Dynamical spacetimes and gravitational radiation in a Fully Constrained Formulation
Cordero-Carrión, Isabel; Ibáñez, José María
2010-01-01
This contribution summarizes the recent work carried out to analyze the behavior of the hyperbolic sector of the Fully Constrained Formulation (FCF) derived in Bonazzola et al. 2004. The numerical experiments presented here allows one to be confident in the performances of the upgraded version of CoCoNuT's code by replacing the Conformally Flat Condition (CFC) approximation of the Einstein equations by the FCF.
Dynamical spacetimes and gravitational radiation in a Fully Constrained Formulation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cordero-Carrion, Isabel; Ibanez, Jose MarIa [Departamento de Astronomia y Astrofisica, Universidad de Valencia, C/ Dr. Moliner 50, E-46100 Burjassot, Valencia (Spain); Cerda-Duran, Pablo, E-mail: isabel.cordero@uv.e, E-mail: cerda@mpa-garching.mpg.d, E-mail: jose.m.ibanez@uv.e [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Astrophysik, Karl-Schwarzschild-Strasse 1, D-85741 Garching (Germany)
2010-05-01
This contribution summarizes the recent work carried out to analyze the behavior of the hyperbolic sector of the Fully Constrained Formulation (FCF) derived in Bonazzola et al. 2004. The numerical experiments presented here allows one to be confident in the performances of the upgraded version of CoCoNuT's code by replacing the Conformally Flat Condition (CFC) approximation of the Einstein equations by the FCF.
Gravitational waves in Fully Constrained Formulation in a dynamical spacetime with matter content
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cordero-Carrion, Isabel; Cerda-Duran, Pablo [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Astrophysik, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 1, D-85741, Garching (Germany); Ibanez, Jose MarIa, E-mail: chabela@mpa-garching.mpg.de, E-mail: cerda@mpa-garching.mpg.de, E-mail: jose.m.ibanez@uv.es [Departamento de AstronomIa y Astrofisica, Universidad de Valencia, C/ Dr. Moliner 50, E-46100 Burjassot, Valencia (Spain)
2011-09-22
We analyze numerically the behaviour of the hyperbolic sector of the Fully Constrained Formulation (FCF) (Bonazzola et al. 2004). The numerical experiments allow us to be confident in the performances of the upgraded version of the CoCoNuT code (Dimmelmeier et al. 2005) by replacing the Conformally Flat Condition (CFC), an approximation of Einstein equations, by FCF. First gravitational waves in FCF in a dynamical spacetime with matter content will be shown.
Gravitational waves in dynamical spacetimes with matter content in the Fully Constrained Formulation
Cordero-Carrión, Isabel; Ibáñez, José María
2011-01-01
The Fully Constrained Formulation (FCF) of General Relativity is a novel framework introduced as an alternative to the hyperbolic formulations traditionally used in numerical relativity. The FCF equations form a hybrid elliptic-hyperbolic system of equations including explicitly the constraints. We present an implicit-explicit numerical algorithm to solve the hyperbolic part, whereas the elliptic sector shares the form and properties with the well known Conformally Flat Condition (CFC) approximation. We show the stability andconvergence properties of the numerical scheme with numerical simulations of vacuum solutions. We have performed the first numerical evolutions of the coupled system of hydrodynamics and Einstein equations within FCF. As a proof of principle of the viability of the formalism, we present 2D axisymmetric simulations of an oscillating neutron star. In order to simplify the analysis we have neglected the back-reaction of the gravitational waves into the dynamics, which is small (<2 %) for ...
Mathematical Issues in a Fully-Constrained Formulation of Einstein Equations
Cordero-Carrión, I; Gourgoulhon, E; Jaramillo, J L; Novák, J
2008-01-01
In Bonazzola et al., Phys. Rev. D 70, 104007 (2004), a new formulation for 3+1 numerical relativity has been proposed. Einstein equations result, according to that formalism, in a coupled elliptic-hyperbolic system. We have carried out a preliminary analysis of the mathematical structure of that system, in particular focusing on the equations governing the evolution for the deviation of a conformal metric from a flat fiducial one. The choice of a Dirac's gauge for the spatial coordinates guarantees the mathematical characterization of that system as a (strongly) hyperbolic system of conservation laws. In the presence of boundaries, this characterization also depends on the boundary conditions for the shift vector in the elliptic subsystem. This interplay between the hyperbolic and elliptic parts of the complete evolution system is used to assess the prescription of inner boundary conditions for the hyperbolic part when using an excision approach to black hole spacetime evolutions.
CANONICAL FORMULATION OF NONHOLONOMIC CONSTRAINED SYSTEMS
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
GUO YONG-XIN; YU YING; HUANG HAI-JUN
2001-01-01
Based on the Ehresmann connection theory and symplectic geometry, the canonical formulation of nonholonomic constrained mechanical systems is described. Following the Lagrangian formulation of the constrained system, the Hamiltonian formulation is given by Legendre transformation. The Poisson bracket defined by an anti-symmetric tensor does not satisfy the Jacobi identity for the nonintegrability of nonholonomic constraints. The constraint manifold can admit symplectic submanifold for some cases, in which the Lie algebraic structure exists.
Eulerian Formulation of Spatially Constrained Elastic Rods
Huynen, Alexandre
Slender elastic rods are ubiquitous in nature and technology. For a vast majority of applications, the rod deflection is restricted by an external constraint and a significant part of the elastic body is in contact with a stiff constraining surface. The research work presented in this doctoral dissertation formulates a computational model for the solution of elastic rods constrained inside or around frictionless tube-like surfaces. The segmentation strategy adopted to cope with this complex class of problems consists in sequencing the global problem into, comparatively simpler, elementary problems either in continuous contact with the constraint or contact-free between their extremities. Within the conventional Lagrangian formulation of elastic rods, this approach is however associated with two major drawbacks. First, the boundary conditions specifying the locations of the rod centerline at both extremities of each elementary problem lead to the establishment of isoperimetric constraints, i.e., integral constraints on the unknown length of the rod. Second, the assessment of the unilateral contact condition requires, in principle, the comparison of two curves parametrized by distinct curvilinear coordinates, viz. the rod centerline and the constraint axis. Both conspire to burden the computations associated with the method. To streamline the solution along the elementary problems and rationalize the assessment of the unilateral contact condition, the rod governing equations are reformulated within the Eulerian framework of the constraint. The methodical exploration of both types of elementary problems leads to specific formulations of the rod governing equations that stress the profound connection between the mechanics of the rod and the geometry of the constraint surface. The proposed Eulerian reformulation, which restates the rod local equilibrium in terms of the curvilinear coordinate associated with the constraint axis, describes the rod deformed configuration
Matter coupling in partially constrained vielbein formulation of massive gravity
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Felice, Antonio De [Yukawa Institute for Theoretical Physics, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Gümrükçüoğlu, A. Emir [School of Mathematical Sciences, University of Nottingham, University Park, Nottingham, NG7 2RD (United Kingdom); Heisenberg, Lavinia [Institute for Theoretical Studies, ETH Zurich,Clausiusstrasse 47, 8092 Zurich (Switzerland); Mukohyama, Shinji [Yukawa Institute for Theoretical Physics, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe,Todai Institutes for Advanced Study, University of Tokyo (WPI),5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8583 (Japan)
2016-01-04
We consider a linear effective vielbein matter coupling without introducing the Boulware-Deser ghost in ghost-free massive gravity. This is achieved in the partially constrained vielbein formulation. We first introduce the formalism and prove the absence of ghost at all scales. As next we investigate the cosmological application of this coupling in this new formulation. We show that even if the background evolution accords with the metric formulation, the perturbations display important different features in the partially constrained vielbein formulation. We study the cosmological perturbations of the two branches of solutions separately. The tensor perturbations coincide with those in the metric formulation. Concerning the vector and scalar perturbations, the requirement of absence of ghost and gradient instabilities yields slightly different allowed parameter space.
Matter coupling in partially constrained vielbein formulation of massive gravity
De Felice, Antonio; Heisenberg, Lavinia; Mukohyama, Shinji
2015-01-01
We consider a consistent linear effective vielbein matter coupling without introducing the Boulware-Deser ghost in ghost-free massive gravity. This is achieved in the partially constrained vielbein formulation. We first introduce the formalism and prove the absence of ghost at all scales. As next we investigate the cosmological application of this coupling in this new formulation. We show that even if the background evolution accords with the metric formulation, the perturbations display important different features in the partially constrained vielbein formulation. We study the cosmological perturbations of the two branches of solutions separately. The tensor perturbations coincide with those in the metric formulation. Concerning the vector and scalar perturbations, the requirement of absence of ghost and gradient instabilities yields slightly different allowed parameter space.
Matter coupling in partially constrained vielbein formulation of massive gravity
De Felice, Antonio; Gümrükçüoğlu, A. Emir; Heisenberg, Lavinia; Mukohyama, Shinji
2016-01-01
We consider a linear effective vielbein matter coupling without introducing the Boulware-Deser ghost in ghost-free massive gravity. This is achieved in the partially constrained vielbein formulation. We first introduce the formalism and prove the absence of ghost at all scales. As next we investigate the cosmological application of this coupling in this new formulation. We show that even if the background evolution accords with the metric formulation, the perturbations display important different features in the partially constrained vielbein formulation. We study the cosmological perturbations of the two branches of solutions separately. The tensor perturbations coincide with those in the metric formulation. Concerning the vector and scalar perturbations, the requirement of absence of ghost and gradient instabilities yields slightly different allowed parameter space.
Towards a Scalable Fully-Implicit Fully-coupled Resistive MHD Formulation with Stabilized FE Methods
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Shadid, J N; Pawlowski, R P; Banks, J W; Chacon, L; Lin, P T; Tuminaro, R S
2009-06-03
This paper presents an initial study that is intended to explore the development of a scalable fully-implicit stabilized unstructured finite element (FE) capability for low-Mach-number resistive MHD. The discussion considers the development of the stabilized FE formulation and the underlying fully-coupled preconditioned Newton-Krylov nonlinear iterative solver. To enable robust, scalable and efficient solution of the large-scale sparse linear systems generated by the Newton linearization, fully-coupled algebraic multilevel preconditioners are employed. Verification results demonstrate the expected order-of-acuracy for the stabilized FE discretization of a 2D vector potential form for the steady and transient solution of the resistive MHD system. In addition, this study puts forth a set of challenging prototype problems that include the solution of an MHD Faraday conduction pump, a hydromagnetic Rayleigh-Bernard linear stability calculation, and a magnetic island coalescence problem. Initial results that explore the scaling of the solution methods are presented on up to 4096 processors for problems with up to 64M unknowns on a CrayXT3/4. Additionally, a large-scale proof-of-capability calculation for 1 billion unknowns for the MHD Faraday pump problem on 24,000 cores is presented.
An excision scheme for black holes in constrained evolution formulations: spherically symmetric case
Cordero-Carrión, Isabel; Novak, Jérôme; Jaramillo, José Luis
2013-01-01
Excision techniques are used in order to deal with black holes in numerical simulations of Einstein equations and consist in removing a topological sphere containing the physical singularity from the numerical domain, applying instead appropriate boundary conditions at the excised surface. In this work we present recent developments of this technique in the case of constrained formulations of Einstein equations and for spherically symmetric spacetimes. We present a new set of boundary conditions to apply to the elliptic system in the fully-constrained formalism of Bonazzola et al. (2004), at an arbitrary sphere inside the apparent horizon. Analytical properties of this system of boundary conditions are studied and, under some assumptions, an exponential convergence toward the stationary solution is exhibited for the vacuum spacetime. This is verified in numerical examples, together with the applicability in the case of the accretion of a scalar field onto a Schwarzschild black hole.
Sun, Zhibin; Chang, Chein-I.; Ren, Hsuan; D"Amico, Francis M.; Jensen, James O.
2003-12-01
Fully constrained linear spectral mixture analysis (FCLSMA) has been used for material quantification in remotely sensed imagery. In order to implement FCLSMA, two constraints are imposed on abundance fractions, referred to as Abundance Sum-to-one Constraint (ASC) and Abundance Nonnegativity Constraint (ANC). While the ASC is linear equality constraint, the ANC is a linear inequality constraint. A direct approach to imposing the ASC and ANC has been recently investigated and is called fully constrained least-squares (FCLS) method. Since there is no analytical solution resulting from the ANC, a modified fully constrained least-squares method (MFCLS) which replaces the ANC with an Absolute Abundance Sum-to-one Constraint (AASC) was proposed to convert a set of inequality constraints to a quality constraint. The results produced by these two approaches have been shown to be very close. In this paper, we take an oopposite approach to the MFCLS method, called least-squares with linear inequality constraints (LSLIC) method which also solves FCLSMA, but replaces the ASC with two linear inequalities. The proposed LSLIC transforms the FCLSMA to a linear distance programming problem which can be solved easily by a numerical algorithm. In order to demonstrate its utility in solving FCLSMA, the LSLIC method is compared to the FCLS and MFCLS methods. The experimental results show that these three methods perform very similarly with only subtle differences resulting from their problem formations.
Polynomial Size Formulations for the Distance and Capacity Constrained Vehicle Routing Problem
Kara, Imdat; Derya, Tusan
2011-09-01
The Distance and Capacity Constrained Vehicle Routing Problem (DCVRP) is an extension of the well known Traveling Salesman Problem (TSP). DCVRP arises in distribution and logistics problems. It would be beneficial to construct new formulations, which is the main motivation and contribution of this paper. We focused on two indexed integer programming formulations for DCVRP. One node based and one arc (flow) based formulation for DCVRP are presented. Both formulations have O(n2) binary variables and O(n2) constraints, i.e., the number of the decision variables and constraints grows with a polynomial function of the nodes of the underlying graph. It is shown that proposed arc based formulation produces better lower bound than the existing one (this refers to the Water's formulation in the paper). Finally, various problems from literature are solved with the node based and arc based formulations by using CPLEX 8.0. Preliminary computational analysis shows that, arc based formulation outperforms the node based formulation in terms of linear programming relaxation.
Constraining Fully Convective Magnetic Dynamos using Brown Dwarf Auroral Radio Emission
Kao, Melodie; Hallinan, Gregg; Pineda, J. Sebastian; Escala, Ivanna; Burgasser, Adam; Bourke, Stephen; Stevenson, David
2017-05-01
An important outstanding problem in dynamo theory is understanding how magnetic fields are generated and sustained in fully convective objects, spanning stars through planets. For fully convective dynamo models to accurately predict exoplanet magnetic fields, pushing measurements to include the coolest T and Y dwarfs at the substellar-planetary boundary is critical. A number of models for possible dynamo mechanisms in this regime have been proposed but constraining data on magnetic field strengths and topologies across a wide range of mass, age, rotation rate, and temperature are sorely lacking, particularly in the brown dwarf regime.Detections of highly circularly polarized pulsed radio emission provide our only window into magnetic field measurements for objects in the ultracool brown dwarf regime. However, these detections are very rare; previous radio surveys encompassing ∼60 L6 or later targets have yielded only one detection. We have developed a selection strategy for biasing survey targets by leveraging the emergence of magnetic activity that is driven by planet-like auroral processes in the coolest brown dwarfs. Using our selection strategy, we previously observed six late L and T dwarfs with the Jansky Very Large Array (VLA) at 4-8 GHz and detected the presence of highly circularly polarized radio emission for five targets. Our initial detections provided the most robust constraints on dynamo theory in this regime, confirming magnetic fields >2.5 kG. To further probe the mechanisms driving fully convective dynamos at the substellar-planetary boundary, we present magnetic field constraints for two Y-dwarfs and 8-12 GHz radio observations of late L and T dwarfs corresponding to >3.6 kG surface fields. We additionally present initial results for a comprehensive L and T dwarf survey spanning a wide range of rotation periods to test rotation-dominated dynamo models. Finally, we present a method for comparing magnetic field measurements derived from
On the Miller-Tucker-Zemlin Based Formulations for the Distance Constrained Vehicle Routing Problems
Kara, Imdat
2010-11-01
Vehicle Routing Problem (VRP), is an extension of the well known Traveling Salesman Problem (TSP) and has many practical applications in the fields of distribution and logistics. When the VRP consists of distance based constraints it is called Distance Constrained Vehicle Routing Problem (DVRP). However, the literature addressing on the DVRP is scarce. In this paper, existing two-indexed integer programming formulations, having Miller-Tucker-Zemlin based subtour elimination constraints, are reviewed. Existing formulations are simplified and obtained formulation is presented as formulation F1. It is shown that, the distance bounding constraints of the formulation F1, may not generate the distance traveled up to the related node. To do this, we redefine the auxiliary variables of the formulation and propose second formulation F2 with new and easy to use distance bounding constraints. Adaptation of the second formulation to the cases where new restrictions such as minimal distance traveled by each vehicle or other objectives such as minimizing the longest distance traveled is discussed.
Po, Giacomo; Ghoniem, Nasr
2014-05-01
We present a formulation of the discrete Dislocation Dynamics (DD) method based on Onsager's variational principle. The motion of discrete dislocations is treated as a generalized irreversible flux associated with conjugate thermodynamic forces causing internal production of entropy. Intrinsic in the variational principle is the role of physical constraints that limit the choice of generalized fluxes. We leverage the concept of constrained maximization to introduce the requirement that dislocation climb must be sustained by the flux of vacancies into the dislocation core. The constrained variational approach results naturally in the coupling between plastic deformation induced by discrete dislocations, vacancy diffusion, and heat propagation in solid crystals. In particular, this coupling requires that dislocation velocity and chemical potential of vacancies at the dislocation core be found simultaneously. A new numerical formulation of DD that accounts for generalized constraints imposed on dislocations is presented, based on a network discretization of the dislocation configuration. Applications illustrate the significance of constrained motion of dislocations confined in channels and pillars, and the attainment of heterogeneous dislocation structures.
The fully-implicit log-conformation formulation and its application to three-dimensional flows
Knechtges, Philipp
2015-01-01
The stable and efficient numerical simulation of viscoelastic flows has been a constant struggle due to the High Weissenberg Number Problem. While the stability for macroscopic descriptions could be greatly enhanced by the log-conformation method as proposed by Fattal and Kupferman, the application of the efficient Newton-Raphson algorithm to the full monolithic system of governing equations, consisting of the log-conformation equations and the Navier-Stokes equations, has always posed a problem. In particular, it is the formulation of the constitutive equations by means of the spectral decomposition that hinders the application of further analytical tools. Therefore, up to now, a fully monolithic approach could only be achieved in two dimensions, as, e.g., recently shown in [P. Knechtges, M. Behr, S. Elgeti, Fully-implicit log-conformation formulation of constitutive laws, J. Non-Newtonian Fluid Mech. 214 (2014) 78-87]. The aim of this paper is to find a generalization of the previously made considerations t...
Security-Constrained Unit Commitment Based on a Realizable Energy Delivery Formulation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hongyu Wu
2012-01-01
Full Text Available Security-constrained unit commitment (SCUC is an important tool for independent system operators in the day-ahead electric power market. A serious issue arises that the energy realizability of the staircase generation schedules obtained in traditional SCUC cannot be guaranteed. This paper focuses on addressing this issue, and the basic idea is to formulate the power output of thermal units as piecewise-linear function. All individual unit constraints and systemwide constraints are then reformulated. The new SCUC formulation is solved within the Lagrangian relaxation (LR framework, in which a double dynamic programming method is developed to solve individual unit subproblems. Numerical testing is performed for a 6-bus system and an IEEE 118-bus system on Microsoft Visual C# .NET platform. It is shown that the energy realizability of generation schedules obtained from the new formulation is guaranteed. Comparative case study is conducted between LR and mixed integer linear programming (MILP in solving the new formulation. Numerical results show that the near-optimal solution can be obtained efficiently by the proposed LR-based method.
Reynolds, Daniel R.; Samtaney, Ravi; Tiedeman, Hilari C.
2012-01-01
Single-fluid resistive magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) is a fluid description of fusion plasmas which is often used to investigate macroscopic instabilities in tokamaks. In MHD modeling of tokamaks, it is often desirable to compute MHD phenomena to resistive time scales or a combination of resistive-Alfvén time scales, which can render explicit time stepping schemes computationally expensive. We present recent advancements in the development of preconditioners for fully nonlinearly implicit simulations of single-fluid resistive tokamak MHD. Our work focuses on simulations using a structured mesh mapped into a toroidal geometry with a shaped poloidal cross-section, and a finite-volume spatial discretization of the partial differential equation model. We discretize the temporal dimension using a fully implicit θ or the backwards differentiation formula method, and solve the resulting nonlinear algebraic system using a standard inexact Newton-Krylov approach, provided by the sundials library. The focus of this paper is on the construction and performance of various preconditioning approaches for accelerating the convergence of the iterative solver algorithms. Effective preconditioners require information about the Jacobian entries; however, analytical formulae for these Jacobian entries may be prohibitive to derive/implement without error. We therefore compute these entries using automatic differentiation with OpenAD. We then investigate a variety of preconditioning formulations inspired by standard solution approaches in modern MHD codes, in order to investigate their utility in a preconditioning context. We first describe the code modifications necessary for the use of the OpenAD tool and sundials solver library. We conclude with numerical results for each of our preconditioning approaches in the context of pellet-injection fueling of tokamak plasmas. Of these, our optimal approach results in a speedup of a factor of 3 compared with non-preconditioned implicit tests
Reynolds, Daniel R.
2012-01-01
Single-fluid resistive magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) is a fluid description of fusion plasmas which is often used to investigate macroscopic instabilities in tokamaks. In MHD modeling of tokamaks, it is often desirable to compute MHD phenomena to resistive time scales or a combination of resistive-Alfvén time scales, which can render explicit time stepping schemes computationally expensive. We present recent advancements in the development of preconditioners for fully nonlinearly implicit simulations of single-fluid resistive tokamak MHD. Our work focuses on simulations using a structured mesh mapped into a toroidal geometry with a shaped poloidal cross-section, and a finite-volume spatial discretization of the partial differential equation model. We discretize the temporal dimension using a fully implicit or the backwards differentiation formula method, and solve the resulting nonlinear algebraic system using a standard inexact Newton-Krylov approach, provided by the sundials library. The focus of this paper is on the construction and performance of various preconditioning approaches for accelerating the convergence of the iterative solver algorithms. Effective preconditioners require information about the Jacobian entries; however, analytical formulae for these Jacobian entries may be prohibitive to derive/implement without error. We therefore compute these entries using automatic differentiation with OpenAD. We then investigate a variety of preconditioning formulations inspired by standard solution approaches in modern MHD codes, in order to investigate their utility in a preconditioning context. We first describe the code modifications necessary for the use of the OpenAD tool and sundials solver library. We conclude with numerical results for each of our preconditioning approaches in the context of pellet-injection fueling of tokamak plasmas. Of these, our optimal approach results in a speedup of a factor of 3 compared with non-preconditioned implicit tests, with
Prioritized motion-force control of constrained fully-actuated robots: "Task Space Inverse Dynamics"
Del Prete, Andrea; Nori, Francesco; Metta, Giorgio; Natale, Lorenzo
2014-01-01
We present a new framework for prioritized multi-task motion-force control of fully-actuated robots. This work is established on a careful review and comparison of the state of the art. Some control frameworks are not optimal, that is they do not find the optimal solution for the secondary tasks. Other frameworks are optimal, but they tackle the control problem at kinematic level, hence they neglect the robot dynamics and they do not allow for force control. Still other frameworks are optimal...
Zhang, Yongsheng; Wei, Heng; Zheng, Kangning
2017-01-01
Considering that metro network expansion brings us with more alternative routes, it is attractive to integrate the impacts of routes set and the interdependency among alternative routes on route choice probability into route choice modeling. Therefore, the formulation, estimation and application of a constrained multinomial probit (CMNP) route choice model in the metro network are carried out in this paper. The utility function is formulated as three components: the compensatory component is a function of influencing factors; the non-compensatory component measures the impacts of routes set on utility; following a multivariate normal distribution, the covariance of error component is structured into three parts, representing the correlation among routes, the transfer variance of route, and the unobserved variance respectively. Considering multidimensional integrals of the multivariate normal probability density function, the CMNP model is rewritten as Hierarchical Bayes formula and M-H sampling algorithm based Monte Carlo Markov Chain approach is constructed to estimate all parameters. Based on Guangzhou Metro data, reliable estimation results are gained. Furthermore, the proposed CMNP model also shows a good forecasting performance for the route choice probabilities calculation and a good application performance for transfer flow volume prediction. PMID:28591188
Singh, Gaurav; Krishnan, Girish
2017-06-01
Fiber reinforced elastomeric enclosures (FREEs) are soft and smart pneumatic actuators that deform in a predetermined fashion upon inflation. This paper analyzes the deformation behavior of FREEs by formulating a simple calculus of variations problem that involves constrained maximization of the enclosed volume. The model accurately captures the deformed shape for FREEs with any general fiber angle orientation, and its relation with actuation pressure, material properties and applied load. First, the accuracy of the model is verified with existing literature and experiments for the popular McKibben pneumatic artificial muscle actuator with two equal and opposite families of helically wrapped fibers. Then, the model is used to predict and experimentally validate the deformation behavior of novel rotating-contracting FREEs, for which no prior literature exist. The generality of the model enables conceptualization of novel FREEs whose fiber orientations vary arbitrarily along the geometry. Furthermore, the model is deemed to be useful in the design synthesis of fiber reinforced elastomeric actuators for general axisymmetric desired motion and output force requirement.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bhupendra Khandelwal
2014-08-01
Full Text Available The rapid growth of the aviation sector around the globe has witnessed an overwhelming impact on fossil fuel resources. With the implementation of stricter environmental laws over emissions by conventional jet fuels, growing demand for research on alternative fuels has become imperative. One-hundred percent Synthetic Paraffinic Kerosene (SPK and Fully Formulated Synthetic Jet Fuel have surfaced as viable alternatives for gas turbine engines due to their similar properties as that of Jet Fuel. This paper presents results from an experimental study performed on a small gas turbine engine, comparing emissions performance and vibrations for conventional Jet A-1 Fuel, thermally stressed 100% SPK and Fully Formulated Synthetic Jet Fuel. Different vibration frequencies, power spectra were observed for different fuels. Gaseous emissions observed were nearly the same, whereas, significant changes in particulates emissions were observed.
Luo, Hongxia; Ye, Huanzhuo; Ke, Yinghai; Pan, Jianping; Gong, Jianya; Chen, Xiaoling
2005-01-01
In the region covered by variable amounts of vegetation, pixel spectra received by remotely-sensed sensor with given spatial resolution are a mixture of soil and vegetation spectra, so vegetation covering on soil influences the accuracy of soils surveying by remote sensing. Mixed pixel spectra are described as a linear combination of endmember signature matrix with appropriate abundance fractions correspond to it in a linear mixture model. According to the principle of this model, abundance fractions of endmembers in every pixel were calculated using unsupervised fully constrained least squares(UFCLS) algorithm. Then the signature of vegetation correspond to its abundance fraction was eliminated, and other endmember signatures covered by vegetation were restituted by scaling their abundance fractions to sum the original pixel total and recalculating the model. After above processing, de-vegetated reflectance images were produced for soils surveying. The accuracies of paddy soils classified using these characteristic images were better than that of using the raw images, but the accuracies of zonal soils were inferior to the latter. Compared to many other image processing methods, such as K-T transformation and ratio bands, the linear spectral unmixing to removing vegetation produced slightly better overall accuracy of soil classification, so it was useful for soils surveying by remote sensing.
Sardella, Roccaldo; Ianni, Federica; Lisanti, Antonella; Scorzoni, Stefania; Marini, Francesca; Sternativo, Silvia; Natalini, Benedetto
2014-05-01
To the best of our knowledge enantioselective chromatographic protocols on β-amino acids with polysaccharide-based chiral stationary phases (CSPs) have not yet appeared in the literature. Therefore, the primary objective of this work was the development of chromatographic methods based on the use of an amylose derivative CSP (Lux Amylose-2), enabling the direct normal-phase (NP) enantioresolution of four fully constrained β-amino acids. Also, the results obtained with the glycopeptide-type Chirobiotic T column employed in the usual polar-ionic (PI) mode of elution are compared with those achieved with the polysaccharide-based phase. The Lux Amylose-2 column, in combination with alkyl sulfonic acid containing NP eluent systems, prevailed over the Chirobiotic T one, when used under the PI mode of elution, and hence can be considered as the elective choice for the enantioseparation of this class of rigid β-amino acids. Moreover, the extraordinarily high α (up to 4.60) and R S (up to 10.60) values provided by the polysaccharidic polymer, especially when used with camphor sulfonic acid containing eluent systems, make it also suitable for preparative-scale enantioisolations.
Sauer, Roger A; Corbett, Callum J
2012-01-01
A geometrically exact membrane formulation is presented that is based on curvilinear coordinates and isogeometric finite elements, and is suitable for both solid and liquid membranes. The curvilinear coordinate system is used to describe both the theory and the finite element equations of the membrane. In the latter case this avoids the use of local cartesian coordinates at the element level. Consequently, no transformation of derivatives is required. The formulation considers a split of the in-plane and out-of-plane membrane contributions, which allows the construction of a stable formulation for liquid membranes with constant surface tension. The proposed membrane formulation is general, and accounts for dead and live loading, as well as enclosed volume, area, and contact constraints. The new formulation is illustrated by several challenging examples, considering linear and quadratic Lagrange elements, as well as isogeometric elements based on quadratic NURBS and cubic T-splines. It is seen that the isogeom...
Zhang, Site; Asoubar, Daniel; Hellmann, Christian; Wyrowski, Frank
2016-01-20
The propagation of electromagnetic fields between non-parallel planes based on a spectrum-of-plane-wave analysis is discussed and formulations for an efficient numerical implementation are presented in detail. It is shown that with the help of interpolation techniques, the numerical implementation can be done with the standard uniform fast Fourier transform (FFT) of easy access. Different interpolation techniques are numerically examined, and it turns out that the use of cubic interpolation, together with the uniform FFT, brings both significantly increased computational efficiency and high simulation accuracy. Apart from the aspect of computational efficiency, all formulations in this work are generalized in a fully vectorial manner in comparison to previous works.
The variational formulation of the fully parabolic Keller-Segel system with degenerate diffusion
Mimura, Yoshifumi
2017-07-01
We prove the time-global existence of solutions of the degenerate Keller-Segel system in higher dimensions, under the assumption that the mass of the first component is below a certain critical value. What we deal with is the full parabolic-parabolic system rather than the simplified parabolic-elliptic system. Our approach is to formulate the problem as a gradient flow on the Wasserstein space. We first consider a time-discretized problem, in which the values of the solution are determined iteratively by solving a certain minimizing problem at each time step. Here we use a new minimizing scheme at each time level, which gives the time-discretized solutions favorable regularity properties. As a consequence, it becomes relatively easy to prove that the time-discretized solutions converge to a weak solution of the original system as the time step size tends to zero.
Finite element formulation of active constraining layer damping plate using laminate theory
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
邓年春; 邹振祝; 黄文虎
2004-01-01
A new finite element modeling method has been developed using laminate theory in a virlual work principle for active constraining layer damping plate. The frequency dependent modulus of viscoelastic material is described by introducing a few dissipation coordinates, known as GHM (Golla-Hughes-McTavish) method, a standard linear system with constant coefficient. The effectiveness of this method is validated by experimental model. Compared with conventional methods, this method can reduce a number of degrees of freedom and improve accuracy, provides a good model for analogous configurations.
Robust and Reliable Portfolio Optimization Formulation of a Chance Constrained Problem
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sengupta Raghu Nandan
2017-02-01
Full Text Available We solve a linear chance constrained portfolio optimization problem using Robust Optimization (RO method wherein financial script/asset loss return distributions are considered as extreme valued. The objective function is a convex combination of portfolio’s CVaR and expected value of loss return, subject to a set of randomly perturbed chance constraints with specified probability values. The robust deterministic counterpart of the model takes the form of Second Order Cone Programming (SOCP problem. Results from extensive simulation runs show the efficacy of our proposed models, as it helps the investor to (i utilize extensive simulation studies to draw insights into the effect of randomness in portfolio decision making process, (ii incorporate different risk appetite scenarios to find the optimal solutions for the financial portfolio allocation problem and (iii compare the risk and return profiles of the investments made in both deterministic as well as in uncertain and highly volatile financial markets.
Reuther, James; Jameson, Antony; Alonso, Juan Jose; Rimlinger, Mark J.; Saunders, David
1997-01-01
An aerodynamic shape optimization method that treats the design of complex aircraft configurations subject to high fidelity computational fluid dynamics (CFD), geometric constraints and multiple design points is described. The design process will be greatly accelerated through the use of both control theory and distributed memory computer architectures. Control theory is employed to derive the adjoint differential equations whose solution allows for the evaluation of design gradient information at a fraction of the computational cost required by previous design methods. The resulting problem is implemented on parallel distributed memory architectures using a domain decomposition approach, an optimized communication schedule, and the MPI (Message Passing Interface) standard for portability and efficiency. The final result achieves very rapid aerodynamic design based on a higher order CFD method. In order to facilitate the integration of these high fidelity CFD approaches into future multi-disciplinary optimization (NW) applications, new methods must be developed which are capable of simultaneously addressing complex geometries, multiple objective functions, and geometric design constraints. In our earlier studies, we coupled the adjoint based design formulations with unconstrained optimization algorithms and showed that the approach was effective for the aerodynamic design of airfoils, wings, wing-bodies, and complex aircraft configurations. In many of the results presented in these earlier works, geometric constraints were satisfied either by a projection into feasible space or by posing the design space parameterization such that it automatically satisfied constraints. Furthermore, with the exception of reference 9 where the second author initially explored the use of multipoint design in conjunction with adjoint formulations, our earlier works have focused on single point design efforts. Here we demonstrate that the same methodology may be extended to treat
Timing-Constrained FPGA Placement: A Force-Directed Formulation and Its Performance Evaluation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Srilata Raman
1996-01-01
Full Text Available In this paper we present a simple but efficient timing-driven placement algorithm for FPGAs. The algorithm computes forces acting on a logic block in the FPGA to determine its relative location with respect to other blocks. The forces depend on the criticality of nets shared between the two blocks. Unlike other net-based approaches, timing constraints are incorporated directly into the force equations to guide the placement. Slot assignment is then used to move the blocks into valid slot locations on the FPGA chip. The assignment algorithm also makes use of the delay information of nets so that the final placement is able to meet the timing criteria specified for the circuit. The novelty of the approach lies in the formulation of the force equations and the manner in which weights of the nets are dynamically altered to influence the placement. Experiments conducted on industrial test circuits and MCNC circuits give very promising results and indicate that the algorithm succeeds in significantly reducing the maximum delay in the circuit. In addition, routability is not adversely affected and running time is low.
Lacaze, Guilhem; Oefelein, Joseph
2016-11-01
High-pressure flows are known to be challenging to simulate due to thermodynamic non-linearities occurring in the vicinity of the pseudo-boiling line. This study investigates the origin of this issue by analyzing the behavior of thermodynamic processes at elevated pressure and low temperature. We show that under transcritical conditions, non-linearities significantly amplify numerical errors associated with construction of fluxes. These errors affect the local density and energy balances, which in turn creates pressure oscillations. For that reason, solvers based on a conservative system of equations that transport density and total energy are subject to unphysical pressure variations in gradient regions. These perturbations hinder numerical stability and degrade the accuracy of predictions. To circumvent this problem, the governing system can be reformulated to a pressure-based treatment of energy. We present comparisons between the pressure-based and fully conservative formulations using a progressive set of canonical cases, including a cryogenic turbulent mixing layer at rocket engine conditions. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Basic Energy Sciences Program.
Jones, Keith
2010-01-01
The Regularized Fast Hartley Transform provides the reader with the tools necessary to both understand the proposed new formulation and to implement simple design variations that offer clear implementational advantages, both practical and theoretical, over more conventional complex-data solutions to the problem. The highly-parallel formulation described is shown to lead to scalable and device-independent solutions to the latency-constrained version of the problem which are able to optimize the use of the available silicon resources, and thus to maximize the achievable computational density, th
Sanchez, M. J.; Gens, A.; Jarecki, Z.; Olivella, S.
2012-12-01
This work presents a coupled Thermo-Hydro-Mechanical (THM) formulation developed to handle multiphysic problems in porous media with two dominant void levels. The proposed framework assumes the presence of two porous media linked through a mass transfer term between them. In many cases, the use of a double porosity formulation is more realistic because it is possible to take explicitly into account the different physical phenomena that take place in each void level, and also their mutual interactions. The formulation is especially suitable for cases in which the material exhibits a strong coupling between the mechanical and the hydraulic problem in both media. The problem is approached using a multi-phase, multi-species formulation that expresses mathematically the main coupled thermo-hydro-mechanical phenomena in terms of: balance equations, constitutive equations and equilibrium restrictions. In its more general form, the proposed approach allows the consideration of multiphase flow in the two pore levels coupled with the mechanical problem. The formulation presented is quite open and general, and able to incorporate different constitutive laws for each basic structural level considered; for the mechanical, hydraulic and thermal problems. The double structure formulation has been implemented in the finite element program CODE_BRIGHT and it has been used to analyze a variety of engineering problems associated with the design of radioactive waste disposal in deep geological media and petroleum engineering problems. This work presents two case studies; one is related to oil production in a heterogeneous reservoir, and the other case focuses on the analysis of a repository for nuclear waste in a clayed formation. Both cases show the potential of the proposed formation to tackle coupled multiphysics problems in porous media.
Tripoli, Gregory J.; Smith, Eric A.
2014-06-01
A Variable-Step Topography (VST) surface coordinate system is introduced into a dynamically constrained, scalable, nonhydrostatic atmospheric model for reliable simulations of flows over both smooth and steep terrain without sacrificing dynamical integrity over either type of surface. Backgrounds of both terrain-following and step coordinate model developments are presented before justifying the turn to a VST approach within an appropriately configured host model. In this first part of a two-part sequence of papers, the full formulation of the VST model, prefaced by a description of the framework of its apposite host, i.e., a re-tooled Nonhydrostatic Modeling System (NMS), are presented. [The second part assesses the performance and benefits of the new VST coordinate system in conjunction with seven orthodox obstacle flow problems.] The NMS is a 3-dimensional, nonhydrostatic cloud-mesoscale model, designed for integrations from plume-cloud scales out to regional-global scales. The derivative properties of VST in conjunction with the NMS's newly designed dynamically constrained core are capable of accurately capturing the deformations of flows by any type of terrain variability. Numerical differencing schemes needed to satisfy critical integral constraints, while also effectively enabling the VST lower boundary, are described. The host model constraints include mass, momentum, energy, vorticity and enstrophy conservation. A quasi-compressible closure cast on multiple-nest rotated spherical grids is the underlying framework used to study the advantages of the VST coordinate system. The principle objective behind the VST formulation is to combine the advantages of both terrain-following and step coordinate systems without suffering either of their disadvantages, while at the same time creating a vertical surface coordinate setting suitable for a scalable, nonhydrostatic model, safeguarded with physically realistic dynamical constraints.
New Quasidilaton theory in Partially Constrained Vielbein Formalism
De Felice, Antonio; Heisenberg, Lavinia; Mukohyama, Shinji; Tanahashi, Norihiro
2016-01-01
In this work we study the partially constrained vielbein formulation of the new quasidilaton theory of massive gravity which couples to both physical and fiducial metrics simultaneously via a composite effective metric. This formalism improves the new quasidilaton model since the Boulware-Deser ghost is removed fully non-linearly at all scales. This also yields crucial implications in the cosmological applications. We derive the governing cosmological background evolution and study the stability of the attractor solution.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
张琪; 刘福江; 李婵; 乔乐; 郭振辉; 柴春鹏
2016-01-01
月表主要矿物含量的定量反演是月球科学领域的重要课题之一,对未来月表矿物信息解译有重要指导意义,因此提出一种对月表高光谱遥感数据线性分解获取矿物含量的方法.首先,利用Hapke辐射传输模型将Relab光谱库中的5种矿物(单斜辉石、斜方辉石、斜长石、橄榄石和钛铁矿)非线性混合的反射光谱转换为线性混合的单次反照率;然后,按照比例随机生成混合像元;最后基于全约束线性光谱分解方法建立上述5种矿物分解含量与真实含量的统计关系模型.利用Apollo登陆采样点实测数据对该模型进行验证的结果表明,辉石、斜长石、橄榄石和钛铁矿的反演结果与实测结果的相关系数分别为0.83,0.86,0.72和0.77.采用上述方法,利用印度探月卫星Chandrayaan-1搭载的月球矿物制图仪(moon mineralogy mapper,M3)高光谱数据得到月表虹湾地区矿物的含量分布图,表明利用全约束线性分解对高光谱矿物识别和含量反演是一种行之有效的方法.%Quantitative inversion of the main lunar mineral abundance is an important issue in the field of lunar science,which has great guiding effect on lunar mineral information interpretation in the future.In this paper,a method of linear unmixing for hyperspectral remote sensing image is proposed to obtain the mineral abundance.Firstly,based on Hapke radiative transfer model,the authors transformed the non-linear mixed reflectance spectra into the linear mixed single scattering albedo of five end-member minerals (clinopyroxene,orthopyroxene,plagioclase,olivine and ilmenite) in the Relab spectral library,and then generated mixed pixels according to the linear proportion randomly;in this way,the statistical relationship models of mineral unmixing abundance and real abundance for the above five minerals can be established respectively based on fully constrained linear-unmixing method.The verification result with the data
An improved constrained scheme for the Einstein equations: an approach to the uniqueness issue
Cordero-Carrión, Isabel; Dimmelmeier, Harald; Jaramillo, José Luis; Novak, Jérôme; Gourgoulhon, Eric
2008-01-01
Uniqueness problems in the elliptic sector of constrained formulations of Einstein equations have a dramatic effect on the physical validity of some numerical solutions, for instance when calculating the spacetime of very compact stars or nascent black holes. The fully constrained formulation (FCF) proposed by Bonazzola, Gourgoulhon, Grandcl\\'ement, and Novak is one of these formulations. It contains, as a particular case, the approximation of the conformal flatness condition (CFC) which, in the last ten years, has been used in many astrophysical applications. The elliptic part of the FCF basically shares the same differential operators as the elliptic equations in CFC scheme. We present here a reformulation of the elliptic sector of CFC that has the fundamental property of overcoming the local uniqueness problems. The correct behavior of our new formulation is confirmed by means of a battery of numerical simulations. Finally, we extend these ideas to FCF, complementing the mathematical analysis carried out i...
Lectures on Constrained Systems
Date, Ghanashyam
2010-01-01
These lecture notes were prepared as a basic introduction to the theory of constrained systems which is how the fundamental forces of nature appear in their Hamiltonian formulation. Only a working knowledge of Lagrangian and Hamiltonian formulation of mechanics is assumed. These notes are based on the set of eight lectures given at the {\\em Refresher Course for College Teachers} held at IMSc during May-June, 2005. These are submitted to the arxiv for an easy access to a wider body of students.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mrityunjoy Roy
2013-04-01
Full Text Available In this paper, a technique has been developed to determine the optimum mix of logistic service providers of a make-to-order (MTO supply chain. A serial MTO supply chain with different stages/ processes has been considered. For each stage different logistic service providers with different mean processing lead times, but same lead time variances are available. A realistic assumption that for each stage, the logistic service provider who charges more for his service consumes less processing lead time and vice-versa has been made in our study. Thus for each stage, for each service provider, a combination of cost and mean processing lead time is available. Using these combinations, for each stage, a polynomial curve, expressing cost of that stage as a function of mean processing lead time is fit. Cumulating all such expressions of cost for the different stages along with incorporation of suitable constraints arising out of timely delivery, results in the formulation of a constrained nonlinear cost optimization problem. On solving the problem using mathematica, optimum processing lead time for each stage is obtained. Using these optimum processing lead times and by employing a simple technique the optimum logistic service provider mix of the supply chain along with the corresponding total cost of processing is determined. Finally to examine the effect of changes in different parameters on the optimum total processing cost of the supply chain, sensitivity analysis has been carried out graphically.
New quasidilaton theory in partially constrained vielbein formalism
De Felice, Antonio; Gümrükçüoğlu, A. Emir; Heisenberg, Lavinia; Mukohyama, Shinji; Tanahashi, Norihiro
2016-05-01
In this work we study the partially constrained vielbein formulation of the new quasidilaton theory of massive gravity, where the quasidilaton field couples to both physical and fiducial metrics simultaneously via a composite effective metric and Lorentz violation is introduced by a constraint on the vielbein. This formalism improves the new quasidilaton model since the Boulware-Deser ghost is removed fully non-linearly at all scales. This also yields crucial implications in the cosmological applications. We derive the governing cosmological background evolution and study the stability of the attractor solution.
New quasidilaton theory in partially constrained vielbein formalism
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Felice, Antonio De [Center for Gravitational Physics, Yukawa Institute for Theoretical Physics,Kyoto University,606-8502, Kyoto (Japan); Gümrükçüoğlu, A. Emir [Theoretical Physics Group, Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College London,South Kensington Campus, London, SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Heisenberg, Lavinia [Institute for Theoretical Studies, ETH Zurich,Clausiusstrasse 47, 8092 Zurich (Switzerland); Mukohyama, Shinji [Center for Gravitational Physics, Yukawa Institute for Theoretical Physics,Kyoto University,606-8502, Kyoto (Japan); Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (WPI),UTIAS, The University of Tokyo,Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8583 (Japan); Tanahashi, Norihiro [Department of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics,Centre for Mathematical Sciences, University of Cambridge,Wilberforce Road, Cambridge CB3 0WA (United Kingdom)
2016-05-25
In this work we study the partially constrained vielbein formulation of the new quasidilaton theory of massive gravity, where the quasidilaton field couples to both physical and fiducial metrics simultaneously via a composite effective metric and Lorentz violation is introduced by a constraint on the vielbein. This formalism improves the new quasidilaton model since the Boulware-Deser ghost is removed fully non-linearly at all scales. This also yields crucial implications in the cosmological applications. We derive the governing cosmological background evolution and study the stability of the attractor solution.
Rotating star initial data for a constrained scheme in numerical relativity
Lin, L M; Lin, Lap-Ming; Novak, Jerome
2006-01-01
A new numerical code for computing stationary axisymmetric rapidly rotating stars in general relativity is presented. The formulation is based on a fully constrained-evolution scheme for 3+1 numerical relativity using the Dirac gauge and maximal slicing. We use both the polytropic and MIT bag model equations of state to demonstrate that the code can construct rapidly rotating neutron star and strange star models. We compare numerical models obtained by our code and a well-established code, which uses a different gauge condition, and show that the two codes agree to high accuracy.
Power-constrained supercomputing
Bailey, Peter E.
As we approach exascale systems, power is turning from an optimization goal to a critical operating constraint. With power bounds imposed by both stakeholders and the limitations of existing infrastructure, achieving practical exascale computing will therefore rely on optimizing performance subject to a power constraint. However, this requirement should not add to the burden of application developers; optimizing the runtime environment given restricted power will primarily be the job of high-performance system software. In this dissertation, we explore this area and develop new techniques that extract maximum performance subject to a particular power constraint. These techniques include a method to find theoretical optimal performance, a runtime system that shifts power in real time to improve performance, and a node-level prediction model for selecting power-efficient operating points. We use a linear programming (LP) formulation to optimize application schedules under various power constraints, where a schedule consists of a DVFS state and number of OpenMP threads for each section of computation between consecutive message passing events. We also provide a more flexible mixed integer-linear (ILP) formulation and show that the resulting schedules closely match schedules from the LP formulation. Across four applications, we use our LP-derived upper bounds to show that current approaches trail optimal, power-constrained performance by up to 41%. This demonstrates limitations of current systems, and our LP formulation provides future optimization approaches with a quantitative optimization target. We also introduce Conductor, a run-time system that intelligently distributes available power to nodes and cores to improve performance. The key techniques used are configuration space exploration and adaptive power balancing. Configuration exploration dynamically selects the optimal thread concurrency level and DVFS state subject to a hardware-enforced power bound
Lithium Depletion in Fully Convective Pre-Main Sequence Stars
Bildsten, L; Matzner, C D; Ushomirsky, G; Bildsten, Lars; Brown, Edward F.; Matzner, Christopher D.; Ushomirsky, Greg
1996-01-01
We present an analytic calculation of the thermonuclear depletion of lithium in contracting, fully convective, pre-main sequence stars of mass M 0.08 M_sun) and for constraining the masses of lithium depleted stars.
Constrained optimization for image restoration using nonlinear programming
Yeh, C.-L.; Chin, R. T.
1985-01-01
The constrained optimization problem for image restoration, utilizing incomplete information and partial constraints, is formulated using nonlinear proramming techniques. This method restores a distorted image by optimizing a chosen object function subject to available constraints. The penalty function method of nonlinear programming is used. Both linear or nonlinear object function, and linear or nonlinear constraint functions can be incorporated in the formulation. This formulation provides a generalized approach to solve constrained optimization problems for image restoration. Experiments using this scheme have been performed. The results are compared with those obtained from other restoration methods and the comparative study is presented.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
李晓妮; 向宇; 黄玉盈; 袁丽芸; 陆静
2011-01-01
The commonly used model for dynamic analysis of the shell with active constrained layer damping (ACLD) is a simply coupled electro-mechanical model (SCEM). In this model the electric field is assumed to be negligible in the in-plane directions of piezoelectric layer and to be constant throughout the thickness in the normal direction. The reason for ineffectiveness of SCEM was analyzed theoretically and a fully coupled electro-mechanical model (FCEM) was further developed. Then a first-order differential matrix equation for FCEM of thin ACLD circular cylindrical shell was derived. A high precision and high efficiency transfer matrix method based on the extended homogeneous capacity precision integration approach was employed to solve the matrix equation. Compared with the classical 3D method, the proposed method can greatly simplify computation, and can be applied to analyze the vibration control problems of thin circular cylindrical shell partially treated with ACLD under arbitrary boundary conditions. Numerical results were given to compare the two kinds of models ( SCEM and FCEM) in a wider frequency range. The results by both models agree exactly in the lowfrequency range, whereas differ significantly in the high-frequency range. This confirms sufficiently SCME is only applicable to low-frequency vibration problems while FCEM can be used in a wider frequency range.%目前在ACLD薄壳结构的动力学分析中,通常采用一种忽略压电约束层面内电场强度,仅考虑在厚度方向为常量分布的法向电场强度的简化力电耦合模型.首先从理论上分析了简化力电耦合模型的局限性,进而提出了一种新的完全力电耦合模型,以此为基础导出了该模型下ACLD圆柱壳的一阶常微分矩阵状态方程,并结合传递矩阵法和齐次扩容精细积分法求解该方程.相对于传统三维模型方法,所建立的新模型和求解方法不仅大幅度简化了计算,而且适用于分析部分覆盖和任
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Jin WANG; Yaying JI; Uschi GRAHAM; Caio CESAR SPINDOLA DE OLIVEIRA; Mark CROCKER
2011-01-01
Fully formulated lean NOx trap (LNT) catalysts of the type Pt/Rh/BaO/Al203 were prepared with and without incorporation of CeO2-ZrO2 in the washcoat, and their NOx reduction behavior was evaluated in steady-state, continuous flow experiments. In the fresh state, the CeO2-ZrO2 addition was found to exert little effect on NOx reduction activity using H2, CO, and NH3 as the reductants. However, after simulated road aging, NOx reduction activity was significantly impaired for the CeO2-ZrO2-free catalyst, whereas the performance of the CeO2-ZrO2-containing analog was affected to only a minor degree. These differences are explained on the basis of high-resolution transmission electron microscopy measurements showing that Pt supported on CeO2-ZrO2 remained highly dispersed after aging, whereas Pt supported on BaO/Al203 underwent significant sintering. In addition, the Pt/CeO2-ZrO2 component did not accumulate sulfur during aging, unlike Pt/BaO/Al203 for which significant sulfation of the Ba phase occurred. For both catalysts, selectivity to NH3 in NO and NO2 reduction by H2 increased after the catalyst aging, indicative of a change in the relative surface coverages of N and H ad-atoms on the precious metal sites.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Capella, Antonio [Instituto de Matematicas, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (Mexico); Mueller, Stefan [Hausdorff Center for Mathematics and Institute for Applied Mathematics, Universitaet Bonn (Germany); Otto, Felix [Max Planck Institute for Mathematics in the Sciences, Leipzig (Germany)
2012-08-15
A mathematical description of transformation processes in magnetic shape memory alloys (MSMA) under applied stresses and external magnetic fields needs a combination of micromagnetics and continuum elasticity theory. In this note, we discuss the so-called constrained theories, i.e., models where the state described by the pair (linear strain, magnetization) is at every point of the sample constrained to assume one of only finitely many values (that reflect the material symmetries). Furthermore, we focus on large body limits, i.e., models that are formulated in terms of (local) averages of a microstructured state, as the one proposed by DeSimone and James. We argue that the effect of an interfacial energy associated with the twin boundaries survives on the level of the large body limit in form of a (local) rigidity of twins. This leads to an alternative (i.e., with respect to reference 1) large body limit. The new model has the advantage of qualitatively explaining the occurrence of a microstructure with charged magnetic walls, as observed in SPP experiments in reference 2. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
Evolutionary constrained optimization
Deb, Kalyanmoy
2015-01-01
This book makes available a self-contained collection of modern research addressing the general constrained optimization problems using evolutionary algorithms. Broadly the topics covered include constraint handling for single and multi-objective optimizations; penalty function based methodology; multi-objective based methodology; new constraint handling mechanism; hybrid methodology; scaling issues in constrained optimization; design of scalable test problems; parameter adaptation in constrained optimization; handling of integer, discrete and mix variables in addition to continuous variables; application of constraint handling techniques to real-world problems; and constrained optimization in dynamic environment. There is also a separate chapter on hybrid optimization, which is gaining lots of popularity nowadays due to its capability of bridging the gap between evolutionary and classical optimization. The material in the book is useful to researchers, novice, and experts alike. The book will also be useful...
Witheephanich, K.; Escaño, J. M.; Hayes, M. J.
2011-08-01
This work considers the problem of controlling transmit power within a wireless sensor network (WSN), where the practical constraints typically posed by an ambulatory healthcare setting are explicitly taken into account, as a constrained received signal strength indicator (RSSI) tracking control problem. The problem is formulated using an explicit generalised predictive control (GPC) strategy for dynamic transmission power control that ensures a balance between energy consumption and quality of service (QoS) through the creation of a stable floor on information throughput. Optimal power assignment is achieved by an explicit solution of the constrained GPC problem that is computed off-line using a multi-parametric quadratic program (mpQP). The solution is shown to be a piecewise-affine function. The new design is demonstrated to be practically feasible via a resource-constrained, fully IEEE 802.15.4 compliant, Moteiv's Tmote Sky sensor node platform. Design utility is benchmarked experimentally using a representative selection of scaled ambulatory scenarios.
Huddleston, Rob
2012-01-01
Fully loaded with the latest tricks and tips on your new Android! Android smartphones are so hot, they're soaring past iPhones on the sales charts. And the second edition of this muscular little book is equally impressive--it's packed with tips and tricks for getting the very most out of your latest-generation Android device. Start Facebooking and tweeting with your Android mobile, scan barcodes to get pricing and product reviews, download your favorite TV shows--the book is positively bursting with practical and fun how-tos. Topics run the gamut from using speech recognition, location-based m
On Fully Homomorphic Encryption
Fauzi, Prastudy
2012-01-01
Fully homomorphic encryption is an encryption scheme where a party can receive encrypted data and perform arbitrary operations on this data efficiently.The data remains encrypted throughout, but the operations can be done regardless, without having to know the decryption key.Such a scheme would be very advantageous, for example in ensuring the privacy of data that is sent to a third-party service.This is in contrast with schemes like Paillier where you can not perform a multiplication of encr...
Choosing health, constrained choices.
Chee Khoon Chan
2009-12-01
In parallel with the neo-liberal retrenchment of the welfarist state, an increasing emphasis on the responsibility of individuals in managing their own affairs and their well-being has been evident. In the health arena for instance, this was a major theme permeating the UK government's White Paper Choosing Health: Making Healthy Choices Easier (2004), which appealed to an ethos of autonomy and self-actualization through activity and consumption which merited esteem. As a counterpoint to this growing trend of informed responsibilization, constrained choices (constrained agency) provides a useful framework for a judicious balance and sense of proportion between an individual behavioural focus and a focus on societal, systemic, and structural determinants of health and well-being. Constrained choices is also a conceptual bridge between responsibilization and population health which could be further developed within an integrative biosocial perspective one might refer to as the social ecology of health and disease.
Constrained optimization using CODEQ
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Omran, Mahamed G.H. [Department of Computer Science, Gulf University for Science and Technology, P.O. Box 7207, Hawally 32093 (Kuwait)], E-mail: omran.m@gust.edu.kw; Salman, Ayed [Computer Engineering Department, Kuwait University, P.O. Box 5969, Safat 13060 (Kuwait)], E-mail: ayed@eng.kuniv.edu.kw
2009-10-30
Many real-world optimization problems are constrained problems that involve equality and inequality constraints. CODEQ is a new, parameter-free meta-heuristic algorithm that is a hybrid of concepts from chaotic search, opposition-based learning, differential evolution and quantum mechanics. The performance of the proposed approach when applied to five constrained benchmark problems is investigated and compared with other approaches proposed in the literature. The experiments conducted show that CODEQ provides excellent results with the added advantage of no parameter tuning.
Canonical symmetry properties of the constrained singular generalized mechanical system
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
李爱民; 江金环; 李子平
2003-01-01
Based on generalized Apell-Chetaev constraint conditions and to take the inherent constrains for singular Lagrangian into account, the generalized canonical equations for a general mechanical system with a singular higher-order Lagrangian and subsidiary constrains are formulated. The canonical symmetries in phase space for such a system are studied and Noether theorem and its inversion theorem in the generalized canonical formalism have been established.
Canonical symmetry properties of the constrained singular generalized mechanical system
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LiAi-Min; JiangJin-Huan; LiZi-Ping
2003-01-01
Based on generalized Apell-Chetaev constraint conditions and to take the inherent constrains for singular Lagrangian into account,the generalized canonical equations for a general mechanical system with a singular higher-order Lagrangian and subsidiary constrains are formulated. The canonical symmetries in phase space for such a system are studied and Noether theorem and its inversion theorem in the generalized canonical formalism have been established.
Filson, Simon A; Yarhi, Danielle; Ramon, Yitzhak
2016-11-01
The authors present 25 cases and an in-depth 4-minute video of fully awake aesthetic breast reduction, which was made possible by thoracic epidural anesthesia. There are obvious and important advantages to this technique. Not only does this allow for intraoperative patient cooperation (i.e., patient self-positioning and opinion for comparison of breasts), meaning a shorter and more efficient intraoperative time, there also is a reduction in postoperative pain, complications, recovery, and discharge times. The authors have also enjoyed great success and no complications with this technique in over 150 awake abdominoplasty/total body lift patients. The authors feel that the elimination of the need for general anesthesia by thoracic epidural sensorial-only anesthesia is a highly effective and efficient technique, with very few disadvantages/complications, providing advantages to both patients and surgeons. Therapeutic, IV.
Minimal constrained supergravity
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
N. Cribiori
2017-01-01
Full Text Available We describe minimal supergravity models where supersymmetry is non-linearly realized via constrained superfields. We show that the resulting actions differ from the so called “de Sitter” supergravities because we consider constraints eliminating directly the auxiliary fields of the gravity multiplet.
Constrained superfields in supergravity
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dall’Agata, Gianguido; Farakos, Fotis [Dipartimento di Fisica ed Astronomia “Galileo Galilei”, Università di Padova,Via Marzolo 8, 35131 Padova (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Padova,Via Marzolo 8, 35131 Padova (Italy)
2016-02-16
We analyze constrained superfields in supergravity. We investigate the consistency and solve all known constraints, presenting a new class that may have interesting applications in the construction of inflationary models. We provide the superspace Lagrangians for minimal supergravity models based on them and write the corresponding theories in component form using a simplifying gauge for the goldstino couplings.
Fully electric waste collection
Anaïs Schaeffer
2015-01-01
Since 15 June, Transvoirie, which provides waste collection services throughout French-speaking Switzerland, has been using a fully electric lorry for its collections on the CERN site – a first for the region! Featuring a motor powered by electric batteries that charge up when the brakes are used, the new lorry that roams the CERN site is as green as can be. And it’s not only the motor that’s electric: its waste compactor and lifting mechanism are also electrically powered*, making it the first 100% electric waste collection vehicle in French-speaking Switzerland. Considering that a total of 15.5 tonnes of household waste and paper/cardboard are collected each week from the Meyrin and Prévessin sites, the benefits for the environment are clear. This improvement comes as part of CERN’s contract with Transvoirie, which stipulates that the firm must propose ways of becoming more environmentally friendly (at no extra cost to CERN). *The was...
Geometric constrained variational calculus. II: The second variation (Part I)
Massa, Enrico; Bruno, Danilo; Luria, Gianvittorio; Pagani, Enrico
2016-10-01
Within the geometrical framework developed in [Geometric constrained variational calculus. I: Piecewise smooth extremals, Int. J. Geom. Methods Mod. Phys. 12 (2015) 1550061], the problem of minimality for constrained calculus of variations is analyzed among the class of differentiable curves. A fully covariant representation of the second variation of the action functional, based on a suitable gauge transformation of the Lagrangian, is explicitly worked out. Both necessary and sufficient conditions for minimality are proved, and reinterpreted in terms of Jacobi fields.
Sharp spatially constrained inversion
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Vignoli, Giulio G.; Fiandaca, Gianluca G.; Christiansen, Anders Vest C A.V.C.;
2013-01-01
We present sharp reconstruction of multi-layer models using a spatially constrained inversion with minimum gradient support regularization. In particular, its application to airborne electromagnetic data is discussed. Airborne surveys produce extremely large datasets, traditionally inverted...... by using smoothly varying 1D models. Smoothness is a result of the regularization constraints applied to address the inversion ill-posedness. The standard Occam-type regularized multi-layer inversion produces results where boundaries between layers are smeared. The sharp regularization overcomes......, the results are compatible with the data and, at the same time, favor sharp transitions. The focusing strategy can also be used to constrain the 1D solutions laterally, guaranteeing that lateral sharp transitions are retrieved without losing resolution. By means of real and synthetic datasets, sharp...
White, J. A.; Borja, R. I.; Ebel, B. A.; Loague, K.
2009-12-01
This work presents a physics-based framework for continuum modeling of hydrologically-driven slope failure. The analyses employ a mixed finite element formulation for variably-saturated geomaterials undergoing elastoplastic deformations. The deforming soil mass is treated as a multiphase continuum, and the governing mass and momentum balance equations are solved in a fully-coupled manner. This tight coupling is necessary to capture key features of slope behavior. To test the coupled formulation, we present a three-dimensional slope analysis motivated by a 1996 landslide that occurred at a steep experimental catchment (CB1) near Coos Bay, Oregon. Simulations are used to quantify the rainfall-induced slope deformation and assess the failure potential. Results of parametric studies suggest that for a steep hillslope underlain by bedrock, similar to the CB1 site, failure would occur by a multiple slide block mechanism, with progressive failure surfaces forming at the bedrock interface and propagating to the surface. Extensive field observations and experimental measurements made at the CB1 site provide a rich data set to calibrate and evaluate the proposed numerical model. We take the opportunity, however, to point out those features of the model that are not well-constrained by available field data, but which may play an important role in determing the timing and location of failure. These observations are used to assess the current state of predictive capability of the slope simulations, and to inform the design of future field experiments.
Casas, Ricard; Cardiel-Sas, Laia; Castander, Francisco J.; Jiménez, Jorge; de Vicente, Juan
2014-08-01
The focal plane of the PAU camera is composed of eighteen 2K x 4K CCDs. These devices, plus four spares, were provided by the Japanese company Hamamatsu Photonics K.K. with type no. S10892-04(X). These detectors are 200 μm thick fully depleted and back illuminated with an n-type silicon base. They have been built with a specific coating to be sensitive in the range from 300 to 1,100 nm. Their square pixel size is 15 μm. The read-out system consists of a Monsoon controller (NOAO) and the panVIEW software package. The deafualt CCD read-out speed is 133 kpixel/s. This is the value used in the calibration process. Before installing these devices in the camera focal plane, they were characterized using the facilities of the ICE (CSIC- IEEC) and IFAE in the UAB Campus in Bellaterra (Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain). The basic tests performed for all CCDs were to obtain the photon transfer curve (PTC), the charge transfer efficiency (CTE) using X-rays and the EPER method, linearity, read-out noise, dark current, persistence, cosmetics and quantum efficiency. The X-rays images were also used for the analysis of the charge diffusion for different substrate voltages (VSUB). Regarding the cosmetics, and in addition to white and dark pixels, some patterns were also found. The first one, which appears in all devices, is the presence of half circles in the external edges. The origin of this pattern can be related to the assembly process. A second one appears in the dark images, and shows bright arcs connecting corners along the vertical axis of the CCD. This feature appears in all CCDs exactly in the same position so our guess is that the pattern is due to electrical fields. Finally, and just in two devices, there is a spot with wavelength dependence whose origin could be the result of a defectous coating process.
Constraining entropic cosmology
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Koivisto, Tomi S. [Institute for Theoretical Physics and the Spinoza Institute, Utrecht University, Leuvenlaan 4, Postbus 80.195, 3508 TD Utrecht (Netherlands); Mota, David F. [Institute of Theoretical Astrophysics, University of Oslo, 0315 Oslo (Norway); Zumalacárregui, Miguel, E-mail: t.s.koivisto@uu.nl, E-mail: d.f.mota@astro.uio.no, E-mail: miguelzuma@icc.ub.edu [Institute of Cosmos Sciences (ICC-IEEC), University of Barcelona, Marti i Franques 1, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain)
2011-02-01
It has been recently proposed that the interpretation of gravity as an emergent, entropic phenomenon might have nontrivial implications to cosmology. Here several such approaches are investigated and the underlying assumptions that must be made in order to constrain them by the BBN, SneIa, BAO and CMB data are clarified. Present models of inflation or dark energy are ruled out by the data. Constraints are derived on phenomenological parameterizations of modified Friedmann equations and some features of entropic scenarios regarding the growth of perturbations, the no-go theorem for entropic inflation and the possible violation of the Bekenstein bound for the entropy of the Universe are discussed and clarified.
Symmetrically Constrained Compositions
Beck, Matthias; Lee, Sunyoung; Savage, Carla D
2009-01-01
Given integers $a_1, a_2, ..., a_n$, with $a_1 + a_2 + ... + a_n \\geq 1$, a symmetrically constrained composition $\\lambda_1 + lambda_2 + ... + lambda_n = M$ of $M$ into $n$ nonnegative parts is one that satisfies each of the the $n!$ constraints ${\\sum_{i=1}^n a_i \\lambda_{\\pi(i)} \\geq 0 : \\pi \\in S_n}$. We show how to compute the generating function of these compositions, combining methods from partition theory, permutation statistics, and lattice-point enumeration.
A UNIVERSAL VARIATIONAL FORMULATION FOR TWO DIMENSIONAL FLUID MECHANICS
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
何吉欢
2001-01-01
A universal variational formulation for two dimensional fluid mechanics is obtained, which is subject to the so-called parameter-constrained equations (the relationship between parameters in two governing equations). By eliminating the constraints, the generalized variational principle (GVPs) can be readily derived from the formulation. The formulation can be applied to any conditions in case the governing equations can be converted into conservative forms. Some illustrative examples are given to testify the effectiveness and simplicity of the method.
Crystallization Formulation Lab
Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Crystallization Formulation Lab fills a critical need in the process development and optimization of current and new explosives and energetic formulations. The...
Space Constrained Dynamic Covering
Antonellis, Ioannis; Dughmi, Shaddin
2009-01-01
In this paper, we identify a fundamental algorithmic problem that we term space-constrained dynamic covering (SCDC), arising in many modern-day web applications, including ad-serving and online recommendation systems in eBay and Netflix. Roughly speaking, SCDC applies two restrictions to the well-studied Max-Coverage problem: Given an integer k, X={1,2,...,n} and I={S_1, ..., S_m}, S_i a subset of X, find a subset J of I, such that |J| <= k and the union of S in J is as large as possible. The two restrictions applied by SCDC are: (1) Dynamic: At query-time, we are given a query Q, a subset of X, and our goal is to find J such that the intersection of Q with the union of S in J is as large as possible; (2) Space-constrained: We don't have enough space to store (and process) the entire input; specifically, we have o(mn), sometimes even as little as O((m+n)polylog(mn)) space. The goal of SCDC is to maintain a small data structure so as to answer most dynamic queries with high accuracy. We present algorithms a...
A fully-implicit model of the global ocean circulation
Weijer, Wilbert; Dijkstra, Henk A.; Öksüzoğlu, Hakan; Wubs, Fred W.; Niet, Arie C. de
2003-01-01
With the recent developments in the solution methods for large-dimensional nonlinear algebraic systems, fully-implicit ocean circulation models are now becoming feasible. In this paper, the formulation of such a three-dimensional global ocean model is presented. With this implicit model, the
Oberacker, V E
2015-01-01
In this manuscript we provide an outline of the numerical methods used in implementing the density constrained time-dependent Hartree-Fock (DC-TDHF) method and provide a few examples of its application to nuclear fusion. In this approach, dynamic microscopic calculations are carried out on a three-dimensional lattice and there are no adjustable parameters, the only input is the Skyrme effective NN interaction. After a review of the DC-TDHF theory and the numerical methods, we present results for heavy-ion potentials $V(R)$, coordinate-dependent mass parameters $M(R)$, and precompound excitation energies $E^{*}(R)$ for a variety of heavy-ion reactions. Using fusion barrier penetrabilities, we calculate total fusion cross sections $\\sigma(E_\\mathrm{c.m.})$ for reactions between both stable and neutron-rich nuclei. We also determine capture cross sections for hot fusion reactions leading to the formation of superheavy elements.
Constrained Sparse Galerkin Regression
Loiseau, Jean-Christophe
2016-01-01
In this work, we demonstrate the use of sparse regression techniques from machine learning to identify nonlinear low-order models of a fluid system purely from measurement data. In particular, we extend the sparse identification of nonlinear dynamics (SINDy) algorithm to enforce physical constraints in the regression, leading to energy conservation. The resulting models are closely related to Galerkin projection models, but the present method does not require the use of a full-order or high-fidelity Navier-Stokes solver to project onto basis modes. Instead, the most parsimonious nonlinear model is determined that is consistent with observed measurement data and satisfies necessary constraints. The constrained Galerkin regression algorithm is implemented on the fluid flow past a circular cylinder, demonstrating the ability to accurately construct models from data.
Constrained space camera assembly
Heckendorn, Frank M.; Anderson, Erin K.; Robinson, Casandra W.; Haynes, Harriet B.
1999-01-01
A constrained space camera assembly which is intended to be lowered through a hole into a tank, a borehole or another cavity. The assembly includes a generally cylindrical chamber comprising a head and a body and a wiring-carrying conduit extending from the chamber. Means are included in the chamber for rotating the body about the head without breaking an airtight seal formed therebetween. The assembly may be pressurized and accompanied with a pressure sensing means for sensing if a breach has occurred in the assembly. In one embodiment, two cameras, separated from their respective lenses, are installed on a mounting apparatus disposed in the chamber. The mounting apparatus includes means allowing both longitudinal and lateral movement of the cameras. Moving the cameras longitudinally focuses the cameras, and moving the cameras laterally away from one another effectively converges the cameras so that close objects can be viewed. The assembly further includes means for moving lenses of different magnification forward of the cameras.
A game-theoretic formulation of the homogeneous self-reconfiguration problem
Pickem, Daniel
2015-12-15
In this paper we formulate the homogeneous two- and three-dimensional self-reconfiguration problem over discrete grids as a constrained potential game. We develop a game-theoretic learning algorithm based on the Metropolis-Hastings algorithm that solves the self-reconfiguration problem in a globally optimal fashion. Both a centralized and a fully decentralized algorithm are presented and we show that the only stochastically stable state is the potential function maximizer, i.e. the desired target configuration. These algorithms compute transition probabilities in such a way that even though each agent acts in a self-interested way, the overall collective goal of self-reconfiguration is achieved. Simulation results confirm the feasibility of our approach and show convergence to desired target configurations.
Duality in constrained location problems
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Juel, Henrik; Love, Robert F.
1987-01-01
The dual of a facility location problem with general norms, distance constraints, and linear constraints is formulated.......The dual of a facility location problem with general norms, distance constraints, and linear constraints is formulated....
Duality in constrained location problems
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Juel, Henrik; Love, Robert F.
1987-01-01
The dual of a facility location problem with general norms, distance constraints, and linear constraints is formulated.......The dual of a facility location problem with general norms, distance constraints, and linear constraints is formulated....
Isotretinoin Oil-Based Capsule Formulation Optimization
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Pi-Ju Tsai
2013-01-01
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to develop and optimize an isotretinoin oil-based capsule with specific dissolution pattern. A three-factor-constrained mixture design was used to prepare the systemic model formulations. The independent factors were the components of oil-based capsule including beeswax (X1, hydrogenated coconut oil (X2, and soybean oil (X3. The drug release percentages at 10, 30, 60, and 90 min were selected as responses. The effect of formulation factors including that on responses was inspected by using response surface methodology (RSM. Multiple-response optimization was performed to search for the appropriate formulation with specific release pattern. It was found that the interaction effect of these formulation factors (X1X2, X1X3, and X2X3 showed more potential influence than that of the main factors (X1, X2, and X3. An optimal predicted formulation with Y10 min, Y30 min, Y60 min, and Y90 min release values of 12.3%, 36.7%, 73.6%, and 92.7% at X1, X2, and X3 of 5.75, 15.37, and 78.88, respectively, was developed. The new formulation was prepared and performed by the dissolution test. The similarity factor f2 was 54.8, indicating that the dissolution pattern of the new optimized formulation showed equivalence to the predicted profile.
A lexicographic approach to constrained MDP admission control
Panfili, Martina; Pietrabissa, Antonio; Oddi, Guido; Suraci, Vincenzo
2016-02-01
This paper proposes a reinforcement learning-based lexicographic approach to the call admission control problem in communication networks. The admission control problem is modelled as a multi-constrained Markov decision process. To overcome the problems of the standard approaches to the solution of constrained Markov decision processes, based on the linear programming formulation or on a Lagrangian approach, a multi-constraint lexicographic approach is defined, and an online implementation based on reinforcement learning techniques is proposed. Simulations validate the proposed approach.
Verde, Licia; Pigozzo, Cassio; Heavens, Alan F; Jimenez, Raul
2016-01-01
We investigate our knowledge of early universe cosmology by exploring how much additional energy density can be placed in different components beyond those in the $\\Lambda$CDM model. To do this we use a method to separate early- and late-universe information enclosed in observational data, thus markedly reducing the model-dependency of the conclusions. We find that the 95\\% credibility regions for extra energy components of the early universe at recombination are: non-accelerating additional fluid density parameter $\\Omega_{\\rm MR} < 0.006$ and extra radiation parameterised as extra effective neutrino species $2.3 < N_{\\rm eff} < 3.2$ when imposing flatness. Our constraints thus show that even when analyzing the data in this largely model-independent way, the possibility of hiding extra energy components beyond $\\Lambda$CDM in the early universe is seriously constrained by current observations. We also find that the standard ruler, the sound horizon at radiation drag, can be well determined in a way ...
Distance-constrained grid colouring
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Aszalós László
2016-06-01
Full Text Available Distance-constrained colouring is a mathematical model of the frequency assignment problem. This colouring can be treated as an optimization problem so we can use the toolbar of the optimization to solve concrete problems. In this paper, we show performance of distance-constrained grid colouring for two methods which are good in map colouring.
Quantizing Constrained Systems New Perspectives
Kaplan, L; Heller, E J
1997-01-01
We consider quantum mechanics on constrained surfaces which have non-Euclidean metrics and variable Gaussian curvature. The old controversy about the ambiguities involving terms in the Hamiltonian of order hbar^2 multiplying the Gaussian curvature is addressed. We set out to clarify the matter by considering constraints to be the limits of large restoring forces as the constraint coordinates deviate from their constrained values. We find additional ambiguous terms of order hbar^2 involving freedom in the constraining potentials, demonstrating that the classical constrained Hamiltonian or Lagrangian cannot uniquely specify the quantization: the ambiguity of directly quantizing a constrained system is inherently unresolvable. However, there is never any problem with a physical quantum system, which cannot have infinite constraint forces and always fluctuates around the mean constraint values. The issue is addressed from the perspectives of adiabatic approximations in quantum mechanics, Feynman path integrals, a...
IT Supporting Strategy Formulation
Achterbergh, J.M.I.M.
2005-01-01
This overview approaches information and communication technology (ICT) for competitive intelligence from the perspective of strategy formulation. It provides an ICT architecture for supporting the knowledge processes producing relevant knowledge for strategy formulation. To determine what this arch
IT Supporting Strategy Formulation
Achterbergh, J.M.I.M.
2005-01-01
This overview approaches information and communication technology (ICT) for competitive intelligence from the perspective of strategy formulation. It provides an ICT architecture for supporting the knowledge processes producing relevant knowledge for strategy formulation. To determine what this arch
Torsion formulation of gravity
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lledo, M A; Sommovigo, L, E-mail: Maria.Lledo@ific.uv.e, E-mail: Luca.Sommovigo@mfn.unipmn.i [Departament de Fisica Teorica, Universitat de Valencia, and IFIC (Centro mixto CSIC-UVEG) C/Dr Moliner, 50, E-46100 Burjassot (Valencia) (Spain)
2010-03-21
We explain precisely what it means to have a connection with torsion as a solution of the Einstein equations. While locally the theory remains the same, the new formulation allows for topologies that would have been excluded in the standard formulation of gravity. In this formulation it is possible to couple arbitrary torsion to gauge fields without breaking the gauge invariance.
Dynamically constrained pipeline for tracking neural progenitor cells
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Vestergaard, Jacob Schack; Dahl, Anders; Holm, Peter
2013-01-01
. A mitosis detector constructed from empirical observations of cells in a pre-mitotic state interacts with the graph formulation to dynamically allow for cell mitosis when appropriate. Track consistency is ensured by introducing pragmatic constraints and the notion of blob states. We validate the proposed...... tracking methods are fundamental building blocks of setting up multi purpose pipelines. Segmentation by discriminative dictionary learning and a graph formulated tracking method constraining the allowed topology changes are combined here to accommodate for highly irregular cell shapes and movement patterns...
Lagrange versus symplectic algorithm for constrained systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rothe, Heinz J; Rothe, Klaus D [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik - Universitaet Heidelberg, Philosophenweg 16, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany)
2003-02-14
The systematization of the purely Lagrangian approach to constrained systems in the form of an algorithm involves the iterative construction of a generalized Hessian matrix W taking a rectangular form. This Hessian will exhibit as many left zero modes as there are Lagrangian constraints in the theory. We apply this approach to a general Lagrangian in the first-order formulation and show how the seemingly overdetermined set of equations is solved for the velocities by suitably extending W to a rectangular matrix. As a byproduct we thereby demonstrate the equivalence of the Lagrangian approach to the traditional Dirac approach. By making use of this equivalence we show that a recently proposed symplectic algorithm does not necessarily reproduce the full constraint structure of the traditional Dirac algorithm.
THE DUBINS TRAVELING SALESMAN PROBLEM WITH CONSTRAINED COLLECTING MANEUVERS
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Petr Váňa
2016-11-01
Full Text Available In this paper, we introduce a variant of the Dubins traveling salesman problem (DTSP that is called the Dubins traveling salesman problem with constrained collecting maneuvers (DTSP-CM. In contrast to the ordinary formulation of the DTSP, in the proposed DTSP-CM, the vehicle is requested to visit each target by specified collecting maneuver to accomplish the mission. The proposed problem formulation is motivated by scenarios with unmanned aerial vehicles where particular maneuvers are necessary for accomplishing the mission, such as object dropping or data collection with sensor sensitive to changes in vehicle heading. We consider existing methods for the DTSP and propose its modifications to use these methods to address a variant of the introduced DTSP-CM, where the collecting maneuvers are constrained to straight line segments.
Chordal Graphs are Fully Orientable
Lai, Hsin-Hao
2012-01-01
Suppose that D is an acyclic orientation of a graph G. An arc of D is called dependent if its reversal creates a directed cycle. Let m and M denote the minimum and the maximum of the number of dependent arcs over all acyclic orientations of G. We call G fully orientable if G has an acyclic orientation with exactly d dependent arcs for every d satisfying m <= d <= M. A graph G is called chordal if every cycle in G of length at least four has a chord. We show that all chordal graphs are fully orientable.
Constrained Metric Learning by Permutation Inducing Isometries.
Bosveld, Joel; Mahmood, Arif; Huynh, Du Q; Noakes, Lyle
2016-01-01
The choice of metric critically affects the performance of classification and clustering algorithms. Metric learning algorithms attempt to improve performance, by learning a more appropriate metric. Unfortunately, most of the current algorithms learn a distance function which is not invariant to rigid transformations of images. Therefore, the distances between two images and their rigidly transformed pair may differ, leading to inconsistent classification or clustering results. We propose to constrain the learned metric to be invariant to the geometry preserving transformations of images that induce permutations in the feature space. The constraint that these transformations are isometries of the metric ensures consistent results and improves accuracy. Our second contribution is a dimension reduction technique that is consistent with the isometry constraints. Our third contribution is the formulation of the isometry constrained logistic discriminant metric learning (IC-LDML) algorithm, by incorporating the isometry constraints within the objective function of the LDML algorithm. The proposed algorithm is compared with the existing techniques on the publicly available labeled faces in the wild, viewpoint-invariant pedestrian recognition, and Toy Cars data sets. The IC-LDML algorithm has outperformed existing techniques for the tasks of face recognition, person identification, and object classification by a significant margin.
Damping characteristics of active-passive hybrid constrained-layer treated beam structures
Liu, Yanning; Wang, Kon-Well
2000-04-01
A new configuration of surface damping treatments, Active- Passive Hybrid Constrained Layer (HCL) damping, is analyzed and experimentally investigated. The purpose is to improve the performance of the current active constrained layer (ACL) and passive constrained layer (PCL) treatments by mixing passive and active materials in the constraining layer. In HCL, the viscoelastic material is constrained by an active-passive hybrid constraining layer -- the active part is made of PZT ceramics, and the passive part can be selected by the designer to meet different requirements, such as higher damping performance or lighter weight. The active and passive constraining parts are mechanically connected such that the displacement and force are continuous at the connecting surface, but are isolated electrically so the passive constraining part will not affect the function of its active counterpart. Following a generic study of the HCL concept by the authors earlier, the purpose of this paper is to illustrate and validate the HCL performance through both numerical and experimental investigations on a beam structure. The governing equations and boundary conditions of an HCL treated beam are derived and a finite element model is formulated. Tabletop tests with cantilever beam specimens are used for the experimental study. The new hybrid constrained layer is found to have the advantages of both ACL and PCL. By selecting a stiffer passive constraining material and an optimal active-to-passive length ratio, the HCL can achieve better closed-loop and open-loop performances than the treatment with a pure active constraining layer.
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
OMPRAKASH TEMBHURNE; DEEPTI SHRIMANKAR
2017-07-01
A study of abundance estimation has vital importance in spectral unmixing of hyperspectral image. Recently, various methods have been proposed for spectral unmixing to achieve higher performance using an evolutionary approach. However, these methods are based on unconstrained optimisation problems. Theirperformance was also based on proper tuning parameters. We have proposed a new non-parametric algorithm using teaching-learning-based optimisation technique with an inbuilt constraints maintenance mechanism using the linear mixing model. In this approach, the unmixing problem is transformed into a combinatorial optimisation problem by introducing abundance sum to one constraint and abundance non-negative constraint. A comparative analysis of the proposed algorithm is conducted with other two state-of-the-art algorithms.Experimental results in known and unknown environments with varying signal-to-noise ratio on simulated and real hyper spectral data demonstrate that the proposed method outperforms the other methods.
Changes in epistemic frameworks: Random or constrained?
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ananka Loubser
2012-11-01
Full Text Available Since the emergence of a solid anti-positivist approach in the philosophy of science, an important question has been to understand how and why epistemic frameworks change in time, are modified or even substituted. In contemporary philosophy of science three main approaches to framework-change were detected in the humanist tradition:1. In both the pre-theoretical and theoretical domains changes occur according to a rather constrained, predictable or even pre-determined pattern (e.g. Holton.2. Changes occur in a way that is more random or unpredictable and free from constraints (e.g. Kuhn, Feyerabend, Rorty, Lyotard.3. Between these approaches, a middle position can be found, attempting some kind of synthesis (e.g. Popper, Lakatos.Because this situation calls for clarification and systematisation, this article in fact tried to achieve more clarity on how changes in pre-scientific frameworks occur, as well as provided transcendental criticism of the above positions. This article suggested that the above-mentioned positions are not fully satisfactory, as change and constancy are not sufficiently integrated. An alternative model was suggested in which changes in epistemic frameworks occur according to a pattern, neither completely random nor rigidly constrained, which results in change being dynamic but not arbitrary. This alternative model is integral, rather than dialectical and therefore does not correspond to position three.
Explosive Formulation Pilot Plant
Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Pilot Plant for Explosive Formulation supports the development of new explosives that are comprised of several components. This system is particularly beneficial...
Predictive Terminal Guidance With Tuning of Prediction Horizon & Constrained Control .
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S. E. Talole
2000-07-01
Full Text Available Continvojs time-predictive control approach is employed to formulate an output tracking nonlinear, optimal, terminal guidance ,law for re-entry vehicles. The notable features of this formulation are that the system equations are not linearised and the evaluation of the guidanceequations does not need the information of vehicle parameters, such as drag and mass. The formulation allows to impose the physical constrains on the control inputs, i..e. on the demanded lateral acceleliations through a saturation mapping and the controls are obtained using a fixed pointiteration algorithm which converges typically in a few iterations. Further, a simple method of tuning the prediction horizon needed in the guidance equations is presented. Numerical simulations show that the guidance law achieves almost zero terminal errors in all states despite large errors in initial Conditions.
A vielbein formulation of unified Einstein-Maxwell theory
Vignolo, Stefano
2016-01-01
In the framework of J-bundles a vielbein formulation of unified Einstein-Maxwell theory is proposed. In the resulting scheme, field equations matching the gravitational and electromagnetic fields are derived by constraining a five-dimensional variational principle. No dynamical scalar field is involved.
Formulations in first encounters
A. Hak (Tony); F. de Boer (Fijgje)
1994-01-01
markdownabstractThe paper describes and compares the use and function of the formulation--decision pair in three types of diagnostic interviewing. The investigatory type of interviewing, which typically occurs in the medical interview, is characterized by the absence of formulations. In the explora
DAE for Frictional Contact Modeling of Constrained Multi-Flexible Body Systems
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Ray P.S.Han; S. G. Mao
2004-01-01
A general formulation for modeling frictional contact interactions in a constrained multi-flexible body system is outlined in this paper. The governing differential-algebraic equations (DAE) for the constrained motion contains not only a frictional term but also, the unknown contact conditions. These contact conditions are characterized by a set of nonlinear complementarity equations. To demonstrate the model, a falling-spinning beam impacting a rough elastic ground with damping is solved and comparison with Stewart-Trinkles' results provided.
Physics of Fully Depleted CCDs
Holland, S E; Kolbe, W F; Lee, J S
2014-01-01
In this work we present simple, physics-based models for two effects that have been noted in the fully depleted CCDs that are presently used in the Dark Energy Survey Camera. The first effect is the observation that the point-spread function increases slightly with the signal level. This is explained by considering the effect on charge-carrier diffusion due to the reduction in the magnitude of the channel potential as collected signal charge acts to partially neutralize the fixed charge in the depleted channel. The resulting reduced voltage drop across the carrier drift region decreases the vertical electric field and increases the carrier transit time. The second effect is the observation of low-level, concentric ring patterns seen in uniformly illuminated images. This effect is shown to be most likely due to lateral deflection of charge during the transit of the photogenerated carriers to the potential wells as a result of lateral electric fields. The lateral fields are a result of space charge in the fully...
Explaining evolution via constrained persistent perfect phylogeny.
Bonizzoni, Paola; Carrieri, Anna Paola; Della Vedova, Gianluca; Trucco, Gabriella
2014-01-01
The perfect phylogeny is an often used model in phylogenetics since it provides an efficient basic procedure for representing the evolution of genomic binary characters in several frameworks, such as for example in haplotype inference. The model, which is conceptually the simplest, is based on the infinite sites assumption, that is no character can mutate more than once in the whole tree. A main open problem regarding the model is finding generalizations that retain the computational tractability of the original model but are more flexible in modeling biological data when the infinite site assumption is violated because of e.g. back mutations. A special case of back mutations that has been considered in the study of the evolution of protein domains (where a domain is acquired and then lost) is persistency, that is the fact that a character is allowed to return back to the ancestral state. In this model characters can be gained and lost at most once. In this paper we consider the computational problem of explaining binary data by the Persistent Perfect Phylogeny model (referred as PPP) and for this purpose we investigate the problem of reconstructing an evolution where some constraints are imposed on the paths of the tree. We define a natural generalization of the PPP problem obtained by requiring that for some pairs (character, species), neither the species nor any of its ancestors can have the character. In other words, some characters cannot be persistent for some species. This new problem is called Constrained PPP (CPPP). Based on a graph formulation of the CPPP problem, we are able to provide a polynomial time solution for the CPPP problem for matrices whose conflict graph has no edges. Using this result, we develop a parameterized algorithm for solving the CPPP problem where the parameter is the number of characters. A preliminary experimental analysis shows that the constrained persistent perfect phylogeny model allows to explain efficiently data that do not
Lightweight cryptography for constrained devices
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Alippi, Cesare; Bogdanov, Andrey; Regazzoni, Francesco
2014-01-01
Lightweight cryptography is a rapidly evolving research field that responds to the request for security in resource constrained devices. This need arises from crucial pervasive IT applications, such as those based on RFID tags where cost and energy constraints drastically limit the solution...
Constrained Optimization of Discontinuous Systems
Y.M. Ermoliev; V.I. Norkin
1996-01-01
In this paper we extend the results of Ermoliev, Norkin and Wets [8] and Ermoliev and Norkin [7] to the case of constrained discontinuous optimization problems. In contrast to [7] the attention is concentrated on the proof of general optimality conditions for problems with nonconvex feasible sets. Easily implementable random search technique is proposed.
Formulation techniques for nanofluids.
Rivera-Solorio, Carlos I; Payán-Rodríguez, Luis A; García-Cuéllar, Alejandro J; Ramón-Raygoza, E D; L Cadena-de-la-Peña, Natalia; Medina-Carreón, David
2013-11-01
Fluids with suspended nanoparticles, commonly known as nanofluids, may be formulated to improve the thermal performance of industrial heat transfer systems and applications. Nanofluids may show enhanced thermal and electrical properties such as thermal conductivity, viscosity, heat transfer coefficient, dielectric strength, etc. However, stability problems may arise as nanoparticles usually have the tendency to agglomerate and sediment producing deterioration in the increment of these properties. In this review, we discuss patents that report advances in the formulation of nanofluids including: production methods, selection of components (nanoparticles, base fluid and surfactants), their chemical compositions and morphologies, and characterization techniques. Finally, current and future directions in the development of nanofluid formulation are discussed.
Shao, H.; Huang, Y.; Kolditz, O.
2015-12-01
Multiphase flow problems are numerically difficult to solve, as it often contains nonlinear Phase transition phenomena A conventional technique is to introduce the complementarity constraints where fluid properties such as liquid saturations are confined within a physically reasonable range. Based on such constraints, the mathematical model can be reformulated into a system of nonlinear partial differential equations coupled with variational inequalities. They can be then numerically handled by optimization algorithms. In this work, two different approaches utilizing the complementarity constraints based on persistent primary variables formulation[4] are implemented and investigated. The first approach proposed by Marchand et.al[1] is using "local complementary constraints", i.e. coupling the constraints with the local constitutive equations. The second approach[2],[3] , namely the "global complementary constrains", applies the constraints globally with the mass conservation equation. We will discuss how these two approaches are applied to solve non-isothermal componential multiphase flow problem with the phase change phenomenon. Several benchmarks will be presented for investigating the overall numerical performance of different approaches. The advantages and disadvantages of different models will also be concluded. References[1] E.Marchand, T.Mueller and P.Knabner. Fully coupled generalized hybrid-mixed finite element approximation of two-phase two-component flow in porous media. Part I: formulation and properties of the mathematical model, Computational Geosciences 17(2): 431-442, (2013). [2] A. Lauser, C. Hager, R. Helmig, B. Wohlmuth. A new approach for phase transitions in miscible multi-phase flow in porous media. Water Resour., 34,(2011), 957-966. [3] J. Jaffré, and A. Sboui. Henry's Law and Gas Phase Disappearance. Transp. Porous Media. 82, (2010), 521-526. [4] A. Bourgeat, M. Jurak and F. Smaï. Two-phase partially miscible flow and transport modeling in
Fully integrated, fully automated generation of short tandem repeat profiles
2013-01-01
Background The generation of short tandem repeat profiles, also referred to as ‘DNA typing,’ is not currently performed outside the laboratory because the process requires highly skilled technical operators and a controlled laboratory environment and infrastructure with several specialized instruments. The goal of this work was to develop a fully integrated system for the automated generation of short tandem repeat profiles from buccal swab samples, to improve forensic laboratory process flow as well as to enable short tandem repeat profile generation to be performed in police stations and in field-forward military, intelligence, and homeland security settings. Results An integrated system was developed consisting of an injection-molded microfluidic BioChipSet cassette, a ruggedized instrument, and expert system software. For each of five buccal swabs, the system purifies DNA using guanidinium-based lysis and silica binding, amplifies 15 short tandem repeat loci and the amelogenin locus, electrophoretically separates the resulting amplicons, and generates a profile. No operator processing of the samples is required, and the time from swab insertion to profile generation is 84 minutes. All required reagents are contained within the BioChipSet cassette; these consist of a lyophilized polymerase chain reaction mix and liquids for purification and electrophoretic separation. Profiles obtained from fully automated runs demonstrate that the integrated system generates concordant short tandem repeat profiles. The system exhibits single-base resolution from 100 to greater than 500 bases, with inter-run precision with a standard deviation of ±0.05 - 0.10 bases for most alleles. The reagents are stable for at least 6 months at 22°C, and the instrument has been designed and tested to Military Standard 810F for shock and vibration ruggedization. A nontechnical user can operate the system within or outside the laboratory. Conclusions The integrated system represents the
Fully automated (operational) modal analysis
Reynders, Edwin; Houbrechts, Jeroen; De Roeck, Guido
2012-05-01
Modal parameter estimation requires a lot of user interaction, especially when parametric system identification methods are used and the modes are selected in a stabilization diagram. In this paper, a fully automated, generally applicable three-stage clustering approach is developed for interpreting such a diagram. It does not require any user-specified parameter or threshold value, and it can be used in an experimental, operational, and combined vibration testing context and with any parametric system identification algorithm. The three stages of the algorithm correspond to the three stages in a manual analysis: setting stabilization thresholds for clearing out the diagram, detecting columns of stable modes, and selecting a representative mode from each column. An extensive validation study illustrates the accuracy and robustness of this automation strategy.
Singularities in fully developed turbulence
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Shivamoggi, Bhimsen K., E-mail: bhimsen.shivamoggi@ucf.edu
2015-09-18
Phenomenological arguments are used to explore finite-time singularity (FTS) development in different physical fully-developed turbulence (FDT) situations. Effects of spatial intermittency and fluid compressibility in three-dimensional (3D) FDT and the role of the divorticity amplification mechanism in two-dimensional (2D) FDT and quasi-geostrophic FDT and the advection–diffusion mechanism in magnetohydrodynamic turbulence are considered to provide physical insights into the FTS development in variant cascade physics situations. The quasi-geostrophic FDT results connect with the 2D FDT results in the barotropic limit while they connect with 3D FDT results in the baroclinic limit and hence apparently provide a bridge between 2D and 3D. - Highlights: • Finite-time singularity development in turbulence situations is phenomenologically explored. • Spatial intermittency and compressibility effects are investigated. • Quasi-geostrophic turbulence is shown to provide a bridge between two-dimensional and three-dimensional cases.
An algorithm for mass matrix calculation of internally constrained molecular geometries.
Aryanpour, Masoud; Dhanda, Abhishek; Pitsch, Heinz
2008-01-28
Dynamic models for molecular systems require the determination of corresponding mass matrix. For constrained geometries, these computations are often not trivial but need special considerations. Here, assembling the mass matrix of internally constrained molecular structures is formulated as an optimization problem. Analytical expressions are derived for the solution of the different possible cases depending on the rank of the constraint matrix. Geometrical interpretations are further used to enhance the solution concept. As an application, we evaluate the mass matrix for a constrained molecule undergoing an electron-transfer reaction. The preexponential factor for this reaction is computed based on the harmonic model.
Assessment of strategy formulation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Acur, Nuran; Englyst, Linda
2006-01-01
. Practical implications – The integration of three different strategy assessment approaches has been made to obtain a holistic, multi-perspective reflection on strategy formulation. Such reflection is assumed to enable managers to proactively evaluate the potential outcome and performance of their chosen......Purpose – Today, industrial firms need to cope with competitive challenges related to innovation, dynamic responses, knowledge sharing, etc. by means of effective and dynamic strategy formulation. In light of these challenges, the purpose of the paper is to present and evaluate an assessment tool...... for strategy formulation processes that ensures high quality in process and outcome. Design/methodology/approach – A literature review was conducted to identify success criteria for strategy formulation processes. Then, a simple questionnaire and assessment tool was developed and used to test the validity...
Hamiltonian analysis of SO(4,1)-constrained BF theory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Durka, R; Kowalski-Glikman, J, E-mail: rdurka@ift.uni.wroc.p, E-mail: jkowalskiglikman@ift.uni.wroc.p [Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of Wroclaw, Pl. Maxa Borna 9, 50-204 Wroclaw (Poland)
2010-09-21
In this paper we discuss the canonical analysis of SO(4,1)-constrained BF theory. The action of this theory contains topological terms appended by a term that breaks the gauge symmetry down to the Lorentz subgroup SO(3,1). The equations of motion of this theory turn out to be the vacuum Einstein equations. By solving the B field equations one finds that the action of this theory contains not only the standard Einstein-Cartan term but also the Holst term proportional to the inverse of the Immirzi parameter, as well as a combination of topological invariants. We show that the structure of the constraints of an SO(4,1)-constrained BF theory is exactly that of gravity in the Holst formulation. We also briefly discuss the quantization of the theory.
A second-generation constrained reaction volume shock tube.
Campbell, M F; Tulgestke, A M; Davidson, D F; Hanson, R K
2014-05-01
We have developed a shock tube that features a sliding gate valve in order to mechanically constrain the reactive test gas mixture to an area close to the shock tube endwall, separating it from a specially formulated non-reactive buffer gas mixture. This second-generation Constrained Reaction Volume (CRV) strategy enables near-constant-pressure shock tube test conditions for reactive experiments behind reflected shocks, thereby enabling improved modeling of the reactive flow field. Here we provide details of the design and operation of the new shock tube. In addition, we detail special buffer gas tailoring procedures, analyze the buffer/test gas interactions that occur on gate valve opening, and outline the size range of fuels that can be studied using the CRV technique in this facility. Finally, we present example low-temperature ignition delay time data to illustrate the CRV shock tube's performance.
A second-generation constrained reaction volume shock tube
Campbell, M. F.; Tulgestke, A. M.; Davidson, D. F.; Hanson, R. K.
2014-05-01
We have developed a shock tube that features a sliding gate valve in order to mechanically constrain the reactive test gas mixture to an area close to the shock tube endwall, separating it from a specially formulated non-reactive buffer gas mixture. This second-generation Constrained Reaction Volume (CRV) strategy enables near-constant-pressure shock tube test conditions for reactive experiments behind reflected shocks, thereby enabling improved modeling of the reactive flow field. Here we provide details of the design and operation of the new shock tube. In addition, we detail special buffer gas tailoring procedures, analyze the buffer/test gas interactions that occur on gate valve opening, and outline the size range of fuels that can be studied using the CRV technique in this facility. Finally, we present example low-temperature ignition delay time data to illustrate the CRV shock tube's performance.
Hamiltonian analysis of SO(4,1) constrained BF theory
Durka, R
2010-01-01
In this paper we discuss canonical analysis of SO(4,1) constrained BF theory. The action of this theory contains topological terms appended by a term that breaks the gauge symmetry down to the Lorentz subgroup SO(3,1). The equations of motion of this theory turn out to be the vacuum Einstein equations. By solving the B field equations one finds that the action of this theory contains not only the standard Einstein-Cartan term, but also the Holst term proportional to the inverse of the Immirzi parameter, as well as a combination of topological invariants. We show that the structure of the constraints of a SO(4,1) constrained BF theory is exactly that of gravity in Holst formulation. We also briefly discuss quantization of the theory.
Restaurant No. 1 fully renovated
2007-01-01
The Restaurant No. 1 team. After several months of patience and goodwill on the part of our clients, we are delighted to announce that the major renovation work which began in September 2006 has now been completed. From 21 May 2007 we look forward to welcoming you to a completely renovated restaurant area designed with you in mind. The restaurant team wishes to thank all its clients for their patience and loyalty. Particular attention has been paid in the new design to creating a spacious serving area and providing a wider choice of dishes. The new restaurant area has been designed as an open-plan space to enable you to view all the dishes before making your selection and to move around freely from one food access point to another. It comprises user-friendly areas that fully comply with hygiene standards. From now on you will be able to pick and choose to your heart's content. We invite you to try out wok cooking or some other speciality. Or select a pizza or a plate of pasta with a choice of two sauces fr...
Trends in PDE constrained optimization
Benner, Peter; Engell, Sebastian; Griewank, Andreas; Harbrecht, Helmut; Hinze, Michael; Rannacher, Rolf; Ulbrich, Stefan
2014-01-01
Optimization problems subject to constraints governed by partial differential equations (PDEs) are among the most challenging problems in the context of industrial, economical and medical applications. Almost the entire range of problems in this field of research was studied and further explored as part of the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG) priority program 1253 on “Optimization with Partial Differential Equations” from 2006 to 2013. The investigations were motivated by the fascinating potential applications and challenging mathematical problems that arise in the field of PDE constrained optimization. New analytic and algorithmic paradigms have been developed, implemented and validated in the context of real-world applications. In this special volume, contributions from more than fifteen German universities combine the results of this interdisciplinary program with a focus on applied mathematics. The book is divided into five sections on “Constrained Optimization, Identification and Control”...
Constrained Multiobjective Biogeography Optimization Algorithm
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hongwei Mo
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Multiobjective optimization involves minimizing or maximizing multiple objective functions subject to a set of constraints. In this study, a novel constrained multiobjective biogeography optimization algorithm (CMBOA is proposed. It is the first biogeography optimization algorithm for constrained multiobjective optimization. In CMBOA, a disturbance migration operator is designed to generate diverse feasible individuals in order to promote the diversity of individuals on Pareto front. Infeasible individuals nearby feasible region are evolved to feasibility by recombining with their nearest nondominated feasible individuals. The convergence of CMBOA is proved by using probability theory. The performance of CMBOA is evaluated on a set of 6 benchmark problems and experimental results show that the CMBOA performs better than or similar to the classical NSGA-II and IS-MOEA.
Constrained multiobjective biogeography optimization algorithm.
Mo, Hongwei; Xu, Zhidan; Xu, Lifang; Wu, Zhou; Ma, Haiping
2014-01-01
Multiobjective optimization involves minimizing or maximizing multiple objective functions subject to a set of constraints. In this study, a novel constrained multiobjective biogeography optimization algorithm (CMBOA) is proposed. It is the first biogeography optimization algorithm for constrained multiobjective optimization. In CMBOA, a disturbance migration operator is designed to generate diverse feasible individuals in order to promote the diversity of individuals on Pareto front. Infeasible individuals nearby feasible region are evolved to feasibility by recombining with their nearest nondominated feasible individuals. The convergence of CMBOA is proved by using probability theory. The performance of CMBOA is evaluated on a set of 6 benchmark problems and experimental results show that the CMBOA performs better than or similar to the classical NSGA-II and IS-MOEA.
TAXATION AND FINANCE CONSTRAINED FIRMS
Iris Claus
2006-01-01
This paper develops an open economy model to assess the long-run effects of taxation where firms are finance constrained. Finance constraints arise because of imperfect information between borrowers and lenders. Only borowers (firms) can costlessly observe actual returns from production. Imperfect information and finance constraints magnify the effects of taxation. A reduction (rise) in income taxation increases (lowers) firms' internal funds and their ability to assess external finance to ex...
Impulsive differential inclusions with constrains
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tzanko Donchev
2006-05-01
Full Text Available In the paper, we study weak invariance of differential inclusions with non-fixed time impulses under compactness type assumptions. When the right-hand side is one sided Lipschitz an extension of the well known relaxation theorem is proved. In this case also necessary and sufficient condition for strong invariance of upper semi continuous systems are obtained. Some properties of the solution set of impulsive system (without constrains in appropriate topology are investigated.
Fully nonlinear and exact perturbations of the Friedmann world model
Hwang, Jai-chan
2012-01-01
In 1988 Bardeen has suggested a pragmatic formulation of cosmological perturbation theory which is powerful in practice to employ various fundamental gauge conditions easily depending on the character of the problem. The perturbation equations are presented without fixing the temporal gauge condition and are arranged so that one can easily impose fundamental gauge conditions by simply setting one of the perturbation variables in the equations equal to zero. In this way one can use the gauge degrees of freedom as an advantage in handling problems. Except for the synchronous gauge condition, all the other fundamental gauge conditions completely fix the gauge mode, and consequently, each variable in such a gauge has a unique gauge invariant counterpart, so that we can identify the variable as the gauge-invariant one. Here, we extend Bardeen's linear formulation to fully nonlinear order in perturbations, with the gauge advantage kept intact. Derived equations are exact, and from these we can easily expand to high...
Formulations and nebulizer performance.
O'Riordan, Thomas G
2002-11-01
To deliver a drug by nebulization, the drug must first be dispersed in a liquid (usually aqueous) medium. After application of a dispersing force (either a jet of gas or ultrasonic waves), the drug particles are contained within the aerosol droplets, which are then inhaled. Some drugs readily dissolve in water, whereas others need a cosolvent such as ethanol or propylene glycol. Some drugs are delivered as suspensions, and the efficiency of nebulizers can be different for solutions and suspensions. Solutions are delivered more efficiently with most devices. In general, conventional ultrasonic nebulizers should not be used to aerosolize suspensions, because of low efficiency. Newer strategies to improve the delivery of non-water-soluble drugs include the use of liposomes and the milling of the drug into very small "nanoparticles." In addition to the active therapeutic ingredient and solvents, drug formulations may include buffers (the solubility of some medications is influenced by pH), stabilizers, and, in the case of multi-dose preparations, antibacterial agents. Though formulations are designed to optimize drug solubility and stability, changes in formulation can also affect inhaled mass, particle size, and treatment time, though the differences between nebulizer brands probably have a greater impact than differences in formulation. Ultrasonic and jet nebulizers may damage protein and other complex agents through heat or shear stress. Additives to multi-dose formulations, especially antimicrobial and chelating agents, may cause adverse events, so there is a trend towards single-use, preservative-free vials.
Hybrid particle swarm optimization for solving resource-constrained FMS
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Dongyun Wang; Liping Liu
2008-01-01
In this paper,an approach for resource-constrained flexible manufacturing system(FMS)scheduling was proposed,which is based on the particle swarm optimization(PSO)algorithm and simulated annealing(SA)algorithm.First,the formulation for resource-con-strained FMS scheduling problem was introduced and cost function for this problem was obtained.Then.a hybrid algorithm of PSO and SA was employed to obtain optimal solution.The simulated results show that the approach can dislodge a state from a local min-imum and guide it to the global minimum.
Stress-constrained topology optimization for compliant mechanism design
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
de Leon, Daniel M.; Alexandersen, Joe; Jun, Jun S.;
2015-01-01
This article presents an application of stress-constrained topology optimization to compliant mechanism design. An output displacement maximization formulation is used, together with the SIMP approach and a projection method to ensure convergence to nearly discrete designs. The maximum stress...... is approximated using a normalized version of the commonly-used p-norm of the effective von Mises stresses. The usual problems associated with topology optimization for compliant mechanism design: one-node and/or intermediate density hinges are alleviated by the stress constraint. However, it is also shown...
A Fully Gradient Model for Euler-Bernoulli Nanobeams
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Raffaele Barretta
2015-01-01
Full Text Available A fully gradient elasticity model for bending of nanobeams is proposed by using a nonlocal thermodynamic approach. As a basic theoretical novelty, the proposed constitutive law is assumed to depend on the axial strain gradient, while existing gradient elasticity formulations for nanobeams contemplate only the derivative of the axial strain with respect to the axis of the structure. Variational equations governing the elastic equilibrium problem of bending of a fully gradient nanobeam and the corresponding differential and boundary conditions are thus provided. Analytical solutions for a nanocantilever are given and the results are compared with those predicted by other theories. As a relevant implication of applicative interest in the research field of nanobeams used in nanoelectromechanical systems (NEMS, it is shown that displacements obtained by the present model are quite different from those predicted by the known gradient elasticity treatments.
The fully Mobile City Government Project (MCity)
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Scholl, Hans; Fidel, Raya; Mai, Jens Erik
2006-01-01
The Fully Mobile City Government Project, also known as MCity, is an interdisciplinary research project on the premises, requirements, and effects of fully mobile, wirelessly connected applications (FWMC). The project will develop an analytical framework for interpreting the interaction...
Integrated Formulation of Beacon-Based Exception Analysis for Multimissions
Mackey, Ryan; James, Mark; Park, Han; Zak, Mickail
2003-01-01
Further work on beacon-based exception analysis for multimissions (BEAM), a method of real-time, automated diagnosis of a complex electromechanical systems, has greatly expanded its capability and suitability of application. This expanded formulation, which fully integrates physical models and symbolic analysis, is described. The new formulation of BEAM expands upon previous advanced techniques for analysis of signal data, utilizing mathematical modeling of the system physics, and expert-system reasoning,
Constrained optimal steady-state control for isolated traffic intersections
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Jack HADDAD; David MAHALEL; Ilya IOSLOVICH; Per-Olof GUTMAN
2014-01-01
The steady-state or cyclic control problem for a simplified isolated traffic intersection is considered. The optimization problem for the green-red switching sequence is formulated with the help of a discrete-event max-plus model. Two steady-state control problems are formulated: optimal steady-state with green duration constraints, and optimal steady-state control with lost time. In the case when the criterion is a strictly increasing, linear function of the queue lengths, the steady-state control problems can be solved analytically. The structure of constrained optimal steady-state traffic control is revealed, and the effect of the lost time on the optimal solution is illustrated.
Variational Principles for Constrained Electromagnetic Field and Papapetrou Equation
Muminov, A T
2007-01-01
In our previous article [4] an approach to derive Papapetrou equations for constrained electromagnetic field was demonstrated by use of field variational principles. The aim of current work is to present more universal technique of deduction of the equations which could be applied to another types of non-scalar fields. It is based on Noether theorem formulated in terms of Cartan' formalism of orthonormal frames. Under infinitesimal coordinate transformation the one leads to equation which includes volume force of spin-gravitational interaction. Papapetrou equation for vector of propagation of the wave is derived on base of the equation. Such manner of deduction allows to formulate more accurately the constraints and clarify equations for the potential and for spin.
Lubrication in tablet formulations.
Wang, Jennifer; Wen, Hong; Desai, Divyakant
2010-05-01
Theoretical aspects and practical considerations of lubrication in tablet compression are reviewed in this paper. Properties of the materials that are often used as lubricants, such as magnesium stearate, in tablet dosage form are summarized. The manufacturing process factors that may affect tablet lubrication are discussed. As important as the lubricants in tablet formulations are, their presence can cause some changes to the tablet physical and chemical properties. Furthermore, a detailed review is provided on the methodologies used to characterize lubrication process during tablet compression with relevant process analytical technologies. Finally, the Quality-by-Design considerations for tablet formulation and process development in terms of lubrication are discussed.
Adjoint sensitivity in PDE constrained least squares problems as a multiphysics problem
Lahaye, D.; Mulckhuyse, W.F.W.
2012-01-01
Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to provide a framework for the implementation of an adjoint sensitivity formulation for least-squares partial differential equations constrained optimization problems exploiting a multiphysics finite elements package. The estimation of the diffusion coefficient
Two-dimensional metric and tetrad gravities as constrained second order systems
Kiriushcheva, N; Ghalati, R N
2006-01-01
Using the Gitman-Lyakhovich-Tyutin generalization of the Ostrogradsky method for analyzing singular systems, we consider the Hamiltonian formulation of metric and tetrad gravities in two-dimensional Riemannian spacetime treating them as constrained higher-derivative theories. The algebraic structure of the Poisson brackets of the constraints and the corresponding gauge transformations are investigated in both cases.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Vlachogiannis, Ioannis (John)
2009-01-01
A new formulation and solution of probabilistic constrained load flow (PCLF) problem suitable for modern power systems with wind power generation and electric vehicles (EV) demand or supply is represented. The developed stochastic model of EV demand/supply and the wind power generation model...
Experimental investigation of a self-sensing active constrained layer damping treatment
Yellin, Jessica M.; Shen, I. Y.
1996-05-01
A variational formulation of active constrained layer (ACL) damping treatments has indicated that the power dissipated through the active damping is the product of the electric field and the axial velocity of the piezoelectric constraining layer at the boundaries. This feature, unique to this formulation, suggests that a self-sensing and actuating piezoelectric constraining layer using rate of strain feedback may be an appropriate method of dissipating vibration energy with less instability, since the sensor and actuator are truly collocated. A partial ACL damping treatment design for an Euler-Bernoulli beam using a self-sensing actuator (SSA) as the active layer has been developed. The open loop transfer functions of the treated beam given by the SSA rate of strain circuit show great similarity to transfer functions taken from a reference sensor laminated directly to the beam. It has been shown experimentally that this beam treatment significantly increased the damping coefficient of the first mode in closed loop.
Towards spatially constrained gust models
Bos, R.; Bierbooms, W.; Van Bussel, G.
2014-01-01
With the trend of moving towards 10-20MW turbines, rotor diameters are growing beyond the size of the largest turbulent structures in the atmospheric boundary layer. As a consequence, the fully uniform transients that are commonly used to predict extreme gust loads are losing their connection to rea
Constrained WZWN models on G/{S⊗U(1)"n} and exchange algebra of G-primaries
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Aoyama, Shogo, E-mail: spsaoya@ipc.shizuoka.ac.jp; Ishii, Katsuyuki
2013-11-11
Consistently constrained WZWN models on G/{S⊗U(1)"n} is given by constraining currents of the WZWN models with G. Poisson brackets are set up on the light-like plane. Using them we show the Virasoro algebra for the energy–momentum tensor of constrained WZWN models. We find a G-primary which satisfies a classical exchange algebra in an arbitrary representation of G. The G-primary and the constrained currents are also shown to obey the conformal transformation with respect to the energy–momentum tensor. It is checked that conformal weight of the constrained currents is 0. This is necessary for the consistency for our formulation of constrained WZWN models.
On Constrained Facility Location Problems
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Wei-Lin Li; Peng Zhang; Da-Ming Zhu
2008-01-01
Given m facilities each with an opening cost, n demands, and distance between every demand and facility,the Facility Location problem finds a solution which opens some facilities to connect every demand to an opened facility such that the total cost of the solution is minimized. The k-Facility Location problem further requires that the number of opened facilities is at most k, where k is a parameter given in the instance of the problem. We consider the Facility Location problems satisfying that for every demand the ratio of the longest distance to facilities and the shortest distance to facilities is at most w, where w is a predefined constant. Using the local search approach with scaling technique and error control technique, for any arbitrarily small constant ∈ > 0, we give a polynomial-time approximation algorithm for the ω-constrained Facility Location problem with approximation ratio 1 + √ω + 1 + ∈, which significantly improves the previous best known ratio (ω + 1)/α for some 1 ≤α≤ 2, and a polynomial-time approximation algorithm for the ω-constrained κ-Facility Location problem with approximation ratio ω + 1 + ∈. On the aspect of approximation hardness, we prove that unless NP (C) DTIME(nO(loglogn)), the ω-constrained Facility Location problem cannot be approximated within 1 + √ω-1,which slightly improves the previous best known hardness result 1.243 + 0.316 ln(ω - 1). The experimental results on the standard test instances of Facility Location problem show that our algorithm also has good performance in practice.
Constrained Stochastic Extended Redundancy Analysis.
DeSarbo, Wayne S; Hwang, Heungsun; Stadler Blank, Ashley; Kappe, Eelco
2015-06-01
We devise a new statistical methodology called constrained stochastic extended redundancy analysis (CSERA) to examine the comparative impact of various conceptual factors, or drivers, as well as the specific predictor variables that contribute to each driver on designated dependent variable(s). The technical details of the proposed methodology, the maximum likelihood estimation algorithm, and model selection heuristics are discussed. A sports marketing consumer psychology application is provided in a Major League Baseball (MLB) context where the effects of six conceptual drivers of game attendance and their defining predictor variables are estimated. Results compare favorably to those obtained using traditional extended redundancy analysis (ERA).
Enablers and constrainers to participation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Desjardins, Richard; Milana, Marcella
2007-01-01
with constraining and enabling elements so as to raise participation among otherwise disadvantaged groups. To begin addressing this question, consideration is given to different types of constraints and different types of policies. These are brought together within a broad demand and supply framework, so...... as to construct a tool for analyzing the targeting of adult learning policy, with regard to both its coverage and expected consequences. Our aim is to develop a means for a more in-depth analysis of the match-mismatch of public policy and persisting constraints to participation....
Constraining Lorentz violation with cosmology.
Zuntz, J A; Ferreira, P G; Zlosnik, T G
2008-12-31
The Einstein-aether theory provides a simple, dynamical mechanism for breaking Lorentz invariance. It does so within a generally covariant context and may emerge from quantum effects in more fundamental theories. The theory leads to a preferred frame and can have distinct experimental signatures. In this Letter, we perform a comprehensive study of the cosmological effects of the Einstein-aether theory and use observational data to constrain it. Allied to previously determined consistency and experimental constraints, we find that an Einstein-aether universe can fit experimental data over a wide range of its parameter space, but requires a specific rescaling of the other cosmological densities.
Constrained and regularized system identification
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tor A. Johansen
1998-04-01
Full Text Available Prior knowledge can be introduced into system identification problems in terms of constraints on the parameter space, or regularizing penalty functions in a prediction error criterion. The contribution of this work is mainly an extension of the well known FPE (Final Production Error statistic to the case when the system identification problem is constrained and contains a regularization penalty. The FPECR statistic (Final Production Error with Constraints and Regularization is of potential interest as a criterion for selection of both regularization parameters and structural parameters such as order.
Method of constrained global optimization
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Altschuler, E.L.; Williams, T.J.; Ratner, E.R.; Dowla, F.; Wooten, F. (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, P.O. Box 808, Livermore, California 94551 (United States) Department of Applied Physics, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States) Department of Applied Science, University of California, Davis/Livermore, P.O. Box 808, Livermore, California 94551 (United States))
1994-04-25
We present a new method for optimization: constrained global optimization (CGO). CGO iteratively uses a Glauber spin flip probability and the Metropolis algorithm. The spin flip probability allows changing only the values of variables contributing excessively to the function to be minimized. We illustrate CGO with two problems---Thomson's problem of finding the minimum-energy configuration of unit charges on a spherical surface, and a problem of assigning offices---for which CGO finds better minima than other methods. We think CGO will apply to a wide class of optimization problems.
Structural design using equilibrium programming formulations
Scotti, Stephen J.
1995-06-01
Solutions to increasingly larger structural optimization problems are desired. However, computational resources are strained to meet this need. New methods will be required to solve increasingly larger problems. The present approaches to solving large-scale problems involve approximations for the constraints of structural optimization problems and/or decomposition of the problem into multiple subproblems that can be solved in parallel. An area of game theory, equilibrium programming (also known as noncooperative game theory), can be used to unify these existing approaches from a theoretical point of view (considering the existence and optimality of solutions), and be used as a framework for the development of new methods for solving large-scale optimization problems. Equilibrium programming theory is described, and existing design techniques such as fully stressed design and constraint approximations are shown to fit within its framework. Two new structural design formulations are also derived. The first new formulation is another approximation technique which is a general updating scheme for the sensitivity derivatives of design constraints. The second new formulation uses a substructure-based decomposition of the structure for analysis and sensitivity calculations. Significant computational benefits of the new formulations compared with a conventional method are demonstrated.
Gaia14aae: the First Fully-Eclipsing AM CVn
Green, M. J.; Marsh, T. R.; Steeghs, D. T. H.; Breedt, E.; Campbell, H. C.; Dhillon, V. S.; Hardy, L. K.; Littlefair, S. P.
2017-03-01
AM CVns are a class of cataclysmic variables consisting of a white dwarf accreting H-deficient matter from a donor star. With periods of 5 to 65 minutes, AM CVns include the shortest period binaries containing white dwarfs. AM CVns are believed to form by one of three formation channels which can in principle be distinguished by the nature of the donor star, but are difficult to constrain observationally. Gaia14aae was one of the first transients discovered by the Gaia Science Alerts project. It eclipses on a period of 50 minutes, and is the only known AM CVn in which the white dwarf is fully eclipsed. This makes it an attractive system for parameter studies. We present an update on our attempts to measure these properties, using high-speed multi-colour photometry. Preliminary results suggest that the donor star is not as degenerate as predicted by models of white dwarf donors.
Formulations of a hydromechanical interface element
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Zhong-Zhi Fu; Si-Hong Liu
2011-01-01
A hydromechanical interface element is proposed for the consideration of the hydraulic-mechanical coupling effect along the interface.The fully coupled governing equations and the relevant finite element formulations are derived in detail for the interface element.All the involved matrices are of the same form as those of a solid element,which makes the incorporation of the model into a finite element program straightforward.Three examples are then numerically simulated using the interface element.Reasonable results confirm the correctness of the proposed model and motivate its application in hydromechanical contact problems in the future.
Resource Management in Constrained Dynamic Situations
Seok, Jinwoo
Resource management is considered in this dissertation for systems with limited resources, possibly combined with other system constraints, in unpredictably dynamic environments. Resources may represent fuel, power, capabilities, energy, and so on. Resource management is important for many practical systems; usually, resources are limited, and their use must be optimized. Furthermore, systems are often constrained, and constraints must be satisfied for safe operation. Simplistic resource management can result in poor use of resources and failure of the system. Furthermore, many real-world situations involve dynamic environments. Many traditional problems are formulated based on the assumptions of given probabilities or perfect knowledge of future events. However, in many cases, the future is completely unknown, and information on or probabilities about future events are not available. In other words, we operate in unpredictably dynamic situations. Thus, a method is needed to handle dynamic situations without knowledge of the future, but few formal methods have been developed to address them. Thus, the goal is to design resource management methods for constrained systems, with limited resources, in unpredictably dynamic environments. To this end, resource management is organized hierarchically into two levels: 1) planning, and 2) control. In the planning level, the set of tasks to be performed is scheduled based on limited resources to maximize resource usage in unpredictably dynamic environments. In the control level, the system controller is designed to follow the schedule by considering all the system constraints for safe and efficient operation. Consequently, this dissertation is mainly divided into two parts: 1) planning level design, based on finite state machines, and 2) control level methods, based on model predictive control. We define a recomposable restricted finite state machine to handle limited resource situations and unpredictably dynamic environments
Liposomal paclitaxel formulations.
Koudelka, Stěpán; Turánek, Jaroslav
2012-11-10
Over the past three decades, taxanes represent one of the most important new classes of drugs approved in oncology. Paclitaxel (PTX), the prototype of this class, is an anti-cancer drug approved for the treatment of breast and ovarian cancer. However, notwithstanding a suitable premedication, present-day chemotherapy employing a commercial preparation of PTX (Taxol®) is associated with serious side effects and hypersensitivity reactions. Liposomes represent advanced and versatile delivery systems for drugs. Generally, both in vivo mice tumor models and human clinical trials demonstrated that liposomal PTX formulations significantly increase a maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of PTX which outperform that for Taxol®. Liposomal PTX formulations are in various stages of clinical trials. LEP-ETU (NeoPharm) and EndoTAG®-1 (Medigene) have reached the phase II of the clinical trials; Lipusu® (Luye Pharma Group) has already been commercialized. Present achievements in the preparation of various liposomal formulations of PTX, the development of targeted liposomal PTX systems and the progress in clinical testing of liposomal PTX are discussed in this review summarizing about 30 years of liposomal PTX development.
Modified sequential fully implicit scheme for compositional flow simulation
Moncorgé, A.; Tchelepi, H. A.; Jenny, P.
2017-05-01
The fully implicit (FI) method is widely used for numerical modeling of multiphase flow and transport in porous media. The FI method is unconditionally stable, but that comes at the cost of a low-order approximation and high computational cost. The FI method entails iterative linearization and solution of fully-coupled linear systems with mixed elliptic/hyperbolic character. However, in methods that treat the near-elliptic (flow) and hyperbolic (transport) separately, such as multiscale formulations, sequential solution strategies are used to couple the flow (pressures and velocities) and the transport (saturations/compositions). The most common sequential schemes are: the implicit pressure explicit saturation (IMPES), and the sequential fully implicit (SFI) schemes. Problems of practical interest often involve tightly coupled nonlinear interactions between the multiphase flow and the multi-component transport. For such problems, the IMPES approach usually suffers from prohibitively small timesteps in order to obtain stable numerical solutions. The SFI method, on the other hand, does not suffer from a temporal stability limit, but the convergence rate can be extremely slow. This slow convergence rate of SFI can offset the gains obtained from separate and specialized treatments of the flow and transport problems. In this paper, we analyze the nonlinear coupling between flow and transport for compressible, compositional systems with complex interphase mass transfer. We isolate the nonlinear effects related to transmissibility and compressibility from those due to interphase mass transfer, and we propose a modified SFI (m-SFI) method. The new scheme involves enriching the 'standard' pressure equation with coupling between the pressure and the saturations/compositions. The modification resolves the convergence problems associated with SFI and provides a strong basis for using sequential formulations for general-purpose simulation. For a wide parameter range, we show
Constrained Allocation Flux Balance Analysis
Mori, Matteo; Martin, Olivier C; De Martino, Andrea; Marinari, Enzo
2016-01-01
New experimental results on bacterial growth inspire a novel top-down approach to study cell metabolism, combining mass balance and proteomic constraints to extend and complement Flux Balance Analysis. We introduce here Constrained Allocation Flux Balance Analysis, CAFBA, in which the biosynthetic costs associated to growth are accounted for in an effective way through a single additional genome-wide constraint. Its roots lie in the experimentally observed pattern of proteome allocation for metabolic functions, allowing to bridge regulation and metabolism in a transparent way under the principle of growth-rate maximization. We provide a simple method to solve CAFBA efficiently and propose an "ensemble averaging" procedure to account for unknown protein costs. Applying this approach to modeling E. coli metabolism, we find that, as the growth rate increases, CAFBA solutions cross over from respiratory, growth-yield maximizing states (preferred at slow growth) to fermentative states with carbon overflow (preferr...
Bagging constrained equity premium predictors
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hillebrand, Eric; Lee, Tae-Hwy; Medeiros, Marcelo
2014-01-01
The literature on excess return prediction has considered a wide array of estimation schemes, among them unrestricted and restricted regression coefficients. We consider bootstrap aggregation (bagging) to smooth parameter restrictions. Two types of restrictions are considered: positivity of the r......The literature on excess return prediction has considered a wide array of estimation schemes, among them unrestricted and restricted regression coefficients. We consider bootstrap aggregation (bagging) to smooth parameter restrictions. Two types of restrictions are considered: positivity...... of the regression coefficient and positivity of the forecast. Bagging constrained estimators can have smaller asymptotic mean-squared prediction errors than forecasts from a restricted model without bagging. Monte Carlo simulations show that forecast gains can be achieved in realistic sample sizes for the stock...
Exploring constrained quantum control landscapes
Moore, Katharine W.; Rabitz, Herschel
2012-10-01
The broad success of optimally controlling quantum systems with external fields has been attributed to the favorable topology of the underlying control landscape, where the landscape is the physical observable as a function of the controls. The control landscape can be shown to contain no suboptimal trapping extrema upon satisfaction of reasonable physical assumptions, but this topological analysis does not hold when significant constraints are placed on the control resources. This work employs simulations to explore the topology and features of the control landscape for pure-state population transfer with a constrained class of control fields. The fields are parameterized in terms of a set of uniformly spaced spectral frequencies, with the associated phases acting as the controls. This restricted family of fields provides a simple illustration for assessing the impact of constraints upon seeking optimal control. Optimization results reveal that the minimum number of phase controls necessary to assure a high yield in the target state has a special dependence on the number of accessible energy levels in the quantum system, revealed from an analysis of the first- and second-order variation of the yield with respect to the controls. When an insufficient number of controls and/or a weak control fluence are employed, trapping extrema and saddle points are observed on the landscape. When the control resources are sufficiently flexible, solutions producing the globally maximal yield are found to form connected "level sets" of continuously variable control fields that preserve the yield. These optimal yield level sets are found to shrink to isolated points on the top of the landscape as the control field fluence is decreased, and further reduction of the fluence turns these points into suboptimal trapping extrema on the landscape. Although constrained control fields can come in many forms beyond the cases explored here, the behavior found in this paper is illustrative of
Formal language constrained path problems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Barrett, C.; Jacob, R.; Marathe, M.
1997-07-08
In many path finding problems arising in practice, certain patterns of edge/vertex labels in the labeled graph being traversed are allowed/preferred, while others are disallowed. Motivated by such applications as intermodal transportation planning, the authors investigate the complexity of finding feasible paths in a labeled network, where the mode choice for each traveler is specified by a formal language. The main contributions of this paper include the following: (1) the authors show that the problem of finding a shortest path between a source and destination for a traveler whose mode choice is specified as a context free language is solvable efficiently in polynomial time, when the mode choice is specified as a regular language they provide algorithms with improved space and time bounds; (2) in contrast, they show that the problem of finding simple paths between a source and a given destination is NP-hard, even when restricted to very simple regular expressions and/or very simple graphs; (3) for the class of treewidth bounded graphs, they show that (i) the problem of finding a regular language constrained simple path between source and a destination is solvable in polynomial time and (ii) the extension to finding context free language constrained simple paths is NP-complete. Several extensions of these results are presented in the context of finding shortest paths with additional constraints. These results significantly extend the results in [MW95]. As a corollary of the results, they obtain a polynomial time algorithm for the BEST k-SIMILAR PATH problem studied in [SJB97]. The previous best algorithm was given by [SJB97] and takes exponential time in the worst case.
Hamiltonian formulation of QED in the superaxial gauge
Girotti, Horacio Oscar; Rothe, Heinz J.
1982-01-01
We present a hamlltonian formulation of QED in a fully fixed axial gauge. The equal-time commutators for all field variables are computed and are shown to lead to the correct equations of motion. The constraints and gauge conditions hold as strong operator relations.
A fully coupled air foil bearing model considering friction – Theory & experiment
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
von Osmanski, Alexander Sebastian; Larsen, Jon Steffen; Santos, Ilmar
2017-01-01
The dynamics of air foil bearings (AFBs) are not yet fully captured by any model. The recent years have, however, seen promising results from nonlinear time domain models, and simultaneously coupled formulations are now available, avoiding the previous requirements for undesirably small time step...
The cost-constrained traveling salesman problem
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sokkappa, P.R.
1990-10-01
The Cost-Constrained Traveling Salesman Problem (CCTSP) is a variant of the well-known Traveling Salesman Problem (TSP). In the TSP, the goal is to find a tour of a given set of cities such that the total cost of the tour is minimized. In the CCTSP, each city is given a value, and a fixed cost-constraint is specified. The objective is to find a subtour of the cities that achieves maximum value without exceeding the cost-constraint. Thus, unlike the TSP, the CCTSP requires both selection and sequencing. As a consequence, most results for the TSP cannot be extended to the CCTSP. We show that the CCTSP is NP-hard and that no K-approximation algorithm or fully polynomial approximation scheme exists, unless P = NP. We also show that several special cases are polynomially solvable. Algorithms for the CCTSP, which outperform previous methods, are developed in three areas: upper bounding methods, exact algorithms, and heuristics. We found that a bounding strategy based on the knapsack problem performs better, both in speed and in the quality of the bounds, than methods based on the assignment problem. Likewise, we found that a branch-and-bound approach using the knapsack bound was superior to a method based on a common branch-and-bound method for the TSP. In our study of heuristic algorithms, we found that, when selecting modes for inclusion in the subtour, it is important to consider the neighborhood'' of the nodes. A node with low value that brings the subtour near many other nodes may be more desirable than an isolated node of high value. We found two types of repetition to be desirable: repetitions based on randomization in the subtour buildings process, and repetitions encouraging the inclusion of different subsets of the nodes. By varying the number and type of repetitions, we can adjust the computation time required by our method to obtain algorithms that outperform previous methods.
Formulations of entomopathogens as bioinsecticides
Developing a proper formulation is a necessary component for commercialization of entomopathogenic microbes as biological insecticides. The objective of this chapter is to present broad-ranging information about formulations to foster research toward developing commercial microbial-based insecticide...
Micromorphic continua: non-redundant formulations
Romano, Giovanni; Barretta, Raffaele; Diaco, Marina
2016-11-01
The kinematics of generalized continua is investigated and key points concerning the definition of overall tangent strain measure are put into evidence. It is shown that classical measures adopted in the literature for micromorphic continua do not obey a constraint qualification requirement, to be fulfilled for well-posedness in optimization theory, and are therefore termed redundant. Redundancy of continua with latent microstructure and of constrained Cosserat continua is also assessed. A simplest, non-redundant, kinematic model of micromorphic continua, is proposed by dropping the microcurvature field. The equilibrium conditions and the related variational linear elastostatic problem are formulated and briefly discussed. The simplest model involves a reduced number of state variables and of elastic constitutive coefficients, when compared with other models of micromorphic continua, being still capable of enriching the Cauchy continuum model in a significant way.
Systematic Equation Formulation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lindberg, Erik
2007-01-01
A tutorial giving a very simple introduction to the set-up of the equations used as a model for an electrical/electronic circuit. The aim is to find a method which is as simple and general as possible with respect to implementation in a computer program. The “Modified Nodal Approach”, MNA, and th......, and the “Controlled Source Approach”, CSA, for systematic equation formulation are investigated. It is suggested that the kernel of the P Spice program based on MNA is reprogrammed....
Constrained model predictive control, state estimation and coordination
Yan, Jun
In this dissertation, we study the interaction between the control performance and the quality of the state estimation in a constrained Model Predictive Control (MPC) framework for systems with stochastic disturbances. This consists of three parts: (i) the development of a constrained MPC formulation that adapts to the quality of the state estimation via constraints; (ii) the application of such a control law in a multi-vehicle formation coordinated control problem in which each vehicle operates subject to a no-collision constraint posed by others' imperfect prediction computed from finite bit-rate, communicated data; (iii) the design of the predictors and the communication resource assignment problem that satisfy the performance requirement from Part (ii). Model Predictive Control (MPC) is of interest because it is one of the few control design methods which preserves standard design variables and yet handles constraints. MPC is normally posed as a full-state feedback control and is implemented in a certainty-equivalence fashion with best estimates of the states being used in place of the exact state. However, if the state constraints were handled in the same certainty-equivalence fashion, the resulting control law could drive the real state to violate the constraints frequently. Part (i) focuses on exploring the inclusion of state estimates into the constraints. It does this by applying constrained MPC to a system with stochastic disturbances. The stochastic nature of the problem requires re-posing the constraints in a probabilistic form. In Part (ii), we consider applying constrained MPC as a local control law in a coordinated control problem of a group of distributed autonomous systems. Interactions between the systems are captured via constraints. First, we inspect the application of constrained MPC to a completely deterministic case. Formation stability theorems are derived for the subsystems and conditions on the local constraint set are derived in order to
Anoukou, K.; Pastor, F.; Dufrenoy, P.; Kondo, D.
2016-06-01
The present two-part study aims at investigating the specific effects of Mohr-Coulomb matrix on the strength of ductile porous materials by using a kinematic limit analysis approach. While in the Part II, static and kinematic bounds are numerically derived and used for validation purpose, the present Part I focuses on the theoretical formulation of a macroscopic strength criterion for porous Mohr-Coulomb materials. To this end, we consider a hollow sphere model with a rigid perfectly plastic Mohr-Coulomb matrix, subjected to axisymmetric uniform strain rate boundary conditions. Taking advantage of an appropriate family of three-parameter trial velocity fields accounting for the specific plastic deformation mechanisms of the Mohr-Coulomb matrix, we then provide a solution of the constrained minimization problem required for the determination of the macroscopic dissipation function. The macroscopic strength criterion is then obtained by means of the Lagrangian method combined with Karush-Kuhn-Tucker conditions. After a careful analysis and discussion of the plastic admissibility condition associated to the Mohr-Coulomb criterion, the above procedure leads to a parametric closed-form expression of the macroscopic strength criterion. The latter explicitly shows a dependence on the three stress invariants. In the special case of a friction angle equal to zero, the established criterion reduced to recently available results for porous Tresca materials. Finally, both effects of matrix friction angle and porosity are briefly illustrated and, for completeness, the macroscopic plastic flow rule and the voids evolution law are fully furnished.
Gyrification from constrained cortical expansion
Tallinen, Tuomas; Biggins, John S; Mahadevan, L
2015-01-01
The exterior of the mammalian brain - the cerebral cortex - has a conserved layered structure whose thickness varies little across species. However, selection pressures over evolutionary time scales have led to cortices that have a large surface area to volume ratio in some organisms, with the result that the brain is strongly convoluted into sulci and gyri. Here we show that the gyrification can arise as a nonlinear consequence of a simple mechanical instability driven by tangential expansion of the gray matter constrained by the white matter. A physical mimic of the process using a layered swelling gel captures the essence of the mechanism, and numerical simulations of the brain treated as a soft solid lead to the formation of cusped sulci and smooth gyri similar to those in the brain. The resulting gyrification patterns are a function of relative cortical expansion and relative thickness (compared with brain size), and are consistent with observations of a wide range of brains, ranging from smooth to highl...
Constraining QGP properties with CHIMERA
Garishvili, Irakli; Abelev, Betty; Cheng, Michael; Glenn, Andrew; Soltz, Ron
2011-10-01
Understanding essential properties of strongly interacting matter is arguably the most important goal of the relativistic heavy-ion programs both at RHIC and the LHC. In particular, constraining observables such as ratio of shear viscosity to entropy density, η/s, initial temperature, Tinit, and energy density is of critical importance. For this purpose we have developed CHIMERA, Comprehensive Heavy Ion Model Reporting and Evaluation Algorithm. CHIMERA is designed to facilitate global statistical comparison of results from our multi-stage hydrodynamics/hadron cascade model of heavy ion collisions to the key soft observables (HBT, elliptic flow, spectra) measured at RHIC and the LHC. Within this framework the data representing multiple different measurements from different experiments are compiled into single format. One of the unique features of CHIMERA is, that in addition to taking into account statistical errors, it also treats different types of systematic uncertainties. The hydrodynamics/hadron cascade model used in the framework incorporates different initial state conditions, pre-equilibrium flow, the UVH2+1 viscous hydro model, Cooper-Frye freezeout, and the UrQMD hadronic cascade model. The sensitivity of the observables to the equation of state (EoS) is explored using several EoS's in the hydrodynamic evolution. The latest results from CHIMERA, including data from the LHC, will be presented.
Constrained Allocation Flux Balance Analysis
Mori, Matteo; Hwa, Terence; Martin, Olivier C.
2016-01-01
New experimental results on bacterial growth inspire a novel top-down approach to study cell metabolism, combining mass balance and proteomic constraints to extend and complement Flux Balance Analysis. We introduce here Constrained Allocation Flux Balance Analysis, CAFBA, in which the biosynthetic costs associated to growth are accounted for in an effective way through a single additional genome-wide constraint. Its roots lie in the experimentally observed pattern of proteome allocation for metabolic functions, allowing to bridge regulation and metabolism in a transparent way under the principle of growth-rate maximization. We provide a simple method to solve CAFBA efficiently and propose an “ensemble averaging” procedure to account for unknown protein costs. Applying this approach to modeling E. coli metabolism, we find that, as the growth rate increases, CAFBA solutions cross over from respiratory, growth-yield maximizing states (preferred at slow growth) to fermentative states with carbon overflow (preferred at fast growth). In addition, CAFBA allows for quantitatively accurate predictions on the rate of acetate excretion and growth yield based on only 3 parameters determined by empirical growth laws. PMID:27355325
Constraining the Europa Neutral Torus
Smith, Howard T.; Mitchell, Donald; mauk, Barry; Johnson, Robert E.; clark, george
2016-10-01
"Neutral tori" consist of neutral particles that usually co-orbit along with their source forming a toroidal (or partial toroidal) feature around the planet. The distribution and composition of these features can often provide important, if not unique, insight into magnetospheric particles sources, mechanisms and dynamics. However, these features can often be difficult to directly detect. One innovative method for detecting neutral tori is by observing Energetic Neutral Atoms (ENAs) that are generally considered produced as a result of charge exchange interactions between charged and neutral particles.Mauk et al. (2003) reported the detection of a Europa neutral particle torus using ENA observations. The presence of a Europa torus has extremely large implications for upcoming missions to Jupiter as well as understanding possible activity at this moon and providing critical insight into what lies beneath the surface of this icy ocean world. However, ENAs can also be produced as a result of charge exchange interactions between two ionized particles and in that case cannot be used to infer the presence of neutral particle population. Thus, a detailed examination of all possible source interactions must be considered before one can confirm that likely original source population of these ENA images is actually a Europa neutral particle torus. For this talk, we examine the viability that the Mauk et al. (2003) observations were actually generated from a neutral torus emanating from Europa as opposed to charge particle interactions with plasma originating from Io. These results help constrain such a torus as well as Europa source processes.
Stable and flux-conserved meshfree formulation to model shocks
Roth, Michael J.; Chen, Jiun-Shyan; Slawson, Thomas R.; Danielson, Kent T.
2016-05-01
Accurate shock modeling requires that two critical issues be addressed: (1) correct representation of the essential shock physics, and (2) control of Gibbs phenomenon oscillation at the discontinuity. In this work a stable (oscillation limiting) and flux-conserved formulation under the reproducing kernel particle method is developed for shock modeling. A smoothed flux divergence is constructed under the framework of stabilized conforming nodal integration, which is locally-enriched with a Riemann solution to satisfy the entropy production constraints. This Riemann-enriched flux divergence is embedded into the reproducing kernel formulation through a velocity correction that also provides oscillation control at the shock. The correction is constrained to the shock region by an automatic shock detection algorithm that is constructed using the intrinsic spectral decomposition feature of the reproducing kernel approximation. Several numerical examples are provided to verify accuracy of the proposed formulation.
2011-06-21
... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS Fully Developed Claim (Fully Developed Claims--Applications for Compensation, Pension, DIC, Death Pension, and/or Accrued Benefits); Correction AGENCY: Veterans Benefits Administration, Department...
Modeling the microstructural evolution during constrained sintering
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bjørk, Rasmus; Frandsen, Henrik Lund; Pryds, Nini
A mesoscale numerical model able to simulate solid state constrained sintering is presented. The model couples an existing kinetic Monte Carlo (kMC) model for free sintering with a finite element method for calculating stresses. The sintering behavior of a sample constrained by a rigid substrate ...
Efficient caching for constrained skyline queries
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Mortensen, Michael Lind; Chester, Sean; Assent, Ira;
2015-01-01
Constrained skyline queries retrieve all points that optimize some user’s preferences subject to orthogonal range constraints, but at significant computational cost. This paper is the first to propose caching to improve constrained skyline query response time. Because arbitrary range constraints ...
Bayesian evaluation of inequality constrained hypotheses
Gu, X.; Mulder, J.; Deković, M.; Hoijtink, H.
2014-01-01
Bayesian evaluation of inequality constrained hypotheses enables researchers to investigate their expectations with respect to the structure among model parameters. This article proposes an approximate Bayes procedure that can be used for the selection of the best of a set of inequality constrained
Determination of optimal gains for constrained controllers
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kwan, C.M.; Mestha, L.K.
1993-08-01
In this report, we consider the determination of optimal gains, with respect to a certain performance index, for state feedback controllers where some elements in the gain matrix are constrained to be zero. Two iterative schemes for systematically finding the constrained gain matrix are presented. An example is included to demonstrate the procedures.
Formulation, General Features and Global Calibration of a Bioenergetically-Constrained Fishery Model
Bianchi, Daniele; Galbraith, Eric D.
2017-01-01
Human exploitation of marine resources is profoundly altering marine ecosystems, while climate change is expected to further impact commercially-harvested fish and other species. Although the global fishery is a highly complex system with many unpredictable aspects, the bioenergetic limits on fish production and the response of fishing effort to profit are both relatively tractable, and are sure to play important roles. Here we describe a generalized, coupled biological-economic model of the global marine fishery that represents both of these aspects in a unified framework, the BiOeconomic mArine Trophic Size-spectrum (BOATS) model. BOATS predicts fish production according to size spectra as a function of net primary production and temperature, and dynamically determines harvest spectra from the biomass density and interactive, prognostic fishing effort. Within this framework, the equilibrium fish biomass is determined by the economic forcings of catchability, ex-vessel price and cost per unit effort, while the peak harvest depends on the ecosystem parameters. Comparison of a large ensemble of idealized simulations with observational databases, focusing on historical biomass and peak harvests, allows us to narrow the range of several uncertain ecosystem parameters, rule out most parameter combinations, and select an optimal ensemble of model variants. Compared to the prior distributions, model variants with lower values of the mortality rate, trophic efficiency, and allometric constant agree better with observations. For most acceptable parameter combinations, natural mortality rates are more strongly affected by temperature than growth rates, suggesting different sensitivities of these processes to climate change. These results highlight the utility of adopting large-scale, aggregated data constraints to reduce model parameter uncertainties and to better predict the response of fisheries to human behaviour and climate change. PMID:28103280
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Plummer, Ruth; Swaisland, Helen; Leunen, Karin
2015-01-01
BACKGROUND: The oral PARP inhibitor olaparib has shown efficacy in patients with BRCA-mutated cancer. This Phase I, open-label, three-part study (Parts A-C) in patients with advanced solid tumours evaluated the effect of food on the pharmacokinetics (PK) of olaparib when administered in tablet...... formulation. METHODS: PK data were obtained in Part A using a two-treatment period crossover design; single-dose olaparib 300 mg (two 150 mg tablets) was administered in two prandial states: fasted and fed. In Part B, patients received olaparib tablets (300 mg bid) for 5 days under fasting conditions; in Part...... exposure to olaparib 300 mg tablets, although in the absence of an effect on the extent of olaparib absorption....
Modeling supersonic combustion using a fully-implicit numerical method
Maccormack, Robert W.; Wilson, Gregory J.
1990-01-01
A fully-implicit finite-volume algorithm for two-dimensional axisymmetric flows has been coupled to a detailed hydrogen-air reaction mechanism (13 species and 33 reactions) so that supersonic combustion phenomena may be investigated. Numerical computations are compared with ballistic-range shadowgraphs of Lehr (1972) that exhibit two discontinuities caused by a blunt body as it passes through a premixed stoichiometric hydrogen-air mixture. The suitability of the numerical procedure for simulating these double-front flows is shown. The requirements for the physical formulation and the numerical modeling of these flowfields are discussed. Finally, the sensitivity of these external flowfields to changes in certain key reaction rate constants is examined.
NEW RSW & Wall Medium Fully Tetrahedral Grid
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — New Medium Fully Tetrahedral RSW Grid with viscous wind tunnel wall at the root. This grid is for a node-based unstructured solver. Medium Tet: Quad Surface Faces= 0...
NEW RSW & Wall Fine Fully Tetrahedral Grid
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NEW RSW Fine Fully Tetrahedral Grid with Viscous Wind Tunnel wall at the root. This grid is for a node-based unstructured solver. Note that the CGNS file is very...
Automated fully-stressed design with NASTRAN
Wallerstein, D. V.; Haggenmacher, G. W.
1976-01-01
An automated strength sizing capability is described. The technique determines the distribution of material among the elements of a structural model. The sizing is based on either a fully stressed design or a scaled feasible fully stressed design. Results obtained from the application of the strength sizing to the structural sizing of a composite material wing box using material strength allowables are presented. These results demonstrate the rapid convergence of the structural sizes to a usable design.
Predicting Turbulent Convective Heat Transfer in Fully Developed Duct Flows
Rokni, Masoud; Gatski, Thomas B.
2001-01-01
The performance of an explicit algebraic stress model (EASM) is assessed in predicting the turbulent flow and forced heat transfer in both straight and wavy ducts, with rectangular, trapezoidal and triangular cross-sections, under fully developed conditions. A comparison of secondary flow patterns. including velocity vectors and velocity and temperature contours, are shown in order to study the effect of waviness on flow dynamics, and comparisons between the hydraulic parameters. Fanning friction factor and Nusselt number, are also presented. In all cases. isothermal conditions are imposed on the duct walls, and the turbulent heat fluxes are modeled using gradient-diffusion type models. The formulation is valid for Reynolds numbers up to 10(exp 5) and this minimizes the need for wall functions that have been used with mixed success in previous studies of complex duct flows. In addition, the present formulation imposes minimal demand on the number of grid points without any convergence or stability problems. Criteria in terms of heat transfer and friction factor needed to choose the optimal wavy duct cross-section for industrial applications among the ones considered are discussed.
Correspondence between constrained transport and vector potential methods for magnetohydrodynamics
Mocz, Philip
2017-01-01
We show that one can formulate second-order field- and flux-interpolated constrained transport/central difference (CT/CD) type methods as cell-centered magnetic vector potential schemes. We introduce four vector potential CTA/CDA schemes - three of which correspond to CT/CD methods of Tóth (2000) [1] and one of which is a new simple flux-CT-like scheme - where the centroidal vector potential is the primal update variable. These algorithms conserve a discretization of the ∇ ṡ B = 0 condition to machine precision and may be combined with shock-capturing Godunov type base schemes for magnetohydrodynamics. Recasting CT in terms of a centroidal vector potential allows for some simple generalizations of divergence-preserving methods to unstructured meshes, and potentially new directions to generalize CT schemes to higher-order.
Optimal Constrained Resource Allocation Strategies under Low Risk Circumstances
Andreica, Mugurel Ionut; Visan, Costel
2009-01-01
In this paper we consider multiple constrained resource allocation problems, where the constraints can be specified by formulating activity dependency restrictions or by using game-theoretic models. All the problems are focused on generic resources, with a few exceptions which consider financial resources in particular. The problems consider low-risk circumstances and the values of the uncertain variables which are used by the algorithms are the expected values of the variables. For each of the considered problems we propose novel algorithmic solutions for computing optimal resource allocation strategies. The presented solutions are optimal or near-optimal from the perspective of their time complexity. The considered problems have applications in a broad range of domains, like workflow scheduling in industry (e.g. in the mining and metallurgical industry) or the financial sector, motion planning, facility location and data transfer or job scheduling and resource management in Grids, clouds or other distribute...
Resource-constrained maximum network throughput on space networks
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Yanling Xing; Ning Ge; Youzheng Wang
2015-01-01
This paper investigates the maximum network through-put for resource-constrained space networks based on the delay and disruption-tolerant networking (DTN) architecture. Specifical y, this paper proposes a methodology for calculating the maximum network throughput of multiple transmission tasks under storage and delay constraints over a space network. A mixed-integer linear programming (MILP) is formulated to solve this problem. Simula-tions results show that the proposed methodology can successful y calculate the optimal throughput of a space network under storage and delay constraints, as wel as a clear, monotonic relationship between end-to-end delay and the maximum network throughput under storage constraints. At the same time, the optimization re-sults shine light on the routing and transport protocol design in space communication, which can be used to obtain the optimal network throughput.
Total energy control system autopilot design with constrained parameter optimization
Ly, Uy-Loi; Voth, Christopher
1990-01-01
A description is given of the application of a multivariable control design method (SANDY) based on constrained parameter optimization to the design of a multiloop aircraft flight control system. Specifically, the design method is applied to the direct synthesis of a multiloop AFCS inner-loop feedback control system based on total energy control system (TECS) principles. The design procedure offers a structured approach for the determination of a set of stabilizing controller design gains that meet design specifications in closed-loop stability, command tracking performance, disturbance rejection, and limits on control activities. The approach can be extended to a broader class of multiloop flight control systems. Direct tradeoffs between many real design goals are rendered systematic by proper formulation of the design objectives and constraints. Satisfactory designs are usually obtained in few iterations. Performance characteristics of the optimized TECS design have been improved, particularly in the areas of closed-loop damping and control activity in the presence of turbulence.
The goldstino brane, the constrained superfields and matter in N=1 supergravity
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bandos, Igor [Department of Theoretical Physics, University of the Basque Country UPV/EHU,P.O. Box 644, 48080 Bilbao (Spain); IKERBASQUE, Basque Foundation for Science,48011, Bilbao (Spain); Heller, Markus [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia “Galileo Galilei' , Università degli Studi di Padova,Via Marzolo 8, 35131 Padova (Italy); Institut für Theoretische Physik, Ruprecht-Karls-Universität,Philosophenweg 19, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Kuzenko, Sergei M. [School of Physics M013, The University of Western Australia35 Stirling Highway, Crawley W.A. 6009 (Australia); Martucci, Luca [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia “Galileo Galilei' , Università degli Studi di Padova,Via Marzolo 8, 35131 Padova (Italy); INFN - Sezione di Padova,Via Marzolo 8, 35131 Padova (Italy); Sorokin, Dmitri [INFN - Sezione di Padova,Via Marzolo 8, 35131 Padova (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia “Galileo Galilei' , Università degli Studi di Padova,Via Marzolo 8, 35131 Padova (Italy)
2016-11-21
We show that different (brane and constrained superfield) descriptions for the Volkov-Akulov goldstino coupled to N=1, D=4 supergravity with matter produce similar wide classes of models with spontaneously broken local supersymmetry and discuss the relation between the different formulations. As with the formulations with irreducible constrained superfields, the geometric goldstino brane approach has the advantage of being manifestly off-shell supersymmetric without the need to introduce auxiliary fields. It provides an explicit solution of the nilpotent superfield constraints and avoids issues with non-Gaussian integration of auxiliary fields. We describe general couplings of the supersymmetry breaking sector, including the goldstino and other non-supersymmetric matter, to supergravity and matter supermultiplets. Among various examples, we discuss a goldstino brane contribution to the gravitino mass term and the supersymmetrization of the anti-D3-brane contribution to the effective theory of type IIB warped flux compactifications.
The Goldstino Brane, the Constrained Superfields and Matter in N=1 Supergravity
Bandos, Igor; Kuzenko, Sergei M; Martucci, Luca; Sorokin, Dmitri
2016-01-01
We show that different (brane and constrained superfield) descriptions for the Volkov-Akulov goldstino coupled to N=1, D=4 supergravity with matter produce similar wide classes of models with spontaneously broken local supersymmetry and discuss the relation between the different formulations. As with the formulations with irreducible constrained superfields, the geometric goldstino brane approach has the advantage of being manifestly off-shell supersymmetric without the need to introduce auxiliary fields. It provides an explicit solution of the nilpotent superfield constraints and avoids issues with non-Gaussian integration of auxiliary fields. We describe general couplings of the supersymmetry breaking sector, including the goldstino and other non-supersymmetric matter, to supergravity and matter supermultiplets. Among various examples, we discuss a goldstino brane contribution to the gravitino mass term and the supersymmetrization of the anti-D3-brane contribution to the effective theory of type IIB warped ...
Plutonium Immobilization Project Baseline Formulation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ebbinghaus, B.
1999-02-01
A key milestone for the Immobilization Project (AOP Milestone 3.2a) in Fiscal Year 1998 (FY98) is the definition of the baseline composition or formulation for the plutonium ceramic form. The baseline formulation for the plutonium ceramic product must be finalized before the repository- and plant-related process specifications can be determined. The baseline formulation that is currently specified is given in Table 1.1. In addition to the baseline formulation specification, this report provides specifications for two alternative formulations, related compositional specifications (e.g., precursor compositions and mixing recipes), and other preliminary form and process specifications that are linked to the baseline formulation. The preliminary specifications, when finalized, are not expected to vary tremendously from the preliminary values given.
Diabatic constrained relativistic mean field approach
L"u, H F; Meng, J
2005-01-01
A diabatic (configuration-fixed) constrained approach to calculate the potential energy surface (PES) of the nucleus is developed in the relativistic mean field model. The potential energy surfaces of $^{208}$Pb obtained from both adiabatic and diabatic constrained approaches are investigated and compared. The diabatic constrained approach enables one to decompose the segmented PES obtained in usual adiabatic approaches into separate parts uniquely characterized by different configurations, to define the single particle orbits at very deformed region by their quantum numbers, and to obtain several well defined deformed excited states which can hardly be expected from the adiabatic PES's.
A Dynamic Programming Approach to Constrained Portfolios
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kraft, Holger; Steffensen, Mogens
2013-01-01
This paper studies constrained portfolio problems that may involve constraints on the probability or the expected size of a shortfall of wealth or consumption. Our first contribution is that we solve the problems by dynamic programming, which is in contrast to the existing literature that applies...... the martingale method. More precisely, we construct the non-separable value function by formalizing the optimal constrained terminal wealth to be a (conjectured) contingent claim on the optimal non-constrained terminal wealth. This is relevant by itself, but also opens up the opportunity to derive new solutions...
Modeling the microstructural evolution during constrained sintering
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bjørk, Rasmus; Frandsen, Henrik Lund; Tikare, V.
to the stress field as well as the FE calculation of the stress field from the microstructural evolution is discussed. The sintering behavior of two powder compacts constrained by a rigid substrate is simulated and compared to free sintering of the same samples. Constrained sintering result in a larger number......A numerical model able to simulate solid state constrained sintering of a powder compact is presented. The model couples an existing kinetic Monte Carlo (kMC) model for free sintering with a finite element (FE) method for calculating stresses on a microstructural level. The microstructural response...
Modeling the microstructural evolution during constrained sintering
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bjørk, Rasmus; Frandsen, Henrik Lund; Pryds, Nini
2014-01-01
as well as the FEM calculation of the stress field from the microstructural evolution is discussed. The sintering behavior of a sample constrained by a rigid substrate is simulated. The constrained sintering result in a larger number of pores near the substrate, as well as anisotropic sintering shrinkage......A numerical model able to simulate solid state constrained sintering is presented. The model couples an existing kinetic Monte Carlo (kMC) model for free sintering with a finite element model (FEM) for calculating stresses on a microstructural level. The microstructural response to the local stress...
Modeling the Microstructural Evolution During Constrained Sintering
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bjørk, Rasmus; Frandsen, Henrik Lund; Pryds, Nini
2015-01-01
as well as the FEM calculation of the stress field from the microstructural evolution is discussed. The sintering behavior of a sample constrained by a rigid substrate is simulated. The constrained sintering results in a larger number of pores near the substrate, as well as anisotropic sintering shrinkage......A numerical model able to simulate solid-state constrained sintering is presented. The model couples an existing kinetic Monte Carlo model for free sintering with a finite element model (FEM) for calculating stresses on a microstructural level. The microstructural response to the local stress...
Mesh dependence in PDE-constrained optimisation an application in tidal turbine array layouts
Schwedes, Tobias; Funke, Simon W; Piggott, Matthew D
2017-01-01
This book provides an introduction to PDE-constrained optimisation using finite elements and the adjoint approach. The practical impact of the mathematical insights presented here are demonstrated using the realistic scenario of the optimal placement of marine power turbines, thereby illustrating the real-world relevance of best-practice Hilbert space aware approaches to PDE-constrained optimisation problems. Many optimisation problems that arise in a real-world context are constrained by partial differential equations (PDEs). That is, the system whose configuration is to be optimised follows physical laws given by PDEs. This book describes general Hilbert space formulations of optimisation algorithms, thereby facilitating optimisations whose controls are functions of space. It demonstrates the importance of methods that respect the Hilbert space structure of the problem by analysing the mathematical drawbacks of failing to do so. The approaches considered are illustrated using the optimisation problem arisin...
Constrained motion model of mobile robots and its applications.
Zhang, Fei; Xi, Yugeng; Lin, Zongli; Chen, Weidong
2009-06-01
Target detecting and dynamic coverage are fundamental tasks in mobile robotics and represent two important features of mobile robots: mobility and perceptivity. This paper establishes the constrained motion model and sensor model of a mobile robot to represent these two features and defines the k -step reachable region to describe the states that the robot may reach. We show that the calculation of the k-step reachable region can be reduced from that of 2(k) reachable regions with the fixed motion styles to k + 1 such regions and provide an algorithm for its calculation. Based on the constrained motion model and the k -step reachable region, the problems associated with target detecting and dynamic coverage are formulated and solved. For target detecting, the k-step detectable region is used to describe the area that the robot may detect, and an algorithm for detecting a target and planning the optimal path is proposed. For dynamic coverage, the k-step detected region is used to represent the area that the robot has detected during its motion, and the dynamic-coverage strategy and algorithm are proposed. Simulation results demonstrate the efficiency of the coverage algorithm in both convex and concave environments.
Baseline LAW Glass Formulation Testing
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kruger, Albert A. [USDOE Office of River Protection, Richland, WA (United States); Mooers, Cavin [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States). Vitreous State Lab.; Bazemore, Gina [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States). Vitreous State Lab; Pegg, Ian L. [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States). Vitreous State Lab; Hight, Kenneth [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States). Vitreous State Lab; Lai, Shan Tao [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States). Vitreous State Lab; Buechele, Andrew [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States). Vitreous State Lab; Rielley, Elizabeth [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States). Vitreous State Lab; Gan, Hao [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States). Vitreous State Lab; Muller, Isabelle S. [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States). Vitreous State Lab; Cecil, Richard [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States). Vitreous State Lab
2013-06-13
The major objective of the baseline glass formulation work was to develop and select glass formulations that are compliant with contractual and processing requirements for each of the LAW waste streams. Other objectives of the work included preparation and characterization of glasses with respect to the properties of interest, optimization of sulfate loading in the glasses, evaluation of ability to achieve waste loading limits, testing to demonstrate compatibility of glass melts with melter materials of construction, development of glass formulations to support ILAW qualification activities, and identification of glass formulation issues with respect to contract specifications and processing requirements.
Coupled nonlinear aeroelasticity and flight dynamics of fully flexible aircraft
Su, Weihua
This dissertation introduces an approach to effectively model and analyze the coupled nonlinear aeroelasticity and flight dynamics of highly flexible aircraft. A reduced-order, nonlinear, strain-based finite element framework is used, which is capable of assessing the fundamental impact of structural nonlinear effects in preliminary vehicle design and control synthesis. The cross-sectional stiffness and inertia properties of the wings are calculated along the wing span, and then incorporated into the one-dimensional nonlinear beam formulation. Finite-state unsteady subsonic aerodynamics is used to compute airloads along lifting surfaces. Flight dynamic equations are then introduced to complete the aeroelastic/flight dynamic system equations of motion. Instead of merely considering the flexibility of the wings, the current work allows all members of the vehicle to be flexible. Due to their characteristics of being slender structures, the wings, tail, and fuselage of highly flexible aircraft can be modeled as beams undergoing three dimensional displacements and rotations. New kinematic relationships are developed to handle the split beam systems, such that fully flexible vehicles can be effectively modeled within the existing framework. Different aircraft configurations are modeled and studied, including Single-Wing, Joined-Wing, Blended-Wing-Body, and Flying-Wing configurations. The Lagrange Multiplier Method is applied to model the nodal displacement constraints at the joint locations. Based on the proposed models, roll response and stability studies are conducted on fully flexible and rigidized models. The impacts of the flexibility of different vehicle members on flutter with rigid body motion constraints, flutter in free flight condition, and roll maneuver performance are presented. Also, the static stability of the compressive member of the Joined-Wing configuration is studied. A spatially-distributed discrete gust model is incorporated into the time simulation
Notes on the quantum mechanics of particles constrained to curved surfaces
Bernard, B. J.; Voon, L. C. Lew Yan
2013-09-01
In the course of one's studies, it may be desired to approximate a particle constrained to a curved surface, such as a sheet of graphene or a fullerene, but without modelling the lattice of Coulomb potentials. This can be done using the machinery of differential geometry to formulate a Schrödinger equation for a particle constrained so by applying an infinitely narrow infinite square well potential normal to the surface. The purpose of this paper is to clarify two mistakes that might be made when attempting to formulate this equation. These mistakes are: (1) incorrectly assuming that the Laplacian of the surface is the same as the Laplacian of the space, with the constrained term removed; and (2) neglecting to include the effective potential energy due to the curvature of the surface. It is also noted that the constrained approach produces results that, if the resulting Schrödinger equation is separable, will produce one constant of separation instead of the traditional two. The emergence of the second quantum number is demonstrated and, hence, the apparent inconsistency is resolved. The prolate spheroid is given as a non-trivial example because it highlights the issues presented.
Coding for Two Dimensional Constrained Fields
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Laursen, Torben Vaarbye
2006-01-01
for the No Isolated Bits constraint. Finally we present a variation of the encoding scheme of bit-stuffing that is applicable to the class of checkerboard constrained fields. It is possible to calculate the entropy of the coding scheme thus obtaining lower bounds on the entropy of the fields considered. These lower....... The important concept of entropy is introduced. In general, the entropy of a constrained field is not readily computable, but we give a series of upper and lower bounds based on one dimensional techniques. We discuss the use of a Pickard probability model for constrained fields. The novelty lies in using...... bounds are very tight for the Run-Length limited fields. Explicit bounds are given for the diamond constrained field as well....
Constrained Parmeterization of Reduced Density Approximation of Kinetic Energy Functionals
Chakraborty, Debajit; Trickey, Samuel; Karasiev, Valentin
2014-03-01
Evaluation of forces in ab initio MD is greatly accelerated by orbital-free DFT, especially at finite temperature. The recent achievement of a fully non-empirical constraint-based generalized gradient (GGA) functional for the Kohn-Sham KE Ts [ n ] brings to light the inherent limitations of GGAs. This motivates inclusion of higher-order derivatives in the form of reduced derivative approximation (RDA) functionals. That, in turn, requires new functional forms and design criteria. RDA functionals are constrained further to produce a positive-definite, non-singular Pauli potential. We focus on designing a non-empirical constraint-based meta-GGA functional with certain combinations of higher-order derivatives which avoid nuclear-site singularities to a specified order of gradient expansion. Here we report progress on this agenda. Work supported by U.S. Dept. of Energy, grant DE-SC0002139.
Geometric constrained variational calculus. III: The second variation (Part II)
Massa, Enrico; Luria, Gianvittorio; Pagani, Enrico
2016-03-01
The problem of minimality for constrained variational calculus is analyzed within the class of piecewise differentiable extremaloids. A fully covariant representation of the second variation of the action functional based on a family of local gauge transformations of the original Lagrangian is proposed. The necessity of pursuing a local adaptation process, rather than the global one described in [1] is seen to depend on the value of certain scalar attributes of the extremaloid, here called the corners’ strengths. On this basis, both the necessary and the sufficient conditions for minimality are worked out. In the discussion, a crucial role is played by an analysis of the prolongability of the Jacobi fields across the corners. Eventually, in the appendix, an alternative approach to the concept of strength of a corner, more closely related to Pontryagin’s maximum principle, is presented.
Stall Recovery Guidance Algorithms Based on Constrained Control Approaches
Stepanyan, Vahram; Krishnakumar, Kalmanje; Kaneshige, John; Acosta, Diana
2016-01-01
Aircraft loss-of-control, in particular approach to stall or fully developed stall, is a major factor contributing to aircraft safety risks, which emphasizes the need to develop algorithms that are capable of assisting the pilots to identify the problem and providing guidance to recover the aircraft. In this paper we present several stall recovery guidance algorithms, which are implemented in the background without interfering with flight control system and altering the pilot's actions. They are using input and state constrained control methods to generate guidance signals, which are provided to the pilot in the form of visual cues. It is the pilot's decision to follow these signals. The algorithms are validated in the pilot-in-the loop medium fidelity simulation experiment.
Fully Distributed Cooperative Motion of Group Robots
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2002-01-01
This paper is focused on the fully distributed cooperative motion of group robots and proposes a new approach. Each robot has a local sensing ability and a simple action selection strategy. Computational complexity is decreased by the fully distributed architecture and the information insufficiency is solved by the interaction between the robots and the environment. Variable loop and random method are used to deal with the fluctuation and equity selection problem and the rapidity and reasonabiliiy are guaranteed. Some simulations have proved the effectiveness of the proposed approach.
Optimality of a Fully Stressed Design
Patnaik, Surya N.; Hopkins, Dale A.
1998-01-01
For a truss a fully stressed state is reached and when all its members are utilized to their full strength capacity. Historically, engineers considered such a design optimum. But recently this optimality has been questioned, especially since the weight of the structure is not explicitly used in fully stressed design calculations. This paper examines optimality of the full stressed design (FSD) with analytical and graphical illustrations. Solutions for a set of examples obtained by using the FSD method and optimization methods numerically confirm the optimality of the FSD. The FSD, which can be obtained with a small amount of calculation, can be extended to displacement constraints and to nontruss-type structures.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kazempour, S. Jalal; Moghaddam, Mohsen Parsa [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Tarbiat Modares University (TMU), Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)
2011-02-15
This work addresses a relevant methodology for self-scheduling of a price-taker fuel and emission constrained power producer in day-ahead correlated energy, spinning reserve and fuel markets to achieve a trade-off between the expected profit and the risk versus different risk levels based on Markowitz's seminal work in the area of portfolio selection. Here, a set of uncertainties including price forecasting errors and available fuel uncertainty are considered. The latter uncertainty arises because of uncertainties in being called for reserve deployment in the spinning reserve market and availability of power plant. To tackle the price forecasting errors, variances of energy, spinning reserve and fuel prices along with their covariances which are due to markets correlation are taken into account using relevant historical data. In order to tackle available fuel uncertainty, a framework for self-scheduling referred to as rolling window is proposed. This risk-constrained self-scheduling framework is therefore formulated and solved as a mixed-integer non-linear programming problem. Furthermore, numerical results for a case study are discussed. (author)
Constrained crosstalk resistant adaptive noise canceller
Parsa, V.; Parker, P.
1994-08-01
The performance of an adaptive noise canceller (ANC) is sensitive to the presence of signal `crosstalk' in the reference channel. The authors propose a novel approach to crosstalk resistant adaptive noise cancellation, namely the constrained crosstalk resistant adaptive noise canceller (CCRANC). The theoretical analysis of the CCRANC along with the constrained algorithm is presented. The performance of the CCRANC in recovering somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs) from myoelectric interference is then evaluated through simulations.
On the origin of constrained superfields
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dall’Agata, G. [Dipartimento di Fisica “Galileo Galilei”, Università di Padova,Via Marzolo 8, 35131 Padova (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Padova,Via Marzolo 8, 35131 Padova (Italy); Dudas, E. [Centre de Physique Théorique, École Polytechnique, CNRS, Université Paris-Saclay,F-91128 Palaiseau (France); Farakos, F. [Dipartimento di Fisica “Galileo Galilei”, Università di Padova,Via Marzolo 8, 35131 Padova (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Padova,Via Marzolo 8, 35131 Padova (Italy)
2016-05-06
In this work we analyze constrained superfields in supersymmetry and supergravity. We propose a constraint that, in combination with the constrained goldstino multiplet, consistently removes any selected component from a generic superfield. We also describe its origin, providing the operators whose equations of motion lead to the decoupling of such components. We illustrate our proposal by means of various examples and show how known constraints can be reproduced by our method.
Saltstone Clean Cap Formulation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Langton, C
2005-04-22
The current operation strategy for using Saltstone Vault 4 to receive 0.2 Ci/gallon salt solution waste involves pouring a clean grout layer over the radioactive grout prior to initiating pour into another cell. This will minimize the radiating surface area and reduce the dose rate at the vault and surrounding area. The Clean Cap will be used to shield about four feet of Saltstone poured into a Z-Area vault cell prior to moving to another cell. The minimum thickness of the Clean Cap layer will be determined by the cesium concentration and resulting dose levels and it is expected to be about one foot thick based on current calculations for 0.1 Ci Saltstone that is produced in the Saltstone process by stabilization of 0.2 Ci salt solution. This report documents experiments performed to identify a formulation for the Clean Cap. Thermal transient calculations, adiabatic temperature rise measurements, pour height, time between pour calculations and shielding calculations were beyond the scope and time limitations of this study. However, data required for shielding calculations (composition and specific gravity) are provided for shielding calculations. The approach used to design a Clean Cap formulation was to produce a slurry from the reference premix (10/45/45 weight percent cement/slag/fly ash) and domestic water that resembled as closely as possible the properties of the Saltstone slurry. In addition, options were investigated that may offer advantages such as less bleed water and less heat generation. The options with less bleed water required addition of dispersants. The options with lower heat contained more fly ash and less slag. A mix containing 10/45/45 weight percent cement/slag/fly ash with a water to premix ratio of 0.60 is recommended for the Clean Cap. Although this mix may generate more than 3 volume percent standing water (bleed water), it has rheological, mixing and flow properties that are similar to previously processed Saltstone. The recommended
Fully nonlinear and exact perturbations of the Friedmann world model: non-flat background
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Noh, Hyerim, E-mail: hr@kasi.ac.kr [Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute, Daejeon, 305-348 (Korea, Republic of)
2014-07-01
We extend the fully non-linear and exact cosmological perturbation equations in a Friedmann background universe to include the background curvature. The perturbation equations are presented in a gauge ready form, so any temporal gauge condition can be adopted freely depending on the problem to be solved. We consider the scalar, and vector perturbations without anisotropic stress. As an application, we analyze the equations in the special case of irrotational zero-pressure fluid in the comoving gauge condition. We also present the fully nonlinear formulation for a minimally coupled scalar field.
Fully nonlinear and exact perturbations of the Friedmann world model: Non-flat background
Noh, Hyerim
2014-01-01
We extend the fully non-linear and exact cosmological perturbation equations in a Friedmann background universe to include the background curvature. The perturbation equations are presented in a gauge ready form, so any temporal gauge condition can be adopted freely depending on the problem to be solved. %The background curvature term explicitly appears only in the energy and momentum constraint equations. We consider the scalar, and vector perturbations without anisotropic stress. As an application, we analyze the equations in the special case of irrotational zero-pressure fluid in the comoving gauge condition. We also present the fully nonlinear formulation for a minimally coupled scalar field.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Harrod, Steven; Schlechte, Thomas
2013-01-01
by constraining time intervals between trains, while the other formulation, RCHF, monitors physical occupation of controlled track segments. The results demonstrate that both ACP and RCHF return comparable solutions in the aggregate, with some significant differences in select instances, and a pattern...
Operator Formulation of Classical Mechanics.
Cohn, Jack
1980-01-01
Discusses the construction of an operator formulation of classical mechanics which is directly concerned with wave packets in configuration space and is more similar to that of convential quantum theory than other extant operator formulations of classical mechanics. (Author/HM)
Formulation of supergravity without superspace
Ferrara, S
1979-01-01
Supergravity, the particle theory which unifies under a unique gauge principle the quantum-mechanical concept of spin and space-time geometry, is formulated in terms of quantities defined over Minkowski space-time. 'l'he relation between this formulation and the fonnulation which uses superspace, the space-time supplemented by spinning degrees of freedom, is also briefly discussed.
Parametrization of Fully Dressed Quark Propagator
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
MA Wei-Xing; ZHU Ji-Zhen; ZHOU Li-Juan; SHEN Peng-Nian; HU Zhao-Hui
2005-01-01
Based on an extensive study of the Dyson-Schwinger equations for a fully dressed quark propagator in the "rainbow" approximation, a parametrized form of the quark propagator is suggested. The corresponding quark selfform of the quark propagator proposed in this work describes a confining quark propagation, and is quite convenient to be used in any numerical calculations.
Fully Integrated Biochip Platforms for Advanced Healthcare
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Giovanni De Micheli
2012-08-01
Full Text Available Recent advances in microelectronics and biosensors are enabling developments of innovative biochips for advanced healthcare by providing fully integrated platforms for continuous monitoring of a large set of human disease biomarkers. Continuous monitoring of several human metabolites can be addressed by using fully integrated and minimally invasive devices located in the sub-cutis, typically in the peritoneal region. This extends the techniques of continuous monitoring of glucose currently being pursued with diabetic patients. However, several issues have to be considered in order to succeed in developing fully integrated and minimally invasive implantable devices. These innovative devices require a high-degree of integration, minimal invasive surgery, long-term biocompatibility, security and privacy in data transmission, high reliability, high reproducibility, high specificity, low detection limit and high sensitivity. Recent advances in the field have already proposed possible solutions for several of these issues. The aim of the present paper is to present a broad spectrum of recent results and to propose future directions of development in order to obtain fully implantable systems for the continuous monitoring of the human metabolism in advanced healthcare applications.
Transport properties of fully screened Kondo models
Hörig, Christoph B M; Mora, Christophe; Schuricht, Dirk
2014-01-01
We study the nonequilibrium transport properties of fully (exactly) screened Kondo quantum dots subject to a finite bias voltage or a finite temperature. First, we calculate the Fermi-liquid coefficients of the conductance for models with arbitrary spin, i.e., its leading behavior for small bias vol
A Fully Automated Penumbra Segmentation Tool
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nagenthiraja, Kartheeban; Ribe, Lars Riisgaard; Hougaard, Kristina Dupont
2012-01-01
salavageable tissue, quickly and accurately. We present a fully Automated Penumbra Segmentation (APS) algorithm using PWI and DWI images. We compare automatically generated PWI-DWI mismatch mask to mask outlined manually by experts, in 168 patients. Method: The algorithm initially identifies PWI lesions...
Learner Perspectives on Fully Online Language Learning
Sun, Susan Y. H.
2014-01-01
This study builds on this author's 2011 article in which the author reflects on the pedagogical challenges and resultant changes made while teaching two fully online foreign language papers over a four-year period (Y. H. S. Sun (2011). Online language teaching: The pedagogical challenges. "Knowledge Management & E-Learning: An…
Mishra, Bhogendra; Susaki, Junichi
2012-10-01
In this paper, an approach is proposed that predicts fully polarimetric data from dual polarimetric data, and then applies selected supervised algorithm for dual polarimetric, pseudo-fully polarimetric and fully polarimetric dataset for the land cover classification comparison. A regression model has been developed to predict the complex variables of VV polarimetric component and amplitude independently using corresponding complex variables and amplitude in HH and HV bands. Support vector machine (SVM)is implemented for the land cover classification. Coherency matrix and amplitude were used for all dataset for the land cover classification independently.They are used to compare the data from different perspective. Finally, a post processing technique is implemented to remove the isolated pixels appeared as a noise. AVNIR-2 optical data over the same area is used as ground truth data to access the classification accuracy.The result from SVM indicates that the fully polarimetric mode gives the maximum classification accuracy followed by pseudo-fully polarimetric and dual polarimetric datasets using coherency matrix input for fully polarimetric image and pseudo-fully polarimetric image and covariance matrix input for dual polarimetric image. Additionally, it is observed that pseudo-fully polarimetric image with amplitude input does not show the significant improvement over dual polarimetric image with same input.
A multiscale finite element method for modeling fully coupled thermomechanical problems in solids
Sengupta, Arkaprabha
2012-05-18
This article proposes a two-scale formulation of fully coupled continuum thermomechanics using the finite element method at both scales. A monolithic approach is adopted in the solution of the momentum and energy equations. An efficient implementation of the resulting algorithm is derived that is suitable for multicore processing. The proposed method is applied with success to a strongly coupled problem involving shape-memory alloys. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Verification of a fully coupled FE model for tunneling under compressed air
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Oettl, G.; Stark, R.F.; Hofstetter, G. [Innsbruck Univ. (Austria). Inst. for Structural Analysis and Strength of Materials
2001-07-01
This paper deals with the verification of a fully coupled finite element model for tunneling under compressed air. The formulation is based on mixture theory treating the soil as a three-phase medium with the constituents: deformable porous soil skeleton, water and air. Starting with a brief outline of the governing equations results of numerical simulations of different laboratory tests and of a large-scale in-situ test are presented and compared with experimental data. (orig.)
An Evolutionary Formulation of the Crossing Number Problem
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Che Sheng Gan
2009-01-01
Full Text Available A graph drawing algorithm is presented which results in complete graphs having minimum crossings equal to that of Guy's conjecture. It is then generalized and formulated in an evolutionary algorithm (EA to perform constrained search for the crossing numbers. The main objective of this work is to present a suitable two-dimensional scheme which can greatly reduce the complexity of finding crossing numbers by using computer. Program performance criteria are presented and discussed. It is shown that the EA implementation provides good confirmation of the predicted crossing numbers.
Novel Formulations for Antimicrobial Peptides
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ana Maria Carmona-Ribeiro
2014-10-01
Full Text Available Peptides in general hold much promise as a major ingredient in novel supramolecular assemblies. They may become essential in vaccine design, antimicrobial chemotherapy, cancer immunotherapy, food preservation, organs transplants, design of novel materials for dentistry, formulations against diabetes and other important strategical applications. This review discusses how novel formulations may improve the therapeutic index of antimicrobial peptides by protecting their activity and improving their bioavailability. The diversity of novel formulations using lipids, liposomes, nanoparticles, polymers, micelles, etc., within the limits of nanotechnology may also provide novel applications going beyond antimicrobial chemotherapy.
Outcome and complications of constrained acetabular components.
Yang, Cao; Goodman, Stuart B
2009-02-01
Constrained acetabular liners were developed for the surgical treatment of recurrent instability by holding the femoral head captive within the socket. This article summarizes the data describing constrained component designs, indications, outcome, and complications. Different designs accept head sizes of varying diameter and have differing amounts of rim elevation and offset, allowing slight variations in the range of movement allowed. Complications of constrained acetabular components can be divided into three categories. The first category is directly related to the constraining mechanism such as dislocation, head dissociation from the stem, liner dissociation from the acetabular device, and impingement with or without locking ring breakage. The second category is related to increased constraint such as aseptic component loosening and osteolysis and periprosthetic fracture. The third category includes those cases not associated with increased constraint such as infection, deep vein thrombosis, and periprosthetic fracture. This device is effective at achieving hip stability, but the complications related to the constraining mechanism and increased constraint are of concern. These devices should be used as a salvage measure for the treatment of severe instability.
Fully resolved simulations of particle sedimentation
Sierakowski, Adam; Wang, Yayun; Prosperetti, Andrea
2014-11-01
Progress in computational capabilities - and specifically in the realm of massively parallel architectures - render possible the simulation of fully resolved fluid-particle systems. This development will drastically improve physical understanding and modelling of these systems when the particle size is not negligible and their concentration appreciable. Using a newly developed GPU-centric implementation of the Physalis method for the solution of the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations in the presence of finite-sized spheres, we carry out fully resolved simulations of more than one thousand sedimenting spheres. We discuss the results of these simulations focusing on statistical aspects such as particle velocity fluctuations, particle pair distribution function, microstructure, and others. Supported by NSF Grant CBET 1335965.
MHD power generation with fully ionized seed
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yamasaki, H.; Shioda, S.
1977-01-01
Recovery of power density in the regime of fully ionized seed has been demonstrated experimentally using an MHD disk generator with the effective Hall parameter up to 5.0 when the seed was fully ionized. The experiments were conducted with a shock-heated and potassium-seeded argon plasma under the following conditions: stagnation gas pressure = 0.92 atm, stagnation gas temperature = 2750 K, flow Mach number = 2.5, and seed fraction = 1.4 x 10/sup -5/. Measurements of electron-number density and spectroscopic observations of both potassium and argon lines confirmed that the recovery of power output was due to the reduction of ionization instability. This fact indicates that the successful operation of a disk generator utilizing nonequilibrium ionization seems to be possible and that the suppression of ionization instability can also provide higher adiabatic efficiency. Furthermore, the lower seed fraction offers technological advantages related to seed problems.
Mantle Convection Models Constrained by Seismic Tomography
Durbin, C. J.; Shahnas, M.; Peltier, W. R.; Woodhouse, J. H.
2011-12-01
Although available three dimensional models of the lateral heterogeneity of the mantle, based upon the latest advances in seismic tomographic imaging (e.g. Ritsema et al., 2004, JGR) have provided profound insights into aspects of the mantle general circulation that drives continental drift, the compatibility of the tomography with explicit models of mantle mixing has remained illusive. For example, it remains a significant issue as to whether hydrodynamic models of the mixing process alone are able to reconcile the observed detailed pattern of surface plate velocities or whether explicit account must be taken of elastic fracture processes to account for the observed equipartition of kinetic energy between the poloidal and toroidal components of the surface velocity pattern (e.g. Forte and Peltier, 1987, JGR). It is also an issue as to the significance of the role of mantle chemical heterogeneity in determining the buoyancy distribution that drives mantle flow, especially given the expected importance of the spin transition of iron that onsets in the mid-lower mantle, at least in the ferropericlase component of the mineralogy. In this paper we focus upon the application of data assimilation techniques to the development of a model of mantle mixing that is consistent with a modern three dimensional tomography based model of seismic body wave heterogeneity. Beginning with the simplest possible scenario, that chemical heterogeneity is irrelevant to first order, we employ a three dimensional version of the recently published control volume based convection model of Shahnas and Peltier (2010, JGR) as the basis for the assimilation of a three dimensional density field inferred from our preferred tomography model (Ritsema et al., 2004, JGR). The convection model fully incorporates the dynamical influence of the Olivine-Spinel and Spinel-Perovskite+Magnesiowustite solid-solid phase transformations that bracket the mantle transition zone as well as the recently discovered
Fully Adaptive Radar Modeling and Simulation Development
2017-04-01
Organization (NATO) Sensors Electronics Technology (SET)-227 Panel on Cognitive Radar. The FAR M&S architecture developed in Phase I allows for...Air Force’s previously developed radar M&S tools. This report is organized as follows. In Chapter 3, we provide an overview of the FAR framework...AFRL-RY-WP-TR-2017-0074 FULLY ADAPTIVE RADAR MODELING AND SIMULATION DEVELOPMENT Kristine L. Bell and Anthony Kellems Metron, Inc
Fully implicit kinetic modelling of collisional plasmas
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mousseau, V.A.
1996-05-01
This dissertation describes a numerical technique, Matrix-Free Newton Krylov, for solving a simplified Vlasov-Fokker-Planck equation. This method is both deterministic and fully implicit, and may not have been a viable option before current developments in numerical methods. Results are presented that indicate the efficiency of the Matrix-Free Newton Krylov method for these fully-coupled, nonlinear integro-differential equations. The use and requirement for advanced differencing is also shown. To this end, implementations of Chang-Cooper differencing and flux limited Quadratic Upstream Interpolation for Convective Kinematics (QUICK) are presented. Results are given for a fully kinetic ion-electron problem with a self consistent electric field calculated from the ion and electron distribution functions. This numerical method, including advanced differencing, provides accurate solutions, which quickly converge on workstation class machines. It is demonstrated that efficient steady-state solutions can be achieved to the non-linear integro-differential equation, obtaining quadratic convergence, without incurring the large memory requirements of an integral operator. Model problems are presented which simulate plasma impinging on a plate with both high and low neutral particle recycling typical of a divertor in a Tokamak device. These model problems demonstrate the performance of the new solution method.
Towards weakly constrained double field theory
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kanghoon Lee
2016-08-01
Full Text Available We show that it is possible to construct a well-defined effective field theory incorporating string winding modes without using strong constraint in double field theory. We show that X-ray (Radon transform on a torus is well-suited for describing weakly constrained double fields, and any weakly constrained fields are represented as a sum of strongly constrained fields. Using inverse X-ray transform we define a novel binary operation which is compatible with the level matching constraint. Based on this formalism, we construct a consistent gauge transform and gauge invariant action without using strong constraint. We then discuss the relation of our result to the closed string field theory. Our construction suggests that there exists an effective field theory description for massless sector of closed string field theory on a torus in an associative truncation.
Continuation of Sets of Constrained Orbit Segments
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Schilder, Frank; Brøns, Morten; Chamoun, George Chaouki
Sets of constrained orbit segments of time continuous flows are collections of trajectories that represent a whole or parts of an invariant set. A non-trivial but simple example is a homoclinic orbit. A typical representation of this set consists of an equilibrium point of the flow and a trajecto...... orbit segments, this is very disadvantageous in practice. In this talk we will present an algorithm that allows the efficient continuation of sets of constrained orbit segments together with the solution of the full variational problem.......Sets of constrained orbit segments of time continuous flows are collections of trajectories that represent a whole or parts of an invariant set. A non-trivial but simple example is a homoclinic orbit. A typical representation of this set consists of an equilibrium point of the flow and a trajectory...
Towards weakly constrained double field theory
Lee, Kanghoon
2016-08-01
We show that it is possible to construct a well-defined effective field theory incorporating string winding modes without using strong constraint in double field theory. We show that X-ray (Radon) transform on a torus is well-suited for describing weakly constrained double fields, and any weakly constrained fields are represented as a sum of strongly constrained fields. Using inverse X-ray transform we define a novel binary operation which is compatible with the level matching constraint. Based on this formalism, we construct a consistent gauge transform and gauge invariant action without using strong constraint. We then discuss the relation of our result to the closed string field theory. Our construction suggests that there exists an effective field theory description for massless sector of closed string field theory on a torus in an associative truncation.
Continuation of Sets of Constrained Orbit Segments
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Schilder, Frank; Brøns, Morten; Chamoun, George Chaouki;
Sets of constrained orbit segments of time continuous flows are collections of trajectories that represent a whole or parts of an invariant set. A non-trivial but simple example is a homoclinic orbit. A typical representation of this set consists of an equilibrium point of the flow and a trajectory...... that starts close and returns close to this fixed point within finite time. More complicated examples are hybrid periodic orbits of piecewise smooth systems or quasi-periodic invariant tori. Even though it is possible to define generalised two-point boundary value problems for computing sets of constrained...... orbit segments, this is very disadvantageous in practice. In this talk we will present an algorithm that allows the efficient continuation of sets of constrained orbit segments together with the solution of the full variational problem....
Towards Weakly Constrained Double Field Theory
Lee, Kanghoon
2015-01-01
We show that it is possible to construct a well-defined effective field theory incorporating string winding modes without using strong constraint in double field theory. We show that X-ray (Radon) transform on a torus is well-suited for describing weakly constrained double fields, and any weakly constrained fields are represented as a sum of strongly constrained fields. Using inverse X- ray transform we define a novel binary operation which is compatible with the level matching constraint. Based on this formalism, we construct a consistent gauge transform and gauge invariant action without using strong constraint. We then discuss the relation of our result to the closed string field theory. Our construction suggests that there exists an effective field theory description for massless sector of closed string field theory on a torus in an associative truncation.
Bayesian evaluation of inequality constrained hypotheses.
Gu, Xin; Mulder, Joris; Deković, Maja; Hoijtink, Herbert
2014-12-01
Bayesian evaluation of inequality constrained hypotheses enables researchers to investigate their expectations with respect to the structure among model parameters. This article proposes an approximate Bayes procedure that can be used for the selection of the best of a set of inequality constrained hypotheses based on the Bayes factor in a very general class of statistical models. The software package BIG is provided such that psychologists can use the approach proposed for the analysis of their own data. To illustrate the approximate Bayes procedure and the use of BIG, we evaluate inequality constrained hypotheses in a path model and a logistic regression model. Two simulation studies on the performance of our approximate Bayes procedure show that it results in accurate Bayes factors. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved
Formulation of Complex Action Theory
Nagao, Keiichi; Nielsen, Holger Bech
2011-01-01
We formulate a complex action theory which includes operators of coordinate and momentum $\\hat{q}$ and $\\hat{p}$ being replaced with non-hermitian operators $\\hat{q}_{new}$ and $\\hat{p}_{new}$, and their eigenstates ${}_m
Formulation optimization of arecoline patches.
Wu, Pao-Chu; Tsai, Pi-Ju; Lin, Shin-Chen; Huang, Yaw-Bin
2014-01-01
The response surface methodology (RSM) including polynomial equations has been used to design an optimal patch formulation with appropriate adhesion and flux. The patch formulations were composed of different polymers, including Eudragit RS 100 (ERS), Eudragit RL 100 (ERL) and polyvinylpyrrolidone K30 (PVP), plasticizers (PEG 400), and drug. In addition, using terpenes as enhancers could increase the flux of the drug. Menthol showed the highest enhancement effect on the flux of arecoline.
Formulation Optimization of Arecoline Patches
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Pao-Chu Wu
2014-01-01
Full Text Available The response surface methodology (RSM including polynomial equations has been used to design an optimal patch formulation with appropriate adhesion and flux. The patch formulations were composed of different polymers, including Eudragit RS 100 (ERS, Eudragit RL 100 (ERL and polyvinylpyrrolidone K30 (PVP, plasticizers (PEG 400, and drug. In addition, using terpenes as enhancers could increase the flux of the drug. Menthol showed the highest enhancement effect on the flux of arecoline.
Niosomal Formulation Of Orlistat: Formulation And In-Vitro Evaluation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
SAMYUKTHA RANI. B
2011-06-01
Full Text Available The purpose of the research was to prepare Orlistat niosomes from proniosome to improve its poor and variable oral bioavailability. The non-ionic surfactant vesicles are prepared by the reverse phase evaporation technique (slurry method. The slurry of - Cyclodextrin and Span 60 was dried to form a free flowing powder in rotary flash evaporator which could be rehydrated by addition of buffer (0.5% NaCl with 3% SLS at pH 6.0. The lipid mixture consisted of cholesterol, Span 60 and - Cyclodextrin carrier in molar ratios of (0.1:0.9:1 to 0.9:0.1:1 respectively. The niosomal formulations were evaluated for particle size, entrapment efficiency, in-vitro drug release, release kinetics, Interactions and compatibility (FT-IR, surface morphology (SEM, stability studies, conductivity and sedimentation rate, pH density, viscosity. The formulation OT9 which showed higher entrapment efficiency of 44.09% and invitro releases of 94.59% at the end of 12hrs was found to be best among all the 9 formulations. Release was best fitted with Hixson kinetics and it shows that the drug release may follow diffusion mechanism. FT-IR data revealed that, compatible and there were no interactions between the drug and excipients added in the formulation. SEM images of niosomes with various magnifications revealed the mean size of the niosomes were 100 nm with smooth surface. Niosome formulation has showed appropriate stability for 90 days by storing the formulation at room temperature. Thus the niosomal formulations could be a promising delivery system for Orlistat with improved oral bioavailability, stability and for sustained drug release.
Constrained Geodesic Centers of a Simple Polygon
Oh, Eunjin; Son, Wanbin; Ahn, Hee-Kap
2016-01-01
For any two points in a simple polygon P, the geodesic distance between them is the length of the shortest path contained in P that connects them. A geodesic center of a set S of sites (points) with respect to P is a point in P that minimizes the geodesic distance to its farthest site. In many realistic facility location problems, however, the facilities are constrained to lie in feasible regions. In this paper, we show how to compute the geodesic centers constrained to a set of line segment...
Constrained instanton and black hole creation
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
WU Zhongchao; XU Donghui
2004-01-01
A gravitational instanton is considered as the seed for the creation of a universe. However, there exist too few instantons. To include many interesting phenomena in the framework of quantum cosmology, the concept of constrained gravitational instanton is inevitable. In this paper we show how a primordial black hole is created from a constrained instanton. The quantum creation of a generic black hole in the closed or open background is completely resolved. The relation of the creation scenario with gravitational thermodynamics and topology is discussed.
Bioavailability of cefuroxime axetil formulations.
Donn, K H; James, N C; Powell, J R
1994-06-01
Cefuroxime axetil tablets have proved effective for the treatment of a variety of community-acquired infections. A suspension formulation has been developed for use in children. Two studies have been conducted to determine if the cefuroxime axetil formulations are bioequivalent. In the initial randomized, two-period crossover study, 24 healthy men received 250-mg doses of suspension and tablet formulations of cefuroxime axetil every 12 h after eating for seven doses. Each treatment period was separated by 4 days. Comparisons of serum and urine pharmacokinetic parameters indicated that the suspension and tablet formulations of cefuroxime axetil are not bioequivalent. Following the initial bioequivalency study, 0.1 % sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) was added to the suspension to assure the homogeneity of the granules during the manufacturing process. In the subsequent randomized, three-period crossover study, 24 healthy men received single 250-mg doses of three cefuroxime axetil formulations: suspension without SLS, suspension with SLS, and tablet. Again each treatment period was separated by 4 days. Pharmacokinetic analyses demonstrated that while the suspension with SLS and suspension without SLS are bioequivalent, bioequivalence between the suspension with SLS and the tablet was not observed. Thus, the addition of the SLS surfactant to the suspension did not alter the bioavailability of the formulation.
Social Groupwork. A Model for Goal Formulation.
Tompkins, Rosamond P.; Gallo, Frank T.
1978-01-01
A conceptual model for goal formulation in social groupwork, discussion of existing models and their limitations, and an attempt to formulate an encompassing groupwork model that facilitates goal formulation. (Author/PD)
Four formulations of noncommutative quantum mechanics
Gouba, Laure
2016-01-01
Four formulations of noncommutative quantum mechanics are reviewed. These are the canonical, path-integral, Weyl-Wigner and systematic formulations. The four formulations are charaterized by a deformed Heisenberg algebra but differ in mathematical and conceptual overview.
Modeling Atmospheric CO2 Processes to Constrain the Missing Sink
Kawa, S. R.; Denning, A. S.; Erickson, D. J.; Collatz, J. C.; Pawson, S.
2005-01-01
We report on a NASA supported modeling effort to reduce uncertainty in carbon cycle processes that create the so-called missing sink of atmospheric CO2. Our overall objective is to improve characterization of CO2 source/sink processes globally with improved formulations for atmospheric transport, terrestrial uptake and release, biomass and fossil fuel burning, and observational data analysis. The motivation for this study follows from the perspective that progress in determining CO2 sources and sinks beyond the current state of the art will rely on utilization of more extensive and intensive CO2 and related observations including those from satellite remote sensing. The major components of this effort are: 1) Continued development of the chemistry and transport model using analyzed meteorological fields from the Goddard Global Modeling and Assimilation Office, with comparison to real time data in both forward and inverse modes; 2) An advanced biosphere model, constrained by remote sensing data, coupled to the global transport model to produce distributions of CO2 fluxes and concentrations that are consistent with actual meteorological variability; 3) Improved remote sensing estimates for biomass burning emission fluxes to better characterize interannual variability in the atmospheric CO2 budget and to better constrain the land use change source; 4) Evaluating the impact of temporally resolved fossil fuel emission distributions on atmospheric CO2 gradients and variability. 5) Testing the impact of existing and planned remote sensing data sources (e.g., AIRS, MODIS, OCO) on inference of CO2 sources and sinks, and use the model to help establish measurement requirements for future remote sensing instruments. The results will help to prepare for the use of OCO and other satellite data in a multi-disciplinary carbon data assimilation system for analysis and prediction of carbon cycle changes and carbodclimate interactions.
Tactile friction of topical formulations.
Skedung, L; Buraczewska-Norin, I; Dawood, N; Rutland, M W; Ringstad, L
2016-02-01
The tactile perception is essential for all types of topical formulations (cosmetic, pharmaceutical, medical device) and the possibility to predict the sensorial response by using instrumental methods instead of sensory testing would save time and cost at an early stage product development. Here, we report on an instrumental evaluation method using tactile friction measurements to estimate perceptual attributes of topical formulations. Friction was measured between an index finger and an artificial skin substrate after application of formulations using a force sensor. Both model formulations of liquid crystalline phase structures with significantly different tactile properties, as well as commercial pharmaceutical moisturizing creams being more tactile-similar, were investigated. Friction coefficients were calculated as the ratio of the friction force to the applied load. The structures of the model formulations and phase transitions as a result of water evaporation were identified using optical microscopy. The friction device could distinguish friction coefficients between the phase structures, as well as the commercial creams after spreading and absorption into the substrate. In addition, phase transitions resulting in alterations in the feel of the formulations could be detected. A correlation was established between skin hydration and friction coefficient, where hydrated skin gave rise to higher friction. Also a link between skin smoothening and finger friction was established for the commercial moisturizing creams, although further investigations are needed to analyse this and correlations with other sensorial attributes in more detail. The present investigation shows that tactile friction measurements have potential as an alternative or complement in the evaluation of perception of topical formulations. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
SYNTHESIS AND CHARACTERIZATION OF FULLY SOLUBLE POLYPHENYLENEVINYLENE
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Jiang-qing Pan; Zi-kuan Chen; Yang Xiao; Wei Huang
2000-01-01
Fully soluble poly[2-methoxy-5-(2'-ethylhexyl)-oxy)-p-phenylenevinylene] (MEH-PPV) was synthesized by the addition of molecular weight modifiers (chain stopper, free radical scavengers) to a polymerization system containing monomer, catalyst and a solvent. These PPV products synthesized in this work were characterized by IR, NMR, UV-visible spectroscopy and GPC. Results show that the Mw of polyphenylvinylene (PPV) can be controlled by the addition of chain stopper (benzyl bromide) and radical inhibitor (2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-methyl phenol). The polymerization mechanism in the presence of these additives was also discussed. A dual mechanism involving carbene for PPV polymerization was proposed.
The fully differential top decay distribution
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Aguilar-Saavedra, J.A. [Universidad de Granada, Departamento de Fisica Teorica y del Cosmos, Granada (Spain); Boudreau, J.; Mueller, J. [University of Pittsburgh, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Escobar, C. [CSIC-Universitat de Valencia, Instituto de Fisica Corpuscular, Paterna (Spain)
2017-03-15
We write down the four-dimensional fully differential decay distribution for the top quark decay t → Wb → lνb. We discuss how its eight physical parameters can be measured, either with a global fit or with the use of selected one-dimensional distributions and asymmetries. We give expressions for the top decay amplitudes for a general tbW interaction, and show how the untangled measurement of the two components of the fraction of longitudinal W bosons - those with b quark helicities of 1/2 and -1/2, respectively - could improve the precision of a global fit to the tbW vertex. (orig.)
Fully Coupled FE Analyses of Buried Structures
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
James T. Baylot
1994-01-01
Full Text Available Current procedures for determining the response of buried structures to the effects of the detonation of buried high explosives recommend decoupling the free-field stress analysis from the structure response analysis. A fully coupled (explosive–soil structure finite element analysis procedure was developed so that the accuracies of current decoupling procedures could be evaluated. Comparisons of the results of analyses performed using this procedure with scale-model experiments indicate that this finite element procedure can be used to effectively evaluate the accuracies of the methods currently being used to decouple the free-field stress analysis from the structure response analysis.
PRICING AND HEDGING OPTION UNDER PORTFOLIO CONSTRAINED
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
魏刚; 陈世平
2001-01-01
The authors employ convex analysis and stochastic control approach to study the question of hedging contingent claims with portfolio constrained to take values in a given closed, convex subset of RK, and extend the results of Gianmario Tessitore and Jerzy Zabczyk[6] on pricing options in multiasset and multinominal model.
CONSTRAINED RATIONAL CUBIC SPLINE AND ITS APPLICATION
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Qi Duan; Huan-ling Zhang; Xiang Lai; Nan Xie; Fu-hua (Frank) Cheng
2001-01-01
In this paper, a kind of rational cubic interpolation functionwith linear denominator is constructed. The constrained interpolation with constraint on shape of the interpolating curves and on the second-order derivative of the interpolating function is studied by using this interpolation, and as the consequent result, the convex interpolation conditions have been derived.
Neuroevolutionary Constrained Optimization for Content Creation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Liapis, Antonios; Yannakakis, Georgios N.; Togelius, Julian
2011-01-01
and thruster types and topologies) independently of game physics and steering strategies. According to the proposed framework, the designer picks a set of requirements for the spaceship that a constrained optimizer attempts to satisfy. The constraint satisfaction approach followed is based on neuroevolution...
Constrained tri-sphere kinematic positioning system
Viola, Robert J
2010-12-14
A scalable and adaptable, six-degree-of-freedom, kinematic positioning system is described. The system can position objects supported on top of, or suspended from, jacks comprising constrained joints. The system is compatible with extreme low temperature or high vacuum environments. When constant adjustment is not required a removable motor unit is available.
Bound constrained quadratic programming via piecewise
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Madsen, Kaj; Nielsen, Hans Bruun; Pinar, M. C.
1999-01-01
of a symmetric, positive definite matrix, and is solved by Newton iteration with line search. The paper describes the algorithm and its implementation including estimation of lambda/sub 1/ , how to get a good starting point for the iteration, and up- and downdating of Cholesky factorization. Results of extensive...... testing and comparison with other methods for constrained QP are given....
Fast Computation of Fully Resolved Neuromechanically Simulated Locomotion
Patel, Namu; Patankar, Neelesh A.
2014-11-01
In fish, caudally propagating waves of neural activity produce muscle bending moments. These moments, coupled with forces due to the body's elastic properties and forces due to fluid-body interactions, determine the deformation kinematics for swimming. Fully resolved simulations of neurally-activated swimming can be used to decode activation patterns underlying observed behaviors in a swimming animal. These computations are expensive; the time stepping requirement is onerous due to the canonically used explicit coupling between the elastic body and the fluid. To overcome this barrier, we use our prior result that deformation kinematics closely follow the preferred kinematics due to muscle activation when a swimmer has a sufficiently stiff body. Thus, we can impose the preferred deformation kinematics directly on the body immersed in the fluid. In this way, the need to solve the elastic equations is eliminated. Here, we couple physiochemical and physiomechanical equations to a constraint-based self-propulsion formulation. With this method, we demonstrate how different behaviors, such as turning, emerge from varying the neural signal. This work is supported by NSF: CBET-0828749, CMMI-0941674, CBET-1066575, and DGE-0903637.
Monolithic formulation of electromechanical systems within the context of hybrid finite elements
Agrawal, Manish; Jog, C. S.
2017-03-01
In electromechanical devices, a strong coupling exists between the electromagnetic and displacement field. Due to this strong interaction, a need arises to develop a robust, fully coupled scheme for modeling electromechanical phenomena. With this goal in view, we present a monolithic numerical scheme for modeling fully coupled electromechanical systems. It is shown in the literature that for structural problems, hybrid elements that are based on a two-field variational formulation are less susceptible to locking and provide a robust numerical strategy especially for shell-type structures. Hence, we extend our monolithic formulation to the hybrid finite element framework. Our monolithic formulation is based on a total Lagrangian framework, where the eddy current and structural equations are solved on the reference configuration. Consistent linearization is performed to ensure a quadratic rate of convergence. The efficacy of the presented algorithm, and especially that of the hybrid formulation is demonstrated with the help of numerical examples.
Constrained target controllability of complex networks
Guo, Wei-Feng; Zhang, Shao-Wu; Wei, Ze-Gang; Zeng, Tao; Liu, Fei; Zhang, Jingsong; Wu, Fang-Xiang; Chen, Luonan
2017-06-01
It is of great theoretical interest and practical significance to study how to control a system by applying perturbations to only a few driver nodes. Recently, a hot topic of modern network researches is how to determine driver nodes that allow the control of an entire network. However, in practice, to control a complex network, especially a biological network, one may know not only the set of nodes which need to be controlled (i.e. target nodes), but also the set of nodes to which only control signals can be applied (i.e. constrained control nodes). Compared to the general concept of controllability, we introduce the concept of constrained target controllability (CTC) of complex networks, which concerns the ability to drive any state of target nodes to their desirable state by applying control signals to the driver nodes from the set of constrained control nodes. To efficiently investigate the CTC of complex networks, we further design a novel graph-theoretic algorithm called CTCA to estimate the ability of a given network to control targets by choosing driver nodes from the set of constrained control nodes. We extensively evaluate the CTC of numerous real complex networks. The results indicate that biological networks with a higher average degree are easier to control than biological networks with a lower average degree, while electronic networks with a lower average degree are easier to control than web networks with a higher average degree. We also show that our CTCA can more efficiently produce driver nodes for target-controlling the networks than existing state-of-the-art methods. Moreover, we use our CTCA to analyze two expert-curated bio-molecular networks and compare to other state-of-the-art methods. The results illustrate that our CTCA can efficiently identify proven drug targets and new potentials, according to the constrained controllability of those biological networks.
Fully 3D GPU PET reconstruction
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Herraiz, J.L., E-mail: joaquin@nuclear.fis.ucm.es [Grupo de Fisica Nuclear, Departmento Fisica Atomica, Molecular y Nuclear, Universidad Complutense de Madrid (Spain); Espana, S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Cal-Gonzalez, J. [Grupo de Fisica Nuclear, Departmento Fisica Atomica, Molecular y Nuclear, Universidad Complutense de Madrid (Spain); Vaquero, J.J. [Departmento de Bioingenieria e Ingenieria Espacial, Universidad Carlos III, Madrid (Spain); Desco, M. [Departmento de Bioingenieria e Ingenieria Espacial, Universidad Carlos III, Madrid (Spain); Unidad de Medicina y Cirugia Experimental, Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Maranon, Madrid (Spain); Udias, J.M. [Grupo de Fisica Nuclear, Departmento Fisica Atomica, Molecular y Nuclear, Universidad Complutense de Madrid (Spain)
2011-08-21
Fully 3D iterative tomographic image reconstruction is computationally very demanding. Graphics Processing Unit (GPU) has been proposed for many years as potential accelerators in complex scientific problems, but it has not been used until the recent advances in the programmability of GPUs that the best available reconstruction codes have started to be implemented to be run on GPUs. This work presents a GPU-based fully 3D PET iterative reconstruction software. This new code may reconstruct sinogram data from several commercially available PET scanners. The most important and time-consuming parts of the code, the forward and backward projection operations, are based on an accurate model of the scanner obtained with the Monte Carlo code PeneloPET and they have been massively parallelized on the GPU. For the PET scanners considered, the GPU-based code is more than 70 times faster than a similar code running on a single core of a fast CPU, obtaining in both cases the same images. The code has been designed to be easily adapted to reconstruct sinograms from any other PET scanner, including scanner prototypes.
Fully Equipped Dynamic Model of a Bus
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
I. Kowarska
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Nowadays, the time to market a new vehicle is crucial for every company as it is easier to meet the customers’ needs and expectations. However, designing a new vehicle is a long process which needs to take into account different performances. The most difficult is to predict a dynamic behavior of a vehicle especially when such a big vehicles as urban buses are considered. Therefore, there is a necessity to use a virtual model to investigate different performances. However, there is a lack of urban bus models that can fully reflect a dynamic behavior of the bus. This paper presents a fully equipped urban bus model which can be used to study a dynamic behavior of such vehicles. The model is based on innovative technique called cosimulation, which connects different modeling techniques (3D and 1D. Such a technique allows performing different analyses that require small deformations and large translations and rotations in shorter time and automatic way. The work has been carried out in a project EUREKA CHASING.
Fully CMOS-compatible titanium nitride nanoantennas
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Briggs, Justin A., E-mail: jabriggs@stanford.edu [Department of Applied Physics, Stanford University, 348 Via Pueblo Mall, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Stanford University, 496 Lomita Mall, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Naik, Gururaj V.; Baum, Brian K.; Dionne, Jennifer A. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Stanford University, 496 Lomita Mall, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Petach, Trevor A.; Goldhaber-Gordon, David [Department of Physics, Stanford University, 382 Via Pueblo Mall, Stanford, California 94305 (United States)
2016-02-01
CMOS-compatible fabrication of plasmonic materials and devices will accelerate the development of integrated nanophotonics for information processing applications. Using low-temperature plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition (PEALD), we develop a recipe for fully CMOS-compatible titanium nitride (TiN) that is plasmonic in the visible and near infrared. Films are grown on silicon, silicon dioxide, and epitaxially on magnesium oxide substrates. By optimizing the plasma exposure per growth cycle during PEALD, carbon and oxygen contamination are reduced, lowering undesirable loss. We use electron beam lithography to pattern TiN nanopillars with varying diameters on silicon in large-area arrays. In the first reported single-particle measurements on plasmonic TiN, we demonstrate size-tunable darkfield scattering spectroscopy in the visible and near infrared regimes. The optical properties of this CMOS-compatible material, combined with its high melting temperature and mechanical durability, comprise a step towards fully CMOS-integrated nanophotonic information processing.
Fully CMOS-compatible titanium nitride nanoantennas
Briggs, Justin A.; Naik, Gururaj V.; Petach, Trevor A.; Baum, Brian K.; Goldhaber-Gordon, David; Dionne, Jennifer A.
2016-02-01
CMOS-compatible fabrication of plasmonic materials and devices will accelerate the development of integrated nanophotonics for information processing applications. Using low-temperature plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition (PEALD), we develop a recipe for fully CMOS-compatible titanium nitride (TiN) that is plasmonic in the visible and near infrared. Films are grown on silicon, silicon dioxide, and epitaxially on magnesium oxide substrates. By optimizing the plasma exposure per growth cycle during PEALD, carbon and oxygen contamination are reduced, lowering undesirable loss. We use electron beam lithography to pattern TiN nanopillars with varying diameters on silicon in large-area arrays. In the first reported single-particle measurements on plasmonic TiN, we demonstrate size-tunable darkfield scattering spectroscopy in the visible and near infrared regimes. The optical properties of this CMOS-compatible material, combined with its high melting temperature and mechanical durability, comprise a step towards fully CMOS-integrated nanophotonic information processing.
Elastic tidal response of a laterally heterogeneous planet: a complete perturbation formulation
Qin, Chuan; Zhong, Shijie; Wahr, John
2016-10-01
Constraining laterally varying structures in planetary interiors is important for understanding both the composition and the internal dynamics of a planet. Recognizing that seismic imaging technique is currently only viable for studying the Earth's interior structures, methods that can be supported by advanced space geodetic techniques may become alternatives to `image' the interiors of other planets. The method of tidal tomography is one possibility, and it relies on high precision measurement of the response of a planet to its body tide. However, it is essential to develop an efficient analytical tool that computes the dependence of tidal response to 3-D interior structures. In this paper, we present a complete formulation of such an analytical tool, which calculates to high accuracy the tidal response of a terrestrial planet with lateral heterogeneities in its elastic and density structures. We treat the lateral heterogeneities as small perturbations and derive the governing equations based on the perturbation theory. In a spherical harmonic representation, equations at each order of perturbation are reduced into multiple matrix equations at harmonics that are allowed by mode couplings, and the total response equals the sum of all those single-harmonic responses, which can be solved semi-analytically. We test our perturbation method by applying it to the Moon with a harmonic degree-1 mantle structure for which the perturbation solutions of the tidal response are compared with those from a fully numerical method. The remarkable agreement between results from these two methods validates the perturbation method. As an example, we then use the perturbation method to evaluate the impact of lunar crustal thickness variations on tidal response of the Moon. We find that lunar crust produces much smaller degree-3 tidal responses than a relatively weak degree-1 structure in the deep lunar mantle. Our calculations show that degree-3 tidal response measurements may hold key
Formulations of Amlodipine: A Review
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Muhammad Ali Sheraz
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Amlodipine (AD is a calcium channel blocker that is mainly used in the treatment of hypertension and angina. However, latest findings have revealed that its efficacy is not only limited to the treatment of cardiovascular diseases as it has shown to possess antioxidant activity and plays an important role in apoptosis. Therefore, it is also employed in the treatment of cerebrovascular stroke, neurodegenerative diseases, leukemia, breast cancer, and so forth either alone or in combination with other drugs. AD is a photosensitive drug and requires protection from light. A number of workers have tried to formulate various conventional and nonconventional dosage forms of AD. This review highlights all the formulations that have been developed to achieve maximum stability with the desired therapeutic action for the delivery of AD such as fast dissolving tablets, floating tablets, layered tablets, single-pill combinations, capsules, oral and transdermal films, suspensions, emulsions, mucoadhesive microspheres, gels, transdermal patches, and liposomal formulations.
Covariant Formulations of Superstring Theories.
Mikovic, Aleksandar Radomir
1990-01-01
Chapter 1 contains a brief introduction to the subject of string theory, and tries to motivate the study of superstrings and covariant formulations. Chapter 2 describes the Green-Schwarz formulation of the superstrings. The Hamiltonian and BRST structure of the theory is analysed in the case of the superparticle. Implications for the superstring case are discussed. Chapter 3 describes the Siegel's formulation of the superstring, which contains only the first class constraints. It is shown that the physical spectrum coincides with that of the Green-Schwarz formulation. In chapter 4 we analyse the BRST structure of the Siegel's formulation. We show that the BRST charge has the wrong cohomology, and propose a modification, called first ilk, which gives the right cohomology. We also propose another superparticle model, called second ilk, which has infinitely many coordinates and constraints. We construct the complete BRST charge for it, and show that it gives the correct cohomology. In chapter 5 we analyse the properties of the covariant vertex operators and the corresponding S-matrix elements by using the Siegel's formulation. We conclude that the knowledge of the ghosts is necessary, even at the tree level, in order to obtain the correct S-matrix. In chapter 6 we attempt to calculate the superstring loops, in a covariant gauge. We calculate the vacuum-to -vacuum amplitude, which is also the cosmological constant. We show that it vanishes to all loop orders, under the assumption that the free covariant gauge-fixed action exists. In chapter 7 we present our conclusions, and briefly discuss the random lattice approach to the string theory, as a possible way of resolving the problem of the covariant quantization and the nonperturbative definition of the superstrings.
Hee, S.; Vázquez, J. A.; Handley, W. J.; Hobson, M. P.; Lasenby, A. N.
2017-04-01
Data-driven model-independent reconstructions of the dark energy equation of state w(z) are presented using Planck 2015 era cosmic microwave background, baryonic acoustic oscillations (BAO), Type Ia supernova (SNIa) and Lyman α (Lyα) data. These reconstructions identify the w(z) behaviour supported by the data and show a bifurcation of the equation of state posterior in the range 1.5 confidence intervals of the posterior distribution. To identify the power of different data sets in constraining the dark energy equation of state, we use a novel formulation of the Kullback-Leibler divergence. This formalism quantifies the information the data add when moving from priors to posteriors for each possible data set combination. The SNIa and BAO data sets are shown to provide much more constraining power in comparison to the Lyα data sets. Further, SNIa and BAO constrain most strongly around redshift range 0.1-0.5, whilst the Lyα data constrain weakly over a broader range. We do not attribute the supernegative favouring to any particular data set, and note that the ΛCDM model was favoured at more than 2 log-units in Bayes factors over all the models tested despite the weakly preferred w(z) structure in the data.
Electron Capture in a Fully Ionized Plasma
Widom, A; Srivastava, Y N
2014-01-01
Properties of fully ionized water plasmas are discussed including plasma charge density oscillations and the screening of the Coulomb law especially in the dilute classical Debye regime. A kinetic model with two charged particle scattering events determines the transition rate per unit time for electron capture by a nucleus with the resulting nuclear transmutations. Two corrections to the recent Maiani et al. calculations are made: (i) The Debye screening length is only employed within its proper domain of validity. (ii) The WKB approximation employed by Maiani in the long De Broglie wave length limit is evidently invalid. We replace this incorrect approximation with mathematically rigorous Calogero inequalities in order to discuss the scattering wave functions. Having made these corrections, we find a verification for our previous results based on condensed matter electro-weak quantum field theory for nuclear transmutations in chemical batteries.
A fully quantum model of Big Bang
Maydanyuk, Sergei P; Olkhovsky, Vladislav S
2013-01-01
In the paper the closed Friedmann-Robertson-Walker model with quantization in the presence of the positive cosmological constant and radiation is studied. For analysis of tunneling probability for birth of an asymptotically deSitter, inflationary Universe as a function of the radiation energy a new definition of a "free" wave propagating inside strong fields is proposed. On such a basis, tunneling boundary condition is corrected, penetrability and reflection concerning to the barrier are calculated in fully quantum stationary approach. For the first time non-zero interference between the incident and reflected waves has been taken into account which turns out to play important role inside cosmological potentials and could be explained by non-locality of barriers in quantum mechanics. Inside whole region of energy of radiation the tunneling probability for the birth of the inflationary Universe is found to be close to its value obtained in semiclassical approach. The reflection from the barrier is determined f...
Fully Automatic Expression-Invariant Face Correspondence
Salazar, Augusto; Shu, Chang; Prieto, Flavio
2012-01-01
We consider the problem of computing accurate point-to-point correspondences among a set of human face scans with varying expressions. Our fully automatic approach does not require any manually placed markers on the scan. Instead, the approach learns the locations of a set of landmarks present in a database and uses this knowledge to automatically predict the locations of these landmarks on a newly available scan. The predicted landmarks are then used to compute point-to-point correspondences between a template model and the newly available scan. To accurately fit the expression of the template to the expression of the scan, we use as template a blendshape model. Our algorithm was tested on a database of human faces of different ethnic groups with strongly varying expressions. Experimental results show that the obtained point-to-point correspondence is both highly accurate and consistent for most of the tested 3D face models.
Fully compressive tides in galaxy mergers
Renaud, Florent; Naab, Thorsten; Theis, Christian
2009-01-01
The disruptive effect of galactic tides is a textbook example of gravitational dynamics. However, depending on the shape of the potential, tides can also become fully compressive. When that is the case, they might trigger or strengthen the formation of galactic substructures (star clusters, tidal dwarf galaxies), instead of destroying them. We perform N-body simulations of interacting galaxies to quantify this effect. We demonstrate that tidal compression occurs repeatedly during a galaxy merger, independently of the specific choice of parameterization. With a model tailored to the Antennae galaxies, we show that the distribution of compressive tides matches the locations and timescales of observed substructures. After extending our study to a broad range of parameters, we conclude that neither the importance of the compressive tides (~15% of the stellar mass) nor their duration (~ 10 Myr) are strongly affected by changes in the progenitors' configurations and orbits. Moreover, we show that individual clumps ...
Argentina to fully privatize state owned YPF
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
1992-10-05
Argentina's Congress has voted to fully privatize state petroleum company Yacimientos Petroliferos Fiscales (YPF), a move the government expects to net at least $8 billion. Despite some political opposition, the vote was 119-10 in favor, with one abstention and opposition party members refusing to participate in the vote. Argentina's President Carlos Menem had threatened to authorize YPF privatization by decree if there was no quorum for a vote. YPF is responsible for 40% of Argentina's oil production. The country h as been self-sufficient in crude since 1982. Current production is 563,472 b/d, and proved reserves of oil and gas are valued at $7 billion.
A novel fully integrated handheld gamma camera
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Massari, R.; Ucci, A.; Campisi, C. [Biostructure and Bioimaging Institute (IBB), National Research Council of Italy (CNR), Rome (Italy); Scopinaro, F. [University of Rome “La Sapienza”, S. Andrea Hospital, Rome (Italy); Soluri, A., E-mail: alessandro.soluri@ibb.cnr.it [Biostructure and Bioimaging Institute (IBB), National Research Council of Italy (CNR), Rome (Italy)
2016-10-01
In this paper, we present an innovative, fully integrated handheld gamma camera, namely designed to gather in the same device the gamma ray detector with the display and the embedded computing system. The low power consumption allows the prototype to be battery operated. To be useful in radioguided surgery, an intraoperative gamma camera must be very easy to handle since it must be moved to find a suitable view. Consequently, we have developed the first prototype of a fully integrated, compact and lightweight gamma camera for radiopharmaceuticals fast imaging. The device can operate without cables across the sterile field, so it may be easily used in the operating theater for radioguided surgery. The prototype proposed consists of a Silicon Photomultiplier (SiPM) array coupled with a proprietary scintillation structure based on CsI(Tl) crystals. To read the SiPM output signals, we have developed a very low power readout electronics and a dedicated analog to digital conversion system. One of the most critical aspects we faced designing the prototype was the low power consumption, which is mandatory to develop a battery operated device. We have applied this detection device in the lymphoscintigraphy technique (sentinel lymph node mapping) comparing the results obtained with those of a commercial gamma camera (Philips SKYLight). The results obtained confirm a rapid response of the device and an adequate spatial resolution for the use in the scintigraphic imaging. This work confirms the feasibility of a small gamma camera with an integrated display. This device is designed for radioguided surgery and small organ imaging, but it could be easily combined into surgical navigation systems.
A Multilevel Test of Constrained Choices Theory: The Case of Tobacco Clean Air Restrictions.
Vuolo, Mike; Kadowaki, Joy; Kelly, Brian C
2016-09-01
According to Bird and Rieker's sociology of constrained choices, decisions and priorities concerning health are shaped by the contexts-including policy, community, and work/family-in which they are formulated. While each level received attention in the original and subsequent research, we contend their constrained choices theory provides a powerful multilevel framework for modeling health outcomes. We apply this framework to tobacco clean air restrictions, combining a comprehensive database of tobacco policies with the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 from ages 19 to 31. Using multilevel panel models, we find that clean air policies lower the odds of past 30 day smoking and dependence while controlling for other policy-, city-, and individual-level constraints. We also find unique between- and within-person effects, as well as gender effects, for the constraint levied by smoking bans. We argue for the theory's broad applicability beyond commonly cited findings regarding gender and biological influences.
Nomura, Yusuke; Arita, Ryotaro
2015-12-01
We formulate an ab initio downfolding scheme for electron-phonon-coupled systems. In this scheme, we calculate partially renormalized phonon frequencies and electron-phonon coupling, which include the screening effects of high-energy electrons, to construct a realistic Hamiltonian consisting of low-energy electron and phonon degrees of freedom. We show that our scheme can be implemented by slightly modifying the density functional-perturbation theory (DFPT), which is one of the standard methods for calculating phonon properties from first principles. Our scheme, which we call the constrained DFPT, can be applied to various phonon-related problems, such as superconductivity, electron and thermal transport, thermoelectricity, piezoelectricity, dielectricity, and multiferroicity. We believe that the constrained DFPT provides a firm basis for the understanding of the role of phonons in strongly correlated materials. Here, we apply the scheme to fullerene superconductors and discuss how the realistic low-energy Hamiltonian is constructed.
Multibody motion in implicitly constrained director format with links via explicit constraints
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielsen, Martin Bjerre; Krenk, Steen
2013-01-01
A conservative time integration algorithm is developed for constrained mechanical systems of kinematically linked rigid bodies based on convected base vectors. The base vectors are represented in terms of their absolute coordinates, hence the formulation makes use of three translation components......, plus nine base vector components for each rigid body. Both internal and external constraints are considered. Internal constraints are used to enforce orthonormality of the three base vectors by constraining the equivalent Green strain components, while the external constraints are associated...... with the presence of kinematic joints for linking bodies together. The equations of motion are derived from Hamilton’s equations with an augmented Hamiltonian in which internal and external constraints initially are included via Lagrange multipliers. Subsequently the Lagrange multipliers associated with internal...
The Combinatorial Multi-Mode Resource Constrained Multi-Project Scheduling Problem
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Denis Pinha
2016-11-01
Full Text Available This paper presents the formulation and solution of the Combinatorial Multi-Mode Resource Constrained Multi-Project Scheduling Problem. The focus of the proposed method is not on finding a single optimal solution, instead on presenting multiple feasible solutions, with cost and duration information to the project manager. The motivation for developing such an approach is due in part to practical situations where the definition of optimal changes on a regular basis. The proposed approach empowers the project manager to determine what is optimal, on a given day, under the current constraints, such as, change of priorities, lack of skilled worker. The proposed method utilizes a simulation approach to determine feasible solutions, under the current constraints. Resources can be non-consumable, consumable, or doubly constrained. The paper also presents a real-life case study dealing with scheduling of ship repair activities.
Raybould, Alan
2006-01-01
Environmental risk assessments can provide high confidence of minimal risk by testing theories, "risk hypotheses", that predict the likelihood of unacceptable harmful events. The creation of risk hypotheses and a plan to test them is called problem formulation. Effective problem formulation seeks to maximize the possibility of detecting effects that indicate potential risk; if such effects are not detected, minimal risk is indicated with high confidence. Two important implications are that artificial test conditions can increase confidence, whereas prescriptive data requirements can reduce confidence (increase uncertainty) if they constrain problem formulation. Poor problem formulation can increase environmental risk because it leads to the collection of superfluous data that may delay or prevent the introduction of environmentally beneficial products.
Cosmogenic photons strongly constrain UHECR source models
van Vliet, Arjen
2016-01-01
With the newest version of our Monte Carlo code for ultra-high-energy cosmic ray (UHECR) propagation, CRPropa 3, the flux of neutrinos and photons due to interactions of UHECRs with extragalactic background light can be predicted. Together with the recently updated data for the isotropic diffuse gamma-ray background (IGRB) by Fermi LAT, it is now possible to severely constrain UHECR source models. The evolution of the UHECR sources especially plays an important role in the determination of the expected secondary photon spectrum. Pure proton UHECR models are already strongly constrained, primarily by the highest energy bins of Fermi LAT's IGRB, as long as their number density is not strongly peaked at recent times.
Cosmogenic photons strongly constrain UHECR source models
van Vliet, Arjen
2017-03-01
With the newest version of our Monte Carlo code for ultra-high-energy cosmic ray (UHECR) propagation, CRPropa 3, the flux of neutrinos and photons due to interactions of UHECRs with extragalactic background light can be predicted. Together with the recently updated data for the isotropic diffuse gamma-ray background (IGRB) by Fermi LAT, it is now possible to severely constrain UHECR source models. The evolution of the UHECR sources especially plays an important role in the determination of the expected secondary photon spectrum. Pure proton UHECR models are already strongly constrained, primarily by the highest energy bins of Fermi LAT's IGRB, as long as their number density is not strongly peaked at recent times.
A constrained supersymmetric left-right model
Hirsch, Martin; Opferkuch, Toby; Porod, Werner; Staub, Florian
2016-01-01
We present a supersymmetric left-right model which predicts gauge coupling unification close to the string scale and extra vector bosons at the TeV scale. The subtleties in constructing a model which is in agreement with the measured quark masses and mixing for such a low left-right breaking scale are discussed. It is shown that in the constrained version of this model radiative breaking of the gauge symmetries is possible and a SM-like Higgs is obtained. Additional CP-even scalars of a similar mass or even much lighter are possible. The expected mass hierarchies for the supersymmetric states differ clearly from those of the constrained MSSM. In particular, the lightest down-type squark, which is a mixture of the sbottom and extra vector-like states, is always lighter than the stop. We also comment on the model's capability to explain current anomalies observed at the LHC.
Cosmogenic photons strongly constrain UHECR source models
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
van Vliet Arjen
2017-01-01
Full Text Available With the newest version of our Monte Carlo code for ultra-high-energy cosmic ray (UHECR propagation, CRPropa 3, the flux of neutrinos and photons due to interactions of UHECRs with extragalactic background light can be predicted. Together with the recently updated data for the isotropic diffuse gamma-ray background (IGRB by Fermi LAT, it is now possible to severely constrain UHECR source models. The evolution of the UHECR sources especially plays an important role in the determination of the expected secondary photon spectrum. Pure proton UHECR models are already strongly constrained, primarily by the highest energy bins of Fermi LAT’s IGRB, as long as their number density is not strongly peaked at recent times.
Global marine primary production constrains fisheries catches.
Chassot, Emmanuel; Bonhommeau, Sylvain; Dulvy, Nicholas K; Mélin, Frédéric; Watson, Reg; Gascuel, Didier; Le Pape, Olivier
2010-04-01
Primary production must constrain the amount of fish and invertebrates available to expanding fisheries; however the degree of limitation has only been demonstrated at regional scales to date. Here we show that phytoplanktonic primary production, estimated from an ocean-colour satellite (SeaWiFS), is related to global fisheries catches at the scale of Large Marine Ecosystems, while accounting for temperature and ecological factors such as ecosystem size and type, species richness, animal body size, and the degree and nature of fisheries exploitation. Indeed we show that global fisheries catches since 1950 have been increasingly constrained by the amount of primary production. The primary production appropriated by current global fisheries is 17-112% higher than that appropriated by sustainable fisheries. Global primary production appears to be declining, in some part due to climate variability and change, with consequences for the near future fisheries catches.
CONSTRAINED SPECTRAL CLUSTERING FOR IMAGE SEGMENTATION
Sourati, Jamshid; Brooks, Dana H.; Dy, Jennifer G.; Erdogmus, Deniz
2013-01-01
Constrained spectral clustering with affinity propagation in its original form is not practical for large scale problems like image segmentation. In this paper we employ novelty selection sub-sampling strategy, besides using efficient numerical eigen-decomposition methods to make this algorithm work efficiently for images. In addition, entropy-based active learning is also employed to select the queries posed to the user more wisely in an interactive image segmentation framework. We evaluate the algorithm on general and medical images to show that the segmentation results will improve using constrained clustering even if one works with a subset of pixels. Furthermore, this happens more efficiently when pixels to be labeled are selected actively. PMID:24466500
Doubly Constrained Robust Blind Beamforming Algorithm
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xin Song
2013-01-01
Full Text Available We propose doubly constrained robust least-squares constant modulus algorithm (LSCMA to solve the problem of signal steering vector mismatches via the Bayesian method and worst-case performance optimization, which is based on the mismatches between the actual and presumed steering vectors. The weight vector is iteratively updated with penalty for the worst-case signal steering vector by the partial Taylor-series expansion and Lagrange multiplier method, in which the Lagrange multipliers can be optimally derived and incorporated at each step. A theoretical analysis for our proposed algorithm in terms of complexity cost, convergence performance, and SINR performance is presented in this paper. In contrast to the linearly constrained LSCMA, the proposed algorithm provides better robustness against the signal steering vector mismatches, yields higher signal captive performance, improves greater array output SINR, and has a lower computational cost. The simulation results confirm the superiority of the proposed algorithm on beampattern control and output SINR enhancement.
How peer-review constrains cognition
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Cowley, Stephen
2015-01-01
Peer-review is neither reliable, fair, nor a valid basis for predicting ‘impact’: as quality control, peer-review is not fit for purpose. Endorsing the consensus, I offer a reframing: while a normative social process, peer-review also shapes the writing of a scientific paper. In so far...... as ‘cognition’ describes enabling conditions for flexible behavior, the practices of peer-review thus constrain knowledge-making. To pursue cognitive functions of peer-review, however, manuscripts must be seen as ‘symbolizations’, replicable patterns that use technologically enabled activity. On this bio......-cognitive view, peer-review constrains knowledge-making by writers, editors, reviewers. Authors are prompted to recursively re-aggregate symbolizations to present what are deemed acceptable knowledge claims. How, then, can recursive re-embodiment be explored? In illustration, I sketch how the paper’s own content...
Constraining neutron star matter with Quantum Chromodynamics
Kurkela, Aleksi; Schaffner-Bielich, Jurgen; Vuorinen, Aleksi
2014-01-01
In recent years, there have been several successful attempts to constrain the equation of state of neutron star matter using input from low-energy nuclear physics and observational data. We demonstrate that significant further restrictions can be placed by additionally requiring the pressure to approach that of deconfined quark matter at high densities. Remarkably, the new constraints turn out to be highly insensitive to the amount --- or even presence --- of quark matter inside the stars.
Constraining neutron star matter with quantum chromodynamics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kurkela, Aleksi [Physics Department, Theory Unit, CERN, CH-1211 Genève 23 (Switzerland); Fraga, Eduardo S.; Schaffner-Bielich, Jürgen [Institute for Theoretical Physics, Goethe University, D-60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Vuorinen, Aleksi [Department of Physics and Helsinki Institute of Physics, P.O. Box 64, FI-00014 University of Helsinki (Finland)
2014-07-10
In recent years, there have been several successful attempts to constrain the equation of state of neutron star matter using input from low-energy nuclear physics and observational data. We demonstrate that significant further restrictions can be placed by additionally requiring the pressure to approach that of deconfined quark matter at high densities. Remarkably, the new constraints turn out to be highly insensitive to the amount—or even presence—of quark matter inside the stars.
Constraining Neutron Star Matter with Quantum Chromodynamics
Kurkela, Aleksi; Fraga, Eduardo S.; Schaffner-Bielich, Jürgen; Vuorinen, Aleksi
2014-07-01
In recent years, there have been several successful attempts to constrain the equation of state of neutron star matter using input from low-energy nuclear physics and observational data. We demonstrate that significant further restrictions can be placed by additionally requiring the pressure to approach that of deconfined quark matter at high densities. Remarkably, the new constraints turn out to be highly insensitive to the amount—or even presence—of quark matter inside the stars.
Optimal constrained layer damping with partial coverage
Marcelin, J.-L.; Trompette, Ph.; Smati, A.
1992-12-01
This paper deals with the optimal damping of beams constrained by viscoelastic layers when only one or several portions of the beam are covered. An efficient finite element model for dynamic analysis of such beams is used. The design variables are the dimensions and prescribed locations of the viscoelastic layers and the objective is the maximum viscoelastic damping factor. The method for nonlinear programming in structural optimization is the so-called method of moving asymptotes.
Synthesis of constrained analogues of tryptophan
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Elisabetta Rossi
2015-10-01
Full Text Available A Lewis acid-catalysed diastereoselective [4 + 2] cycloaddition of vinylindoles and methyl 2-acetamidoacrylate, leading to methyl 3-acetamido-1,2,3,4-tetrahydrocarbazole-3-carboxylate derivatives, is described. Treatment of the obtained cycloadducts under hydrolytic conditions results in the preparation of a small library of compounds bearing the free amino acid function at C-3 and pertaining to the class of constrained tryptophan analogues.
Capacity constrained assignment in spatial databases
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
U, Leong Hou; Yiu, Man Lung; Mouratidis, Kyriakos;
2008-01-01
Given a point set P of customers (e.g., WiFi receivers) and a point set Q of service providers (e.g., wireless access points), where each q 2 Q has a capacity q.k, the capacity constrained assignment (CCA) is a matching M Q × P such that (i) each point q 2 Q (p 2 P) appears at most k times (at most...
CONSTRAINED SPECTRAL CLUSTERING FOR IMAGE SEGMENTATION
Sourati, Jamshid; Brooks, Dana H.; Dy, Jennifer G.; Erdogmus, Deniz
2012-01-01
Constrained spectral clustering with affinity propagation in its original form is not practical for large scale problems like image segmentation. In this paper we employ novelty selection sub-sampling strategy, besides using efficient numerical eigen-decomposition methods to make this algorithm work efficiently for images. In addition, entropy-based active learning is also employed to select the queries posed to the user more wisely in an interactive image segmentation framework. We evaluate ...
Constrained simulation of the Bullet Cluster
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lage, Craig; Farrar, Glennys, E-mail: csl336@nyu.edu [Center for Cosmology and Particle Physics, Department of Physics, New York University, New York, NY 10003 (United States)
2014-06-01
In this work, we report on a detailed simulation of the Bullet Cluster (1E0657-56) merger, including magnetohydrodynamics, plasma cooling, and adaptive mesh refinement. We constrain the simulation with data from gravitational lensing reconstructions and the 0.5-2 keV Chandra X-ray flux map, then compare the resulting model to higher energy X-ray fluxes, the extracted plasma temperature map, Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect measurements, and cluster halo radio emission. We constrain the initial conditions by minimizing the chi-squared figure of merit between the full two-dimensional (2D) observational data sets and the simulation, rather than comparing only a few features such as the location of subcluster centroids, as in previous studies. A simple initial configuration of two triaxial clusters with Navarro-Frenk-White dark matter profiles and physically reasonable plasma profiles gives a good fit to the current observational morphology and X-ray emissions of the merging clusters. There is no need for unconventional physics or extreme infall velocities. The study gives insight into the astrophysical processes at play during a galaxy cluster merger, and constrains the strength and coherence length of the magnetic fields. The techniques developed here to create realistic, stable, triaxial clusters, and to utilize the totality of the 2D image data, will be applicable to future simulation studies of other merging clusters. This approach of constrained simulation, when applied to well-measured systems, should be a powerful complement to present tools for understanding X-ray clusters and their magnetic fields, and the processes governing their formation.
Constraining RRc candidates using SDSS colours
Bányai, E; Molnár, L; Dobos, L; Szabó, R
2016-01-01
The light variations of first-overtone RR Lyrae stars and contact eclipsing binaries can be difficult to distinguish. The Catalina Periodic Variable Star catalog contains several misclassified objects, despite the classification efforts by Drake et al. (2014). They used metallicity and surface gravity derived from spectroscopic data (from the SDSS database) to rule out binaries. Our aim is to further constrain the catalog using SDSS colours to estimate physical parameters for stars that did not have spectroscopic data.
Cardinality constrained portfolio selection via factor models
Monge, Juan Francisco
2017-01-01
In this paper we propose and discuss different 0-1 linear models in order to solve the cardinality constrained portfolio problem by using factor models. Factor models are used to build portfolios to track indexes, together with other objectives, also need a smaller number of parameters to estimate than the classical Markowitz model. The addition of the cardinality constraints limits the number of securities in the portfolio. Restricting the number of securities in the portfolio allows us to o...
Formulating Policy for Summer Schools.
Marriot, Helen
1991-01-01
Explores issues relating to the formulation of policy for summer programs for language learning, describing one university's experience with student demand, student motivation and progress, course timing and structure, academic staffing, administrative organization, student and staff evaluation, and funding. (three references) (CB)
Hyperbolic Formulation of General Relativity
Abrahams, A M; Choquet-Bruhat, Y; York, J W; Abrahams, Andrew; Anderson, Arlen; Choquet-Bruhat, Yvonne; York, James W.
1998-01-01
Two geometrical well-posed hyperbolic formulations of general relativity are described. One admits any time-slicing which preserves a generalized harmonic condition. The other admits arbitrary time-slicings. Both systems have only the physical characteristic speeds of zero and the speed of light.
Exploring the Constrained Maximum Edge-weight Connected Graph Problem
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Zhen-ping Li; Shi-hua Zhang; Xiang-Sun Zhang; Luo-nan Chen
2009-01-01
Given an edge weighted graph,the maximum edge-weight connected graph (MECG) is a connected subgraph with a given number of edges and the maximal weight sum.Here we study a special case,i.e.the Constrained Maximum Edge-Weight Connected Graph problem (CMECG),which is an MECG whose candidate subgraphs must include a given set of k edges,then also called the k-CMECG.We formulate the k-CMECG into an integer linear programming model based on the network flow problem.The k-CMECG is proved to be NP-hard.For the special case 1-CMECG,we propose an exact algorithm and a heuristic algorithm respectively.We also propose a heuristic algorithm for the k-CMECG problem.Some simulations have been done to analyze the quality of these algorithms.Moreover,we show that the algorithm for 1-CMECG problem can lead to the solution of the general MECG problem.
Constrained spacecraft reorientation using mixed integer convex programming
Tam, Margaret; Glenn Lightsey, E.
2016-10-01
A constrained attitude guidance (CAG) system is developed using convex optimization to autonomously achieve spacecraft pointing objectives while meeting the constraints imposed by on-board hardware. These constraints include bounds on the control input and slew rate, as well as pointing constraints imposed by the sensors. The pointing constraints consist of inclusion and exclusion cones that dictate permissible orientations of the spacecraft in order to keep objects in or out of the field of view of the sensors. The optimization scheme drives a body vector towards a target inertial vector along a trajectory that consists solely of permissible orientations in order to achieve the desired attitude for a given mission mode. The non-convex rotational kinematics are handled by discretization, which also ensures that the quaternion stays unity norm. In order to guarantee an admissible path, the pointing constraints are relaxed. Depending on how strict the pointing constraints are, the degree of relaxation is tuneable. The use of binary variables permits the inclusion of logical expressions in the pointing constraints in the case that a set of sensors has redundancies. The resulting mixed integer convex programming (MICP) formulation generates a steering law that can be easily integrated into an attitude determination and control (ADC) system. A sample simulation of the system is performed for the Bevo-2 satellite, including disturbance torques and actuator dynamics which are not modeled by the controller. Simulation results demonstrate the robustness of the system to disturbances while meeting the mission requirements with desirable performance characteristics.
Robust integrated autopilot/autothrottle design using constrained parameter optimization
Ly, Uy-Loi; Voth, Christopher; Sanjay, Swamy
1990-01-01
A multivariable control design method based on constrained parameter optimization was applied to the design of a multiloop aircraft flight control system. Specifically, the design method is applied to the following: (1) direct synthesis of a multivariable 'inner-loop' feedback control system based on total energy control principles; (2) synthesis of speed/altitude-hold designs as 'outer-loop' feedback/feedforward control systems around the above inner loop; and (3) direct synthesis of a combined 'inner-loop' and 'outer-loop' multivariable control system. The design procedure offers a direct and structured approach for the determination of a set of controller gains that meet design specifications in closed-loop stability, command tracking performance, disturbance rejection, and limits on control activities. The presented approach may be applied to a broader class of multiloop flight control systems. Direct tradeoffs between many real design goals are rendered systematic by this method following careful problem formulation of the design objectives and constraints. Performance characteristics of the optimization design were improved over the current autopilot design on the B737-100 Transport Research Vehicle (TSRV) at the landing approach and cruise flight conditions; particularly in the areas of closed-loop damping, command responses, and control activity in the presence of turbulence.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nachbagauer, Karin, E-mail: karin.nachbagauer@jku.at; Pechstein, Astrid S., E-mail: astrid.pechstein@jku.at; Irschik, Hans, E-mail: hans.irschik@jku.at [Johannes Kepler University Linz, Institute of Technical Mechanics (Austria); Gerstmayr, Johannes, E-mail: johannes.gerstmayr@lcm.at [Linz Center of Mechatronics GmbH (Austria)
2011-10-15
Many widely used beam finite element formulations are based either on Reissner's classical nonlinear rod theory or the absolute nodal coordinate formulation (ANCF). Advantages of the second method have been pointed out by several authors; among the benefits are the constant mass matrix of ANCF elements, the isoparametric approach and the existence of a consistent displacement field along the whole cross section. Consistency of the displacement field allows simpler, alternative formulations for contact problems or inelastic materials. Despite conceptional differences of the two formulations, the two models are unified in the present paper.In many applications, a nonlinear large deformation beam element with bending, axial and shear deformation properties is needed. In the present paper, linear and quadratic ANCF shear deformable beam finite elements are presented. A new locking-free continuum mechanics based formulation is compared to the classical Simo and Vu-Quoc formulation based on Reissner's virtual work of internal forces. Additionally, the introduced linear and quadratic ANCF elements are compared to a fully parameterized ANCF element from the literature. The performance of the respective elements is evaluated through analysis of conventional static and dynamic example problems. The investigation shows that the obtained linear and quadratic ANCF elements are advantageous compared to the original fully parameterized ANCF element.
Constrained and joint inversion on unstructured meshes
Doetsch, J.; Jordi, C.; Rieckh, V.; Guenther, T.; Schmelzbach, C.
2015-12-01
Unstructured meshes allow for inclusion of arbitrary surface topography, complex acquisition geometry and undulating geological interfaces in the inversion of geophysical data. This flexibility opens new opportunities for coupling different geophysical and hydrological data sets in constrained and joint inversions. For example, incorporating geological interfaces that have been derived from high-resolution geophysical data (e.g., ground penetrating radar) can add geological constraints to inversions of electrical resistivity data. These constraints can be critical for a hydrogeological interpretation of the inversion results. For time-lapse inversions of geophysical data, constraints can be derived from hydrological point measurements in boreholes, but it is difficult to include these hard constraints in the inversion of electrical resistivity monitoring data. Especially mesh density and the regularization footprint around the hydrological point measurements are important for an improved inversion compared to the unconstrained case. With the help of synthetic and field examples, we analyze how regularization and coupling operators should be chosen for time-lapse inversions constrained by point measurements and for joint inversions of geophysical data in order to take full advantage of the flexibility of unstructured meshes. For the case of constraining to point measurements, it is important to choose a regularization operator that extends beyond the neighboring cells and the uncertainty in the point measurements needs to be accounted for. For joint inversion, the choice of the regularization depends on the expected subsurface heterogeneity and the cell size of the parameter mesh.
HCV management in resource-constrained countries.
Lim, Seng Gee
2017-02-21
With the arrival of all-oral directly acting antiviral (DAA) therapy with high cure rates, the promise of hepatitis C virus (HCV) eradication is within closer reach. The availability of generic DAAs has improved access to countries with constrained resources. However, therapy is only one component of the HCV care continuum, which is the framework for HCV management from identifying patients to cure. The large number of undiagnosed HCV cases is the biggest concern, and strategies to address this are needed, as risk factor screening is suboptimal, detecting HCV confirmation through either reflex HCV RNA screening or ideally a sensitive point of care test are needed. HCV notification (e.g., Australia) may improve diagnosis (proportion of HCV diagnosed is 75%) and may lead to benefits by increasing linkage to care, therapy and cure. Evaluations for cirrhosis using non-invasive markers are best done with a biological panel, but they are only moderately accurate. In resource-constrained settings, only generic HCV medications are available, and a combination of sofosbuvir, ribavirin, ledipasvir or daclatasvir provides sufficient efficacy for all genotypes, but this is likely to be replaced with pangenetypic regimens such as sofosbuvir/velpatasvir and glecaprevir/pibrentaasvir. In conclusion, HCV management in resource-constrained settings is challenging on multiple fronts because of the lack of infrastructure, facilities, trained manpower and equipment. However, it is still possible to make a significant impact towards HCV eradication through a concerted effort by individuals and national organisations with domain expertise in this area.
Cosmicflows Constrained Local UniversE Simulations
Sorce, Jenny G; Yepes, Gustavo; Hoffman, Yehuda; Courtois, Helene M; Steinmetz, Matthias; Tully, R Brent; Pomarede, Daniel; Carlesi, Edoardo
2015-01-01
This paper combines observational datasets and cosmological simulations to generate realistic numerical replicas of the nearby Universe. These latter are excellent laboratories for studies of the non-linear process of structure formation in our neighborhood. With measurements of radial peculiar velocities in the Local Universe (cosmicflows-2) and a newly developed technique, we produce Constrained Local UniversE Simulations (CLUES). To assess the quality of these constrained simulations, we compare them with random simulations as well as with local observations. The cosmic variance, defined as the mean one-sigma scatter of cell-to-cell comparison between two fields, is significantly smaller for the constrained simulations than for the random simulations. Within the inner part of the box where most of the constraints are, the scatter is smaller by a factor 2 to 3 on a 5 Mpc/h scale with respect to that found for random simulations. This one-sigma scatter obtained when comparing the simulated and the observatio...
An English language interface for constrained domains
Page, Brenda J.
1989-01-01
The Multi-Satellite Operations Control Center (MSOCC) Jargon Interpreter (MJI) demonstrates an English language interface for a constrained domain. A constrained domain is defined as one with a small and well delineated set of actions and objects. The set of actions chosen for the MJI is from the domain of MSOCC Applications Executive (MAE) Systems Test and Operations Language (STOL) directives and contains directives for signing a cathode ray tube (CRT) on or off, calling up or clearing a display page, starting or stopping a procedure, and controlling history recording. The set of objects chosen consists of CRTs, display pages, STOL procedures, and history files. Translation from English sentences to STOL directives is done in two phases. In the first phase, an augmented transition net (ATN) parser and dictionary are used for determining grammatically correct parsings of input sentences. In the second phase, grammatically typed sentences are submitted to a forward-chaining rule-based system for interpretation and translation into equivalent MAE STOL directives. Tests of the MJI show that it is able to translate individual clearly stated sentences into the subset of directives selected for the prototype. This approach to an English language interface may be used for similarly constrained situations by modifying the MJI's dictionary and rules to reflect the change of domain.
Constraining the mass of the Local Group
Carlesi, Edoardo; Hoffman, Yehuda; Sorce, Jenny G.; Gottlöber, Stefan
2017-03-01
The mass of the Local Group (LG) is a crucial parameter for galaxy formation theories. However, its observational determination is challenging - its mass budget is dominated by dark matter that cannot be directly observed. To meet this end, the posterior distributions of the LG and its massive constituents have been constructed by means of constrained and random cosmological simulations. Two priors are assumed - the Λ cold dark matter model that is used to set up the simulations, and an LG model that encodes the observational knowledge of the LG and is used to select LG-like objects from the simulations. The constrained simulations are designed to reproduce the local cosmography as it is imprinted on to the Cosmicflows-2 data base of velocities. Several prescriptions are used to define the LG model, focusing in particular on different recent estimates of the tangential velocity of M31. It is found that (a) different vtan choices affect the peak mass values up to a factor of 2, and change mass ratios of MM31 to MMW by up to 20 per cent; (b) constrained simulations yield more sharply peaked posterior distributions compared with the random ones; (c) LG mass estimates are found to be smaller than those found using the timing argument; (d) preferred Milky Way masses lie in the range of (0.6-0.8) × 1012 M⊙; whereas (e) MM31 is found to vary between (1.0-2.0) × 1012 M⊙, with a strong dependence on the vtan values used.
Constraining Source Redshift Distributions with Gravitational Lensing
Wittman, D
2012-01-01
We introduce a new method for constraining the redshift distribution of a set of galaxies, using weak gravitational lensing shear. Instead of using observed shears and redshifts to constrain cosmological parameters, we ask how well the shears around clusters can constrain the redshifts, assuming fixed cosmological parameters. This provides a check on photometric redshifts, independent of source spectral energy distribution properties and therefore free of confounding factors such as misidentification of spectral breaks. We find that ~40 massive ($\\sigma_v=1200$ km/s) cluster lenses are sufficient to determine the fraction of sources in each of six coarse redshift bins to ~11%, given weak (20%) priors on the masses of the highest-redshift lenses, tight (5%) priors on the masses of the lowest-redshift lenses, and only modest (20-50%) priors on calibration and evolution effects. Additional massive lenses drive down uncertainties as $N_{lens}^0.5$, but the improvement slows as one is forced to use lenses further ...
The canonical equilibrium of constrained molecular models
Echenique, Pablo; García-Risueño, Pablo
2011-01-01
In order to increase the efficiency of the computer simulation of biological molecules, it is very common to impose holonomic constraints on the fastest degrees of freedom; normally bond lengths, but also possibly bond angles. However, as any other element that affects the physical model, the imposition of constraints must be assessed from the point of view of accuracy: both the dynamics and the equilibrium statistical mechanics are model-dependent, and they will be changed if constraints are used. In this review, we investigate the accuracy of constrained models at the level of the equilibrium statistical mechanics distributions produced by the different dynamics. We carefully derive the canonical equilibrium distributions of both the constrained and unconstrained dynamics, comparing the two of them by means of a "stiff" approximation to the latter. We do so both in the case of flexible and hard constraints, i.e., when the value of the constrained coordinates depends on the conformation and when it is a cons...
Zhou, Weiming; Meng, Lingpu; Lu, Jie; Wang, Zhen; Zhang, Wenhua; Huang, Ningdong; Chen, Liang; Li, Liangbin
2015-07-07
The effect of flow on crystallization is commonly attributed to entropic reduction, which is caused by stretch and orientation of polymer chains but overlooks the role of flow on final-state free energy. With the aid of in situ synchrotron radiation wide-angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD) and a homemade constrained uniaxial tensile testing machine, polycrystals possessing single-crystal-like orientation rather than uniaxial orientation are found during the constrained stretch of natural rubber, whereas the c-axis and a-axis align in the stretch direction (SD) and constrained direction (CD), respectively. Molecular dynamics simulation shows that aligning the a-axis of crystal nuclei in CD leads to the lowest free energy increase and favors crystal nucleation. This indicates that the nomenclature of strain-induced crystallization may not fully account for the nature of flow-induced crystallization (FIC) as strain mainly emphasizes the entropic reduction of initial melt, whereas stress rather than strain plays the dominant role in crystal deformation. The current work not only contributes to a comprehensive understanding of the mechanism of flow-induced crystallization but also demonstrates the potential application of constrained uniaxial tensile stretch for the creation of functional materials containing polycrystals that possess single-crystal-like orientation.
Fully Parallel MHD Stability Analysis Tool
Svidzinski, Vladimir; Galkin, Sergei; Kim, Jin-Soo; Liu, Yueqiang
2015-11-01
Progress on full parallelization of the plasma stability code MARS will be reported. MARS calculates eigenmodes in 2D axisymmetric toroidal equilibria in MHD-kinetic plasma models. It is a powerful tool for studying MHD and MHD-kinetic instabilities and it is widely used by fusion community. Parallel version of MARS is intended for simulations on local parallel clusters. It will be an efficient tool for simulation of MHD instabilities with low, intermediate and high toroidal mode numbers within both fluid and kinetic plasma models, already implemented in MARS. Parallelization of the code includes parallelization of the construction of the matrix for the eigenvalue problem and parallelization of the inverse iterations algorithm, implemented in MARS for the solution of the formulated eigenvalue problem. Construction of the matrix is parallelized by distributing the load among processors assigned to different magnetic surfaces. Parallelization of the solution of the eigenvalue problem is made by repeating steps of the present MARS algorithm using parallel libraries and procedures. Results of MARS parallelization and of the development of a new fix boundary equilibrium code adapted for MARS input will be reported. Work is supported by the U.S. DOE SBIR program.
Engineering aspects of a fully mirrored endoscope
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Terra, A., E-mail: a.terra@fz-juelich.de [Institute for Energy and Climate Research IEK-4 (Plasma Physics), Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, Assoc. EURATOM-FZJ, Member of the Trilateral Euregio Cluster, D-52425 Jülich (Germany); Huber, A.; Schweer, B.; Mertens, Ph. [Institute for Energy and Climate Research IEK-4 (Plasma Physics), Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, Assoc. EURATOM-FZJ, Member of the Trilateral Euregio Cluster, D-52425 Jülich (Germany); Arnoux, G.; Balshaw, N. [Euratom-CCFE Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Brezinsek, S. [Institute for Energy and Climate Research IEK-4 (Plasma Physics), Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, Assoc. EURATOM-FZJ, Member of the Trilateral Euregio Cluster, D-52425 Jülich (Germany); Egner, S.; Hartl, M.; Kampf, D. [Kayser-Threde GmbH, D-81379 Munich (Germany); Klammer, J. [KRP-Mechatec Engineering GbR, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Lambertz, H.T. [Institute for Energy and Climate Research IEK-4 (Plasma Physics), Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, Assoc. EURATOM-FZJ, Member of the Trilateral Euregio Cluster, D-52425 Jülich (Germany); Morlock, C.; Murari, A. [EFDA-CSU, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Reindl, M. [KRP-Mechatec Engineering GbR, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Sanders, S. [Euratom-CCFE Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Sergienko, G. [Institute for Energy and Climate Research IEK-4 (Plasma Physics), Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, Assoc. EURATOM-FZJ, Member of the Trilateral Euregio Cluster, D-52425 Jülich (Germany); Spencer, G. [Euratom-CCFE Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); and others
2013-10-15
Highlights: ► Replacement of JET diagnostics to match the new ITER-like Wall. ► The endoscope test ITER-like design with only mirror based optics. ► Withstanding and diagnostic capability during Plasma operation and disruptions. ► Engineering process from design to installation and procurement. -- Abstract: The development of optical diagnostics, like endoscopes, compatible with the ITER environment (metallic plasma facing components, neutron proof optics, etc.) is a challenge, but current tokamaks such as JET provide opportunities to test fully working concepts. This paper describes the engineering aspects of a fully mirrored endoscope that has recently been designed, procured and installed on JET. The system must operate in a very strict environment with high temperature, high magnetic fields up to B = 4 T and rapid field variations (∂B/∂t ∼ 100 T/s) that induce high stresses due to eddy currents in the front mirror assembly. It must be designed to withstand high mechanical loads especially during disruptions, which lead to acceleration of about 7 g at 14 Hz. For the JET endoscope, when the plasma thermal loading, direct and indirect, was added to the assumed disruption loads, the reserve factor, defined as a ratio of yield strength over summed up von Mises stresses, was close to 1 for the mirror components. To ensure reliable operation, several analyses were performed to evaluate the thermo-mechanical performance of the endoscope and a final validation was obtained from mechanical and thermal tests, before the system's final installation in May 2011. During the tests, stability of the field of view angle variation was kept below 1° despite the high thermal gradient on endoscope head (∂T/∂x ∼ 500 K/m). In parallel, to ensure long time operation and to prevent undesirable performance degradation, a shutter system was also implemented in order to reduce impurity deposition on in-vessel mirrors but also to allow in situ transmission
Fully 3D refraction correction dosimetry system
Manjappa, Rakesh; Sharath Makki, S.; Kumar, Rajesh; Mohan Vasu, Ram; Kanhirodan, Rajan
2016-02-01
The irradiation of selective regions in a polymer gel dosimeter results in an increase in optical density and refractive index (RI) at those regions. An optical tomography-based dosimeter depends on rayline path through the dosimeter to estimate and reconstruct the dose distribution. The refraction of light passing through a dose region results in artefacts in the reconstructed images. These refraction errors are dependant on the scanning geometry and collection optics. We developed a fully 3D image reconstruction algorithm, algebraic reconstruction technique-refraction correction (ART-rc) that corrects for the refractive index mismatches present in a gel dosimeter scanner not only at the boundary, but also for any rayline refraction due to multiple dose regions inside the dosimeter. In this study, simulation and experimental studies have been carried out to reconstruct a 3D dose volume using 2D CCD measurements taken for various views. The study also focuses on the effectiveness of using different refractive-index matching media surrounding the gel dosimeter. Since the optical density is assumed to be low for a dosimeter, the filtered backprojection is routinely used for reconstruction. We carry out the reconstructions using conventional algebraic reconstruction (ART) and refractive index corrected ART (ART-rc) algorithms. The reconstructions based on FDK algorithm for cone-beam tomography has also been carried out for comparison. Line scanners and point detectors, are used to obtain reconstructions plane by plane. The rays passing through dose region with a RI mismatch does not reach the detector in the same plane depending on the angle of incidence and RI. In the fully 3D scanning setup using 2D array detectors, light rays that undergo refraction are still collected and hence can still be accounted for in the reconstruction algorithm. It is found that, for the central region of the dosimeter, the usable radius using ART-rc algorithm with water as RI matched
Fully 3D refraction correction dosimetry system.
Manjappa, Rakesh; Makki, S Sharath; Kumar, Rajesh; Vasu, Ram Mohan; Kanhirodan, Rajan
2016-02-21
The irradiation of selective regions in a polymer gel dosimeter results in an increase in optical density and refractive index (RI) at those regions. An optical tomography-based dosimeter depends on rayline path through the dosimeter to estimate and reconstruct the dose distribution. The refraction of light passing through a dose region results in artefacts in the reconstructed images. These refraction errors are dependant on the scanning geometry and collection optics. We developed a fully 3D image reconstruction algorithm, algebraic reconstruction technique-refraction correction (ART-rc) that corrects for the refractive index mismatches present in a gel dosimeter scanner not only at the boundary, but also for any rayline refraction due to multiple dose regions inside the dosimeter. In this study, simulation and experimental studies have been carried out to reconstruct a 3D dose volume using 2D CCD measurements taken for various views. The study also focuses on the effectiveness of using different refractive-index matching media surrounding the gel dosimeter. Since the optical density is assumed to be low for a dosimeter, the filtered backprojection is routinely used for reconstruction. We carry out the reconstructions using conventional algebraic reconstruction (ART) and refractive index corrected ART (ART-rc) algorithms. The reconstructions based on FDK algorithm for cone-beam tomography has also been carried out for comparison. Line scanners and point detectors, are used to obtain reconstructions plane by plane. The rays passing through dose region with a RI mismatch does not reach the detector in the same plane depending on the angle of incidence and RI. In the fully 3D scanning setup using 2D array detectors, light rays that undergo refraction are still collected and hence can still be accounted for in the reconstruction algorithm. It is found that, for the central region of the dosimeter, the usable radius using ART-rc algorithm with water as RI matched
The recursion operator for a constrained CKP hierarchy
Li, Chuanzhong; He, Jingsong; Cheng, Yi
2010-01-01
This paper gives a recursion operator for a 1-constrained CKP hierarchy, and by the recursion operator it proves that the 1-constrained CKP hierarchy can be reduced to the mKdV hierarchy under condition $q=r$.
Technical Note: Methods for interval constrained atmospheric inversion of methane
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
J. Tang
2010-08-01
Full Text Available Three interval constrained methods, including the interval constrained Kalman smoother, the interval constrained maximum likelihood ensemble smoother and the interval constrained ensemble Kalman smoother are developed to conduct inversions of atmospheric trace gas methane (CH_{4}. The negative values of fluxes in an unconstrained inversion are avoided in the constrained inversion. In a multi-year inversion experiment using pseudo observations derived from a forward transport simulation with known fluxes, the interval constrained fixed-lag Kalman smoother presents the best results, followed by the interval constrained fixed-lag ensemble Kalman smoother and the interval constrained maximum likelihood ensemble Kalman smoother. Consistent uncertainties are obtained for the posterior fluxes with these three methods. This study provides alternatives of the variable transform method to deal with interval constraints in atmospheric inversions.
The recursion operator for a constrained CKP hierarchy
Li, Chuanzhong; Tian, Kelei; He, Jingsong; Cheng, Yi
2010-01-01
This paper gives a recursion operator for a 1-constrained CKP hierarchy, and by the recursion operator it proves that the 1-constrained CKP hierarchy can be reduced to the mKdV hierarchy under condition $q=r$.
Fully Mechanically Controlled Automated Electron Microscopic Tomography
Liu, Jinxin; Li, Hongchang; Zhang, Lei; Rames, Matthew; Zhang, Meng; Yu, Yadong; Peng, Bo; Celis, César Díaz; Xu, April; Zou, Qin; Yang, Xu; Chen, Xuefeng; Ren, Gang
2016-07-01
Knowledge of three-dimensional (3D) structures of each individual particles of asymmetric and flexible proteins is essential in understanding those proteins’ functions; but their structures are difficult to determine. Electron tomography (ET) provides a tool for imaging a single and unique biological object from a series of tilted angles, but it is challenging to image a single protein for three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction due to the imperfect mechanical control capability of the specimen goniometer under both a medium to high magnification (approximately 50,000–160,000×) and an optimized beam coherence condition. Here, we report a fully mechanical control method for automating ET data acquisition without using beam tilt/shift processes. This method could reduce the accumulation of beam tilt/shift that used to compensate the error from the mechanical control, but downgraded the beam coherence. Our method was developed by minimizing the error of the target object center during the tilting process through a closed-loop proportional-integral (PI) control algorithm. The validations by both negative staining (NS) and cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) suggest that this method has a comparable capability to other ET methods in tracking target proteins while maintaining optimized beam coherence conditions for imaging.
Fully printed flexible carbon nanotube photodetectors
Zhang, Suoming; Cai, Le; Wang, Tongyu; Miao, Jinshui; Sepúlveda, Nelson; Wang, Chuan
2017-03-01
Here, we report fully printed flexible photodetectors based on single-wall carbon nanotubes and the study of their electrical characteristics under laser illumination. Due to the photothermal effect and the use of high purity semiconducting carbon nanotubes, the devices exhibit gate-voltage-dependent photoresponse with the positive photocurrent or semiconductor-like behavior (conductivity increases at elevated temperatures) under positive gate biases and the negative photocurrent or metal-like behavior (conductivity decreases at elevated temperatures) under negative gate biases. Mechanism for such photoresponse is attributed to the different temperature dependencies of carrier concentration and carrier mobility, which are two competing factors that ultimately determine the photothermal effect-based photoresponse. The photodetectors built on the polyimide substrate also exhibit superior mechanical compliance and stable photoresponse after thousands of bending cycles down to a curvature radius as small as 3 mm. Furthermore, due to the low thermal conductivity of the plastic substrate, the devices show up to 6.5 fold improvement in responsivity compared to the devices built on the silicon substrate. The results presented here provide a viable path to low cost and high performance flexible photodetectors fabricated entirely by the printing process.
A fully covariant description of CMB anisotropies
Dunsby, P K S
1997-01-01
Starting from the exact non-linear description of matter and radiation, a fully covariant and gauge-invariant formula for the observed temperature anisotropy of the cosmic microwave background (CBR) radiation, expressed in terms of the electric ($E_{ab}$) and magnetic ($H_{ab}$) parts of the Weyl tensor, is obtained by integrating photon geodesics from last scattering to the point of observation today. This improves and extends earlier work by Russ et al where a similar formula was obtained by taking first order variations of the redshift. In the case of scalar (density) perturbations, $E_{ab}$ is related to the harmonic components of the gravitational potential $\\Phi_k$ and the usual dominant Sachs-Wolfe contribution $\\delta T_R/\\bar{T}_R\\sim\\Phi_k$ to the temperature anisotropy is recovered, together with contributions due to the time variation of the potential (Rees-Sciama effect), entropy and velocity perturbations at last scattering and a pressure suppression term important in low density universes. We a...
Fully inkjet-printed microwave passive electronics
Mckerricher, Garret
2017-01-30
Fully inkjet-printed three-dimensional (3D) objects with integrated metal provide exciting possibilities for on-demand fabrication of radio frequency electronics such as inductors, capacitors, and filters. To date, there have been several reports of printed radio frequency components metallized via the use of plating solutions, sputtering, and low-conductivity pastes. These metallization techniques require rather complex fabrication, and do not provide an easily integrated or versatile process. This work utilizes a novel silver ink cured with a low-cost infrared lamp at only 80 °C, and achieves a high conductivity of 1×107 S m−1. By inkjet printing the infrared-cured silver together with a commercial 3D inkjet ultraviolet-cured acrylic dielectric, a multilayer process is demonstrated. By using a smoothing technique, both the conductive ink and dielectric provide surface roughness values of <500 nm. A radio frequency inductor and capacitor exhibit state-of-the-art quality factors of 8 and 20, respectively, and match well with electromagnetic simulations. These components are implemented in a lumped element radio frequency filter with an impressive insertion loss of 0.8 dB at 1 GHz, proving the utility of the process for sensitive radio frequency applications.
Quantum Optimization of Fully Connected Spin Glasses
Venturelli, Davide; Mandrà, Salvatore; Knysh, Sergey; O'Gorman, Bryan; Biswas, Rupak; Smelyanskiy, Vadim
2015-07-01
Many NP-hard problems can be seen as the task of finding a ground state of a disordered highly connected Ising spin glass. If solutions are sought by means of quantum annealing, it is often necessary to represent those graphs in the annealer's hardware by means of the graph-minor embedding technique, generating a final Hamiltonian consisting of coupled chains of ferromagnetically bound spins, whose binding energy is a free parameter. In order to investigate the effect of embedding on problems of interest, the fully connected Sherrington-Kirkpatrick model with random ±1 couplings is programmed on the D-Wave TwoTM annealer using up to 270 qubits interacting on a Chimera-type graph. We present the best embedding prescriptions for encoding the Sherrington-Kirkpatrick problem in the Chimera graph. The results indicate that the optimal choice of embedding parameters could be associated with the emergence of the spin-glass phase of the embedded problem, whose presence was previously uncertain. This optimal parameter setting allows the performance of the quantum annealer to compete with (and potentially outperform, in the absence of analog control errors) optimized simulated annealing algorithms.
Quantum Optimization of Fully Connected Spin Glasses
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Davide Venturelli
2015-09-01
Full Text Available Many NP-hard problems can be seen as the task of finding a ground state of a disordered highly connected Ising spin glass. If solutions are sought by means of quantum annealing, it is often necessary to represent those graphs in the annealer’s hardware by means of the graph-minor embedding technique, generating a final Hamiltonian consisting of coupled chains of ferromagnetically bound spins, whose binding energy is a free parameter. In order to investigate the effect of embedding on problems of interest, the fully connected Sherrington-Kirkpatrick model with random ±1 couplings is programmed on the D-Wave Two^{TM} annealer using up to 270 qubits interacting on a Chimera-type graph. We present the best embedding prescriptions for encoding the Sherrington-Kirkpatrick problem in the Chimera graph. The results indicate that the optimal choice of embedding parameters could be associated with the emergence of the spin-glass phase of the embedded problem, whose presence was previously uncertain. This optimal parameter setting allows the performance of the quantum annealer to compete with (and potentially outperform, in the absence of analog control errors optimized simulated annealing algorithms.
Fully additive copper metallization on BCB
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Stolle, T. [FhG-IZM Berlin (Germany); Schwencke, B.; Reichl, H.
2000-07-01
A fully additive copper metallization process on benzocyclobutene cyclotene trademark (BCB) has been investigated for application in MCM-D technology. The process consists of surface pretreatment of the BCB basic layer by reactive ion etching (RIE), spin-coating and photopatterning of an organic seed layer by broad-band I-line photolithography followed by developing and activation steps. The metallization of the seed patterns is performed by a 2-step process by means of electroless copper baths. A height of about 5 {mu}m selectively deposited copper can be achieved. The electrical conductivity of patterns is in the range of 80% - 85% of the bulk conductivity of pure copper. Adhesive strength tests during accelerated aging show good adhesion of copper to the BCB surface, which is influenced by RIE pretreatment, exposure dose and thermal load. Shear experiments performed with optimal treated 200 x 200 {mu}m bumps show shear forces > 150 cN. Design rules have to take into account the lateral growth of copper patterns, which is nearly equal to the vertical growth. Real spaces of {>=} 30 {mu}m between copper lines are possible. The process is considered as a low cost technology because of replacing of sputter technique, few process steps and waste reduction. (orig.)
The first LHC sector is fully interconnected
2006-01-01
Sector 7-8 is the first sector of the LHC to become fully operational. All the magnets, cryogenic line, vacuum chambers and services are interconnected. The cool down of this sector can soon commence. LHC project leader Lyn Evans, the teams from CERN's AT/MCS, AT/VAC and AT/MEL groups, and the members of the IEG consortium celebrate the completion of the first LHC sector. The 10th of November was a red letter day for the LHC accelerator teams, marking the completion of the first sector of the machine. The magnets of sector 7-8, together with the cryogenic line, the vacuum chambers and the distribution feedboxes (DFBs) are now all completely interconnected. Sector 7-8 has thus been closed and is the first LHC sector to become operational. The interconnection work required several thousand electrical, cryogenic and insulating connections to be made on the 210 interfaces between the magnets in the arc, the 30 interfaces between the special magnets and the interfaces with the cryogenic line. 'This represent...
Ways to constrain neutron star equation of state models using relativistic disc lines
Bhattacharyya, Sudip
2011-01-01
Relativistic spectral lines from the accretion disc of a neutron star low-mass X-ray binary can be modelled to infer the disc inner edge radius. A small value of this radius tentatively implies that the disc terminates either at the neutron star hard surface, or at the innermost stable circular orbit (ISCO). Therefore an inferred disc inner edge radius either provides the stellar radius, or can directly constrain stellar equation of state (EoS) models using the theoretically computed ISCO radius for the spacetime of a rapidly spinning neutron star. However, this procedure requires numerical computation of stellar and ISCO radii for various EoS models and neutron star configurations using an appropriate rapidly spinning stellar spacetime. We have fully general relativistically calculated about 16000 stable neutron star structures to explore and establish the above mentioned procedure, and to show that the Kerr spacetime is inadequate for this purpose. Our work systematically studies the methods to constrain Eo...
Exponential stretch-rotation (ESR) formulation of general relativity
Khokhlov, A M
2003-01-01
We study a tensorial exponential transformation of a three-dimensional metric of space-like hypersurfaces embedded in a four-dimensional space-time, $\\gamma_{ij} = e^{\\epsilon_{ikm}\\theta_m} e^{\\phi_k} e^{-\\epsilon_{jkn}\\theta_n}$, where $\\phi_k$ are logarithms of the eigenvalues of $\\gamma_{ij}$, $\\theta_k$ are rotation angles, and $\\epsilon_{ijk}$ is a fully anti-symmetric symbol. Evolution part of Einstein's equations, formulated in terms of $\\phi_k$ and $\\theta_k$, describes time evolution of the metric at every point of a hyper-surface as a continuous stretch and rotation of a local coordinate system in a tangential space. The exponential stretch-rotation (ESR) transformation generalizes particular exponential transformations used previously in cases of spatial symmetry. The ESR 3+1 formulation of Einstein's equations may have certain advantages for long-term stable integration of these equations.
Constrained maximum likelihood modal parameter identification applied to structural dynamics
El-Kafafy, Mahmoud; Peeters, Bart; Guillaume, Patrick; De Troyer, Tim
2016-05-01
A new modal parameter estimation method to directly establish modal models of structural dynamic systems satisfying two physically motivated constraints will be presented. The constraints imposed in the identified modal model are the reciprocity of the frequency response functions (FRFs) and the estimation of normal (real) modes. The motivation behind the first constraint (i.e. reciprocity) comes from the fact that modal analysis theory shows that the FRF matrix and therefore the residue matrices are symmetric for non-gyroscopic, non-circulatory, and passive mechanical systems. In other words, such types of systems are expected to obey Maxwell-Betti's reciprocity principle. The second constraint (i.e. real mode shapes) is motivated by the fact that analytical models of structures are assumed to either be undamped or proportional damped. Therefore, normal (real) modes are needed for comparison with these analytical models. The work done in this paper is a further development of a recently introduced modal parameter identification method called ML-MM that enables us to establish modal model that satisfies such motivated constraints. The proposed constrained ML-MM method is applied to two real experimental datasets measured on fully trimmed cars. This type of data is still considered as a significant challenge in modal analysis. The results clearly demonstrate the applicability of the method to real structures with significant non-proportional damping and high modal densities.
An inner-outer nonlinear programming approach for constrained quadratic matrix model updating
Andretta, M.; Birgin, E. G.; Raydan, M.
2016-01-01
The Quadratic Finite Element Model Updating Problem (QFEMUP) concerns with updating a symmetric second-order finite element model so that it remains symmetric and the updated model reproduces a given set of desired eigenvalues and eigenvectors by replacing the corresponding ones from the original model. Taking advantage of the special structure of the constraint set, it is first shown that the QFEMUP can be formulated as a suitable constrained nonlinear programming problem. Using this formulation, a method based on successive optimizations is then proposed and analyzed. To avoid that spurious modes (eigenvectors) appear in the frequency range of interest (eigenvalues) after the model has been updated, additional constraints based on a quadratic Rayleigh quotient are dynamically included in the constraint set. A distinct practical feature of the proposed method is that it can be implemented by computing only a few eigenvalues and eigenvectors of the associated quadratic matrix pencil.
Fully Coupled Simulation of Lithium Ion Battery Cell Performance
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Trembacki, Bradley L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Murthy, Jayathi Y. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Roberts, Scott Alan [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)
2015-09-01
Lithium-ion battery particle-scale (non-porous electrode) simulations applied to resolved electrode geometries predict localized phenomena and can lead to better informed decisions on electrode design and manufacturing. This work develops and implements a fully-coupled finite volume methodology for the simulation of the electrochemical equations in a lithium-ion battery cell. The model implementation is used to investigate 3D battery electrode architectures that offer potential energy density and power density improvements over traditional layer-by-layer particle bed battery geometries. Advancement of micro-scale additive manufacturing techniques has made it possible to fabricate these 3D electrode microarchitectures. A variety of 3D battery electrode geometries are simulated and compared across various battery discharge rates and length scales in order to quantify performance trends and investigate geometrical factors that improve battery performance. The energy density and power density of the 3D battery microstructures are compared in several ways, including a uniform surface area to volume ratio comparison as well as a comparison requiring a minimum manufacturable feature size. Significant performance improvements over traditional particle bed electrode designs are observed, and electrode microarchitectures derived from minimal surfaces are shown to be superior. A reduced-order volume-averaged porous electrode theory formulation for these unique 3D batteries is also developed, allowing simulations on the full-battery scale. Electrode concentration gradients are modeled using the diffusion length method, and results for plate and cylinder electrode geometries are compared to particle-scale simulation results. Additionally, effective diffusion lengths that minimize error with respect to particle-scale results for gyroid and Schwarz P electrode microstructures are determined.
Effenberger, Frederic; Scherer, Klaus; Barra, Stephan; Kleimann, Jens; Strauss, Roelf Du Toit
2012-01-01
The spatial diffusion of cosmic rays in turbulent magnetic fields can, in the most general case, be fully anisotropic, i.e. one has to distinguish three diffusion axes in a local, field-aligned frame. We reexamine the transformation for the diffusion tensor from this local to a global frame, in which the Parker transport equation for energetic particles is usually formulated and solved. Particularly, we generalize the transformation formulas to allow for an explicit choice of two principal local perpendicular diffusion axes. This generalization includes the 'traditional' diffusion tensor in the special case of isotropic perpendicular diffusion. For the local frame, we motivate the choice of the Frenet-Serret trihedron which is related to the intrinsic magnetic field geometry. We directly compare the old and the new tensor elements for two heliospheric magnetic field configurations, namely the hybrid Fisk and the Parker field. Subsequently, we examine the significance of the different formulations for the diff...
21 CFR 888.3780 - Wrist joint polymer constrained prosthesis.
2010-04-01
... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Wrist joint polymer constrained prosthesis. 888.3780 Section 888.3780 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... constrained prosthesis. (a) Identification. A wrist joint polymer constrained prosthesis is a device made...
21 CFR 888.3230 - Finger joint polymer constrained prosthesis.
2010-04-01
... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Finger joint polymer constrained prosthesis. 888... constrained prosthesis. (a) Identification. A finger joint polymer constrained prosthesis is a device intended... generic type of device includes prostheses that consist of a single flexible across-the-joint...
Cascading Constrained 2-D Arrays using Periodic Merging Arrays
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Forchhammer, Søren; Laursen, Torben Vaarby
2003-01-01
We consider a method for designing 2-D constrained codes by cascading finite width arrays using predefined finite width periodic merging arrays. This provides a constructive lower bound on the capacity of the 2-D constrained code. Examples include symmetric RLL and density constrained codes....... Numerical results for the capacities are presented....
The fully nonlinear stratified geostrophic adjustment problem
Coutino, Aaron; Stastna, Marek
2017-01-01
The study of the adjustment to equilibrium by a stratified fluid in a rotating reference frame is a classical problem in geophysical fluid dynamics. We consider the fully nonlinear, stratified adjustment problem from a numerical point of view. We present results of smoothed dam break simulations based on experiments in the published literature, with a focus on both the wave trains that propagate away from the nascent geostrophic state and the geostrophic state itself. We demonstrate that for Rossby numbers in excess of roughly 2 the wave train cannot be interpreted in terms of linear theory. This wave train consists of a leading solitary-like packet and a trailing tail of dispersive waves. However, it is found that the leading wave packet never completely separates from the trailing tail. Somewhat surprisingly, the inertial oscillations associated with the geostrophic state exhibit evidence of nonlinearity even when the Rossby number falls below 1. We vary the width of the initial disturbance and the rotation rate so as to keep the Rossby number fixed, and find that while the qualitative response remains consistent, the Froude number varies, and these variations are manifested in the form of the emanating wave train. For wider initial disturbances we find clear evidence of a wave train that initially propagates toward the near wall, reflects, and propagates away from the geostrophic state behind the leading wave train. We compare kinetic energy inside and outside of the geostrophic state, finding that for long times a Rossby number of around one-quarter yields an equal split between the two, with lower (higher) Rossby numbers yielding more energy in the geostrophic state (wave train). Finally we compare the energetics of the geostrophic state as the Rossby number varies, finding long-lived inertial oscillations in the majority of the cases and a general agreement with the past literature that employed either hydrostatic, shallow-water equation-based theory or
Hydrocarbon characterization experiments in fully turbulent fires.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ricks, Allen; Blanchat, Thomas K.
2007-05-01
As the capabilities of numerical simulations increase, decision makers are increasingly relying upon simulations rather than experiments to assess risks across a wide variety of accident scenarios including fires. There are still, however, many aspects of fires that are either not well understood or are difficult to treat from first principles due to the computational expense. For a simulation to be truly predictive and to provide decision makers with information which can be reliably used for risk assessment the remaining physical processes must be studied and suitable models developed for the effects of the physics. The model for the fuel evaporation rate in a liquid fuel pool fire is significant because in well-ventilated fires the evaporation rate largely controls the total heat release rate from the fire. A set of experiments are outlined in this report which will provide data for the development and validation of models for the fuel regression rates in liquid hydrocarbon fuel fires. The experiments will be performed on fires in the fully turbulent scale range (> 1 m diameter) and with a number of hydrocarbon fuels ranging from lightly sooting to heavily sooting. The importance of spectral absorption in the liquid fuels and the vapor dome above the pool will be investigated and the total heat flux to the pool surface will be measured. The importance of convection within the liquid fuel will be assessed by restricting large scale liquid motion in some tests. These data sets will provide a sound, experimentally proven basis for assessing how much of the liquid fuel needs to be modeled to enable a predictive simulation of a fuel fire given the couplings between evaporation of fuel from the pool and the heat release from the fire which drives the evaporation.
Hierarchical structures in fully developed turbulence
Liu, Li
Analysis of the probability density functions (PDFs) of the velocity increment dvl and of their deformation is used to reveal the statistical structure of the intermittent energy cascade dynamics of turbulence. By analyzing a series of turbulent data sets including that of an experiment of fully developed low temperature helium turbulent gas flow (Belin, Tabeling, & Willaime, Physica D 93, 52, 1996), of a three-dimensional isotropic Navier-Stokes simulation with a resolution of 2563 (Cao, Chen, & She, Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 3711, 1996) and of a GOY shell model simulation (Leveque & She, Phys. Rev. E 55, 1997) of a very big sample size (up to 5 billions), the validity of the Hierarchical Structure model (She & Leveque, Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 366, 1994) for the inertial-range is firmly demonstrated. Furthermore, it is shown that parameters in the Hierarchical Structure model can be reliably measured and used to characterize the cascade process. The physical interpretations of the parameters then allow to describe differential changes in different turbulent systems so as to address non-universal features of turbulent systems. It is proposed that the above study provides a framework for the study of non-homogeneous turbulence. A convergence study of moments and scaling exponents is also carried out with detailed analysis of effects of finite statistical sample size. A quantity Pmin is introduced to characterize the resolution of a PDF, and hence the sample size. The fact that any reported scaling exponent depends on the PDF resolution suggests that the validation (or rejection) of a model of turbulence needs to carry out a resolution dependence analysis on its scaling prediction.
Highly efficient fully transparent inverted OLEDs
Meyer, J.; Winkler, T.; Hamwi, S.; Schmale, S.; Kröger, M.; Görrn, P.; Johannes, H.-H.; Riedl, T.; Lang, E.; Becker, D.; Dobbertin, T.; Kowalsky, W.
2007-09-01
One of the unique selling propositions of OLEDs is their potential to realize highly transparent devices over the visible spectrum. This is because organic semiconductors provide a large Stokes-Shift and low intrinsic absorption losses. Hence, new areas of applications for displays and ambient lighting become accessible, for instance, the integration of OLEDs into the windshield or the ceiling of automobiles. The main challenge in the realization of fully transparent devices is the deposition of the top electrode. ITO is commonly used as transparent bottom anode in a conventional OLED. To obtain uniform light emission over the entire viewing angle and a low series resistance, a TCO such as ITO is desirable as top contact as well. However, sputter deposition of ITO on top of organic layers causes damage induced by high energetic particles and UV radiation. We have found an efficient process to protect the organic layers against the ITO rf magnetron deposition process of ITO for an inverted OLED (IOLED). The inverted structure allows the integration of OLEDs in more powerful n-channel transistors used in active matrix backplanes. Employing the green electrophosphorescent material Ir(ppy) 3 lead to IOLED with a current efficiency of 50 cd/A and power efficiency of 24 lm/W at 100 cd/m2. The average transmittance exceeds 80 % in the visible region. The on-set voltage for light emission is lower than 3 V. In addition, by vertical stacking we achieved a very high current efficiency of more than 70 cd/A for transparent IOLED.
Embedding complex hydrology in the climate system - towards fully coupled climate-hydrology models
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Butts, M.; Rasmussen, S.H.; Ridler, M.
2013-01-01
model, HIRHAM. The physics of the coupling is formulated using an energy-based SVAT (land surface) model while the numerical coupling exploits the OpenMI modelling interface. First, some investigations of the applicability of the SVAT model are presented, including our ability to characterise...... distributed parameters using satellite remote sensing. Secondly, field data are used to investigate the effects of model resolution and parameter scales for use in a coupled model. Finally, the development of the fully coupled climate-hydrology model is described and some of the challenges associated...
Williams, Brian; Hudson, Nicolas; Tweddle, Brent; Brockers, Roland; Matthies, Larry
2011-01-01
A Feature and Pose Constrained Extended Kalman Filter (FPC-EKF) is developed for highly dynamic computationally constrained micro aerial vehicles. Vehicle localization is achieved using only a low performance inertial measurement unit and a single camera. The FPC-EKF framework augments the vehicle's state with both previous vehicle poses and critical environmental features, including vertical edges. This filter framework efficiently incorporates measurements from hundreds of opportunistic visual features to constrain the motion estimate, while allowing navigating and sustained tracking with respect to a few persistent features. In addition, vertical features in the environment are opportunistically used to provide global attitude references. Accurate pose estimation is demonstrated on a sequence including fast traversing, where visual features enter and exit the field-of-view quickly, as well as hover and ingress maneuvers where drift free navigation is achieved with respect to the environment.
QCD strings as constrained grassmannian sigma model
Viswanathan, K S; Viswanathan, K S; Parthasarathy, R
1995-01-01
We present calculations for the effective action of string world sheet in R3 and R4 utilizing its correspondence with the constrained Grassmannian sigma model. Minimal surfaces describe the dynamics of open strings while harmonic surfaces describe that of closed strings. The one-loop effective action for these are calculated with instanton and anti-instanton background, reprsenting N-string interactions at the tree level. The effective action is found to be the partition function of a classical modified Coulomb gas in the confining phase, with a dynamically generated mass gap.
Can Neutron stars constrain Dark Matter?
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kouvaris, Christoforos; Tinyakov, Peter
2010-01-01
We argue that observations of old neutron stars can impose constraints on dark matter candidates even with very small elastic or inelastic cross section, and self-annihilation cross section. We find that old neutron stars close to the galactic center or in globular clusters can maintain a surface...... temperature that could in principle be detected. Due to their compactness, neutron stars can acrete WIMPs efficiently even if the WIMP-to-nucleon cross section obeys the current limits from direct dark matter searches, and therefore they could constrain a wide range of dark matter candidates....
Energetic Materials Optimization via Constrained Search
2015-06-01
space.18–20 LCAP and VP-DFT interpolate continuously between the Hamiltonians of various chemical species. Furthermore, recently an investigation into...Computational Chemistry Protocol All quantum- mechanical computations were performed using Gaussian 09.24 All geometries were preoptimized with B3LYP/3-21G under...via nonnegative Lagrange multipliers λ ∈ R3+ for the 3 constraints to the augmented Lagrangian function L(x, λ) := P (x) − λC(x) as a constrained min
Constrained inflaton due to a complex scalar
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Budhi, Romy H. S. [Physics Department, Gadjah Mada University,Yogyakarta 55281 (Indonesia); Institute for Theoretical Physics, Kanazawa University,Kanazawa 920-1192 (Japan); Kashiwase, Shoichi; Suematsu, Daijiro [Institute for Theoretical Physics, Kanazawa University,Kanazawa 920-1192 (Japan)
2015-09-14
We reexamine inflation due to a constrained inflaton in the model of a complex scalar. Inflaton evolves along a spiral-like valley of special scalar potential in the scalar field space just like single field inflation. Sub-Planckian inflaton can induce sufficient e-foldings because of a long slow-roll path. In a special limit, the scalar spectral index and the tensor-to-scalar ratio has equivalent expressions to the inflation with monomial potential φ{sup n}. The favorable values for them could be obtained by varying parameters in the potential. This model could be embedded in a certain radiative neutrino mass model.
Quantization of soluble classical constrained systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Belhadi, Z. [Laboratoire de physique et chimie quantique, Faculté des sciences, Université Mouloud Mammeri, BP 17, 15000 Tizi Ouzou (Algeria); Laboratoire de physique théorique, Faculté des sciences exactes, Université de Bejaia, 06000 Bejaia (Algeria); Menas, F. [Laboratoire de physique et chimie quantique, Faculté des sciences, Université Mouloud Mammeri, BP 17, 15000 Tizi Ouzou (Algeria); Ecole Nationale Préparatoire aux Etudes d’ingéniorat, Laboratoire de physique, RN 5 Rouiba, Alger (Algeria); Bérard, A. [Equipe BioPhysStat, Laboratoire LCP-A2MC, ICPMB, IF CNRS No 2843, Université de Lorraine, 1 Bd Arago, 57078 Metz Cedex (France); Mohrbach, H., E-mail: herve.mohrbach@univ-lorraine.fr [Equipe BioPhysStat, Laboratoire LCP-A2MC, ICPMB, IF CNRS No 2843, Université de Lorraine, 1 Bd Arago, 57078 Metz Cedex (France)
2014-12-15
The derivation of the brackets among coordinates and momenta for classical constrained systems is a necessary step toward their quantization. Here we present a new approach for the determination of the classical brackets which does neither require Dirac’s formalism nor the symplectic method of Faddeev and Jackiw. This approach is based on the computation of the brackets between the constants of integration of the exact solutions of the equations of motion. From them all brackets of the dynamical variables of the system can be deduced in a straightforward way.
Neuroevolutionary Constrained Optimization for Content Creation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Liapis, Antonios; Yannakakis, Georgios N.; Togelius, Julian
2011-01-01
and thruster types and topologies) independently of game physics and steering strategies. According to the proposed framework, the designer picks a set of requirements for the spaceship that a constrained optimizer attempts to satisfy. The constraint satisfaction approach followed is based on neuroevolution......; Compositional Pattern-Producing Networks (CPPNs) which represent the spaceship’s design are trained via a constraint-based evolutionary algorithm. Results obtained in a number of evolutionary runs using a set of constraints and objectives show that the generated spaceships perform well in movement, combat...
Charged particles constrained to a curved surface
Müller, Thomas
2012-01-01
We study the motion of charged particles constrained to arbitrary two-dimensional curved surfaces but interacting in three-dimensional space via the Coulomb potential. To speed-up the interaction calculations, we use the parallel compute capability of the Compute Unified Device Architecture (CUDA) of todays graphics boards. The particles and the curved surfaces are shown using the Open Graphics Library (OpenGL). The paper is intended to give graduate students, who have basic experiences with electrostatics and differential geometry, a deeper understanding in charged particle interactions and a short introduction how to handle a many particle system using parallel computing on a single home computer
Utility Constrained Energy Minimization In Aloha Networks
Khodaian, Amir Mahdi; Talebi, Mohammad S
2010-01-01
In this paper we consider the issue of energy efficiency in random access networks and show that optimizing transmission probabilities of nodes can enhance network performance in terms of energy consumption and fairness. First, we propose a heuristic power control method that improves throughput, and then we model the Utility Constrained Energy Minimization (UCEM) problem in which the utility constraint takes into account single and multi node performance. UCEM is modeled as a convex optimization problem and Sequential Quadratic Programming (SQP) is used to find optimal transmission probabilities. Numerical results show that our method can achieve fairness, reduce energy consumption and enhance lifetime of such networks.
Constraining Milky Way mass with Hypervelocity Stars
Fragione, Giacomo
2016-01-01
We show that hypervelocity stars (HVSs) ejected from the center of the Milky Way galaxy can be used to constrain the mass of its halo. The asymmetry in the radial velocity distribution of halo stars due to escaping HVSs depends on the halo potential (escape speed) as long as the round trip orbital time is shorter than the stellar lifetime. Adopting a characteristic HVS travel time of $300$ Myr, which corresponds to the average mass of main sequence HVSs ($3.2$ M$_{\\odot}$), we find that current data favors a mass for the Milky Way in the range $(1.2$-$1.7)\\times 10^{12} \\mathrm{M}_\\odot$.
Lifespan theorem for constrained surface diffusion flows
McCoy, James; Williams, Graham; 10.1007/s00209-010-0720-7
2012-01-01
We consider closed immersed hypersurfaces in $\\R^{3}$ and $\\R^4$ evolving by a class of constrained surface diffusion flows. Our result, similar to earlier results for the Willmore flow, gives both a positive lower bound on the time for which a smooth solution exists, and a small upper bound on a power of the total curvature during this time. By phrasing the theorem in terms of the concentration of curvature in the initial surface, our result holds for very general initial data and has applications to further development in asymptotic analysis for these flows.
Integrating job scheduling and constrained network routing
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gamst, Mette
2010-01-01
This paper examines the NP-hard problem of scheduling jobs on resources such that the overall profit of executed jobs is maximized. Job demand must be sent through a constrained network to the resource before execution can begin. The problem has application in grid computing, where a number...... of geographically distributed resources connected through an optical network work together for solving large problems. A number of heuristics are proposed along with an exact solution approach based on Dantzig-Wolfe decomposition. The latter has some performance difficulties while the heuristics solve all instances...
Weight-Constrained Minimum Spanning Tree Problem
Henn, Sebastian Tobias
2007-01-01
In an undirected graph G we associate costs and weights to each edge. The weight-constrained minimum spanning tree problem is to find a spanning tree of total edge weight at most a given value W and minimum total costs under this restriction. In this thesis a literature overview on this NP-hard problem, theoretical properties concerning the convex hull and the Lagrangian relaxation are given. We present also some in- and exclusion-test for this problem. We apply a ranking algorithm and the me...
An exact approach for aggregated formulations
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gamst, Mette; Spoorendonk, Simon
cause an infeasible solution. In this paper, we consider (mixed) integer program formulations and propose a method for ensuring an optimal solution to the original (disaggregated) problem using an aggregated formulation. The method is based on Benders’ decomposition on a combination of the disaggregated...... mathematical formulation and the aggregated formulation. The method allows usage of relaxed aggregated formulations and enables branching on both aggregated and disaggregated variables. Also, the method guarantees an LP bound at least as good as those for the disaggregated and aggregated formulations...
A Constrained Transport Scheme for MHD on Unstructured Static and Moving Meshes
Mocz, Philip; Hernquist, Lars
2014-01-01
Magnetic fields play an important role in many astrophysical systems and a detailed understanding of their impact on the gas dynamics requires robust numerical simulations. Here we present a new method to evolve the ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equations on unstructured static and moving meshes that preserves the magnetic field divergence-free constraint to machine precision. The method overcomes the major problems of using a cleaning scheme on the magnetic fields instead, which is non-conservative, not fully Galilean invariant, does not eliminate divergence errors completely, and may produce incorrect jumps across shocks. Our new method is a generalization of the constrained transport (CT) algorithm used to enforce the $\
Modified Fully Utilized Design (MFUD) Method for Stress and Displacement Constraints
Patnaik, Surya; Gendy, Atef; Berke, Laszlo; Hopkins, Dale
1997-01-01
The traditional fully stressed method performs satisfactorily for stress-limited structural design. When this method is extended to include displacement limitations in addition to stress constraints, it is known as the fully utilized design (FUD). Typically, the FUD produces an overdesign, which is the primary limitation of this otherwise elegant method. We have modified FUD in an attempt to alleviate the limitation. This new method, called the modified fully utilized design (MFUD) method, has been tested successfully on a number of designs that were subjected to multiple loads and had both stress and displacement constraints. The solutions obtained with MFUD compare favorably with the optimum results that can be generated by using nonlinear mathematical programming techniques. The MFUD method appears to have alleviated the overdesign condition and offers the simplicity of a direct, fully stressed type of design method that is distinctly different from optimization and optimality criteria formulations. The MFUD method is being developed for practicing engineers who favor traditional design methods rather than methods based on advanced calculus and nonlinear mathematical programming techniques. The Integrated Force Method (IFM) was found to be the appropriate analysis tool in the development of the MFUD method. In this paper, the MFUD method and its optimality are presented along with a number of illustrative examples.
The Performance Comparisons between the Unconstrained and Constrained Equalization Algorithms
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
HE Zhong-qiu; LI Dao-ben
2003-01-01
This paper proposes two unconstrained algorithms, the Steepest Decent (SD) algorithm and the Conjugate Gradient (CG) algorithm, based on a superexcellent cost function [1～3]. At the same time, two constrained algorithms which include the Constrained Steepest Decent (CSD) algorithm and the Constrained Conjugate Gradient algorithm (CCG) are deduced subject to a new constrain condition. They are both implemented in unitary transform domain. The computational complexities of the constrained algorithms are compared to those of the unconstrained algorithms. Resulting simulations show their performance comparisons.
Fully idempotent near-rings and sheaf representations
Javed Ahsan; Gordon Mason
1998-01-01
Fully idempotent near-rings are defined and characterized which yields information on the lattice of ideals of fully idempotent rings and near-rings. The space of prime ideals is topologized and a sheaf representation is given for a class of fully idempotent near-rings which includes strongly regular near-rings.
42 CFR 412.340 - Fully prospective payment methodology.
2010-10-01
... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fully prospective payment methodology. 412.340...-Related Costs § 412.340 Fully prospective payment methodology. A hospital paid under the fully prospective payment methodology receives a payment per discharge based on a proportion of the hospital-specific rate...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zheng Ling
2011-01-01
Full Text Available Damping treatments have been extensively used as a powerful means to damp out structural resonant vibrations. Usually, damping materials are fully covered on the surface of plates. The drawbacks of this conventional treatment are also obvious due to an added mass and excess material consumption. Therefore, it is not always economical and effective from an optimization design view. In this paper, a topology optimization approach is presented to maximize the modal damping ratio of the plate with constrained layer damping treatment. The governing equation of motion of the plate is derived on the basis of energy approach. A finite element model to describe dynamic performances of the plate is developed and used along with an optimization algorithm in order to determine the optimal topologies of constrained layer damping layout on the plate. The damping of visco-elastic layer is modeled by the complex modulus formula. Considering the vibration and energy dissipation mode of the plate with constrained layer damping treatment, damping material density and volume factor are considered as design variable and constraint respectively. Meantime, the modal damping ratio of the plate is assigned as the objective function in the topology optimization approach. The sensitivity of modal damping ratio to design variable is further derived and Method of Moving Asymptote (MMA is adopted to search the optimized topologies of constrained layer damping layout on the plate. Numerical examples are used to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed topology optimization approach. The results show that vibration energy dissipation of the plates can be enhanced by the optimal constrained layer damping layout. This optimal technology can be further extended to vibration attenuation of sandwich cylindrical shells which constitute the major building block of many critical structures such as cabins of aircrafts, hulls of submarines and bodies of rockets and missiles as an
Constrained Simulation of the Bullet Cluster
Lage, Craig
2013-01-01
In this work, we report on a detailed simulation of the Bullet Cluster (1E0657-56) merger, including magnetohydrodynamics, plasma cooling, and adaptive mesh refinement. We constrain the simulation with data from gravitational lensing reconstructions and 0.5 - 2 keV Chandra X-ray flux map, then compare the resulting model to higher energy X-ray fluxes, the extracted plasma temperature map, Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect measurements, and cluster halo radio emission. We constrain the initial conditions by minimizing the chi-squared figure of merit between the full 2D observational data sets and the simulation, rather than comparing only a few features such as the location of subcluster centroids, as in previous studies. A simple initial configuration of two triaxial clusters with NFW dark matter profiles and physically reasonable plasma profiles gives a good fit to the current observational morphology and X-ray emissions of the merging clusters. There is no need for unconventional physics or extreme infall velocitie...
Constraining dark matter through 21-cm observations
Valdés, M.; Ferrara, A.; Mapelli, M.; Ripamonti, E.
2007-05-01
Beyond reionization epoch cosmic hydrogen is neutral and can be directly observed through its 21-cm line signal. If dark matter (DM) decays or annihilates, the corresponding energy input affects the hydrogen kinetic temperature and ionized fraction, and contributes to the Lyα background. The changes induced by these processes on the 21-cm signal can then be used to constrain the proposed DM candidates, among which we select the three most popular ones: (i) 25-keV decaying sterile neutrinos, (ii) 10-MeV decaying light dark matter (LDM) and (iii) 10-MeV annihilating LDM. Although we find that the DM effects are considerably smaller than found by previous studies (due to a more physical description of the energy transfer from DM to the gas), we conclude that combined observations of the 21-cm background and of its gradient should be able to put constrains at least on LDM candidates. In fact, LDM decays (annihilations) induce differential brightness temperature variations with respect to the non-decaying/annihilating DM case up to ΔδTb = 8 (22) mK at about 50 (15) MHz. In principle, this signal could be detected both by current single-dish radio telescopes and future facilities as Low Frequency Array; however, this assumes that ionospheric, interference and foreground issues can be properly taken care of.
Constraining the halo mass function with observations
Castro, Tiago; Marra, Valerio; Quartin, Miguel
2016-12-01
The abundances of dark matter haloes in the universe are described by the halo mass function (HMF). It enters most cosmological analyses and parametrizes how the linear growth of primordial perturbations is connected to these abundances. Interestingly, this connection can be made approximately cosmology independent. This made it possible to map in detail its near-universal behaviour through large-scale simulations. However, such simulations may suffer from systematic effects, especially if baryonic physics is included. In this paper, we ask how well observations can constrain directly the HMF. The observables we consider are galaxy cluster number counts, galaxy cluster power spectrum and lensing of Type Ia supernovae. Our results show that Dark Energy Survey is capable of putting the first meaningful constraints on the HMF, while both Euclid and J-PAS (Javalambre-Physics of the Accelerated Universe Astrophysical Survey) can give stronger constraints, comparable to the ones from state-of-the-art simulations. We also find that an independent measurement of cluster masses is even more important for measuring the HMF than for constraining the cosmological parameters, and can vastly improve the determination of the HMF. Measuring the HMF could thus be used to cross-check simulations and their implementation of baryon physics. It could even, if deviations cannot be accounted for, hint at new physics.
Constraining the braneworld with gravitational wave observations
McWilliams, Sean T
2009-01-01
Braneworld models containing large extra dimensions may have observable consequences that, if detected, would validate a requisite element of string theory. In the infinite Randall-Sundrum model, the asymptotic AdS radius of curvature of the extra dimension supports a single bound state of the massless graviton on the brane, thereby avoiding gross violations of Newton's law. However, one possible consequence of this model is an enormous increase in the amount of Hawking radiation emitted by black holes. This consequence has been employed by other authors to attempt to constrain the AdS radius of curvature through the observation of black holes. I present two novel methods for constraining the AdS curvature. The first method results from the effect of this enhanced mass loss on the event rate for extreme mass ratio inspirals (EMRIs) detected by the space-based LISA interferometer. The second method results from the observation of an individually resolvable galactic black hole binary with LISA. I show that the ...
Constraining the Braking Indices of Magnetars
Gao, Z F; Wang, N; Yuan, J P; Peng, Q H; Du, Y J
2015-01-01
Due to the lack of long term pulsed emission in quiescence and the strong timing noise, it is impossible to directly measure the braking index $n$ of a magnetar. Based on the estimated ages of their potentially associated supernova remnants (SNRs), we estimate the values of $n$ of nine magnetars with SNRs, and find that they cluster in a range of $1\\sim$41. Six magnetars have smaller braking indices of $13$ for other three magnetars are attributed to the decay of external braking torque, which might be caused by magnetic field decay. We estimate the possible wind luminosities for the magnetars with $13$ within the updated magneto-thermal evolution models. We point out that there could be some connections between the magnetar's anti-glitch event and its braking index, and the magnitude of $n$ should be taken into account when explaining the event. Although the constrained range of the magnetars' braking indices is tentative, our method provides an effective way to constrain the magnetars' braking indices if th...
Constraining the mass of the Local Group
Carlesi, Edoardo; Sorce, Jenny G; Gottlöber, Stefan
2016-01-01
The mass of the Local Group (LG) is a crucial parameter for galaxy formation theories. However, its observational determination is challenging - its mass budget is dominated by dark matter which cannot be directly observed. To meet this end the posterior distributions of the LG and its massive constituents have been constructed by means of constrained and random cosmological simulations. Two priors are assumed - the LCDM model that is used to set up the simulations and a LG model,which encodes the observational knowledge of the LG and is used to select LG-like objects from the simulations. The constrained simulations are designed to reproduce the local cosmography as it is imprinted onto the Cosmicflows-2 database of velocities. Several prescriptions are used to define the LG model, focusing in particular on different recent estimates of the tangential velocity of M31. It is found that (a) different $v_{tan}$ choices affect the peak mass values up to a factor of 2, and change mass ratios of $M_{M31}$ to $M_{M...
Nonstationary sparsity-constrained seismic deconvolution
Sun, Xue-Kai; Sam, Zandong Sun; Xie, Hui-Wen
2014-12-01
The Robinson convolution model is mainly restricted by three inappropriate assumptions, i.e., statistically white reflectivity, minimum-phase wavelet, and stationarity. Modern reflectivity inversion methods (e.g., sparsity-constrained deconvolution) generally attempt to suppress the problems associated with the first two assumptions but often ignore that seismic traces are nonstationary signals, which undermines the basic assumption of unchanging wavelet in reflectivity inversion. Through tests on reflectivity series, we confirm the effects of nonstationarity on reflectivity estimation and the loss of significant information, especially in deep layers. To overcome the problems caused by nonstationarity, we propose a nonstationary convolutional model, and then use the attenuation curve in log spectra to detect and correct the influences of nonstationarity. We use Gabor deconvolution to handle nonstationarity and sparsity-constrained deconvolution to separating reflectivity and wavelet. The combination of the two deconvolution methods effectively handles nonstationarity and greatly reduces the problems associated with the unreasonable assumptions regarding reflectivity and wavelet. Using marine seismic data, we show that correcting nonstationarity helps recover subtle reflectivity information and enhances the characterization of details with respect to the geological record.
Penalty Formulations and Trap-Avoidance Strategies for Solving Hard Satisfiability Problems
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Benjamin W. Wah; Zhe Wu
2005-01-01
In this paper we study the solution of SAT problems formulated as discrete decision and discrete constrained optimization problems. Constrained formulations are better than traditional unconstrained formulations because violated constraints may provide additional forces to lead a search towards a satisfiable assignment. We summarize the theory of extended saddle points in penalty formulations for solving discrete constrained optimization problems and the associated discrete penalty method (DPM). We then examine various formulations of the objective function, choices of neighborhood in DPM, strategies for updating penalties, and heuristics for avoiding traps. Experimental evaluations on hard benchmark instances pinpoint that traps contribute significantly to the inefficiency of DPM and force a trajectory to repeatedly visit the same set of or nearby points in the original variable space. To address this issue, we propose and study two trap-avoidance strategies. The first strategy adds extra penalties on unsatisfied clauses inside a trap, leading to very large penalties for unsatisfied clauses that are trapped more often and making these clauses more likely to be satisfied in the future. The second strategy stores information on points visited before, whether inside traps or not, and avoids visiting points that are close to points visited before. It can be implemented by modifying the penalty function in such a way that, if a trajectory gets close to points visited before, an extra penalty will take effect and force the trajectory to a new region. It specializes to the first strategy because traps are special cases of points visited before. Finally, we show experimental results on evaluating benchmarks in the DIMACS and SATLIB archives and compare our results with existing results on GSAT, WalkSAT, LSDL, and Grasp. The results demonstrate that DPM with trap avoidance is robust as well as effective for solving hard SAT problems.
Perfume formulation: words and chats.
Ellena, Céline
2008-06-01
What does it mean to create fragrances with materials from chemistry and/or from nature? How are they used to display their characteristic differences, their own personality? Is it easier to create with synthetic raw materials or with essential oils? This review explains why a perfume formulation corresponds in fact to a conversation, an interplay between synthetic and natural perfumery materials. A synthetic raw material carries a single information, and usually is very linear. Its smell is uniform, clear, and faithful. Natural raw materials, on the contrary, provide a strong, complex and generous image. While a synthetic material can be seen as a single word, a natural one such as rose oil could be compared to chatting: cold, warm, sticky, heavy, transparent, pepper, green, metallic, smooth, watery, fruity... full of information. Yet, if a very small amount of the natural material is used, nothing happens, the fragrance will not change. However, if a large amount is used, the rose oil will swallow up everything else. The fragrance will smell of nothing else except rose! To formulate a perfume is not to create a culinary recipe, with only dosing the ingredients in well-balanced amounts. To formulate rather means to flexibly knit materials together with a lively stitch, meeting or repelling each other, building a pleasant form, which is neither fixed, nor solid, nor rigid. A fragrance has an overall structure, which ranges from a clear sound, made up of stable, unique, and linear items, to a background chat, comfortable and reassuring. But that does, of course, not mean that there is only one way of creating a fragrance!
A Geometric Formulation of Supersymmetry
Freedman, Daniel Z; Van Proeyen, Antoine
2016-01-01
The scalar fields of supersymmetric models are coordinates of a geometric space. We propose a formulation of supersymmetry that is covariant with respect to reparametrizations of this target space. Employing chiral multiplets as an example, we introduce modified supersymmetry variations and redefined auxiliary fields that transform covariantly under reparametrizations. The resulting action and transformation laws are manifestly covariant and highlight the geometric structure of the supersymmetric theory. The covariant methods are developed first for general theories (not necessarily supersymmetric) whose scalar fields are coordinates of a Riemannian target space.
BRST formulation of 4-monopoles
Gianvittorio, R; Restuccia, A
1996-01-01
A supersymmetric gauge invariant action is constructed over any 4-dimensional Riemannian manifold describing Witten's theory of 4-monopoles. The topological supersymmetric algebra closes off-shell. The multiplets include the auxiliary fields and the Wess-Zumino fields in an unusual way, arising naturally from BRST gauge fixing. A new canonical approach over Riemann manifolds is followed, using a Morse function as an euclidean time and taking into account the BRST boundary conditions that come from the BFV formulation. This allows a construction of the effective action starting from gauge principles.
Formulation of soy oil products
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Woerfel, John B.
1995-12-01
Full Text Available The paper comments different formulations of soy oil products such as salad and cooking oils, margarine, shortenings, commercial shortenings, frying shortenings, and fluid shortenings. Hydrogenation and its influence on final products is also included.
El trabajo presenta diferentes formulaciones a base de aceite de soja tales como aceites para ensalada y cocinado, margarina, grasas sólidas (shortenings, grasas sólidas comerciales, grasas sólidas para frituras y grasas fluidas. Hace también referencia al proceso de hidrogenación y a sus efectos en los productos finales.
Viscosity Formulations and the Effect of Uncertain Parameters
Wasiliev, J. M.
2015-12-01
The development of detailed models of the interior of the Earth and other terrestrial planets is frequently hampered by poorly constrained compositional parameters, namely Activation Energy and Volume, which are necessary to define Arrhenius viscosity. This results in the values of said parameters varying considerably to suit the needs of individual investigations. A computational exploration of the effects of Activation Energy and Volume on the Earth's mantle was thus conducted, with a view to developing a robust and versatile method for obtaining a first-degree approximation for the parameter values, and providing some context for future studies. A wide range of plausible mantle configurations was examined in both one and two dimensions, with the latter case utilising the modelling program ASPECT to generate a series of simple Earth-like planets which were allowed to evolve until a steady state was achieved. A comprehensive statistical analysis was then performed, allowing for suitable parameter values to be more effectively constrained for numerous given viscosity formulations. Activation Energy was seen to exhibit considerable influence over the bulk magnitude of viscosity values, while Activation Volume heavily impacted the viscosity contrast between the upper and lower mantle. This behaviour stems from the parameters controlling the temperature and pressure dependency of viscosity within the calculation. Results were found to be highly dependent on the minimum and maximum values imposed on the viscosity, reinforcing the need for a fuller understanding of the formulation. A notable impact on stress profiles, and hence tectonic regime, was also observed. As such similar calculations were performed on directly scaled Super-Earths, with the intention of providing some insight into scenarios conducive to particular tectonic regimes in planets outside our solar system.
Necessity of rethinking oral pediatric formulations
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bar-Shalom, Daniel
2014-01-01
This commentary reviews the difficulties in formulating oral products for children. The significance of the fragmentation of the pediatric population in terms of development and ability to ingest different dosage formulations is examined. It is postulated that a flexible formulation, acceptable...
Formulation, Preparation, and Characterization of Polyurethane Foams
Pinto, Moises L.
2010-01-01
Preparation of laboratory-scale polyurethane foams is described with formulations that are easy to implement in experiments for undergraduate students. Particular attention is given to formulation aspects that are based on the main chemical reactions occurring in polyurethane production. This allows students to develop alternative formulations to…
Formulation, Preparation, and Characterization of Polyurethane Foams
Pinto, Moises L.
2010-01-01
Preparation of laboratory-scale polyurethane foams is described with formulations that are easy to implement in experiments for undergraduate students. Particular attention is given to formulation aspects that are based on the main chemical reactions occurring in polyurethane production. This allows students to develop alternative formulations to…
Recursive Hierarchical Image Segmentation by Region Growing and Constrained Spectral Clustering
Tilton, James C.
2002-01-01
This paper describes an algorithm for hierarchical image segmentation (referred to as HSEG) and its recursive formulation (referred to as RHSEG). The HSEG algorithm is a hybrid of region growing and constrained spectral clustering that produces a hierarchical set of image segmentations based on detected convergence points. In the main, HSEG employs the hierarchical stepwise optimization (HS WO) approach to region growing, which seeks to produce segmentations that are more optimized than those produced by more classic approaches to region growing. In addition, HSEG optionally interjects between HSWO region growing iterations merges between spatially non-adjacent regions (i.e., spectrally based merging or clustering) constrained by a threshold derived from the previous HSWO region growing iteration. While the addition of constrained spectral clustering improves the segmentation results, especially for larger images, it also significantly increases HSEG's computational requirements. To counteract this, a computationally efficient recursive, divide-and-conquer, implementation of HSEG (RHSEG) has been devised and is described herein. Included in this description is special code that is required to avoid processing artifacts caused by RHSEG s recursive subdivision of the image data. Implementations for single processor and for multiple processor computer systems are described. Results with Landsat TM data are included comparing HSEG with classic region growing. Finally, an application to image information mining and knowledge discovery is discussed.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2001-01-01
The paper is mainly concerned with the penalty incurred in finiteelement analysis of the eddy-current loss problem in a fully established multi-filamentary superconducting wire. A finite element model with 4-node quadrilateral isoparametric elements is formulated for the present problem. Unlike the conventional vector potential scheme in use for electromagnetic field problem, the present work features a direct computational approach to eddy current loss. Simplicity and remarkable enhancement in computational accuracy can be obtained with the proposed method.
Improvability of assembly systems I: Problem formulation and performance evaluation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Chiang S.-Y.
2000-01-01
Full Text Available This work develops improvability theory for assembly systems. It consists of two parts.Part I includes the problem formulation and the analysis technique. Part II presents the so-called improvability indicators and a case study. Improvability theory addresses the questions of improving performance in production systems with unreliable machines. We consider both constrained and unconstrained improvability. In the constrained case, the problem consists of determining if there exists a re-distribution of resources (inventory and workforce, which leads to an increase in the system's production rate. In the unconstrained case, the problem consists of identifying a machine and a buffer, which impede the system performance in the strongest manner. The investigation of the improvability properties requires an expression for the system performance measures as functions of the machine and buffer parameters. This paper presents a method for evaluating these functions and illustrates their practical utility using a case study at an automotive components plant. Part II uses the method developed here to establish conditions of improvability and to describe additional results of the case study.
Constraining the Inflationary Equation of State
Ackerman, Lotty; Kundu, Sandipan; Sivanandam, Navin
2010-01-01
We explore possible constraints on the inflationary equation state: p=w\\rho. While w must be close to -1 for those modes that contribute to the observed power spectrum, for those modes currently out of experimental reach, the constraints on w are much weaker, with only w<-1/3 as an a priori requirement. We find, however, that limits on the reheat temperature and the inflationary energy scale constrain w further, though there is still ample parameter space for a vastly different (accelerating) equation of state between the end of quasi-de Sitter inflation and the beginning of the radiation-dominated era. In the event that such an epoch of acceleration could be observed, we review the consequences for the primordial power spectrum.
Constraining the Cratering Chronology of Vesta
O'Brien, David P; Morbidelli, Alessandro; Bottke, William F; Schenk, Paul M; Russell, Christopher T; Raymond, Carol A
2014-01-01
Vesta has a complex cratering history, with ancient terrains as well as recent large impacts that have led to regional resurfacing. Crater counts can help constrain the relative ages of different units on Vesta's surface, but converting those crater counts to absolute ages requires a chronology function. We present a cratering chronology based on the best current models for the dynamical evolution of asteroid belt, and calibrate it to Vesta using the record of large craters on its surface. While uncertainties remain, our chronology function is broadly consistent with an ancient surface of Vesta as well as other constraints such as the bombardment history of the rest of the inner Solar System and the Ar-Ar age distribution of howardite, eucrite and diogenite (HED) meteorites from Vesta.
Database Transposition for Constrained (Closed) Pattern Mining
Jeudy, Baptiste
2009-01-01
Recently, different works proposed a new way to mine patterns in databases with pathological size. For example, experiments in genome biology usually provide databases with thousands of attributes (genes) but only tens of objects (experiments). In this case, mining the "transposed" database runs through a smaller search space, and the Galois connection allows to infer the closed patterns of the original database. We focus here on constrained pattern mining for those unusual databases and give a theoretical framework for database and constraint transposition. We discuss the properties of constraint transposition and look into classical constraints. We then address the problem of generating the closed patterns of the original database satisfying the constraint, starting from those mined in the "transposed" database. Finally, we show how to generate all the patterns satisfying the constraint from the closed ones.
Shape space exploration of constrained meshes
Yang, Yongliang
2011-01-01
We present a general computational framework to locally characterize any shape space of meshes implicitly prescribed by a collection of non-linear constraints. We computationally access such manifolds, typically of high dimension and co-dimension, through first and second order approximants, namely tangent spaces and quadratically parameterized osculant surfaces. Exploration and navigation of desirable subspaces of the shape space with regard to application specific quality measures are enabled using approximants that are intrinsic to the underlying manifold and directly computable in the parameter space of the osculant surface. We demonstrate our framework on shape spaces of planar quad (PQ) meshes, where each mesh face is constrained to be (nearly) planar, and circular meshes, where each face has a circumcircle. We evaluate our framework for navigation and design exploration on a variety of inputs, while keeping context specific properties such as fairness, proximity to a reference surface, etc.
Remote gaming on resource-constrained devices
Reza, Waazim; Kalva, Hari; Kaufman, Richard
2010-08-01
Games have become important applications on mobile devices. A mobile gaming approach known as remote gaming is being developed to support games on low cost mobile devices. In the remote gaming approach, the responsibility of rendering a game and advancing the game play is put on remote servers instead of the resource constrained mobile devices. The games rendered on the servers are encoded as video and streamed to mobile devices. Mobile devices gather user input and stream the commands back to the servers to advance game play. With this solution, mobile devices with video playback and network connectivity can become game consoles. In this paper we present the design and development of such a system and evaluate the performance and design considerations to maximize the end user gaming experience.
Constrained sampling method for analytic continuation
Sandvik, Anders W.
2016-12-01
A method for analytic continuation of imaginary-time correlation functions (here obtained in quantum Monte Carlo simulations) to real-frequency spectral functions is proposed. Stochastically sampling a spectrum parametrized by a large number of δ functions, treated as a statistical-mechanics problem, it avoids distortions caused by (as demonstrated here) configurational entropy in previous sampling methods. The key development is the suppression of entropy by constraining the spectral weight to within identifiable optimal bounds and imposing a set number of peaks. As a test case, the dynamic structure factor of the S =1 /2 Heisenberg chain is computed. Very good agreement is found with Bethe ansatz results in the ground state (including a sharp edge) and with exact diagonalization of small systems at elevated temperatures.
Constraining the Porosities of Interstellar Dust Grains
Heng, Kevin
2009-01-01
We present theoretical calculations of the X-ray scattering properties of porous grain aggregates with olivine monomers. The small and large angle scattering properties of these aggregates are governed by the global structure and substructure of the grain, respectively. We construct two diagnostics, R_X and T_X, based on the optical and X-ray properties of the aggregates, and apply them to a Chandra measurement of the dust halo around the Galactic binary GX13+1. Grain aggregates with porosities higher than about 0.55 are ruled out. Future high-precision observations of X-ray dust haloes together with detailed modeling of the X-ray scattering properties of porous grain mixtures will further constrain the presence of porous grain aggregates in a given dust population.
Scheduling of resource-constrained projects
Klein, Robert
2000-01-01
Project management has become a widespread instrument enabling organizations to efficiently master the challenges of steadily shortening product life cycles, global markets and decreasing profit margins. With projects increasing in size and complexity, their planning and control represents one of the most crucial management tasks. This is especially true for scheduling, which is concerned with establishing execution dates for the sub-activities to be performed in order to complete the project. The ability to manage projects where resources must be allocated between concurrent projects or even sub-activities of a single project requires the use of commercial project management software packages. However, the results yielded by the solution procedures included are often rather unsatisfactory. Scheduling of Resource-Constrained Projects develops more efficient procedures, which can easily be integrated into software packages by incorporated programming languages, and thus should be of great interest for practiti...
Shape space exploration of constrained meshes
Yang, Yongliang
2011-12-12
We present a general computational framework to locally characterize any shape space of meshes implicitly prescribed by a collection of non-linear constraints. We computationally access such manifolds, typically of high dimension and co-dimension, through first and second order approximants, namely tangent spaces and quadratically parameterized osculant surfaces. Exploration and navigation of desirable subspaces of the shape space with regard to application specific quality measures are enabled using approximants that are intrinsic to the underlying manifold and directly computable in the parameter space of the osculant surface. We demonstrate our framework on shape spaces of planar quad (PQ) meshes, where each mesh face is constrained to be (nearly) planar, and circular meshes, where each face has a circumcircle. We evaluate our framework for navigation and design exploration on a variety of inputs, while keeping context specific properties such as fairness, proximity to a reference surface, etc. © 2011 ACM.
Constrained Delaunay Triangulation for Ad Hoc Networks
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
D. Satyanarayana
2008-01-01
Full Text Available Geometric spanners can be used for efficient routing in wireless ad hoc networks. Computation of existing spanners for ad hoc networks primarily focused on geometric properties without considering network requirements. In this paper, we propose a new spanner called constrained Delaunay triangulation (CDT which considers both geometric properties and network requirements. The CDT is formed by introducing a small set of constraint edges into local Delaunay triangulation (LDel to reduce the number of hops between nodes in the network graph. We have simulated the CDT using network simulator (ns-2.28 and compared with Gabriel graph (GG, relative neighborhood graph (RNG, local Delaunay triangulation (LDel, and planarized local Delaunay triangulation (PLDel. The simulation results show that the minimum number of hops from source to destination is less than other spanners. We also observed the decrease in delay, jitter, and improvement in throughput.
Multiple Clustering Views via Constrained Projections
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Dang, Xuan-Hong; Assent, Ira; Bailey, James
2012-01-01
Clustering, the grouping of data based on mutual similarity, is often used as one of principal tools to analyze and understand data. Unfortunately, most conventional techniques aim at finding only a single clustering over the data. For many practical applications, especially those being described...... in high dimensional data, it is common to see that the data can be grouped into different yet meaningful ways. This gives rise to the recently emerging research area of discovering alternative clusterings. In this preliminary work, we propose a novel framework to generate multiple clustering views....... The framework relies on a constrained data projection approach by which we ensure that a novel alternative clustering being found is not only qualitatively strong but also distinctively different from a reference clustering solution. We demonstrate the potential of the proposed framework using both synthetic...
Constraining the dark side with observations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Diez-Tejedor, Alberto [Dpto. de Fisica Teorica, Universidad del PaIs Vasco, Apdo. 644, 48080, Bilbao (Spain)
2007-05-15
The main purpose of this talk is to use the observational evidences pointing out to the existence of a dark side in the universe in order to infer some of the properties of the unseen material. We will work within the Unified Dark Matter models, in which both, Dark Matter and Dark Energy appear as the result of one unknown component. By modeling effectively this component with a classical scalar field minimally coupled to gravity, we will use the observations to constrain the form of the dark action. Using the flat rotation curves of spiral galaxies we will see that we are restringed to the use of purely kinetic actions, previously studied in cosmology by Scherrer. Finally we arrive to a simple action which fits both cosmological and astrophysical observations.
Constraining Dark Sectors with Monojets and Dijets
Chala, Mikael; McCullough, Matthew; Nardini, Germano; Schmidt-Hoberg, Kai
2015-01-01
We consider dark sector particles (DSPs) that obtain sizeable interactions with Standard Model fermions from a new mediator. While these particles can avoid observation in direct detection experiments, they are strongly constrained by LHC measurements. We demonstrate that there is an important complementarity between searches for DSP production and searches for the mediator itself, in particular bounds on (broad) dijet resonances. This observation is crucial not only in the case where the DSP is all of the dark matter but whenever - precisely due to its sizeable interactions with the visible sector - the DSP annihilates away so efficiently that it only forms a dark matter subcomponent. To highlight the different roles of DSP direct detection and LHC monojet and dijet searches, as well as perturbativity constraints, we first analyse the exemplary case of an axial-vector mediator and then generalise our results. We find important implications for the interpretation of LHC dark matter searches in terms of simpli...
Topological impact of constrained fracture growth
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sigmund Mongstad Hope
2015-09-01
Full Text Available The topology of two discrete fracture network models is compared to investigate the impact of constrained fracture growth. In the Poissonian discrete fracture network model the fractures are assigned length, position and orientation independent of all other fractures, while in the mechanical discrete fracture network model the fractures grow and the growth can be limited by the presence of other fractures. The topology is found to be impacted by both the choice of model, as well as the choice of rules for the mechanical model. A significant difference is the degree mixing. In two dimensions the Poissonian model results in assortative networks, while the mechanical model results in disassortative networks. In three dimensions both models produce disassortative networks, but the disassortative mixing is strongest for the mechanical model.
Regions of constrained maximum likelihood parameter identifiability
Lee, C.-H.; Herget, C. J.
1975-01-01
This paper considers the parameter identification problem of general discrete-time, nonlinear, multiple-input/multiple-output dynamic systems with Gaussian-white distributed measurement errors. Knowledge of the system parameterization is assumed to be known. Regions of constrained maximum likelihood (CML) parameter identifiability are established. A computation procedure employing interval arithmetic is proposed for finding explicit regions of parameter identifiability for the case of linear systems. It is shown that if the vector of true parameters is locally CML identifiable, then with probability one, the vector of true parameters is a unique maximal point of the maximum likelihood function in the region of parameter identifiability and the CML estimation sequence will converge to the true parameters.
Constraining cosmology with pairwise velocity estimator
Ma, Yin-Zhe; He, Ping
2015-01-01
In this paper, we develop a full statistical method for the pairwise velocity estimator previously proposed, and apply Cosmicflows-2 catalogue to this method to constrain cosmology. We first calculate the covariance matrix for line-of-sight velocities for a given catalogue, and then simulate the mock full-sky surveys from it, and then calculate the variance for the pairwise velocity field. By applying the $8315$ independent galaxy samples and compressed $5224$ group samples from Cosmicflows-2 catalogue to this statistical method, we find that the joint constraint on $\\Omega^{0.6}_{\\rm m}h$ and $\\sigma_{8}$ is completely consistent with the WMAP 9-year and Planck 2015 best-fitting cosmology. Currently, there is no evidence for the modified gravity models or any dynamic dark energy models from this practice, and the error-bars need to be reduced in order to provide any concrete evidence against/to support $\\Lambda$CDM cosmology.
Communication Schemes with Constrained Reordering of Resources
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Popovski, Petar; Utkovski, Zoran; Trillingsgaard, Kasper Fløe
2013-01-01
reordering of the labelled user resources (packets, channels) in an existing, primary system. However, the degrees of freedom of the reordering are constrained by the operation of the primary system. The second scenario is related to communication systems with energy harvesting, where the transmitted signals...... pertaining to the communication model when the resources that can be reordered have binary values. The capacity result is valid under arbitrary error model in which errors in each resource (packet) occur independently. Inspired by the information—theoretic analysis, we have shown how to design practical......This paper introduces a communication model inspired by two practical scenarios. The first scenario is related to the concept of protocol coding, where information is encoded in the actions taken by an existing communication protocol. We investigate strategies for protocol coding via combinatorial...
Constraining CO emission estimates using atmospheric observations
Hooghiemstra, P. B.
2012-06-01
We apply a four-dimensional variational (4D-Var) data assimilation system to optimize carbon monoxide (CO) emissions and to reduce the uncertainty of emission estimates from individual sources using the chemistry transport model TM5. In the first study only a limited amount of surface network observations from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Earth System Research Laboratory (NOAA/ESRL) Global Monitoring Division (GMD) is used to test the 4D-Var system. Uncertainty reduction up to 60% in yearly emissions is observed over well-constrained regions and the inferred emissions compare well with recent studies for 2004. However, since the observations only constrain total CO emissions, the 4D-Var system has difficulties separating anthropogenic and biogenic sources in particular. The inferred emissions are validated with NOAA aircraft data over North America and the agreement is significantly improved from the prior to posterior simulation. Validation with the Measurements Of Pollution In The Troposphere (MOPITT) instrument shows a slight improved agreement over the well-constrained Northern Hemisphere and in the tropics (except for the African continent). However, the model simulation with posterior emissions underestimates MOPITT CO total columns on the remote Southern Hemisphere (SH) by about 10%. This is caused by a reduction in SH CO sources mainly due to surface stations on the high southern latitudes. In the second study, we compare two global inversions to estimate carbon monoxide (CO) emissions for 2004. Either surface flask observations from NOAA or CO total columns from the MOPITT instrument are assimilated in a 4D-Var framework. In the Southern Hemisphere (SH) three important findings are reported. First, due to their different vertical sensitivity, the stations-only inversion increases SH biomass burning emissions by 108 Tg CO/yr more than the MOPITT-only inversion. Conversely, the MOPITT-only inversion results in SH natural emissions
Statistical mechanics of budget-constrained auctions
Altarelli, F.; Braunstein, A.; Realpe-Gomez, J.; Zecchina, R.
2009-07-01
Finding the optimal assignment in budget-constrained auctions is a combinatorial optimization problem with many important applications, a notable example being in the sale of advertisement space by search engines (in this context the problem is often referred to as the off-line AdWords problem). On the basis of the cavity method of statistical mechanics, we introduce a message-passing algorithm that is capable of solving efficiently random instances of the problem extracted from a natural distribution, and we derive from its properties the phase diagram of the problem. As the control parameter (average value of the budgets) is varied, we find two phase transitions delimiting a region in which long-range correlations arise.
Constraining the Anisotropic Expansion of Universe
Cai, Rong-Gen; Tang, Bo; Tuo, Zhong-Liang
2013-01-01
We study the possibly existing anisotropy in the accelerating expansion Universe with the Union2 Type Ia supernovae data and Gamma-ray burst data. We construct a direction-dependent dark energy model and constrain the anisotropy direction and strength of modulation. We find that the maximum anisotropic deviation direction is $(l,\\,b)=(126^{\\circ},\\,13^{\\circ})$ (or equivalently $(l,\\,b)=(306^{\\circ},\\,-13^{\\circ})$), and the anisotropy level is $g_0=0.030_{+0.010}^{-0.030}$ (obtained using Union2 data, at $1\\sigma$ confidence level). Our results do not show strong evidence for the anisotropic dark energy model. We also discuss potential methods that may distinguish the peculiar velocity field from the anisotropic dark energy model.
Fluctuation theorem for constrained equilibrium systems
Gilbert, Thomas; Dorfman, J. Robert
2006-02-01
We discuss the fluctuation properties of equilibrium chaotic systems with constraints such as isokinetic and Nosé-Hoover thermostats. Although the dynamics of these systems does not typically preserve phase-space volumes, the average phase-space contraction rate vanishes, so that the stationary states are smooth. Nevertheless, finite-time averages of the phase-space contraction rate have nontrivial fluctuations which we show satisfy a simple version of the Gallavotti-Cohen fluctuation theorem, complementary to the usual fluctuation theorem for nonequilibrium stationary states and appropriate to constrained equilibrium states. Moreover, we show that these fluctuations are distributed according to a Gaussian curve for long enough times. Three different systems are considered here: namely, (i) a fluid composed of particles interacting with Lennard-Jones potentials, (ii) a harmonic oscillator with Nosé-Hoover thermostatting, and (iii) a simple hyperbolic two-dimensional map.
Garidel, Patrick; Pevestorf, Benjamin; Bahrenburg, Sven
2015-11-01
We studied the stability of freeze-dried therapeutic protein formulations over a range of initial concentrations (from 40 to 160 mg/mL) and employed a variety of formulation strategies (including buffer-free freeze dried formulations, or BF-FDF). Highly concentrated, buffer-free liquid formulations of therapeutic monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) have been shown to be a viable alternative to conventionally buffered preparations. We considered whether it is feasible to use the buffer-free strategy in freeze-dried formulations, as an answer to some of the known drawbacks of conventional buffers. We therefore conducted an accelerated stability study (24 weeks at 40 °C) to assess the feasibility of stabilizing freeze-dried formulations without "classical" buffer components. Factors monitored included pH stability, protein integrity, and protein aggregation. Because the protein solutions are inherently self-buffering, and the system's buffer capacity scales with protein concentration, we included highly concentrated buffer-free freeze-dried formulations in the study. The tested formulations ranged from "fully formulated" (containing both conventional buffer and disaccharide stabilizers) to "buffer-free" (including formulations with only disaccharide lyoprotectant stabilizers) to "excipient-free" (with neither added buffers nor stabilizers). We evaluated the impacts of varying concentrations, buffering schemes, pHs, and lyoprotectant additives. At the end of 24 weeks, no change in pH was observed in any of the buffer-free formulations. Unbuffered formulations were found to have shorter reconstitution times and lower opalescence than buffered formulations. Protein stability was assessed by visual inspection, sub-visible particle analysis, protein monomer content, charge variants analysis, and hydrophobic interaction chromatography. All of these measures found the stability of buffer-free formulations that included a disaccharide stabilizer comparable to buffer
A Path Algorithm for Constrained Estimation.
Zhou, Hua; Lange, Kenneth
2013-01-01
Many least-square problems involve affine equality and inequality constraints. Although there are a variety of methods for solving such problems, most statisticians find constrained estimation challenging. The current article proposes a new path-following algorithm for quadratic programming that replaces hard constraints by what are called exact penalties. Similar penalties arise in l1 regularization in model selection. In the regularization setting, penalties encapsulate prior knowledge, and penalized parameter estimates represent a trade-off between the observed data and the prior knowledge. Classical penalty methods of optimization, such as the quadratic penalty method, solve a sequence of unconstrained problems that put greater and greater stress on meeting the constraints. In the limit as the penalty constant tends to ∞, one recovers the constrained solution. In the exact penalty method, squared penalties!are replaced by absolute value penalties, and the solution is recovered for a finite value of the penalty constant. The exact path-following method starts at the unconstrained solution and follows the solution path as the penalty constant increases. In the process, the solution path hits, slides along, and exits from the various constraints. Path following in Lasso penalized regression, in contrast, starts with a large value of the penalty constant and works its way downward. In both settings, inspection of the entire solution path is revealing. Just as with the Lasso and generalized Lasso, it is possible to plot the effective degrees of freedom along the solution path. For a strictly convex quadratic program, the exact penalty algorithm can be framed entirely in terms of the sweep operator of regression analysis. A few well-chosen examples illustrate the mechanics and potential of path following. This article has supplementary materials available online.
Higher dimensional black holes as constrained systems
Nieto, J A; Villanueva, V M
2013-01-01
We construct a Lagrangian and Hamiltonian formulation for charged black holes in a d-dimensional maximally symmetric spherical space. By considering first new variables that give raise to an interesting dimensional reduction of the problem, we show that the introduction of a charge term is compatible with classical solutions to Einstein equations. In fact, we derive the well-known solutions for charged black holes, specially in the case of d=4, where the Reissner-Nordstr\\"om solution holds, without reference to Einstein field equations. We argue that our procedure may be of help for clarifying symmetries and dynamics of black holes, as well as some quantum aspects.
Formulation Patents and Dermatology and Obviousness
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Josephine Liu
2011-11-01
Full Text Available Most patents covering dermatologic products contain patent claims directed to the pharmaceutical formulation of the product. Such patents, known as formulation patents, are vulnerable to attacks based on the legal argument that the formulations covered are obvious over formulations already known prior to the filing of the patent application. Because obviousness is an important concept in patent law, recent court cases concerning obviousness and formulation patents were examined and discussed below. Courts have ruled that patent claims are obvious when features of the claimed formulation are found in the prior art, even if the features or characteristics of the formulation are not explicitly disclosed in the prior art. However, patentees have successfully overcome obviousness challenges where there were unexpected results or properties and/or the prior art taught away from the claimed invention.
Constraining the neutrino magnetic dipole moment from white dwarf pulsations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Córsico, A.H.; Althaus, L.G. [Grupo de Evolución Estelar y Pulsaciones, Facultad de Ciencias Astronómicas y Geofísicas, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, Paseo del Bosque s/n, (1900) La Plata (Argentina); Bertolami, M.M. Miller [Instituto de Astrofísica La Plata, CONICET-UNLP, Paseo del Bosque s/n, (1900) La Plata (Argentina); Kepler, S.O. [Departamento de Astronomia, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Av. Bento Goncalves 9500, Porto Alegre 91501-970, RS (Brazil); García-Berro, E., E-mail: acorsico@fcaglp.unlp.edu.ar, E-mail: althaus@fcaglp.unlp.edu.ar, E-mail: marcelo@MPA-Garching.MPG.DE, E-mail: kepler@if.ufrgs.br, E-mail: enrique.garcia-berro@upc.edu [Departament de Física Aplicada, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, c/Esteve Terrades 5, 08860, Castelldefels (Spain)
2014-08-01
Pulsating white dwarf stars can be used as astrophysical laboratories to constrain the properties of weakly interacting particles. Comparing the cooling rates of these stars with the expected values from theoretical models allows us to search for additional sources of cooling due to the emission of axions, neutralinos, or neutrinos with magnetic dipole moment. In this work, we derive an upper bound to the neutrino magnetic dipole moment (μ{sub ν}) using an estimate of the rate of period change of the pulsating DB white dwarf star PG 1351+489. We employ state-of-the-art evolutionary and pulsational codes which allow us to perform a detailed asteroseismological period fit based on fully DB white dwarf evolutionary sequences. Plasmon neutrino emission is the dominant cooling mechanism for this class of hot pulsating white dwarfs, and so it is the main contributor to the rate of change of period with time (Pidot) for the DBV class. Thus, the inclusion of an anomalous neutrino emission through a non-vanishing magnetic dipole moment in these sequences notably influences the evolutionary timescales, and also the expected pulsational properties of the DBV stars. By comparing the theoretical Pidot value with the rate of change of period with time of PG 1351+489, we assess the possible existence of additional cooling by neutrinos with magnetic dipole moment. Our models suggest the existence of some additional cooling in this pulsating DB white dwarf, consistent with a non-zero magnetic dipole moment with an upper limit of μ{sub ν} ∼< 10{sup -11} μ{sub B}. This bound is somewhat less restrictive than, but still compatible with, other limits inferred from the white dwarf luminosity function or from the color-magnitude diagram of the Globular cluster M5. Further improvements of the measurement of the rate of period change of the dominant pulsation mode of PG 1351+489 will be necessary to confirm our bound.
Constraining Substellar Magnetic Dynamos using Auroral Radio Emission
Kao, Melodie; Hallinan, Gregg; Pineda, J. Sebastian; Escala, Ivanna; Burgasser, Adam J.; Stevenson, David J.
2017-01-01
An important outstanding problem in dynamo theory is understanding how magnetic fields are generated and sustained in fully convective stellar objects. A number of models for possible dynamo mechanisms in this regime have been proposed but constraining data on magnetic field strengths and topologies across a wide range of mass, age, rotation rate, and temperature are sorely lacking, particularly in the brown dwarf regime. Detections of highly circularly polarized pulsed radio emission provide our only window into magnetic field measurements for objects in the ultracool brown dwarf regime. However, these detections are very rare; previous radio surveys encompassing ˜60 L6 or later targets have yielded only one detection. We have developed a selection strategy for biasing survey targets based on possible optical and infrared tracers of auroral activity. Using our selection strategy, we previously observed six late L and T dwarfs with the Jansky Very Large Array (VLA) and detected the presence of highly circularly polarized radio emission for five targets. Our initial detections at 4-8 GHz provided the most robust constraints on dynamo theory in this regime, confirming magnetic fields >2.5 kG. To further develop our understanding of magnetic fields in the ultracool brown dwarf mass regime bridging planets and stars, we present constraints on surface magnetic field strengths for two Y-dwarfs as well as higher frequency observations of the previously detected L/T dwarfs corresponding ~3.6 kG fields. By carefully comparing magnetic field measurements derived from auroral radio emission to measurements derived from Zeeman broadening and Zeeman Doppler imaging, we provide tentative evidence that the dynamo operating in this mass regime may be inconsistent with predicted values from currently in vogue models. This suggests that parameters beyond convective flux may influence magnetic field generation in brown dwarfs.
Mehrabian, Hatef; Lindvere, Liis; Stefanovic, Bojana; Martel, Anne L.
2010-03-01
A fully automatic ICA based data driven technique which incorporates additional a priori information from physiological modeling of the cerebral microcirculation (gamma variate model) is developed for the separation of arteries and veins in contrast-enhanced studies of the cerebral microvasculature. A dynamic data set of 50 images taken by a two-photon laser scanning microscopy technique that monitors the passage of a bolus of dye through artery and vein is used here. A temporally constrained ICA (TCICA) technique is developed to extract the vessel specific dynamics of artery and vein by adding two constraints to classical ICA algorithm. One of the constraints guarantees that the extracted curves follow the gamma variate model of blood passage through vessels. Positivity as the second constraint indicates that none of the extracted component images that correspond to the artery, vein or other capillaries in the imaging field of view, has negative impact on the acquired images. Experimental results show improved performance of the proposed temporally constrained ICA (TCICA) over the most commonly used classical ICA technique (fast-ICA) in generating physiologically meaningful curves; they are also closer to that of pixel by pixel model fitting algorithms and perform better in handling noise. This technique is also fully automatic and does not require specifying regions of interest which is critical in model based techniques.
Effenberger, F.; Fichtner, H.; Scherer, K.; Barra, S.; Kleimann, J.; Strauss, R. D.
2012-05-01
The spatial diffusion of cosmic rays in turbulent magnetic fields can, in the most general case, be fully anisotropic, i.e., one has to distinguish three diffusion axes in a local, field-aligned frame. We reexamine the transformation for the diffusion tensor from this local to a global frame, in which the Parker transport equation for energetic particles is usually formulated and solved. Particularly, we generalize the transformation formulae to allow for an explicit choice of two principal local perpendicular diffusion axes. This generalization includes the "traditional" diffusion tensor in the special case of isotropic perpendicular diffusion. For the local frame, we describe the motivation for the choice of the Frenet-Serret trihedron, which is related to the intrinsic magnetic field geometry. We directly compare the old and the new tensor elements for two heliospheric magnetic field configurations, namely the hybrid Fisk and Parker fields. Subsequently, we examine the significance of the different formulations for the diffusion tensor in a standard three-dimensional model for the modulation of galactic protons. For this, we utilize a numerical code to evaluate a system of stochastic differential equations equivalent to the Parker transport equation and present the resulting modulated spectra. The computed differential fluxes based on the new tensor formulation deviate from those obtained with the "traditional" one (only valid for isotropic perpendicular diffusion) by up to 60% for energies below a few hundred MeV depending on heliocentric distance.
Mechanistic modeling of biodiesel production using a liquid lipase formulation.
Price, Jason; Hofmann, Björn; Silva, Vanessa T L; Nordblad, Mathias; Woodley, John M; Huusom, Jakob K
2014-01-01
In this article, a kinetic model for the enzymatic transesterification of rapeseed oil with methanol using Callera™ Trans L (a liquid formulation of a modified Thermomyces lanuginosus lipase) was developed from first principles. We base the model formulation on a Ping-Pong Bi-Bi mechanism. Methanol inhibition, along with the interfacial and bulk concentrations of the enzyme was also modeled. The model was developed to describe the effect of different oil compositions, as well as different water, enzyme, and methanol concentrations, which are relevant conditions needed for process evaluation, with respect to the industrial production of biodiesel. The developed kinetic model, coupled with a mass balance of the system, was fitted to and validated on experimental results for the fed-batch transesterification of rapeseed oil. The confidence intervals of the parameter estimates, along with the identifiability of the model parameters were presented. The predictive capability of the model was tested for a case using 0.5% (wt. Enzyme/wt. Oil), 0.5% (wt. Water /wt. Oil) and feeding 1.5 times the stoichiometric amount of methanol in total over 24 h. For this case, an optimized methanol feeding profile that constrains the amount of methanol in the reactor was computed and the predictions experimentally validated. Monte-Carlo simulations were then used to characterize the effect of the parameter uncertainty on the model outputs, giving a biodiesel yield, based on the mass of oil, of 90.8 ± 0.55 mass %.
Hamiltonian formulation of teleparallel gravity
Ferraro, Rafael; Guzmán, María José
2016-11-01
The Hamiltonian formulation of the teleparallel equivalent of general relativity is developed from an ordinary second-order Lagrangian, which is written as a quadratic form of the coefficients of anholonomy of the orthonormal frames (vielbeins). We analyze the structure of eigenvalues of the multi-index matrix entering the (linear) relation between canonical velocities and momenta to obtain the set of primary constraints. The canonical Hamiltonian is then built with the Moore-Penrose pseudoinverse of that matrix. The set of constraints, including the subsequent secondary constraints, completes a first-class algebra. This means that all of them generate gauge transformations. The gauge freedoms are basically the diffeomorphisms and the (local) Lorentz transformations of the vielbein. In particular, the Arnowitt, Deser, and Misner algebra of general relativity is recovered as a subalgebra.
On Hamiltonian formulation of cosmologies
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
K D Krori; S Dutta
2000-03-01
Novello et al [1,2] have shown that it is possible to ﬁnd a pair of canonically conjugate variables (written in terms of gauge-invariant variables) so as to obtain a Hamiltonian that describes the dynamics of a cosmological system. This opens up the way to the usual technique of quantization. Elbaz et al [4] have applied this method to the Hamiltonian formulation of FRW cosmological equations. This note presents a generalization of this approach to a variety of cosmologies. A general Schrödinger wave equation has been derived and exact solutions have been worked out for the stiff matter era for some cosmological models. It is argued that these solutions appear to hint at their possible relevance in the early phase of cosmological evolution.
Hamiltonian formulation of teleparallel gravity
Ferraro, Rafael
2016-01-01
The Hamiltonian formulation of the teleparallel equivalent of general relativity (TEGR) is developed from an ordinary second-order Lagrangian, which is written as a quadratic form of the coefficients of anholonomy of the orthonormal frames (vielbeins). We analyze the structure of eigenvalues of the multi-index matrix entering the (linear) relation between canonical velocities and momenta to obtain the set of primary constraints. The canonical Hamiltonian is then built with the Moore-Penrose pseudo-inverse of that matrix. The set of constraints, including the subsequent secondary constraints, completes a first class algebra. This means that all of them generate gauge transformations. The gauge freedoms are basically the diffeomorphisms, and the (local) Lorentz transformations of the vielbein. In particular, the ADM algebra of general relativity is recovered as a sub-algebra.
Constrained Fisher Scoring for a Mixture of Factor Analyzers
2016-09-01
global appearance model across the entire sensor network. constrained maximum likelihood estimation, mixture of factor analyzers, Newton’s method...ARL-TR-7836• SEP 2016 US Army Research Laboratory Constrained Fisher Scoring for a Mixture of Factor Analyzers by Gene T Whipps, Emre Ertin, and...TR-7836• SEP 2016 US Army Research Laboratory Constrained Fisher Scoring for a Mixture of Factor Analyzers by Gene T Whipps Sensors and Electron
Liposomal formulations of cytotoxic drugs.
Janknegt, R
1996-07-01
Liposomes are microscopic particles of lipid bilayer membrane that enclose aqueous internal compartments. These drug-delivery systems offer a very interesting opportunity for delivering cytotoxic drugs with equal or improved clinical efficacy and reduced toxicity. The most important clinical application of liposomes until now has been the inclusion of amphotericin B. At the same dose level, liposomal amphotericin B is as effective or slightly less effective than the conventional formulation, but much higher dosages, up to 5-7 mg kg-1day-1, can be given with acceptable toxicity. There are three preparations of cytotoxic drugs in an advanced stage of commercial development. Two of these (Doxil and TLD D99) contain doxorubicin and the other (DaunoXome) contains daunorubicin. The cardiac toxicity of the three preparations under clinical evaluation appears to be low in comparison with conventional doxorubicin or daunorubicin. No direct comparisons between the new formulations are available, so it is not yet possible to make any statements concerning their relative efficacy and toxicity. DaunoXome is the only drug that is approved in any country, and is also the best documented. It is too early to make recommendations concerning the place of these drugs in therapy. The marked increase in concentrations at the site of the tumour has yet to lead to increased therapeutic efficacy. These findings need further investigation. The efficacy of liposomal preparations in Kaposi's sarcoma appears to be similar to that of standard therapy and the clinical tolerance is good. Perhaps combination therapy with other cytotoxic agents could result in improved clinical efficacy. Their cost will probably be high in comparison with standard therapies.
Properties of wideband resonant reflectors under fully conical light incidence
Ko, Yeong Hwan; Niraula, Manoj; Lee, Kyu Jin; Magnusson, Robert
2016-01-01
Applying numerical modeling coupled with experiments, we investigate the properties of wideband resonant reflectors under fully conical light incidence. We show that the wave vectors pertinent to resonant first-order diffraction under fully conical mounting vary less with incident angle than those associated with reflectors in classical mounting. Therefore, as the evanescent diffracted waves drive the leaky modes responsible for the resonance effects, fully-conical mounting imbues reflectors ...
Eulerian formulation of elastic rods
Huynen, Alexandre; Detournay, Emmanuel; Denoël, Vincent
2016-06-01
In numerous biological, medical and engineering applications, elastic rods are constrained to deform inside or around tube-like surfaces. To solve efficiently this class of problems, the equations governing the deflection of elastic rods are reformulated within the Eulerian framework of this generic tubular constraint defined as a perfectly stiff normal ringed surface. This reformulation hinges on describing the rod-deformed configuration by means of its relative position with respect to a reference curve, defined as the axis or spine curve of the constraint, and on restating the rod local equilibrium in terms of the curvilinear coordinate parametrizing this curve. Associated with a segmentation strategy, which partitions the global problem into a sequence of rod segments either in continuous contact with the constraint or free of contact (except for their extremities), this re-parametrization not only trivializes the detection of new contacts but also transforms these free boundary problems into classic two-points boundary-value problems and suppresses the isoperimetric constraints resulting from the imposition of the rod position at the extremities of each rod segment.
Sequential unconstrained minimization algorithms for constrained optimization
Byrne, Charles
2008-02-01
The problem of minimizing a function f(x):RJ → R, subject to constraints on the vector variable x, occurs frequently in inverse problems. Even without constraints, finding a minimizer of f(x) may require iterative methods. We consider here a general class of iterative algorithms that find a solution to the constrained minimization problem as the limit of a sequence of vectors, each solving an unconstrained minimization problem. Our sequential unconstrained minimization algorithm (SUMMA) is an iterative procedure for constrained minimization. At the kth step we minimize the function G_k(x)=f(x)+g_k(x), to obtain xk. The auxiliary functions gk(x):D ⊆ RJ → R+ are nonnegative on the set D, each xk is assumed to lie within D, and the objective is to minimize the continuous function f:RJ → R over x in the set C=\\overline D , the closure of D. We assume that such minimizers exist, and denote one such by \\hat x . We assume that the functions gk(x) satisfy the inequalities 0\\leq g_k(x)\\leq G_{k-1}(x)-G_{k-1}(x^{k-1}), for k = 2, 3, .... Using this assumption, we show that the sequence {f(xk)} is decreasing and converges to f({\\hat x}) . If the restriction of f(x) to D has bounded level sets, which happens if \\hat x is unique and f(x) is closed, proper and convex, then the sequence {xk} is bounded, and f(x^*)=f({\\hat x}) , for any cluster point x*. Therefore, if \\hat x is unique, x^*={\\hat x} and \\{x^k\\}\\rightarrow {\\hat x} . When \\hat x is not unique, convergence can still be obtained, in particular cases. The SUMMA includes, as particular cases, the well-known barrier- and penalty-function methods, the simultaneous multiplicative algebraic reconstruction technique (SMART), the proximal minimization algorithm of Censor and Zenios, the entropic proximal methods of Teboulle, as well as certain cases of gradient descent and the Newton-Raphson method. The proof techniques used for SUMMA can be extended to obtain related results for the induced proximal
Fully implicit Particle-in-cell algorithms for multiscale plasma simulation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chacon, Luis [Los Alamos National Laboratory
2015-07-16
The outline of the paper is as follows: Particle-in-cell (PIC) methods for fully ionized collisionless plasmas, explicit vs. implicit PIC, 1D ES implicit PIC (charge and energy conservation, moment-based acceleration), and generalization to Multi-D EM PIC: Vlasov-Darwin model (review and motivation for Darwin model, conservation properties (energy, charge, and canonical momenta), and numerical benchmarks). The author demonstrates a fully implicit, fully nonlinear, multidimensional PIC formulation that features exact local charge conservation (via a novel particle mover strategy), exact global energy conservation (no particle self-heating or self-cooling), adaptive particle orbit integrator to control errors in momentum conservation, and canonical momenta (EM-PIC only, reduced dimensionality). The approach is free of numerical instabilities: ω_{pe}Δt >> 1, and Δx >> λ_{D}. It requires many fewer dofs (vs. explicit PIC) for comparable accuracy in challenging problems. Significant CPU gains (vs explicit PIC) have been demonstrated. The method has much potential for efficiency gains vs. explicit in long-time-scale applications. Moment-based acceleration is effective in minimizing N_{FE}, leading to an optimal algorithm.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Komolvilas Veerayut
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Several researchers have reported that Bishop’s mean effective stress decreases in unsaturated soils under fully undrained cyclic loading conditions, and unsaturated soils are finally liquefied in a similar manner as saturated soils. This paper presents a series of simulations of such fully undrained cyclic loading on unsaturated soils using an elastoplastic model of the unsaturated soil. This model is formulated using the Bishop’s effective stress tensor incorporating the following concepts: the volumetric movement of the state boundary surface containing the normal consolidation line and the critical state line due to the variation in the degree of saturation, a soil water characteristic curve model considering the effect of specific volume and hysteresis, the subloading surface model, and Boyle’s law. Comparisons between the simulation results and the experimental ones show that the model agreed well with the unsaturated soil behavior under cyclic loading. Finally, the typical cyclic behavior of unsaturated soils under fully undrained conditions, such as the mechanism of liquefaction of unsaturated soils, the compression behavior, and an increase in the degree of saturation, are described through the proposed simulation results.
Weigand, T. M.; Miller, C. T.; Dye, A. L.; Gray, W. G.; McClure, J. E.; Rybak, I.
2015-12-01
The thermodynamically constrained averaging theory (TCAT) has been usedto formulate general classes of porous medium models, including newmodels for two-fluid-phase flow. The TCAT approach provides advantagesthat include a firm connection between the microscale, or pore scale,and the macroscale; a thermodynamically consistent basis; explicitinclusion of factors such as interfacial areas, contact angles,interfacial tension, and curvatures; and dynamics of interface movementand relaxation to an equilibrium state. In order to render the TCATmodel solvable, certain closure relations are needed to relate fluidpressure, interfacial areas, curvatures, and relaxation rates. In thiswork, we formulate and solve a TCAT-based two-fluid-phase flow model. We detail the formulation of the model, which is a specific instancefrom a hierarchy of two-fluid-phase flow models that emerge from thetheory. We show the closure problem that must be solved. Using recentresults from high-resolution microscale simulations, we advance a set ofclosure relations that produce a closed model. Lastly, we solve the model using a locally conservative numerical scheme and compare the TCAT model to the traditional model.
Becker, Stéphanie; Lepareur, Nicolas; Cadeillan, Virginie; Ardisson, Valérie; Bayat, Sahar; Noiret, Nicolas; Garin, Etienne
2012-03-01
The aim of this study was to develop new Lipiodol formulations with increased viscosities to augment Lipiodol embolic effect and optimize efficiency of radiolabeled Lipiodol in hepatocarcinoma treatments. New Lipiodol formulations consist of Lipiodol mixtures with different stearic acid concentrations (0.8%, 1.3%, and 1.8%). These formulations were fully characterized in vitro (viscosity, rheologic profiles) and labeled with 99mTc. Their viscosities at 20°C are 54, 60, and 67cP respectively, versus 45cP for Lipiodol ultra-fluide. Second, their biodistribution profiles were studied in vivo, at 24 and 72 hours, in hepatoma-bearing rats, and compared to control group (99mTc-Lipiodol). Biodistribution at 24 hours show a Gaussian tumor uptake profile with a maximum obtained with 1.3% stearic acid, and a tumor uptake superior to control group (+67%) (p<0.05). At 72 hours, optimal tumor uptake is reached with the 0.8% formulation, with 89% increase compared with control group (p<0.05). Moreover, we show a tendency to the decrease of pulmonary uptake for the new formulations at 24 hours and 72 hours. These results suggest a correlation between viscosity and Lipiodol tumor uptake. The new 0.8% stearic acid/Lipiodol formulation appears to be the optimized formulation for Lipiodol treatments of hepatocarcinoma, since it leads to a significant increase of tumor uptake at 72 hours and possibly to a decrease of undesirable pulmonary effects.
Pinel-Giroux, Fanny-Maud; de Guise, Jacques A.; Labelle, Hubert
2007-01-01
Sagittal curvatures of the spine can be assessed using the constrained or non-constrained Cobb techniques. However, there is no study that specifically compares these two techniques. The objective of this study is to assess the reproducibility and clinical relevance of the non-constrained Cobb technique (non-constrained limit vertebrae) compared to the constrained Cobb technique (constrained limit vertebrae). Standing sagittal radiographs of the spine of ten adolescents with idiopathic scoliosis, ten adolescents with spondylolisthesis and ten normal adolescents were selected. Thoracic kyphosis (TK) and lumbar lordosis (LL) were measured twice by three observers using both constrained and non-constrained Cobb techniques. Pearson’s correlation coefficients, as well as intra- and inter-observer intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC) were calculated. Inter-observer ICCs were similar for TK and LL with both techniques, ranging from 0.84 to 0.89. Intra-observer ICCs for both techniques were between 0.74 and 0.92 for TK, while they were between 0.87 and 0.97 for LL. The two techniques were highly correlated for the measurement of the TK (r = 0.96) and LL (r = 0.94). Computer-assisted assessment of the sagittal profile using the non-constrained Cobb technique provides excellent reproducibility. As opposed to the constrained Cobb technique, the non-constrained Cobb technique takes into account the variability in the level of transition between the TK and LL. However, adequate use of this technique requires accurate identification of the limit vertebrae in the thoracolumbar spine. Consequently, a computer-assisted technique is recommended when using the non-constrained Cobb technique. PMID:17426991
Electricity in a Climate-Constrained World
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
NONE
2012-07-01
After experiencing a historic drop in 2009, electricity generation reached a record high in 2010, confirming the close linkage between economic growth and electricity usage. Unfortunately, CO2 emissions from electricity have also resumed their growth: Electricity remains the single-largest source of CO2 emissions from energy, with 11.7 billion tonnes of CO2 released in 2010. The imperative to 'decarbonise' electricity and improve end-use efficiency remains essential to the global fight against climate change. The IEA’s Electricity in a Climate-Constrained World provides an authoritative resource on progress to date in this area, including statistics related to CO2 and the electricity sector across ten regions of the world (supply, end-use and capacity additions). It also presents topical analyses on the challenge of rapidly curbing CO2 emissions from electricity. Looking at policy instruments, it focuses on emissions trading in China, using energy efficiency to manage electricity supply crises and combining policy instruments for effective CO2 reductions. On regulatory issues, it asks whether deregulation can deliver decarbonisation and assesses the role of state-owned enterprises in emerging economies. And from technology perspectives, it explores the rise of new end-uses, the role of electricity storage, biomass use in Brazil, and the potential of carbon capture and storage for ‘negative emissions’ electricity supply.
Constraining the Properties of Cold Interstellar Clouds
Spraggs, Mary Elizabeth; Gibson, Steven J.
2016-01-01
Since the interstellar medium (ISM) plays an integral role in star formation and galactic structure, it is important to understand the evolution of clouds over time, including the processes of cooling and condensation that lead to the formation of new stars. This work aims to constrain and better understand the physical properties of the cold ISM by utilizing large surveys of neutral atomic hydrogen (HI) 21cm spectral line emission and absorption, carbon monoxide (CO) 2.6mm line emission, and multi-band infrared dust thermal continuum emission. We identify areas where the gas may be cooling and forming molecules using HI self-absorption (HISA), in which cold foreground HI absorbs radiation from warmer background HI emission.We are developing an algorithm that uses total gas column densities inferred from Planck and other FIR/sub-mm data in parallel with CO and HISA spectral line data to determine the gas temperature, density, molecular abundance, and other properties as functions of position. We can then map these properties to study their variation throughout an individual cloud as well as any dependencies on location or environment within the Galaxy.Funding for this work was provided by the National Science Foundation, the NASA Kentucky Space Grant Consortium, the WKU Ogden College of Science and Engineering, and the Carol Martin Gatton Academy for Mathematics and Science in Kentucky.
Constrained Graph Optimization: Interdiction and Preservation Problems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Schild, Aaron V [Los Alamos National Laboratory
2012-07-30
The maximum flow, shortest path, and maximum matching problems are a set of basic graph problems that are critical in theoretical computer science and applications. Constrained graph optimization, a variation of these basic graph problems involving modification of the underlying graph, is equally important but sometimes significantly harder. In particular, one can explore these optimization problems with additional cost constraints. In the preservation case, the optimizer has a budget to preserve vertices or edges of a graph, preventing them from being deleted. The optimizer wants to find the best set of preserved edges/vertices in which the cost constraints are satisfied and the basic graph problems are optimized. For example, in shortest path preservation, the optimizer wants to find a set of edges/vertices within which the shortest path between two predetermined points is smallest. In interdiction problems, one deletes vertices or edges from the graph with a particular cost in order to impede the basic graph problems as much as possible (for example, delete edges/vertices to maximize the shortest path between two predetermined vertices). Applications of preservation problems include optimal road maintenance, power grid maintenance, and job scheduling, while interdiction problems are related to drug trafficking prevention, network stability assessment, and counterterrorism. Computational hardness results are presented, along with heuristic methods for approximating solutions to the matching interdiction problem. Also, efficient algorithms are presented for special cases of graphs, including on planar graphs. The graphs in many of the listed applications are planar, so these algorithms have important practical implications.
Constrained spheroids for prolonged hepatocyte culture.
Tong, Wen Hao; Fang, Yu; Yan, Jie; Hong, Xin; Hari Singh, Nisha; Wang, Shu Rui; Nugraha, Bramasta; Xia, Lei; Fong, Eliza Li Shan; Iliescu, Ciprian; Yu, Hanry
2016-02-01
Liver-specific functions in primary hepatocytes can be maintained over extended duration in vitro using spheroid culture. However, the undesired loss of cells over time is still a major unaddressed problem, which consequently generates large variations in downstream assays such as drug screening. In static culture, the turbulence generated by medium change can cause spheroids to detach from the culture substrate. Under perfusion, the momentum generated by Stokes force similarly results in spheroid detachment. To overcome this problem, we developed a Constrained Spheroids (CS) culture system that immobilizes spheroids between a glass coverslip and an ultra-thin porous Parylene C membrane, both surface-modified with poly(ethylene glycol) and galactose ligands for optimum spheroid formation and maintenance. In this configuration, cell loss was minimized even when perfusion was introduced. When compared to the standard collagen sandwich model, hepatocytes cultured as CS under perfusion exhibited significantly enhanced hepatocyte functions such as urea secretion, and CYP1A1 and CYP3A2 metabolic activity. We propose the use of the CS culture as an improved culture platform to current hepatocyte spheroid-based culture systems.
Constraining cosmic isotropy with type Ia supernovae
Bengaly,, C A P; Alcaniz, J S
2016-01-01
We investigate the validity of the Cosmological Principle by constraining the cosmological parameters $H_0$ and $q_0$ through the celestial sphere. Our analyses are performed in a low-redshift regime in order to follow a model independent approach, using both Union2.1 and JLA Type Ia Supernovae (SNe) compilations. We find that the preferred direction of the $H_0$ parameter in the sky is consistent with the bulk flow motion of our local Universe in the Union2.1 case, while the $q_0$ directional analysis seem to be anti-correlated with the $H_0$ for both data sets. Furthermore, we test the consistency of these results with Monte Carlo (MC) realisations, finding that the anisotropy on both parameters are significant within $2-3\\sigma$ confidence level, albeit we find a significant correlation between the $H_0$ and $q_0$ mapping with the angular distribution of SNe from the JLA compilation. Therefore, we conclude that the detected anisotropies are either of local origin, or induced by the non-uniform celestial co...
String Theory Origin of Constrained Multiplets
Kallosh, Renata; Wrase, Timm
2016-01-01
We study the non-linearly realized spontaneously broken supersymmetry of the (anti-)D3-brane action in type IIB string theory. The worldvolume fields are one vector $A_\\mu$, three complex scalars $\\phi^i$ and four 4d fermions $\\lambda^0$, $\\lambda^i$. These transform, in addition to the more familiar N=4 linear supersymmetry, also under 16 spontaneously broken, non-linearly realized supersymmetries. We argue that the worldvolume fields can be packaged into the following constrained 4d non-linear N=1 multiplets: four chiral multiplets $S$, $Y^i$ that satisfy $S^2=SY^i=0$ and contain the worldvolume fermions $\\lambda^0$ and $\\lambda^i$; and four chiral multiplets $W_\\alpha$, $H^i$ that satisfy $S W_\\alpha=0$ and $S \\bar D_{\\dot \\alpha} \\bar H^{\\bar \\imath}=0$ and contain the vector $A_\\mu$ and the scalars $\\phi^i$. We also discuss how placing an anti-D3-brane on top of intersecting O7-planes can lead to an orthogonal multiplet $\\Phi$ that satisfies $S(\\Phi-\\bar \\Phi)=0$, which is particularly interesting for in...
Constrained length minimum inductance gradient coil design.
Chronik, B A; Rutt, B K
1998-02-01
A gradient coil design algorithm capable of controlling the position of the homogeneous region of interest (ROI) with respect to the current-carrying wires is required for many advanced imaging and spectroscopy applications. A modified minimum inductance target field method that allows the placement of a set of constraints on the final current density is presented. This constrained current minimum inductance method is derived in the context of previous target field methods. Complete details are shown and all equations required for implementation of the algorithm are given. The method has been implemented on computer and applied to the design of both a 1:1 aspect ratio (length:diameter) central ROI and a 2:1 aspect ratio edge ROI gradient coil. The 1:1 design demonstrates that a general analytic method can be used to easily obtain very short gradient coil designs for use with specialized magnet systems. The edge gradient design demonstrates that designs that allow imaging of the neck region with a head sized gradient coil can be obtained, as well as other applications requiring edge-of-cylinder regions of uniformity.
Constraining the Oblateness of Kepler Planets
Zhu, Wei; Zhou, George; Lin, D N C
2014-01-01
We use Kepler short cadence light curves to constrain the oblateness of planet candidates in the Kepler sample. The transits of rapidly rotating planets that are deformed in shape will lead to distortions in the ingress and egress of their light curves. We report the first tentative detection of an oblate planet outside of the solar system, measuring an oblateness of $0.22 \\pm 0.11$ for the 18 $M_J$ mass brown dwarf Kepler 39b (KOI-423.01). We also provide constraints on the oblateness of the planets (candidates) HAT-P-7b, KOI-686.01, and KOI-197.01 to be < 0.067, < 0.251, and < 0.186, respectively. Using the Q'-values from Jupiter and Saturn, we expect tidal synchronization for the spins of HAT-P-7b, KOI-686.01 and KOI-197.01, and for their rotational oblateness signatures to be undetectable in the current data. The potentially large oblateness of KOI-423.01 (Kepler 39b) suggests that the Q'-value of the brown dwarf needs to be two orders of magnitude larger than that of the solar system gas giants ...
Should we still believe in constrained supersymmetry?
Balázs, Csaba; Carter, Daniel; Farmer, Benjamin; White, Martin
2012-01-01
We calculate Bayes factors to quantify how the feasibility of the constrained minimal supersymmetric standard model (CMSSM) has changed in the light of a series of observations. This is done in the Bayesian spirit where probability reflects a degree of belief in a proposition and Bayes' theorem tells us how to update it after acquiring new information. Our experimental baseline is the approximate knowledge that was available before LEP, and our comparison model is the Standard Model with a simple dark matter candidate. To quantify the amount by which experiments have altered our relative belief in the CMSSM since the baseline data we compute the Bayes factors that arise from learning in sequence the LEP Higgs constraints, the XENON100 dark matter constraints, the 2011 LHC supersymmetry search results, and the early 2012 LHC Higgs search results. We find that LEP and the LHC strongly shatter our trust in the CMSSM (with $M_0$ and $M_{1/2}$ below 2 TeV), reducing its posterior odds by a factor of approximately ...
Constraining the halo mass function with observations
Castro, Tiago; Quartin, Miguel
2016-01-01
The abundances of matter halos in the universe are described by the so-called halo mass function (HMF). It enters most cosmological analyses and parametrizes how the linear growth of primordial perturbations is connected to these abundances. Interestingly, this connection can be made approximately cosmology independent. This made it possible to map in detail its near-universal behavior through large-scale simulations. However, such simulations may suffer from systematic effects, especially if baryonic physics is included. In this paper we ask how well observations can constrain directly the HMF. The observables we consider are galaxy cluster number counts, galaxy cluster power spectrum and lensing of type Ia supernovae. Our results show that DES is capable of putting the first meaningful constraints, while both Euclid and J-PAS can give constraints on the HMF parameters which are comparable to the ones from state-of-the-art simulations. We also find that an independent measurement of cluster masses is even mo...
Constraining New Physics with D meson decays
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Barranco, J.; Delepine, D.; Gonzalez Macias, V. [Departamento de Física, División de Ciencias e Ingeniería, Universidad de Guanajuato, Campus León, León 37150 (Mexico); Lopez-Lozano, L. [Departamento de Física, División de Ciencias e Ingeniería, Universidad de Guanajuato, Campus León, León 37150 (Mexico); Área Académica de Matemáticas y Física, Universidad Autónoma del Estado de Hidalgo, Carr. Pachuca-Tulancingo Km. 4.5, C.P. 42184, Pachuca, HGO (Mexico)
2014-04-04
Latest Lattice results on D form factors evaluation from first principles show that the Standard Model (SM) branching ratios prediction for the leptonic D{sub s}→ℓν{sub ℓ} decays and the semileptonic SM branching ratios of the D{sup 0} and D{sup +} meson decays are in good agreement with the world average experimental measurements. It is possible to disprove New Physics hypothesis or find bounds over several models beyond the SM. Using the observed leptonic and semileptonic branching ratios for the D meson decays, we performed a combined analysis to constrain non-standard interactions which mediate the cs{sup ¯}→lν{sup ¯} transition. This is done either by a model-independent way through the corresponding Wilson coefficients or in a model-dependent way by finding the respective bounds over the relevant parameters for some models beyond the Standard Model. In particular, we obtain bounds for the Two Higgs Doublet Model Type-II and Type III, the Left–Right model, the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model with explicit R-parity violation and Leptoquarks. Finally, we estimate the transverse polarization of the lepton in the D{sup 0} decay and we found it can be as high as P{sub T}=0.23.
Joint Chance-Constrained Dynamic Programming
Ono, Masahiro; Kuwata, Yoshiaki; Balaram, J. Bob
2012-01-01
This paper presents a novel dynamic programming algorithm with a joint chance constraint, which explicitly bounds the risk of failure in order to maintain the state within a specified feasible region. A joint chance constraint cannot be handled by existing constrained dynamic programming approaches since their application is limited to constraints in the same form as the cost function, that is, an expectation over a sum of one-stage costs. We overcome this challenge by reformulating the joint chance constraint into a constraint on an expectation over a sum of indicator functions, which can be incorporated into the cost function by dualizing the optimization problem. As a result, the primal variables can be optimized by a standard dynamic programming, while the dual variable is optimized by a root-finding algorithm that converges exponentially. Error bounds on the primal and dual objective values are rigorously derived. We demonstrate the algorithm on a path planning problem, as well as an optimal control problem for Mars entry, descent and landing. The simulations are conducted using a real terrain data of Mars, with four million discrete states at each time step.
iBGP and Constrained Connectivity
Dinitz, Michael
2011-01-01
We initiate the theoretical study of the problem of minimizing the size of an iBGP overlay in an Autonomous System (AS) in the Internet subject to a natural notion of correctness derived from the standard "hot-potato" routing rules. For both natural versions of the problem (where we measure the size of an overlay by either the number of edges or the maximum degree) we prove that it is NP-hard to approximate to a factor better than $\\Omega(\\log n)$ and provide approximation algorithms with ratio $\\tilde{O}(\\sqrt{n})$. In addition, we give a slightly worse $\\tilde{O}(n^{2/3})$-approximation based on primal-dual techniques that has the virtue of being both fast and good in practice, which we show via simulations on the actual topologies of five large Autonomous Systems. The main technique we use is a reduction to a new connectivity-based network design problem that we call Constrained Connectivity. In this problem we are given a graph $G=(V,E)$, and for every pair of vertices $u,v \\in V$ we are given a set $S(u,...
Constraining Cosmological Models with Different Observations
Wei, J. J.
2016-07-01
With the observations of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia), scientists discovered that the Universe is experiencing an accelerated expansion, and then revealed the existence of dark energy in 1998. Since the amazing discovery, cosmology has became a hot topic in the physical research field. Cosmology is a subject that strongly depends on the astronomical observations. Therefore, constraining different cosmological models with all kinds of observations is one of the most important research works in the modern cosmology. The goal of this thesis is to investigate cosmology using the latest observations. The observations include SNe Ia, Type Ic Super Luminous supernovae (SLSN Ic), Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), angular diameter distance of galaxy cluster, strong gravitational lensing, and age measurements of old passive galaxies, etc. In Chapter 1, we briefly review the research background of cosmology, and introduce some cosmological models. Then we summarize the progress on cosmology from all kinds of observations in more details. In Chapter 2, we present the results of our studies on the supernova cosmology. The main difficulty with the use of SNe Ia as standard candles is that one must optimize three or four nuisance parameters characterizing SN luminosities simultaneously with the parameters of an expansion model of the Universe. We have confirmed that one should optimize all of the parameters by carrying out the method of maximum likelihood estimation in any situation where the parameters include an unknown intrinsic dispersion. The commonly used method, which estimates the dispersion by requiring the reduced χ^{2} to equal unity, does not take into account all possible variances among the parameters. We carry out such a comparison of the standard ΛCDM cosmology and the R_{h}=ct Universe using the SN Legacy Survey sample of 252 SN events, and show that each model fits its individually reduced data very well. Moreover, it is quite evident that SLSNe Ic may be useful
Founder niche constrains evolutionary adaptive radiation.
Flohr, Régis C E; Blom, Carsten J; Rainey, Paul B; Beaumont, Hubertus J E
2013-12-17
Adaptive radiation of a lineage into a range of organisms with different niches underpins the evolution of life's diversity. Although the role of the environment in shaping adaptive radiation is well established, theory predicts that the evolvability and niche of the founding ancestor are also of importance. Direct demonstration of a causal link requires resolving the independent effects of these additional factors. Here, we accomplish this using experimental bacterial populations and demonstrate how the dynamics of adaptive radiation are constrained by the niche of the founder. We manipulated the propensity of the founder to undergo adaptive radiation and resolved the underlying causal changes in both its evolvability and niche. Evolvability did not change, but the propensity for adaptive radiation was altered by changes in the position and breadth of the niche of the founder. These observations provide direct empirical evidence for a link between the niche of organisms and their propensity for adaptive radiation. This general mechanism may have rendered the evolutionary dynamics of extant adaptive radiations dependent on chance events that determined their founding ancestors.
Constraining the roughness degree of slip heterogeneity
Causse, Mathieu
2010-05-07
This article investigates different approaches for assessing the degree of roughness of the slip distribution of future earthquakes. First, we analyze a database of slip images extracted from a suite of 152 finite-source rupture models from 80 events (Mw = 4.1–8.9). This results in an empirical model defining the distribution of the slip spectrum corner wave numbers (kc) as a function of moment magnitude. To reduce the “epistemic” uncertainty, we select a single slip model per event and screen out poorly resolved models. The number of remaining models (30) is thus rather small. In addition, the robustness of the empirical model rests on a reliable estimation of kc by kinematic inversion methods. We address this issue by performing tests on synthetic data with a frequency domain inversion method. These tests reveal that due to smoothing constraints used to stabilize the inversion process, kc tends to be underestimated. We then develop an alternative approach: (1) we establish a proportionality relationship between kc and the peak ground acceleration (PGA), using a k−2 kinematic source model, and (2) we analyze the PGA distribution, which is believed to be better constrained than slip images. These two methods reveal that kc follows a lognormal distribution, with similar standard deviations for both methods.
Constraining groundwater modeling with magnetic resonance soundings.
Boucher, Marie; Favreau, Guillaume; Nazoumou, Yahaya; Cappelaere, Bernard; Massuel, Sylvain; Legchenko, Anatoly
2012-01-01
Magnetic resonance sounding (MRS) is a noninvasive geophysical method that allows estimating the free water content and transmissivity of aquifers. In this article, the ability of MRS to improve the reliability of a numerical groundwater model is assessed. Thirty-five sites were investigated by MRS over a ∼5000 km(2) domain of the sedimentary Continental Terminal aquifer in SW Niger. Time domain electromagnetic soundings were jointly carried out to estimate the aquifer thickness. A groundwater model was previously built for this section of the aquifer and forced by the outputs from a distributed surface hydrology model, to simulate the observed long-term (1992 to 2003) rise in the water table. Uncertainty analysis had shown that independent estimates of the free water content and transmissivity values of the aquifer would facilitate cross-evaluation of the surface-water and groundwater models. MRS results indicate ranges for permeability (K = 1 × 10(-5) to 3 × 10(-4) m/s) and for free water content (w = 5% to 23% m(3) /m(3) ) narrowed by two orders of magnitude (K) and by ∼50% (w), respectively, compared to the ranges of permeability and specific yield values previously considered. These shorter parameter ranges result in a reduction in the model's equifinality (whereby multiple combinations of model's parameters are able to represent the same observed piezometric levels), allowing a better constrained estimate to be derived for net aquifer recharge (∼22 mm/year).
Pressure compensated transducer system with constrained diaphragm
Percy, Joseph L.
1992-08-01
An acoustic source apparatus has an acoustic transducer that is enclosed in a substantially rigid and watertight enclosure to resist the pressure of water on the transducer and to seal the transducer from the water. The enclosure has an opening through which acoustic signals pass and over which is placed a resilient, expandable and substantially water-impermeable diaphragm. A net stiffens and strengthens the diaphragm as well as constrains the diaphragm from overexpansion or from migrating due to buoyancy forces. Pressurized gas, regulated at slightly above ambient pressure, is supplied to the enclosure and the diaphragm to compensate for underwater ambient pressures. Gas pressure regulated at above ambient pressure is used to selectively tune the pressure levels within the enclosure and diaphragm so that diaphragm resonance can be achieved. Controls are used to selectively fill, as well as vent the enclosure and diaphragm during system descent and ascent, respectively. A signal link is used to activate these controls and to provide the driving force for the acoustic transducer.
Joint Chance-Constrained Dynamic Programming
Ono, Masahiro; Kuwata, Yoshiaki; Balaram, J. Bob
2012-01-01
This paper presents a novel dynamic programming algorithm with a joint chance constraint, which explicitly bounds the risk of failure in order to maintain the state within a specified feasible region. A joint chance constraint cannot be handled by existing constrained dynamic programming approaches since their application is limited to constraints in the same form as the cost function, that is, an expectation over a sum of one-stage costs. We overcome this challenge by reformulating the joint chance constraint into a constraint on an expectation over a sum of indicator functions, which can be incorporated into the cost function by dualizing the optimization problem. As a result, the primal variables can be optimized by a standard dynamic programming, while the dual variable is optimized by a root-finding algorithm that converges exponentially. Error bounds on the primal and dual objective values are rigorously derived. We demonstrate the algorithm on a path planning problem, as well as an optimal control problem for Mars entry, descent and landing. The simulations are conducted using a real terrain data of Mars, with four million discrete states at each time step.
Constraining Sterile Neutrinos Using Reactor Neutrino Experiments
Girardi, Ivan; Ohlsson, Tommy; Zhang, He; Zhou, Shun
2014-01-01
Models of neutrino mixing involving one or more sterile neutrinos have resurrected their importance in the light of recent cosmological data. In this case, reactor antineutrino experiments offer an ideal place to look for signatures of sterile neutrinos due to their impact on neutrino flavor transitions. In this work, we show that the high-precision data of the Daya Bay experi\\-ment constrain the 3+1 neutrino scenario imposing upper bounds on the relevant active-sterile mixing angle $\\sin^2 2 \\theta_{14} \\lesssim 0.06$ at 3$\\sigma$ confidence level for the mass-squared difference $\\Delta m^2_{41}$ in the range $(10^{-3},10^{-1}) \\, {\\rm eV^2}$. The latter bound can be improved by six years of running of the JUNO experiment, $\\sin^22\\theta_{14} \\lesssim 0.016$, although in the smaller mass range $ \\Delta m^2_{41} \\in (10^{-4} ,10^{-3}) \\, {\\rm eV}^2$. We have also investigated the impact of sterile neutrinos on precision measurements of the standard neutrino oscillation parameters $\\theta_{13}$ and $\\Delta m^2...
Constraining the oblateness of Kepler planets
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zhu, Wei [Department of Astronomy, The Ohio State University, 140 West 18th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Huang, Chelsea X. [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Zhou, George [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Australian National University, Cotter Road, Weston Creek, ACT 2611 (Australia); Lin, D. N. C., E-mail: weizhu@astronomy.ohio-state.edu [UCO/Lick Observatory, University of California, 1156 High Street, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States)
2014-11-20
We use Kepler short-cadence light curves to constrain the oblateness of planet candidates in the Kepler sample. The transits of rapidly rotating planets that are deformed in shape will lead to distortions in the ingress and egress of their light curves. We report the first tentative detection of an oblate planet outside the solar system, measuring an oblateness of 0.22{sub −0.11}{sup +0.11} for the 18 M{sub J} mass brown dwarf Kepler 39b (KOI 423.01). We also provide constraints on the oblateness of the planets (candidates) HAT-P-7b, KOI 686.01, and KOI 197.01 to be <0.067, <0.251, and <0.186, respectively. Using the Q' values from Jupiter and Saturn, we expect tidal synchronization for the spins of HAT-P-7b, KOI 686.01, and KOI 197.01, and for their rotational oblateness signatures to be undetectable in the current data. The potentially large oblateness of KOI 423.01 (Kepler 39b) suggests that the Q' value of the brown dwarf needs to be two orders of magnitude larger than that of the solar system gas giants to avoid being tidally spun down.
Optimal performance of constrained control systems
Harvey, P. Scott, Jr.; Gavin, Henri P.; Scruggs, Jeffrey T.
2012-08-01
This paper presents a method to compute optimal open-loop trajectories for systems subject to state and control inequality constraints in which the cost function is quadratic and the state dynamics are linear. For the case in which inequality constraints are decentralized with respect to the controls, optimal Lagrange multipliers enforcing the inequality constraints may be found at any time through Pontryagin’s minimum principle. In so doing, the set of differential algebraic Euler-Lagrange equations is transformed into a nonlinear two-point boundary-value problem for states and costates whose solution meets the necessary conditions for optimality. The optimal performance of inequality constrained control systems is calculable, allowing for comparison to previous, sub-optimal solutions. The method is applied to the control of damping forces in a vibration isolation system subjected to constraints imposed by the physical implementation of a particular controllable damper. An outcome of this study is the best performance achievable given a particular objective, isolation system, and semi-active damper constraints.
Constrained Subjective Assessment of Student Learning
Saliu, Sokol
2005-09-01
Student learning is a complex incremental cognitive process; assessment needs to parallel this, reporting the results in similar terms. Application of fuzzy sets and logic to the criterion-referenced assessment of student learning is considered here. The constrained qualitative assessment (CQA) system was designed, and then applied in assessing a past course in microcomputer system design (MSD). CQA criteria were articulated in fuzzy terms and sets, and the assessment procedure was cast as a fuzzy inference rule base. An interactive graphic interface provided for transparent assessment, student "backwash," and support to the teacher when compiling the tests. Grade intervals, obtained from a departmental poll, were used to compile a fuzzy "grade" set. Assessment results were compared to those of a former standard method and to those of a modified version of it (but with fewer criteria). The three methods yielded similar results, supporting the application of CQA. The method improved assessment reliability by means of the consensus embedded in the fuzzy grade set, and improved assessment validity by integrating fuzzy criteria into the assessment procedure.
Constraining solar hidden photons using HPGe detector
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Horvat, R.; Kekez, D., E-mail: Dalibor.Kekez@irb.hr; Krčmar, M.; Krečak, Z.; Ljubičić, A.
2013-04-25
In this Letter we report on the results of our search for photons from a U(1) gauge factor in the hidden sector of the full theory. With our experimental setup we observe the single spectrum in a HPGe detector arising as a result of the photoelectric-like absorption of hidden photons emitted from the Sun on germanium atoms inside the detector. The main ingredient of the theory used in our analysis, a severely constrained kinetic mixing from the two U(1) gauge factors and massive hidden photons, entails both photon into hidden state oscillations and a minuscule coupling of hidden photons to visible matter, of which the latter our experimental setup has been designed to observe. On a theoretical side, full account was taken of the effects of refraction and damping of photons while propagating in Sun's interior as well as in the detector. We exclude hidden photons with kinetic couplings χ>(2.2×10{sup −13}–3×10{sup −7}) in the mass region 0.2 eV≲m{sub γ{sup ′}}≲30 keV. Our constraints on the mixing parameter χ in the mass region from 20 eV up to 15 keV prove even slightly better then those obtained recently by using data from the CAST experiment, albeit still somewhat weaker than those obtained from solar and HB stars lifetime arguments.
Ververis, Antonios; Schmuck, Markus
2017-09-01
We consider upscaled/homogenized Cahn-Hilliard/Ginzburg-Landau phase field equations as mesoscopic formulations for interfacial dynamics in strongly heterogeneous domains such as porous media. A recently derived effective macroscopic formulation, which takes systematically the pore geometry into account, is computationally validated. To this end, we compare numerical solutions obtained by fully resolving the microscopic pore-scale with solutions of the upscaled/homogenized porous media formulation. The theoretically derived convergence rate O (ɛ 1 / 4) is confirmed for circular pore-walls. An even better convergence of O (ɛ1) holds for square shaped pore-walls. We also compute the homogenization error over time for different pore geometries. We find that the quality of the time evolution shows a complex interplay between pore geometry and heterogeneity. Finally, we study the coarsening of interfaces in porous media with computations of the homogenized equation and the microscopic formulation fully resolving the pore space. We recover the experimentally validated and theoretically rigorously derived coarsening rate of O (t 1 / 3) in the periodic porous media setting. In the case of critical quenching and after adding thermal noise to the microscopic porous media formulation, we observe that the influence of thermal fluctuations on the coarsening rate shows after a short, expected phase of universal coarsening, a sharp transition towards a different regime.
An exact approach for aggregated formulations
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gamst, Mette; Spoorendonk, Simon
optimality cannot be guaranteed by branching on the aggregated variables. In this presentation, we propose a general method for solving aggregated formulations, such that the solution is optimal to the original problem. The method is based on applying Benders’ decomposition on a combination of the original...... to mathematical formulations with a different solution space than that for the original formulation, i.e., the aggregated formulation may be a relaxation of the original problem. In a branch-and-bound context, variable aggregation can also lead to a formulation where branching is not trivial, for example when...... and aggregated formulations. Put in a branch-and-bound context, branching can be performed on the original variables to ensure optimality. We show how to apply the method on well-known optimization problems....
Design of a statically balanced fully compliant grasper
Lamers, A.J.; Gallego Sanchez, J.A.; Herder, J.L.
2015-01-01
Monolithic and thus fully compliant surgical graspers are promising when they provide equal or better force feedback than conventional graspers. In this work for the first time a fully compliant grasper is designed to exhibit zero stiffness and zero operation force. The design problem is addressed b
On fictitious domain formulations for Maxwell's equations
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Dahmen, W.; Jensen, Torben Klint; Urban, K.
2003-01-01
We consider fictitious domain-Lagrange multiplier formulations for variational problems in the space H(curl: Omega) derived from Maxwell's equations. Boundary conditions and the divergence constraint are imposed weakly by using Lagrange multipliers. Both the time dependent and time harmonic...... formulations of the Maxwell's equations are considered. and we derive well-posed formulations for both cases. The variational problem that arises can be discretized by functions that do not satisfy an a-priori divergence constraint....
Formulation and optimization of potassium iodide tablets
Al-Achi, Antoine; Patel, Binit
2014-01-01
The use of potassium iodide (KI) as a protective agent against accidental radioactive exposure is well established. In this study, we aimed to prepare a KI tablet formulation using a direct compression method. We utilized Design of Experiment (DoE)/mixture design to define the best formulation with predetermined physical qualities as to its dissolution, hardness, assay, disintegration, and angle of repose. Based on the results from the DoE, the formulation had the following components (%w/w):...
Formulation of disperse systems science and technology
Tadros, Tharwat F
2014-01-01
This book presents comprehensively the science and technology behind the formulation of disperse systems like emulsions, suspensions, foams and others. Starting with a general introduction, the book covers a broad range of topics like the role of different classes of surfactants, stability of disperse systems, formulation of different dispersions, evaluation of formulations and many more. Many examples are included, too. Written by the experienced author and editor Tharwart Tadros, this book is indispensable for every scientist working in the field.
Constraining the proton structure at ATLAS
Tricoli, Alessandro; Viehhauser, Georg
Particle physics is at a pivotal moment: the origin of mass and new physics scenarios beyond the Standard Model or particle physics could be unveiled in the coming year. In 2007 the most powerful particl e accelerator, the Large Hadron Coolider (LHC), will start colliding proton beams reaching the ihghest energy and luminosity ever in collider particle physics. The ATLAS detector is one of two general pu rpose detectors placed along the collider ring to fully exploit the LHC potential. The theoretical uncertainties on most of the LHC physics progream are dominated by the proton structure uncertaintiy. This thesis demonstrates that $W^{\\pm}$ boson productionis an ideal process to constr ain the proton strcuture uncertainty. The rapidity distributions of electrons and positrons originating respectively from the $W^-$ and $W^+$ decays have been analysed. The results show that the current uncertainty on the gluon content of the proton can be reduced by a very significant amount if the total systematic uncertaint...
Maximum entropy production: can it be used to constrain conceptual hydrological models?
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. C. Westhoff
2013-08-01
Full Text Available In recent years, optimality principles have been proposed to constrain hydrological models. The principle of maximum entropy production (MEP is one of the proposed principles and is subject of this study. It states that a steady state system is organized in such a way that entropy production is maximized. Although successful applications have been reported in literature, generally little guidance has been given on how to apply the principle. The aim of this paper is to use the maximum power principle – which is closely related to MEP – to constrain parameters of a simple conceptual (bucket model. Although, we had to conclude that conceptual bucket models could not be constrained with respect to maximum power, this study sheds more light on how to use and how not to use the principle. Several of these issues have been correctly applied in other studies, but have not been explained or discussed as such. While other studies were based on resistance formulations, where the quantity to be optimized is a linear function of the resistance to be identified, our study shows that the approach also works for formulations that are only linear in the log-transformed space. Moreover, we showed that parameters describing process thresholds or influencing boundary conditions cannot be constrained. We furthermore conclude that, in order to apply the principle correctly, the model should be (1 physically based; i.e. fluxes should be defined as a gradient divided by a resistance, (2 the optimized flux should have a feedback on the gradient; i.e. the influence of boundary conditions on gradients should be minimal, (3 the temporal scale of the model should be chosen in such a way that the parameter that is optimized is constant over the modelling period, (4 only when the correct feedbacks are implemented the fluxes can be correctly optimized and (5 there should be a trade-off between two or more fluxes. Although our application of the maximum power principle did
Automated drop-on-demand system with real-time gravimetric control for precise dosage formulation.
Sahay, A; Brown, M; Muzzio, F; Takhistov, Paul
2013-04-01
Many of the therapies for personalized medicine have few dosage options, and the successful translation of these therapies to the clinic is significantly dependent on the drug/formulation delivery platform. We have developed a lab-scale integrated system for microdosing of drug formulations with high accuracy and precision that is capable of feedback control. The designed modular drug dispensing system includes a microdispensing valve unit and is fully automated with a LabVIEW-controlled computer interface. The designed system is capable of dispensing drug droplets with volumes ranging from nanoliters to microliters with high accuracy (relative standard deviation gravimetric control.
FORMULATION OF CLINDAMYCIN NANO-EMULSION
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
K. Jiyauddin *, A. Fadli , J. C. Wei , A. Jawad , A. D. Samer , M. Kaleemullah, S. Budiasih, S. Rasha , M. R. Rasny , Y. K. Sung , A. H. Junainah , H. Todo and Y. Eddy
2015-05-01
Full Text Available Nano-emulsions consist of fine oil-in-water or water-in-oil dispersions, having droplets covering the size range of 10 - 600 nm. The aim of this study is to formulate nano-emulsion of Clindamycin by using Emulsion Phase Inversion method and olive oil as the oil phase. Pseudo ternary phase diagram was first developed by using distilled water, olive oil and mixture of surfactants (Tween®80 and Span®20 at a ratio of 1:1. Then, appearance test and microscopic examination were done for all the pre-formulation. Three potential pre-formulation were then selected and incorporated with the Clindamycin Phosphate and Methyl Paraben. The mean droplet size and stability studies were done for these three formulations. Clindamycin Nano-emulsions were not obtained using the Emulsion Phase Inversion (EPI method in this study, whereby the mean droplet sizes were in micro-range. However, out of all the three formulations which undergone extensive studies which include the heating-cooling cycle, whereby the formulation F8 and F17 were found to be physically stable. Significant differences were identified on the pH value and viscosity measurement for all the three formulations which undergone the heating-cooling cycle; except for the pH in F17. Furthermore, the formulation F8 had the smallest droplet size of 0.92 µm. Future research on this topic is needed to reduce the droplet size of the formulation.
A new formulation of fenofibrate: suprabioavailable tablets.
Guichard, J P; Blouquin, P; Qing, Y
2000-01-01
The rationale for, and development of, a new suprabioavailable fenofibrate tablet formulation is described. The new suprabioavailable tablet formulation combines well-established micronisation technology with a new micro-coating process. The new formulation provides more predictable and reliable drug absorption. Owing to the strong relationship between the fenofibrate dissolution performance and its oral bioavailability, equivalent plasma levels of active principal are achieved at a lower dose, with less inter-subject variability and a reduced food effect. The new suprabioavailable tablet may, therefore, be a more efficient and better tolerated formulation.
Necessity of rethinking oral pediatric formulations.
Bar-Shalom, Daniel
2014-02-01
This commentary reviews the difficulties in formulating oral products for children. The significance of the fragmentation of the pediatric population in terms of development and ability to ingest different dosage formulations is examined. It is postulated that a flexible formulation, acceptable by all patient groups, is needed, and an automated compounding concept is proposed. The finishing of the formulation is done at the dispensing pharmacy using an automated process. The individual components (pudding-like carrier, microencapsulated drug, and the dispensing robot and its software) are reviewed. The involvement of different stakeholders is considered because new regulatory, clinical, and marketing thinking is required. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier HS Journals, Inc. All rights reserved.
The Pendulum: From Constrained Fall to the Concept of Potential
Bevilacqua, Fabio; Falomo, Lidia; Fregonese, Lucio; Giannetto, Enrico; Giudice, Franco; Mascheretti, Paolo
2006-01-01
Kuhn underlined the relevance of Galileo's gestalt switch in the interpretation of a swinging body from constrained fall to time metre. But the new interpretation did not eliminate the older one. The constrained fall, both in the motion of pendulums and along inclined planes, led Galileo to the law of free fall. Experimenting with physical…
I/O-Efficient Construction of Constrained Delaunay Triangulations
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Agarwal, Pankaj Kumar; Arge, Lars; Yi, Ke
2005-01-01
In this paper, we designed and implemented an I/O-efficient algorithm for constructing constrained Delaunay triangulations. If the number of constraining segments is smaller than the memory size, our algorithm runs in expected O( N B logM/B NB ) I/Os for triangulating N points in the plane, where M...
21 CFR 888.3720 - Toe joint polymer constrained prosthesis.
2010-04-01
... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Toe joint polymer constrained prosthesis. 888.3720 Section 888.3720 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... prosthesis. (a) Identification. A toe joint polymer constrained prosthesis is a device made of...
The Pendulum: From Constrained Fall to the Concept of Potential
Bevilacqua, Fabio; Falomo, Lidia; Fregonese, Lucio; Giannetto, Enrico; Giudice, Franco; Mascheretti, Paolo
2006-01-01
Kuhn underlined the relevance of Galileo's gestalt switch in the interpretation of a swinging body from constrained fall to time metre. But the new interpretation did not eliminate the older one. The constrained fall, both in the motion of pendulums and along inclined planes, led Galileo to the law of free fall. Experimenting with physical…
Solving constrained minimax problem via nonsmooth equations method
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
GUO Xiu-xia(郭修霞)
2004-01-01
A new nonsmooth equations model of constrained minimax problem was derived. The generalized Newton method was applied for solving this system of nonsmooth equations system. A new algorithm for solving constrained minimax problem was established. The local superlinear and quadratic convergences of the algorithm were discussed.
Logical consistency and sum-constrained linear models
van Perlo -ten Kleij, Frederieke; Steerneman, A.G.M.; Koning, Ruud H.
2006-01-01
A topic that has received quite some attention in the seventies and eighties is logical consistency of sum-constrained linear models. Loosely defined, a sum-constrained model is logically consistent if the restrictions on the parameters and explanatory variables are such that the sum constraint is a
Formulation of Complex Action Theory
Nagao, Keiichi
2011-01-01
We formulate the complex action theory from a fundamental level so that we can deal with a complex coordinate $q$ and a complex momentum $p$. We extend $| q >$ and $| p>$ to complex $q$ and $p$ by utilizing coherent states of harmonic oscillators. Introducing a philosophy to keep the analyticity in parameter variables of Feynman path integral, we define a modified set of complex conjugate, real and imaginary parts, hermitian conjugates and bras. They enable us to have both orthogonality and completeness relations for $|q >$ and $|p >$ with complex $q$ and $p$. We also pose a theorem on the relation between functions and operators to make it clear to some extent. Furthermore, extending our previous work \\cite{Nagao:2010xu} to the complex coordinate case, we study a system defined by a diagonalizable non-hermitian bounded Hamiltonian, and show that a hermitian Hamiltonian is effectively obtained after a long time development by introducing a proper inner product. If the hermitian Hamiltonian is given in a local...
MOND and its bimetric formulation
Milgrom, Mordehai
2013-01-01
I first give a succinct account of the MOND paradigm--emphasizing the centrality of scale invariance in the nonrelativistic, deep-MOND limit--and describing rudiments of its phenomenology. I then present my credo, and some generalities, concerning existing MOND theories. Then I concentrate on one relativistic formulation of MOND in the form of a bimetric theory (BIMOND). I describe its various limits: the weak field, with application to gravitational waves, the nonrelativistic limit, and their further deep-MOND (low acceleration) limits, which are scale invariant. Other aspects of BIMOND that have been explored are aspects of cosmology, matter fluctuations in cosmology, and matter-twin-matter interactions. BIMOND remains largely unexplored, despite its promise in several regards: It tends to GR for a0 goes to 0 (a0 is the MOND constant); it has a simple nonrelativistic limit; it describes gravitational lensing correctly; and, it has a generic appearance of a cosmological-constant term that is of order a0^2/c^...
Postmodern string theory stochastic formulation
Aurilia, A
1994-01-01
In this paper we study the dynamics of a statistical ensemble of strings, building on a recently proposed gauge theory of the string geodesic field. We show that this stochastic approach is equivalent to the Carath\\'eodory formulation of the Nambu-Goto action, supplemented by an averaging procedure over the family of classical string world-sheets which are solutions of the equation of motion. In this new framework, the string geodesic field is reinterpreted as the Gibbs current density associated with the string statistical ensemble. Next, we show that the classical field equations derived from the string gauge action, can be obtained as the semi-classical limit of the string functional wave equation. For closed strings, the wave equation itself is completely analogous to the Wheeler-DeWitt equation used in quantum cosmology. Thus, in the string case, the wave function has support on the space of all possible spatial loop configurations. Finally, we show that the string distribution induces a multi-phase, or ...
Studying b --> s gamma at BABAR Using a Fully Inclusive Method
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Schmitz, R
2004-02-23
The b {yields} s{gamma} decay represents a possible electromagnetic ''loop'' penguin decay of the B meson. This FCNC process is of high theoretical interest because various scenarios of new physics are expected to have contributions at the same (one loop) level as the Standard Model. The large sample of B{bar B} meson decays collected by the BaBar experiment makes a precision measurement of this rare decay possible. In conjunction with Standard Model predictions at the 10% level, it brings new physics effects into the realm of detection--or seriously constrains models that could predict them. A fully inclusive technique is presented to study the b {yields} s{gamma} transition as a function of photon energy, using 88.5 {+-} 1.0 x 10{sup 6} B{bar B} meson decays collected by the BaBar experiment in the years 2000 to 2002. The expected statistical and systematic uncertainties have been fully determined which enables first comparisons with theoretical predictions and other experimental results. It also lays the basis for the determination of the inclusive branching fraction {Beta}(B {yields} X{sub s}{gamma}) and the measurement of the photon energy spectrum.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
R. Ezzati
2014-09-01
Full Text Available We propose an approach for computing an approximate nonnegative symmetric solution of some fully fuzzy linear system of equations, where the components of the coefficient matrix and the right hand side vector are nonnegative fuzzy numbers, considering equality of the median intervals of the left and right hand sides of the system. We convert the m×n fully fuzzy linear system to two m×n real linear systems, one being related to the cores and the other being concerned with spreads of the solution. We propose an approach for solving the real systems using the modified Huang method of the Abaffy-Broyden-Spedicato (ABS class of algorithms. An appropriate constrained least squares problem is solved when the solution does not satisfy nonnegative fuzziness conditions, that is, when the obtained solution vector for the core system includes a negative component, or the solution of the spread system has at least one negative component, or there exists an index for which the component of the spread is greater than the corresponding component of the core. As a special case, we discuss fuzzy systems with the components of the coefficient matrix as real crisp numbers. We finally present two computational algorithms and illustrate their effectiveness by solving some randomly generated consistent as well as inconsistent systems.
Constrained Inversion of Enceladus Interaction Observations
Herbert, Floyd; Khurana, K. K.
2007-10-01
Many detailed and sophisticated ab initio calculations of the electrodynamic interaction of Enceladus' plume with Saturn's corotating magnetospheric plasma flow have been computed. So far, however, all such calculations have been forward models, that assume the properties of the plume and compute perturbations to the magnetic (and in some cases, flow velocity) field. As a complement to the forward calculations, work reported here explores the inverse approach, of using simplified physical models of the interaction for computationally inverting the observed magnetic field perturbations of the interaction, in order to determine the cross-B-field conductivity distribution near Enceladus, and from that, the neutral gas distribution. Direct inversion of magnetic field observations to current systems is, of course, impossible, but adding the additional constraint of the interaction physics greatly reduces the non-uniqueness of the computed result. This approach was successfully used by Herbert (JGR 90:8241, 1985) to constrain the atmospheric distribution on Io and the Io torus mass density at the time of the Voyager encounter. Work so far has derived the expected result that there is a cone-shaped region of enhanced cross-field conductivity south of Enceladus, through which currents are driven by the motional electric field. That is, near Enceladus' south pole the cross-field currents are localized, but more widely spread at greater distance. This cross-field conductivity is presumably both pickup and collisional (Pedersen and Hall). Due to enforcement of current conservation, Alfven-wing-like currents north of the main part of the interaction region seem to close partly around Enceladus (assumed insulating) and also to continue northward with attenuated intensity, as though there were a tenuous global exosphere on Enceladus providing additional cross-field conductivity. FH thanks the NASA Outer Planets Research, Planetary Atmospheres, and Geospace Science Programs for
Constraining Cosmic Evolution of Type Ia Supernovae
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Foley, Ryan J.; Filippenko, Alexei V.; Aguilera, C.; Becker, A.C.; Blondin, S.; Challis, P.; Clocchiatti, A.; Covarrubias, R.; Davis, T.M.; Garnavich, P.M.; Jha, S.; Kirshner, R.P.; Krisciunas, K.; Leibundgut, B.; Li, W.; Matheson, T.; Miceli, A.; Miknaitis, G.; Pignata, G.; Rest, A.; Riess, A.G.; /UC, Berkeley, Astron. Dept. /Cerro-Tololo InterAmerican Obs. /Washington U., Seattle, Astron. Dept. /Harvard-Smithsonian Ctr. Astrophys. /Chile U., Catolica /Bohr Inst. /Notre Dame U. /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Texas A-M /European Southern Observ. /NOAO, Tucson /Fermilab /Chile U., Santiago /Harvard U., Phys. Dept. /Baltimore, Space Telescope Sci. /Johns Hopkins U. /Res. Sch. Astron. Astrophys., Weston Creek /Stockholm U. /Hawaii U. /Illinois U., Urbana, Astron. Dept.
2008-02-13
We present the first large-scale effort of creating composite spectra of high-redshift type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) and comparing them to low-redshift counterparts. Through the ESSENCE project, we have obtained 107 spectra of 88 high-redshift SNe Ia with excellent light-curve information. In addition, we have obtained 397 spectra of low-redshift SNe through a multiple-decade effort at Lick and Keck Observatories, and we have used 45 ultraviolet spectra obtained by HST/IUE. The low-redshift spectra act as a control sample when comparing to the ESSENCE spectra. In all instances, the ESSENCE and Lick composite spectra appear very similar. The addition of galaxy light to the Lick composite spectra allows a nearly perfect match of the overall spectral-energy distribution with the ESSENCE composite spectra, indicating that the high-redshift SNe are more contaminated with host-galaxy light than their low-redshift counterparts. This is caused by observing objects at all redshifts with similar slit widths, which corresponds to different projected distances. After correcting for the galaxy-light contamination, subtle differences in the spectra remain. We have estimated the systematic errors when using current spectral templates for K-corrections to be {approx}0.02 mag. The variance in the composite spectra give an estimate of the intrinsic variance in low-redshift maximum-light SN spectra of {approx}3% in the optical and growing toward the ultraviolet. The difference between the maximum-light low and high-redshift spectra constrain SN evolution between our samples to be < 10% in the rest-frame optical.
Constraining projections of summer Arctic sea ice
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
F. Massonnet
2012-11-01
Full Text Available We examine the recent (1979–2010 and future (2011–2100 characteristics of the summer Arctic sea ice cover as simulated by 29 Earth system and general circulation models from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project, phase 5 (CMIP5. As was the case with CMIP3, a large intermodel spread persists in the simulated summer sea ice losses over the 21st century for a given forcing scenario. The 1979–2010 sea ice extent, thickness distribution and volume characteristics of each CMIP5 model are discussed as potential constraints on the September sea ice extent (SSIE projections. Our results suggest first that the future changes in SSIE with respect to the 1979–2010 model SSIE are related in a complicated manner to the initial 1979–2010 sea ice model characteristics, due to the large diversity of the CMIP5 population: at a given time, some models are in an ice-free state while others are still on the track of ice loss. However, in phase plane plots (that do not consider the time as an independent variable, we show that the transition towards ice-free conditions is actually occurring in a very similar manner for all models. We also find that the year at which SSIE drops below a certain threshold is likely to be constrained by the present-day sea ice properties. In a second step, using several adequate 1979–2010 sea ice metrics, we effectively reduce the uncertainty as to when the Arctic could become nearly ice-free in summertime, the interval [2041, 2060] being our best estimate for a high climate forcing scenario.
Optimisation of chocolate formulation using dehydrated peanut-cowpea milk to replace dairy milk.
Aidoo, Herta; Sakyi-Dawson, Esther; Abbey, Lawrence; Tano-Debrah, Kwaku; Saalia, Firibu Kwesi
2012-01-30
The rheological properties of chocolate, based upon its acceptability by consumers, are determined largely by the ingredients and their proportions used in the formulations. Milk chocolates are very popular because milk provides flavour and smooth texture to the product. This study aimed to determine the optimal ingredient formulation for vegetable milk chocolate using peanut-cowpea milk as a substitute for dairy milk. The study followed a four-component constrained mixture design, with cocoa liquor, vegetable milk, cocoa butter and sugar as the components. Lecithin and vanillin were added at a constant amount to all formulations. Critical attributes of the chocolates were evaluated using descriptive sensory tests and instrumental techniques. Regression models were fitted to the data, and the optimum ingredient formulation for acceptable vegetable milk chocolate was determined. The vegetable milk had significant (P = 0.05) influence on flavour, mouth feel, hardness and after taste of chocolates. The optimum ingredient formulation for acceptable vegetable milk chocolates was determined to be cocoa liquor (18.00%), sugar (30.75%), peanut-cowpea milk (28.93%), and cocoa butter (22.32%). The results demonstrate that it is feasible to use vegetable source milk for chocolate. The findings also provide clues for scale-up criteria for large-scale production of vegetable milk chocolate. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kody M. Powell
2016-03-01
Full Text Available This work presents a methodology to represent logical decisions in differential algebraic equation simulation and constrained optimization problems using a set of continuous algebraic equations. The formulations may be used when state variables trigger a change in process dynamics, and introduces a pseudo-binary decision variable, which is continuous, but should only have valid solutions at values of either zero or one within a finite time horizon. This formulation enables dynamic optimization problems with logical disjunctions to be solved by simultaneous solution methods without using methods such as mixed integer programming. Several case studies are given to illustrate the value of this methodology including nonlinear model predictive control of a chemical reactor using a surge tank with overflow to buffer disturbances in feed flow rate. Although this work contains novel methodologies for solving dynamic algebraic equation (DAE constrained problems where the system may experience an abrupt change in dynamics that may otherwise require a conditional statement, there remain substantial limitations to this methodology, including a limited domain where problems may converge and the possibility for ill-conditioning. Although the problems presented use only continuous algebraic equations, the formulation has inherent non-smoothness. Hence, these problems must be solved with care and only in select circumstances, such as in simulation or situations when the solution is expected to be near the solver’s initial point.
A comparison of the biological activity of 2 formulations of enoxaparin in 12 healthy volunteers.
Sharma, Vineeta; Madhu, Sirisha; Natarajan, Parthiban; Muniyandi, Ganesan; Jaiswal, Vijaya; Saxena, Renu
2010-08-01
India is one of the few countries where biosimilar enoxaparin is available for clinical use. Despite availability since past 4 to 5 years, there is a paucity of published literature regarding their biological activity. The aim of the current study is to compare the biological activity of an endogenously developed formulation of enoxaparin with the branded formulation. Twelve healthy male volunteers received 1 subcutaneous injection of 2 different formulations of enoxaparin in a randomized, open-label, balanced, 2-treatment, 2-period, 2-sequence, cross-over study. The test formulation was Injection Troynoxa (enoxaparin sodium 40 mg/0.4 mL, Troikaa Pharmaceuticals Ltd., India) and reference formulation was Injection Clexane (enoxaparin sodium 40 mg/ 0.4 mL, Sanofi-Aventis, UK). The plasma anti-Xa activity and activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) were estimated on fully automated coagulometer predose and at 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 hours following dosing with 40 mg/0.4 mL of enoxaparin. The results of mixed model analysis of repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) for estimating difference between least square means of test and reference formulations, at all time points, showed no significant differences in anti-Xa activity and plasma aPTT levels. Both formulations were well tolerated and there were no bleeding episodes. After a single-dose injection in healthy participants, anti-Xa activities of 2 formulations of LMWH enoxaparin were comparable. No significant difference was observed in the mean plasma aPTT. It remains to be seen whether the 2 formulations would show comparable clinical efficacy.
A construction of fully diverse unitary space-time codes
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
YU Fei; TONG HongXi
2009-01-01
Fully diverse unitary space-time codes are useful in multiantenna communications,especially in multiantenna differential modulation.Recently,two constructions of parametric fully diverse unitary space-time codes for three antennas system have been introduced.We propose a new construction method based on the constructions.In the present paper,fully diverse codes for systems of odd prime number antennas are obtained from this construction.Space-time codes from present construction are found to have better error performance than many best known ones.
A construction of fully diverse unitary space-time codes
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2009-01-01
Fully diverse unitary space-time codes are useful in multiantenna communications, especially in multiantenna differential modulation. Recently, two constructions of parametric fully diverse unitary space-time codes for three antennas system have been introduced. We propose a new construction method based on the constructions. In the present paper, fully diverse codes for systems of odd prime number antennas are obtained from this construction. Space-time codes from present construction are found to have better error performance than many best known ones.
A CODE DESIGN CRITERIA FOR NOT FULLY CONNECTED CHANNEL
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2006-01-01
There are parallel channels which are not fully connected in practice, such as Frequency DivisionMultiplex (FDM or Orthogonal FDM) systems. Conventional space-time codes can be used for such parallelchannels but not the optimal. Based on the derivation of PEP expression for codes transmitted on parallel blockfading channels, criteria of codes design for not fully connected channels are proposed and are compared withTarokh's criteria for fully connected channel. New codes for such channels are provided by systematical andexhaustive search. Simulation results show that these codes offer better performance on parallel FDM channelsthan other known codes.
ROLE OF CYCLODEXTRINS IN NEW ANTIMYCOBACTERIAL FORMULATIONS
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Veaceslav Boldescu
2014-06-01
Full Text Available This paper is dedicated to the role of cyclodextrins in new formulations for the treatment of infections with Mycobacterium tuberculosis that are in the process of design and development. Cyclodextrins play the role of solubilizing agents and promoters of the antimycobacterial substances penetration inside the mycobacterial cell. Different formulations and their advantages and disadvantages are discussed.
Digluconate and Isopropyl Alcohol Biocide Formulation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Barbara Conway
2012-10-01
Full Text Available Effective surface disinfection is a fundamental infection control strategy within healthcare. This study assessed the antimicrobial efficacy of novel biocide formulations comprising 5% and 2% eucalyptus oil (EO combined with 2% chlorhexidine digluconate (CHG and 70% isopropyl alcohol (IPA contained within a wipe. The efficacy of this novel antimicrobial formulation to remove and eliminate methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA, Escherichia coli and Candida albicans from steel surfaces was investigated. Adpression studies of pre-contaminated wipes were also utilised to assess their potential to induce cross-contamination between hard surfaces. Furthermore, the bactericidal nature of the EO-formulation was established in addition to time-kill. The EO-containing formulations demonstrated bactericidal antimicrobial efficacy against all microorganisms and did not induce surface cross-contamination. There was no significant difference (p < 0.05 between the 5% and 2% EO formulations in their ability to remove microorganisms from steel surfaces, however both significantly (p < 0.05 removed more than the control formulations. Microbial biofilms were eliminated within 10 min (p < 0.05 when exposed to the EO formulations. Our novel EO-formulation demonstrated rapid antimicrobial efficacy for potential disinfection and elimination of microbial biofilms from hard surfaces and may therefore be a useful adjunct to current infection control strategies currently employed within healthcare facilities.
Bioavailability of sustained-release theophylline formulations.
Bonora Regazzi, M; Rondanelli, R; Vidale, E; Cristiani, D
1983-05-01
Sustained-release formulations of theophylline as well as of other drugs are designed to effect a delayed but constant release of the active principle in the gastrointestinal tract, thus ensuring more prolonged blood level curves. This study was made to assess the bioavailability of two sustained-release microencapsulated formulations and one sustained-release Diffucaps formulation, in comparison with an equivalent dose of theophylline solution. As regards bioavailability, none of the three formulations differed significantly from the reference formulation. The blood levels at steady state were estimated on the basis of data obtained after a single-dose study. All three sustained release formulations showed good results after prolonged administration in terms of peaks and troughs. The time duration at which the theophylline plasma levels remain higher than 75% of the maximum steady-state levels, following 12-h dosing interval, was evaluated: for the sustained-release microencapsulated formulations this time duration reaches 100% of the dosing interval. A multiple-dose administration of the sustained-release formulations used in this study should guarantee almost complete time coverage, with blood levels sharply exceeding the minimum threshold level of the theophylline therapeutic range.
Preformulation and Formulation of Investigational New Drugs
1999-01-01
2000 THIS PAGE IS UNCLASSIFIED AD Award Number DAMDl7-92-C-2035 TITLE: Preformulation and Formulation of Investigational New Drugs PRINCIPAL...TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5. FUNDING NUMBERS Preformulation and Formulation of Investigational New Drugs DAMD17-92-C-2035 6. AUTHOR(S) Douglas Flanagan, Ph.D. 7
A New Resistance Formulation for Carbon Nanotubes
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ji-Huan He
2008-01-01
Full Text Available A new resistance formulation for carbon nanotubes is suggested using fractal approach. The new formulation is also valid for other nonmetal conductors including nerve fibers, conductive polymers, and molecular wires. Our theoretical prediction agrees well with experimental observation.
The Hamiltonian formulation of general relativity: myths and reality
Kiriushcheva, Natalia; Kuzmin, Sergei
2011-06-01
Dirac Hamiltonian formulation of GR. We also demonstrate that ADM and Dirac formulations are related by a transformation of phase-space variables from the metric g μν to lapse and shift functions and the three-metric g km, which is not canonical. This proves that point (iv) is incorrect. Points (i-iii) are mere consequences of using a non-canonical change of variables and are not an intrinsic property of either the Hamilton-Dirac approach to constrained systems or Einstein's theory itself.
Formulating a low-alkalinity cement for radioactive waste repositories
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Coumes, C. Cau Dit; Courtois, S.; Leclercq, S.; Bourbon, X
2004-07-01
A multi-annual research program has been launched in January 2003 by CEA, EDF and ANDRA in order to formulate and characterize low-alkalinity and low-heat cements which would be compatible with an underground waste repository environment. Four types of bindings have been investigated: binary blends of Portland cement and silica fume or metakaolin, as well as ternary blends of Portland cement, fly ash and silica fume or metakaolin. Promising results have been obtained with a mixture comprising 37.5% Portland cement, 32.5% silica fume, and 30% fly ash: pH of water in equilibrium with fully hydrated cement is below 11. Moreover, silica fume compensates for the low reactivity of fly ash, while fly ash allows to reduce water demand, heat release, and dimensional variations of cement pastes and mortars. (authors)
Constructing Extended Formulations from Reflection Relations
Kaibel, Volker
2010-01-01
There are many examples of optimization problems whose associated polyhedra can be described much nicer, and with way less inequalities, by projections of higher dimensional polyhedra than this would be possible in the original space. However, currently not many general tools to construct such extended formulations are available. In this paper, we develop a framework of polyhedral relations that generalizes inductive constructions of extended formulations via projections, and we particularly elaborate on the special case of reflection relations. The latter ones provide polynomial size extended formulations for several polytopes that can be constructed as convex hulls of the unions of (exponentially) many copies of an input polytope obtained via sequences of reflections at hyperplanes. We demonstrate the use of the framework by deriving small extended formulations for the G-permutahedra of all finite reflection groups G (generalizing both Goeman's extended formulation of the permutahedron of size O(n log n) an...
Inherent formulation issues of kinase inhibitors.
Herbrink, M; Schellens, J H M; Beijnen, J H; Nuijen, B
2016-10-10
The small molecular Kinase Inhibitor (smKI) drug class is very promising and rapidly expanding. All of these drugs are administered orally. The clear relationship between structure and function has led to drugs with a general low intrinsic solubility. The majority of the commercial pharmaceutical formulations of the smKIs are physical mixtures that are limited by the low drug solubility of a salt form. This class of drugs is therefore characterized by an impaired and variable bioavailability rendering them costly and their therapies suboptimal. New formulations are sparingly being reported in literature and patents. The presented data suggests that continued research into formulation design can help to develop more efficient and cost-effective smKI formulation. Moreover, it may also be of help in the future design of the formulations of new smKIs.
Subscale testing of prompt agent defeat formulations
Knott, A.; Stamatis, D.; Svingala, F.; Lightstone, J.; Miller, K.; Bensman, M.; Bohmke, M.
2017-01-01
There is a need to improve the current bioagent defeat systems with formulations that produce lower peak pressure and impulse, sustained high temperatures, and release of biocidal species for prompt defeat applications. In this work, explosive charge configurations similar to fuel-air explosives were detonated in a semi-enclosed chamber configuration. Binder type and fuel-to-oxidizer ratios were varied to observe the effects on combustion performance. Thermocouple measurements and high-speed video were used to monitor the combustion of the dispersed formulation. The down-selected formulations were then tested in a sub-scale vented agent defeat system developed to evaluate performance of formulations against aerosolized Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) spores. Diagnostics including thermocouples and piezoelectric pressure gauges were utilized to characterize the detonation event. Biological sampling with surface coupons, liquid impingement, and filters of the post detonation environment were utilized to determine spore survivability and to rank the relative effectiveness of each formulation.
Somasundaram, P.; Muthuselvan, N. B.
This paper presents new computationally efficient improved Particle Swarm algorithms for solving Security Constrained Optimal Power Flow (SCOPF) in power systems with the inclusion of FACTS devices. The proposed algorithms are developed based on the combined application of Gaussian and Cauchy Probability distribution functions incorporated in Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO). The power flow algorithm with the presence of Static Var Compensator (SVC) Thyristor Controlled Series Capacitor (TCSC) and Unified Power Flow Controller (UPFC), has been formulated and solved. The proposed algorithms are tested on standard IEEE 30-bus system. The analysis using PSO and modified PSO reveals that the proposed algorithms are relatively simple, efficient, reliable and suitable for real-time applications. And these algorithms can provide accurate solution with fast convergence and have the potential to be applied to other power engineering problems.
L1 norm constrained migration of blended data with the FISTA algorithm
Lu, Xinting; Han, Liguo; Yu, Jianglong; Chen, Xue
2015-08-01
Blended acquisition significantly improves the seismic acquisition efficiency. However, the direct imaging of blended data is not satisfactory due to the crosstalk contamination. Assuming that the distribution of subsurface reflectivity is sparse, in this paper, we formulate the seismic imaging problem of blended data as a Basis Pursuit denoise (BPDN) problem. Based on compressed sensing, we propose a L1 norm constrained migration method applying to the direct imaging of blended data. The Fast Iterative Shrinkage-Thresholding Algorithm, which is stable and computationally efficient, is implemented in our method. Numerical tests on the theoretical models show that the crosstalk introduced by blended sources is effectively attenuated and the migration quality has been improved enormously.
Alpha-constrained QSE Nucleosynthesis in High-entropy and Fast-expanding Material
Fujibayashi, Sho; Sekiguchi, Yuichiro
2016-01-01
We investigate the nucleosynthesis process in high-entropy ($s/k_{\\rm B}\\gtrsim100$) and very fast-expanding ($\\tau_{\\rm exp}\\sim10^{-3}\\ {\\rm s}$) materials. In such a material with the electron fraction near 0.5, an interesting nucleosynthesis process occurs. In this process, the abundance distribution of heavy-nuclei of $A>100$ achieve quasi-statistical equilibrium (QSE) at high temperature and the abundances are frozen at the end of the nucleosynthesis. We explain this abundance distribution using the "alpha-constrained QSE" abundances formulated in this paper. We demonstrate that this nucleosynthesis would occur in neutrino-driven winds from massive proto-neutron stars in hypernovae, where $A\\sim140$ $p$-nuclei are synthesized.
Off-Line Robust Constrained MPC for Linear Time-Varying Systems with Persistent Disturbances
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
P. Bumroongsri
2014-01-01
Full Text Available An off-line robust constrained model predictive control (MPC algorithm for linear time-varying (LTV systems is developed. A novel feature is the fact that both model uncertainty and bounded additive disturbance are explicitly taken into account in the off-line formulation of MPC. In order to reduce the on-line computational burdens, a sequence of explicit control laws corresponding to a sequence of positively invariant sets is computed off-line. At each sampling time, the smallest positively invariant set containing the measured state is determined and the corresponding control law is implemented in the process. The proposed MPC algorithm can guarantee robust stability while ensuring the satisfaction of input and output constraints. The effectiveness of the proposed MPC algorithm is illustrated by two examples.
Fuzzy multi-objective chance-constrained programming model for hazardous materials transportation
Du, Jiaoman; Yu, Lean; Li, Xiang
2016-04-01
Hazardous materials transportation is an important and hot issue of public safety. Based on the shortest path model, this paper presents a fuzzy multi-objective programming model that minimizes the transportation risk to life, travel time and fuel consumption. First, we present the risk model, travel time model and fuel consumption model. Furthermore, we formulate a chance-constrained programming model within the framework of credibility theory, in which the lengths of arcs in the transportation network are assumed to be fuzzy variables. A hybrid intelligent algorithm integrating fuzzy simulation and genetic algorithm is designed for finding a satisfactory solution. Finally, some numerical examples are given to demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed model and algorithm.
A Dynamic Economic Dispatch Model Incorporating Wind Power Based on Chance Constrained Programming
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Wushan Cheng
2014-12-01
Full Text Available In order to maintain the stability and security of the power system, the uncertainty and intermittency of wind power must be taken into account in economic dispatch (ED problems. In this paper, a dynamic economic dispatch (DED model based on chance constrained programming is presented and an improved particle swarm optimization (PSO approach is proposed to solve the problem. Wind power is regarded as a random variable and is included in the chance constraint. New formulation of up and down spinning reserve constraints are presented under expectation meaning. The improved PSO algorithm combines a feasible region adjustment strategy with a hill climbing search operation based on the basic PSO. Simulations are performed under three distinct test systems with different generators. Results show that both the proposed DED model and the improved PSO approach are effective.
Beri, Rajan; Chattopadhyay, Aditi; Nam, Changho
2000-06-01
A rigorous multi-objective optimization procedure, is developed to address the integrated structures/control design of composite plates with surface bonded segmented active constrained layer (ACL) damping treatment. The Kresselmeier- Steinhauser function approach is used to formulate this multidisciplinary problem. The goal is to control vibration without incorporating a weight penalty. Objective functions and constraints include damping ratios, structural weight and natural frequencies. Design variables include the ply stacking sequence, dimensions and placement of segmented ACL. The optimal designs show improved plate vibratory characteristics and reduced structural weight. The results of the multi- objective optimization problem are compared to those of a single objective optimization with vibration control as the objective. Results establish the necessity for developing the integrated structures/controls optimization procedure.
Chance-Constrained AC Optimal Power Flow for Distribution Systems With Renewables
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
DallAnese, Emiliano; Baker, Kyri; Summers, Tyler
2017-09-01
This paper focuses on distribution systems featuring renewable energy sources (RESs) and energy storage systems, and presents an AC optimal power flow (OPF) approach to optimize system-level performance objectives while coping with uncertainty in both RES generation and loads. The proposed method hinges on a chance-constrained AC OPF formulation where probabilistic constraints are utilized to enforce voltage regulation with prescribed probability. A computationally more affordable convex reformulation is developed by resorting to suitable linear approximations of the AC power-flow equations as well as convex approximations of the chance constraints. The approximate chance constraints provide conservative bounds that hold for arbitrary distributions of the forecasting errors. An adaptive strategy is then obtained by embedding the proposed AC OPF task into a model predictive control framework. Finally, a distributed solver is developed to strategically distribute the solution of the optimization problems across utility and customers.
KINETIC CONSEQUENCES OF CONSTRAINING RUNNING BEHAVIOR
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
John A. Mercer
2005-06-01
Full Text Available It is known that impact forces increase with running velocity as well as when stride length increases. Since stride length naturally changes with changes in submaximal running velocity, it was not clear which factor, running velocity or stride length, played a critical role in determining impact characteristics. The aim of the study was to investigate whether or not stride length influences the relationship between running velocity and impact characteristics. Eight volunteers (mass=72.4 ± 8.9 kg; height = 1.7 ± 0.1 m; age = 25 ± 3.4 years completed two running conditions: preferred stride length (PSL and stride length constrained at 2.5 m (SL2.5. During each condition, participants ran at a variety of speeds with the intent that the range of speeds would be similar between conditions. During PSL, participants were given no instructions regarding stride length. During SL2.5, participants were required to strike targets placed on the floor that resulted in a stride length of 2.5 m. Ground reaction forces were recorded (1080 Hz as well as leg and head accelerations (uni-axial accelerometers. Impact force and impact attenuation (calculated as the ratio of head and leg impact accelerations were recorded for each running trial. Scatter plots were generated plotting each parameter against running velocity. Lines of best fit were calculated with the slopes recorded for analysis. The slopes were compared between conditions using paired t-tests. Data from two subjects were dropped from analysis since the velocity ranges were not similar between conditions resulting in the analysis of six subjects. The slope of impact force vs. velocity relationship was different between conditions (PSL: 0.178 ± 0.16 BW/m·s-1; SL2.5: -0.003 ± 0.14 BW/m·s-1; p < 0.05. The slope of the impact attenuation vs. velocity relationship was different between conditions (PSL: 5.12 ± 2.88 %/m·s-1; SL2.5: 1.39 ± 1.51 %/m·s-1; p < 0.05. Stride length was an important factor
Constraining global methane emissions and uptake by ecosystems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
R. Spahni
2011-01-01
Full Text Available Natural methane (CH_{4} emissions from wet ecosystems are an important part of today's global CH_{4} budget. Climate affects the exchange of CH_{4} between ecosystems and the atmosphere by influencing CH_{4} production, oxidation, and transport in the soil. The net CH_{4} exchange depends on ecosystem hydrology, soil and vegetation characteristics. Here, the LPJ-WHyMe global dynamical vegetation model is used to simulate global net CH_{4} emissions for different ecosystems: northern peatlands (45°–90° N, naturally inundated wetlands (60° S–45° N, rice agriculture and wet mineral soils. Mineral soils are a potential CH_{4} sink, but can also be a source with the direction of the net exchange depending on soil moisture content. The geographical and seasonal distributions are evaluated against multi-dimensional atmospheric inversions for 2003–2005, using two independent four-dimensional variational assimilation systems. The atmospheric inversions are constrained by the atmospheric CH_{4} observations of the SCIAMACHY satellite instrument and global surface networks. Compared to LPJ-WHyMe the inversions result in a significant reduction in the emissions from northern peatlands and suggest that LPJ-WHyMe maximum annual emissions peak about one month late. The inversions do not put strong constraints on the division of sources between inundated wetlands and wet mineral soils in the tropics. Based on the inversion results we adapt model parameters in LPJ-WHyMe and simulate the surface exchange of CH_{4} over the period 1990–2008. Over the whole period we infer an increase of global ecosystem CH_{4} emissions of +1.11 Tg CH_{4} yr^{−1}, not considering potential additional changes in wetland extent. The increase in simulated CH_{4} emissions is attributed to enhanced soil respiration resulting from the observed rise in land temperature
Constraining global methane emissions and uptake by ecosystems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
R. Spahni
2011-06-01
Full Text Available Natural methane (CH_{4} emissions from wet ecosystems are an important part of today's global CH_{4} budget. Climate affects the exchange of CH_{4} between ecosystems and the atmosphere by influencing CH_{4} production, oxidation, and transport in the soil. The net CH_{4} exchange depends on ecosystem hydrology, soil and vegetation characteristics. Here, the LPJ-WHyMe global dynamical vegetation model is used to simulate global net CH_{4} emissions for different ecosystems: northern peatlands (45°–90° N, naturally inundated wetlands (60° S–45° N, rice agriculture and wet mineral soils. Mineral soils are a potential CH_{4} sink, but can also be a source with the direction of the net exchange depending on soil moisture content. The geographical and seasonal distributions are evaluated against multi-dimensional atmospheric inversions for 2003–2005, using two independent four-dimensional variational assimilation systems. The atmospheric inversions are constrained by the atmospheric CH_{4} observations of the SCIAMACHY satellite instrument and global surface networks. Compared to LPJ-WHyMe the inversions result in a~significant reduction in the emissions from northern peatlands and suggest that LPJ-WHyMe maximum annual emissions peak about one month late. The inversions do not put strong constraints on the division of sources between inundated wetlands and wet mineral soils in the tropics. Based on the inversion results we diagnose model parameters in LPJ-WHyMe and simulate the surface exchange of CH_{4} over the period 1990–2008. Over the whole period we infer an increase of global ecosystem CH_{4} emissions of +1.11 Tg CH_{4} yr^{−1}, not considering potential additional changes in wetland extent. The increase in simulated CH_{4} emissions is attributed to enhanced soil respiration resulting from the observed rise in land
A Fast GPU-accelerated Mixed-precision Strategy for Fully NonlinearWater Wave Computations
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Glimberg, Stefan Lemvig; Engsig-Karup, Allan Peter; Madsen, Morten G.
2011-01-01
We present performance results of a mixed-precision strategy developed to improve a recently developed massively parallel GPU-accelerated tool for fast and scalable simulation of unsteady fully nonlinear free surface water waves over uneven depths (Engsig-Karup et.al. 2011). The underlying wave...... model is based on a potential flow formulation, which requires efficient solution of a Laplace problem at large-scales. We report recent results on a new mixed-precision strategy for efficient iterative high-order accurate and scalable solution of the Laplace problem using a multigrid......-preconditioned defect correction method. The improved strategy improves the performance by exploiting architectural features of modern GPUs for mixed precision computations and is tested in a recently developed generic library for fast prototyping of PDE solvers. The new wave tool is applicable to solve and analyze...
A splitting approach for the fully nonlinear and weakly dispersive Green-Naghdi model
Bonneton, Philippe; Lannes, David; Marche, Fabien; Tissier, Marion
2010-01-01
The fully nonlinear and weakly dispersive Green-Naghdi model for shallow water waves of large amplitude is studied. The original model is first recast under a new formulation more suitable for numerical resolution. An hybrid finite volume and finite difference splitting approach is then proposed. The hyperbolic part of the equations is handled with a high-order finite volume scheme allowing for breaking waves and dry areas. The dispersive part is treated with a classical finite difference approach. Extensive numerical validations are then performed in one horizontal dimension, relying both on analytical solutions and experimental data. The results show that our approach gives a good account of all the processes of wave transformation in coastal areas: shoaling, wave breaking and run-up.
A fully-explicit discontinuous Galerkin hydrodynamic model for variably-satu- rated porous media
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
De MAET T.; HANERT E.; VANCLOOSTER M
2014-01-01
Groundwater flows play a key role in the recharge of aquifers, the transport of solutes through subsurface systems or the control of surface runoff. Predicting these processes requires the use of groundwater models with their applicability directly linked to their accuracy and computational efficiency. In this paper, we present a new method to model water dynamics in variably- saturated porous media. Our model is based on a fully-explicit discontinuous-Galerkin formulation of the 3D Richards equation, which shows a perfect scaling on parallel architectures. We make use of an adapted jump penalty term for the discontinuous-Galerkin scheme and of a slope limiter algorithm to produce oscillation-free exactly conservative solutions. We show that such an approach is particularly well suited to infiltration fronts. The model results are in good agreement with the reference model Hydrus-1D and seem promising for large scale applications involving a coarse representation of saturated soil.
RSW Fully Tet Medium Cell-Centered Mesh
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This is the RSW Fully tetrahedral medium cell-centered unstructured grid with a viscous wall. UG3 : Grid File Name = rsw_med_tetcc.b8.ugrid UG3 : Quad Surface Faces=...
Measles: Make Sure Your Child Is Fully Immunized
... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Past Emails Measles: Make Sure Your Child is Fully Immunized Language: ... also become infected if they are not protected. Measles in the U.S. From January 2 to March ...
Fully Nonlinear Parabolic Equations and the Dini Condition
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Xiong ZOU; Ya Zhe CHEN
2002-01-01
Interior regularity results for viscosity solutions of fully nonlinear uniformly parabolicequations under the Dini condition, which improve and generalize a result due to Kovats, are obtainedby the use of the approximation lemma.