer formal simplicity over higher order gyrokinetic ion models and may provide an important validation tool or replacement for gyrokinetic ion models in applications where the gyrokinetic ordering assumptions are in question. Methods for dealing with the added difficulty of resolving the short time scales associated with the ion gyro-motion in fully kinetic ion models are explored with the use of graphics processing units (GPUs) and advanced time integration algorithms, including sub-cycling, orbit averaging and variational integrators. Theoretical work is performed to analyze the effects of the ion Bernstein modes, which are known to cause difficulties in simulations based on fully kinetic ion models. In addition, the first simulation results for the ion temperature gradient driven instability in toroidal geometry using a fully kinetic ion model are presented. Finally, during the course of this work, a method for analyzing the effects of a finite time step size and spatial grid in the delta-f approach to the particle-in-cell method was developed for the first time. This method was applied to an implicit time integration scheme and has revealed some unusual numerical properties related to the delta-f method.

  20. Fully developed turbulence via Feigenbaum's period-doubling bifurcations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duong-van, M.

    1987-08-01

    Since its publication in 1978, Feigenbaum's predictions of the onset of turbulence via period-doubling bifurcations have been thoroughly borne out experimentally. In this paper, Feigenbaum's theory is extended into the regime in which we expect to see fully developed turbulence. We develop a method of averaging that imposes correlations in the fluctuating system generated by this map. With this averaging method, the field variable is obtained by coarse-graining, while microscopic fluctuations are preserved in all averaging scales. Fully developed turbulence will be shown to be a result of microscopic fluctuations with proper averaging. Furthermore, this model preserves Feigenbaum's results on the physics of bifurcations at the onset of turbulence while yielding additional physics both at the onset of turbulence and in the fully developed turbulence regime

  1. The fully-differential quark beam function at NNLO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaunt, Jonathan R.; Stahlhofen, Maximilian [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany). Theory Group

    2014-10-15

    We present the first calculation of a fully-unintegrated parton distribution (beam function) at next-to-next-to-leading order (NNLO). We obtain the fully-differential beam function for quark-initiated processes by matching it onto standard parton distribution functions (PDFs) at two loops. The fully-differential beam function is a universal ingredient in resummed predictions of observables probing both the virtuality as well as the transverse momentum of the incoming quark in addition to its usual longitudinal momentum fraction. For such double-differential observables our result is an important contribution to the resummation of large logarithms related to collinear initial-state radiation (ISR) through N{sup 3}LL.

  2. The fully-differential quark beam function at NNLO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaunt, Jonathan R.; Stahlhofen, Maximilian

    2014-12-01

    We present the first calculation of a fully-unintegrated parton distribution (beam function) at next-to-next-to-leading order (NNLO). We obtain the fully-differential beam function for quark-initiated processes by matching it onto standard parton distribution functions (PDFs) at two loops. The fully-differential beam function is a universal ingredient in resummed predictions of observables probing both the virtuality as well as the transverse momentum of the incoming quark in addition to its usual longitudinal momentum fraction. For such double-differential observables our result provides the part of the NNLO singular cross section related to collinear initial-state radiation (ISR), and is important for the resummation of large logarithms through N3LL.

  3. Fully hadronic ttbar cross section measurement with ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    Bertella, C; The ATLAS collaboration

    2011-01-01

    The top quark pair production cross section in the fully hadronic final state is characterized by a six jet topology, two of which could be identified as originating from a b-quark using ATLAS b-tagging algorithms. Compared to other decay channels, this final state presents an advantageous larger branching ratio; on the other hand it suffers from a very large QCD multi-jet background, generally difficult to estimate from Monte Carlo simulation and therefore evaluated using data-driven techniques. It is essential, to efficiently trigger on these fully hadronic ttbar events, to use dedicated triggers. An overview of the analysis for ttbar production cross section measurement in the fully hadronic final state and the state-of-the-art of the b-jet trigger performance estimation are presented in this contribution.

  4. Development and verification of multicycle depletion perturbation theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, J.R.; Burns, T.J.

    1980-01-01

    Recently, Williams has developed a coupled neutron/nuclide depletion perturbation theory (DPT) applicable to multidimensional and multigroup reactor analysis problems. This theoretical framework has been verified using the newly developed DEPTH module within the context of the VENTURE modular code system. The accuracy and usefulness of this alternate calculational method for burnup analyses has been demonstrated for a variety of final-time response functionals. However, these examples were restricted to single-cycle depletion analyses due to the theoretical assumption that the nuclide density field was continuous in time. Clearly, in multicycle problems, the nuclide concentrations must vary discontinuously with time to model refueling and shuffling operations or discrete control rod movements. Thus, the purpose of this work is to generalize the original DPT framework to include nuclide discontinuities and to verify that this generalization can be employed in realistic multicycle applications

  5. Performance Analysis of Depleted Oil Reservoirs for Underground Gas Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. C.I.C. Anyadiegwu

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The performance of underground gas storage in depleted oil reservoir was analysed with reservoir Y-19, a depleted oil reservoir in Southern region of the Niger Delta. Information on the geologic and production history of the reservoir were obtained from the available field data of the reservoir. The verification of inventory was done to establish the storage capacity of the reservoir. The plot of the well flowing pressure (Pwf against the flow rate (Q, gives the deliverability of the reservoir at various pressures. Results of the estimated properties signified that reservoir Y-19 is a good candidate due to its storage capacity and its flow rate (Q of 287.61 MMscf/d at a flowing pressure of 3900 psig

  6. Depletion interactions effected by different variants of fd virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    July, Christoph; Lang, Peter R

    2010-12-21

    The depletion interaction between a probe sphere and a flat wall induced by fd virus is investigated by means of total internal reflection microscopy (TIRM). The viruses serve as a model system for monodisperse, rod-like colloids. We find that the experimental potentials are well described by the first-order density approximation up to an fd content of several overlap concentrations. This is in accordance with higher order density theory as confirmed by numerical calculations. Since the first-order analytical description still holds for all measurements, this exemplifies that higher order terms of the theory are unimportant for our system. Comparing the potentials induced by wild-type fd to those induced by a more rigid fd variant, it can be shown that the influence of the virus stiffness is beyond our experimental resolution and plays only a negligible role for the measured depletion potentials.

  7. The sensitivity of polar ozone depletion to proposed geoengineering schemes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilmes, Simone; Müller, Rolf; Salawitch, Ross

    2008-05-30

    The large burden of sulfate aerosols injected into the stratosphere by the eruption of Mount Pinatubo in 1991 cooled Earth and enhanced the destruction of polar ozone in the subsequent few years. The continuous injection of sulfur into the stratosphere has been suggested as a "geoengineering" scheme to counteract global warming. We use an empirical relationship between ozone depletion and chlorine activation to estimate how this approach might influence polar ozone. An injection of sulfur large enough to compensate for surface warming caused by the doubling of atmospheric CO2 would strongly increase the extent of Arctic ozone depletion during the present century for cold winters and would cause a considerable delay, between 30 and 70 years, in the expected recovery of the Antarctic ozone hole.

  8. High pressure elasticity and thermal properties of depleted uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobsen, M. K.; Velisavljevic, N.

    2016-01-01

    Studies of the phase diagram of uranium have revealed a wealth of high pressure and temperature phases. Under ambient conditions the crystal structure is well defined up to 100 gigapascals (GPa), but very little information on thermal conduction or elasticity is available over this same range. This work has applied ultrasonic interferometry to determine the elasticity, mechanical, and thermal properties of depleted uranium to 4.5 GPa. Results show general strengthening with applied load, including an overall increase in acoustic thermal conductivity. Further implications are discussed within. This work presents the first high pressure studies of the elasticity and thermal properties of depleted uranium metal and the first real-world application of a previously developed containment system for making such measurements.

  9. Muscle glycogen depletion and lactate concentration during downhill skiing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesch, P; Larsson, L; Eriksson, A; Karlsson, J

    1978-01-01

    Skilled and unskilled skiers were studied during downhill skiing. Muscle glycogen and muscle lactate concentrations in the vastus lateralis muscle were determined following different skiing conditions. Heavy glycogen utilization was found in the groups studied during a day of skiing. The skilled and unskilled skiers differed with respect to selective glycogen depletion pattern and the skilled subjects demonstrated greater depletion of slow twitch fibers than the unskilled subjects. Lactate concentrations ranged from approximately 5-26 mmoles x kg-1 wet muscle after approximately one minute of maximal skiing. This wide range was not found to be related to the level of skiing proficiency. However, skiing with varyingly angled boots, resulting in different knee angles, did affect lactate concentration. Lactate concentration was positively correlated to individual muscle fiber composition expressed as a percent of fast twitch fibers. The results suggest more pronounced involvement of aerobic energy metabolism in skilled skiers than in unskilled skiers.

  10. A Fully Implantable, NFC Enabled, Continuous Interstitial Glucose Monitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anabtawi, Nijad; Freeman, Sabrina; Ferzli, Rony

    2016-02-01

    This work presents an integrated system-on-chip (SoC) that forms the core of a long-term, fully implantable, battery assisted, passive continuous glucose monitor. It integrates an amperometric glucose sensor interface, a near field communication (NFC) wireless front-end and a fully digital switched mode power management unit for supply regulation and on board battery charging. It uses 13.56 MHz (ISM) band to harvest energy and backscatter data to an NFC reader. System was implemented in 14nm CMOS technology and validated with post layout simulations.

  11. Fully simulatable quantum-secure coin-flipping and applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lunemann, Carolin; Nielsen, Jesper Buus

    2011-01-01

    schemes which we show how to construct in the given setting. We then show that the interactive generation of random coins at the beginning or during outer protocols allows for quantum-secure realizations of classical schemes, again without any set-up assumptions. As example applications we discuss quantum...... zero-knowledge proofs of knowledge and quantum-secure two-party function evaluation. Both applications assume only fully simulatable coin-flipping and mixed commitments. Since our framework allows to construct fully simulatable coin-flipping from mixed commitments, this in particular shows that mixed...

  12. Fully Implicit Numerical Methods for the Baroclinic Primitive Equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohn, S. E.; Isaacson, E.

    1984-01-01

    A fully implicit code was developed to solve the three-dimensional primitive equations of atmospheric flow. The scheme is second order accurate in time and fourth order accurate in the horizontal and vertical directions. Furthermore, as a result of being fully implicit, the time step is not restricted by the mesh spacing near the poles, nor by the speed of inertia-gravity waves. Rather, the time step, deltat is determined simply by the requirement that it be small enough to adequately resolve the atmospheric flow of interest. The accuracy and efficiency of current models for fine grids should be significantly improved.

  13. Neutron powder diffraction study on fully hydrogenated amino acid molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiao Xuesheng; Sun Kai; Han Wenze; Liu Yuntao; Chen Dongfeng

    2010-01-01

    The traditional methods for studying amino acid molecular structure are X-ray diffraction and neutron diffraction after deuteration. In this paper, X-ray diffraction, neutron powder diffraction and Raman scattering were used to study the molecular structure of alanine and leucine. Combination of infrared spectroscopy, compared with fully hydrogenated, partial deuterated and fully deuterated alanine molecules, it is shown that the traditional methods are not enough in the study of molecular structure. Meanwhile, the neutron powder diffraction method was used to measure the leucine molecule directly. It shows that neutron powder diffraction method can give the fine structure of leucine molecule. (authors)

  14. Design Study of Fully Superconducting Wind Turbine Generators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Song, Xiaowei (Andy); Mijatovic, Nenad; Jensen, Bogi Bech

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, two fully superconducting generators employing MgB2 armature winding, with YBCO and MgB2 field winding respectively, are presented and analyzed. The ac loss in armature winding is estimated, and a simple comparative study is carried out. The results show that both electromagnetic...... designs for fully superconducting generators are promising with respect to the power density. However, the cost of removing ac loss in armature winding is as high as $900 000. It is also noted that with the current price of YBCO tape, the generator employing MgB 2 field winding would have lower cost....

  15. ABCB10 depletion reduces unfolded protein response in mitochondria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yano, Masato

    2017-04-29

    Mitochondria have many functions, including ATP generation. The electron transport chain (ETC) and the coupled ATP synthase generate ATP by consuming oxygen. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are also produced by ETC, and ROS damage deoxyribonucleic acids, membrane lipids and proteins. Recent analysis indicate that mitochondrial unfolded protein response (UPR mt ), which enhances expression of mitochondrial chaperones and proteases to remove damaged proteins, is activated when damaged proteins accumulate in the mitochondria. In Caenorhabditis elegans, HAF-1, a putative ortholog of human ABCB10, plays an essential role in signal transduction from mitochondria to nuclei to enhance UPR mt . Therefore, it is possible that ABCB10 has a role similar to that of HAF-1. However, it has not been reported whether ABCB10 is a factor in the signal transduction pathway to enhance UPR mt . In this study, ABCB10 was depleted in HepG2 cells using small interfering RNA (siRNA), and the effect was examined. ABCB10 depletion upregulated ROS and the expression of ROS-detoxifying enzymes (SOD2, GSTA1, and GSTA2), and SESN3, a protein induced by ROS to protect the cell from oxidative stress. In addition, ABCB10 depletion significantly decreased expression of UPR mt -related mitochondrial chaperones (HSPD1 and DNAJA3), and a mitochondrial protease (LONP1). However, the putative activity of ABCB10 to export peptides from mitochondria was not lost by ABCB10 depletion. Altogether, these data suggest that ABCB10 is involved in UPR mt signaling pathway similar to that of HAF-1, although ABCB10 probably does not participate in peptide export from mitochondria. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Health and environmental problems of using depleted uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matousek, J.

    2006-01-01

    In the 1970's, a core of depleted uranium (DU) began to be introduced into the break through anti-tank munitions to enhance their effectiveness. The health and environmental threats of DU stem from the pyrophoric character of the core, burnt when penetrating armour to an aerosol of uranium oxides deposited in tissues after inhalation or ingestion. Their delayed effects are due to internal alpha irradiation by daughter products and toxicity of uranium. (authors)

  17. Safety evaluation for packaging (onsite) depleted uranium waste boxes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCormick, W.A.

    1997-08-27

    This safety evaluation for packaging (SEP) allows the one-time shipment of ten metal boxes and one wooden box containing depleted uranium material from the Fast Flux Test Facility to the burial grounds in the 200 West Area for disposal. This SEP provides the analyses and operational controls necessary to demonstrate that the shipment will be safe for the onsite worker and the public.

  18. Fundamental differences between Arctic and Antarctic ozone depletion

    OpenAIRE

    Solomon, Susan; Haskins, Jessica; Ivy, Diane J.; Min, Flora

    2014-01-01

    Fundamental differences in observed ozone depletion between the Arctic and the Antarctic are shown, clarifying distinctions between both average and extreme ozone decreases in the two hemispheres. Balloon-borne and satellite measurements in the heart of the ozone layer near 18−24 km altitude show that extreme ozone decreases often observed in the Antarctic ozone hole region have not yet been measured in the Arctic in any year, including the unusually cold Arctic spring of 2011. The data provi...

  19. Uranium and the use of depleted uranium in weaponry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roussel, R.

    2000-01-01

    In this brief report the author shows that the use of shells involving a load of depleted uranium might lead to lasting hazards to civil population and environment. These hazards come from the part of the shell that has been dispersed as contaminating radioactive dusts. The author describes some features of radioactivity and highlights the role of Uranium-238 as a provider of energy to the planet. (A.C.)

  20. Safety evaluation for packaging (onsite) depleted uranium waste boxes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCormick, W.A.

    1997-01-01

    This safety evaluation for packaging (SEP) allows the one-time shipment of ten metal boxes and one wooden box containing depleted uranium material from the Fast Flux Test Facility to the burial grounds in the 200 West Area for disposal. This SEP provides the analyses and operational controls necessary to demonstrate that the shipment will be safe for the onsite worker and the public

  1. EZH2 depletion blocks the proliferation of colon cancer cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bettina Fussbroich

    Full Text Available The Enhancer of Zeste 2 (EZH2 protein has been reported to stimulate cell growth in some cancers and is therefore considered to represent an interesting new target for therapeutic intervention. Here, we investigated a possible role of EZH2 for the growth control of colon cancer cells. RNA interference (RNAi-mediated intracellular EZH2 depletion led to cell cycle arrest of colon carcinoma cells at the G1/S transition. This was associated with a reduction of cell numbers upon transient transfection of synthetic EZH2-targeting siRNAs and with inhibition of their colony formation capacity upon stable expression of vector-borne siRNAs. We furthermore tested whether EZH2 may repress the growth-inhibitory p27 gene, as reported for pancreatic cancer. However, expression analyses of colon cancer cell lines and colon cancer biopsies did not reveal a consistent correlation between EZH2 and p27 levels. Moreover, EZH2 depletion did not re-induce p27 expression in colon cancer cells, indicating that p27 repression by EZH2 may be cell- or tissue-specific. Whole genome transcriptome analyses identified cellular genes affected by EZH2 depletion in colon cancer cell lines. They included several cancer-associated genes linked to cellular proliferation or invasion, such as Dag1, MageD1, SDC1, Timp2, and Tob1. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that EZH2 depletion blocks the growth of colon cancer cells. These findings might provide benefits for the treatment of colon cancer.

  2. Effective fiber hypertrophy in satellite cell-depleted skeletal muscle

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, John J.; Mula, Jyothi; Miyazaki, Mitsunori; Erfani, Rod; Garrison, Kelcye; Farooqui, Amreen B.; Srikuea, Ratchakrit; Lawson, Benjamin A.; Grimes, Barry; Keller, Charles; Van Zant, Gary; Campbell, Kenneth S.; Esser, Karyn A.; Dupont-Versteegden, Esther E.; Peterson, Charlotte A.

    2011-01-01

    An important unresolved question in skeletal muscle plasticity is whether satellite cells are necessary for muscle fiber hypertrophy. To address this issue, a novel mouse strain (Pax7-DTA) was created which enabled the conditional ablation of >90% of satellite cells in mature skeletal muscle following tamoxifen administration. To test the hypothesis that satellite cells are necessary for skeletal muscle hypertrophy, the plantaris muscle of adult Pax7-DTA mice was subjected to mechanical overload by surgical removal of the synergist muscle. Following two weeks of overload, satellite cell-depleted muscle showed the same increases in muscle mass (approximately twofold) and fiber cross-sectional area with hypertrophy as observed in the vehicle-treated group. The typical increase in myonuclei with hypertrophy was absent in satellite cell-depleted fibers, resulting in expansion of the myonuclear domain. Consistent with lack of nuclear addition to enlarged fibers, long-term BrdU labeling showed a significant reduction in the number of BrdU-positive myonuclei in satellite cell-depleted muscle compared with vehicle-treated muscle. Single fiber functional analyses showed no difference in specific force, Ca2+ sensitivity, rate of cross-bridge cycling and cooperativity between hypertrophied fibers from vehicle and tamoxifen-treated groups. Although a small component of the hypertrophic response, both fiber hyperplasia and regeneration were significantly blunted following satellite cell depletion, indicating a distinct requirement for satellite cells during these processes. These results provide convincing evidence that skeletal muscle fibers are capable of mounting a robust hypertrophic response to mechanical overload that is not dependent on satellite cells. PMID:21828094

  3. Bromine measurements in ozone depleted air over the Arctic Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Neuman

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available In situ measurements of ozone, photochemically active bromine compounds, and other trace gases over the Arctic Ocean in April 2008 are used to examine the chemistry and geographical extent of ozone depletion in the arctic marine boundary layer (MBL. Data were obtained from the NOAA WP-3D aircraft during the Aerosol, Radiation, and Cloud Processes affecting Arctic Climate (ARCPAC study and the NASA DC-8 aircraft during the Arctic Research of the Composition of the Troposphere from Aircraft and Satellites (ARCTAS study. Fast (1 s and sensitive (detection limits at the low pptv level measurements of BrCl and BrO were obtained from three different chemical ionization mass spectrometer (CIMS instruments, and soluble bromide was measured with a mist chamber. The CIMS instruments also detected Br2. Subsequent laboratory studies showed that HOBr rapidly converts to Br2 on the Teflon instrument inlets. This detected Br2 is identified as active bromine and represents a lower limit of the sum HOBr + Br2. The measured active bromine is shown to likely be HOBr during daytime flights in the arctic. In the MBL over the Arctic Ocean, soluble bromide and active bromine were consistently elevated and ozone was depleted. Ozone depletion and active bromine enhancement were confined to the MBL that was capped by a temperature inversion at 200–500 m altitude. In ozone-depleted air, BrO rarely exceeded 10 pptv and was always substantially lower than soluble bromide that was as high as 40 pptv. BrCl was rarely enhanced above the 2 pptv detection limit, either in the MBL, over Alaska, or in the arctic free troposphere.

  4. Air shipment of radioactive materials in depleted uranium shielded packaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adaev, V.A.; Kalevich, E.S. [Federal State Unitary Enterprise ' ' State Scientific Centre of Russia Research Inst. of Atomic Reactors' ' , Dimitrovgrad (Russian Federation); Metelkin, Yu.A.; Orlov, V.K. [Federal State Unitary Enterprise Academician Bochvar, All-Russian Research Inst. of Inorganic Materials, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2004-07-01

    Under conditions of strong competition at the international radioisotope market not only the quality of the products themselves but the timeliness and punctuality of a delivery time-table and shortening the delivery period as well became more acute. The latter allows reducing losses of expensive products due to radioactive decay. Distinctive features for arranging transport of radioisotope products using depleted uranium shipping packing sets both in respect of regime of flight and IAEA Regulations (1996) are discussed below.

  5. Radiation survey and decontamination of cape Arza from depleted uranium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vukotić Perko

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In the action of NATO A-10 airplanes in 1999, the cape Arza, Serbia and Montenegro was contaminated by depleted uranium. The clean-up operations were undertaken at the site, and 242 uranium projectiles and their 49 larger fragments were removed from the cape. That is about 85% of the total number of projectiles by which Arza was contaminated. Here are described details of the applied procedures and results of the soil radioactivity measurements after decontamination.

  6. Population pressure and land resource depletion in southeastern Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okafor, F C

    1987-07-01

    This paper measures farmland size per capita, fallow index and fragmentation index as indices of land resource depletion and population pressure in the heavily populated southeastern Awka-Nnewi of Nigeria. Population density in the area ranges from 574-2403 persons per square km, increasing annually at 3%. The soils are porous, sandy, with extensive gully erosion. Land is subdivided in each generation such that each male child receives a parcel of his father's land. There are other pressures on land parcels, notably for residential use. Soils have become depleted from intense cropping such that yams can no longer be grown and people subsist on cassava. Data were collected from 290 households in 36 towns and villages. The 3 variables were defined mathematically, and tabulated for each village. Then a correlation matrix was computed between the independent and dependent variables. All 3 variables, land per capita, fallow and land depletion, were significantly inversely correlated with population density (p.01), the fragmentation index to the greatest degree. All dependent variables were significantly and positively correlated. Scatter diagrams suggested that the worst hit areas were the central towns, and the least affected areas were the peripheral zones along the rivers and floodplains. Although federal regulations have been passed to make land redistribution easier, local custom makes it unlikely that people will resettle voluntarily to outlying areas because of traditions of land ownership. Similarly, government measures to encourage conservation and recovery of eroded land have not been successful, and food shortages are beginning to occur.

  7. Cosmological constraints on the gas depletion factor in galaxy clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holanda, R. F. L.; Busti, V. C.; Gonzalez, J. E.; Andrade-Santos, F.; Alcaniz, J. S.

    2017-12-01

    The evolution of the X-ray emitting gas mass fraction (fgas) in massive galaxy clusters can be used as an independent cosmological tool to probe the expansion history of the Universe. Its use, however, depends upon a crucial quantity, i.e., the depletion factor γ, which corresponds to the ratio by which fgas is depleted with respect to the universal baryonic mean. This quantity is not directly observed and hydrodynamical simulations performed in a specific cosmological model (e.g., a flat ΛCDM cosmology) have been used to calibrate it. In this work, we obtain for the first time self-consistent observational constraints on the gas depletion factor combining 40 X-ray emitting gas mass fraction measurements and luminosity distance measurements from type Ia supernovae. Using Gaussian Processes to reconstruct a possible redshift evolution of γ, we find no evidence for such evolution, which confirms the current results from hydrodynamical simulations. Moreover, our constraints on γ can be seen as a data prior for cosmological analyses on different cosmological models. The current measurements are systematic limited, so future improvements will depend heavily on a better mass calibration of galaxy clusters and their measured density profiles.

  8. Molecularly imprinted composite cryogel for albumin depletion from human serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andaç, Müge; Baydemir, Gözde; Yavuz, Handan; Denizli, Adil

    2012-11-01

    A new composite protein-imprinted macroporous cryogel was prepared for depletion of albumin from human serum prior to use in proteom applications. Polyhydroxyethyl-methacylate-based molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) composite cryogel was prepared with high gel fraction yields up to 83%, and its morphology and porosity were characterized by Fourier transform infrared, scanning electron microscopy, swelling studies, flow dynamics, and surface area measurements. Selective binding experiments were performed in the presence of competitive proteins human transferrin (HTR) and myoglobin (MYB). MIP composite cryogel exhibited a high binding capacity and selectivity for human serum albumin (HSA) in the presence of HTR and MYB. The competitive adsorption amount for HSA in MIP composite cryogel is 722.1 mg/dL in the presence of competitive proteins (HTR and MYB). MIP composite cryogel column was successfully applied in the fast protein liquid chromatography system for selective depletion of albumin in human serum. The depletion ratio was highly increased by embedding beads into cryogel (85%). Finally, MIP composite cryogel can be reused many times with no apparent decrease in HSA adsorption capacity. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Frost Induces Respiration and Accelerates Carbon Depletion in Trees.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Or Sperling

    Full Text Available Cellular respiration depletes stored carbohydrates during extended periods of limited photosynthesis, e.g. winter dormancy or drought. As respiration rate is largely a function of temperature, the thermal conditions during such periods may affect non-structural carbohydrate (NSC availability and, ultimately, recovery. Here, we surveyed stem responses to temperature changes in 15 woody species. For two species with divergent respirational response to frost, P. integerrima and P. trichocarpa, we also examined corresponding changes in NSC levels. Finally, we simulated respiration-induced NSC depletion using historical temperature data for the western US. We report a novel finding that tree stems significantly increase respiration in response to near freezing temperatures. We observed this excess respiration in 13 of 15 species, deviating 10% to 170% over values predicted by the Arrhenius equation. Excess respiration persisted at temperatures above 0 °C during warming and reoccurred over multiple frost-warming cycles. A large adjustment of NSCs accompanied excess respiration in P. integerrima, whereas P. trichocarpa neither excessively respired nor adjusted NSCs. Over the course of the years included in our model, frost-induced respiration accelerated stem NSC consumption by 8.4 mg (glucose eq. cm(-3 yr(-1 on average in the western US, a level of depletion that may continue to significantly affect spring NSC availability. This novel finding revises the current paradigm of low temperature respiration kinetics.

  10. Accounting for Depletion of Oil and Gas Resources in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Othman, Jamal; Jafari, Yaghoob

    2012-01-01

    Since oil and gas are non-renewable resources, it is important to identify the extent to which they have been depleted. Such information will contribute to the formulation and evaluation of appropriate sustainable development policies. This paper provides an assessment of the changes in the availability of oil and gas resources in Malaysia by first compiling the physical balance sheet for the period 2000–2007, and then assessing the monetary balance sheets for the said resource by using the Net Present Value method. Our findings show serious reduction in the value of oil reserves from 2001 to 2005, due to changes in crude oil prices, and thereafter the depletion rates decreased. In the context of sustainable development planning, albeit in the weak sustainability sense, it will be important to ascertain if sufficient reinvestments of the estimated resource rents in related or alternative capitals are being attempted by Malaysia. For the study period, the cumulative resource rents were to the tune of RM61 billion. Through a depletion or resource rents policy, the estimated quantum may guide the identification of a reinvestment threshold (after considering needed capital investment for future development of the industry) in light of ensuring the future productive capacity of the economy at the time when the resource is exhausted.

  11. Depletion-mode quantum dots in intrinsic silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amitonov, Sergey V.; Spruijtenburg, Paul C.; Vervoort, Max W. S.; van der Wiel, Wilfred G.; Zwanenburg, Floris A.

    2018-01-01

    We report the fabrication and electrical characterization of depletion-mode quantum dots in a two-dimensional hole gas (2DHG) in intrinsic silicon. We use fixed charge in a SiO2/Al2O3 dielectric stack to induce a 2DHG at the Si/SiO2 interface. Fabrication of the gate structures is accomplished with a single layer metallization process. Transport spectroscopy reveals regular Coulomb oscillations with charging energies of 10-15 meV and 3-5 meV for the few- and many-hole regimes, respectively. This depletion-mode design avoids complex multilayer architectures requiring precision alignment and allows us to adopt directly best practices already developed for depletion dots in other material systems. We also demonstrate a method to deactivate fixed charge in the SiO2/Al2O3 dielectric stack using deep ultraviolet light, which may become an important procedure to avoid unwanted 2DHG build-up in Si MOS quantum bits.

  12. Development of a fully injectable calcium phosphate cement for ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A study on the development of a fully injectable calcium phosphate cement for orthopedic and dental applications is presented. The paper describes its characteristic properties including results of bio- compatibility studies. A conventional two-component calcium phosphate cement formulation (having a powder part ...

  13. SYSTEMATIZATION AND ANALYSIS OF PARTIALLY AND FULLY HOMOMORPHIC CRYPTOSYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Epishkina

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article provides an overview of the known partially and fully homomorphic cryptosystem, such as: RSA, ElGamal, Paillier, Gentry and Halevi. Justified the homomorphic properties of the considered cryptosystems. The comparative analysis of the homomorphic encryption algorithms has been committed

  14. Why Not Fully Spend a Conditional Block Grant?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faber, R.; Koning, P.W.C.

    2017-01-01

    This paper studies a conditional block grant that Dutch municipalities receive for welfare-to-work programs. Many municipalities do not fully use this grant, although programs are beneficial for them. We argue that municipalities incur expenses to use the grant. If these costs are substantial, then

  15. Development of a fully injectable calcium phosphate cement for ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    2003-01-27

    -setting mass. ... ble formulation (i.e. self-setting CPC mix having viscous flow so as to extrude out fully from a syringe ... part of the cement and monitoring the change in proper- ties. The volume of the wetting liquid required to ...

  16. A fully integrated 16 channel digitally trimmed pulse shaping amplifier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hearn, W.E.; Wright, M.E.

    1993-11-01

    A fully integrated CMOS pulse shaping amplifier has been developed at LBL. All frequency dependent networks are included on the chip. Provision is made for tuning to compensate for process variations. The overall architecture and details of the circuitry are discussed. Test results are presented.

  17. Development of a fully injectable calcium phosphate cement for ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    2003-01-27

    Jan 27, 2003 ... Abstract. A study on the development of a fully injectable calcium phosphate cement for orthopedic and dental applications is presented. The paper describes its characteristic properties including results of bio- compatibility studies. A conventional two-component calcium phosphate cement formulation ...

  18. New approach to solve symmetric fully fuzzy linear systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    it is important to develop mathematical models and numerical procedures that would appropri- ately treat ... A general model for solving a fuzzy linear system whose coefficient matrix is crisp and the right hand side .... To represent the above problem as fully fuzzy linear system, we represent x as a quantity of the product 1 ...

  19. A fully-implicit model of the global ocean circulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weijer, Wilbert; Dijkstra, Henk A.; Öksüzoğlu, Hakan; Wubs, Fred W.; Niet, Arie C. de

    2003-01-01

    With the recent developments in the solution methods for large-dimensional nonlinear algebraic systems, fully-implicit ocean circulation models are now becoming feasible. In this paper, the formulation of such a three-dimensional global ocean model is presented. With this implicit model, the

  20. A fully integrated 16 channel digitally trimmed pulse shaping amplifier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hearn, W.E.; Wright, M.E.

    1993-11-01

    A fully integrated CMOS pulse shaping amplifier has been developed at LBL. All frequency dependent networks are included on the chip. Provision is made for tuning to compensate for process variations. The overall architecture and details of the circuitry are discussed. Test results are presented

  1. Peirce and Rationalism: Is Peirce a Fully Semiotic Philosopher?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stables, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    While Peirce is a seminal figure for contemporary semiotic philosophers, it is axiomatic of a fully semiotic perspective that no philosopher or philosophy (semiotics included) can provide any final answer, as signs are always interpreted and the context of interpretation always varies. Semiosis is evolutionary: it may or may not be construed as…

  2. Spin transport in fully hexagonal boron nitride encapsulated graphene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gurram, M.; Omar, S.; Zihlmann, S.; Makk, P.; Schoenenberger, C.; van Wees, B. J.

    2016-01-01

    We study fully hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) encapsulated graphene spin valve devices at room temperature. The device consists of a graphene channel encapsulated between two crystalline hBN flakes: thick-hBN flake as a bottom gate dielectric substrate which masks the charge impurities from SiO2/Si

  3. Design of a Fully-Passive Transfemoral Prosthesis Prototype

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Behrens, Sebastiaan Maria; Behrens, S.M.; Ünal, Ramazan; Unal, R.; Hekman, Edsko E.G.; Carloni, Raffaella; Stramigioli, Stefano; Koopman, Hubertus F.J.M.

    In this study, we present the mechanical design of a prototype of a fully-passive transfemoral prosthesis for normal walking. The conceptual working principle at the basis of the design is inspired by the power flow in human gait, with the main purpose of realizing an energy efficient device. The

  4. Non-uniform Solar Temperature Field on Large Aperture, Fully ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this study, a 110-m fully steerable radio telescope was used as an analysis platform and the integral parametric finite element model of the antenna structure was built in the ANSYS thermal analysis module. The boundary conditions of periodic air temperature, solar radiation, long-wave radiation shadows of the ...

  5. Tracking and disturbance rejection for fully actuated mechanical systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jayawardhana, Bayu; Weiss, George

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we solve the tracking and disturbance rejection problem for fully actuated passive mechanical systems. We assume that the reference signal r and its first two derivatives r, r are available to the controller and the disturbance signal d can be decomposed into a finite superposition of

  6. Fully electromagnetic nonlinear gyrokinetic equations for tokamak edge turbulence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hahm, T.S.; Wang, Lu; Madsen, Jens

    2009-01-01

    An energy conserving set of the fully electromagnetic nonlinear gyrokinetic Vlasov equation and Maxwell's equations, which is applicable to both L-mode turbulence with large amplitude and H-mode turbulence in the presence of high ExB shear has been derived. The phase-space action variational Lie...

  7. Viscosity solutions of fully nonlinear functional parabolic PDE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Wei-an

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available By the technique of coupled solutions, the notion of viscosity solutions is extended to fully nonlinear retarded parabolic equations. Such equations involve many models arising from optimal control theory, economy and finance, biology, and so forth. The comparison principle is shown. Then the existence and uniqueness are established by the fixed point theory.

  8. 5 ten volle geïntegreerde woordeboeke / Fully Integrated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    rbr

    Lexikos 11 (AFRILEX-reeks/series 11: 2001): 324-327. Pharos. Pharos Woordeboeke / Dictionaries 5 in 1: 5 ten volle geïntegreerde woordeboeke / Fully Integrated Dictionaries. Afrikaans-Engels / English-. Afrikaans 1. Groot Woordeboek / Major Dictionary 2. Tweetalige Frasewoor- deboek / Bilingual Phrase Dictionary 3.

  9. New approach to solve symmetric fully fuzzy linear systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this paper, we present a method to solve fully fuzzy linear systems with symmetric coefficient matrix. The symmetric coefficient matrix is decomposed into two systems of equations by using Cholesky method and then a solution can be obtained. Numerical examples are given to illustrate our method.

  10. Unsupervised pre-training for fully convolutional neural networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiehman, Stiaan; Kroon, Steve; Villiers, De Hendrik

    2017-01-01

    Unsupervised pre-Training of neural networks has been shown to act as a regularization technique, improving performance and reducing model variance. Recently, fully convolutional networks (FCNs) have shown state-of-The-Art results on various semantic segmentation tasks. Unfortunately, there is no

  11. Fully probabilistic design: the way for optimizing of concrete structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Laníková

    Full Text Available Some standards for the design of concrete structures (e.g. EC2 and the original ČSN 73 1201-86 allow a structure to be designed by several methods. This contribution documents the fact that even if a structure does not comply with the partial reliability factor method, according to EC2, it can satisfy the conditions during the application of the fully probabilistic approach when using the same standard. From an example of the reliability of a prestressed spun concrete pole designed by the partial factor method and fully probabilistic approach according to the Eurocode it is evident that an expert should apply a more precise (though unfortunately more complicated method in the limiting cases. The Monte Carlo method, modified by the Latin Hypercube Sampling (LHS method, has been used for the calculation of reliability. Ultimate and serviceability limit states were checked for the partial factor method and fully probabilistic design. As a result of fully probabilistic design it is possible to obtain a more efficient design for a structure.

  12. Synthesis of the fully functionalized ABCDE ring moiety of ciguatoxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Shoji; Alizadeh, Babak H; Sasaki, Shin-ya; Oguri, Hiroki; Hirama, Masahiro

    2004-03-04

    A fully functionalized ABCDE ring moiety of ciguatoxin (CTX), the major causative agent of ciguatera poisoning, was synthesized for the first time. The present strategy involves the efficient installation of the C5-dihydroxybutenyl substituent and construction of the tetrahydrooxepin E ring using a novel alpha-chlorosulfide synthon. [structure: see text

  13. Decontamination of Cape Arza (Montenegro) from depleted Uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vukotich, P.; Kovachevich, M.; Vasich, V.; Ristich, N.

    2002-01-01

    On May 30, 1999, NATO A-10 aircrafts attacked Cape Arza, a very attractive touring area on peninsula Lustica, at the entrance of Boka Kotorska Bay, in Montenegro. They fired anti-armour rounds with penetrators made of depleted uranium. Such an armour-penetrating round has a length of 173 mm and a diameter of 30 mm. The bullet has an aluminium case (jacket) and inside it a conical DU penetrator. The length of the penetrator itself is 95 mm, and the diameter of its base is 16 mm. The penetrator weight is 292 g. According to the data reported by NATO (NATO, 2001), the total number of rounds fired against Cape Arza was 480. As to the data on combat mix of the A-10 aircraft gun, 300 (UNEP, 2001) or 400 (UNEP, 2001; FAS) of these rounds where with DU penetrators, and the rest with a classical charge. This means that Cape Arza was contaminated with 90 or 120 kg of DU, or with a radioactivity of (3.5 - 4.7) · 10 9 Bq. Depleted uranium is a waste product of the process of uranium enrichment in 2 35U isotope, for use in nuclear reactors or in nuclear weapons. The isotopic composition of depleted uranium is (Harley et al., 1999): (99.7 - 99.8) % of 2 38U , (0.2 - 0.3) % of 2 35U , 0.001 % of 2 34U , and only traces of 2 34T h, 2 34P a and 2 31T h. If traces of the isotopes 2 36U , 2 39P u and 2 40P u are also present, as it is the case with DU from Cape Arza (UNEP, 2002), the depleted uranium is obtained by reprocessing of spent nuclear reactor fuel. The activity concentration of depleted uranium is 39.42 · 10 6 Bq/kg. Most of it comes from 2 38U and its decay products 2 34T h and 2 34P a which are in radioactive equilibrium (12.27 · 10 6 Bq/kg per each of them), and the less part from 2 35U and 2 31T h (0.16 · 10 6 Bq/kg per each) (UNEP, 1999), while the activity concentration of 2 36U , 2 39P u and 2 40P u is below 100 Bq/kg (UNEP, 2001)

  14. Leukocyte depletion results in improved lung function and reduced inflammatory response after cardiac surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gu, YJ; Boonstra, PW; vanOeveren, W

    Leukocyte depletion during cardiopulmonary bypass has been demonstrated in animal experiments to improve pulmonary function, Conflicting results have been reported, however, with clinical depletion by arterial line filter of leukocytes at the beginning of cardiopulmonary bypass. In this study, we

  15. Nature gives us strength: exposure to nature counteracts ego-depletion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Jason T; Lau, Shun

    2015-01-01

    Previous research rarely investigated the role of physical environment in counteracting ego-depletion. In the present research, we hypothesized that exposure to natural environment counteracts ego-depletion. Three experiments were conducted to test this hypothesis. In Experiment 1, initially depleted participants who viewed pictures of nature scenes showed greater persistence on a subsequent anagram task than those who were given a rest period. Experiment 2 expanded upon this finding by showing that natural environment enhanced logical reasoning performance after ego-depleting task. Experiment 3 adopted a two- (depletion vs. no-depletion) -by-two (nature exposure vs. urban exposure) factorial design. We found that nature exposure moderated the effect of depletion on anagram task performance. Taken together, the present studies offer a viable and novel strategy to mitigate the negative impacts of ego-depletion.

  16. Electrochemical corrosion behaviours of pulsed bias MSIP aluminum coating on depleted uranium surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Qingfu; Zhang Pengcheng; Chen Lin; Liu Qinghe; Lang Dingmu; Wang Xiaohong

    2009-01-01

    Aluminum coating was prepared by magnetron sputtering ion plating (MSIP) with pulsed bias on depleted uranium surface. Its electrochemical corrosion behaviours were studied by electrochemical technology, scanning electron microscope (SEM) and X-ray energy dispersive spectroscope (EDS). The corrosion potential of aluminum coating (-534.8 mV) is higher than that of depleted uranium (-641.2 mV). The aluminum coating is a cathodic deposit to depleted uranium. Depleted uranium coated aluminum has much higher polarization resistance,greater magnitude of electrochemical impedance and much lower corrosion current than that of depleted uranium. The aluminum coating has a good corrosion resistance to depleted uranium. Corrosion characteristic of depleted uranium coated aluminum is a typical local corrosion. Meanwhile,the aluminum coating cracks and flakes off from depleted uranium substrate, which deteriorates its anti-corrosion property. Pseudo-diffusion layer on interface between aluminum coating and uranium substrate has some degree of anti-corrosion effect. (authors)

  17. The influence of the Calbuco eruption on the 2015 Antarctic ozone hole in a fully coupled chemistry-climate model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivy, Diane J.; Solomon, Susan; Kinnison, Doug; Mills, Michael J.; Schmidt, Anja; Neely, Ryan R.

    2017-03-01

    Recent research has demonstrated that the concentrations of anthropogenic halocarbons have decreased in response to the worldwide phaseout of ozone depleting substances. Yet in 2015 the Antarctic ozone hole reached a historical record daily average size in October. Model simulations with specified dynamics and temperatures based on a reanalysis suggested that the record size was likely due to the eruption of Calbuco but did not allow for fully coupled dynamical or thermal feedbacks. We present simulations of the impact of the 2015 Calbuco eruption on the stratosphere using the Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model with interactive dynamics and temperatures. Comparisons of the interactive and specified dynamics simulations indicate that chemical ozone depletion due to volcanic aerosols played a key role in establishing the record-sized ozone hole of October 2015. The analysis of an ensemble of interactive simulations with and without volcanic aerosols suggests that the forced response to the eruption of Calbuco was an increase in the size of the ozone hole by 4.5 × 106 km2.

  18. Leukocyte depletion during cardiac operation : A new approach through the venous bypass circuit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gu, YJ; de Vries, AJ; Vos, P; Boonstra, PW; van Oeveren, W

    Background. Leukocyte depletion recently has been introduced for cardiac surgical patients to attenuate leukocyte-mediated inflammation and organ reperfusion injury. We evaluated the feasibility of a new leukocyte depletion method in which systemic leukocyte depletion is achieved through the venous

  19. 26 CFR 1.612-1 - Basis for allowance of cost depletion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Natural Resources § 1.612-1 Basis for allowance of cost depletion. (a) In general. The basis upon which the deduction for cost depletion under section 611 is to be... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Basis for allowance of cost depletion. 1.612-1...

  20. Analysis of groundwater flow and stream depletion in L-shaped fluvial aquifers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.-C. Lin

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the head distribution in aquifers is crucial for the evaluation of groundwater resources. This article develops a model for describing flow induced by pumping in an L-shaped fluvial aquifer bounded by impermeable bedrocks and two nearly fully penetrating streams. A similar scenario for numerical studies was reported in Kihm et al. (2007. The water level of the streams is assumed to be linearly varying with distance. The aquifer is divided into two subregions and the continuity conditions of the hydraulic head and flux are imposed at the interface of the subregions. The steady-state solution describing the head distribution for the model without pumping is first developed by the method of separation of variables. The transient solution for the head distribution induced by pumping is then derived based on the steady-state solution as initial condition and the methods of finite Fourier transform and Laplace transform. Moreover, the solution for stream depletion rate (SDR from each of the two streams is also developed based on the head solution and Darcy's law. Both head and SDR solutions in the real time domain are obtained by a numerical inversion scheme called the Stehfest algorithm. The software MODFLOW is chosen to compare with the proposed head solution for the L-shaped aquifer. The steady-state and transient head distributions within the L-shaped aquifer predicted by the present solution are compared with the numerical simulations and measurement data presented in Kihm et al. (2007.

  1. Automated SDS Depletion for Mass Spectrometry of Intact Membrane Proteins though Transmembrane Electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kachuk, Carolyn; Faulkner, Melissa; Liu, Fang; Doucette, Alan A

    2016-08-05

    Membrane proteins are underrepresented in proteome analysis platforms because of their hydrophobic character, contributing to decreased solubility. Sodium dodecyl sulfate is a favored denaturant in proteomic workflows, facilitating cell lysis and protein dissolution; however, SDS impedes MS detection and therefore must be removed prior to analysis. Although strategies exist for SDS removal, they provide low recovery, purity, or reproducibility. Here we present a simple automated device, termed transmembrane electrophoresis (TME), incorporating the principles of membrane filtration, but with an applied electric current to ensure near-complete (99.9%) removal of the surfactant, including protein-bound SDS. Intact proteins are recovered in solution phase in high yield (90-100%) within 1 h of operation. The strategy is applied to protein standards and proteome mixtures, including an enriched membrane fraction from E. coli, resulting in quality MS spectra free of SDS adducts. The TME platform is applicable to both bottom-up MS/MS as well as LC-ESI-MS analysis of intact proteins. SDS-depleted fractions reveal a similar number of protein identifications (285) compared wit a non-SDS control (280), being highly correlated in terms of protein spectral counts. This fully automated approach to SDS removal presents a viable tool for proteome sample processing ahead of MS analysis. Data are available via ProteomeXchange, identifier PXD003941.

  2. Modeling and Depletion Simulations for a High Flux Isotope Reactor Cycle with a Representative Experiment Loading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandler, David [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Reactor and Nuclear Systems Division; Betzler, Ben [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Reactor and Nuclear Systems Division; Hirtz, Gregory John [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Reactor and Nuclear Systems Division; Ilas, Germina [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Reactor and Nuclear Systems Division; Sunny, Eva [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Reactor and Nuclear Systems Division

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of this report is to document a high-fidelity VESTA/MCNP High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) core model that features a new, representative experiment loading. This model, which represents the current, high-enriched uranium fuel core, will serve as a reference for low-enriched uranium conversion studies, safety-basis calculations, and other research activities. A new experiment loading model was developed to better represent current, typical experiment loadings, in comparison to the experiment loading included in the model for Cycle 400 (operated in 2004). The new experiment loading model for the flux trap target region includes full length 252Cf production targets, 75Se production capsules, 63Ni production capsules, a 188W production capsule, and various materials irradiation targets. Fully loaded 238Pu production targets are modeled in eleven vertical experiment facilities located in the beryllium reflector. Other changes compared to the Cycle 400 model are the high-fidelity modeling of the fuel element side plates and the material composition of the control elements. Results obtained from the depletion simulations with the new model are presented, with a focus on time-dependent isotopic composition of irradiated fuel and single cycle isotope production metrics.

  3. Heterogeneous OH oxidation of motor oil particles causes selective depletion of branched and less cyclic hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaacman, Gabriel; Chan, Arthur W H; Nah, Theodora; Worton, David R; Ruehl, Chris R; Wilson, Kevin R; Goldstein, Allen H

    2012-10-02

    Motor oil serves as a useful model system for atmospheric oxidation of hydrocarbon mixtures typical of anthropogenic atmospheric particulate matter, but its complexity often prevents comprehensive chemical speciation. In this work we fully characterize this formerly "unresolved complex mixture" at the molecular level using recently developed soft ionization gas chromatography techniques. Nucleated motor oil particles are oxidized in a flow tube reactor to investigate the relative reaction rates of observed hydrocarbon classes: alkanes, cycloalkanes, bicycloalkanes, tricycloalkanes, and steranes. Oxidation of hydrocarbons in a complex aerosol is found to be efficient, with approximately three-quarters (0.72 ± 0.06) of OH collisions yielding a reaction. Reaction rates of individual hydrocarbons are structurally dependent: compared to normal alkanes, reaction rates increased by 20-50% with branching, while rates decreased ∼20% per nonaromatic ring present. These differences in rates are expected to alter particle composition as a function of oxidation, with depletion of branched and enrichment of cyclic hydrocarbons. Due to this expected shift toward ring-opening reactions heterogeneous oxidation of the unreacted hydrocarbon mixture is less likely to proceed through fragmentation pathways in more oxidized particles. Based on the observed oxidation-induced changes in composition, isomer-resolved analysis has potential utility for determining the photochemical age of atmospheric particulate matter with respect to heterogeneous oxidation.

  4. Self-Guiding of Ultrashort Relativistically Intense Laser Pulses to the Limit of Nonlinear Pump Depletion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ralph, J. E.; Marsh, K. A.; Pak, A. E.; Lu, W.; Clayton, C. E.; Fang, F.; Joshi, C.; Tsung, F. S.; Mori, W. B.

    2009-01-01

    A study of self-guiding of ultra short, relativistically intense laser pulses is presented. Here, the laser pulse length is on the order of the nonlinear plasma wavelength and the normalized vector potential is greater than one. Self-guiding of ultrashort laser pulses over tens of Rayliegh lengths is possible when driving a highly nonlinear wake. In this case, self-guiding is limited by nonlinear pump depletion. Erosion of the pulse due to diffraction at the head of the laser pulse is minimized for spot sizes close to the blow-out radius. This is due to the slowing of the group velocity of the photons at the head of the laser pulse. Using an approximately 10 TW Ti:Sapphire laser with a pulse length of approximately 50 fs, experimental results are presented showing self-guiding over lengths exceeding 30 Rayliegh lengths in various length Helium gas jets. Fully explicit 3D PIC simulations supporting the experimental results are also presented.

  5. Acetic acid induces pH-independent cellular energy depletion in Salmonella enterica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Sin Mei; Lee, Sui Mae; Dykes, Gary A

    2015-03-01

    Weak organic acids are widely used as preservatives and disinfectants in the food industry. Despite their widespread use, the antimicrobial mode of action of organic acids is still not fully understood. This study investigated the effect of acetic acid on the cell membranes and cellular energy generation of four Salmonella strains. Using a nucleic acid/protein assay, it was established that acetic acid did not cause leakage of intracellular components from the strains. A scanning electron microscopy study further confirmed that membrane disruption was not the antimicrobial mode of action of acetic acid. Some elongated Salmonella cells observed in the micrographs indicated a possibility that acetic acid may inhibit DNA synthesis in the bacterial cells. Using an ATP assay, it was found that at a neutral pH, acetic acid caused cellular energy depletion with an ADP/ATP ratio in the range between 0.48 and 2.63 (pacid molecules. The antimicrobial effect of acetic acid was better under acidic conditions (ADP/ATP ratio of 5.56 ± 1.27; pacid molecules can act together. We concluded that the inhibitory effect of acetic acid is not solely attributable to acidic pH but also to undissociated acid molecules. This finding has implication for the use of acetic acid as an antimicrobial against Salmonella on food products, such as chicken meat, which can buffer its pH.

  6. Comparison of ractopamine residue depletion from internal tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pleadin, J; Vulić, A; Perši, N; Terzić, S; Andrišić, M; Zarković, I; Sandor, K; Perak, E

    2013-02-01

    The aim of the study was to compare residue depletion of ractopamine HCl as a β-adrenergic agonist that promotes muscle growth of animals, from internal tissues on days after its repeat administration to animals. The experiment was carried out in 38 albino guinea pigs. Treated animals (n = 30) were orally administered ractopamine HCl in a dose of 3.5 mg/kg body mass per day for 7 consecutive days. On days 1, 10, 20 and 30 of drug discontinuation, animals were randomly sacrificed and the liver, kidney, lung, heart, muscle, spleen and fat samples were collected. In all matrices, ractopamine concentration was determined using validated enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) as a quantitative screening method. The highest ractopamine concentration was recorded on day 1 in the lungs (55.80 ± 15.62 μg/kg), followed by the kidney (21.85 ± 3.91 μg/kg), spleen (12.59 ± 1.95 μg/kg), fat (10.17 ± 5.02 μg/kg), heart (9.73 ± 0.22 μg/kg), liver (5.58 ± 2.09 μg/kg), and lowest in muscle (2.21 ± 1.02 μg/kg). Ractopamine residues were detected in the lungs in the period of 30 days after withdrawal in significantly higher concentrations in comparison to other investigated matrices, suggesting that depletion of ractopamine from the lungs occurs at a much slower rate than its depletion from other internal tissues.

  7. L-Tryptophan depletion bioreactor, a possible cancer therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolf Bambauer

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The cancer therapeutic strategies knownto date are not adequate for all cancer patients. Most of them are followed by a high rate of side effects and complications. The L-tryptophan depletion bioreactor is described as a possible new method of cancer therapy. L-tryptophan is an essential amino acid which has been recognized as an important cancer nutrient and its removal can lead to destruction of the tumour. Normal human cells or tumor cells cannot synthesize L-tryptophan and therefore tumor resistance is unlikely to develop. L-tryptophan is also a constituent for different bio-molecules such as Serotonin, Melatonin, and is needed for other synthesis processes in the cell growth. L-tryptophan degrading enzymes with 3 iso-enzymes called tryptophan side chain oxydase (TSO I, II, III were isolated. The 3 iso-enzymes can be differentiated by tryptic digestion. They have different molecular weights with different effectivenesses. All the TSO enzymes have heme that can catalyze essentially similar reactions involving L-tryptophan as a substrate. The most effective TSO is the type TSO III. A column which contained TSO as a bioreactor was integrated in a plasmapheresis unit and tested it in different animals. In sheep and rabbits L-tryptophan depletion in plasma was shown at 95% and 100% rates respectively by a single pass through the bioreactor. The results in immune supprimized rats with tumors were impressive, too. In 20 different tumor cell lines there were different efficacies. Brest cancer and medulloblastoma showed the greatest efficacy of L-tryptophan degrading. The gene technology of TSO production from Pseudomonas is associated with formation of endotoxins. This disadvantage can be prevented by different washing procedures or by using fungal sources for the TSO production. TSO III is developed to treat cancer diseases successfully, and has low side effects. A combination of L-tryptophan depletion with all available cancer therapies is

  8. Selection of a management strategy for depleted uranium hexafluoride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patton, S.E.; Hanrahan, E.J.; Bradley, C.E.

    1995-01-01

    A consequence of the uranium enrichment process used in the United States (US) is the accumulation of a significant amount of depleted uranium hexafluoride (UF 6 ). Currently, approximately 560,000 metric tons of the material are stored at three different sites. The US Department of Energy (DOE) has recently initiated a program to consider alternative strategies for the cost-effective and environmentally safe long-term management of this inventory of depleted UF 6 . The program involves a technology and engineering assessment of proposed management options (use/reuse, conversion, storage, or disposal) and an analysis of the potential environmental impacts and life-cycle costs of alternative management strategies. The information obtained from the studies will be used by the DOE to select a preferred long-term management strategy. The selection and implementation of a management strategy will involve consideration of a number of important issues such as environmental, health, and safety effects; the balancing of risks versus costs in a context of reduced government spending; socioeconomic implications, including effects on the domestic and international uranium industry; the technical status of proposed uses or technologies; and public involvement in the decision making process. Because of its provisions for considering a wide range of relevant issues and involving the public, this program has become a model for future DOE materials disposition programs. This paper presents an overview of the Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride Management Program. Technical findings of the program to date are presented, and major issues involved in selecting and implementing a management strategy are discussed

  9. PKCι depletion initiates mitotic slippage-induced senescence in glioblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Restall, Ian J; Parolin, Doris A E; Daneshmand, Manijeh; Hanson, Jennifer E L; Simard, Manon A; Fitzpatrick, Megan E; Kumar, Ritesh; Lavictoire, Sylvie J; Lorimer, Ian A J

    2015-01-01

    Cellular senescence is a tumor suppressor mechanism where cells enter a permanent growth arrest following cellular stress. Oncogene-induced senescence (OIS) is induced in non-malignant cells following the expression of an oncogene or inactivation of a tumor suppressor. Previously, we have shown that protein kinase C iota (PKCι) depletion induces cellular senescence in glioblastoma cells in the absence of a detectable DNA damage response. Here we demonstrate that senescent glioblastoma cells exhibit an aberrant centrosome morphology. This was observed in basal levels of senescence, in p21-induced senescence, and in PKCι depletion-induced senescence. In addition, senescent glioblastoma cells are polyploid, Ki-67 negative and arrest at the G1/S checkpoint, as determined by expression of cell cycle regulatory proteins. These markers are all consistent with cells that have undergone mitotic slippage. Failure of the spindle assembly checkpoint to function properly can lead to mitotic slippage, resulting in the premature exit of mitotic cells into the G1 phase of the cell cycle. Although in G1, these cells have the replicated DNA and centrosomal phenotype of a cell that has entered mitosis and failed to divide. Overall, we demonstrate that PKCι depletion initiates mitotic slippage-induced senescence in glioblastoma cells. To our knowledge, this is the first evidence of markers of mitotic slippage directly in senescent cells by co-staining for senescence-associated β-galactosidase and immunofluorescence markers in the same cell population. We suggest that markers of mitotic slippage be assessed in future studies of senescence to determine the extent of mitotic slippage in the induction of cellular senescence.

  10. Depletion mapping and constrained optimization to support managing groundwater extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fienen, Michael N.; Bradbury, Kenneth R.; Kniffin, Maribeth; Barlow, Paul M.

    2018-01-01

    Groundwater models often serve as management tools to evaluate competing water uses including ecosystems, irrigated agriculture, industry, municipal supply, and others. Depletion potential mapping—showing the model-calculated potential impacts that wells have on stream baseflow—can form the basis for multiple potential management approaches in an oversubscribed basin. Specific management approaches can include scenarios proposed by stakeholders, systematic changes in well pumping based on depletion potential, and formal constrained optimization, which can be used to quantify the tradeoff between water use and stream baseflow. Variables such as the maximum amount of reduction allowed in each well and various groupings of wells using, for example, K-means clustering considering spatial proximity and depletion potential are considered. These approaches provide a potential starting point and guidance for resource managers and stakeholders to make decisions about groundwater management in a basin, spreading responsibility in different ways. We illustrate these approaches in the Little Plover River basin in central Wisconsin, United States—home to a rich agricultural tradition, with farmland and urban areas both in close proximity to a groundwater-dependent trout stream. Groundwater withdrawals have reduced baseflow supplying the Little Plover River below a legally established minimum. The techniques in this work were developed in response to engaged stakeholders with various interests and goals for the basin. They sought to develop a collaborative management plan at a watershed scale that restores the flow rate in the river in a manner that incorporates principles of shared governance and results in effective and minimally disruptive changes in groundwater extraction practices.

  11. Depleted-Heterojunction Colloidal Quantum Dot Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Pattantyus-Abraham, Andras G.

    2010-06-22

    Colloidal quantum dot (CQD) photovoltaics combine low-cost solution processability with quantum size-effect tunability to match absorption with the solar spectrum. Rapid recent advances in CQD photovoltaics have led to impressive 3.6% AM1.5 solar power conversion efficiencies. Two distinct device architectures and operating mechanisms have been advanced. The first-the Schottky device-was optimized and explained in terms of a depletion region driving electron-hole pair separation on the semiconductor side of a junction between an opaque low-work-function metal and a p-type CQD film. The second-the excitonic device-employed a CQD layer atop a transparent conductive oxide (TCO) and was explained in terms of diffusive exciton transport via energy transfer followed by exciton separation at the type-II heterointerface between the CQD film and the TCO. Here we fabricate CQD photovoltaic devices on TCOs and show that our devices rely on the establishment of a depletion region for field-driven charge transport and separation, and that they also exploit the large bandgap of the TCO to improve rectification and block undesired hole extraction. The resultant depletedheterojunction solar cells provide a 5.1% AM1.5 power conversion efficiency. The devices employ infrared-bandgap size-effect-tuned PbS CQDs, enabling broadband harvesting of the solar spectrum. We report the highest opencircuit voltages observed in solid-state CQD solar cells to date, as well as fill factors approaching 60%, through the combination of efficient hole blocking (heterojunction) and very small minority carrier density (depletion) in the large-bandgap moiety. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

  12. Depletion Rate of Hydrogen Peroxide from Sodium Perborate Bleaching Agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Liliann; Orth, Rebecca; Parashos, Peter; Tao, Ying; Tee, Calvin W J; Thomas, Vineet Thenalil; Towers, Georgina; Truong, Diem Thuy; Vinen, Cynthia; Reynolds, Eric C

    2017-03-01

    Internal bleaching of discolored teeth uses sodium perborate reacting with water to form the active agent, hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ). Sodium perborate is replaced at varying time intervals depending on clinician preference and until esthetically acceptable results are achieved, but this is done without scientific basis. This study measured the depletion rate of hydrogen peroxide from sodium perborate as a bleaching agent. Two sodium perborate bleaching products (Odontobleach [Australian Dental Manufacturing, Kenmore Hills, Queensland, Australia] and Endosure Perborate Micro [Dentalife, Ringwood, Victoria, Australia]) and distilled deionized water mixtures at ratios of 25 μg/mL, 50 μg/mL, and 100 μg/mL were placed into sealed microtubes and incubated at 37°C. H 2 O 2 concentrations were measured at 23 time points over 4 weeks. Quantification of H 2 O 2 concentrations was obtained using a ferrothiocyanate oxidation reduction reaction followed by spectrophotometry readings. The H 2 O 2 concentration rapidly peaked within 27 hours and reached a plateau by about 3 days (75 hours). Low levels of H 2 O 2 were evident beyond 3 days and for at least 28 days. No significant differences were found between the 2 sodium perborate products. There was also no significant difference in the depletion rate between the different ratios. Based on the chemistry of H 2 O 2 depletion, the minimum replacement interval for the bleaching agent is 3 days. Frequent replacements of the perborate clinically may be unnecessary because of the continued presence of low H 2 O 2 levels for at least 28 days. Although these data cannot be extrapolated to the clinical situation, they set a baseline for further studies to address the many clinical variables influencing internal bleaching. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Stratospheric ozone depletion from future nitrous oxide increases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Wang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available We have investigated the impact of the assumed nitrous oxide (N2O increases on stratospheric chemistry and dynamics using a series of idealized simulations with a coupled chemistry-climate model (CCM. In a future cooler stratosphere the net yield of NOy from N2O is shown to decrease in a reference run following the IPCC A1B scenario, but NOy can still be significantly increased by extra increases of N2O over 2001–2050. Over the last decade of simulations, 50% increases in N2O result in a maximal 6% reduction in ozone mixing ratios in the middle stratosphere at around 10 hPa and an average 2% decrease in the total ozone column (TCO compared with the control run. This enhanced destruction could cause an ozone decline in the first half of this century in the middle stratosphere around 10 hPa, while global TCO still shows an increase at the same time. The results from a multiple linear regression analysis and sensitivity simulations with different forcings show that the chemical effect of N2O increases dominates the N2O-induced ozone depletion in the stratosphere, while the dynamical and radiative effects of N2O increases are overall insignificant. The analysis of the results reveals that the ozone depleting potential of N2O varies with the time period and is influenced by the environmental conditions. For example, carbon dioxide (CO2 increases can strongly offset the ozone depletion effect of N2O.

  14. Configuration Synthesis for Fully Restrained 7-Cable-Driven Manipulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoqiang Tang

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Cable distribution plays a vital role in Cable Driven Parallel Manipulators (CDPMs regarding tension and workspace quality, especially in fully restrained CDPMs. This paper focuses on three typical configurations of fully restrained CDPMs with 7 cables in order to introduce an approach for configuration synthesis. Firstly, the kinematic models of three types of CDPMs with 7 cables are set up. Then, in order to evaluate workspace quality, two new indices are proposed by using tensions along each cable, which are the All Cable Tension Distribution Index (ACTDI and Global Tension Distribution Index (GTDI. Next, the three types of CDPMs with 7 cables are analysed with the two indices. At the end, according to different performance requirements, the configurations of cable distribution are discussed and selected.

  15. A Fully Symmetric and Completely Decoupled MEMS-SOI Gyroscope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelhameed SHARAF

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces a novel MEMS gyroscope that is capable of exciting the drive mode differentially. The structure also decouples the drive and sense modes via an intermediate mass and decoupling beams. Both drive and sense modes are fully differential enabling control over the zero-rate-output for the former and maximizing output sensitivity using a bridge circuit for the latter. Further, the structure is fully symmetric about the x- and y- axes which results in minimizing the temperature sensitivity problem. Complete analytical analysis based on the equations of motion was performed and verified using two commercially available finite element software packages. Results from both methods are in good agreement. The analysis of the sensor shows an electrical sensitivity of 1.14 (mV/(º/s. The gyroscope was fabricated using single mask and deep reactive ion etching. The measurement of the resonance frequency performed showing a good agreement with the analytical and numerical analysis.

  16. A fully scalable motion model for scalable video coding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Meng-Ping; Nguyen, Truong

    2008-06-01

    Motion information scalability is an important requirement for a fully scalable video codec, especially for decoding scenarios of low bit rate or small image size. So far, several scalable coding techniques on motion information have been proposed, including progressive motion vector precision coding and motion vector field layered coding. However, it is still vague on the required functionalities of motion scalability and how it collaborates flawlessly with other scalabilities, such as spatial, temporal, and quality, in a scalable video codec. In this paper, we first define the functionalities required for motion scalability. Based on these requirements, a fully scalable motion model is proposed along with tailored encoding techniques to minimize the coding overhead of scalability. Moreover, the associated rate distortion optimized motion estimation algorithm will be provided to achieve better efficiency throughout various decoding scenarios. Simulation results will be presented to verify the superiorities of proposed scalable motion model over nonscalable ones.

  17. Toward textbook multigrid efficiency for fully implicit resistive magnetohydrodynamics

    KAUST Repository

    Adams, Mark F.

    2010-09-01

    Multigrid methods can solve some classes of elliptic and parabolic equations to accuracy below the truncation error with a work-cost equivalent to a few residual calculations so-called "textbook" multigrid efficiency. We investigate methods to solve the system of equations that arise in time dependent magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) simulations with textbook multigrid efficiency. We apply multigrid techniques such as geometric interpolation, full approximate storage, Gauss-Seidel smoothers, and defect correction for fully implicit, nonlinear, second-order finite volume discretizations of MHD. We apply these methods to a standard resistive MHD benchmark problem, the GEM reconnection problem, and add a strong magnetic guide field, which is a critical characteristic of magnetically confined fusion plasmas. We show that our multigrid methods can achieve near textbook efficiency on fully implicit resistive MHD simulations. (C) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Asteroseismology of pulsating DA white dwarfs with fully evolutionary models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Althaus L.G.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available We present a new approach for asteroseismology of DA white dwarfs that consists in the employment of a large set of non-static, physically sound, fully evolutionary models representative of these stars. We already have applied this approach with success to pulsating PG1159 stars (GW Vir variables. Our white dwarf models, which cover a wide range of stellar masses, effective temperatures, and envelope thicknesses, are the result of fully evolutionary computations that take into account the complete history of the progenitor stars from the ZAMS. In particular, the models are characterized by self-consistent chemical structures from the centre to the surface, a crucial aspect of white dwarf asteroseismology. We apply this approach to an ensemble of 44 bright DAV (ZZ Ceti stars.

  19. Toward textbook multigrid efficiency for fully implicit resistive magnetohydrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, Mark F.; Samtaney, Ravi; Brandt, Achi

    2013-01-01

    Multigrid methods can solve some classes of elliptic and parabolic equations to accuracy below the truncation error with a work-cost equivalent to a few residual calculations so-called textbook multigrid efficiency. We investigate methods to solve the system of equations that arise in time dependent magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) simulations with textbook multigrid efficiency. We apply multigrid techniques such as geometric interpolation, full approximate storage, Gauss-Seidel smoothers, and defect correction for fully implicit, nonlinear, second-order finite volume discretizations of MHD. We apply these methods to a standard resistive MHD benchmark problem, the GEM reconnection problem, and add a strong magnetic guide field, which is a critical characteristic of magnetically confined fusion plasmas. We show that our multigrid methods can achieve near textbook efficiency on fully implicit resistive MHD simulations.

  20. The production of fully deacetylated chitosan by compression method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaofei He

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Chitosan’s activities are significantly affected by degree of deacetylation (DDA, while fully deacetylated chitosan is difficult to produce in a large scale. Therefore, this paper introduces a compression method for preparing 100% deacetylated chitosan with less environmental pollution. The product is characterized by XRD, FT-IR, UV and HPLC. The 100% fully deacetylated chitosan is produced in low-concentration alkali and high-pressure conditions, which only requires 15% alkali solution and 1:10 chitosan powder to NaOH solution ratio under 0.11–0.12 MPa for 120 min. When the alkali concentration varied from 5% to 15%, the chitosan with ultra-high DDA value (up to 95% is produced.

  1. Depleted uranium storage and disposal trade study: Summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hightower, J.R.; Trabalka, J.R.

    2000-02-01

    The objectives of this study were to: identify the most desirable forms for conversion of depleted uranium hexafluoride (DUF6) for extended storage, identify the most desirable forms for conversion of DUF6 for disposal, evaluate the comparative costs for extended storage or disposal of the various forms, review benefits of the proposed plasma conversion process, estimate simplified life-cycle costs (LCCs) for five scenarios that entail either disposal or beneficial reuse, and determine whether an overall optimal form for conversion of DUF6 can be selected given current uncertainty about the endpoints (specific disposal site/technology or reuse options).

  2. Tungsten versus depleted uranium for armour-piercing penetrators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, P.K.

    1983-01-01

    Tungsten alloys have been widely used in the production of armour-piercing (AP) penetrators for defense purposes for the past 40 years. In recent years, however, depleted uranium (DU) has also been utilised for this application. Both materials exhibit high density and strength, two properties necessary for kinetic-energy projectiles to penetrate armour on tanks and other vehicles. The facts, however, support the view that tungsten can and should be utilised as the primary material for most armour-defeating ordnance applications. (author)

  3. PP005. Vitamin D depletion aggravates hypertension in transgenic rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørkholt Andersen, Louise; Herse, Florian; Christesen, Henrik Thybo

    2013-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Vitamin D may ameliorate hypertension and kidney disease through genomic and extra-genomic pathways. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the impact of vitamin D in a transgenic rat model of angiotensin II-mediated hypertensive organ failure. METHODS: In 4-week-old age-matched rats...... found between groups in mortality or proteinuria. CONCLUSION: Short-term vitamin D depletion aggravated hypertension and end-organ damage in a rat model of angiotensin II-induced hypertension. Short-term interventions with high-dose vitamin D analogues had no protective effect....

  4. Microstructure of depleted uranium under uniaxial strain conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zurek, A.K.; Embury, J.D.; Kelly, A.; Thissell, W.R.; Gustavsen, R.L.; Vorthman, J.E.; Hixson, R.H.

    1997-09-01

    Uranium samples of two different purities were used for spall strength measurements. Samples of depleted uranium were taken from very high purity material (38 ppM carbon) and from material containing 280 ppM C. Experimental conditions were chosen to effectively arrest the microstructural damage at two places in the development to full spall separation. Samples were soft recovered and characterized with respect to the microstructure and the form of damage. This allowed determination of the dependence of spall mechanisms on stress level, stress state, and sample purity. This information is used in developing a model to predict the mode of fracture.

  5. Relativistic nuclear physics: symmetry and the correlation depletion principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldin, A.M.

    1996-01-01

    The author's view on the role of symmetry in fundamental physics is presented. The concept of the 'symmetry of solutions' is analyzed. It is stressed that it is impossible to deduce the basic laws of relativistic nuclear physics from the QCD Lagrangians without recourse to additional hypotheses about the symmetry of solutions (Green functions). The test of these hypotheses is the major prospect of the study of hadron and nuclear collisions. Special importance is given to the Correlation Depletions Principle that makes it possible to construct mathematical models of relativistic nuclear physics, and analyze, by using simple terms, topologically complicated events of nucleus-nucleus collisions. 15 refs., 4 figs

  6. Effect of acrolein and glutathione depleting agents on thioredoxin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Xianmei; Wu Xuli; Choi, Young Eun; Kern, Julie C.; Kehrer, James P.

    2004-01-01

    Acrolein is a widespread environmental pollutant that reacts rapidly with nucleophiles, especially cellular thiols. In addition to glutathione (GSH), thioredoxin (Trx) and thioredoxin reductase (TR) contain thiol groups and may react with electrophiles. In the present study, A549 cells treated with 5-25 μM acrolein for 30 min lost cellular Trx activity in a dose-dependent fashion. Over 90% of Trx activity was lost at concentrations of 25 μM or greater. In contrast, Trx protein content, as assessed by western blotting, was not altered immediately after the 30 min acrolein treatment. Both Trx activity and protein levels increased 4 h after the acrolein treatment. However, Trx activity remained below control levels at 24 h. A similar dose-response relationship was seen with TR in A549 cells exposed to acrolein. There was, however, a rapid recovery of TR activity such that it attained normal levels by 4 h after doses ≤75 μM acrolein. Diethyl maleate (DEM), a common but not highly specific, agent used to deplete GSH, also inactivated Trx. A 2 h exposure of A549 cells to 1 mM DEM depleted cellular GSH by ∼50% and diminished Trx activity by over 67%. Lower DEM doses (0.125 mM and 0.25 mM) for 1 h had no significant effect on GSH but significantly decreased Trx activity 12 and 23%, respectively. Similar to immediately after acrolein exposure, DEM did not affect Trx protein levels. A Trx-1-GFP fusion protein was transfected into A549 cells. While the fusion protein was expressed, the Trx component was inactive by the insulin reducing assay. In summary, Trx and TR are inactivated by acrolein. In addition, the GSH depleting agent DEM inactivates Trx somewhat more effectively than it depletes GSH. The Trx-1-GFP fusion protein, while readily expressed, appears to have little or no activity, perhaps because the small size of Trx-1 (12 kDa) is affected by the larger GFP

  7. Depleted uranium storage and disposal trade study: Summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hightower, J.R.; Trabalka, J.R.

    2000-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to: identify the most desirable forms for conversion of depleted uranium hexafluoride (DUF6) for extended storage, identify the most desirable forms for conversion of DUF6 for disposal, evaluate the comparative costs for extended storage or disposal of the various forms, review benefits of the proposed plasma conversion process, estimate simplified life-cycle costs (LCCs) for five scenarios that entail either disposal or beneficial reuse, and determine whether an overall optimal form for conversion of DUF6 can be selected given current uncertainty about the endpoints (specific disposal site/technology or reuse options)

  8. Printing Tablets with Fully Customizable Release Profiles for Personalized Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yajuan; Soh, Siowling

    2015-12-16

    Personalizing the release profiles of drugs is important for different people with different medical and biological conditions. A technically simple and low-cost method to fabricate fully customizable tablets that can deliver drugs with any type of release profile is described. The customization is intuitively straightforward: the desired profile can simply be "drawn" and printed by a 3D printer. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. An introduction to geometric theory of fully nonlinear parabolic equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lunardi, A.

    1991-01-01

    We study a class of nonlinear evolution equations in general Banach space being an abstract version of fully nonlinear parabolic equations. In addition to results of existence, uniqueness and continuous dependence on the data, we give some qualitative results about stability of the stationary solutions, existence and stability of the periodic orbits. We apply such results to some parabolic problems arising from combustion theory. (author). 24 refs

  10. Fully convolutional neural networks for polyp segmentation in colonoscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Rosa Brandao, P.; Mazomenos, E.; Ciuti, G.; Bianchi, F.; Menciassi, A.; Dario, P.; Koulaouzidis, A.; Arezzo, A.; Stoyanov, D.

    2017-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most common and deadliest forms of cancer, accounting for nearly 10% of all forms of cancer in the world. Even though colonoscopy is considered the most effective method for screening and diagnosis, the success of the procedure is highly dependent on the operator skills and level of hand-eye coordination. In this work, we propose to adapt fully convolution neural networks (FCN), to identify and segment polyps in colonoscopy images. We converted three esta...

  11. Semi-Supervised Deep Learning for Fully Convolutional Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Baur, Christoph; Albarqouni, Shadi; Navab, Nassir

    2017-01-01

    Deep learning usually requires large amounts of labeled training data, but annotating data is costly and tedious. The framework of semi-supervised learning provides the means to use both labeled data and arbitrary amounts of unlabeled data for training. Recently, semi-supervised deep learning has been intensively studied for standard CNN architectures. However, Fully Convolutional Networks (FCNs) set the state-of-the-art for many image segmentation tasks. To the best of our knowledge, there i...

  12. Fully probabilistic control design in an adaptive critic framework

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Herzallah, R.; Kárný, Miroslav

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 24, č. 10 (2011), s. 1128-1135 ISSN 0893-6080 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA102/08/0567 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : Stochastic control design * Fully probabilistic design * Adaptive control * Adaptive critic Subject RIV: BC - Control Systems Theory Impact factor: 2.182, year: 2011 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2011/AS/karny-0364820.pdf

  13. Consolidity analysis for fully fuzzy functions, matrices, probability and statistics

    OpenAIRE

    Walaa Ibrahim Gabr

    2015-01-01

    The paper presents a comprehensive review of the know-how for developing the systems consolidity theory for modeling, analysis, optimization and design in fully fuzzy environment. The solving of systems consolidity theory included its development for handling new functions of different dimensionalities, fuzzy analytic geometry, fuzzy vector analysis, functions of fuzzy complex variables, ordinary differentiation of fuzzy functions and partial fraction of fuzzy polynomials. On the other hand, ...

  14. CMS on the GRID: Toward a fully distributed computing architecture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Innocente, Vincenzo

    2003-01-01

    The computing systems required to collect, analyse and store the physics data at LHC would need to be distributed and global in scope. CMS is actively involved in several grid-related projects to develop and deploy a fully distributed computing architecture. We present here recent developments of tools for automating job submission and for serving data to remote analysis stations. Plans for further test and deployment of a production grid are also described

  15. Fully automated MRI-guided robotics for prostate brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoianovici, D.; Vigaru, B.; Petrisor, D.; Muntener, M.; Patriciu, A.; Song, D.

    2008-01-01

    The uncertainties encountered in the deployment of brachytherapy seeds are related to the commonly used ultrasound imager and the basic instrumentation used for the implant. An alternative solution is under development in which a fully automated robot is used to place the seeds according to the dosimetry plan under direct MRI-guidance. Incorporation of MRI-guidance creates potential for physiological and molecular image-guided therapies. Moreover, MRI-guided brachytherapy is also enabling for re-estimating dosimetry during the procedure, because with the MRI the seeds already implanted can be localised. An MRI compatible robot (MrBot) was developed. The robot is designed for transperineal percutaneous prostate interventions, and customised for fully automated MRI-guided brachytherapy. With different end-effectors, the robot applies to other image-guided interventions of the prostate. The robot is constructed of non-magnetic and dielectric materials and is electricity free using pneumatic actuation and optic sensing. A new motor (PneuStep) was purposely developed to set this robot in motion. The robot fits alongside the patient in closed-bore MRI scanners. It is able to stay fully operational during MR imaging without deteriorating the quality of the scan. In vitro, cadaver, and animal tests showed millimetre needle targeting accuracy, and very precise seed placement. The robot tested without any interference up to 7T. The robot is the first fully automated robot to function in MRI scanners. Its first application is MRI-guided seed brachytherapy. It is capable of automated, highly accurate needle placement. Extensive testing is in progress prior to clinical trials. Preliminary results show that the robot may become a useful image-guided intervention instrument. (author)

  16. Cardiac imaging: working towards fully-automated machine analysis & interpretation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slomka, Piotr J; Dey, Damini; Sitek, Arkadiusz; Motwani, Manish; Berman, Daniel S; Germano, Guido

    2017-03-01

    Non-invasive imaging plays a critical role in managing patients with cardiovascular disease. Although subjective visual interpretation remains the clinical mainstay, quantitative analysis facilitates objective, evidence-based management, and advances in clinical research. This has driven developments in computing and software tools aimed at achieving fully automated image processing and quantitative analysis. In parallel, machine learning techniques have been used to rapidly integrate large amounts of clinical and quantitative imaging data to provide highly personalized individual patient-based conclusions. Areas covered: This review summarizes recent advances in automated quantitative imaging in cardiology and describes the latest techniques which incorporate machine learning principles. The review focuses on the cardiac imaging techniques which are in wide clinical use. It also discusses key issues and obstacles for these tools to become utilized in mainstream clinical practice. Expert commentary: Fully-automated processing and high-level computer interpretation of cardiac imaging are becoming a reality. Application of machine learning to the vast amounts of quantitative data generated per scan and integration with clinical data also facilitates a move to more patient-specific interpretation. These developments are unlikely to replace interpreting physicians but will provide them with highly accurate tools to detect disease, risk-stratify, and optimize patient-specific treatment. However, with each technological advance, we move further from human dependence and closer to fully-automated machine interpretation.

  17. Fully hadronic ttbar cross section measurement with ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    Bertella, Claudia

    2011-01-01

    The top quark pair production cross section in the fully hadronic final state is characterized by a six jet topology, two of which could be identified as originating from a b-quark using ATLAS b-tagging algorithms. Compared to other decay channels, this final state presents an advantageous larger branching ratio; on the other hand it suffers from a very large QCD multi-jet background, generally difficult to estimate from Monte Carlo simulation and therefore evaluated using data-driven techniques. The analysis is performed using 36pb-1 of pp collisions produced at the LHC with a center-of-mass energy of 7 TeV. The observed upper limit is set at 261 pb at 95% confidence level, where the expected Standard Model cross-section for the ttbar process is 165+11-16 pb. In the future, when the LHC luminosity increases, it is essential, to efficiently trigger on these fully hadronic ttbar events, to use dedicated triggers. An overview of the analysis for ttbar production cross section measurement in the fully hadronic f...

  18. Fully integrated digital GAMMA camera-computer system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berger, H.J.; Eisner, R.L.; Gober, A.; Plankey, M.; Fajman, W.

    1985-01-01

    Although most of the new non-nuclear imaging techniques are fully digital, there has been a reluctance in nuclear medicine to abandon traditional analog planar imaging in favor of digital acquisition and display. The authors evaluated a prototype digital camera system (GE STARCAM) in which all of the analog acquisition components are replaced by microprocessor controls and digital circuitry. To compare the relative effects of acquisition matrix size on image quality and to ascertain whether digital techniques could be used in place of analog imaging, Tc-99m bone scans were obtained on this digital system and on a comparable analog camera in 10 patients. The dedicated computer is used for camera setup including definition of the energy window, spatial energy correction, and spatial distortion correction. The display monitor, which is used for patient positioning and image analysis, is 512/sup 2/ non-interlaced, allowing high resolution imaging. Data acquisition and processing can be performed simultaneously. Thus, the development of a fully integrated digital camera-computer system with optimized display should allow routine utilization of non-analog studies in nuclear medicine and the ultimate establishment of fully digital nuclear imaging laboratories

  19. Soft Ultrathin Electronics Innervated Adaptive Fully Soft Robots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chengjun; Sim, Kyoseung; Chen, Jin; Kim, Hojin; Rao, Zhoulyu; Li, Yuhang; Chen, Weiqiu; Song, Jizhou; Verduzco, Rafael; Yu, Cunjiang

    2018-02-05

    Soft robots outperform the conventional hard robots on significantly enhanced safety, adaptability, and complex motions. The development of fully soft robots, especially fully from smart soft materials to mimic soft animals, is still nascent. In addition, to date, existing soft robots cannot adapt themselves to the surrounding environment, i.e., sensing and adaptive motion or response, like animals. Here, compliant ultrathin sensing and actuating electronics innervated fully soft robots that can sense the environment and perform soft bodied crawling adaptively, mimicking an inchworm, are reported. The soft robots are constructed with actuators of open-mesh shaped ultrathin deformable heaters, sensors of single-crystal Si optoelectronic photodetectors, and thermally responsive artificial muscle of carbon-black-doped liquid-crystal elastomer (LCE-CB) nanocomposite. The results demonstrate that adaptive crawling locomotion can be realized through the conjugation of sensing and actuation, where the sensors sense the environment and actuators respond correspondingly to control the locomotion autonomously through regulating the deformation of LCE-CB bimorphs and the locomotion of the robots. The strategy of innervating soft sensing and actuating electronics with artificial muscles paves the way for the development of smart autonomous soft robots. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Building Extraction from Remote Sensing Data Using Fully Convolutional Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittner, K.; Cui, S.; Reinartz, P.

    2017-05-01

    Building detection and footprint extraction are highly demanded for many remote sensing applications. Though most previous works have shown promising results, the automatic extraction of building footprints still remains a nontrivial topic, especially in complex urban areas. Recently developed extensions of the CNN framework made it possible to perform dense pixel-wise classification of input images. Based on these abilities we propose a methodology, which automatically generates a full resolution binary building mask out of a Digital Surface Model (DSM) using a Fully Convolution Network (FCN) architecture. The advantage of using the depth information is that it provides geometrical silhouettes and allows a better separation of buildings from background as well as through its invariance to illumination and color variations. The proposed framework has mainly two steps. Firstly, the FCN is trained on a large set of patches consisting of normalized DSM (nDSM) as inputs and available ground truth building mask as target outputs. Secondly, the generated predictions from FCN are viewed as unary terms for a Fully connected Conditional Random Fields (FCRF), which enables us to create a final binary building mask. A series of experiments demonstrate that our methodology is able to extract accurate building footprints which are close to the buildings original shapes to a high degree. The quantitative and qualitative analysis show the significant improvements of the results in contrast to the multy-layer fully connected network from our previous work.

  1. BUILDING EXTRACTION FROM REMOTE SENSING DATA USING FULLY CONVOLUTIONAL NETWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Bittner

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Building detection and footprint extraction are highly demanded for many remote sensing applications. Though most previous works have shown promising results, the automatic extraction of building footprints still remains a nontrivial topic, especially in complex urban areas. Recently developed extensions of the CNN framework made it possible to perform dense pixel-wise classification of input images. Based on these abilities we propose a methodology, which automatically generates a full resolution binary building mask out of a Digital Surface Model (DSM using a Fully Convolution Network (FCN architecture. The advantage of using the depth information is that it provides geometrical silhouettes and allows a better separation of buildings from background as well as through its invariance to illumination and color variations. The proposed framework has mainly two steps. Firstly, the FCN is trained on a large set of patches consisting of normalized DSM (nDSM as inputs and available ground truth building mask as target outputs. Secondly, the generated predictions from FCN are viewed as unary terms for a Fully connected Conditional Random Fields (FCRF, which enables us to create a final binary building mask. A series of experiments demonstrate that our methodology is able to extract accurate building footprints which are close to the buildings original shapes to a high degree. The quantitative and qualitative analysis show the significant improvements of the results in contrast to the multy-layer fully connected network from our previous work.

  2. Systemic and Cardiac Depletion of M2 Macrophage through CSF-1R Signaling Inhibition Alters Cardiac Function Post Myocardial Infarction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Laure Leblond

    Full Text Available The heart hosts tissue resident macrophages which are capable of modulating cardiac inflammation and function by multiple mechanisms. At present, the consequences of phenotypic diversity in macrophages in the heart are incompletely understood. The contribution of cardiac M2-polarized macrophages to the resolution of inflammation and repair response following myocardial infarction remains to be fully defined. In this study, the role of M2 macrophages was investigated utilising a specific CSF-1 receptor signalling inhibition strategy to achieve their depletion. In mice, oral administration of GW2580, a CSF-1R kinase inhibitor, induced significant decreases in Gr1lo and F4/80hi monocyte populations in the circulation and the spleen. GW2580 administration also induced a significant depletion of M2 macrophages in the heart after 1 week treatment as well as a reduction of cardiac arginase1 and CD206 gene expression indicative of M2 macrophage activity. In a murine myocardial infarction model, reduced M2 macrophage content was associated with increased M1-related gene expression (IL-6 and IL-1β, and decreased M2-related gene expression (Arginase1 and CD206 in the heart of GW2580-treated animals versus vehicle-treated controls. M2 depletion was also associated with a loss in left ventricular contractile function, infarct enlargement, decreased collagen staining and increased inflammatory cell infiltration into the infarct zone, specifically neutrophils and M1 macrophages. Taken together, these data indicate that CSF-1R signalling is critical for maintaining cardiac tissue resident M2-polarized macrophage population, which is required for the resolution of inflammation post myocardial infarction and, in turn, for preservation of ventricular function.

  3. Lithium Depletion in Solar-like Stars: Effect of Overshooting Based on Realistic Multi-dimensional Simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baraffe, I.; Pratt, J.; Goffrey, T.; Constantino, T.; Viallet, M.; Folini, D.; Popov, M. V.; Walder, R.

    2017-01-01

    We study lithium depletion in low-mass and solar-like stars as a function of time, using a new diffusion coefficient describing extra-mixing taking place at the bottom of a convective envelope. This new form is motivated by multi-dimensional fully compressible, time-implicit hydrodynamic simulations performed with the MUSIC code. Intermittent convective mixing at the convective boundary in a star can be modeled using extreme value theory, a statistical analysis frequently used for finance, meteorology, and environmental science. In this Letter, we implement this statistical diffusion coefficient in a one-dimensional stellar evolution code, using parameters calibrated from multi-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations of a young low-mass star. We propose a new scenario that can explain observations of the surface abundance of lithium in the Sun and in clusters covering a wide range of ages, from ∼50 Myr to ∼4 Gyr. Because it relies on our physical model of convective penetration, this scenario has a limited number of assumptions. It can explain the observed trend between rotation and depletion, based on a single additional assumption, namely, that rotation affects the mixing efficiency at the convective boundary. We suggest the existence of a threshold in stellar rotation rate above which rotation strongly prevents the vertical penetration of plumes and below which rotation has small effects. In addition to providing a possible explanation for the long-standing problem of lithium depletion in pre-main-sequence and main-sequence stars, the strength of our scenario is that its basic assumptions can be tested by future hydrodynamic simulations.

  4. Lithium Depletion in Solar-like Stars: Effect of Overshooting Based on Realistic Multi-dimensional Simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baraffe, I.; Pratt, J.; Goffrey, T.; Constantino, T.; Viallet, M. [Astrophysics Group, University of Exeter, Exeter EX4 4QL (United Kingdom); Folini, D.; Popov, M. V.; Walder, R., E-mail: i.baraffe@ex.ac.uk [Ecole Normale Supérieure de Lyon, CRAL, UMR CNRS 5574, F-69364 Lyon Cedex 07 (France)

    2017-08-10

    We study lithium depletion in low-mass and solar-like stars as a function of time, using a new diffusion coefficient describing extra-mixing taking place at the bottom of a convective envelope. This new form is motivated by multi-dimensional fully compressible, time-implicit hydrodynamic simulations performed with the MUSIC code. Intermittent convective mixing at the convective boundary in a star can be modeled using extreme value theory, a statistical analysis frequently used for finance, meteorology, and environmental science. In this Letter, we implement this statistical diffusion coefficient in a one-dimensional stellar evolution code, using parameters calibrated from multi-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations of a young low-mass star. We propose a new scenario that can explain observations of the surface abundance of lithium in the Sun and in clusters covering a wide range of ages, from ∼50 Myr to ∼4 Gyr. Because it relies on our physical model of convective penetration, this scenario has a limited number of assumptions. It can explain the observed trend between rotation and depletion, based on a single additional assumption, namely, that rotation affects the mixing efficiency at the convective boundary. We suggest the existence of a threshold in stellar rotation rate above which rotation strongly prevents the vertical penetration of plumes and below which rotation has small effects. In addition to providing a possible explanation for the long-standing problem of lithium depletion in pre-main-sequence and main-sequence stars, the strength of our scenario is that its basic assumptions can be tested by future hydrodynamic simulations.

  5. Lithium Depletion in Solar-like Stars: Effect of Overshooting Based on Realistic Multi-dimensional Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baraffe, I.; Pratt, J.; Goffrey, T.; Constantino, T.; Folini, D.; Popov, M. V.; Walder, R.; Viallet, M.

    2017-08-01

    We study lithium depletion in low-mass and solar-like stars as a function of time, using a new diffusion coefficient describing extra-mixing taking place at the bottom of a convective envelope. This new form is motivated by multi-dimensional fully compressible, time-implicit hydrodynamic simulations performed with the MUSIC code. Intermittent convective mixing at the convective boundary in a star can be modeled using extreme value theory, a statistical analysis frequently used for finance, meteorology, and environmental science. In this Letter, we implement this statistical diffusion coefficient in a one-dimensional stellar evolution code, using parameters calibrated from multi-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations of a young low-mass star. We propose a new scenario that can explain observations of the surface abundance of lithium in the Sun and in clusters covering a wide range of ages, from ˜50 Myr to ˜4 Gyr. Because it relies on our physical model of convective penetration, this scenario has a limited number of assumptions. It can explain the observed trend between rotation and depletion, based on a single additional assumption, namely, that rotation affects the mixing efficiency at the convective boundary. We suggest the existence of a threshold in stellar rotation rate above which rotation strongly prevents the vertical penetration of plumes and below which rotation has small effects. In addition to providing a possible explanation for the long-standing problem of lithium depletion in pre-main-sequence and main-sequence stars, the strength of our scenario is that its basic assumptions can be tested by future hydrodynamic simulations.

  6. Hormetic effect induced by depleted uranium in zebrafish embryos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ng, C.Y.P. [Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong (Hong Kong); Cheng, S.H., E-mail: bhcheng@cityu.edu.hk [Department of Biomedical Sciences, City University of Hong Kong (Hong Kong); State Key Laboratory in Marine Pollution, City University of Hong Kong (Hong Kong); Yu, K.N., E-mail: peter.yu@cityu.edu.hk [Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong (Hong Kong); State Key Laboratory in Marine Pollution, City University of Hong Kong (Hong Kong)

    2016-06-15

    Highlights: • Studied hormetic effect induced by uranium (U) in embryos of zebrafish (Danio rerio). • Hormesis observed at 24 hpf for exposures to 10 μg/l of depleted U (DU). • Hormesis not observed before 30 hpf for exposures to 100 μg/l of DU. • Hormetic effect induced in zebrafish embryos in a dose-and time-dependent manner. - Abstract: The present work studied the hormetic effect induced by uranium (U) in embryos of zebrafish (Danio rerio) using apoptosis as the biological endpoint. Hormetic effect is characterized by biphasic dose-response relationships showing a low-dose stimulation and a high-dose inhibition. Embryos were dechorionated at 4 h post fertilization (hpf), and were then exposed to 10 or 100 μg/l depleted uranium (DU) in uranyl acetate solutions from 5 to 6 hpf. For exposures to 10 μg/l DU, the amounts of apoptotic signals in the embryos were significantly increased at 20 hpf but were significantly decreased at 24 hpf, which demonstrated the presence of U-induced hormesis. For exposures to 100 μg/l DU, the amounts of apoptotic signals in the embryos were significantly increased at 20, 24 and 30 hpf. Hormetic effect was not shown but its occurrence between 30 and 48 hpf could not be ruled out. In conclusion, hormetic effect could be induced in zebrafish embryos in a concentration- and time-dependent manner.

  7. Adult mitochondrial DNA depletion syndrome with mild manifestations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josef Finsterer

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Mitochondrial DNA depletion syndrome (MDS is usually a severe disorder of infancy or childhood, due to a reduced copy number of mtDNA molecules. MDS with only mild, non-specific clinical manifestations and onset in adulthood has not been reported. A 47-year-old Caucasian female with short stature and a history of migraine, endometriosis, Crohn’s disease, C-cell carcinoma of the thyroid gland, and a family history positive for mitochondrial disorder (2 sisters, aunt, niece, developed day-time sleepiness, exercise intolerance, and myalgias in the lower-limb muscles since age 46y. She slept 9-10 hours during the night and 2 hours after lunch daily. Clinical exam revealed sore neck muscles, bilateral ptosis, and reduced Achilles tendon reflexes exclusively. Blood tests revealed hyperlipidemia exclusively. Nerve conduction studies, needle electromyography, and cerebral and spinal magnetic resonance imaging were non-informative. Muscle biopsy revealed detached lobulated fibers with subsarcolemmal accentuation of the NADH and SDH staining. Real-time polymerase chain reaction revealed depletion of the mtDNA down to 9% of normal. MDS may be associated with a mild phenotype in adults and may not significantly progress during the first year after onset. In an adult with hypersomnia, severe tiredness, exercise intolerance, and a family history positive for mitochondrial disorder, a MDS should be considered.

  8. Radiological air quality in a depleted uranium storage vault

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinson, T.; Cucchiara, A.L.

    1999-03-01

    The radiological air quality of two storage vaults, one with depleted uranium (DU) and one without, was evaluated and compared. The intent of the study was to determine if the presence of stored DU would significantly contribute to the gaseous/airborne radiation level compared to natural background. Both vaults are constructed out of concrete and are dimensionally similar. The vaults are located on the first floor of the same building. Neither vault has air supply or air exhaust. The doors to both vaults remained closed during the evaluation period, except for brief and infrequent access by the operational group. One vault contained 700 KG of depleted uranium, and the other vault contained documents inside of file cabinets. Radon detectors and giraffe air samplers were used to gather data on the quantity of gaseous/airborne radionuclides in both vaults. The results of this study indicated that there was no significant difference in the quantity of gaseous/airborne radionuclides in the two vaults. This paper gives a discussion of the effects of the stored DU on the air quality, and poses several theories supporting the results.

  9. Experimental depletion of different renal interstitial cell populations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohman, S.O.; Sundelin, B.; Forsum, U.; Tribukait, B.

    1988-01-01

    To define different populations of renal interstitial cells and investigate some aspects of their function, we studied the kidneys of normal rats and rats with hereditary diabetes insipidus (DI, Brattleboro) after experimental manipulations expected to alter the number of interstitial cells. DI rats showed an almost complete loss of interstitial cells in their renal papillae after treatment with a high dose of vasopressin. In spite of the lack of interstitial cells, the animals concentrated their urine to the same extent as vasopressin-treated normal rats, indicating that the renomedullary interstitial cells do not have an important function in concentrating the urine. The interstitial cells returned nearly to normal within 1 week off vasopressin treatment, suggesting a rapid turnover rate of these cells. To further distinguish different populations of interstitial cells, we studied the distribution of class II MHC antigen expression in the kidneys of normal and bone-marrow depleted Wistar rats. Normal rats had abundant class II antigen-positive interstitial cells in the renal cortex and outer medulla, but not in the inner medulla (papilla). Six days after 1000 rad whole body irradiation, the stainable cells were almost completely lost, but electron microscopic morphometry showed a virtually unchanged volume density of interstitial cells in the cortex and outer medulla, as well as the inner medulla. Thus, irradiation abolished the expression of the class II antigen but caused no significant depletion of interstitial cells

  10. Use of 60 ppm deuterium depleted water in companionship animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balint, Emilia; Manolescu, N.; Cranganu, D.; Militaru, Manuela; Pop, Aneta; Codreanu, M.; Panait, Marieta; Lastofka, D.

    2004-01-01

    There are presented the results of studies on the effects of deuterium depleted water in companionship animals. Based on these results, a new product was realized, 'Aqua Forte' that is a deuterium depleted potable water (60 ppm deuterium) with beneficial effects in animal's health maintaining. Aqua forte has prophylactic properties (in preventing diseases related to immune system) and therapeutic properties, as adjuvant in various therapeutic programs. The mechanism of action takes place at the cellular metabolism level by replacing the constitutional and free water of 150 ppm deuterium, this resulting in the stimulation of the immune cellular system and also of resistance at the onset of some pathological states. The non-specific stimulation implies performing both the humoral mediated immune reactions and of those cellularly mediated. Aqua forte is recommended in: - the feeding of the young weaned animals, the action being of growth stimulation, and increasing of the resistance against some diseases specific to the age; - as an adjuvant in some chronic diseases (hepatitis, pancreatitis, dermatological diseases, osteoarthropaties, hepato-renal syndrome, renal insufficiency, after surgical interventions, in antitumoral therapy); - in the feeding of the old animals for the quality of life improvement. (authors)

  11. Gamma spectrometric determination of depleted Uranium in Yugoslavia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pantelic, G.; Eremic Savkovic, M.; Javorina, L.; Tanaskovic, I.; Vuletic, V.; Milacic, S.

    2002-01-01

    The radiation protection is very important interdisciplinary research field due to the presence of the radiation in daily life. The systematic examination of radioactive contamination of various environmental samples was established forty years ago in the Institute of Occupational and Radiological Health Dr Dragomir Karajovic for the sake of preventive protection of population and environment from the harmful effect of ionizing radiation. The global sources of radionuclide contamination in our country are the fallout due to previous nuclear testing and the deposition of radionuclides from the region of Chernobyl accident. The contents of radionuclides were determined in aerosol, soil, fallout (wet and dry deposition), rivers, lakes, drinking water, human and animal food. The samples were collected in several locations of the Republic of Serbia and in regular time intervals, according to methods determined by the regulation. The regulations and the monitoring programs were updated after the Chernobyl accident. In the recent time, after the NATO aggression, we analyzed depleted uranium content in the environmental samples. We used high-resolution gamma spectrometry measurements, because of their simplicity and accuracy. Aims of the control were to asses the increase of radioactivity above the natural levels in the immediate and near vicinity of the bomb craters, to asses the corresponding effect of changed natural radioactivity on the health of the population living in these places and finding unexploded depleted uranium bullets

  12. Prey depletion as a threat to the world's large carnivores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Christopher; Ripple, William J

    2016-08-01

    Large terrestrial carnivores are an ecologically important, charismatic and highly endangered group of species. Here, we assess the importance of prey depletion as a driver of large carnivore endangerment globally using lists of prey species for each large carnivore compiled from the literature. We consider spatial variation in prey endangerment, changes in endangerment over time and the causes of prey depletion, finding considerable evidence that loss of prey base is a major and wide-ranging threat among large carnivore species. In particular, the clouded leopard ( Neofelis nebulosa ), Sunda clouded leopard ( Neofelis diardi ), tiger ( Panthera tigris ), dhole ( Cuon alpinus ) and Ethiopian wolf ( Canis simensis ) all have at least 40% of their prey classified as threatened on the International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List and, along with the leopard ( Panethra pardus ), all of these species except the Ethiopian wolf have at least 50% of their prey classified as declining. Of the 494 prey species in our analysis, an average of just 6.9% of their ranges overlap protected areas. Together these results show the importance of a holistic approach to conservation that involves protecting both large carnivores directly and the prey upon which they depend.

  13. Ozone-depleting-substance control and phase-out plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nickels, J.M.; Brown, M.J.

    1994-07-01

    Title VI of the Federal Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 requires regulation of the use and disposal of ozone-depleting substances (ODSs) (e.g., Halon, Freon). Several important federal regulations have been promulgated that affect the use of such substances at the Hanford Site. On April 23, 1993, Executive Order (EO) 12843, Procurement Requirements and Policies for Federal Agencies for Ozone-Depleting Substances (EPA 1993) was issued for Federal facilities to conform to the new US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regulations implementing the Clean Air Act of 1963 (CAA), Section 613, as amended. To implement the requirements of Title VI the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (RL), issued a directive to the Hanford Site contractors on May 25, 1994 (Wisness 1994). The directive assigns Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) the lead in coordinating the development of a sitewide comprehensive implementation plan to be drafted by July 29, 1994 and completed by September 30, 1994. The implementation plan will address several areas where immediate compliance action is required. It will identify all current uses of ODSs and inventories, document the remaining useful life of equipment that contains ODS chemicals, provide a phase-out schedule, and provide a strategy that will be implemented consistently by all the Hanford Site contractors. This plan also addresses the critical and required elements of Federal regulations, the EO, and US Department of Energy (DOE) guidance. This plan is intended to establish a sitewide management system to address the clean air requirements

  14. Including environmental concerns in management strategies for depleted uranium hexafluoride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldberg, M.; Avci, H.I.; Bradley, C.E.

    1995-01-01

    One of the major programs within the Office of Nuclear Energy, Science, and Technology of the US Department of Energy (DOE) is the depleted uranium hexafluoride (DUF 6 ) management program. The program is intended to find a long-term management strategy for the DUF 6 that is currently stored in approximately 46,400 cylinders at Paducah, KY; Portsmouth, OH; and Oak Ridge, TN, USA. The program has four major components: technology assessment, engineering analysis, cost analysis, and the environmental impact statement (EIS). From the beginning of the program, the DOE has incorporated the environmental considerations into the process of strategy selection. Currently, the DOE has no preferred alternative. The results of the environmental impacts assessment from the EIS, as well as the results from the other components of the program, will be factored into the strategy selection process. In addition to the DOE's current management plan, other alternatives continued storage, reuse, or disposal of depleted uranium, will be considered in the EIS. The EIS is expected to be completed and issued in its final form in the fall of 1997

  15. Observations of ozone depletion events in a Finnish boreal forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Chen

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the concentrations and vertical profiles of ozone over a 20-year period (1996–2016 at the SMEAR II station in southern Finland. Our results showed that the typical daily median ozone concentrations were in the range of 20–50 ppb with clear diurnal and annual patterns. In general, the profile of ozone concentrations illustrated an increase as a function of heights. The main aim of our study was to address the frequency and strength of ozone depletion events at this boreal forest site. We observed more than a thousand of 10 min periods at 4.2 m, with ozone concentrations below 10 ppb, and a few tens of cases with ozone concentrations below 2 ppb. Among these observations, a number of ozone depletion events that lasted for more than 3 h were identified, and they occurred mainly in autumn and winter months. The low ozone concentrations were likely related to the formation of a low mixing layer under the conditions of low temperatures, low wind speeds, high relative humidities and limited intensity of solar radiation.

  16. Observations of ozone depletion events in a Finnish boreal forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xuemeng; Quéléver, Lauriane L. J.; Fung, Pak L.; Kesti, Jutta; Rissanen, Matti P.; Bäck, Jaana; Keronen, Petri; Junninen, Heikki; Petäjä, Tuukka; Kerminen, Veli-Matti; Kulmala, Markku

    2018-01-01

    We investigated the concentrations and vertical profiles of ozone over a 20-year period (1996-2016) at the SMEAR II station in southern Finland. Our results showed that the typical daily median ozone concentrations were in the range of 20-50 ppb with clear diurnal and annual patterns. In general, the profile of ozone concentrations illustrated an increase as a function of heights. The main aim of our study was to address the frequency and strength of ozone depletion events at this boreal forest site. We observed more than a thousand of 10 min periods at 4.2 m, with ozone concentrations below 10 ppb, and a few tens of cases with ozone concentrations below 2 ppb. Among these observations, a number of ozone depletion events that lasted for more than 3 h were identified, and they occurred mainly in autumn and winter months. The low ozone concentrations were likely related to the formation of a low mixing layer under the conditions of low temperatures, low wind speeds, high relative humidities and limited intensity of solar radiation.

  17. Characterization of Prochlorococcus clades from iron-depleted oceanic regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusch, Douglas B; Martiny, Adam C; Dupont, Christopher L; Halpern, Aaron L; Venter, J Craig

    2010-09-14

    Prochlorococcus describes a diverse and abundant genus of marine photosynthetic microbes. It is primarily found in oligotrophic waters across the globe and plays a crucial role in energy and nutrient cycling in the ocean ecosystem. The abundance, global distribution, and availability of isolates make Prochlorococcus a model system for understanding marine microbial diversity and biogeochemical cycling. Analysis of 73 metagenomic samples from the Global Ocean Sampling expedition acquired in the Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian Oceans revealed the presence of two uncharacterized Prochlorococcus clades. A phylogenetic analysis using six different genetic markers places the clades close to known lineages adapted to high-light environments. The two uncharacterized clades consistently cooccur and dominate the surface waters of high-temperature, macronutrient-replete, and low-iron regions of the Eastern Equatorial Pacific upwelling and the tropical Indian Ocean. They are genetically distinct from each other and other high-light Prochlorococcus isolates and likely define a previously unrecognized ecotype. Our detailed genomic analysis indicates that these clades comprise organisms that are adapted to iron-depleted environments by reducing their iron quota through the loss of several iron-containing proteins that likely function as electron sinks in the photosynthetic pathway in other Prochlorococcus clades from high-light environments. The presence and inferred physiology of these clades may explain why Prochlorococcus populations from iron-depleted regions do not respond to iron fertilization experiments and further expand our understanding of how phytoplankton adapt to variations in nutrient availability in the ocean.

  18. Zinc stress induces copper depletion in Acinetobacter baumannii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Karl A; Pederick, Victoria G; Elbourne, Liam D H; Paulsen, Ian T; Paton, James C; McDevitt, Christopher A; Eijkelkamp, Bart A

    2017-03-11

    The first row transition metal ions zinc and copper are essential to the survival of many organisms, although in excess these ions are associated with significant toxicity. Here, we examined the impact of zinc and copper stress on Acinetobacter baumannii, a common opportunistic pathogen. We show that extracellular zinc stress induces a copper-specific depletion phenotype in A. baumannii ATCC 17978. Supplementation with copper not only fails to rescue this phenotype, but further exacerbates the copper depletion. Extensive analysis of the A. baumannii ATCC 17978 genome identified 13 putative zinc/copper resistance efflux pumps. Transcriptional analyses show that four of these transporters are responsive to zinc stress, five to copper stress and seven to the combination of zinc and copper stress, thereby revealing a likely foundation for the zinc-induced copper starvation in A. baumannii. In addition, we show that zinc and copper play crucial roles in management of oxidative stress and the membrane composition of A. baumannii. Further, we reveal that zinc and copper play distinct roles in macrophage-mediated killing of this pathogen. Collectively, this study supports the targeting of metal ion homeostatic mechanisms as an effective antimicrobial strategy against multi-drug resistant bacterial pathogens.

  19. Temperature dependent simulation of diamond depleted Schottky PIN diodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hathwar, Raghuraj; Dutta, Maitreya; Chowdhury, Srabanti; Goodnick, Stephen M.; Koeck, Franz A. M.; Nemanich, Robert J.

    2016-01-01

    Diamond is considered as an ideal material for high field and high power devices due to its high breakdown field, high lightly doped carrier mobility, and high thermal conductivity. The modeling and simulation of diamond devices are therefore important to predict the performances of diamond based devices. In this context, we use Silvaco ® Atlas, a drift-diffusion based commercial software, to model diamond based power devices. The models used in Atlas were modified to account for both variable range and nearest neighbor hopping transport in the impurity bands associated with high activation energies for boron doped and phosphorus doped diamond. The models were fit to experimentally reported resistivity data over a wide range of doping concentrations and temperatures. We compare to recent data on depleted diamond Schottky PIN diodes demonstrating low turn-on voltages and high reverse breakdown voltages, which could be useful for high power rectifying applications due to the low turn-on voltage enabling high forward current densities. Three dimensional simulations of the depleted Schottky PIN diamond devices were performed and the results are verified with experimental data at different operating temperatures

  20. Temperature dependent simulation of diamond depleted Schottky PIN diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hathwar, Raghuraj; Dutta, Maitreya; Koeck, Franz A. M.; Nemanich, Robert J.; Chowdhury, Srabanti; Goodnick, Stephen M.

    2016-06-01

    Diamond is considered as an ideal material for high field and high power devices due to its high breakdown field, high lightly doped carrier mobility, and high thermal conductivity. The modeling and simulation of diamond devices are therefore important to predict the performances of diamond based devices. In this context, we use Silvaco® Atlas, a drift-diffusion based commercial software, to model diamond based power devices. The models used in Atlas were modified to account for both variable range and nearest neighbor hopping transport in the impurity bands associated with high activation energies for boron doped and phosphorus doped diamond. The models were fit to experimentally reported resistivity data over a wide range of doping concentrations and temperatures. We compare to recent data on depleted diamond Schottky PIN diodes demonstrating low turn-on voltages and high reverse breakdown voltages, which could be useful for high power rectifying applications due to the low turn-on voltage enabling high forward current densities. Three dimensional simulations of the depleted Schottky PIN diamond devices were performed and the results are verified with experimental data at different operating temperatures

  1. Temperature dependent simulation of diamond depleted Schottky PIN diodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hathwar, Raghuraj; Dutta, Maitreya; Chowdhury, Srabanti; Goodnick, Stephen M. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287-8806 (United States); Koeck, Franz A. M.; Nemanich, Robert J. [Department of Physics, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287-8806 (United States)

    2016-06-14

    Diamond is considered as an ideal material for high field and high power devices due to its high breakdown field, high lightly doped carrier mobility, and high thermal conductivity. The modeling and simulation of diamond devices are therefore important to predict the performances of diamond based devices. In this context, we use Silvaco{sup ®} Atlas, a drift-diffusion based commercial software, to model diamond based power devices. The models used in Atlas were modified to account for both variable range and nearest neighbor hopping transport in the impurity bands associated with high activation energies for boron doped and phosphorus doped diamond. The models were fit to experimentally reported resistivity data over a wide range of doping concentrations and temperatures. We compare to recent data on depleted diamond Schottky PIN diodes demonstrating low turn-on voltages and high reverse breakdown voltages, which could be useful for high power rectifying applications due to the low turn-on voltage enabling high forward current densities. Three dimensional simulations of the depleted Schottky PIN diamond devices were performed and the results are verified with experimental data at different operating temperatures.

  2. International regime formation: Ozone depletion and global climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Busmann, N.E.

    1994-03-01

    Two theoretical perspectives, neorealism and neoliberal institutionalism, dominate in international relations. An assessment is made of whether these perspectives provide compelling explanations of why a regime with specific targets and timetables was formed for ozone depletion, while a regime with such specificity was not formed for global climate change. In so doing, the assumptions underlying neorealism and neoliberal institutionalism are examined. A preliminary assessment is offered of the policymaking and institutional bargaining process. Patterns of interstate behavior are evolving toward broader forms of cooperation, at least with regard to global environmental issues, although this process is both slow and cautious. State coalitions on specific issues are not yet powerful enough to create a strong community of states in which states are willing to devolve power to international institutions. It is shown that regime analysis is a useful analytic framework, but it should not be mistaken for theory. Regime analysis provides an organizational framework offering a set of questions regarding the principles and norms that govern cooperation and conflict in an issue area, and whether forces independent of states exist which affect the scope of state behavior. An examination of both neorealism and neoliberal institutionalism, embodied by four approaches to regime formation, demonstrates that neither has sufficient scope to account for contextual dynamics in either the ozone depletion or global climate change regime formation processes. 261 refs

  3. Conversion of Fibroblasts to Neural Cells by p53 Depletion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Zhou

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Conversion from fibroblasts to neurons has recently been successfully induced. However, the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Here, we find that depletion of p53 alone converts fibroblasts into all three major neural lineages. The induced neuronal cells express multiple neuron-specific proteins and generate action potentials and transmitter-receptor-mediated currents. Surprisingly, depletion does not affect the well-known tumorigenic p53 target, p21. Instead, knockdown of p53 upregulates neurogenic transcription factors, which in turn boosts fibroblast-neuron conversion. p53 binds the promoter of the neurogenic transcription factor Neurod2 and regulates its expression during fibroblast-neuron conversion. Furthermore, our method provides a high efficiency of conversion in late-passage fibroblasts. Genome-wide transcriptional analysis shows that the p53-deficiency-induced neurons exhibit an expression profile different from parental fibroblasts and similar to control-induced neurons. The results may help to understand and improve neural conversion mechanisms to develop robust neuron-replacement therapy strategies.

  4. The scale analysis sequence for LWR fuel depletion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hermann, O.W.; Parks, C.V.

    1991-01-01

    The SCALE (Standardized Computer Analyses for Licensing Evaluation) code system is used extensively to perform away-from-reactor safety analysis (particularly criticality safety, shielding, heat transfer analyses) for spent light water reactor (LWR) fuel. Spent fuel characteristics such as radiation sources, heat generation sources, and isotopic concentrations can be computed within SCALE using the SAS2 control module. A significantly enhanced version of the SAS2 control module, which is denoted as SAS2H, has been made available with the release of SCALE-4. For each time-dependent fuel composition, SAS2H performs one-dimensional (1-D) neutron transport analyses (via XSDRNPM-S) of the reactor fuel assembly using a two-part procedure with two separate unit-cell-lattice models. The cross sections derived from a transport analysis at each time step are used in a point-depletion computation (via ORIGEN-S) that produces the burnup-dependent fuel composition to be used in the next spectral calculation. A final ORIGEN-S case is used to perform the complete depletion/decay analysis using the burnup-dependent cross sections. The techniques used by SAS2H and two recent applications of the code are reviewed in this paper. 17 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs

  5. Separation and recovery method for depleted uranium from spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imoto, Yoshie; Fujita, Reiko.

    1993-01-01

    Spent oxide fuels are reduced in a molten salt of CaCl 2 -CaF 2 to convert them into metals, then melted in an Fe-U bath disposed in an electrolytic refining vessel and brought into contact with molten Mg, to extract transuranium elements and rare earth elements contained in the Fe-U bath as metals in the molten Mg. Then molten Mg is removed and the residue is brought into contact with KCl-LiCl molten salt and electrolyzed using the Fe-U as an anode. Then, uranium is recovered by deposition on an iron cathode disposed in chloride electrolytes of the electrolytic refining vessel. Uranium and transuranium elements can be thus separated and, for example, depleted uranium for use in blanket fuels can be recovered easily. This can greatly reduce the temporary storage amount of depleted uranium, to eliminate requirement for a large-scaled facility used exclusively for storing uranium and long time management for uranium. (T.M.)

  6. Radiosensitization of CHO cells by the combination of glutathione depletion and low concentrations of oxygen: The effect of different levels of GSH depletion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, E.P.; Epp, E.R.; Zachgo, E.A.; Biaglow, J.E.

    1984-01-01

    Recently, the authors have examined the effect of GSH depletion by BSO on CHO cells equilibrated with oxygen at various concentrations (0.05-4.0%) and irradiated with 50 kVp x-rays. This is of interest because of the uncertain radiosensitizing effect GSH depletion may have on cells equilibrated with low oxygen concentrations. GSH depletion (0.1 mM BSO/24 hrs reduced [GSH] ≅ 10% of control) enhanced the radiosensitizing action of moderate (0.4-4.0%) concentrations of oxygen, i.e., GSH depletion reduced the [O/sub 2/] necessary to achieve an equivalent ER by ≅ 2-3 fold. However, GSH depletion was much more effective as a rediosensitizer when cells were equilibrated with low (<0.4%) concentrations of oxygen, i.e., GSH depletion reduced the [O/sub 2/] necessary to achieve an equivalent ER by 8-10 fold. Furthermore, while the addition of exogenous 5 mM GSH restored the ER to that observed when GSH was not depleted, the intracellular [GSH] was not increased. The results of these studies carried out at different levels of GSH depletion are presented

  7. Review on Opinion Mining for Fully Fledged System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asmita Dhokrat

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Humans communication is generally under the control of emotions and full of opinions. Emotions and their opinions plays an important role in thinking process of mind, influences the human actions too. Sentiment analysis is one of the ways to explore user’s opinion made on any social media and networking site for various commercial applications in number of fields. This paper takes into account the basis requirements of opinion mining to explore the present techniques used to develop a fully fledged system. Is highlights the opportunities or deployment and research of such systems. The available tools used for building such applications have even presented with their merits and limitations.

  8. Thermodynamics of fully connected Blume-Emery-Griffiths neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bollé, D.; Verbeiren, T.

    2003-01-01

    The thermodynamic and retrieval properties of fully connected Blume-Emery-Griffiths networks are studied using replica mean-field theory. These networks can be considered as generalizations of the Hopfield model to the storage of ternary patterns. Capacity-temperature phase diagrams are derived for several values of the pattern activity. It is found that the retrieval phase is the largest in comparison with other three-state neuron models. Furthermore, the meaning and stability of the so-called quadrupolar phase is discussed as a function of both the temperature and the pattern activity. Where appropriate, the results are compared with the diluted version of the model.

  9. Thermodynamics of fully connected Blume-Emery-Griffiths neural networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolle, D; Verbeiren, T

    2003-01-01

    The thermodynamic and retrieval properties of fully connected Blume-Emery-Griffiths networks are studied using replica mean-field theory. These networks can be considered as generalizations of the Hopfield model to the storage of ternary patterns. Capacity-temperature phase diagrams are derived for several values of the pattern activity. It is found that the retrieval phase is the largest in comparison with other three-state neuron models. Furthermore, the meaning and stability of the so-called quadrupolar phase is discussed as a function of both the temperature and the pattern activity. Where appropriate, the results are compared with the diluted version of the model

  10. Moving towards a Competitive Fully Enzymatic Biodiesel Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Cesarini

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Enzymatic biodiesel synthesis can solve several problems posed by the alkaline-catalyzed transesterification but it has the drawback of being too expensive to be considered competitive. Costs can be reduced by lipase improvement, use of unrefined oils, evaluation of soluble/immobilized lipase preparations, and by combination of phospholipases with a soluble lipase for biodiesel production in a single step. As shown here, convenient natural tools have been developed that allow synthesis of high quality FAMEs (EN14214 from unrefined oils in a completely enzymatic single-step process, making it fully competitive.

  11. Electronically Tunable Fully Integrated Fractional-Order Resonator

    KAUST Repository

    Tsirimokou, Georgia

    2017-03-20

    A fully integrated implementation of a parallel fractional-order resonator which employs together a fractional order capacitor and a fractional-order inductor is proposed in this paper. The design utilizes current-controlled Operational Transconductance Amplifiers as building blocks, designed and fabricated in AMS 0:35m CMOS process, and based on a second-order approximation of a fractional-order differentiator/ integrator magnitude optimized in the range 10Hz–700Hz. An attractive benefit of the proposed scheme is its electronic tuning capability.

  12. Multigrid Methods for Fully Implicit Oil Reservoir Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molenaar, J.

    1996-01-01

    In this paper we consider the simultaneous flow of oil and water in reservoir rock. This displacement process is modeled by two basic equations: the material balance or continuity equations and the equation of motion (Darcy's law). For the numerical solution of this system of nonlinear partial differential equations there are two approaches: the fully implicit or simultaneous solution method and the sequential solution method. In the sequential solution method the system of partial differential equations is manipulated to give an elliptic pressure equation and a hyperbolic (or parabolic) saturation equation. In the IMPES approach the pressure equation is first solved, using values for the saturation from the previous time level. Next the saturations are updated by some explicit time stepping method; this implies that the method is only conditionally stable. For the numerical solution of the linear, elliptic pressure equation multigrid methods have become an accepted technique. On the other hand, the fully implicit method is unconditionally stable, but it has the disadvantage that in every time step a large system of nonlinear algebraic equations has to be solved. The most time-consuming part of any fully implicit reservoir simulator is the solution of this large system of equations. Usually this is done by Newton's method. The resulting systems of linear equations are then either solved by a direct method or by some conjugate gradient type method. In this paper we consider the possibility of applying multigrid methods for the iterative solution of the systems of nonlinear equations. There are two ways of using multigrid for this job: either we use a nonlinear multigrid method or we use a linear multigrid method to deal with the linear systems that arise in Newton's method. So far only a few authors have reported on the use of multigrid methods for fully implicit simulations. Two-level FAS algorithm is presented for the black-oil equations, and linear multigrid for

  13. Fully enclosed microfluidic paper-based analytical devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilling, Kevin M; Lepore, Anna L; Kurian, Jason A; Martinez, Andres W

    2012-02-07

    This article introduces fully enclosed microfluidic paper-based analytical devices (microPADs) fabricated by printing toner on the top and bottom of the devices using a laser printer. Enclosing paper-based microfluidic channels protects the channels from contamination, contains and protects reagents stored on the device, contains fluids within the channels so that microPADs can be handled and operated more easily, and reduces evaporation of solutions from the channels. These benefits extend the capabilities of microPADs for applications as low-cost point-of-care diagnostic devices. © 2012 American Chemical Society

  14. Hyperon-Nulceon Scattering from Fully-Dynamical Lattice QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silas Beane; Paulo Bedaque; Thomas Luu; Konstantinos Orginos; Elizabetta Pallante; Assumpta Parreno; Martin Savage

    2007-10-01

    We present results of the first fully-dynamical lattice QCD determination of hyperon-nucleon scattering. One s-wave phase shift was determined for n{Lambda} scattering in both spin-channels at pion masses of 350, 490, and 590 MeV, and for n{Sigma}^- scattering in both spin channels at pion masses of 490, and 590 MeV. The calculations were performed with domain-wall valence quarks on dynamical, staggered gauge configurations with a lattice spacing of b ~0.125 fm.

  15. Application of ANNs approach for solving fully fuzzy polynomials system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Novin

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In processing indecisive or unclear information, the advantages of fuzzy logic and neurocomputing disciplines should be taken into account and combined by fuzzy neural networks. The current research intends to present a fuzzy modeling method using multi-layer fuzzy neural networks for solving a fully fuzzy polynomials system. To clarify the point, it is necessary to inform that a supervised gradient descent-based learning law is employed. The feasibility of the method is examined using computer simulations on a numerical example. The experimental results obtained from the investigation of the proposed method are valid and delivers very good approximation results.

  16. Fully digital foliage-penetrating synthetic aperature radar processor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Stephen; Hsu, Charles C.; Zaghloul, Mona E.; Szu, Harold H.; Karangelen, Nicholas E.; Buss, James R.

    2001-03-01

    A high performance, fully digital Foliage Penetrating Synthetic Aperture Radar (FOPEN SAR) system is described. The FOPEN SAR algorithm is illustrated using Matlab. Digital implementation is derived and simulated using VHDL. The complex mathematical functions required by the algorithm have been demonstrated. Simulations have achieved an SNR equals 290 dB when compared to the baseline results from Matlab. The accuracy of the simulation was limited by the resolution of certain trigonometric and exponential functions implemented using VHDL, and thus can be improved upon. This would allow greater flexibility between speed/area considerations without degradation of the target resolution (100dB-signal accuracy).

  17. Fully differential NLO predictions for the rare muon decay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.M. Pruna

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Using the automation program GoSam, fully differential NLO corrections were obtained for the rare decay of the muon μ→eνν¯ee. This process is an important Standard Model background to searches of the Mu3e Collaboration for lepton-flavor violation, as it becomes indistinguishable from the signal μ→3e if the neutrinos carry little energy. With our NLO program we are able to compute the branching ratio as well as custom-tailored observables for the experiment. With minor modifications, related decays of the tau can also be computed.

  18. A fully robust PARAFAC method for analyzing fluorescence data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engelen, Sanne; Frosch, Stina; Jørgensen, Bo

    2009-01-01

    Parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC) is a widespread method for modeling fluorescence data by means of an alternating least squares procedure. Consequently, the PARAFAC estimates are highly influenced by outlying excitation–emission landscapes (EEM) and element-wise outliers, like for example Raman......, there still exists no robust method for handling fluorescence data encountering both outlying EEM landscapes and scatter. In this paper, we present an iterative algorithm where the robust PARAFAC method and the scatter identification tool are alternately performed. A fully automated robust PARAFAC method...

  19. A fully adaptive hybrid optimization of aircraft engine blades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumas, L.; Druez, B.; Lecerf, N.

    2009-10-01

    A new fully adaptive hybrid optimization method (AHM) has been developed and applied to an industrial problem in the field of the aircraft engine industry. The adaptivity of the coupling between a global search by a population-based method (Genetic Algorithms or Evolution Strategies) and the local search by a descent method has been particularly emphasized. On various analytical test cases, the AHM method overperforms the original global search method in terms of computational time and accuracy. The results obtained on the industrial case have also confirmed the interest of AHM for the design of new and original solutions in an affordable time.

  20. Fully Consistent SIMPLE-Like Algorithms on Collocated Grids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolmogorov, Dmitry; Shen, Wen Zhong; Sørensen, Niels N.

    2015-01-01

    To increase the convergence rate of SIMPLE-like algorithms on collocated grids, a compatibility condition between mass flux interpolation methods and SIMPLE-like algorithms is presented. Results of unsteady flow computations show that the SIMPLEC algorithm, when obeying the compatibility condition......, may obtain up to 35% higher convergence rate as compared to the standard SIMPLEC algorithm. Two new interpolation methods, fully compatible with the SIMPLEC algorithm, are presented and compared with some existing interpolation methods, including the standard methods of Choi [9] and Shen et al. [8...

  1. Operating experience in processing of differently sourced deeply depleted uranium oxide and production of deeply depleted uranium metal ingots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manna, S.; Ladola, Y.S.; Sharma, S.; Chowdhury, S.; Satpati, S.K.; Roy, S.B.

    2009-01-01

    Uranium Metal Plant (UMP) of BARC had first time experience on production of three Depleted Uranium Metal (DUM) ingots of 76kg, 152kg and 163kg during March 1991. These ingots were produced by processing depleted uranyl nitrate solution produced at Plutonium Plant (PP), Trombay. In recent past Uranium Metal Plant (UMP), Uranium Extraction Division (UED), has been assigned to produce tonnage quantity of Deeply DUM (DDUM) from its oxide obtained from PP, PREFRE and RMP, BARC. This is required for shielding the high radioactive source of BHABHATRON Tele-cobalt machine, which is used for cancer therapy. The experience obtained in processing of various DDU oxides is being utilized for design of large scale DDU-metal plant under XIth plan project. The physico- chemical characteristics like morphology, density, flowability, reactivity, particle size distribution, which are having direct effect on reactivity of the powders of the DDU oxide powder, were studied and the shop-floor operational experience in processing of different oxide powder were obtained and recorded. During campaign trials utmost care was taken to standardized all operating conditions using the same equipment which are in use for natural uranium materials processing including safety aspects both with respect to radiological safety and industrial safety. Necessary attention and close monitoring were specially arranged and maintained for the safety aspects during the trial period. In-house developed pneumatic transport system was used for powder transfer and suitable dust arresting system was used for reduction of powder carry over

  2. The corrosion of depleted uranium in terrestrial and marine environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toque, C.; Milodowski, A.E.; Baker, A.C.

    2014-01-01

    Depleted Uranium alloyed with titanium is used in armour penetrating munitions that have been fired in a number of conflict zones and testing ranges including the UK ranges at Kirkcudbright and Eskmeals. The study presented here evaluates the corrosion of DU alloy cylinders in soil on these two UK ranges and in the adjacent marine environment of the Solway Firth. The estimated mean initial corrosion rates and times for complete corrosion range from 0.13 to 1.9 g cm −2 y −1 and 2.5–48 years respectively depending on the particular physical and geochemical environment. The marine environment at the experimental site was very turbulent. This may have caused the scouring of corrosion products and given rise to a different geochemical environment from that which could be easily duplicated in laboratory experiments. The rate of mass loss was found to vary through time in one soil environment and this is hypothesised to be due to pitting increasing the surface area, followed by a build up of corrosion products inhibiting further corrosion. This indicates that early time measurements of mass loss or corrosion rate may be poor indicators of late time corrosion behaviour, potentially giving rise to incorrect estimates of time to complete corrosion. The DU alloy placed in apparently the same geochemical environment, for the same period of time, can experience very different amounts of corrosion and mass loss, indicating that even small variations in the corrosion environment can have a significant effect. These effects are more significant than other experimental errors and variations in initial surface area. -- Highlights: ► In-situ experiments were conducted to evaluate corrosion rates of depleted uranium. ► Samples were corroded in marine sediments, open sea water and two terrestrial soils. ► The depleted uranium titanium alloy corroded fastest in the marine environments. ► Rates of mass loss can vary through time if corrosion products are not removed.

  3. MODFLOW-OWHM v2: The next generation of fully integrated hydrologic simulation software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyce, S. E.; Hanson, R. T.; Ferguson, I. M.; Reimann, T.; Henson, W.; Mehl, S.; Leake, S.; Maddock, T.

    2016-12-01

    The One-Water Hydrologic Flow Model (One-Water) is a MODFLOW-based integrated hydrologic flow model designed for the analysis of a broad range of conjunctive-use and climate-related issues. One-Water fully links the movement and use of groundwater, surface water, and imported water for consumption by agriculture and natural vegetation on the landscape, and for potable and other uses within a supply-and-demand framework. One-Water includes linkages for deformation-, flow-, and head-dependent flows; additional observation and parameter options for higher-order calibrations; and redesigned code for facilitation of self-updating models and faster simulation run times. The next version of One-Water, currently under development, will include a new surface-water operations module that simulates dynamic reservoir operations, a new sustainability analysis package that facilitates the estimation and simulation of reduced storage depletion and captured discharge, a conduit-flow process for karst aquifers and leaky pipe networks, a soil zone process that adds an enhanced infiltration process, interflow, deep percolation and soil moisture, and a new subsidence and aquifer compaction package. It will also include enhancements to local grid refinement, and additional features to facilitate easier model updates, faster execution, better error messages, and more integration/cross communication between the traditional MODFLOW packages. By retaining and tracking the water within the hydrosphere, One-Water accounts for "all of the water everywhere and all of the time." This philosophy provides more confidence in the water accounting by the scientific community and provides the public a foundation needed to address wider classes of problems. Ultimately, more complex questions are being asked about water resources, so they require a more complete answer about conjunctive-use and climate-related issues.

  4. Depletion of Regulatory T Cells Induces High Numbers of Dendritic Cells and Unmasks a Subset of Anti-Tumour CD8+CD11c+ PD-1lo Effector T Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Goudin

    Full Text Available Natural regulatory T (Treg cells interfere with multiple functions, which are crucial for the development of strong anti-tumour responses. In a model of 4T1 mammary carcinoma, depletion of CD25+Tregs results in tumour regression in Balb/c mice, but the mechanisms underlying this process are not fully understood. Here, we show that partial Treg depletion leads to the generation of a particular effector CD8 T cell subset expressing CD11c and low level of PD-1 in tumour draining lymph nodes. These cells have the capacity to migrate into the tumour, to kill DCs, and to locally regulate the anti-tumour response. These events are concordant with a substantial increase in CD11b+ resident dendritic cells (DCs subsets in draining lymph nodes followed by CD8+ DCs. These results indicate that Treg depletion leads to tumour regression by unmasking an increase of DC subsets as a part of a program that optimizes the microenvironment by orchestrating the activation, amplification, and migration of high numbers of fully differentiated CD8+CD11c+PD1lo effector T cells to the tumour sites. They also indicate that a critical pattern of DC subsets correlates with the evolution of the anti-tumour response and provide a template for Treg depletion and DC-based therapy.

  5. A Fully Automated High-Throughput Zebrafish Behavioral Ototoxicity Assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, Douglas W; Philip, Rohit C; Niihori, Maki; Ringle, Ryan A; Coyle, Kelsey R; Zehri, Sobia F; Zabala, Leanne; Mudery, Jordan A; Francis, Ross H; Rodriguez, Jeffrey J; Jacob, Abraham

    2017-08-01

    Zebrafish animal models lend themselves to behavioral assays that can facilitate rapid screening of ototoxic, otoprotective, and otoregenerative drugs. Structurally similar to human inner ear hair cells, the mechanosensory hair cells on their lateral line allow the zebrafish to sense water flow and orient head-to-current in a behavior called rheotaxis. This rheotaxis behavior deteriorates in a dose-dependent manner with increased exposure to the ototoxin cisplatin, thereby establishing itself as an excellent biomarker for anatomic damage to lateral line hair cells. Building on work by our group and others, we have built a new, fully automated high-throughput behavioral assay system that uses automated image analysis techniques to quantify rheotaxis behavior. This novel system consists of a custom-designed swimming apparatus and imaging system consisting of network-controlled Raspberry Pi microcomputers capturing infrared video. Automated analysis techniques detect individual zebrafish, compute their orientation, and quantify the rheotaxis behavior of a zebrafish test population, producing a powerful, high-throughput behavioral assay. Using our fully automated biological assay to test a standardized ototoxic dose of cisplatin against varying doses of compounds that protect or regenerate hair cells may facilitate rapid translation of candidate drugs into preclinical mammalian models of hearing loss.

  6. Fully vs. Sequentially Coupled Loads Analysis of Offshore Wind Turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Damiani, Rick; Wendt, Fabian; Musial, Walter; Finucane, Z.; Hulliger, L.; Chilka, S.; Dolan, D.; Cushing, J.; O' Connell, D.; Falk, S.

    2017-06-19

    The design and analysis methods for offshore wind turbines must consider the aerodynamic and hydrodynamic loads and response of the entire system (turbine, tower, substructure, and foundation) coupled to the turbine control system dynamics. Whereas a fully coupled (turbine and support structure) modeling approach is more rigorous, intellectual property concerns can preclude this approach. In fact, turbine control system algorithms and turbine properties are strictly guarded and often not shared. In many cases, a partially coupled analysis using separate tools and an exchange of reduced sets of data via sequential coupling may be necessary. In the sequentially coupled approach, the turbine and substructure designers will independently determine and exchange an abridged model of their respective subsystems to be used in their partners' dynamic simulations. Although the ability to achieve design optimization is sacrificed to some degree with a sequentially coupled analysis method, the central question here is whether this approach can deliver the required safety and how the differences in the results from the fully coupled method could affect the design. This work summarizes the scope and preliminary results of a study conducted for the Bureau of Safety and Environmental Enforcement aimed at quantifying differences between these approaches through aero-hydro-servo-elastic simulations of two offshore wind turbines on a monopile and jacket substructure.

  7. Development of Low Energy Gap and Fully Regioregular Polythienylenevinylene Derivative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanya M. S. David

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Low energy gap and fully regioregular conjugated polymers find its wide use in solar energy conversion applications. This paper will first briefly review this type of polymers and also report synthesis and characterization of a specific example new polymer, a low energy gap, fully regioregular, terminal functionalized, and processable conjugated polymer poly-(3-dodecyloxy-2,5-thienylene vinylene or PDDTV. The polymer exhibited an optical energy gap of 1.46 eV based on the UV-vis-NIR absorption spectrum. The electrochemically measured highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO level is −4.79 eV, resulting in the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO level of −3.33 eV based on optical energy gap. The polymer was synthesized via Horner-Emmons condensation and is fairly soluble in common organic solvents such as tetrahydrofuran and chloroform with gentle heating. DSC showed two endothermic peaks at 67°C and 227°C that can be attributed to transitions between crystalline and liquid states. The polymer is thermally stable up to about 300°C. This polymer appears very promising for cost-effective solar cell applications.

  8. Fully filamentized HTS coated conductor via striation and selective electroplating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kesgin, Ibrahim; Majkic, Goran [Department of Mechanical Engineering and Texas Center for Superconductivity, University of Houston, Houston, TX 77204 (United States); Selvamanickam, Venkat, E-mail: selva@uh.edu [Department of Mechanical Engineering and Texas Center for Superconductivity, University of Houston, Houston, TX 77204 (United States)

    2013-03-15

    Highlights: ► Fully-filamentized coated conductor with 13-fold reduction in ac losses. ► Selective electroplating for filamentization of thick copper stabilizer. ► A twofold decrease in ac loss by filamentization of copper stabilizer. ► Absence of appreciable coupling loss contribution from electroplating. -- Abstract: A simple, cost-effective method involving top-down mechanical scribing, oxidation and bottom-up electroplating has been successfully developed to fabricate fully filamentized HTS coated conductors. The copper stabilizer layer is selectively electroplated on the superconducting filaments while the striations remain copper-free due to the formation of a resistive oxide layer in between filaments by oxidation of the striated grooves at elevated temperature in oxygen atmosphere. Magnetization AC loss measurements, performed in a frequency range of 45–500 Hz at 77 K, confirmed the expected N-fold reduction in AC loss of the filamentized tapes with no significant degradation in critical current beyond that due to the material removal from the striations (N – number of filaments). A considerable reduction in coupling AC loss was observed after high temperature annealing/oxidation of the striated tapes. Furthermore, a significant reduction in eddy current loss was achieved with selective copper electroplating, as evidenced by analyzing the field and frequency dependence of magnetization AC loss, as well as by comparing the AC loss performance of striated samples to that of non-striated samples after electroplating of copper stabilizer.

  9. Fully filamentized HTS coated conductor via striation and selective electroplating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kesgin, Ibrahim; Majkic, Goran; Selvamanickam, Venkat

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Fully-filamentized coated conductor with 13-fold reduction in ac losses. ► Selective electroplating for filamentization of thick copper stabilizer. ► A twofold decrease in ac loss by filamentization of copper stabilizer. ► Absence of appreciable coupling loss contribution from electroplating. -- Abstract: A simple, cost-effective method involving top-down mechanical scribing, oxidation and bottom-up electroplating has been successfully developed to fabricate fully filamentized HTS coated conductors. The copper stabilizer layer is selectively electroplated on the superconducting filaments while the striations remain copper-free due to the formation of a resistive oxide layer in between filaments by oxidation of the striated grooves at elevated temperature in oxygen atmosphere. Magnetization AC loss measurements, performed in a frequency range of 45–500 Hz at 77 K, confirmed the expected N-fold reduction in AC loss of the filamentized tapes with no significant degradation in critical current beyond that due to the material removal from the striations (N – number of filaments). A considerable reduction in coupling AC loss was observed after high temperature annealing/oxidation of the striated tapes. Furthermore, a significant reduction in eddy current loss was achieved with selective copper electroplating, as evidenced by analyzing the field and frequency dependence of magnetization AC loss, as well as by comparing the AC loss performance of striated samples to that of non-striated samples after electroplating of copper stabilizer

  10. Injector for scattering measurements on fully solvated biospecies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weierstall, U.; Spence, J. C. H.; Doak, R. B.

    2012-01-01

    We describe a liquid jet injector system developed to deliver fully solvated microscopic target species into a probe beam under either vacuum or ambient conditions. The injector was designed specifically for x-ray scattering studies of biological nanospecies using x-ray free electron lasers and third generation synchrotrons, but is of interest to any application in which microscopic samples must be delivered in a fully solvated state and with microscopic precision. By utilizing a gas dynamic virtual nozzle (GDVN) to generate a sample-containing liquid jet of diameter ranging from 300 nm to 20 μm, the injector avoids the clogging problems associated in this size range with conventional Rayleigh jets. A differential pumping system incorporated into the injector shields the experimental chamber from the gas load of the GDVN, making the injector compatible with high vacuum systems. The injector houses a fiber-optically coupled pump laser to illuminate the jet for pump-probe experiments and a hermetically sealed microscope to observe the liquid jet for diagnostics and alignment during operation. This injector system has now been used during several experimental runs at the Linac Coherent Light Source. Recent refinements in GDVN design are also presented.

  11. A fully photonics-based coherent radar system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghelfi, Paolo; Laghezza, Francesco; Scotti, Filippo; Serafino, Giovanni; Capria, Amerigo; Pinna, Sergio; Onori, Daniel; Porzi, Claudio; Scaffardi, Mirco; Malacarne, Antonio; Vercesi, Valeria; Lazzeri, Emma; Berizzi, Fabrizio; Bogoni, Antonella

    2014-03-20

    The next generation of radar (radio detection and ranging) systems needs to be based on software-defined radio to adapt to variable environments, with higher carrier frequencies for smaller antennas and broadened bandwidth for increased resolution. Today's digital microwave components (synthesizers and analogue-to-digital converters) suffer from limited bandwidth with high noise at increasing frequencies, so that fully digital radar systems can work up to only a few gigahertz, and noisy analogue up- and downconversions are necessary for higher frequencies. In contrast, photonics provide high precision and ultrawide bandwidth, allowing both the flexible generation of extremely stable radio-frequency signals with arbitrary waveforms up to millimetre waves, and the detection of such signals and their precise direct digitization without downconversion. Until now, the photonics-based generation and detection of radio-frequency signals have been studied separately and have not been tested in a radar system. Here we present the development and the field trial results of a fully photonics-based coherent radar demonstrator carried out within the project PHODIR. The proposed architecture exploits a single pulsed laser for generating tunable radar signals and receiving their echoes, avoiding radio-frequency up- and downconversion and guaranteeing both the software-defined approach and high resolution. Its performance exceeds state-of-the-art electronics at carrier frequencies above two gigahertz, and the detection of non-cooperating aeroplanes confirms the effectiveness and expected precision of the system.

  12. Fully integrated circuit chip of microelectronic neural bridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiaoyan, Shen; Zhigong, Wang

    2014-09-01

    Nerve tracts interruption is one of the major reasons for dysfunction after spiral cord injury. The microelectronic neural bridge is a method to restore function of interrupted neural pathways, by making use of microelectronic chips to bypass the injured nerve tracts. A low-power fully integrated microelectronic neural bridge chip is designed, using CSMC 0.5-μm CMOS technology. The structure and the key points in the circuit design will be introduced in detail. In order to meet the requirement for implantation, the circuit was modified to avoid the use of off-chip components, and fully monolithic integration is achieved. The operating voltage of the circuit is ±2.5 V, and the chip area is 1.21 × 1.18 mm2. According to the characteristic of neural signal, the time-domain method is used in testing. The pass bandwidth of the microelectronic neural bridge system covers the whole frequency range of the neural signal, power consumption is 4.33 mW, and the gain is adjustable. The design goals are achieved.

  13. Fully resolved simulations of expansion waves propagating into particle beds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marjanovic, Goran; Hackl, Jason; Annamalai, Subramanian; Jackson, Thomas; Balachandar, S.

    2017-11-01

    There is a tremendous amount of research that has been done on compression waves and shock waves moving over particles but very little concerning expansion waves. Using 3-D direct numerical simulations, this study will explore expansion waves propagating into fully resolved particle beds of varying volume fractions and geometric arrangements. The objectives of these simulations are as follows: 1) To fully resolve all (1-way coupled) forces on the particles in a time varying flow and 2) to verify state-of-the-art drag models for such complex flows. We will explore a range of volume fractions, from very low ones that are similar to single particle flows, to higher ones where nozzling effects are observed between neighboring particles. Further, we will explore two geometric arrangements: body centered cubic and face centered cubic. We will quantify the effects that volume fraction and geometric arrangement plays on the drag forces and flow fields experienced by the particles. These results will then be compared to theoretical predictions from a model based on the generalized Faxen's theorem. This work was supported in part by the U.S. Department of Energy under the Predictive Science Academic Alliance Program, under Contract No. DE-NA0002378.

  14. Fully automated quantitative cephalometry using convolutional neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arık, Sercan Ö; Ibragimov, Bulat; Xing, Lei

    2017-01-01

    Quantitative cephalometry plays an essential role in clinical diagnosis, treatment, and surgery. Development of fully automated techniques for these procedures is important to enable consistently accurate computerized analyses. We study the application of deep convolutional neural networks (CNNs) for fully automated quantitative cephalometry for the first time. The proposed framework utilizes CNNs for detection of landmarks that describe the anatomy of the depicted patient and yield quantitative estimation of pathologies in the jaws and skull base regions. We use a publicly available cephalometric x-ray image dataset to train CNNs for recognition of landmark appearance patterns. CNNs are trained to output probabilistic estimations of different landmark locations, which are combined using a shape-based model. We evaluate the overall framework on the test set and compare with other proposed techniques. We use the estimated landmark locations to assess anatomically relevant measurements and classify them into different anatomical types. Overall, our results demonstrate high anatomical landmark detection accuracy ([Formula: see text] to 2% higher success detection rate for a 2-mm range compared with the top benchmarks in the literature) and high anatomical type classification accuracy ([Formula: see text] average classification accuracy for test set). We demonstrate that CNNs, which merely input raw image patches, are promising for accurate quantitative cephalometry.

  15. A fully automated high-throughput training system for rodents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh Poddar

    Full Text Available Addressing the neural mechanisms underlying complex learned behaviors requires training animals in well-controlled tasks, an often time-consuming and labor-intensive process that can severely limit the feasibility of such studies. To overcome this constraint, we developed a fully computer-controlled general purpose system for high-throughput training of rodents. By standardizing and automating the implementation of predefined training protocols within the animal's home-cage our system dramatically reduces the efforts involved in animal training while also removing human errors and biases from the process. We deployed this system to train rats in a variety of sensorimotor tasks, achieving learning rates comparable to existing, but more laborious, methods. By incrementally and systematically increasing the difficulty of the task over weeks of training, rats were able to master motor tasks that, in complexity and structure, resemble ones used in primate studies of motor sequence learning. By enabling fully automated training of rodents in a home-cage setting this low-cost and modular system increases the utility of rodents for studying the neural underpinnings of a variety of complex behaviors.

  16. Comparing fully general relativistic and Newtonian calculations of structure formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    East, William E.; Wojtak, Radosław; Abel, Tom

    2018-02-01

    In the standard approach to studying cosmological structure formation, the overall expansion of the Universe is assumed to be homogeneous, with the gravitational effect of inhomogeneities encoded entirely in a Newtonian potential. A topic of ongoing debate is to what degree this fully captures the dynamics dictated by general relativity, especially in the era of precision cosmology. To quantitatively assess this, we directly compare standard N-body Newtonian calculations to full numerical solutions of the Einstein equations, for cold matter with various magnitude initial inhomogeneities on scales comparable to the Hubble horizon. We analyze the differences in the evolution of density, luminosity distance, and other quantities defined with respect to fiducial observers. This is carried out by reconstructing the effective spacetime and matter fields dictated by the Newtonian quantities, and by taking care to distinguish effects of numerical resolution. We find that the fully general relativistic and Newtonian calculations show excellent agreement, even well into the nonlinear regime. They only notably differ in regions where the weak gravity assumption breaks down, which arise when considering extreme cases with perturbations exceeding standard values.

  17. Fully Automated Deep Learning System for Bone Age Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyunkwang; Tajmir, Shahein; Lee, Jenny; Zissen, Maurice; Yeshiwas, Bethel Ayele; Alkasab, Tarik K; Choy, Garry; Do, Synho

    2017-08-01

    Skeletal maturity progresses through discrete phases, a fact that is used routinely in pediatrics where bone age assessments (BAAs) are compared to chronological age in the evaluation of endocrine and metabolic disorders. While central to many disease evaluations, little has changed to improve the tedious process since its introduction in 1950. In this study, we propose a fully automated deep learning pipeline to segment a region of interest, standardize and preprocess input radiographs, and perform BAA. Our models use an ImageNet pretrained, fine-tuned convolutional neural network (CNN) to achieve 57.32 and 61.40% accuracies for the female and male cohorts on our held-out test images. Female test radiographs were assigned a BAA within 1 year 90.39% and within 2 years 98.11% of the time. Male test radiographs were assigned 94.18% within 1 year and 99.00% within 2 years. Using the input occlusion method, attention maps were created which reveal what features the trained model uses to perform BAA. These correspond to what human experts look at when manually performing BAA. Finally, the fully automated BAA system was deployed in the clinical environment as a decision supporting system for more accurate and efficient BAAs at much faster interpretation time (<2 s) than the conventional method.

  18. Fully kinetic particle simulations of high pressure streamer propagation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, David; Welch, Dale; Thoma, Carsten; Clark, Robert

    2012-10-01

    Streamer and leader formation in high pressure devices is a dynamic process involving a hierarchy of physical phenomena. These include elastic and inelastic particle collisions in the gas, radiation generation, transport and absorption, and electrode interactions. We have performed 2D and 3D fully EM implicit particle-in-cell simulation model of gas breakdown leading to streamer formation under DC and RF fields. The model uses a Monte Carlo treatment for all particle interactions and includes discrete photon generation, transport, and absorption for ultra-violet and soft x-ray radiation. Central to the realization of this fully kinetic particle treatment is an algorithm [D. R. Welch, et al., J. Comp. Phys. 227, 143 (2007)] that manages the total particle count by species while preserving the local momentum distribution functions and conserving charge. These models are being applied to the analysis of high-pressure gas switches [D. V. Rose, et al., Phys. Plasmas 18, 093501 (2011)] and gas-filled RF accelerator cavities [D. V. Rose, et al. Proc. IPAC12, to appear].

  19. Diversity of hysteresis in a fully cooperative coinfection model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Jorge P.; Liang, Yu-Hao; Huang, Yu-Jhe; Juang, Jonq

    2018-02-01

    We propose a fully cooperative coinfection model in which singly infected individuals are more likely to acquire a second disease than susceptible ones and doubly infected individuals are also assumed to be more contagious than singly infected ones. The dynamics of such a fully cooperative coinfection model is investigated through the well-mixed approach. In particular, discontinuous outbreak transitions from the disease free state or the low prevalence state to the high prevalence state can be separately observed as a disease transmission rate crosses a threshold αo from the below when the epidemic is still in the early stages. Moreover, discontinuous eradications from the high prevalence state to the low prevalence or disease free state are also separately seen as the transmission rate reaches a threshold α e ( constitute three types of hysteresis, where only one type has been identified before. Complete characterization of these three types of hysteresis in terms of parameters measuring the uniformity of the model is both analytically and numerically provided.

  20. Health behaviours and their facilitation under depletion conditions: the case of snacking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellahewa, Dilan A; Mullan, Barbara

    2015-07-01

    Previous research suggests that depletion (the state ensuing from self-control exertion) engenders lapses in health behaviours. The present study tested for that effect in relation to the health behaviour of limiting snacking, and investigated whether health goal-priming might facilitate such health behaviours even under depletion conditions. A laboratory study was conducted involving an analytic sample of 85 undergraduates (mean age = 20.08, SD = 3.96; female: n= 63). Depletion was manipulated by having participants watch a humorous video while suppressing their responses (depletion condition) or remaining natural (non-depletion condition). The activation of participants' health goals was then manipulated by subtly exposing (goal-priming condition) or not exposing (non-priming condition) participants to health-related words in a Scrambled Sentence Task. Finally, snacking was measured using a bogus taste-test. Controlling for initial hunger, snacking was higher among depleted compared to non-depleted participants. Snacking was lower among primed compared to non-primed participants. The interaction between depletion and goal-priming was not significant. These findings suggest that depletion should be recognised as a risk factor for lapses in health behaviours, and that health goal-priming may be a useful technique for facilitating such behaviours even when individuals are depleted. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves observed in the plasma depletion layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, B. J.; Fuselier, S. A.; Murr, D.

    1991-01-01

    Observations from AMPTE/CCE in the earth's magnetosheath on October 5, 1984 are presented to illustrate 0.1 - 4.0 Hz magnetic field pulsations in the subsolar plasma depletion layer (PDL) for northward sheath field during a magnetospheric compression. The PDL is unambiguously identified by comparing CCE data with data from IRM in the upstream solar wind. Pulsations in the PDL are dominated by transverse waves with F/F(H+) 1.0 or less and a slot in spectral power at F/F(H+) = 0.5. The upper branch is left hand polarized while the lower branch is linearly polarized. In the sheath the proton temperature anisotropy is about 0.6 but it is about 1.7 in the PDL during wave occurrence. The properties and correlation of waves with increased anisotropy indicate that they are electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves.

  2. Fuel depletion calculation in MTR-LEU NUR reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeggar Foudil

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we present the results of a few energy groups calculations for the NUR reactor fuel depletion analysis up to 45 000 MWd/tU taken as the maximum fuel burn up. The WIMSD-4 cell code has been employed as a calculation tool. In this study, we are interested in actinides such as the uranium and plutonium isotopes, as well as fission products Xe-135, Sm-149, Sm-151, Eu-155, and Gd-157. Calculation results regarding the five energy groups are in a good agreement with those obtained with only two energy groups which can, therefore, be used in all subsequent calculations. Calculation results presented in this article can be used as a microscopic data base for estimating the amount of radioactive sources randomly dispersed in the environment. They can also be used to monitor the fuel assemblies inventory at the core level.

  3. Calculation of depletion with optimal distribution of initial control poison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro Lobo, P.D. de.

    1978-03-01

    The spatial depletion equations are linearized within the time intervals and their solution is obtained by modal analysis. At the beginning of life an optimal poison distribution that maximizes neutron economy and the corresponding flux is determined. At the start of the subsequent time steps the flux distributions are obtained by pertubation method in relation to the start of the previous time steps. The problem was studied with constant poison distribution in order to evaluate the influence of the poison at the beginning of life. The results obtained by the modal expansion techniques are satisfactory. However, the optimization of the initial distribution of the control poison does not indicate any significant effect on the core life [pt

  4. Arterial diameter during central volume depletion in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Helle Klingenberg; Madsen, P; Matzen, S

    1995-01-01

    -blind randomized design. Eight subjects without active treatment experienced presyncopal symptoms after 16-45 (mean 32 min). Central volume depletion was indicated by an increase in mean thoracic electrical impedance [from 31.5 (SEM 1.6) to 33.4 (SEM 1.7) omega; P ....3) to 2.2 (SEM 0.3) 1.min-1] and heart rate [HR, from 64 (SEM 3) to 100 (SEM 7) beats.min-1], mean arterial pressure (MAP, from 77 (SEM 4) to 89 (SEM 2) mmHg [10.3 (SEM 0.53 to 11.9 (SEM 0.27) kPa]) and total peripheral resistance (TPR, from 19 (SEM 2) to 34 (SEM 4) mmHg.min.1-1 [2.5 (SEM 0.27) to 4...

  5. Climate variability, rice production and groundwater depletion in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhargava, Alok

    2018-03-01

    This paper modeled the proximate determinants of rice outputs and groundwater depths in 27 Indian states during 1980-2010. Dynamic random effects models were estimated by maximum likelihood at state and well levels. The main findings from models for rice outputs were that temperatures and rainfall levels were significant predictors, and the relationships were quadratic with respect to rainfall. Moreover, nonlinearities with respect to population changes indicated greater rice production with population increases. Second, groundwater depths were positively associated with temperatures and negatively with rainfall levels and there were nonlinear effects of population changes. Third, dynamic models for in situ groundwater depths in 11 795 wells in mainly unconfined aquifers, accounting for latitudes, longitudes and altitudes, showed steady depletion. Overall, the results indicated that population pressures on food production and environment need to be tackled via long-term healthcare, agricultural, and groundwater recharge policies in India.

  6. Monitoring bioremediation of weathered diesel NAPL using oxygen depletion profiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, G.B.; Johnston, C.D.; Patterson, B.M.; Barber, C.; Bennett, M.

    1995-01-01

    Semicontinuous logging of oxygen concentrations at multiple depths has been used to evaluate the progress of an in situ bioremediation trial at a site contaminated by weathered diesel nonaqueous-phase liquid (NAPL). The evaluation trial consisted of periodic addition of nutrients and aeration of a 100-m 2 trial plot. During the bioremediation trial, aeration was stopped periodically, and decreases in dissolved and gaseous oxygen concentrations were monitored using data loggers attached to in situ oxygen sensors placed at multiple depths above and within a thin NAPL-contaminated zone. Oxygen usage rate coefficients were determined by fitting zero- and first-order rate equations to the oxygen depletion curves. For nutrient-amended sites within the trial plot, estimates of oxygen usage rate coefficients were significantly higher than estimates from unamended sites. These rates also converted to NPL degradation rates, comparable to those achieved in previous studies, despite the high concentrations and weathered state of the NAPL at this test site

  7. Achievements and perspectives of deuterium-depleted water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stefanescu, Ioan; Titescu, Gheorghe.; Tamaian, Radu

    2002-01-01

    Deuterium-depleted water (DDW) means water with an isotopic deuterium content smaller than 145 ppm. DDW is a non-toxic product. The researches carried out were turned out as many patents. The investigations led to the conclusion that DDW cause a tendency towards the increase of the basal tone, accompanied by the intensification of the vasoconstrictive effects. Animals treated with DDW showed an increase of the resistance both to sub lethal and to lethal gamma radiation doses. DDW stimulates immunodefence reactions. Investigations regarding artificial reproduction of fish with DDW fecundated solutions confirmed the favourable influence in embryo growth stage and resistance in next growth stages. One can remark the favourable influence of DDW on biological process in plants in various ontogenetic stages. (authors)

  8. Implications of stratospheric ozone depletion upon plant production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teramura, A.H.

    1990-01-01

    An increase in the amount of UV-B radiation reaching the earth's surface is identified as the major factor of concern to result from stratospheric ozone depletion. UV radiation is believed to have wide ranging effects on plant physiology and biochemistry. In screening studies of > 300 species and cultivars, > 50% have shown sensitivity to UV radiation. The most sensitive plant families appear to be Leguminosae, Cucurbitaceae and Cruciferae. The need for a better understanding of the effects of UV radiation on crop plant physiology and particularly of the repair and protective mechanisms developed by some species is stressed. This paper was presented at a colloquium on Implications of global climate changes on horticultural cropping practices and production in developing countries held at the 86th Annual Meeting of the American Society for Horticultural Science at Tulsa, Oklahoma, on 2 Aug. 1989

  9. Depleting adult dentate gyrus neurogenesis increases cocaine-seeking behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deroche-Gamonet, Véronique; Revest, Jean-Michel; Fiancette, Jean-François; Balado, Eric; Koehl, Muriel; Grosjean, Noëlle; Abrous, Djoher Nora; Piazza, Pier-Vincenzo

    2018-03-05

    The hippocampus is the main locus for adult dentate gyrus (DG) neurogenesis. A number of studies have shown that aberrant DG neurogenesis correlates with many neuropsychiatric disorders, including drug addiction. Although clear causal relationships have been established between DG neurogenesis and memory dysfunction or mood-related disorders, evidence of the causal role of DG neurogenesis in drug-seeking behaviors has not been established. Here we assessed the role of new DG neurons in cocaine self-administration using an inducible transgenic approach that selectively depletes adult DG neurogenesis. Our results show that transgenic mice with decreased adult DG neurogenesis exhibit increased motivation to self-administer cocaine and a higher seeking response to cocaine-related cues. These results identify adult hippocampal neurogenesis as a key factor in vulnerability to cocaine addiction.

  10. Depleted uranium: Metabolic disruptor?; Uranium appauvri: perturbateur metabolique?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souidi, Maamar; Dublineau, Isabelle; Lestaevel, Philippe [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire - IRSN, Direction de la radioprotection de l' homme, Laboratoire de radiotoxicologie experimentale, Service de radiobiologie et d' epidemiologie, BP 17, 92262 Fontenay-aux-Roses cedex (France)

    2011-11-15

    The presence of uranium in the environment can lead to long-term contamination of the food chain and of water intended for human consumption and thus raises many questions about the scientific and societal consequences of this exposure on population health. Although the biological effects of chronic low-level exposure are poorly understood, results of various recent studies show that contamination by depleted uranium (DU) induces subtle but significant biological effects at the molecular level in organs including the brain, liver, kidneys and testicles. For the first time, it has been demonstrated that DU induces effects on several metabolic pathways, including those metabolizing vitamin D, cholesterol, steroid hormones, acetylcholine and xenobiotics. This evidence strongly suggests that DU might well interfere with many metabolic pathways. It might thus contribute, together with other man-made substances in the environment, to increased health risks in some regions. (authors)

  11. Examination of disks from the IPNS depleted uranium target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strain, R.V.; Carpenter, J.M.

    1995-10-01

    This report describes the results of examining the Zircaloy-2 clad depleted uranium disks from the Intense Pulse Neutron Source (IPNS) Target. That target operated from August, 1981 to June, 1988 and from September, 1991 to September, 1992 at 450 MeV, pulsing at 30 Hz with a time average proton current of about 15 microA. The target was removed from service when the presence of fission products ( 135 Xe) in the coolant cover gas indicated a failure in the Zircaloy-2 cladding. Altogether, the target had absorbed about 240 mA hours of proton current, and endured between 50,000 and 100,000 thermal cycles. The purpose of the examination was to assess the condition of the disks and determine the cause of the cladding failure. The results of visual, gamma ray scanning, and destructive metallurgical examination of two disks are described

  12. Alkali depletion and ion-beam mixing in glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnold, G.W.

    1983-01-01

    Ion-implantation-induced alkali depletion in simple alkali-silicate glasses (12M 2 O.88SiO 2 ) has been studied for implantations at room temperature and near 77K. Results are consistent with a mechanism for alkali removal, by heavy ion bombardment, based on radiation-enhanced migration and preferential removal of alkali from the outermost layers. Similar results were obtained for mixed-alkali glasses ((12-x)Cs 2 .O.xM 2 O.88SiO 2 ) where, in addition, a mixed-alkali effect may also be operative. Some preliminary experiments with ion implantation through thin Al films on SiO 2 glass and on a phosphate glass show that inter-diffusion takes place and suggest that this ion-mixing technique may be a useful method for altering the physical properties of glass surfaces

  13. Groundwater Depletion: A Significant Unreported Source of Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Warren W.; Hyndman, David W.

    2017-11-01

    Quantifying the annual flux of CO2 (carbon dioxide) and equivalent emissions to the atmosphere is critical for both policy decisions and modeling of future climate change. Given the importance of greenhouse gas emissions to climate change and a recognized mismatch between sources and sinks (e.g., Liu & Dreybrodt, 2015), it is important to quantify these parameters. A significant and previously unrecognized CO2 contribution arises from groundwater depletion (net removal from storage). The average annual 1.7 MMT (million metric tons) CO2 released in the United States from this source is greater than approximately one third of the 23 major sources reported by the US EPA (United States Environmental Protection Agency) to the IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change; US EPA)

  14. Correlates of bushmeat in markets and depletion of wildlife.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fa, John E; Olivero, Jesus; Farfán, Miguel Á; Márquez, Ana L; Duarte, Jesús; Nackoney, Janet; Hall, Amy; Dupain, Jef; Seymour, Sarah; Johnson, Paul J; Macdonald, David W; Real, Raimundo; Vargas, Juan M

    2015-06-01

    We used data on number of carcasses of wildlife species sold in 79 bushmeat markets in a region of Nigeria and Cameroon to assess whether species composition of a market could be explained by anthropogenic pressures and environmental variables around each market. More than 45 mammal species from 9 orders were traded across all markets; mostly ungulates and rodents. For each market, we determined median body mass, species diversity (game diversity), and taxa that were principal contributors to the total number of carcasses for sale (game dominance). Human population density in surrounding areas was significantly and negatively related to the percentage ungulates and primates sold in markets and significantly and positively related to the proportion of rodents. The proportion of carnivores sold was higher in markets with high human population densities. Proportion of small-bodied mammals (markets increased as human population density increased, but proportion of large-bodied mammals (>10 kg) decreased as human population density increased. We calculated an index of game depletion (GDI) for each market from the sum of the total number of carcasses traded per annum and species, weighted by the intrinsic rate of natural increase (rmax ) of each species, divided by individuals traded in a market. The GDI of a market increased as the proportion of fast-reproducing species (highest rmax ) increased and as the representation of species with lowest rmax (slow-reproducing) decreased. The best explanatory factor for a market's GDI was anthropogenic pressure-road density, human settlements with >3000 inhabitants, and nonforest vegetation. High and low GDI were significantly differentiated by human density and human settlements with >3000 inhabitants. Our results provided empirical evidence that human activity is correlated with more depleted bushmeat faunas and can be used as a proxy to determine areas in need of conservation action. © 2015 Society for Conservation Biology.

  15. Precious Metals in Automotive Technology: An Unsolvable Depletion Problem?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ugo Bardi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Since the second half of the 20th century, various devices have been developed in order to reduce the emissions of harmful substances at the exhaust pipe of combustion engines. In the automotive field, the most diffuse and best known device of this kind is the “three way” catalytic converter for engines using the Otto cycle designed to abate the emissions of carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides and unburnt hydrocarbons. These catalytic converters can function only by means of precious metals (mainly platinum, rhodium and palladium which exist in a limited supply in economically exploitable ores. The recent increase in prices of all mineral commodities is already making these converters significantly expensive and it is not impossible that the progressive depletion of precious metals will make them too expensive for the market of private cars. The present paper examines how this potential scarcity could affect the technology of road transportation worldwide. We argue that the supply of precious metals for automotive converters is not at risk in the short term, but that in the future it will not be possible to continue using this technology as a result of increasing prices generated by progressive depletion. Mitigation methods such as reducing the amounts of precious metals in catalysts, or recycling them can help but cannot be considered as a definitive solution. We argue that precious metal scarcity is a critical factor that may determine the future development of road transportation in the world. As the problem is basically unsolvable in the long run, we must explore new technologies for road transportation and we conclude that it is likely that the clean engine of the future will be electric and powered by batteries.

  16. Uplift and seismicity driven by groundwater depletion in central California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amos, Colin B; Audet, Pascal; Hammond, William C; Bürgmann, Roland; Johanson, Ingrid A; Blewitt, Geoffrey

    2014-05-22

    Groundwater use in California's San Joaquin Valley exceeds replenishment of the aquifer, leading to substantial diminution of this resource and rapid subsidence of the valley floor. The volume of groundwater lost over the past century and a half also represents a substantial reduction in mass and a large-scale unburdening of the lithosphere, with significant but unexplored potential impacts on crustal deformation and seismicity. Here we use vertical global positioning system measurements to show that a broad zone of rock uplift of up to 1-3 mm per year surrounds the southern San Joaquin Valley. The observed uplift matches well with predicted flexure from a simple elastic model of current rates of water-storage loss, most of which is caused by groundwater depletion. The height of the adjacent central Coast Ranges and the Sierra Nevada is strongly seasonal and peaks during the dry late summer and autumn, out of phase with uplift of the valley floor during wetter months. Our results suggest that long-term and late-summer flexural uplift of the Coast Ranges reduce the effective normal stress resolved on the San Andreas Fault. This process brings the fault closer to failure, thereby providing a viable mechanism for observed seasonality in microseismicity at Parkfield and potentially affecting long-term seismicity rates for fault systems adjacent to the valley. We also infer that the observed contemporary uplift of the southern Sierra Nevada previously attributed to tectonic or mantle-derived forces is partly a consequence of human-caused groundwater depletion.

  17. Depleted uranium residual radiological risk assessment for Kosovo sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durante, Marco; Pugliese, Mariagabriella

    2003-01-01

    During the recent conflict in Yugoslavia, depleted uranium rounds were employed and were left in the battlefield. Health concern is related to the risk arising from contamination of areas in Kosovo with depleted uranium penetrators and dust. Although chemical toxicity is the most significant health risk related to uranium, radiation exposure has been allegedly related to cancers among veterans of the Balkan conflict. Uranium munitions are considered to be a source of radiological contamination of the environment. Based on measurements and estimates from the recent Balkan Task Force UNEP mission in Kosovo, we have estimated effective doses to resident populations using a well-established food-web mathematical model (RESRAD code). The UNEP mission did not find any evidence of widespread contamination in Kosovo. Rather than the actual measurements, we elected to use a desk assessment scenario (Reference Case) proposed by the UNEP group as the source term for computer simulations. Specific applications to two Kosovo sites (Planeja village and Vranovac hill) are described. Results of the simulations suggest that radiation doses from water-independent pathways are negligible (annual doses below 30 μSv). A small radiological risk is expected from contamination of the groundwater in conditions of effective leaching and low distribution coefficient of uranium metal. Under the assumptions of the Reference Case, significant radiological doses (>1 mSv/year) might be achieved after many years from the conflict through water-dependent pathways. Even in this worst-case scenario, DU radiological risk would be far overshadowed by its chemical toxicity

  18. Improved radiation tolerance of MAPS using a depleted epitaxial layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorokhov, A., E-mail: Andrei.Dorokhov@IReS.in2p3.f [Institut Pluridisciplinaire Hubert Curien (IPHC), 23 rue du loess, BP 28, 67037 Strasbourg (France); Bertolone, G.; Baudot, J.; Brogna, A.S.; Colledani, C.; Claus, G.; De Masi, R. [Institut Pluridisciplinaire Hubert Curien (IPHC), 23 rue du loess, BP 28, 67037 Strasbourg (France); Deveaux, M. [Goethe-Universitaet Frankfurt am Main, Senckenberganlage 31, 60325 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Doziere, G.; Dulinski, W. [Institut Pluridisciplinaire Hubert Curien (IPHC), 23 rue du loess, BP 28, 67037 Strasbourg (France); Fontaine, J.-C. [Groupe de Recherche en Physique des Hautes Energies (GRPHE), Universite de Haute Alsace, 61, rue Albert Camus, 68093 Mulhouse (France); Goffe, M.; Himmi, A.; Hu-Guo, Ch.; Jaaskelainen, K.; Koziel, M.; Morel, F.; Santos, C.; Specht, M.; Valin, I. [Institut Pluridisciplinaire Hubert Curien (IPHC), 23 rue du loess, BP 28, 67037 Strasbourg (France)

    2010-12-11

    Tracking performance of Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors (MAPS) developed at IPHC (Turchetta, et al., 2001) have been extensively studied (Winter, et al., 2001; Gornushkin, et al., 2002) . Numerous sensor prototypes, called MIMOSA, were fabricated and tested since 1999 in order to optimise the charge collection efficiency and power dissipation, to minimise the noise and to increase the readout speed. The radiation tolerance was also investigated. The highest fluence tolerable for a 10{mu}m pitch device was found to be {approx}10{sup 13}n{sub eq}/cm{sup 2}, while it was only 2x10{sup 12}n{sub eq}/cm{sup 2} for a 20{mu}m pitch device. The purpose of this paper is to show that the tolerance to non-ionising radiation may be extended up to O(10{sup 14}) n{sub eq}/cm{sup 2}. This goal relies on a fabrication process featuring a 15{mu}m thin, high resistivity ({approx}1k{Omega}cm) epitaxial layer. A sensor prototype (MIMOSA-25) was fabricated in this process to explore its detection performance. The depletion depth of the epitaxial layer at standard CMOS voltages (<5V) is similar to the layer thickness. Measurements with m.i.p.s show that the charge collected in the seed pixel is at least twice larger for the depleted epitaxial layer than for the undepleted one, translating into a signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of {approx}50. Tests after irradiation have shown that this excellent performance is maintained up to the highest fluence considered (3x10{sup 13}n{sub eq}/cm{sup 2}), making evidence of a significant extension of the radiation tolerance limits of MAPS.

  19. A synthesis of atmospheric mercury depletion event chemistry in the atmosphere and snow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. J. Poulain

    2008-03-01

    not remain in the same form in the snow. Kinetic studies undertaken have demonstrated that bromine is the major oxidant depleting Hg in the atmosphere. Modeling results demonstrate that there is a significant deposition of Hg to Polar Regions as a result of AMDEs. Models have also shown that Hg is readily transported to the Arctic from source regions, at times during springtime when this environment is actively transforming Hg from the atmosphere to the snow and ice surfaces. The presence of significant amounts of methyl Hg in snow in the Arctic surrounding AMDEs is important because this species is the link between the environment and impacts to wildlife and humans. Further, much work on methylation and demethylation processes has occurred but these processes are not yet fully understood. Recent changes in the climate and sea ice cover in Polar Regions are likely to have strong effects on the cycling of Hg in this environment; however more research is needed to understand Hg processes in order to formulate meaningful predictions of these changes.

  20. Modeling of precipitation and Cr depletion profiles of Inconel 600 during heat treatments and LSM procedure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bao Gang [Department of Mechanical System Engineering, Hiroshima University, 1-4-1 Higashi-Hiroshima, Hiroshima (Japan); Shinozaki, Kenji [Department of Mechanical System Engineering, Hiroshima University, 1-4-1 Higashi-Hiroshima, Hiroshima (Japan)]. E-mail: kshino@hiroshima-u.ac.jp; Inkyo, Muneyuki [Department of Mechanical System Engineering, Hiroshima University, 1-4-1 Higashi-Hiroshima, Hiroshima (Japan); Miyoshi, Tomohisa [Department of Mechanical System Engineering, Hiroshima University, 1-4-1 Higashi-Hiroshima, Hiroshima (Japan); Yamamoto, Motomichi [Department of Mechanical System Engineering, Hiroshima University, 1-4-1 Higashi-Hiroshima, Hiroshima (Japan); Mahara, Yoichi [Babcock-Hitachi K.K., 3-36 Takara-machi, Kure, Hiroshima (Japan); Watanabe, Hiroshi [Babcock-Hitachi K.K., 3-36 Takara-machi, Kure, Hiroshima (Japan)

    2006-08-10

    A model based on the thermodynamic and kinetic was conducted to simulate the Cr depletion profiles near the grain boundary in Inconel 600 during the heat treatments and laser surface melting (LSM) process using Thermo-Calc and Dictra code. Based on the good agreement of Cr concentration distribution during heat treatments measured by experiments, the microsegregation of Cr induced by cellular microstructure formed during the LSM process was also modeled. The Cr depletion profile was evaluated using the Cr depletion area below the critical Cr concentration for intergranular cracking/intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGC/IGSCC) susceptibility (8 mass%). Comparing with the result of Streicher test, the Cr depletion area calculated showed good coherence with the IGC/IGSCC susceptibility. The sample after SR + LTS treatment with the largest Cr depletion area showed the worst IGC/IGSCC resistance, while, the sample after LSM process with the smaller Cr depletion area showed the excellent IGC/IGSCC resistance.

  1. A fully operational 1-kb variable threshold Josephson RAM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurosawa, I.; Nakagawa, H.; Aoyagi, M.; Kosaks, S.; Takada, S.

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes the first fully operational Josephson RAM in LSI level integration. The chip was designed as a 4-b x 256-word data RAM unit for a 4-b Josephson computer, The variable threshold memory cell and the relating memory architecture were used. They are so simple in structure that the fabrication is satisfied by the current Josephson junction technology. A directly coupled driver gate for a resistive bit line applies an accurate and stable driving current to the memory cell array. The RAM chip was fabricated with a 3-μm Nb/Al-oxide/Nb junction technology. For obtaining reliable RAM chips, a plasma-enhanced CVD silicon dioxide layer was introduced for insulation between the ground plane and the base electrode. The thermal uniformity of the wafer was improved during the oxidation process for making a tunnel barrier in this work

  2. Discarding of cod in the Danish Fully Documented Fisheries trials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulrich, Clara; Olesen, Hans Jakob; Bergsson, Heidrikur

    2015-01-01

    Denmarkwas the first nation in Europe to promote the use of Fully Documented Fisheries (FDF) through Remote Electronic Monitoring (REM) and CCTV camera systems, with pilot schemes in place since 2008. In theory, such a scheme could supplement and even potentially replace expensive control...... have remained. Regular validation of weight estimation methods and close collaboration between scientific monitoring and control are important to support the use of reported discards as a reliable source of information. We discuss the potential of electronic monitoring in the context of the EU landing...... and monitoring programmes; and when associated with a catch quota management (CQM) system, incentivize positive changes in fishing patterns in a results-based management approach. Newdata flows are, however, required to ensure the practical implementation of such a scheme. This paper reviews the quality...

  3. Long lived excitations in fully compensated antiferromagnetic nanomagnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, Jacob; Malavolti, Luigi; Rolf-Pissarczyk, Steffen; McMurtrie, Gregory; Yan, Shichao; Loth, Sebastian

    Extensive interest is directed towards finding long lived states in atomic scale magnetic structures. Applications include classical and quantum spintronics schemes. Here we use a recently described method of applying a single atom exchange bias, using a magnetic scanning tunneling microscope tip, to control the quantum states of fully compensated nano-antiferromagnetic atomic chains. We apply time-resolved spin-polarized scanning tunneling microscopy to measure the energy relaxation of the chains as a function of the tip interaction strength. With strong coupling to the microscope tip, the excited state lifetimes can extend to the millisecond scale. Center for Free Electron Laser Science, Max Planck Society, Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron, Alexander von Humboldt Foundation, Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada.

  4. Fully developed viscous and viscoelastic flows in curved pipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Yurun; Tanner, Roger I.; Phan-Thien, Nhan

    2001-08-01

    Some h-p finite element computations have been carried out to obtain solutions for fully developed laminar flows in curved pipes with curvature ratios from 0.001 to 0.5. An Oldroyd-3-constant model is used to represent the viscoelastic fluid, which includes the upper-convected Maxwell (UCM) model and the Oldroyd-B model as special cases. With this model we can examine separately the effects of the fluid inertia, and the first and second normal-stress differences. From analysis of the global torque and force balances, three criteria are proposed for this problem to estimate the errors in the computations. Moreover, the finite element solutions are accurately confirmed by the perturbation solutions of Robertson & Muller (1996) in the cases of small Reynolds/Deborah numbers.

  5. Discrete neurocognitive subgroups in fully or partially remitted bipolar disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Johan Høy; Knorr, Ulla; Vinberg, Maj

    2016-01-01

    controls. Hierarchical cluster analysis was conducted to determine whether there are discrete neurocognitive subgroups in bipolar disorder. The pattern of the cognitive deficits and the characteristics of patients in these neurocognitive subgroups were examined with analyses of covariance and least......BACKGROUND: Neurocognitive impairment in remitted patients with bipolar disorder contributes to functional disabilities. However, the pattern and impact of these deficits are unclear. METHODS: We pooled data from 193 fully or partially remitted patients with bipolar disorder and 110 healthy...... was cross-sectional which limits inferences regarding the causality of the findings. CONCLUSION: Globally and selectively impaired bipolar disorder patients displayed more functional disabilities than those who were cognitively intact. The present findings highlight a clinical need to systematically screen...

  6. Fully Digital Chaotic Differential Equation-based Systems And Methods

    KAUST Repository

    Radwan, Ahmed Gomaa Ahmed

    2012-09-06

    Various embodiments are provided for fully digital chaotic differential equation-based systems and methods. In one embodiment, among others, a digital circuit includes digital state registers and one or more digital logic modules configured to obtain a first value from two or more of the digital state registers; determine a second value based upon the obtained first values and a chaotic differential equation; and provide the second value to set a state of one of the plurality of digital state registers. In another embodiment, a digital circuit includes digital state registers, digital logic modules configured to obtain outputs from a subset of the digital shift registers and to provide the input based upon a chaotic differential equation for setting a state of at least one of the subset of digital shift registers, and a digital clock configured to provide a clock signal for operating the digital shift registers.

  7. Backward stochastic differential equations from linear to fully nonlinear theory

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Jianfeng

    2017-01-01

    This book provides a systematic and accessible approach to stochastic differential equations, backward stochastic differential equations, and their connection with partial differential equations, as well as the recent development of the fully nonlinear theory, including nonlinear expectation, second order backward stochastic differential equations, and path dependent partial differential equations. Their main applications and numerical algorithms, as well as many exercises, are included. The book focuses on ideas and clarity, with most results having been solved from scratch and most theories being motivated from applications. It can be considered a starting point for junior researchers in the field, and can serve as a textbook for a two-semester graduate course in probability theory and stochastic analysis. It is also accessible for graduate students majoring in financial engineering.

  8. Removable singular sets of fully nonlinear elliptic equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lihe Wang

    1999-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we consider fully nonlinear elliptic equations, including the Monge-Ampere equation and the Weingarden equation. We assume that $F(D^2u, x = f(x quad x in Omega,,$ $u(x = g(x quad xin partial Omega $ has a solution $u$ in $C^2(Omega cap C(ar {Omega} $, and $F(D^2v(x, x = f(x quad xin Omegasetminus S,,$ $v(x= g(xquad xin partial Omega $ has a solution $v$ in $C^2(Omegasetminus S cap mbox{Lip}(Omega cap C(ar {Omega}$. We prove that under certain conditions on $S$ and $v$, the singular set $S$ is removable; i.e., $u=v$.

  9. CLS A Fully Open-Source Control System

    CERN Document Server

    Matias, Elder; Johnson, Terry; Tanner, Robby; Wilson, Tony; Wright, Glen; Zhang, Hao

    2005-01-01

    The Canadian Light Source is one of the first major accelerator facility to adopt a fully open source control system. The control system is based on Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS) in use at may other facilities. From the outset CLS utilised RTEMS and Linux as the underlying operating systems for real-time control computers, operator interface computers and servers. When communicating with PLC and other intelligent devices CLS has also adopted a policy of using open communications protocols where possible. Combined these strategies have lead to a system that can easily evolve over the life of the facility without being tied to specific hardware or software suppliers. The operational experience over the past few years has indicates the selected architecture is sufficiently robust and reliable.

  10. Fully articulated four-point-bend loading fixture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calomino, Anthony M. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A fully articulated four-point bend loading fixture for Modulus of Rupture (MOR) and fracture toughness specimens utilizes an upper loading plate in combination with a lower loading plate. The lower plate has a pair of spring loaded ball bearings which seat in V-shaped grooves located in the upper plate. The ball bearings are carried in the arms of the lower plate. A load is applied to the specimen through steel rollers, one large roller and one smaller roller each located on both the upper and lower plates. The large rollers have needle roller bearings which enable a single loading roller to rotate relative to the plate to which it is attached.

  11. Fully casted soft power generating triboelectric shoe insole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haque, Rubaiyet I.; Farine, Pierre-André; Briand, Danick

    2016-11-01

    Power generating soft triboelectric based shoe insole fully elastomeric and compatible with large-scale fabrication technique has been developed. During the process, film casting and stencil printing techniques were implemented to deposit/pattern elastomeric and soft/flexible materials, such as, polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and polyurethane (PU). Carbon- based elastomeric materials were used as electrodes, which were also film casted. The developed triboelectric generator (TENG) was capable of harnessing electrical power effectively from mechanical deformation of the system during walking or running activities. The performance of the device was tested for walking with frequency of 0.9±0.2 Hz. The power (rms value) of 0.25 mW was achieved for load resistance of 100 MΩ,, which corresponded to the power density (rms value) of 1.9 μW/cm2.

  12. Fully convolutional network with cluster for semantic segmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiao; Chen, Zhongbi; Zhang, Jianlin

    2018-04-01

    At present, image semantic segmentation technology has been an active research topic for scientists in the field of computer vision and artificial intelligence. Especially, the extensive research of deep neural network in image recognition greatly promotes the development of semantic segmentation. This paper puts forward a method based on fully convolutional network, by cluster algorithm k-means. The cluster algorithm using the image's low-level features and initializing the cluster centers by the super-pixel segmentation is proposed to correct the set of points with low reliability, which are mistakenly classified in great probability, by the set of points with high reliability in each clustering regions. This method refines the segmentation of the target contour and improves the accuracy of the image segmentation.

  13. Microscopic theory of fully spin-polarized /sup 3/He

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glyde, H.R.; Hernadi, S.I.

    1983-01-01

    The ground state energy (E), Landau parameters (F) and single particle energy spectrum (epsilon(kappa) and m/sup */) in fully spin polarized liquid /sup 3/He (/sup 3/He) are calculated directly from the bare interatomic potential within the Galitskii-Feynmann T-matrix and Hartree-Fock (GFHF) approximations. The E agrees well with variational calculations, the F with model calculations and the epsilon(kappa) and m/sup */ with results expected from nuclear matter. This suggests the effective interaction in /sup 3/He is dominated by hard core repulsion and Fermi statistics and that these components of the full interaction can be well described from first principles by a GF T-matrix. 36 references, 3 figures, 1 table.

  14. Algorithm of probabilistic assessment of fully-mechanized longwall downtime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domrachev, A. N.; Rib, S. V.; Govorukhin, Yu M.; Krivopalov, V. G.

    2017-09-01

    The problem of increasing the load on a long fully-mechanized longwall has several aspects, one of which is the improvement of efficiency in using available stoping equipment due to the increase in coefficient of the machine operating time of a shearer and other mining machines that form an integral part of the longwall set of equipment. The task of predicting the reliability indicators of stoping equipment is solved by the statistical evaluation of parameters of downtime exponential distribution and failure recovery. It is more difficult to solve the problems of downtime accounting in case of accidents in the face workings and, despite the statistical data on accidents in mine workings, no solution has been found to date. The authors have proposed a variant of probability assessment of workings caving using Poisson distribution and the duration of their restoration using normal distribution. The above results confirm the possibility of implementing the approach proposed by the authors.

  15. High quality factor, fully switchable terahertz superconducting metasurface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scalari, G., E-mail: scalari@phys.ethz.ch; Maissen, C.; Faist, J. [Institute of Quantum Electronics, Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule Zürich (Switzerland); Cibella, S.; Leoni, R. [Istituto di Fotonica e Nanotecnologie (IFN), CNR, via Cineto Romano 42, 00156 Rome (Italy)

    2014-12-29

    We present a complementary THz metasurface realised with Niobium thin film which displays a quality factor Q = 54 and a fully switchable behaviour as a function of the temperature. The switching behaviour and the high quality factor are due to a careful design of the metasurface aimed at maximising the ohmic losses when the Nb is above the critical temperature and minimising the radiative coupling. The superconductor allows the operation of the cavity with high Q and the use of inductive elements with a high aspect ratio. Comparison with three dimensional finite element simulations highlights the crucial role of the inductive elements and of the kinetic inductance of the Cooper pairs in achieving the high quality factor and the high field enhancement.

  16. A Fully Transparent Resistive Memory for Harsh Environments

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Po-Kang

    2015-10-12

    A fully transparent resistive memory (TRRAM) based on Hafnium oxide (HfO2) with excellent transparency, resistive switching capability, and environmental stability is demonstrated. The retention time measured at 85 °C is over 3 × 104 sec, and no significant degradation is observed in 130 cycling test. Compared with ZnO TRRAM, HfO2 TRRAM shows reliable performance under harsh conditions, such as high oxygen partial pressure, high moisture (relative humidity = 90% at 85 °C), corrosive agent exposure, and proton irradiation. Moreover, HfO2 TRRAM fabricated in cross-bar array structures manifests the feasibility of future high density memory applications. These findings not only pave the way for future TRRAM design, but also demonstrate the promising applicability of HfO2 TRRAM for harsh environments.

  17. Standard specification for glasses, portlight, circular, fully tempered

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1999-01-01

    1.1 This specification covers the requirements for circular, fully tempered, high clarity, flat glasses used for portlight applications. 1.2 The values stated in inch-pound units are to be regarded as standard. The values given in parentheses are mathematical conversions to SI units that are provided for information only and are not considered standard. 1.3 The following safety hazard caveat pertains only to the test method portion, Section 11, of this specification: This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  18. New fully functioning digital hologram recording system and its applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Der-Kuan; Alcaraz Rivera, Miguel; Báez, Javier; Cruz-Lopez, María Luisa

    2010-10-01

    We propose a low-cost optical system that is able to simply generate computer-generated holograms and rainbow type and true-color Lippmann type holograms. In this system, a microimaging system is applied to reduce the digitized optical data/patterns to achieve about 0.45 μm of optical resolution for rainbow hologram recording and an about 60-deg viewing angle for the Lippmann hologram. The system is designed as a turn-key machine switching between different operating modes. Custom-generated software is applied to calculate and write digital fringe patterns at real-time speed. Applications for the digital rainbow hologram include computer-generated holograms, anticounterfeiting security labels, 3-D display, and 2-D/3-D truecolor holographic stereogram images for the Lippmann hologram. This single-process synthesizing system can be considered as a fully functioning hologram printer.

  19. Matching fully differential NNLO calculations and parton showers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alioli, Simone; Bauer, Christian W.; Berggren, Calvin; Walsh, Jonathan R.; Zuberi, Saba [California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States). Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory; Tackmann, Frank J. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2013-11-15

    We present a general method to match fully differential next-to-next-to-leading (NNLO) calculations to parton shower programs. We discuss in detail the perturbative accuracy criteria a complete NNLO+PS matching has to satisfy. Our method is based on consistently improving a given NNLO calculation with the leading-logarithmic (LL) resummation in a chosen jet resolution variable. The resulting NNLO+LL calculation is cast in the form of an event generator for physical events that can be directly interfaced with a parton shower routine, and we give an explicit construction of the input ''Monte Carlo cross sections'' satisfying all required criteria. We also show how other proposed approaches naturally arise as special cases in our method.

  20. Tropical Mangrove Mapping Using Fully-Polarimetric Radar Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bambang Trisasongko

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Although mangrove is one of important ecosystems in the world, it has been abused and exploited by human for various purposes. Monitoring mangrove is therefore required to maintain a balance between economy and conservation and provides up-to-date information for rehabilitation. Optical remote sensing data have delivered such information, however ever-changing atmospheric disturbance may significantly decrease thematic content. In this research, Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR fully polarimetric data were evaluated to present an alternative for mangrove mapping. Assessment using three statistical trees was performed on both tonal and textural data. It was noticeable that textural data delivered fairly good improvement which reduced the error rate to around 5-6% at L-band. This suggests that insertion of textural data is more important than any information derived from decomposition algorithm.

  1. Fabrication and characterization of fully ceramic microencapsulated fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terrani, K.A.; Kiggans, J.O.; Katoh, Y.; Shimoda, K.; Montgomery, F.C.; Armstrong, B.L.; Parish, C.M.; Hinoki, T.; Hunn, J.D.; Snead, L.L.

    2012-01-01

    The current generation of fully ceramic microencapsulated fuels, consisting of Tristructural Isotropic fuel particles embedded in a silicon carbide matrix, is fabricated by hot pressing. Matrix powder feedstock is comprised of alumina–yttria additives thoroughly mixed with silicon carbide nanopowder using polyethyleneimine as a dispersing agent. Fuel compacts are fabricated by hot pressing the powder–fuel particle mixture at a temperature of 1800–1900 °C using compaction pressures of 10–20 MPa. Detailed microstructural characterization of the final fuel compacts shows that oxide additives are limited in extent and are distributed uniformly at silicon carbide grain boundaries, at triple joints between silicon carbide grains, and at the fuel particle–matrix interface.

  2. Fully connected network of superconducting qubits in a cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsomokos, Dimitris I; Ashhab, Sahel; Nori, Franco

    2008-01-01

    A fully connected qubit network is considered, where every qubit interacts with every other one. When the interactions between the qubits are homogeneous, the system is a special case of the finite Lipkin-Meshkov-Glick (LMG) model. We propose a natural implementation of this model using superconducting qubits in state-of-the-art circuit QED. The ground state, the low-lying energy spectrum and the dynamical evolution are investigated. We find that, under realistic conditions, highly entangled states of Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) and W types can be generated. We also comment on the influence of disorder on the system and discuss the possibility of simulating complex quantum systems, such as Sherrington-Kirkpatrick (SK) spin glasses, with superconducting qubit networks.

  3. Fully automated algorithm for wound surface area assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deana, Alessandro Melo; de Jesus, Sérgio Henrique Costa; Sampaio, Brunna Pileggi Azevedo; Oliveira, Marcelo Tavares; Silva, Daniela Fátima Teixeira; França, Cristiane Miranda

    2013-01-01

    Worldwide, clinicians, dentists, nurses, researchers, and other health professionals need to monitor the wound healing progress and to quantify the rate of wound closure. The aim of this study is to demonstrate, step by step, a fully automated numerical method to estimate the size of the wound and the percentage damaged relative to the body surface area (BSA) in images, without the requirement for human intervention. We included the formula for BSA in rats in the algorithm. The methodology was validated in experimental wounds and human ulcers and was compared with the analysis of an experienced pathologist, with good agreement. Therefore, this algorithm is suitable for experimental wounds and burns and human ulcers, as they have a high contrast with adjacent normal skin. © 2013 by the Wound Healing Society.

  4. Status of fully integrated GaAs particle detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braunschweig, W.; Breibach, J.; Kubicki, Th.; Luebelsmeyer, K.; Maesing, Th.; Rente, C.; Roeper, Ch.; Siemes, A.

    1999-01-01

    GaAs strip detectors are of interest because of their radiation hardness at room temperature and the high absorption coefficient of GaAs for x-rays. The detectors currently under development will be used in the VLQ-experiment at the H1 experiment at the HERA collider. This will be the first high energy physics experiment where GaAs detectors will be used. The detectors have a sensitive area of 5 x 4 cm with a pitch of 62 μ m. Due to the high density of channels the biasing resistors and coupling capacitors are integrated. For the resistors a resistive layer made of Cermet is used. The properties of the first fully integrated strip detector are presented

  5. A fully integrated standalone portable cavity ringdown breath acetone analyzer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Meixiu; Jiang, Chenyu; Gong, Zhiyong; Zhao, Xiaomeng; Chen, Zhuying; Wang, Zhennan; Kang, Meiling; Li, Yingxin; Wang, Chuji

    2015-09-01

    Breath analysis is a promising new technique for nonintrusive disease diagnosis and metabolic status monitoring. One challenging issue in using a breath biomarker for potential particular disease screening is to find a quantitative relationship between the concentration of the breath biomarker and clinical diagnostic parameters of the specific disease. In order to address this issue, we need a new instrument that is capable of conducting real-time, online breath analysis with high data throughput, so that a large scale of clinical test (more subjects) can be achieved in a short period of time. In this work, we report a fully integrated, standalone, portable analyzer based on the cavity ringdown spectroscopy technique for near-real time, online breath acetone measurements. The performance of the portable analyzer in measurements of breath acetone was interrogated and validated by using the certificated gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The results show that this new analyzer is useful for reliable online (online introduction of a breath sample without pre-treatment) breath acetone analysis with high sensitivity (57 ppb) and high data throughput (one data per second). Subsequently, the validated breath analyzer was employed for acetone measurements in 119 human subjects under various situations. The instrument design, packaging, specifications, and future improvements were also described. From an optical ringdown cavity operated by the lab-set electronics reported previously to this fully integrated standalone new instrument, we have enabled a new scientific tool suited for large scales of breath acetone analysis and created an instrument platform that can even be adopted for study of other breath biomarkers by using different lasers and ringdown mirrors covering corresponding spectral fingerprints.

  6. FACTS: Fully Automatic CT Segmentation of a Hip Joint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Chengwen; Chen, Cheng; Liu, Li; Zheng, Guoyan

    2015-05-01

    Extraction of surface models of a hip joint from CT data is a pre-requisite step for computer assisted diagnosis and planning (CADP) of periacetabular osteotomy (PAO). Most of existing CADP systems are based on manual segmentation, which is time-consuming and hard to achieve reproducible results. In this paper, we present a Fully Automatic CT Segmentation (FACTS) approach to simultaneously extract both pelvic and femoral models. Our approach works by combining fast random forest (RF) regression based landmark detection, multi-atlas based segmentation, with articulated statistical shape model (aSSM) based fitting. The two fundamental contributions of our approach are: (1) an improved fast Gaussian transform (IFGT) is used within the RF regression framework for a fast and accurate landmark detection, which then allows for a fully automatic initialization of the multi-atlas based segmentation; and (2) aSSM based fitting is used to preserve hip joint structure and to avoid penetration between the pelvic and femoral models. Taking manual segmentation as the ground truth, we evaluated the present approach on 30 hip CT images (60 hips) with a 6-fold cross validation. When the present approach was compared to manual segmentation, a mean segmentation accuracy of 0.40, 0.36, and 0.36 mm was found for the pelvis, the left proximal femur, and the right proximal femur, respectively. When the models derived from both segmentations were used to compute the PAO diagnosis parameters, a difference of 2.0 ± 1.5°, 2.1 ± 1.6°, and 3.5 ± 2.3% were found for anteversion, inclination, and acetabular coverage, respectively. The achieved accuracy is regarded as clinically accurate enough for our target applications.

  7. A fully integrated standalone portable cavity ringdown breath acetone analyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Meixiu; Jiang, Chenyu; Gong, Zhiyong; Zhao, Xiaomeng; Chen, Zhuying; Wang, Zhennan; Kang, Meiling; Li, Yingxin; Wang, Chuji

    2015-09-01

    Breath analysis is a promising new technique for nonintrusive disease diagnosis and metabolic status monitoring. One challenging issue in using a breath biomarker for potential particular disease screening is to find a quantitative relationship between the concentration of the breath biomarker and clinical diagnostic parameters of the specific disease. In order to address this issue, we need a new instrument that is capable of conducting real-time, online breath analysis with high data throughput, so that a large scale of clinical test (more subjects) can be achieved in a short period of time. In this work, we report a fully integrated, standalone, portable analyzer based on the cavity ringdown spectroscopy technique for near-real time, online breath acetone measurements. The performance of the portable analyzer in measurements of breath acetone was interrogated and validated by using the certificated gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The results show that this new analyzer is useful for reliable online (online introduction of a breath sample without pre-treatment) breath acetone analysis with high sensitivity (57 ppb) and high data throughput (one data per second). Subsequently, the validated breath analyzer was employed for acetone measurements in 119 human subjects under various situations. The instrument design, packaging, specifications, and future improvements were also described. From an optical ringdown cavity operated by the lab-set electronics reported previously to this fully integrated standalone new instrument, we have enabled a new scientific tool suited for large scales of breath acetone analysis and created an instrument platform that can even be adopted for study of other breath biomarkers by using different lasers and ringdown mirrors covering corresponding spectral fingerprints.

  8. Application of Fully Ceramic Microencapsulated Fuels in Light Water Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gehin, Jess C.

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to perform a preliminary evaluation of the feasibility of incorporation of Fully Ceramic Microencapsulated (FCM) fuels in Light Water Reactors (LWRs). In particular pin cell, lattice, and full core analyses are carried out on FCM fuel in a pressurized water reactor. Using uranium-based fuel and transuranic (TRU) based fuel in TRistructural ISOtropic (TRISO) particle form, each fuel design was examined using the SCALE 6.1 analytical suite. In regards to the uranium-based fuel, pin cell calculations were used to determine which fuel material performed best when implemented in the fuel kernel as well as the size of the kernel and surrounding particle layers. The higher physical density of uranium mononitride (UN) proved to be favorable, while the parametric studies showed that the FCM particle fuel design would need roughly 12% additional fissile material in comparison to that of a standard UO2 rod in order to match the lifetime of an 18-month PWR cycle. As part of the fuel assembly design evaluations, fresh feed lattices were modeled to analyze the within-assembly pin power peaking. Also, a color-set array of assemblies was constructed to evaluate power peaking and power sharing between a once-burned and a fresh feed assembly. In regards to the TRU based fuel, lattice calculations were performed to determine an optimal lattice design based on reactivity behavior, pin power peaking, and isotopic content. After obtaining a satisfactory lattice design, feasibility of core designs fully loaded with TRU FCM lattices was demonstrated using the NESTLE three-dimensional core simulator.

  9. Application of fully ceramic microencapsulated fuels in light water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gentry, C.; George, N.; Maldonado, I.; Godfrey, A.; Terrani, K.; Gehin, J.

    2012-01-01

    This study performs a preliminary evaluation of the feasibility of incorporation of Fully Ceramic Microencapsulated (FCM) fuels in light water reactors (LWRs). In particular, pin cell, lattice, and full core analyses are carried out on FCM fuel in a pressurized water reactor (PWR). Using uranium-based fuel and Pu/Np-based fuel in TRistructural isotropic (TRISO) particle form, each fuel design was examined using the SCALE 6.1 analytical suite. In regards to the uranium-based fuel, pin cell calculations were used to determine which fuel material performed best when implemented in the fuel kernel as well as the size of the kernel and surrounding particle layers. The higher fissile material density of uranium mononitride (UN) proved to be favorable, while the parametric studies showed that the FCM particle fuel design with 19.75% enrichment would need roughly 12% additional fissile material in comparison to that of a standard UO 2 rod in order to match the lifetime of an 18-month PWR cycle. As part of the fuel assembly design evaluations, fresh feed lattices were modeled to analyze the within-assembly pin power peaking. Also, a 'color-set' array of assemblies was constructed to evaluate power peaking and power sharing between a once-burned and a fresh feed assembly. In regards to the Pu/Np-based fuel, lattice calculations were performed to determine an optimal lattice design based on reactivity behavior, pin power peaking, and isotopic content. After obtaining a satisfactory lattice design, the feasibility of core designs fully loaded with Pu/Np FCM lattices was demonstrated using the NESTLE three-dimensional core simulator. (authors)

  10. A Simple Fully Passive Safety Option for SMART SBLOCA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Won Jae

    2012-01-01

    SMART reactor, an integral pressurized water reactor (iPWR), is developed by KAERI and now under standard design licensing review. Integral reactor design of the SMART has small diameter penetrations below 2 inches at upper parts of reactor pressure vessel (RPV) and the core is located at very lower part. Amount of reactor coolant inventory is around 0.55tons/MWth during normal operations, which is seven times more than that of conventional PWRs. Such intrinsic safety features of the SMART can provide prolonged core cooling during a small-break loss-of-coolant accident (SBLOCA). As an engineered safety feature for SBLOCA, electrically two-train and mechanically four-train active safety injection (SI) systems are provided to refill the RPV, whose safety been proven through safety analysis and experiments. In addition, four-train passive residual heat removal systems (PRHRSs) are provided to remove core decay heat by natural circulation in the secondary side of steam generators during transient and accident conditions. After Fukushima disaster, a passive safety of nuclear power plants has become more emphasized than conventional active safety, even though there are still debates whether it can really insure the realistic safety. Passive safety is defined such that the core safety is ensured for 72 hours after accidents without any active safety systems and operator actions. In light of this, a simple fully passive safety option for SBLOCA is proposed: low-pressure safety injection tanks (SITs) and heat pipes submerged in the PRHRS emergency coolant tanks (ECTs). Post-LOCA long-term cooling after 72 hours is provided by sump recirculation using shutdown cooling system. Realistic analysis method using MARS3.1 is used to derive fully passive safety option, and then to screen design and operating parameters and to demonstrate the safety performance of SITs. SI line break is selected as a reference SBLOCA scenario

  11. Germinal center B cell depletion diminishes CD4+ follicular T helper cells in autoimmune mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isharat Yusuf

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Continuous support from follicular CD4(+ T helper (Tfh cells drives germinal center (GC responses, which last for several weeks to produce high affinity memory B cells and plasma cells. In autoimmune Sle1 and NZB/W F1 mice, elevated numbers of Tfh cells persist, promoting the expansion of self-reactive B cells. Expansion of circulating Tfh like cells have also been described in several autoimmune diseases. Although, the signals required for Tfh differentiation have now been well described, the mechanisms that sustain the maintenance of fully differentiated Tfh are less understood. Recent data demonstrate a role for GC B cells for Tfh maintenance after protein immunization. METHODS AND FINDING: Given the pathogenic role Tfh play in autoimmune disease, we explored whether B cells are required for maintenance of autoreactive Tfh. Our data suggest that the number of mature autoreactive Tfh cells is controlled by GC B cells. Depletion of B cells in Sle1 autoimmune mice leads to a dramatic reduction in Tfh cells. In NZB/W F1 autoimmune mice, similar to the SRBC immunization model, GC B cells support the maintenance of mature Tfh, which is dependent mainly on ICOS. The CD28-associated pathway is dispensable for Tfh maintenance in SRBC immunized mice, but is required in the spontaneous NZB/W F1 model. CONCLUSION: These data suggest that mature Tfh cells require signals from GC B cells to sustain their optimal numbers and function in both autoimmune and immunization models. Thus, immunotherapies targeting B cells in autoimmune disease may affect pathogenic Tfh cells.

  12. Methods for counting residual leukocytes in leukocyte-depleted plasma-a comparison between a routine hematology instrument, the Nageotte chamber, flow cytometry, and a fluorescent microscopy analyzer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersson, Annika; Ekblom, Kim

    2017-05-01

    Counting very low levels of leukocytes is technically challenging but mandatory for quality control of leukocyte-depleted plasma. Established assays, such as flow cytometry and counting in the Nageotte chamber, are laborious and expensive. The aim of this study was to test two alternative assays, the cerebrospinal fluid program in the routine hematology analyzer ADVIA 2120 and a fluorescence microscopy analyzer, the ADAM-rWBC. Linearity, accuracy, and precision were established for the ADVIA 2120, the ADAM-rWBC analyzer and the Nageotte chamber with flow cytometry as the reference method. Two hundred consecutive leukocyte-depleted donor plasma samples were also tested. The ADAM-rWBC analyzer and the Nageotte chamber fulfilled all quality requirements. Flow cytometry fulfilled the requirements for linearity and precision. The ADVIA 2120 analyzer did not fully reach the quality criteria, and flow cytometry did not reach quality criteria on accuracy. No false-positive results on donor plasma samples were recorded. The ADAM-rWBC is suitable for the purpose of quality control of residual leukocytes in leukocyte-depleted plasma. For the ADVIA 2120, further improvements and studies are needed to reach the quality requirements stated in this study. © 2017 AABB.

  13. Reconstruction of groundwater depletion using a global scale groundwater model

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Graaf, Inge; van Beek, Rens; Sutanudjaja, Edwin; Wada, Yoshi; Bierkens, Marc

    2015-04-01

    Groundwater forms an integral part of the global hydrological cycle and is the world's largest accessible source of fresh water to satisfy human water needs. It buffers variable recharge rates over time, thereby effectively sustaining river flows in times of drought as well as evaporation in areas with shallow water tables. Moreover, although lateral groundwater flows are often slow, they cross topographic and administrative boundaries at appreciable rates. Despite the importance of groundwater, most global scale hydrological models do not consider surface water-groundwater interactions or include a lateral groundwater flow component. The main reason of this omission is the lack of consistent global-scale hydrogeological information needed to arrive at a more realistic representation of the groundwater system, i.e. including information on aquifer depths and the presence of confining layers. The latter holds vital information on the accessibility and quality of the global groundwater resource. In this study we developed a high resolution (5 arc-minutes) global scale transient groundwater model comprising confined and unconfined aquifers. This model is based on MODFLOW (McDonald and Harbaugh, 1988) and coupled with the land-surface model PCR GLOBWB (van Beek et al., 2011) via recharge and surface water levels. Aquifers properties were based on newly derived estimates of aquifer depths (de Graaf et al., 2014b) and thickness of confining layers from an integration of lithological and topographical information. They were further parameterized using available global datasets on lithology (Hartmann and Moosdorf, 2011) and permeability (Gleeson et al., 2014). In a sensitivity analysis the model was run with various hydrogeological parameter settings, under natural recharge only. Scenarios of past groundwater abstractions and corresponding recharge (Wada et al., 2012, de Graaf et al. 2014a) were evaluated. The resulting estimates of groundwater depletion are lower than

  14. Li depletion in solar analogues with exoplanets. Extending the sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado Mena, E.; Israelian, G.; González Hernández, J. I.; Sousa, S. G.; Mortier, A.; Santos, N. C.; Adibekyan, V. Zh.; Fernandes, J.; Rebolo, R.; Udry, S.; Mayor, M.

    2014-02-01

    Aims: We want to study the effects of the formation of planets and planetary systems on the atmospheric Li abundance of planet host stars. Methods: In this work we present new determinations of lithium abundances for 326 main sequence stars with and without planets in the Teff range 5600-5900 K. The 277 stars come from the HARPS sample, the remaining targets were observed with a variety of high-resolution spectrographs. Results: We confirm significant differences in the Li distribution of solar twins (Teff = T⊙ ± 80 K, log g = log g⊙ ± 0.2 and [Fe/H] = [Fe/H]⊙ ± 0.2): the full sample of planet host stars (22) shows Li average values lower than "single" stars with no detected planets (60). If we focus on subsamples with narrower ranges in metallicity and age, we observe indications of a similar result though it is not so clear for some of the subsamples. Furthermore, we compare the observed spectra of several couples of stars with very similar parameters that show differences in Li abundances up to 1.6 dex. Therefore we show that neither age, mass, nor metallicity of a parent star is the only cause for enhanced Li depletion in solar analogues. Conclusions: We conclude that another variable must account for that difference and suggest that this could be the presence of planets that causes additional rotationally induced mixing in the external layers of planet host stars. Moreover, we find indications that the amount of depletion of Li in planet-host solar-type stars is higher when the planets are more massive than Jupiter. Based on observations collected at the La Silla Observatory, ESO (Chile), with the HARPS spectrograph at the 3.6 m ESO telescope, with CORALIE spectrograph at the 1.2 m Euler Swiss telescope and with the FEROS spectrograph at the 1.52 m ESO telescope; at the Paranal Observatory, ESO (Chile), using the UVES spectrograph at the VLT/UT2 Kueyen telescope, and with the FIES, SARG, and UES spectrographs at the 2.5 m NOT, the 3.6 m TNG and the 4

  15. The effects of deuterium-depleted water on bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butnaru, Gallia; Jurca, Elena M.; Titescu, Gh.; Stefanescu, I.

    2000-01-01

    Due to their adaptability the bacteria are ubiquitous, occurring in a large variety of habitats. Most of them are saprotrophs or parasites. Bacteria are agents causing many diseases in animals and humans. The main purpose of this work was to reveal the deuterium-depleted water bactericidal effect. Nonpathogenic Gram-positive (Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus cereus) and pathogenic Gram-negative (Agrobacterium tumefaciens, Erwinia amylovora and Escherichia coli) bacteria were used. The variant deuterium depleted (DDW) eater was compared with distilled water eater one. The diffusometric method was found the proper way of investigation. The bacteria culture was developed in Petri dishes (diam = 70 mm) at a temperature of 25 deg. C. After 24 h, 48 h and 72 h the clear area was measured. The clear area was one in which the bacteria were killed. The surface was determined by the area of the small disc on the filter paper. The statistical data were determined by variance analysis. The results pointed out a large response to DDW presence. The data were classified in: 1. without response when no clear area occurred; - 2. with response when a clear area of under 5 mm 2 occurred; - 3. strong response when the clear area was higher than 10 mm 2 . The Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria behaviours were not in correlation with the DDW bactericidal effect. The Bacillus cereus and Escherichia coli were scored as without response and we presume that they were very tolerant. No clear area was induced by DDW. Bacillus subtilis and Erwinia amylovora showed weak response. After 24 h the killed bacteria were extended on the same area, namely, 2.89 mm 2 . Even if the DDW effect seems to be small it was significantly in comparison with the control case (s d = 2.78 mm 2 > 0.1). After 48 h and 72 h the clear surface remained the same. The Agrobacterium tumefaciens' response was very strong. The bacteria were killed on 22.50 mm 2 after 24 h and on 26.95 mm 2 after 48 h, being very

  16. A ground state depleted laser in neodymium doped yttrium orthosilicate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beach, R.; Albrecht, G.; Solarz, R.; Krupke, W.; Comaskey, B.; Mitchell, S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (USA); Brandle, C.; Berkstresser, G. [AT and T Bell Labs., Murray Hill, NJ (USA)

    1990-01-16

    A ground state depleted (GSD){sup 1,2} laser has been demonstrated in the form of a Q-switched oscillator operating at 912 nm. Using Nd{sup 3+} as the active ion and Y{sub 2}SiO{sub 5} as the host material, the laser transition is from the lowest lying stark level of the Nd{sup 3t}F{sub 3/2} level to a stark level 355 cm{sup {minus}1} above the lowest lying one in the {sup 4}I{sub 9/2} manifold. The necessity of depleting the ground {sup 4}I{sub 9/2} manifold is evident for this level scheme as transparency requires a 10% inversion. To achieve the high excitation levels required for the efficient operation of this laser, bleach wave pumping using an alexandrite laser at 745 nm has been employed. The existence of a large absorption feature at 810 nm also allows for the possibility of AlGaAs laser diode pumping. Using KNbO{sub 3}, noncritical phase matching is possible at 140{degree}C using d{sub 32} and has been demonstrated. The results of Q-switched laser performance and harmonic generation in KNbO{sub 3} will be presented. Orthosilicate can be grown in large boules of excellent optical quality using a Czochralski technique. Because of the relatively small 912 nm emission cross section of 2-3 {times} 10{sup {minus}20} cm{sup 2} (orientation dependent) fluences of 10-20 J/cm{sup 2} must be circulated in the laser cavity for the efficient extraction of stored energy. This necessitates very aggressive laser damage thresholds. Results from the Reptile laser damage facility at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) will be presented showing Y{sub 2}SiO{sub 5} bulk and AR sol-gel coated surface damage thresholds of greater than 40 J/cm{sup 2} for 10 nsec, 10 Hz, 1.06 {mu} pulses. 16 refs., 18 figs., 6 tabs.

  17. STAR FORMATION IN PARTIALLY GAS-DEPLETED SPIRAL GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rose, James A.; Miner, Jesse; Levy, Lorenza; Robertson, Paul

    2010-01-01

    Broadband B and R and Hα images have been obtained with the 4.1 m SOAR telescope atop Cerro Pachon, Chile, for 29 spiral galaxies in the Pegasus I galaxy cluster and for 18 spirals in non-cluster environments. Pegasus I is a spiral-rich cluster with a low-density intracluster medium and a low galaxy velocity dispersion. When combined with neutral hydrogen (H I) data obtained with the Arecibo 305 m radio telescope, acquired by Levy et al. (2007) and by Springob et al. (2005b), we study the star formation rates in disk galaxies as a function of their H I deficiency. To quantify H I deficiency, we use the usual logarithmic deficiency parameter, DEF. The specific star formation rate (SSFR) is quantified by the logarithmic flux ratio of Hα flux to R-band flux, and thus roughly characterizes the logarithmic SFR per unit stellar mass. We find a clear correlation between the global SFR per unit stellar mass and DEF, such that the SFR is lower in more H I-deficient galaxies. This correlation appears to extend from the most gas-rich to the most gas-poor galaxies. We also find a correlation between the central SFR per unit mass relative to the global values, in the sense that the more H I-deficient galaxies have a higher central SFR per unit mass relative to their global SFR values than do gas-rich galaxies. In fact, approximately half of the H I-depleted galaxies have highly elevated SSFRs in their central regions, indicative of a transient evolutionary state. In addition, we find a correlation between gas depletion and the size of the Hα disk (relative to the R-band disk); H I-poor galaxies have truncated disks. Moreover, aside from the elevated central SSFR in many gas-poor spirals, the SSFR is otherwise lower in the Hα disks of gas-poor galaxies than in gas-rich spirals. Thus, both disk truncation and lowered SSFR levels within the star-forming part of the disks (aside from the enhanced nuclear SSFR) correlate with H I deficiency, and both phenomena are found to

  18. Fully probabilistic earthquake source inversion on teleseismic scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stähler, Simon; Sigloch, Karin

    2017-04-01

    Seismic source inversion is a non-linear problem in seismology where not just the earthquake parameters but also estimates of their uncertainties are of great practical importance. We have developed a method of fully Bayesian inference for source parameters, based on measurements of waveform cross-correlation between broadband, teleseismic body-wave observations and their modelled counterparts. This approach yields not only depth and moment tensor estimates but also source time functions. These unknowns are parameterised efficiently by harnessing as prior knowledge solutions from a large number of non-Bayesian inversions. The source time function is expressed as a weighted sum of a small number of empirical orthogonal functions, which were derived from a catalogue of >1000 source time functions (STFs) by a principal component analysis. We use a likelihood model based on the cross-correlation misfit between observed and predicted waveforms. The resulting ensemble of solutions provides full uncertainty and covariance information for the source parameters, and permits propagating these source uncertainties into travel time estimates used for seismic tomography. The computational effort is such that routine, global estimation of earthquake mechanisms and source time functions from teleseismic broadband waveforms is feasible. A prerequisite for Bayesian inference is the proper characterisation of the noise afflicting the measurements. We show that, for realistic broadband body-wave seismograms, the systematic error due to an incomplete physical model affects waveform misfits more strongly than random, ambient background noise. In this situation, the waveform cross-correlation coefficient CC, or rather its decorrelation D = 1 - CC, performs more robustly as a misfit criterion than ℓp norms, more commonly used as sample-by-sample measures of misfit based on distances between individual time samples. From a set of over 900 user-supervised, deterministic earthquake source

  19. Understanding Yield Anomalies in ICF Implosions via Fully Kinetic Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taitano, William

    2017-10-01

    In the quest towards ICF ignition, plasma kinetic effects are among prime candidates for explaining some significant discrepancies between experimental observations and rad-hydro simulations. To assess their importance, high-fidelity fully kinetic simulations of ICF capsule implosions are needed. Owing to the extremely multi-scale nature of the problem, kinetic codes have to overcome nontrivial numerical and algorithmic challenges, and very few options are currently available. Here, we present resolutions of some long-standing yield discrepancy conundrums using a novel, LANL-developed, 1D-2V Vlasov-Fokker-Planck code iFP. iFP possesses an unprecedented fidelity and features fully implicit time-stepping, exact mass, momentum, and energy conservation, and optimal grid adaptation in phase space, all of which are critically important for ensuring long-time numerical accuracy of the implosion simulations. Specifically, we concentrate on several anomalous yield degradation instances observed in Omega campaigns, with the so-called ``Rygg effect'', or an anomalous yield scaling with the fuel composition, being a prime example. Understanding the physical mechanisms responsible for such degradations in non-ignition-grade Omega experiments is of great interest, as such experiments are often used for platform and diagnostic development, which are then used in ignition-grade experiments on NIF. In the case of Rygg's experiments, effects of a kinetic stratification of fuel ions on the yield have been previously proposed as the anomaly explanation, studied with a kinetic code FPION, and found unimportant. We have revisited this issue with iFP and obtained excellent yield-over-clean agreement with the original Rygg results, and several subsequent experiments. This validates iFP and confirms that the kinetic fuel stratification is indeed at the root of the observed yield degradation. This work was sponsored by the Metropolis Postdoctoral Fellowship, LDRD office, Thermonuclear Burn

  20. Depletion of florfenicol and florfenicol amine residues in chicken eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filazi, A; Sireli, U T; Yurdakok, B; Aydin, F G; Kucukosmanoglu, A G

    2014-01-01

    1. The aim of this study was to develop a suitable method for the analysis of florfenicol (FF) and its metabolite florfenicol amine (FFA) in chicken eggs and to determine FF and FFA residue depletion in eggs of laying hens. 2. The analytes were extracted from yolk, albumen and whole egg by phosphate buffer and ethyl acetate. Following purification, samples were analysed by high-performance liquid chromatography. 3. Fifty laying hens were divided into 5 groups, and each hen received doses of 20 mg/kg FF: Group 1 (received a single oral dose by gavage); Group 2 (a single intramuscular dose); Group 3 (a single subcutaneous dose); Group 4 (multiple oral doses for 3 d) and Group 5 (multiple oral doses for 5 d). 4. Limits of detection and of quantitation values were 1.94 and 6.45 g/10(9) g (ppb) for FF, respectively, and 0.48 and 1.58 ppb for FFA, respectively. Relative standard deviation values of intra-day and inter-day variation below 11% also confirmed the usefulness of the method for analysing FF and FFA in eggs. 5. From the first day of both oral and parenteral administration, FF and FFA were detected at 0.1% and 0.08% of dosage, respectively, and 57% of the drugs were eliminated from the egg yolk. Elimination time of FF was 8 d in Groups 1, 2 and 3; 9 d in Group 4 and 10 d in Group 5.